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h onHipircf Vi'Ln. 























A. D. Hig. Page 

A D. H^ 

1397 801 Tamerlane invades Hln- 

1397 S-i 

doftan - I 

Tamerlane lays Tulmubi- 

ni under contribution 2 

Shawnawaze pilla;;eJ ibid. 

Pier Mahomrned blocka- 

ded in Moultaii - 3 

Is relieved by Timur ibid, 

Who arrives at Battcnize ihid. 

And invclts it - ibid. 

The city taken— and the 

inhabitants put to the 

fword - 4 

Several cities taken by Ti- 

mur and the inhal)i- 

tants mailacied — Ar- 

rives before Delhi — 

which he reconnoitres 5 

1398 8oi 

Vox.. U. 


He maflacres loo.oco 
prifoners in cold blood 6 

Totally defeats the ene- 
niy — who defert the ci- 
ty . . 7 

A general maflacre in 
Delhi . 8 

Another account of the 
maflacie in Delhi - 9 

Timur enters Delhi ibid. 

Refolves to return JO 

Arrives at Paniput ibid 

Befieges and takes Me- 
rdt - ibid 

Kis progrefs towards the 
head of the Ganoes H 

1-ahore taken - ibid 

I398 Sot Eekbal recovers Delhi 1% 



A. D. Hig, Pige 

1398 801 The Subas revolt fiom 

the empire 


14CO 803 Eckbal defeats Shiimfc 


Fruftralcd in his dcfigns 

upon Jionpoor 


Mahmood rctutns to Del- 



14OI 804 His folly 


Made governor of Kin- 



Eckbal marches af^ainft 

Gualier Atava, and 




1404 807 Byram is fiay'd alive 


Eckbal Chan (lain 


1406 809 Sultan Mahmood rellor- 



Flies from Kinnoge — Pnr- 

fued by Sultan Ibrahim 


Byram defeated by Lodi 


The emperor befieged in 



1413 816 Chizerbefieges Mahmood 

in Delhi 


But retires 


Mahmood dies 


His cliarafler 


Dowlat Lodi ele(fled Em- 



Is taken and depofed by 



Slate of Afia. 


C H I Z E R. 

1414 817 CMzer fucceeds 


His family 


Does not alTume the name 

of Emperor. — Pretends 

to hold of Timur 


Subdues Kittar 


The Turks expelled fiom 



Chizer's expedition a- 

gainft Ahmiid 


Turks again expelled fiom 



Chizer invades Kittar 


2419 8z3 Difcovers a plot againft 

his life 


An impoftor appears at 



Chizer's expedition to 





State of Afia 


M U B A R I C K II. 

A. D Hig. Page 

1421. 824. Mubarick afcends the 

throne - 25 

JilFcrit invades the empire ibid 
The emperor inarches 
again ft him - ibid 

lilds Lahore 



Mubarick rebuilds Lahore 

and returns to Delhi 
JilTerit befieges Lahore 

without fiiccefs. 
Is obliged to take fhelter 

in the mountains 
Mubarick invades Kittar 
MX3 817 Defeated by Mubarick 
Sues for peace 
Mubarick reduces Mewat 

and difmifles his army 
Difturbances in Mewat 
Mewat again reduced 
Mahommed elcapes and 

Fliesto Sultan Ibiahim 
1427 831 Ibiahim advances againft 

The armies engage — A 

draw battle 
Jillcrit befieges Callanore 

— is defeated 
Mubarick fubdues Mewat ibid 
Ingratitude of the fons of 

Seid Allum 
Rebellion of Fowlad 
Mubarick marches againft 

Befieges him 

Moguls ravage the coun- 
'43° ^34 Are overthrown 

Jiflerit invades the empire 
Befieges Lahore 
Mubarick raifes the fiege 
14^ 836 Mubarick marches againft 

Ali takes Lahore 

J^hinmte capitulates 
A confpiracy formed againft 

the Sultan - ibid 

1433 837 He is adafTinated - 38 

His character . ibid 

Stats of Afia - ibid 


'429 83; 





















Hig. Page 

37 Mahommed mounts the 
The omrahs difguife their 

The vizier's tyranny 
The omrahs life in arms 
The vizier befieged in the 

His counter plot 
Is flain 

The omrahs fwear allegi- 
ance to Mahommed 
E434 838 The Sultan marches to- 
wards Moultan and 
to Sammana 
Beloli defeats the imperi- 
al army 
143S 842 The Sultan's concedions 
to the rebels— alienate 
the minds of his fub- 
Confufionsin the empire ibid 
The impolitic and cow- 
ardly behaviour of the 
1446 850 A drawn battle 

A peace concluded 
Mahmood Chilligi de- 
feated by Beloli — who 
is adopted by the Sul- 

He marches againft Dtlhi 45 
The king's power de- 
clines - ibid 
He dies - ibid 
Hischara^er - ibid 
State of Afia - ibid 

A L L A II. 

1440 844 













'447^5' Alia mounts the throne. 
liOfes his reputation 
His luxury 

The ftate of Hindoftan 
Decayed condition of the 

Beloli makes an unfuc- 
celsfiil attempt upon 





A D. Hig. Page 

1447 851 Fixes his refidence at Bu- 

daoon - 4^ 

144S 852 Orders the vizier to be 
put to death — who ef- 
capes to Delhi — and 
places Beloli upon the 
throne - ibid 

Alia abdicates in favour 

of Beloli - ibid 

State of Afu - 50 


A. D. Hig. Page 

1450 854 Beloli's family 51 

Account of his birth ibid 
Diftinguilhes himfelf in 

artion - ibid 
Iflam recommends Be- 
loli to the government 

ofSirhind - sa 
Cuttub complains at the 

couit of Delhi ibid 

Beloli becomes powerful 53 
Is promiled the empire by 

a Dirvefli - ibid 

Reflexion upon that tale ibid 

His foils and relations 54 
His rtratagem againft Ha- 

mid - ibid 
The vizier feized in his 

own honfe - 55 

1451 855 Beloli regulates the wef- 

tern provinces 5^ 

Beloli defeats the army ^ 

of IVIahmood ibid 
The kino of the Eaft has 

defignsupon Delhi ibid 

1452 856 Offended with Beloli .s8 

— Dies - ibid 

Mahommed alTadinatcd 59 

Treachery of Diria ibid 

Beloli marches againft 

Haftcn • ibid 

1478 S83 The Emperor Alia dies 60 

Hallcn marches to Delhi ibid 

Beloli's perfidy - 61 

Affairs of the empire 6% 

Beloli old and infirm 6.'^ 

He falls fick - ibid 

1488 894 Dies - 64 

His chara£ler ibid 

Slate of Af'.a • ibid 




A. D. Hig. Page 

14.88 894 Theomrahsvarioudj-in. 

clined - 65 

Firmilli's boldnefs ibid 

Sccunder mounts the 
throne - 66 

Defeats and pardons Ifah ibid 

Marches againfl his bro- 
ther Allum ibid 

Again defeats Ifah ibid 

Marches agalnft his bro- 
ther Barbcck ibid 

His policy - ibid 

Barbeck defeated 67 

Seciinder marches to 
Calpie ibid 

1491 897 Reduces Biana — and 

Agra 68 

An infune<flion at jion- 
poor - ibid 

Rai Bhede fubmits 6g 

Haflen fets upon Secun- 
der--but is overthrown 70 

Secunder marches to Be- 
har— which is evacu- 
ated - ibid 

Bengal invaded. ibid 

1494 9CO A peace concluded be- 
tween Secunder and 
Alia - 7' 

A dearth in Hindoflan ibid 

Battca taken and de- 
ftroyed - >Wd 

The omrahs difiatislied 72 

Quarrels in the camp ibid 

The Sultan ftifpecfts a 
confijiiacy ibid 

A plot diJcovered ibid 

Secunder retires for four 
years to Simbol 73 

A remaikable inftmcs of 
religii^us perfecution ibid 

Some faftious omrahs ba- 
nithed - 74 

Secundei'sdefignsagainft I495 901 

Gualier - ibid 

Makes Agra the royal ra- 
fidence - 75 

J 504 oio An earthquake at Agra ibid 1496 902 

1506 91a becunder bcfieges Awint- 

gur, which is taken 76 

Marches againft Narvar ibid 

Various motion* of the 
king = 77 

1498 904 

1499 ^05 

>5ci 9C7 

A. D. Hig. Page 

1509 915 Tranfaftionsat Dolipoor 78 

Reduces Chinderi ibid 

Peace in the empire ibid 

Dies - 79 

State of A fia at the death 

of Secunder ibid 


A. D. Hig 



15 1 94i 

Ibrahim proud and arro- 



A confpiracy 


The empire divided 


1517 923 

Defigns to reunite it 
The omrahs endeavour 
in vain to inveigle Jel- 


lal from Jionpoor 


1518 924 

Jellal maiches to Agra 

and flies to Gualier 


JJ'9 9*5 

An army fent againft 



Jellal taken— and affaf- 



A rebellion 


The rebels overthrown 


Ibrahim's tyranny and 



'S4S 93^ 

Another rebellion 


State of Afia 



A. D. Hig 

Of the family of Babcr 88 
Baber's uncommon geni- 
us - ibid 
Succeeds his father 89 
Belicged by Achmed, &c. ibid 
Reduces feme rebellious 

Befieges Artaba to no 

Marches towards Samar- 

Takes that city 
Defer; ed by his army 
His misfortunes 
Samarcand revolts 








A. D. Hig 

Page 1 

A. D 




1498 504 

He takes the field with a 



A Confpiiacy agalnft his 





His affairs begin to wear 

Meditates the conquefl: 

a favourable afped 


of Hindoftan 


1499 905 Jehangiie befieges him in 

His fecond expedition 



into Hindoftan 


Baber recovers his domi- 



Thiid expedition into 





Indija bcfieged 


Returns and befieges 

The enemy are over- 

Kandahar, wiiich is 

tlirown by Baber 




A peace between Baber 

Fourth expedition into 

and his brother Jehan- 







Lahore taken— and De- 

Baber's expedition to 





Dowlat I.odi fufpc(fled 


Baber deferted by h\s 

1524 931 

Defeats Baber's forces 


v-holc army, except 

Ibrahim attacks him 


two liundredand forty 

Alia arrives at Lahore 




1525 932 

Beiieges Delhi 


His darins; attempt upon 





Baber crofies the Indus 


01>liged to retreat 


Marches towards Delhi 


His dnam 


Arrives at Shawabad 


Ijco 906 

Returns to Samaicand, 

Preparations for a gene- 

which he furprizes 


ral engagement 


1501 907 

Baber defeated by Shubi- 

Forced to quit the city 

with one hundred men 


The battle 

Ibrahim defeated and 

Baber enters Delhi, and 


Beliegcd at Art aba 


aflrimes the empire 


1502 908 

Defeated by 'I'imbol 
Totally defeated by Shn- 


1 526 


Reflexions upon the con- 
queftof Hindoftan by 





He afkes advice of Backer 


Baber's gencrofity 


Baber's ingratitude to 

The provincial omrahs 



refufe to fubmit 


IJ04 9I0 

Baber feizes upon Cabn- 


Baber's diftrels and refo- 





1506 9II 

Marches to Chorrallan 
Dilhirbances in Cabul 



C-dl\<n of Simbol fubmits 
Nizam, governor of Bi- 

J 26 



ana, fubmits 


Baber invited to Kanda- 

The governors of Gualicr 



propoie to fiibniic 


1507 9' 3 

The Ulbccks invade Kan- 

r.ualicr taken by a Ihata- 





1508 914 

Humaioon born 


An attempt to poilon Ba- 

1509 91 5 

Baber's daring cntcrprizc 
Killsfivc omrahs in fmglc 

War between Pcifia and 




Babir alarmed with a 
confederacy againit 


the Udiccks 


A council of war 


1511 917 

Shubiani ovcithtovvnand 

Baber marches towards 


1 10 

the enemy 


Baber marches to recover 

The enemy advance to 

liis dominions 


attack him 


Takes Bochara, and Sa- 

The order of battle 




'I'he battle begins 


Makes an alliance with 

Babei's army iurroundcd 


the Perfian general 


He overthrows the ene- 




A. D. Hig. 

^526 933 Reduces Mavat 

Baher invefts Chinderi 

1527 934 Defeats the omiahb of the 


1528 ij3S Arrives at Agra 

Falls lick 

Afhkari Cent aeainft Nu- 
ferit who fubmits 

1529 936 Tranfaiflions in Cabul 
JJ30 337 Baber falls lick, and dies 

His character 

His religion 

His genius for the fine 

His perfon 
Kis judicc 

Addifled to pleafuie 
His talents for war 
His genealogy 
The family of Timur, or 

State of Afia at the 

death of Baber 










H U M A I O O N. 

A. D. Hig. Page 

1530 S3 7 Humaioon a great aftro- 

nomer. - 14^ 

Defigns of his brother 

- Jbid 

155I 938 

»53* 959 

1533 94° 
'534 941 

agaiuft him 
Befieees Callinger 
Demands poflellion of 

A conl'piiacy difcovered 
Rebellion at Kinnoge 
Sends an army again ft 

Humaioon - ibiil 

Which is totally defeated ibid 
Bahadur nii;rches againft 

Calls a council of war 
Humaioon cuts ot!" his 

Coviaidicc and flight of 

Mindu taken by furprize 






Humaioon -purfucs Ba- 

Returns to the fiege of 
the citadel 

His gallant exploit 









A. D. Hig. 

^535 942 Bahadur levies forces 

Humaioon reduces all 

The infurre(fHon under 
Shere Chan 
1539946 The bioihers difagrec 

Camiran mounis the 

thione in Agra 
Humaioon endeavours in 
vain to bring over his 
brothers - iji 

Makes peace with Shere 15} 
Treachery of Shere ibid 

Humaioon overthrown ibid 
Efcapes to Agra - ibid 
Qiiarrels between the 

brothers - 154 

Camiran deferts the king ibid 
Shere advances to the 
Gang - ibid 

1540 947 Humaioon marches a- 

gainft him - 155 

And is overthrown - ibid 
Shere advances to Agra ibid 
154' 948 Humaioon's embafly to 

the governor of Tatta 156 
His great diftrefs - ibid 
Eadgar fubmits - 157 
Raja Maldeo plots a- 

gainft Humaioon 158 

He flies - ibid 

His great diftrefs - ibid 
The king's dreadful fi- 
tuation for want of 
water - 159 

1542 949 Akbar born - 160 

Humaioon being defeat- 
ed flies towards Kan- 
dahar - ibid 
Is received kindly by the 

Perfians - i6r 

State of Afia - ibid 


A. D- Hi£, Page 

Shere's family. 
Ibrahim airives at Delhi 
Feiid flies from his fa- 
ther's houfe 
Is reconciled with his fa- 
Goes to A;;ra 






O N T E N T S. 

A. D. Hig. Page 

154a 549 His brother Solimaii 
complains of him to 
Mahommed Soor 166 

He obtains the title of 

Shere Chan - ibid 

Proceedings again ft him 167 
Shere attacked - 1 68 

Defeats Mahommed ibid 

Hisgenerofity tohim 169 
His opinion concerning 

the Moguls - ibid 

He privately withdraws 1 70 
Shere manages the go- 
vernment of Bthar ibid 
A plot againft his life 171 
Mahmood of Bengal at- 
tacks Shere - 17' 
All Behar fubmits to 

him - 172 

Shere obtains leave to 

vifit his jagier - 173 
He betrays Mahmood ibid 
Refiifes to give up Chi- 

nar to Humaioon - 174 
Befieges Gour - 175 

Humaioon turns his arms 

againfl him - ibid 

Shere, by a ftratagem, 
takes the impregnable 
fo! trels of Rlioias 1 76 

Defcription of Rhotas 1 77 
Shere - - 178 

Overthrows Humaioon ibid 
Aflumcs the impeiial 

title - 179 

Reduces the fuba of Ben- 
gal - - ibid 

1543 950 Reduces Malava - 180 

Takes Rintimpore ibid 

He marches againft Raja 
Paran for keeping two 
thoufand concubines 181 
He marches towards 
Mar war - Ibid 

1544 951 Gallant propofal of a 

Rajaput omrah - 182 
IJ45 952 With his own tribe and 

attacks Shere - iS.'? 
Remaikable faying of 

Shere - ibid 

Shere takes Chitor ibid 

Burnt Ly the blowing up 

of powder - 1R4 

Dies - ibid 

His charadcr - ibid 

His magnificence 185 

His attention tobufinefs ibid 
.Slate of Afia - 186 

S E L I M. 

A. D- Hig. Page 

1545 9j 2 Jellal mounts the throne 

by the name of Sclim 187 
His elder btother wiites 

about the fucceffion 188 
Tranfaftions in the pa- 
lace - ibid 
Adil nsakes a folemn re- 

lignation of the empire ibid 
Chawafs kindles a re- 
bellion in favour of 
Adil - ibid 

Selim in great perplexity 190 
Overthrows his brother 191 
Adil difappears - ibid 

Rebellions qiiaOied 192 

1548 955 An attempt upon the life 

of Selim - 193 

Chaja defeated by the 

Neazi rebels - 155 

An attempt upon Selim's 
life - - ibid 

11^50 057 Selim maichcs againft 

Humaioon - 196 

A plot againft Sslim's 

life - ibid 

Chawafs aflaflinated ibid 

1551 958 Sclim dies - I97 

His character - ibid 

I5ja 960 Ftrofe mounts the throne I98 
Is barbaroufly murdered ibid 
State of Afia - I99 


A, D. Hig. Page 

1552 960 Mahommed illiterate aoo 

His fooiilli prodigality ibid 
The omrahs difcontent- 
ed - - ibid 

1553 S^'^ '^'^J' withdraws from 

court - - aca 

The King jealous of 
Ibrahim's popularity ibid 

Mahommed del'crted by 
hjiomrahi - 403 




'555 9^' -^ competitor in Punjab 

ariumes the royal title 104 
X554 96Z Himii overthrows Ibra- 
him - - 205 
IJ54 962 The governor of Bengal 

rebels - ibid 

Himu defeats and (lays 
the governor of Bengal 206 

Drives the Moguls from 
Agra and from Delhi ibid 

The fortune of Mahom- 
mcd declines - 207 

He is defeated and flain ibid 

Secunder's Ipeech to the 
omrahs - ibid 

They cled him King - ioS 

He is lepcatedly defeat- 
ed by the Moguls ibid 


A. D. Hig. 

J544 '■)5^ Hiimaiaon 


arrives in 

The king's fifter and 
fame omrahs favour 
thecaufe of Hnmaioon 



^545 95a 




T!ie king gives him ten 

thoiifand liorfe 
Humaioon iiivefls Can- 

Tlie Perfiansdifcontcnt- 

Humaioon by a ftratagem 

fei.'.es upon Candahar 214 
Tlie king marches to Ca- 

bul - ibid 

Invcds and takes that 

Humaicon marches a- 

ffaind Buducliihan 
Cimiran fcizes Ghizni 

and furprizes Cabul. 
Humaioon fits down be- 
fore Cabul 
Several chiefs join the 




A. D. Hig. 

1545 952 Camiran 

evacuates Ca 

Several omrahs dcfert 

Camiran defeats his bro- 
ther Hindal 

Flies before Humaioon 
and fubmits 

He is treated with ref- 
peift by Humaioon 

His trealbnable dcfigns 
Humaioon defeats the 
Ufbecks and is in his 
turn overthrown 

Retreats to Cabul. 

Humaioon in great dif- 

Returns to Cabul 
1551 958 Tranfacfions at Cabul 

Pi^ince Hindal killed and 
Camiran defeated 
iSS^ 939 The Afghans expel Ca- 

He flies to Selim 







Delivered up to the king ibid 

1554 962 


1555 9<53 

His eyes are put out 

And dies there 

Humaioon marches to- 
wards Calbmire - 


Akbar fent to Ghizni 

The inhabitants of Del- 
hi and Agra invite him 
to India 

Humaioon refblves to in- 
vade Hindoftan 

Rhotas evacuated 

He enters Lahore 

Defeats fome 
at Dibaipoor 

Secunder fends an ar- 
my again ft Humaioon 
which is over- 
thrown by Byram- 
Secunder marches a- 
gainftthe Moguls 

Prince Akbar marftials 
the Mogul army 

The battle begins 

I'he Patans overthrown 

The empire transferred 
from the Patans to 
the Moguls 

Akbar fent againft Se- 

The king's death 

His character 

State of Afia at the death 
of Humaioon 













A K B A R. 

A. D. Hig. Page 

1555 963 Akbar mounts the throne 

at Callanore - 233 

Byiam's wife admini- 

ftration - ibid 

Akbai defeats Seconder 23; 
Himu takes Agra - 234 
Advances to Delhi ibid 

which he takes - ibid 
The king in great per- 
plexity - 25 s 
The king marches a- 
gainft Himu - ibid 

1556 964 Marches towards Delhi 237 

A general action ibid 

Himu taken and flain 238 
Akbar arrives at Dellii ibid 
The Pcrfiansbefiege and 

take Kandahar - 239 
The king matches to- 
wards Punjab - 240 
By I am difeufted - ibid 
His vindi<ftive difpofition 
Breach between him and 

the king - ibid 

He puniihes the info- 
lence of Pier Mahum- 
mud - ibid 

The king offended - 24 1 
Gualier delivered up ibid 

Acftions of Zeman ibid 

Tranfa<nions at court 241 

Akbat vilits Delhi 343 

IJ57 9^5 -A- fa<fHon accufcs Byram 

to the king - 244 

Tranfa^icns at court ibid 
1558 968 Byram diigiaced - 245 
Mali invades Calhmire 246 
He is defeated - ibid 

taken and confined ibid 

Various fchemes of By- 
ram. - ibid 
His iirefolute behaviour 247 
The king's mefliiage to 

him - ibid 

He refolves to go to 
Mecca - • ibid 

!5$g 967 Repents of his refolution, 

and levies forces ibid 

He returns towards Pun- 
jab - 248 
Defeated - ibid 
1560968 The king purfucs him in- 
to the mountains ibid 

Vol. U, 

A. D. Hig, Page 

1 560 968 Byram fubmits - 249 
He refolves on a pilgri- 
mage 10 Mecca - I50 
Takes the way of Gu- 

zerat - ibid 

Is bai'ely afladinattd by 

an A'gan chirf ibid 

Akbai fends an army 

againft Malava ibid 

Tbe king fuipt Os Adam 
of treafonable iucen- 
tions - «5I 

Akbar kills an enormous 

tygiefs - ibid 

Tranlaiftion' at Jionpoor 252 
1561 969 Promotions a- court 253 

HulTein befieges Merta; ibid 
which is taken - 254 

Tranla(ftions in the pro- 
vince of Malava ibid 
'" The Mogul governor 

overthrown and flain 25 y 
Malava loll - ibid 

and recovered - ibid 

An embafly from Perfia ibid 
Adam bafely aflaffinates 

the vi^ier. - 256 

Adam is killed by the 
king - ibid 

1561 970 The Gickers reduced 257 
Rebellion of Huflein 258 

Mali joins Huflein ibid 

Defeats the Imperalifls 
Flies to Cabul - ibid 

iS^i 971 I^'s villainy - 259 

and death - ibid 

An attempt againll the 

king's life - 259 

The governor of Mala- 
va itvolts - 260 
he flies to Guzerat ibid 
The king of Chandez, in 
the Decan, fubmits to 
Akbar - ibid 
'5^4 972 Tranfa<Qions at Afrra 261 
The Ufbcck Omrahs re- 
bel - ibid 
Th- policy of Akbar ibid 
A r'ph's war with the 
queen of Gu rah 26a 
1565 973 The king marches a- 
gainlt Afaph, falls fick 
and returns - 366 
The kiiiff marches a- 

gaiuft Liicknow 267 

Afapi' fibinits - ibij 

liis milbehai iour jhid 

and flight to Gurrah ibid 

Motions of the rebels ibid 
Zeman fubmits - ^68 



A- T>. Mi;;. Page 

Ij65 573 The Imperial army nndcr 
Ul Muliick overthrown 
by the rebels - 268 

1566 974 Zeman again rebels 169 

The rebels lake Jionpoor ibid 
which is retaken by the 

king - ibid 

Zeman pardoned a fe- 

cond time - ibid 

The king's weakne'fs ayo 
Zeman aj^ain revolts ibid 

An cmbally from Cabiil 271 
The king ilKies orders to 
aid his brother at Ca- 
biil . ibid 

Hakim's defigns upon 

1-ahore - ibid 

Befieges that city - 472 
rhe king marches to- 
wards Lahore - ibid 
1 he king marches 
marches againll the 
Ulbeck onuahs' 273 

"J he king Iwims acrofs 

the Ganges. - ibid 

He comes before the re- 

bel army 


Tiie rebels totally over- 
thrown - 274 
1567975 Settlement of the cafl 275 
■'- Akbar reduces IMalava ibid 
The king inverts Chitor ibid 
The king kills the go- 
vernor of Chitor 276 
Chitoi ftormed - 277 
A dreadful flaughter ibid 
The king in danger from 

a tyger - ibid 

J)iftui bances in Guzerat 

quelled - 278 

Akbar invefls Rinlim- 

pore ■^^ - - ibid 

1369 977 Returns to Agra 279 

A Ton born to the king ibid 

Caliinger furrcnders ibid 

1570 97B Akbar returns to Agra a3o 

The king invades the 

kingdom of Guzerat ibid 
Which fubmits without a 
blow . 281 

It':2 98o The ftate of Guzerat 282 
Akbai's tranlaclions in 

Guzerat - 283 

Exploits of Akbar a- 

gainft Huflein ibid 

He attacks and defeats 
1 000 of the enemy 
70 horfe - 184 

*5 73 ','Sl Akbar befieges Srirat ibid 
Hullfin defeated by Rai 

A. D. Hig. Pape 

Singh at Nagorc . - 285 
Akbar takes Surat ibid 

HulTein flies to Punjab 286 
Defeated, taken and put 

to death in Moultan ibid 
The king fets out for 
Guzerat, with great 
expedition - 187 

Arrives unexpectedly be- 
fore the enemy ibid 
Comes to battle with 

them - a88 

and totally defeats the 

enemy - ibid 

The king in imminent 
danger - 289 

1574 982 The Suba of Bengal re- 
bels - 290 
He is overthrown ibid 
Tlie king fcts out for 
Bengal - ibid 
1575983 The king challenges the 
Suba of Bengal-, to a 
(Ingle combat - 291 
who declines and flies ibid 
Tranfa(ftionsat Agra ibid 
The war in Bengal and 
the reduction of that 
province - 292 
Tranlaftions at court 293 
Rebellion in Bengal 294 
T576 984 Tranfaiflions before Rho- 

tas - ibid 

'579 987 The king makes a pro- 
grefs through his do- 
minions - 295 
Dirturbances in Bengal 296 
The king's brother be- 
fieges Lahore - ibid 

15 8 1 989 Akbar forces him to raife 

the fiege - 297 

Purfues him to Cabul ibid 
Totally overthrows him ibid 
The king reinforces his 

army in Bengal 298 

Rebellion in Guzerat ibid 

1582 990 Mirza, the Ton of the fa- 

mous Byram, fent into 

Guzerat - 299 

IS?4 99^^ Guzerat reduced - 300 

Tranfaflions at court ibid 

The king's defigns upon 

Decan - ibid 

1585 993 Koka advances with an ar- 

my towards the Decan 50I 
Difturbances in Guzerat 

quelled - ibid 

Tianfa<n:ions at court ibid 
The king- (ends an army 

to reduce Cafhmire 3OJ 

1586 994 Man Singh defeats the 

Rofhnai-Afghans 303 



A. D. Hig. Page 

1586 994 The army in Ca(hmire in 

diftrefs - 303 

Chufero born to Sultan 
Seljm - ibid 

1587 99J The king goes to Cafh- 

mire - 304 

and to Cabul - ibid 

ij88 996 Difhirbaiices in Guzerat 

quelled - 305 

The king tefides at La- 
hore - ibid 
Affairs of Malava 306 
The king fends embaffies 
to the four Hates of 
the Decan ibid 
1591 I coo Mirza bcfieges the fort 

ofSuvan - ibid 

The Moguls in diftrefs 307 

Rebellion in Calhmire 508 

Which is quelled ibid 

1593 lOOI Muzifferof Guzerat kills 

himlclf - 509 

Orilla reduced - ibid 

Prince Murad appointed 
to the government of 
Guzerat - ibid 

1593 loca The king makes war up- 

on the princes of the 
Decan - 310 

The Mogul army enters 
that country . ibid 

1594 1003 Ahmtdnagur befieged by 

the A'loouls - 311 

159s 1004 The Moguls come to a 
treaty \^ith the be- 
fieged - 31a 

The troops of Ahnied- 
nagur invade Cerar ibid 
1596 1005 A diawn battle - ^i^ 

The king leturns from 
Lahore - 315 

1598 1007 Prince Murad dies 316 

Mirza fent again (1 the 

Detan - ibid 

Inverts Ahmednagur 317 
Ahmednagur raken ibid 

1600 1009 Death of the hiltorian 

A\in\ Fa/.il - ;i8 

Akbar dies - ibid 

1605 ICI4 His chara(fter - 3/9 

State of Afia at the 

death of Akbar 



A.D. 1605 Propofal for a compleat 
IQ A. D. i;i7hillory of the family 

of Timur - ^^2 

A. D. 1605 Paaf 

toA.D. I 7i7Domeflic affairs of India 

little kno'.^a • 324 

buceefHon from Akbar 

to Mahommed Shaw ibid 

M A H O M M E D 

A. D. 1718 Mahommed accedes to 

the throne 3J7 

Defigns of the Nizam ibid 
King's vveaknel's - 318 

Dowian's character 329 

King's indolence - 319 
MahrattiTS defeated J30 

Attempt upon Delhi ibid 
The Nizam called to 

court - ibid 

Intiigues at court - 351 
Party againfi: Dowran ibid 
A. D. 1594 Nadir Shaw invited by a 

faction to India 33* 

A. D. 1738 His policy - 335 

Nizam's intrigues at 

court - ibid 

Nadir Shaw takes Cabul 334 
Finds great wealth in 

that city - 335 

Piovince of Pclhawir 

fiibmits - ibid 

November 2C. 

Conlternation at Deliii 336 
A camp formed Decem- 
ber I. ibid 
A. D. I7J9 January 

JSJadii Shaw in full march 
to Delhi. February 14. 
Hii difcipline - 337 

FcUjj^-.ry 14. Treachery 

o; Sadit Chan ibid 

Dowran attacks tlie Per- 

liaus - 338 

with great bravery ibiJ 

Recalled to ihjpcamp ^y^^c) 

'1 he king appielieniive 

of the Nizam - ibiij 

Gallant behaviour of 

Muzifftr - ibid 

Dowran dies of his 

wounds - 349 

Fcbiuary 18. 

Deli^ns of the Nizam ibiJ 
Fruffrattd by Sadit 341 

Febiuaty 20. Mahom- 
med rel'olves to vifjt 
the king of PeUia ibid 




A. D. I7j9 His reception 342 

Nadir Shaw in perplexi- 
ty. - ibid 
His policy - ibid 
February l'?. Maliom- 
med's infenfibility to 
his misfoi tunes - 343 
Ufed with refpc£t by Ni- 

dir Shaw - 344 

March 2. Who marches 

to Delhi - ibid 

Behaviour to the Nizam, 

&c. - ibid 

Tht'ir fcheme to dertroy 

thcmfelves - 3J5 

Gates of Delhi fliut 346 

Contributions impoied ibid 
March 10 A tumilt ibid 

Nadir Shaw informed of 

the tumult 


March II Orders a ge- 
neral mafTacre iMd 
His feveri'y - 348 
Maflacre av Mogulpurra ibid 
The city pillaged - 34;; 
Nadi Shaw's cruelty i.Sid 
Humanity of an u.'tor 350 
Mahonjmed reirAated 

in his throne - ibid 
Nadir Shaw marches to- 
wards Perfia - 351 
His character - ibid 
Ambition of the Nizam 352 
Stifdar Jung made Suba 

of Owl - 353 

D;bility of the empire ibid 

A. D. 1740 Affdiis of theDecan 354 

Aifairs at Delhi - 15 j 

Nizam matches into the 

Decan - ibid 

A. D. 1741 Settles that country 356 

Becomes independent 357 

Revolt in Bengal ibid 

Impoiitic behaviour of 

the empetor - 358 

A. D. 1742 Aliverdi Chan ufurps 

the government of 

Bengal, &c. 559 

A. D. 1744 AlFairs at court - 360 

■rt.D. 1745 Rebellion quafhed 361 

A. D. 1 746 Achmet Abdalla 362 

Invades the empire ibid 

is oppofed - 363 

A. D. 1747 The Vizier killed ibid 

Policy of his fon - 364 

A tattle - ibid 

Abdaila defeated 3 65 

His undaunted behaviour ibid 

A fecond batt/e - ibid 

AbJalla again defeated 366 

A. D. 1747 Page 

Turn? the rear of the 

Imperial army - ibid 

Affairs at Delhi 
Death of the emperor 
His character 



A. D. I 747 Pjgc 

Ahmed mounts the 

throne - 370 

Affairs of the provinces 
and death of the Ni- 
zam - 371 
Hischataflcr - ibid 
A. D. I 748 Succeeded by Nafir Jung 37a 
Affairs of the provinces ibid 
A. D. 1749 Imperial army defeated 373 
Expedition of the vizier ibid 
Ke isovetth;own 374 
A dreadful ftroke to the 
empire - ibid 
A.D. 1750 Intercft; of the Queen- 
mother favcs the vizier 375 
Tribute paid to the 

Mahrattors - ibid 

Inaiftivity of the vizier ibid 
The Nizam's eldeft Ton 
pays the arrears of the 
Mahrattors - 376 

Sillabut Jung poifons • 
Ghazi - ibid 

A. D. J 752 Affaiis at court - 377 
A new vizier - ibid 

The old vizitr's rebellion 378 
Youn?; Ghazi attacks the 

Jat.'S - ibid 

Afiaits at court - ibid 
The emperor levies for- 
ces againlt Ghazi 379 
Will marches againft 
him - ibid 
A. D. 1 73 3 Emperor's flight and de- 

pofition - 380 

His charaiVer - ibid 

Decayed Aate of the 
eir.pire - 38 1 


A.D. J 75 3 Page 

AUumgire mounts the 
throne - 383 



A. D. 1753 Page 

Ceremony of the corona- 
tion - 383 
Wretched ftate of the 

empeior - 384 

Inadivity at court - ibid 

A. D. 1754 Death of Minnu 385 

The prince royal ftnt a- 

gainll Abdalla ibid 

A. D. 1755 Caufe of the inaflion of 

the Impeiial aimy 386 

Emperor applies to Ab- 
dalla - ibid 
A.D. 1757 who marches to Delhi 387 
i-a.ys tlie city under con- 
tributions - ibid 
The emferor's folly 3S8 
A.D. 1758. Abdalla returns ' S'ig 
Arlairs at court - ibid 
'l"he piince confined by 
the vizier - 390 
' His gallant behaviour ibid 
A. D. 1759 Makes his elcape ibid 
Is joined by a body of 

Mahrattors - 39 1 

Ni^'ib ul Dowla • ibid 

Abdalla maiches again 

to Delhi - 392 

Dcfigns of the vizier ibid 

A.D. 1760 Emperor murdered 393 

His charader - ibid 


A. D. 1761 Page 

Tianfaiflions at Delhi 395 
Misfortunes of that city ibid 
Invafion by the Mahrat- 
tors - 396 
Junftion of the Mahom- 

medans - ibid 

Mahrattors attacks the 

Jates - ibid 

Delhi pill.igi-'d - 397 

The power of Ghazi de- 
clines - ' ibid 
Tranfailions in Delhi 398 
Abdalla's conduct ibid 
Comes to aiftion with and 
defeats the Mahiat- 
tors - 399 
Writes to the prince All 

Gohar - .^oo 

Evacuates Delhi - ibid 

Chief of the Jates cut 

off - ibid 

A.D. 176a Ni. ib ul Dowla's condu(fl 4c i 

Af^ions of the prince 

Ali Gchar - ibid 

Arrives at Allahabad 401 
A. D. I764 Attempts the conc^ueft 

of Bengal - 4C3 

A.D. 1764 P^gc 

Enters that kingdom and 

alTiimes the empire ibid 
Seized by Suja ul Dow- 

iat - 404 

Difappointed by the a- 

varice of the Britilh ibid 


A. D. 1764 Page 

Refledlions on the de- 
cline of the empire 406 
Fallen to pieces by do- 

meftic fiuftions - ibid 
Different ftates rifes out 

of its ruins .- 407 

Achmet Abdalla - ibid 
His political fituation 40!? 
His character - ibid 

The Seiks - 409 

The conilitution of their 

govtmment - ibid 

Their chiefs and foice 410 
Rohillas - ibid 

Nigib ul Dowla their 

chief - ibid 

Other Rohilla chiefs 411 

Their force - ibid 

Piincipality of Ferocha- 

bad - ibid 

Tli« Jates - 414 

Their oiigin - ibid 

P.efent tlate - 413 

Raja of Joinagur - ibid 
Marwar - 414 

Odipour - - ibid 

Mahrattors . ibid 

Their chiefs and con- 
quers - 415 
Their revenues - ibid 
Forces - 416 
Bundelcund - ibid 
its raja tributary to the 

Mahrattors - 417 

Shaw Allum tlie prcfent 

Mogul . ibid 

His chara£lcr - ibid 

Suia ul Dowlat - 419 

Hiscliara<neT - ibid 

13eni,'al - 421 

Nabob of Arcot - ibid 
His character . 42a 

Nizam - 413 

Hydcr Naig, now known 
by the name of Hydcr 
Ali - 4^4 

His character - 426 

Obfervations - ibid 

General reflexions 437 







1 IMUR-BEC, being informed of the commo- a.d. 139-. 
tions and civil wars of India, began his expedition 2)'f"*xa- 
into that country, in the eight hundredth year of meriane 
the Higerah, and, on the twelfth of Mohirrim, Hin^^'^ 
in the following year, arrived on the banks of the 
Chule Jallali, one of the inoft wefterly branches of 
the Indus. He immediately difpatched Noor ul 
Dien to difpoffefs Mubarick, who, on the part of 
the king of Delhi, had, in charge, the defence 
of the frontier diftrids. When Noor ul Dien 
had arrived within a few miles of Mubarick, he 
fummoned him to fubmit to Timur. But as the 
imperial general had previoufly retreated into 
a ftrong hold, on the bank of the river, round 
which he had drawn a ditch, forming the place 
into an ifland, he determined to defend himfelf 
to the laft. 

Vol. II. B Noor 


A-P-p"^"- Noor ul Dien, however, found means, upon 
making his approaches, to fill up the ditch : but 
at night he fuff'ered a conlidcrable lofs, by a vio- 
lent lally of the befieged ; whom, in the end, he 
repulfed, and forced to take fhelter within the 
walls. Timur himfelf advanced as^ainft the ene- 
my, with his whole army. Mubarick, intimida- 
ted by the approach of Timur, (lowed privately, 
in forty boats, his treafure and family, and fell 
clown the river, being two days purfucd in vain, 
by Noor ul Dien, who was detached with a party 
after him. The garrifon, after the departure of 
their leader, immediately furrendered. 

1 imur proceeded down the river to the conflux 
of the Jimboo and Chinab, where there was a 
ftrong fort and town, known by the name ot 
Tulmubini. He ordered a brido^e to be laid acrofs 
the river, by which his army might pafs. Hav- 
Tamer'ane i^g pitched his camp, without the town, he laid 
laysTvii- it under a heavy contribution. But whilft the 
d^ercontX inhabitants were very bufy in collecling the fum 
bution. demanded, a complaint being made in the 
camp, of the fcarcity of provifions, orders were 
ilTued to feize grain wherever it fliould be found. 
The foldiers, upon this, haftened to fearch the 
town, but not being content to take provifions 
alone, the natural confequence was, that a gene- 
ral plunder cnfued. The inhabitants, endeavour- 
ing to oppofe this outrage, were inafTacred with- 
out mercy. 

To bcfiege the citadel would but retard the 
defigns of Timur. He therefore marched, the 
next day after the maflacre, to a town called 
ii'^^rrM' . Shawnawaze, where he found more grain than 
gcd. w'as fuilicient to ferve his whole army. He there- 

fore ordered, that what could not be carried away 
lliould be burnt ; liaving previoufly cut off Jii- 
ferit, the brother of the prince of the Gickers, 
who had attempted to defend the place with two 


M A H M O O D III. 3 

thoufand men. Timur inarched, on the third a. d. 1397 
day, from Shawnawaze, and, crofling the Sea, ^^'S- ^"'• 
came into a rich and plentiful country. 

It may not be improper here to fay fomething 
concerning the proceedings of the prince, the 
grandfon of Timur, Pier Mahommed, after his 
having, as has been already mentioned, taken 
Moultan. Ihe Solftitial rains having deftroyed 
a great part of his cavalry, in the field, he was 
under the neceility of drawing his army into 
the city of Moultan. There he was driven ^o [,''^^.^'^j* 
the utmoft diftrefs by the inhabitants of the blockaded 
country, who had clofely invefted him. His ca-jj^^^°"^- 
valry, inftead of being able to acl againft them, 
diminifhed daily in their numbers, for want 
of forage. 

In this untoward fituation were the affairs of is rrMeved 
that prince, when his grandfather entered Rin-^^'^"^^""^' 
doftan. Timur imm.ediately reinforced Mahom- 
med with a detachment of thirty thoufand chofen 
horfe, and foon after joined him with his whole 
army. The prince carried in his mind great ani- 
mofity againft the governor of Eattenize, who 
had chiefly diftreffed him. Timur, to chaftifc 
the governor, felecled ten thoufand horfe, with 
which he marched directly towards him. When 
he reached Adjodin, he was fhevv^n the tomb of 
the learned Ferid, the poet, in refpect to v/hofe 
memory he fpared the few inhabitants Vv^ho re- 
mained in the place, the greater part having fled 
to Delhi and Battenizc. 

Timur continued then his march to Battenize,^^'y^=[','''" 
crcfilng the river of Adjodin, and encamping at nize, 
Chaliflcolc, from which place, in one day, he 
marched one hundred miles to Battenizc. Upon 
his arrival, the people of r)cbalpoor, and other 
adjacent towns, crowded into the place, in fucli 
numbers, that half of them were driven out, 
and obliged to take flicker under the walls. They and Un-cds. 

B 2 were'^' 


Ap.T.597 were there attacked, the firft day, by the king, 
'^' °'" and fome thoufands of them llain. Raw Chilligi, 
who was governor of the place, feeing the enemy 
fo few in number, drew out the garrifon, and 
formed them without the town, in order of bat- 
tle. The Moguls, however, upon the firft onfet, 
drove him back within his walls, while the king, 
in perfon, prefled fo hard upon the enemy's rear, 
that he polTefled himfelf of the gates before they 
could be fliut. Then driving the runaways from 
ftreet to ftreet, he became, in a few hours, in- 
tirely mafter of the place, except the citadel ; to 
reduce which, he ordered a party immediately 
to difmount, and begin to undermine it. 
^1^ ^. The garrifon defired to capitulate, to which 

taken? ^ Timur agreed ; and the governor, having had an 
interview with the king, prefented him with three 
hundred Arabian horfes, and with many of the 
valuable curiofities of Hindoftan. Timur, in re- 
turn, honoured him with a chelat ; and after the 
conditions were fettled, fent Soliman, Sheh, and 
Omar Ulla, to take poflefiion of the gates, com- 
manding them to flay all thofe who had taken re- 
fuge in the place, and had before been active 
againft his grandfon Mahommed. The reft, af- 
ter being plundered, were ordered to be dif- 
and the in- In confcqucnce of this inhuman order, five 
habitants hundred perfons, in a few minutes, were put to 
i^vLT ^ death. Thofe who remained ftill within the fort, 
were fo ftruck with this maflacre, that they fet 
fire to the place, murdered their wives and child- 
ren, and, in mere defpair, fought after nothing 
but revenge and death. The fcene now became 
terrible! but the unfortunate inhabitants were, 
in the end, cut off to a man ; they however re- 
venged themfelves amply, upon the rapacious and 
inhuman authors of their diftrefs ; fome thou- 
fands of the Moguls having fallen by their hands. 


M A H M O O D III. 5 

This fo much exafperated Timur, that firebrand a. d. 1397. 
of the world, that he ordered every foul in Bat- '^' 
tenize to be mafl'acred, and to reduce the city it- 
felf to aflies. 

Timur, marching to Surufti, put the inhabi- several d- 
tants of that place, alfo, to the fword, and gave ^y Timm, 
the town up to pillage. Advancing to Fatteabad, and the in- 
he continued the fame fcene of barbarity, through IjJ'^^fl|^^^"^j. 
that, and the adjacent towns of Rahib, Amirani, 
and Jonah. He detached Hakim Agherack to- 
wards Sammana, with five thoufand horfe, and 
with the few that remained, he himfelf fcoured 
the country, and cut off a tribe of banditti called 
Jits, who had lived for fome years by rapine. His 
army, in the mean time, being divided under dif- 
ferent chiefs, carried fire and fword through all 
the provinces of Moultan and Lahore, but w^hen 
they advanced near the capital, he ordered a ge- 
neral rendezvous at Keitil, a town within ten 
miles of Sammana. 

Timur himfelf foon joined his army, and hav- 
ing regulated the order of his march, advanced 
towards Delhi. When he reached Panniput, 
he ordered his foldiers to put on their fighting 
apparel * ^ and, that he might be the better fup- 
plied with forage, croffed the Jumna, took the 
fort of Lowni by aflault, and put the garrifon to 
the fword. He then marched down along the i"i-^re'D'ihf 
ver, and encamped oppofite to the citadel of Del- 
hi, polling guards to prevent all communication. 
He immediately detached Soliman and Jehan to 
fcour the country behind him to the fouth and 
fouth eaft of the city ; whilft he himfelf that very ^^j.^^^ 1^ 
day, with feven hundred horfe only, croiled the reconnoi- 
river to reconnoitre the citadeJ, ""• 

* Coats fluffed thick with cotton, worn initead of armour. 



A- P- '397- The King of Delhi and his minifter, Eckbal, 
^' ^' feeing fo few in the retinue of Timur, iffued forth 
with five thoufand foot and twenty-feven ele- 
phants againfl him. SilHf, an Omrah of repute 
in Delhi, wh.o led on the attack, was repulfed 
and taken prifoner by the Moguls. Timur or- 
dered him to be immediately beheaded, and after 
having made the obfervations which he had in- 
tended, repafled the river and joined his army. 

He next morning moved his camp more to the 
eaftward, where he was told, by the princes and 
generals of his army, that there were then above 
one hundred thoufand prifoners in his camp, who 
had been taken fmce he croiTed the Indus ; that 
thefe unfortunate perfons had, the day before, 
cxpreiled great joy, when they faw him attacked 
before the citadel ; which rendered it extremely 
probable, that, on a day of battle, they would 
join with their countrymen againft him. The 
inhuman Timur, who might have found other 
means of prevention, gave orders to put all above 
the age of fifteen to the fword, fo that, upon 
that horrid day, one hundred thoufand men were 
He maiTa- niaiTacrcd, in cold blood. This barbarity, to- 
prifoncrs in gethci' with his Other actions of equal cruelty, 
cold bJood, gained him the name of hillak Chan, or the de- 
llroying Prince. Upon the fifth of the firft Jem- 
mad, Timur forded the river with his armv with- 
out oppofition, and encamped on the plains of 
the city of Firofe, a part of Delhi ; where he en- 
trenched himfelf, filling the ditch with buffaloes 
fronting the enemy. He faftened the buffaloes 
with ropes and picquets to their llations, placing, 
at the fame time, ftrong guards, at proper dif- 
lances, behind them. 

Though the aftrologers pronounced the feventh 
an unlucky day, the king marched out of his 
lines, and drew up his army in order of battle. 
King Mahmood and Eckbal, with the army of 


M A H M o o D irr. ^ 

Delhi, and one hundred and twenty elephants in A.D.1397. 
mail, advanced towards him. But upon the very '■^" °'" 
firfl charge of a fquadron, called the Heroes of 
Chighitta, the elephant-drivers were difmounted, 
and the outrageous animals, deprived of their 
guides, ran roaring back, and fpread terror and 
confulion among: their own ranks. The veteran 
troops of Timur, who had already conquered half 
the world, improved this advantage, and the 
degenerate Hindoos were, in a few minutes, to- „ , 

~ , ; totally de- 

tally routed, without making one brave effort for featstiic 
their country, lives, and fortunes. The conque- ent-wj . 
ror purfued them, with great flaughter, to the 
very gates of Delhi, near which he fixed his 

The confternation of the fugitives was fo great, 
that, not trufting to their walls, Mahmood and 
his miniftcr deferted, in the night, their capital ; 
the former flying: to Guzerat, the latter taking "'lodefrrt 

• • • the cit\' 

the route of Berren. Timur, having intelligence 
of their flight, detached parties after them, one 
of which coming up with Mahmood, killed a 
great number of his retinue, and took his two 
infant fons. Self ul Dien and Choda Daad, pri- 
foners. Timur received the fubmifllon of all the 
great men of the city, who crowded to his camp, 
and were promifed protection upon paying great 
contributions ; and, upon the Friday following, 
he ordered the royal proclamation and titles to be 
read in his own namiC in all the mofques. Upoji 
the flxteenth of the fame month he placed guards 
at the gates, and appointed the fcrivcners of the 
city, and magiflrates, to regulate the contribu- 
tion according to the wealth and rank of the in- 
habitants. Information was, in the mean time, 
lodged, that fevcral omrahs and rich men had 
fiiut themfelves up in their houfes, with their de- 
pendents, and refufed to pay dovv^n their fliare of 
the ranfom. This obliged Timur to iend troops 



^lif * IIV' '^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^* ^^ enforce the authority of the ma- 
giftrates. A general confufion, uproar, and 
plundering, immediately enfued, which could 
• not be reftrained by the Mogul officers, who, at 
the fame time, durft not acquaint the king that 
their authority was contemned by the troops. 

Timur, according to his cuftom after fuccefs, 
was then bufy in his camp, in celebrating a grand 
feftival, on account of his viclory, fo that it was 
five days before he received any intelligence of 
thefe proceedings. The firft notice he had of 
them, was by the flames of the city ; for the Hin- 
doos, according to their manner, feeing their 
wives and daughters raviflied and polluted, their 
wealth feized by the hand of rapine, and they 
themfelves infulted, beat, and abufed, at length, 
with one confent, fhut the city gates, fet fire to 
their houfes, murdered their wives and child- 
dren, and ran out like madmen againft their ene- 
A general But little cfFecl had the defpair of tire unfortu- 
Sihi!'^ '" "^te upon the Moguls, who foon colledled them- 
felves, and began a general maflacre. Some 
flreets were rendered impaflable, by the heaps of 
dead : and, in the mean time, the gates being 
forced, the whole Mogul army were admitted. 
Then followed a fcene of horror, much eafier to 
be imagined than dcfcribed. The defperate cou- 
rage of the unfortunate Delhians, was at length 
cooled in their own blood. They threw down 
their weapons, they fubmitted themfelves like 
fheep to the flaughter. They permitted one man 
to drive a hundred of them prifoners before him ; 
fo that we may plainly perceive, that cowardice is 
the mother of defpair. In the city, the Hindoos 
were, at leaft, ten to one, fuperior in number to 
the enemy, and had they poffefled fouls, it would 
have been impoffible for the Moguls, who were 
fcattered about in every flreet, houfe, and corner, 


M A H M O O D III. 9 

laden with plunder, to have refifted the dreadful ^-P- '397- 
aflault. But though the Indians had the favage '^' 
refolution of imbruing their hands in the blood of 
their wives and children, we find them ftill the 
ilaves of fear, and fhrinking at the approach of 
that death, which they could fo readily execute 
upon others. 

This maflacre is, in the Hiftory of Nizam, Another 
othervvife related. The collectors of the ranfom,themaiTa*^-rc 
fays he, upon the part of Timur, having ufed '" ^'^^^• 
great violence, by torture and other means, to 
extort money, the citizens fell upon them, and 
killed fome of the Moguls. This circumftance 
being reported to the Mogul king, he ordered a 
general pillage, and, upon refiftance, a maflacre 
to commence. This account carries greater ap- 
pearance of truth along with it, both from Ti- 
mur*s general charadler of cruelty, and the im- 
probability of his being five days clofe to the city 
without having intelligence of what palled within 
the walls. But the imperial race of Timur take, 
to this day, great pains to invalidate this opinion, 
nor do they want arguments on their fide. The 
principal one is this, that, in confequence of a 
general plunder, the king would have been de- 
prived of the ranfom, which mull have been ex- 
ceedingly great, and for which he only received 
the elephants and regalia. Neither have we any 
account of his taking any part of the plunder from 
his army afterwards, though it mufi: have been 
very immenfe. 

The king, after this horrid fcene, entered the nrrmr en- 
city, taking to himfelf one hundred and twenty *'^'*^''^''' 
elephants, twelve rhinocergfes, and a number of 
curious animals, that had been colleded by the 
emperor Ferofe. The fine mofque, built by that 
prince, upon the ftones of which he had infcribeci 
the hiftory of his reign, being efteemed a mafter- 
picce of architedure and tafte, took fo much the 



A p. i-?97. fancy of the conqueror, that he ordered llone- 
/^' '^^' cutters and mai'ons from Delhi to Samarcand, to 
build one upon the fame plan. 
'Hca-<u-es After liaving flayed fifteen days at Delhi, Ti- 
lo ictuin. ip.xir took a ludden refolution of returning, and 
he accordinolv marched out to Firofeabad, vvhi- 
ther the Indian governor of Mewat fent him two 
white parrots, as curiofities, with profefiions of 
fubjedion. The king fent Seid Turmuzi to bring 
him to the preience, which fummons he immedi- 
ately obeyed ; and Chizer |, who had lain con- 
cealed in the hills, appeared in the royal prefence, 
and was favourably received. 
Anivcsat The kino: marching from Firofeabad arrived 
•1 'P" • ^,- Paniput, from whence he detached Amir 
Shavv-, to bellege Merat, a ftrong fort, fituated 
between the rivers, about fixty miles from Delhi. 
When Amir Shaw reached the place, upon recon- 
noitring its ftrength, and finding the garrifon de- 
termined to defend it, he mentioned in a letter 
to the king, that they infulted him from the 
walls, by telling him he could fucceed no better 
than Seri, the Mogul prince, who had formerly 
attempted to take the place. 
Beiieges This had the defired effect upon the king, who 

an:', takes immediately marched his army againft Merat, 
and, without delay, began to fmk his mines, and 
carry on his approaches ; advancing his fap to- 
wards the walls, at the rate of fifteen yards every 
twenty-four hours. Elias Adyhuni, the fon of 
Moluna, Ahmud, and Suffi, defended the place 
with great refolution. But the Moguls having 
filled up the ditch, placed their fcaling ladders, 
and faflened their hook-ropes to the wall, in fpite 
of all oppofition ; and, without waiting for a 
breach by means of the mines, fiiormed the place, 
and put every foul within it to the fword. The 

f Afterwards Emperor, 


M A H M O O D III. n 

mines, however, being finiihed, the king or- ^j:jP- 'g^^T- 
dered them to be fprung, which blew the walls 
and baftions into pieces. 

Tiraur continued his inarch to the Ikirts of the Hisprogicr> 
mountains of Sewalic, marking his way with firehendofthc 
and fword. Croffing, then, the Ganges, he Tub- ^^"g"- 
dued the country as high as where the river iilues 
from the mountains ; returnino; from thence, he 
repaired the river, and marched through the hills, 
where he was oppofed by an Indian zem.indar, 
whom he defeated and plundered. He then con- 
tinued his rout, taking feveral fmall. forts in iiis 
way ; having arrived at Jimmugur, he foaght 
the raja of that place, who was vvounded, taken, 
and forced to become a MuiTalman. 

Jiflerit, the brother of the prince of Gickers, 
who had fled to him after his being defeated by 
Timur, had by his brother been leverely repri- 
manded for oppoling the king ; which having 
been reprefented to Tiraur, tlie prince was ad- 
mitted into his prefence, and became a great favo- 
rite. But when the king had m.arched on to ^ ^ ^ 
Delhi, he remembered not his obedience, and in k-n. 
the abfence of Timur poffefied hinifelf of Lahore. 
The king having returned to jimbo, * the Gicker 
refufed to fubmit to his authority. The Sultan 
fent part of his army to beliege Lahore, which 
being taken in a few days, the prince was brought 
prifoner to the king, v.ho ordered iiim to be in- 
ilantly beheaded. 

"We do not find tliat Timur appointed any king- 
to govern Hindoftan, which he had in a great 
mxcafure iiabdued. He, however, confirmed the 
fubas, who had fubmitted to him, in their go- 
vernments ; and, from this circumftance, wc 
may fuppofe, that he intended to retain the em- 
pire in his own name ; though he left no troops 

* A fort in Punjaab, three days journey north of Laliore. 




A^r).f397.|3gi^jj^(^ j^jj^^ except a fmall detachment in Delhi 
'" * to fecure it from further depredations. While 
he remained at Jimbo, he appointed Chizer vice- 
roy of Moultan, Lahore, and Dibalpoor, then 
proceeded, by the way of Cabul, to Samarcand. 

The city of Delhi had remained in anarchy for 
the fpace of two months after the departure of 
limur, when it was taken pofleflion of by the 
pretended emperor Nuferit, with only two thou- 
land horfe, from Merat. Two chiefs, Shab and 
Almafs, with their troops and ten elephants, join- 
ed him foon after from the fame place ; Nurferit 
fent immediately Shab, with his troops, towards 
Birren, againft Eckbal, who had there taken up 
his relidence. But Shab was attacked, in the 
night, upon his march, by the zemindars in the 
intercil of Eckbal, and flain ; Eckbal purfuing 
this advantage, took all the baggage of Shab's 

1 his fuccefs raifmg the reputation as well as 

fpirits of Eckbal, he, in a few days, thought him- 

felf in a condition to make an attempt upon the 

capital, which he did with fuccefs ; for Is^uferit, 

upon his approach, fled to Merat ; and Eckbal 

reiumcd the adminiftration of affairs in the ruined 

Eckbal re ^'^^Y' ^^'^ inhabitants, who had fled to different 

covcisDei- places, having ftill a nattiral hankering after their 

^^^- old -abode, began to aflemble again, and the place, 

in a ihort time, put on the appearance of popu- 

loufnefs, efpecially the quarter called the New 


Eckbal polTefTed himfelf foon of the country 
ifvoii"romhetween the two rivers, which, with a fmall dif- 
tiic emjnie. tricl round the city, was all that now held of the 
capital. The fubas had rendered themfelves in- 
dependant, in their own governments, during 
the misfortunes and confufion of the empire. 
Guzerat was feized upon by Azim j — Malava by 

J)elawir ; 

M A H M O O D III. 13 

Delawlr ; — Kinnoge, Oud, Kurrah, and Jlonpoor, a. d. 1398. 
by Chaja Jehan, commonly called the King of the ^^' 
Eaft; — Lahore, Dibalpoor, and Moultan, by 
Chizer ; — Sammana by Ghalil ; — Brana by 
Shumfe ; — Mahoba by Mahommed, the fon of 
Malleck, and grandfon of Ferofe ; and fo on 
with regard to the o'Lher provinces, the gover- 
nors afferting their own independence, and lliling 
themfelves Kings. 

In the month of the firfh Temmad, 8o^s, Eckbal -^d ^ca. 

- ^ Hi<T ^'^ ** 

marched with an army from Delhi towards Bi- Eckbai de*. 
ana, and defeated Shumfe ; whofe troops joining J^^^^^^^^^ 
him, he proceeded to Kittar, and after having 
levied a great contribution upon the territory of 
Narfmg, returned to Delhi. Intelligence was 
foon after brought him, that Chaja Jehan was 
dead at Jionpoor, and that his adopted fon, Klr- 
rinphil, having alTumed the title of the Emperor 
Mubarick, held that government. Eckbal kav~ 
ing gained over to his intereft Shumfe ; gover- 
nor of Biana, Mubarick and Bahadre of Mevvat, 
marched the fame year againll Kirrinphil. 

When he had reached the villacre of Pattiali, 
upon the banks of the Ganges, Rai Seri, and all 
the zemindars of that country, oppofed him ; 
but he defeated them, with great (laughter. Af- 
ter this viclory, he marched to Kinnoge, with an 
intention to proceed to Jionpoor, and from tlicnce 
to Bengal. Upon his march, however, he ^^''i^fj,'i','^/j^p^^ 
met by Kirrinphil, who oppoled his crofling the fgns upon 
Ganges fo etTectually, that, after repeated ctibrts -l^^'i"^"'- 
for two months, he was forced to abandon the 
undertaking, and to return to his own country. 
But the perfidious Eckbal, entertaining fome 
groundlefs fufpicions of Shumfe and Mubarick, 
afl'aflinated them both upon their way back to 
their own governments. 

The emperor Malimood, in tlie year 804, be- M^iimood 

ing difguftcd with Ziffcr, governor of Guzerat, fSi!^^" 


A D. 14c 

Hig. 804 

His folly, 

Madr gro- 
vernor of 



I- fled from him to Malava, and foon after, by the 
invitation of Eckbal, returned to Delhi. He, 
however, contented himfclf with a penfion, fear- 
ing that his interfering in the government would 
prove fatal to him. Advice being arrived, that 
Kirrinphil, or, as he ftilcd himfelf, Mubarick, 
was dead, at Jionpoor, Fxkbal, taking along 
with him the Emperor Mahm.ood, marched again 
towards Kinnoge ; upon which, Ibrahim, the bro- 
ther of Mubarick, who had mounted the throne, 
advanced with the troops of the Eaft to, meet 

When the armies were near one another, Mah- 
mood diiTaiisfied with his condition, and havins* 
the follv to imac!,ine that Ibrahim would acknow- 
ledge him king, and abdicate the throne of the 
Eaftern provinces for his fake, efcaped, one day, 
when he v/as out h^mting, to the army of Ibra- 
him. But when that prince learned the intenti- 
ons of Mahmood, he even with-held from him 
the necelTarics of life, and intimated to him to 
quit the camp. Mahmood returned, in great 
diureis, to Kinnoge, and was left, by Eckbal, in 
the government of that city ; the governor, who 
was formerly there on the part of Ibrahim, being 
driven out. Ibrahim, hov/ever, put up with this 
infult, and returned to Jionpoor, while Eckbal 
retired to Delhi. 

In the year 805, Eckbal marched againft Gua- 
lier, which had fallen into the hands of Narfmg, 
during the invafion of Tim.ur, and had now, up- 
on Narling's death, defccnded to his fon, Byram 
Deo. The fort being very ftrong, he could eifecT 
■ nothing againft it, but plundering the diftricl; 
around, he returned to Delhi. Brooking ill, 
however, this diiappointment, he, in a ihort 
time, marched a fecond time againft Gualier. 
Byram Deo fallied out of the place, and engaged 
Eckbal, but he v.-as fcon driven back into the 


M A H M O O D III. 15 

fort, the (lege of which Eckbal was again obliged '^ijl^-I'^"'* 
to raife ; and having plundered the country as 
before, he returned to Delhi. 

Eckbal, in the year 807, drew an army to- ''^^^'''''' 
wards Atava, and having, in feveral battles, de- 
feated the Hindoo chief of Sibbiri, the prince of 
Gualier, the raja of Jallar, and others, who pof- 
feffed that country, he raifed contributions there. 
He then turned his arms againft the nominal em- 
peror Mahmood, in Kinnoge. The Sultan flmt J^^^J^'"' 
himfelf up in the city, and Eckbal invefted it for 
fome time, but, not being able to reduce the 
place, he raifed the fiege, and marched towards 

Byram, a defcendant of one of the Turkiili ,\. 0.1404. 
flaves of the emperor Ferofe, had fixed himfelf ^'a-^o/- 
in Sammana, and, upon the approach of Eckbal, 
had fled to the hills of Eudhoor ; Eckbal 
clofely purfuing him, encamped at the fkirts ot 
the mountains. Aliui came to mediate matters, 
and a peace was foon patched up between the 
contending parties, and both joining their forces 
together, marched towards Moultan, againft 
Chizer. At i ilbundi they were oppoled by Rai 
Daood, Camel Mai, and Rai Hubbu, chiefs in 
the northern provinces, who were defeated and 
taken prifoncrs. The perfidious Eckbal, after 
this victory, without any apparent reafon, except 
a dehre of aggrandizing himfelf, feized upon 
Byram, and ordered him to be flay'd alive. The 
death of Byram did not remain long unrevenged. fiaj'^-a^'aiive. 
Eckbal arriving near Adjoudin, Chizer met him, 
with the troops of Moultan, Punjaab, and Di- 
balpoor, and, upon the nineteenth of the firft 
jcmmad, and two armies engaged ; Eckbal was 
ilain, and the world was happily rid of a perfidi- E'-khai 
cruel viilam. 
Dowlat Lodi, and Acliar, who commanded in snitan 
Delhi, being; informed of this event, called the M'-'"^^<;"^J 



-^•jP- J404. emperor Mahmood from Kinnoge. Mahmood, 
coming with a fmall retinue to Delhi, realTumed 
the throne ; but, laying afide any further efforts 
to reduce Moultan, he fent Dowlat with an army 
againft Byram, who, upon the death of the former 
Byram, pofTeffed himfelf of Sammana. The em- 
Fiies from pcror himfelf returned back, in the mean time, 
Purfued^b ^^ Kinnogc ; Ibrahim marched againft him, and, 
Sultan after fome fkirmiflies, obliged him to retreat to 
Ibrahim, j^^i^^i ry^^ Sultau's fpiritlcfs behaviour loft him 
the affections of his troops, and they accordingly, 
with one confent, difperfed themfelves. Ibrahim 
having received intelligence of this defertion, 
croffed the Ganges, and marched towards Delhi, 
with great expedition. When he had reached 
the banks of the Jumna, he heard that Azim of 
Guzerat, had defeated and taken Alip, Suba of 
Mindu, and the country of Malava, and was 
then upon his march towards Jionpoor. Upon 
which he immediately retreated, to cover the ca- 
pital of his dominions. 
^ „ , In the month of Ri^ib, 810, Dowlat Lodi and 

A. D. 1406. o ' ' 

Hig.809. Byram came to battle near Sammana. Byram 
defeaTed ^"^^^ defeated, and furrendered himfelf to Dowlat ; 
Ly Lodi. but before the latter had enjoyed any fruits of 
his victory, he was himfelf beat back to Delhi, 
by Chizer. Mahmood, in the following year, 
marched againft Keiwan, who, upon the part of 
Chizer, commanded the fort of Firofa. The 
emperor, after levying contributions, returned ; 
and Chizer, upon the advice of thefe tranfaclions, 
marched againft Delhi, and befieged Mahmood, 

The empe- , o . , ' . ^ ,. • • • 

ror befieged who was neither a warrior nor a politician, in 
b" J'^°^*^*" that part of the city which is diftinguiftied by 
the name of the city of Firofe. But fortune, for 
this time, fupplied the want of abilities in Mah- 
mood, for Chizer being in want of forage and 
grain, was obliged to raife the ftege, and retire to 




Chizer, in the beginning of the year 814, re- a ^'413. 
turned by the way of Rhotuc, a country then in /^' 
the pofleflion of Sultan Mahmood, where Ecleriz [,^^^7 
and Mubariz, the governors of that country, de- j^^''^Tih°"^ 
cHning hoftilities, lubmitted to his pleafure. He 
plundered the town of Narnoul, and again ad- 
vanced to Delhi ; Mahmood fliut himfelf up in 
the old citadel of Seri, which Chizer immedi- 
ately befieged. Achtiar, who commanded in 
Firofeabad, feeing the affairs of Mahmood in a 
defperate fituation, joined himfelf to Chizer, and 
admitted him into the place. They then, with 
all their troops, took poffeffion of the country on 
the oppofite fide of the river, and prevented all 
fupplies from Mahmood. 

But that famine which they defigned for the 
Emperor and his adherents, recoiled upon them- 
felves ; for a screat drouQ;ht had occafioned a 
fcarcity of proviiions between the rivers, and m 
the neighbourhood of Delhi ; infomuch that Chi- 
zer was, a fecond time, forced to raife the fiege, 
and retire to Fatipoor Mahmood being deli v- But retires, 
ered from this imminent danger, took no pains 
to flrengthen himfelf againfl a future attack. He 
took the diverfion of hunting in the neighbour- 
hood of Keitul, where he was feized with a fever, 
and died in the month of Zecada ; and with him Mahmood 
the empire of Delhi fell from the race of the 
Turks, who were adopted Haves of the Emperor 
Mahommed Ghori, the fecond of that race of the 
princes of India, diftinguillied by the name ot 
the dynafty of Ghor. 

The difaftrous, interrupted, ard inglorious nb charar- 
reign of the weak Mahmood, lafted twenty years ' 
and two months. He was jult as unfit for the 
age in which lie lived, as he \vasunv;orthy of bet- 
ter times. God was angry with the people of 
Hindollan, and he gave them Mahmood, whofe 
only virtue' was, that his foily made him infenii- 

Vol. II. ' C ble, 



^•P-y^'ble, In a great mcafure, to thofe ftrokcs of for- 
'** * tune, \\ hich abilities much greater than his could 
not, perhaps, avert. The omrahs, foon after 
his death, elefted, in his ftead, Dowlat Lodi, 
a Patan by nation, and originally a private fecre- 
tary, who, after paiTing through various employs, 
was raifed by Mahmood to the dignity of Aziz 

Dowiat Mumalick *. 

ix'dEmpc- Deftitute of every pretenfion to the throne, by 

'"•■ fucceffion, Dowlat Lodi could not long be fup- 

ported upon it, by the few chiefs, v/ho owned 
allegiance to the court of Delhi. He was, how- 
ever, feated upon the imperial Mufnud, in the 
month of Mohirim of the 816 year of the Hige- 
rah. He began his reign, by ftriking the curren- 
cy in his own name, which is comm.only the 
firft acl of kings. Two chiefs of power and re- 
putation, Mallcck Ecleriz and Mubariz, who had 
been in the intcreft of Chlzer, abandoned that 
omrah and joined Lodi. A few days after his 
accefiion, he marched towards Kittar, and was 
met by Rai Narfmgh, and other zemindars of 
thofe diflricls, who acknowledged his title. Ar- 
riving at the town of Battiali, Mohabut, gover- 
nor of Budaoon, came to meet him. 

Advices, in the mean time, arrived, that Ibra- 
him, who ftiled himfelf Lmperor of the eaftern 
provinces, was belieging Kadir the fon of Mah- 
mood, in Calpee ; but as Lodi had not forces 
enoudi to march to his relief, he returned to 
Delhi to recruit his army. Chizer, who had 
been preparing' to invade the capital, advanced, 
in the month of Zihidge, with hxty thoufand 
iiorfe, and a third time in veiled the citadel of 
.Seri, v.'hither Dowlat Lodi hid retired. After a 
Is takciutndfiege of four months, he obliged Lodi, upon the 
SikcT."'^ 15th of the hrft RibbI, in the year 817, to fur- 

^ An officer fprnetbing firailar to our Secretary of Hate. 


M A H M O O D III. 19 

render himfelf and the citadel. The emperor was '"^^ ^^^_^ 
confined in the fort of Firofa, where he died foon, 
after a nominal reign of one year and three 

Difturbances in Perfia, and his ardent defire of ^'J^^ ° 
extending his conquefts to the extremities of Afia, 
on the north and weft, prevented Timur from 
retaining the conquefts he had made in India. The 
inferiority of the troops of the Patan empire to 
the Moguls convinced him, that he could, at any 
time, reduce India ; and he was therefore unwil- 
ling to leave any part of his veteran army to fe- 
cure the provinces he had feized. Timur, after 
his return from Hindoftan, fettled the affairs of 
Perfia, reduced Syria, Egypt, and the leafier Afia ; 
and, in the 805 of the Higera, defeated Bajazet, 
the Turkifti Emperor, in a great battle in the 
plains of Galatia. When he was meditating the 
conqueft of China, he died on his march into 
that country, in the 808 year of the Higera, and 
the 1405 of the Chriftian aera. His fon Sharoch 
fucceeded Timur, in his vaft empire, and v/as on 
the throne at the death of Dowlat Lodi. 



C H I Z E R. 

^fg.lVn^' '^r^ ^ ^ "^"^ accurate hiftorians of thofe times 
chizer ix:c- -fi- aflirm, that Chizcr was of the race of the 
ceed.c. Prophet, and confequently, what the Illamites 
^^ .J call a Seid. His father, Soliman, being a perfon 
of fome diflindion, became the adopted fon of 
Dowlat, a great omrah, and governor of the 
province of Moultan in the reign of Ferofe. 
Dowlat was, upon his death, fucceeded in his 
government by his own fon Malleck Shech ; and 
he foon dying, Soliman was appointed to that 
viceroyfhip, which defcended to Chizer from his 
father, Chizcr being defeated, as we have al- 
ready obferved, by Saring, and driven from his 
country, he waited upon Timur, after the con- 
qucft of Delhi, and, having gained his favor, was 
by him reinftated in his former government, with 
the addition of all the countries watered by the 
five rivers, commonly called Punjaab and Dibal- 
poor. This acceffion of ftrength enabled him to 
pave afterwards his vvay to the empire. 

Chizcr, upon his acceilion, conferred honours 
upon Melleck Joppa, and made him Vizier ; and 
raifed to dignities Rahim, the adopted fon of his 
father Soliman, with the government of Fat- 
tepoor and Moultan. He thus diftributed favors, 
Pors not o-overnments, and dignities among his other om~ 

ailiimc the *-' , , , , '=' rr i • • i • i 

name of raiis, but would not aiiume the imperial titles to 
i:mp<ior. Iiinifeif, holding forth, that he held the empire 
io hohi of for Timur : and ordered the coin to be ftruck in 
•iimiir. |->J3 i-^aiTic. The Chutba, during the life of Ti- 

C H I Z E R. 21 

mur, was read in that conqueror's name in the ^-^- '414 

mofqucs ; and after Timur had travelled the way *" 

of mortality, in that of the Emperor Sharoch his 

fon, mentioning the name of Chizer after him. 

He even fent fometimes.a tribute to Samarcand. 

This was, probably, good policy in Chizer, as he 

could govern his fellow omrahs, with lefs envy, 

in the name of the Tartar Prince, than if he was 

to alTume the name of King himfelf, to which he 

had not the lead fhadow of pretence. 

In the firft year of his government he fent Jop- s^^ibdues 
pa, with an army, towards Kittar, which he fub- '"*'^' 
dued, and drove Rai Narfmgh to the mountains ; 
but upon paying a tribute Rai Narfingh was again 
put in poffeffion of his country. Mohabut, Suba 
of Badoon, at the fame time came to meet Mal- 
leck, and promifed allegiance ; and from thence 
the vizier marched towards Koer, Kumbul, and 
Chidewar, and levied the revenues which were 
due for fome years before. After recovering Je!- 
lafar out of the hands of the Rajaputs of Chund- 
war, he marched to Atava, which he brought un- 
der fubjeclion, by changing the adminiilration ; 
and after thefe exploits returned to Delhi. 

In the month of the firll Jemmad of this year, 
a tribe of Turks, who were of the adherents of 
Byram, afl'affinating Malleck, governor of Sir- 
hind, took pollelTion of his country. Chizer fent 
Zirick, with a powerful army, againft them ; liie Turks 
and, upon his approach, the Turks croflcd the |;,i^,^^'si^ 
Suttuluz, and retreated to the hills. Zirick pur- 
fued them thither ; but thofe mountains being a 
continuation of thofe of Na'jracot, which were 
then poftefied by powerful zemindars, who ailif- 
ted the Turks, he could effect nothing material 
againil them j and, in the end, he was obliged to 

Intelligence was, in the year 8 1 9, received at chizei's 
Delhi, that Ahmud, who ftiled liimfelf king of J^^^lfAh- 



A.DI4I4- Guzerat, had advanced to Nagore. Chizer muf- 
'''■ '^" tering all his forces, marched againft him, but 
Ahmud declining battle, turned off towards Ma- 
lava. When Chizer had reached Hanir, Elias, 
governor of that beautiful city, which had been 
built by the Emperor Alia, came out to meet him, 
and was honorably received. The Emperor pro- 
ceeded from thence to Gualier, where he levied 
the tribute upon the raja, and then continued his 
march to Biana, taking tribute from Kerim, the 
lord of that country. He after thefe tranIac1:ions 
returned to Delhi. 

In the year 820, Tan, chief of thofe Turks 
who had afiailinated Malleck, lay at the head of 
a great army before Sirhind. Zirick, governor 
of Sammana, was immediately difpatched by 
Chizer, with a ftrong force, againft the Turk 
who beileged Sirhind, and he was once more dri- 
Turksagain ven back to his hills ; and a iealbnable relief was 
fiom^slr- accompliihed for the empire. Zirick having, in 
bind. purfuit of the enemy, reached the village of Pael, 
Tin confented to pay tribute, and gave him his 
fon as a hofcage, expelHng the murderers of Mal- 
leck. Upon this pacification he was left in polTef- 
fion of J'allender, and Zirick returned to Sam- 
mana, fending: the hoftao;e and contributions 
which he had raifed, to the royal prefence. 
Chizer in- The Empcror, in the year 821, fent his ml- 
vadesKit- ^[[iQj. againft Raja Narhngh. The vizier, with- 
out ending the war, plundered and laid wafte 
the province of Kittar, and returned to Budaoon. 
Croiiing then the river, he came to Atava, where 
he raifed contributions, and from thence return- 
ed to Delhio Chizer v/ent, in perfbn, againft 
the rebels of Kittar, and, upon his march, chaf- 
tifed the banditti of Schole. He crofted the Ra- 
hib, laid wafte the country of Simbol and Kittar, 
and, without coming to battle, returned to his 



H I Z E R. 23 

He continued at Delhi a few days, and then a. n. 14,9. 
moved towards Budaoon, crofTing the Ganges at ^'°- ^^'• 
Pattali. Mahabut being alarmed at his approach, 
fhut himfelf up in Budaoon, where the kino^ be- 
fieged him for fix months. In the courfe of the 
liege, Cawam, Achtiar Lodi, and all the old 
friends of the Emperor Mahmood, formed a con- 
fpiracy againfl the Ufe of Chizer. The Sultan dif- Difcoversa 
covering the plot, decamped from before Bu- ||I'; j.^';^"^'"^ 
daoon, and returned towards Delhi. He, on his 
way, prepared an entertainment, upon the 20th 
of the lirit Jemmad in 822, to which all the con- 
fpirators were invited, and the guards fetting 
fuddenly upon them, they were to a man afTalli- 

After the Sultan returned to Delhi, he was in- Animpof- 
formed, that an impoftor had appeared at Match- ^t' MTtch*- 
cwarrah, under the name of Sarins Chan, and^'-^"''''^- 
had, by that means, collected a great body of 
people together. The king ordered Maleck Lo- 
di, who, with the title of 111am Chan, was, at 
that time, governor of Sirhind, againfl him. 
The impoflor was defeated, driven to the hills, 
and purfued by the joint forces of Tan, governor 
of Jallender, of Zirick, governor of Sammana, 
and of Maleck, governor of the country between 
the rivers. The impoftor's army deferred him, 
each man fkulking as bell he could, and privately 
retiring to his abode. I'he imperial forces hav- 
ing no further fervice to do, feparated, and re- 
turned to their refpeclive (lations. But, in the 
year following, Saring, the impollor, iiiued again 
from his hills, and having made an alliance with 
Tan, governor of Jallender, they inveilcd the fort 
of Sirhind, and ravaged the country as far as 
Munfurepoor and Pael. The king fcnt a great 
army againfl them, who, giving them a total de- 
feat, drove them out of the kingdom. 



A. p. 1419- In the year 824, Chizer marched towards Mew- 
chhlr'T' ^^' taking and dcftroying the fort of Kotillah. The 
expedition vizier dying at that time, the vizarit was con- 
toMtwat. fcj-j-c^^ upon his fon. J'he Sultan turned from 
thence towards Gualier, where he raifed contri- 
butions, and then haftened to Attava, levying 
tribute on the fon of Rai Sibber, who then pof- 
feiTed that country. Falling fick during his pro- 
Dies, grefs, he returned to Delhi, where he died on the 
17th of the hnl Jemmad of this year. He reign- 
ed feven years, and a few months ; and his death 
was greatly lamented by the people, being ef- 
teemed a juft, generous, and benevolent prince, 
for that age. 
srate of Sharoch, the fon of Timur, fit on the Mogul 
throne, and ruled the vaft empire conquered by 
his father, with great ability, juftice and mode- 


M U B A R I C K. 

( ^-5 ) 

M U B A R I C K ir. 

HEN the Emperor Chizer had, by the ^-J^-M^'- 
violence of his diforder, loft all hopes of '"* ^'*" 
recovery, he, three days before he expired, ap- 
pointed his eldeft fon to fuccecd him in the empire. 
Accordingly, two days after the Sultan's death, 
Mubarick* afcended the throne, by the title of ^?'^^^j'^''^'j^^ 
the Supporter of Religion and father of the vic-d'uone. 
torious. The new emperor made the ufual ap- 
pointments, raifing Maleck Buddir, his coufin, 
to high honours ; and Maleck Rigib, to the go- 
vernment of Dibalpoor and Punjaab. 

In the month of the firft Temmad, he received J'^"';' .. 
advices, that Jifferit, the brother of Sheca the empiic 
Gicker, who had, the preceding year, defeated 
and taken Ali king of Caflimire, upon his return 
from an expedition againfi: Tatta, prefuming up- 
on his own power and valour, had taken a refo- 
lution to attempt the throne of Delhi. He, for 
this purpofe, invited into his fervice the famous 
Tan, who had fled to the mountains, and appoin- 
ted him captain general of his forces. He foon 
over-run the countries of Punjaab and Lahore, 
feized upon Zirick, governor of Jallender, by 
perfidious means, after which he took the place ; 
and immediately thereafter befieged Iflam, the 
imperial governor of Sirhind. 

The emperor Mubarick, though the folftitial '^"^:,, 
rains were then in their height, marched from a^^''»'''''n» 

* His titles were Moaz ul dien, Abul Fatte, Sultan Muba- 
«ck. Shaw. 

Delhi i 


^j^P- JJ^'-Delhi, and upon approach to Sirhind, Jiflerit 
raifed the fvege, and retreated to Ludhana. Zi- 
rick, at that place, found means to efcape from 
him, and join Mubarick. The emperor advanced 
towards Ludhana and Jiflerit, crofling the Suttu- 
luz, encamped on the oppofite bank ; having firft 
poffefTed himTelf of all the boats upon the river, 
which circumiLince obliged Mubarick to halt, till 
the water fhould fall at Kabulpoor, Jiflerit, in the 
mean time, being determined to oppofe his paf- 
fage. Upon the nth of Shuwal, Secunder the 
Vizier, Zirick, Mahmood Haflen, Maleck Callu, 
and other omrahs, according to the emperor's 
order, made a forced march, and forded the ri- 
ver, the king himfelf following them clofe to 
fupport them with the body of the army. Jif- 
ferit, by this means, was thrown into confufion, 
' and turned his face to flight. The Sultan kept 
clofe to his heels, flew, in the purfuit, a great 
many of the enemy, and took all their baggage. 

Jiflerit, after this defeat, took refuge in the 
mountains, in a very diftrefled condition. But 
Rai Biine of Jimmu, having directed the king's 
army to Bile, a ftrong fort into which Jiflerit 
had thrown himfelf, he fled to another place, but 
Mubaiick was purfued with great flaughter, and Mubarick, 
Lahl't ^^ *'^^ Mohirim of 825, direcTed his march to 
and lecuins Lahorc, Ordered the ruined palaces and fortifica- 
to Deiiu. x.\oi\s, to be repaired, and, appointing Haflen go- 
vernor, returned to Delhi. 
T'uTeritbe- Ji^'i^rit, colledlng his fcattered forces, took the 
lieg-si.a- field again, and inverted Lahore for five months, 
outVuccefs. '^^■^'^'^""^ fuccefs. He then raifed the fiege, retired 
to ("ailanore, and fell upon Rai Bimc, for hav- 
ing given afliflance to the king ; but the aclion, 
which enfued betv/een them, being undeciflve, 
Jiflerit went to the banks of the Bea, and began 
to recruit his army. \i\ the mean time, Malleck 


M U B A R I C K n. 27 

Secunder the vizier, who had been fcnt to fuc- An,,. 

^ I ^^».'. 1/121 

cour Lahore, joined by Malleck Rigib, governor Hig.gic. 
of Debalpoor, and by Iflam, governor of Sirhind, 
advanced towards JilTcrit, and obliged him to 
crofs the Ravi and Chinaab, and to take (lielter 
among the hiils. The vizier marched along the 
Ravi to Callanore ; and, upon the frontiers of 
Jimmu, Ria Bime joined him, and leading the 
imperial troops tlirough the hills, where the Gick- ['"^'''(^^jj/j.'' 
ers were concealed, fome thoufands of that un- m the 
happy people were put to the fword, and the "^^""'=""'- 
vizier returned to Lahore. 

Thefe fuccefTes prevailed upon the king to ap- 
point the vizier vice-roy of Lahore, and to recal 
HaiTen. But, in the year eight hundred and twen- 
ty fix, the Sultan deprived him of the vizarit, and 
conferred it upon Surur ul Muluck, whom he 
difpatched againft the Hindoos of Kittar. 1 he 
emperor him.felf followed that general with a grea- 
ter army. The inhabitants of Kittar were fob- . ,_ 
dued, and a great tribute exacted from thero. invades ^ 
Mubarick having fettled affairs with r-iahabut,^"'"^'- 
governor of Budaoon, commanded him to march 
againft the tribe of Toor, whom that general plun- 
dered, and took prifoncrs to a man. The Raja 
of Attava having, at this time, withdrawn him- 
felf from the royal camp, Mubarick purfuedhim to 
that place, and beficged him there. But terms 
of peace were fettled between them, and the Raja's 
fon o-iven as a hoff.igre for his father's future Q-ood 
behaviour. The King, after thefe tranfactions, re- 
turned to Delhi. 

Haffen was, about this time, appointed pay- 
mafter and commander in chief of the troops. Jif 
ferit, unconquercd by his misfc)rtunc3,raifcd again 
his head, and, having defeated and llain Rai Bime, 
by a frefh acquifiiion of reputation and wealth, 
raifed an army of Gickers, with which he again 
attempted the conqucft of Delhi. Having rava- 


A.D. M--:gcd. the countries of Lahore and Dcbalpoor, lie 
'^''^''■' collected together very conftderable plunder, but 
when Secunder, the late vizier, advanced againft 
him, he did not chufe to rifque a battle, and there- 
tore retired, with his fpoils, to the hills, where 
he bulled himfelf in recruiting his army for 
another attempt. 

In the mean time, Jiflerit made an alliance with 
Amir Ali, a Mogul Omrah, a fubjeclof the empe- 
ror Sharoch, the fon of the great Timur, who 
refided at Cabul. He perfuaded Amir Ali to 
make an incurfion into the territories of Seiftan, 
Bicker, and Tatta, to draw off the King's attenti- 
on from Delhi, and fo to facilitate his own fchemes. 
Alia, governor of Moultan, dying about this time, 
and the news of Amir All's incurfion being noifed 
abroad, the King, without delay, fent Haflen, with 
the army, towards Moultan. The raja of Ma- 
lava had, in the fame year, inverted Gualier, 
which obliged the emperor Mubarick to raife all 
the forces of thofe provinces, and to march againft 
him ; levying, on his way, contributions upon 
Amir, prince of Biana. 

The raja of Atava, upon the approach of Mu- 

Defeateii hy barick, croiTcd the Chumbul, and fat down on the 
oppoiite Dank. Mubarick havmg, m the mam 
tinse, found another ford, croffed the river with 
great expedition, attacked him in his camp, took 
many prifoners, and a part of the enemy's bag- 
gage. The prii'oners being found to be Mahom- 

Siiesfor maedans, were difmiiled by the king. The raja 

i>-ace. thought it then advifeable to compound ail diffe- 
rences, by paying down a fum of money to the 
.Sultan ; upon which he was permitted to with- 
draw towards Dhar. Mubarick having tarried 
for fome time in that place, to levy contributions 
upon the neighbouring Zemindars, returned, in 
the month of Rigib, eight hundred and twenty 
feven, to Delhi. 


M U B A R I C K 11. 29 

The Sultan, next year, made a motion towards a. d 1425. 
Kittar, where the Indian prince Nariingh came to "'g- 8-7- 
the banks of the Ganges, to pay his refpcdsto him; 
but as he did not pay the revenues of his territory, 
for three years back, he was confined for a few 
days, till his accounts were fettled, and then he 
wasreleafed. The Sultan croffed the river, chaftifed. 
fome riotous Zemindars, and returned to Del^^i- Mubarick 
He did not remain there many days, before he reduces 
drew his army towards Mewat, from whence he ^^*=^^"- 
drove the rebels to the hills, and ravaging their and difmir- 
country returned to Delhi; and permitting his f-^^'s^rmy 
omrahs to retire to their jagiers, he gave hinifelf 
up to pleafure and feftivity. 

But the inhabitants of Mewat, rendered more Diiurban- 
defperate and diftrefled by the king's bad policy, "j^j"^, 
in ruining their country, were obliged to prey up- 
on their neighbours, and to infeft all the adja- 
cent countries. This circumflance obliged the 
king, in the year eight hundred and twenty nine, 
to collect again an army to fubdue them- Upon 
his approach, Jillu and Kiddu, the grandfons of 
Badhader Nahir, retreated to the hills of Alwar, 
where they defended the paiTes with great brave- 
ry. Being, at length, reduced to great diitrefs, 
they furrendered themfclves, were imiprifoned, 
their country was again ravaged, and the Sultan 
returned to Delhi. 

But the diftreribs of the people of Mewat did ., 
not render them peaceable fubjcfts. The king, gab re- 
after a recefs of four months only, was again ob- '^"'^"■* 
liged to turn liis arms againft them, and to carry 
fire and fword throuo^h their whole country, lie 
proceeded as far as Biana, where, after the death 
of Amir, his brother ivjahommed fhut himfclf up 
in the city, which he held out againlf Mubarlck iix- 
teen days ; but, upon the delertion of the grcatell 
part of the garrifon, he furrendered at difcret ion, and 
was, with a rope about his neck, brought into the 

pre fence 


^i^^'J^^' pre fence, 'ihe Sultan delivered the city to the care 
of Mackbu!, ;ind fcnt Mahommed and his family to 
Delhi. To M illeck Topha he gave in charge the 
town of Sikri, known now by the name of Fatti- 
poor, marched to Gualier, raifed contributions 
there, and returned to Delhi. He removed, at 
that time, Haflcn from the government of 
Moultan to that of Firofa, beftowing the former 
upon Malleck Rigib. 
iritdef- During thefe tranfaclions Mahommed found 

'^vj"*"r means to efcape with his family, to Mcwat, and 
turbanccs. collcciing a conlidcrable force, took the city of 
Biana, in the abfence of Mackbul, on an expediti- 
on to INIahaban. The Sultan difpatched Mubariz, 
whom he appointed to that governm.ent, to drive 
IMahommed from thence. Mahommed retired 
Fhesto^ui- jj-jj-Q ^\^Q f-Qj-j. vvhen Mubariz took pofleflion of the 

lan iDra- ' , , » 

hini. country. After a few days fiege he left the de- 

fence oftheplace to fome tru fty friends, and iffuing 
out himfelf, efcaped to Ibrahim, king of the Eaft, 
Vv'ho was advancing with an army againft Calpee. 
Kadir Shaw, governor of Galpee, upon this 
occafion fent expreffes to Delhi, for fuccours. Mu- 
barickhaftenedto his relief, and having reached A- 
terawli, detached Haffen,wi!:h ten thoufandhorfe, 
aeainil Muchtifs Chan, the brother of Ibrahim, 
who was in motion with a coniiderable force to 
reduce Attava. This detachment, however, en- 
countering Muchtifs, drove him back to his bro- 
ther, and Haffen returned to the army. Ibrahim 
advanced along the banks of the Black River to 
Burhanabad, from thence to the viilag-cof Raberi, 
and fo on to the banks of Kinhire, where he en- 
camped. Mubarick, in the mean tim.e, crolling 
th€ Jumna, near Chundwar, encamped within ten 
miles of the enemy. Both arm.ies remained in 
their trenches for the fpace of twenty two days, 
durinf*- which time, flight fkirmiihes daily happen- 
ed between them. Ibrahim, however, upon the 
ieventh of the fecond Jcmmad, marched out of his 


M U B A R I C K II. 


camp, and offered battle to the king. Mubarick, a d. U27. 
though he decHned to rcfcuc his own perfun, or- itrahim^ad- 
dered out his army to oppofe Ibrahim, under the nances 

dr I • • • o • 1 1 o !• 1 I-. • 1 agaii'ft Mu- 

or his vizier, baid ul Saait, and beid il^i^^ 


The adion commenced, with great fury, about The armies 
noon, and night parted the combatants ; both ar- A^Trawn 
mies retreating to their refpeciive camps, ibra- iia""=- 
him, however, marching off, in the morning, to- 
wards Jionpoor, v.'hile Mubarick, contenting him- 
fclf with the advantage he had gained, returned 
towards Gualier, croffmg the river at Kitgaut. 
Having received there the uiual prefents, he tur- 
ned off towards Biana, into which Mahommedhad 
again thrown him f elf, aiter the battle. He made 
a "-allant defence, but was asrain obligred to capitu- 
late, and had leave to go whitherlbever he pleafed. 
Kaffcn . was left in the government of that pro- 
vince ; and on the fifteenth of Shaban, eight hun- 
dred and thirtv-one, Mubarick returned victorious 
and triumphant to Delhi. He there felzed Maileck 
Mewati, svho had joined himfelf to Ibrahim, and 
ordered him. to be put to death. 

In the month of Zicada the Sultan received JJ^'^""'' *',';- 
advices, that JiiTcrit had fat down before Calianore, nof" 
after havino: defeated Secunder, the late vizier, 
who had marched aafainft him, and driven him 
back to Lahore. Mubarick fent an order to Zi- 
rick,governor of Samana, andiflam,who comman- 
ded at Sirhind, tojoin Secunder ; but, before their 
arrival, he had marched towards Calianore, and 
defeated jifferit in iiis turn ; depriving him of alljj ^eCcztci 
the plunder he had actpaired in that province. 

Mubarick marched to Mewat, in the month of ^^'^''^'aritk 
Mohirrim, eiglit hundred and thirty-two, and en-'l^.'/g^.^. 
tirely fubdued that country, obliging the inhabi- 
tants to pay a regular tribute. In the mean time 
advices arrived at Dellii, that Maileck Rigib was 
dead, upon v/hich the king conferred the title of 
AmcidalMuluchupon llailcn, who had fettled the 



A.D. T429.of Biann, :ind fcr him governor to Moultan. The 
^^' ^^' Sultan, in the inlknving year, proceeded to Guali- 
er, which countiy he ravaged and carried off'fome 
thoufands of the poor inhabitants into llavery. 
Turning then his forces towards Raberi, he wreft- 
cdthat country from the fonof HafTen, gave it to 
Malleck Humza, and afterwards returned to 
Delhi. Seid Allum dying by the way, his eldeft 
fon had the title of Seid Chan conferred upon him, 
and the youngeft that of Suja ul Muluck, toge- 
ther with all the wealth of their father, which was 
very great ; though, according to the cudom of 
Hindoftan, it would become the property of the 

Thefe favours, however, did not fecure the faith 
of the fons of Seid Allum, for they fent Fowlad, a 
Turkifh fiave, to Tibberhind, to ftir up privately, 
ir-fT^titude jj^ thclr uamc, an infurredlion there. They had 
ofsid i'ormed hopes, it is faid, that they might be fent 
AUiini. with aforcetofupprefs the rebellion, anclfohave an 
opportunity to join the rebels. But the plot was 
difcovered, and both imprifoned ; while, in the 
mean time, Eufuph and Ibbu were fent to Tibber- 
hind to confifcatc their eftates, and fupprefs the 
difturbance raifed by Fowlad. 

Fowlad entering into a negotiation, lulled into 

a negligent fecurity the imperial generals, and fall- 

j^.i^gjr^jj^j yingone night from his fort,furprized their camp. 

Fovviud. He was, however, fo warmly received by the king's 

troops, that he was foon driven back. This did 

not deter him from makingr another effort next 

nlg^ht, at the fame time ir>akin!T a irreat difcharo^e 

of arrillery from the works, which llruck a panic 

into the imperial troops, who took immediately 

to their heels, leaving their camp ftanding, witti 

all their baggage. Mubarick, upon receiving advice 

of that difaiter, was conllrained to march towards 

Tvi'ih^irick Tibberhind in perfon. The rebel dally gathered 

again'fthiaifticngth, and^ the kiiig was obliged to call Amcid 


M U B A R I C K 11. 3 3 

111 Muluck from Moultan, and feveral other gro- '^'^;. ^- ?,4=9- 
. . , • — 1 . .' 1 *^ ti\g. 63:. 

rernors, to join J\im. livery thing tor the expe- 
dition being prepared, Mubarick Itopped at Sur- 
futti, and difpatched the greateft part of liis army 
to inveft the fort of Tibberhind. Fowlad fent a 
meflage to the imperial camp, importing that he 
had great confidence in Ameid ul Muiuck, and 
faid, that if he fhould be fent with promife of 
pardon, he himfelf would deliver up the place. 
The emperor accordingly fent Ameid to Tibber- 
hind, where Fowlad met him a little without the 
gate. Having accordingly received affu ranees of 
pardon, he promifed to give up the place the next 
day. But one of Ameid's attendants, who was of 
Fowlad's acquaintance, told him privately, that 
though Ameid was a man of ftrict honour, and 
would certainly adhere to his promife, yet the 
king might not be fo tender of preferving his, and 
that it was very probable he might bring Fowlad 
topuv.ifliment. Fowlad, after the conference was 
over, revolved this intimation in his own mind, 
and repented feriouily of his promife ; and there- 
fore, as he had both money and provifions, he 
determined to hold out tothe laft. 

Be lie""'? 

The king feeing that the taking of the place him/' 
would be a work of time, and that there would 
be no occafion for fo sreat an armv to befiege it, 
he permitted Ameid ul Muluck to return with 
the forces of Moultan, and leaving lHam Lodi, 
Cummal, and Firofe, to carry on the fiege, he 
iiimfeif retired to Delhi. Fowlad, having held 
out fijc months, was greatly diftrcifcd, and 
faw no means of extricating himfelf, but by an 
alliance with Ali, governor of Cabul, on the 
part of Sharoch, the I\logul emperor. He 
fent, for this purpofe, meffengers to luni, with 
large promifes iov his afTiifancc. As Mubarick 
had taken no pains to keep upon good terms 
with the Mogul, the latter left Cabul, and, 
Vol. II. D being 


A. D. 14:9- being in his way joined by the Gickars, crofTed 
^'^■''-3- ihi; ]3ca, and ravaged the country of thofe om- 
rahs who carried on the fiege : and advancing to- 
wards TibberhinJ, the imperial army decamped 
and fled. Fowlad, for this iignal fervice, gave to 
Ali two lacks of rupees, and other prefents, and 
having given to him all the charge of his fa- 
mily, exerted himfeif in repairing the fortificati- 
Mopuis r:>- ^^''' ^^^ laying in provifions and ammunition. 
vage the Ali, crofiing the Suttuluz, committed cruel de- 
c;.untry ; p-,-edations upoH the unhappy country, ac- 
quiring of plunder twenty times the value 
of the fubfidy which he had received from 
Fov. lad. Advancing then to Lahore, he raifed 
tlie uiiial tribute from Secunder, then re- 
turned towards Dibalpoor, defolating the 
country v/herever he went ; iniomuch that 
forty thoufand Hindoos were computed to have 
been mailacred, befides a great number carried 
away prifoners. Ameid ul Muluck polled himleif 
to oppofe Ah, at the town of 1 ilbanna,/but he 
gave him the flip, and went to Chitpoor, when 
Ameid received the king's orders to retreat to 
fave Moultan. The flight of the imperial army 
encouraged the enemy to follow them beyond 
the Ravi, and to lay wafte the country, to within 
ten crores of Moultain. Ali defeated there Iflam 
Lodi, who had been lefc to ftop his progreis. 

From thence the Moi^uls advanced to Chei- 
rabad, within fix miles of the city, and the 
next dav, which was the fourth of Ramzan, 
they made, an afiauit upon the place, but were bea- 
ten back. They continued, however, from their 
camp to make daily excurlions towards the city, 
putting all witom they could meet to the fword. 
Tiie Kincr beins: informed of thefe tranfa«^ions, 
fent Fatte Chan and Mubarick, with other om- 
rahs of diflinclion, to fuccour Ameid ; who, upon 
being joined by all thefe with their forces, went 
©ut, and gflered battle to Ali. All did not decHnc 


M U B A R I C K II. 35 

it, and a furious conflisfl enfucd, in the begin- a. p. '430- 
riing of which the Moguls gained Tome ad van- . '^' ''^" 
tage. However, upon the death of Fatte Chan,aieover- 
the gale of fortune changed, and blew with the -'^' "'"'"• 
ftandards of Hindoftan. AH, at one ftroke, 
played away all his gains, efcaping, with a few 
attendants only, to Cabul, his whole army being 
either killed or drowned in the Gelum, in their 
precipitate flight. 

Ameid, having purfued the runaways to Shin- 
nore, returned victorious to -Moultan, and the 
omrahs, who had fuccoured him, repaired, by 
the king's orders, to Delhi ; and loon after, 
Mubarick, jealous of the fuccefs of Ameid, cal- 
led him alfo to court. Jiflerit took advantage of J^'^^^'f '^^- 
his abfence, croffed the Gelum, Ravi, and Bea, emphc.^'^ 
and fought Secunder, the late vizier, near Jillen- 
der, defeated and took him prifoncr, with all his 
treafure, and baggage. He forthwith advanced BcHcges 
and befieged Lahore. Ali, at the fame time, at ^^*^='''^- 
the infligation of JiiTerit, made another incurfion 
towards Moultan, and, having taken Tiibunna, 
by capitulation, he broke his word, plundered 
the place, maffacred all the men able to bear 
arms, and carried their wives and children into 
captivity, laying the town; in ruins. 

Fowlad, taking alfo advantage of thefe diftur- 
bances, marched out of Tibberhind, and invad- 
incr the countrv of Rai Firofe, defeated him. 
Mubarick thought it now high lime to march Mubaiick 
from Delhi. He, accordingly, upon the firfl of |:|.''^^ '''* 
the firil Jemmad, eight hundred and thirty-five, 
took the route of Lahore, appointing his vizier, 
governor of that place, and to command in the 
van of his arihy. The vizier arriving at Sam- 
niana, Jifferit rai fed the fiege of Lahore, and re- 
treated to the hills. Ali haffened back to Cabul, 
and Fowlad again flmt himfelf up in Tibberhind. 
The Sultan, upon this, took the government of 

D 2 Lahore 


A. p. r4,-,z. Lahore from ti;c vizier, and gave it to Nuferit ; 
*^' ^ ' then returning, encamped near Panniput, on the 
banks of the jumna, fending Ameid ul Muluck 
with a part of the army to fupprefs fome infur- 
redions about Gualier, and the vizier to beficgc 
Tibberhind ; he himfelf returning to Delhi. 
In the month of Zihidgc, Jiilerit advanced 
mlfchrf' again to Lahore, and commenced hoililities againil 
so:i;nii jif- Nuferit, which obliged the king, in the year eight 
^''"^" Imndred and thirty-fix, to march from Delhi as 
far as Sammana. Intelligence was brought to 
him in that place of the death of his mother, 
Muchduma Jehan, and he immediately returned, 
with a few attendants ; and, after performing 
the funeral obfequies, went back to his army. 
After his arrival in the camp, he fuddenly chang- 
ed his refclution, and turned back towards 
Pvlewat, conferring the government of Lahore 
upon Malleck Lodi, who prom.ifsd to expel ji,f- 
ferit. But Jiilerit, upon hearing of the king^s 
return, was joined by a great body of Gickers, 
who imagined that his affairs bore a better afpect^ 
fo that he was in a condition to receive Lodi, 
whom he defeated. 

The king leaving received the ne\ts of this 
overthrow, and alio that Ali, governor of Cabul, 
was coming towards Tibberhind, took Jigain the 
rout of Puniaab, fendinc; before hirn Ameid ul 
Muluck to reinforce the omrahs who were be- 
fieging Tibberhind. Upon his approach, Ali, 
fii ^''!'" who flood in awe of him, laid afide his intentions 
of coming to Tibberhmd, and turned away, by 
forced marches, towards Lahore, which he fur- 
prized, and began a horrid fcene of maifacre and 
depredation. But hearing that the king had 
reached Tilbundi, Ali left a garrifon of two thou- 
fand men in the place, and retreated towards Ca- 
bul, ravaging the country in his way, and leaving 


M U B A R r C K ir. 


his nephew, Muziffer, in the fort oi: Shin- '^•D. 14.32. 
nore. " ' 

The king a fecond time raifcd Secunder, who had 
ranfomed himfelf, to the government of Lahore, 
Dibalpoor, and Jillender, upon which he advan- 
ced and laid fiege to the city. He took it by ca- 
pitulation, and permitted the garrifon to retire to 
Cabul. He immediately crofled the Ravi, near 
Tilbundi, and invefted Shinnore. Muziffer held 
up in that place the ftandard of oppofition for a 
whole month, but being hard prefled, he capitu-^hinnoic 
lated, by giving his daughter to the king, and '^^i'^'^"^'^'- 
paying a great ranfom for his liberty. Mubarick 
left a great part of iiis army at Dibalpoor, and, "" 
with a felecl body, marched himfelf to Moultan 
to vifit the tombs of the faints, from wlience he 
returned in a few days to his camp. He, at this 
time, diverted Secunder of his government of La- 
bore, gave it to Ameid ul Muluck, and returned 
with great expedition to Delhi. Being jealous of 
the power of the vizier, he joined Kaminal with 
him in the vizarit ; and, the latter being efteemed 
a man of fuperior abilities, he foon gained the fa- 
vour of his fovereign and the people. 

The vizier, upon thi?, became diffatisfied, and ■'^ cf^'pi'a- 
began to project treafon. Having gained over a^ai''ift"'i,c 
Sidarin and Sidpal, two great Hindoo chiefs of^uha-.i. 
the tribe of Kittrie, Miran Sidder, deputy to the 
chief fecretary Sammud, lord of the private 
chambers, and others, they watched an opportu- 
nity to affaffinate the king. About this time, 
T'.lubarick had ordered a city to be founded upon 
the banks of the Jumna, calling it the city of 
Mubarick, and made an cxcurlion towards Tib- 
berhind, as it were to take the divcrfion of hunt- 
ing. Having, on the way, received aciviccs that 
Tibbcrhind was taken, and being prefented with 
the head of Fowlad, he returned to the new city. 
He there received intelligence that war was carry- 


A-P- 1433 inrr on between Ibrahim, kinj; of the Kaftern pro- 

^'='^^"- vi'nces, and IIoQiung of Malavi, hear Calpie, 

which was a very agreeable piece of news to him, 

as he fought an opportunity to expel Ibrahim from 

his dominions. He therefore gave orders to muf- 

ter his army, and pitching his tent without the 

city, delayed a few days in regulating and col- 

Ie.i:ine his forces, durinsf which time he continu- 

ed to vifit the new works without fear of danger, 

having never given offence to his nobility, eji.cept 

in chang^ino: or turnino; them out of their govern- 

mcnts when they miil^ehaved. 

He is aQf- Upon thc ninth of the month of Rigib, in the 

liuated. year eiglit hundred and thirty-feven, according to 

ills cu/tom, he went to worfiiip at a new rnolque 

which he had built in the new city, with only a 

few attendants. The confpirators ruflied in, in 

armour, with drawn fwords upon him, and 

baiely aiTaflinated him. The vizier having pre- 

vioully fettled matters v.ith r^Iahommed, one of 

the grandfons of the emperor Chizer, raifed that 

prince to the throne. 

■ Mubarick reigned thirteen years, three months, 
and fixteen days. He was efteemed a man of parts, 
juil and benevolent, and, though no great war- 
rior, had he lived in a virtuous age, there is no 
doubt but he poiTeiTed talents which might render 
him worthy of a throne. 
?!ntc of Little alteration happened in the north of Afia, 

Afia. during the reign of Mubarick. Sharoch fat on 

the tin-one of the Moguls, and feemed more in- 
clined to rule his dominions with jufnce and cqui^ 
ty, than to extend tlieir limits towards India. 

His charar- 

M A H O M- 

( 39 ) 

M A H O M M E D V 

C C O R D I N G to the cuftom of the world, ad. hvv 
which cannot fubfift without rule, the fame '^' '" 
day that Mubarick was fent to eternity, Mahom- ^^uiom- 
med * was eibibliflied upon the throne- llie un- mcd mounts 
grateful aliaflin, tne vizier, received the title ot 
lord of the world, -and fcized upon the king's 
treafure, regalia, and other eiTecfs, difcharging 
iill the old onirahs from ofiice, and appointing 
new ones, who might, in time, fervc his ambi- 
tious views. 

Kumtnal, the deputy vizier, and other omrahs, -j-hs om- 
who were in the camp, having confulted among 'ahsdifgnifc 
themfelves, upon hearing of the king's death, cJuv^ui 
refolvcd, rather than kindle a civil war in ihe 
country, to bear with the times, to pay allegi- 
ance to the new king, and to wait a more proper 
and more certain opportunity of taking revenge 
upon the confpirators. Ihey came into the city 
and paid their compliments to Mahommed. The ^i,^, ^;^;£,.-5 
firft preferments, which the vizier gave away to tyranny, 
facilitate his future fchemes, was to appoint the 
two Hindoo confpirators to the governments of 
}5iana, Amrohi, Narnoul, and Coram ; and Mi- 
ran Sidder, dignified with a title, was prefented 
with a very confiderable jagier. The fon of Scid 
Salem was dignified with the title of Chan Azim, 

* His titles at length arc, Sultan Mahommed Shaw, the fon 
of Fcrid, the fon of the emperor Ciiizer. 




A. p. r433. andthcgovernments of fcvera! countries were con- 
'^' ^'' f'erred upon him. But the omrahs, and depen- 
dants of Mubarick, were, by tricks and falfe ac- 
cufuions, killed, iinprifoned, baniflied, robbed, 
or turned out of oflice. 

A (lave of 'lie vizier, whofe name was P.ana, 
was fent colleclor of the revenues to Biana, but 
Eufoph Lodi fought and flew him near that place. 
At the fame time, fome of the omrahs of the cm- 

1 lie c\n ~ 

sa'.s life ill pcrors Mubarick and Chizcr, who law that there 
was a dehgn on foot to deprive them of their ja- 
giers, particularly Chimun, governor of Bu- 
daoon, Malleck Lodi, who commanded at Sim- 
bol, Ali of Guzerat, and Amir, the Turk, erec- 
ted the fpear of rebellion, upon which the vizier, 
deceived by the behaviour of his deputy Kummal, 
gave him the command of the army, and fent Si- 
darin, and his own fon Eufoph, along with him, 
to (upprefs the rebels. But when they came to 
the village of Birren, Kummal intended to take 
revenge on Sidarin and Eufoph, for the murder 
of the king. He therefore acquainted Malleck 
Lodi of his refolutions, who, for that reaibn, 
made no motion towards them. This defign be- 
ing, however, difcovered to the vizier, he fent 
rlofhiar, his own Have, with a great army, un- 
der pretence of fuccours, with private inftructions 
to prevent the eifecls of the plot. Kummal had, 
at Ahare, joined his forces v^/ith Malleck Lodi, 
before the reinforcement, under the vizier's flave, 
arrived. Hoihiar, hearing of this junction, thought 
that there was no fafety fbr him, and he, there^ 
fore fled, with Eufoph and Sidarin, to Delhi. 
Kummal immediately fent to call the difaflecled 
omrahs, who joined him without delay, fo that, 
upon the laff of Ramzan, he moved, with a great 
armv, towards Delhi. 


M A II O U M E D V. 4t 

The vizier fhut himfclf up in the citadel oFa.d.mso- 
Seri, which he held out three months ; but as the -r^eVizier 
party ot" Kummal daily chained ilrcnsfth and re-b;fiegedin 
putation, he was driven to great diftrei^. The ^ "" 
king, perceiving that his own affairs would be 
ruined, if he fhould adhere to the vizier, endea- 
voured to conciliate matters v/ith the befiegers, 
and. at the fame time, fought an opportunity of 
making his efcape, or cutting off the vizier. The 
vizier difcovering this plot, defigned to be before- 
hand with the king ; accordingly, upon the eighth 
of Mohirrini, witii thefons of ^liran Sidder, and 
with fomc of his own adherents, he broke into 
the king's apartment. But the emperor, having His conn- 
fufpecled him of fuch intentions, had privately a^'^''^'"'" 
guard at hand, Wivo, on a fignal given, rufhed 
upon the confpirators. They immediately betook 
themfelves to flight; but the vizier was cut to is ih;,-!.. 
pieces, as he was rufhing out at the door, and 
thus met the fate he defiQ:ned for his lord. The 
fons of Miran Sidder, and the reft of the affai- 
fms, were taken, and put to death, while Holhiar 
and one Mubarick, v^ho were parties concerned, 
v/ere publickly executed. Tlie Kit tries, and 
other adherents of the vizier, afraid fbr them- 
felves, rofe up in arms. The king was obliged 
to fhut himfelf up, ordering the Bagdat-gatc to 
be thrown open to the befiegers, v.ho, rufh- 
ing in accordingly, began a dreadful mafficre 
among the rebels, till ihcy entirely fubducd 
them. Such as remained alive were bound and 
put to death at the tomb of the emperor I\Iu- 

Kummal, and the other oinrahs, fworc allcgi-The''in- 
ance the next day, for the iecond time, to Ma- li^li'^l^'^'J,'' 
honimed ; the vizarit was conferred on Kummal, -" •y'»^•»l^,. 
and Chinmn was dinnificd with the tit'leoi" Ghazi 
Malleck, Vv'ith ajagier. The other omrahs were 



Av^I'^o^'" con firmed in their former ofHces, eovernments, 

Hy. 8)8. , n -TTTl ^ t , ^ 

and citates. When matters were completely fet- 
The Sultan tlcd at Delhi, the king, by the advice of his 
^Tards^^'counfeliors, made a campaign towards Moultan, 
Mouiun. i^nd encamping near the city of Mubarick, gave 
orders to draw together his army from all the 
provinces. Many of the chiefs, being intimida- 
ted, delayed to repair to the imperial ftandard till 
Amcid III Miiluck arrived from Moultan, adding 
})Ower to enforce the royal commands, by a nu- 
merous army, which he brought with him. All 
the other provincial omrahs haftened to the camp, 
and were honoured with drelTes, and other marks 
of favour and diltinftion. The king moved to- 
wards Moultan, to make a parade with his army, 
t and, having vihted the tombs of the faints, re- 

turned to his capital. 
and to Sam- ^^ the year eight hundred and forty, he 
niana. marchcd towards Sammana, and detached a part 
of his army againll JiiTerit, the Gicker, who was 
niifing difturbances. The country of Jifferit was 
plundered, and the king returned to Delhi, where 
he gave himfelf up entirely to pleafure, neglecting 
all the cares and necelTary affairs of government. 
The accounts of the king's luxurious indolence 
foon aiiefted the ftate. Diffatisfadion began to 
appear firft in Moultan, where a tribe of Patans, 
called Linga, rofe in rebellion. At the fame 
time, Beloli Lodi, who, after the death of his 
uncle, Iflam, became governor of Sirhind, with- 
out any orders, poffelled himfelf of the city and 
diilrids of Lahore and Debalpoor, with all the 
country back to Panniput. 
Beioii c!e- ^^^^ Sultan rccciving intelligence of this revolt, 
feats the fcnt his wholc army againfl him, who drove him 
l"my!'^^ back to the hills. In' the retreat m.any chiefs of 
diftinclion were put to the fword ; but Beloli re- 
cruited his army, and, when the imperial forces 


M A H O M M E D V. 43 

were withdrawn, he again pofielTed himfelf of all A p. 1438 
the countries from wliich they had driven him. 's-^^i- 
Mahommed, this time, fent Hiflam Chan, the vi- 
zier's deputy, againil him, who was defeated, 
and beat back to Deliii ; upon which, Beloli 
wrote to the king, that if he would put Hiffam to 
death, who, by his intrigues, had been the occa- 
fion of this rebellion, he would lay down his 

The king was weak enough to liften to this ar- The Sui- 
rogant propofcd, and accordingly gave orders for ^g^i^^j^^^""' 
the death of Hiffam. lie alfo deprived Cummai the rebels, 
of the vizarit, and conierred it upon Hamid, ap- 
pointing another pcrion deputy, v.-ith the title of 
Hiffam Chan. I'he governors of the provinces 
obferving this pufilianimous and impolitic behavi- 
our of the kint^ predicted his deftrucdon, and en- a'iep.ate tUe 

, 1 r 1 • • 1 1 niiiidsof 

deavoured to iccurc their own inacpcndency ; hisiubjefts. 
while the fubjecls and zemindars, forefeeing the 
convulfions tirat muft happen in the ftate, v/ith- confafions 
held their rents, in hopes that they might be '" ^^"^ ^"^' 
pailed over, in the general confulion. 

Ibrahim, Ibvereign of the eaftern provinces, a.d. 1440. 
poffeffed himfelf of feveral dillricls adjoining to "'2-^44» 
his dominions ; and Mahmood Chirligi *, king of 
Malava, made an attempt on the capital ; and, in 
the year eight hundred and forty-four, advanced 
within two crores of the city. Mahomm.ed, 
flruck Vk'ith terror in this urgent fituation of af- 
fairs, imprudently fent an embaffy to Beloli, to 
beg his affiflance. Beloli accordingly, with 
twenty thouiand Perfian horfe, came to Delhi ; The irppo- 
Mahommed, though his army was greatly fupc-'"^''^^']^' 
rior to the enemy, was afraid to take the held by behaviour 
himfelf, but committed the charge of the whole ""^^<= ^"'g- 

j: He was defcended of the emperor Fcrofe I. of the tribe 
of Chilligi, emperors of Delhi. 



^^^•g^^^to his omrahs, and repofed himfclf in the harani. 
'^' '''" The omrahs, according to orders, advanced 
with the army againft the enemy, Beloli leading 
the van. 

When Mahmood Chilligi was given to under- 
ftand, that the king of Delhi was not prefent, he 
thought it was meant as an aflVont to him ; and, 
to be on a footing with Mahommed, he commit- 
ted the charge of his army to his fons Yeaz ul 
Dien and Kuddir Chan. The two armies having 
kittk?" engaged, the troops of Delhi gave way, and left 
Beloli alone to difpute the field, which he main- 
tained with invincible refolution, till the fugitives, 
afhamed of their behaviour, returned to the ac- 
tion. Night, however, coming on, the victory 
was left undecided. Mahmood Chilligi being 
greatly frightened by a that night, and 
having heard, in the morning, that fultan 
Ahmed, of Guzerat, was advanced as far as 
Mundo, he was more and more intimidated, and 
A pra.r Dcgan to bc dcfirous of making peace : but fhame 
tonchidcd. pi-evented him from exprelTing his wifhes. At 
the fame time, Mahommed, with lefs reafon, and 
contrary to the advice of all his counfellors, gave 
himl'elf up to bafe fear, and fent ambafiadors with 
prefents to his rival to beg peace. 

Mahmood Chilligi was overjoyed at thefe pro- 

Cblni^i'de- poi^ls, which fived the appearance of his reputa- 

fratedby tiou, and immediately accepting them, marched 

^'^^'"''' from the field. Beloli, who now began juftly to 

defpife them both, and to afpire to the empire, 

marched out of the city with his own troops, 

and purfuing Mahmood Chilligi, attacked him 

upon his march, defeated him, and took all his 

uhois ^^'\?g^ge- The weak Sultan, who did not hi- 

sdopted by thcrto fee tlirough his palpable intentions, gave 

ihtsuhan. j^.^^ ^j^^ ^.^j^ ^^^^j.^^^ ^£ ^^^ nobles*, and adopted 

him for his fon. 

f Chan Chanan, 


M A H O M M E D V. 45 

In the year eisjht hundred and forty- five, the a.d. i44i'> 
emperor marched to bammana, giving the go- Hcmaichcs 
vernments of Lahore and Debalpoor to Beloli, "s^ainft 
and ordering him to expel Jifferit. He himfelf 
returned to his capital. Beloli, by this means, 
became extremely powerful, and recruited a great 
army of Afghans ; but, inftcad of fighting Jif- 
ferit, he brought him over to his party, and be- 
gan to feize upon feveral diftricts, without any 
orders from the king. At length, without any 
apparent reafon, but his ambition, he drew his 
army againft Delhi, which he befieged for fome 
months, but, in the end, was obliged to aban- 
don his enterprize. 

The king's power was greatly wakened, and '^''^e i^!"^"* 
began to decay very rapidly. The zemindars of cIUkY/ " 
Biana put themfelves under the government of 
Mahmood Chilligi. In the mean time, Mahom- 
med fell fick and died, in the year eight hundred He dies. 
and forty-nine, leaving behind him the character m.''^^'^^' 
of a -weak, dilTolute, and unwarlike prince ; 
owing to the ambition of others a throne, upon 
which lie could not lit with dignity himlelf. He 
reigned twelve years and fome months, and his 
fon Alia fucceeded him in the empire. 

Sharoch, emperor of the Moguls, dying this state of 
year, the conqucfts of Timur were divided '^''^* 
among his grand-children, the fons of the prince 
Bafinkar. The cldcft ion of Sharoch, the fa- 
mous Ulug-Bcc, enjoyed the imperial titles, but 
his power was confined to the weltern Tartary, 
or Iranfoxiana. 'J he cldeit fon of Bafmkar 
pofleficd hiinfelt of the extcnfive province of 
C'horafl'an, and the countries towards the Indus; 
Abul Kalem, the third Ion, reigned over M;i- 
zindcran and Georgia, and Malunnined the fe- 
cond fon of Bafinkar, became fovereign of all tlie 
wcftern Pcrfia. 'I'he empire of Delhi, though it 



A. D. 1 446. -vvas in fome mcLifure reftorcd by Chizer and 
'^- ^°- Mubarick, was far from being as extenfive, as 
it was before the invafion of rimur. Mahom- 
medan princes poffelled tiic fouth eaft provinces, 
and a kind of empire was long eftabliftied 
in the Decan, independent of the crown of 

A L L A 

( 47 ) 


A L L A 11. 

L L A *, the foB of Mahommed, mounted ^'^- d M4r- 
the throne upon the demife of his father. Aiifmoua'ts 
All the omrahs, excepting Beloli Lodi, caine and ^^c throne. 
fwore allegiance to him. This contempt of Belo- 
li, the new Sultan was in no conditio-n to ciiaftife. 
But having collected an army, in the beginning 
of the year eight hundred and fifty, he marched 
to recover Biana. When he was upon tlie way, 
there was a rumour propagated, that the 'ling of 
the Eaft was advancing towards Delhi, which, 
though falfe, brought back the emperor to his ca- 
pital ; though he was told by Hih'am, the vizier, 
how ridiculous it would appear in a king to be 
guided by a vague report. This reprimand 
brought upon the vizier Alla's difpleafure. 

This ftep, however, proved ruinous to the Lofcs 
Sultan's reputation, and the m.eaneft of the peo. '"^r"^'^^'""- 
pie feared not to fay publickly, that he was a 
weaker man, and a greater fool, than his father. His luxury, 
He marched in the followins: vcar to Budaoon, 
wJieje he remained iome time, laying out gar- 
dens, building pleafure-houfes, and making en- 
tertainments, and then returned to Delhi. Prc- 
tendina; that the air of Budaoon aLrreed better 
with liis health, he expreifed an inclination of 
making that city liis reficicnce, to divert him from 
which, the vizier took much pains, but only in- 
curred more and more of his dilpleafure. 

* Kis titles \verc. Sultan Al!a ul Dien Ben Mahommed 



A, p, 1447, All riiiidoftan was, at this time, divided into 
,/,^^°;jf.;^J,',f fcparatc ilatcs ; for in liie Dccan, Guzcrat, Ma- 
Hindci^a!!. hiva, Jionpoor, and Bengal, there were princes 
Decayed ^vho allumcd the ftilc and dignity of kings ; while 
""the cm- Punjaab, Debalpoor, and Sirhind, even to Panni- 
j"^- put, was poflblfed by Bcloli. Merowli, and all 

the country to the Serai of Lado, within four- 
teen n;iles of Delhi, were in the hands of Ahmed 
of Mewat ; Sinibol, clofe to the wails of this city, 
was pofl'ellcd by Dcria Lodi ; Kole, by Ifah ; 
Rabari, by Cuttub, the Afghan ; Cumpela and 
Pattiali, by the Indian prince Partab ; Biana was 
fubjcCL to Daood Lodi ; fo that the city of Delhi, 
and a few fmal! diilricls, remained only to the 
BiioU Bc^loli made, about this time, another attempt 

"n'rucccTtsfuiUp^!^ the city, but was nor. more fuccefsful than 
atrcmpt h- ,,vas befr>rc. The kina:, relieved from this 

»i;u>n Delhi, , , r 1 1 

danger, began to conluit the means to recover 
part of his loft empire, advifmg with Cuttub 
Ifah, and Partab. '1 hefc chiefs, defirous to 
weaken him Uiil more, told him, that the om- 
rahs were all diigufted v^'ith his vizier ; that, 
fliould he be turned out of office, and imprifoned, 
they were ready to pay him due allegiance, and 
made no doubt but the aitliirs of the empire 
would put on a more favourable afpecf. The 
weak Alia became tlie dupe of thole traitors, and 
accordingly imprifoned and dilgraced his vizier. 
He immediately ordered preparations to be made 
for removing his court to Budaoon, from which 
not all the remonftrances of his beft friends could 
reftrain him; though they reprefented, in a ftrong 
light, how impolitic it would be, at fuch a junc- 
ture, to cliange his capital. 
l?:xe-s Ins -^^^''- sccordiugly, in the year eight hundred 
jefidence ^p^j fifty-two, fct out for Budaoon, Icavinf^ Hif- 
lam in the Q-overnment or Delhi, vvhen the 
Sultan arrived at his nevv- capital, Cuttub and 


A L I. A II. 49 

Partab waited upon him, and told him, that as^„^ '^4^- 
long as the vizier was alive, the omrahs could '^' " 
not be brought to truft themfelves at court. Theordcrsthe 
weak king was prevailed upon to command him "'^'''^ ^« ^^ 
to be put to death ; but the vizier's brother hav- death. 
ing notice given him of this bloody purpofe, 
found means, with the afliftance of fome of his 
friends, to releafe him, and to efcape to Delhi, who efcapes 
He there took immediate poffeiTion of all the^"^"""' 
king's efFeds, and turned his haram out of the 

Alia put off the time by ridiculous procraftlna- 
tions, and vain cxcufes of the weather, and un- 
lucky times, till the vizier had called Beloli to b" IuH up"n 
take upon him the 'empire. Beloli, glad of the ^^^^ I'lronc. 
opportunity, amufed the Sultan, by writing to 
him, that he was coming to chaftife the vizier, 
till he arrived and took poflefiion of the city, 
taking upon himfelf the title of Sultan Beloli, 
He, however, gave place to the name of Alia, in 
the Chutba, in the year eight hundred and fifty- 

He gave the city in charge to his fon, Chaja 
Baezid, marched in perfon to Debalpoor, and col- 
ledcd together a great army of Afghans. He 
wrote, at the fame time, to Alia, that, upon his 
account, he had expelled the vizier ; and he re- 
ceived for anfwer, from that weak prince, that as Aiiaabdi- 
liis father had adopted Beloli as his fon, he would "'„" of bV. 
cfleem him his brother ; he moreover promifcd i-^ii- 
to cede to him the empire, upon condition that 
lie would permit him to live quietly in the pof- 
lefiion of Budaoon. Beloli threw immediately the 
name of Alia out of the Chutba, and Ipread the 
umbrella of empire over his own head. Alia re- 
mained at Budaoon till his death, which happened 
in the year eight liundred and eighty-three ; liis 
reign in Delhi being fcvcn years, and his go- 
vernment of Budaoon near twenty-eight. A 

Vol. II. E weak, 


^n^'is^' ^^^^' ^"^^ fometimes a wicked, prince, while he 
retained the empire ; in a private ftation, a pea- 
ceable, if not a virtuous man. 
State of Perfia, and the weftern Tartary, were in con- 

^^'^ fufion during the fhort reign of Alia, by means 
of a feries of hoftilities between the defendants 
of Timur, who had divided his conquefts among 
them. The Mogul empire ceafed, in fact, to ex- 
ift, though Abu-Seid, the fon of Miran Shaw, 
and grandfon of Timur, kept up the name of it, 
in the weftern Tartary and Choraflan. 

B E L O L I. 

( 5^ ) 

B E L O L I. 

ELOLI was an Afghan, of the tribe ofA.D.1450- 
Lodi, which people, forming themfelves Bav^iVs^t- 
into a commercial focicty, carried on a trade be- "■''>'• 
tween Perfia and Hindoiian. In ihc time of the 
emperor Ferofe, Ibrahim, the grandfather of Be- 
loli, being poiTefled of weahh, made his way at 
the court of Delhi, and raifed himfelf to the go- 
vernment of Moultan. Ibrahim had five Tons, 
Sultan, Culla, Firofe, Mahommed, and Chaja, 
who, on the death of their father, remained in 

When Chizer, afterwards emperor, was appoint- 
ed to that government, Sultan received the com- 
mand of ail his Afghan troops. In the action which 
Chizer had with Kckbal, Sultan had the good for- 
tune to kill Eckbal, by which means he became a 
great favourite with Chizer. He was accordingly 
appointed by that prince governor of Sirhind, with 
the title of Iflam Chan, while his brothers partook 
of his fortune. One of whom, Calla, the farhtr 
of Beloli, had a diilricl bellowed upon him by his 
brother. The wife of Calla, who was his own 
coufin, being fmothered by the fall of a houfe, '^'•^"""'^ "^ 
when with child, the father inftantly ripped up 
her belly, and laved the life of the infant, who 
afterwards held the empire, by the title of Sultan 

Calla being killed in an adion with the Afghans Dift-r.cuiHu 
of Neaz, Beloli went to his uncle lilam, at Sir- ^^ I'wii'-i; 
hind, and upon his diftinguilhing hiniiclf in a uJi^""' ^"'' 

E 2 battle, 


A. D. 1450. battle, liis uncle gave him his daughter in mar- 
'^ ^^ riagc. Ifkim was, at this time, fo powerful, that 

he retained twelve thoufiind Afghans, moftly of 

his own tribe, in his fervice. 
itiamie- iflam, at his death, thoudi he had children 

commends _ . ' . ^ 

Beioii loth- of his own comc to maturity, recommended Be- 
EhiT^o^i tofucceed him. The troops, upon this, di- 
vided into three parties, one of which adhered to 
Beloli, one to Firofe, brother to Iflam, who had 
been made an omrah by the king of Delhi, and 
the other to Cuttub, the fon of Iflam. But Be- 
loli, who was the moft artful of the three, found 
means to weaken his rivals, and increafe his own 
Smpiains Cuttub repaired to Delhi, and acquainted the 
at the court emperor Mahommed V. that the Afghans of Sir- 
hind were eilablifhing a power, which unlefs it 
was foon prevented, would (hake the empire. 
The Emperor immediately difpatched his vizier 
iSecunder, with a powerful army, to bring the 
chiefs of the Afghans to court, and if they dif- 
obeyed, to expel them from Sirhind. JilTerit 
was alfo inftigated to take arms againft them, by 
which means they were, in the end, driven to the 
hills ; but upon a promife of peace, and of their 
future good behaviour, Firofe left his fon Shai 
Chan and Beloli with his army, and with fome 
attendants, went to Jiflerit and Secunder. They, 
notwithftanding their promife, by the advice ot 
Cuttub, his nephew, who was in the imperial 
camp, imprifoned him and flew all his attendants. 
1 hey alfo diijpatched part of their army to re- 
duce Beloli, but he retreated to a place of fafety, 
with the women and children. Before he could 
join Shai Chan, he was attacked and defeated, 
and a great part of his army flain. 

When Jiflerit had retired to Punjab, Beloli 
collecLed the remains of his tribe, and began to 


B E L O L I. 53 

raife contributions, or plunder wherever he a. 0.1450. 
could, and as he was extremely generous in di- j^^^^j ^l^_' 
viding the fpoil among his followers, he loon be-comejpow- 
came very powerful. Some time after, Firofe " ^ ' 
made his efcape from Delhi, and joined him ; 
and even Cuttub, repenting of his former beha- 
viour, found means to be reconciled to Beloli. 
Beloli foon after invaded Sirhind, and poiTeffed 
himfelf of that province. Upon receiving intel- 
ligence of thefe tranfaclions, the emperor Ma- fent Hiflam, his vizier, with a great 
army againft him. Beloii took the field, and 
giving the vizier battle, defeated him, by which 
his power and reputation greatly cncreafed. 

We are told,' that when Beloli was yet a ;:j~J^ 
youth in his uncle's fervice, one day he was per-byaDiivdb. 
mitted to pay his refpects to a famous Dirvefli of 
Sammana, whofe name v/as Sheidai. When he 
fat in a refpeclful pofture before him, the Dirvefh 
cried out, in an enthuliaftic manner, " Who will 
" give two thoufand rupees for the empire of 
" Delhi ?" Upon which, Beloli told him, he 
had only one thoufand fix hundred rupees in the 
world, which he ordered his fervant to bring im- 
mediately and prefent to the Dirvelh. The Dir- 
vefh accepted the money, and, laying his hand 
upon the head of Beloli, faluted him king. 

The companions of Beloli ridiculed him very J;'"^^^!^^. 


much for this adion : but he replied, "That, if uiie 
" the thing came to pafs, he had made a cheap 
" purchafe ; if not, the blefling of a holy man 
" could do hiin no harm." Upon a mind natu- 
rally ambitious, and in an age of fuperllition, 
this prediction of the Dirvefli might have great 
eft'ecl in promoting its own end ; for when a 
man's mind is once bent upon the attainment 
of one object, the greatell dilliculties will be 



A.D.T4'^ often furmounted, by a fteady perfeverance. 
Hi^'. 854. gyj. ^^ return from this digreffion. 

After Beloli had defeated the vizier, he wrote 
to the emperor Mahommed, as before related, 
laying the whole blame of his rebellion upon the 
vizier's conducl towards him. When Mahom- 
med bafely complied with his defirc of cutting off 
the vizier, Beloli, according to his promife, 
waited upon the king, that he might be better 
able to carry on his intrigues at court. He ma- 
naged his affairs at Delhi lo well, that the govern- 
ment of Sirhind was conferred upon him, to- 
gether with other diftricts near it, confirmed to 
him in jagicr ; which were the means that ena- 
bled hini to mount the throne, as we have 
already fcen, in the former reign. He had, 
Hisfon. ^cat the time of his accellion, nine fons, Chaja g^^.^jj^ Nizam, who was afterwards king 
under the name of Secunder ; Barbec, Mubarick, 
Alia, Jemmal, Jacob, Mufah, and Jellal ; and of 
omrahs of renown, who were related to him, 
there were thirty-iix in the empire. 
"mtg!;,n(^ -^^s Hamid, the vizier, who conferred the em- 
H^imid. pire upon him, had great influence flill in the 
fiate, he treated him for fome time with honor 
and rcfpecl. Being one day in Hamid's houfe, 
at an entertainment, he ordered the companions 
whom he carried with him, to make themfelves 
appear as fooliih and ridiculous as pofTible, that 
the vizier might confider tliem as filly fellows ; 
that fo he might be lefs upon his guard againft 
them. When they accordingly came into com- 
pany, fome tied their flioes to their girdles, and 
others put them up in the niches of the apart- 
ment. allied them the reafon of that ex- 
traordinary beliaviour. They replied, that they 
were afraid of thieves. When they had taken 
i heir feats upon the carpet, one of them began 


B E L O L I. 5j 

to praife the flowers, and brightnefs of the co-a, 0.1450. 
lours, faying. He would be extremely glad to "'s- ^-J-*. 
have fuch a carpet, to fend home to his own 
country, to make caps for his boys. Hamid 
laughed, and told him, he would give him 
velvet or brocade for that purpofe. When 
the plates and boxes of perfumes were laid 
before them, fomc began to rub the fined ot- 
ter of rofes all over them, others to drink it, 
and others to devour whole feftoons of flowers, 
while the beetle flood no chance, but was eat up, 
cover and all ; fome, who had eat large pieces of 
chunam, by having their mouths burnt, made 
a terrible outcry j and, in this kind of foolery, 
every one was endeavouring to outdo another, 
while the king and the vizier were almoft burfl- 
ing with laughter. 

The vizier, imagining that this behaviour pro- 
ceeded from the king's humour, who had a mind 
to make merry in his houfe, was extremely pleaf- 
cd, and had no fufpicion of men given to fo 
much mirth. The next vifit the king paid to Ha- 
mid, a greater number of his attendants were ad- 
mitted : but as Hamid had ftill a greater number 
of his own friends within the court, it was necef- 
fary to gain admiflion for fome more of the king's 
people, who were Hopped without by the guards. 
The king having before inftrucled them how to 
proceed in this cafe, they began loudly to wran- 
gle with the guard, and threw out bitter invec- 
tives againft the king, for permitting them to 
be fo unworthily treated. 'J hey even fwore that 
they refpeded the vizier, and would fee him. 

'i he vizier hearing this, ordered the doors to icized in Mi 
be thrown open, and as many to be admitted as"^" '*'^"''="- 
the court coulti contain. This point being gain- 
ed, the king gave the fignal, and all his people 
drawing at once, told Hamid's lervants to remain 



A. D. i4.r.i quiet, and they fhould come to no harm. Upon 
^H- 855. which, two or three feized the vizier artd bound 
him. The king then told him, that gratitude 
was a fecurity for his life, but that it was necef- 
lary he Ihould retire from bufinefs, and fpend 
the reft of his days in the cares of a future llate. 
After this the king ruled without fear or controul. 
The fame year, the eight hundred and fifty- 
fifth of the Higera, he left Delhi, under the 
charge of his eldeft fon, Baezid, and marched 
towards Moultan to recruit his army, and to re- 
k'l°' th?"^" gulate all the weftern provinces. Som.e of his 
veftiinpro- omrahs being diflatisfied at this tin;, left him, 
"'""'• and joined Mahmood, king of Jior-poor, who, 
during the abfence of Beloli, in the beginning of 
the year eight hundred and fifty-fix, advanced 
\\ith a great army, and laid fiege to Delhi. Be- 
loli haftened from Debalpoor, march by march, 
nor halted till he reached Perah, within thirty 
miles of Delhi. 

Mahmood lent thirty thoufand horfe, and 
thirty elephants, under the command of Herevi, 
againft him. When the action began, Cuttub, 
w^ho excelkd in archery, having funk an arrow 
in the forehead of one of Herevi's elephants, the 
animal became outrageous, and broke the lines. 
iieiohde- (^\ittub, in the mean time, advancinor againft 
inyofMah-Diria Lodi, one of the difaffected omrahs, w^ho 
.-nood. Y>3.d joined Mahmood, cried out — " For {liame 1 
" Diria, where is your honor, thus to wage war 
" againft your own kindred, and to inveft your 
" wife and family in the city of Delhi, when you 
" ought rather to defend them againft your na- 
-^' tural enemies r" " Purfue me not," faid Diria, 
'• and I am gone ;" and he immediately wheeled 
ofl", followed by all the Patans, or Afghans, in 
Herevi's army. The other troops being thus 
delerted, gave way, and Herevi was taken pri- 

foncr j 

B E L O L I. 57 

loner; but having, with his own hand, juft a^^- J^^'- 
killed the brother of Rai Kirren, that omrah, in 
revenge, ftruck off his head, and fent it to the em- 
peror. Upon receiving the news of this defeat, 
Mahmood raifed the fiege of Delhi, and retreated 
with great precipitation to Jionpoor. 

The power of Beloli became firmly eftabliflied, 
and he began to turn his thoughts upon new ac- 
quifitions. f-lis firft movement was towards 
Mewat, where, Hamid, the vizier, fubmitted 
himfclf to his authority. The emperor took 
feven pergunnahs from Hamid, and permitted 
him to hold the remainder in fee. Beloli from 
thence marched to Birren, and Diria, governor 
of Simbol, prefcnted him with feven more per- 
gunnahs, and fubmitted in like manner. He 
then took the rout of Koli, and confirmed Ifah 
in that government. He continued his progrefs 
to Burhanabad, and gave that province to Muba- 
rick, while Boga'was delivered over to Rai Partab. 
But when he advanced to Raberi, Cuttub, the 
fon of Hafifen, the governor, Ihut himfelf up in 
the fort, but the king took it in a few days by ca- 
pitulation, and again fettled him in the fame go- 
vernment. Beloli marching from thence to At- 
tava regulated that government, and confirmed 
the former Suba. 

An omrah, called Jonah, quitted about this 
time, the court in difguft, andjoined Mahmood, 
king of the Eaft, from whom he received the go- 
vernment of Shumfeabad. Jonah InfHgated Mah- The king 
mood to make another attempt upon Delhi, who h^.'^de^giis 
for that purpofe, took the route of Attava, where upon Dcih= 
he met Beloli. The armies, the firft day of their 
appearance in fight, on both fides fent out par- 
ties to Ikirmifh, but nothing remarkable was 
done, and, the next day, they began to treat, 
when it was agreed, that Bejoli fliould keep poi- 



A.D. i^?: fcfTion of all the countries pofleflcd by the empe- 
'^" "^ ' ror Mubarick, and that Mahmood Ihould hold 
all that was in the pofl'effion of Sultan Ibrahim, of 
Jionpoor ; that the former fhouldgive up all^the 
elephants taken in the engagement with Herevi, 
and the latter turn Jonah out of his government. 

ofTcncJed Mahmood, immediately after this pacification, 

wall Beioh. returned to Jionpoor, and Beloli went to Shum- 
feabad to take poffeiTion of it. This latter expe- 
dition of Beloli greatly offended Mahm.ood, and he 
immediately returned to Shumfeabad, where the 
omralis, ('uttub and Diria, furprized his camp in 
the night. But during the attack, the horle of 
Cultub having trod upon a tent-pin, threw hira, 
and he was taken by the enemy, and his party 
retreated to their own camp. Beloli drew out 
his army in the morning, but receiv'cd advice 

^^"- that Mahmood had juft expired, and that the 
omrahs had fet up his fon Mahommed ; and, by 
the mediation of Bibi Raja, the young king's 
mother, v/ho probably had received previous af- 
furances, a peace was immediately concluded. 
Mahommed returned to Jionpoor, and Beloli 
took the rout of Delhi. 

Before the king arrived at the capital, he re- 
ceived a letter from Slmmfe Chatoon, the fiftcr 
of Cuttub, conjuring him, in the moft tender 
manner, not to fufier her brother to remain in 
captivity. This prevailed upon Beloli to break 
the peace he had juft concluded, and to march 
towards Jionpoor. Mahommed met him near 
Sirfutti. The younger brother of Mahommed, 
Haffen, fearing his brother's refentment for Ibme 
trefpafs, took this opportunity of marching off, 
with all his adherents, to Kinnoge. Sittal, his 
other brother, foon tollov/ed him ; but the de- 
tachment which Beloli had fent after Haffen. met 
Sittal on the way, and took him prifoner. Belo- 
li determined to keep him as a ranfom for Cuttub. 


B E L O L I. 59 

In the mean time, the omrahs confpired againft ^^p* J^^-J^^- 
Mahommed, king of the Kaftern provinces, and Mahom- 
having affaffinated him, advanced Haflen, his ^^^'j^^''^^'^" 
brother, who had fled to Kinnoge, to the throne. 
Beloli. for what reafon we know not, took no 
advantage of thefe diforders, but now entered 
into a truce with Haflen for the fpace of four 
years ; Cuttub and Sittal being interchangeably 
releafed. Beloli returned towards Shumleabad, 
whither Bir-Singi, the fon of Rai Partab, came 
to pay his refpedh. But as his father had taken 
a ftandard and a pair of drums form.erly from rrf adiciy 
the omrah Deria in an action, that bafe man o-^^^''-'- 
thought to wipe off" that diflionour by afi'afii- 
natinsT Bir-SinQ:hi. Cuttub the fon of Haflen, 
Mubariz, and Rai Partab, differing Vvirh the 
cruel traitor about this murder, were obliged to 
fly to Haflen, king of the Eaflern provinces. 
Beloli, after thefe tranfaOions, returned to 

But, upon account of the rebellion of the 
viceroy of Moultan, and the diforders in Pun- 
jaab, he marched towards that quarter. Upon 
his way, he heard that the Eaflern monarch Haf- 
fen was advancing, in his abfence, with a great 
army, to take Delhi. He therefore, through 
neceflity, returned, and leaving Delhi in charge ^^^"^^ 

/ ' ' o o marches 

of C'uttub and Jehan, he went out to meet the againftHaf- 
enemy. The two armies having met at the vil-*"^- 
lage c^f Chundwar, they flvirmiflied without in- 
termifiion for feven days. A peace was at length 
patched up for the term of three years. At the 
expiration of this truce, Haflen invefled Attava, 
took it, and drew over Ahmed, governor of 
Mew^at, and Ruflum of Koli, to his intereft, 
while Ahmed, who commanded at Selwan, and 
was alfo governor of Biana, itruck money and 
read tiiechutba in his nam^e. Haflen, with one ■ 



V,^^- '-^ ^2- hundred thoufand horfc and a thoufand ele- 
'*"' ' phants, marched from Attava towards Delhi j 
and Bcloli, no ways intimidated by that great 
force, marched out boldly to meet him. The 
two armies having advanced to Battevara, en- 
camped for fome time in fight of each other, and 
after fome ikirmiflies, in which there was no fu- 
riority of advantage on either fide, they again 
ftruck up a peace. But this pacification was not 
permanent. Hallen advanced again towards 
Delhi fome months after, and was oppofed at the 
village of Sinkar, and obliged to depart upon 
peaceable terms. 

Pvluch about this time, the mother of Plaffen, 
Bibi Raja, died at Attava, and the Raja of Gua- 
lier and Cuttub went to confole him upon that 
occaiion. When in difcourfe, Cuttub perceived 
that Hallen was a bitter enemy of Beloli, he be- 
gan to flatter him after this manner : — Beloli is 
one of your dependants, and cannot think of con- 
tending long with you. If I do not put you in 
pofiellion of Delhi, look on my word as nothing. 
He then with much art, got leave lo depart from 
Haifen's court, and returned to Delhi, and there 
he told to Beloli that he had efcaped with a great 
deal of difficulty from the hands of HalTen who 
was meditatiner a frefli war asainft him. 

The Empe- About this time, the abdicated em.peror. Alia, 

rorAiiadies. died at Budaoou, upon which Haflen went to 
fettle matters at Budaoon, and, after the fune- 
ral ceremonies were over, he took that country 
from the children of Alia. Marching: from 
thence to Simbol, he impriibned Mubarick, go- 

Hineu vcrnor of that province, then marching: towards 

marches to .^^ ,, . . , * • i i i i i • i 

Delhi. Delhi, m the year eight hundred and eighty- 
three, he crofled the river Jumma near Gutte- 
ruitch. Beloli, who was at Sirhind, upon receiv- 
ing intelligence of this invafion, returned with 

B E L O L I. 6i 

all expedition to fave his capital. Several flight ^ ^■§s!^* 
a<5lions enfued, in which HafTen had in general, 
the advantage. 

Cuttub difpatched a perfon to Haflen, inform- 
ing him, that Beloii was ready to relinquifh all 
the countries beyond the Ganges, upon condi- 
tion he fhould leave him in poiTefTion of all the 
provinces on this fide of that river. Thefe 
terms being accepted, they reverfed their hoftile 
fpears, and Haflen marched homeward. But 
Beloii, in a perfidious manner, broke the peace, seioi's p.^r- 
and, purfuing Haflen, attacked him upon his ^^J- 
march, killing a great number, and taking 
forty omrahs prifoners, befides part of his trea- 
fure and equipage. Beloii purfued his victory, 
and took feveral diftri(5bs belonging to Haflen, 
fuch as Campul, Pattiali, Shumfeabad, Sickite, 
Marhera, Sittali, and Koli, appointing agents to 
manage them under himfelf. But when he had 
purfued Haflen as far as Arumbidger, the latter 
flood his ground, and engaged Beloii. The vic- 
tory being dubious, a peace was patched up be- 
tween them, the village of Doupamou being fet- 
tled as the boundary between the empires. After 
this pacification, Haflen proceeded to Rabcri, 
and Beloii returned to Delhi. 

Haflfen could not, however, forget the perfidy 
of Beloii. He recruited his armv, and fomc time 
after marched againft him, and met him at the 
village of Sinhar, when an obltinate battle enfued, 
in which Haflen was defeated, and loft all his 
treafure and baggage , which, together with an 
addition of reputation, greatly promoted the af- 
fairs of Beloii. Haifen havino- retreated to Rahe- 
ri, he was followed thither by Beloii, and upf)n 
ftanding a fecond engagement, he was again to- 
tally defeated. After the battle, he retreated 
towards GuaHer ; the raja of Gualier brought 



A.D. 1478. him fome lacks of rupees, elephants, horfes, ca- 
W't'-'^'^s- mels, and ■^ line fet of camp equipage, and ac- 
companied him to Calpie. 

Beloli marched, in the mean time, to Attava, 
where he befiegcd Ibrahim, the brother of Haf- 
fen, and took the place by capitulation. He, 
however, generouily made him a prefent of the 
fort and proceeded to Calpie; Hallen met him 
upon the banks of the river, where they remain- 
ed for fome months. But Rai Chand of Buxar, 
coming over to Beloli, fhewed him a paffable 
ford in the river, by which he crdffed, and at- 
tacking Haflen, defeated him and drove him to 
Jionpoor, upon which Beloli turned off to the 
left towards Kmnosfe. Haifen aijain met him 
near that city, but he was once more defeated 
\vith great flaughter. His regalia and equipage 
were taken, and alfo the chief lady of his le- 
raglio, Bibi Conza, the daughter of Alia, empe- 
ror of Delhi, who was treated with great rcfpecf . 
Beloli returned, after this victory, to Delhi. 
Having recruited and regulated his army, he 

5;[rc. advanced the of hollility again towards 
Jionpoor. He coiiquered that country, and gave 
it to Mubarick Lohani, leaving Cuttub, Jehan, 
and other omrahs, at Migouli, to fecure his con- 
quefts. He himielf went to Budaoon, where he 
foon after heard of Cuttub's death. Jchan, Mu- 
barick, and other omrahs, though they kept up 
the appearance of fidelity, were, after the death 
of Cuttub, concerting meafures lo throw off Be- 
loii's yoke. Beloli being apprized of their in- 
tentions, marched towards Jionpoor, and drove 
away Haffen, who had made an attempt to re- 
cover it, and placed Barbec, one of his own fons, 
upon the throne of Jionpoor. He himfelf re- 
turned to Calpie, which lie took, and gave to 
his grandfon, Azim Humaioon, the fon of his 
cidcil fon Baizied, He direcled then his march 


B E L O L I. 63 

to Dolepore, raifing a tribute upon the raja of tliat '"^-P- J473 
place, who began to rank himlelf among Beloli's 
fubjecls. The king marched from thence to a 
place in the diftricts of Rintimpore, which he 
plundered, and foon after returned to Delhi. 

Beloli being now extremely old, and inhrmi- j,^,pJ. ^,^ 
ties beginning daily to increafe upon him, he di-andin'tiini. 
vided his dominions among his fons, giving Jion- 
poor to Barbec ; Kurrah and Manikpore, to Mu- 
barick; Barage to his nephew Mahommed, fit- 
mous by the name of Kalla Par, or the Black 
Mountain ; Lucknore and Galpee, to Humaioon, 
whofe father, Baezid, ^^'as afTafimated a little be- 
fore by his own fervant ; Budaoon to Chan Je- 
han, one of his old omrahs, and a relation ; and 
Delhi, with feveral countries between the two 
rivers, to his fon Nizam, known afterwards by 
the name of Sultan Secunder, whom he appoint- 
ed his fuccefibr in the imperial dignity. 

Some time after this dividon, the emperor 
proceeded to Gualier, and railing a tribute of 
eighty lacks of rupees from the raja of that place, 
came to Attava, from whence he expelled Sickit 
Sing, and then turned his face towards Delhi. 
Falling fick upon his march, many of the omrahs n^ fails 
were defirous that he fhould alter his former will, nsk. 
with refpecL to the fucceffion, which, they faid, 
was the undoubted right of Humaioon, liis 
grandfon. The fultana, upon this, wrote to her 
fon Nizam, who, having heard of his father's 
illnefs, was fetting out from Delhi, by no means 
to come, otherwife he might be imprifoned by 
the omrahs : at the fame time the king, by the 
advice of fome omrahs, ordered pubHc letters to 
be fent him, to haften him to the camp, that he 
might fee Iiim before his death. Nizam was 
greatly perplexed how to acf upon this nice occa- 
sion, lie, at length, was advifed by Cuttuluk, 
the vizier of the Eaftern emperor Hafihi, who 



A.D. 148S. was then prifoner at Delhi, to pitch his tents 

'^'' '^'^' without the ciiy, and to advance by very flow 

marches. In the mean time, the king's difeafc 

Dies. overcame him, and he died at Malauli, in the 
pergunnah of Sikite, in the year eight hundred 
and ninety-four, having reigned thirty-eight 
years, eight months, and feven days. 

Beloli was, for thofe days, efteemed a virtuous 

Hjscharac- ^^^ ^^jj^ princc, cxccuting jufticc to the utnioft 
of his knowledge, and treating his courtiers ra- 
ther as his companions than his fubjects. When 
he came to tlie empire, he divided the public 
treafure among his friends, and could be feldom 
prevailed upon to mount the throne, faying, 
" That it was enough for him, that the world 
'• knew he was king, without his making a vain 
" parade of royalty." He was extremely tem- 
perate in his diet, and feldom eat at home. 
Though a man of no great literature hiinfelf, he 
was fond of the company of learned men, whom 
he r.;\varded accordina: to their merit. He had 
given fo many proofs of perfonal bravery that 
none could doubt it ; at the fame time, he was 
often cautious to excefs, never chufmg to truft 
much to chance, and delighting greatly in nego-. 

State of During the long reign of Beloli, in Delhi, the 

^^'^- empire of Perfia remained divided into a number 
of petty principalities, mod of them fubjecl to the 
defendants of Timur-Bec and Zingis Chan. 
Ifmaiel, who afterwards founded the dynaily of 
the Sofis of Perfia, began to make fome figure, in 
the Weftern Afia, before the death of Beloli. 
Tranfoxiana, the moil of Choraflim and the pro-: 
vinces towards the Indus, were fubjecl to the 
pofterity of Timur, Vv'ho were engaged in almoft 
uninterrupted hoftilities againft one another. 

S E C U N. 

( 6s ) 



THE omrahs, immediately upon the death ^^^l^-J''^^' 
of Beloli, formed themfelves into a council, 
in which fome appeared to be attached' to the in-Theom- 
tereft of Azim Humaioon, fome to Barbec, the ^^^y\^|;" 
eldeft fon of the Sultan then living, and fome to ciinea. 
Nizam, who had alfumed the name of Secunder, 
in confequence of his father's will. When they 
were debating, the mother of Secunder, whofe 
name was Rana, originally a goldfmith's daugh- 
ter, but raifed to the Sultan's bed, by the fame 
of her beauty, came behind the curtain, in the 
great tent, and made a fpeech to the omrahs, in 
i^vor of her fbn. Upon which Ifah, the nephew 
of Beloli, anfwered her, in a difrefpcd:ful man- 
ner, and concluded with faying, that a gold- 
fmith*s offspring was not qualified to hold the 

Firmilli, who had been dignified, by Beloli, F"m H"' 
with the title of firft of the nobles, a ftout daring 
man, took him up, and told him. That Beloli 
was yet fcarce cold in his hearfe, and that the 
man who threw fuch ungenerous afperfions upon 
his family ought to be defpifed. Ifah replied, 
That filence would better become him, who was 
only a fervant of the ftate. Upon which the 
other rofe up, in a rage, and told him, he was, 
indeed, a fervant of Secunder, and would main- 
tain his right againft all who durft oppofc it. He 
rufhcd out of the council, followed by all his 
party, and carried off the body of the deccUed 
Vol. II. F l^ing 


A.n. T4«s. King to Jellali, where he was met by Secundcr, 
sSmiju^ who there afcendcd his father's throne, 
mounts the Sccundcr Tending the corpfe of his father to 
tiione. |^gi>ij marched asrainft Ifah, and havins; defeated 
amipaidonshim, afterwards forgave his offence. Keturnmg 
^^'- then to Delhi, he, in the' manner of his father, 
conferred favors upon all his kindred. Secunder 
had, at this time, fix fons, Ibrahim, Jellal, Ifh- 
maiel, Haffein, Mahmood, and Humaioon ; and 
likewife fifty-three omrahs of diftinx5tion of his 
own family, in- his fervice. 
Marches Somc time after his acceflion, Secunder 
agamfi his tnarched towards Raberi, and befieged his own 
Aiium! brother, Allum, in the fort of Chundwar, for 
fome days. Alium evacuated the place, and fled 
to Ifah Lodi, at Pattiali. Secunder gave Raberi 
to Firmilli, went, in perfon, to Attava, and cal- 
ling Allum, his brother, to court, gave him pof- 
Ag■Ar^de- fellion of that country. He then advanced to 
feats Lah. p^.j-j^ij^ engaged Ifah a fccond time, wounded, 
and defeated him ; after which Ifah threw him- 
felf upon Secunder's mercy, was pardoned, and 
foon after died of his wound. 

Secimder, about that time, fent a trufty per- 
fon to Barbec, liis brother. King of Jionpoor, 
defiring he would do him homage, and order his 
name to be read firft in the chutba all over his do- 
minions. Barbec rejecled thefe propofals, and 
Mardifs Secunder marched aQ-ainft him. Barbec and 

ai'ainlt his ^ . o n i i • 

hvotiK. Calla Par came out m order or battle to meet him. 

Barbeck. ^^ aclion cnfucd, in which Calla Par, charging 
too' far among the troops of Delhi, was taken 

?iis policy, prifoner. Secunder, upon feeing him, alighted 
from his horfe, and embraced him, faying, that he 
efteemedhim as his father, and begged to be looked 
upon as his fon. Calla Par, confounded at the 
honor done him, replied, that, except his life, 
he had nothing to make a recompence for fuch 
kindnefs, defiring to get a horfe, that he might 


S E C U N D E R r. '6^ 

fhow himfelf not wholly unworthy of the royal -'^•V- 1'-^^" 
ravour. He was accordingly mounted, and perti- 
dioufly fold his reputation for a compliment, turn- 
ins: his fword as[ainil Barbec ;' which circum^ 
ftance, in fome meafure, contributed to the fuc- 
cefs of Secunder. The troops of Barbec feeing 
Calla Par charo-insr them, imao-ined that all his 
forces were alfo gone over to the enemy, and be- 
took themfelves to fiio^ht. Barbec did all that b.ii bee de- 
bravery could perform ; but finding himi-elf de- • 
ferted, he fled to Budaoon, while Mubaric, his 
fon, was. taken prifoner. Secunder purfuing him 
clofe, invefted Barbec in Budaoon j who, foou 
driven to diiirefs, capitulated, and -was received 
with great kindnefs and refped:. The King car- 
ried Barbec with him to Jionpoor ; but as- Haflen, 
the expelled King of the eaftern provinces, was 
ftill a powerful prince in Behar, he thought Bar- 
bec would be the propereil; per fon to check him, 
and accordingly confirmed him as before in the 
government of Jionpoor ; leaving, however, 
fome trufty friends at his court, upon whom he 
beftovvcd eftates and jurifdiclions, to keep them 
firm in his own intereih 

Secunder returning to Calpie, took the place Sccunier 
from his brother Azim Humaioon, and gave it to caipie. 
Mahmood Lodi. He marched from thence to 
Kurrah, and Talar the governor paying him ho- 
mage, he confirmed him in his oflice, and turn- 
ingr towards the fort of Gualier, he fent one of 
his omrahs Cnaja with an honorary drcfs to Raja 
Maan, who difpatched his nephew with prefents 
to accompany the King toBiana. Sherrif, tlie go- 
vernor of Biana, met the emperor, upon friendly 
terms. The king ordered him to give up Biana, 
and he would appoint him governor of Tellalar, 
Chandwar, Marrara, and Sekite. Sherrif took 
Omar Serwani with him to put him in polUflion 
of the fort, but when he had got within the walls, 

F 2 he 


A p- mR?- he (hut the gates upon Omar, and prepared t© 
'^" ^'^' defend himfelf. The King defpairing to reduce 
the place, went to Agra, where Hybut, who held 
that fort under Sherrif, as governor of Biana, fliut 
the gates againft him, contrary to his expectation. 
This infult enraged the Sultan to that degree, that 
he determined, let the event be what it would, 
to reduce Sherrif to his obedience. He accord- 
ingly, leaving part of his army to befiegc Agra, 
returned in perfon, with the utmoft expedition, 
towards Biana, which he immediately belieged. 
The fiege proved long and bloody ; however, 
Reduces Sherrif, in the end, was obliged to capitulate, in 
the year eight hundred and ninety feven, and his 
government was given to Firmilli, who had been 
dignified with the title of firft of the nobles. 
and Agra. 'j^j^g f^j-j- of Agra falling, about the fame time, 
into Secunder's hands, he returned to Delhi, 
where, in a few days, he received advices of an 
An infur- infurrcdion at Jionpoor, among the zemindars, 
region at to thc numbcr of one hundred thoufand horfe 
Jionpoor. ^^^ ^^^^ . ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ already flain Sheri, 

the brother of Mubarick the governor of Kurrah. 
Mubarick himfelf being driven from Kurrah, was 
taken prifoner by Rai Bhede, of Battea, and Bar- 
bee obliged to go to Barage, to follicit the aflif- 
tance of Calla Par ; fo that the King, after twen- 
ty two days refpite at Delhi, was under the ne- 
ceflity of marching towards Jionpoor. When he 
arrived at Dilmow, he was joined by Barbec ; 
and Rai Bhede hearing of Secuftder's approach, 
releafed Mubarick, and the zemindars difperfed 
themfelves. The Sultan carried Barbec to Jion- 
poor, and having left him there to punilh the of- 
fenders, he fpent a month in hunting about Oud. 
At Oud intelligence was brought to Secunder, 
that the zemindars had rifen again, and befieged 
Barbec in Jionpoor. He ordered immediately 
that Calla Par, Humaioon Serwani, and Lowani, 



by the way of Oud, and Mubarick by the way a. p. '49^ 
of Kurrah, Ihould march againft them, and fend '°' °'* 
Barbec prifoner to the prefence. His orders were 
accordingly executed, Barbec was given in charge 
to Hybut and Omar Serwani, being efteemed an 
improper perfon for the government, and too 
dangerous to be trufted with his liberty. 

The King, after thefc tranfactions, marched 
towards Chinar, which was held for Sultan Haf- 
fen of the Eaft ; upon his approach, the garrifon 
made a fally, and were driven back into the 
fort ; but Secunder upon reconnoitring the place, 
looked upon it as almoft impregnable, and im- 
mediately left it, marching his army towards Bat- 
tea. Rai Bhede came out of Battea, and paid|?^=''S.''«de 
him homage, upon which the King confirmed 
him in his dominions, and returned to Areil, or- 
dering Rai Bhede to accompany him ; but Rai 
Bhede fufpefling fome defign againft himfelf, left 
all his retinue, and deferted the camp alone. 
Secunder fent him back his effects. He, how- 
ever, permitted his troops to plunder the coun- 
try of Areil, and croffing the river, by the way 
of Kurrah, went to Dilmow, where he married 
the widow of Sheri, the late governor of that 
place. From Dilmow Secunder marched to 
Shumfeabad, v/here he remained fix months, 
and then went to Simbol ; but returning from 
thence, in a few days, toShumfeabad, he plunder- 
ed the town of Mudeo-makil, where abandof ban- 
ditti refided. Secunder fpent the rainy feafon at 
Shumfeabad, In the year nine hundred, Secun- 
der made another campaign towards Battea, de- 
feating Bir Singh, the fon of Rai Bhede, at Car- 
rangatti who fled to Battea ; but upon the King's 
approach, Rai Bhede took the route of Sirkutch, 
and died upon his march. Secunder, after this 
viftory proceeded to Sezdewar ; but provifions 



A. D. 1491. growing fcarce in his camp, he was obliged ta 
'^' ''''' return to Jionpoor, having in this expedition, 
loft a great part of his cavalry by fatigue, bad 
roads, and the want of forage. 

Lickim, the fon of Rai Bhede, and other ze- 
mindars, wrote to Sultan HalTen, the titular 
King of the Eaft, now in poflelTion of the pro- 
vince ofBehar, that the cavalry of Secunder was 
now in a wretched condition, and that it was an 
excellent opportunity for him to take fatisfaclion 
for his former defeats. This induced Haifen to 
put his army in motion, and march directly 

HafTcn fcts jjp-.^jj^fj. Secunder. The emperor hearinor of his 

dtr, intentions, put his army upon the belt looting 

pofiible, and crofTed the Ganges to meet him, 
wJiich he did thirty fix miles from Benaris : An 

... cbftinate battle was foucrht, in which Flaifen was 

but i« Over- , i n 1 o ^ 

thrown. defeated and fled to Battea. 

Secunderleaving his camp with a proper guard, 
purfucd the fugitives for three days, with a party 
ot horfe ; but hearing that Hafl'en was gone to 
Behar, he flopped, and upon the ninth day re- 

secunder tuincd to his caiTiD. lie foon after marched with 

Beiiar, his whoIc army towards Behar, but upon his ap- 
proach, Haflen left Cundu to guard the city, and 
lied himfelf to Calgaw, in the dominion of Ben- 
gal. Alia, then King of Bengal, called Haffen to 
his court, and treated him with the greateft re- 
fpect during the remainder of his days, which he 
paffed with him ; fo that with Haffen the royal 
line of Jionpoor was extinguiflied. 

Secunder, from his camp at Deopar, fent a 
divifion of his army againft Cundu, who evacu- 
ated the city and fled, leaving the whole country 
open to the enemy. The King left Mohabut uith 
a force in Behar, and marched towards Turhat, 

Eenfai in- the raja of which fubmitted himfelf to his cle- 
mency, and laying down a large fum, agreed to 


wh'ch is 




pay an annual tribute. To collect the tribute, a. d. 1494. 
the Sultan left Mubarick, and returned to Der- ^"^'s s^'o. 
vefhpoor, and from thence went to vifit the tomb 
Shech Sherrif at Behar, and diftributed prefentij 
to the dirveflies who lived thereupon the charity 
of pilgrims. 

Secunder having regulated his army, marched 
towards Bengal ; but when he had reached Cutt- 
lifhpoor. Alia King of Bengal fent Danial his fon 
to oppofe him. Secunder detached Zere Zichme, 
one of his generals, to acquaint him, that he Jiad 
no intention to fubdue the country, but as their 
dominions now bordered upon each other, it be- 
came necefiary to know upon what footing he 
muft efteem Alia, before he left that country. ^P^j|j''j|^;^"' 
The king of Bengal gladly accepted of a peace, twe<-ii ,sc- 
wherein it was ftipulated, that neither monarch *^^'i"''''""'^ 
ihould permit any of their governors to invade 
each other's dominions, and that neither of them 
fhouid give protection to the other's enemies. 

Secunder returned to Dirveflipoor. Mubarick 
at that time dying, the care of Turhat was given 
to Azim Huniaioon, the fon of Chan Jehan, and 
Behar vi'as bellowed upon Deria, the Ion of Mu- 
barick. There happened, at this time, a great a deaith in 
dearth in the country, but all duties being taken ^"i^''-^''"- 
ofi'by the King's order, that calamity was in a 
great meafure mitigated. Secunder, in the mean 
time, reducing the diftricls of Sarin, which were 
then in the hands of fome Zemindars, gave the 
lands injagiers to fome of his omrahs ; then re- 
turning by the way of Moviliigur to Jionpoor, he 
refided there fix months. 

Secunder having afked the daughter of Sal Ba- 
hin, raja of Battea, in marriage, the flithcr re- 
fufed to comply with his requelt. Secunder, to 
revenue this affront, put his army in motion a- „ 
gamit the raja, in the year nine hundred ana tour . u a.i.i .i^- 


A. D. 1+94 and marching to Battea, facked it. After hav- 
'g v^o- jj^g ravaged the country round Bandugur, he 
returned to Jionpoor, where he fpent fome time, 
in the civil regulations of the empire. About 
this time, the accounts of Mubarick Lodi being 
infpecled for the time of his adminiftration in 
Jionpoor, and a great balance being found due 
to the royal revenue, the King ordered it to be 
levied upon him. This feverity greatly difguft- 
ed the omrahs, among whom Mubarick was 
^,^ ^ very much efteemed. A faction accordingly 
rahb diHk- arofe in the army, which firft difcovered itfelf by 
tisfied. private quarrels. For, one day, as the Sultan 
and his court were playing a party at club and 
bail, on horfeback, the dub of Hybut, by acci- 
dent, or defign, wounded one Soliuian in the 
head. Chizer, the brother of Soliman, came up, 
^ , . and returned the compliment to Hybut ; fo tl^at 

Quarrels in . , t ^ i i rj • • 

the camp, m a tcw minutcs, the parties on both lidesjom- 
ed in tlic quarrel, and the whole field was ifi 
one uproar and confufion. 

Ji!i^S\lT Secunder, fearing a confpiracy, fled to the 

confpiracy. palacc, but nothing of that kind tranfpiring, he 
made another party at the fame game, fome days 
thereai ter, and a quarrel of the fame nature en- 
fued, for which Shumfe Chan, who begun it, 
was difgraced, and baftinadoed. But the Sultan 
would not be faiisf^ed but that there was fome 
plot in agitation, and therefore ordered his guards 
, . to be felecled, and to keep upon the watch. The 

covmd. ' King's icaloufies were not groundlefs ; for at that 
time, Hybut, and two other chiefs, had propofed 
to Fatti Chan, the King's brother, to cut off the 
Sultan, who, they faid, was now difliked by the 
generality of the chiefs, a;id to place Fatti upon 
tJic throne. Fatti defiring fome time to confider 
of it, difclofcd the fecret to Shech Cabuli, and to 
his own mother, who advifed him againft fo hor- 
rid an action ; and, left the affair fliould, by any 



other means, tranfpire, fhe defired him to acquaint a. p- 1498 
the King of their propofal. This he did accord- '^ ^^'*' 
ingly, and the confpirators were detached upon 
different ferviccs, where they were put to death 
by Secunder's orders. 

Secunder, in the year nine hundred and five, secunder 
marched to Simbol, where he fpent four years in "etiresfor 
plcafure, and in tranfading civil affairs. But to simboi. 
hearing of fome bad adminiftration of Afghir, 
the governor of Delhi, he fent an order to 
Chawafs Chan, governor of Matchiwarri, to 
march to Delhi, and fend Afghir prifoner to court. 
The governor receiving advice of this order, left 
Delhi, and threw himfelf at the King's feet, but 
not being able to form any excufe for his bad 
practices, he was ordered into confinement. 

At this time there happened a remarkable in-^remaika- 
ftance of religious zeal and perfecution. A brah- bie inftance 
min, whofe name was Bhodin, upon being abuf- pedbcT""" 
ed by a Mahommedan, for his idolatry, happened 
to make a very moderate, but what proved to 
him a fatal reply. The reply was this : " That 
he efteemed the fame God to be the objed of 
all worfhip, and, therefore, believed the Ma- 
hommedan and Hindoo religions to be equally 
good.** The bigotted Mahommedan, for what 
he thought the impiety of this anfwer, fummoned 
the brahmin immediately before the cafy, or chief 
judge of the city. The aifair making fome noife, 
by the various opinions of the public, the Kijig 
called together all the Mahommedan dodors of 
fame in the empire, to decide the caufe. After 
many long difputes, the doctors brouglit in their 
opinion, that the brahmin ought to be forced to 
turn Mahommedan, or be put to death, llie 
brahmin, however charitable he might have been 
to all opinions upon religion, refulcd to apoita- 
tize, and accordingly died a martyr to his faith, 





Some fac 
tious om- 
1 ahs ba- 




A. D. 1499. which reflccls no fmall difhonor upon Secundcr 
H'g- s^sy- and his inquifitors. 

When Chawafs, whom we have already men- 
tioned, entered Delhi, he found an order from 
the Emperor to proceed immediately to court, 
with which he inftantly complied. At the fame 
time, a certain omrali called Seid Sirwani came 
from Lahore, who was a man of a very factious 
difpofition, and commenced fome treafonable pro- 
jects, for which he, Tattar, and Mahummud, 
were banifhed to Guzerat. 

In the nine hundred and feventh of the Hige- 
ra, Rai Man Sing, of Gualier, fent one of his de- 
pendants called Nehal to the King with rich pre- 
fents ; but as this embafl'ador talked in too high a 
ftrain, Secundcr ordered him to depart, and de- 
clared war againft his mafter. But he was pre- 
vented from the execution of his purpofe, for 
ihme time, by the death of Firmilli, governor of 
Biana, and by thofe dillurbances in that province, 
which fucceeded that governor's death. The go- 
vernment of Biana having devolved upon Ameid 
Soliman, the fon of Firmilli, who was yet too 
young and unexperienced for fuch a charge, the 
King gave that appointment to Chawafs. Sifdir 
was fcnt with a force to reduce Agra, which be- 
longed to the province of Biana, and had then 
revolted ; another detachment being fent, at the 
fame time, to reduce the fort of Dolipoor, which 
was in the poifeiTion of Raja Benacdeo, who had 
begun to make warlike preparations. Here Chaja 
Bein, a warrior of great fame, fell by the fword, 
which fo irritated Secunder, who had a great ef- 
teem for him, that he marched himfelf againft 
that place. Upon his approach Benacdeo left 
fome friends in the fort, and fled towards Gua- 
lier, but the garrifon, the next night, evacuated 
the place, and left the King to take pofleffion of 
it. He tarried there about a month, and then 




marched to Gualier. The raja of which place, '^'"^ 
changing his haughty flile, now humbly fued for 
peace, fending to him Seid, Baboo, Rai Ginis, 
and others, who had, at different times, fled 
from Secunder, and taken protection under hi in. 
At the lame time, he fent his own fon, Bicker- 
magit, with prefents, who had the addrefs to 
procure peace. 

Secunder returned to Dolipoor, which he again 
beftowed upon Benacdeo ; then marching to ^akei 
-Agra, he, for the firft time, made that city im-Agra 
perial, by fixing his refidence there, and abando- .efjj'jlce. 
ring the city of Delhi. Here he remained during 
the rains, and, in tlie year nine hundred and ten, 
marched towards Mundcrael, which he took, 
and deitroyed the Hindoo temples, ordering 
mofques to be built in their ftead. Secunder re- 
turning to Dolipoor, removed the raja from his 
office, and gave it to one Kimir. He palTed from 
thence to Acrra, a^ivins: his omrahs leave to re- 
turn to their refpeclive eftates. , An earth- 

In the following year, upon Sunday the third ^"^"'^^" 
of Siffer, there was a violent earthquake in Agra,* "^ 
fo that the mountains fliook on their broad bafes, 
and every lofty building was levelled with the 
ground, Ibme thoufands being buried in the ruins. 
Secunder, in the flime year, moved towards Gua- 
lier, and flopped by the way fomc time at Doli- 
poor, where he left his family, and, with an un- 
incumbered army of horfc, proceeded to the hills, 
to plunder fbme Hindoo rajas, from whom he 
took great fpoils, and ravaged their peaceful ha- 
bitations. Juft as the King was palling by the 
town of Javer, in the dominions of the raja of 
Gualier, h.c was attacked by a refolute body of 
men, who had Iain in am.bulh for him ; but, by 
the bravery of Av.'id and Ahmed, tlic Ions of 
Chan Jehan, the Hindoos were defeated, and a 
great number of rajaputs put to the fword. 



^nf*'^'^''' "^^'^ Sultan returned to Agra; and, in the 
Seomuer year ninc hundred and twelve, he went towards 
Aaint^ur ^^^^ ^^^^"^ of Awintgur; and, as he had defpaired 
rvhich Ts ' of reducing Gualier, he bent his whole ftrength 
♦aktn. |.Q ^}j^ redudion of this place. It was according- 
ly, in a fliort time, taken, and all the rajaput 
garrifon put to the fword, the temples deftroyed, 
and molqucs ordered to be built in their place. 
This governiTient was conferred upon Bickin, the 
fon ot Mujahid Chan, when fome envious perfons 
gave the King information that Mujahid had ta- 
ken a bribe from the raja of Awintgur, when they 
were marching againll him, in order to divert the 
King from that refblution. This being proved, 
Mujahid was imprifoned at Dolipoor ; after which 
the King, returning towards Agra, on the way 
loft eight hundred men, in one day, for want of 
Marches Sccundcr, eyeing from his march the ruins of 
Nurvar. -^.gra, movcd towards Narvar, a ftrong fort, in 
the diftricl of Malava, then in the poil'effion of 
the Hindoos. He ordered Jellal, governor of 
Calpie, to advance before him, and inveft the 
place, which was accordingly done. When the 
King arrived before Narvar, Jellal drew up his 
army, out of refpecl, that the King might review 
them as he paffed. The circumftance proved very 
hurtful to Jellal, for, from that time, the King 
became jealous of his power, and determined to 
ruin him. Secunder furrounded the place, which 
was fixteen miles in circumference, and began to 
carry on the fiege. The fiege was now protrac- 
ted eio-ht months, when the Sultan received in- 
telligence, that a treafonable correfpondence was 
carried on between fome of his omrahs and the 
garrifon, for which Jellal and Sheri were impri- 
soned in the fort of Awintgur. The garrifon, 
foon after, was obliged to capitulate, for want of 
provifions, and the King remained, for the fpace 



of fix months, at Narvar, breaking down tem- a. p. 1506. 
pies, and building mofques. He there alfo efla- ''^" ^' ' 
blifhed a kind of monaftery, which he filled with 
divines and learned men. 

Shab ul Dien, the fon of Nafir, King of Malava, 
being at this time difcontented with his father, 
propofed to have a conference with Seconder. 
The King immediately fent him a drefs, and pro- 
mifed to fupport him in the government of Chin- 
deri, againft the power of his father. But cir- 
cumftances fo fell out, that it became unneceiTary 
to take that unnatural ftep. 

The Sultan, in the month of Shuban, in the Various 
year nine hundred and fourteen, marched from !"f"t'h "" 
Narvar ; but after he had advanced to the river '^'"S- 
Ganges, he began to confider that it would be 
proper to furround that fortrefs with another 
wall. He therefore ordered that work to be im- 
mediately begun, and then he himfelf took the 
rout of Lobar. At that place he beftowed Calpie, 
in jagier, upon Nianuit Chatoon, the wife of 
Cuttub Lodi, and daughter of the prince Jellal, 
his brother. He then direded his march towards 
the capital, and arriving at Hitgat, fent a detach- 
ment againft fome rebels in that country, and de- 
ftroyed all their habitations, placing fmall garri- 
fons at proper diftances to overawe thcni. About 
this time he received advices, that Aliined, the 
fon of Mubarick Lodi, governor of Lucknore, 
had turned idolater ; upon which orders vi^ere 
difpatched to fend him prifoncr to court, and that 
his fecond brother, Sud Chan, fhould take the 
adminiftration of affiirs in his ilcad. In the 
year nine hundred and fifteen, the King marched 
to Dolipoor, and ordered caravanferas to be built 
at every ftage. Mahummud Nagori having de- 
feated AH aiid Abu Bekir, who had conl'pired 
againft him, they fled to Secunder for proteclion. 
Mahummud, fearing they would bring the King 


Tran rati- 
ons at Do- 


A.D. K09. agalnft him, fent prcfents by way of prevention, 

Hig. 915. ^fj(^ ordered the chuiba to be read in Secunder's 

name. The Sultan, plcafed with his fubmillion, 

lent him a drefs of confirmation, and returned to 


He fpent fome months there in building, mak- 
ing fpacious gardens, and in hunting, then re- 
lipooi. t:urned to Dolipoor, ordering Soliman, the fon 
oF Firmilli, to fuccour Huffen Chan. Soliman 
\'ery imprudently told the King, that he could 
not prevail upon himfelf to leave the prefence. 
This exprefiion threw Secunder into a violent 
rage, and he forthwith ordered him from his fer- 
vice and camp by next morning at day-light, or 
that otherwife all his effects jQiould be given to the 
foldiers as public plunder. 
Reduces Much about this time, Bogit Chan, governor 

chiniicu. Qf Chinderi, who held that place of the King of 
Malava, feeing the weaknefs of his own prince, 
turned his face to Secunder. That monarch fent 
Amad ui Muluck to fupport Bogit in his rebel- 
lion. He fbon after returned to Aofra, and iffued 
a proclamation bearing the fubmilTion of Bogit, 
- and his own confequent right to that country. 
He fent more troops and omrahs to Chinderi, 
who entirely fettled it as an appendage of the 
empire. Bo^it found matters carried on in his 
government in fuch a manner, that he v^-as con- 
. drained to reiign his ofiice, and come to court. 
After this, we finci no tranfaclions worthy of 
Peace m mcmory in the empire, till the year nine hundred 
.1 ^^'■"° iind twenty-two. Ali Nagori, fuba of Suifuper, 
in that year prevailed upon Dowlat, governor of 
Riniimpore, which he then held of Malava, to 
)| deliver the fort to Secunder, if that monarch 

fhould come in perfon to take polTelTion of it. 
Secunder, with great joy, clofed with the pro- 
pofal, and fct out towards Biana, to which place 
the governor of Rintimpore came to meet him, 


ihe empire. 


and was gracioufly received. But Ali, who had a. d. 1509, 
been difappointed in fome favors which he expec- "'°" ^'^' 
ted for bringing this matter to bear, refolved ftill 
to prevent the accomplifhment of it. He had fo 
much influence upon the governor, that he made 
him retract his promife about giving up the fort, 
though he had put himfelf in the Sultan's power. 
The Sultan having found out the caufe of this 
change, difgraced Ali, and deprived him of his 
government, but was obliged to return to Agra 
without fucceeding in his defign upon Rintim- 
pore, fetting the governor at liberty, notwith- 
ttanding he had fo egregioufly deceived him. 

To Agra the King fummoned all the diftant 
omrahs together, with an intention to reduce 
Gualier. But he w^as, in the midft of his prepa- 
rations, in the year nine hundred and twenty 
three, taken ill of a quinfcy, of which he died, 
having reigned, with great reputation and ability, 
twenty eight years and five months. The parts, 
which he exhibited, during his reign, juftifiedD;^ 
the choice of his father, who fingled him out, 
though a younger fon, as the perfon moll capable 
to fupport a title to which his family had no 
claim, by inheritance. 

A great revolution happened in Perfia, during state of 
the reign of Secunder in Hindoilan. Ifmael Soli, ^^''^ 
having reduced the wciicrn provinces of Perfia, ofScamr'' 
polTeiled him.felf of ChorafiFan and the weftern '^'^^• 
'i'artary, by the defeat and death of Shubiani, 
the Ulbec, uho had difpolTeiTcd the family of 
Timur of thofe countries. The famous Sultan 
Baber, in the mean time, coniinucd to reign in 
Cabul and the provinces towards tne Indus. 

I B R A- 



A^p.^5>6. QECUNDER dying at Agra, his fon Ibra« 
ibrlhim 1^5 him * immediately fucceeded him in the 
proud and thj-Q^e. This pHnce, contrary to the maxims 
* ' ^^" and policy of his father and grandfather, behaved 
himfelf with infupportable pride and arrogance to 
his friends and family. One foohfh expreffion of 
his was, that kings had no relations, but that 
every body fhould be the flaves of royalty. The 
omrahs, of the tribe of Lodi, who were always 
before honoured with a feat in the prefence, were 
now conftrained to ftand by the throne, with 
their hands croffed before them. Th^y were fo 
much difgufted with this infolence, that they pri- 
vately became his enemies. 
. f A confpiracy therefore was formed, by the 
rac)°" ^** omrahs of Lodi, in which it was agreed to leave 
Ibrahim in poiTeffion of Delhi, and a few depen- 
dent provinces, and to place the prince Jellal, his 
brother, upon the throne of Jionpoor. Jellal 
. marched from Calpie, by the aid and advice of 
divfde!h^ * the difaffected omrahs, and mounted the throne 
of Jionpoor. He appointed his coufm Fattc 
Chan his vizier, who brought over all the om- 
rahs of the Eaftern provinces to his intercft. 

Jehan Lohani came at that time from Beri, to 
congratulate Ibrahim upon his acceflion, and, in 
a very high drain, began to blame the omrahs 
for dividing the empire, which, he faid, would 

* His titles were, Sultan Ibrahim Ben Sulran Secunder, 


I B R A H I M II. Si 

be attended with many evil confequences to the a^d isj6. 
family of Lodi. The omrahs, fenfible of the im- ujfg^t'to 
propriety of their conduft, determined, as Jellal reunite it. 
could not be yet well eftablifhed, to call him back, 
and fo diveft him of his new alTumed royalty. 
They accordingly feqt Hybut, with deceptions 
letters, to recal him, faying, that there was a 
fcheme for him in agitation,' and that it was ne- 
cefTary he Ihould fpeedily come to fupport it. 

But Hybut having over-acted his part, by flat- 't''^-^ f>m- 
tery and importunity, Jellal fufpecled a plot deavour in 
againfl himfelf, and wrote them a genteel excufe. '^'jlY^Tdrai 
They, however, not difcovering his jealoufy, from jion- 
fent Firmilli ^nd other omrahs to enforce the re- f^^'- 
queft of Hybut ; but Jellal took no notice of their 
folicitations or intrigues. Ibrahim, and his om- 
rahs, finding that thefe baits would not take with 
Jellal, ilTued a proclamation, declaring all the 
omrahs, who fhould join him, traitors to the 
ilate ; at the fame time fending prefents and 
meffengers to all the principal officers in thofe 
parts. Thefe means had the defired effeft, and 
the omrahs, on the fide of Jellal, were brought 
over from his intereft, by degrees. The affairs 
of Jellal declining in this manner, he faw that 
nothing but a refolute attempt could retrieve 
them. He accordingly marching to Calpie, fe- 
cured his family in that fort ; and, collecting all 
his ftrength, affumed the title of emperor, under 
the title of Jellal ul Dien, and was determined to 
try his fortune in the field. He fent, at the fame 
time, a trufty ambaffador to Azim Humaioon, 
who held Callinger for Ibrahim, and had a great 
army in pay, to beg his ailiftance. Azim was 
prevailed upon to join him ; and a refolution was 
formed, firll to fettle the countries about Ji on- 
poor, and afterwards to think of afiliirs of ftill 
greater moment. They accordingly marched. 
Vol. 11. G ' with 


'■V.--^'-''^ with all expedition, airainfl Mubarick Lodi, fuba 

Hic;. 924. I ' o ' 

of Cud, \vlu)ni they drove to Lucknore. 

Ibrahim hearing of thefe tranfaclions, marched 
his army to that quarter, fending his other bro- 
thers, in confinement, to Halli, where he penfi- 
oned them for life. Upon his march towards 
Oud, he was informed that Azim Humaioon had 
deferted Jellal, and was now upon his way to 
meet him, which gave him great joy. He fent 
ibme omrahs to efcort him to his camp, where 
he was very favourably received. A number of 
other omrahs, of thofe parts, joined Ibrahim ; 
and he difpatched the greateft part of his army.^ 
under the command of Azim Humaioon Lodi, 
againfi; his brother. But before Azim could come 
up with Jellal, he threw a garrifon into Calpie, 
and, with thirty thoufand horfe, gave him the 
ilip, and marched dire(5fly towards Agra ; while 
mird.: lo Azim laid fiege to Calpie. Jellal had it now in 
^^§'*- Ids power either to take polfefTion of, or to plun- 
der, the treafury. But he feems to have been 
perfectly infatuated. Adam, who was in the 
city with a fmall garrifon, not only prevailed 
upon him to relinquifh that advantage, but 
amufed him with hopes of his brother's favor, till 
lie fent him all his enfigns of royalty. Adam went 
ih far as to promife to Jellal the government ot 
Calpie, and other advantages, without having any 
powers of treating from the king. 

Adam fent the whole to Ibrahim, and ac- 
quainted him of every particular. But the king 
having now taken Calpie, and the treaty being 
concluded without his authority, he took no no- 
tice of it, but marched againft Jellal, who, now 
deferted by his army for his pufiUanimity, was 
;md flies to obliged to fly to Gualier, and folicit the protec- 
^"''^''"'* tion'^of the raja of that place. Ibrahim came to 
Agra, where he remained to regulate the affairs 
of the government, which, fmce the death of 


I B R A H I M II. ' 8:5 


Secunder, had fallen into great confufion. The A- 0.1519. 
omrah Karim was fent to take charge of Delhi, '^' ^^ " 
and Mungu to Chunderi. 

About this time,- the king, without any ap- 
parent reafon, conceived a dilguft at Miah Boah, 
who was formerly vizier to Secunder, and put 
him in chains, conferring at the fame time great 
honours upon his fon. He then formed a refolu-^ ^^^^ 
tion of reducing Gualier, ordering Azim Hu- fent againa 
maioon to march from Kurrah againft it, with " 


thirty thoufand horfe, and three hundred ele- 
phants. Seven other omrahs, with armies, were 
lent to reinforce Azim. Jellal, who had taken 
refuge in Guaiier, being intimidated, fled to the 
king of Malava. The imperial army arriving be- 
fore Gualier, invefted the place, and in a few days 
raja Man Sing, who was a prince of great valour 
and capacity, died, and his fon Bickermagit fuc- 
ceeded him in the rajafliip. After the liege had 
been carried on fome months, the army of Ibra- 
him at length poflefled themfelves of an outwork 
at the foot of the hill, upon which the fort, cal- 
led Badilgur, flood. They found in that place a 
brazen bull, which had been a long time worfliip- 
ped there, and fent it to Agra ; from whence it 
was afterwards conveyed to Delhi, and placed at 
the gate of Bagdat. 

The unfortunate Jellal, who had gone over to 
king Mahmood of Malava, not being well re- 
ceived there, fled to the raja of Kurykatka, but ^"»i*^^<^" 
was feized upon by the way, and fent prifoner to 
Ibrahim's camp. Ibrahim pretended to fend him 
prifoner to Halfi, but gave private orders to af- 
faflinate him upon the way, which was accord . ^"^ j^'*''^* 
ingly done. — Vv^hat are thofe charms in power, 
which could induce a man to flied the blood of a 
brother .? Nor was Ibrahim fatisfied with the death 
of Jellal ; he imbrued his hands in the blood of 
feveral omrahs of great diflinclion. He called 

G 2 Azim 


A.D. '519 Azim Sirwiini from Gualier, when juft upon the 
'^ ^' point of taking the place, imprifoned him and 
his fon Fatte, turning out his other fon Iflam 
from the fubafliip of Kurrah. But when Iflam 
had heard of his father's and brother's imprifon- 
ment, and of his own difgrace, he erected the 
ftandard of rebellion, defeating Ahmed who was 
fent to take his government. The Sultan having 
received advices of the reducTion of Gualier, 
which had been for a hundred years in the hands 
of the Hindoos, he had leifure to turn all his 
power to fupprefs the rebellion at Kurrah. Azim 
Humaioon and Seid, after the reduction of the 
place, were permitted to go to their jagiers at 
Lucknore ; where, joining the intereft of Iflam, 
they ftirred up more difturbances. 

A rebellion. Ibrahim placing very little dependence upon 
the fidelity of the troops which he had near him, 
iflued orders for thofe of the diftant provinces to 
repair to his ftandards. He, in the mean time, 
conferred great favours upon Ahmed, the bro- 
ther of Azim Humaioon, and giving him the 
command of the army, fent him againft Iflam. 
Ahmed having arrived in the environs of Kin- 
noge, Eckbal, a dependent of Azim Sirwani, 
rufhed out from an ambufh with five thoufand 
horfe, and having cut off a number of the impe- 
rial troops, made good his retreat. The king 
was greatly exafperated againft Ahmed, upon re- 
ceiving intelligence of this defeat. Rewrote to 
him not to expect his favor, if he did not quick- 
ly exterminate the rebels ; at the fame time, by 
way of precaution, fending another army to fup- 
port him. The rebels were now about forty 
thoufand ftrong in cavalry, befides five hundred 
elephants, and a great body of infantry. When 
Ahmed had received the reinforcement which we 
have mentioned, and the two armies came in 
light of each other, raja Bochari, who was ef- 


I B R A H I M ir. 85 

teemed the firft man for parts in that age, was a. 0.15.9. 
defirous of bringing affairs to an amicable accom- '^'^^^" 
modation. Overtures being made, the rebels 
confented to difmifs their army, upon condition 
that Azim Sirwani fliould be fet at liberty. Ibra- 
him would not hearken to thefe terms. He fent 
orders to Dirai Lohani, governor of Behar, to 
Nifir Lohani, and Firmilli, to advance from that 
quarter, againft the rebels. The infurgents fool- 
iflily permitted themfelves to be amufed till the 
armies from Behar joined. The treaty being then 
broke off, they were reduced either to fly or 
iight upon unequal terms. 

They refolved upon the latter, and accordingly 
drew up in order of battle. Urged on by defpair 
and refentment, they did juliice to valor, aod 
were upon the point of defeating the imperialifts, 
when Iflam was killed, and Seid difmounted and 
taken. Thefe unfortunate accidents difcouraging 
the troops, they ftopped Ihort, and foon after 
turned their face to flight. Their dominions, ^i/e .ebeis- 
treafure, and baggage, fell at once into the hands c^^rthiown. 
of the king. 

Ibrahim now gave full fcope to his hatred and Ibrahim's 
refentment againil the omrahs of Secunder, and andTrucity. 
many of them were barbaroufly put to death. 
Azim Humaioon Sirwani, Miah Boah, and others, 
who were in confinement, were, at the fame time, 
affafllnated, and fear and terror took pofleflion of 
every heart. Thefe cruelties and afl'aflinations 
gave rife to another rebellion. Dirai Lohani, 
fuba of Behar, Jehan Lodi, and Firmiiii, turned 
their heads from the yoke of obedience. Ibrahim 
havino; received intellisrence of this detection, fcnt 
a private order to the Tainis of Chundcri, to take 
off Mrmilli, fuba of that country, and tlicle holy 
perlbns accordingly aiTalhnared him in his bed. 
This frefli inilance of Ibrahim's baienefs and ty-' 



A^D I? 19. ranny, ferved only to create him more ene- 
' ^' mies. . 

Dirai, of the tribe of Lodi, fuba of Beria, 
died about this time, and his fon of the fame 
name, aflumed the title of emperor, under the 
name of Mahommed, with all the enfigns of roy- 
Another alty. Hc was joincd by all the difcontented om- 
rcbeihon. j-alis, and found himfelf at the head of a hundred 
thoufand horfe, with which he took pofleilion 
of all the countries as far as Simbol, defeating the 
imperial troops in repeated engagements. Ghazi 
Lodi came about this time with the army from 
Lahore, by the Sultan'st orders. But having 
heard of his tyrannies, by the way, he was ap- 
prehenfive of danger to himfelf, and returned to 
his father, Dowlat, at Lahore. Dowlat, feeing 
no fafety but in extremity, revolted from the 
Sultan, and follicited Baber, the mogul, who then 
reigned in Cabul, to come to the conqueft of 
Hindoftan. The firft thing, however, that Dow- 
lat did, was to obtain from Baber, Alia, the bro- 
ther of Ibrahim, now in the fervice of Cabul. 
Supporting him, as a cover to his meafures, with 
his whole force, he reduced the country as far as 
Delhi. Alia was joined by the omrahs of thofe 
parts, fo that his arrriy now confided of upwards 
of forty thoufand horfe, with which he invefted 
Delhi. Ibrahim refolved to march againft him, 
but when he came within fix crores of AUa's ar- 
my, he was furprized by that prince in the 
night. A confufed and tumultuous fight was 
maintained to day-light, when Ibrahim found that 
he was deferted by fome of his omrahs, who had 
joined Alia. Ibrahim obferving, in the morning, 
that the troops of Alia were difperfed, in plun- 
dering the royal camp, rallied a number of his 
troops, and the greateft part of his elephants, re- 
turned to the attack, and drove him oif the field, 
with great flaughtcr. Ibrahim entered Delhi in 


I B R A H I M IL 87 

triumph, and Alia, feeing no hopes of reducing a. 0.1525. 
it, retreated to Punjaab. Hig.932. 

In the year nine hundred and thirty-two, no 
remarkable event happened in the empire, till 
Baber drew his army againfl Ibrahim, as will be 
hereafter related at large, overthrew him in the 
field of Panniput, deprived him of his life and 
kingdom, and transferred the empire from the 
Afghan tribe of Lodi, to the family of Timur. 
Ibrahim reigned twenty years : a cruel, proud, 
and wicked prince, though pofleffed of ordinary 
parts, and extremely brave. 

For the firft eight years of the emperor Ibra- state of 
him, Ifmael, the firft of the Sofi family, reigned '^^'*° 
in Perfia. He was fucceeded by his fon Shaw 
Tamafp, who acceded to the Perfian throne, upon 
the death of his father, which happened in the 
nine hundred and thirtieth of the Higera. 



B A B E R *. 

A. D. 152s A BU SEID, who held the titles of the 
H'ff. 932. J^\^ mogul empire in the weftern Tartary, and 
ndifo/^' in Choraflan, dying in Irac t, left eleven fons, 
i3abei. Ahmed, Mahmood, Mahommed, Sharoch, AH, 
Amer Shech, Abubekir, Murad, Chilili, Mirza 
Willid, and Amer {. Four of the brothers arrived 
to the dignity of kings ; Ali to the throne of Ca- 
bul; Ahmed to the kingdom of Samarcand; Amer 
to the united thrones of IndijaandFirghana ; and 
Mahmood to thofe of Kundiz and Buduchlhan. 
Eunus, king of Mogulftan, gave to each of thofe 
four kings one of his daughters in marriage, ex- 
cepting to Ali. Amer, by Catlick Negar, the 
daughter of Eunus, had a fon, whom he named 
Baber, born in the year eight hundred and eighty 
eight. The relation between Timur § and Ba- 
ber, is this : Sultan Abu Seid, the grandfather of 
Baber, was the fon of Mahommed, the fon of 
Miran Shaw, and grandfon of Timur, lord of 
iiAuv-s nn ^ Baber, when as yet but twelve years old, dif- 
common ' covcrcd a Capacity fo uncommon at that age, that 
^"''"'- his father Arner gave him the kingdom of Indija ; 

* His titles at length were, Zehir ul Dien Mahommed Ba- 

f One of the provinces of Perfia. 

t It is to be obferved, that Ferifhta prefixed the title of 
Mirz.a Sultan, which fignifies Prince, to every one of the eleven 
ions of Abu Seid, on account of their being defcended from Ti- 
mur Bee, in the fourth degree. 



B A B E R. ~ 89 

and, when Amer, iipon Monday, the fourth of a^-' 525- 

Ramzan, in the eight hundred and ninety ninth "'°' ^^^* 
of the Higera, fell, by an accident, from the roof 
of a pigeon-houfe, and was killed, Baber was ad- 
vanced to the throne, and alTumed the title of f'.'^'^^^,''^ 
proteaor of the faith. 

Ahmed, and Mahmood, the uncles of Baber, Jj|i^^^^^''^^'J 
led their armies againft him, to be revenged of 
him, in his nonage, for the war of his father 
againft them, hoping by the advantage which the 
acceflion of a child might afford, to appropriate 
his kingdoms to themfelves. But an accident de- 
feated their ambitious defi2:ns. After befiesfino; ' 
him in the capital of Indija, there happened fo 
great a mortality among their troops and cavalry, 
that they were glad to enter into treaty, and to 
raife the fiegc. Ahmed died upon his way to 
Samarcand *. 

The kings of Cafhgar and Chutan, both of the Reduco- 
family of Timur, foon after drew a great army j"^"^ "■^'^'" 
towards the borders of Orgund^ and made war nors. 
upon Baber ; but he obliged them to retreat. He^ 
at this time, appointed Haffen governor of Indija^ 
who was not faithful to his truif. He rebelled 
in the year nine hundred, but Baber marched 
againft him, and obliged him to fly toM^ards Sa- 
marcand. In the fame year, Ibrahim Sarid, the 
governor of Afhira, rebelled, and read the chutba 
in the name of Beifmker, the fon of Ahmed, 
who had fucceeded to the throne of Samarcand. 
Baber marched againft him, and bcficged him in 

* The ciry of Samarcand is fituated in latitude 41*^ 20, and 
In longitude 95. It is ihe chief rowii of Maver-iil-nerc, or 
Tranfoxlana. !c is piuch fallen off from irs ancient fpKndor, 
though it is ftill a confid^rable and populous city. A good trade 
ii driven on there, in fevcral man u failures, efpecially fiik paper, 
peculiar to that town. 



^i-ifl" 'c?^' ^^^^"^5 which he reduced in the fpace of forty- 
days ; and the rebel was obliged to come forth 
with a fword and coffin before him. Baber, how- 
ever, forgave him, and marched to Chojind, and 
from thence to Sharuchia, to meet his uncle 
Mahmood, with whom he was now reconciled. 
He remained with Mahmood a few days, and then 
returned to Indija. 
Bcfieges Baifinkcr, king of Samarcand, having poffeffed 

Aitabato himfelf of Artaba, which was a Ions: time the 
property or Amer, the father of Baoer ; that 
prince refolved to retake the place, and marched 
accordingly with his army againft it, the very 
next feafon. Zulnoon, who held it on the part 
of the king of Samarcand, made a refolute de- 
fence, till the approach of winter obliged Baber to 
raife the iiege, and return to Indija. 
Marches Babcr, in the year following, drew his army 
towards towards Samarcand, being in alliance with Ali, 
the brother of Baifinker, and king of Bochara ; 
for the former endeavoured to recover from the 
latter the kingdom of Samarcand. The confede- 
rate kings not being able to reduce Samarcand 
that year, they returned home for the winter 
feafon, and made great preparations for another 
campaign. Both the kings, accordingly, in the 
year nine hundred and two, in the beginning of 
the fpring, took the route of Samarcand. Sultan 
Ali reached Samarcand firfl:, and Baifinker ad- 
vanced without the city, and encamped befpre 
him ; but, upon Baber's arrival, he retreated 
within his walls in the night. Kulu Chaja, who 
was going the rounds of Baber*s camp, difcovered 
the retreat of Baifinker, and falling upon his rear, 
put a great number to the fword. Baber laid 
liege to a fort, called Afhira, at a fmall diftance 
from the city, and took it. The confederates, 
after this fuccefs, attacked Samarcand, which was 
defended with great bravery, till winter obliged 



B A B E R. 9^ 

them to raife the fiege, and retire to qu^i'ters, a^^-^^5^- 
till the enfuing feafon. 

Aliu turned to Bochara, and Baber to a place Takes that 
called Chajadidar. Shubiani, king of the Ufbecs^^v- 
of Turkeftan, upon his march from his own do- 
minions, to join the king of Samarcand, came be- 
fore Baber, but he thought proper to make the 
beft of his way for Samarcand. Shubiani and 
Baifmker quarrelled foon after, and the former 
returned to his own country. This circumllance 
fo much diftreffed Baifmker, that, with a fmall 
retinue, he went in perfon to beg the affiftance 
of Chufero, king of Kunduz, alfo of the pofterity 
of Timur, while Baber, feizing this opportunity, 
haftened to Samarcand, and in the year nine 
hundred and three, entered the city without op- 
pofition, and mounted the throne, being acknow- 
ledged by the greateft part of the omrahs. 

But as Baber had taken the place by capitulati- 
on, and forbad all manner of plunder, the army, 
to whom he was greatly in arrears, and who 
ferved him only for the hopes of booty, began to 
difperfe. The moguls, who were commanded f;f^;^'J^y 
by one Ibrahim, went off in a body, and were 
followed by feveral other chiefs, with their whole 
dependents, to Achfi, where Jehangire, the bro- 
ther of Baber, commanded. Jehangire, by the 
aid of the deferters, and that of a prince, called 
Ozin Haffen, declared himfelf king of Indija. 
He wrote, by way of fneer to his brother, that 
as Baber had fubdued the kingdom of Samarcand, 
he begged to be indulged with that of Indija. 
Baber having received this meffage, gave way to 
his paflion, and, in blaming the perfidy of thofe 
chiefs who had deferted him, imprudently threw 
fome reflections upon thofe who remained. The 
omrahs refented this behaviour, by abandoning 
him, and joining his brother. Baber, in the ut- 
moft diftrcis, fent Eulu Chaja to endeavour to 



A.D. T496. reconcile the omrahs to him again, but they font 
Hig 902. ^ party to way-lay the embalfador, and cut him 
to pieces. 

The omrahs Ali and Molana, in the mean time, 
threw a garrifon into the fort of Indija, and con- 
tinued to hold it out for Baber. The faithful 
omrahs fent advice to Baber of their fituation ; 
but, unfortunately at this time, he was taken ex- 
Hismisfor- trcmcly ill, that, not able to fwallow any thing, 
he barely exifted by having moiftened cotton ap- 
plied to his lips. When he had recovered his 
health, and found the prefling fituation of his af- 
fairs in Indlia, he determined to run the rifque 
of lofing^^niarcand, rather than his paternal do- 
minions, and accordingly direded his march 
homewards. But Ali Dooft, and his friends in 
Indija, having heard that Baber was certainly 
dead, had capitulated, and given up the place to 
Tehangire. This traitor afTaffinated Molana, and, 
mounting the throne, read the chutba m his own 
Samarcand '^ ^^^^ difagreeablc intelligence, and other ad- 
rcvoits. vices, that the Samarcandians had revolted, were, 
at once, brought to Baber, upon his march, 
which threw him into the utmoft diftrefs, having 
now loft both kingdoms. He fent, as his laft re- 
fource. Amir Cafim to Taflicund, to entreat the 
afiiftance of his uncle Mahmood. That monarch 
haftened to Jilka, where he and Baber met ; but 
an emiflary, at the fame time, came to Mahmood, 
from Jehangire, who managed matters fo well, 
that Mahm.ood left his two nephews to fettle 
their own differences, and returned to Tafhcund. 
This unexpected blow had fuch an effect upon the 
affairs of Baber, that they now appeared fo def- 
perate, that of all his army, in a few days only 
forty horfemen remained with him, to conquer 
two kingdoms. In this forlorn fituation he re- 

B A B E R. 93 

treated to Chojind. He wrote from thence to a. d. 1498 
MahommedHuffein, at Artaba, acquainting him, '^* ^^'*' 
that the place in which he was then could not pro- 
tect him from the fury of his enemies ; he there- 
fore earpeftly folicited him to permit him to pafs 
the winter at Bifhaer. Huflein confented to this 
requeft ; and Baber accordingly took up his quar- 
ters there. He began to recruit a new army, 
writing to all the friends he could think of, to 
join him. 

After a few were gathered round his ftandard, Jf^ !.^'^j* 

O ' the held 

he confidered that his future fortune depended en- with a tew. 
tirely upon the reputation of his arms, and re- 
folved to employ them againft his enemies. He, 
therefore, haftened to Barnilack, where he took 
fome forts by aflault, and fome by ftratagem. 
But thefe petty exploits were of little fervlce to 
him, for his affairs bore ftill a very ruinous af- 
pect, which threw him into great perplexity. 
He received, in the mean time, agreeable tidings 
from Ali Dooft, begging his forgivenefs, and in- 
forming him that he was in poflfellion of the gar- 
rifon of Marinan, and if Baber iliould come to 
take pofleflion of it, he would number himfelf 
among his flaves. Baber did not hefitate to ac- 
cept this offer, and arriving at the place, he met 
Ali Dooft: at the gate, who put him into pof- 
feflion of the fort, and fupplied his finances. Ba- 
ber immediately lent Amer Cafiim towards the 
mountains of Indija, and Ibrahim Sara and Vifs 
Laghiri towards Achfi, to endeavour to bring 
over friends to his party. This meafure had the "'^f^^^^''* 
defired effccl:, for the mountiiineers of Indija were wear a fa- 
gained to the intcreft of Baber, while Ibrahim p^^'j'''''-*'" 
Sara and Vifs Laghiri fettled matters <lvith 
the governor of the fort of Baab, and two or 
three more, who declared for Baber. The nego- 


A,p, 149?. tiations of that prince fuccecded, at the fame time, 
'g- ^04. ,^j. ^^^ court of his uncle Mahmood, of Bochara, 
who marched to join him. 
bdkgfrMm Jehangirc, having received intelligence of the 
in Mdiinan. proceedings at Marinan, and of the efforts of Ba- 
ber to raife an army, marched w^ith his forces to- 
w^ards tliat place, and fat down before it. He 
detached, at the fame time, part of his army to- 
^ wards Achfi, who falling in with Mahmood, were 
defeated, with great flaughter. When Jehangire 
received thefe advices, he was ftruck with emba- 
raffment, and retreated to Indija, But Nafirbeg, 
the fon-in-law of Ozin Haffen, who had now the 
government of that city, feeing the favourable 
afpecl of Baber's affairs, by the junction of Mah- 
mood, and feveral parties of Ufbecks, determin- 
ed not to admit Jehangire, and immediately fent 
a meffenger to haften Baber to take poffeffion of 
the place. This check ruined the affairs of Jehan- 
gire, for immediately his army began todifperfe, 
while he himfelf took the way to Off, and Ozin 
Haffen that of Achfi. 
Baber re- Babcr, by this time, advanced to Indija, and 
covershis took poffcffion of that city, conferring honors 
dommions. ^^^^ |^-g friends ; and thus the capital of Firghana 
was, in the year nine hundred and four, reftored 
to its former adminiffration. Upon the fourth 
day after the arrival of Baber, hefet out for Achfi, 
where Ozin Haffen capitulated, and was permit- 
ted to retire to Hiffaar, Calim Ogib being ap- 
pointed governor of the place. The king return- 
ed to indija, with the greateff part of Ozin Haf- 
fen's troops, who inliffed themfelves under his 
victorious banners. But the forces of Haffen hav- 
ing, upon a former occafion, plundered feveral 
perfons, then in the king's army, of their effects, 
a complaint was made to Baber, and orders were 
iffued to reftore the plunder to the proper owners. 


B A B E R. 95 

The moguls, unwilling to comply with this order, a.I) 14)9, 
mounted their horfes, and, to a man, let out for ^'^•^"^• 
Orgund, where they joined Jehangire and Ah- 
med limbol, by which they were again in a con- 
dition to march againft Indija. The king fent a 
general to oppofe them, who was defeated with 
great flaughter, many of the king's principal om- 
rahs being flain, andfeveral taken prifoners. 

The enemy advanced with ail expedition, and 
laid ficge to Indija for the fpace of thirty days, 
but as they could elTeCl nothing againft it, they 
marched towards Oufe. The king having re- 
cruited his army, marched in the year nine hun- 
dred and five, towards Oufe, while ^^^<^ ^"^^^Y' ,„ji-aj,gf,e. 
by another road, made a pufli towards Indija. ^d: 
Baber, however, trufting to his friends in that 
city, and the ftrength of the place, marched to 
Badvverd, a ftrong fort in the pollefllon of Chi- 
lili, brother to Ahmed Timbol. Chilili defend- 
ed the place with great refolution, but at length 
was forced to a capitulation, by the terms of 
which, he was exchanged for the king's friends, 
who had fallen into the enemy's hands. 

Ahmed limbol, in the mean time, m.ade anThccnemy 
attempt to fcale the walls of Indija in the night, j;^';^;';;;''^^ 
but was repulfed with great lofs. Baber, by B^ibd. 
this time, returning to that place, took a ftrong 
poft by the banks of the river. He encamped 
before the enemy for the fpace of forty days, and 
then determined to attack their camp, though 
with great difadvantage. After an obllinate and 
bloody refiftance, the rebels were driven out ot 
their trenches, and difperied. The king, after 
the victory, entered the city in triumph. Baber 
was informed in Indija, that fix thoufand horfe 
from Mahmood, king of Bochara, whofe policy « 

it was to weaken both parties, had come to the 
affiiiance of Jehangire, and had lat down before 



'J^j^ 1^^^^^- C.ifiian. The kin^^, though it was now the mid- 
- °' die of winter, in levcrc frofl and fnow, marched 
that way, upon which the allies retreated to 
their own country. Timbol, who was upon his 
march to join the rebels, fell in accidentally with 
the King, in a fituation where he could not ef- 
cape, had not the night favoured his retreat ; by 
which means he went oiFwith little lofs, The 
King purfued him under the walls of Bifliarc, and 
encamped in fight. 

ApeacH.e- Upon the fourth day, Ali Dooft and Cumber 

tween Ba- \t "i j i rr- 

b-r and his ^^-'ij prcvLnled upon the kmg to make propofals 
[]|^°*'!^;''i'-'- of accommodation. The terms were imme- 
""'^'"' diately agreed upon ; that Jehangire fhould keep 
polfeiiion of all the country between the river 
Chajand and Achfi ; and that the kingdom of 
Indija, and the diibicls of Orgund, (liould re- 
main to Baber ; that if the latter Ihould ever re- 
cover the kingdom of Samarcand, he fiiould give 
up Indija to Jehangire. After thefe terms of pacifi- 
cation were Iblemnly ratified by mutual oaths, the 
brothers had an interview, and the prifoners up- 
on both fides were fet at liberty. T he King re- 
turned to Indija, where Ali Dooft, who was a 
man of great wealtli and power^ had began to 
exert unbounded authority. He baniflicd fome 
and imprifoned others, without the King's per- 
million ; while his fon, Mahommed took a prince- 
ly {fate upon himfelf. 1 he King, upon account 
of his great influence, and the numerous enemies 
which environed his dominions, was conftraincd 
to diilemble his refentment. 

In the mean time, Mazidir, an omrah of Ali, 
who by the removal of his brother Eaifinker, 
reigned in Samiarcand, apprehenfive of danger 
, irom his mafter, joined Bijan Mirza the fon 

of Mahmood, and carried Iiim again ft Samar- 

B A B E R. 9; 

inviting him to tiie conqueft of that kingdom. ^-^ '^99 
Baber embraced the propofal, and drew his army Babfr'sei- 
towards Samarcand, Mazidlir havlno; ioined Ba- p^^^'''*^" ^° 
ber upon his march, it was relolved in council to 
fend a perfon to found Chaja Eiah, who had 
almoll the whole power of Samarcand in his 
hands. He returned them for anfwer, that 
they might march towards the city, and what- 
ever was found then moft advifeable, fhould 
be done. In the mean time, Dildai, one of Ti- 
mur's pofterity, who commanded a tribe in Ba- 
ber's camp, left his poft without any apparent 
reafon, fled to Samarcand, and acquainted the 
enemy of the correfpondence with Chaja Eiah, 
which difconcerted their meafures. His veteran 
troops crowded to the King's Itandard, making 
complaints againft Ali Dooft. Baber, therefore, 
determined to difmifs him. from his prefence, fo 
that he and his fon went over to Ahmed 1 im- 
bul but in a few days he died. 

At this time Shubiani, King of the Ufbecks, 
had taken Bochara, and was upon full march 
to conquer Samarcand, which Ali was advif- 
ed to reiinquifh to him. Baber, upon hearing 
this news, went to Kifh, and from thence to 
Hiffar, where Mafidiir, and the omrahs of Samar- 
cand, defpairing of taking that city, left him, 
and went to Chufero, King of Kunduz. Baber, 
after this defertion, was obliGred to take the „ , 

.-• 1 1 IT 1 B-ibcr de- 

way to Sirtack, ever rocks, Itones, and rug- rentd by hij 

ffcd paths, by which his army fuifcred exceed- '^''"'-^'■'^'>'' 

O » '^ / ^ , except two 

ingly, having loft moil part of his camvds andhundicd 
horfes. This circumftance difpirited his troops to ^'^^""^^ 
fuch a degree, that they all deferted him by the 
time he reached Barrdlack, except two hundred 
and forty men. 

Any man but Baber would have now defpaired 
of fuccefs in his deiigns j but though he had left 
. V^oL, II. H a kimidom 




His darinji 
attempt up 
on Samar- 


A.D. 1499. a kingdom to which he might have ftill returned, 
Hig. 905. his ambition prompted him to run the rifque of 
a young adventurer for another. He according- 
ly marched diredlly for Samarcand, with this 
fmall retinue, with an intention to get into that 
city, without being difcovered. His hopes were, 
that he could raife a faction among his friends, 
while yet the city was in diforder. He entered 
Samarcand in the dufk of the evening, and went 
to Eurit Chan's houfe, but in a few minutes his 
arrival was whifpered about, and the whole city 
Obliged to began to be in an uproar. Baber, as his fcheme 
was not ripe for execution, thought it high time 
to make his efcape, which he did accordingly, 
without anylofs. 

After he had got clear of the city, he looked 
back and repented of his precipitate flight. He 
immediately {topped in a grove, where, being 
wearied Vv'ith the fatigue of the day, he laid him- 
felf down upon the ground to fleep, as did the 
greateft part of his retinue. In about an hour he 
awaked from a dream, in which he imagined he 
faw Abdalla, a dirvefh of great repute, coming 
towards his houfe. He thought that he invited 
the dirvelli to fit down, upon which his fieward 
fpread a tablecloth before him, at which the dir- 
vefh feemed greatly offcndedf, and rofe to gc? 
away. The king begged he would excufe him, as 
the offence was committed by a fervant. The 
dirvefli, upon this, took him by the arm, and 
held him up towards the Iky, upon which he a- 
woke, and calling up his attendants, related his 
dream, and determined to make an attempt im- 
mediately upon Samarcand. 

I lis dream 

f The Orientals never eat abroad without a formal invitation r 
befides, thefe independent dirvefhes Jive upon rice and \vater» 
and will not condefcend to be entertained by princes. 


B A B E R. 


Baber's fmali party having mounted their a. p. 1499. 
horfes, returned and reached the bridge about Returi?s°?o 
midnight. He detached eighty of his men before yamarcand; 
to a low part of the wall, near the Lovers C:ave, JJJjp'jl'^et 
which they fcaled by the help of a hook-rope, 
and coming round to the gate and falling upon 
the guard commanded by Cafiter Chan, killed 
and difperfed them. They immediately let open 
the gate, and admitted the king and his 
fmall party. The city was alarmed ; but the ' 
party proclaiming the name of Baber as they 
pafTed through the ftreets, all who were his 
friends flocked to him, while his eneiiiies, not 
knowing his ftrength, ran diftracled from 
place to place to join their leaders. In a 
Ihort time the alarm reached the houfe of Chaja 
Eiah, where feven thoufand Ufbecks were quar- 
tered. They rufhed out and joined Slmbiani 
their King, who, with eight thoufand more of 
his nation, lay in the citadel of Didar. Shubiani, 
with one hundred and fifty men, commanding 
the reft to wait for orders, fet out for the iron 
gate, but feeing he could do nothing with that 
handful, he retreated, Baber, in the mean time, 
attended by fome thoufands, who rent the fkv 
with acclamations, followed him fo clofe, that 
Shubiani could not, either by words or example, 
make one of the Ufbecks ftand his ground. He 
therefore followed them out of the oppofue gate, 
and fled towards Bochara, and Samarcand imme- 
diately fubmitted to Baber.. 

This action, if we confider the ftrength of the 
place, the troops it contained, the alarm that 
had been fpread in the evening, the fmali num- 
ber who attempted it, the uncertainty of being 
joined by the citizens, and many other difficul- 

H 2 ties. 


A.D. 1500. \vc muft efleem it equal to the boldcft enterprize 
"'s- ^'^^^ in hiftory. Theauthors who relate it, veryjuftly 
give it the preference to any of the exploits ot Ti- 
mur. Mufidlir took this opportunity of vvrefting 
the forts of Kirflii and Heraz from theUfbecks; 
while Haifen Mirza, frum Muracufs, came and 
took Kole. Baber fent ambaffadors to Haffen 
Mirza, and other neighbouring princes, his rela- 
tions, to rcqueft their alliance, to drive Shubiani 
quite out of Maver ul Nere. They either paid 
no regard to Baber's embafly, or fent fuch pitiful 
fuppiies, as ferved no purpofe. Shubiani, by 
this means, recovered ftrength during the win- 
ter, taking Karacole, and other diftricts. 
fJated by' Babcr, in the month of Shawal, nine hundred 
shuijian's. and fix, colleclcd his whole force, and marched 
out of Samarcand, to engage Shubiani. He 
came up with him in the environs of Caridzin, 
and fought him. Baber exhibited, upon this oc- 
cafion, all the good qualities of the general and 
brave foldier, but he was deferted by his allies, 
and foon after by his own troops. Only fifteen 
brave friends remained at lall by his fide, with 
whom, feeing it in vain to contendany longer with 
fortune, he made good his retreat to Samarcand. 
He loft in this aclion his principal omrahs, and 
other chiefs of note. Shubiani advanced, and laid 
fiege to the city ; the King taking up his quar- 
ters at the college of Ali Beg, as being the moft 
central place for fending orders, or alliftance. 
The fiege was continued with great obftinacy for 
many days, numbers being killed on both fides ^ 
during which time, Kutch Beg, Loma, and Kel- 
nizer, gave extraordinary examples of bravery. 
Four months had now pafTed in attacking and 
repuliing, when a dreadful famine began to rage 
in the city. The inhabitants eat their horfes, and 
even the moft unclean animals, while thofe who 


B A B E R. foi 

could not procure other prDvlhons, fubfifted up- a-^- '5^'• 
on the bark or trees. 

Though the King, at the commencement of the 
fiege, had fent ainbaiTadors to the Kings of Chor- 
rallan, Kundez, Buckolan, and MoguUilan, all 
princes of the houfe of Timur, for fuccours, he 
received no hopes of their aid. He was, there- Forced tu 
fore, under the cruel necellity of abandoning his '^'l]^''^^^' 
capital and kingdom, with about one hundi-edTundrT/ 
friends, in a dark night, in the beginning of the '"^"■ 
year nine hundred and fcven. He efcaped to 
Talhcund, whither his brother, Jehangire, came 
to pay him his refpefts. His uncle, Mahmood, 
comforted him in his diftrefs, entertained him in 
a princely manner, and gave him the city o.f Ar- 
taba to refide in during the winter. 

But in the beginning of the fpring, he was Befi^^red at 
again attacked by Shubiani, who, not being able 
to effed any thing againft the city, plundered 
the country, and retreated to Samarcand. In 
this manner, Baber, unable to raife his head from 
his misfortunes, lived for fome time, Ahmed 
Timbol having tajken poffeffion of the kingdom 
of Indija, which the king had refigned to his bro- 
ther Jehangire, upon his taking Samarcand. 
Mahmood, and his brother Ahmed, were at 
length prevailed upon to fupport their nephew 
Baber in an attempt to recover the kingdom of 
Indija from Ahmed Timbol. When the confede- 
rates had reached the boundaries of Ferghana, 
Timbol marched out to oppofe them, it was 
agreed, that Baber, with a fmall detachment of 
Moguls, fhould march towards Oili, to raife a par- 
ty there, wliilft his uncles oppofedTimbol. Baber 
accordingly took Olli, and was joined by fome 
of the inhabitants of Orgun and Marinan, who 
expelled the garrifons of Timbol. The King im- 
mediately marched towards Indija ; and Timbol 



A D. ijC2. decamped from before the confederate princes, 
^ ^e-90 • ^Y\d haflcned back to cover Indija. 
Tiir.boi. Timbol happened, by accident, to fall in with 

Baber's camp, when the troops were out forag- 
ing, and defeated him. The King efcaped, 
wounded, to Ofh, while Timbol threw himfelf 
into Indija, and prepared for a defence. The 
next day, the allied army of Mahmood and Ah- 
med appeared in light, and fat down before the 
place, where they were joined foon after by Ba- 
ber. Some time after, the inhabitants of Achfi 
called the king, and put him in pofleflion of 
that place ; but the allied princes, not being able 
to reduce Indija, raifed the fiege. 
Totally <ie- ^^^ ^^^^ mcau time, Shubiani, King of the Uf- 
ies,'ea by bccks, fcarlug the fuccefs of Babcr, advanced from 
fatui-^uni. 3amarcand with a very great army, towards Achfi. 
Baber imm.ediately joined his allies, and they 
prepared to receive iiim. But in this aOion, 
which was very obftinate and bloody, the for- 
tune of Shubiani prevailed, and both the uncles 
of Baber were taken prifoners. The King efcaped 
to Moguliftan, and the kingdom of Tafhcund 
fell into the hands of Shubiani, which greatly 
augmented his power. Shubiani, fome time after, 
diimifled the two brothers, but Mahmood retir* 
ed, and fell into a deep melancholy. When one 
of his friends told him, that Shubiani had poifon- 
ed him, and begged to fupply him with fome fa- 
mous theriac of Chitta, as a powerful preven- 
tive of the effecls of poifons ; the prince replied, 
" Yes ! Shubiani has poifoned me, indeed ! he has 
" taken my Kingdom, which is not in the power 
" of your theriac to reftore.'* 
Heafiisad. BabcF left Moguliilau, and came to Shudma, 
vice of and from thence proceeded to Turmuz, in the 
^'^ ^''' neighbourhood of Balich, where Backer, prince 
of that place, who was uncafy at the great power 


BABE R.- 503 

of the Ufbecks, crhd of Baber's alliance, who ftlll ^J^- '?°^- 
had the command of an army, received him with 
great kindnefs and refpccl, and gave him large 
prefents. Baber laid to him, upon this occalion, 
That being a long time the football of fortune, * 

and like a piec€ 01 v/ood on a chefs-board, moved 
from place to place, vagrant as the moon in the fl^y, 
and relllefs as the ftone upon the beach, he would 
therefore be glad of his friendly advice, as he had 
been fo unfuccefsful in his own refolves. Backer 
replied. That, however incapable he was to ad- 
vife him, he would not withhold his opinion, 
which was, that, as Shubiani was now in full 
pofl'effion of Baber's kingdom, and many others, 
which rendered him extremely powerful, it would 
be more advifeable for him to purfue his fortune 
elfewhere, particularly in Cabuliftan, which was 
now in a ftate of anarchy. 

The King followed this advice, and in the 
year nine hundred and ten, marched towards Ca- 
bulf. Pafling, in his way, tnrough the domi- 
nions of Chufero, King of Kunduz, he was en- 
tertained by him with great hofpitality, for 
which, we are forry to relate, our hero made a babe's in- 
very bad return. During the time that Baber re- ^latit-.Kic to 
Tided there, he ftirred up a faclion in Chui'ero's *^'^"*'"*" 
court, and gained over fcvcn thoufand of his 
troops to his own intereii. This plot being dii'- 
covered, Chufero, with a few fervants, was o- 
blisred to abandon his capital and flv, leaving: his 
troops, his treafure, and every thing in rhc pof- 
fedion of Baber. Baber did not fail to avail him- 
felfofthefe advantages. He marched immediate- 
ly towards Cabul, which had been in polieliioa of 
Ryfac, the fon of Ali, Baber's uncle, v.'ho was 
then in his minority. One Zicca, exerting too 
much authority in the country at that time, 

f The city of Cabiil is the capital of the province of Cabu- 


,\.D. 150- 
Hig. 910, 

'\:i?- '!^'^' omrahs, who aflaflinated him in the month of 

Zihidge. This circumftance occafioned great 
convulfions in the kingdom ; for Mokim, the 
Ton of Amir Zulnon, prince of Garrimfere, took 
advantage of the inteftine divifions of the Cabu- 
lians, and invaded them, forcing Ryfac to take 
jQieher among the Afghans : he himfelf took pof- 
feflionof that country, and married the fifter of 
the former prince. 
^^^^^ Affiiirs being in this fituation, Babcr arrived 

fcizes upon upon the borders of Cabul, and driving Mokim 
Cabuii.ian. out of the field, forccd him to take refuge in the 
capital, which Baber belieged and took. He then 
applied himfelf to regulate and improv^e that coun- 
try, as dominions belonging to himfelf. In the 
year nine hundred and eleven, Cabuliftan was 
thrown into great confternation by dreadful earth- 
quakes, which laid moft of the cities in ruins. 
Baber endeavoured to alleviate this public cala- 
mity in fuch a manner, by his unwearied care 
and extenfive benevolence, that he gained the 
love and fidelity of all his new fubjeds. The reft- 
lefs genius of Baber could not lie quiet. His af- 
piring difpofition began to extend his views to 
conquefi:. He accordingly led an army againft the 
Argons of Kandahar, and deprived them of the 
ftrorlo; fort of Killat, eftabliftiino: an alliance with 
Buddiulzeman, a prince of the race ofTinmr, in 
pofTeilion of Herat. He marched in the fame year 
to Kufsluckat, which he brought into fubjeclion. 
and gave the government of Ghizni, uhich, from 
a great empire, was diminiflicd into an inconfi- 
derable province, to his brother Jehangire. 

]ii1;an in the mountains, between Perfia and India. It is fituat- 
ed in 34 degrees of latitude, and is one of the finell towns in 
that part ot Alia. Cabul is the depofitory and ftaple of the com- 
modities, which pafs from India into Perfia and Great Bucharia, 
and is confequently rich and populous. It is at prefent fubjecfl: 
to Ahmed Abdalla. 


B A » E R. 105 

In the ye^r nine hundred and twelve, Baber i\.p. 150^ 
marched towards Chorrafl'an to join HulTein ]v^a'idi«io 
Mirza, who, afhamed of his former behaviour, choirafian. 
and irritated by frefli injuries from Shubiani, 
now propofed to Baber, that they fliould join in 
alHance againft him. But when Baber had reach- 
ed Nimrofa, he heard of Huflein's death. He 
proceeded, however, to Chorraffan, and endea- 
voured to ftir up the princes and omrahs againil 
the Uroecks, He was not able to effe<5t his pur- 
pofe, and he therefore returned, by the way of 
Herat, towards Cabui. The fnows v.ere, at that 
time, very deep, and prevented his palTage over 
the hilk, which obliged him to canton his troops 
in Hazara. 

When Baber was thus conftrained to remain r^^^"^'""- 
at Hazara, Huflein Gurgan, Birlafs, and other 
mogul omrahs, joining with Mirza his couiin, 
raifed him to the throne of Cabul, by promoting 
falfe intehigence of the King's death. But when 
the news of his return reached the people, they 
rebelled againft the new government, and as foon 
as the feafon permitted his approach, flocked to 
his ftandard, put all the garrifons into his hands 
except the capital, where Mirza and his adherents 
fuftained a (liort iiege, and then capitulated. The '^ ' 
principal perfons concerned in the revolt, were 
txpelled the country. Abo\it this time Nafir, 
the Sultan's youngeft brother, who held the go- 
vernment of Buduchfhan, being defeated by one 
of the generals of Shubiani, took refuge at Cabul, 
and as Jehangire had killed himfelf by hard drink- 
ing, his government of Ghizni was now confer- 
red upon Nahr. „ , • . 

T 1 • 1 11 1 1 • -r-. , Baber invit. 

In the year nme hundred and thirteen, Baber lJ to Kan- 
marched againft tlie Afghans of Ghahngi, who ''"*'""• 
infefted his country and took from them one 
hundred thoufand flicep, and fome thoufands of 



A. D. i.;o7. Other cattlc, and returned. The omrahs of the 
Hig.9'3- houfe of Argon, being greatly opprefl'ed by the 
Ufbecks, wrote to Baber, at this time, that if 
lie would march that way, they would put him in 
poffeffion of Kandahar*. I'he Sultan did not he- 
iitate to comply with their requeft. He imme- 
diately fet out, and, as he was pafling Kilat, Mir- 
za begged the favour of being admitted into his 
prefence, and, receiving his pardon, accompanied 
liim. When he had reached the borders of Kan- 
dahar, he wrote to Shaw Beg and Mokim, that 
he was fo far upon his way, according to their 
delire, and that, therefore, he expected to fee 
them in his camp. Since the time of their writ- 
ing to Baber, fome alterations in their politicks 
had made them repent of the application they 
Jiad made, fo that inftcad of receiving the king 
in a friendly manner, they prepared for war, and 
deiired he would return home. But Baber deter- 
mined not to fufierfuch an indignity with impunity. 
He marched forward, and engaged them at the 
village of Gillifnack, near the city of Kandahar, 
defeated them with great flaughter, and cutting 
oft' their retreat from the city, Shaw Beg fled to 
Saul, and Mokim towards Dawir. Baber im- 
mediately laid llcge to the city, and took it, with 
all the wealth of the family of Zulnon, which he 
divided, by weight, amongft his officers and 
troops, according to their refpeclive ftations. 
He left Nalir, his brother in the government of 
Kandahar and Dawir, and then returned in tri- 
umph to Cabul. 
The iir- Mokim having, this very year, complained to 
vadt k1:i- Shubiani, the Uibeck, prevailed upon him to en- 


* Kandahar is the capital of a fmall province near Cabuliftan. 
It was alternately poflefled by the Moguls and Perfians, till it 
was finally ceded to Nadir Shaw, in 1739. 


B A B E R. 107 

gage in his behalf, and to march towards Kan-A^.isos. 
dahar. Nafir, upon receiving this intelligence, '*'''''' 
fhut himfelf up in the town, and fent exprefl'es to 
his brother for affiftance. Baber wrote him to 
defend the place as long as he could, but if he 
fhould be driven to great diftrefs, to capitulate, 
and come to him at Cabul ; for that, at the time, 
he was in no condition to difpute the field with 
Shubiani, whofe forces and finances were greatly 
fuperior ; befides, that a defeat might ruin him 
for ever, and overfet all the proje6ls he had 
formed of raifing himfelf a kingdom in Hindodan. 
Nafir, according to thefe inftru6lions, after he 
could hold out no longer with propriety, capitu- 
lated, and came to the king at Cabul. Shubiani, 
after taking the place, gave it back to the fons of 
Zulnon, and marched with his army towards 
Chorraflfan. But no fooner had Shubiani evacua- 
ted Kandahar, than the Arguniahs, a wild tribe, 
made an incurfion, and poflelTed themfelves of the 
place. This was an agreeable piece of news to 
Baber, as they formed a barrier between him and 
the Ufbccks. 

This year, upon the fourth of Zicat, Baber had J^^JJ"'^' 
a fon born to him in Cabul, whom he named 
Humaioon, who afterwards became emperor of 
Hindoflan. The Sultan, in tlie following year, 
took the field againft the Mcmind Afghans, and, 
during his abfence, tlie moguls of Chufero, who 
liad been left to defend Cabul, revolted, and fet 
up again Ryfac, the fon of Ali, upon the throne. 
The king uas immediately deferted by the great- 
efi; part of his army ; for hearing of the rebellion 
in Cabul, they haitencd home to protect their fa- 
milies, infomuch, that out of upwards 6i' ten 
thoufand Iiorfe, which he carried to the field, 
Baber had novv' fcarcc five hundred remaining in 
his camp. 

Not wit h- 



A. D. lyy. Notwithftanding thefe misfortunes, Baber bold- 
BahTrs' ^y I'efolvcd to advancc towards Cabul, with the 
fiaiinijen- fcw trufty fricnds he had left. Ryfac, upon the 
teipnze. g^ltan's approach, came out of the city with an 
army ten or twelve thoufand ftrong. The king, 
with his fmall troop, advanced towards them, 
and when he came near, ordered his party to halt. 
He himfelf rode clofe up to the rebel-army, and 
omrah'sTn challenged Ryfac to fingie combat ; but, as he 
jin:^k com- feemcd to decline it, five omrahs, one after ano- 
ther, engaged him, and fell by his hand. The 
names of the omrahs were, Alii Shubcore, Alii 
Seiftani, Nifcr the Ufbeck, Jacoob, and Ufbeck 
Eahadar. This heroic behaviour ftruck the re- 
bels with fo much admiration and aftonifhment, 
that they refufed lo fight, by which means the 
ufurper was taken. But fo great was the king's 
clemency, that he pardoned him ; but foon after, 
beginning to raife more difturbance, he fuffered 
the juft reward of a traitor. 
^,^^ ^^ The country of Chufero, king of Kunduz, 

tween Per- having fallcu into the hands of the Ufbecks, who 
uibTcks^''^ took no proper means of keeping it in fubjeclion, 
a number of independent chiefs fprung up in Bu- 
duchilian, of whom the principal was Zeiper. 
Chan Mirza, upon this, by the advice of his mo- 
ther, Sha Begum, who traced her genealogy to 
the great Secunder *, began to entertain hopes, 
and to take meafures to raife himfelf to that king- 
dom. Having previoufly obtained leave of Ba- 
ber, he this year left Cabul ; and, having raifed 
^a fmall army, advanced towards the borders of 
Buduchfhan. But his mother, who came up in 
the rear, was attacked by a body of Kafligars, 
and carried ofl' prifoner, while Chan Mirza was 
defeated, and obliged to give himfelf up to Zei- 
per, who kept him under guard. Eufoph AH, 

* Alexander the GreaL 


B A B E R. 109 

who had been an old fervant of Mirza, formed ^^^_^; 'J''' 
confpiracy againft Zeiper, and aflaffinated him, 
and Chan Mirza was raifed to the throne by the 
people. In the year nine hundred and fixteen, 
Ifniaiel SufFavi f , king of Perfia, wrote to Shubi- 
a:ni to withdraw his troops from fome of the Ikirts 
of his dominions, upon which he had begun to 
encroach, to root up the tree of contention, 
which produced bitter fruits, and to plant that of 
friendfhip, whofe bloffoms fhed the moft grateftil 
perfume. Shubiani replied. That it was only 
for thofe who were defcended from kings to en- 
tertain thoughts of empire ; that it was true, 
that Ifmaiel, though the Ton of a Fakier, had 
raifed himfelf to a kingdom, when there was no 
lord of feven nations around him, to oppofe him ; 
that therefore, it would be now advifeable for 
him to retire to his former obfcurity, and that, 
for that purpofe, he had fent him a (tafl and a 
beggar's dilh for his inheritance ; for that Shubi- 
ani only was worthy of pofiefling the bride of 
royalty, who duril kifs her through oppollng 
fwords. Ifmaiel anfvvered, That if empire was 
an inheritance, by what m.eans was it fo often 
violated, till it fell to his lot ? for his own part, 
he had always confidered the right of kings as 
founded upon power, and that the longeft fword 
was the bed title. That, with the latter, he 
was, at all times, ready to difpute with Shubiani ; 
and that, though he himfelf had no opinion of 
contemptuous oftentation, yet in return for Shu- 
biani's prefent, he had fent him a gridiron and 
fpinning-w'heel for his amufement. Afs for the 
reft, that Ifmaiel would be his own meflengcr. 

f The firft of the Pcrfian dynafty called coirnptedly in Eu- 
rope, the Sophis of Perfia. 



A. p. tsn. Havinp; di (patched this mciTagc, irnuicl imnic- 
swfiM? cliately collected his army, and marching eaft- 
overtiirjwn '^^'-ird, fubducd Chorraffan, and advanced to 
and liuin. Murvc, bcforc Shubiani could make the lead op- 
pofition. Shubiani not being then prepared to 
engage Ifmaicl, in the field, he fhut himlelf up in 
Murve. But being feverely reproached by If- 
iTiaiel, he marched out and gave him battle, in 
which he vi^as defeated. In his flight he had the 
misfortune to get into a park, with about five 
Imndred princes and principal officers, from 
whence he could find no outlet. He was attack- 
ed there by the king of Perfia, and feeing no 
hope of efcape left, he and his followers fought, 
rcfufing quarter, till every man of them was laid 
dead on the field. 

Chan Mirza immediately difpatchcd accounts 
of this important event from Buduchfhan to Ba- 
ber, and went himfelf to Kunduz ; informing 
the king, that now was the time for recovering 
P^,^^^ his former dominions. Baber accordingly, in the 
marches year nine hundred and feventeen, marched, with 
J,"/J„°^i,'i. all expedition, towards Hilfar, crofling the Amu * 
"as, with Chan Mirza. But a great army of Ufbecks 

being encamped near that city, the moguls were 
obliged to retreat to Kunduz. Ifmaiel,,at this 
time, fent the Sultana Zada, Baber's fifi-er, who 
Iiad been taken in Samarcand by Shubiani, and 
afterwards married by him, with all her effects, 
to Kunduz ; where fhe gave fo favourable an ac- 
count of the generous behaviour of the Perfian, 
that Baber was induced to hope for his afl]fi:ance 
in reinfliatinsr him in his hereditary kinodom. 
He, for this purpofe, fent him an arabaiiador, 
with proper prefents. In the mean time, in or- 
der to keep up the fpirit of entcrprize, he 

* The Oxus. 


B A B E R. iM 

inarched towards Hiffar, where he ilill found the A^p.isn. 
Ufbecks greatly fuperior in force to him. He 
therefore declined to attack them, till he Ihould 
recruit more forces. This being done, he ad- 
vanced to their encampment, and offered them 
battle, which they accepted, and Baber obtained 
a complete victory, to which the bravery of Chan 
Mirza greatly contributed. 

He was, in a few days after, joined by Ahmed, 
of the SufFvi family. Alii Oftagelo, and Sharock, , 
with a fine body of cavalry on the part of the 
king of Perfia, by which his army amounted to 
fixty thoufand horfe. With this force he march- 
ed towards Bochara, and, after feverai fuccef^ful J^^^^^'^ ^"^ 
adlions with Abdulla, and Jani Beg, pofieiled" ' 
himfelf of that kingdom. Upon the fifteenth of 
Regib of the fame year, he marched from Bo- 
chara to Samarcand, which city furrendered to ^^^'^'J^samar- 
him the third time, and acknowledged him fo-" " * 
vereign. Baber fixed his refidence at Samarcand, 
and appointed Nafir, his brother, to the govern- 
ment of Cabul, giving leave to the troops or 
Perfia to return home. . But he had not polTefied 
this throne above nine months, before the Uf- 
becks, who had fled to Turkcilan, advanced, 
under Timur, who had fucceeded to Shubiani. 
Upon receiving thefe advices, Baber marched to 
defend Bochara, where he engaged the Ufbecks, 
but being defeated, was obliged to fliut himfelf 
up within the walls. He was, in the end, forced 
to abandon the city, and to retreat to Samarcand. 
Here he was again befieged, and obliged to fly to 

About this time, Nigim Sani, of Ifpahan, gc- Y;>k^s an 
neral of the Perfian armies, advanced with an in- '^^ij^'^'t'j^. 
tention to poflefs himlclf of Balich. Baber, ever I'-'f^'^ 
watchful to grafp at every thing favorable to the^''"*' 
ruling pafllon of iiis foul, formed an alliance with 
him for the recovery of his dominions. Sani 



^^D. >5iS. havinsr taken the fort of Kirifli from the Ilibeck?, 
put the garrifon, confiftinjT of fifteen thoufand, 
to the fword. He then laid riec:e to Gudo-dcwan, 
in conjunftion with the Sultan, whither the 
princes of tlie Uibecks advanced againll them, 
froui Bochara, with a great army ; and fortune 
being Hill the adverfary of Baber, Nigim Sani» 
with a great part of his army, was flain, and 
the mogul prince himfelf obliged to ily to Shad- 
man, with a few attendants. 

A conrpi- jvj-Qj. (jj(^ fi^g m.isfortunes of Baber rife from 

racy agaiint ^, . _^, , „ . , . „ 

}.is life. the enemy alone. His attendants conlpired agamic life, for having blamed fome of them for bad 
behaviour. They rufhed, in the night, into his 
tent, but being alarmed by the noife, he made 
his efcape naked, and reached the fort of Aric 
before morning, without one attendant; and the 
confpirators plundered his camp, and difperfed 
themfelves. in this fituation of afiairs, the king 
faw no further hope in thofe northern regions, 
and therefore fet out for Cabul with a fmall reti- 
nue, and upon his arrival appointed Nafir to the 
government of Ghizni. In the year nine hund- 
red and twenty-four, he marched towards Sawad 
and Bejoar, poffeffed by the Afghans of Zehi, 
who had been infefting his country. Having de- 
feated thofe mountaineers, and carried fome 
thoufands of them into captivity, he gave the go- 
vernment of that country to one of his om- 

Meciitates ^h^j^ SecundcF, the emperor of Hindoftan, 


xht cull- 

qwdtof died, he was fucceeded, as we have already re- 
lated, by Ibrahim the fecond, in whofe reign the 
Patan chiefs of the imperid family of Lodi, be- 
cam.e fo facTious, that they totally broke the 
power of that empire. Baber reckoned this a 
good opportunity to eftablifli himfelf in India, 
the conqueft of which he had long meditated, 
though he was always embroiled in other affairs. 


B A B E R. 113 

Baber accordingly, in the year nine hundred and -'^■P- '^^• 
twenty-five, marched his army as far as the blue 
river, one of the branches of the hidus. He fub- 
dued all the countries in his way, and croffing the 
river, advanced to Berah in Punjab, raifmg heavy 
contributions for with-holding his troops from 
plunder. He fent from Berah, one Moulana, 
with an erabafly to the emperor Ibrahim, acquaint- 
ing him, that as that country had been for many 
years in the poiTefiion of the houfe of Timur, it 
was proper he fhould now relinquiih his pretenli- 
ons to it, and fo prevent the war from being car- 
ried further into India. At this place Baber re- 
ceived advice of the birth of another fon, whom 
he named Hindal. He appointed Hall'en Beg, 
governor of the conquered countries as far as Chi- 
naab, and marched in perfon againft the Gickers, 
and befieged the fort of Pirhala, whither Hati 
their chief had retired. The Gickers were, one 
day, tempted to take the field, and were defeated 
by Doofl; Beg, the mogul general, while the king 
in perfon cut off their retreat to the fort, and ob- 
liged them to fly to the mountains. 1 he fort, in 
which there was a confiderable treafure, fell by 
this means into his hands, which fatisfied Baber 
for this expedition, and he returned to Cabul. 

In the latter end of the fame year, Baber re- His f. cond 
turned ae:ain to Hindofian, with an intention to fM-«Ji^'°n 

O ... into Hin- 

take Lahore, and in his way chailifed foine Patans d>aan. 
of the tribe of Zehi, who difturbed him in his 
march. He built a fort at Pefhawir, and then 
advanced to the Indus. He there received intel- 
hgence, that the king of Kafligar, or Little Bu- 
charia, was marched into Buduchlhan, which ob- 
liged him to return, leaving the prince Mahom- 
med, one of the defcendants of Timur, with four 
thoufand horfe, to fupport his authority in the 
country. He had not, however, reached Cabul, 
before he heard that the king of Kafligar had been 
Vol. II. 1 obliged 


A- D. 1519. obliged to retreat, Baber, therefore, turned' his 

'^' "^^ ' face towards the Afghans, of the tribe of Chizer 

Cheil, who began to make depredations upon the 

kingdom of Cabul in his abfence, and feverally 

chaftifed them for their infolence, fpoiled their 

country, and returned to his capital. 

Third ex- Baber, in the year nine hundred and twenty- 

^\o iiili ^*^' "^^^ched a third time towards India, chafti- 

doftan. fmg the Patans in his way, till he reached Salcot, 

the inhabitants of which country fubmitted, and 

faved their pofl'eflions. But the people of Seid- 

poor, ere(^ng the ftandard of defence, were, in 

the end, put all to the fvvord, their wealth given 

up to depredation, and their children and wives 

carried away captive. Baber was here alarmed, 

by intelligence from Cabul, that obliged him to 

Returns Tctum, for the Kandharians had invaded his coun- 

eb KanS ^^y- ^e marched againll them, drove them out 

^ar, of the field, and inverted their capital. 

He, in the mean time, received advice of the 
death of Chan Mirza, in Buduchfhan, and ap- 
pointed his fon Humaioon to that government, 
Shaw Beg, the prince of Kandahar, held out witli 
great bravery againft Baber for the fpace of three 
years, during which time the blockade lafted. 
Bur in the year nine hundred and twenty-eight, | 
Baber, who was obftinate in his refolution, at 
which is length reduced Kandahar, and all the country of 
taken. Garrumfere, appointing prince Camiran, his fon, 
to the government. 

Soon after the furrender of Kandahar, Dowlat 
Lodi, apprehenfive of the emperor Ibrahim, fent 
a deputation to Baber, at Cabul, begging his pro- 
Fourth ex- ted:ion. Baber, in the year nine hundred and 
£iu>'hL thirty, augmented his army, and advanced with- 
doftan. in fix crores of Lahore, where Par Lodi, Muba- 
rick Lodi, and Bicken Lohani, who were power- 
ful omrahs of Punjab, joined their forces, and 


B A B E R. n5 

oppofed him ; but they were defeated with great ^>'^' '523- 
flaughter. Baber, in perfon, marched to Lahore, '^ ^^°'' 
and took it, fetting fire to the Bazar, according ^^^J'^"'^ 
to a fuperftitious cuftom of the Moguls. 

The king remained four days only in Lahore, 
and then advanced againft Debalpoor. He fum- po^r. 
moned the place to furrender, but as the garrifon 
forced him to rifque an affault, in which he was 
fuccefsful, he put them all to the fword. Dow- 
lat Lodi, with his three fons, joined Baber at 
Debalpoor, and the father was appointed to the 
government of Jallender, Sultan poor, and other 
diftricls of Punjab, which rendered him very pow- 

This Dowlat Lodi was a defcendant of the race Dowiat 
of that nam.e who heretofore reigned at Delhi. ^-"^I^*"'' 
He gave to Baber information, that Ifmaiel Scl-^' 
wani, and other Afghans, were collecl:ed at Kha- 
rah ; that it would, therefore, be advifeable to 
detach a force againft them. The Sultan agreed 
to this propofil, and prepared to ftnd a detach- 
ment that way. In the mean time, Delavvir, the 
youngeft fon of Dowlat, acquainted Baber, with 
whom he was a grc;at favorite, that liis father 
and brother wanted to divide his troops, to put 
Ibme plan which they themfelves had concerted, in 
execution. The king, after being convinced of 
the truth of this intormation, ordered Dowlat, 
and his fon Ghazi, into confinement. He then 
crolTed the Suttuluz, advanced to Sirhind, and 
there releafed the two Lodi's, and e:ave them c(- 
tates. But when they had reached Sultanpoor, 
they deferted the camp, and fled to the hills. 
The king, upon this, gave to Delawir the title of 
firft of the nobles, and both their eftates ; but as 
the father and fon's defertion greatly affeded Ba- 
ber's intereft in Hindoftan, he thought it no ways 
advifeable to proceed to Delhi this year. He, 

1 2 af;:cordin,g!y, 


'^•P-^5?4 accordino-ly^ returned to Lahore, and, having 
appointed governors to the different countries in 
his poffeffion in India, let out for Cabuh 

During Saber's abfence, Dowlat Lodi found 
means to fcize his fon Delawir, who had betray- 
ed him, and put him in chains ; then marching 
with a formidable army to Debalpoor, fought 
Alia, the brother of the emperor Ibrahim, and 
Baba Kifka, and defeating them, fubdued that 
Pffeafs country. Alia fled to Cabul, and Baba to La- 
Babet's hore. Dowlat fent five thoufmd Afghans againft 
lorces. Salcot, but Mir Aziz, governor of Lahore, im- 
mediately marched, with what forces he had, to 
the affiftance of Kokiltafh, who held the govern- 
ment of Salcot, and meeting with this detach- 
ment of Afghans, defeated them, and returned 
to Lahore. 
ibiahim Much about this time, an army, on the part of 

attacks Ibrahim, emperor of Delhi, marched againfl 
Dowlat Lodi and his fon. Dowlat turned his 
army to giv^e them battle, and, having met them 
at Bidvvarrah, found means to flir up a fadlion in 
his own favor in the imperial camp, infomuch 
that fuch as were not difaffecled were obliged to 
fly the camp, and return to Ibrahim. 

Alia, who had loft his government of Debal- 
rives at poor, and had fled to Cabul, now arrived in La- 
Lahore horc., with ordcrs from Baber to all his officers in 
thofe parts, to join him with all their forces, and 
march towards Delhi, and that he would fupport 
them in perfon as foon as his affairs at home would 
permit. Dowlat and Ghazi Lodi, hearing of this 
order, wrote to the mogul omrahs, that they 
were glad to find that Baber efpoufed the caufe of 
Alia, who was the very perfon they themfelves 
would chufe to raife to the throne of Delhi ; that 
if ihey would, therefore, fend him to them, they 
would undertake to place him upon the Mufnud. 


B A B E R. ri7 

The mogul chiefs, having firft obtained a grant ^j;^!^- '52j. 
for Baber, of all the countries to the north-weft '°'^-'" 
of the Indus, permitted Alia to join the Lodi's 
himfelf, without complying further with their 
matter's orders. When accordingly Alia arrived 
in their camp, Dowlat and his fon fupplied hirn 
with the greateft part of their force, with which 
he marched towards Delhi, and invefted it, as g^fiepes 
before related, with forty thoufand horfe. In ^ '" 
the mean time, the emperor Ibrahim advanced 
againft his brother from Agra, and was furprized, 
in the night, when he had reached near the city ; 
but, by the irregular behaviour of Alla's army, 
who, in the morning, difperfed themfelves to 
plunder, they were fallen upon by Ibrahim, and 
defeated in their turn, which obliged Alia to re- over- 
treat, in great diftrefs, to Punjaab. When Baber throuu. 
heard of the defeat of Alia, he awoke from the 
dream of indolence and luxury, which he had 
indulged for fome time in Cabul, and, in the be- 
ginning of the fpring, of the year nine hundred 
and thirty two, marched the fifth time towards 
Hindoftan. He was joined by his fon Humaioon, 
with a good force, from Buduchflian, and Chaja 
Callan, with the troops from Ghizni. He took 
the rout of Lahore, and in the way ufed to hunt 
rhinocerofes, with which that country abounded, 
and fo had an opportunity of putting the perfonal 
bravery of moft of his chiefs to trial, as that was 
a dangerous and warlike exercife. Many of thofe 
animals were killed, and fome taken alive in 

Upon the firft of the firft Ribbi, Baber crofted Baber crof.. 
the Indus, and upon the banks of that river, muf- Jl'^j''^ ^"' 
tered his army, which confifted of only ten thou- 
fand chofen horfe. Crofling then that branch of 
the Indus, which is called Behat, he advanced to 
i^alcot, where Alia met him, and likewife Ali, 



^„^-'-? ^5 governor of Cullanorc, and Haffen, the collector 
'^ '^" of the revenues in thofe provinces. Dowlat Lodi 
and his fon Ghazi who reckoned themfelves pub- 
' lickly in the fervice of Alia, now lay upon the 
banks of the Ravi, near Lahore, with an army of 
forty thoufand men ; but when Baber advanced 
tov/ards them, they fled ; Dowlat to the fort of 
Milwit, and Ghazi to the fkirts of the hills. Ba- 
ber invefted Milwit, and Dowlat, after a few 
days, capitulated. It feems, that fome days be- 
fore, he put on two fwords, and boafted what he 
v/ould do to Baber. ^^aber now ordered thofe 
two fwords to be hung round his neck, and in 
that manner Dowlat was brought to his prefence ; 
but notwithftanding his behaviour, the King for- 
ga^re all his crimes, and took him into favor, 
V/hen the gates of the fort were opened, the 
troops prelfed in an irregular manner, and began 
to plunder. Babci, upon this, mounted his 
horfe, and entering, was under the necefiity of 
ufmg violence, to prevent their outrages. He 
killed, upon this occalicn, a principal officer of 
his fon Humaioon's retinue, v. ith an arrow, for 
which he was extremely grieved, as it happened 
by miftake. The King, by this means, faved the 
honor of Dov/lat's family, who were all in the 
place, and preferved a noble library which he had 
collecled, Dowlat being a poet and a man of 
learning. Baber marched from thence the next 
day, and purfued Ghazi, when Delawir, the fon 
of Dowlat, who had been dignified with a title, 
found means to efcape to him, and was honorably 
received. A mogul chief, who was detached in 
front, having fallen in with Ghazi, defeated him, 
and purfued him fo clofe, that he was obliged to 
ily to the Emperor Ibrahim, at Delhi, The elder 
Dovvlat died upon this march. 


B A B E R. ii(j 

Baber having, in feveral a£lions, perceived t^^e a^d. 152s. 
inferiority of the Indian troops to his own, de- j^^^fj^]^' 
termined to delay no longer his final attempt up- towards 
on the empire. He accordingly marched towards ^'=^^'- 
Delhi, having fome letters of encouragement, at 
the fame time, from a few of the malcontents at 
the court of Ibrahim. When he had reached the 
banks of the Giger, he heard that the governor 
of Firofa, was waiting to oppofe him in front, 
with the troops of thofe parts. Baber, therefore, 
fent his fon Humaioon, with fome of his moft ex- 
perienced officers, to drive the governor from 
his poft, which they effected, and returned vic- 
torious to the army. As this was the firil: battle 
in which prince Humaioon commanded, his fa- 
ther was greatly rejoiced, and gave him the coun- 
tries of Firofa and Jallender in Jagier. Two days 
after, Meian, a chief of the party of Ibrahim, 
appeared in fight, and defired to join Baber's 
colours, with three thoufand Patan horfe, and 
was accordingly entertained in his fervice. 

Baber having arrived within two ftages of Arrives at 
Shawabad, received intelligence that Ibrahim, ■^'^^*^''^''' 
with a great army, had marched out of Delhi to 
oppofe him, and that Daood and Hatim formed 
his vanguard with twenty fcven thoufand horfe. 
The fultan immediately detached Timur, and 
other nobles, with all the troops of the left wing, 
and the fquadrons of Juneid Birlafs, and Haffen 
Birlafs, againft this advanced poft. They ac- 
cordingly fell in with them the next morning at 
fun-rife, and after an obftinate conflicT:, put 
Daood and Hatim to flight, but the latter fell in 
the purfuit. The victors took feven elephants, 
and a great number of prifoners, with whom 
they returned to Baber ; but he, we arc forry to 
relate fuch barbarity, put them to death, by way 
of ftriking terror into his enemies. 



A.D. 1575, Baber advancing to the field of battle, encamp 
Kig-932o eci there fix day.<:. ordering chains to be made to 
Irl^hsr^a' ^'^^ ^^^ Carriages of his guns together, to prevent 
general en- thc horfc breaking through them. The imperial 
gagemcnt. ^j-j-^y yr,(_^er Ibishim, by this time, confifted of 
one hundred thouTand horfe, and a thoufand ele- 
phants ; that of Baber, of thirteen thoufand only. 
When Ibrahim had advanced near, Baber ordered 
five thoufand horfe to attack the Indian camp in 
the night ; but finding the enemy upon their 
guard, this detachment returned without attempt- 
ing any thing. 

'J'his retreat haftened Ibrahim to action, and 
accordingly he marched next morning to Panni- 
put. Baber, at the fame time, advanced within 
twelve miles of Ibrahim's encampment. Upon 
the day after, being the feventh of Rigib, the 
two armies came in fight of each other. Baber 
divided his troops into two lines, and four grand 
divifions, with a body of referve in the rear of 
each, and a few lio-ht horfe to fkirmifh in front- 
The firll divifion on the riglit was commanded by 
Prince Humaioon. The firft on the left was un- 
der the orders of the King's couiln Mahommed. 
Ihe fecond, on thc right towards the center, was 
commanded by 'fimur. The fecond, to the left 
towards the center, by the noble ChaHfa. Chu- 
fcro, and other omrahs, was appointed to com- 
mand the light horfe, or herawils, in the front. 
Aziz and lirrah, in the rear of the right, and 
Ceri and Willi Kizil, in the rear of the left. Be- 
iides thefe, there was a referve in the rear of both 
lines, that on the right commanded by Cafim, 
and that on the left by All. The king himfelf 
took his pofl in the centre of the firfl line, after 
having perfonally given orders to his generals. 
Thebattie. ^j^^ emperor Ibrahim, ignorant of the art of 
war, obferved no regular order of battle, but 
drew up his forces in one great line or column 

B A B E R. - 121 

of unequal depth, and ordered them to charge A^y^'S^s- 
the Mogul army, vainly imagining that he could '^" '^'^^' 
bear them down with numbers. But he found 
himfelf foon fatally deceived. So formidable 
were the Moguls to the Patans, from their known 
courage and fteady order, that the emperor's 
unwieldy column began to break and turn thin, 
before they came up to the charge, which was 
directed at the center of the Mogul army. Thofe 
who advanced were repulfed with great bravery, 
but when they fought to retreat, they found 
themfelves furrounded ; for the two bodies of re- 
ferve, in the rear of the Mogul line, had wheeled 
round their flanks, and meeting in the center, 
fell upon the rear of thofe who had advanced to 
the charge, by which means the Patans were aU 
moft all cut to pieces. The referve having per- 
formed this fervice, retired to their poft in the 
rear, and the Mogul lines advanced, fuftaining 
various irregular charges from the Indian army, 
whom they repulfed with great flaughter. 

Ibrahim, at laft roufed with ilianie and indig-I'"■ahimd6- 
|lation, advanced in per fon, followed by the flow- nab? ^^ 
er of his army, and gave fuch a violent fhock to 
the Mogul line, as threw it into diforder. No- 
thing now but perfonal bravery was left to decide 
the day ; but in this, and the compact form in 
which the Moguls whole force was wedged, they 
were flill fuperior to the Indians. Five thoufand 
fell with Ibrahim in one fmall fpot of ground. 
The Patau army, when tlieir king was flain, re- 
coiled like furges from a rocky fliorc, and the 
torrent of flight rolled towards the banks of the 
Jumna, dying the courfe of that river with blood; 
for lb far did Baber continue the purfuit ; but 
being wearied with flaughter, he gave hope to 
fear, and refpite to death. 

According: to the molt moderate accounts there 
were lixteen thoufand Patans killed in this ac- 


A.i). 1525. tion, tliough inoft authors fay fifty thoufand. 
'C- 9oa- oj. j^j^g IjjJ,. ^£ Baber we have no information ; 
conquerors having it always in their power to 
conceal the number of their flain. We may date 
from this battle, the fall of the Patau empire, 
though that race afterwards made many efforts, 
and recovered it, for a few years, as we fliall fee 
in the life of Humaioon. 
Eab<T en- Babcr did not fail to make the beft ufe of his 
Indafium' '^'^^"^^^y* ^c immediately after the battle de- 
the empire, tachcd the Priuce Humaioon, and three of his 
principal omrahs, to Agra, before they could have 
time to recover from their conflernation, or to 
remove their wealth. He alfo fent his coufm Ma- 
hommed, and three other chiefs, to Delhi, to 
take poffelTion of that capital, while he himfelf 
came up in the rear, and, on the twelfth of Ri- 
gib, entered the city. The chutba was read in 
his name, by Zein the Metropolitan of Delhi ; 
and, after having furveyed the city, and vifited 
the tombs of the faints and heroes, he fet out for 
Agra, where he arrived the twenty fifth of the 
fame month, and immediately inverted the fort, 
which was in polTeffion of the former govern- 
ment, garrifoned by the troops of the Raja, of 
Gualier, who had been killed in the action. But 
fo much had the terror of the Mogul arms now 
taken pofleffion of every mind, that they imme- 
diately defired to capitulate, and fent him, by 
way of ranfom, a pefect diamond weighing two 
hundred and twenty four ruttys *, which was 
formerly the property of the emperor Alia. Ba- 
ber prefented it to his fon Humaioon. Thus, 
upon the fifth day after his arrival, he was put 
in poireiTion of the place, in which he found the 
mother of Ibrahim, who was treated vt'ith becom- 

* A rutty is feven eighths of a carat. 

B A B E R. i2j 

ing refpecl, and permitted to enjoy all her a. 0.1526 
wealth. " ^ ^^'-9''- 

This conqueft of Hindoftan, as Babcr himfelf Reica-ons 
writes in his Commentaries f, was certainly fu- ^'^^''"J^']^^ ^^ 
perior to that of any former conqueror. Mah- Huu'ioftau 
mood of Ghizni was not only a powerful empe-^>^^''^'- 
ror, but the country was, at that time, divided 
into a number of kingdoms, which greatly facili- 
tated his enterprizes. Mahommed Ghori brought 
an army of one hundred and twenty thoufand 
men with him, when the kingdom was not fo 
powerful. The like may be faid of Timur, who 
ravaged Hindoftan when it was torn to pieces 
by civil commotions. But the army of Baber 
was but a handful in proportion to that of Ibra- 
him, who polTefTed all the countries between the 
Indus and Behar, and could bring five hundred 
thoufand men to the field ; while Baber only pof- 
fefled the poor countries of Cabul, Buduchflian, 
and Kandahar, the revenues of which were very 
inconfiderable. To what then can we attribute 
this extraordinary conqueft, in a natural light, 
but to the great abilities and experience of Baber, 
the bravery of his few hardy troops, trained up 
to war, for their fubfiftance, and now fired with 
the hopes of glory and gain ? But what contribut- 
ed moft to weigh down the fcale of conqueft, was 
the degeneracy of the Patans, effeminated by lux- 
ury and wealth, and dead to all principles of vir- 
tue and honor, which their corrupt factions and 
civil difcords had totally effaced ; it being now no 
fhame to fly, no infamy to betray, no breach of 
honor to nmrder, and no fcandal to change par- 
ties. When, therefore, the fear of fhame and the 
love of fame were gone, it was no wonder that a 

% The Commentaries of Baber are flill extant, and reckoned 
one of the befl performances of the kind in the Eaft. 


124 THE HISTORY OF HiNDOSTAN., herd, without unanimity, order, or difcipline, 
Hig-<)52- f]^ould fall into the hands of a few brave men. 
This is the general tendency of wealth in all go- 
vernments, if the reins are not held faft, the laws 
punctually executed, and the progrefs of corrup- 
tion checked both by private and public oeco- 
Baiter's ge- UpoH the twentieth of Rigib, Baber went into 
ueiofity. the treatury, which was very rich. He referved 
not a flngle dinar for himfelf, but divided it 
among his omrahs and troops ; the Ihare of the 
former coming to two lacks of rupees each ; and 
thofe of others were proportionable to their rank 
and ftations. A part was fent to Cabul, to be 
divided among Babcr's fubjecls, which yielded to 
each a filver fharoch *, befides prefents, which he 
fent to Samarcand, ChorralTan, Kalhgar, Pairac, 
Mecca, Medina, Kirbilla, Negif, Mufliad, and 
other holy places, in charity. This generofity, 
which bordered upon prodigality, fixed upon Ba- 
ber the name of CoUinder, whofe cullom it 
is to keep nothing for to-morrow. 
The pro- As the Pataus were in great terror of the Mo- 
J'"^"^J.j°"^'guIs, and had a natural antipathy to their govern . 
tofubmit. ment, they ftill refufed to fubmit, and appeared 
every where in arms, ftrengthening their forts, 
and ereclinq; the ftandard of defiance in their dif- 
ferent provinces ; Cazira, in Simbol ; Formalli, 
in Mewat ; Zeiton, in Dolepoor ; Tatar, in Gua- 
lier ; Huflein Lohani, in Rhaberi ; Cuttub in 
Atava ; Allum, in Calpee ; Nizam, in Biana ; 
befides N;ifir Lohani, and Furmalli, on the other 
fide of the Gans^es. All thefe chiefs refufed to 
acknowledge Baber's authority. But as it was 
neceiTarv to form an alliance for their mutual de- 
fence, they unanimoufly appointed Par Chan, 

* A Clver fharoch is ia value about a fiiilling fterling. 


B A B E R. 125 

the fon of Diria Lodi, their general, or, rather, a 0,1526. 
king, by the title of Sultan Mahommed ; and, ^'s- 9^^" 
rendezvoulins: at Kinnoo-e, advanced towards 
Agra. At the fame time, Mai, the Afghan 
chief, who had joined Baber, deferted him, with 
all his adherents : even the inhabitants of the 
country round Agra, cut off his foraging parties, 
and rendered it very difficult for him to fupport 
his cavalry, or fupply his troops with provifions : 
Add to this, the intolerable heat of the weather, 
by which a great many Moguls, not being accuf- 
tomed to fuch a climate, died. 

In this fituation of aiTairs, Baber received an Babcr's die 
addrefs from all his chiefs requefting him to re- lefoLuon. 
turn to Cabul ; to which he replied. That a 
kingdom which had coft him fo much pains in 
taking, was not to be wrefted from him but by 
death alone. He, at the fame tim.e, ifTuecl a pro- 
clamation, that he was determined to abide his 
fate in India ; but if any perfon was defirous of 
returning to Cabul, preferring fafety to glory, 
and ignoble eafe to the manly toils and dangers of 
war, they might retire in peace, and leave him 
only thofe whofe valor would reflect honor on 
themfelves, and glory on their king and country. 
The omrahs hearing this, were afhamed of their 
former behaviour, and, ftriking their breafis, 
fvvore they would never forfiike him ; all, except 
Chaja Callan, whofe bravery was too well efta- 
blilhed to be difputed, though he was advifed, 
being at the point of death, to retire to recover 
his health. He was appointed governor of Cabul 
and Ghizni, for the great fervices which he had 
rendered to the king. When it was known that 
Baber had determined n(jt to leave llindoftan, as 
his anceftor Timur had done, fome omrahs, who 
were willing to be firfl in favor, began to come 
over to him j firft, Gurin, with three thouland 



A D. 1.526. horfe, from between the rivers, offered his fer- 

Hii;.933- vice, which was accepted. The next was For- 

malli, from Mewat, to redeem his fons who had 

been taken in the battle ; then Firofe and Chir- 

mali, with their whole dependents. 

Much about this time, an addrefs was received 
gf^JIJoi^fuij. from Cafim, of Simbol, that Bein, an Afghan, 
Mils. was befieging him in his fort, and that if the 
King would fend him fuccours, he would lift him- 
felf among his fervants. The king fent a detach- 
ment, that way, who engaged the Afghan, and 
defeated him, after which Cafim put the Moguls 
in poflcflion of the fort. The king then fent his 
fon Humaioon, with the greateft part of his army, 
again ft the confederate Patau omrahs, whofe for- 
ces amounted to fifty thoufand horfe ; but, upon 
Humaioon's approach, they retreated from Kin- 
noge to Jionpoor. Humaioon having prevailed 
upon Fati, the former emperor's vizier, to join 
him, fent him to the king at Agra, who treated 
him with the utmoft refpecl and favor, which in- 
duced feveral other Afghan chiefs to come over 
to his intereft. 

Nizam, governor of Biana, though he was 
now hard preffed by Rana Sinka, who wanted 
to make himfelf mafter of that province, ftill re- 
fufed to fubmit to the king's authority, which ob- 
lig-ed Baber to fend Baba Kuli a^ainft him with a 
^'^^"^' S''* detachment, which was defeated. But Rana 
jiiana, fub- Smka foon after reduced Nizam to fucli extre- 
"""• mities, that he fent a deputation to Baber, beg- 
ging pardon for his offence, and requefting he 
would fupport him, for which he was ready to 
pay him due allegiance. The king, glad of the 
opportunity, made no hefitation to embrace the 
offer, and, fending a force to drive off Rana, 
Nizam was put in poffeffion of the place, which 
was fettled upon him, with all its dependencies, 


B A B E R. i<7 

for the annual payment of twenty lacks of ru-A.D. 1526, 

^^'g- 935' 


Tatar and Saring, who were In poffeflion of rbegover- 
the fort of Gualier, being befieged by the Indian l?^i;f^^ 
prince of that country, in the fame manner ad- propoie to 
dreffed the king for fuccours. Baber difpatched 
a detachment, which defeated the raja, but Sa- 
ring recalled his promife, and refufed to deliver 
up the place. There was in the fort, at that 
time, a philofopher whofe name M'-as Shech Gofe, 
who had a great number of ftudents under him, 
and who wrote to the Mogul general, to endea- 
vour to get permiflion to come himfelf.into the 
fort, and that he would find means of accomplifli- 
ing the reft of his defires. 

The Mogul, for this purpofe, begged leave, asf^'^^^..^ 
he had enemies all around him, to bring his troops ihatagci«, 
under protection of the garrifon, for fear of a 
night affault, and that he might be permitted the 
honor of paying the philofopher a vifit in the gar- 
rifon. This being agreed to, the Mogul was re- 
ceived into the fort with a few attendants. He, 
from time to time, pretended occafion to fend 
frequent meifages in and out ; till the ofiiccr of 
the guard troubled the governor fo often for leave, 
that he defired him to fend one of his own fer- 
vants, to point out fuch necelfary people as lie 
might want to have free ingrefs and egreis. The 
officer of the guard, v,'ho was a di(ciple of the phi- 
lofopher, and who had been let into the plot, 
availed himfelf of this order, and permitted every 
body pointed out, to pafs, by which means all 
the chofen men of the detachment were within 
the garrifon before the entertainment was ended. 
Saring was told to give up the place, and threat- 
ened with inftant death, in cafe of rcfufai ; i'o 
having fatisfied himfelf of the circumftances, he 
made a virtue of necellity, and rephed, That had 



A.p. 1526. j^e j^Qj- intended giving up the place to the king, 
he would never have been fo unguarded as to 
permit his party to take this advantage, and ac- 
cordingly fubmitted without rehllance, and going 
in perion to Agra, entered into the king's fervice. 
Zciton, at the lame time, arrived from Dolepoor, 
and had a command conferred upon him. 

Not long after thefe tranfactions, Hamid, Sa- 
ring, and other Afghans, raifed, by a family 
quarrel, a great difturbance in the caftle of Firofa. 
The king fent Timur againft them, who chaflifed 
both parties. In the year nine hundred and thirty 
three, Chajagi, who had gone ambaffador from 
Cabul to congratulate Shaw Tamafp king of Per- 
lia, upon his acceflion, returned, accompanied by 
Soliman, and brought various curiolities. But 
that which pleafed the king moft, was too beau- 
tiful female ilaves, juft come to maturity, of 
whom he became greatly enamoured. The mo- 
ther of the emperor Ibrahim, who had been be- 
fore the greateft favorite in the feraglio, incenfed 
at this change in the Sultan's affeclions, confpired 
An attempt vi'ith the tafter and cook to poifon him. 1 he 
to poifon poifon was accordingly adminiftred in fome hare- 
foup ; but the king, after eating a few fpoonfuls, 
naufeated the tafte, and immediately vomited, 
which faved his life. After proper enquiry had 
been made, the tafter and cook denying their 
knowledge of any fuch thing, the king ordered a 
dog to be brought, who having eat of the foup, 
was foon feized with convuliions, and died. Two 
of the under cooks being alfo brought to the tri- 
al, expired in the fame manner : upon which the 
tafter and head cook, with feveral of their affif- 
tants, were put to the torture. The plot was dif- 
covered, and the mother of Ibrahim caft into pri- 
fon, and all her wealth confifcated. One of Ibra- 
him's fons was fent, at the fame time, to Cabul, 


B A B E R. 129 

where he remained in banifliment. Prince Hu-^P-'S26. 
maioon, having defeated the omrahs at Jionpoor, 
left Birlafs to keep thofe provinces in awe, re- 
turned himfelf to court, having, upon his way, 
concihated matters with Allum, governor of 
Caipee, who now accompanied him, and was 
received witli great refpecl. 

The king was, at this time, fuddenly alarmed Baber 
by advices that many Patan omrahs with Mah-a'amied 
mood, the fon of the emperor Secunder, and comederacj- 
other chiefs and rajas in alliance, whofe force ex- ^^^'"'^ 
ceeded one hundred thoufand horfe, were prepar- 
ing to attack him. Baber, having no depen- 
dence on the Patan chiefs, who had joined him, 
detached them to defend different provinces, and 
with his own Moguls, haftened towards the ene- 
my. His van guard falling in with their's, upon 
the frontiers of Biana, after a Iharp conflici:, 
were repulfed by the enemy with great lofs, 
which ft ruck unufual terror into the King's fmall 
army. Neazi fled to Simbol, Haflen joined the 
enemy, and every day brought difagreeable intel- 
ligence from all quarters. Nor did the predicti- 
ons of Sherif a httle add to the general conft:erna- 
tion. This pretended wizard averred, that Brif- 
put * was in the eaft, and confequently, that who- 
ever marched from the weft fliould be over- 

The King perceiving this panic, called, imme-A council 
diately, a council of war. I'he greateft part of 
the officers gave it as their opinion, that, as the 
fuperiority of the enemy was evident, it was ad- 
vilcable to leave a ftrong garrifon in Agra, and 
to retreat with the bulk of the army to Punjaab. 
Baber, with a difcontented afpedl, fixed his eyes, 
in filence, upon the ground. length, fternly 

* The planet Mars, 

Vol. it. ^ alkcd 






AD. 1516. aQ^ed the chiefs. What would the world fay of a 
" ' monarch, whom the fear of death fhould oblige 
to abandon fuch a kingdom ? " The voice of 
" glory,'' faid he, " is loud in my ear, and for- 
bids me to difgrace my name, by skiving up 
what my arms have, with fo much difficulty, 
acquired. But, as death is at laft unavoid- 
able, let us rather meet him with honor, face 
to face, than fhrink back, to gain a few years 
of a miferable and ignominious exiftence ; for 
what can we inherit but fame, beyond the li- 
" mits of the grave." The whole affembly, as if 
infpired with one foul, cried out, at once, 
"War! War!" Tlie King, having been for- 
merly much addiclcd to wine, made a vow never 
to drink any more, fhould he, upon this occafi- 
on, prove viclorious. Orders were immediately- 
iiTued to prohibit the fale of wine in the camp ; 
not fo much from fuperftition, as to keep the 
mind cool for a6lion. 
Baber Upon the ninth of the fecond Jemmad, of the 

marches year nine hundred and thirty three, which hap- 
irmyr^'pened ro be Norofe *, Baber formed his line of 
battle, with his guns and rockets in his front. 
In that order he moved towards the enemy, who 
lay at the diftance of fix miles. But after he 
had advanced two miles he halted, and encamp- 
ed his army. Several young warriors, fond of 
diftinguifliing themfelves, iflued out, under the 
command of Maliomme^l C'afim, to fkirmifli with 
the enemy's fcouts and advanced guards, among 
wiiom they did great execution. 

T he King, next day, advanced two miles fur- 
ther, and marked out his camp at the village of 
The enemy Kava, but his tcuts wcrc fcsrccly pitched, when 
auacriim ^^ pcrccivcd the 'cncmy advancing upon him. He 

* New-year's day. 


B A B E R. T31 

formed his line with great expedition, in the^.D. isa6 
manner which he had praclifed for fome days be- ^'^'93-i- 
fore, and, in a few minutes, was able to receive 
the Ihock of battle. I'he army was chiefly drawn 
up by Nizam Chalipha, whom Baber reckoned 
iiis ableft general ; and this order of battle being, 
on account of circumftances, different from the 
former, we fliall relate it at large in this place. 

The line, which upon this occafion was iingle, The ordei 
confifted of fix brigades, exclufive of the King's "'" ^'"^'• 
life guards in the center, where Baber ported 
himfelf. Before each of the brigades, a few pa- 
ces in front, the King placed a fquadron of light 
horfe, which formed another kind of line with 
great intervals. In front of the whole, the artil- 
lery and rocket-waggons were drawn up in three 
divifions, the right, left, and center. The guns 
were chained together, fo that there was a kind 
of fortification formed againft the enemy's ca- 
valry. The brigade immediately to the right of 
the center, was commanded by Timur, confifting 
of his own tribe, and the troops of many otheV 
omrahs of diftinclion. The brigade to the left of 
the center was under the immediate orders of 
AUum, a defcendant of the emperor Beloli, and 
compofed of his national troops, and thofe of five 
other nobles. The two bri nides of the right 
wing were commanded in chief by prince Hu- 
maioon, and of thefe the right hand brigade 
confifted of the troops of Cafim liuffein, and 
other chiefs of family and experience in war. 
The left hand battalion of prince Humaioon's di- 
vifion was made up of the troops of Seid Amir, 
and of thofe of other fix nobles of the Mogul 

The two brigades of the left wing were com- 
manded by Seid Chaja; the left hand battalion of 
whofe divifion was compofed of different fquad- 
rons, commanded by their refpei'^ive.chiei-s. The 

K 2 right 


A.D.J5'.6. right hand brigade was made up of the troops of 
Hig- 933- Angi the Mogul, and thofe of Kumal, of the race 
of 4^11a, formerly emperor of India. Tire light 
horfe of the left wine^ w^ere comnsanded by Tirdi 
Beg ; and thofe of the right wing by Mahmood 
Cafim. Mahommed, the captain-general, took 
poft before the King, with all his yeflawils *, and 
a choice body of horfe. 
The battle About ten o'clock in the forenoon the aclion 
begins. was commenced by the artillery. The left of the 
enemy, charging the right of the Moguls, foon 
fell in hand to hand, with the battalions of Ko- 
kultafli and Malleck Cafim, and made them give 
ground. But Timur, by the Sultan's orders, in- 
clining to the right with his brigade, took up 
their ground, and falling upon the aflailants with 
great fury, put them to flight, the light horfe 
purfuing them wich great flaughter, quite through 
their own line. The enemy, in the mean time, 
Baber'sar- ^einsf; fo numcrous, extended their flanks far be- 
ded. yond the wmgs or the Kmg, and came down 

upon him from all fldes. Baber ordered his right 
and left wing to fall back, by which means his 
army was thrown into a circle. In this pofition 
he refilled the repeated affaults of the Patans till 
three o^clock. Alia Kuli of Rumi f, who com- 
manded the artillery, making great flaughter 
among them. 

Baber finding the enemy fatigued by their re- 
peated affaults, determined to act off'enfively, to 
drive them quite out of the held. He therefore 
put himfelf at the head of the brigades of Timur 
and Allum, and charging them like a lion rufli- 

* -Aids de Camp. 

f Rumi is the name of tlie lefler Afia, fo called from Its be- 
ing a part of the Romm empir3 It is remarkable that the 
Eaftern nations call the Ottomans, Romans to this day. 


B A B E R. 133 

ing from his foreft, after an obftinate refiftance a^D- '^5^*^ 
put their whole army to flight. Haffen ofHeover- 
Mewat, was killed with a cannon fliot, and Raw throws the 
Luddive, Chunder Ban, Mannuk Chohan, Ki-^"^""^* 
rim Sing, all powerful princes of the enemy, 
were numbered among the dead. The King, 
immediately after the victory, affumed the title 
of Ghazi * ; and, as a monument to perpetuate 
the memory of the battle, he ordered a pyramid 
to be built upon an eminence near the field, 
which, according to the cuflom of his age and 
nation, was fluck round with the heads of the 
flain. The aftrologer, after being feverely repri- 
manded for his falfe predidlion, was prefented 
with a lack of rupees, and banifhed from the 

Baber, from this fortunate field, marched to- 1^^^^^^ 
wards Ma vat, where Nihar, the fon of Haffen, 
feeing no other means of fafety, fubmitted him- 
fclf and the country to the King. The government 
of Mavat was conferred upon Timur. After 
thefe tranfadions, Baber returned to Agra, from 
whence he fent his fon Humaioon to Cabul, 
with orders to add Balich to that province, and 
to rule both in his own name. Ali, and Tirdi 
Beg, were ordered againft Huffein and Dirai, 
who flill kept poiTelTion of Chandwar and Raberi. 
But upon the approach of the Moguls, they fled, 
and Huflein was drowned in crofling the Jumna, 
while Diria efcaped. Mahommed, the King's 
coufm, was detached at the fame time to Kin- 
noge, againft Bein the Afghan, who fled from 
thence to Chcirabad. 

Upon the twenty ninth of Zihidge, in the year Baber in- 
nine hundred and thirty four, the King marched j^fj'^'''"* 
to hunt towards Kole and Simbol. Having di- 
verted himfelf with the chace for fome time, he 

* Ghazi ngnifics a warrior. 



^nf '^^*'' r^f"''"^<i to his capital, and was taken ill of a fe- 
'^' ■''*" ver, of which however he foon recovered. He 
then marched towards Chinderi, where Medeni 
Rai, a Hindoo chief, had fhut himfelf up with a 
ftrong garrifon of Rajaputs. The place was in- 
verted, and the Rajaputs faliied out, and attacked 
the King, but they paid dear for their raOinefs, 
and loft fix thoufand men upon the field. Thofe 
who returned after tins defeat into the fort, fee- 
ing no hopes of defending it longer again ft the 
enemy, according to their dreadful cuftom, mur- 
dered their wives and children in the following 
manner. They placed a fword in the hand of 
one of their chiefs, and he flew the unhappy vic- 
tims, who, one after another, bent, of their own 
accord, their necks before him ; they even con- 
tended among themfelves about the honor of be- 
ing firfi: flain. The foldiers then threw a yellow- 
powder upon their garments, as on a day of fef- 
tivity, and throwing loofe their hair, ifiued forth 
■with their fwords and fliields, and fought after 
that death, which they all obtained. '^Ihe empty 
fort fell into the hands of the Moguls. 
Defeats thfi Adviccs Vvcre, about this time, received, that 
omrahsof a detaclinicnt, which had been fent againft the 

Ihe eaft. p^^^^ ^j^j^^g ^f ^^^ ^^-^^^ ^^ ^odi, who held itill 

the Eaftern provinces, was defeated. The King, 
therefore, left Ahmed, the fon of Mahommed, 
and grand-fon of Sultan Nafir of Malava, who had 
now joined him, in the government of Chinderi, 
and marched in pcrfon tow^ards Kinnoge. He 
met his defeated troops at Rabcri, and arriving 
at the river, he threw over it a bridge of boats. 
His general Timur was ordered to crofs in the 
front, the enemy being then on the oppofite fliore. 
After a faint refiftance, the Patans gave way ; but 
Timur purfuing them, took part of their bag- 
gage, and a great number of their v/omen and 


B A B E R. 135 

The King, after this viftory, hunted, for ^'\^f''lf' 
few days, upon the banks of the Gang, and then ^^^tiveslt 
returned to Agra. He appointed Zeman, one of Agia. 
the pofterity of Timur, for he was the fon of 
Budeli ul Zeman Mirza, of Balich, governor of 
the city, and, in the year nine hundred and 
thirty five, marched himfelf to furvey the coun- 
try. He firft took the route of Guaher, and 
viewed there the fortifications, the ftone elephant, 
and the palace of the Raja. He then vifited the 
gardens of Rehim, and ordered fome flowers and 
plants, of an uncommon kind, to be tranfplanted 
to Agra. He went to worfliip in the great mof- 
que, built by the Emperor Altumfh, for whofe 
foul he ordered prayers to be read, and returned, 
by another way, to Agra. 

Baber, loon after his return to Agra, was fei- Fails Hck. 
zed with an intermitting fever, which continued 
upon him for eight months. Some fuperftitious 
people advifed him, during hi§ ficknefs, to write a 
poem in praife of Chaja Ahrar, one of the faints, 
to induce him to intercede with God for his 
health. Baber, though it is highly probable he 
did not give much credit to the power of the faint, 
actually wrote the poem, in the meafure of Mow- 
lani Jami. The King recovered from his difor- 
der about the eighth of the firft Ribbi. He of- 
fered up public thanks to God for the reftoration 
of his health, and made a great fcaft upon the oc- 
cafion. He diftributed magnificent prefents 
among the omrahs and foreign ambaffadors, and 
bellowed large fums to gladden the hearts of the 
poor. During this fellival, Chandamire, the au- 
thor of the Habib al Sier, Mowiana Mammai, 
and Mirza Ibrahim Canooni, who came from 
Herat, and were efteemed the greateft men for li- 
terature in that age, were introduced to the 
King : He loaded them with his favors, and or- 
dered them places near his own perfon. 



A. D. 1528. The Emperor's relation Afhkari, who governed 
Hig.93S. Moultan, was, this year, ordered to court, and 
fent againA having exhibited the tokens of obedience, he was 
Nn'erit, Commanded to go againft Nuferit, one of the 
mits. " " Patan chiefs, on the borders of the Decan. Nu- 
ferit, hearing of the approach of the Moguls, 
fent an ambafiador to the King, fubje6ling himfelf 
to the royal authority. Nizam Beri, prince of 
Ahmednagur, ^at the fame time fent to congratu- 
late Baber on his good fortune, and proffered 
obedience. Baber, towards the clofe of this year, 
received advices that Mahmood, the fon of the 
Emperor Secundcr Lodi, had poffefled himfelf 
of the province of Behar, and that one Bellocha 
had ereded the ftandard of rebellion in Moultan. 
The King fent orders to his omrahs in the north - 
weft, concerning the affairs of Moultan, and 
marched in perfon towards Behar. When he ar- 
rived at Kurrah, Jellal, defcended of that dynafty 
of Patans, who ftilcd thenifelves Emperors of the 
Eaft, prepared a royal entertainment for him, 
and was honored with his prefence. Zeman was 
detached from Kurrah to the conqueft of Behar. 
He foon drove Mahmood out of the field. 

But a few months after, the Afghans of Be- 
har, collecting themfelves together a fecond time, 
advanced to the Gang, oppofite to Hideri. The 
King detached Afhkari with a divifion of the 
troops to oppofe them, and next day followed 
that officer with the whole army. "\*^hcn he came 
to the banks of the river, and law the enemy on 
the oppolite bank, he was preparing boats to crofs; 
but Timur begged perniiflion to go before. As 
foon as he made his landing good with eighty 
horie, Afhkari, who had crofled at another place, 
appeared in the enemies rear ; and they immedi- 
ately took to flight. The King, after this action, 
left Junied Birlafs to profecute the war in con- 

B A B E R. 137 

jundion with Nuferit, and returned to pafs the a.d. 1530. 
rainy feafon in Agra. He vifited, upon his way, "'S- 937- 
Shech Eiah, at Monier, the father of Sherrif 
Moniri, and carried him to court. 

The prince Humaioon having left his brother Tranfaa;- 
Hindal to govern in his abfence, returned about ^"1.'" 
this time from Cabul to viiit his father. Seid 
Chan of Argund, took this opportunity of in- 
vading Buduchflian, and fent a force to attack 
Minkilla. Hindal, upon the approach of the 
enemy, retreated into the fort of Zifier, where 
he was befieged. Scid of Argund, finding that 
he could not reduce the place, and that the inha- 
bitants would not join him, ravaged the coun- 
try, and returned home. But as the news of his 
retreat had not reached Agra, the government of 
Buduchfhan was beftowed upon Soliman, one of 
the race of Timur, who fet out immediately for 
that province with a letter from the King to Seid, 
expreffing his mrprize at hoftilities, for which he 
could not account, but by feme mifbehaviour of 
his fon Hindal ; that, therefore, he had fent ano- 
ther pcrfon, who was allied to them both, to 
fupply his place. When Soliman arrived, he 
found the country in perfect tranquillity, and 
took pofTcilion of the government, which his 
family have kept to this day. The prince Hindal 
returned to Agra. 

In the year nine hundred and thirty-fix, the ^^^^|['" •"*"* 
Sultan fell fick, and his difordcr continued daily 
to gain ftrength, in fpite of the power of medi- 
cine. Dcfpairing at leaft of life, he recalled his 
fon Humaioon, who was then befieging the. fort 
of Callinger, and appointed him his fucceffor. 
Upon Monday, the fifth of the firil Jemmad, in 
the year nine hundred and thirty feven, he re- 
figncd in peace that life which he had fo often ex-g^jj^^ 
pofed in war. According to his will, his body 





His rcligi- 

A.D.15I. was carried to Cabul, and interred in a holy fe- 

"'s-'933. pulchre. 

HUCha- What fhal! we fay of Baber, the wonder of 
the age in which he lived 1 He mounted a throne 
at twelve years of age, and, with various turns of 
fortune, reigned thirty eight. He was a prince 
of great humanity, and carried his generofity to 
fuch excefs, that it bordered upon prodigality. 
With refpeft to the firft, he fo often pardoned 
ingratitude and treafon, that he feemed to make 
a principle of rendering good for evil. He thus 
difarmed vice, and made the wicked the wor- 
ihippers of his virtue. 

He was of the feci: of the Hanifites, in whofe 
doctrine and tenets he was perfectly verfed ; 
yielding more to the evidence of reafon, than to 
the marvellous legends of fuperftitious antiquity. 
He was not, however, forgetful of that rational 
worfhip which is due to the great Creator, nor 
a defpifer of thofe laws and ceremonies which 
are founded on found policy for the benefit of 

^rtr"fir the fuperficial judges of things. He was a mafter 

arts. in the arts of Poetry, Writing and Muiic. He 

v/rote his own Commentaries in the Mogul lan- 
guage, with fuch elegance and propriety, that 
they are univerfally admired, 'i his work was 
tranflated, in the reign of Ackbar, by Chan Cha- 
nan into the Perfian language, and from it we 
have abridged the preceding hiilory of the life of 

?iis perfon jj^ \{^^ pcrfon, lie was fomething above the 
middle fize, nervous and well formed. His coun- 
tenance was pleafant, and in difpofition he was 
cafy, facetious, and affable. 

„. . ,. To eftablifh his reputation for iullice and ho- 
nor, we mail relate one mitance out or 



When he was prince of Firghana, a rich caravan 


B A B E R. - 139 

of Chitta and China, which was crofling the ^^i^^; ^52s. 
mountains of Indija, was buried in the Inow. He 
ordered all the goods to be collected, and fnt 
meflengers to China to proclaim the accident, and 
bring the owners, or their heirs, to his rtmrt. 
Upon their arrival at the end of two ye:irs, he en- 
tertained them hofpitably, and returned them 
all their goods, not only refuiing to accept a pie- 
fent, but even to be reimburfed for his expences. ^ .,.„ , , 

Notwithitandms: his crreat viGfor m war, he pka'V.; . 
was much addicted to wine and women, and ail 
the fafhionable pleafures of courts. Me fome- 
times ufed, when he had an inclination to make 
merry, to fill a fountain with wine, upon whic-i 
was infcribed a verfe to this purpofe : " Jovial 
" davs! BloominG:fDrin2;s ! Old wine, and young 
" maidens ! Enjoy freely, O Baber, for life is 
" not twice to be enjoyed !" He then would fit 
down in the midft of his friends, drink freely, 
and feaft his eyes on the daughter of beauty who 
danced before him. 

Whitherfoever he marched, or rode, he always 
had the road meafured after him. This cuftom 
obtains with the emperors of Hindoftan to this 
day. He made a llatute concerning the mea- 
jurement of diftances, which has hitherto re- 
mained in force. He appointed a hundred tin- 
nabs to one crore, each tinnab being forty guz*. 

With rclbecT: to his military character, he feems „. , , 

, , I • 1 II II- TT Histalents 

to have had tew that could equal nirn. He ren- tor war. 
dcred the moft dangerous enterprizcs cafy, by 
his undaunted cnura.^c and perfeverance, which 
rofc above all diiiicultios, and made him much 

A guz is not quite an Englifh yard. 



A.D. 1530. j^Qj.g ^i^Q object of admiration in his adverfity, 
>g- 937- ^j^^^ .^ ^1^^ height of his profperity. Nor did he 
forget him felf in the latter, but always behaved 
•with that moderation and equanimity which cha- 
racterizes a great foul. 
Hisgenea- ^^^ have already traced Baber's defcent from 
i"^y- Timur ; but as he was the founder of a great dy- 

nafty, it will be proper to follow his genealogy 
further back into antiquity. The great Zingis 
Chan, the fon of Piffuka, the fon of Pirna, had 
four fons of renown, who were all Kings, and the 
fathers of nations. Their names were Oktai, 
Zagatay, Zuzi, and Tuli. Though Oktai was 
was not the cldeft fon, yet he was, by his father, 
appointed his fuccellbr, and ruled over the ex- 
tenfive empire of Afia in the city of Caracorum, 
the original capital of liis fathers hereditary 
dominions. Oktai died, by excefs of wine, in 
the year fix hundred and thirty nine. j 

The family Zagatay, the fecond fon of Zingis, pofTeiTed the 
ofTimu), J^ingdoms of Maverulnere, Tirkeftan, Balich, and 
hne. BuduchOian, in fubordination to his brother Oktai. 
Kirrachar Nevian, who was the fifth anceftor of 
Timur, was one of his nobles, and, at length, cap- 
tain general of all his forces. The genealogy of 
Kirrachar runs thus: Timur the fonofjiraga, 
the fon of Birkit, the fon of Alingar, the fon of 
Abil, the fon of Kirrachar, the fon of Sagungi, 
the fon of Ibumgi Berlafs, the fon of Katchuli, 
the fon of Jumnai, the fon of Bafinker, the fon 
of Kidu, who, by the mother's fide, Vv^as ds- 
fcended from Bahnger, a princefs, from w^hom 
Zingis derived his pedigree. The family of Ti- 
mur had alio married into that of Zingis, fo that 
'i imur Bee was lineally delcended from that con- 
queror of all Alia. 
Afia\tti:e Tamafp, the fecond of the Sophi dynafly, bc- 
d^ath of rran his rci^n (even vears before the death of Ba- 


B A B E R. Mi 

ber. He held the empire of all Perfia and Ma- a^J .5^,0. 
ver-ul-nere or Tranfoxiana, in peace for more 
than ten years, after his accellion. The provm- 
ces between Choraflan and India remained in the 
houfe of Baber. 


H U M A I O O N. 

A D. 1530 ^ I "'HE Prince Humaioon, by tlie title of Nafir 
Hig 93a- J ul Dien Mahommed, immediately after the 
ayreacaf- death oi Babcr, mounted the throne of his 
tionomer. father, in India. He was a great aftronomer, 
and took much delight in judicial aftrology. He 
fitted up feven houfes of entertainment, and nam- 
ed them after the feven planets. In each he gave 
public audience, according to the ruling planet 
of the day, ordering all the furniture, paintings, 
and alfb the dreiles of thofe who waited upon 
him, to bear fomething that was an emblem of 
the tutelar ftar of the houfe. He even endea- 
voured to fuit the people, who came to pay their 
refpeclis, to the fuppofed influence of the planet, 
which preiided over the time of their attendance. 
In the houfe of the Moon met foreign embafla- 
dors, travellers and poets. P/lilitary men attend- 
ed him in the houfe of Brifput*, anci judges, law- 
givers, and fecretaries, were received in that of 
the Recorder of Heavenf. 
Dcfignsof But the urgency of important affairs did not 
his brother permit Humaioon to follow long thefe innocent 
"o""'^ '"'■vvhims. Such only fuited the days of peace, 
when the mind might enjoy her harmiefs follies. 
He fcarcely had afcended the throne, when his 
brother, Camiran. who was then in Cabul, form- 
ed a defign of making himfelf mailer of Punjab. 
To conceal his intentions, he gave out, that he 
was going into Hindoftan, to congratulate Hu- 
maioon upon his accellion. The king being, how- 

* The Planet Mars. f Mercury. 


H U M A I O O N. M3 

ever, apprized of Camiran*s views, by his beha- A.p. is3^»- 
viour in thofe countries through which he pafled, '^' 
and being extremely unwilling to make war upon 
his brother, confented to let him govern the pro- 
vinces from the moft fouthern branch of the In- 
dus to Perfia, holding them of the empire. This 
effeclually flopped the progrefs of Camiran. The 
king, in the mean time, conferred the govern- 
ment of Mevvat upon Hindal, his brother, and 
appointed his relation Afkari to that of Simbol, 
the other provinces being left in the poiTeffion of 
the former fubas. 

Humaioon, in the year nine hundred and thirty BeHeires 
eight, led an army againft the ftrong fortrefs of ^"'""S""' 
Callinger, and inveited the place. While the 
king carried on the liege, Mahmood, the fon of 
the emperor Secunder LoJi, in conjunclion with 
Bein the Afgan, took poffeiTion of Jionpoor, and 
kindled the flames of war in the eaftern provinces. 
Humaioon, having received intelligence of thefe 
comm.otions, decamped from before Callinger, 
marched to Jionpoor, in a pitched battle over- 
threw the Afghans, and reinftated Juneid Birlafs 
in his former government of that province. 

The emperor, after this fignal victory, return- 
ed to Agra, and beftowed honorary dreiles upon 
above twelve thoufand of his courtiers. He, in 
the mean time, difpatched a herald to Shere 
Chan, and demanded poficflion of the fortrefs of Demands 
Chinar *, which being relufed, Humaioon march- P|:'jj^i'°", 
ed his army that way. When the King lay bek)re 
Chinar, he was informed, that Bahadur, King of 
Guzerat, had turned towards him the points of 

* Chinar is a very ftrong fortrefs in the province of Oud, 
within feven crores of Benaris. Both Shere Chan and Sultan 
Bahadur were governors under the former empire, and had, 
after the de^th of Ibiahirn, iiifuined indeuonJcnce. 



A. D. 15.^1. his fpears. This obliged him to patch up a kind 
H'g-938. Qfa peace with Shere, and to return towards 
Agra. Cuttub, the fon of Shere, whom the em- 
peror had taken as an hoftage, found means, on 
the way, to make his efcape, and to return to his 
father at Chinar. 
A ^ r ■ Mahommed Zeman of the race of Timur, the 

A con (pi- , . . 

racyUiico- giandfon of Huffein afpired to the throne, and 
^*"^''* was fupported in his pretenfions by the omrahs of 
Chigittai. The plot was difcovered, and the 
leader of the confpiracy pardoned : But Humai- 
oon finding him, a fecond time, meditating trea- 
fonable practices, he ordered him to be confined 
in the fortrefs of Biana. Orders were given to 
put out the eyes of Mahummud Sultan and Nu- 
i'erit Mirza, for being the principal abettors of 
the prince's ambitious defigns ; but the perfon to 
whom it was intrufted to inflicl this punifhment, 
faved the eyes of the former, while the latter 
found means to efcape to Guzerat. Sultan, by 
the aid of his fons Aii Mirza and Shaw Mirza, 
who formed a party, was carried away to Kin- 
noge, where he was joined by about fix thoufand 
Moguls, Afghans, and Rajaputs. 

liumaioon fent to Bahadur, under whofe do- 
Rebeiiion miniou was the city of Kinnoge, and connr.anded 
innooc. j^.^ to deliver up Mahommed, but he rejedied 
the orders in an infolent manner, which obliged 
the emperor to march againft hi'.!. Bahadur 
king of Guzerat had, abou-: this time, refolved 
to v/reft the fort of Chitor from the Rana. Rana 
threw himfelf under the protection of Humaioon ; 
but the emperor, foi what reafon is not knowr, 
having advanced as far as Gualier, encaniped there 
for two months, and returned, without efiecling 
anything, to Agra. Rana, defpairing of relief, 
fent a crown, and a confiderable furn of money, 
to Bahadur, which induced him to raife the 


H U M A I O O N. M; 

Bahadur, whofe affairs were nosv in a very ^^.^- '^-^^^ 
profperous fituation, by the reduflion of Mindu, g^i^^jj^,^ 
and other places, began to (hew iiis contempt of 
Humaioon, by advancing the confpiracor Mahom- 
med to great honors. He iilfo prompted Alia, 
defcended of the emperor Beloli Lodi, to attempt 
to poffefs himfelf of the throne of Delhi, lie, 
for this purpofs, made Tatar, the fon of Sultan ^-^^^^5^^^^. 
Alia, his general, and difpatched him, with forty '^y a^^anft i 
thoufand men, againft Humaioon, with which he 


fubdued Biana, and advanced to the environs of 

This prelling danger awakened the king from 
his lethargy. He immediately fcnt his brother, 
the prince Hindal, with a force, to oppofe-Ta= 
tar. When the armies approached one another, 
there was fo great a defertion from Tatar's 
troops, that, in the fpace of ten days, ten thou- 
fand horfe fcarce remained to him. He however 
refolved, with thefe, to (land his ground, and 
give battle to the imperial army, but he vvMs to- 
tally overthrown, loft the moft of his troops,^.., . 
three hundred officers of diftindion, and his own tjtaiiy de- 
life. Hindal, after this victory, retook Biana, ''''^'^'^• 
and all the other places which had before fallen 
into the hands of the enemy, and returned in 
triumph to Agra. 

Bahadur, in the year nine hundred and forty^ Baha.Uir 
marched, a fecond time, towards Chitor ; and, 'i-^'.^'its 

, . r-i • 11/' iigaiiilt Ghl- 

in the mean time, Humaioon ordered xi tort to tor. 
be built in Delhi, on the banks of the Jumna, 
which he called Panna. He, foon after, marched 
tt)\vards Saringpoor, which then held of Baha- 
dur, as King of Guzerat, and wrote to him a 
punning couplet, unworthy of the dignity and 
majefty of a king. Chitor, in the Pcrlian lan- 
guage, fignifics, in lobat ?ndnner ; and upon this 
was founded the mifcrable witticilm contained in 
the verfes. The words were, '* O thou plun- 
VoL. 11. JL. ** derer 



A.p. i.?^3.«< dercr of the city of Chltor ! in what manner 
'^' ' " canll thou conquer the idolaters? For when 
thou wouldft wifh to conquer Chitor ; thou 
know*ft not in what manner the king comes to 
" conquer thee." Bahadur anfwered Humaioon 
in his own ftrain, and in the following words : 
" I, who am the plunderer of Chitor, will con- 
** quer the idolaters by valor ; and he who dares 
" not fuccour Chitor, fhall fee in what manner 
" he himfelf {hall be conquered." The wit is 
wretched on both fides j but he who began the 
pun is mofl: to blame. 
Call* a Bahadur, after fending the above billet to Hu- 

cminciiof maioon, called a council of war. It was the open 
opinion of the majority, that as Humaioon had 
all his force with him, it were better to raife the 
fiege, and march againfi: him, and thus to take 
up the war by the roots. Others urged, that 
Humaioon v.^as fo rigid in his religious principles, 
that he would not difturb them in their war with 
idolaters ; that therefore it was mofl advifeable to 
finifh the fiege, which was now far advanced, 
and afterwards to think of other matters. Ba- 
hadur himfelf favoured the latter opinion. The 
fiege was accordingly continued ; and Humaioon,. 
piquing himfelf upon his religious principles, con- 
tinued loitering at Saringpoor, till Bahadur had 
taken the fort. Bahadur, in the year nine hun- 
dred and forty one, marched with great expedi- 
tion againfi Humaioon, who, hearing of his ap- 
proach, marched forward to meet him. The two 
armies appeared in front of each other, near 
Munfoor. Bahadur, who had collected a great 
train of artillery, by advice of his engineer, Rumi 
Chan, entrenched his army, and placed his can- 
non in redoubts, in his front. This prevented 
Humaioon from rifquing an attack, and both ar- 
mies continued in fight of one another for the 


H U M A I O O N. 147 

Ipace of two months. Daily fklrmifhe. were, in a^P- '5S4. 
the mean time, fought, with various fuccefs. '^' ^^^' 

Humaioon, finding that he could not draw 
Bahadur out of his trenches, employed all his at- 
tention to cut off his fupplies. He ordered his cmroff h" 
horfe, in fuccefiive bodies of five or fix thoufand, Supplies. 
to fcour the rear of the enemy, by which means 
famine began foon to be feverely felt in their 
camp ; men, horfes, elephants, and camels, pe- 
rifhing daily in great numbers. 

Bahadur, inftead of making one brave effort Cowardice 
to relieve himfelf, permitted bafe fear and defpair 0" Balfa "^ 
to feize upon him ; and, with only five friends, '^"'^• 
left his camp in the night, and fled towards 
Mindu. This was no fooner known, than the 
flight became general ; the chiefs difperfing them- 
felves, with their adherents. Humaioon, in the 
morning, ordered the purfuit to commence, 
which was continued, as far as Mindu, with great 
flaughter of the unfortunate wretches, who had 
neither the power to efcape, nor the means to de- 
fend themfelves. Bahadur threw himfelf into 
Mindu, and the place was clofcly invefled. 

In a few days, three hundred Moojuls fcakd , . , 
the walls of Mindu, in the night; and though kc by fin- 
the garrifon confifted of many thoufands, fuch p"^^- 
was their panic, that they all betook themfelves 
to flight. Bahadur efcaped to Chapanier, which 
was then the capital of Guzerat, while Sidder 
Chan, his captain general, who was dangeroufly 
wounded, not able to proceed farther, fliut him- 
felf up in the fort of Sunkar, where, being be- 
sieged, he capitulated the fecond day, and was, 
on account of his excellent character, received 
into great favor. Sidder, during the purluit, 
laved Bahadur, when almoft taken by Humaioon, 
by throwing himfelf in between the kings, till 
his mafter had an opportunity of making his ef- 
cape. But he himfelf was at' ivked with fuch vio- 

L 2 lencc 

the fie;;c of 
the citadel 


A.D.is34le!ice by Humaloon, In perfon, that, after re- 
'^'^'*'* ceiving many wounds, he got off with great dif- 

The king, three days after the taking of Mindu, 

^^nSci^Bil- renewed the purfuit after Bahadur, who, having 

badiir.; taken all his treafure and jewels out of the city 
of Chapanier, fled towards Amudabad. The 
king, giving up the city of Chapanier to plun- 
der, and committing the fiege of the citadel, 
which ftill held out, to Dowlat Birlafs, continued 
to purfue Bahadur. The unfortunate Bahadur, 
hearing of his approach, fled to Cambait, but 
Humaioon purfuing him thither, he retired to 
the ifland of Deo, Humaioon arriving in Cambait 
the very evening of the fame day in which Baha- 
dur forfook it. 

Returns to Humaioon remained a few days in this place, 
but hearing that Bahadur's wealth v/as moftly in 
the citadel of Chapanier, he returned to carry on 
that fiege. Achtiar, who commanded in the 
place, defended it with great bravery. But 
though he had fome years provifion in the fort, 
he was covetous of more, and took in daily fup- 
plies by a certain part of the citadel, which was 
covered by a thick wood. The king, one day, 
reconnoitring the place, obferved the proceedings 
of Achtiar, with regard to the provilions. He 
immediately feized upon a party of country peo- 
ple who carried the fupplies through the woods. 
He perfuaded, or rather commanded them, to 
carry him, in difguife, to the place. They had 
admittance. The king made the necefl'ary re- 
marks, returned to his camp, and the fame night 
ordered a parcel of iron fpikes to be made. 

He himfelf, with three hundred felecl men, 

i^xpii^Vr went to the place, while feigned attacks were 
made upon every other quarter of the fort. As 
the accefs to this part of the fortrefs was extreme- 
ly difficult, the attention of the enemy was en- 

His gallant 

H U M A I O O N. 149 

tirely drawn towards the different aflaults. This ^-P- '53S- 
furniflied the king with an opportunity of fixing '^' ^'^^' 
his iron fpikes in the wall, by which means thirty- 
nine officers mounted, and the king himfelf made 
the fortieth. Before fun-rife his vvhole detach- 
ment was within the walls, when he difplayed a 
fignal which had been previoufly fettled with his 
troops. They accordingly made a violent affault 
upon all fides, and Humaioon, in the mean time, 
at the head of his detachment, cried out. Alia 
Akbar ! * and forcing his way, fword in hand, 
through the enemy, poffeffed himfelf of one of 
the gates : he immediately opened it, and admit- 
ted his troops, and all, except Achtiar and his 
family, who were in an outwork, were put to 
the fword. The governor defended himfelf fo 
bravely, that he obtained a capitulation. The 
great ftrength of this place, the numerous garri- 
fon, and the boldnefs of the attempt by which it 
fell, rendered this adion of the king, equal, in 
the opinion of all mankind, to any thing of the 
like nature recorded in hiftory. Here the trea- 
fure of Guzerat, which had been colleded in the 
courfe of many years, was diftributed among the 
troops. He gave to the officers and foldiers what 
wealth could be heaped upon their refpeclive 
fliields, proportioning the value of the things to 
their rank and merit. All the wealth of Room, 
Chitta, and Fring t, which had been there col- 
leded, to a vaft: amount, was delivered over to 

Bahadur having fecured himfelf in Deo, fent Bahadur 
Chirkufs to Ahmedabad, to collecT: the revenues, '"'"^ ^°'"* 
and levy troops. He found himfelf foon at the 
head of fifty thoufand men, and was daily gain- 
ing ftrength and reputation. Humaioon having 


* That is, God is greateft. 

f The Turkifh Empire, China, and Europe. 



A.p. i535.jntelliffente of the tranfaclions of Bahadur, an- 

Hi". 042. . '-' , ' r 

pointed Tirdi Beg to command the fort of Cha- 
panier, and the adjacent countries, and marched 
in perfon with his army towards Ahmedabad. 
Chirkufs drew out his troops to oppofe him, and 
faUing in with the vanguard of the impcriahfts, 
commanded by the prince Afhkari, and he was 
defeated before the reft of the army could be 
brought up to the engagement. The king, for 
this iignal fcrvice, appointed Aflikari governor 
Humaioon of the fplendid city of Ahmedabad. He divided 
reduces uii th^j-^ (l^g proviuccs of Guzetat amonfx his omrahs, 
and marched againil Burhanpoor. Nizam, of 
Eurhan, and the other provinces of the Dccan, 
apprehenfive of his defigns to reduce Chandez, 
wTote to him letters of fubmiffion and allegi- 
The infut- Tliefc letters had fcarce arrived, when the news 
def She""' ^^ ^^^^ infurreflion of Shere Chan came to the 
Chan. king. He, however, reduced all the countries 
about Burhanpoor, then marched round to Min- 
du. Chirkufs, in the mean time, in conjunction 
with the omrahs of Guzerat, be^an agrain to ac- 
quire ftrength, and marched, with an army, to- 
wards Ahmedabad. Humaioon, having marched 
into the eallcrn provinces, invefted Chinar, and 
reduced it, after a (iege of fix months. Having 
then gained the pafies, he entered Bengal. Shere, 
in the mean time, carried away the treafure of 
the princes of Gour and Bengal, whom he had 
reduced, and fled to the mountains of Jarcund. 
The king continued his march to Gour, the ca- 
pital of BenG:al, took it, and commanded it to be 
called Giniiitabad f . Having refided in that city 
for the fpace of three months, he was obliged, 
on account of the moift air of that country, by 
which the greateft part of his army fell fick, as 

f The paradisial city. 


srs difa. 

H U M A I O O N. 151 

well as by the rebellion of his brother, the prince '"V,^* '^i^- 
Hindal at Agra, to return. 

Hindal had been fent to fupprefs Mahommed The br 
Mirza, who, we have already obferved, had ef- *''^^' 
caped to Kinnoge. But inftead of performing ^'^" 
that fervice, he, as foon as he faw himlelf at the 
head of an army, began to afpire to the throne. 
He accordingly marched back to Agra, where he 
difcovered his treafonable intentions, by putting 
fome of the principal people, who rejected his au- 
thority, to death. He thus enforced obedience, 
and throwing away every difguife, ordered the 
chutba to be read in his own name, and, with 
all the enfigns of royalty, marched to Delhi, and 
belieged it. The king, having heard of thelc 
proceedings, left Jehangire and Ibrahim to com- 
mand in Bengal, and haftened towards Agra. 
When he was about half way, Mahommed Ze- 
man, of the race of Timur, who had formerly 
joined Bahadur, returned from Sind, and, being 
promifed a pardon, joined the king with a con- 
fiderable party. In the mean time, Shere the 
Afghan, finding the king's army fb much weak- 
ened by ficknefs and defertion, and his affairs 
further perplexed by the rebellion of Hindal, 
marched with his troops from Rotas, and came 
behind the king on the Jolfa *, Both armies lay 
three months inadive, at a time when the king- 
ought to have run all hazards, being every day 
infulted, and more and more diftreffed by the 
enemy, who prevented his eroding the river. 

To add ftill to Humaioon's misfortunes, his 
other brother, Camiran, inftead of aflliling him, ",'"""",,'/" 
ungenerouHy afpired to his throne, and marched, Agra. 
with ten thoufand horfe, from Lahore. When 
he arrived at Delhi, prince Hindal prevailed upon 

* Perhaps the Sone, or Carin naiTa, 



AD. 1539. him, to join his forces with his own, after which 
''■ '^^ ' they both continued the fiege. Ali, who com- 
manded in the city, acquainted Camiran, that 
he could never think of betraying his truft, and 
rather than be fo ungrateful to his prince, he 
was deier mined to hold out to the laft drop of 
his blood ; but, that, if he would firft pollefs him- 
felf of Agra, the capital, and entirely fubdiic his 
brother, he would then, and not till then, give 
up the city of Delhi. When Caniird.n and' his 
brother found the jrovernor fo determined, and 
that the fiege would coil them much blood and 
time, they fet out together for Agri. Wheii 
they had reached the environs of that city, the 
jealoufy, v/hich the brothers naturally e-ter.ain- 
ed of each other, the eyes of born being turned 
towards the throne, broke out into o»:en war. 
Hindal, being deferted by many of his party^ €ed 
to Alwir, with five thoufand hcrfe, and ^hree 
hundred elephants; andCamiron, entering Agra, 
ailuD'sed all the iniper,*?! e^ligns. 

Humaicon cndein'oured, by every poffibie ar- 

Humaioon jrumcnt with his brothers, to brine, atiout a coa^ 

endeavours «~> . . ' _, t) 

in vain to lition 01 inteieils affainit iShrce, teiime; them, 
MsTror* ^hat then- fimily quarrels would certain!), in the 
thcrs. end, lofe them that mighty en^pire. which had 
coft their father fo much pains to conquer, and 
involve the family of Timur in one corr-mon 
ruin ; that it was, therefore, advifeable to join 
againil the common enemy, and afterwards di- 
vide the empire amongfl themfelves, Thefe ar- 
guments had no weight w^ith his brothers, who 
were fo blinded with ambition, that they were 
determined rather to lofe all, than be contented 
with a part. They vainly hoping that after Shere 
had defeated Humaioon, they fliould be able to 
lubdue Shere ; and each had the folly to fuppofe, 
that he would be able to exclude the other, and 
fo reign alone. 


H U M A I O O N. 1.53 

At this juncture, Shere fent the learned Che- ^^- ^539. 
lili, a dervifh of great reputation, to Humaioon, j^^^'^^J"^ " 
to treat about a peace, which the king accepted, peace with 
with gladnefs, upon the follov.'ing conditions : ^''"^" 
That Shere fhould content himfelf with Bengal 
and Behar, which he was to hold in the king's 
name, paying a fmall acknowledgment. 

When the conditions were figned and ratified -ri-e^chery 
by mutual oaths, Humaioon, trufting too muchof shue. 
to the faith of his enemy, permitted a free inter- 
courfe between both armies. This was what the 
perfidious Shere aimed at by the peace. He ac- 
cordingly, next morning, furprized the empe- 
ror's camp, before day-break, and totally defeated 
him. As the bridge of boats, which the king 
had been preparing, was not finifhed, there was 
no way of efcape left, but by plunging into the 
river ; all the boats being feized by a party of 
the enemy, who had turned the rear of the em- 
peror's army. Humaioon, his nobles, and a great Humaio- n 
part of his army, were forced into the ftream,"'"''""*"* 
wlicre eight thoufand Moguls, exclulive of Hin- 
doos, -v ere drowned, among whom was the 
prince, Mahommed Zeman. I'his terrible over- 
throw happened to Humaioon in the year nine 
hundred and forty-fix. 

The King, by the aififlance of a waterman, Efcapcj to 
having with great difficulty fwam acrofs the ri- ■^S'^- 
ver, with a tew who Lad furvived the flaughter 
of this dreadful day, fled to Agra. Prince Ca- 
miran hearing of rhis defeat, hallened from Agra 
to Alwir, to conlult with his brother Hindal. 
Findmg that now the Arghans were likely '..0 pre- 
vail, they were afliamed of their behaviour to 
their brother, and, when it was toolate, 'Jiought 
proper to fuppcrt him. In the mean tiiae, all 
tlie mogul om.rahs who were difperfeci in the pro- 
vinces, Teeing that the power of their nation had 



^^^•^-^^^fuflained fuch a violent fhock, found it alfo nc- 

'** "' ceflliry to unite their ftrength. They accordingly 

haftcRcd from all quarters to Agra ; Jehangire, 

and Ibrahim, having left Bengal, and even Ma- 

hommed Mirza, who had rebelled in Kinnoge, 

joined now in the general caufe againft the 


Quarrels The three brothers having met at Agra, held 

be Aeen the jj^jjy confultatious ; but Camiran. who was not 

earneit m rcconcihng their different interefts, 

brought all their councils to nothing, and pro- 

pofed to return to Lahore, to which refolution he 

was very much inftigated by the famous Chaja 

Callan. Humaioon ufed every argun^ent to pr'" • 

vent his departure ; but the ambitious Camiiari 

was determined to be every thing himfelf, or to 

rive no ailiflance to his brother. 

Thefe impolitic difputes had lafted fix months, 
dcSTthe '^vhen Camiran was feized with a falfe appetite, 
lii'ig. which he too much indulged, and confequently 
became affiicfed with a lientery, which he imputed 
to poifon given him by his brothers. He imme- 
diately fet out for Lahore, leaving a thoufand 
horfe with Secunder, one of his chiefs, under pre- 
tence of aflifting his unfortunate brother. The 
inhabitants of Agra were greatly difcouraged at 
(lamiran's departure, fo that many of them, 
fearing the iflue of the war, accompanied him. 
Hyder, one of the pofterity of Timur, difguflcd 
with this behaviour, flaid behind, and joined 
Humaioon, to whom he was of great fervice. 
. Shere, who had remained quiet durina; thefe 

vancesto dilputcs, novv advauccd with an army to the 
tuc Gan^r, j-j^j^j^g Q^- j-|-jg Gano:, and dctachincr his fon Cuttub 

over the river, poireffed him.felf of the adjacent 
provinces. Humaioon having received intelli- 
gence of thefe motions, ordered Hulfein the Uf- 
beck, in conjunciion with Eadgar and Secunder, 
4gainfl him, with a great army. They met the 


H U M A I O O N. 155 

enemy near Calpie, where an obftinate engage- ^^f- J^^-^^- 
ment happened, in which viclory declaring for 
the moguls, Cuttub, with a great part of his 
army, was cut off, and his head fent to Agra. 
The generals, at the fame time, invited the king- 
to come and have the honour of conquering Sliere 
in perfon. 

Humaloon accordingly marched with a hund- Humibon 
red thoufand horfe and croiTing the Gang, near ^'';-p,';j,*i.,j, 
Kinnoge, fat dov/n for the fpace of a month be- 
fore the army of Shere, which confided of little 
more than half his number. In the mean time, 
Mahommed Mirza, and his fons, who were re- 
markable for their treachery and ingratitude, fled 
to the enemy, with all their adherents, drawing 
many more after them, which again plunged the 
king into diiirefs j for his army being difpirited, 
began to defert by thoufands. To complete his 
misfortunes, the rainy feafon now commenced, 
and his camp was quite overflowed with water, 
infomuch that the tents feemed afloat. The king 
therefore refolved to move his camp to higher 

On the tenth of Mohirrim, nine hundred and""'^'^°'^^^'^- 


forty-feven, he put his army in motion. He was 
attacked by Shere on his march, and defc*Sted 
with great daughter. Having unfortunately, as 
in the former action, the river then clofe to his 
rear, the flight turned that way, and fome thou- 
fands, to avoid the fwords of the enemy, chofe a 
more ignominious death in the water. A few 

j only efcaped with the king over the river, w^ith 
whom he fled to Agra ; the reft fubmittcd them- 
felves to the conquerors, or difperfcd by various 

Shere, immediately after this victory, advanc- ^^en ad- 

! ed towards Agra. 'I'he king was forced to re- '^^^iT.* '" 
treat to Lahore, and on the firft of Ribbi, the 

I firft of that year, joined the greatcft part of his 



^hP*'^8' "^°S^^ omralis, who had been difperfed fince the 
'^' ^"^ ■ adion. Shere ftill continuing the purfuit, to 
make the bell ufe of his vidory, croffed the river 
of Jullanpoor, upon which the king, upon the 
firft of Rigib, pafTcd the river of Lahore, and re- 
treated towards Tatta and Bicker, upon the In- 
dus. Camiran, now fenfible of his ungenerous 
and impolitic behaviour, was himfelf obhged to 
fly towards Cabul, and faw an empire wrefted 
from his family, by the effefts of that bafe envy, 
which could not behold even a brother's greatncfs 
without pain 
Humaioon' Humaioon having croffed the Indus, on his 
cmbaiiy to Way to Bickcr, halted at Lori, and fent an embaf- 
nm S Tat- ^^<^o^j with a horfc and drefs to his coufm Huf- 
ta. fein, governor of Tatta, to requeft his aid, that 

he might be able to poflefs himfelf of Guzerat. 
HuiTein feeming to liften to his requeft, detained 
the king, by various artifices and excufes, for 
five months, by which means his fmall army, dif- 
treffed for want of pay, daily diminifhed in num- 
ber?. The prince Hindal, his brother, in the 
mean time, left him, and went to Kandahar, 
being invited thither by the governor of that pro- 
vince. Eadgar Nafir propofed, at the fame time, 
to quit Humaioon, but the unfortunate king 
took great pains to keep him firm to his intereft, 
giving him the government of Bicker. But he 
had no fooner taken pofTeiHon of that place, than 
he began to flrengthen himfelf againft his fo- 
j^;^„^j3j Humaioon, in the m-ean time, had, with his 
diK;tti. little army, laid ficge to Scwan for feven months, 
' without effect, when Huiiein, defirous of getting 
the place into his own hands, advanced, with 
a great force, from Tatta, and furrounding both 
the garrifon and the befiegers, prevented fupplies 
from being carried to either. Humaioon's army 


H U M A I O O N. I 

:> / 

were foon greatly diftrefled, as well as the gar- ^^- '54'. 
rifon. The king, driven to extremities, requef- 
ted Eadgar to join him with what forces he had 
in Bicker ; but this ungr.iteful man chofe rather 
to be prevailed upon to join liufiein, who pro- 
mifed him his daughter, and to lecure him in his 
government. He ^m mediately deferted ihe king's 
intereft, at this dangerous crifis, and Humaioon 
was obliged to retreat precipitately from before 
Sewan, towards Bicker. He could not even ob- 
tain, in that place, a few boats from his own per- 
fidious fubjecls, to waft his fmall army over the 
river. After a fearch of fome days, and wander- 
ing along the banks, he difcovered fome boats 
that had been funk, railed them, and tranfported 
his troops to the other lide. 

Notwithftanding this accumulation of misfor- Eadgar fub- 
tunes, Humaioon had ftrength enough left to"*"^*' 
ftrike terror into Eadgar, who, to avoid his re- 
fentment, came and made his fubmifiion. The 
necefhty of the times obtained his pardon ; but, 
in return for Humaioon's clemency, he began to 
raife fedition among his troops, and privately to 
draw them over to his own intereft. Tins treafon 
being communicated to the king, the traitor, 
upon being taxed with it, appeared at the head 
of his troops, in open rebelHon. But the princi- 
pal officers of the rebellious faction refufeiA to at- 
tack their king, fo that an action was prevented, 
when both parties were formed in order of battle. 
The king being in no condition, at that juncture, 
to contend with the rebel, thought it hiQ:h time to 
provide for his own fatety elfewhere. fie there- 
fore marched, by the way of Jaifclmerc to Mal- 
dco, then the mod potent Hindoo prince in Hin- 
doitan, having before received an invitation from 
him. But as he was palling through the territo- 
ries of Jaflclmere, the prince of that country fcnt 

a force 


A-P-'SV-a force to {vppofe him. The king defeated 
'°*^"* ■ them, and paJfed on to the boundaries of Mal- 
deo, where he halted, and fent a meffenger to 
that prince. 
Raa Mai- ^"^ ^^^^ keep faith with a king, when he is 
<ico plots under the cloud of misfortunes. Maldeo, feeing 
againAHu-j j^^j nothin? to fear from Humaioon, found 
m his own mmd no prmciple to love him ; he 
therefore refolved, if poffible, to feize the king, 
and fend himi to the ufurper Shere. One of 
Maideo's fervants, who had formerly lived under 
Humaioon, having intelligence of this defign, 
immediately informed the king. 
He flic*. Humaioon mounted his horfe, at midnight, 
and fled towards Amercot, which is about one 
hundred crores from Tatta. His horfe, on the 
way, falling down dead with fatigue, he defired 
Tirdi Beg, one of his chiefs, who was well 
mounted, to let him have his ; but fo ungene- 
rous was this man, and fo low was royalty fallen, 
that he refufed to comply with his fovereign's re- 
queft. The troops of Maldeo being clofe to his 
heels, he was neceflitated to mount a camel, till 
one Koka, difmounting his own mother, gave 
the king her horle, and placing her on a camel, 
ran himfelf on foot by her fide. 

The country through vv^hich they fled, being 
diiTreir' an entire fandy deiart, the troops began to be in 
the utmoll dillrefs for water. Some ran mad, 
others fell down dead ; nothing was heard but 
dreadful fcreams and lamentations. To add, if 
poilible, to this calamity, news arrived of the 
enemy's near approach. Humaioon ordered all 
thofe who could fight to halt, and let the wo- 
men and baggage move forward. The enemy 
not making their appearance, the king rode on 
in front, to fee how it fared with his family. 


H U M A r O O N. 159 

Night, in the mean time, coming on, the rear ^^y- '54'. 
loft their way,and in the morning were attacked 
by a party of the enemy. One of the omrahs 
who adhered to the king's fortunes, named Ali, 
with about twenty brave men, refolved to fell 
his life dear. Having repeated the creed of mar- 
tyrdom, he rufhed upon the enemy, and the firft 
arrow having reached the heart of the chief of 
the party, the reft were, by the valor of this 
handful, put to flight. The other moguls joined 
in the purfuit, and took many of their camels 
and horfes. They~then continued their march, 
found the king fitting by a well, which he had 
fortunately found, and gave him an account of 
their adventure. 

Marching forward, the next day, from this J^'^; ,'jj_'[s;^ 
well, they were more diftreffed than before, there tuation for 
being no water for two days journey. On the '^'l''^^''/ 
fourth day of their retreat, they fell in with 
another well, which was fo deep, that the only 
bucket they had, took a great deal of time in 
being wound up, and therefore a drum was beat 
to give notice to the people when the bucket ap- 
peared, that they might repair by turns to drink. 
The unhappy men were fo impatient for the wa- 
ter, that as foon as the firft bucket appeared, ten 
or twelve of them threw themfelves upon it, be- 
fore it quite reached the brim of the well, by 
which means the rope broke, and the bucket was 
loft, and feveral fell headlong^ after it. When 
this fatal accident happened, the fcreams and la- 
mentations of all became loud and dreadful. 
Some lolling out their tongues, rolled themfelves, 
in agony, on the hot fand ; while others, preci- 
pitating themfelves into the well, met with an 
immediate, and confequently an eafier death. 
What did not the unhappy king feel, when he 
faw this terrible lituation of his few faithful 

friends ( 


AD. 1542. friends ! The next day, though they reached a 
"'S-94S- i^i-Qoi^^ ^as n^i- }ef3 f^tai than the former. The 

camels, who had not tafted water for feveral 
days, now drank fo much, that the greateft part 
of them died. The people alfo, after drinking, 
complained of an oppreffion of the heart, and 
in about half an hour a great part of them ex- 

A few, with the king, after this unheard of 
diftre^, reached Amercot. The raja being a 
humane man, took compaflion on their misfor- 
tunes. He fpared nothing that could alleviate 
their miferies, or exprefs his fidelity to the 
^^j,^^ At Amercot, upon Sunday the fifth of Rigib, 

honu in the year nine hundred and forty-nine, the 
prince Ackbar was brought forth, by the Sultana 
Hamida. Tlie king, after returning thanks to 
God, left his family under the proteclion ot 
Rana, the prince of Amercot, and, by the aid 
Humaioon Qf that raja, marched againft Bicker. But a 
flLstowaids mutiny arifing among the troops, they difperfed, 
Kanduhat. f^ that nothing could be effecled. Some of the 
king's own omrahs dcferted him, and the gallant 
All, one of his principal adherents, was killed in 
an action in which Humaioon was defeated. The 
king fled towards Kandahar, and was, on his 
way, joined by that gallant mogul chief, Byram 
Chan, from Guzerat. The prince Camiran had, 
at that time, taken the fortrefs of Kandahar from 
his brother Hindal ; and Aflikari governed there 
by his appointment. Huffein, who governed at 
T'atta, chanorino; his mind with the increafe of 
Humaioon's misfortunes, wrote to Aflikari, that 
the kins: was in the utmoft diflrefs, and that if 
he would now favor him, fo meritorious an ac- 
tion could not be forgot. Afhkari, inftead of 


H U M A I O O N. r<Si 

iiftening to this requeft, attacked the king when a. d. 1541. 
he approached, obliging him to leave behind him '^' ^'^'* 
his young infant fon, Akbar, and fly himfelf, 
with the Sultana Mariam, and only twenty-two 
horfe, to Choraflan. Alhkari expreffed great 
forrow at the king's efcape, and plundering all 
his effeds, carried the young prince to Kanda- 

The king, by repeated trials, found that he h received 
could place no faith in his brothers. When he J'h" pj^^^l^ 
arrived upon the frontiers of Seiftan, he was met ans. 
by Shamlu, who was there governor on the part 
ofTamafp, king of Perfia. He brought Humai- 
I oon to the capital of Seiftan, and treated him 
j with the greateft refpecl, prefenting him with all 
' the money of which he was poffelTed, and fur- 
nifhing the Sultana with Haves. The king re- 
ceived juft what fupplied his occafions, and re- 
turned the reft; He from thence fet out for 
j Herat, and was, in that city, met by the prince 
I Mahommed, the king of Perfia's eldeft fon. This 
I prince forgot nothing of that generofity and po- 
I litenefs which fo remarkably diftinguiflied his 
character. He provided the unfortunate exile 
very effeclually with all necefiaries for his journey 
to the Perfian court. In the progrefs of Hu- 
maioon towards the capital of Perfia, all the go- 
vernors of the provinces and great men paid him 
their compliments, and made magnificent enter- 
tainments for him. When he arrived at Kizvi, 
he difpatched Byram to the Perfian king, at If- 
pahan, and waited for his anfwer. Let us now 
leave Humaioon, to give an account of the tran- 
ladions in Hindoftan, during his exile. 

Tamafp ftill held the fceptre of Perfia. The ^J^f^ "f 
Ottomans, and their emperor Solyman, carried 
on a fucccfsful war againft the Perfians, and the 
Vol. IL M Ufbeck 


A.D. 1542. Ufbeck Tartars were extremely troubiefome on 
Hig.949. the north-eaft banks of the Oxus. The frontier 
provinces to the north-weft of the Indus remain- 
ed to the houfe of Timur, after the expulfion of 
Humaioon from India. 

S H E R E 

1^3 ) 

S n E R E. 

TH E original name of Shere was Ferid. His a. p. is4» 
father was Huilein, of the Soor tribe of the ^2- 949- 
Afghans of Roh, a mountainous country on the5'>p'sfa- 
confines of India and Perfia. When Beloli placed "" ^' 
his foot on the throne of the Indian empire, the 
grandfather of Shere, Ibrahim, came to Delhi in 
queft of military fervice. The original feat of the 
Afghans was Roh, which, in their language, fig- 
nifies a mountainous country. It extended, they 
lay, in length, from Sewad and Bijore, to the 
town of Sui in the dominions of Buckuraft, and 
in breadth, from Huflin to Rabul. This traft, 
in its fertile vallies, contained many feparate 
tribes ; among the number of thefe was that of 
Soor, who derive themfelves from the princes of 
Ghor, whofe family held the empire after the ex- 
tindion of the race of Ghlzni. One of the fons 
of the Ghorian family, whofe name was Mahom- 
med Soor, having left his native country, placed 
himfelf among the Afghans of Roh, and was the 
father of the tribe of Soor, which was cfteemed 
the nobleft among them. 

Ibrahim, the grandfather of Shere, arriving at Ibrahim ar- 
Dclhi, engaged himfelf in the fervice of an om-p'^^Jj'J' 
rah of the court of Beloli. When the empire fell 
to Secunder, the fon of Beloli, the noble Jemmal, 
a chief of high renown, was appointed fuba of 
Jionpoor, and he took HufTein, the fon of Ibra- 
him, in his retinue. He found him a youth 
of parts, and favored him fo much, that, in a 



A. D. 1542. fhort time he gave him the diftricls of Sehfaram 
'^ ^^ and ) arida, in Jas^ier, for which he was to main- 
tain five hundred norfe. HufTein had eight fons ; 
Ferid ana Nazam of one mother, of a Patan fa- 
mily ; cite other fons were born of flaves. 

HuiTein had no great love for his wife, and he 
Ferid f.ies therefore negledled her fons. Ferid, upon this, 
[h°e?«hoi.fe" ^^^^ ^^^ father's houfe, and enUfted himfeif a fol- 
dier in the fervice of Jemmal, the governor of 
Jionpoor. HufTein wrote to Jemmal upon this 
occafion, requefting him to fend back his fon^ 
that he might be educated. But all that Jemmal 
could fay had no efied- upon Ferid. Jionpoor, 
he faid, was a better place for inftruclion than 
Sehfaram ; and he affirmed that he would attend 
to letters of his own accord. This he did to fo 
much purpofe, that he foon could repeat the 
works of the celebrated poet Sadi, and was, bc- 
fides, a proficient in all the learning of the coun- 
try- He, however, employed mofl of his time 
in hiftory and poetry, being fupported by the libe- 
rality of Jemmal. 
i% reconcii. After three or four years had elapfed, HufTein 
ed with his cameto Jionpoor, and, by the mediation of friends, 
.*thcr. ^j^^ father and fon were reconciled. Huflein gave 
Ferid the charge of his eflate, and remained him- 
feif at Jionpoor. Ferid, when he took leave of 
"his father, faid, " That the flability of govern- 
ment depended on juflice, and that it would be 
*' his greateft care not to violate it, either by op- 
" prefHng the weak, or permitting the flrong to 
" infringe the laws with impunity." When he 
arrived at his jagier, he actually put this refoluti- 
on in practice, by rendering jufdce to the poor, 
and reducing to order fuch of his zemindars as 
oppofed his authority. He, by this means, had his 
revenues punctually paid, and his country well 
cultivated. His reputation grew apace j for all 


S H E R E. 16$ 

his actions difcovered uncommon genius and re- a 0.1542. 
folution. "'S»^5- 

HuiTein coming to vifit his eftate, was ex 
extremity well pleafed with the management of 
his fon, and therefore continued him in his office. 
But the father had a favorite flaveby whom he had 
three fons, Soliman, Ahmed, and Mudda, and the 
old man was extremely fond of her. She told 
him, that now her fon Soliman was grown up, 
and that he ought to provide for him. She, day 
after day, continued to tcaze HulTein for the fu- 
perintendency of the pergunnahs for Soliman. 
This gave the old omrah great concern, knowing 
the fuperior abilities of Ferid. The fon, hearing 
that the domeftic peace of his father was deftroyed 
by the importunities of his favorite, made a vo- 
luntary refignation of his truft, which was ac- 
cordingly conferred upon Soliman. 

Ferid and his brother Nizam, fet out immedi- Go«fo 
ately for Agra, and entered into the fervice of ^"* 
Dowlat, one of the principal omrahs of the em- 
peror Ibraham. Ferid, by his good behavior, foon 
infinuated himfelf into his matter's affedion. Dow- 
lat, one day, defired him to tell him what he was 
moft defirous to obtain, and that he would ufe his 
intereft with the king in his favor. Ferid~ repli- 
ed. That his father was now in his dotage, and 
wholly guided by an artful miftrefs, who had de- 
prived both himfelf and his brother of their pa- 
trimonial inheritance, and had procured their 
eftate for her own fpurious offspring. That if 
Dowlat would, therefore by his intereii; at court, 
procure the royal grant of the eftate in his name, 
he would promife to provide for his father, and 
maintain five hundred good horfe for the fervice 
of the empire. Dowlat accordingly preferred this 
requeft to the emperor Ibrahim, who replied. That 
he muft be a bad man indeed, who reviled and 
undermined the intereft of his own father. Dow- 
lat retired in filence, and informed Ferid of the 



A. D. 42 ^"^'"'cr he had received, but comforted him with a 
Hig. 049 promifc of taking another opportunity to urge 
his requefl:. In the mean time, the father of Fe- 
rid died, and Dowlat obtained the Emperor's 
grant, with which the two brothers fet out to 
Schfaram with a grand retinue. 

Soliman, upon the arrival of his brothers, eva- 
Siman'''^' cuatiug the country, went off to Mahommed, one 
complains of the Afghan family of Soor, and his relation. 
Maimed wlio held the diftria ofChond, and kept up a 
Socr, force of fifteen hundred horfe, and complained of 
the behaviour of Ferid, Mahommed told him, 
that Baber, intending to invade Hindoftan, a war 
between him and the Emperor Ibrahim was un- 
avoidable That, therefore, if he fhould accompa- 
ny him whencalledto the imperial army, he would 
endeavor to get him redrefs. Soliman was too 
impatient to wait fo long -in fufpence. Mahom- 
med, therefore, fent a perfon to F^erid, to treat 
about a reconciliation. Ferid replied. That he 
was willing to give him a proper fliare of his fa- 
ther's inheritance, but that he muft he excufed 
from parting with any of his power; repeating, 
at the fame time, the old adage. That two fwords 
could never reft in one fcabbard. Soliman could 
not be fatisfied with a fhare of the government, 
and therefore nothing was fettled between the bro- 
thers. This irritated Mahommed fo much that he 
refolved to compel Ferid to the meafures which 
he himfelf had propofed. Ferid being informed of 
this refolution, began to provide for his own fecu- 
rity ; but news arriving of the F.mperor Ibrahim's 
defeat and death, the whole country was thrown 
into confufion. 
I^cobtains Ferid refolved not to lie idle in the midft of 
the title of the troubles which enfued. He joined Par Chan, 
jherechan.^j^^ fon of Diria Lohani who had fubdued Behar, 
and aiTumed the royal dignity, under the name 


S H E R E. 15; 

of Mahommcd, or Mahmood. As that monarch a, d. 1542. 
was one day on a hunting party, he roufed an "'S-949. 
enormous tiger ; which Ferid immediately at- 
tacked and killed with one blow of his fabre. 
For this bold aflion, which was done in Mah- 
mood's prefence, he was honored with the title 
of Shere Chan *. Shere rofe gradually to 
great influence and favor, in Mahmood's fer- 
vice. He was even appointed tutor to his fon, 
Jellal. He, in the mean time, requefted permif- 
fion to go to his eftate, but he was detained there 
by bufmefs, till his leave of abfence expired. Mah- 
mood, diffatisfied with this behavior, reproached 
him, one day in public, with breach of promife ; 
and Mahomnied, of the family of Soor, being 
prefent, took that opportunity of accufmg 
him of treafonable defigns, and with favour- 
i ng the intereft of Mahmood, the fon of the 
Emperor Secunder. The Sultan was, by this 
means, fo incenfed againft him, that he intimated, 
at the time, a defign to deprive him of this eftate, 
and to confer it upon his brother Soliman, as a 
juft punifliment for his offence, and the only 
thing that could bring him to a proper fenfe of 
his duty. 

Mahmood, however, having a great efleem for ^g^^j^'^h"^' 
Shere, againft whom nothing was yet proved, laid 
afide the violent meafure to which he was infti- 
gated by Mahommed. He, at the fame time, Ly 
way of alarming him, gave orders to his accufer 
to inquire into his father's eftate, and make an 
equal divilion of it among all the brothers. Ma- 
hommed, glad of this order, fentone of his fer- 
vants to Shere to acquainthim, that his brothers, 
according to the King's commands, were to have 
theirproportionable dividends of the eftate which 

♦ Slu-re fignifies a lion. 

Y 2 he 


A n. 1542 ^ic had hitherto fo unjuftly with-held from them. 
Hig. 949' Shcre returned for anfwer, that Mahommed was 
very much miftaken in this matter. That there 
were no hereditary eftates in India, among Ma- 
hommedans, for that all lands belonged to the 
King, which he difpofed of at pleafure. That as 
he himfelf had a perfonal grant of his eftate, his 
brethren were entirely out of the queftion. 
That he, however, had already confented to give 
to his brother Soliman a part of the money and 
moveables, according to law. 
shere at- When the meflenger returned with this anfwer 
tacked. ^^ Mahommcd, who was then at Chond, he was 
enraged at fo flat a denial, and raifing all his for- 
ces, fent them againft Shere, under the command 
of Shadi, his adopted flave, accompanied by 
Shere's brothers, Soliman and Ahmed. Shadi's 
orders were to take pofTeflion of the country, and 
to leave a force with Soliman, to proteft him in 
the eftate. This refolution being quickly taken, 
Shere had not time to collect his people ; but, up- 
on the firft alarm, he wrote to one Malleck, his 
deputy in che diftricT: of Chawafspoor Tandah, to 
harrafs the enemy with what troops he had, but 
to avoid an action till he joined him in perfon. 
But Malleck, defirous to diftinguifli himfelf, gave 
them battle, and loft his Hfe and the victory. This 
unexpected difafter weakened Shere fo much, that 
he was in no condition to oppofe Mahommed ; he 
therefore evacuated the country, and fled to Ju- 
neidBirlafs, governor of Kurrah and Maneckpoor, 
on the part of the Emperor Baber. He made 
Birlafs a handfome prefent, was taken into favor. 
Defeats ^^^ obtained a body of troops to recover his coun- 
Mahom- try. With thefe he defeated Mahommed, who 
'^^^' fled to the mountains of Rhotas, fo that he not 

only poflefled himfelf of his own country, but 
added feveral other diftricts to his jagier, which 


S H E R E. 169 

he now held of the Mogul Emperor, Baber. Ha- ^. ^ j^^,, 
ving rewarded the Moguls who had afiifted him, Hig. 949- 
he permitted them to return to their mafter. 
He, at the fame time, levied troops, and was 
joined by his former friends, who had fled to the 
hills, which rendered him very formidable in 
thofe parts. 

Shere having thus eftablifhed himfelf in his «'* P^^«^- 
eftate, performed an act of generofity, which, '^^ '** "*"' 
if it was not intended to deceive the world, does 
him much honor. He recalled his enemy Ma- 
hommed, who had fled, and put him in pofleiTion 
of his former eflate. This generous treatment 
converted his greateft enemy into one of his 
beft friends. Shere having fettled his affairs, left 
his brother Nizam in charge of his country, and 
paid a vifit to his benefador Juneid Birlafs, at 
Kurrah. Birlafs was then going to Agra, and 
Shere refolved to accompany him thither. He 
was, upon this occafion, introduced to the Empe- 
ror Baber, and attended that prince in his expe- 
dition to Chinderi. 

After Shere had flaid fome time in the Mogul «;« opmbn 
camp, and obferved their manners and policy, he, concerning 
one day, told a friend, that he thought it would ^ ' °''"^* 
be an eafy matter to drive thofe foreigners out of 
Hindoflan. His friend afked him, what reafon 
he had to think fo ? Shere replied, " That the 
King himfelf, though a man of great parts, was but 
" very little acquainted with the policy of Hin- 
** doftan ; and that the minidcr, who held the 
" reins of government, would be too much bi- 
" aflc'd in favour of his own interefl, to mind 
that of the public. That therefore if the Pa- 
tans, who were now at enmity among them- 
felves, could be brought to mutual concord, the 
work was compleated ; andfliould fortune ever 
favour him, he imagined himfelf equal to the 
ta{k,howeverdifficult it might, at prefent, appear. 



A. D. 1 542. His friend burft out into a loud laugh, and be- 
^'S- 949- gan to ridicule this vain opinion. Shere, a few 
days after, had, at the King's table, fome folid 
diAies fet before him, with only a fpoon to eat 
them, lie called for a knife, but the fervantshad 
orders not to fupply him with one. Shere, not to 
lofe his dinner, drew his dagger, without ceremo- 
ny, and cutting up his meat, made a hearty meal, 
without mindins: thofe who diverted themfelves 
at tliis odd behavior. When he had done, the 
King, who had been remarking this matter, turn- 
ed to Amir Chalifa, and faid, " This Afghan is 
*' not to be difconcerted with trifles, and is likely 
" to be a great man,*' 

Shere perceiving, by thefe words, that the King 
v.kl'.di'aws.^ had been informed of his private difcourfe to his 
friend fied the camp that night, and went to his 
own eftate. He wrote from thence to his bene- 
£ici:or Juneid Birlafs, that as Mahommed had 
prevailed on Mahmood, King of Behar, to fend 
troops againil his jagier, he had in hade left the 
King's carnp, without waiting upon him for 
leave. He by this means, amufed Juneid Birlafs, 
prevented his chaftiiing him, and at the fame 
time made up matters with Mahmood, with 
whom he became a greater favorite than before. 
Shere ma- Mahmood of Behar dying a fliort time after, 
n-gs the was liicceeded by his Ton Jeilal, a minor. The 
of Behlr!^"^ young princc's mother, the Sultana Dudu, acted 
as regent, and conferred the principal offices in 
the government upon Shere. The Sultan dying 
foon after, the adniiniftration fell vholly into 
the hands of nhsre. Allum, the governor of 
Badgipoor, on the part of Mahmood, King of 
Hengal, being guilty of fome mifdemean, threw 
himielt under Shere's protecflon, Mahmood, to 
revenge this infult, ordered Cuttup, governor of 
Mongier, with a great force, againil: Behar. As 


S H £ R E 171 

the forces of Behar were inconfiderable^ in com- a. d. .542. 
parifon of thofe of Bengal, Shere made many "^'s- 499- 
overtures for accommodating differences, but to 
no effed. Finding no arguments could prevail 
but the fvvord, he refolved to ftand the unequal 
encounter, in which his fuperior fkill and bra- 
very acquired him a complete victory. Cuttub 
was flain and all his treafure, elephants, and camp 
equipage taken, which greatly advanced the poli- 
tical defigns of Shere. 

After this victory, the Patau tribe of Lohani, a plot 
the coufms of Jellal, the young King of Behar, l^l]""^ 
envying the fortune of Shere, formed a confpi- 
racy to take away his Ufe. Shere difcovered 
the plot, taxed Jellal with it, who was privy to 
the confpiracy, being very jealous of the great 
influence of his miniiler. He told, on this oc- 
cafion, to the young prince, that there was no ne- 
ceiTity of taking fuch a bale method of getting 
quit of his fervant, for that if he fhould but once 
fignify his inclination, Shere was ready to refign 
that government, which he lately fo fuccefsfully 
protected. The prince, either fufpeding his fm- 
cerity, or being equally fufpicious of the other 
omrahs, would, by no means, confent to his re- 
fignation. This fo much difgufted the confpira- 
tors, that they took every poflible meafure to 
make a breach between the prince and his mini- 
fter. Shere, finding that he had no fecurity, 
but in maintaining his power, by the unlimited 
ufe he made of it, juftly excited the prince's jea- 
loufy to fuch a pitch, that, one night, accompani- 
ed by his omrahs, he fled to Mahmood, of Ben- 
gal, and implored his aid to expel Shere, who 
had ufurped his throne. 

Mahmood, ioinins: his compaffion for the '^»'^'"'^°? 
young prmce, to his perlonal hatred to bhere, lent ^t^ki* 
Ibrahim, the fon of that Cuttub whom Shere •'^'^"^'■c 



^Hk'lit^^^. ^'^^"^^^^^y defeated, with a confiderable army 
againft the ufurper. The Bengalians bcfieged 
Shere in a mud fort, for a long time, without 
fuccefs ; fo that Ibrahim was obliged to fend home 
for fuccours. Shcre, being informed of this 
circumftance, came out, offered battle, and, by 
means of a common ftratagem, ordering his 
troops to fly at the firftonfet, to draw the enemy 
into an ambuih, defeated them, and took all their 
guns and elephants. Ibrahim himfelf was flain in 
the aclion, and the young prince Jellal fled in 
great diftrefs to Bengal. 
^b,n^'''t' Shere, by this vicTory, became lord of all 
^^nics o j3gj^^j.^ ^j^j grew daily more and more formida- 
ble. One Taji was, at this time, governor of 
the flrong fort of Chinar, which he had held for 
, himfelf ever fmce the death of Ibrahim Lodi, 
Emperor of Hindoftan. His wife Ladi Malleki, 
who was barren, yet for whom he had a very 
great aii'edion, being envied by his other wives, 
by whom he had children, they inftigated their 
fons to make away with her. But one of the 
fons, who had undertaken the murder, miffed 
his blow, and only inflicted a flight wound. 
Taji, alarmed by her cries, came to her afhftancc, 
and drew his fword to kiU his fon. The fon, 
feeing no means to efcape, affaulted his father, 
and flew him. The fons of Taji were yet too 
young to be entrufted with the government, 
and Ladi Malleki drew the reins into her own 
hands, by her addrefs among the chiefs and 
zemindars. Shere, informed of thefe tranfa^li- 
ons, fet a treaty of marriage on foot with Ladi 
Malleki, which was foon concluded. Shcre feized 
upon Chinar and the dependant diftrids, which 
was a great acquifition to his power, there being 
a confiderable treafurc in the place. 


S H E R E. 173 

Much about this time, Mahmood, the fon of a^d.i545. 
the Emperor Secunder Lodi, having taken pro- '^■^'^^* 
teclion with Rana Sinka, by his afllftance, and 
that of Haflen of Mewat, advanced againft the 
Emperor Baber, and was defeated, as we have 
already feen, at Janveh. Mahmood, flying to 
Chitor, was from thence invited by the chiefs ot 
the tribe of Lodi, who were gathered together 
at Patna, and by them proclaimed King. He 
made himfelf foon mafter of all Bchar. Shere 
perceiving that he could not draw the omrahs 
over from Mahmood's intereft, and that he had 
not fufficient force to oppofe him, fubmitted to 
his authority, and, by that means, faved a part 
of Behar, which th^ Sultan permitted hirn to 
retain. Mahmood told him, at the fame time, 
that if he {hould effedually allift him in recover- 
ing Jionpoor from the Moguls, he would return 
Behar to him ; and a contract to that effecT: was 
drawn up and executed between them- 

Shere, fome time after, obtained leave to re- ^^.^''\°^^^ 
turn to SehlTaram, to levy troops, and Mahmood to vifuiou 
marching, with an army, againft the Moguls, ps>er- 
fent him orders to join. But as Shere delayed 
for fome time, the Sultan, perfuaded by his 
omrahs that he was playing a loofe game, march- 
ed his army through Shere's eftate, on his way 
to Jionpoor. Shere came out to meet him, had 
an elegant entertainment provided for his recep- 
tion, and then marched with him to Jionpoor. 
The troops of the Emperor Humaioon evacuated 
the province upon their approach, fo that the 
Afghans took poffcffion of the country as far as 

Humaioon lay, at this time, before Callinger, He betray.^ 
and having heard of the progrefs of the Afghans, ^^'^^^'J- 
he marched againft them. Mahmood having, on 
this occafion, given a fuperior command to Bcin 
Baezid, Shere, who thought himfelf ill-ufed, 



A. D. 1542. betrayed his mafter, and wrote a private letter, 
J^ig- 949- the night before the aclion, to Hindoo Beg, one 
of the Mogul generals, acquainting him, " That 
" he efteemed himfelf afervantofBaber's family, 
" to whom he owed his advancement, and that 
he would be the caufe of defeating the Afghans 
next day.'* He drew off his troops in the 
aclion, which occafioned Mahmood's defeat, for 
which fervice he was greatly favoured by Hu- 
maioon. Mahmood, after this defeat, retreated 
to Patna, retired from the world, and, in the 
vear nine hundred and forty nine, died in 
Refufestc Humaioou, after this vidory, returned to Agra, 
^ii-e up and fent the noble Hindoo Beg to Shere, to take 
SSaL^n. poifeffion of the fort of Chinar. Shere excufed 
himfelf, and obliged Hindoo Beg to retreat. 
Humaioon returnee! immediately with his whole 
army to befiege Chinar, and, having invefted it, 
he received a letter from Shere, acquainting him, 
" That he efteemed himfelf one of the fervants 
*' of the houfe of Baber, from whom he firft 
" obtained a government ; and that he had ex- 
" preil'ed his fidelity, by being the occafion of 
the late victory. That, therefore, If the King 
would permit him to retain the government of 
the fort, he was willing to pay him the proper 
'^ revenues of the lands which he held, and 
" would fend his fon, Cuttub, with five hundred 
" horfe, to be maintained at his own expence, in 
". the emperor's fervice." As at this juncture 
the affairs of Guzerat, by the conquefts of Baha- 
dur, required the King's prefence, and confider- 
ing alfo the ftrength of Chinar, Humaioon con- 
fented to thefe terms, and, accordingly, being 
joined by Cuttub, the fon of Shere, with five 
hundred horfe, he marched towards Buhadur. 
The King, however, had fcarcely reached Guze- 
rat, when Cuttub deferted with his horfe, and 


S H E R E. 


returned to his father. Shere immediately raifed a-^^. ^542- 
what forces he could, and reduced Behar. 
Not fatisiied with his fuccefs, he purfued his for- 
tune, and penetrated into the heart of Bengal, 
having fought with the omrahs of that country 
feveral fiiarp battles, before he could make him- 
felf mafter of the pafTes, which were defended a 
whole month. 

Mahmoodof Bengal (hut himfelf up in Gour, Befieg« 
the capital, which Shere for a long time befieged. ^'"'' 
One of the zemindars of Behar having raifed a 
difturbance, he left Chawafs to carry on the fiege, 
and returned himfelf to Behar. Provilions be- 
coming at length very fcarce in Gour, Mahmood 
fled in a boat to Hadjipoor ; and Shere, having 
fettled affairs in Behar, returned and purfued 
him. Mahmood being neceffitared to give battle, 
was defeated, and being wounded in the engage- 
ment, fled his kingdom, which immediately fell 
into the hands of the conqueror. 

Humaioon, returning from liis expedition to Humai^'jon 

Guzerat, thought it necefiiiry to put a flop to thca"™? his 
rifing power of Shere. He for that purpofe >i'"" ^2^^°^ 
turneti towards the reduction of Chinar. Jellal, 
a fon of Shere, who commanded there, left the 
defence of the place to Ghazi, of the Soor tribe 
of Afghans, and retired to the hills of Bercundah, 
from whence he very much annoyed the befiegers. 
The fiege had been carried on fix months, when 
Rumi Chan, who commanded the King's artil- 
lery, by feme kind of a floating battery, Mdiich 
he fent down the river clofe to the wall, redu- 
ced the place. Humaioon left two hundred 
foldiers in garrifon there, and marched towards 
Bengal. Mahmood, who, as we have already 
obferved, was wounded in the action with Shere, 
threw himfelf under the protection of Humaioon. 
When the King had advanced to the pafs of 
Gurhi, which is the frontier of Bengal, he found 



A.D. 1541. jjj^l; shere had fcnt his fon Jellal, Chawafs, and 
^" a good detachment, to guard that defile. The 
King fent KuUi, and fome other chiefs, to diflodge 
them ; but they were repulfed in feveral attacks. 
Being, however, fupported by more troops, and 
the whole army appearing in fight, a fuccefsful 
ailault was made, and the Moguls became mafters 
of the pafs. Jellal fled to his father Shere at 
Gour, who, being in no condition to engage fo 
fuperior a force, evacuated that capital, carried 
off all his wealth to the mountains of Jarcund, 
and began to project a fcheme for poirefling him- 
felf of Rhotas, that he might there lodge his 
family and wealth in fecurity. 
Shere, by a ^^ ^^^^ Rhotas by opcn force was an impoiTi- 
ftratagcm, blc attempt. It was therefore neceflary to devife 
iipTegta- ^ome ftratagem, by which fuccefs might be hoped. 
Lie twtief. Shere, for this purpofe, fent a mefiage to Raja 
of Rhotas. gej-i^js^ ^y}^Q ^y^g [^ poiTeflion of this impreg- 
nable fortefs, and told him, " That as he him- 
felf was going to attempt the recovery of Bengal, 
he hoped, from their former friendihip, that he 
would permit him to fend his family and treafure 
into the place, with a few attendants.'* Berkis 
at Crft rejected this requeft, but Shere fent an 
artful embaffador to him, a fecond time, with 
fome handfome prefents, acquainting him, " That 
it was only for his women and treafure he requell- 
ed his princely protection : That fhould he be 
fortunate enough to conquer Bengal, he would 
make proper acknowledgements for the favor 
on his return ; but if he fhould lofe his 
life in the conteft, he rather chofe that his family 
and wealth fhould h\\ into the hands of Berkis> 
than into thofe of the Moguls, his inveterate 
enemies." Berkis, fuffering himfelf to be delud- 
ed by his avarice, determined, when once in 
poiTeflion of the treafure, to keep it, and there- 
fore confented to Shcre's requeft. The Afghan 


S H E R E. 177 

having provided covered chairs *, filled them all, a^d. 1542. 
except two or three, which were to go firft, with '2-949. 
armed men and arms. He, at the fame time, 
filled five hundred money bags with leaden bul- 
lets, and appointed fome of his bed foldiers to 
carry them, in the difguife of fiaves, with fticks 
in their hands, who were deftined in appearance 
to help to carry the treafure up the mountain. 
The men, who carried the clofe chairs, were dif- 
guifed in the fame manner. This train accord- 
ingly fet out, and the firft and fecond chair being 
examined at the gate, were found to contain only 
old women, fo further examination was neglect- 
ed. The raja was, in the mean time, bufy in 
counting the bags, which he now reckoned part 
of his own fortune. When the chairs had reach- 
ed the houfe which the raja had appointed, the 
wolves rufiied out among the iheep, and begun 
to dye the fold with their blood. The porters 
ufed their fiaves, till they fupplied themfelves 
with arms from the chairs. They eafily maf- 
tered the garrifon, who were off their guard, 
and admitted Shere, who was encamped at a 
fmall difiance. Berkis himfelf, with a few fol- 
lowers, found means to efcape into the woods, 
by a private pafiage behind the fort. 

Thus fell one of the moil impregnable fortref- 
fes in the world into the hands of bhere, toge- 
ther with much treafure, which had been accu- 
mulating: there for a^es. The merit of the in- 
vention of this ftratagem is not due to Shere. 
The fort of Afere, in the Decan, was, long be- 
fore, taken in the fame manner by Nafir Farold, 
the imperial governor of Chandez. 

Rhotas is built upon the level top of a moun- Ddtription 
tain; the only entrance to it is a very narrow *"' ^''^'*'- 
road, through a fteep afccnt of two miles, from 

* The fame with our fedan chairs. 

Vol.. II. N the 


A-.D. .542.the foot of the hill to the gates, which are three 
'^' ^'^^' in number, one above another, defended by- 
guns and rolling-ftones. The fquare contents of 
the fortified table land, on the top of the moun- 
tain, is more than ten miles. In this fpace are 
contained towns, villages, and corn fields, and 
water is found a few feet from the furface. On 
one fide runs the river Sone, under an immenfe 
precipice, and another river, in the fame manner, 
palTcs clofe to the other fide, and both meeting a 
little below, form the hill into a triangular penin- 
fula. There is a very deep valley on the third 
fide, full of impervious woods, which fpread all 
over the mountains, and render accefs that way 
next to impoffible. 

gj^^^^ Shere had now a fecure retreat for his family, 

and his friends began to acquire frefli fpirits by 
this piece of fuccefs. Humaioon, in the mean 
time, fpent three months in luxurious pleafures, 
in Gour, the capital of Bengal. He there re- 
ceived advices that his brother prince Hindal, 
had revolted in his governments of Agra and 
Mewat ; that he had put to death Shech Phoul, 
the only man of confequence, who would not 
break his allegiance to the emperor, and coined 
money in his own name. Humaioon therefore 
left Kulli, with five thoufand horfe, in Gour, 
and returned towards Agra. 

Overthrow* ^Y ^^^ exceffive rains and bad roads, the 

Humaioon. king's cavalry and beafts of burthen pe'-ifhed in 
great numbers, on his march, through fatigue 
and want of forage. Shere, who had now raifed 
a numerous army, entrenched himfelf on the 
banks of the JolTa, in a place by which the king 
muft of necefiity pafs, and, by treachery, de- 
feated him with great flaughter, in the manner 
which we have already related. Shere did not 
immediately pufh forward to the capital. Anxi- 
ous to leave no enemy behind him, he returned 


S H E R E 


to Bengal, engaged Kulli in feveral battles, de-^.D. 1542. 
feated him, and, at length, cut him and his "'s-^^g- 
army to pieces. 

Shere, immediately after the redu6lion of Ben- Aiiumes 
gal, affumed the imperial title of Shaw, ftruck ^.j^Vthf/.' 
the coin, and read the chutba, in his own name. 
He marched, the next year, with a great army, 
towards Agra. The unfortunate Humaioon was, 
by this time, deferted by his brother the prince 
Camiran, and hated by his Mogul omrahs, on 
account of his attention to his I'urkuman mer- 
cenaries. He, however, crolfed the river with 
one hundred thoufand horfe, and met Shere, who 
had but fifty thoufand. Shere, as we have al- 
ready mtntioned, defeated Humaioon, and pur- 
fued him to Agra, Lahore, and Cholliab ; from 
which place the king retreated towards the In- 

Ifmaiel, Ghazi, Fatti, and Billoca Duda, all 
governors of various provinces in that country, 
acknowledged the title of Shere. In his progrefs, 
obferving a hill, among the mountains of Belnat, 
proper for a fortrefs, he ordered one to be built, 
which he named Rhotas. Chawafs Chan, his 
faithful fervant, to whofe bravery and conduct 
he owned himfelf greatly indebted for his fortune, 
was now made captain general, with a pcnlion of 
a tenth of the royal revenue. 

Havinsr left the captain general, and Hybut Rc<<"cci 
JNeazi, with a great army, m the north weft, theii«ngai. 
emperor Shere returned towards Agra. He was 
in that city informed, that Chizer, whom he had 
left in the government of Bengal, had married 
the daughter of Mahmood, the former King of 
that province, and held the ftate of a fovereign 
prince. Having experienced, in his own for^l 
tune, the danger of permitting fuch behaviour to 
go unpunilhed, he marched immediately to Ben- 
gal. Chizer being unexpededly furprized, fub- 

N 2 mitted 


A. D. 154.-. flitted without trouble, and was imprifoned. 
Hig. 95c. Shere very prudently divided the kingdom of 
Bengal among a number of chiefs, independent 
of one another, and appointed Kafi Fazilit, a 
native of Kurrah, famous for his learning and 
policy, to fuperintend the whole. He himfelf, 
after thefe tranfaciions, retired to Agra. 

Reduces ^" ^^^ 7^^^ "^'^^ liuudrcd and forty nine, Shere 

Waiava. made a motion towards Malava. Having ad- 
vanced as far as Gualier, Suja the Afghan, who 
had before invefted the place, on the part of 
Shere, found means to fettle matters with Abul 
Cafim, governor of Gualier for Humaioon, and 
he delivered up that ftrong fortrefs into his hands. 
Shere having entered Malava, Muliu the Mogul, 
governor of that province, fubmitted without a 
blow. Being, hov/ever, a few days after, alarm- 
ed by fomething, he fled from the king's camp, 
and Hadjee Chan was appointed to that govern- 
ment ; Suja had alfo a jagier conferred upon him 
in that country. Shere having marched from 
thence to Rintimpore, Mullu fell upon the gover- 
nor of Malava, and upon Suja, but he was de- 
feated. Suja having accquired all the honor of 
the victory, Hadjee was fuperfeded and recalled^ 
and the government conferred upon Suja. 
takes Rin- Shcrc arriving before Rintimporc, had the ad- 
timporc. drcfs to get pofleflion of that important fortrefs, 
from the governor, on the part of the pretended 
emperor Mahmood, who had flill kept it. The 
emperor, after taking Rintimpore, returned to 
Agra. He remained in that city a whole year, 
fettling the internal police of the empire, and re- 
gulating his army. He, in the mean time, or- 
dered Hybut to wreft Moultan from the tribe of 
the Bellochies. This Hybut foon effeded by de- 
feating Fatti Bellochi, and entirely fubduing that 
country. He had, on account of this exploit, 


S H E R E. i8i 

the title of Azim Humaioon conferred upon ^•.^' '543- 

t- Hig. 9S0. 


In the year nine hundred and fifty, Paran Hemarches 
Mull, the fon of Sucdeo Parbia, having reduced ^^l^'^p^^.^^ 
fome neighbouring diftrids, kept no lefs than fo. keeping 
two thouland concubines and dancinq; 2;irls in his [>'''° t^'^""- 

, , o «J land con- 

haram. The king, refenting this incroachment cubincs. 
upon the privileges of royalty, marched and in- 
vefted him in the fort of Rafein, 1 he fiege be- 
ing protraded for a long time, Paran began to 
treat about a capitulation. This was granted to 
him upon the honorable terms of marching out, 
with all his arms, treafure, family, garrifon, and 
efFecls. Paran accordingly marched out with four 
thoufand rajaputs, and, trufting to the faith 
which had been pledged, encamped at a fmall 
diftance. But Shere, who never kept the f^iith 
of treaties, was ealil) perfuaded, by his bafe mi- 
nifters, particularly by Amir RufR a Perlian, in- 
famoufly to violate his honor. He furrounded 
the rajaputs, and ordered them all to be mafTa- 
cred. He, however, paid very dear for this hor- 
rid piece of cruelty and treachery. The rajaputs, 
placing death in one eye and revenge in the other, 
fought till every man of them was laid dead on 
the plain, and above double their number of the 

.Shere, after this infamous tranfacfllon," return- "emaich;;? 
cd to Agra. Having remained there a few ^^i^i^vX. 
months, to refrefli and recruit his army, he 
marched towards Marwar. During his march he 
intrenched himfelf every night, as well for fecu- 
rity, as to exercifc his troops, and to make them 
expert in this neceffary fcrvice. When he came 
to crofs the fands, he formed redoubts all round 
him with gabions. In this manner he entered the 
country of the raja of Nagor and Todnoor, whoXe 
name was Maldco, and efteemed the moft pow- 
erful Hindoo prince in India. He oppofed the 



A. D. 1544. king, with fifty thoufand rajaputs, and both ar- 
's- 95«- j^-jjgg i^y. thij-ty days in fight of one another. 
Shere would now have been glad to retreat 
quietly. But the danger was too great, at the 
fame time the enemy was fo advantageoufly port- 
ed as to render an attack too hazardous. In the 
midft of this alarming fituation, a fuccefsful ftra- 
tagem fuggefted itfelf to the king. Maldeo hav- 
ing conquered that country, to which he had no 
right by inheritance, Shere forged a letter, in the 
Hindoo language and character, in the name of 
the raja's generals, addrefled to himfelf, fetting 
forth, " That, being conquered by the raja, they 
had, through neceflity, ferved him till then with 
fidelity ; but that they were, in fccret, very 
weary of his yoke. That if Shere would, there- 
fore, reinfiate them in their former poffeflions, 
they were willing to make him a due acknow- 
ledgement for the favor." On this letter Shere 
fuperfcribed, as ufual, in Perfian, that they fhould 
fear nothing, defiring them to perfevere in their 
intentions, and that they might reft aflured, that 
he would comply with their demand. 
.Gallant This letter was purpofely thrown into the way 

f°P]f^^^^^ of Maldeo, who, being always in dread of his 
omraii. chicfs, was cafilv deceived. He therefore declin- 
ed the battle, which he intended to cive that 
day. He was even more and more confirmed in 
his unjuft fufpicion, by the eagernefs which they 
expreffed to engage. Upon the fourth day he or= 
dered a retreat ; but Cunia, one of his principal 
omrahs, having found out in what manner Mal- 
deo had been deceived by thefe forgeries, endea. 
voured to perfuade him of his miftake. Having 
found that the raja's fufpicion could not be re- 
moved, he told him, That the fufpecled trea- 
chery was unprecedented among true Rajaputs, 
and that he was determined to wipe off the ftain 
which Maldeo had thrown upon their reputation, 


S H E R E. 183 

with his own blood, or the conqueft of Shere, a.d. 1545. 
with his own tribe. 'g-95»- 

Maldeo continued to retreat, but the gallant with hu 
Cunia, with a few other chiefs, and ten or twelve and attacks 
thoufand men feparated thcmfelves from their shere. 
prince and turned back, with an intent to fur- 
prize Shere's camp. They, however, by fome 
niiftake, loft their way, and it was fair day light 
before they faw the enemy. Shere immediately 
formed, and came out againft them. Though 
the king's army, by the fmalleft computation, 
coniifted of eighty thoufand lighting men, this 
handful of brave Rajaputs repulfed them re- 
peatedly, and would have certainly defeated 
them, if Jellal Selwani had not at that inftant ar- 
rived with a frcfh reinforcement, to join the im- 
perial army. Shere falling upon the Rajaputs 
with renewed vigor, broke them ; and the brave 
Cunia, with almoft his army, were cut to 

Shere, finding himfelf in poffeffion of a victory ^^^J*!;!!^ 
of which he had at one time defpaired, exclaimed, ot siktc. 
" That, for a handful of barley, he had almoft 
" given the Empire of India to the wind." This 
grain, it feems, was all the fcanty produce of 
that fandy country, for wliich the inhabitants 
fought with fo much obftinary. Maldeo having 
heard of this action, and the lofs of fo many 
brave men, fell into deep aflliclion ; and being, 
for his pufillanimity, deferted by the greateft part 
of his army, he retreated among the mountains 
of Sodpoor. 

Shere, after this bloody victory, turned his sficie takes 
army towards the fort of Chitor, which was fur- *^°'' 
rendered to him by capitulation, lie then dire<^- 
ed his marcli to Rintimpore, and gave that 
country in jagier to his fon Adil Chan, who fixed 
his refidence there. The King, in pcrfon, moved 



A.D. r545. towai'ds Callinger, which is efteeined one of the 
^g- 95a. firongeft forts in Hindoftan. The Indian prince 
of Callinger, on account of the king's treacherous 
behaviour to Paran Mull, would make no fub- 
miflion, but prepared himfelf for hoftihties. 
Shere, having drawn a line of circumvallation, 
begun to carry on his approaches to the place ; 
he raifed mounds of earth for his artillery, and 
funk mines under the rock. The royal batteries 
were now advanced very near the walls, breaches 
were made, and a general affault ordered, when 
a live fhel!, which had been thrown againft the 
fort by the imperialifts, rebounded back into the 
battery in which the king ftood. The fliell burft 
in the midft of a quantity of powder, which had 
not been properly fecured. Several gunners were 
Burnt by blown up ; the kinsf, and many of his omrahs, 
upofpow- were burnt m lo terrible a manner, that they 
'^^'^- were carried for dead to their tents. 

Dies. Iii this dreadful condition the king began to 

breathe, in great agonies ; he, however, encou- 
raged the continuance of the attack, and gave 
orders, till in the evening news was brough him 
of the reduction of the place. He then cried out, 
" Thanks to the Almighty God," and expired. 
The death of Shere happened on the twelfth of 
the firft Ribbi, in the year nine hundred and fifty 
two. He fpent fifteen years in a malitary life be- 
fore he mounted the throne ; and he fat upon the 
mufnud five years, as emperor of Hindoftan. 
His charac- ^j^g characlcr of Shcrc is almoft equally divid- 
ed between virtue and vice. Public juftice pre- 
vailed in the kingdom, while private acts of trea- 
chery difhonoured the hands of the king. He 
feemed to have made breach of faith a royal pro- 
perty, which he would by no means permit his 
iubjects to (hare with him. We ought, perhaps, 
to afcribe this vice to the ambition of Shere. Had 
he been born to the throne, he might have been 


,s maonu 

S H E R E. 185 

juft, as he was valiant and politic in war: Had --^^ij-^ 545., 
he confined his mind to his eftate, he might 
merit the character of a virtuous chief; but his 
great foul made him look up to the empire, and 
he cared not by what fteps he was to afcend. 

Shere leit many monum.ents of his magnificence j^. ^ 
behindhim.. From BengalandSennargaum, to that ficence/ 
branch of the Indus called the Nilab, which is fif- 
teen hundred crores *, he built caravanferais at 
every ftage, and dug a well at the end of every 
crore. Befides, he raifed many magnificent 
mofques for the worfhip of God on the highway, 
wherein he appointed readers of the Koran and 
Priefts. He ordered that at every ftage, ail tra- 
vellers, without diftinclion of country or religi- 
on, ihould be entertained, according to their 
quality, at the public expence. He, at the fame 
time, planted rov/s of fruit trees along the roads, 
to preferve travellers from the fcorching heat of 
the fun, as well as to gratify their tafte. Horfe- 
pofts were placed at proper diftances, for for- 
warding quick intelligence to government, and 
for the advantage of trade and correfpondence. 
This eftabliflnnent was new in India. Such was 
the public fecurity during his reign, that travel- 
lers and merchants, throwing down their goods, 
went without fear to fleep on the highway. 

It is faid that Shere being told that his beard hjs atrcn- 
grew white, replied. It was true, that he had ob- fj|,",-j° 
tained the empire towards the evening. He di- 
vided his time into four equal parts : One he ap- 
propriated to the diftribution of public juftice, 
one to the regulations of his army, one to wor- 
fhip, and the remainder to reft and recreation. 
He was buried at Seflaram, his original eftate, in 

* About three thoufand of our miles. 

a mag- 


A.D.1.C45. a magnificent fcpulchre which he had built in the 
"'g-9i2- iiiiddle of a great refervoir of water |. 
State of Tamafp ftill fat on the throne of Perfia, and 

Afia. reigned in peace, during the ufurpation of Shere 
in Hindoftan. 

■f This fine monument of tJie magnificence of Shere ftill remain 
entire. The artificial lake, which lurrounds it, is not much lefs 
tlian a mile in length. 

S ^E L I M, 

( is; ) 

S E L 1 M. 

HEN Shere became numbered with the a. d. 1545., his eldeft fon, Adil, whom he had "'f^^^'* 
appointed his fucceffor, was at Rintimpore, and „l^oiims the 
his youn2:er fon, Tellal, in the villas;e of Revvin, \'ir""« by 
near Piieta. Ihe omrahs, who favored Jellaisciim. 
more than his brother, then at fo great a dif- 
tancc, pretended the neceility of filUng the throne 
as foon as polhble. They, for that purpofe, dif^ 
patched exprefles to Jelhil, who arrived in five 
days in the camp. Jellal, by the influence of 
li'ah Chan, anci his party, mounted the throne, 
in the fortrefs of CaUinger, upon the feventeenth 
of the hril Ribbi, in the year nine hundred and 
fifty two, and aflumed the title of lllam Shaw, 
which, by falfe pronunciation, was turned to 
that of Selim, by which name he is more gene- 
rally known. Selim, having taken upon him 
the imperial dignity, wrote to his elder brother, 
in the following words : " Adil being at fo great 
" a diiliancc, and I fo near, to prevent dillurr 
^' bancc, I took upon me the command of the 
" army tiJ his return. But my intentions are 
" only to forward my brother's intercfl;, and to 
" fupport his authority." Jellal, after writing 
this letter, marched from CaUinger towards 
Agra, and. at Kurrah was met by Chawafs, cap- 
tain general of his father's forces, who renewed 
the ceremonies of royalty, and placed Selim a fc- 
pond time on the throne, holding a magnificent 



A.p. 1545. feflival upon that occafion. From Kurrah, Selim 
'^•9i2- wrote another letter to his brother, begging in 
the moft affectionate terms, that he would come 
and fee him. 
His cider ^dil wrote to the chiefs in the court of Selim, 
brother particularly to Cuttub, Ifah, Chawafs, and Jellal 
Tboutthe Salwani, to know to what purpofe he was in- 
fucccffion. vited, and what he was to hope from them. He, 
at the fame time, returned to his brother for an- 
fwer, " That, if he would fend thefe four chiefs 
to him, with proper afl'urances, he would 
come." Selim fent accordingly the four om- 
rahs to Adil, to affure him, in the moft folemn 
manner, that he would permit him, if he pleafed, 
to depart after the firft interview : But that, as 
the omrahs had invefted him with the imperial 
power, he could not be fo ungrateful as to defert 
them. However, to make fome compenfation 
to Adil, for the empire, he was determined to 
give him his choice of any of the provinces in 
free jagier. Adil, upon thefe alfurances, pro- 
ceeded to Agra. When he had reached the vil- 
lage of Sikri *, Selim was out on a hunting par- 
ty, near that place, and appointed carpets to be 
fpread for their interview. Here the brothers 
difiembled the greateif affecfion for one another, 
and after fome difcourfe fet out for Agra. Se- 
lim, who wanted to feize his brother, gave pri- 
vate orders, that only a few of his retinue fhould 
be admitted into the citadel ; but Adil had alfo 
given orders to his people to prefs in, at all haz- 
ards, which they accordingly did, in fpite of 
every oppofition. 
Tranfaau Sclim faw, that, without running a great 
out in the rifque, nothing: could be effeded asrainft his bro- 

Vi3.i3.CG • 

ther, who was fo much upon his guard. He, 

* Now Fattepoor. 


S E L I M. 189 

therefore, had recourfe to flattery and diliimula- ^-P- ^saS' 
tion. He even proceeded fo far, as to lay hold 
of Adil's hand, to place him upon the throne. 
Adil, who was naturally a timorous and indolent 
man, rejecled this propofal, knowing how little 
he had to truft from the omrahs, and a deceit- 
ful, ambitious brother. Selim was well aware of 
all this before he made this extraordinary offer. 

Jufl as Selim expected, fo it fell out ; Adil, ^ foiemn " 
intimidated by the difturbance which had been lefignation 
made at the gate, made a voluntary refignation pi^e!^ *'"" 
of his birthright, and placing Selim on the 
throne, faluted him emperor. This was inftant- 
ly followed by all the court, who were waiting 
with impatience the ilTue of this extraordinary 
farce. They immediately advanced to the throne 
in fucceffion, and, according to tlieir rank, pre- 
fented their nazirs *, while others exhibited the 
ceremony of the ifar t, crying out aloud, " We 
" offer our lives and fortunes to the kino\" The 
ceremonies being ended, Cuttub, and the other 
omrahs, who had pafTed their words to Adil, 
requefled, that, as he had pitched upon Biana 
for his eftate, he according to promife, Ihould be 
regularly invefled with that province, and per- 
mitted to depart. Selim confented, and all mat- 
ters being fettled, he gave Adil leave to quit 
Agra, accompanied by Ifah and Chawafs. 

But after two months, Selim gave to Ghazi cinuafs 
Malhi, one of his eunuchs, a pair of golden fet- rebellion in 

Tavor of 

* Offerings made upon public occafions to the empe- 

f Ifar, or Tefliduck, is a ceremony ufed upon the acceilion 
of a prince to the throne ; the omrahs running three times round 
the king, waving an offering of money, in a charger, three 
times over the monarch's head. This money is afterwards 
delivered over to the royal almoner, to be diftributed in charity, 
as indeed are all offerings made to the emperor.' 



'^^•'545. ters, to go and bring Adil prlfoner to court, 
'^' ^^ ' Adil, having timeous intelligence of this defign 
againft him, fet out for Mevvat, where the cap- 
tain general then refided- He acquainted that 
omrah, with tears, of his brother's bafenefs. 
Chawafs, whofe honor was concerned in this af- 
fair, was rouzed with compaflion for the unfor- 
tunate prince. He feized upon Ghazi Mahli, 
placed liis fetters upon his own legs, and exalted 
the fpear of rebellion againft Selim. 

The intereft of Chawafs was great among the 
omrahs. He wrote to them private letters, and 
brought many over to his party. A great army 
was foon raifed, and Chawafs, with Adil and Ifah, 
marched towards Agra. He, upon his way, re- 
ceived letters from Cuttub and Jellal, who 
thought themfelves diflionoured by the king's 
behaviour towards his brother, affuring him of 
their afliilance. 
. When the confederate chiefs arrived before 

g.frat per- Agra, Sclim, at the unexpected vifit, was thrown 
pitxity. jjjfQ ^i^Q utmoft perplexity. He called Cuttub 
and Jellal to his prefence, and reproached them 
for not dliluading him from that impolitic ftep 
which had drawn upon him fuch dangerous con- 
fequences. Cuttuo replied, " That the bulinefs 
was not yet irremediable ; that he would under- 
take to fettle every thing in an amicable man- 
ner." Selim not fufpefting the fidelity of the 
two omrahs, immediately defired that they {hould 
go to Adil, and compromife affairs. When they 
were gone, Selim difcovered to his friends his 
intentions of flying to Chinar, where th/^ trcafure 
* was lodged, and there to raife an army to reduce 
his brother, whom he was not at prefent in a 
condition to oppole. Ifah Hajab difluaded him 
from this rciolution. He told him, " That he 
had with him ten thouTand Chermalli Patans, 
who had ferved under him before he afcended the 


S E L I M. 191 

throne, whom he could not fufpe<5l of difaffec- A' P. ^s^s 
tion, befides many other faithful fervants. That 
therefore, it was the height of folly, to truft the 
empire, which God had given him, to the future 
caprice of fortune, when he had it in his power 
to defend it inftantly in the field. Do not, faid 
Ifah, throw away the friends whom you have ac- 
quired in your profperity, with a vain hope to 
pick up others in the feafon of diftrefs. The 
wifeft courfe for you, continued the omrah, is to 
appear at the head of your troops, and to fix the 
foot of refolution on the field of war. This will 
fecure your wavering troops, and intimidate the 

Selim, encouraged by this bold advice, re- overthrows 
folved to ftand his ground. He immediately dif- '^' 
patched a meffage to Cuttub, and the other om- 
rahs, who had not yet fet out, to accommodate 
matters with Adil, and commanded them to his 
prefence. He told them, That having altered his 
> mind, he was refolved not to trufl: his faithful 
omrahs in the hands of his enemies. He forth- 
with ordered his troops to their arms, marched 
out of the city, and formed his army on the 
plain. The omrahs, who had promifed to favor 
the prince Adil, feeing their king in the field, 
afhamed to betray him, were necefiitated to fight, 
which greatly difconcerted Chawafs, who, every 
minute, expected they would join him. He, 
however, fought with great bravery, but he 
was overthrown. 

Adil, after this unfortunate battle, fled to- aju difap- 
wards Patna, but he foon difappeared, and was '^^^'*' 
never heard of afterwards. Chawafs and Hah, 
fled to Mewat. Selim fent an army in purfuit of 
thofe omrahs, but they came off viftorious, at 
Firofpoor. The imperial army being foon after 
reinforced, the rebel chiefs were obliged to re- 


A p. 1545. treat among the mountains of Cumaoon. Selim 
«g.952. i^^^j. (^^.j-^ij jj-j purfuit of them, and he plundered 

all the countries lying about the fkirts of the 
hills, without effecting any thing againft them. 
Selim, after thefe tranfaclions, marched to Chi- 
nar. On the way, he was informed of the trea- 
fonable correfpondence of Jellal with the prince 
Adil, before the late decifive battle, and ordered 
him to be put to death, together with his bro- 
ther, who was concerned in the confpiracy. The 
king having arrived at Chinar, he took out of 

'^/ that fortrefs all the treafure, fent it to Gualier, 

and returned himfelf to Agra. Cuttub, finding 
that Selim was no ftranger to the part which he 
had acted in the late difturbances, was afraid to 
return to court. He fled, therefore, to Hybut 
governor of Lahore, known by the title of Azim 
Humaioon, and claimed his protedion. The em- 
peror difpatched orders to Lahore, to fend Cut- 
tub to Agra, with which Azim Humaioon com- 
plied. The unfortunate Cuttub, upon his arriv- 
al, was lent prifoncr to Gualier, with many other 
fufpecfed perfons, particularly Shebas Lohani, 
the king's brother-in-law, whofe eyes were put 
out. The governor of Lahore and Suja, who 
ruled over the province of Malava, were, much 
about this time, called to court. The firft ex- 
cufed himfelf, and the latter, obeying the fum- 
mons, had the addrefs to clear himfelf of what 
he was accufed, and fo was reinflated in his go- 

o KMi- . The kino^, after thefe tranfaclions, moved to- 

Ktbeluous O' . ' I'll" 

quaihed. wards Rhotas, to bring the treafure, which his 
father had depofited ia that place, to Agra. 
Seid the brother of Humaioon, governor of La- 
hore, deferted him on the way, and fled to La- 
hore. The king, from this circumflance, con- 
cluded that a rebellion was in agitation, which 


S E L I M. 1^3 

determined him to return immediately to Agra. a. p. 1548, 
He foon affembled his forces from all quarters, ^'^' ^si- 
and marched to Delhi, where he ordered the new 
city which the emperor Humaioon had built, to 
be walled in with ftone. At Delhi, Suja joined 
him with the army from Malava. The king re- 
mained only a few days in Delhi to regulate his 
army, and then took the route of Lahore. Azim 
Humaioon, Chawafs, and other difaffeded chiefs, 
with double the king's forces, came out before 
him at Ambatta. Selim arriving within fight of 
the rebels, difmounted, and, with a few friends, 
afcended a rifmg ground for the purpofe of re- 
connoitring ; when he had for fome time viewed 
their difpoiition, he faid : " It is not confident 
with my honor to have any patience with a re- 
bellious army," and, at thefe words, he ordered 
his line to be formed, and to advance againft 
them. It happened very fortunately for the af- 
fairs of Selim, that, upon the preceding night, 
there had arifen a difpute among the rebel gene- 
rals, about the fuccefiion to the throne. Chawafs 
fi;ill a friend to the family of his patron Shere, in- 
fifted that fearch Ihould be made for prince Adil, 
and Azim Humaioon ftrenuoufly affirmed, 
" That the empire was no man's inheritance, 
but fhould always follow the fortune of the 
fword.'* This plainly pointed out his own 
views. On this head, animofity and faction 
arofe, fo that as foon as the rebels had form- 
ed the line, Chawafs retreated, with all his 
troops, without ftriking a blow. This cir- 
cumftance fo much difcouraged the remaining 
part of the rebels, that their refiftance was 
faint, and an unexpected victory fell to 

But, in the midfl: of this tide of good fortune, ^"^^^^^^'^P' 
the emperor narrowly efcaped with his life, fromiif°ofSe- 

VoL. II. O a daring •'■"• 


A.p.is4S. a daring attempt of Seid, the brother of Azim 
ig- 9J5- Humaioon. This gallant chief, with ten of his 
friends in armour, mixed, without difcovery, 
with the king's troops, and advanced towards 
him, as if they were about to congratulate him 
upon his vi6lory. An elephant-driver, who ftood 
near the king, obferved and knew Seid, and 
ftruck him with his fpear : Yet, in fpite of all 
the guards, and the army v/hich ftood round, 
Seid and his party cut their way through, fword 
in hand, and efcaped. The rebels, who called 
themfelves the Neazies, being moftly of that fa- 
mily, retreated, after this defeat, to Dincot, near 
Rop, in the mountains, Selim purfuing them as 
far as the new fort of Rhotas, which his father 
had built. He, from thence, detached Chaja 
Serwani, with a ftrong force after them, and re- 
turned himfelf to Agra, and from thence foon 
after proceeded to Gualier. Suja, governor of 
Malava, going one day up to the fort before 
the king, one Ofman, a perfon whom Suja had 
deprived of his right hand fome time before, had 
concealed himfelf by the fide of the road, with a 
defperate intention to be revenged upon that om- 
rah. The alTaffin rufhed out upon Suja, and in- 
flicled a wound with his dagger. Suja, without 
enquiring into the matter, imagined that the 
whole was done by the inftigation of the king, 
and therefore fled, with great precipitation, and 
made his way towards Malava, with all his for- 
ces. The king purfued him as far as Mundu, 
but hearing that he had fled to Banfwalla, he re- 
turned, leaving his own coufin, with twenty thou- 
fand horfe, at Ugein, to obferve his motions. 
This happened in the year nine hundred and 
fifty four. 
Chaja de- Chaja Serwani having been fome time before 

ih^Neazi ^^^^ *° ^^^y °^ ^^^ ^^^ againft the Neazi rebels, 
rebels!" engaged 

S E L I M. 195 

engaged them near Dincot, and was defeated a. p. 1548. 
by Azim Humaioon, who purfued him as far "'S-9j». 
as Sirhind. Selim hearing of this defeat, af- 
fembled a great army, and difpatched it, under 
proper generals, againfl; the rebels. Azim Hu- 
maioon was obliged to retreat in his turn to 
Dincot. The rebels turned upon the imperial 
army at Simbollo, but were overthrown with 
great flaughter. Azim Humaioon's mother, and 
all his family, were taken prifoners. The 
Neazi rebels, after this defeat, threw themfelves 
under the protection of the Gickers among the 
mountains bordering on Caihmire. Selim, 
finding that he could never have reft in peace 
without effeclually quafliing this rebellion, 
marched in perfon towards the Indus, and, 
for the fpace of two years, carried on a war 
with the Gickers who fupported the Nea- 

In this expedition a perfon concealed himfelf A"^"^"^?^ 
in the narrow path, by which the emperor one um's life. 
day afcended the mountain of Mannicot, and 
ruihed upon him with a drawn fword. Selim, 
having time to draw, faved himfelf, and killed 
the aflailin, and perceived that his fword was one 
that he himfelf had formerly prefented to Eckbal 
Chan. The Gickers being driven from one place 
to another, without being in a condition to face 
the emperor, Azim Humaioon, with his follow- 
ers, went into the kingdom of Cafhmire ; but 
the prince of that country, fearing Selim's refent- 
ment, oppoied the rebels, and, having defeated 
them, fent the heads of Azim Humaioon, his 
brother Seid, and Shabafs to the king. Selim 
being now fecurcd againft further ditturbancefrom 
that quarter, returned to Delhi. The prince Ca- 
miran, much about this time, flying from his bro- 

O % ther 


A.p. 1550. ^i^QY the emperor Humaioon, who was now on 
>g.957- j^-g ^^^y. £j.Qj^ Perfia, took proteclion under Se- 
lim. But he was very ill received by that prince, 
and he therefore fled to the mountains of Sewa- 
lic, among the Gickers. 
seiim Selim, after returning from his expedition, 

TlT^an ^^^ *^"^y remained a few days at Delhi, when he 
maioon. "received advices, that the emperor Humaioon had 
reached that branch of the Indus which is diftin- 
guifhed, by the name of the Nilab, or the blue 
river. The king was at that inftant drawing 
blood by cupping ; he immediately ftarted up, 
ilTued orders to march, and he himfelf encamped, 
that evening, fix miles without the city. He 
there waited for his artillery, which was drag- 
ged by men, till the bullocks, which were 
grazing in the country, could be brought to- 
gether. The artillery being very heavy, each 
gun was drawn by one or two thoufand men ; 
yet, in this manner, he marched, with great 
expedition, towards Lahore. But, in the 
mean time, Humaioon retreated, as we Ihall 
have occafion to mention in the fequel. Selim 
returned to Delhi, and from thence procee- 
ded to Gualier, where he took up his refi- 
A plot ^ Selim taking, one day, the diverfion of the 
Jm'Tiife? chace, near Atri, a body ,of banditti, who had 
been fet on by fome of the king's enemies, lay in 
ambufli, to take his life. But he perceived them 
time enough to avoid the fnare. When they 
were feized and examined, they impeached many 
chiefs who were immediately executed, after 
which the king became extremely fufpicious, and 
put numbers to death upon fmall prefump- 
f:hawafs Chawafs, the captain general of the armies of 
ciT-ifunatcd. shere, of whom frequent mention has already 


S E L I M. 197 

been made, a man juftly renowned for per- ^.d. 1^51. 
fonal courage, ftricl honor, great abilities in Hig, 958. 
war, and extenfive generofity, being long 
driven about from place to place, came to 
Taji Kirrani, who had owed his preferment 
to him, and was now governed by Simbol. 
The ungrateful villain, in violation of his oath, 
and the laws of hofpitahty, to ingratiate him- 
felf with Selim, bafelv affaffinated Chawafs. 
His body being carried to Delhi, was there in- 
terred. His tomb is frequented by the devout 
to this day, they numbering him among the 

Not long after this bafe aflanination, in which Seiim dies. 
Selim was concerned, he was feized with a fiilula 
in ano, by which, in the year nine hundred and 
lixty, he bled to death, havdng reigned nine 
years. In the fame year, Mahmood the Patan 
King of Guzerat, and the Nizam of the Decan, 
who was of the fame nation, died. Selim pof- His charac 
feffed not the abilities of his £ither, and confe- '^«^- 
quently carried neither his virtues nor his vices 
to fuch extremes. He, in fome meafure, fuited 
the times in which he lived j and was rather a 
neceflary than a good prince. A man of an up- 
right mind might have daggered in the flream of 
corruption, which then prevailed, but Selim 
flood firm, by meeting the world in its own way. 
He polTelTed perfonal bravery, and was not un- 
fkilful in the field of war. Like Shere, he was 
magnificent, and fludicd the convenience of tra- 
vellers. From Bengal to the Indus, he built an 
intermediate ferai, between each of thofe which 
his father had ereded ; all who palTed along the 
great road being entertained at the public ex- 



^H^ 'io*' ^^ '■^^ reign of Selinr, Shech Allai, a pliilofo- 
pher of Biana, made a great noife in the world, 
by introducing a new fylleni of religion. He cal- 
led himfelf Emam Mendi, who is believed by 
fome to be the iafl of the prophets, and will con- 
quer the world. I'he impoftor having raifed 
great difturbances in the empire, converted fome 
thoufands by force and perfuafion. After being 
twice baniftied by Selim, he returned, and kindled 
frefh troubles, and was, in the year nine hun- 
dred and fifty five, fcourgcd to death at Agra, by 
order of the king. He remained firm to 
his doclrine in the agonies of death ; but his 
religion was not long maintained by his dif- 
Ferofe When ScHm travelled the road of mortality, 

mounts the his fon, Fcrofe, was at twelve years of age, 
'°^^' raifed to the throne, by the chiefs of the tribe 
of Soor at Gualier. He had not reigned 
three days, when Mubarick, the fon of Nizam 
Soor, nephew to the late Emperor Shere, bro- 
ther of Selim's wife, and the uncle of Ferofe, 
aflaflinated the young prince. Mubarick af- 
fumed the title of Mahommed Adil *, to which 
his infamous treafon had no right, and ufurped 
the empire. He perpetrated this barbarous 
deed with his own hand, in the Mahl. The 
libaibi. villain's own fifter, Bibi Bai, defended, for 
dcred " "' fome time, her fon in her arms, prefenting her 
body to the dagger. In vain did (he intreat and 
weep : the wretch was hardened againft pity. 
He tore the young prince from her arms, and, 
in her prefence, fevered his head from his body. 
This was the return which he made to the un- 
fortunate Bibi Bai, for faving his life, repeated 

*- Adil Cgnifies tU JuJ. 


S E L I M. 199 

times, when Selim, forefeeing his villainies, a- d. 155a. 
would have put him to death. ^'S 960. 

The ftate of Perfia (ufFered no change, during ^^^J^^ ^'^ 
the reign of Selim in India. Tamafp continued 
upon the throne. 

M A H O M- 


M A H O M M E D VI. 

^P- '^51- r I THE infamous Mahommed, having always 
MahoL° i- given himfelf up to pleafure, neglecled 
mcdiiiite- even the common accompHfhment of reading and 
Tate. writing. He hated men of learning, and kept 

company with illiterate fellows like himfelf, 
whom he raifed to the higheft digniti(^s in the em- 
pire, among whom one Himu, an Indian fhop- 
kceper, whom the Emperor Selim had raifed to be 
fuperintendant of the markets, was now entrufted 
"with all the weight of the adminiflration. 
Hisfooiini The king, in the mean time, heedlefs of what 
prodigality, palfcd, fpeut his time in all the luxurious de- 
baucheries of the Haram. Having heard much 
in praife of fome of the former Emperors, parti- 
cularly Ferofe, for their great generofity, he mif- 
took prodigality for that virtue, and to outdo 
them all, opened the treafury, and lavifhed it on 
good and bad, without dilHnclion. When he 
rode out, he ufed to head arrows with gold, 
which he fhot among the multitude. This fool- 
ifli extravagance foon made away with the great 
treafures of his predeceflbrs ; and all his reward 
from the people was the nickname of Adili ; 
which, in the Indian language, fignifies literally 
the Blind, and metaphorically, the Foolifii. 

When Himu found himfelf invefted with the 

whole executive power of the empire, his pride 

and infolence, though othervv^fe a man of good 

The om- parts, exceeded all bounds. This naturally made 

Jcnted?°"' ^^^ the Patan chiefs his enemies. They began to 


M A H O M M E D VI. 201 

confpire for his deftruclion, and to revolt from a. p. 1552. 
his authority. The King became more and more 
defpicable, evTry day, in the eyes of the people, 
while all order and government totally declined. 
Mahommed giving, one day, public audience, 
and diftributing ellates and governments among 
his omrahs, he ordered the province of Kinnoge 
to be taken from Firmalli, and given to Sermuft 
Sirbunna. Secunder, the fon of Firmalli, a 
brave young man, being prefent, faid aloud to 
the Emperor, " Is my fortune, then, to be con- 
" ferred on a feller of dogs ?" for it appears that 
Sermuft was defcended of one of that low occu- 
pation. The elder Firmalli, who was alfo pre- 
fent, endeavoured to check the impetuofity of his 
fon ; but he only inflamed his paflion the more. 
He charged the King, in plain terms, with a bafe 
defign to extirpate his family. Sermuft, who 
was a man of uncommon ftrcngth and ftature, 
feeing this behaviour to the King, and being alfo 
perfonally affronteci, feized Secunder by the 
breaft ; Secunder drew his dagger, and killed 
him on the fpot. He then flew at all thofe who 
endeavoured to oppofe him, killed feveral chiefs, 
and wounded many more. He then made di- 
rectly for the King, who leapt from the throne, 
and ran into the Mahl ; Secunder purfuing him, 
had the door ftruck in his face, which flopped 
his progrefs, till Mahommed drew the bolt, and 
fecured himfelf. The defperate youth, fmding 
himfelf difappointed in his defign upon Mahom- 
med, relolved to revenge himfelf upon his bafe 
minions, and rufliing back into the audience 
chamber, dealt death to all who oppofed him. 
In the mean time, Ibrahim of the tribe of Soor, 
the King's coufin and brother-in-law, attacked Se- 
cunder with fome of his people, and cut him to 
pieces. Dowlat Lohani killeci, at the fame time, 



A..D. 1553, the good old man, Firmalli, who could not have 
Hig. 96.. ^^^^ blamed for his fon's rafhnefs. 

The unfortunate Firmalli having met Taji 
Taji ^niu Kei-rani, as he was afoino; that day to the prefence 

draws from , ', /,,," i i«i i 

court. chamber, he afked that omrah whither he was go- 
ing ; to which the other replied, " That affairs had 
taken fuch an extraordinary turn, at court, that 
he was determined to pufli his own fortune, and 
would be glad that FirmaUi would partake it with 
him." FiVmilli anfwered, " That he afpired to 
no fortune but what he poffeiTed by favor of the 
crown, for which he was going to pay his com- 
pliments ;" but fuch as we have feen was his re- 
ward. Taji, as foon as he got out of the fort, 
took the way of Bengal, with all his dependents. 
Troops were difpatched to purfue him; they 
came up with him at Chuppera Mow, about eighty 
miles from Agn, where he fought them, and 
made good his retreat to Chinar. He, in his 
progrefs, feized the public money, and other ef- 
fects belonging to the crown ; and diftributed one 
hundred elephants among his brothers, and other 
relations, who had polleilions in the province of 
Bujipoor. By their afiiftance he raifed a formi- 
dable army, which obliged the King to take the 
field, and march towards Chinar. The infur- 
gents meeting him upon the banks of the Ganges, 
above Chinar, they were defeated and dilper> 


The King, becoming jealous of the popularity 
JaioS'of of Ibrahim Soor, gave private orders to feize 
Ibrahim's j^j^^ . ^yf his wifc, who was fifter to the King, 

popularity. ^^^^ . ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^j^.^ ^^^^^^ j^^ ^j^^ jy^^^^l^ ^^y ^^^^ 

hufband of it. He fied from Chinar to his fa- 
ther, Ghazi, governor of Biana, and was purfu- 
ed by Ifah Neazi, who coming up with him at 
Calpee, an engagement enfued, in which Ifah was 
deteated, and driven back from further purfuit. 
Ibrahim, foon after, raifed a great army, and 


M A H O M M E D VI. 203 

poffeffed himfelf of the city of Delhi, where he a^d. .553. 
mounted the throne, aflumed the enfigns of roy- 
alty, marched to Agra, and reduced the circum- 
jacent provinces. ^^^ 

Mahommed marched from Chinar to fupprefs ^^*d J";,!, 
this ufurpation, and, on the way, received ^^^'^2l£'^ 
embafly from Ibrahim, promifing that if he°'"" ** 
would fend Huffein, and other chiefs, with af- 
furances of forgivenefs, he would fubmit. The 
King was weak enough to comply with his re- 
queft. The omrahs went ; and Ibrahim, by pre- 
fents, promifes, and courteous behaviour, foon 
drew them over to his own intereft. Mahom- 
med, finding himfelf in no condition to oppofc 
fo ftrong a confederacy, fled towards Chinar, 
and contented himfelf with the eaftern provinces. 
Ibrahim immediately erected the fpear of empire 
in the weft, by the title of Sultan Ibrahim. 

I B R A- 



I B R x\ H I M III. 

A.p. 1553. ¥ B RAH I M had no fooner mounted the 
Hig. 196. ^ throne, than another competitor ilarted up 
dtorTr' ^" ^^^ province of the Hve rivers, known by the 
Punjab af- nam e of Punjab. This was Ahmed, a nephew of 
JoJ^aftit'ie. t^^ Emperor Shcre, and alfo brother-in-law to 
Mahomm.ed, the expelled Emperor. Ahmed 
having attached to himfelf Hybut, and other 
chiefs raifed to the dignity of omrahs, by the late 
Emperor SeHm, to his intereft, affumed the title 
of Secunder Shaw, and marching with ten or 
twelve thoufand horfe towards Agra, encamped 
at Firrah, within four miles of that city. Ibra- 
him, with feventy thoufand horfe, came out to 
meet him, having, in this army, two hundred 
omrahs who pitched velvet tents, and pofleffed 
the dignities of the fpear, drum, and colours. 

Secunder, feeing this formidable army, began 
to repent of his invafion, and made overtures of 
peace. The only condition he afked, was the 
government of Punjab. But Ibrahim, puffed up 
with the pride of his own fuperiority, would 
grant him no terms, and therefore both armies 
drew up and engaged. Secunder committed all 
the enfigns of royalty to one of his omrahs, and, 
with a choice body of horfe, took poft among 
fome trees, where he could not be difcovered. 
Ibrahim, upon the firft charge, broke through 
the army of Secunder ; his troops quitted their 
ranks, and were intent upon nothing but plun- 
der j when Secunder, rulhing out upon them, 



firuck a panic into the whole army ; they imme- a. p. 1 554. 
diately took to flight, and were purfued by thofe "'^" ^^^' 
whom they had fo eafily difcomfited before. 
The Emperor Ibrahim, after this defeat, aban- 
doned his capital, and retreated to Simbol. Se- 
cunder took polTeflion both of Agra and Delhi ; 
but he had not long enjoyed his tortune, when 
he was obliged to march to Punjab, to oppofe 
the Mogul Emperor Hum.aioon ; for that mo- 
narch, having returned from a long exile, was 
now advancing^ to recover his dominions. 

During the abfence of Secunder, the Emperor Himu over- 
Ibrahim marched towards Calpee ; and, at the |(^\'^°j^''-^j 
fame time, Mahommed, the expelled Emperor, 
difpatched Hinui, his vizier, with a formidable 
army, well appointed in cavalry, elephants, and 
artillery, from Chinar, with a view to recover 
his empire. Himu engaged Ibrahim at Calpee, 
and gave him a fignai defeat. Ibrahim, flying 
to his father at Biana, was purfued by Himu, 
who belicged him in that city, tor three 

In the mean time, Mahummud of the Afghan The go- 
family of Ghor, sfovernor of Ben2:al, rebelled ^'^'"p' "f 
againfl Mahommed, and led an army againftbdsr 
him. This circumftance obliged that prince to 
recall Himu from the fiege of Biana ; and the 
Emperor Ibrahim, emboldened by the retreat of 
the enemy, purliied them, and coming up with 
Himu at Mindakir, near Agra, gave him battle ; 
but he was again defeated, and obliged to fly back 
to his father, at Biana. The reftlefs fpirit of 
Ibrahim could not, however, be flill : He march- 
ed towards Bhetah, and engaging the Indian 
prince of that country, was defeated and taken 
prifoner. He was ufed with the utmofl: refpedt, 
till the Patans of Miani obtained him from the 
Raja, and appointed him their chief. Under 
him they com menccd a war again ft Bahadar, go- 


A.p.i554,vernor of Malava, who had affumed independ- 
^''^ ^' ance; but the bad fortune of Ibrahim ftill pur- 
fued him, he was beat, and fled to OriiTa. 
That province being conquered in the year nine 
hundred and feventy five, by Soliman Kerrani, 
one of the generals of the Mogul Emperor Ak- 
bar, the unfortunate Ibrahim was taken and put 
to death. 
pj-nn de ^^ return from this digreflion ; when Himu 
fpat,and joiocd hls mafter Mahommed at Chinar, he re- 
gSer'no^r cclved adviccs that the Emperor Humaioon had 
«f Bengal, defeated Secunder, the pretended Patan Empe- 
ror, and polTefTed himfelf of Delhi and Agra. 
Himu, however, marched againft the revolted 
governor of Bengal, who gave him the flip, by 
crofling the hills near Rhotas, and entering the 
country of Bundelcund. He was purfued thither 
by Himu : The two armies came to adion at the 
village of Chircut, thirty miles from Calpee, and 
, the rebel was flain. Mahommed, after this vic- 
tory, inftead of proceeding to Agra, returned to 
Chinar, to ailemble more troops for carrying on 
the war with Humaioon. But he was foon after 
informed of that monarch's death ; which indu- 
ced him to fend Himu. with fifty thoufand horfe, 
and five hundred elephants, towards Agra, not 
daring to leave Chinar himfelf, on account of the 
violent factions which then fubfified among his 
countrymen the Patans. 
Drives the Himu arriving before Agra, the Mogul omrahs 
fromAsira ^^^^^ wcre there, being too weak to oppofe him, 
and from ' fled to Delhi. He purfued them thither, and 
Tirdi Beg, governor of Delhi, giving him battle, 
was defeated, and fled towards the Indus, leav- 
ing Himu in pofieflion of both the imperial cities 
of Agra and Delhi. The Indian meditated the 
conqueft of Lahore ; but the celebrated By ram, 
of the nation of the Turkumans, a man of policy 
in the clofet, as well as abihties in the field, who 



had been left by the will of Humaioon, guardian a. d. 1554. 
of his fon Akbar, duaing his nonage, fent Ze- "'s-s^^- 
man, a Mogul noble, with all expedition, to- 
wards Delhi. He himfelf followed, with the 
young King. Himu marched out to meet Ze- 
man, drew up on the plains of Panniput, and 
charging the Moguls with great bravery, threw 
them into diforder. But the Patans, always 
more mindful of plunder, than of fecuring vic- 
tory, were again attacked by the Moguls, and 
defeated. Himu was furrounded, and taken pri- 
foner, and being carried before the King, con- 
demned to death. 

After the death of the unfortunate Himu, who'^'^^^^J'* 
had certainly great abilities, notwithrtanding his Mahom- 
mean defcent, the fortune of his mafler Ma- "J.^''^^^" 
hommed declined apace. In the mean time, 
Chizer, the fon of the governor of Bengal, who 
was flain in battle by Himu, to revenge the death 
of his father, raifed an army, and affuming the 
title of Sultan Bahadar, polTeffed himfeU of a 
great part of the eaftern provinces. Me led auHeisder 
army againft Mahommed, defeated, and (lew Jf^J^^** ^°'* 
him. 'Ihe anarchy and confulions in Hindoftan, 
at this period, rendered it impolTible to continue 
the direct chain of our hiftory in the order of 
time. We therefore muft turn back to what we 
have omitted of the hiftory of Secundcr, who 
had afiumed the imperial title at Agra, and af- 
terwards to a detail of the adventures of Hu- 
maioon, during his exile. 

Secunder, after having afcended the throne of secunder's 
Agra, in the year nine hundred and fixty-two, [^^^J^^*^ 
made a magnificent feftival, and calling together rahs. 
all his chiefs, fpoke to them to this efiect : 
" I efteem myfelf as one of you, having thus far 
" acfed for the common weal. I claim no fupe- 
" riority. Beloli raifed the tribe of Lodi to an 
" uncommon height of glory and reputation ; 

" Shere, 


AD. 1554. " Shere, by unparalleled condud and refolution, 
ig-56^. a rendered the tribe of Soor famous to all pof- 
terity ; and now, Humaioon, heir to his fa- 
ther's conquefts, is watching for an opportu- 
nity to deilroy us all. If, therefore, you lin- 
cerely affect my government, and will throw 
afide private faclion and animofities, our king- 
*' dom will be adorned with all the flowers of 
" profperity. But if you fhould think me inca- 
'•' ble of that great charge, let an abler head, and 
a ftronger arm, be elected from among you, 
that I alfo may fwear allegiance to him ; that 
with my life and fortune I may fupport him, 
and endeavour to keep the empire of India in 
" the hands of the Patans, who have ruled it for 
They ekci " fo many ages by their valor.*' The omrahs, 
him King. ^ff^j. bearing this Ipeech, anfwered with one ac- 
cord, " We unanimouily elect you, the nephew 
" of our Emperor Shere, for our lawful fove- 
*' reign." Calling then for a Coran, all fwore al- 
legiance to Secunder, and to preferve unanimity 
among themfelves. However, in a few days, 
they began to d.ifpute about governments, ho- 
nors, and places. The flames of enmity were 
kindled higher than ever, and every one re- 
proached ,his fellow with perfidy, of which he 
himfelf was equally guilty. 
He is re- Humaioou, in the mean time, marched from 
rf af d ^^t)ul and the fide of Perfia towards the Indus. 
the Mo. ^ Tatar, who commanded for the Patans in Pun- 
S"'*- jab, fled from the new fort of Rhotas, to Delhi, 
and the Moguls fubdued all the country as far as 
Lahore. Secunder, upon receiving thefe advi- 
ces, fent forty thoufand horfe, under the com- 
mand of Tatar and Hybut, to expel the Moguls. 
But this army was defeated, loft all their ele- 
phants and baggage, never drawing bridle, till 
they arrived at Delhi. Secuijder, though fen- 
fible of the difaffedion and fadious flate of his 



army, marched with eighty thoufand horfe to- a. b, 1554. 
wards Punjab, and engaging Byraixi, the tutor His.962. 
of prince Akbar, near Sirhind, was defeated, 
and fled towards the mountains of Sewalic. 
The empire of India, with this viflory, fell 
again into the hands of the houfe of Baber, and 
flouriflied ; while, in the mean time, the infa- 
mous Mahommed Adil died by the hands of his 
enemies, in the kingdom of Bengal. 

Vol. If. ? H U M A L 



A. p. 1544.*^^ j^ E have already feen that the emperor 


Humaioon ^^ Humaioon, having arrived at Kizvi in 
arrives in Perfia, difpatched the noble Byram to the Per- 
Perfia. ^|^j^ monarcli at Ifpahan. That omrah accord- 
ingly waited upon Tamafp at the palace of NiJac, 
between the cities of Abher and Sultania*, and 
received an anfvver which teftified the king's great 
defire to have an interview with Humaioon. The 
unfortunate fugitive accepted, with joy, of the 
invitation, and in the month of the firft Jem- 
mad, in the year nine hundred and fifty one, 
had a conference with Tamafp, the fon of Ifmael 
Suffvi, emperor of Perfia, and was royally enter- 

Tamafp, one day, in converfation, afked Hu- 
maioon, By what means his weak enemy became 
fo powerful? Humaioon replied, "By the en- 
" mity of my brothers." The Perfian then told 
him, " The political manner of treating brothers 
is not fuch as they received from you." And 
being, at that time, at table, as foon as he was 
done eating, the prince Byram, his brother, who 
attended, him as a fervant, came with the bafon 
and ewer for him to walhj-. When this was 

* The city of Sukania is fituated in the province of Irac 
Agemi. It was deftroyed by Timur-bec, and has not fince re- 
covered it's ancient fplendor. From it's ruins, it appears ta 
have been very large and magnificent. 

f To attend the fovereign in any menial office about his per- 
fon, is the greateft honor that can be conffrred upon a fubjeft in 
the Eaft. 


H U M A I O O N. 211 

done, Tamafp turned to Humaioon, and refum- a.d. 1544. 
ing the difcourfc, faid, " In this manner you ^'£95'- 
ought to liave treated your brothers/' Hu- 
maioon, out of compliment to the king, feemed 
to affent to what he faid ; which fo much of- 
fended the prince, the king's brother, that he 
never afcer could forgiv^e him, while he refided at 
court. He took every opportunity to caluminate 
Humaioon to the king, and was ever harping in 
his ears, how much airainft the intereil of Perfia 
it was, that a prince or the line of Timur fhould 
fit upon the throne of India. This maxim By- 
ram took care ro inculcate upon all who had the 
king's confidence, and that circum.ftance greatly 
retarded the affairs of Humaioon, and, at length, 
wrought fo vifibly upon the king's difpofition, 
that the unfortunate mos:ul beQ;an to fear death 
or imprifonment. 

In the mean time, Sultana Begum, the king's The king's 
filler, and Jehan, the high chancellor, in con- J^'J^^g' ^J^f. 
junclion with Hakim, one of the king's privy lahsfavor 
counfellors, taking compaffion upon Humaioon's H^^^bom 
diftrefled fituation, joined their intereil to work 
a reconciliation, and to reinllate him in the favor 
of Tamafp. The wit of the fultana had a great 
effect upon this occafion. She, one day, pro- 
duced a ftanza of verfes to the king, of her own 
compofition, in the name of Humaioon, extolling 
his devotion and happy turn of expreflion in the 
praife of Ali. This greatly picafcd Tamafp, 
zealous for tlie feci of the Shiahs, who differ 
from the Sinnites, the feci whofe tenets Humai- 
oon followed. The Shiahs hold Aii to be the 
only affiff:ant of Mahommed in his apoftolic func- 
tion, but the Sinnites believe in four, adding 
Ofman, Omar, and Abubccker to Ali. 

The king, in ihort, told his ffter, That if Hu- 
maioon fhould become a Shiah, and enforce that 
dodlrine in India, he would alijff. him to recover 

P 2 his 


A.D. 1545. his empire. The fultana having acquainted Hu- 
Hig- 952. maioon of thele particuhirs, he was not fo much 
wedded to a feet, as to lofe a kingdom for an 
immaterial difl'erence in a point of religion. He 
accordingly returned for an anfwer, " That he 
had always privately favored the opinions of the 
Shiahs, which was partly the occafion cf the ani- 
mofity fubfifting between him and his bro- 

Tamafp, foon after, had a private conference 

with the noble Byram, examined him concerning 

the policy and ftate of Hindoilan ; and when he 

had fatistied himfeif upon that head, he promi- 

_ fed that his fon Murad, who was then but an 

gives him infant, with his general Biddai, fnould accom- 

tenthou- j^y Humaioon,\vith ten thoufand horfe, to 

land i.orle. ^, < . _ , . , , 1 1 • 1 c r^ 

chattife his brothers, and drive them out or La- 
bul, Candahar, and Buduchfhan. Every thing 
accordingly was, in a lliort time, got in readi- 
nefs, and Humaioon took leave of the Periian 
king. He told him, that he had long propofed 
to take a tour through Tibrez and Ardebial, to 
vifit the tomb of Shech SulTi, and then to pro- 
ceed on his expedition. The king confented to 
this propofal, and iffued orders to all governors 
through svhofe territories Humaioon was to pafs, 
to fupply him and his army with all neceffaries, 
and treat him in a manner becoming his dig- 

Humaioon having vifited and paid his devo- 
tions at the Ihrine of Suffi, marched with the 
young prince Murad, towards Candahar. He 
invefied the fort of Garrimfere, took it, and read 
the chutba in his own nair.e. Aflikari, who 
commanded at Candahar for the prince Camiran, 
hearing of thefe proceedings, fent the young 
prince Akbar, the fon of Humaioon, to his un- 
cle at Cabul, and prepared the fort of Candahar 

for a iiegc» 


H U M A I O O N. 213 

Humaioon invefted it upon the feventh of Mo" a,d, 1545. 
hirrim, in the year nine hundred and fifty two. ^-'s- 952- 
The fiege had been carried on for fix months, i^,;X'°" 
when Humaioon fent his general Byram with Candahar. 
a meffage to Camiran, then at Cabul. A tribe 
of the Patans of Hazara, attacked Byram with 
great refolution, but they were defeated, and 
that omrah having obtained an audience of Cami- 
ran, according to his inftruclions made a demand 
of Candahar, and required a rcfignation of all 
thofe provinces which he had ufurped from his 
brother Humaioon. But it was not to be expec- 
ted that Camiran would as yet liften to fuch a 
demiand, and fo the ambaffador departed without 
effecling any thing. 

The Perlian foldicrs, in the fervice of Hu- The Peifi- 
maioon, were now begmnmg to be dilcouraged tented, 
by the length of the liege, and difcontented at 
being conimanded by Moguls. This circum- 
ftancc might have obliged Humiaioon to raife the 
fiegc, had he not been joined by Mahummud, 
IIuflHn, Shere Afliun, Fufil Beg, and other 
omrahs, who, difgufied with prince Camiran, 
had left his fervice. Some of the beficged de- 
ferted alfo, and joined the king. Thck favora- 
ble circumftances revived the linking fpirits of 
his army, and equally deprefled thole of the be- 
fieged. Afhkari defircd to capitulate ; his requeft 
was granted upon honourable terms ; lie gave up 
the place, and, much aHiamed of his former be- Candahar 
haviour, waited upon the king. 

The fort of Candahar, as had been llipnlated. 
with the Perfian emperor, was given to his in- 
fant fon, Murad. The winter having now 
come on, the young prince Murad, and the 
Perfian generals Biddai, Abul Fattc, and Arid- 
mullu, took up their qu3.rtcrs in the fort, with- 
out admittino: the Mosrul omirahs. This fo nmch 
difgufted them, that Ibme, havmg no quarters, 



A^D.i54 5.went off to Cabul, while Afhkari, with a view 
'^' ^^'- of raifing more diilurbance, alio fled. Aflikari, 
however^ was purfued, and brought back pri- 

Humaioon, finding inadion more dangerous 
to his affairs than war, marched towards Cabul. 
On the way he heard of the death of the young 
prJnce Murad, at Candahar, upon which he re- 
turned, with a view to retain that fort as a 
place of fecurity, till he fliould make further con- 
quefts. The Perfian general would not hearken 
to this propofal, which filenced the king, who 
could not, confident with gratitude, or his own 
promife, compel him to deliver up the place. 

But the urgency of his affairs foon obliged Hu- 
maioon to depart from thefe pundiHos of honor. 
He therefore tacitly permitted Byram, Ali, and 
Mahummud, to take what means they could to 
render themfeives raafters of the place. Thefe 
omrahs, accordingly, fent Mahummud and a 
i'cw enterprizing men, difguifed like camel-driv- 
iiiimaicon ers, amonsj a ftrino" of camels, which was then 
gem.feizes carrymg provihons mto the fort. Ihey fell 
Shar^^"' "P<^" ^'^^ guards, and difpatched them, while 
Byram, and Ali, rufhed in with a chofen party 
of horfe, and poffeffed themfeives of the fort. 
The Periian general returned, by the king's per- 
miffion, to Perfia, and Byram. was appointed to 
the government of Candahar, 
,j,,^^ . ^ The king marched immediately towards Cabul. 
mr!rc!,es'to Thc priucc Eadgar, the brother of Baber, flying, 
Cabul. at this time, from Huffein Arghu, to Cabul, in 
conjunction v/ith Hindal, the king's brother, 
joined Humaioon. The king, encamping in the 
environs of Cabul, before the army of his bro- 
ther, was every day joined by fome of Camiran's 
troops, who defLTted his ftandards. Evan Kipla 
one of Camiran's principal omrahs, came over, 
with all his adherents. This fo much weakened 


H U M A I O O N. 215 

the princess army, that he was necefiitated to a. 0.1545. 
fliut himfelf up in the city. Humaioon invefted "'s- 9J2. 
the place; but as it was only ^ghtly fortified, '-^^^^^^^^^^^ 
Camiran evacuated it without fighting, and fled city. 
to Ghizni. The king fent the prince Hindal in 
purfuit of his brother, and, on the tenth of 
Ramzan, nine hundred and fifty two, entered 
Cabul, where he found his fon Akbar, then four 
years old, with his mother B-eguma, and, taking 
him in his arms, he repeated a verfe 10 this pur- 
pofe : " Jofeph, by his envious brethren, was caft 
into a well ; but he was exalted by Providence 
to the fummit of Q;lorv." 

The gates of Ghizni were fhut againft Cami- 
ran, and he was therefore obliged to take refuge 
at Dawir, among the Patans of Hazara. Being 
very ill received there, he went to Bicker, to 
his coufin HufTein, who gave him his daughter 
in marriage, and prepared to fupport him. Hu-iiumaioon 
maioon, having left his fon Akbar under the |^/J^'jf' 
tuition of Mahummnd Ali, in Cabul, marched, 
in perfon, in the year nine hundred and fifty '^'^"' 
three, to reduce Beduchflian. Eadgar having 
attempted to fi:ir up a fedition in the royal army, 
was, upon conviction, fentenced to death, though 
he was uncle to the king. 

Humaioon having palled Hinderkufl), and en- 
camped at Neizikeran, Soli man, with the forces 
of Buduchfhan, came before him, but they were 
defeated in the firft charcye. The kinsj from 
thence turned towards Talichan, where he fell 
fick. He, however, recovered, at the end of 
two months, and all the factions which had be- 
gun to prevail in his army, foon fubfided. Moa- 
vAm, the brother of Chuli, one of the imperial 
fultans, having had a quarrel at tliis time with 
Refliid, killed him, and fled to Cabul, where he 
was ordered to be imprifoned by the king. 



A. D. 1545. Camiram having heard that his brother had 
Hjg. 952- marched to Buduchfhan, made an excurfion to 
Ghorebund. On the way he fell in with a cara- 
van of merchants, whom he robbed of all their 
camels, horfes, and goods ; and, coming to 
Ghizni, raifed a faction among the populace, 
and cut off the governor, Zatrid. Making from 
Camiran thencc forccd marches towards Cabul, he arrived 
fcizes there as they were opening the gates in the morn- 
and'Tr- i^ig, and took the place by furprize. He killed 
pikes ^li^ the governor, as he ftood in the bath, and 
put out the eyes of Fafil and Vakiia. The young 
prince Akbar, and the ladies of the Haram, were 
given in the charge to fome eunuchs ; Hifam 
Alii, the fon of Califa, was put to death. 

Intelligence for thefe traniaclions coming to 
Humaioon, that monarch gave the government 
of Buducflian to the prince Soliman, of the pof- 
terity of Timur, and that of Kunduz to his bro- 
ther Hindal. He himfelf returned to Cabul, de- 
feated the army of Camiran, which oppofed him 
at Ghorebund, came to the town of the Aftrhans, 
called Deh, where Shere, and all the army of 
Camiran had again aifembled to oppofe him. 
Humaioon; But the king overthrew them there alfo, and flew 
before'ca- Shcre in the aclion. He proceeded from thence 
t'"!-- to Cabul, and fat down before that city, 
mifliing every day with the enemy. Camiran, 
having received intelligence that a caravan was 
pafTmg, wherein there was a great number of 
fine horfes, fent one Shere, a bold enterprizing 
officer, v.'ith a ftrong detachment, to feize and 
bring it into the city. Humaioon marched 
round the walls, and cut off Shere's retreat, fo 
that, when he came to enter the city, he was at- 
tacked and defeated with ojreat flauirhter. 
Several The prince Soliman, from Buduchfhan, All, 

"■^■"^Yi *^^^ Cafim Hafiin, with feveral chiefs from By- 
king, ram, the governor of Kandahar, had now joined 


H U M A I O O N. 217 

the king, while Kirrachi and Babcos deferted ^.d 1545. 
from the city to his army. Camiran, in the rage H>g-952. 
of defpair, bafely murdered the three fons of 
Baboos, and threw their mangled bodies over 
the wall. He, at the fame time, bound the 
young prince Akbar and Kirrachi's fon to a ftake, 
and railed them up to view upon the battlements. 
But he was given to underiland, that if iie put 
them to death, every foul in the place fliould be 

Camiran thouf>-ht proper to defift from his in- c^"'''^'" 
tended cruelty, and that very night, making a Cabui, 
breach in the wall, evacuated the place, and tied 
towards the fkirts of the hills, leaving Humai- 
oon a fecond time, in poifeilion of Cabul. In his 
retreat, he was plundered, and even ftript of his 
cloaths, by the inhabitants of Hazara ; but when 
they difcovered him, they conducted him to his 
garrifon at Ghorebund. He, however, did not 
think himfelf fecure there, and therefore he haf- 
tened to Balich, where Mahum.mud, v/ho held 
that city, joined him, and aihfted him in fubdu • 
ing Buduchflian. They drove Soliman and his fon 
Ibrahim from that country. 

Kirrachi, Baboos, and fbme other omrahs, be- several 
ing;, about this time, difi^ufted with the behavior °"" •''''' '^^' 
of Ghazi, Humaioon's vizier, wanted of themuioon. 
king to difgrace him, and appoint Chahm to his 
office. Ilumaioon, fatisfied of the integrity of 
his minifler, would by no means confent, which 
irritated them fo much, that they left the kinn;'s 
fervice, and went over to Afhkari, who com- 
manded under Camiran in Buduchflian. The 
king purfued them in their fight, but not being 
able to come up with them, returned to Cabul, 
and called to him Ibrahim and Hindal from their 
refpeclive governments. The former having fal- / 

len in by accident with Timur, one of thole ■ 

chiefs who had fled, cut him oPf, and brought 



A. D. 1545 



Cam Iran 
cicfcats his 
b otiier 

Fiies bcfoi e 

and fub- 

He is 
with ref- 
jjtit by 


his head to the king. Hindal having alfo met 
Shere, brought him back prifoner. 

Camiran having left Kirrachi in Cuftiom, went 
in perfon to Talickan. Humaioon detached Hin- 
dal and Koka, with a confiderable force, to drive 
Kirrachi from thence. That om.rah having re- 
ceived intelligence of their coming, acquainted 
Camiran, who, Vv'ith great expedition, returned 
to Cuihom, and fell in with Hindal, in croffing 
the river Talikan, when bis troops VvCre divided. 
He defeated Hirdal, cut oft" a great part of his 
detachment, and feized upon all his baggage. 

Humaioon, in a few days, advanced with the 
army from Cabul, which obliged Camiran to fly 
towards l^alickan, and leave all his plunder, as 
well as his own baggage. He was, the day af- 
ter his retreat, invefted in the fort, and, as he 
dcfpaired of the aihilance of the Uibecks, to 
whom he had applied, he requefted leave of his 
brother Humaioon, to make a pilgrimage to 
Mecca. Humaioon, v.ith a good-natured weak- 
nefs, confented, and both the perfidious Cami- 
ran and Aflikari came out of the place, and pro- 
ceeded about ten pharfangs on their way. When 
thev found that Humaioon did not fend troops 
to ieize them, nor attempt to detain them, as 
they imagined, they were afhamed of their own 
behaviour, and thought it more eligible to trull 
to his clemency, than turn mendicant pilgrims. 
With this refolution they returned. 

The king having heard of their return, fent 
perfons to congratulate, and treat them with 
crreat refpecT. "^Humaioon, after thefe trandions, 
returned to Cabul. Pier Mahummud, the Uf- 
beck havino- made fome incurfions into Humai- 
oon's' territories, in the year nine hundred and 
fifty fix, the king determined to take, if pof- 
fible, fatisfacTion for the affront. He, for that 


H U M A I O ON. 219 

purpofe, marched towards Balich. Cainiran and ad. 1545. 
Aflikari accompanied him, and begun again to Hig.952. 
hatch trealon. The king perceived their trea- Hisueaiba- 
chery, but took no e&c^ual fteps to prevent its abi^^^e- 

Humaioon arriving in the environs of Balick, 
an Ufbeck general came before Iiim with only- 
three thoufand Ufbeck horfe, and ftopt his pro- 
grefs. The Ufbeck chief was, on the I'econd 
day, reinforced by Pier Pvlahummud, and the 
princes of HafTar, and was thus enabled to march 
out with thirty thoufand horfe to give battle. 
Soliman, Hindal, the king's coufin and brother, n.-maioon 
defeated the advanced parties, and preiled fo hard ^^'^^^^J*^^';^ 
upon Pier Mahummud that he thought proper to ■'^^ ^ ' 
retreat within the city. 

The king was defirous of purfuing the enemy. 
This refolution, had it been followed, would cer- 
tainly have had a good effed, as they were pre- 
paring to evacuate the place. But unfortunately 
the king fuflered his own better judgment to be 
over-ruted by his omrahs, who fuggeued their 
apprehenfions from Camiran, and advifed the 
king to incamp fomewdiere near the city, which 
would fall into his hands in the courfe of things* 
This pernicious advice was accordingly followed. 
No ground proper for incamping being near, the 
kine was obligced to retreat to a fmall diftance. 
The troops being ordered to move back, appre- 
hended that danger was near ; when the enemy 
actually conflrucd the retreat of Humaioon into 
a real flight. By this double millakc the Mo- 
cruls were intimidated, and the Ufl^ecks received 
frefh fpirits. They immediately fell upon Soli- 
man and Huffcin, who brought up the rear, 
forced them upon the main body, where the 
king commanded in pcrfon. He gallantly oppof- 
ed them hand to hand, and with his fpear dif- 
mounted the oflicer who led on the attack. His 



/l.d. rs45. brother Hindal, Tirdi Beg, and Tolic Chan fup- 

Hig- 951- ported Humaioon with great bravery ; but they 

,^ J .^ . loon found thenifelves deferted by all their 

Lis turn, troops, Eud wcre obliged to fave themfclves by 

oveithrown. fljo-hf 

Retreat to After this unfortunate aclion, the imperial 
Cabui. army retreated towards Cabul. TJie king, on his 
way, was deferted by the perfidious Camiran and 
Afhkari, who had not joined in the aclion. Hu- 
maioon juftly refenting their behaviour, v.'rote to 
Ali, one of Camiran's omrahs, and made him 
great promifes if he would fcize his mailer, and 
fend him prifoner to court ; difpatching, at the 
fame time, Soliman and Hindal in purfuit of him. 
Camiran, laying afide all his enfigns of (late, at- 
tempted, by the way of Zohac and Bamia, to 
pafs to the Indus. The king, informed of his 
motions, fent a party to intercept him ; but Kir- 
rachi and Hulfein, who had remained with Hu- 
maioon, wrote privately to Camiran, and ac- 
quainted him with all that palfed. Thefe perfi- 
dious chiefs, being now afiiamed of no viliainy, 
told Camiran, that, as the great eft part of the 
king's troops were detached from his perfon, if 
he would return, they would join him in the ac- 
tion. Camiran did not let this favorable oppor- 
tunity flip through his hands. He returned, by 
the way of Kipoha, whither, the king, having 
intelligence of him, advanced to meet him. The 
battle no fooner begun, than Kirrachi, and his 
perfidious adherents^ went over to Camiran, and 
turned upon Humaioon, who, with a few faith- 
ful friends, fought with great refolution. Pier 
Mahummud, and Ahmed, the fon of Kulli, being 
flain by the king's fide, and he himfclf wounded 
in the head, as well as his horfe, he was forced 
to abandon the field, and fly to Bamia, and 
from thence to Buduchfhan, leaving Cam^iran to 
poffefs himfelf, a tliird time, of Cabul. 


H U M A I O O N. 221 

Humaioon was now in great diftrcfs, for mo- a. d. 1545. 
ney to pay the tew troops, who had continued '°' '^^^' 

• 1 r \ A • r TT IT j^ Hiima oon 

raithtul to his fortunes. He was obliged to ;„ g,eatdir- 
borrow the horfes, camels, and merchandize of t^^efs. 
fome great caravans, with which he mounted 
and paid his troops. He privately lent Bidda, 
Toglich, Mudgnovv, and others, to the number 
of ten perfons, to lupport his interefl at Cabul, 
and to fend him intehigence of what paiTeci in that 
city. But of all thefe, Toglick alone remained 
true to his intereft, which they now found \vd.5 
greatly declined. Sdliman, Ibrahim, and prince 
Hindal, returning wdth their detachments to join 
the king, he found himfelf again in a condition 
to make an attempt to recover his kingdom ; and 
he accordingly marched towards Cabul. Cami- 
ran, upon the approach of Humaioon, came out, 
and drew up on the banks of the Punger. Ca- 
miran was defeated with great llaughter, and in 
his flight he was obliged to (have his head and 
beard, to efcape, in the difguife of a mendicant, 
to the mountains of Limgan. Aflikari was taken 
prifoner, and the perfidious Kirrachi fell in the 


Humaioon now returned in triumph to Cabul ; Returns to 
where he enjoyed a whole year in peace and fef- 
tivity. Intelligence was brought to him, that 
the reftlefs Camiran was again at the head of fif- 
teen hundred horfe, while fome omrahs fled from 
the royal prefence to Ghizni. The king marched 
againfl his brother, who fled towards the Indus ; 
fo that Humaioon, without effecling any thing, 
returned to Cabul. Camiran no fboner heard 
of his brother's retreat, than he returned again 
among the Afghans to raife up more diflurbances. 
Humaioon was under the rieceflity of taking the 
field a fecond time. He wrote to Byram, who 
flill held the government of Candahar, to march 
againfl: the omrahs, who fled to Ghizni, and 



A. D. 1551. had invited Cannran to join him at that place. 
Hig. 95S. Q^i^-^iran, by the way of Pefliawir, Bungifh, and 
Curvez, was then on his march towards Ghizni : 
But before his arrival, Byram had come to 
Ghizni, and carried the revolted omrahs prifon- 
ers to Cabul. Camiran, difappointed of his ally, 
returned to PeQiawir, and the king directed his 
march to Cabul. 
Tranfaai- Bcfore the arrival of Humaioon at his capital, 
onsatca- Mahommcd, one of the imprifoned omrahs 
found means to efcape, a fecond time, to Ghizni, 
from whence he was perfuaded to return ; no 
doubt, upon the moft facred affurances of par- 
don. Aftikari having preferred a petition to the 
king, foliciting his releafement from prifon, in 
order to perform a pilgrimage to Mecca, was 
now fent to Soliman, governor of Buduchflian, 
to proceed to Balich. Aflikari died in the year 
nine hundred and fixty one, in his way croffmg 
the Arabian defarts. 

Camiran was, in the mean time, levying 
troops among the Afghans, and carrying on a 
private correfpondence with Mahommed at 
Ghizni. The treafon was difcovered, and the old 
traitor condemned to death. Humaioon had, by 
this time, marched againft Camiran ; but he was 
furprized in his camp, near Chiber, the twenty-, 
firft of Zicada, nine hundred and fifty eight, in 
the night ; upon which occafion prince Hindal 
piinccHm-loft his life. Camira, however, grained no ad- 
and cami- Vantage but the death of his brother, being over- 
lan defeat- throwu by Humaioon, and obliged to take fhel- 
ter again among the Patans. The king, after 
this vidlory, returned to Cabul, and in gratitude 
to the memory of Hindal, who had fo well ex- 
piated his former difobedience, by his fervices and 
blood, he gave the daughter of that prince, Rixia 
Sultana, to his fon Akbar in marriage. He con- 
ferred, at the fame time, upon the royal pair, all 



ri U AI A I O O N. 223 

the wealth of Hindal J and appointed Akbar to a.d. 1552. 
the command of his uncle's troops, and to his '^' ^^^' 
gov^ernmeRt of Ghizni. 

The Afghans, a few months after thefe traa-TheAf. 
factions, rofe in favor of Camiran. The kingpei 'cimU 
marched into their country, which he laid wafte'^n* 
with fire and fword. Finding, at laft, that they 
got nothing but mifchief to themfelves by adher- 
ing to Camiran, they with-held their aid, and 
expelled him from their country. 

The defolate Camiran fled to Hindoftan, and seiim. 
was reduced to folicit the protection of the em- 
peror Selim, whom he beheld, by his own bafe- 
nefs, ruling his father's empire. But it was not 
to be expected that Selim would treat Camiran 
favorably. The unfortunate fugitive fled from 
the court of Delhi, and, like a poor vagabond, 
fought protection from the Indian prince of Na- 
gercot. Being from thence driven by Selim, he 
fled among the Gickers. 

Hyder, one of the pofterity of Timur, reigned 
then in Caflimire. He requefted the aflifl:ance of 
Humaioon, to quell fome difturbances in his 
kingdom. The king accordingly marched to- 
wards India, and crofled the Indus. Adam, the 
prince of the Gickers, fearing the king's refent- 
ment, for giving protection to Camiran, imprl- 
foned that unhappy man, and acquainted the 
king, that he was ready to deliver him over to 
any body he ftiould be pleafed to fend. TheDeUvered 
king difpatched Monim to Adam, and Ca-J^';*''" 
miran was accordingly given up to him, and 
brought to the royal prefence. 

The Mogul chiefs, to a man, folicited that he 
fhould be put to death, that he might diftrefs 
them no more ; but the king Vv ould, by no means, 
confent to embrue his hands in the blood of his 
brother, however deferring he was of death. 



A.Y>. ';52. Humaioon, on iiccount of his lenity, was threat- 
H'S-9i9- ened with a general fedition in his army, and 
every body openly complained of that merciful 
difpofition in the king, by which his fubjeds 
His eyes wcrc fo often involved in misfortunes. He was, 
are put out. ^^ laft, tliough much againft his will, neccfTitated 
to permit them to render Camiran blind, by 
means of antimony. Some days after this fen- 
tence was executed upon the unfortunate prince, 
^ the king went to fee him. Camiran imme- 
diately role, and walked fome fteps forward to 
meet him, faying: '■ The glory of the king will 
" not be diminiflied by vihting the unfortunate." 
Huraaioon immediately burfting into tears, wept 
very bitterly : Camiran endeavoured to comfort 
him, by confefling the juftice of his own punifh- 
ment, and, by way of expiating his crimes, re- 
queued leave to proceed on a pilgrimage to Mec- 
ca. His requeft was granted, and he went by the 
And dies ■^^'^y of Sind. Having refided three years in 
tiieie. Mecca, he died in that place, in the year nine 
hundred and lixty four. He left one fon, Carem, 
who v/as fome time after his father's death affaf- 
finated, by order of Akbar, in the fort of 
Gualier ; Camiran had alfo three daughters. 
. Humaioon being now delivered from the reft- 

marches to- lefs fpirit of Cauiiran, began to extend his domi- 
vvardsCafh- nions. He firft turned his arms towards Cafti- 
mire. Selim, the Patan emperor of India, hav- 
ing, at that time, advanced to the Indus, his 
omrahs reprefented to Humaioon, that, if he 
fhould enter Calhmire, as there was but one 
pafs through which he could return ; that Selim 
might block up his rear, and reduce him to great 
diftrefs. The king, however, would not liften 
to their reprefentations ; but marched towards 
Caflimire. Having advanced about half way, 
a mutiny arofe in the army, and the greateft part 
of the omrahs refufed to proceed j while others 



H U M A I O O N. 225 

actually returned to Cabul. This obliged HU-4..D. 1554. 
niaioon to take a circuit, by the way of Sind, Hig.96a. 
ordering a fort, called Bickeram, to be built in 
his rout. In Bickeram he left a garrifon under Returns. 
one Secunder. 

When the king arrived in Cabul, he fent his Ai<'>ar fent 
fon Akbar to his government of Ghizni, under 
the charge of Jellal. In the year nine hundred 
ar]d fixty-one, the king had another fon born to 
him at Cabul, whom he named Mahommed 

In the courfe of this year, Humaioon became 
jealous of Byram, by the calumny of fome of his 
courtiers, who pretended, that that great man 
was carrying on intrigues with the Perfian go- 
vernment. The king, marched towards Canda- 
har, by the way of Ghizni. Byram, who was 
quite innocent of the charge, when he heard of - 
the king's approach, came out, with five or fix 
friends only, to congratulate him upon his ar- 
rival, and to lay his offerings at his feet. The 
king foon plainly perceived that he had been abu- 
fed, and fatisfying Byram with reafons for his 
coming, fpent two months tliere in feftivity. 
The calumniators of Byram were difgraced, and 
he himfelf loaded with favors. Byram was, how- 
ever, afraid, that the repcat-d calumnies of Iiis 
enemies might find way at laif into the king's 
mind ; he therefore earneiily requcfted, that the 
government fliould be beftowed on fomc other 
chief, and that he might be permitted to attend 
his fovereign. But the king would by no means 
confent to a thing, which might have the ap- 
pearance of aflurupon the conduct of his faithful 
icrvant. When they parted, Byram obtained the 
diftricT: of Dawir, for two of his friends, who re- 
mained with him. 

Much about this time an addrefs was re ceived The i.,i,a- 
fromthcinhabitants of Delhiand Agra,acquainting dTiTJI 

Vol. II. Q Humaioon, ari^i invite 

lum to 
I mil'.? 


A.T). is^.Humaioon, that Selim, the Afian emperor of 
Hig. 962. India, was dead, and that all the tribes of the 
Patans were engaged in a civil war : That it was, 
therefore, a proper opportunity for the king to 
return and take pofTeflion of his empire. Hu- 
maioon was in no condition to raife a fufficient 
army for that enterprize, and he became ex- 
tremely melancholy. 

The king being one day upon a hunting party, 
told feme of his omrahs, that he was very un- 
eafy in his mind, about the execution of his de- 
Hgns upon Hindoilan. Some of them, who were 
defirous to make the attempt, confulted among 
themfelves, and hit upon a fucceCsful ftratagem 
to bring the king to an imm.edlate refolution. 
They therefore told him, that there was an old 
method of divination, by fending a perfon be- 
fore, and afking the names of the three firft per- 
fons he met, from which a conclulion, good or 
bad, might be formed, according to their mean- 
ing. The king, being naturally fuperftitious, 
ordered this to be done. He fent three horfe- 
men in front, who were to come back and ac- 
quaint him of the anfwers they received. Ihe 
firpL horfeman who returned told the king, that 
he liad miCt with a traveller whole name was 
Dowlat *. The next brought advice, that he 
met a man who called himfelf Murad f. And 
the third, that he met with a villager, whofe 
name was Sadit §. 
Humaioon -^^^^ ^^^K difcovcrcd great joy upon this occa- 
lefoivesto fion, and though he could only collecT fifteen 
S.ilan!^^'"'thoufand horfe, determined to undertake an ex- 
pedition into India. He left to Ivlonim the go- 
vernment of Cabul, and the tuition of his young 
Ion Hakim, and in the month of Siffer, nine 

* Fortune or profperity. -f Defire or inclination. 

:j: Happinefs. 


H U M A I O O N. 227 

hundred and lixty-two, began his march from a. d. 1554. 
his capital. The king was joined at Pefliavvir Hig.c;62, 
by By ram, with all his veterans from Candahar. 
When he had croffed the weftern branch of the 
Indus, he appointed Byram his captain general, 
and ordered him to lead the van with Chizer, 
Tirdi Beg, Secunder, and Shubiani. 

Upon the approach of the king, Tatar, the^J^^^"'*' 
Patan governor of the province of the five 
branches of the Indus, who commanded the 
new fort of Rhotas, evacuated the place and fled 
to Delhi. Humaioon purfued Tatar to Lahore, He enters 
which place wa'> alfo evacuated by the Patans, and 
the king peaceably entered the city. From La- 
hore he difpatched Byram to Sirhind, and that 
able general poffeffed himfelf of all the country as 
far as that place. The king having received in- Defeats 
telligence, that a body of Afghans, commanded '"'j'^^eAf- 
by Shubas and Nihr, were alTembled at Dibal- Dib"i'poor; 
poor, he ordered Abul Mali, whom he ufed to 
honor with the name of fon, with a ftrong de- 
tachment againft them. Abul Mali having over- 
thrown them, returned with the plunder of their 
camp to Lahore. 

The Patan emperor Secunder had, in the mean ^^'^^J^J"'^*'' 
time, ordered Tatar and Hybut, with an armyarmva. 
of thirty or forty thoufand horfe from Delhi, s*''?^ ^u- 
ag-alnft Humaioon ; but Byram, notwithftanding 
their great fuperiority in number, was deter- 
mined' to rifque a battle, croffed the Suttuluz, 
advanced boldly to meet them, and pitched his 
camp upon the banks of the river Bidgwarra. 
It being winter, the Patans kindled great lires of 
wood in their camp, which Byram obferving, 
he croffed the river with a thoufand chofen horle, 
and advancing near their camp without being 
difcovered, began to gall thofe who crouded 
round the hres with arrows, which raifed an up- 
roar in the camp. But the Patans, inftcad of 

O 2 cxtinguifhing 


A.D. r554. extinguifhing their fires, which prevented them 

Hig. 962. fi'om feeing the enemy, while the enemy had a 

which is fair view ol- them, by means of the light, threw 

ovHnhiow.iQj^ more vvood. In the mean time, tlie whole 

t>y , ' 

of Byram's army having crofTed the river, fell 
upon the Patans from all fides, routed them, and 
took all their elephants, baggage, and a num- 
ber of horfes. Byram fent the elephants to the 
king, at Lahore, and encamped at Matchi- 
warrah. He difperfed detachments on all fides, 
and pofleiTed himfelf of all the country, almoft 
to the walls of Delhi. 1 he king v as greatly re- 
joiced when he heard of this victory, and confer- 
red upon Byram the titles of Lord of Lords, the 
grateful friend, and the grief-expelling compa- 
secundcr "Wlicn the ncws arrived of the overthrow of 
inarches a- Tatar, thc cmpcror, Secunder exacted an oath of 
A^o^ui"'^ fidelity from his omrahs, and m.arched with eigh- 
ty thoufand horfe, a great train of artillery, and 
a number of elephants, towards the Indus> By- 
ram thought proper to fimt himfelf up in Sirhind, 
and to provide again ft a iiege, by laying in pro- 
vifions, and throwing up new works. Secunder 
encamped before Sirhind, and Byram fent conti- 
nual letters to Lahore, to haften the king to his 
relief. Hum.aioon accordingly marched, joined 
Byram, made repeated fallies from the city, and 
greatly diftreffed the enemy in their camp. 

Upon the laft day of Rigib, when the young 
prince Akbar was going the rounds of the camp, 
the Patans drew up their forces, and offered bat- 
tle. This had the intended effecl on the impetu- 
ous young prince, who could not bear to be in- 
p.incc Ak-fulted. Lie accordino-ly havincr obtained his fa- 
ail^"hc ther's permiflion, drew out the army. Humai- 
A'iogui oon gave the comiTjand of the right to Byram, 
army. ^j,^| ^^^ j^£^ ^^ Sccuuder, which was compofed of 

the troops of Abdulla the LTbeck, Abul Mali, 


H U M A I O O N. 229 

Alb, and Tirdi Beg, who were to begin the ac- a.d. 1554. 
tion. He took poll in pcrfon in the center, and H'S- 9^^- 
advanced flowly towards the enemy, who waited 
the attack. The left wing having charged, ac- The battle 
cording to the orders which they had received, '"'^S'"*- 
the enemy were broke, and they never after re- 
covered from the confufion into wliich they were 
thrown. The action, however, continued vvarm 
for fome time ; Humaiooft and his gallant gene- 
ral By ram difplayed great condu(5l, while the 
young prince Akbar diftinguifhied Iiimfelf with 
acts of perfonal valour, ihe Moguls were fo 
animated by the behaviour of that young hero, 
that they feemed even to forget that they were 
mortal men. The enemy at lail, were driven The Patans 
off the field, with very great flaughter, and the"""" '°^"' 
emperor Secunder fled, with precipitation, to 
the mountains of Sewalic. 

This vicT:ory decided the fate of the empire, ^"^^.'"J'^'^* 
which fell forever from the Patans. Secunder, n-om the 
the Ufbeck, anci fome other omrahs were de-^'^^^"^^", 

11 1 >r- n- £.•!>. 1! • ! A theMoguls. 

tached to take polleliion or Delhi and Agra, 
which they effeclcd without oppofition. Hu- 
maioon conferred the government of the pro- 
vince of Punjab upon Abul Mali, and ordered 
him to purlue the fugitive emperor. In the 
month of Ramzan the kino; entered Delhi, in 
triumph, and became, a iecond time. Emperor 
of liindoftan. Byram, to whofe valor and con- 
duct the king, in. a great meafure, owed his ref- 
toration, was now rewarded with the firft offices 
in the Itate, and had princely ellates afligned to 
him. Tirdi Beg was aj)pointed to the govern-^ 
rnent of Delhi ; the fupcrintcndency of Agra was 
given to Secunder, and Alii Kulli was made vice- 
roy of Merat and Simbol ; for which department 
he fet out with a conhdcrable force. 

As Abul Mali, on account of difputcs with ai^I'ii' l^nt 
the omrahs in his army, had permitted Secunder cunjcr. *"' 



A. D. 1555. to become daily more formidable, the king dif~ 
Hig.963. patched his fon Akbar, under the direction of 
Byram, againll him. Much about this time, a 
man of low birth, who became famous, under 
the name of Kumber, raifed a rebellion in Sim- 
bol, and, colleding a great force, plundered the 
provinces between the rivers. He was, howe- 
ver, on the fifth of the firft Ribbi, nine hund- 
dred and fixty three, defeated and flain by Alii 
Kulli, and the infurreclion totally quaflied. 
The king's ^" ^^^ evening of the feventh of the firfl Ribbi, 
death. Humaioon walked out upon the terrace of the 
library, and fat down there for fome time to en- 
joy the frefli air. When the emperor began to 
defcend the Heps of the flair from the terrace, 
the crier, according to cuftom, proclaimed the 
time of prayers. The king, conformable to the 
practice of religion, flood flill upon this occa- 
lion, and repeated the Culma *, then fat down 
upon the fecond flcp of the ftair till the procla- 
mation was ended. When he was going to rife 
he fupported himfelf upon a flaff, which unfortu- 
nately flipt upon the marble, and the king fell 
headlong from the top to the bottom of the flair. 
He was taken up infenfible, and laid upon his 
bed ; he foon recovered his fpeech, and the phy- 
ficians adminiflered all their art : But in vain, 
for upon the eleventh, about funfet, his foul took 
her flight to Paradife. He was buried in the 
new city, upon the banks of the river ; and a 
noble tomb was erefted over him, fome years af- 
ter, by his fon Akbar. Humaioon died at the 
age of fifty one, after a reign of twenty five years, 
both in Cabul and India. 
Hischarac- Thc mildncfs and benevolence of Humaioon 
^^' were exceflive : If there can be any cxcefs in vir- 

■ * The .Creed. 


H U M A I O O N, . 231 

tues fo noble as thefe. His affeclion to his bro-^;D. 1555. 
thers proved the fource of all iiis misfortiines ; ^&' 96j. 
but they rewarded him with ingratitude ?.nd con- 
tempt. He was learned, a lover of liter?ture, 
and the generous patron of the men of genius, 
who flouridied in his time. In battle he was va- 
liant and cnterprizing : But the clemency of his 
difpofition hindered him from ufmg his victories 
in a manner which fuited the vices of the times. 
Had he been lefs mild and religious, he would 
have been a more fuccefsful prince : Had he been 
a worfe man, he would have been a greater mo- 

Shaw Tamafp was in the thirtv fecond year of"'^f'^^°^. 

r - _ <_ ^ /i' i a: the 

his reign over Perfia, when Humaioon died m . eath of 
Hindottan. The Ufbecks had poffefTed them- ""'"^•°°"'' 
felves of Great Bucharia, and the moft part of 
Maver-ul-nere or Tranfoxiana ; and the frontier 
provinces, beyond the Indus, were iiibjed: to the 
family of Timur, emperors of Hindoitan. 

A K B A R. 


A K B A R. 

/^. D. 1,-55. ''"T^ H E celebrated Abul Fazil, the raoft ele- 

Hjg-9 3- J^ ga.nt writer of India, has given to the 
world the hiftory of the renowned Akbar *, in 
three volumes, called Akbar namma. From that 
hiftorian, we ihall chiefly extract the mofc mate- 
rial tranfaclions of this reio-n. 
Akbar When Humaioon became infenhble after his 

SroncVt"'fa^'l. the Mogul chicfs difpatched one Chuh ex- 
Caiianore. prefs to Punjab, to acquaint Akbar of the acci- 
dent which had befallen his father. Not many 
days after, the news of his father's death came 
to the prince at Callanore. The omrahs, who 
were prefent, after expreffing their grief for the 
deceafed, raifed Akbar to the throne, on the fe- 
cond of the fecond Ribbi, in the year 963, being 
then thirteen years and nine months old. 
By ram's By ram, diflinguiflied by the noble title of 
Chan Chanan f , on the acceflion of Akbar, be- 
came abfolute regent, and had the whole civil 
and military power of the empire in his hands. 
The firft orders ilTued from the throne, after dif- 
patching the letters of proclamation, were, to 
prohibit the exaction of the ufual prefent of mo- 
ney, from the farmers : to let all goods pafs toll- 
free, and to prevent the injurious practice of 

* His titles at length were Shaw Jumja, Abu! MuzzifTer, 
Jellal ul dien, Mahommed Akbar, Padiflia Ghazi. 

f Which may be tranflated, the moll Noble of Nobles. 


wife admi 

A K B A R. 233 

prefTing labourers to the war. Not many days a. d. 1555. 
afterthe acceliion of Akbar, Abul Mali, who was Hig.9&3. 
in great favour with Humaioon, difcovering 
fome treafonable intentions, was feized and im- 
prifoned in Lahore. He, however, found means, 
fome time after, to efcape ; and Pulwan Gul, the 
chief m.aiiilh-ate to v/hofe char2:e he was commit- 
ted, killed himfelf; for fear of the ftricl feverity 
of the police under Byram. 

The king led his army towards the hills, with Akbar dc- 
a view to exterminate the party of the Patan em- cunder!" 
peror Secunder : he defeated .Secunder, and ob- 
liged him to fly farther among the mountains ; 
whither the imperial army could not purfue him. 
Akbar, in the mean time, fubdued the country 
of Nagracot ; received the Indian prince of that 
province into favor : and the rains coming on, 
took up his quarters at Jallender. In the mean 
time, Soliman, one of the pofterity of Timur, 
and frequently mentioned in the reign of Hu- 
maioon, who had been left governor of Buduch- 
fhan, threw off his allegiance, fet up for himfelf, 
and marched againfl: Cabul. That city was de- 
fended by Monim, the tutor of the young prince 
Hakim, the king's brother. Intelligence of this 
rebellion being brought to Akbar, he immediately 
detached Kulli Burlafs, Azim, Chizer, and other 
Omrahs, to fuccour Monim. Some of thofe 
chiefs entered Cabul, while others encamped 
without, to harrafs the befiegers ; which they 
continued to do for the fpace of four months. 
The garrifon, in the mean time, became to be 
diftreffed for provifions ; which obliged Monim 
to confent, that the chutba, for the kingdom of 
Cabul, Ihould be read in the name of Soliman. 
The rebel, after this fubmilhon, raifed the fiege, 
and returned to Buduchflian. 

During thcfe tranlaclions at Cabul, Himu, the 
vizier of Mahommcd, the Patan emperor of the 



A.D. 1555. Eaftern provinces, advanced towards Agra, with 
^'§•963- thirty thoufand horfe and two thoufand ele- 
phants. He obliged Secunder, the Mogul go- 
Himu takes '^^''^^o'^ of that city, to retreat to Delhi. Sadi, 
Agra, another general under Mahummud, in the mean 
time, raifed an army, and advanced to the 
banks of the Rehib ; wheie the Mogul governor 
Zeman, with three thoufand horfe, croffing the 
river, attacked him, but was defeated ; and car- 
ried only two hundred of his army, alive, from 
the field ; thofe who efcaped the fword, being 
drowned in the river, 
advances to Himu havins: taken Asrra, marched towards 
' Delhi, where Tirdi commanded for Akbar. 
Tirdi fent exprelTes to all the Mogul chiefs 
around, foliciting fuccours, and was joined by 
AbduUa, Inderani, Kullabi, and others ; and 
then he thought himfelf in a condition to give 
the enemy battle, without v/aiting for Zeman ; 
who, with feveral other omrahs, and a confide- 
rable reinforcement, was marching to his affif- 
tance. Himu, who was a very valiant man, 
takes. ^ felecled three thoufand chofen horfe, and fome 
of his beft elephants, which he pofted about his 
own perfon in the center ; and with w^hich he 
charged Tirdi fo violently, that he drove him 
quite off the field. Himu then fell, with great 
impetuofity, upon the right wing, which he 
routed fo that the flight became general. This 
victory was fo compleat, that in confequence of 
it, the city immediately furrendered, and Tirdi, 
flying to Sirhind, left all the country open to the 
enemy. Zeman, having received intelligence of 
this difafter, at Merat, haftened alfo to Sir- 
The king "1^^ king, during thefe tranfadions, was at 
in great Jallcndcr ; and finding all his dominions, except 
perplexity, ^j^^ provinccs towards the heads of the Indus, 
wrefted from him, was greatly affecled with the 


A K B A R. 235 

newsofHimu's fuccefs. He called to him By-AJ).ujs. 
ram, conferred upon him the honorable title of 
the noble Babaf. He told that able man, that 
he repofed his whole trull in his prudence and 
good conduct, in this perilous fituation of affairs, 
and deiired that he might take whatever meafures 
he thought moll conducive to retrieve his af- 
fairs. He, at the fame time, affured Byram, in 
the mod folemn manner, that he would give no 
attention to any malicious infmuations, which 
might be fuggelled to the royal ear by his ene- 
mies. The young prince having thus expreffed 
the genuine fcntiments of his foul to Byram, he 
made him fvvear, by the foul of his father Hu- 
maioon, and by the head of his own fon, that 
he would be faithful to the great truft, which 
was now repofed in him. A council of war was 
immediately called, in which Byram prefided. 
The majority of the omrahs were of opinion, 
that as the enemy confided of above a hundred 
thouland horfe, while the royal army fcarce 
amounted to twenty thoufand, it would be moft 
prudent to retreat to Cabul. Byram ftrenuoufty 
oppofed this meafure, and was almoft fmgular in 
his opinion, which was to give battle inftantly 
to the enemy. The young king joined Byram's 
fcntiments Vx-ith fo much warmth and gallant 
anxiety, that the chiefs cried out, in rapture, 
that their lives and fortunes were at his fervice. 

Immediately hoftiHties being refolved upon, The king 
Chizer Chan, who was married to the king's ^'*^^^" 
aunt, the fultlna Gulbadin, was appointed go-Himu. 
vernor of Lahore, to acl againll Secunder ; while 
the king himfelf prepared, in perfon, to chaftifc 
Himu. He marched to Sirhind, and was there 
joined by his defeated omrahs, who had affemb- 
bled at that place. The king being out, one 

f Baba figniiics father. 



AD. 15,-6. day, at the diveiTion of hawking, Byram cal- 
H)g. 964. \q^ Tirdi to his tent, and ordered liim to be be- 
headed for abandoning Delhi, where he mi'^ht 
have defended hinifelf, and for other un military 
crimes, with whicli he was jullly charged. When 
Akbar returned, Byram waited upon him, and 
informeci him of what he had done ; lie excufed 
himfelf for not acquainting the king of his in- 
tentions, by infinuating, that he was certain his 
royal clemency was fo great, that notwithltand- 
ing Tirdi's crimes, he would have forgiven him ; 
which, at fuch a time, would be attended with 
very dangerous confequences, as the hopes of 
the Moguls refted upon every individual's ftricl: 
performance of duty. He affirmed, that negli- 
gence was, in fuch a critical fituation, as great a 
crime as treafon, and ought to meet wich an 
equal punifhment. But that on the other hand, 
defert fhould meet with reward : for a danger- 
ous crifis, is the feafon of ftricl juftice, in both 
refpecls. Without his reward, the foldier be- 
comes languid and difcontented ; w^hen he fears 
no punifliment, he is negligent and infolent. 

The king faw into the propriety of the meafure, 
but he fliuddered at the inhumanity of the pu- 
nifliment. He, however, thanked Byram for 
the fervice which he had done him; and, in- 
deed, though the policy of that minifter was fe- 
vere, it had the intended effect among the om- 
rahs. They faw that they had nothing to hope, 
and every thing to fear, from fadion and bad be- 
haviour ; and therefore, they became very obe- 
dient to the orders of Byram. 
,. , The kins: foon after marched from Sirhind to- 

jvlarches ^ 

towards wards Delhi, detaching Secunder, Abdulla, In- 

Dcihi. derani, Lai Sultan, Mudjenu, and others, under 

the command of the gallant Zeman, who had 

been created captain general, fome miles in his 

front. Himu, who had affumed the title of 


A K B A R. 237 

Raja, In Delhi, having attached Sadi, and other a- n. 1556. 
Afghan omrahs to his intereft, marched out of H'S- 964. 
that city with all his forces ; which, by the lowell 
computation, exceeded a hundred thoufand 
horfe, befides elephants and infantry, with a 
great train of artillery. He detached, in front, 
a great body of Afghans, with fome artillery, 
which falling in with the Mogul captain general, 
were defeated with the lofs of all their guns, 
which proved a fignal advantage to the king. 
Himu having arrived at Panniput, heard that the 
king was advanced very near him. He divided 
his elephants, in v.'hich he greatly confided, 
among his principal officers. 

In \he morning of the fecond of Mohirrlm, ;^4',;<='"^ 
964, the captain general, who had been, by that 
time, joined by the whole army except a few, 
who remained ro guard the king, drew up in or- 
der of battle, and' waited the attack. Himu be- 
gan the acTiion with his elephants, in hopes of 
irif^hteninir the MoGful cavalrv, who were not ac- 
cultomed to thofe enormous animals. He, how- 
ever, found that he was deceived. The Mogul 
chiefs, either from a fear of the fate of Tirdi, or 
from a nobler caufe, their own valor, attacked 
Himu with fuch refolution, after he had penetra- 
ted the center of their army, where Zeman com- 
manded, that the elephants, galled with lances, 
arrows and javelins, became quite outrageous, 
and fubmitting no longer to command, fell back 
and difordered the Patau ranks. Himu, who 
rode a prodigious elephant, ftill continued the 
action with great vigor, at the head of four thou- 
fand horfe, in the very heart of the Moguls ; be- 
ing at lafi: pierced through the eye, with an ar- 
row, the greatclf part of his troops, fearing that 
his wound was mortal, forfook him. But that va- 
Jiant man drew the eye out of the fockct, with the 

arrow ; 


A.D. 1556. arrow ; and, in that terrible condition, continu- 
'^' ^ ^' cd the fight with unequalled refolution and cou- 
rage. He encouraged the few who remained by 
his fide, and advanced through a bloody path 
which his weapons made ; till a chief called Kulli 
flretched his fpear to kill the driver of Himu's 
elephant : that timorous wretch, to fave his own 
life, pointed to Himu, and addreffing him, by 
name, faid, he would carry him whitherfoever 
he pleafcd. Kuili immediately furrounded him 
with a body of horfe, and carried him prifoner to 
Akbar, whom Byram, as upon him refted the 
hopes of all, detained in the rear. 

When the unfortunate Himu was brought into 
kcnzr't t4ie prcfence, almoft expiring with his wounds, 
fain. Byram told the king, that it v.-ould be a merito- 
rious adion in him, to kill that brave infidel 
with his own hand. Akbar, in compliance to 
the advice of his tutor, drew his fword, but only 
gently touched the head of the captive, burfting 
into tears of compaffion. Byram, iooking 
fternly upon the king, inlinuated, tliat the ill- 
timed clemency of his family, was the fource of 
all their misfortunes, and with one ftroke of the 
fabre, fevered Himu's head from his body. 
Akbar ar- Akbar took, ill; -thifr acfion, fifteen hundred 
elephants, and all the artillery of the enemy. He 
immediately marched from the field, and took 
poflefTion of Delhi. From that city, he dill 
patched Pier Mahummud, manager of the pri- 
vate affairs of Byram, towards Mewat, to feizc 
the treafure of Himu, which was depofited in 
that place. This fervice was accompliflied, with 
fome lofs on the fide of the Moguls ; and the 
empire, in a great meafure, returned to its 
former tranquillity. 
The Perfi. Hullein, the grandfon of the celebrated Ifmaiel 
Tdtake^' Suffvi advanced, this year, by the orders of his 

Kandahar. Unclc 

live? at 

A K B A R. 239 

uncle Tamafp, emperor of Perfia, and laid fiegc A.D.1556. 
to Kandahar. After a ftiarp engagement before "'s-5S4. 
the walls, uith Mahummud of Kandahar, who 
commanded in the place, as deputy of the minif- 
ter Byram, the city fell into the hands of the 
Perfians. Chizer, the Mogul general in the 
north-weft provinces, was, at the fame time, de- 
feated by Secundcr, the fugitive Patan em.peror, 
and obliged to fly to Lahore. 

Akbar, having received intelligence of this The king 
double difafter, put his army in motion, and 1^"'^^' p^^' 
marched towards the Indus. Secunder, who hadja'>- 
advanced as far as Callanore, retreated upon 
the king's approach, to the fort of Mancot, 
which had been built by Selim, the late emperor. 
Akbar befiged Secunder, in that fortrefs, for the 
fpace of fix months : he then began to treat 
about furrendering the place, upon conditions ; 
and Chan Azim being fent into the fort to fettle 
the terms of capitulation, Secunder propofed 
to that chief, to give his fon, as a hoftage to the 
king, for his future obedience, if he himfelf 
fliould be permitted to retire to Bengal. This 
being granted, on the part of Akbar, Rhiman, 
the fon of Secunder, was, in the month oi Ram- 
zan, 964, brought to the king, with prefents, 
confifting chiefly of elephants. Secunder was 
permitted to retire to Bengal, and Mancot was 
delivered up to Akbar. The king left a trufty go- 
vernor in the place, and proceeded to Lahore. 

Byram, the regent, being privately dlfgufted ^y^ii'iif- 
at favors which the king had conferred upon''^''^* 
fome perfons, whom he fufpeclcd to be enemies 
to himfelf, for fome days, rcfufcd to come to the 
royal prefence. The king, in the mean time, 
happened to amufe himfelf with an elephant light, 
and the outrageous animals chanced to run over 
the tents of Byram. The miniftcr immediately 
fufpected, that this was done dehgnedly by the 



A.D. 1556. king, and he fent to acquaint him : "That he 
H'g- 'M- was lorry to fee that he had difobHged the king : 
but that, if he defer ved Akbar's difhke, he would 
be glad to know the crime he had committed, 
that he might be the better able to make his ex- 
cufe, and then, retire for ever from the prcfence." 
The king was touched with an imputation, which 
his foul abhorred ; but he condefcended to ac- 
quaint Byram, that -the circumftance, from 
which his^ ungenerous fufpicions arofe, was a 
mere accident. This, however, did not fatisfy 
the minifler, who ftill continued to fufpccl that 
the king's mind was eftranged from him. 
His vindic- '^^^ king, foon after this tranfaclion, marched 
live diipofi- from Lahore to Delhi. Chaja Callan, who was 
*'°"* proud of the dignity of the Mogul family, of 
which he was defcended, and of the fisrnal fer- 
vices which he had rendered to the king, fet 
himfelf up to oppofe Byram in his adminiftration. 
That vindiclive minifter, to get rid of his anta- 
gonift, condemned him to death upon very 
llight pretences, which raifed great commotions 
among the omrahs. The king alfo exprelled his 
diflike of this violent proceeding ; for the whole 
had been done v/ithout his orders. 
Breach be- Upou this occaHon, high words arofc bctwccn 
tween hin the king and his minifter ; and the former, in a 
WnV.*^^ few days, fet out for Agra. Though the king 
did not difcover to any man what had paffed be- 
tween him and Byram, the caufe of his journey 
was no fecret at court. The people fidcd with 
their young king, in the quarrel, and the power 
of the miniller began to decline vifibly every day. 
The enraged Byram, in the mean time, endea- 
vored to recover his authority by rigor and fe- 
Hepiininics Mucli about this time. Pier Mahummud, who 
lencToT had been formerly a retainer of Byram, was, on 
Pier Ma- accouut of lus gixat abiiities, preferred to the 

A K B A R. 241 

high oflice of tutor to the king. He foon en- A.t). i^j6. 
grofled a confiderahle (hare of the Idng's favor ; H-g. 964. 
and the pride of advancement began to fwell in 
his heart. He ufcd often to make the nobler;, 
who attended liis levee, to wait whole hours, 
and, at laPc, to fend them a meffage that he could 
not fee them : which in (blent behaviour orave 
great offence to many. Byram himfelf was lit- 
tle better treated, one day, by Mahummud ; and 
he took it fo much an-ifs, that, by virtue of his 
own authority, he fent the tutor prifoner to Bi- 
ana, from thence he baniflied him to Guzerat, 
and there fliipped him off for Mecca, to profecute 
his devotion. 

The king was highly offended at this proceed- jiie king 
ing, as it feemed to debar him from even the H, offended. 
berty of difpofmg of his own private favors, I iie 
artful minifter, perceiving Akbar's rage, pro- 
jeded an expedition againft Gualier, to divert 
his attention to another object. That fortrefs 
was then in the poffeffion of Bibil, one of the 
flaves of the emperor, the for: of Shere, 
who held it for Mahummud, the late emperor of 
Delhi, who flill kept up the imperial title in Ben- 
gal. Bibil, hearing of Akbar's defign againfl 
him, wrote to Ram Shaw, a defcendant of the 
great Raja Man Singh, that as his anceftors had 
been mailers of Gualier, and as he did not think 
himfelf capable to hold out the phce againil the 
king, he would put it into the poffellion of the 
Raja for a reafonable fum. 

Ram Shaw, glad of the offer, immediately ojaiierde- 
moved towards t!ie fort: but Kika, who poffet '''^'=«* "p- 
fed an eftate from the king, in the neighbourhood 
of Gualier, raifed all his vaffals, and attack- 
ing the Indian prince, defeated and drove him 
into the dominions of Rana. Kika, immediately 
after this victory, returned and inverted the for- 
trefs. Bibil, feeing himfelf thus befieged, made 

Vol. II. R overtures 


A. D. 1556. overtures of capitulation. The king being in- 
Hig. 964. formed of this circumftance, ordered one of his 
officers, with a detachment, to give Bibil the 
terms he required, and to feize upon the fort- 
refs. The traitor accordingly, being gratified with 
fome money and a promilc of future favor, de- 
livered up the important calUe of GuaHer. 

In the courfe of the fame year, the Mogul cap- 
tain general, the noble Zeman, to wipe off fonrie 
afperfions under which he lay, exerted himfelf in 
a particular manner in the king's fervice ; for he 
fubdued all the provinces near Jionpoor and Be- 
naris, which till then were in the hands of the 
adherents of the Patau dynafty. 

Mahommed Ghofi, the brother of the famous 
Jns'a?^" Phul, who having been firmly attached to the 
court. Mogul intereft, during the late fupremac) of 
the Patans, had fled to Guzerat, this year re- 
turned to court with his family, and was very fa- 
vorably received by the king, who ordered By- 
ram to provide for him in a manner fuitable to 
his dignity. Ghori, trufting too much to the 
king's authority, negleded to pay that court to 
the minifter which that haughty though able 
man expected : Byram therefore took every pof- 
fible means to avoid to ferve Ghori, and made 
things {o very difagreeable to him, that he left 
the court and retiixd to his old family refidence 
at Gualier. This being reprefented to the king, 
revived his former difcontent againfl; Byram. 
The artful regent foon obferved a vifible altera- 
tion in the countenance of his fovereign. He 
therefore formed an expedition againft Malava, 
to turn the king's adive mind from the private 
politics of the court. Byram accordingly called 
Bahadur, the brother of the captain general Ze- 
man from the prr-.'r.ce of Debalpoor, and gave 
him the command of the army deflined to acl 


A K B A R. 243 

againft Baz Bahadur, the Patan prince of Ma- a. 0.1557. 
lava. Hig. 965. 

The king, much about this time, went out^j^barvu 
upon a hunting party, and made a progrefs asTitsDeihi. 
far as Secundra, within forty miles of Deliii, be- 
tween the rivers. Mahim, his fofter-brother join- 
ed him there, and told him, that his mother was 
extremely ill at Delhi, and was very defirous to 
fee the k'ln^r. He immediate! v fet out for Delhi, 
and the noble Ahmed, a native of Neifhapoor, 
an omrah of live thoufand, who then command- 
ed in the city, came out to meet Akbar with pre- 
fents : that omrah was in great perplexity how to 
a6t. He was alTured, that Byram would impute 
the king's journey to Delhi to his intrigues, 
and would not fail to get rid of him, as he had 
done of Mufa Beg, a chief, whom under a like 
pretext, he found means to remove ; he there- 
fore acquainted the king of his apprehenlions, 
and begged he might be permitted to make a 
pilgrimage to Mecca. The king was very much 
affected upon hearing this requell:, by obferving 
how formidable the power of his miniiler was 
become to all his friends ; but after he had conli- 
dcred the many obligations under which he and 
his family lay to that able man, he could not 
think of removing him : to leflen, however, in 
fome meafure, the apprehenfions of Ahmed, the 
king wrote to the regent that he had, of his own 
accord, proceeded to Delhi, and not at the in- 
ftigation of any perfon, but merely to pay his 
refpecls to his mother ; that therefore a letter 
from him to appeafe the minds of thofe who 
were apprehenfive of his dilpleafurc, would be 
extremely necefl'ary. Byram returned for an-, 
fwer, that " he fliould never entertain refent- 
ment againft any whom the king was pleafed to 
honor with his favor." He moreover fent Ma- 
hommed Seiftani and Tirdi Beg to Delhi, with 

R 2 affurances 



ons at 

AD. 1557. affurances of his loyalty and implicit obedience to 
^g' 965. the king's royal pleafure. 

Afa<fiion ^^^ ^^^^ mean time, Ahmed, finding the king 

accufcsBy. difpofed to pFOted him, and to hear acculations 

kTnV° ^'^^ againft Byram, gave a loofe to his tongue one 

day in public againfl; that minifter. He was 

joined by the wliole court, vvhom he had previ- 

oufly attached to his intereft. In fhort, fo many 

crimes were allcdged againft Byram, particularly 

his defigns in favor of Abul Cafim, the fon of 

the prince Camiran, the king's coufin german, 

- that Akbar was alarmed, and thought it necef- 

fary to curtail the regent's authority. When, 

therefore, Mahommed and Tirdi Beg arrived, 

inftead of being admitted to an audience, they 

were immediately imprifoned. 

This breach between the kins: and Bvram, is 
related with other particulars by the celebrated 
hiltorian Abul Fazil. One day at Agra, fays that 
great man, one of the king's elephants in the rut- 
ting feafon, attacked an elephant of Byram and 
killed him. Byram, for this offence, command- 
ed that the keeper of the royal elephants fhould 
be put to death, without giving any notice to 
the emperor. Akbar was greatly difpleafed with 
this piece of cruelty, efpecially when he found 
that the poor man was innocent, having loft all 
his command over the outrageous animal. Soon 
after, continues Abul Fazil, as Byram was taking 
his pleafure in a barge on the river, one of the 
elephants, w-hich had been carried down to the 
water, run furioufly againft the barge, and had 
almoft funk it, before, by the uncommon efforts 
of the rider, he was brought to obedience. The 
minifter, naturally of a fufpicious and unforgiv- 
ing temper, imagined that thefe were actually 
plots laid againft his life ; and he publickly petiti- 
oned the king to punifh the rider of the elephant. 


A K B A R. 245 

The king, to appeafe Byram, and to remove all a. 0.1553, 
fufpicions, ordered that the elephant-rider fliould His.966. 
be Tent to him, to be punilhed at difcretion. But 
Byram, cither to make an example to others, or 
to gratify his refentment againft the innocent 
man, who might even be faid to have faved his 
life, ordered him alfo to be put to death. 

The king was higly incenfed by thefe two in- 
ftances of Byram's prefumption and cruelty. His 
difpleafure became vifible to the court ; and there 
were not wanting many, who made it their buii- 
nefs, by private infmuations, to encreafe his re- 
fentment. The king, at length, came to the re- 
folution of depriving Byram of the reins of go- 
vernment, which required fome delicacy in the 
prefent fituation of affairs. Some authors men- 
tion a fcheme fuggefted to Akbar by his nurfe % 
upon this occafion, to get poffeflion of the feals, 
which were in Byram's poffeflion. They alfo fay, 
that £he difcovered to him that miniilers defign 
to confine him, which ftie had accidently heard, 
in a converfation betw^een Byram and the queen- 
mother. This, fay they, was the circumilance 
that determined Akbar to leave Agra. Abul 
Fazil mentions nothing of this affair ; for that hif- 
torian informs us, with great probability, that 
the whole was concerted between the two omrahs 
Adam and Mahim Aniga, on the part of the 
young king, who now began to be tired of a tu- 
tor, and thought he was capable of ading for 
himfelf. But to return from this digreffion. 

When it became public that the deputies from Byram dif- 
Byram had been imprifoned by the king, every ^'^''^ ' 
body predicted the ruin of the minifter, and 
endeavoured to fhake him off as faff as poffible. 

♦ This was (he that the king went to vifit at Delhi. 



/^•D. 1558. They flocked daily to Akbar by hundreds to 
Hig. 966. Delhi. That young prince immediately iffued a 
proclamation throughout the empire, that he had 
taken the adminiftration upon himfelf, and that 
henceforth no orders, but his own, fhould be 
obeyed, By ram being difmifled from the re- 
Maiiin- Mali, the great favorite of the emperor Hu- 
vadcs Cafh- j^^Jqqj^^ who had been confined in Lahore, hav- 
ing before this time found means to efcape, went 
to Cumal the Gicker, and engaged him in an 
expedition againft Cafhmire ; but they were de- 
He is de- featcd with great flaughter. Mali flying to De- 
^"^^ ' balpoor, joined himfelf with Bahadur, of Seif- 
tan, who commanded in that province on the 
part of Akbar, and ftirred him up to rebel : but 
Bahadur, repenting of his refolution, a quarrel 
enfued between them, and Mali was driven to- 
v/ards the Indus. From the banks of that river he 
fled to Guzerat, and from thence to Jionpoor, 
from whence the captain general Zeman, fent 
taken and him prifoncr to Agra. He was condemned to 
confined, perpctual imprifonmeut in the fort of Biana. 
vaiious Byram, finding that he had no farther hopes 

fchemes of from the king, began to form a refolution of go- 
2yrain. -^^^ ^^ Malava, to reduce that country, and found 
an independent kingdom. To accompli fli his 
purpofe, he proceeded to Biana, and called Baha- 
dur and other omrahs, who had been fent upon 
the expedition to Malava before him. But per- 
ceiving that he was deferted by thofe chiefs, in 
whom he placed his greateft confidence, he be- 
gan to defpair of fucceeding in that enterprize. 
He, therefore, releafed Mali from his confine- 
ment, _ intending by his afliftance, and that of the 
captain general, who commanded at Jionpoor, 
to attack the Patans of Bengal, and to fix himfelf 
in that kingdom. But before he had proceeded 
many days on this fcheme, he changed his refo- 

A K B A R. 247 

lution, and took the way of Nagorc, with a de- a.d. 1^58. 
fign to make a pilgrimage to Mecca ; upon which, "'S- 966. 
Bahadur, Kika, and many other omrahs, who had 
determined to follow his fortunes, took leave of 
him. But fo irrefolute was the unfortunate By- His itrefo- 
ram become, at a time too when firmnefs, con- ii^^e beha- 
flancy, and perfeverance were abfolutely necefla- 
ry, that, like a perfon infatuated, he had no 
fooner reached Nagore, after having loft all his 
friends, than he changed again his refolution of 
going to Mecca, and began to affemble troops, 
with a view to conquer the province of the five 
rivers, diftinguiftied by the name of Punjab. 

When the king was informed of this new 
fcheme of Byram, he fent the noble Shufvini, The king's 
his own preceptor, with a meffage to him to the IJ]^^^^ ^^ 
following purpofe. " Till now our mind has 
been taken up with our education, and the 
amufements of youth, and it was our royal plca- 
fure, that you fhould be refponfible for our em- 
pire. But as it is now our intention to govern 
our people, by our own judgment and pleafure, 
let our well-wilher contract his fkirts from the 
bulinefs of the world, and retire to Mecca, with- 
out thirfting after vanity and ambition." 

Byram, upon receiving this letter, profefled ^^ refolvci 
paflive obedience, and fent his enfigns of ftate, mccm? 
elephants, banners and drums, by the hand of 
Huffein Kulli, to the king. He then returned to 
Nagore, to prepare for Mecca, being now aband- 
oned by all his friends, except Willi Beg, Ifmaiel 
Kulli, Shaw Kulli, Ilairen Gadda, and Chaja 
Muziffer, the reft having joined the king. 
Among the latter, was the famous Mali, who, 
coming up to Akbar, when hunting, neglected 
to difmount, when he made his obeifance, for 
which he was immediately confined. 

Byram having proceeded on his pilgrimage as J^.^p'"^^* «>f 
far as Bickanere, repented of his refolution, andt'ion, and 

returned '^^'"^^ ^°^' 



A.D.; 759. returned again to Nagore, where he began to ai- 
H'S-';67- femble troops. The king being informed of that 
proceeding, marched to Jidgcr. Pier Mahum- 
mud, being now returned from his banifhment, 
to which he had been condemned by By ram, was 
thought a proper perfon to carry on the war 
againil; him. He was accordingly dignified with 
titles by the king, and fcnt with an army towards 
Nagore. 'J'he king, in the mean time, returned 
to Delhi, and fent orders to Monim, the gover- 
nor of the kingdom of Cabul, to repair to 
Herctvrns Byram, upon the approach of Pier Mahum- 
towauis mud, fct out for Punjab, and was clofely purfued 
^""^^ ■ by that omrah. When he arrived at the fort of 
Tibberhind, he threw all his baggage into that 
place, which was commanded by one of his ad- 
herents, by name Shere ; but this traitor no 
fooner had got Byram 's eflccts into the place, 
than he began to reckon upon them as his own, 
and turned out the guard which the unfortunate 
rainifter had lent to take charge of his baggage. 
Byram fet out from thence for Debalpoor, which 
was then governed by one of his old friends, the Ufberk. When he came near 
the place, he fent his fecretary, Muzifter Ali, to 
wait upon him, but that ungrateful man, pre- 
tending to be affronted at Eyram's requeft, con- 
fined the fecretary, and fent him to the king. 
Byram, who had conceived great hopes from^ his 
friendfhip, was aftonifhed at a behaviour fo com- 
mon to nsen in adverfity, and fet out, in great 
perturbation of mind, towards Jallender. 
j^^j.^ The king had, by this time, recalled Pier Ma- 

hummud, and appointed Azim to reduce Punjab. 
and to quell the rebellion of Byram. Azim 
coming up foon after with Byram, at Matchiwar- 
rah, a battle enfued, which was maintained w^ith 
great bravery on both fides j Azim's line being 


A K B A R. 249 

broke by the enemy: but at length, feveral oFa.d. 1560. 
Byram's principal ofFicers being killed, he was H'S-^^s. 
defeated, and obliged to fly to the n ountains of 
Sewalic. After this victory, the king appointed 
Chaja Hirrivi to the government of Delhi, by the 
title of the noble Ahph, and nrarched in perfon 
to Lahore. When Akbar had reached Ludhana, 
Monim met him, in his way from Cabul, and 
being gracioufly received, was honoured with 
the title of firll of the nobles, and made prime 
minif!:er of the empire. 

The kind's armv havino; advanced rear the'^'^^>'"? 
mountains of Sewalic, a detachment of light horie into the 
entered the hills, where the Zemindars of that "''^'^"t^'"*- 
country, had convened in fupport of By ram to 
guard the pafles : but they ^vcre driven from poft 
to poll ; upon which, Byram, in great diftrefs, 
fent his flave Jemmal to the prefence, to repre- 
fent his unfortunate fituation, and to implore 
the king's mercy. Akbar immediately difpatch- Byram fub- 
ed the omrah AbduUa, a native of Sultan-poor,'" 
with afTurances of his clemency, and to bring the 
unhappy Byram to court. Accordingly, in the 
month of the fecond Ribbi, he was received, at 
fome diflance from the camp, by a conf\derabic 
number of chiefs, whom the king had ordered to 
meet him. He was brought into the prefence 
with every poflible mark of f^ivor and diftincfion. 
When he appeared within fight of the kin^r, he 
hung his turban round his neck, and fuddenly 
advancing, threw him.felf, in tears, at the foot 
of the throne. The kinginllantly ftietched forth 
his hand, ordered him to rife, and placed him in 
his former ilation, at the head of the omrahs. 
To difpel at once his uneafinefs and grief, the 
king honored him with a Iplcndid drefs, and 
fpoke to him after the following m?.nner. '" if 
the lord Byram loves a military life, he fliall have 
the government of Calpe and Chindcri, in which 




He rcfolves 
on a piljri- 
niage to 

A.D. 1560. he may exercife his martial genius: if he chufes 
Hig.968. rather to remain at court, our favor fliall not be 
wanting to the great benefactor of our family : 
but fliould dc^votion engage the foul of Byram to 
perform a pilgrimage to Mecca, he (hall be ef- 
corted in a manner fuitable to his dignity.'* By- 
ram replied : " The royal confidence and friend- 
fhip for me, muft be now diminiihcd ; nay, they 
are pafl: the hopes of recovery. "Why then 
fhould I remain in the prefence ? The clemency 
of the king is enough for me, and his forgive- 
nefs for my late errors, a fufficient reward for 
my former fervices. Let then the unfortunate 
Byram turn his face from this world to another, 
and purfue his pilgrimage to Mecca." The king 
affented to his requeft, and ordered a proper re- 
tinue for him with 50,000 rupees a year, to fup- 
port his dignity. Byram foon after took leave 
of the king, who with a few attendants left the 
camp and went to Agra. 

Byram took the way of Guzerat, with an in- 
wavofGu- tention to proceed by fea to Mecca. When he 
arrived in the fuburbs of the capital of Guzerat, 
which was then governed by Muli, an omrah of 
the Afgan, imperial family of Lodi, on the part 
of A<5lemad fovcreign of the country, he was ac- 
cofl:ed by Mubarick Lohani, whofc father in the 
battle with Himu, Byram had killed. The wretch 
pretended to embrace the unfufpecling Byram, 
drew a dagger and bafely ftabbed him to the 
heart. A mob of Afgans fell immediately upon 
Eyram's retinue, and plundered them. This 
murder happened on the 24th of the lirft Jem- 
mad, in the 968th of the Higerah. 
Akbaifcmij Towards the clofe of the year 968, the emper- 
^"•'ft'i^a ^^' ^ppf^i"t^<^ Adam and his favorite tutor Pier 
iava" '^ Mahummud to command an army deflined for 
the conqueft of Malava. Baz Bahadur, in whofe 
hands that country was then, fpent his time in 


Takes the 

A K B A R. 251 

luxurious pleafures at Saringpoor, when he was ^^- '560. 
informed of the expedition which the Moguls me- '^" ' 
ditated againft him : but the enemy had advanc- 
ed within twenty miles of his capital, before he 
could prevail with himfelf to quit the pillows of 
indolence ; and then in the bcft manner the time 
and his own confufion would permit, he prepared 
for action. But the brave Moguls upon the firft 
onfet fhook his order of battle, and fent him with 
dreaming eyes and a broken heart towards Bur- 

hanpoor. ^ TiieHno 

Adam after the victory diftributed the fpoil i^J,,rJ"^ 
and the srovernments of Malava amonc^ his fol- Adam of 
lowers, refervmg the trealure, royal enhgns, ;„je„i,oa.-. 
and the ladies of the Haram for himfelf. He fent 
nothing except a few elephants to the king of 
what was cuftom.ary on thofe occaiions. Akbar 
fearing from this behaviour, that he entertained 
treafonable intentions, put the royal ftandard in 
motion towards him. When the imperial enfigns 
appeared before Shakeran, the governor of that 
fort on the part of Bas Bahadur delivered it 
up to the king. Akbar from thence made a 
fudden excurfion by night, and in the morn- 
ing arrived before Saringpoor, the capital of 
Malava. He met Adam coming out with an 
intention to bcfiege Shakeran : he permitted that 
omrah to pay his rcfpects, and then he carried 
him back to the city. Adam fufpecling the king's 
difpleafurc and the caufe of his vifit, laid all the 
treafure and fpoil at his feet : he excufed himfelf 
by alledging, that he refcrvcd every thing till he 
fliould have the honour of prefenting them to 
Akbar in pcrfon. The king law through his de- 
figns, but preferring clemency to rigour, he drew 
the pen of forgivenefs over his crime. 

The king foon after returned towards Agra ; AkUar kills 
hunting one day on the way near Narvar, a great ","J,',"'|J, 
royal tygrefs with live young ones took the road ^rds. 



A.p. i56i.before him. Akbar advanced to the animal, 
'^■' '■ while his retinue Itood trembling with fear and 
aftonifhment to beiiold the event. The king 
having meditated his bknv, fpurrcd on his horfe 
towards the fierce tygreis, whofe eyes flamed with 
rage, and with one rtroke of his fabre, cut her 
acrofs the k)ins and ftretched her dead upon the 
ground. The omrahs who were prefent, in ex- 
cefs of" joy, ran to kifs hh royal ftirrup, and 
offer up their thanks to God for his preferva- 
•^ tion. 
Tranfarti- "jhe king having remained months at 
poo* "^'^ Agra, Shcri the ion of the late emperor Mahom- 
med, with 40,000 horfe advanced from Ben- 
gal to reduce the province of Jionpocr. He was 
oppofed by the Mogul captain general who com- 
manded that province, with 12,000 horfe, and 
received a total defeat. Bahadur the brother 
of the captain general, diftinguifhed himfelf in 
a very particular manner in this action ; fo that 
the two brothers were eft^emed the boldeft war- 
riors of the acre : but reckoninir too much on 
their fervices, they neglected to fend to the king 
the elephants which they had taken in the battle, 
which were always confidered as royal proper- 
ty. The king, though he gave to -the brothers 
all due praife for their valour, would by no 
means permit any violation of his laws or en- 
croachment upon his prerogative : this deter- 
mined him to march towards Jionpoor, but 
when he arrived at Kurrah, the brothers, fenfi- 
ble of his refokuion and their own miibehavi- 
our, advanced to congratulate him with all the 
fpoils which they had taken, and other fuitable 
prefenis. Ihc king, whofe generofity and cle- 
mency could be only equalled by his fpirit, re- 
turnet4 all, except what belonged properly to 
the exchequer. At the flime time he gave them 
a gentle reproof for their negleft, and afterwards 


A K B A R. 253 

eno-aired their afleclions 'ov his princely bounty a. D- 'i6t, 

J • r r, 1 i'- \. \ ^ \ Hig. 969. 

■and gracious favor. 1 he king returned to Agra, ^ ^ ^ 

and on the third day's march gave the brothers 

permiffion to go back to their government of 


By the time that the king had reached Agra, Promouons 
Azim, 2:overnor of the orovinces about the five ^* '^''"^ ' 
heads ot the Indus, and Adam who commanded 
at Malava, arrived at court according to orders, 
with fuitable prefents. The king gave the go- 
vernment of Mahiva to his tutor Pier Mahum- 
mud, and the office of prime minilkr to Azim. 
The king after thefe tranfactions in the year 969, 
made a progrefs to Ajmere, to vifit the {hrine of 
Chaja : when Akbar arrived at Sumbrc, Birbil 
the Indi.m prince of tliat country gave his daugh- 
ter to him in marriage, and lifted himfclf and 
his fon Bowan Dafs, among the number of the 
king's omrahs. When Akbar had reached 
Ajmere, and had performed his devotions, he 
fent the prince Hullein of the imperial family of 
Timur, and governor of Ajmere, to inveft the 
fort of Merta, which was in the territories of 
Maldeo, the unfubdued Indian prince of Marwar. 
He himfelf returned in three days and nights, 
with a retinue of fix pcrfons only to Agra, which 
was a diftance of more than two hundred and fixty 

The prince Huffcin having advanced near Mer- Huflcin be- 
ta. Jig Jal and Dafs, who were principal men of ^3^^ 
that country, threw a detachment into the place 
and prepared for a fiege. Hulfein invefted the 
fort, and began to carry on his approaches. In 
a few days he extended one of his mines under 
a baftion, and Iprung it, by which a practicable 
breach vas made. . He advanced in perfon with 
a felecl body of troops to the aflault, wliile the 
enemy bravely filled the breach to oppofc him. 
Though frcfh fupplies of troops mounted from 




\h '^6^' ^'^'^^ ^'^ time, they were fo warmly received, that 
'^'^ '^' Huflein was obliged to found a retreat, and the 
next morning he found that the breach was filled 
up by the Indian foldiers, who had continued to 
work, notwithftanding the fire he had kept up 
the whole night. The fiege being prolonged for 
fome months, the brave garrifon were unable to 
y»h\ch is hold out longer, and defired to capitulate ; their 
requeft was granted, and the terms were, that 
they fliould march out with all their arms and 
horfes. Jig Jal according to thefe terms left all 
his money and effects, and marched forth ; but 
Dewan Dafs, who had been averfe to the capi- 
tulation, collected five hundred of the garrifon 
together, and having burnt all their effects, they 
rulhedout of the place. Huflein having heard of 
this breach of the capitulation, ordered them to 
be attacked, and the Rajaputs on the other hand 
fought with fuch valour, that they cut their way 
through the Mogul army with the lofs of two 
hundred and fifty of their number. Among the 
llain was Dewan Dafs, whofe head his friends 
carried away when they faw him mortally wound- 
ed, that it might not fall into the hands of the 
enemy. Huflein after having poflefled himfelf 
of the fort, wrote an account of his victory to 
the king, and was honoured with particular fa- 
Tranfai?.!- Pier Mahummud, governor of Malava, a man 
'^"oJnce^of ^^ refolution, and abilities, took up his re- 
M.Java. fidence in Shadi-abadmendu, and carried on the 
war with Bas Bahadur with fuch fuccefs, that he 
entirely pofleflTed himfelf of his dominions. He 
took the ftrong fort of Bijanagur, and put all 
the garrifon to the fword, as they obliged him to 
rifque an aflault. Bas Bahadur having taken pro- 
tection under the governor of Brampoor on the 
borders oftheDecan, he fometimes by the aid 
of that chief, made incurfions into the territo- 

A K B A R. 255 

ries of Ivlalava, and kept the country in a ftate ^^^^1561. 
ofhoftillty. Pier Mahummiid was obliged to '^•5 9* 
march againft Brampoor, and having taken it, 
ordered a cruel mailacre of all the inhabitants, 
among whom was a number of philofophers and 
learned men, who refided in the place. 

Before Pier Mahummud had left this place, The^^Togui 
Bas Bahadur having prevailed upon Mubarick ovirthmwn 
and Tiffal, the former the prince of Candez in ^"'^ "^'"• 
the Decan, and the latter of Berar, to join him, 
advanced with a great army towards the Mogul, 
upon which he retreated to Bijanagur, his offi- 
cers being all averfe to engage. However he 
refolved to halt at Bijanagur contrary to all 
their opinions, and to give battle to the enemy. 
He did it, but not being fupported by his offi- 
cers, he was defeated, and being difmounted by 
a camel that attacked his horfe in croffinp; the ra- 
pid river Narbudda, he was drowned. The ene- 
my continuing the purfuit, drove the Moguls 
from place to place, as far as Agra, without be- 
ing able to make one ftand before them : fo that 
Bas Bahadur in the year 969, recovered his whole Maiavaioft, 
dominions of Malava. The king immediately and rcco- 
after this difafter, appointed Abdulla, an Ufbeck ^■'^'■^''• 
chief in his fcrvice, governor of Calpee, to car- 
ry on the war againft Bas Bahadur. Abdulla 
drove him a fecond time out of his country 
among the mountains of Comilmere, and re-efta- 
bliftied the government of the Moguls in Mindu, 
and fixed his own relidence as fupcrintendant in 
that city. 

Seid Beg the fon of Mufum Bcgt, of the impe-,'^"*"!!^'''"^' 
rial family or Suftvi, and abfolute agent for the 
king of Perlia, arrived much about this time at 
the court of Agra, in the character of an am- 
baflador, with valuable prefents, aad received a 
prefent for himfelf of two lacks of rupees from 
the king. Azim, who had been, fome time be- 


A.T>.js(>i-forc, appointed to the office of vizier, had ac- 
quired great iniiucnce in his nimiitenal depart- 
ment. Adam, who commanded at the firft con- 
queft of. Malava, and by that exploit, had ac- 
quired great power in the prefence, attempted to 
bring about the prime miniiler's ruin, as fbme 
courtiers had before done that of the famous 
Byram : but the intrigues of Adam were difco- 
vered, and his calumnies reverted upon his own 
head. Stung with difappointed malice, he at lail 

., , ^ determined toad the affaffni hirnfelf. He accord- 

Adam bale- , i • 1 

lyafiaiTin- lugly onc day m the audience chamber, while 
v£r'"^ the minifter was reading the Koran, according 
to cuftorn, ftabbed him under pretence that he 
took no notice of the falutation which Adam 
made him at his entrance, though he well knew, 
that at fuch a time it was not cuftomary to make 
or return any compliments. Adam after hav- 
ing committed the murder, afcended one of the 
terraces, and flood there in hopes of the king's 
pardon, though he might other wife have ef- 
Adam is The king who had been afieep in the apart- 
kiiiedby ixients of the ladies, hearins: the noife that was 

tiie King, ^ , ' o 

made on this occahon, a&ed the caufe. When 
they informed him of what had happened, he 
arofc, and without changing his fleeping drefs, 
went up to the terrace in a great rage. He was 
flruck with horror when he faw the blood of 
his minifter. Having approached the murderer 
with a fword in his hand, he drew it half out, 
but refleding upon his own dignity, he returned 
it again into the fcabbard, and fternly afked the 
aiTaflin, Why have you killed my vizier ? The 
wretch, fearing that the king was going to kill 
him, feized his hands. This behaviour lo enrag- 
ed Akbar, that difengaging himfelf, he ftruck 
him with a blow of his lift, and laid him fenfe- 
kfs at his feet. In this rage he ordered one of 


A K B A R. 257 

his attendants to throw the wretch over the a. d. 1562. 
wall, which was forty yards in height. Ma- "'e- 970- 
him Anigah, this unfortunate man's father, died 
with grief about a month after, and Monim, 
formerly governor of Cabul who was an abetter 
of the affaffination of the minifter, fled to Lahore, 
where he was feized and fent to Agra : but as 
the proofs againft him were not fufficient to con- 
demn him, he was acquitted by the king, and 
had afterwards the addrefs to work himfelf into 

The king conferred all the honours and eftates ^JuS?^"^' 
of his father upon Aziz, the eldeft fon of the de- 
ceafed vizier, excepting the ofiices of the Viza- 
rit and Vakilit *. The prince Adam, fovcreign 
of thofe mountaineers called the Gickers, difturb- 
ing the peace of Punjab, the governors of that 
country were ordered to reduce him, and place 
Kummal one of the fame nation, upon the throne. 
Kummal had been once miraculoufly preferved 
from death. Sehm the late emperor of the Afgan 
race, ordered a prifon, wherein he was at Gua- 
lier, with fome hundreds of his nation who 
had been taken prifoners, to be blown up with 
gunpowder. This was done, and Kummal 
was thrown to fome diftance, without receiving 
any conhderable hurt. The fame year Kummal, 
by the aid of the Mogul chiefs, marched againil 
his countrymen the Gickers, reduced that fierce 
nation, and took their fovereign Adam pri- 

Chaja the father of the famous HufTcin, came 
about this time from lurkeftan to Lahore : he 
was there met by his fon and brought to Agra, 
the king himfelf going out to congratulate him, 

* The Vizarit and Valkilit are often joined in the fame pcr- 
fon, but the latter is reckoned the firil office in the empire. 

Vol. IL S as 


AD. 1562. as he was of tlie race of AbduUa, one of the 
'g-9/o- greatef]- faints in Turkeftan. Not long after 

Rebeiiionofthefe tranfactions, Huflein, a prince of the pofte- 
rity or limur, whom we have orten mentioned, 
either ftruck with madnefs, or fome unknown 
apprehenfions, fled to Ajmere with all the 
forces intrufted by the emperor to his care. This 
revolt occafioned great difturbances in that coun- 
try, to quell which Huffein Kulli the nephew of 
the regent Byram, was nominated to the go- 
vernment of Nagore, and ordered to proceed 
thither with a great force. Huflein having re- 
ceived intelligence; of Kulli*s march, left Ajmere 
in charge of one of his friends, and retreated 
to jalore on the frontiers of the kingdom of Gu- 
zerat. Kulli proceeded to Ajmere, and poffeff- 

Hudan."^ ed himfelf of that place by capitulation. Mali, 
the famous favourite of the emperor Humaioon, 
who had been releafed from his confinement upon 
promife of proceeding on a pilgrimage to Mecca, 
hearing of the rebellion of the prince Huffein on 
the way, returned and joined him. He march- 
ed by his command with a body of horfe towards 
Narnoul, and there committed hoftilities. Huflein 
Kulli, the imperial general, detached two omrahs. 

Defeats the Ahmed and Eufoph againfl; him, while hemarch- 

impeiahfts. gj jj^ perfou againfl; the prince Huflein. Mali 
lay in ambufli for the troops which were fent 
againfl; him. They fell into the fnare and were 
defeated with great flaughter, the two generals 
being flain in the action. The king at that time 
taking the diverfion of hunting at Muttra, re- 
ceived intefligence of the defeat of his troops. 

Flies to and fent another army againfl Mali. The rebel 
fled before the imperial forces to Punjab, and 
from thence to the prince Hakim, the king's 
brother at Cabul. Hakim gave to Mali his After 
in marriage, and raifed him to the firft oflice in 
that kingdom, for which he by that time paid lit- 
tle or no homage to Akbar. 


A K B A R. 259 

The ungrateful refugee, however, had not a. 0.1563. 
been many months in ftation, before he afpired to ^ -■ ^'''" 
the kingdom of Cabirl, and bafely aflaffinated the 
prince Hakim's mother, his own mother-in-law, H^»^''^»"'y- 
who was a woman of uncommon abilities, and 
might with truth be faid to have ruled that king- 
dom. He then pretended to a(5l as regent for 
the young prince, who was ftill in his minority, 
with a view to s:et rid of him as foon as he could 
conciliate matters with the chiefs. In the mean 
time Soliman, prince of Buduchfhan, came 
againft him, and cut off the opening flower of his 
ambition, by depriving him of his life. HulTein and death, 
having heard of the retreat of Mali, fled to Ahme- 
dabad, in Guzerat. 

The king about this time, made a progrefs An attempt 
towards Delhi. As he was palling by the col- Jf^g"f i-fj; 
lege of Anniga, a flave of the rebel the prince 
HufTein, by name Fowlad, who had been fent to 
afl'affinate the king, fixed an arrow in his bow 
and pointed it towards the iky. The royal re- 
tinue, imagining that the villain was going to 
fhoot at fome bird flying over head, gazed up- 
ward : he immediately lowered his aim to the 
king, who was at fome diftance upon his elephant, 
and let fly his arrow, which lodged itfelf fome 
inches deep in Akbar's flioulder. In a moment 
a thoufand fwords were drawn, and the people 
cut one another, each anxious to kill the aflaffin, 
who was in a moment hewn to pieces. The fur- 
geons being called, the arrow was, with great 
difllculty, extracted on the place, before all the 
people ; the king not flirinking once at the ope- 
ration : in about ten days the wound was doled 
up, Akbar returned to Agra, and foon after ap- 
pointed Afaph, of whom we fhall make frequent 
mention hereafter, governor of Kurrah and Ma- 

S 2 The 


A.D. '56j. Ihe king did not reft many days at Agra, be- 
H'S- 97'- fore he fet out for Narvar to hunt elephants. He 
The gover- ^^^^ Ordered Abdulla the Ufbeck, who govern- 
nor of Ma- ed for hiin in Malava, to fend his trained ele- 
'phants to aflift in this amufement, which he ne- 
glected to do. The king was very much enraged 
at his difobedience, and made a fudden incurfion 
into Malava, though the periodical rains were 
at their height. Mahummud, a native of Neiflia- 
poor, in the kingdom of Seiftan, governor of 
Saringpoor, joined the king by the way. When 
he flies to Akbar had reached Ugein, Abdulla, with all his 
Guzerat. foj-^-^s and trcafurc, fled to Guzerat : the king 
purfued him about fifty miles, with a fmall body 
of cavalry : the rebel ftood his ground, and 
fought with fuch fuccefs, that Akbar thought 
proper to return from the purfuit to Mindu, 
where he furveyed the buildings erected there 
by the imperial family of the Chilligis. While 
The king of Akbar remained in that city, Mubarick king of 
chandez,in(3l^an(je2 in the Decan, paid him homage, and 

the Decan, , . i • , u^ • • n-u i • 

fubmits to gave him his daughter in marriage. Ihe king 
Akbar. conferred the government of Malava upon one 
Shirra, and returned towards his capital. Up- 
on the way, near the village of Sipiri, he fell 
in with a great herd of wild elephants. He or- 
dered his cavalry to furround them, and he 
drove them, with great difficulty, into a fold 
conftrucled for that purpofe : one of the male 
elephants, of a prodigious fize, finding himfelf 
confined, flrode over the ditch, bore down the 
v.'all and the palifadoes before him, and made his 
way into the plain. Three trained elephants 
were fent after him : he ftood to fight, and be- 
fore they could overcome and take him, he 
afforded very great diverfion to the king ; who 
was remarkably fond of the boifterous conten- 
tion of thofe enormous animals. 


A K B A R. 261 

In the year 972, Chaja Moazim, the brother a. d. 1564. 
of the fultana Chuli, and hufband to the king's ^'s- 972- 
aunt, for fome impropriety of behaviour, was 
thrown into prifon, where he died. The fame ons at Agra, 
year, the old fort of Agra, which was built of 
brick, was demolifhed, and the foundation of 
the new one of red freeftone laid ; and though 
a great and magnificent work, was finifhed in four 

By the intrigues of Abdulla, the Ufbeck, foTheUiteck 
often mentioned, there was a report propogated, ^^'j"'^^' * "^^ 
that the king, on his account, had taken a dif- 
like to all the Ufbeck race, and propofed to con- 
fine all the chiefs of that nation who were in his 
fervice. This calumny gained fo much credit^ 
that Secunder, and Ibrahim both Ufbecks, and 
others, who had governments about Jionpoor 
and Behar, turned their heads from obedience, 
and drew over the captain general Zeman and 
his brother, the famous Bahadur, together with 
Shubiani to their party : Afaph, who held the 
government of Kurrah, on account of fome dif- 
putes with the collector of the king's revenues, 
took part in their rebellion. In a fhort time, 
their army confifi:ed of thirty thoufand horfe, 
with which they polfefled themfelves of all the 
territories near Behar and Jionpoor. 

News of this rebellion being brought to the The policy 
king, he feemed to take no notice of it. He or- ''^ ^'^''"* 
dered his troops to attend him on a hunting party 
towards Narvar, in the oppofite diredion to the 
enemy. He accordingly employed himfelf in 
taking elephants for fome days ; during which 
time, Afhcrif, a fcribe, was fcnt privately to 
Secunder, one of the chief rebels, to endeavour to 
bring him over from his fa<5lion. T.afkar was fent 
with a great body of horfe to feize the treafures 
of Afaph, upon whom the king had a large de- 


A.D. 1564. mand, which was the fole caufe of that chief's re- 
Hig 972. bellion. 

Afaph'jwar It fccms, that whcii Afaph was made an omrah 
wiLh the ^f ^^g thoufand, and obtained the srovernment 

queen ot *-^ , 

Gunah. of Kurrah and Maneckpoor, he obtained per- 
niillion of the king to fubdue a country called 
Guirah or Kattuc, lying between the provinces 
of Rintimpore, Malava, Behar and the Decan. 
At that time, the kingdom of Gurrah * was go- 
verned by a queen, whofe name was Durgetti, 
famous for her beauty and accomplifhments : 
her dominions were about three hundred miles 
in lensfth, and one hundred in breadth : vet fo 
flourifhing was the country, that in this fmall 
tra^l, there were about feventy thoufand towns 
and villages well inhabited ; which had the good 
fortune never to have fallen under the dominion 
of foreigners. --..- 

Afaph, having heard of t^e riches of this 
country, difturbed the peaceable inhabitants, 
unaccuftomed to the found of war, with con- 
ftant depredations ; he at length marched againft 
them with fix thoufand horfe, and about double 
that number of infantry. The queen, with fif- 
teen hundred elephants, eight thoufand horfe and 
fome foot, prepared to oppofe him. Like a bold 
Heroine fhe led on her troop to actions, cloathed 
■ ■ ' in armour, with a helmet upon her head, mount- 
■ ed in a caftle upon an elephant, with her bow and 
quiver lying by her fide, and a burnifhed lance 
in her hand. Though her troops had not been 
accuftomed to aftion, the love of national inde- 
pendence, and the exemple of their queen, in- 
fpired every breaft with a lion's courage. Their 
eagernefs to engage, made them march in difor- 
der towards the enemy, which the queen obferv- 

* Now part of Orifla and Bundel-cund. 


A K B A R. 263 

ing, commanded them to halt, and forming her a. d. 1564. 
line a new, gave her troops firicl orders to march ^'g- 9'7^- 
on llowly, as compad as pollible, and to obferve 
the fignal to engage, when it fhould be difplayed 
from the elephant of the royal ftandard. 

In this manner flie received the enemy, whom 
file quickly repulfed, and prefling upon them, 
laid fix hundred Mogul horfemen dead on the 
field ; fhc purfued the reft till the evening, with 
great flaughter. When night came on, the 
queen halted with her army, and gave them or- 
ders to wafh and refrefh themfelves, that they 
might be prepared for a night attack upon the 
enemy, before they could recover from their 
confternation. But her minifter, and the reft of 
her chiefs, iefs daring, and confequently lefs pru- 
dent than this heroine, oppofed this falutary 
meafure, and feditioufly infifted on returning to 
the field of battle to bury their friends. She, 
accordingly, returned unwillingly ; and, after 
the dead were burnt, again addreffed her chiefs, 
and folicited them, one by one, to accompany 
her to ftorm the Mogul camp : none of them, 
however, had the fpirit to fecond her in this dar- 
ing enterprize. They vainly imagined, that the 
enemy would of their own accord evacuate the 

The chiefs of the little kingdom of Gurrah, 
foon found that they were fatally fruftrated in 
their hopes. Afaph, to wipe away the difgrace 
which he had fuftained the day before, and find- 
ing what enemy he had to deal with, advanced in 
the morning towards the queen, with his artil- 
lery ; which, in the preceding action, he had 
left behind him, on account of the badnefs of 
the roads. The queen, upon Afaph's approach, 
advanced to a narrow pafs, and prepared to op- 
pofe him. The Mogul, fcouring the pafs with 



A.D. 1564. his artillery, fqon opened to himfelf a way into 
Hig.972. the plain beyond it, where the queen's army was 
drawn up in order of battle. The prince Biar, 
the queen's fon, a youth of great hopes, as 
foon as the Moguls came into the plain, made a 
refolute charge, and exhibited prodigies of va- 
lour. He repulfed the enemy twice, but in the 
third attack, being wounded, he became faint 
-with lofs of blood- When he was juft falling 
from his horfe, his mother, who was mounted 
on an elephant in the front of the battle, obferved 
her fon ready to expire. She im.mediately called 
to fome of her people to carry him back to the 
rear ; many of them accordingly crowded 
around him, fome with a friendly intention to 
ferve him, but more to have an opportunity to 
quit the field. The lofs of the prince, in Ihort, 
together with the retreat of fo many with his 
perfon, flruck a panic into the reft, fo that the 
unfortunate queen was left only with three hun- 
dred men in the field. Durgetti, however, feem- 
ed no ways affected by her defperate fituation ; 
fhe ftood her ground with her former fortitude, 
till jQie received an arrow in her eye ; fhe en- 
deavoured to extricate it from the wound, but 
as file tugged it, part of the fteel broke fliort, 
and remained behind. In the mean time, ano- 
ther arrow paiTed through her neck, which fne 
alfo drew out, but nature finking under the pain, 
a dimnefs fwam before her eyes, and flie began 
to nod from fide to fide of the howdar *. She, 
however, recoved from her fainting by degrees ; 
and a brave officer of her houfhold, by name Ad- 
har, who drove her elephant, fingly repulfed 
numbers of the enemy whitherfoever he turned 
the outrageous animal. He begged permifilon, as 

* A wooden tower on the back of the elephant. 


A K B A R. 265 

the day ^.vas now irretrievable, to carry the queen :^ d. , 564. 
from the field. She rejected the propofal with Hig. 972- 
a noble difdain : " It is true, faid flie, we are 
overcome in war, but fhall we ever be vanquilh- 
ed in honor ? Shall we, for the fake of a linger- 
ing ignominious life, lofe that reputation and 
virtue which we have been fo folicitous to ac- 
quire ? No : let your gratitude now repay that 
fervice for which I lifted up your head, and which 
I now require at your hands. Hafte, I fay ; let 
your dagger fave me from the crime of putting a 
period to my own exiftence." 

Adhar burft into tears, and begged, that as 
the elephant was fwift of foot, he might be per- 
mitted to leave the field, and carry her to a place 
of fafety. In the mean time, the queen, finding 
that the enemy crowded fail around her, and 
that fhe muft be taken prifoner, fuddenly lean- 
ing forward, feized the dagger of Adhar, and 
pluging it into her bofom, expired. The death 
of the queen, rendered Afaph's victory com- 
pleat. Six Indian chiefs, upon their elephants, 
ftill ftood firm : and afhamed of being outdone 
by a woman, dedicated their lives to revenge the 
death of the queen. 

Afaph. a few days after this battle, laid fiege 
to the fortrefs of Jora, where all the treafures of 
this noble family had been for ten generations dc- 
pofited. The hopes of gain rendered the Moguls 
defpcrate ; they begun to attack the fort with 
uncommon reiblution, till the place was taken 
The young prince, now a little recovered from 
his wounds, bravely exerted what little ftrcngth 
he had left, loll his life in defence of his inde- 
pendence and kingdom. The unfortunate gar- 
rilbn, according to their barbarous cuftom, had 
performed the joar *. This dreadl^ui ceremony 

* The joar is, a general mafiacre of the women and children. 



AD. 1564. was performed after this manner: ahoufe was filled 
H'g-972- with wood, ftraw and oil : the unfortunate vic- 
tims were forced in, and fire fet to the horrid 
pile. When the bloody conquerors, who had 
brought this dreadful calamity upon the mifera- 
ble Indians, entered the place, they found two 
women flill alive, and untouched by the flames ; 
one of them was called Camelawilli, the fifter of 
the deceafed queen, and the other the daughter 
of the Indian prince of Biragur, who had been 
brought to be efpoufed by the young but unfor- 
tunate prince of Gurrah. Thefe two ladies were 
referved by Afaph, for the king. The riches of 
the fortrefs of Jora, in gold, filver, jewels and 
precious effects were invaluable ; of gold alone, 
there were found, in one treafury, one hundred 
and one chefts of mhers. When Afaph had glut- 
ted his avarice and ambition with the treafure 
and blood of this brave, though peaceable family, 
he took up his refidence in that country. His 
view was to maintain his conqueft againft the 
king ; and he, therefore, did not return to his 
government of Kurrah. That avarice, which 
prompted him to this pubhc robbery, prevented 
him from prefenting the king with his part of 
the plunder. (Jut of a thoufand elephants, 
which he had taken, though all fliould fall to the 
fhare of the king, he fent him only two hundred 
of the worft, and fent no part of the jewels and 
treafure. It was therefore this juft demand which 
the king had upon Afaph, that made that ambi- 
tious omrah join in rebellion with the difaffecled 
Ufbeck chiefs. 
The kin^T The king having found that his general Lafkar 
■"ra?.V could effect nothing againft Afaph, he deter- 
.^f^,)!., falls mined to march in perlon into Gurrah. Hav- 
i.k and ic- • 2 therefore left Narvar, he continued his rout 

ll.iDS. O 

foT- fome days towards Gurrah. Akbar bemg 
feized with a fever on account of the heat, which 


A K B A R. 267 

in that fandy foil was exceffive, he returned tOA.D. is^s, 
Agra, difpatched Shahim Sellaori, Biddai, Amin, Hig. 973. 
and other omrahs, againft Secunder the Ufbeck, 
by whom they were defeated, and the two laft 
taken prilbners. The king apprized of this dif- 
after, lent Monim, who had been dignified with 
the title of firft of the nobles, with an army fome 
days journey in front, and in the month of Shawal 
973, followed in perfon with all the forces he 
could raife. 

When kins: had arrived at Kinnop;e, he felecl- THe king 
ed a body ot horie, and made an excurlion to- ai>iinii 
wards Lucknow, the capital of the province of ^^'■■'''"°^- 
Oud, to furprize Scounder, the rebellious Ufbeck, 
who was in that place : but the rebel being in- 
formed of the emperor's approach, evacuated 
Lucknow, and fled to his aflbciate in treafon, ^^^ ^ ^^^^ 
Zeman, the captain general, with whom he crolfed mits. 
the Ganges. The king proceeding to Jionpoor, 
Afaph fued for pardon, and by the mediation 
of the noble Mudgenu, was admitted to the pre- 
fence, and again reilored to favor, upon fettling 
his accounts concerning the plunder of Gurrah. 
A few days after his lubmiilion, Afiph was de- 
tached with five thoufand chofen horfe, againif the 
enemy. He came to the ferry of Nirhin, and 
was oppofed in crofTing: the river, but inftead of ^^'^""'^^- 
making any difpontions to gam the pallage, he 
fat down and palTed the time in riot and foolifh 
negociations, for which he had no authority. 
The king being informed of his negligence, flrip- 
ped him of his eftate. Afiph with his brother, and flitiiu to 
relinquiOied his troops, and fet out with great ^""^'^- 
expedition to Gurrah. 

The king fent his general Monim, to take Motions of 
charge of the army which Afaph had forfakcn ; ^'''^ "='''''• 
and the rebels in the mean time, under Secunder 
and Bahadur, crolfed the Jumna, and raifcd dif- 



A D. 1565. turbances in the provinces between the rivers, 
Hig.973- while the captain general oppofcd the Imperial 
army at the Ganges, 'i he king being informed 
of thefe motions, detached Bidda and other 
„ , ornrahs, under the command of the Amir Ulluck, 
fubniits. to flop the progrefs of Bahadur ; but in the mean 
time Zeman the captain general repenting of his 
difloyalty, fent a number of elephants and other 
prefents to the king, and Monim interceding 
for his pardon, Akbar was prevailed upon to re- 
ceive' him into favor, and draw the pen of obli- 
vion over his crimes. He confirmed him in all 
his eftates and honours, which he had forfeited by 
his rebellion. 
The impe- XJl Muluck having come up with Secunder 
iiudcT'ui and Bahadur, was upon the point of engaging 
Muluck them, when he received a letter from Bahadur, 
bvTheTe-" acquainting him that his brother Zeman, had fent 
^^^^- his mother with prefents to the king to inter- 

cede for pardon, and therefore that he would be 
glad to avoid extremities, till he heard the con- 
fequence of that negociation. Muluck, who had 
heard nothing of this matter, thinking it to be 
a political fetch to gain time or lull him to fecu- 
rity, paid no regard to it, but drew out in order 
of battle. Secunder who commanded the van of 
the rebel army, made the beft difpofition the time 
would permit to receive him, but was obliged 
to retreat with Q;reat lofs towards the bodv of the 
army, which by this time was formed by Ba- 
hadur. The Imperialifts, who from the flight of 
Secunder, concluded the vi61ory already their 
own, purfuing in an irregular manner, were 
received fo warmly by Bahadur, that they were 
repulfed in turn, and would never more fhew 
their face to the purfuers, fo that the rebels gain- 
ed a complete victory and great fpoil. The Impe- 
rial general fled with the Icattered remains of his 
army to Kinnoge. 


A K B A R. 269 

Akbar in the mean time as peace was conclud- A.D.1566. 
ed with Zeman, went to take a view of the for- H'g-'>74. 
tifications of Chinar and the city of Benaris. zeman 
When the news of the late defeat of the Im- jgain ve- 
periaUfts arrived in the royal camp, Zeman, 
though fo lately pardoned, being deftitute of every 
principle of gratitude, loyalty and honor, again 
deferted and took poffeffion of Ghazipoor and the 
adjacent territories. The king enraged at this 
bafenefs, flew into a violent paflion with his gene- 
ral Monim, by whofe mediation he had pardon- 
ed Zeman. He immediately ordered the captain 
general's mother to be confined, and with all ex- 
pedition marched towards the traitor, who upon 
his approach fled to the hills. Bahadur taking The rebek 

li _,,.,, ^ ,. -,. take Jioa- 

advantage of the kmg s abfence from Jionpoor, p^oi. 
entered that place, and took the citadel by efca- 
lade, where he releafed his mother, and confined 
Afherif the imperial governor, with all the prin- 
cipal perfons in the garrifon. 

The king hearing of the taking of Jionpoor, ^^^^ '^^^- 
gave over the purfuit of Zeman, and returning the king 
towards that city, ilTued out orders to all the 
viceroys of the provinces to join him with all 
their forces. Upon Akbar s approach, Bahadur 
evacuated Jionpoor, and fled towards Benaris. 
The rebel Zeman now feeing fuch preparations 
againft him, in all the provinces which remain- ^.^^^^^^^^ 
cd firm in their allegiance, began again to defpair doned a ie- 
of fuccefs, and had the confidence to addrefs the ^""'^ ''"^^ 
king a fecond time for pardon, which by a f^range 
perverfion of policy, and an unjuftifiable a<5t of 
clemency, or rather weaknefs in the king, he ob- 
tained, as well as a confirmation of all his eftates 
and honors. I'he king after pafling his royal 
word fo all thefe favours, ordered Zeman to 
come to court : but the traitor excufed himfelf, 
by pretending that ihame for his pafl: offences 
would not permit him to appear in the prefencc, 


again re 



AD. 1566. till time fliould erafe his behaviour from his ma- 
Hig.974- jefty's mind ; that as foon as the king fhould re- 
turn to Agra, both he and his brother Bahadur, 
would accept the honor which the royal benevo- 
lence intended to confer upon them. 
Thekinji-s It furprizcs, it even difgufts the friends of the 
wed nei.s. j^gj^^^j.y ^f ^.j-j^g rcnowncd Akbar, to find that he 

fhould admit of this excufe, or trull to the oath 
of a man already perjured : but the fmcere mind 
of Akbar, could not fufped in others that bafe- 
nefs which was a flranger to his own foul. He 
returned to Agra, and left this fnake to colled 
frefh poifon. When Akbar had arrived at Agra, 
he fent Mendi with four thoufand horfe, to drive 
Afliph out of his government of Gurrah, which 
he had ftill in his polTeflion. 

Zeman, as might have been forefeen, took this 
»its. opportunity to ftrengthen his party. Treafon 
ftill fermented in fecret within his foul, and he 
invited Afaph to join him. Afaph accepted of 
the propofal, and left Gurrah in poffellion of his 
friend and dependant Caflira. Zeman in the 
mean time forgetting his oath to wait on the 
king at Agra, during fix months maintained him- 
felf in a princely independence over all the eaftern 
provinces, Afaph, who had by this time joined 
him, finding himfelf negleded and treated with 
contempt, fled to Kurrah his original Jagier, was 
purfued by Bahadur, defeated and taken prifoner. 
In the mean time Afaph's brother, vizier Chan, 
who had efcaped in the action, ralUed the troops, 
and returning, furprized the conquerors, and re- 
fcued Afaph out of their hands. The brothers 
then fell upon Kurrah, and poffcfled themfelves 
of that country. 
AnembafTy ^j^ ambaffador about this time, arrived from 
bui. the prince Hakim the king's brother, who go- 

verned Cabul, acquainting him, that their coufin 


A K B A R. 2/1 

Soliman of Buduchfhan, ever fince he had de- a. 0.1366. 
feated and killed Mali, continued to read the "^s- 974- 
Chutba of Cabul in his own name ; that he had 
appointed Mirza Sultan to act in that city in his 
behalf, which had obliged Hakim to expel him 
from that office ; for which affront Soliman was 
again preparing to invade Cabul : he therefore 
earnefty entreated Akbar's aid to oppofe him. 

The king fearing more from the encroach- The king 
ments of his northern enemies, than from the j^^^Yd^hS" 
foft fons of the eaftern provinces, immediately bmther at 
ordered the governors of the countries about the ^'a^"'- 
five heads of the Indus, and the noble Kulli vice- 
roy of Moultan, to affift Hakim, as foon as ever 
they fhould be certain of the enemies attempts 
upon Cabul. Feredoon of Cabul who was one of 
the king's omrahs, was alfo fent from the pre- 
fence with what troops he retained in pay to fuc- 
cour Hakim : but before the royal orders arrived 
either at Punjab or Moultan, and confequently 
long before any fuccours could reach Cabul, So- 
liman had invefted that city. Hakim evacuated 
it in a few days and retreated to the Nilab, one of 
the branches of the Indus, where he met J^'ere- 
doon coming to his affiftance. This treacherous 
omrah, propofed to Hakim to feize upon La- 
hore, affuring him that Akbar was in no condi- 
tion to oppofe him, being involved in a war with 
the Ulbeck rebels, who had poffeffed themfelves 
of all the eaftern provinces : that after he fliould 
be poffeffed of that rich and powerful province, 
he would find little difliculty in driving Soli- 
man out of Cabul. 

The unprincipled anci weak Hakim infenfible Hakim's 
of thebafenefs of this projed, ungratefully be- ^;;'"'f4"„P; 
gan to take meafures to put it in execution, and 
marched to Lahore in conjunction with Feredoon. 
Hakim's defign upon Lahore being noifed abroad, 
the omrahs of the provinces of the five rivers, 



A.D 15(^6. particularly Cuttub Anniga, and Pier Mahum- 
H'8-974- mud, threw all their forces into the citv, and 
prepared for a vigorous defence. Hakim lat 
Btfieges down beforc the place, and ufed every art and 
'^'^' perfuafion to bring over thofe omrahs to his in- 
tereft, but without effeft. 
mafches^to- ^ hc king enraged as well as alarmed at this re- 
wards La- bellion, laid afide his intended expedition a^ainft 
the Ufbecks, and turned his arms towards La- 
hore. He began his march towards that city 
on the 14th of the firll Jemmad 974, leaving 
Affra under the sfovernment of his faithful g:ene- 
ral Monim. Akbar having arrived at Sirhind, 
the news of his approach reached Lahore. The 
citizens immediately began to beat their drums, 
to found their trumpets, and to make every de- 
monftration of joy. Ihis unufual noife waked 
Hakim, who was afleep in his tent : he afked 
the meaning of that uproar, and was told that 
the king was come expeditioufly from Agra. 
Hakim believing that the king was already at his 
heels, mounted his horfe without delay, and 
retreated precipitately with his cavalry towards 
Cabui : he came very opportunely to that city, 
and took it by furprize. Soliman having retired 
to Buduchfhan during the Manter. The king in 
the mean time advanced to Lahore, where he 
fpent a few days in hunting : he then fent back 
Mudgenu to polTefs himfelf of Kurrah and Ma- 
neckpoor, which Afaph had fcized. Much 
about this time the fons of Mirza Sultan gover- 
nor of Simbol, rofe in rebellion. This infur- 
reclion was cruflied in the bud by the other 
Mogul chiefs who were poffeffed of eftates in the 
adjacent territories. The young rebels were de- 
feated and driven towards Malava. They how- 
ever poffefTed themfelves of that country without 
much oppofition, there being at that time no im- 
perial forces in that province. Mirza Sultan upon 


A K B A R. 273 

account of the rebellion of his fons, was feized A.D.i5Ui6. 
and imprifoned in Biana, where he foon after H's. 974- 

The Ufbeck rebellious chiefs, in the eaftern The king 
provinces, improved the king's abfence to their ^^lnft"hr 
own advantage, and extended their conquefls uft-eck 
on all fides. This obliged the king to return to °"^'^^^'' 
Agra, before which city he ordered all his forces 
from the provinces to rendezvous. He was in 
a few weeks ready to take the field againft the 
rebels, with two thoufand elephants and above 
a hundred thoufand horfe. The rebellious 
captain general at that time befieging Eufoph 
in the fort of Sherigur, hearing of the king's 
approach, retreated to Kurrah, in which place 
his brother Bahadur had invefted Mudgenu the 
imperial general. The king clofely purfued Ze- 
man, but when he had reached Raibarrili, he 
heard that the rebel was croffing the Ganges, with 
an intention to march to Malava, and join the 
fons of Mirza Sultan, who had pofTeffed them- 
felves of that province, or to make an alliance 
with the king of the Decan. 

The king haftened his march and arrived at the The king 
ferry of Maneckpoor in the evening. No boats S^'Ja'nS! 
could be procured, and Akbar impatient to en- 
gage the rebels, mounted his elephant, and con- 
trary to the advice of all his omrahs, took the 
river which was then very deep, and had the 
good fortune to pafs over in fafety : one hun- 
dred horfe plunged into the ftrcani and fwam 
after the king. Akbar in the morning came be- 
fore the enemies camp with his hundred horfe, 
and Mudgenu and Afaph joined him immediately 
with all the garrifon of Kurrah. 

The enemy not fufpecling that the king would ^^ '^'"""^'^ 
attempt to crofs the river without his army, had rcbTa.^i^y. 
fpent the night in feftivity, and could hardly be- 
lieve their fenlcs, when they heard the royal 
drums beating the imperial march. They at 

Vol. IL T lenoth 


A- D. T566. length in the utmoft confufion began to form 
Hig 97-»- their line, but before they were in compleat or- 
der, Akbar charged them with great violence : 
Baba Chan at the head of the king's light fcouts, 
penetrated through the camp of the rebels as far 
as the tents of Zeman, where he was repulfed by 
Bahadur, and driven back with precipitation 
among the king's ranks, which occafioned fome 
diforder among the files of Mudgenu. Bahadur 
in the mean time turned towards the center, 
where the king commanded in perfon : Akbar 
obferving him, came down from his elephant, 
and mounting a horfe, preffed towards him ; 
but by this time an arrow having killed Bahadur's 
horfe, he was obliged to retreat on foot, among 
his own troops. The king immediately com- 
manded his few elephants to advance : thofe ani- 
mals engaging furiouily with thofe of the enemy, 
killed fome of them upon the fpot, and drove 
back the reft among their own ranks. 
The rcbtis Zcman encouraging his men, ftill continued the 
overthrjwn ^'^i^u witli great bravery, till his hgrfe having 
received two wounds, he was obliged to quit 
him, and while he was mounting another, he 
was trodden to death by an elephant. The rebels 
now fell into confulion : diltracled for want of 
orders, they turned their face to flight. Bahadur 
was taken prifoner, and carried before the king : 
What evil had I done to you, faid Akbar, thus 
to provoke you to draw the fword of treafon 
againfl me ? He ordered that particular care 
fhould be taken of Bahadur ; but fome of the 
omrahs, as foon as the king's back was turned, 
fearing that his clemency would pardon that 
confummate rebel, prevented it by putting him 
immediately to the fword. Akbar, though it 
is highly probable that he would have forgiven 
Bahadur, made no inquiries concerning his 


A K B A R. 275 

death. The heads of the brothers were fent to a. 0.1567. 
Punjab and Cabul. Alii Beg the Ufbeck, Ear "ig. 97s. 
Alii, Mirza Beg, Cufal Beg, and Amir Shaw, 
a native of Buduchfhan, all rebel chiefs, were 
alfo taken prifoners and carried by the king to 
Jionpoor, where they were trodden to death by 
elephants. This decifive action happened upon 
the firft of Zihidge 974, and is an inftance of 
the daring intrepidity of the renowned Akbar. 

The government of Kurrah was conferred upon ^etdement 
the faithful Monim, known by the title of firfl 
of the nobles, and foon after Seeunder the 
Ufbeck, who was belieged in the fort of Jud, 
fled to Gorricpoor. The rebellion of the Uf- 
becks being thus quaflied, and the peace of the 
eaftern provinces reftored, the king in the 
month of Mohirrim 975, returned in triumph 
to Agra. 

Durins: the rebellion of the chiefs of the Ufbeck Akbar 


duces Ma- 

Tartars in the fervice of India, the Raja, Udai 
Singh had taken great advantage of Akbar's dlf- 
trefs. This determined the emperor without re- 
maining long at Agra, to march agalnft that In- 
dian prince. Having arrived before the fort of 
Suifoob, the governor evacuated the place and 
retreated to his mailer Surjun the Hindoo prince 
of Rintimporc. Akbar left a garrifon in Sui- 
foob, and proceeded to the fort of Kakeran, on 
the frontiers of Malava. The fons of Sultan 
Mirza, who had polTeiTed themfelves of Mindu, 
hearing of the emperor's progrefs, were greatly 
perplexed. To compleat their misfortunes, Ali 
Mirza their great friend and counfellor died at 
that time, and his adherents fled with precipita- 
tion towards the kingdom of Guzerat. 

The king left Malava under the charge of J'"-" '^■"p . 
AhmedofNefhapoor, and marched from Kakeran '""^ 
to expel the Indian prince from Chitor. The 

T 2 Raja 



A.D.1S67. Raja left eight thoufand difciplined Rajaputs, 
Hig. 975. with a great ftore of provifions in the fort of 
Chitor, which is built on a mountain, and re- 
tired himfelf with his family to an inacceflible 
place. The kinor immediately invefled Chitor, 
and fet five thoufand pioneers to work in throw- 
ing up trenches, and carrying on approaches to 
the place. When he had completed two batte- 
ries, and carried two mines under different bafti- 
ons, he endeavoured to fpring them at once : 
but one of them going off before the other, blew 
up one of the baftions and made a practicable 
breach. Two thoufand men who were prepared 
to ftorm, advanced immediately, upon a fuppo- 
iition that both of the mines had been fprung. 
They divided into two bodies in order to enter 
at once both branches : one of the parties advanc- 
ing near the baftion, perceived that the mine 
had not been fprung, but before they could re- 
treat it blew up, and killed above five hundred 
of the Moguls, and about double that number of 
the enemy who were crouded on the baftion. 
Among the latter were fifteen chiefs of diftinc- 
tion. The explofioii fo terrified thofe who were 
entering the breach, that they retreated in the 
utmofl conflernation. 

The king Another mine was immediately carried on by 

kills the go- 11. t 1 1 n J" • 

vernor of the king, out as he was one day ftandmg in one 
Chitor. Qf ^i,Q batteries, he perceived Jeimal, the gover- 
nor of the place, very affiduous in filling up the 
breaches, and givdng orders for the defence : the 
king immediately called for a fuzee, and took 
lb good an aim that he lodged the ball in Jeimal's 
forehead, and laid him dead on the fpot. The 
fpirit of the befieged fell with their chief, and in 
the utmofl defpair, they performed the horrid 
ceremony of the Joar, put all their wives and 
children to the fword, and burned their bodies 


A K B A R. 277 

with that of their governor, on a prodigious a. d. 1567. 
funeral pile. The Imperial army perceived H's-97i- 
what was going on by the light of the fire : chitor 
they advanced under the cover of night toft^™c<i- 
the breach, which they found abandoned, fo 
that they entered the place without oppolition. 
It was day-light before a number fufficient to at- 
tack the enemy could enter : then the king in 
perfon led on his men, and the unfortunate gar- 
rifon devoting themfelves to death, had retired 
to their temples. Akbar perceiving that he muft 
lofe a great number of his troops in cafe of a clofe 
attack, ordered a diftant fire to be kept up upon 
the defperate Rajaputs, till he had introduced 
three hundred elephants of war, which he im- 
mediately ordered to advance to tread them to 
death. The fcene became now too fliocking to 
be defcribed. Brave men rendered more valiant a dreadful 
by defpair, crouded around the elephants, feized 'i^ugi^ter, 
them even by the tulks, and inflicted upon them 
unavaiUng wounds. The terrible animals trode 
the Indians like grafshoppers under their feet, or 
winding them in their powerful trunks, tolTed 
them aloft into the air, or dafhed them againft 
the walls and pavements. Of the garrifon, 
which confifted of eight thoufand foldiers and 
of forty thoufand inhabitants, thirty thoufand 
were flain, and the moft of the reft taken pri- 
foners. A few efcaped in theconfufion, by tying 
their own children like captives, and driving 
them through the king's camp. ") hey by this 
means pafled undifcovered, being taken for fomc 
of the followers of the camp. 

1 he government of the ftrong fort of Chitor The king ia 

danger from 

was given to Afaph Ilirrivi, and the king rc-*^ 
turned towards his capital. On the way a tyo-er^ ^^^ "^ 
liappened to be roufcd before him : he gave or- 
ders that no body fliould touch him, and rid- 
ing forward himfelf, he began to wound Iiiui 




A.D. 1567 
Hig. 975 

bances in 

Akbar in- 
vefts Rin- 



havins: com- 

with arrows. Tlie terrible animal flood 2:rowlinc>; 
on a riiing ground near the king, and being en- 
raged by his wounds, he ran directly towards 
Akbar, who flood to receive him with his lance. 
One of his attendants named Adil, fearing the 
confequencc, ruflied between Akbar and the ty- 
ger, and aimed a fortunate blow at the animal, 
but he himfelf was tolTed under his paws, and 
would have in a moment expired, had not fome 
others rufhed to his afliftance, and given the 
tyger a deadly wound, which both faved 
kins: and Adil from imminent danger. 

Akbar having arrived at Agra, received 
vices that Ibrahim HufTein and Mahommed, 
revolted from Zingis prince of Guzerat, 
were again returned to Malava, 
menced hoftilities with the fiesfe of U^ein. The 
king difpatched Killich of India and Kifvmi to 
expel them. Upon the approach of this army, 
the two HufTeins raifed the fiege, and retreating 
precipitately to the Nirbudda, crofTed that river 
and fled again towards Guzerat. 

In the month of Regib, in the year 976, the 
king marched from Agra with an intention to 
reduce Rintimpore, where the Indian prince Sur- 
fan, w^ho had bought that flrong fort from Hu- 
jaz one of the dependants of the late emperor 
Selim, prepared to defend himfelf to the lafl 
extremity. On the 22d of Ramzan 976, the 
king invefted the place, and having properly re- 
connoitered it, ordered a great battery to be 
conflruded on an adjoining hill, called Rin : he 
with great difficulty dragged up his heavy artil- 
lery to this eminence ; two of the pieces being 
capable to receive a flone ball of fix or feven 
maunds, or one of iron of thirty maunds *. 

* The fize of thcfe guns might be reckoned incredible, did 
there not remain to this day in India pieces of as extraordinary 
a bore: particularly one at Arcot, and another at Dacca, 


A K B A R. 279 

In a few days a part of the wall and a great num- a. p. 1569. 
ber of the houfes were laid in ruins, and at the ^'2-977. 
end of the month the garrifon driven to difficul- 
ties, iblicited to capitulate. The conditions 
propofed by them were, to have the liberty of 
retiring unmolefted, leaving all their wealth and 
effects to the king. Thefe terms were according- 
ly accepted, and the king took polfeffion of Rin- 

Akbar after this conqueft made a pilgrimage Returns t» 
to the fhrine of Chaja Moin at Ajmere, and from^'^^'^ 
thence returned to Agra. From that city he 
went to vifit the learned and venerable Selim in 
the village of Sikri : he queilioned him accord- 
ing to the ceremonies, and was told, it is faid, 
that he would foon have iffue that would live 
and profpcr ; all the children were born to him 
before that time, dying in their infancy. Soon 
after, the favourite Sultana became pregnant, ^ ^^^ ^^^^ 
and upon the 17th of the firft Ribbi, in the year to the king. 
gyj, Ihe was brought to bed of a fon, who was 
named Selim. Upon this occafion the king pub- 
lifhed an a6t of grace to all prifoners, and order^ 
ed a day of thankfgiving to the Almighty : foon 
after he performed a vow of pilgrimage on foot, 
to the (hrine of Chaja Moin at Ajmere with his 
whole army in the proceflion, then returning by 
the way of Delhi, the king near that city took 
the diverfion of the chace. 

^J^he Indian prince Ram Chund, who had pof- ^_^'^'^"J^';^ 
feffion of the llrong fort of CalUnger, which he " '^" *" 
had taken from the dependants ot the emperor 
Selim, hearing about this time, that the king 
meditated an expedition againft him ; fear- 
ing tie fate of Rintimpore and Chitor, made 
terms for the delivery of the place, which was 
accordingly put into the hands of the king. 
Upon the third of Mohirrim 978, the king had 
another fon born to him in the houfe of the ve- 


A. D.1^70. ncrable Selim *, whom he called Murad. He 
H'g. 978. upon this account made another pilgrimage to 
Ajmere, and ordered the town to be fortified 
with a ftone wall. The emperor from thence 
proceeded to Nagore, w^here Chunderfein the fon 
of Maldeo, and the Indian prince of Bicanere, 
came out to meet him with valuable prefents. 
The latter prefented the king with his beautiful 
daughter. Akbar from Nagore marched to the 
town of Ajodin, and vifiting the tomb of the 
celebrated poet and philofopher Ferid Shukur- 
gunge, proceeded to Debalpoor, where Koka 
who was in pofleflion of that place, prefented 
hira with a large fum of money. The king from 
thence paflfed to Lahore, where Huflein a 'iurku- 
man chief, governor of that city and province, 
came alfo out to meet him in the fame manner 
with great prefents. 
Akbar re- On the firft of Siffcr 979 the emperor left La- 
A-ra/° ^lore, and returned by the way of Firofa to 
Ajmere, and from thence proceeded to Agra. 
Secunder the famous rebel, and only one re- 
maining of the Ufbecks chiefs, who had revolted, 
having long lurked about the woods of Bengal, 
and committed ravages on the inhabitants, was 
about this time feized by Monim, governor of 
Jionpoor, and fent to the king, who according 
to his ufual clemency pardoned him. 
The king The king efteeming the village of SIkri, for- 
invades the funatc to him, as two fons were born to him 
Guzerat! "* thcrc, by the means of the prayers of the faints 
with whom he left his favorite miftrefles ; he 
ordered the foundation of a city to be laid there, 
which after the conqueft of Guzerat, he called 
the city of viclory. In the year 980, the king- 

■ * It feems the king had left fome of his beautiful miflrefles in 
the houfe of Sheck Selim, to receive the benefit of the prayers 
of that holy man. 


A K B A R. 281 

dom of Guzerat being torn to pieces by Inteftine a. d. 1572. 
divifions, Akbar feized upon that opportunity to His.980. 
declare war againft it. He therefore marched to 
Ajmere under pretence of a pilgrimage, and from 
that place detached his general Callan before 
him towards Guzerat. The king followed at 
fome diftance with the main bod) of the army. 
Akbar in his way appointed the Indian prince 
Singh, to the government of Joelpoor, the refi- 
dence of Raja Maldeo, whom on account of 
fome mifdemeanor he depofed. When the em- 
peror arrived at Nagore, he received advices of 
the birth of another fon, on the 2d of fecond 
Jemmad, in the houfe of the holy and venera- 
ble Danial, whom he with great propriety called 
Danial, as it was to the faint's prayers no doubt 
he owed this piece of good fortune * 

The king appearing with his army on the con- which fub- 
fines of Guzerat, Shere, an omrah of diftinaion ^['^^^^ 
who defended the frontiers, abandoned his pod 
and fled with precipitation. The king took im- 
mediate poffeffion of the city of Pattan, and 
gave the government of it to Ahmed, one of the 
race called Seids, or defcendants of the prophet. 
He from that place moved his flandard of victory 
towards Ahmed-abad ; but before he had march- 
ed two llages, Muziffer the king of Guzerat 
came to meet him, and without a blow, furren- 
dered his kingdom into his royal and vicT:orious 
hands, fo that the king entered Ahmed-abad, 
the capital of Guzerat, in as peaceable a man- 
ner, as if he had been entering Agra. To ac- 
count for this it may not be improper to fay 

* One might be tempted to think, that as Akbar left his 
wives in charge of the Saints of Sikri, he owed fome of his 
fons to more than the prayers of thofe holy perfons : it being 
the opinion of the Mahommedan dodors, as well as of fome 
grave divines among ourfelves, that prayer is moreeffcftual when 
tlie means aic ufed, 



A. D. T572. Something concerning the ftate of Guzerat at that 

Hig. 980. period. 

Theftateof Mamond defcended of a Patan family, the 

civiicrat. lafe king of Guzerat, having fometime, before 
this event, died, his nobles, particularly Acle- 
mad and Amad, who poiTefied all the power of 
the government during the minority of the prince 
Ahmed, the fon and fucceflbr of Mamood, find- 
ing him begin to think for himfelf, were unwill- 
ing to part with their power, and found means 
privately to make away with him : but to keep 
up the appearance of loyalty, they raifed a child 
of doubtful birth to the throne, on whom they 
impofed the name of the king Muziffer, and divid- 
ed the kingdom among themfelves in the follow- 
ing manner. Ahmed-abad, Cambait, and fome 
other provinces, were pofiefl'ed by Actemad ; 
Anduka, Uoluc, and fome other countries, 
by Juil the grandfon of Mubarick ; Surat, 
Biroge, Birod and Japanier, by the noble Zingis, 
fon of the co-regent Amad, while other nobles 
who had influence in the ft ate, had the reft of the 
kingdom partitioned among them. The nomi- 
nal king Muziffer was in the mean time cooped 
up by Aclemad in Ahmed-abad ; during this 
oligarchy, the government became very oppref- 
five, by continual wars and civil diffenfions. 
This made the unhappy people of Guzerat 
turn their eyes towards Akbar, to relieve them 
from their petty tyrants, who like vultures, 
gnaw^ed the bowels of their country. The eafy 
conqueft of Guzerat was therefore no ways fur- 
prizing, as the nominal king tired of his fitua- 
tion, hoped more from the favor of a foreign 
prince, than from his own factions and indepen- 
dant nobles. 


A K B A R. 283 

But to return from this digreffion. The fecond a d. i 572. 
day after the king's entrance into Ahmed-abad, Hig.980. 
he was waited upon by the principal nobles of -^J^^^^Jions 
Guzerat, who haftened to make their fubmiflion. in oiuemt. 
But and Hujaz two Abyflinian nobles, were 
ordered into confinement, as they gave fome evi- 
dent figns of difcontent. HuiTein was flill at the 
head of an army in Biroge, and his brother Huf- 
fein Mirza at the head of another confiderable 
force near Surat. The king therefore refolved 
to reduce them ; Aichtiar, one of the omrahs of 
Guzerat, having broke his parole of honor and 
fled at this time, all the other nobles were order- 
ed into clofe confinement. When the king ar- 
rived at the port of Cambait, he appointed Azim 
Mirza governor of Ahmed-abad. 

Hufl'ein, who we have already obferved was in ^'i.'J,'°"a.''^ 
Biroge, hearing of Akbar's approach, and fuf-gainftHaf- 
pecling the fideUty of Ruftum, a native of Rumi*, *""• 
one of his principal officers, aflaflinated him, and 
difcovered an inclination to march into Punjab 
to raife difturbances in that quarter. The king 
receiving intelligence of this defign about mid- 
night, left his camp in charge of Jehan and Cal- 
lich Chan, and with a chofen detachment marched 
himfelf that night with all expedition to cut off 
HufTein's retreat : the next day he reached the 
river Mhenderi, which runs by the town of Sir- 
tal, with only forty horfe, the reft having lagged 
behind with fatigue. The enemy being encamp- 
ed on the oppofite bank of the river, and in fight, 
the king thought it prudent to proceed no fur- 
ther, till the reft of his detachment fliould arrive. 
Had Huflein therefore known any thing of the 
art of war, he might have eafily taken Akbar pri- 
foner. But that unenterprizing officer made no 
attempt of that kind, till the king was joined by 

* Natolia. 

a frcfli 


AD. i,i;';2. a frcili detachment, •which had been ordered 
Hig.98o. ^^^j^g ^^yg before to Surat, and happened to be 
then encamped at a Uttle dillance. 

This fmall party confilled only of feventy horfe. 
He attacks at the head of which there happened to be five 
Tooo of The principal nobles, Mamood Baherra, the Indian 
enemy with princes Dals, Man bingh, and Kuili, and Raja 
70 lore, gyj-j^j^ j^f Rintinipore. With thefe the king, 

without waiting for more troops, took the def- 
perate refolution to attack the enemy, one thou- 
land of whom commanded by Hufl'cin, waited to 
receive him, while the main body of the army 
purfued their march. It happened very fortu- 
nately for Akbar that the enemy inifead of per- 
mitting him CO come into the plain, oppofed him 
between two hedges, where not above fix horfe- 
men could fight abreatl:. 1 he king in this narrow 
pafs put himfelf upon the footing of a private 
trooper, and performed extraordinary feats of 
perfonal valour : which however avail little to 
wipe away the folly of this piece of his conduct. 
At laft the courage which Akbar's behaviour na- 
turally raifed in his followers, made them as def- 
perate as himfelf, (o that after a long engagement 
with the enemy fword in hand, they beat them 
back, and at laft totally defeated them, with the 
lofs only of one officer, and a few private men. 
i\kbarbe- Huffcin flcd to his army, but fuch was their 
fitgcsiu- confternation and opinion of Akbar's prowefs, 
that the greatell part of his forces deferted him, 
which was all the advantage that could be gained 
by fuch a victory. The king contenting himfelf 
with what he had done, dehiled from the purfuit, 
and waiting till his army came up, marched and 
invefted Surat. In the mean time the omrahs of 
Guzerat collected themfelves in the environs of 
Pattan, and held a council how to proceed. 
They agreed that Huffein fliould profecute his 
fcheme of raifing difturbances in Punjab, and 



A K B A R. 285 

that Huflein Mirza, Shaw Mirza, and Shere, a.d. 1573. 
fhould inveft Pattan. 'Ihey expecled by thefe Hig. 981. 
means to draw the kino; from the fieore of Surat. 

uilein havmg arrived at Nagore, Rai Smgh feaiej by 
governor of Jodpoor, who had purfued him, ^^'',^'"g'' 
came up with him one day towards the evening, ''" 
at a place where there was no water to be found, 
but what llullein pofleifed. This made the troops 
of Rai Singh, who were in great diftrefs for wa- 
ter, call out to attack the enemy. This favorable 
difpofition and the neceliity of the attempt, made 
the Indian, though much inferior to the enemy, 
join battle. Huliein's horfe being killed, and he 
himfelf difmounted in the firft charge, his army 
imagining that he was actually flain, gave ground. 
The enemy took fuch advantage of their con- 
fufion, that the whole efforts of Huffein were not 
capable to recover the diforder, and he was to- 
tally routed : he fled with great precipitation to- 
wards Delhi, and from thence to Simbol. In the 
mean time liuilein Mirza and the other nobles 
carried on the fiege of Pattan, which was de- 
fended l)y Ahmed the Mogul. Koka coming to 
liis relief with the army from Ahmed-abad, the 
Patau nobles raifed the fiege, went out to meet 
him, and gave him battle, Koka had at firlf the 
difadvantage, both his wings being thrown into 
diforder, but his troops continuing (teady in the 
center, he at laft gained ground, and improving 
the advantage, put them to llight towards the 

The kincj in the mean time made a breach in ^kbaitak?* 
the walls of Surat, and had railed feveral mounts, 
from which he battered the city and commanded 
the ftreets. When he was preparing for a gene- 
ral affault, the garrifon dclired to capitulate. 
Their terms were agreed to, the city delivered 
up, and the king returned to Ahmed-abad ; he 
diftributed all the governments of Guzerat, 



A.D.ij^j. among the friends of Koka, his fofter-brother, 
Hig-93i. and on the 2d of Zifter, in the year 981, returned 
by the way of Ajmere to Agra. 

The fugitive Huflein, arriving at Simbol, as 
HiifTem have already mentioned, licard that the chief 

Jib. men m Punjab under Kulli, were behegmg the 

caftle of Nagracot, he therefore marched into 
Punjab, which he expefted to find unguarded, 
and after plundering it he had refolved to join 
his friends in Guzerat, by the way of the Indus. 
Kulli was therefore under the neceility of railing 
the liege, and marching after Huilein through all 
Punjab, without being able to come up with him, 
till he reached the environs of the city of Tatta 
upon the Indus. There Kulli attached HulTcin's 
camp as he was one day out a hunting, at fome 
diftance from his line of march. Mirza, Huf- 
fein's brother, who commanded in his abfence, 
was obliged therefore to form the line, fending 
in the mean time an exprefs to his brother con- 
cerning his fituation. But before the elder Huf- 
fein arrived, his brother was defeated and taken 
prifoner, having loll fome thoufands of his men 
in the engagement. HufTein returning from 
hunting met his routed army, and rallying a 
part of them, renewed the combat : he was how- 
ever repulfed with great lofs, and obliged to fly 
towards Moultan. 
^ , , In Moultan the unfortunate Huflein was aj^ain 
taken, and attacked by the Billochees, wounded, taken pri- 
r\h'in foner, and delivered up to Muchfule, governor 
Moultan. of Moultau, who beheaded him. Muchfufe in 
conjunction with Kulli, carried his head and all 
his eflecls to Agra, to prefent them to the king. 
Akbar ordered the head to be fet up above cne of 
the sates of Aerra, and his brother Huflein Mirza 
to be confined in the fort of Guaher, where he 
foon after died. In the firfl; Ribbi of the fame 
year, advices arrived from Koka, that Aichtiar, 


A K B A R. 287 

governor general of Guzerat, and Hull'ein Mirza, a.d. 1575. 
were joined with confiderable armies, had pof- ^'s ^S'- 
iefled themfelves of feveral diftricls in Guzerat, 
and had invefted the Mogul governor himfelf in 

As it was now the rainy feafon, and to niarch JJj^'' j'J"^;.^^ 
a ^reat army impradicable, with that expedition oiuerat, 
which the urgency of the fituation of affairs re- ^''^pedltion. 
quired, the king felected two thoufand horfe, 
and fent them off before him ; then with three 
hundred principal nobles and officers mounted 
upon camels, he proceeded at the rate of four 
ftages every day *, and came up with the de- 
tachment of horfe at the city of Patan in Berar, 
where he was joined by a thoufand more. His 
whole force then confifted of three thoufand 
horfe, and three hundred camels. With this 
fmall army he continued his march with the fame 
expedition to the befieged capital of Guzerat, 
and upon his arrival within four miles of the city, 
ordered the Imperial drums to beat his own 
march, which was the firft news the enemy had 
of his approach. This ftruck the infurgents with 
fuch a panic, that it was with difficulty their 
officers could kec;p them from immediate flight. 
They however formed at length the line, while 
Huffein Mirza with a few horfe went to the 
banks of the river to reconnoitre. 

Huffein faw at fome diftance Kulli, who had f;j';;,'^i7; 
been fent on the fame bufmefs by the king. He before lUe 
an<:ed him acrofs the river, what army that was p'^"'^'"^- 
KulH replied, that it was the army of the king of 
kings. The other faid, " that is impoffible, for 
it is yet but fourteen days fmcc one of my fpies 
faw the king at Agra, and I perceive none of the 
elephants that always attend the emperor." 
KuJli then told him, " It is but nine days lince 

* Each ftage is about twenty Englidi miles. 



AD. 1575. the king put his foot in the ftirrup, and it is well 
Hig. y8i. known, elephants cannot march at that rate; 
but all the cavalry are come up.'* 

Huffein returned immediately to his camp, and 
Stti^wkh^^^^ Achtiar with five thoufand horfe, to watch 
ihem, the gates of Ahmed-abad. He himfelf marched 
with feven thoufand horfe againll the kinp^. Ak- 
bar had by this time reached the banks of the ri- 
ver, and difcovering the enemy, he drew up to 
receive them, expecting every moment to be 
joined by the troops in the city : but they were 
blocked up by the enemy. He then faw, that 
his whole dependance muft reft on his own 
troops ; to render them more defperate, by cut- 
ting oft all hopes of retreat, he crolTed the river, 
and drew up before the enemy on the plain. 
Huffein placing himfelf in the centre with his 
Moguls, Shaw Mirza on his right with the Af- 
ghans and Rajaputs, and Shere on his left with 
the Abaflinians and the horfe of Guzerat, ad- 
vanced to the charge. 
amUotaiiy '^^^ king having alfo drawn up his fmall army 
defeats the in three divifions, commanded by their feveral 
.«nemy. olficers, he pofted himfelt with his body guard, 
coniifting of a hundred horfe in the rear of the 
centre. The battle now being joined with great 
fury on both fides, the king with his guard 
wheeled round his right flank, and fell furioufly 
on the left flank of the enemy. His troops ob- 
ferving their king thus expofing himfelf in the 
midft of danger, made an uncommon effort of 
valor and charged the enemy fo warmly, that 
they repulfed them with great lofs. Huffein 
who was vvounded in the action, attempting to 
leap over a hedge with his horfe, fell from his 
faddle, and was taken prifoner. Several perfons 
contending about the honor of taking Huffein, 
the king alked him who was the man who took 

him ? 

A K B A R. 89 

lilm? Huflfeln replied, " Nobody: the curfe oFa-d. 1573. 
ingratitude overtook mc." Hig. 9S1. 

When the king's forces were warm in the pur- The king ia 
fuit, he himfelf remained on a rifinir sfround, ',™"''"^"^ 
With about two hundred horle. On a hidden a 
great body of troops appeared moving towards 
liim. He immediately difpatched a perfon to 
know who they were : he brought back intelli- 
gence, that they were the forces of Achtiar, who 
had been left to guard the gates of Ahmed-abad. 
The troops who were with the king began to be 
very uneafy at their fituation, and gave many 
intimations of their defire of retreatincr. But 
Akbar would by no means defert his pod': he or- 
dered them, inibmtly to prepare to charge and 
break through the enemy ; at the flimi time 
commanding the drums to beat up the royal 
inarch. I he enemy hearing the drums, made 
no doubt but the whole army was behind the hill, 
and retreated with great precipitation. The 
king purfued them to fome diftance, to keep up 
the panic wdiich had feized them. Wliilft thefe 
things happened where the king commanded in 
perfon, Rai Singh, one of his generals, of the 
Indian nation, to revenge fome former quarrel, 
bafely embrued his hands in the blood of Huflein, 
who had been left in his pofiTeflion. Achtiar 
havino; alfo fallen from his horfe in his fliirht, 
was killed by one of the king's guards, who was 
purfuing him with great eagernefs, Koka, the 
befieged governor of Giizerat, finding now that 
the blockade was withdrav/n from the gates, came 
out to meet the king. Akbar entered Alimed- 
abad the fame day, and continued Koka in his 
government, then by the way of Ajmcre, haf- 
tened towards Agra, after having performed a 
fervice, which, though glorious, reflects more 
honor upon his intrepidity, than upon his con- 

Vol. II. U In 


A. D.1574, ^^ *^^ courfe of the fame year, Daood the fon 
Hig. 982. of Soliman governor of Bengal, drew his neck 
TheSuha fj-Qni the yoke of obedience. Monim, com- 
rebcu" monly called lord of lords, governor of the pro- 
vinces of Oud and Jionpoor, being neareft to the 
rebel, was fent againft him, and brought him to 
a treaty after fome fuccefsful engagements. The 
king diflatished with this peace, committed the 
management of the affairs of Bengal to an Indian 
prince called Jodermul, and fent him with orders 
to expel Daood entirely out of his government, 
or to oblige him to pay a certain yearly tribute, 
fuperior to the fmall acknowledgement which he 
had formerly made. Daood being threatened at 
the time with a civil war by one Lodi, who dif- 
covered an inclination to ufurp the kingdom, con- 
fented upon Jodermul's appearance to pay the 
tribute demanded. He then found means to feize 
upon Lodi, whom he put to death. Daood re- 
lieved from that domeftic danger, broke the 
treaty with the king, and advancing againft Mo- 
He isover- nim and Jodermul, engaged them at the conflu- 
thrown. ^^^^ ^f ^|-^g Sool, Gang and Sirve, where being- 
defeated, he loft his fleet of boats and all his baiic- 
gage. Monim crofled immediately the river, 
and laid fiege to Patna. 
„., , . The kins: informed of thefe tranfatlions, fet 

i lie Kin" o ^ ^ ^ ' ^ 

lets out lor out from Agra in the middle of the rains, with 
Bengal. ^^ many troops as could be contained in a thou- 
fand boats : he halted a few days at Benaris, 
where he was joined by the forces which marched 
over land : he immediately embarked the w^hole, 
and fell down to Patna, and on his way he re- 
ceived the news of the reduction of Bicker upon 
the Indus, by Jefu Chan, who had been fent 
againft that place. Akbar having arrived within 
a few miles of Patna, heard that Ifah Neazi, one 
of the enemies principal generals, had marched 
out of the fort and fought Monim, but that he 


A K B A R, 291 

was defeated and loft his life, fo that the place a. d. 1574. 
was upon the point of being evacuated. The w»s-98». 
king therefore lent one of his officers, Allum, 
with three thoufand horfe, to polTefs himfelf of 
the fort of Hadgepoor, on the oppofite bank of 
the river, and to endeavour to harrafs the enemy 
in their retreat, iliould they be already gone, 
if not, to ftop them. Allum accordingly took 
that place by aflault, and made Fatte, the gover- 
nor, and the garrifon prifoners : Daood intimi- 
dated by this, fent a herald to the king to beg 
terms of accommodation: 

The king returned him for anfwer, that he ^haii^nafs 
granted him his life, but that he muft truft every theSubt of 
thing elfe to his clemency, after making his fub-aiin^^' ^'^ 
million ; but if he fliould be obftinate enough to combat. 
hold out fomc few days merely to give him trou- 
ble, he could have no reafon to hope for pardon ; 
" and though, faid the king, I have a thoufand 
in my army as good men as you, rather than fa- 
tigue my troops with a fiege, I will put the whole 
upon the ifliie of a fmgle combat between you 
and me, and let him take the fort who fhall beft 
deferve it." Daood did not choofe to accept the 
challenge, nor even to put the king to farther 
trouble, but took boat at the water-i'-ate that 
night, and fled down the river : foon after all 
his army evacuated the place. The next morn- 
ing the king purfued them and took four hund- 
dred elephants, and the greateft part of their bag- 
gage. He then returned to Patna, confeiTcd the 
government of that place and its dependencies 
upon his faithful fcrvant, Monim, who had fo 
much fignahzed himfelf in the war, then re- 
turned without purfuing his conqueft fardier to 

Koka the Imperial governor of Guzerat, and xianfafti- 
Jehan who commanded at Lahore, came to pay °"'^^ 
their refpedls to the king, and returned afterwards 

U 2 to 



A.D. 1575, to their rcfpcclivc ^governments. Akbar at the 
f^>s- 983- fame time conferred the title of the noble Muzif- 
fcr upon PJuziiTer Ali, and appointed him to com- 
mand a force againil the fort of Rhotas in Behar : 
he himfcif made a tour to the flirine of the faints 
at Ajmcre, where having beftowed great chari- 
ties, he retnrned to Agra. 
The war In In the mean time Monim, who had been left 
Bengal, and jj^ the o;overnment of Patna, had orders to carry 

the rediic- , r i • 1 • o 

tionof that the War further mto Bengal agamft Daood. 
That general having forced the pafs of Killa- 
gurry, Daood fled into Oriffa, whither he was 
purfued by Jodermul, with part of the king's 
army. Juneid the fon of Daood defeated Joder- 
mul in two battles, which oblisced Monim to 
march to his aid : both the Moc;ul 2:enerals hav- 

... . • DO 

ingjomed their forces, engaged Daood. Kud- 
gera, an Afghan chief of great bravery, who 
commanded Daood's vanguard, attacked the van- 
guard of Monim commanded by Allum, and de- 
feated and killed that omrah. Ihe Afghan pur- 
fued the run-aways through the center of their 
army, whicii were by that time drawn up in 
order of battle. Monim obfervins: the diforder 
haflened in perfon with a fmall body to reflore 
the ranks, Kudgera attacked him in perfon, and 
wounded him in feveral places, fo that he was 
obliged to quit the field, and he was foon follow- 
ed by his army. The valiant Kucigera being kil- 
led by aa arrow, Monim again rallied his troops, 
and being a little recovered, led them back to 
the charge : he found Daood's army intent upon 
the plunder, and foon put them to flight, taking 
all their elephants. Jodermul being detached to 
purfue the enemy, came up with Daood on the 
banks of the Chin, which he could not crofs. The 
rebel finding no means for cfcaping, faced about 
to defend himfelf. Jodermul did not choofe to 
provoke him too far, and, immediately fent in- 

A K B A R. 293 

telligence of what had pafied to Monim. That a. d. 1575. 
omrah, notw-chftanding h*s wounds which were ^'S- 9'^'^- 
very bad, hyfted to that place: Daood lurrend- 
ered himfelf upon terms, and was permitted to 
retain Orifla, after which Monim returned to his 
government. The city of Gore, which had been 
the capital of Bengal till the time of the emperor 
Shcre, who on account of the badnefs of the air, 
had made Chawaffpoor Tanda, the metropolis, 
was now greatly decayed. Monim admiring the 
antiquity and grandeur of that place, gave or- 
ders to repair the palaces, and made it his refi- 
dence : but he foon fell a victim to the unhealthy 
air of Gore and died. He was fucceeded in his 
government by Huffein Kulli, a Murkuman no- 
ble in the Imperial fervice, to whom the king- 
gave the title of lord of the world *. 

The prince Soliman of Buduchflian, being ex- Tianfaa;. 
pelled by his own grandfon Mirza Shaw, was"' 
about this tim.e obliged to feek proteffion at the 
court of Agra. He foon after took leave of the 
king, to go on a pilgrimage to Mecca, after 
v/hich he returned to Buduchlhan, and found 
means to reinftate himfelf in his dominions. Some 
omrahs at court who envied the srrcatnefs of 
Koka, viceroy of Guzerat, accufed him to the 
king of treaibnable intentions : they fo far pre- 
vailed upon him, that he recalled him from his 
government and confined him. Koka's rcadinefs 
to comply with the Imperial order, convinced 
Akbar that he was no ways guilty ; but that the 
whole proceeded from the malice of his enemies : 
however, the noble Ahmed of Nefliapur, who 
had been advanced to the TOvcrnment of Guze- 
rat, had fufficient intereft at court to retain his 
office after his prcdeccilor was acquitted. 

* Chan Jelian. 


ons at 



A.D.1J75. Before Hufiein had taken poflefTion of his go- 
Hig. 98i. vernment of Bengal and Behar, the Zemindars oi 

b^^Bengal ^^^^^^ provinces had rifen in favour of Daood, 
and invefted Chawaflpoor the capital, which 
they took. Daood found himfelf foon at the 
head of fifty thouiand horfe, and in pofl'eflion of 
the greatefl part of thofe countries. Kulli hav- 
ing affembled all the Imperial omrahs in that 
quarter, advanced againft Daood, and that chief 
retreated beyond the pafTes, which Huffein forc- 
ed, and killed above a thoufand of the enemy, 
who attempted to flop his march. 1 he enemy 
on account of the narrownefs of the defile, had 
not time to efcape. Hufiein immediately march- 
ed towards Daood's camp, and on the 15th of 
Shawal 983, drew up his army in order of battle 
near to the enemy, who fiood ready to receive 
him. Callapar, an omrali famous in the army 
of Daood for perfonal flrengtli and valor, made 
a refolutc charge upon the left of the Imperial 
line, and threw it into diforder ; while Muzifler, 
who commanded the right of the Mogul army, 
had the fame advantage over the enemy on their 
left ; in this fituation they fought in a circle, 
when HufTein made a hom.e charge upon the cen- 
ter of the enemy, which was fuftained with great 
bravery. At length however the gale of victory 
blew on the Imperial flandards, and the enemy 
were difperfed like leaves before the autumnal 
wind. Daood being taken priibner, was accord- 
ing to the barbarous cuftom of war when the 
king was not prefent, put to death by the con- 
queror in cold blood upon the field : his fon Ju- 
neid, a youth of great bravery, died in a few 
days of his wounds. HufTein took immediate 
pofleflion of all Bengal, and fent all the elephants 
and other fpoils to the king, 

Tianfaai- Muzifler in the year 984, marched againfi; 

ons before Rhotas, and fent one Mafoom to expel Hufiein, 

Rnotas. ^ * 


A K B A R. 295 

an Afghan, who was hovering about with a fly- a. d. 1576 
ing party in that quarter. Maibom having en- i^k-ii'^A- 
gaged him, defeated him and took pofleffion of 
his Pergunnahs ; but Callapar in the mean time 
with eight thoufand horfe, furrounded him and 
thought to have obHged him to furrender. Ma- 
foom breaking down the wall of the town in 
which he was fhut up, ruflied out unexpededly 
upon the enemy. In the aftion which enfued, 
Mafoom's horfe was killed by a ftroke of the trunk 
of an elephant. Callapar immediately rode up 
and he himfelf was in the moft imminent danger 
of being crufhed to death, had he not wounded 
the elephant with an arrow in the eye, which 
rendered the animal fo unruly, that he would 
obey no command : he therefore rufhed back 
through the Afghan troops, carrying off Calla- 
par, which made his army believe that he fled, 
and they quickly followed him. Callapar was 
foon overtaken and flain. Mafoom after this vic- 
tory returned and joined Muzifler who left the 
omrah Gumbo to blockade the fort of Rhotas, 
and marched againfl; an Indian prince called 
Chander Sein, from whom he took the fort of 
Savana. From thence he direc1:ed his march 
againfl: another Hindoo prince, from whom he 
took the fort of Keregur, fituated in the woods 
between Behar and Bengal. The Afghans in the 
fort of Rhotas being deftitute of provifions, were 
prevailed upon by promifes and a favorable capi- 
tulation to give up the place : Cumbo left Rho- 
tas under the command of his brother, and went 
himfelf to court. 

The kins: this year made a proQ:refs towards "^'^f ""'"s 

J r /^ • makes a 

Ajmere, and fent Cumbo mentioned above, progrcfs 
againfl Comilmere, a flrong fortrefs in the pof- [,'jj"jJ[|j-_ 
feflion of the Rana ; he took the place, and in the nions, 
mean time the king made a tour towards the bor- 
ders of the Decan : Murtaza prince of Ahmed- 



A.D. is79.nagur, was at that time become melancholy mad, 
H'g. 987. and was confined to his apartments: Akbar 
thought this a proper opportunity to feize upon 
that country ; but he was diverted from his pur- 
pofe by lome domeftic affairs which occurred at 
that time, and he returned towards Agra by the 
way of Ajmere, where he appointed Muzifier to 
the high office of the Vizarit. From Ajmere the 
emperor marched to Delhi, and from thence he 
took the rout of Cabul. When he was upon his 
way, a comet of an extraordinary magnitude ap- 
peared in the weft. '1 he king having reached 
Adjodin, vilited the tomb of the famous poet and 
philofopher Ferid, and quilting his refolution of 
going to Cabul, returned to Agra. 
Diftnr- 'y\^q great mofque in the city of Viclory, lately 

Bengal. built by Akbar, was finilhed in the year 986. 
The prince of Chandez in the Decan, in the fame 
year, imprifoncd JMuzifler liuilHn by the king's 
commands, and fent him to Agra. In the 
courfe of the fame year Huflein, Governor of 
Bengal died In 987 a great fire happened in 
the city of Victory in the wardrobe, which con- 
fumed < effects to a prodigious amount. After 
the death of 1 iuffein, the Afghans began to re- 
cover in Bengal their former ilrength, and to 
raife difturbances. To fupprefs their infurrec- 
tions the king fent his fofter-brother Koka, late 
governor of Guzerat, with a confiderable army 
to that king-dom. 
The king's xhc princc Hakim the king's brother, took the 
fiegesLa-" opportunity of thefe troubles to make an at- 
hore. tempt upon Laliore. lie feiit Shadiman his 
fofter-brother with a thoufand horfe, by way of 
advanced guard before him. Ihis officer croff- 
ing the Nilab, one of the branches of the Indus, 
was attacked by Man Singh, an omirah of Pun- 
jab, and routed. When liakim had reached 


A K B A R. 297 

Rhotas, a fortrefs built by the einpcror Shere In a.d TjSr. 
Punjab, IV'an Singh retreated to Lahore, whi- Hig. 989. 
ther he was purfued by the prince. He arrived 
before that city upon the iith of Mohirrini, in .^,,,33^ 
the year 980, and invefted it. The place was 'of<^e^ i""' 
gallantly defended by Scid Chan, and other no- }Jge' "^ ^ ^^ 
bles, till the king marched from Agra to their 
relief. Upon the approach of the royal ftandard. 
Hakim retreated to Cabul : the kino- purfuini; 
him to Sn-hind. Intelligence was brought to him 
at rhat place, that Munfoor Shirazi one of his 
omral'i:^ had been carrying on a correfpondence 
with the enemy, Tor which he ordered him to 
be impaled. Punues hiiTi 

The king having croffed the Nilab, continued ^° ^'*'^"" 
his march towards Cabul, and detached his fbn 
Murad in front with the van guard : las fon Selim 
he left d.i jellalabad. When Murad had reached 
Shutter^jUrdan, within thirty miles of Cabul, 
Feredoon, a general of Hakim, attacked him in 
a pafs, and having repulfed the prince, feized 
upon all his baggage. Hakim, upon the 2d of 
Sitfcr 909, drew up his army before the king Totaiiy- 
in order of buttle. The elephants which were f^yeithiows 
with the prince Murad being ordered to ad- 
vance, fired the fmall field pieces that were 
niounted upon them, and by mere accidv^nt three 
of the chiefs who ftoodbyHahin were killed : 
that' pufillanimous prince immediately left the 
field, and was purfued with great /laughter. 
The king, without farther oppofition, entered 
Cabul upon the 7th ot 8ifier, and Hakim lied to 
Ghorchund : he from thence icnt an cmibaify to 
the king, begging ft>4-givenefs, which was 
gramed nim. i he king having refigned his con- 
queft of Cabul to Hakim, on the 14th of Sifier, 
returned towards Agra. He on his way ordered 
a fort to be built upon the Nilab, which he called 
Attock, which means in the Indian langu;'ge For- 
bidden J for by the fupcrftition of the Hindoos, 



A. D. was held unlawful to crofs that river. ITie 

Hig. ty89. king having arrived at Lahore upon the 19th of 

Ramzan, gave the government ot that province 

to the Indian chief Baguandafs, and in a few days 

fet out for Agra, 

The king The troublcs in Bengal flill continuing, the 

leintoices ]^{^„ fgnf ^i^q omrah Cumbo, with a confidera- 

his army in '^ • ^^ 

Bengal blc forcc to reinforcc his army in thofe parts. In 
the year 991 he made a progrefs to Priag, 
where he ordered the fort of Allahabad to be 
built at the confluence of the Jumma and Ganges. 
Muziffer, king of Guzerat, who had been kept 

Rebellion ^ prifoncr at laroe lince the reduclion of his kin^- 

m Guzeiat. ,*, ° im- it j c 

dom, began now to exhibit great loyalty and at- 
fection for the king. Akbar upon this account 
rewarded him with a large eftate, and he be- 
came a great favorite at court. But indulgences 
of this fort could not gratify the ambition of 
the conquered king : he made his efcape to Gu- 
zerat, while Akbar was at Allahabad, and by 
the alTiftance of his former adherent, Shere, 
ftirred up a rebellion in that kingdom. The 
king, upon the firft intelligence of this infur- 
reclion, fent the noble Aclemad in quality of 
governor to Guzerat, and recalled Ahmed, who 
was fufpected of favouring Muziffer. After the 
arrival of the new governor, Ahmed came out 
of Ahmed-abad, and halted fome days at Pattan 
to prepare for his journey, during which time a 
great part of his army deferred to Muziffer. This 
enabled that prince to march towards Ahmed- 
abad, the capital. 

Ademad, the governor, left an officer and 
part of his troops to defend the city, and with 
the reft marched out to Pattan, where Ahmed, 
the former governor, was encamped. Muziffer in 
the mean time, with very little oppofition,poirefred 
himfelf of the capital. The new governor then 


A K B A R. 299 

prevailed upon Ahmed to accompany him, and a. d. 1582. 
marched back to retake the place. Muziffer who ^'£- 9';-' 
came out to battle, defeated the two governors, 
and drove them back to Pattan. Aclemad fent 
an exprefs from Pattan, to acquaint the king of 
his misfortune. 

Akbar being informed of the untoward fitua- ^^i'^za. ^'^^ 
lion of affairs in Guzerat, difpatched Ruftum,famoi]sBy- 
commonly called Mirza Chan, the fon of the "'"• ^'"^ 

' • n T> I'll 1 i"to Guze- 

great mmiuer Byram, together with the omrahs rat. 
of Ajmere, to reftore the tranquility of that pro- 
vince ; but before Mirza had reached Guzerat, 
king Muziffer had reduced the fort of Eiruderra, 
which was defended by Cuttub, who held Be- 
roche in Jagier from Akbar, and had there taken 
fourteen lacks of rupees belonging to the king, 
and ten crores of rupees of the property of the 
governor, who loft his life on the occafion. This 
immenfe acquifition of treafure enabled him to 
recruit a great army at Ahmed-abad, whither 
Mirza marched to attack him with eight thoufand 
horfe. Mirza having: arrived at the villa o^e of 
Sirgunge, within fix miles of the city, IMuziffer, 
on the 15th of Mohirrim ^92, marched out to 
meet him with thirty thoufand horfe, and 
drew up in his prefence. The Imperial general 
no ways intimidated by the enemy's numbers, 
encouraged his men, charged the enemy vigor- 
oufly fword in hand, defeated them with great 
flaughter, and purfued them quite through the 
city. Being foon after joined by the Mogul 
omrahs of Malava with a confiderable force, he 
marched after Muziffer towards Combait, and 
drove him among the mountains of Nadout. 
Muziffer faced about to oppofe the Moguls in a 
narrow defile, but he was driven from his poft by 
the artillery of Mirza, and lied towards Jionagur, 
taking refuge v/ith Jami, an Indian prince in thofe 



A.D. 1584, MIrza thinking it unnecefTary to purfue Mu- 
GiJi^ra^^* ^^^^^ further, returned to Alimed-abad, and fcnt 
duced. Callehi to beiiege the fort of Beroche, which he 
took from Nalir, the brother-in-law of Muzif- 
fer. Nafir held out the place feven months, and 
at laft made his efcape to tlie Decan. IMuziifer 
foon after, by the aid of Jami, and the fuba of 
Jionagur, advanced to a place called Mabi within 
one hundred and twenty miles of Ahmed-abad. 
Mirza marching out to oppofe him, he was 
ftruck with a fudden panic, and made a preci- 
tate retreat : but ftrcngthened by new alliances, 
he made a third attempt to recover his dominions, 
and engaging the Mogul army at Siranti, he was 
defeated and obliged to take refuge with Singh, 
. the Indian prince of Jalla. 
onsat"^'' Mirza five months after this laft vicfory over 
court. MuzifFer, was recalled to court ; but as the fu- 
gitive king began to raife his head again in his 
abfence, the king conferred the titles of firft of 
the nobles upon Mirza, and ordered him back 
to Guzerat. This year Nizam, the fon of 
Huflcin fled from his brother Mortiza, kins: of 
the Decan, and came to the court of Agra, 
where he was gracioufly received ; and not long 
after Alia Shirazi, the moft eminent man of that 
age for learning, came alfo from, the Decan, and 
had an honourable office near the king's perfon 
conferred upon him. 
The king's j j.|^ enfuincf year Murtiza, and Choclawind, 
the Decan. omrahs ot the Decan, being dereatcd by one 
Sullabit in a civil broil, took refuge at Agra ; 
and as the king had a long lime entertained 
thoughts of conquering the Decan, he fent 
them to Koka, who then poflefTed the govern- 
ment of Malava. He ordered that omrah to 
raife all the forces of Malava, and of the adja- 
cent territories, and carry war into the Decan : 


A K B A R: 301 

and having conferred the title of Azid ul Dowla a. 0.1585. 
upon Alia Shirazi, fent him to affift Koka in "'S- 593- 
that expedition, as he was thorougly acquainted 
with the different interefts and policy of that 

Koka having, according to orders, recruit- Koka ad. 
ed a great army, marched to the borders of his rn""n,rto- 
government, and found that Ali, the prince of ^a-^is the 
Chandez, was inclinable to join the king of the 
Decan. lie immediately tiifpatched Alia to en- 
deavour to bring him over to the Mogul intereft ; 
but that omrah returned without accomplifliing 
any thing. 'J he omrahs Tucki and Bezad, in 
conjunction with the prince of Chandez, by the 
orders of the king of the Decan marched 
againft Koka, who was encamped in the province 
of Hindia. Koka however did not think it pro- 
per to engage them in that place, but giving 
th/era the flip, he entered the Decan, by another 
route, and advancing to Elichpoor, plundered 
that city for the fpace of three days. The ge- 
nerals of the Decan, and their ally the prince of 
Chandez, in the mean time returned and threw 
themfclves into the fuburbs of Elichpoor, which 
obliflicd Koka, rather than rifque a battle, to eva- 
cuate the Decan. 

While thefe things tranfacled in the Decan Diftur- 
orders were fent to Mirza, the fon of Byram, ou^JaJ'* 
commonly called the firft of the nobles, gover- qucika. 
nor of Guzerat, to come to court. He forthwith 
obeyed, and the fugitive king Muziffer, taking 
advantage of his abfence, advanced towards 
Darul, the deputy governor of the country, but 
he was again defeated. 

The prince Sharoch, grand-fon of Soliman, '^""^^^'" 
fovereign of Buduchfhan, being expelled from couru 
his dominions by Abdulla, the UJLeck, came this 
year to court, and ranked himfelf among the 
king's omrahs 5 at the marriage of the daugh- 

duce Ca(h 


AD. 1585. ter of the Indian prince Baguandafs to Sclim, 
Hig-993- the emperor's eldeit ion, in the year 994, the 
king kept a great fertival on tlie Norofc *, and a 
few months after Hakim, the king's brother, 
who reigned in Cabul, died. Akbar having ap- 
pointed Mirza a fecond time governor of Guze- 
rat, and Alia, high-prieft of that country, fet 
out for Punjab. On his way he appointed Sadei 
to the government of Bicker, and Man Singh 
the fon of Baguandafs, was fent to Cabul. That 
omrah brought the children of Hakim, who 
were very young, to Lahore, and left his own 
fon inverted with the chief authority at Ca- 

Ss'^an^ar- "^^^^ ^^^K ^^^ving arrived at the fortrefs of 
myto^re- Attock upou the Nilab, he detached the prince 
Sharoch, and other omrahs, with five thoufand 
horfe to reduce the kingdom of Caflimire. He 
at the fame time difpatched Zein Koka, with 
another confiderable detachment againft the 
Afghans of Sawad and Bejoar. A few days after 
he fent a detachment to reduce the Afghans 
of Roflmai, who were idolaters of the Zendeika 
fe6f, and followers of an Indian fanatic, who 
called himfelf Pier Rojfhnai. The impoftor had 
converted to his fyftem of religion great num- 
bers of the inhabitants of thofe countries who 
after his death adhered to his fon, and taking 
up arms, raifed great difturbances in Punjab 
and Moultan. The king being fully informed of 
the ftrength of the Afghans of Sawad and Bejoar, 
fent a reinforcement to Zein Koka. But that 
omrah was notwithftanding defeated, and many 
perfons of diftinflion, with eight thoufand men, 
were killed in the aclion. 

* The day upon which die fun enters Aries. 


A K B A R. 303 

Man Sin2:h, who had been detached asralnft a. 0.1^86. 

• . Hio r>'i 

the Rofhnai- Afghans, met with better fuccefs ; ^ ^'■^' 
he defeated them at Kotil with great flaughter. def(."ts "ife^ 
The kina; returnino- from Attock to Lahore, or- Rfji^mai- 
dered Man Singh to proceed to Cabul, and take '^ 
upon him the government of that kingdom, and 
at the fame time to chaftize the Afghans. 
The dausrhter of that omrah was alfo married 
this year to the prince royal Selim. 

The army which had been detached to Cafh- T''^ ^P"^ 

1 • 1 1 TO r 1 1 inCafhmirc 

mire, bemg reduced to great diltrels by the in duirefs. 
fnow and rain, as alfo by a fcarcity of provifions, 
were under the neceffity of making a peace with 
the Caftimirians. The conditions were a tribute 
of faffron to Akbar, and the regulation of the 
mint, the coin beino; ftruck in liis name : but the 
king dilfatished with this peace, fent Mahom- 
med CafuTi, with another army to reduce that 
kingdom entirely to his obedience. This that 
general eafily accompliflied, on account of civil 
diiTenfions then raQ-ino- amonar the chiefs of that 
country. "J he prince Soliman, the grandfather 
of the fugitive Sharoch, came this year from 
Cabu], and had an interview with the king. 
The embalfador of the king of Tartary, who 
came to court whtle Akbar was at Attock, was 
much about the fame time difpatched with great 
prefents to his mafter. In the year 996, Jellal 
an Afghan began to become formidable, having 
defeated and killed Hamid Bochari, and driven 
Man Singh from his government of Cabul. 
The king therefore fent Muttalib with an army 
againft him, who gave him a fignal defeat 
near Kotel, and cut off great numbers of the 

The prince Chufero the fon of the emperor*s cimfcro ^ 
eldeft fon Selim, was born this year of the daugh- tan"sdimr 
ter of Baguandafs, and the king made a great 
feftival upon the occafion. Sadoc, governor of 



A.D. 1587. Bicker, according to the orders he received from 
Hig.995- court, invefted the fort of Sswan upon the In- 
dus, and obHged the prince of Tatta, to acknow- 
ledge the king's authority, and to fend him great 
prefents and letters of homage. Sadoc was foon 
after ordered back to Bicker. In the month of 
the fecond Ribbi, Zein Koka was appointed to 
the government of Cabul, and the former gover- 
nor recalled to Lahore. At the fame time Mirza, 
the fon of Byram was ordered from Guzerat ; as 
alfo Sadoc from Bicker, for it was a maxim with 
Akbar, to change the governors of the provinces 
every three years, to prevent their acquiring too 
much influence in the countries under their com- 
mand, and to fhow the people that the royal au- 
thority prevailed through all departments of the 
empire. Singh was immediately appointed to the 
government of Behar, and the viceroyn;!ip of 
Calhmire was conferred upon the noble Mufii- 
iddij Cafim the former governor being called to 
court ; Sadoc was in the mean time fent againll 
the Afghans of Sawad and Bejoar, and Ifmaiel 
who was in that country, recalled and fent to 
The king In the year 997, upon the 23d of the fecond 
Smire Jemmad, the king fet out on a tour to Caftimire, 
being captivated with the praifes which he had 
heard of the beauty of that country, from every 
perfon who had feen it. When he reached Bim- 
ber, at the entrance of the mountains, he left his 
i army and family behind, and with a fmall reti- 
nue, fet out to Serina the capital of that king- 
dom. The learned Alia bhirazi who accompa- 
nied him died there, and the king was greatly 
afflicted for his death, having a particular affec- 
tion for that omrah, on account of his genius and 
literary merit. 
and to Ca- ^^^^ ^^"S ^^^ving gratified his fancy with a fight 
bill. of all the beauty of Calhmire, refolved to proceed 


A K B A R. 305 

to Cabul. On the way Hakim Gilanl, a manfa- a.d. r^88. 
mous for learning, and one of the king's compa- H'g-996' 
nions died, and was buried at Haifen. Akbar 
having arrived at Attock, detached Cumbo to 
drive away the Afghans of Eufoph Zei, who in- 
fefted the roads, and then proceeded, march by 
march, to Cabul. To that city Hakim and Je- 
han, who had been fent on an embafly to Ab- 
dulla, king of the Ufbecks of Maver ul Nere, 
were juif returned with an emballador on the 
part of that monarch. The king having remain- 
ed two months at Cabul viewing the gardens of 
pleafure, and diftributing juftice and charity 
among the inhabitants, conferred the govern- 
ment upon Mahommed Cafim, and on the 20th 
of Mohirrim 998, returned to Lahore. At La- 
hore he conferred the 2:overnment of Guzerat 
upon Koka, and ordered him from Malava to 
proceed thither, while the former governor of 
Guzerat, Ahmed, fucceeded him in his preli- 

Koka having arrived at Guzerat, led an army Diftuihan- 
againft Jami, a Zemindar of grear power in that Jemq^d- 
province, who in alliance with Dowlat, the fon led- 
of Ami prince of Jionagur in the Decan, came 
out to meet him with twenty thoufand horfe. 
A fliarp engagement enfued : Ruffi, HulTein, and 
Sherrif, omrahs of diftinclion in the empire, 
were killed on the Mogul fide, and a great num- 
ber of men, while the enemy loft the eldeft fon 
of Jami, and that princes vizier, with four thou- 
fand Rajaputs on the field of battle. Victory de- 
clared for the Moguls, and many more Rajaputs 

fell in their flight, 

Abdulla the Ufbeck, king of the weftern Tar- The king 
tary, having about tliis time taken Buduchflian, ^.J"^'"/"^ 
and infclied the borders of Cabul, Akbar relblvecl 
to take up his refidence for fome time in Lahore, 
fearing an irruption of Ufbecks from the north. 

Vol. IL X Jani 



AD. 1588- Jaiii governor of Sind, notwithftanding the 
Hig 996. king's vicinity, and his orders to him to repair 
to court, continued refractory, and prepared for 
war. Akbar difpatched Mirza the fon of Byram 
with many omrahs of diftinclion, and a well ap- 
pointed army againil: him. 
>ffairsof In the year 999, Ahmed the governor died at 
Maiava. Malava, and was fucceeded by the king's appoint- 
ment by the emperor's fon Murad, under the 
tuition of Ilhmaiel Kulli. When the prince ar- 
rived upon the confines of Gualila, he heard that 
a. Zemindar of power in thofe parts, difturbed 
the peace of the country. He immediately 
marched againft him : the enemy oppofed him 
with refolution, but at laft he obtained the vic- 
tory, and drove the rebel to the woods, w^here 
he died in a few days of his wounds. The Ze- 
mindar's fon fubmitted himfelf, and after paying 
a proper fine, was confirmed in his paternal ter- 
ritories. The prince marched from thence, and 
ibon after arrived at Maiava. 
Th«king The king in the mean time fent four ambaf- 
fendscm- f^dors to the four princes of the Decan. Feizi, 
the foDr the brother of the learned Abul Fazil, to Afere 
fiatesof and Burhanpoor ; Amin to Ahmednagur ; Ma- 
Ihadi to Bejapoor, and Muiaood to Bagnagur ; 
principally with a deiign to be informed of the 
ftate of thofe countries, upon which he had fixed 
an eye of conqueft. Koka governor of Guzerat, 
who had orders to feize every opportunity of en- 
larging his province, hearing that Dowlat prince 
of Jionagur was dead, marched his army to re- 
duce that country, and after a fiege of feven 
months, made himfelf mafter of the capital and 
all its dependencies. 
,^. , In the courfe of the fame year Mirza laid fiege 

Miiza be- ' ^ r t r i 

fiegesthe to the fort of Suvau, on the banks or the Indus. 
fort ofSu- j^j^^ ^^-j-j^ ^ numerous army, and a great train 

©f artillery in boats, advanced againft him, and 


A K B A R. 3^7 

having arrived within fourteen miles of the place, A.D.1591. 
he fent a hundred boats full of armed men, and "'S- 'ooo. 
forty larger ones mounted with fwivels, to annoy 
the befiegers from the river : but Mirza having 
armed twenty- five boats, fent them againft this 
fleet in the nia^ht, and having: killed about two 
hundred of the enemy, put the reft to flight. Jam 
after this defeat, with his whole fleet, advanced 
to the place, and in the month of Mohirrim in 
the year 1000, landed on a fpot of ground, which 
was furrounded with a muddy channel, in which 
part of the river ran when high. Here he main- 
tained his pofl: againfl: ail the attempts of Mirza, 
and keeping his communication open by water, 
was well fupplied, while he took fuch methods 
to prevent provifions from coming to the Mo- 
guls, that a great dearth foon enlued in their 

Mirza reduced to this perilous fituation, found 't'i^.^'^o-. 
himfelf obliged to leave a part of his army before fie;V 
the place, and to march towards Tatta with the 
relh Soon after his departure, Jani attacked 
the detachment which was left to carry on the 
iiege ; but they defended themfelves till Dowlat 
a noble of the imperial family of Lodi, joined 
them from the main army, which was by that 
time at the diftance of one hundred and fixty 
miles, with a confiderablc reinforcement. So 
expeditious was Lodi upon this occafion, that he 
marched one hundred and fixty miles in two 
days, Jani was then obliged to retreat to a 
ftrong pofl:, and throw up lines for his further 
fecurity. Mirza in the mean time returned, and 
fhut him up on one fide, while Dowlat Lodi in a 
manner blockaded him on the other. He was 
therefore reduced in turn to the extremity of 
eating his cavalry and beafls of burthen, for 
v/ant of provifions. This diflrefs obliged Jani to 
fue for peace, and having given his daughter in 

X 2 marriage 


A.I). i59r,ii^arrlage to Eric Murza's eldeft fon, he prepared 
Hig. -cor. to fet out for court to make his fubmiffion to the 
king in perfon, as foon as the rains fhould be 
Rebriiioii Eufoph Chan, governor general of the king- 
in Cafh- (^Qi^-j of Caiiimire, had about this time by the 
king's orders, left his brother Edgar at Cafhmire, 
and prefented himfelf at court. Edgar in tlie 
mean time married the daughter of one of the 
old royal family of Cafhmire, and by the advice 
of the chiefs of that country, exalted the ftand- 
ard of rebelHon, and read the Chutba in his own 
name. To fupport him in his ufurpation, he 
raifed a great army ; and Call colleclor general 
of the imperial revenues in Cafhmire, HulTein 
and Omri, who were inferior collectors of the 
revenues on the part of the king, levied what 
troops they could upon this occafion, and gave 
the rebels battle: but Cafi was liain, and the reft 
of the Mogul officers driven out of Cafhmire. 
.... . , . The kins: receivinsc advices of this rebellion.^ 

qutUtd. nominated Ferid to carry on the war in thofe 
parts. That general forthwith marched with a 
conliderable arm.y towards Caflimire. Edgar,, 
as the Mogul advanced, came out to meet him^ 
but upon the night before the expected engage- 
ment, Edgar was treacheroufly attacked by Sha- 
roch and Ibrahim, two of his own chiefs, and 
flying naked out of his tent was murdered, and 
his head fent to Ferid. The rebel army was dif- 
perfed, and Cafhmire reduced without further 
trouble. The kin? foon after made a fecond 
tour to that delightful country, where he fpent 
forty days in rural amufements. He conferred 
the government of Callimire upon the noble 
Eufoph, and turning towards Rhotas, he was 
met in that place in the year looi, by Jani and 
Mirza tUc fon of Byram, from Tatta. Mirza 


A K B A R. 309 

was immediately ranked with the Sihazans or a. d. 1592. 
Omrahs of three thouland, which was at that "=s-J^o'- 
time a high dignity, and his government upon 
the Indus, reduced to the form of a province of 
the empire. 

Koka was this year obhged to take the field ^^'l^^f^l^^ 
againft a powerful chief of Guzerat, who gavekiiuhim- 
proteclion to the unfortunate king Muziffer. He ''=^^- 
obliged the chief to deliver Muziffer up ; and 
that unhappy prince, wearied out with adverfity, 
put an end to his own life with a razor, as they 
were carrying him prifoner to the capital of Gu- 

Man Singh led in the courfe of this year, the ^^^^^ ''■ 
troops in Bengal againft Cullulu the Afghan, 
who created difturbances in that quarter, and de- 
feating him, reduced all the provinces of OrifTa, 
and fent one hundred and twenty elephants 
which he had taken to the king;. 

Koka being called to court to give fome ac- I'^'nce Mu. 
count of his adminiftration in Guzerat, did not ca'iTfhe"*" 
chufe to rifque the enquiry, but putting his fa- go\c'"nKnt 
mily and wealth on board fome fliips, failed for "^t. 
Mecca. The king having received advices of his 
departure, ordered his fon the prince Murad 
from Malava to that government, and appointed 
Sadoc abfolute manager of public affairs under 
him. Sharoch the grandfon of Soliman, prince 
of Buduchflian, was in the mean time appointed 
to the government of Malava, in the prince's 
place, and he releafed Gumbo, who had lain fix 
years in prifon, and appointed him to a principal 
department under him. Sometime before this 
period, the enthufialHc fed of Roihnai-Afghans 
had again begun to raife difturbanccs about Kotil, 
but they were defeated by Jafler Kifvini, who 
had been lately honored with the title of the no- 
ble Afaph, and their chief Jcllali, and his bro- 
thers, taken and fent prifoncrs to court. 




A. D. 1593. The ambafladors which the king had dif- 
Hig. 1002. patched to the Decan, having about this time re- 
The king tumcd, brought advices that their propofals were 
'^^^^^'^^'^ rejected with contempt by the princes of that 

upon the J rr-1 1 • ^ r r 1 t i 

princes of country. Ihe kmg thererore reiolved to reduce 
the Decan. tj^gj^ jq obcdicnce, and for that purpofe ordered 
his fon, the prince Danial, in the year 1002, 
with a great army towards the Decan : but before 
Danial had reached Sultanpoor, the king changed 
his mind and recalled him, giving the command 
of the fam.e army to Mirza, the fon of Byram, 
known under the honourable title of firft of the 
nobles, and ordered him to continue his march. 
The prince Ruftum, fovereign of Kandahar, of 
the pofterity of Timur, being driven this year to 
difficulties by his own brothers and the Ufbecks, 
came to court and prefented the king with the 
fort of Kandahar, for which he had the govern- 
ment of Moultan conferred upon him, and was 
ranked among the nobles of the empire. 

The noble Mirza, in the mean time, having 
t^ilrmy' ^rtivcd at Mindu, Burhan fent Anaci; Chan with 
tnteis that profeffions of entire fubmiflion, but falling fick 
comtry. ^^ ^^^ fUmc time, he died in the year 1003. 
His fon Ibrahim who fucceeded him in the king- 
dom of Berar, was killed foon after in battle 
againft a parti zan, who had rebelled againft him 
in his dominions. Munju his vizier, fet up 
Ahmed, a young child of the family of the Ni- 
zam, upon the throne : but the omrahs diffented 
from this meafure, rebelled againft him, and 
befieged INIunju in Ahmednagur. The vizier 
fmding himfelf driven to diftrefs, fent a perfon 
to Ahmed-abad the capital of Guzerat, with an 
ambaiTy to the prince Murad, inviting him to 
come to his afiiilance, and he would put him in 
poiTeffion of the fort. Murad having at that 
time received orders from his father to march 
into the Decan, with the army from Guzerat, 


ij « 

A K B A R. 3" 

gladly embraced this propofal, and fet out with a. d. 1J94. 
great expedition. When Mirza, the fon of By- "'s- 1003- 
ram, who had been lying all this time idle at 
Mindu, heard of the prince's march, he began to 
beftir himfelf, and with his own army and thofe 
of the prince Sharoch, governor of Malava, 
Cumbo, the Indian prince Jaggernot, the Hin- 
doos, Durga, Ram Chund, and others, marched 
towards the Decan, and on his way induced AU 
prince of Chandez, to join him with lix thoufand 
horfe. He foon after joined his force with that 
of prince Murad on the borders of the Decan, 
and this numerous army, march by march, con- 
tinued its rout to the capital. 

Munju had by this time quelled the rebellion, Ahmcdna. 
and repented of his having called the prince : he fS'by\''hT 
therefore laid in a ftore of provifions in the place, Moguls. 
and committed it to the government of Bibi, the 
daughter of Hufl'ein the Nizam of the country, 
with a ftrong garrifon, and retreated himfelf 
with the remainder of his army and a large train 
of artillery, towards the borders of Berar. Prince 
Murad and Mirza laid fiege to Ahmednagur in 
the month of the fecond Ribbi 1004: they em- 
ployed themfelves in carrying on approaches, 
railing mounts, erecting batteries, and finking 
mines ; while Bibi defended the place with a 
manly refolution, and wrote to Adil the prince 
of Berar for afiiftance. At the end of three 
months, the befieged had carried five mines 
under the wall and baflions : the befiegers de- 
ftroyed two of the mines by counter-mines, and 
continued to fearch for the otliers. The prince 
upon the firft of Regib, having prepared for the 
allault, fet fire to the trains, upon which the 
three charged mines taking cffed, blew up fitty 
yards of the wall : but when the Moguls waited 
in expedation of blowing up two mines, the be- 
fieged recovered from their fiirprize, and de- 


AD. 159 ^ fended the breach with great bravery. The va- 
Hig.ico4. liant female leader appeared veiled, at their head, 
and gave orders with fuch prudence and fpirit, 
that the aflailants were beat off in their repeated 
attempts : the heroine ftood all night by the 
workmen, and the breach was filled up before 
day, with wood, ftones, earth, and dead bo- 
The Mo- In the mean time it was rumoured abroad that 
toatr°Tt^ tke chief eunuch of Adil prince of Berar, was 
with the upon his march in conjunclion with the forces 
beheged. ^j: -^^[^^Lm, with an army of feventy thoufand 
horfe, to raife the fiege : there being at the fame 
time a fcarcity of proviiions in the Mogul camp, 
the prince and Mirza thought it advifeable to en- 
ter into treaty with the befieged. It was llipu- 
lated by Bibi, that the prince fliould keep poilef- 
iion of Berar, and that Ahmednagur, And its de- 
pendencies, fhould remain with her in the name 
of Bahader, the grandfon of Burhan. Thefe 
terms being ratified, the prince and Mirza 
marched towards Berar, and repairing the town 
of Shapoor, near Battapoor, took up their can- 
tonments in that place. The prince efpoufed 
here with great magnificence, the daughter of 
Bahader, the fon of Ali, prince of Chandez, and 
divided the province of Berar among his omrahs. 
Cumbo beino- about this time difcxuRed with fome 
indignities ofiered him by the prince, left Murad 
with all his forces, and marched without leave to 

Bibi having rcfigned her command to Bahader, 
ofAhnu-d- thc graudfou of Burhan, Abeck an Abyflinian, 
Ragur in-^ aud othcr chiefs, took up the reins of govern- 
ment, which he was too weak to hold with ftea- 
dinefs, and contrary to the advice of Bibi, 
marched with fifty thoufand horfe towards Be- 
rar, to expel the prince Murad. Mirza leaving 
the prince and Sadoc in Shapoor, marched with 


A K B A R 3^3 

vi^enty thoufand horfe to oppofe the enemy onA,D.i596. 
the banks of a river in that country, called the "'s- ^°^3- 
Gang. Having ftopt for fome days to inform 
himfelf of the fituation and ftrength of the ene- 
my, he forded the river and drew up on the op- 
pofite bank, on the 17th of the fecond Jemmad 
1005. The eunuch who commanded the fuccours 
fent by the prince of Berar, taking the chief 
command, drew up before the Moguls, the 
troops of Nizam on the right, thofe of Cuttub 
on the left, and his own in the center. He then 
advanced, carrying in his face the infolence of his 
own prowefs, mixed with a contempt for the 

The noble Mirza poded himfelf in the center a draw* 
to receive him: Ali prince of Chandez, and the ^''"'"^• 
Indian prince Ram Chund being at the head of a 
body of volunteers in his front, to begin the 
attack. The charge was made with fuch intrepi- 
dity on the fide of the Moguls, that they broke 
through the felect volunteers of the enemy, and 
fell upon the eunuch, where he commanded in ■ 
perfon. They were however repu'.fed by a 
heavy difcharge of artillery, fmall arms and rock- 
ets, which did great execution particularly among 
the Rajaputs and the troops of Chandez, who 
advanced under their fovereign Ali and the In- 
dian prince. Both thofe chiefs were killed, with 
above three thoufand of their horfe. The center 
being broke, the Ulbecks and Moguls on the left 
wing gave way alfo, and the eunuch remained 
mafter of the field on that fide : but the noble 
Mirza, who had fliifted his poft to the right dur- 
ing the action, had made an imprcffion there, 
and was purfuing the enemy, without knowing 
what had happened on the left. Night in the 
mean time coming on, and the enemy equally 



A.D. 1596. Ignorant of what had happened on his left, 
Hig. IC05- thought he had gained a complete victory : he 
however contented himfelf, as it was now dark, 
with keeping poifeflion of the field, and permit- 
ting his troops to plunder the baggage. To fe- 
cure their plunder, half of his army deferted to 
lodge their fpoiis in places of fecurity, and the 
valiant eunuch, with the remainder, fat in the 
dark, without knowing whither to proceed. 

Mirza, in the mean time, returning from the 
purfuit, fell in with the enemy's artillery, with- 
in a fmall diftance of their general, and thinking 
the enemy entirely routed, determined to re- 
main there till morning with the few that con- 
tinued with him, for by far the greater part of 
his army thinking themfelves defeated, had fled 
full fpeed to the capital of Berar. While things 
were in this perplexing fituation, the eunuch's 
troops began to light up fires and flambeaus where 
they fl;ood, having heard that the noble Mirza 
was near. The Mogul general being informed 
alfo, by his fpies, that the enemy was in his 
neighbourhood, he ordered fome pieces of artil- 
lery to be loaded and fired among them, which 
threw them into great confufion. Joheil imme- 
diately ordered all the fires to be extinguiihcd, 
and flnfting his ground, fent fcouts all round to 
collect fuch of liis troops as were difperfed over 
the plain and in the adjacent villages. 

In the mean time Mirza blew his trumpets and 
beat to arms, according to his manner, which 
being heard by fuch of his troops as were dif- 
perfed over the field, they haftened towards 
him in fmall detachments. Several of the Mo- 
guls meeting with others of the enemy in the , 
dark, they fought and formed fuch a fcene of 1 
horror and confufion, as is not eafy to be de- 
fcribed j while x\llah ! Allah ! refounded from all 


A K B A R. 315 

fides, and every eye was fixed upon the eaft, in a.d. J596. 
expectation of the dawn. When the day ap- ^^^s- '°°-5- 
peared, Joheil was feen marching towards the 
Moguls, with twelve thoufand horfe. Though 
the army of Mirza did not exceed four thoufand, 
he determined once more to difpute the field, 
and formed his line to oppofe the enemy. 
The battle now joined with redoubled fury on 
both fides, but Joheil, after exhibiting the moft 
daring acts of valour, funk at laft under fi- 
tigue and wounds, and fell from his horfe. A 
body of his dependants bore him inftantly off: 
his army according to cuftom followed him, and 
left Mirza mailer of a bloody field. The Mogul, 
in no condition to purfue the run-a-ways, return- 
ed to Shapoor, to join the prince, Murad, and 
the reft of his army. 

The emperor, having about this time received ^He king 
advice of the death of AbduUa, the Ufbeck, from"i.a. 
king of the weftern Tartary, who had long ''°'^- 
threatened an invafion from the north, returned 
in fecurity from T.ahore to Agra. Having in 
that city heard of the noble Mirza's victory, he 
fent him an honorary drefs and a fine horfe, as 
marks of his particular favour. As private ani- 
mofities had long fubfilled between the prince 
Murad and Mirza, which being much inflamed 
by the intrigues of Sadoc, now rofe to a dan- 
gerous height ; the king therefore thought it 
imprudent to leave them longer together : he 
dilpatched Eufoph Mufhaddi and Abul Fazil * to 
the prince, and in the year 1006, recalled Mirza 
to the prefence. But though the whole mifuii- 

* The celebrated biflorian. 



A.D. i596.clerftanding had plainly fprung from the prince's 
Hig. 1005. froward and jealous diipofition, the king's re- 
fentment fell upon that great man, and he re- 
mained a long time in difgrace. 
Prince Mil- Eufoph, and Abul Fazil, in a fhort time re- 
nd dies, duced the forts ofNarnalla, Kavile, Kerlah, and 
others, in the province of Berar ; but the prince 
Murad falling fick, died in the month of Sha- 
•wal 1007, and was firft buried in the capital of 
Berar, but by the king's orders the body was 
afterwards removed to Agra, and laid by the 
lide of his grandfather Humaioon. The king's 
grief for the death of his fon, inftead of extin- 
guifhing his defire of conquering the Decan, 
only enflamed it the more, to divert his mind 
from forrow. In the mean time the omrahs 
of Nizam having gained fome flight advantages, 
defeated Shere one of the kind's omrahs, who 
pofTefTed the country of Bere, and befieged him 
in his fort, Eufoph and Abul Fazil were fo 
much inferior to the enemy in number, 
that diey durft not venture upon an engage- 
,. - The kins:, alarmed at this difafter, reftored 

MiTiis Tent , 1 n-r* r 1 - ^ i • 

agiinftthe the noblc Mirza to favour, and required his 
Decan. daughter, the beautiful Jana, for his fon Danial 
in marriage. He then difpatched him with 
that prince, and a well appointed army, to car- 
ry on the war in the Decan, and moved the Im- 
perial ftandard that way in the ioc8 of the Hi- 
gera, leaving his dominions in the eaft under the 
charge of the prince royal, the illufirious Selim. 
In the mean time the prince Danial and Mirza 
entered the Decan, and as Bahader, the fon of 
Ali, prince of Chander, was not found like his 
father, firm to his allegiance, and had fliut him- 
felf up in Afere, they halted upon the banks of 


A K B A R. 317 

the Gang, near Pattan, and endeavoured to per- a. d. 1598. 
fuade him over to their intereft. In the mean "'2- ^°°> 
time the king had reached Mindu, and difpatch- 
ed orders to them to proceed to Ahmednagur 
the capital, and inveft it : for that he himfelf 
would take up Af'ere in his vi^ay. 

This prince and the noble Mirza accordingly inveds Ah- 
marched with about thirty thoufand horfe to- '"^'^""S"''- 
wards Ahmednagur. Abin Buchfi and other 
omrahs of the Decan, fled from that city, and 
left the Moguls to inveft the place. The king 
firft endeavoured to bring over Bahader by fair 
means, but he would not liften to terms. Akbar 
therefore marched to Burhanpoor, and fent his 
omrahs to befiege Afere, which lay only fix 
miles from that place. After the fiege had con- 
tinued a confiderable time, the air in the place 
on account of the number of troops which were 
cooped up in it, became very unhealthy. This 
occafioned a peftilence which fweeped the Hin- 
doos off in great numbers. Bahader, though , 
he had ftill troops fufficient for the defence of 
the place, as well as a large magazine of war- 
like ftores, and provifions in abundance, per- 
mitted defpair to ftain the current of his 

The liege of Ahmednagur was in the mean Ahmedna- 
time carried on whh great vigour, by Mirza and S"' ^^'^'='' 
the prince. 1 he city was at length carried by a 
ilratagem, executed by Huflein. This we Ihall 
have occafion to relate minutely in the hitlory of 
the Decan. Ahmednagur was taken in the be- 
ginning of the year 1009 : the ftrong fortrefs of 
Afere, fome months after, was fur rendered to 
the king : an immenfe trcafure which had been 
accumulated there, for many ages, fell into 
Abkar's hand?, with all the wealth of Ahmed- 



,^ ,5 ,^Qo_ nagur. Ibrahim, king of Bijanagur, one of the 
Hig. 1009. four principalities of the Decan, having folicited 
peace and paid homage, reconciled Akbar, who 
demanded Adil's daughter in marriage for his 
fon Danial. A Mogul noble, named Huffein, 
was accordingly difpatched to bring the bride 
and a fine from Bijanagur. The king reduced 
Afere, Birhanpoor, Ahmednagur, and Berar, 
into the form of a province, and confer- 
red the government UDon Danial, under the 
tuition and direction of his father-in-law, Mir- 
za. The king, after thefe tranfactions, return- 
ed in triumph to the city of Agra, and 
in the year 101 1, annexed his acquilitions in 
the Decan to his other royal titles in a procla- 
the biaoii- Akbar having in the courfe of the year ion, 
an Abai rccallcd the rreat hiftorian, Abul Fazil from the 

Fazii. Ill r 1 

Decan, that learned man was uniortunateiy at- 
tacked near Narwar, by a body of banditti of 
Orcha Rajaputs, who cut him off with a 
part of his retinue, merely to rob him of his 
wealth, and not at the inftigation of prince 
Danial, as has been maliciouiiy and falieiy re- 
ported by fome writers. In the 1013 of the 
Higera, lluilein who had been difpatched to 
Bijanagur, returned with the royal bride, 
and the ftipulated tribute. He delivered the 
young fuitana to Danial, upon the banks of 
the Gang near Fattan, where the nuptials 
vvc2"c celebrated with great pomp and magnifi- 
cence. Hufi'ein the embailador, after the cere- 
Akbrrdies. mony vvas over, proceeded to the king at 
A era. 

Upon the firft ot Zehidge of the year 1013, 
the prince Danial died of a debauch in the city 


A K B A R. 319 

of Burhanpoor, in the Decan. His death and a. d. 1605. 
the manner of it fo much afTefted the king, Hi-. 1014. 
who was in a declining ftate of health, that 
he everyday became worfe, till upon the 13th 
of the fecond Jemmad,in the year 1014, he 
left that world, through which he had moved 
with fo much luftre, after having: reiscned 
fifty-one years, and fome months. Mahommed ^''' ^narac- 
Akbar was a prince endued with many fhin- 
ing virtues. His generofity was great, and his 
clemency without bounds : this latter virtue 
he often carried beyond the line of prudence, 
and in many inflances paft the Hmits of that 
juftice which he owed to the ftate ; but his 
daring fpirit made this noble error feem to 
proceed from a generous difpofition, and not 
from an effeminate weaknefs of mind. His 
characfer as a warrior was rather that of an 
intrepid partizan, than of a great general : he 
expofed his perfon with unpardonable rafhnefs, 
and often attempted capital points without 
ufmg that power which at the time he 

pofielTed. But fortune and a daring foul 

fupplied the place of conduft in Akbar : he 
brought about at once by dcfperate means, 
what calm cauti(-n v/ould take much time 
to accomplifli. This circum.ftance fpread the 
terror of the name of this fon of true glory 
fo wide, that Ilindoftan, ever fubjccl to the 
convulfions of rebellion, became fettled and 
calm in his prcfence. He raifed a wall of 
difciplined valor t againu the powers of the 
north, and by his own activity infpired his 
omrahs with cntcrorize. 

+ Soldiers. 



He loved glory to excefs, and thirflcd 
after a reputation for perfonal valor : he en- 
couraoced learning with the bounty of kingcs, 
and delighted in hiftory, which is in truth the 
fchool of fovereigns. As his warm and ac- 
tive difpofition prompted him to perform ac- 
tions worthy of the divine pen of the poet, 
fo he was particularly fond of heroic com- 
politions in verfe. — In fliort, the faults of 
Akbar were virtues carried to extremes ; and 
if he fometimes did things beneath the dig- 
nity of a great king, he never did any thing 
unworthy of a good man. His name lives, 
and will for ever live, the glory of the houfe 
of Timur, and an example of renown to the 
kings of the world. 
State of Shaw Tamafp, king of Perfia, lived down 

>iiia at the tQ f^g twentieth year of Akbar. He reis-ned, 
Akur. in great tranquillity, and with lome renown, 
fifty three years. His fon, Ifmaei the fecond, 
fucceeded him ; but he was taken off in lefs 
than two years after his acceffion, by the 
procurement of his fifter Peria Concona, who 
was afraid of his cruelty. IVIahommed, the 
brother of Ifmaei the fecond, afcended the 
throne of Perfia, and reigned with reputation : 
he died in the 993 of the Higera, and was 
fucceeded by his fon Hamza, who was af- 
faflinated, in a few months after his acceflion, 
by the procurement of his brother Ifmaei, 
who afcended the throne of Perfia, by the 
name of Ifmaei the third, ifmaei did not 
long enjoy the rev^ard of fratricide, being, 
in lefs than eight months, murdered by his 
barber. His brother, Shaw Abbas the firft, 
furnamed the Great, mounted the throne, ' 
and reigned with great reputation forty three 
years. The Ufbecks became formidable to 


A K B A R. 321 

the Perfians, during the interrupted reigns, 
between Tamafp and Abbas. The provinces 
on the frontiers of India and Perfia, remained 
in the pofleflion of the Mogul imperial family 
of Hindoftan. 

Vol. IL Y T H K 

VcLRfa^^ 323. 


^^y^'^ ^^ 






MAHOMMED FERISHTA, the author of [3^^,^^/ 
the preceding abridgment of the hifto- hiftory of 
ry of India, finifhes his account of that eni- '^^^"j^^^^ 
pire with the death of Akbar. The tranflator 
has reafon to entertain hopes of being able to 
procure original and authentic hiftories of the 
Mogul dynafty citablilhcd in Hindoftan, from 
the conqueft of that country by the great fultan 
Baber, to the prefent times : he, therefore, will 
not break in upon his deiign of giving, fome 
time or other, to the public, a complete hiftory 
<of the pofterity of Timur in India, by retailing 

Y 7 the 


the very imperfecl accounts already publifhed in 
Europe. But as, to tranflate from the Perfian 
language is a tafk of difficulty, his engaging 
further, in works of this kind, will depend en- 
tirely upon the reception the public fhall give to 
his firft attempt in that way. If he (hall find 
that he is not capable to acquit himfelf, in fome 
degree, to the fatisfaclion of the world, he will, 
in prudence, lay dovvn his pen ; and leave that 
field to men of greater abilities, who may 
hereafter turn their thoughts to the fubjeci:. 
r, n- The tranfaclions of the court of Delhi, fince 
affairsofin- the invafiou of the famous Nadir Shaw, king 
trJ-^^;!^ of Perfia, which happened about thirty years ago, 
are very little known in the Weft. They have 
not, even in Afia, been hitherto committed to 
writing ; and if the prefent confufions of the 
Mogul empire iliall long continue, it is probable 
the memory of them will die with thofe who 
were principally concerned in them. This con- 
fideration has induced the tranflator of Ferifhta*s 
hiftory, to throw together the moft material 
events, which have happened in the empire, 
fince the memorable irruption of the Perfians, 
in the year 1738. He derives his authority, for 
fome of the facls, from a Perfian manufcript, 
now in his hands, concerning fix years of the 
reign of Mahommed Shaw ; and as to the reft, 
he principally follows a fliort Iketch of the afiliirs 
of the empire, given to him in writing, by his in- 
timate friend the Rai Raian, fecretarv of ftate to 
the prefent Mogul. 
Succcaion To continue the line of connection, between 
irom Akbar (-j^j, precedinsT hiftory anci the reisfn of Ma- 
niedshaw. liommcd, who fat upon the throne of Delhi 
when the iiivafion of Nadir Shaw happened, 
it may not be improper, juft to mention the liic- 
ceflion of the kings, from. Akbar to that period. 
It is neceftary to obferve, that, after confulting 



the moft authentic Perfian hlftories, the author a. d-' 
of this account finds himfelf obliged to differ '^°^- 
from all the European writers, who have treated 
the fubjecl, with regard to the duration of moft 
of the reigns. 

Upon the death of Akbar, his fon Selim af- 
cended the throne, in Agra, upon Thurfday the 
20th of the fecond Jemmad, in the 1014 year 
of the Higera. He, upon his acceflion, affumefi 
the title of Jehangike, or lord of the world, 
and reigned twenty-two years, nine months, 
and twenty days, with much more reputation 
and fuccefs than could have been expected of 
fo weak a prince. His death happened upon Sun- 
day the 28th of Siffor, in the 1037 year of the 
Higera, which correfponds with the 1627 of the 
Chriftian aera. 

The prince Kurrum, tlxe third fon of Jehap- 
gire, mounted the throne at Agra, upon the, 
8th of the fecond Jemmad^, in the year 10^7, 
and, under the title of SHA\y JtijiAN, or king 
of the world, reigned thirty-two years, three 
months, and twenty days. He was depofed by 
his third fon, the famous Aurungzebe, who 
dated the commencement of his reign, from the 
frrft of Ramzan, in the 1069 of the Higera. 
Aurungzebe, upon his acceflion, took the name 
of Allumgire *. ^ ^ ^^^ 

Allumgire, having reigned fifty years, two 
months and twenty-eight days, died, in a very 
advanced age, at Ahmednagur, in the Decan, 
upon Friday the 28th of Zicada, in the 11 19 of 
the Higera, or the 1707 of our arra. 

* Though Shaw Jchan was confined during the time his 
four rebellious fons, Dara Sheko, Suja, Aurungzebe, and Morad, 
contended for the crown, yet as Aurungzebe prevailed over his 
brothers, and dated his reign from the year 1069, we luve includ- 
ed the time of the civil wars in the reign of his father. 



A. D. Mahommed Mauzim, Aurungzebe's fecond 

»707- fon, fucceeded his father in the throne, under 
the title of Bahadar Shaw. He died, after a 
fhort reign of four years and eleven months, 
and was fucceeded by his eldeft fon, Moaz ul 

»7'a- Moaz ul Dien, under the title of Jehandar 
Shaw, reigned eighteen months. Some writers 
do not include him in the fucceflion of kings, 
as the fucceeding emperor, the fon of Azim 
Shaw, the fecond fon of the preceding empe- 
ror, Bahadar Shaw, under the name of Firroch- 
fere, dated his reign from the death of his grand- 

»7»3« FiRROCHSF.RE, according to his own com- 
putation, reigned fix years. He was blinded, 
and afterwards put to death, by the two Seids, 
upon the 1 2th of the fecond Jemmad, in the 1130 
of the Higera. 

Raffeih ul Dirjat, the fon of Raffeih ul 
Shaw, the third fon of the emperor Bahadar 
Shaw, was raifed to the throne, by the ambitious 
Seids ; and after a nominal reign of three months, 
was put to death by the fame faction, by whofe 
interefl he had obtained the crown. — His brother 
Raffeih ul Dowlat fucceeded him ; but he 
died in a few days. 




( 327 ) 


MAHOMMED, the fonof Jehan, and grand- a. D^nis. 
fon of the emperor Bahadar Shaw, ac-me^drc«'dcs 
ceded to the throne of Delhi, in the month of J°*^^^ 
Shawal of the year 1 1 30 of the Higera. — Mahom- 
med, having rid himfelf of the two Seids, Ab- 
dalla and Haffen, who had fo long tyrannized in 
the empire, railing and depofmg kings at pleafure, 
gave himfelf wholly up to indolence, and the 
enervating pleafures of the Haram. The dif- 
traftions, before Mahommed's acceflion, occafi- 
oned principally by the ambition of the Seids, 
gave the lirft mortal wound to the Mogul em- 
pire, under which it has ever fmce languilhed. 
Mofl of the omrahs, either envying or dreading 
the power of the Seids, formed ambitious 
Ichemes of independence in thdr refpedive pro- 
vinces, which the apparent debihty of the regal 
authority very much favoured. 

:; ;An omrah called Cuttulich Chan, who, ^sDef'gjj?j^ 
Mizam ul muluck, or regulator of the country, 
a title given to the governor general of the De- 
can, commanded, for fome years, all the rich 
provinces of that extenfive country. He being 
fenfible of the weaknefs of Mahommed, main- 
tained a great {landing army, under a pretence 
of keeping the unfubdued Indian princes and 
Mahrattor * chiefs in awe. But the real defign 


* Thefe are they, who are known In Europe, under the 
disfigured name of Morattoes. 



of this force was to found an independent king- 
dom for himfelf in the Decan, as Haffen Caco 
Bemeni had done in the reign of Tuglick Shaw*. 
To faciHtate his ambitious views, the Nizam be- 
gan to extend his power in the Decan, by the 
reduction of the neighbouring Indian princes, 
who had not yet fubmitted to the ?vlogul yoke. 
Though the revenues of his government muft 
have been very confiderably increafed by thefe 
-conquefts, he remitted none to the Delhi ; and, 
at th€ dame timie, to weaken the empire, he en- 
-couraged, or at leaft, permitted the Mahrattors 
to make, hoilile incurfions into the interior 
•provinces. 'Thefe irregular marauders ravaged 
the opulent: kingdoms of Malava, Narvar, 
Biana and Ajmere, in fuch a manner, that no 
revenues could -l>e jpaid by tJie.iiijfo.rtunate in- 
habitants. • ■ h" - ' --'- f 
j^ing's The weak Mahommed, inftead of checking 
weaknefs. this infolencc with the iword, difgraced the 
•dignity of the houfe of Tiniur, by fubmittin^ 
.to become, in a manner, tributary to thofe defpi- 
cable banditti. He agreed to pay them the 
-Chout, or fourth part of the revenues of thofe 
^provinces, Avhich had been fubjecl to their de- 
predations. From this pufillanimous condud of 
Majiomm.ed, we may date the irretrievable de- 
-ctin^ of tht; Mogul empire. That opinion, 
-which fupports government in every country, 
(was 4now deftroyed in India; and each petty 
;<rhi:ltain bega;n to ftart up into a prince, as 
'he had nothijig to fear from a government 
'which had -betrayed fuch £.vid£nt fysiptoms of 
itiitiidity. ... :ij.iLi>j i '• ■-; . zd: -gn'- \- 
ii'^iitb If^'i •>r{t lufl . i-fD * - 

* This HafTen Caco mounted the throne at Kilbirga in the 
Decan^ ^vhiqh ck,y he called, from himfelf, Haffen-abad, upon 
the 24th of Ribbi ul Achir, in the 748 of ,the. Higera. He 
^ affimed the title of fultan Alia ul Dien. 


M A H O M M E D. 329 

Chan Dowran Sumfam ul Dowla was, at this oowran's 
time, captain-general of the empire. As the charaaet, 
offices of paymafter-general and commander 
in chief of the troops are injudicioufly joined 
in one perfon, in Hindoftan, Dowran had fuch 
an influence in the ftate, that he ergroffed to 
himfelf all the minifterial power. He left, in 
fliort, nothing but their names in the govern- 
ment to the king and his vizier, Kummir. 
Dowran was fly, artful ; infmuating ; of an 
aclive and intriguing difpofition ; in appearance 
afluming no authority, when, at the fame time, 
he direcl:ed every thing. He executed, in pub- 
lic, as by the king's orders, whatever he himfelf 
had refolved upon in private. As the indolent 
Mahommed was even averfe to tlie trouble of 
thinking, the fuggeftions of this artful noble- 
man, who was full of plaufibility, and prompt 
to execute whatever he advifed, were always 
grateful to the royal ear. The captain-general, 
though perfonaily brave, permitted his mafter's 
authority to be daily infulted by defpicable 
enemies. He forefaw that to take the field, 
without the king, would probably put an end 
to his influence over him ; for he knew that the 
difpofition of Mahommed was fickle and incon- 
ftant ; and apt to be fwayed to any thing, by 
every artful perfon near him. 

Dowran made many unluccefsful attempts to Kind's in. 
perfuade the emperor to accompany him to the '^"^'''^'^''' 
field. The diflblute monarch was not to be re- 
moved from the luxurious indolence of the 
palace. The Mahrattors, in the mean time, 
continued their inroads. Ihey ravaged the pro- 
vince of Guzerat, and raifed the Chout as far 
as. the Indus. They returned back from that 
river, by the way of Ajmere and Biana, and 
fprcad their devaftations to the very gates of 
Agra. The captain-general, though mucli againfl 



his inclination, found himfelf obli^red to march 
againft thefe plunderers. But, inllead of chaf- 
tifing them, he inglorioufly promifed to pay them 
the Lhout, upon condition they fhould immedi- 
ately evacuate the provinces. 
^1^'"^""'^ I'he barbarians gaining courage by this fub- 
miflion, and trufting very little to promifes 
extorted by fear, from Dowran, crofled the 
Jumna, near Calpee, with a defign to plunder 
the province of Oud. Sadit Chan, who then 
polfeired that fubafliip, oppofed them, between 
the rivers in the diftricl of Korah, and gave them 
a total defeat. They fled to Feridabad near 
Delhi, whither they were clofely purfued by 
Sadit, who had, on his way, joined the impe- 
rial army under Dowran. 
Attempt Before the united armies under Dowran and 
tpuii Delhi, g^^jjj. came up, the Mahrattors made an attempt 
to plunder Delhi. Ihey were oppofed, without 
the walls, by two imperial omrahs, HafTen and 
Amir, the former ot whom was killed in the 
action. The Mahrattors had now poflelTed them- 
felves of the fuburbs, when the vizier, coming 
up with an army, put them to flight. But 
notwithflanding thefe repeated defeats, the 
Mahrattors found means to retreat, with a 
great booty, to the Decan, their native coun- 
The Niiam jhc court of Delhi, finding that the Nizam 
court. ^ of the Decan favoured the incurfions of the Mah- 
rattors, devifed many fchemes to inveigle him 
to court, that they might deprive him either of 
his life or government. The crafty Nizam, pe- 
netrating into their defigns, conceived an impla- 
cable refentment againft Dowran, who, he knew, 
was at the bottom of the whole affair. But 
as the empire, notwithftanding its growing im- 
becility, was fl:ill fufflciently ftrong to reduce the 


M A H O M M E D. 331 

Nizam, had he broke forth in open rebellion, 
he thought it moft prudent to obey the royal 
command. He, however, previoufly ftrength- 
ened his intereft at court, by a coaUtion with 
many great omrahs, who were difgufted with 
the infolence of Dowran. The Nizam, having 
taken a ftep fo neceflary for his own fafety, fet 
out for court, leaving his fon Ghazi ul Dien in 
the government of the Decan. He arrived at 
Agra, with a retinue, or rather an army of 
20000 men ; and, as he held the office of Vakeel 
Muttuluch *, or abfolute agent of the provinces, 
he expected to command Dowran, and to 
draw all the reins of government into his own 

Sadit, governor of Oud, pluming himfelf [j^;;^"^'' 
upon his fuccefs againft the Mahrattors, afpired 
to the minifterial power. The king continued 
to favour Dowran, and to fupport him againft the 
Nizam ; for, however weak Mahommed was, 
he could not but fee through that ambitious go- 
vernoj's defigns, by his behaviour for fome 
years back. But as the Nizam had, upon the 
fpot, a force to proted: his perfon, and a ftrong 
party at court ; and as his fon, a man of great 
parts, commanded all the provinces of the De- 
can, the king was allured, that to deprive him 
of his government, would occafion a revolt, 
which, in its confequences, might prove fatal to 
the royal houfe of Timur. 

In the mean time Sadit, finding that he could ^^^\ 
not efFeft any thing againft the united interefts Do«r4n 
of the Nizam and Vizier, who had joined fac- 
tions, was eaftly brought over to their party. 
The terms of this coalition were, that when 
the Nizam and Vizier fhould force themfelves 
into the management of the affairs of govern- 

* For the nature of this office fee the preface. 



A D. 1594. iT^ent, Sadit fhould be appointed pay-mafler- 
general of the forces, with the title of captain- 
general of the empire, which Dowran at that 
time poffefl'ed. 

The accefllon of Sadit and his party did not 
render the fadion of the Nizam and Vizier fuf- 
liciently ftrong to turn Dowran from his high 
employ. He had abfolute pofleffion of the royal 
ear, and the army, who depended upon him for 
their pay, remained iinn to his intereft. The 
faction of the malecontents was reduced to de- 
fpair ; and the Nizam, to gratify his refentment 
againll Dowran, concerted, with Sadit, a plan, 
which gave the iaft ftroke to the tottering autho- 
rity the of crown. 

Nadir Shaw The famous Nadir Shaw, king of Perfia, was 

faSnit?''^'^ this juncture, in the province of Candahar. 

ludia. . The difaffected omrahs refolved to invite him 
to India. They forefaw that a Perfian invafion 
would occafion confufions and diftraclions in the 
empire, which mud facilitate their own fchemes 
of independence in their refpeclive governments ; 
it muft, at any rate ruin Dowran, which was a 
very capital objed to men poflefled of fuch in- 
verate animolities as^ainft that minifter. Whe- 
>ther the Nizam did not even extend his views 
to the empire itfelf, admits of fome doubt. 
Many fenfible men in India think that he did ; 
and affirm, that his opinion was, that Nadir 
Shaw would depofe Mahommed ; and, to fe- 
cure his conqueft, extirpate the family of Ti- 
mur : he argued with himfelf, that as it was 
not probable that the Perfian would fix his re- 
fidence in Hindoftan, he hoped, for his fervices, 
to fecure to himfelf the viceroyfhip of that em- 
pire ; and that afterwards time and circumftances 
vvould point out the line of his future proceed- 

^ Full 

M A H O M M E D. 333 

Pull of thefe ambitious projecls, and at the ^ ^ g 
fame time to avenge himielf of his political ^is policy. 
enemy, the Nizam, in conjunction with Sadit, 
wrote to Nadir Shaw. That monarch received 
their letters at Candahar, and, in an anfwer to 
them, pointed out many difEculties which he 
had to furmount in the propofed invaiion. He 
reprefented to them, that it would be extreme- 
ly difficult to penetrate even into Cabul and 
Pefhawir, provinces belonging to the empire to 
the north-weft of the Indus, which provinces 
Nafir Chan had governed for twenty years, with 
great reputation, and kept in pay a formidable 
army of Moguls and Afghans : that fhould he 
€ven force his way through the government of 
Nafir, there were five great rivers to crofs in 
Punjab, where Zekirria, gov^ernor of Lahore, 
would certainly oppofe him ; and that even 
fhould he get over thofe obftacles, the imperial 
army ftill remained to be defeated. 

The Nizam, and his colleaj^ue in treafon, en- ^.'^'^""''^ '°" 
deavoured to remove the king's objections, by cowt. 
afluring him, that they would bring over the 
governors of the frontier provinces to their 
faction ; and that, as they themfelves command- 
ed one half of the imperial army, Httle danger 
was to be dreaded from the other. The Perfian 
began his march from Candahar, with a great 
army, about the vernal equinox of the 1149 
of the liigcra. He took the rout of Ghizni, 
and the governor of that city came out with 
prefents, and fubmitted himfelf and the province 
to the king, agreeing to pay the ufual revenues 
to Perfia. Nadir bhaw continued his march 
from Ghizni to Cabul, which city he immedi- 
ately invcfted. Shirza, an omrah of fcvcnty 
years of age, was, at this time, governor of 
Cabul. Being fummoncd, he rcfufcd to furren- 



A.D. 1738. der, and made the proper difpofitions for an ob- 

ftinate defence. 
NadtrShaw xhc kinff of Pcrfia finding: that neither fair 
' promifes nor threats could induce Shirza to open 
the gates of Cabul, affaulted the place for fix 
days together. In this defperate manner, many 
of the braveft foldiers, who fuffer moft upon 
thefe occafions, fell ; without making any im- 
prelTion on the befieged : upon the feventh day. 
Nadir Shaw found means to bring over to his 
party, Nafir, governor of the province of Ca- 
bul, the fon of that Nafir, who was, for twen- 
ty years, fubadar of Pelhawir. That traitor, 
with the provincial army, prefented himfelf at 
that gate of the city which was oppofite to the 
fide of the attack, and fent a letter to the gallant 
Shirza. He requefted immediate admittance to 
the place, to prevent his being cut off by the 
enemy ; infinuating, that his forces, when join- 
ed with the garrifon, would be a match for the 
Perfians in the field. 

The unfortunate Shirza, not fufpeding the 
treachery of the young omrah, confented to re- 
ceive within the walls the women and bag- 
gage of the provincial army ; but infifiied that 
the troops fliould encamp before the gate, till a 
council Ihould be held, concerning what was 
beft to be done upon this urgent occafion. The 
women and baggage were accordingly admitted, 
with a proper guard, and Shirza, with a few at- 
tendants, went out to have an interview with 
Nafir. No fooner was Shirza out of the city, 
than the king of Perfia began a general aflault ; 
while one Rahim, an officer of the traitor 
Nafir, feized upon Shirza, and confined him. 

The two fons of Shirza, ignorant of their fa- 
ther's fate, in the mean time defended the gates 
with great firmnefs and refolution j till one of 


M A H O M M E D. 335 

them was killed by that part of Nafir's army a. d. 1738. 
that had been admitted into the city. The re- 
maining brother, in this defperate fituation, 
knew not which enemy he ought to oppofe, 
while the garrifon, ftruck with terror and con- 
fufion, deferted their polls upon the wall. Nadir 
Shaw took advantage of this panic, forced open 
the gates, took the place, mailacred many of the 
inhabitants, and inhumanly put to death the gal- 
lant Shirza and his fon. 

The king of Perfia found in the treafury of ^'^_;Jj^sf^^^^ 
Cabul two millions, five hundred thoufand of that city, 
our money in fpecie, and effects to the value 
of two millions more : in thefe were included 
four thoufand complete fuits of armour, inlaid 
with gold : four thoufand of polifhed fteel, four 
thoufand mails for horfes, and a great quantity 
of fine tiiTues and drefles, depofited in Cabul 
by the emperor Shaw Jehan, The king of Per- 
fia remained at Cabul feven months, before he 
would attempt to crofs the Indus. ?Ie, in the 
mean time, kept up a correfpondence with the 
confpirators in Delhi, and maturely fettled his 
plan of operations. He at length, put his army 
in motion, and direfled his march to Pefha- 

Nalir, the Mogul governor of Pefliawir, had Piovincesof 
wrote, repeatedly, to the court of Delhi, for fjj,„,^is_^ 
fuccours ; but the captain general Dowran, in 
his anfwers, affefted to defpiie the king of Pcrfia ; 
and infinuated, that it was impoflible he could 
meditate the conqueft of Hindoftan. He, how- 
ever, promifed, from time to time, that he him- 
felf would march with the imperial army, and 
drive the invader back to Pcriia. The difaf- 
fe6led omrahs wrote, at the fame time, to Nalir, 
to make the bell terms he could with Nadir 
Shaw ; for that there was little hopes of his be- 
ing reinforced with anv part of the royal army. 





tion at 

A.D. 1738. Nafir, finding himfelf negle(5led by the court, 
after a faint refiftance, furrendercd himfelf pri- 

Novcmber fQ^er to the king of Perfia, upon the 20th of 
Shaban. He was foon after taken into favour by 
that monarch, and appointed one of his viziers. 
Nadir Shaw had, by this time, crolTed the Nilab, 
one of the moft confiderable of the five branches 
of the Indus. He iflued out an order to ravage 
the country, to fpread the terror of his arms far 
and wide. 

Daily advices of the approach of the Perfians 
came to Delhi. A general confternation among 
the people, and a diilraclion in the councils of 
the government enfued. The king and his mi- 
nifi:er, Dowran, were fo weak, that either they 
did not fufpecl the treachery of the difaffecled 
omrahs, or took no meafures to prevent their 
defigns. New obfl:acles were daily thrown in the 
way of the military preparations of Dowran, till 
the Nizam and his colleagues thought, that the 
procraftination which they had occafioned, had 
fufiiciently weakened the imperial caufe. 

Upon the firfl of Ramzan, the Vizier, the 

December Nizam and Dowran, incamped without the city, 
with a great train of artillery, and began to levy 
forces. Nadir Shaw, during thefe tranfaclions, 
croiTed the Bea, and on the firfl of Shawal ap- 
peared before Lahore, Zekiria, governor of 
the city and province, who was incamped with 
5000 horfe before the walls, retreated into the 
city. He, the next day, marched out and at- 
tacked the Perlians. A general rout of his army 
was the confequence, and the conquerors were 
fo clofc to the heels of the run-ways, that they 
pofieiled themfelves of the gates. — Zekiria waited 
immediately upon Nadir Shaw, witti a royal pre- 
fent of half a lack of roupees, was politely re- 
ceived by that monarch, and Lahore was.preferv- 

A camp 




ed from being plundcred- 


M A H O M M E D. 337 

The king of Perfia continued his march to-A.D. 1739. 
wards Delhi, and upon the 14th of Zicada, ap-N.dirShaw 
peared in fight of the imperial army. The era- '^^^'^^^ ^^ 
peror was encamped upon the plains of Karnal ; Delhi. Fc 
i'o that only the canal, which fupplied Delhi with ^'''"- ^^^ 
water, divided the armies. The Moguls had 
only pofreffed themfelves of that ground about 
two days before the arrival of Nadir Shav,', and 
had thrown up entrenchments and redoubts be- 
fore them, mounted with five hundred pieces of 
artillery The army, which the king now com- 
manded in perfon, confifted of 150,000 horfe, 
exclufive of irregular infantry. This unwieldy 
body of militia was compofed of all forts of peo- 
ple, coUecled indifcriminately in the provinces, 
by the omrahs, who thought that a fufficient 
number of men and horfes was all that was ne- 
ceffary to form a good army. Subordination 
was a thing unknown in the Mogul camp : the 
private foldier, as well as the omrah, afted only 
by the impulfe of his own mind. 

The Perfians, though not lb numerous as the ^|^^_'^"" 
Moguls, were under fome degree of regulation. 
The rank of Nadir Shaw's officers Was determin- 
ed ; and his own commands were inftantly and 
implicitly obeyed. Severe to excefs, he pardon- 
ed no neQ:lecl c:>r difobedicnce in his omrahs. He 
has even been known to fend a mace- bearer to a 
general, at the head of 5000 hoffe ; with orders 
to make him halt and receive corporal punifh- 
ment, for a mifdcmeanor, in the front of his 
own men. Though this rigor may be thought in 
Europe too tyrannical and repugnant to a mili- 
tary fpirit ; yet, in a country where the princi- 
ples of honour are little known, fear is the 
Itrongeft motive to a ftrici performance of duty. 

The governor of Oud, upon the 14th of Zi- Fcbnniy 
cada, havinor out-marched his ba<]:G::iQ:c, joined the li^- \l'^^' 
imperial army. Juft as he was receiving an ho-saditciun. 

VojL. II. Z norary 


A.D. 1739. norary drefs from the emperor, advice came that 
the light horfe of Nadir Shaw had attacked hi.-, 
baggage. Sadit rcquefted of the king to be per- 
mitted to march out againft the enemy. The 
whole of this attack was a plan concerted between 
Nadir Shaw and the traitor, in order to draw the 
Mo2:uls from their entrenchments. The kino;, 
however, laid his commands upon Sadit to wait 
until the next morning, when, " by the favor 
of God," he intended to march out, with his 
whole army, to give the Perfians battle. But fo 
little did Sadit regard Mahommed's orders, that, 
as foon as he had quitted the prefence, he iflued 
out with 1000 horfe, which he had brought from 
his government, and attacked the enemy. A 
mock engagement now commenced, between 
Sadit and a part of the Perfian army ; who were 
ordered to retreat before him. He fent repeated 
melTages, from the field to the king, requefting 
more troops, and that he would drive the enemy 
back to Perfia. 
Dowranat- The cmpcror, juftly incenfed at the difobedi- 
tacks the qj^qq ^f Sadit, would not, for fome time, per- 
mit any fuccours to be fent to him. Dowran, 
at length, prevailed with the king to permit him, 
with 15,000 men, to fupport Sadit. When 
Dowran came up to the field, Sadit, in a feigned 
attack, joined the Perfians, and permitted him- 
felf to be taken prifoner. His defign was to get 
the ftart of his partner in treafon, the Nizam, in 
engaging the Perfian monarch in his interefi:. 
with great In the mean time, the troops of Sadit being 
bravery, ftrangcrs to the treachery of their commander, 
joined Dowran, and continued the engagement. 
Dowran was immediately attacked on all fides, 
by the bulk of the Perfian army. He, however, 
for fome time, maintained his ground with great 
firmnefs and refolution ; and was at length un- 
willingly drawn from the field, though he had 


M A H O M M E D. 339 

received a wound which foon after proved mor- a.d. 1739. 
tal, by three repeated mellages from the king, 
commanding his, immediate attendance. 

Mahommed was, with good reafon, apprehen- R-^caiied to 
five that the Nizam, who was then in the camp, "'^'^'""P' 
was preparing to feize him, which made him i'o 
anxious for the prefence of Dowran. When the 
wounded general appeared before the king, he 
told him of the fituation of affairs, and earneftly 
intrcated him to permit him to return to the 
field, with the troops which were under his im- 
mediate command, as captain-general, confifting 
of 36000 men, together with two hundred pieces 
of cannon. " Grant my requell:," faid he, 
" and you fhall never fee me return but in tri- 
" umph." 

The king was now perplexed beyond meafure. The king 
He dreaded the defigns of the Nizam, fliould ^Spp'^j^;;;; 
Dowran be abfent, and, at the fame time, he Nizam, 
durft not permit the traitor to march out of the 
lines, for fear he Ihoukl join the Perfians. He, 
therefore, fell into the common error of weak 
minds, and hefitaled, in hopes that delay would 
give birth to a more favorable concurrence of 
events. — He was deceived : the happy moment, 
for the prefervation of himfelf and the empire, 
was now upon the wing. His troops main- 
tained ftill their ground, under MuzzifFer, the 
gallant brother of Dowran ; and a reinforcement 
would turn the fcale of victory in their favor. 

When Dowran quitted the i:eid, the command Gallant 
of thofe Moguls, who were engaged, devoK-ed ^f 'ivwf. 
upon his brother Muzzifler. '1 har brav^e omrahf<-''- 
made a violent charge upon the Perfian army, 
and penetrated to the very door of Nadir Shaw's 
tent. There, for want of being fupported from 
the camp, Muzifier, Ali, Dowran's fon. Raja 
Gugermull, MuUu, Eadgar, and twenty-feven 

Z 2 officers 


A. D, 1739. officers ^^ diftinclion, covered one fmall fpot of 
ground with their bodies. Ten thouiand com- 
mon Mogul foldiers were (lain in this defperate 
action J which had ahiioft proved fatal to Nadir 
Shaw, for his whole army were upon the point 
of giving way ; feveral great detachments having 
fled back forty miles from the field of battle. 
After the engagement, the few that remained of 
the Moguls, retired within the entrench- 
ments *. 
Dowtan Dowran, though wounded, had that night an 
dies of his interview with the Nizam. It was agreed, that 
the whole army fhould next morning march out 
of the lines, and attack the Perfians in their 
camp. But when the morning came, Dowran's 
wound, which he had received in the arm, was 
fo much inflamed, that he could not acl, and, 
therefore, the meditated attack was delayed. 
In the evening of the i8th, a mortification en- 
fued, which was then attributed to fomethlng 
applied to the wound by a furgeon bribed by the 
Nizam ; and many in India ftill continue in the 
Februai ' fame belief. Be that as it will, Dowran expired 
18. that night, amidft the tears of his fovereign, who 

had a great friendfliip for him. 
Defi nsof When this brave omrah, on whom alone the 
the Nizam, hopcs of the cmpcror refted, was dead, the Ni- 
zam flood unrivalled in the management of af- 
fairs. The whole authority devolved upon him, 
and the king became a cypher in the midft of his 
own camp. The traitor finding now the power 
of the empire in his hands, under a certainty of 
being able to difpofc of the king at any time, ac- 

■f Frafer fays, that only 4000 Perfians were engaged ; but 
we have reafon to doubt his authority, as we derive our ac- 
count from feveral perfons, who were prefent in the aftion. 


M A H O M M E D. 341 

cording to his own pleafure, fet a treaty on foot a. d. 1739. 
with Nadir Shaw, tor the immediate return of 
that monarch into Perfia. So Uttle hopes had 
the Periian, at this time, of conquering the Mo- 
gul empire, that he actually agreed for the pitiful 
fum of fifty lacks of roupees, about fix hundred 
and twenty-five thouiand pounds, to evacuate 

Sadit, who, we have already obferved, was in f'^f^r^.ted 
the Pcrfian camp, hearing of thefe tranfaclions, ' 
uled all poflible means to break off the treaty. 
The regard of Nadir Shaw to his plighted faith, 
was not proof againft the lucrative offers of Sadit. 
That omrah promifed to pay to the Perfian two 
crores of roupees or two millions five hundred 
thoufand pounds out of his own private fortune, 
upon condition he fhould reduce the Nizam, and 
place himfelf at the head of the adminifi:ration. 

In the mean time, the Nizam, who was now 

appointed captain-general by the emperor, finding 
that Nadir Shaw broke the treaty, began to talk 
in a high fl:rain, and to make preparations for 
coming to aclion with the Perfians, to which the 
king ftrenuoufly urged him. But the active fpi- 
rit of Nadir Shaw was not idle during thefe 
tranfaclions. He poflefTed himfelf of feveral 
llrong pofts, round the Indian camp, and totally 
cut off their fuppiies of provifions. The Nizam 
perceiving that he muft; act with great difadvan- 
tage, if he fhould march out of hi^ lines and at- 
tack the Perfians, began to renew the treaty, and 
offered more than Sadit had done to Nadir 

Mahommed, being informed that thefe twoFcbmary 
villains, without his communication, were niak-?^- ^'^''; 
mg leparate bargains, about hmileir and his cm- icfoives to 
pire, and that he even had not the fhadow of'V'^'^'r 

1 • • 1 • 1,-11 r l^inp, of 

authority in his own camp, took a ludden refo- Pciii«, 




A.D.i759.1ution to throw himfelf upon the clemency of 
Nadir Shaw. " A declared enemy," faid he to 
the few friends who ftill adhered to him, is 
" by no means to be dreaded fo much as fecret 
" foes, under the fpcciours character of friends." 
Having, therefore, previoufly acquainted the 
Perfian of his intentions, he fet out in the morn- 
ing of the 20th, in his travelling throne, with a 
fmall retinue, for Nadir Shaw's camp. 
Hisrcccp- The king of Perfia, upon the Mogul's ap- 
lion. proach, fent his fon, Nifir Alia, to conduct him 
to the royal tent. Nadir Shaw advanced a few 
fleps from his throne, and embraced Mahom- 
med, and fitting down, placed him upon his left 
hand. The fubftance of their converfation has 
been already given to the public by Frafer : 
and, therefore, we (hall only obfervc here, 
that Nadir Shaw fcvercly reprimanded the Mo- 
gul, for his pufillanimous behaviour, in paying 
the Chout to the Mahrattors, and for fufTci ing 
himfelf to be invcfted in his camp, in the very 
center of his dominions, without making one 
lingle effort to repel the invaiion. 
Nadir shn-.v Nadir Shaw, after this' converfation, retired 
lii^ ^^ another tent, called to him his vizier, and 
confulted with him what was bcft to be done 
wirh Mahommed, in this critical fituation. 1 he 
vizier told him, that, ihould he confine the king, 
the Nizam, who commanded the army, would 
imimediately act for himfelf; and, as he was an 
able officer, they might n~eet with great difii-- 
culty in reducing him. But that, Ihould the 
king be permitted to return to the camp with af- 
furances of friendfliip and protection, a party 
would join him, that would, at leaft, be a ba- 
lance againfl the influence of the Nizam. 
uhpoWcy. Nadir Shaw faw the propriety of what his vi- 
zier advifed. He immediately returned to the 
royal tent, and told Mahommed, that, as hi- 


M A H O M ]\I E D. 343 

thcrto the Imperial houfe of Timur had not in- a. d. 1739. 

jiired the Perfians, it was far from his intentions 

to deprive Mahommed of his kingdom. " But," 

faid he, with a determined look, " the expence 

" of this expedition muft be paid, and, during 

" the time of coilefting the money, my fatigued 

" army muft refrefh themfelves in Delhi." The 

emperor made little reply to Nadir Shaw's dif- 

courfe. He was, however, permitted to return 

to his camp, and the Perfian began to lay 

fchemes to feize the Nizam. One Cafim Beg 

was employed in this affair. He, in Nadir 

Shaw's name, made the Nizam many proteftati- 

ons of friendfliip, and obtained a promife, that 

he would vifit that monarch in his camp. He 

accordingly, upon the 24th, fet out, and was, 

immediately upon his arrival in the Perfian lines, 

feized, and, together with fome great omrahs 

who attended him, confined. 

Mahommed, looking upon the Nizam's con- February 
finement as a plan laid by the traitor himfelf, in " " 
order that he might negotiate matters with the 
Perfian with more fecurity, determined to pay a 
fecond vifit to Nadir Shaw. — 1 hat monarch had, 
by this time, fecured moft of the Mogul omrahs, 
one after another, and when the emperor, upon ,, , 
tne 20tn, arrived in the camp, a tent was pitched med'sin- 
for him near the royal pavilion. The unfortu- ^''",''.''''' v 
nate Mahommed was carried into his tent, and fortunes. 
left for fome time alone. A collation was 
brought him, and he ate very heartily ; with- 
out betraying any fymptoms of being affeded 
with his unhappy fituation. Nadir Shaw was 
greatly aftonifhcd when he heard of Mahom- 
med's behaviour, and exclaimed : *' What kind 
'' of man muft this be, who can, with fo mucli 
*•' indift'crence, give his freedom and empire to 
" the wind ? But wc are told, by the wile, that 
" greatnefs of mind confifts in two extremes : to 

" fuffer 


A. D. 1739. " fuffer patiently, or to act boldly; to defpife 
" the world, or to exert all the powers of the 
" mind to command it. This man has chofen 
*:' the former : but the latter was the choice of 
'« Nadir Shaw." 
ufed with Though Mahommed was hindered from rc- 
Nadirshaw. turning to his own camp, he was permitted to 
have all his domeftics about him, who amounted 
to three thoufand. A thouland Perfian horfe 
mounted guard upon him : but this pretended 
honor, which was conferred upon him, was a 
certain badge of his forlorn condition. In the 
mean time, Kummir, the vizier, Surbullind 
Chan, the Nizam, and all the prhicipal Mogul 
omrahs, were kept in the fame kind of honora- 
ble confinement. The Perfian had now nothing 
to fear from an army without oiHcers. He en- 
tered the camp, feized upon the ordinance, the 
military cheft, the jevvel-ofiice, tiie wardrobe 
and armory. — He ordered three months pay to 
be immediately advanced to his troops, and the 
befi; of the artillery he fent off to Cabuh 
jMarch 2 Upou the 2d of Zcbidgc, Nadir Shaw moved 
Who from Karnal towards Delhiih.- virhe emperor, 
Delhi!" '° guarded Ijy tc;n thoufand men, marched a few 
miles in his rear. The Mogul army were, at the 
fame time, ordered to march in two irregular 
columns, one on each fide of the Perfians, the 
front of whofe column was advanced two miles 
beyond the other two. By continued marches^ 
Nadir Shaw arrived upon the 8th. inthe fuburbs 
of the city. He himfclf, at the head of 12000 
horfe, entered the city next .day; ,.i:iu f, ;' ' ji.'i.'.' 
Behaviour ^^^^ ^i"S ^^ Pcrfia, finding himfelf in pbflef- 
to the Ni- fion of Delhi, called the Nizam and Sadit into 
zfm, -c. j^-g prefencc, and-addrellcd them in the following 
extraordinary .manner: *' Are not you both 
" 'rnofl ungrateful villains to .your king and 
■iU!? ' t< country; 

M A H O M M E D. 345 

country ; who, after pofTefling fuch wealth and a. d. 1739. 
dignities, called me from my own dominions, 
to ruin them and yourfelves ? But I will 
fcourge you all with my wrath, which is the 
inftrument of the vengeance of God." Hav- 
ing fpoke thele words, he fpit upon their beards, 
the higheft affront poflible to Muimlmen, and 
turned them, with every mark of indignity, 
from his prefence. 

After the traitors were thruft out into the 
court of the palace, the Nizam addreiTed himfelf 
to Sadit, and fwore, by the holy prophet, that 
he would not furvive this indignity. Sadit ap- 
plauded his refolution, and fvvore he w-ould fwal- 
low poifon upon his return home ; the Nizam did 
the fame ; and both, determined in appearance 
upon death, retired to their refpedive houfes. 

Sadit, in the m^ean time, ient a trufty fpy to ^^^'^^ 
bring him intelligence when the Nizam fhould ddUoy 
take his draught. The Nizam, being come home, ^■^emrdves. 
appeared in the deepeft affliction : but having 
privately intimated his plot to a fervant, he or- 
dered him to bring him the poifon. The fervant 
aded his part well. He brought him an innocent 
draught, with great reluctance. The Nizam, 
after fome hefitation, and having formally laid 
his prayers, drank it ofT in the prefence of Sadit's 
fpy, and foon after pretended to fall down dead. 
1 he Ipy haftened back to his mafter, and told 
him that the Nizam had jull expired. Sadit, 
afhamed of being outdone in a point of honor by 
his fellow in iniquity, fwallowed a draught "of 
real poifon, and became the jull inftrumient of 
punilhment to his own \illainy. The Nizam 
was not afhamed to live, though none had 
greater reafon. He even prided, in that wicked 
trick, by which he had rid himfelf of his riv<vH 



A.D. 1739. and afterwards aclualiy enjoyed the intended 

fruits of all his villainies. 
Gates of I'hc Perlian, in the mean time, placed guards 
Delhi ihut. upon the gates o*- Delhi, with orders to permit 
no perlbn whatever to pafs in or out without his 
fpeciil licence. Thefe il:ricl injunclions were 
given to prevent the inhabitants from evacuating 
the place, and from carrying away their wealth. 
He, ac the fame time, iiiued his commands, that 
no perfon whatfoever Ihould be molelled ; but 
he demanded twentv-iive crores, about ihirtv 
millions of our monev, as a contribution for 
fparing the city. 

Whilft the mao-iftrates were contrivins; ways 
r^i'"/;' " and means to raife this enormous fum, bv lavincr 
pofed. a tax in proportion to their wealth on individu- 
als, famine besjan to rage in the citv, as all com- 
munication with the country was cut off. Upoa 
March 10 *^^^ ^°^^^ Nadir >haw ordered the granaries to be 
opened, and fold rice at a certain price. This 
occafioned a prodigious mob in all the public Ba- 
zars, particularly in the Shawgunge, or royal 
market. A Periian foldier in this market, feeing 
a man felling pigeons, feized by force upon his 
bafket. The fellow, to whom the pigeons be- 
longed, made a hideous outcry, and proclaimed 
aloud. That Nadir Shaw had ordered a general 

The mob immediately fell upon the Perfian, 
who v/as protected by fome of his own country- 
men. A great tumult arofe, and fome perfons, 
bent upon more mifchief, cried aloud. That Nadir 
Shaw was dead ; and that now was the time to 
drive the Perhans out of the city. The citizens, 
who in general carried arms, drew their fwords, 
and began to cut to pieces the Perfians, where- 
ever they could be found. The report of the 
death of Nadir Shaw flew, like lightning, 


A tumult. 

M A H O ]M M E D. 347 

through every ftreet in Delhi; and all places a. d. 173-7. 
were filled with tumult, confufion, and death. 
It was now dark, and the Perfians, who had 
been draggling through the city, returned to the 
citadel, except two thoufand who were killed by 
the mob. 

About twelve o'clock at night, the king of ^^^"^^'f'f^f 
Perlia was informed of thefe tranfaclions. He the cumuU. 
immediately ordered what men he had with him 
underarms, and, putting himfclf at their head, 
marched out as far as the Mufgid of Rofliin ul 
Dowlat. He thought it prudent to halt there till 
day-light fhould appear. He, in the mean time, 
fent for the Nizam, Sirbillund, and Kimmir the 
Mogul vizier, and threatened to put them to in- 
ftant death, charging them with fomenting thefe 
tumults. They fwore upon the Coran, that they Maich n. 
were innocent, and he pardoned them. When 
day began to appear, a perfon from a neigbour- 
ing terrace fired upon Nadir Shaw, and killed an 
ofliccr by his fide. I'he king was fb enraged, 
that, though the tumult had, by this time, to- 
tally fubfided, he ordered the officers of the ca- 
valry to lead their fquadrons through the flreets, 
and fome mufqueteers to fcour the terraces, and 
to comm^ence a general mafiacre among the 
unfortunate inhabitants. This order was execu- orc^ers a 
ted with fo much rigor, that, before two o'clock aTScrc. 
in the afternoon, above 100,000 without diilinc- 
tion of age, lex, or condition, lay dead in rheir 
blood, though not above one third part of the 
city was vifited by the fword. vSuch was the 
panic, terror and confufion of thefe poor wretch- 
es, that infiead of bravely oppofing death, the 
men threw down their arms, and, with their 
wives and children, lubmitted themfelves like 
fheep to the fLiughter. One Pcrfian fbldicr often 
butchered a whole family, without meeting with 
any rcliflance. The Hindoos, according to their 



A.D. 1739. barbarous cuftom, fhut up their wives and daugh- 
ters, and fet fire to their apartments, and then 
threw themfelves into the flames. Thoufands 
pluHi^cd headlong into wells, and were drowned ; 
death was feen in every horrid fhape ; and, at 
hil^ feemed rather to be fought after than 

1 he king of Perfia fat, during this dreadful 
fcene, in the Mufgid of Rofhin ul !Q.owlat. 
None but the flave durfi: come near him, for his 
countenance was dark and terrible. At length, 
the unfortunate emperor, attended by a num- 
ber of his chief omrahs, ventured to approach 
him with downcafi: eyes. The omrahs, who 
preceded Mahommed, bowed down their fore- 
heads to the ground. Nadir Shaw fternly afked 
them what they wanted ? They cried out, with 
one voice, " Spare the city." Mahommed faid 
not a word, but the tears flowed fafl: from his 
eyes. The tyrant, for once touched with pity, 
fheathed his fword, and faid, " For the fake of 
" the prince Mahommed, I forgive." 

Hisfeverity ]v[q fooner had he pronounced thefe words 
than, according to our author, the maflfacre was 
itopt ; and fo inftantaneous was the efl'ecl of his 
orders, that in a few minutes every thing was 
calm in the city. He then retired into the cita- 
del, and inquired into the original caufe of this 
tumult. ') he noble Seid Neaz, the fuperintend- 
ant of the royal market, for having been aclive 
in this affair, was put to death. Kifrac, a brave 
omrah, for having defended his houfe againft: 
the Perfians who came to maflkcre his family, but 
who had not been concerned in the tumult, was 

Maflacre at I'hc tyrant's thirft for blood was not yet fa- 

Moguipur tisfied. He fent detachments daily to plunder 
the villages near Delhi, and to put all the inha- 

M A H O M M E D. 349 

bitants to the fword. Six thoufand of the inha- a. 0.1739- 
bitants of Mogulpurra were cut off for a very- 
trivial oflence. He fent a party into the royal 
market, where the tumult firft arofe, and or- 
dered feven hundred perfons to be felzed in- 
difcriminately, and their nofes and ears to be 
cut off. 

When now all difturbances were quelled by The city 
the blood of the unfortunate Delhians, the king ^^ ^^"^ ' 
of Perfia had leifure to pillage the city at plea- 
fure. He feized upon the public treafure and 
the regalia of the Mogul emperor. In the trea- 
fury ieveral vaults were difcovered, in which 
much wealth lay concealed, as well as many 
valuable effecT:s. In the public treafury was 
found in fpecie, near four million fterling : in 
the private vaults were two millions five hundred 
thoufand. The jewel -office was eftimated at 
thirty millions fterling, including the famous 
throne of the Mogul emperors, which was va- 
lued at more than twelve miUions. The royal 
wardrobe and armory were reckoned worth 
feven millions fterhng. Eight millions w^re 
raifed in fpecie, by way of contribution, upon 
the city, and about ten millions in jewels ; all 
which, together with horfes, camels and ele- 
phants, amount to about fixty-two millions five 
hundred thoufand pounds of our money. 

Great cruelties were exercifed in levying the Nndir 
contributions upon the city. Under an arbi- cruJt *. 
trary government, like that of India, individuals 
find it neccllary to conceal their wealth. Some 
omrahs, therefore, who had very little, v/ere 
taxed very high, whilft others who were lich 
came off with a moderate fum. Many of the 
former, under the fuppofition, that they actu- 
ally pofl'eflbd more wealth, were, after they 
had given all they were worth in the world, 



A. D.I 739. tortured to death ; whilft others, to avoid pain, 
Ihame and poverty, put, with their own hands, 
an end to their miferable exiftence. 

Upon the 21ft of Mohirrim, the king of Per- 
fia celebrated the nuptials of his fon, the prince 
Nafir Ali, with the daughter of Ezidan, the fon 
of Kam, and grandfon of the famous Aurung- 
zebe. The Shaw himfelf difcovered a violent 
defire to efpoufe the beautiful daughter of 
MuzifFer * ; but he was prevented by one of his 
wives, who had the art to command the furious 
fpirit of Nadir Shaw, which the reft of the world 
could not controul. 

Humanity Durinff all thefe tranfactions the gates of the 

of aa acflor. . '^ ■, n ^ r^ • i 

City were kept Ihut, ramme began to rage 
every day more and more ; but the Shaw was 
deaf to the mifcries of mankind. The public 
fpirit of Tucki, a famous acfor, deferves to be 
recorded upon this occafion. He exhibited a 
play before Nadir Shaw, with which that mo- 
narch was fo well pleafed, that he commanded 
Tucki to a(k, and what he wiftied fhould be 
done for him. Tucki fell upon his face, and faid, 
" O king, command the gates to be opened, that 
" the poor may not perifti." His requeft was 
granted, and half the city poured out into the 
country ; and the place was fupplied in a few days 
with plenty of provifions. 
Mahom. The king of Perfia, having now raifed all 
nawdTiT' the money he could in Delhi, reinftated Ma- 
the throne, hommcd in the empire, upon the third of Sifter, 
with great folemnity and pomp. He placed 
the crown upon his head with his own hand, and 
prefented him with a rich honorary drefs j dif- 

* The brother of Do^)iTan. He was flain in the battle it 


M A H O M MED. 351 

trlbutlncr, at the fame time, forty more among a. d. 1739. 
tlie Mogul omrahs. He then gave to the empe- 
ror fome inftruclions concerning the regula- 
tion of his army ; to which he added fome ge- 
neral maxims of government. He put him 
upon his guard againft the Nizam, who, he 
plainly perceived, iifpired above the rank of a 
fubjeci:. '^ Had not I," faid the king of Perfia, 
*' foolidily paiTed my word for his fafety, the 
" old * traitor fhould not live to difturb Ma- 

Every thing being ready upon the 7th, for ^'!rJhfs\^o- 
Nadir Shaw's return to Perfia, ftrid orders were wards pcr- 
iifued to his army to carry no flaves away, "'* 
nor any Indian women, contrary to their in- 
clinations, upon pain of immediate death. Be- 
fore his departure, he obliged Mahommed for- 
mally to cede to the crown of Perfia, the pro- 
vinces of Cabul, Pefliawir, Kandahar, Ghizni, 
Moultan and Sind, or, in in general, all thofe 
countries which lie to the northweft of the 
Indus. The whole of the treafure which Na- 
dir Shaw carried from Hindoftan, amounted, by 
the beil com.putation, to eighty milhons of our 

Wlien this deftructive comet, to ufe the ex- ^*"''="'=»*^- 
prefiion of our Indian author, rolled back from 
the meridian of Delhi, he burnt all the towns 
and villages in his way to Lahore, and marked 
his route with devaftation and death. " But 
" before he difappears behind the mountains of 
" Perfia," fays our author, continuing the me- 
taphor of the comet, " it may not be improper 
" to throw fome light on the character of this 
" fcourge of Hindoilan." Nadir Shaw, together 
with great ftrength of body, was endued widi 

* The Nizam was near ninety years of age. 




A-D. 1739. uncommon force of mind. Inured to fatigue 
from Iiis youth, liruggling with dangers and 
difficulties, he acquired vigor from oppofition, 
and a fortitude of foul, unknown in a life of 
cafe. His ambition was unbounded and undif- 
guifed : he never fawned for power, but de- 
manded it as the property of his fuperior parts. 
Had he been born to a throne, he deferved it ; 
had he continued a fabjecl, his glories would 
have been lefs dazzling, but more permanent and 

In a country where patriotifm and honour 
are principles little known, fear is the only 
means to inforce obedience. This rendered 
Nadir Shaw fo cruel and inexorable, that often, 
in his rage and the hurry of action, he inflicted 
general punifhments for the crimes of a few. 
Courage, which he poiTelTed in common with 
the lion, was his only virtue ; and he owed his 
greatnefs to the great defects of his mind. Had 
his eye melted at human miferies, had his foul 
Ihuddered at murder, had his breaft glowed 
once with benevolence, or, had his heart revolted 
at any injuftice, he might have lived to an old 
age, but he would have died without the name 
of Nadir *. 
Ambition The king of Perfia having evacuated India, 
Nizam. ^^^ Nizam began to difcover his own ambitious 
defigns. His rivals were now all removed ; fome 
by his villainy, and others by favorable acci- 
dents. Without oppofition, the management of 
affairs fell into his hands. Though he ingrofled, 
in fact, the whole power, he delegated the 
great offices of the flate to others. The name 
of vizier was retained by Kimmer, and that of 



M A H O M MED. 353 

captain-general, was conferred upon the Nizam's ^.d. 17^,9. 
fon, the noble Ghazi ul Dien. He appointed 
Emir fubadar of Allahabad, which fo difgufted 
Mahomed Bunguilh, to whom that government 
was promifed by the former adminiftration, that 
he left the court without leave, and repaired to 
his eftate at Ferochabad. 

The government of Oud being vacant by the Seifdar 
death of Sadit, that fubafliip was conferred upon J"|^| "'^^*^^ 
an omrah, called Seifdar Jung, together wdth Oud. 
the title of Burhan ul muluck. The Nizam, 
having nothing to fear from the fubas of the 
other provinces, continued them in their em- 
ploys. Notwithftanding the fevere blow which 
the empire had julf received, no meafures were 
taken to revive the declining power of the 
crown. This was, by no means, the intereft of 
the Nizam, who now affumed every thing of the 
king, but the name. 

Mahommed having fufFered himfelf to be debility of 
divefted of his power in his capital, it could '^ '^ ^""P"*^- 
not be expecled that his authority Ihould be 
much regarded in the provinces. The nabobs 
and Indian princes, throughout the empire, paid 
now little attention to the firmans of the court 
of Delhi. Each of them entertained ideas of 
independence, and actually polfellcd a regal au- 
thority in their governments. — Tiie Mahrattors, 
who had, for fome time back, made large ftrides 
to eftabliih the ancient Hindoo government in 
India, in the year 1 153, made an incurfion into 
the Carnatic with an army of eighty thoufand a. 0.1740, 
horfc, under the command of Ragojee. Hav- 
ing forced the paflTes of the mountains, they 
fell unexpectedly upon Dootl Ali, nabob of that 
province, in fubordination to the Nizam, who 
was governor-general of the Decan. The forces 
of Ali Doofl were defeated, and he himfelf, to- 

VoL. II. A a gether 


A. 0,1740. gether with his fon, Haffin Ali, fell in the adion, 
after having exhibited extraordinary feats of 
bravery and firmnefs. 

Affairs of Sipadar Ali, the fon, and Chunder Saib, the 
ecan. fyj^_jp_i^^y gf Dooft Ali, had ftill confiderable 
armies under their command. But both hav- 
ing views upon the government of the pro- 
vince, inftead of oppofing the Mahrattors, com- 
mitted hoftihties upon one another. The con- 
fequence was, that they were obliged to fhut 
themfelves up in places of ftrength, the firft in 
Velour, and the latter in Trichinopoly. The 
enemy were, by this means, permitted to ravage 
the province at their leifure, and to raife heavy 
contributions upon the inhabitants. 

Sipadar AH, finding he could effect nothing 
in the field againfl the Mahrattors, fet a negotia- 
tion on foot with them, by the means of his fa- 
ther's minifter, who had been taken prifoner in 
the aclion by thofe barbarians. It was at lafl de- 
termined in private, that, upon condition the 
Mahrattors fhould immediately evacuate the 
Carnatic, they fliould receive one hundred lacks 
roupees, at ftatcd periods ; and that, as a fecuri- 
ty for the payment of this fum, they fhould be 
put in poffefiion of the territory of Trichino- 
poly. One of the terms was, that Sipadar Ali 
fliould be acknowledged nabob of the Car- 

Ali, having thus flrengthened himfelf witli 
the alliance of the Mahrattors, his brother-in- 
law thought it prudent to pay him homage at 
Arcot ; not knowing that Trichinopoly, and 
thofe diflricts which he pofTefTed, had been made 
over to the Mahrattors. The barbarians, in the 
mean time, returned to their own dominions ; 
but, about fix months thereafter, they made a 
fecond irruption into the Carnatic, to take pof- 

M A H O Ivl M E D. 35^- 

fefllon of the territories which had been private- a. d. 1740. 
ly ceded to them by Sipadar Ali. Chunder Saib 
fhut himfelf up in Trichinopoly ; and after fuf- 
taining a fiege of three months, was, upon the 
feventh of Mohirrim, 1 154, obliged to furrender 
at difcretion. 

Thefe tranfaclions in the Decan did not dif- ^^['r^ ^- 
turb the peace at Delhi. The king and his 
minifters continued in a profound lethargy ever 
fince the invalion of Nadir Shaw, and feemed 
indifferent about the affairs of the dillant pro- 
vinces. But a preffmg danger at home roufed 
them for a moment. A fellow, from the low 
rank of a grafs-cutter, raifed himfelf to the com- 
mand of a gang of robbers. As in the debili- 
tated ftate of government, he committed, for 
fomc time, his depredations with impunity, 
his banditti, by degrees, fwelled to an army 
of twelve thoufand men. He immediately af- 
fumed the imperial enfigns, under the title of 
Daranti Shaw. This mufhroom of a kins: was, 
however, foon deftroyed. Azim Alia, a gallant 
omrah, was fent againft him with an army from 
Delhi, He came up with the rebels, cut the 
moft of them to pieces, and flew Daranti in the 
adion. This happened in the 1153 ^^ ^^^ ^^^* 

In the month of Regib, 1154, Sipadar Ali, 
nabob of the Carnatic, was affafiinated by his 
brother-in-law, Mortaz Ali, who immediately 
acceded to Mufnud. But a cjeneral mutiny 
arifing in the army, the murderer was obliged 
to fly from his capital, in a female drefs ; and 
Mahummud, the fon of Sipadar, was proclaimed 
fuba of the Carnatic. 

The Nizam, who claimed the fovcreignty of ^^"JJ'^^ 
the Decan, feeing thefc repeated revolutions in into the 
the Carnatic, without his concurrence, began °"'"'' 

A a 2 to 


A.D. 174/. to prepare to leave the court of Delhi. He fet- 
tled his affairs with the miniilry, and returned to 
Hydrabad. He immediately collected an army, 
and, in the month of Ramzan, 1155, marched 
towards the Carnatic with near three hundred 
thoufand men. In the Sifter of 11 56, the Nizam 
arrived at Arcot without oppolition ; and found 
the country in fuch anarchy and confufion, 
tliat no lefs than twenty petty chiefs had alTumed 
the titles of Nabob. The Nizam made a regula- 
tion, that whoever fhould take the name of 
Nabob, for the future, without permiflion, 
fliould be publickly fcourged ; and raifed im- 
mediately AbduUa, one of his own generals, to 
the fubafhip of Arcot ; ordering the fon of 
Sipadar Ali into confinement. He, at the fame 
time, poffelTed himfelf of the city of Trichino- 
poly by means of a fum of money which he gave 
to Malhar Raw, who commanded there on the 
part of the Mahrattors. 

Settles that ^hc Nizam, without drawing the fword, 
oun ry. ^^^^ fettled the affairs of the Carnatic. He re- 
turned in triumph to Golcondah, whither Ab- 
dulla, the new governor of Arcot, accompani- 
ed him. Abdulla, returning towards his go- 
vernment, was, the firff night after his taking 
leave of the Nizam, found dead in his bed. 
Abdulla was fucceeded in the NabobiQiip of Ar- 
cot, by Anwar ul Dien Chan ; who, according 
to the accounts of fome fufpicious Afiatics, was 
faid to have made away with his predeceflbr in 
office. There was, however, no reafonable 
foundation for this fufpicion. He was defcend- 
ed of one of the noblelf of the Mogul families 
and remarkable for his juftice and moderation. 
At once a foldier and a fcholar, he was fitted 
both for the field and cabinet. His talents pro- 
cured to him the government of the Carnatic ; 


M A H O M M E D. 557 

he made different pilgrimages to Mecca, which ad. 1741. 
made him as much revered for his piety, as he 
was efteemed for his abiHties. He died in arms, 
at the age of eighty, in defending his dominions 
againft the enemies of Great Britain. 

The Nizam in this abfolute manner difpofed Becomesin- 
of the provinces of the Decan, without the con- ^^^" '^"'^* 
currence of the court, and actually became king 
of that country, though he never affumed that 
title. In the mean time, the Nizam's fon, Gha- 
zi ul Dien, overawed the emperor at Delhi, and 
left that indolent prince no more than the mere 
Ihadow of royalty. 

Whilft the Decan, that great limb of the Mo- R^^'°^' '" 
gul empire, was cut off by the Nizam, Aliverdi ^"^^ ' 
Chan ufurped the government of Bengal, Behar, 
and Oriffa. This fellow was once a common 
foldier, who, together with his brother Hamed, 
came from Tartary in queft of fervice to Delhi, 
In that city they continued for fome time in the 
fervice of the famous Dowran, and afterwards 
became menial fervants to Suja Chan, nabob of 
Cattack. Suja Chan, after the death of Jaffier, 
fucceeded to the government of the three pro- 
vinces of Bengal, Behar, and Oriffa. The two 
Tartars, being poffeffed of good natural parts 
and fome education, rofe gradually into office, 
and were greatly favoured by the nabob. Hamed 
had, in a manner, become his prime minifter, 
and, by his political intrigues in the Haram, 
obtained the place of Naib, or deputy of the pro- 
vince of Behar, for his brother Aliverdi, who 
was then a captain of horfe. Aliverdi was not 
long eftabliflied in his high employ, when he 
began to tamper with the venal miniftry of Delhi, 
for a feparate commiffion for the province, which 
he then held of iSuja Chan. Money, which has 
great influence in everv country, is all power- 


A.D. i74r. ful in liincloftan. Aliverdi flrcngthened his fo- 
licitations with a round fum, and, by the means 
of the captain-general Dowran, became indepen- 
dent I'uba of Behar. 

Suja Chan dying foon after, was fucceeded in 
the fubafhip of Bengal by his fon Sirfaraz. We 
do not mean to infmuate, that he had any right 
of inheritance to his father's government, or 
that the fubadary had been eiiablifhed in his 
family by any grant of the crown, which was 
contrary to the eftabliflied laws of the empire : 
but the imperial authority was now fo weak, 
that the nabobs took upon themfelves to be- 
queath the governments to their fons, who were 
afterwards, through a fatal neceflity, generally 
confirmed from Delhi. 

Sirfaraz, being a man of a haughty and impe- 
rious difpofition, foon loft the affeclion of all his 
officers. He difgraced Hamed, and tarniflied 
the honor of the powerful family of thofe opu- 
lent merchants, the Jagga Scat, by a fooiifli 
acl of power. Hamed, however, took advan- 
tage of the difaffection to Sirfaraz's govern- 
ment. He formed a confpiracy againft the na- 
bob, and invited his brother Aliverdi to invade 
Bengal. Aliverdi accordingly marched from 
Patna, in the month ot' Ramzan 1154, and en- 
tering Bengal, defeated and killed Sirfaraz, at 
Geriah, near Muxadabad, and, without fur- 
ther oppolition, became fuba of the three pro- 
Impolitic The weak emperor, inftead of chaftlfing the 
of'theem. ufurpcr with an army from Deliii, fell upon an 
peior. expedient, at once difgracqful and impolitic. 
The Mahrattors threatened Mahommed for 
the Chout, which, before the Perfian inva- 
fion, he had promifed to pay them ; and he 
gave them a commilhon to raife it themfelves 


M A H O M M E D. 359 

upon the revolted provinces. The Suu * Raja, ad. 1742. 
the chief of the Mahrattors, fent accordingly an 
army of 50000 horfe, from his capital of Sattara, 
to invade Bengal. This force, under the con- 
duct of Bofcar Pundit, ravaged, with fire and 
fword, all thofe diftricls which lie to the wed of 
the Gans-es. 

Aliverdi, who was a brave foldier, defended Aiiverdi 
liimfelf with great refolution. But he owedSe"ofem! 
more to his villainy than to his arms. Having mem of 
found means to affaffinate the leader of the Mah-^""^""''*^' 
rattors, he forced them to retreat. — When the 
news of the murder reached the ears of the Suu 
Raja, he ordered two other armies into Bengal ; 
one by the way of Behar, and another by that of 
Cattack. The firfl was commanded by Balla 

Raw, and the latter by Ragoiee. Aliverdi, 

not being able to cope with this great force in 
the field, had recourfe to art. He fowed diflTen- 
fion between the two chiefs ; fet a private treaty 
on foot with Balla Raw ; who, having received 
two years Chout, evacuated the provinces, leav- 
ing his colleague to make the beft terms he could 
for himfelf. The fcale was now turned againft 
the Mahrattors. Ragojee retreated to Cattack, 
and, with conftant incurfions and flying parties, 
greatly harrafied the provinces. The good for- 
tune of Aliverdi at length prevailed, and he 
fiiw himfelf independent fovereign of Bengal, 
Behar, and Oriffa : though, to quiet the minds 
of the people, he pretended to poilbfs grants 
from the court, which he himfelf had actually 

We have been purpofcly fuccincT: on the man- 
ner in which the Dccan and Bengal were dif- 
njembered from the em.pire, as tlic fac1:s arc 

* Suu, in the Shanfcrltta language, fignlfies Glorious. 



^D I ^^4. already pretty well known in Europe. We re- 
turn, now, to the affairs of the interior pro- 
vinces. This fubjecl has hitherto been touched 
by no writer, and very few Europeans in Afia 
have made any confiderable enquiries concern- 
ing it. 

coun" ^ During thefe tranfaclions, nothing happened 
at Delhi, but the intrigues and factions of a 
weak and corrupt adminiftration. In the year 
1157, Ali Mahummud, a Patan of the Rohilla 
tribe. Zemindar of Bangur and Awla, began 
to appear in arms. Ali was a foldier of for- 
tune, and a native of the mountains of Cabulif- 
tan, who, fome years before his rebellion, came 
to Delhi, with about three hundred followers of 
his own tribe, and was entertained in the impe- 
rial fervice. Being efteemed a gallant officer, 
the command of a fmall diftrict, upon the road 
between Delhi and Lahore, was conferred upon 
him ; where he entertained all vagrants of his 
own clan, who came down in queft of military 
fervice, from their native mountains. In this 
manner Ali expended all the rents of his diftritSt, 
and he was hard preffed for the payment of the 
crown's proportion of his income, by the fojedar 
of Muradabad, to whom he was accountable. 

Hernind, the fojedar, defpairing to get any 
part of the revenue from Ali, by fair means, 
prepared to ufe force. He raifed 15000 of his 
own vaffals, with a defign to expel or chaftife 
the refractory Zemindar. Ali, by the afliftance 
of his northern friends, who lived upon him, 
defeated Hernind, with great (laughter, and 
thus laid the foundation of the Rohilla govern- 
ment, now fo formidable in Hindoftan. 

Kimmir, the vizier, upon receiving intelli- 
gence at Delhi of this blow to the regal autho- 
rity, difpatched his own fon, the noble Munnu, 

a youth 

iM A H O M M E D. 361 

a youth of great bravery, with an army of 30000, a. D.174S. 
againft the rebels. Munnu, croffing the Jumna, 
advanced to a place called Gurmuchtiflier, on 
the banks of the Ganges, and found that All 
had acquired fo much ilrength lince his late vic- 
tory, that he feared the iffue of an engagement. 
A negotiation, therefore, was fet on foot, and, 
after the armies had lain three months in fig^ht of 
one another, a treaty was concluded. The con- 
ditions were, that Ali ihould keep polTeffion of 
the countries, formerly comprehended in the 
government of Hernind, upon paying the an- 
cient revenues to the crown, and that, in the 
mean time, one year's payment fliould be ad- 
vanced in four months. 

After this treaty was ratified, Munnu returned 
to Delhi : but the appointed time elapfed, with- 
out any payments on the part of Ali. He con- 
tinued to ftrengthen himfelf, annexed more dif- 
tricls to his government, and ravaged the neigh- 
bouring countries to fubfift his army. He, in 
fliort, became formidable enough to roufe the 
indolent emperor from his lethargy. That 
monarch took the field, with fifty or fixty thou- 
fand horfe, and in the year 1150, croil'ed the 

Ali, upon the king's approach, retreated acrofs Rebellion 
the Ganges, and fhut himfelf in Bangur, a place '^^"'^ 
of fome ftrength, where the imperial army in- 
verted him. The rebel, for the firft two nights, 
made fuccefsful fallies, and killed many in the 
imperial camp. The king, however, having 
drawn lines of circumvallation round the fort, 
after a fliort but bloody iiege, obliged the garri- 
fon to capitulate. Ali made terms for his 
own life, and he was brought prifoner to Delhi, 
where he remained in confmcment for fix 



A. D. 1746. The Patan chiefs, who were always, in private, 
enemies to the government of the Moguls, call- 
ing their eyes upon Ali, as a very proper perfon 
to raifc their own intereft, folicited the em- 
peror for his releafe. The weak monarch grant- 
ed their requeft ; but the Patans, not yet fatisfied, 
obtained for Ali the fojedarfhip of Sirhind. — 
This was fuch wretched policy in the court of 
Delhi, that nothing but downright infatuation, 
tolly, and the laft degree of corruption in the 
miniftry, could ever have permitted it to take 
place. The confequence was, that Ali collected 
his difperfed tribe, kept poffeffion of Sirhind, of 
feveral diftricls between the rivers and beyond 
the Ganges, without remitting one roupee to 

Abdd^a. ^^'^^ ^^'^'^ already feen, that all the provinces 
to the north-weft of the Indus were ceded to 
Nadir Shaw. "When that conqueror was aflaf- 
finatcd in Perfia, Achmet Abdalla, a native of 
lierat, who had raifed himfelf in his fervice, from 
the office of Chobdar, or mace-bearer, to that 
of Chazanchi, or treafurer, found means, with 
the affiftance of his own tribe, in the confulion 
which fucceeded the Shaw*s death, to carry oft* 
three hundred camels loaded with wealth, to 
the mountains of Afganiftan. This treafure en- 
abled Abdalla to raife an army, and to poffefs 
himfelf by degrees of the diftrids of the moun- 
tains, Herat, part of Chorraifan, and all the 
provinces ceded by the crown of Hindoftan to 
the king of Perfia. Thus Abdalla laid the foun- 
dation of an empire, in thofe countries, which 
formerly compofed the great monarchy of Ghiz- 

Invades the Abdalla, pcrcciving the declining ftate of the 

^''"P"'^' Mogul government in Hindoftan, crofted the 
Nilab, the ancient Hydafpes, one of the branches 


M A H O iM M E D. 363 

of the Indus, In the beginning of the year 1160, a. 0.1747. 
and railing contributions upon his march, ad- 
vanced towards Delhi, with 50000 horfe. The 
poor Delhians were ftruck with univerfal panic. 
The king hinifelfwas iick ; and there were dif- 
traclions in the councils of the minifters. The 
preiTure of the danger cemented all their differ- 
ences. Ahmed Shaw, the prince royal, Kimmir, 
the vizier. Seid Sullabit, and Seifdar Jung, took 
the field, with 80000 horfe, and marched to op- 
pofe the invader. 

The imperial army left Delhi upon the 18th of '^'^pp°^'^'^- 
Siffer, and advanced to a place called Minoura, 
twenty miles beyond Sirhind, Abdalla's army 
were here in fight ; and both, afraid of the iffue 
of a battle, ftrongly entrenched themfelves. In 
this fituation they remained for thirty days ; 
fometimes fldrmifhing, and at other times nego- 
tiating ; but the Mogul prince having no money 
to give, Abdalla would not retreat. 

Abdalla, in the mean time, found means to "^.^ "'^''='^ 
advance fome pieces of artillery, which bore 
upon the Hank of the imperial army. In the 
evening the vizier, being at prayers, received a 
Ihot in the knee, and died that night. As he 
was very much eileemed by the army, which in 
reality he commanded, though the prince bore 
the name, it was propofed to Ahmed Shaw, by 
Munnu, the vizier's fon, to conceal his death, 
left the troops, who depended upon his courage 
and capacity, fliould be affected by that accident. 
The prince, feeing the propriety of this mea- 
fure, called together a few of his principal 
omrahs, and held a council of war. It w^as re- 
folvcd, that the body of the vizier fliould be 
mounted upon his own elephant, in the howa- 
dar, ibpporteil with pillows; and that in the 
morning, by day-break, they fliould iffue out of 
the camp and cn(xac:c the cncmv. 



AD. 1747. Orders were accordingly given that night to 
Policy of the omralis, to liold their troops in readinefs, 
his Ion. r^^^ their rcfpeclive flations appointed to each. 
In the morning, before day, the imperial army 
was in motion ; but Abdalla, having previous 
notice of their intentions, had prepared to re- 
ceive them in his camp. The young prince 
Ahmed led the attack with uncommon bravery, 
and was gallantly feconded by Munnu, who per- 
formed furprizing feats of perfonal valor. — The 
Perfian defended himfelf with equal refolution, 
for the fpace of three hours. At length, his 
entrenchments were trodden down by the ele- 
phantSj and the imperial army poured into his 
A battle, j^^ unfortunatc circumftance, at this inftant, 
totally changed the face of affairs. IfTur Singh, 
the (on of Joyfmgh, the Indian prince of Ajmere, 
who commanded twenty thoufand horfe, rode up 
to the vizier's elephant for orders, and difcover- 
ed that he was dead. lil'ur Singh was naturally 
a coward, and only wanted an excufe to hide his 
head from danger. He turned immediately his 
face from the field, and M^as followed by all 
his troops. The flight of fo great a part of 
the army draw many after them, particularly 
Seifdar Jung, governor of Oud, and father of 
the prefent Souja ul Dowlat. Abdalla not only 
recovered his troops from their confufion, but 
prefTed hard upon the imperialifts in his turn, 
ivlunnu, upon this urgent occafion, difplayed all 
the bravery of a young hero, together with all 
the conduct of an old general. He formed in a 
column, and encouraging his troops, by M^ords 
and example, bent his whole force againft Ab- 
dalla's center. He, at the fame time, difpatched 
a meffenger to Ifhir Singh and Seifdar Jung, 
afTuring them that Abdalla was already defeated, 


M A H O M M E D. 365 

and if they would return and alTifl; him in the a.d, 1747. 
purfuit, he would permit none of them ever to 
repafs the Indus, The ftratagem had the delired 
effecl. They returned in full gallop to the field, 
and renewed the charge with great vigour. 

Abdalla, havins: almoft affured himfelf of theAMaihdt-- 
victory, was, by this unexpected check, thrown 
into great confufion. Munnu took immediate 
advantage of the enemy's confternation, drove 
them off the field, and purfued them ten miles 
beyond their camp. The lofs was nearly equal 
on both fides; but a complete victory remained 
to the Moguls ; for which they were entirely 
indebted to the furprifing efforts of Munnu. 

A fing-le defeat was not enouQ-h to difchar2;e His im- 

daunted o^- 

Abdalla, who was a brave officer. He collected haviour, 
his difcomfited army, difgraced fome of his chief 
omrahs, conferred their rank and honours upon 
others, rewarded thofe who had behaved v/ell, 
and with his fword drawn, riding through and 
through his troops, encouraged them again to 
action. The Moguls were not a little furprized, 
next morning, to fee i\bdalla, whom they pre- 
pared to purfue, with his army drawn up in 
order of battle before their camp. — This un- 
common confidence in a defeated enemy, threw 
a damp upon the courage of the conquerors. 
They contented themfclves with forming the line, 
and with ftanding in expectation of the charge. 
— Abdalla, as the prince had fome advantage of 
ground, at the fame time declined coming to ac- 
tion, and, in the evening, encamped at a fmall dif- 

The fecond day was fpent in flvirmiflies, and a ^ ^"°"^ 
diftant cannonade : but, upon the third, to ufe 
a Perfian expreflion, the interval of battle was 
clofed-, and the fhock was very violent. 
Though irregular arn»ies of horle make little 
impreflion upon a fohd uody of wcll-difciplincd 

infantry ; 

again de- 


.A.D. 1 74:. 'infantry ; yet when they engage one another, 
upon equal terms, each trufts to the ftrength of 
Iiis own arm, and the battle is in general ex- 
tremely bloody. This irregular kind of attack, 
it muft be allowed, requires a greater degree of 
perlonal courage, where man to man is oppofed, 
than to iland wedged in a clofe battalion, where 
the danger may indeed be as great, but not fo ap- 

The young prince Ahmed diftinguiflied him- 
felf in a particular manner in this aclion ; and 
Munnu, tenacious of the glory he had already 
acquired, was not to be refifted. Abdalla, after 
an obftinate reiiftance, was again driven off the 
field, and purfued acrofs the Suttuluz. Here 
Abdalla, in fpite of his misfortunes, Hke an able 
and gallant commander, put the beft face upon 
his affairs. He had loft all his artillery and bag- 
gage, and being now lefs incumbered than the 
imperial army, he made a forced march, and, 
taking a circuit to the right, repaffed the river, 
and next day, to the aftonifhment of the prince 
and Munnu, was heard of thirty-fix miles in the 
rear, in full march towards Delhi. 

Intelliofence of Abdalla's march being: received 
in the capital, every thing fell into the utmoil 
confufion, and a general panic prevailed. Ghazi 
ul Dien, the Nizam's fon, being at court, col- 
lected what forces he could, and marched out 
of the city to oppofe Abdalla. The enemy hear- 
ing of this army in their front, would proceed 
no further. His troops, with one voice, told 
Abdalla, That, before they advanced towards 
Delhi, it was neceffary to defeat the imperial 
army which was behind them. He was there- 
fore conftrained to march back towards the 
prince and Munnu, who expefted a third battle : 
but Abdalla thought it prudent to decline it 5 and, 


Turns the 
rcdi- of the 

M A H O INI M E D. 367 

by night, repafled the Moguls, and continued ad. 1747. 
his route to Lahore. 

A change of affairs at the court of Delhi hap- Affiiirsat 
pening at this time, prevented the prince and""'^'' 
Munnu. from purfuing Abdalla. They encamp- 
ed on the banks of the Suttuluz, where Ahmed 
Shaw propofed to confer the fubafhip of Lahore 
upon any of his omrahs who would undertake 
to recover it from Abdalla. After this offer had 
been decHned by all of them, it was accepted 
upon thefe terms by Munnu ; who, with a divi- 
fion of the army, marched towards Lahore, 
while Ahmed returned with the reft to Delhi. 
The emperor had an inviolable friendfhip for his 
vizier, Kimmir ul Dien. In the tottering ftate 
of the regal authority, all his confidence was re- 
pofed in that minifter. When therefore the news 
of Kimmir's death came to him at Delhi, he 
immediately confidered his own affairs as defpe- 
rate. He retired to a private apartment, and 
wept bitterly all night. In the morning he 
mounted the throne as ufual, to give public au- 
dience ; and, whilft every flattering courtier was 
running out in praife of the deceafed, the em- 
peror feemed much affe6led. He, at laft, ex- 
claimed : " O cruel fate ! thus to break the ftaff 
" of my old age. — Where now fhall I find iv> 
" faithful a fervant ?" — With thefe words he fell 
into a fit, to which he was fometimes fubject, 
and expired fitting upon his throne. 

The death of Mahommed happened upon the ^'^|^ "'"^.^^ 
8th of the fecond Ribbi, in the 1160 vear of the 
Higera, after a difaftrous reign of thirty years. 
The court endeavoured to conceal his death till 
his fon prince Ahmed fliould arrive. He accord- 
ingly, upon the 7th day after his father's deceaie, 
entered Delhi ; being fent for by exprefs from 
Ghazi ul Dien, who was fuppofed by the igno- 
rant vulgar, always ready to aftribc fudden deaths 



A.D. vioIencc, to have made away with the em- 

His charac- Mahommed was remarkably comely ; of a 
ftately ftature and affable deportment. He was 
no fmall proficient in the learning of his coun- 
try ; and he wrote the Arabic and Perfran lan- 
guages with the greateft elegance and propriety. 
He was perfonally brave ; but the eafmefs and 
equality of his temper made his actions appear 
undecifive and irrefolute. Good natured to a 
fault, he forgave, in others^ crimes which his 
own foul would abhor to commit ; and thus he 
permitted his authority to become a victim to 
an ill-judged clemency. Naturally indolent and 
diffident of his own abilities, his mind perpe- 
tually flucTiuated from one object to another. 
His paffions therefore took no determined courfe 
of their own ; but were eafily diverted into any 
channel, by whatever perfon was near him. — 
" The foul of Mahommed" faid a Mogul who 
knew him well, " was Uke the waters of a lake, 
" eafily agitated by any Rorm, but which fettle 
" immediately after the winds are laid," If 
his eafmefs or irrefolution in politicks led him 
into many errors, he bore with indifference, if 
not with fortitude, the misfortunes which were 
their natural confequence. 

Born in the funfliine of a court, brought up 
in the bofom of luxury, confined within the 
walls of a zennana, and, in a manner, educated 
among eunuchs, as effeminate as thofe whom they 
guard, we are not to wonder that the princes of 
"the Eaft fhould degenerate in a few generations. 
If to thefe obflruc1:ions to the exertion of the 
manly faculties of the foul, we add the natural 
lenity of Mahommed, an amiable but unfortu- 
nate virtue in the race of Timur, it ought not to 
{urprize us, that in a country like India, his 
reign fhould be crowded with uncommon misfor- 

M A H O M M E D. 369 

Had his fate placed Mahommed in Europe, where a* d. 1747. 
cfiabliflied laws fupply the want of parts in a 
monarch, he might have flumbered with reputa- 
tion upon a throne ; and left behind bim the cha- 
rader of a good, though not of a great, prince. 

Vol. II. B b AHMED. 

( 37^ ) 


A.D. 1747. T TPON the 17th of the fecond Ribbi, In the 
Ahmed \^ year 1160 of the Higera, which anfwers 
S?one! ^^^ to the year 1747 of the Chriftian sera, Ahmed 
Shaw, the fon of Mahommed, mounted the 
throne of Delhi. The firil z^l of this reign, 
was the appointment of Seifdar Jung, the irre- 
folute fuba of Oud, to the vizarlt. This fel- 
low was originally a merchant of Perfia, known 
there by the name of Abul Munfur. He tra- 
velled to India to fell his commodities ; and was 
retained there as an accomptant, by the famous 
Sadit, governor of Oud. He behaved fo much 
to his mailer's fatisfadlion in that ftatlon, that 
he advanced him to a command in the army, 
and conferred upon him his daughter in marri- 
age. His alliance with Sadit fo much raifed 
his intereft at the court of Delhi, that, upon 
the death of his father-in-law, he was raifed to 
the fubafhip of Oud. Though he was a very 
bad foldier, fuch was the fmoothncfs of his 
tongue and plaufibility of behaviour, that he 
pafled upon the weak as a man of confiderable 
parts ; which, together with fome knowledge 
in the finances, paved his way to the high 
office of vizier. Ghazi ul Dien continued pay- 
mafter and captain-general, and no other mate- 
rial changes in the adminiftration happened upon 
the ^ccefiion of Ahmed. 


AHMED. 371 

The war with Abdalla, which was now car- a. d. 1747. 
ried on in Punjab by Munnu with various fuccefs, AtTairsot 
ingrolTed the attention of" the court of Delhi ; "^'JP^^'"" 
for the greateft part of the imperial arn^y death of 
was employed in that fervice. Advices, in the ^^^ ^'""n, 
mean time, arrived from the Dccan, of the 
death of the famous Nizam ul muluck, in the 
one hundred and fourth year of his age ; and 
that his fecond fon, Nafir Jung, acceded to the 
government. It may not, perhaps, be out of 
place here, to give a fhort fketch of the charac- 
ter of the Nizam, who for a long time made fo 
great a figure in India. 

The Nizam, though no great warrior, v^r^^ h^s chaac- 
reckoned a confummate politician, in a country 
where low craft and deceit, without any princi- 
ples of honor and integrity, obtain the appellation 
of great parts. The dark deligns of his mind lay 
always concealed behind an uncommon plaufibi- 
lity and eloquence of tongue. His pallions were 
fo much under his command, that he was never 
known to difcover any violent emotion even 
upon the mofl: critical and dangerous occalions ; 
but this apathy did not arife from fortitude, but 
from deep dilTimulation and defign. It was' 
with him an unalterable maxim, to ufe ftratagem 
rather than force ; and to bring about with pri- 
vate treachery, what even could be accompliilied 
with open force. He fo habituated himfelf to 
villainy, that the whole current of his foul ran in 
that channel ; and it was even doubtful whether 
he could for a moment divert it to lionefly, to 
bring about his mod favored deligns. If the Ni- 
zam fhewed any tendency to virtue, it was by 
fubflituting a leffer wickednefs for a greater. 
When fraud and circumvention could accom- 
plifh his purpole, he never ufed the dagger or 
bowl. To fum up his character in a few words ; 

B b 2 without 


A. D. 1748. without fliame, he was perfidious to all man- 
kind ; without remorfe, a traitor to his king and 
country ; and, without terror, a hypocrite in 
the prefence of his god -f. 

When the news of the Nizam's death came to 
^"c^eded Delhi, Ghazi ul Dien, who was his eldeft fon, 
Jung!"' applied to the king for his government. But 
Nafir Jung, being poffefled of his father's trea- 
fure, raifed a great army, and marched from 
Aurungabad towards Delhi ; not on pretence of 
war, but to pay his refpecls to the emperor. Ah- 
med dreaded nothing more than this ceremoni- 
ous vifit from a man at the head of fo great a 
force. He judged that Nafir Jung, under that 
fpecious pretext, covered a defign to extort from 
him a confirmation of the fubadary of the De- 
can. He therefore durft not favor the pretenli- 
ons of Ghazi to the provinces of the Decan, and 
confequently was reduced to the necefhty of con- 
firming Nafir Jung in his ufurpation. Thus the 
ftorm was diverted, and the new Nizam re- 
turned to Aurungabad. 

In the year 1161, Caim Chan Bunguifli, who 
^^^'^^*^°[j^_ pofTefTed Ferochabad, in Jagier, having differed 
CCS. with Ali, a neighbouring Zemindar, they both 

drew out their vaflals and dependents, and 
fought about twenty miles above Terochabad, 
and Caim Chan was defeated and flain. Seifdar 
Jung, the vizier, being informed of thefe tranf- 
a^lions, fent orders to the Indian prince Nevil 
Roy, his deputy in the province of Oud, to con- 
fiicate the eflate of Caim Chan. The deputy ri- 
goroufly excuted the vizier's orders. He feizcd 

' -|- Nafir Jung, the Nizam's fon, having rebelled, was at the 
head of a great army. The deceitful old man counterfeited 
fickncfs fo well, and wrote fuch pathetic letters to Nafir, re- 
quefting to fee him before he died, that the young fellow was 
taken in the fnarc, vifited his father, and was imprifoned. 


AHMED. 373 

upon Cairn Chan's five fons, together with five a. d. 1749. 
of his adopted flaves, confined and afterwards af- 
faffinated them at Allahabad. Ahmed Chan, 
another fon of Caim Chan, remained ft ill alive; 
and, in order to revenge the death of his bro- 
thers, raifed the Patan tribe, of which he was 
now acknowledged chief, and marched againft 
Nevil Roy, who had collected all his forces to 
oppofe him. 

In the beginning of the year 1162, the two imperial 
armies met at a place near Lucknow, called ^rmy de- 
Callinuddi. The Patans were fcarcely four 
thoufand ftrong ; but the army of the deputy of 
Oud confifted of at leall twenty thoufand. The 
Patan chief, infpired with revenge, and vigo- 
rouQy fupported by his friends, attacked in per- 
fon Nevil Roy in the very center of his aroiy, 
and flew his enemy with his own hand. The 
army of Nevil Roy, feeing him fall, immediately 
quitted the field. Their artillery and baggage, 
and foon after almoft the whole province of Oud, 
fell into the vigor's hands. 

When the nev/s of this difafter arrived at Expedition 
Delhi, Seifdar Jung, the vizier, talked in a very °^^'^'^^'"* 
high ftrain, and requefted of the emperor, that 
he might be permitted to lead an army againft: 
Ahmed Chan. Ihe fultan confented ; but the 
feafon being far fpent before the army was levied, 
the expedition was deferred till the folftitial rains 
fhould be over. In the month of Mohirrim, 
1 163, the vizier, with an army of eighty thou- 
fand men, marched from Delhi ; and, without 
diftinclion of age, fex, or condition, put all the 
Patans he could find to the fword. Ahmed 
Chan M^as not intimidated by this great force. 
With fcarce twelve thoufand men he marched 
from Ferochabad, and met the imperialifts at 
Shuru Sahawir, near that city. 




A. D. 1749. The day happened to be very windy, and 
He is over- Ahmed improved that circumftance to his own 
thrown, advantage. He wheeled to windward, and the 
duft flew in fuch clouds in the face of the impe- 
rial army, that they did not difcover the motions 
of Ahmed ; but alcribed the darknefs which in- 
volved themfelves to the efieds of a whirlwind, 
common at that feafon of the year. The enemy, 
however, like a thunderbolt, ilTucd from the bo- 
fom of this ftorm, and at once ftruck the Moguls 
with terror and difmay. The Patans made fuch 
good ufe of their fvvords, that they foon covered 
the field with dead, and the cowardly Seifdar 
Jung, without making one effort, was the firft 
of his army who fled. The Jates and Rohillas, 
though thus fliamefully deferted by their gene- 
ral, made head againil Ahmed, and found means 
to carry off" the greatefl: part of the artillery, 
which conflfted of twelve hundred pieces of va- 
rious bores. But neither of thofe tribes re- 
turned the guns to the king : they carried them 
to their own forts, to flirengthen themfelves 
againfl; his authority. 
A dreadful This ovcrthrow was a dreadful ftroke to the 
fh^'^^^p^j.^ tottering empire. The greatefl: part of the pro- 
' vince of Oud was lofl ; the Jates, a numerous 
tribe of Hindoos, who poflefled a large territory 
near Agra : and the Rohillas, a Patan nation, 
who inhabited the greatefl; part of the country 
between Delhi and Lucknow, feeing the whole 
imperial force baflled by a petty chief, began to 
throw off" their allegiance. Seifdar Jung, in the 
mean time, arrived with a fmall part of his army 
at Delhi ; d.-?.d Ghazi advifed the king to put him 
to death for the difgrace which he had drawn 
upon his arms. This puniflimcnt would not 
have been too fevere for the vizier's bad behavi- 
our : but that minifter had llrcngthened his in- 
ter eft; 

AHMED. 375 

terefl by a coalition with Juneid Chan, the chief a. d. 1759. 

'ihe queen-mother. Begum Kudfia, being aJjJ^*J5^J^ 
wom-in of gallantry, had, for want of a better moLhcr 
lover, fixed her affection upon the chief eunuch. '=!^5»^^^* 
She had the addrefs to direct the weak monarch 
in every thing, and to keep him in leading- 
firings upon the throne. Juneid Chan, though 
in no public employ, by means of Kudfia's favor, 
held the helm of government ; and, by his influ- 
ence, not only faved the vizier's life, but conti- 
nued him in his ofHce. 

in the courfe of the fame year, a treaty was '^'.'b"**^ 
concluded with the Mahrartors, who w^ere fpread- Mahrattar* 
ing their devaflations over the fouthern pro- 
vinces. Tne Chout was ftipulated to be regularly 
paid by the empire to thofe troublefome barbari- 
ans. 1 he crr-peror ordered an army to be levied, 
to recover the province of Oud ; and it was foon 
comjl^'ted by the acceflion of forty thoufand 
Miihraitors, svho inlifled themfelves in the impe- 
rial fervioe Bur inilead of putting himfelf at 
the head ,)f hi.s forces, the vveak emperor, by the 
advice of his mother and her gallant, gave the 
comn}and of it to his vizier, that he might have 
an opportunity to retrieve his loft honour, 

Sourage Mull, prince of the Jarcs, by the ac-inaftirit)-^ 
quifition of the Mahrattors to the imperial army, g,/'*^ ''^^' 
judged it prudent once more to join the vizier 
with all his forces; fo that the iidni'ler's army 
now confilled of no lefs than one hundred thou- 
fand men. Seifdar Jung marched from Delhi, 
in the year 1164, againft Ahmed Chan : but the 
Raja of the Jates, inftead of aiding him', found 
means to frullrate all his defigns. Ilavingfpent 
a whole campaign without coming to adion, he 
patched up a very diflionourable peace, and re- 
turned to Delhi with the Mahrattur mercena- 


A.D.1750, ries at his heels, mutinous for want of their 

The Ni- The demand of the Mahrattors amounted to 
fo^'V^f^^ ^^^y l^cks of roupees, which the government 
the arrears was in no condltion to pay : and the fum gradu- 
mtors!^''"ally increafed with the delay. Ghazi ul Dien, 
who had been for fome time foHciting for a royal 
commiffion for the fubafhip of the Decan, pro- 
mifed to pay off the Mahrattor debt, upon con- 
dition he fhould receive from the emperor that 
appointment. Ahmed was glad upon any terms 
to get rid of thofe clamorous and dangerous 
mercenaries, and accordnigly iflued out the im- 
perial funnuds to Ghazi. That Omrah having 
fatisfied the Mahrattors in their dcm.ands upon 
AhmiCd, engaged them immediately in his own 
fervice ; and having added to them a great army 
of other troops, obtained his own office of cap- 
tain-general for his fon Ghazi, a youth of fifteen 
years of age, and marched towards the De- 
siUabut The elder Ghazi's brother, Nafir Jung, fuba 

£nf Ghazi. of the Decan, and his fon Muziffer, who had 
fuccceded him in the government, were both 
dead. Sillabut Jung, the third fon of the old 
Nizam, now fat upon the Mufnud, which Ghazi 
claimed by the right of primogeniture. In the 
month of Zehidgc, 1165, he, with an army of 
one hundred and fifty thoufand men, arrived in 
the environs of Aurungabad. The forces of his 
brother, Sillabut Jung, the reigning fuba, were 
fomevvhat inferior in number, but they were 
ftrengthened by a body of French mercenaries, 
which, in all probability, would infure to him 
the victory. Sillabut Jung, however, was afraid 
of the ilTue of a general battle ; and, after fome 
llighr lkirmi{hes,'he found means to prevail with 
his uncle's wife to take off his competitor with 
poifon. Thus did the perfidious Sillabut Jung 



AHMED. 377 

fecure to himfelf the empire of the Decan, with- a. d. .752. 
out a rival. 

But to return to the tranfaclions of the court Affairs at 
of Delhi : Seifdar Jung, the vizier, finding that 
his own influence declined, and that juneid Chan, 
the^ favourite eunuch, carried all before him, 
invited hitn to an entertainment, and contrary 
to the laws of hofpitality, and altogether forget- 
ful that he owed to Juneid his own life and for- 
tune, aflaffinated him by the hands of Iflimaiel, 
one of his adopted flaves. The emperor, being 
informed of this prefumptuous villainy, flew into 
a violent rage, degraded Seifdar Jung from the 
vizarit, and baniflied him the court. This was 
the effect of a fit of pafiion ; for the unfortunate 
monarch was in no condition, in fact, to exert 
fo far his authority. The perfidious vizier, 
finding that he had nothing to hope from fubmif- 
fion, broke out into open rebellion. He foon 
after, by the afliftance of the Jates, advanced to 
Delhi, and befieged the emperor and young 
Ghazi, hiscaptain-general, in that city. 

The fon of Kimmir ul Dien, who in the reign a ne 
of Mahommed, held fo long the vizarit, was 
raifed, under the title of Chan Chanan, or firfi of 
the nobles, to the vacant employ of Seifdar 
Jung, and began to fliew fome abilities in his new 
office. Young Ghazi, who was a youth of ex- 
traordinary parts, defended the city with great 
refolution for three months. The rebels were at 
laft fo difpirited, that Ghazi ventured to attack 
them in the field, and gained a complete vicfory. 
Seifdar Jung fled towards his former fubaihip of 
Oud, and left his allies, the Jates, under their 
prince, Sourage Mull, to extricate themlclves 
from the perilous fit nation to which he had 
brought them. 


._j.. .. .lew vi- 


A.D. 1752, The rebellion of Seifdar Jung happened in the 
The old vi. year 1166. Ihe Jates being deferted by him, 
[.'^^^'*'^'^^^" were in no condition to keep the fie'd againft 
Gh^zi. They fled before the imperial army 
under Akehut Mahmood, to their own territo- 
ries near Agra. That general in veiled theftrong 
fortreis of Billemgur, which he took by capitu- 
lation ; hut fo Httle did he regard his plii^hted 
faith to the garrifun, that he put them all to the 
fword. T he Jates, in the mean time, came be- 
fore the imperial army ; but diffident of their 
own llrength in the field, they leparated their 
forces, and, (hut thenfel es up in their forts. 
The imperial general alio divided his army into 
detachments, and laid ai once fiege ro the two 
ilrong forts of jDicg and Combere, lying in the 
territory between Agra and Delhi. 

Ghazi, in the mean time, to carry on more 
GhazPat- effeclually the war againft the Jates, obtained 
tacks the permiffiou from the en;peror, to call in forty 
^^^"° thoufand Mahrattors, under their two chiefs, 
Malhar Raw, and Raganut Raw. By this acqui- 
fition of ftrength, the imperialifts were enabled 
'to carry on the lieges with vi-or. At Delhi, 
young Ghazi and the new vizier contended for 
the command of the army. This ccnteft was af- 
terwards fatal in its confequences ; but for the 
prefent Ghazi prevailed. He marched with a re- 
inforcement from Delhi ; and, upon his arrival 
in the country of the Jates, took the command 
of the imperial army. 

The fieges continued two months after the ar- 
rival of Ghazi, and the garrifons were reduced 
to the laft extremities. The imperialifts, in the 
ip.ean time, had expended all their ammunition; 
and Ghazi was, upon that account, obliged to 
difpafch Akebut Mahmood to Delhi, with a good 
force, to bring him the neceflary flores. The 
vizier feeing that the Ilrong holds of the Jates 


Affahs at 

A H M E D. 


muft foon fall into the hands of Ghazi, fliould he ^ ^ ,^^2^ 
be fupplied with ammunition, and being ex- 
tremely jealous of any thing that might throw 
honor upon his rival, poifoned the mind of the 
weak king againft his captain-general, by means 
of forged letters and villainous inOnuations, that 
the young omrah afpired to the throne. The en- 
terprizing genius, and great abilities of Ghazi, 
gave fome colour to llifpicions of that kind ; 
and the unfortunate Ahmed, inftead of promot- 
ing his own caufe againft the Jates, took every 
meafure to prevent the fuccefs of Ghazi. 

The king: accordingly bearan to levy forces in The empe- 

lor levies 

Delhi, and wrote a letter to Sourage Mull, the forces 
chief of the Jates, to make an obftinate defence, againft 
and that he himfelf would foon relieve him : 
that under pretence of joining the army under 
Ghazi, he would attack that general in the rear, 
and at the fame time difplay a fignal to the In- 
dian prince, to fally from the fort of Combere. — 
Thus the king, as if infatuated by his evil genius, 
planned his own ruin. His letter fell into the 
hands of Ghazi, vvhofe friends at court had in- 
formed him of the intrigues of the vizier. 
Struck with the king's ingratitude, and urged 
on by felfdefence, he immediately refolved upon 
open hollility. He raifed the fieges, and croiled 
the Jumna, to oppofe Ahmed and his vizier, who 
were marching down between the rivers. 

The king, hearing of Ghazi's approach, halted who 
at Secundra, and endeavoured, by fair promifes, "'.aiJ^'jJ^Jijn^ 
to bring back that omrah to his duty. Ghazi, 
in anfwer to the king's meflage, returned to 
him his own letter to Sourage Mull. He wrote 
him, at the fame time, that " he could place no 
" confidence in a man, who plotted againft his 
" life, for no crime ; if to ierve the ftate was 
" not one. What mercy," continued Ghazi, 
** can I expccl from Ahmed, in the days of re- 

"■ bellion.. 


A. D.I 753. " bellion, when he treated me as a traitor, in 
" the times of loyalty and friendfliip ? A prince, 
" that is weak enough to liflen to the bafe infi- 
*' nuations of every fycophant, is unworthy to 
" rule over brave men ; who, by the laws of 
" God and nature, are juftified to ufe the power 
" which providence has placed in their hands, to 
*' protett themfelves from injuftice." 
Emperor's '^ ^^*^ king pcrccived, by the llrain of this letter, 
flight, and that Ghazi was rcfolveci to pufh him to the laft 
epohtion. extremity. He, however, durft not engage 
him in the field. He made the befl of his way 
to Delhi, and was fo clofely purfued by Ghazi, 
that that omrah poiTeifed himfelf of one of the 
gates ; upon which Ahmed and the vizier fhut 
themfelves up, with a fmali party, in the citadel. 
Ghazi immediately invefted the place ; and the 
king, after a faint refiftance, furrendered him- 
felf. Ghazi, after reproaching him for his in- 
tentions apainfl his life, committed him and the 
vizier to the charcrc of Akebut Mahmood. The 
unfortunate fultan was deprived of fight, the 
next day, by the means of an hot iron. It is 
faid, by fome, that this was done by Akebut 
Mahmood, without orders, to fhew his zeal for 
the fervice of his patron ; but, from the general 
character of Ghazi, we have no reafon to doubt 
his being concerned in the crime. 
His charac- "fhus cudcd the rciffu of the unfortunate Ah- 

tcr. ^ 

med Shaw : a prince, who, in his firft exploits, 
appeared with fome luftre. When he mounted 
the throne, as if action degraded royalty, he 
altogether gave himfelf up to indolence. To 
fave the trouble of thinking, he became the dupe 
of every fpecious flatterer, and at lafl: fell the 
unlamented victim of his own folly. He poflel- 
fed ail the clemency of the houfe of Timur ; but 
that virtue was now, in fome meafure, a vice, in 
a country fo corrupt, and in an age fo degene- 


A H M ED. 381 

rate. Though Ahmed was not defeclive In per- ad 
fonal courage, he may truly be laid to be a cow- 
ard in mind : dangers appeared formidable to 
him, through a troubled imagination, which, 
upon trial, he had fortitude to furmount — He 
fat upon the throne of Delhi feven lunar years 
aud one month ; and was depofed in the month 
of Jammad ul awil, in the 1167 of the Hi- 

The power and extent of the empire were very Decayed 

• • • . . ftate of the 

much diminillicd in the reign of Ahmed. All empire. 
the provinces, except thofe between the frontiers 
of the Jates, a few miles to the eaft of Delhi, 
and Lahore to the weft, were, in faft, difmem- 
bered from the government of the houfe of Ti- 
mur, though they paid a nominal allegiance. 
The rich kingdom of Guzerat was divided be- 
tweeen the Mahrattors and a Patan tribe, called 
Babbe ; the Decan was ufurped by the Nizam ul 
muluck's family ; Bengal, Behar, and OrifTa, by 
Aliverdi Chan, and his fuccelTors ; Oud, by 
Seifdar Jung ; Doab, by Ahmed Chan Bunguifli ; 
Allahabad, by Mahommed Kuli ; and the coun- 
tries round Agra, by Raja Sourage Mull, the 
chief of the Jates. — Budaoon, and ail the pro- 
vinces to the north of Delhi, were in the hands 
of Mahommed AH, Sadulla Chan, and other 
chiefs of the Rohilla tribe of Patans. A num- 
ber of petty Rajas flarted up into independent 
princes in Malava : Bucht Singh fcized upon the 
extenfive territory of Marwar, and Madoo Singh 
reigned in the provinces round Joinagur and 

The gallant Munnu flill oppofed the torrent 
of invalion from the north. He maintained the 
war with fuccefs, againft Abdalla, for the pro- 
vinces on the banks of the Indus, and, for a 
ihort fpace of time, fupported the declining em- 
pire. Every petty chief, in the mean time, by 



A.D. 1753. counterfeited grants fronn Delhi, laid claim to 
jagiers and to diitricTs : the country was torn 
to pieces with civil wars, and groaned under 
every fpecies of domeftic confufion. Villainy 
was pracTifed in every form ; all law and religion 
were trodden under foot ; the bonds of private 
friendfhips and connexions, as well as of fociety 
and government, were broken ; and every indi- 
vidual, as if amidfl; a forell of wild beafts, 
could rely upon nothing but the ftrength of his 
own arm. 


( 3^3 ) 

A L L U M G 1 R E II. 

UPON the fame day that Ahmed Shaw a.d,»7J3. 
was deprived of fight, Ghazi ul Dien re-^U"^f[J^ 
leafed from confinement Eaz ul Dien, the fon of throne. 
Moaz ul Dien, and grandfcm of Bahadar Shaw, 
the fon and fucceflor of the famous Aurungzebe. 
This prince was placed by Ghazi upon the 
throne, by the name of ALLUMoiRi'. To begin 
his reign with an acl of beneficence, he ordered 
feventeen perfons of the imperial houfe of Ti- 
mur to be releafed from prifon, to grace his cor- 
onation. It may not be improper here to fay 
fomething concerning the inauguration of the 
Mogul emperors. 

When a prince is, for the firft time, feated Ceremony 
upon the throne, with the royal um.hrella overtion! 
his head, the omrahs, according to their dignity, 
are ranged in two hnes before, one upon his 
right, the other to his left hand. A herald then 
proclaims his titles ; and the omrahs, each in his 
li:ation, advance with an offering in gold, which 
he himfelves receives from their hands. The 
fuperintendant of the kitchen brings then a gold- 
en falver, with bread, confecftions, and other 
eatables, over which the king, joined by the 
whole court, repeats a form of grace ; and then 
he eats a little, and diftributes the remainder, 
with his own hand, among the nobility. This 
latter is an ancient Mogul ceremcny, introduced 
by the family of Timur. The emperor mounts 
then his flate-elephant, and, attended by all the 



A D. i75j.court, moves flowly towards the great Mufgid, 
throwing, as lie advances, goldj filver, precious 
ftones, and pearls, among the populace. In the 
Mufgid he repeats a prayer, and afterwards di- 
vine iervice is performed by the Sidder ul fuddur, 
or the metropolitan of Delhi. The Chutba, or 
the genealogy and titles of the king, is then 
read, and he returns to the palace with the fame 
magnificence and pomp. 1lie Mogul emperors 
are never crowned : but upon fome fellivals they 
lit in flate, under a large golden crown, which 
is fufpended by a chain to the roof of the pre- 
fence-chamber, and ferves the purpofe of a ca- 
Wretched Allumgirc fouud himfelf as much a prifoner 
Hate of the upou thc tlirouc, as he was formerly in his con- 
cmpcro . f|jjeiy^gjr,j-^ Jig ^^3 j^qj- ^ j-j^^j^ Qf . p^rts fufficicnt 

to extricate himfelf from the toils of that power, 
to which he owed his advancement ; but had he 
made no efforts to acquire fome authority, the 
empire might have been, perhaps, rellored to its 
original dignity and fplendor, by the very extra- 
ordinary abilities of Ghazi ul Dien. — That om- 
rah novi^ pofl'efl'ed the oilice of the vizarit. Al- 
iumgire, without the capacity of guiding the ope- 
rations of government himfelf, began to turn all 
his mean parts to thwart the fchemes of the mi- 
nifler. Without confidaring whether the meafure 
was right or wrong, it was fuflicient that it came 
from thc vizier, for the emperor to oppofe it by 
his minions. 
inaaivity This avcrfion in the king to Ghazi, did not 
ar court, long cfcape the penetrating eyes of that young 
onirah. He knew that he w^as furroundcd by many 
enemies, and therefore was unwilling to refign 
an employ, from which he derived protedion to 
his own perfon. In the mean time all bufmefs was 
fufpended, and the two faflions, like armies afraid 
of the iifue of a battle, watched the motions of 


A L L U M G I R E II. 385 

one another. — Nothing remarkable happened at a. d. 1754. 
Delhi, during the firft year of Allumgire, but the 
alTaffination of the former vizier, about fix 
months after his imprifonment, by the orders of 

But, in the courfe of this year, the empire re- Death of 
celved a fevere blow on its frontiers, by the^^""'^'^- 
death of the gallant Munnu, by a fall from his 
horfe. He had, in many engagements, defeated 
Abdalla, and recovered from him the whole pro- 
vince of Lahore. No fooner was this brave om- 
rah dead, than Abdalla re-conquered all he had 
loft ; and, advancing to Lahore, confirmed his 
fon, then an infant, in the government of that 
place, under the tuition of an experienced om- 

The great fuccefs of Abdalla, in the north- The piinc* 
weft, began to roufe the court of Delhi. It was agllf^rt ^fe- 
at laft refolved, that Ali Gohar*, AUumglre's daiia, 
eldeft fon, fhould, in conjundion with Ghazi ul 
Dien, the vizier, march with the imperial army 
againft the Perfians. The treafury was no\y 
empty ; and the few provinces, fubjed to the 
empire, were grievoufly opprelTed for money to 
raiie a force for this expedition. In the begin- 
ning of the year 1169, the imperial army, con- 
lifting of 80000 men, under the prince and young 
Ghazi, took the field. 7'hey advanced to a place 
called Matchiwarra, about twenty crores beyond 
Sirhind. They found Abdalla fo well eftabliflied 
in his new conquefts, that they thought it pru- 
dent to proceed no further. The whole cam- 
paign palfed in fettling a treaty of marriage, be- 
tween the vizier and the daughter of Munnu. 

* The prefcnt emperor. 

Vol. it. C c It 


AD. 1755. ^t feems that omrah, to ftrengthen his intereft 
at the court of Delhi, had, before his death, 
promifed his daugliter to Ghazi ; but, after that^ 
event, both the young lady and her mother 
were extremely averfe to the match. When the 
imperial army lay at Matchiwarra, the vizier in- 
veip^led both the ladies from Lahore to the camp, 
and finding all intreaty was in vain to obtain 
their confent, he, with peculiar bafenefs, clofely 
confined them, to intimidate them into a com- 
pliance. This together with opprefling the pro- 
vinces, through which he marched, compre- 
hended the whole exploits of Ghazi on this expe- 
dition. After fpending all the public money in 
this vain parade, the prince and vizier, without 
llriking a blow, returned to Delhi. 

The caufe of this inaction of the vizier pro- 
caufeof ceeded from advices which he daily received 
theinafiion {j-q^ cGurt. Thc king and his faction gained 
periaiaimy. flrcngth during his abfence ; and he forefaw his 
own ruin, in cafe he fhould meet with a defeat 
from Abdalla. Upon his return to Delhi, he 
found it necefiary, in order to fupport his de- 
clining authority, to act with great rigor and 
tyranny. Some omrahs he removed with the 
dagger, and others he deprived of their eftates. 
He confined the king in the citadel, and did 
whatfoever he pleafed, as if he himfelf was veiled 
with the regal dignity. 

Allum2;ire, finding: himfelf in this difagreeablc 

Emperor ^ \d ■* cj o 

applies, to fituatlon, adoptcd a very dangerous plan to ex- 
Abdaiia, tricatc himfclf. He wrote privately to Abdalla, 
to advance with his army, to relieve him from 
the hands of his treacherous vizier. He pro- 
mifed, that upon his arrival in the environs of 
Delhi, he fhould be joined by the bulk of the 
imperial army, under the command of Nigib 


A L L U M G I R E 11. 3^7 

ul Dowla, a Rohiila chief, to whcm Ghazi hadA.D. i-j;. 
delegated his own office of buckflii, when he rofe 
to tbe employ of vizier. Thus the weak Allum- 
gire, to avoid one evil, plunged headlong into 
greater misfortunes. 

Abdaila, luvinij received thefe afTurances from who march- 
the king, marched from Cabul, where he then "' '"^ ^'^^"" 
kept his court, entered Hindoftan with a great 
army, and, in the year iiyi, appeared before 
Delhi. The vizier marched out with the impe- 
rial forces to ^jive him battle ; but, in the field 
he was deferted by his friend, Nigib ul Dowla, 
with rhe greateft part of his army. The igno- 
rance of Ghazi of a plot fo long carried on, is a 
great proof of his extreme unpopularity. The 
confequence vv^as, that he was oblisjed to throw 
himfelf upon the clemency of Abda.ia, who had 
fworn vengeance againft him, fhouid he ever 
fall into his hands. But fuch was the addrefs of 
the vizier, that he not only found means to mol- 
lify the Perfian, but even to make him his 
friend. He was, however, at firft turned out of 
his oifice, but he was foon after reRored by Ab- 
dalla himfelf, who now difpoied of every thing, 
as if he was abfolute king of Delhi. 

Abdalla entered the city, and laid the unfor- j^^^ j,,^ 
tunatc inhabitants under a contribution of a crore city under 
of roupees ; a Turn now more difficult to raife^°"_'' "*■'' 
than ten crores, in the days of Nadir Shaw. 
The Perfian remained two months in Delhi. 
The unhappy Allumgire, not only found that 
his capital was robbed, but that lie himfelf was 
delivered over again into the hands of a peribn, 
who had now added refcntmcnt to ambition and 
power. Ihe Perfian, atter thefc tranfactions, 
took the prince. Haded Buxfli, brother to the 
prcfent emperor, as hoftage for Allumgire's 

C c 2 future 


A. D. 1757. future behaviour; and, having forced Munnu's 
daucrhter to Iblemnize her marriasre with Ghazi, 
marched towards Agra. He, on his way, laid 
fiege to Muttra, took it by affault ; and, having 
facked the place, put the inhabitants to the fword, 
for the enormous crime of attempting to defend 
their lives and property. After this fcene of 
barbarity, Abdalla advanced to Agra, which was 
held on the part of the king * by Fazil Chan. 
This omrah defended the city with fuch refoluti- 
on, that Abdalla, after fuftaining fome lofs, 
thought it prudent to raife the fiege ; but, be- 
ing exafperated at this repulfe, he fpread death 
and devaftation through the territories of the 
Jates, who, unable to cope wuth him in the field, 
had retired into their ftrong holds ; from which, 
they at times iflbed, and cut off his ftraggling 
Theempe- The Pcrfian returned to a place called Muxa- 
roi'sfoii/. dabad, about eight crores from Delhi. Allum- 
gire came out to pay his refpecls to him ; and, 
by his conduct, feems to have been perfectly 
infatuated. When the cries of his diftreifed peo- 
ple reached heaven, that contemptible monarch, 
inftead of endeavouring to alleviate their miferies, 
cither by force or negotiation, was wholly bent 
on the gratification of a fenfual appetite. The 
caufe ot his vifit to Abdalla, was to obtain his 
influence and mediation with Sahibe Zimany, 
the daughter of the emperor Mahommed, whom 
he wanted to efpoufe ; the princefs herfelf being 

f Though the Jates had all the country round Agra, they 
lad not yet pofTefied themfelves of that city. 


A L L U M G I R E II. 389 

averfe to the match. When kings, inftead of ex • a. d. 1758. 
erting their talents for the pruteclion of their 
people, fufTer thenifeives to be abforbed in indo- 
lence and fenfuahty, rebellion becomes patrio- 
tifm, and treafon itielf is a virtue. 

In the mean time the news of fome incurfions Abdaiia rc- 
from the weflern Perlia, into the territories of tu'n^- 
Abdalla, recalled that prince from India. Mal- 
leke Jehan, the widow of Mahommed, and her 
daughter Sahibe Zimany, claimed his protection 
againft Allumgire. He carried them both to Ca- 
bul, and fome time after efpoufed the daughter 
himfelf. — The Perlian having evacuated the im- 
perial provinces, the vizier became more cruel 
and oppreffive than ever : he extorted money 
from the poor by tortures, and confifcated the 
eftates of the nobility, upon falfe or very frivolous 
pretences. To thefe tyrannies he was no lefs 
driven by the necellity of fupporting any army 
to reinforce his authority, than he was by the 
natural avidity and cruelty of his own unprin- 
cipled mind. 

The king and his eldeft fon, Ali Gohar, were, Affairs at 
in the mean time, kept ftate prifoncrs. I'he lat-^'^"''- 
tcr made his efcape in the year 1 172, and levying 
fix thoufand men at Rowari, began to raife 
the revenues of the adjacent territories. After 
he had continued this vagrant kind of life for 
nine months, the vizier, by the means of infidi- 
ous letters, in which Ittul Raw, chief of the 
Mahrattors, Raja Dcwa'i Singh, Raja Nagor 
Mull, and many other omrahs, Iwore to protect 
him, inveigled him to Deihi. But, in violation 
of all oaths and fair promifes, he was inftantly 
confined by Ghazi, in the houfe of Alia Pvlurda, 
where he remained for the fpace of two 



A. 0,1738. 'I he vizier having received intelligence that 
Thepiince ^^c priocc was privately attaching ibmc o^nrahs 
confined by to Iii-S intcrcft, and fearing that, by their means, 
the vizier, j^^ miffht again make his efcape, deierniin ,d to 
remove him to the citadel. He ordered a de- 
tachment of live hundred horfe to execute this 
fervice The prince not only refulcd to co '.ply 
with the vizier's orders for his removal, but or- 
dered the gates of the houfe to be fhur, and, 
with a few friends, betook himfelf to arms, i he 
houfes of the nobility in Hindoitan are fur- 
rounded with ftrong walls ; and, in facl:, are a kind 
of fmall forts. The vizier's trru^ps found it 
therefore extremely diiEcult to reduce the pnnce. 
He was beueged clofely for two days ; and, find- 
ing that he could not defend himfelf nmch longer 
from the thoufands that furrounded the houle, he 
formed the gallant refolution to cut his way- 
through the enemy. 
His gallant j^^ imparted his intentions to his friends, but 

Denavior. nir i- '- 1 • 

they Ihrunk from his propolal as impraciicabie. 
At laft, fix of them, feeing him refolved to at- 
tempt this defperate undertaking alone, proiiiifed 
to accompany him. On the morning of the 
third day, they mounted their horfes within 
the court. The gate was fuddenly thrown open, 
and they ifRied forth fword in hand, with the 
prince at their head. He cut his way through 
thoufands of Ghazi's troops, with only the lofs 
of one of his gallant followers. Raja Ram n at, 
and Seid Ali, were the two principal men con- 
cerned in this extraordinary exploit ; the other 
four being common horfcinen. Seid Ali was 
wounded, but four and the prince efcaped with- 
out any Imrt. 
Makes his The princc having thus forced his way 
efcape. through the vizier's army, iffucd out of the 
city, and arrived at a place, called Vizierabad, 


A L L U M G I R E II. 39^ 

about fix crores from the fuburbs. Ittul Raw, a. d. 1758. 
the Mahrattor chief, lay encamped with tea 
thoufand horfe at Vizierabad. Ittul had been 
hired as a mercenary by the vizier, to fupport 
him in his tyrannical proceedings : but refenting 
Ghazi's breach of promife to the prince, and 
not being regularly paid, he now thought of 
plundering the country under the fanclion of 
Ali Gohar's name. He received him, therefore, 
with very great refped, and promifed to fupport 

The prince, and Ittul Raw, accordingly con- I''jj°jj"'^^f''^ 
tinued, for the fpace of fix months, to raife Mahrattors. 
contributions on the provinces to the fouth of 
Delhi : but as the petty chiefs of villages had, 
during the confufions of the empire, conftrucled 
mud forts, whither they retired with their fa- 
Inilies and effefts, at the approach of danger, 
the Mahrattors found great difficulty in fupport- 
ing themlelves, as none of thofe forts could be 
reduced without a regular liege, in which they 
were very little fkilled. Ittul Raw, tired of 
this kind of unprofitable war, propofed to the 
prince to retire to Gualier, where the Mahrat- 
tors had now eftablifhed a government, promifing 
to give him a tracT: of country for his main- 
tenance. Ali Gohar thanked the Mahrattor for 
his generous propofal, but declined to accept 
of it. 

His eyes were now turned to another quarter. Nigib ui 
Nigib ul Dowla, who had, at the king's requeft, ^'"'''*- 
betrayed Ghazi ul Dien to Abdalla, was, upon 
the reinftatemcnt of the vizier in his oilice, 
obliged to fly to his jagier of Secundra, be- 
tween the rivers, about forty crores below Delhi. 
The prince looked upon him as the moft pro- 
per perfon to conduct his affairs. He accordingly 
took leave of Ittul Raw, crolTcd the Jumna, 



A. D. 1759. arrived at Secundra, and was received with 
great refpecl by Nigib ul Dowla, who, however, 
did not think proper to join heartily in his 
Ji^ardl'e^s ^^ retum to the tranfaclions at Delhi : Ab- 

again to dalla had no fooner fettled his affairs, than he 
Delhi. prepared for another expedition into Hindoftan. 
He refolved to fupport his army with the plun- 
der of that country, and to keep them in ac- 
tion there for other enterprizes more arduous. 
He accordingly marched from Candahar, and, 
in the month of Ribbi ul awil, 1174, arrived 
in the environs of Delhi. The unhappy Ahum- 
gire applied to him for relief ; and, it poflible, 
exaggerated his own misfortunes, and the un- 
heard-of villainies of his vizier. He, at the 
fame time, by his emiffaries, ftirred up factions 
in the army of Ghazi, who had marched out of 
the city to give battle to Abdalla. The dif- 
cerning mind of that minifter foon penetrated 
into the king's machinations againll him. He 
did not for a moment hefitate what to do ; his 
hands had already been imbrued in blood, and 
he ftarted not at murder. He refolved to take 
off the king, and then to let future events direct 
his line of action. 
Defigns of Though the king was in fome meafure a pri- 
the vizier. fQj^gj., he was permitted to keep his guards and 
a great retinue of fervants. They pitied Im 
misfortunes, and became firmly attached to his 
intereft. Abdalla, who was near with his army, 
feemed to give fome encouragement to AUum- 
gire, and that prince's party acquired ftrength 
every day. The vizier faw himfelf hemmed in 
upon all fides by enemies ; he, therefore, thought 
it high time to affaffmate his mafter. — He knew 
the wcaknefs and fuperftition of the mind of 


A I. L U M G I R E ir. 393 

Allumgire. He, therefore, trumped up a ftory a.d. 1760, 
concerning a Fakier, who prophefied and wrought 
miracles at the Kottulah of Ferofe III. 1 he poor 
enthufiaftic king, juft as Ghazi expecfled, ex- 
prefled a great deiire to fee the holy Fakier. 
As it would derogate from the reputation of 
the pretended faint, to pay a vifit, even to a 
king ; Allumgire refolved to confer upon him that 
piece of relbect. — But he had no fooner entered Emperor 

I 1 ^ 1 1 • ,^ r- murdered, 

the apartment where the holy impoltor fat, 
than two aiTaflins ftarted from behind a curtain, 
cut off his head with a fcimiter, and threw his 
body, out of a back window, upon the fands of 
the Jumna. It lay there two days without inter- 
ment ; none daring to pay the laft oflice to the 
remains of their unfortunate king. This tragedy 
was aded at Delhi, in the month of the fecond 
Ribbi, 1 1 74. 

Such was the end of Allums^ire, who, in an ^'* *^'^"*^" 
age of peace and tranquillity, might have lived 
with fome reputation, and have died with the 
charafter of a faint. But the times required 
uncommon abilities in a king, and the moft vi- 
gorous exertion of the manly fiiculties of the 
foul ; neither of which that unhappy monarch 
in any degree pofTefTed. His ftruggles, therefore, 
againll the am*bition of Ghazi, were puerile and 
impotent. Had he employed the affafTm againft the 
breaft of that treacherous minifter, jufiice would 
have warranted the blow ; had he pofl'eflbd 
courage to have aimed it with his own. hand, a 
thoufand opportunities were not wanting. What 
then can be laid in favor of a man, who durft 
not make one manly effort for his authority, or 
rcfent indignities which he daily received in 
pcrfon .? 

The perfidious vizier ordered the body of tlie 
king, after lying two days cxpofed on the fond of 



A.D.1760. the Jumna, to be privately interred. He then 
took another prince of the blood, and placed 
him upon the throne, by the name of bhaw 



( 395 ) 


IGIB UL DOWLA, who had, fome time a. d. .765. 
before the afTaffination of Allumsfire, made „'!"L* '" 
up matters wich the vizier, had the addrefs to Delhi, 
reraln the office of buckiLlii. Shocked at the 
villainy of Ghazi, or defirous to transfer to 
himleif the whole power, he again betrayed 
tha' minitler, and went over with all his forces 
to Abdilla. Giiazi, in confequenceof this defer- 
tion, %und liinifelf obliged aifo to make peace 
with the invader. 

'rh-(e fadi nis proved fatal to the unhappy Mbfor- 
Delhi.iiis. Abdalla laid the city under heavy ^""*^''f 
contributions, and in forced the collection with 
fuch rigour and cruelty, that the unfortunate 
inhabitants, driven to dcfpair, took up arms. 
The Perfian ordered a general mafl'acre, which, 
without intermiflion, Lifted for feven days. 
The relentleis Durannies * were not even then 
glutted wiih llaughter, but the ftench of the 
dead bodies drove them out of the city. A 
great part of the buildings were, at the fame 
time, reduced to alhes, and many thoufands, 
who had efcaped the fword, fulTercd a lingering 
death by famine, fitting upon the fmoaking 
ruins of their own houies. Thus the imperial 
city of Delhi, which, in the days of its glory, 

* The tribe, of which AbdalLi is chief, are diilinguidicd by 
that name. 



A.D. 1761. extended itfelf feventeen crores in length, and 
was (iiid to contain two millions of people, became 
almoft a heap of rubbifli. 

invafion by The mifcries of the unfortunate Delhians were 

the Man- , ^^^, 

rattors. not vct at an end. Ihe IVlahrattors, who now, 
■ without intermiffion, traverfed the empire for 
plunder, advanced to partake of the fpoils of 
Delhi with Abdalla. Jincow and Malharraw, 
accordingly, occupied the environs of the city. 
The Perfian marched out againft them, and 
both armies joined battle at a place called Mud- 
genu Tuckia, two crores from the depopulated 
capital. Ihe IVlahrattors were defeated, and 
purfued one hundred and fifty crores from the 
field : but they, in the mean time, gave Abdalla 
the flip, turned his rear, and fet out in full 
march for Delhi. The Durannics, however, 
were fo clofe to their heels, that, before they 
could attempt any thing againft the city, they 
were a fecond time obliged to retreat. 
thTSil- °^ ^" ^^^ me2in time news arrived, that the Mah- 
hommedans rattor chicfs wcrc advancing with another very 
numerous army from the Decan, with a pro- 
feffed defign to re-eftablifli the ancient Hindoo 
government. BilTwals Raw, Baow, and Ibrahim 
Chan Ghardi, commanded this force, which, in- 
dependent of the army of Mahrattors, whom 
Abdalla had already defeated, confided of one 
hundred thoufand horfe. The Mahommedans 
were ftruck with terror ; they thought it necef- 
fary to join Abdalla, to fupport the faith ; Suja 
ul Dowlat, who had fucceeded his father, the 
infamous Scifdar Jung, in the province of Oud, 
Ahmed Chan Bunguifh, chief of the Patans and 
all the petty chieftains of the Rohillas, hailened 
with their forces to Delhi. 
^Scrthl;'* ^Ihe Mahrattors had now entered the territo- 
jatci. ries of the Jates, and fummoned Raja Sourage 


SHAW A L L U M. 397 

Mull to join them. Though Sourage Mull, asA.D. 1-61. 
a Hindoo, wifhed for the extirpation of Ma- 
hommedifm in India, he was too jealous of the 
power of the Mahrattors, to obey their orders. 
Enraged at his obftinacy, they carried fire and 
fword through his dominions, and compelled 
him at laft to join them with fifty thoufand 

The Mahrattors now confified of two hundred 
thoufand horfe, and the Mahommedans, whom 
Ahmed Abdalla commanded in chief, of near one 
hundred and fifty thoufand. The eyes of all 
India were now turned towards the event of 
a war, upon which depended, whether the fu- 
prem.e power fhould remain with the Mahom- 
medans, or revert again to the Hindoos. Upon 
the approach of the Mahrattors, Abdalla evacu- 
ated Delhi, and, having crofiTed the Jumna, en- 
camped on the oppofite bank. 

The Mahrattors immediately entered the city, Dciiii pii- 
and filled every quarter of it with devaftation ^""^ ' 
and death. Not content with robbing the mife- 
rable remains of Abdalla's cruelty of every thing 
they poifefled, they fi:ripped all the males and 
females quite naked, and wantonly whipped them 
before them along the fi:reets. Many now prayed 
for death, as the grcateft blclTmg, and thanked 
the hand which inflicled the wound. — Famine 
began to rage among the unfortunate citizens to 
fuch a degree, that men fled from their deareft 
friends, as from beafts of prey, for fear of being 
devoured. Many women devoured their own 
children, while fome mothers, of more hu- 
manity, were feen dead in the fl:reets, with 
infants IHU fucking at their breafis. — But let us 
now draw a veil over this fcene of horror. 

Ghazi ul Dien found, by this time, that Ab-T'i'; power 
dalla was become his enemy, and inclined to decibel 



A.D. 1761. the intcrefts of NIgib ul Dowla. He therefore 
endeavoured to make up matters with the Mah- 
rattors, but his propofals were rejecled. He 
then turned himfelf to the Raja of the Jates, who 
was in the field an unwilling; auxiliary to the 
Mahratcors, and perfuaded him to delert their 
caufe, and retire to his own country, whither 
he himfelf accompanied him. Thus ended the 
public tran[acl:ions of Ghazi ul Dicn, who 
crowded into a few years of early youth more 
crimes and abilities, than other confummate vil- 
lains have done into a lono; life of v ickednefs and 
treachery. Though he did not poffefs the Decan, 
the fruits of his grandfather's uncommon crimes, 
he m>ay truly be faid to have been the genuine heir 
of the parts and treafons of that monller of ini- 
quity and villainy. 

Tianfa^w- The Mahrattors, when thev entered Delhi, 

mis in ^'confined Shaw Jehan, who had borne the title 
of royalty for a few weeks ; and, to quiet the 
minds of fome Mahommedan omrahs, who 
aided them, raifed to the throne Jewan Bucht, 
the eldeft fon of prince Ali Gohar, who had by 
this time ailumied the title of Shaw Ailum in 
Behar. But this young prince, had he even 
abiiiiies to reign, had now no fubjecls left to 
command : for he mav be conhciered as the 
image of a king, fet up by way of infult in the 
midft of the ruins of his caDital. 

AMaVas Abdalla being informed of the defertion of the 
Jates, was extremely defirous of repaying the 
Jumna, and to come to battle v/ith the iViah- 
rattors. He, for this purpofe, marched up 
along the bank oppohte to the enemy, to Kungi- 
purra, a place of fome ftrength, poffefied by Ni- 
zabat Chan, an independent Rohilla chief. The 
Perfian fummoned him to furrender, which he 
refufed, and the place was confequeiitly taken by 
affault, and the garrifon and inhabitants put to 



the fword. — The Mahrattors, at the fame time, a. 0.1761. 
marched up upon the fide of Delhi, and, too 
confident of their own ftrength, permitted Ab- 
dalla, without oppofition, to crofs the Jumna, 
by the ford of Ramra : but obferving him more 
bold in his motions than they expected, they be- 
came fomewhat afraid, and intrenched them- 
felves at Kama), in the very fame ground which 
was occupied formerly by Mahommed, while 
Abdalla chofe the more fortunate fituation of Na- 
dir Shaw. 

Both armies lay in their entrenchments, forCofncsto 

, J n • • n ' • • 1 r 11 aftion with 

twelve days, Ikirmunmg at times with UTiall a„d defeats 
parties. Abdalla, in the mean time, found ''"^ ^''^'^^ 
means to cut on lome Manrattor convoys, w^ith 
provifions, and, by the vigilance and activity 
of his Durannies, to prevent all fupplies from 
coming to the enemy's camp. — As famine be- 
gan to rage among the Mahrattors, they were 
neceffitated to march out of their lines, upon the 
20th of thefecond Jemmad, 1 174, and to ofl'er bat- 
tle to Abdalla, which he immediately accepted. 
The firft fhock was extremely violent: the Mahrat- 
tors advanced with great resolution, and charged 
Abdalla fword in hand with fuch vigor, that 
he was upon the point of being driven off the 
field, when Suja ul Dowlat, well known to the 
Britifh in India, and Ahmed Chan Bunguilh, 
the Patau chief of Doab, fell upon the ilank 
of the Mahrattors, with ten tlioufand horfe. — 
This circumftance immediately turned the fcale 
of victory. Abdalla recovered from his con- 
fiifion, renewed the charge, and drove back 
the enemy. Should we credit common report, 
fifty thoufand Mahrattors fell in this action, 
and in the purfuit : but be that as it will, the 
battle was extremely bloody, for all the generals 
of the vanquiflied, except Malhar Raw, who Tied 
upon the lirll charge, were flain. 



AD. 1761. Abdalla, after having purfued the Mahrattors 
Writes to f()p ^i^Q (pace of three days, returned to Delhi. 

tlie piince ^ , . \ " . ,. 

AiiGoiiai. He wrote rrom thence letters to prince All 
Gohar, who had proclaimed himfelf king in the 
province of Behar, under the title of Shaw Allum, 
requeuing him U^ return to Delhi, and to take 
upon him the management of the affairs of govern- 
ment. Shaw Allum was too prudent to truft 
himfeif in the hands of Abdalla, and therefore 
that prince, whole affairs on the fide of Perlia 
required his prefence, confirmed Jewan Bucht * 
upon the throne of Delhi, under the tuition of 
Nigib ul Dowla, froin whom he exacted an an- 
nual tribute. Abdalla, after thefe traniacfions, 
returned to Cabul. 
Evacuates j^q fooncr had Abdalla evacuated Delhi, than 
the fates commenced hoftiiities againll Nigib ul 
Dowla. ihey feized upon Camgar Chan, Ze- 
mindar of Ferochagur, and appropriated to 
themfelves his wealth and territory. The mi- 
nifter, upon this, took the field. The Jates ad- 
vanced againfl him, with a great army, under 
the conduct of their chief. Raja Sourage Mull. 
The Jates being much fuperior to the force of 
Nigib ul Dowla, became confident of fuccefs j 
fo that, when the armies approached within a 
few miles of one another, near Secundra, the 
Raja went carelefsly out, with fome of his offi- 
cers, upon a hunting party. Nigib ul Dowla, 
being informed of this circumilance by means 
of his fpies, immediately dilpatched a party of 
five hundred horfe, under Seidu, a boldpartizan, 
in queft of the Raja. 
Chjcfof Seidu fell in with Sourage Mull, v.-hofe party 

Lto"K" confiiled of about three hundred. They en- 

* The prefent emperor's eldeil Ton. 


SHAW A L L U AT. 401 

gaged fword in hand, with great refolution a. d. 1-61, 
on both fides ; but, at length, the Jates were cut 
off to a man, and the Raja's head was brought 
to Nigib ul Dowla, who was then upon his 
march to attack the enemy. The unexpected 
appearance of Nigib, in the ablence of their 
prince and bed oHicers, ftruck the Jates with 
univerfil panic ; when, at that very inftant, a 
horfeman advancing at full fpeed, threw the 
Raja's head into their line. This circumftance 
compleated their confulion, fo that Nigib ul 
Dowla defeated them with eafe, and purfued 
them, fword in hand, fome crores from the field 
of battle. 

The minifter, after this victory, returned to ^'-^'^ f' 
Delhi. But he had not long remained in that conduo. 
capital, before Joahir Singh, the fon and fuc- 
ceiTor of Sourage Mull, hired twenty thoufand 
Mahrattors, under Pv'Ialhar Raw, and advanced 
with all his forces to Delhi. Nii>:ib ul Dowla 
was not capable to cope with the Jates and 
their auxiliaries in the held. He flrat himfelf 
up in the city, where he was befieged for three 
months, and at lall reduced to- great diftrefs. 
However, a handfome prefent to Malhar Raw 
faved him upon this critical occafion. The 
Jates, finding themfelves betrayed by their mer- 
cenaries, were obliged to patch up a peace, and 
retire into their own country. Thefe tranfac- 
tions happened in the year 1175 of the Higera. 
Nigib ul Dowla has been fince frequently attacked 
by the Jates to the cait, and the Sciks to the wed, 
but he IHU maintains his ground with great refo- 
lution and ability. 

But to return to the adventures of the Anions of 
prince Ali Gohar, who, under the title of em-Ah S". 
peror, now reigns in the fmall province of 

Vol. II. D d Allahabad : 


A D 1162 Allaliabad : we have already obferved, that he, 
after parting with the Mahrattors, threw himfelf 
upon Nigib ul Dowia at Secundra. lie could 
not, however, prevail upon that omrah to 
take up arms in his favour. He, therefore, 
left Secundra, with a fmall retinue of fervants, 
who lived at their own expence, in hopes of 
better days, with their prince. With thefe he 
arrived at Lucknow, one of the principal cities 
of the province of Oud, where Suja ul Dowlat 
kept then his court. Suja ul Dowlat re- 
ceived the king with feeming great refpecf, and 
paid him royal honors ; but this was only the 
falfe politenefs of an Indian court ; which is al- 
ways Icfs deficient in ceremony than in faith. 
It was not the intereft of Suja ul Dowlat, who, 
by the villainies of his father, the infamous Seif- 
dar Jung, had become an independent prince, to 
revive the power of the empire ; he therefore 
declined all connection with the affairs of All 
Gohar. He, however, made him a Nafir of 
elephants, horfes, and half a lack of roupees in 
money, and iniinuated to him, to leave his 
Arnvcs at All Goliar, in this diftreffed fituation, turned 
AiiahabaJ. ^^^^,^j.^|g Allahabad. Kuli Chan, 
at that time, poifefied that city and province. 
Mahommed received the prince with friendfliip 
as well as refpecl ; for being a man of an enter- 
prizing genius, he entertained great hopes of 
raifmg himfelf with the fortunes of the Shaw 
Zadda *. After maturely deliberating upon 
the plan of their future operations, it was re- 

* Shaw Zadda literally fignifies the king's fon : a title by 
^uhich Ali Gohar was diftinguiOied during tlie life of his father 
' AUumoire Sani. 



SHAW A L L U M. 4^3 

folved, that, inilead of relieving the uiifortu. a.d. 1764. 
nate Allumgire from the tyranny of Gazi at 
Delhi, they fhould endeavour to potTefs them- 
felves of the provinces of Bengal and Behar, the 
revenues of which might enable them to fupport 
a fafficient army to reftore the power of the em- 
pire. Though the Sliavv Z:idda was the undoubted 
heir of the empire, yet, to takeaway every pre- 
tence of right from Jaffier Chan, whom the 
Britifli, on account of his villainies, had raifed 
to the government of Bengal, he obtained a 
from grant of the fubaihlps of the three provinces 
private his father at Delhi, 

Every thing: beins: now concerted, pubHc or-A"<"^pfs^ 
ders were iiTued to the neighbouring Rajas and ^i jjci.gaL 
fogedars, to repair to the llandard of the Shaw 
Zadda ; while Mahommed Kuli Chan raifed all 
the troops of Allahabad. Camgar Chr.n, one 
of the principal fogedars of liehar, PuKvan 
Singh, Raja of Budgepoor, Buibidder, Raja of 
Amati, and many other, both Hindoo and 
Mahomedan chiefs, obeyed the fuinmons, and 
joined the prince. Soldiers of fortune, in the 
mean time, fiocked to him from all quarters, fo 
that Ali Gohar found himfelf foon at the head 
of fixty thouland m.en. 

In the month of the fecond Ribbi of the year Ente« that 
1173, the Shaw Zadda marched from Allahabad an/afTumes 
towards Bengal, The pariiculars of this war are ^i>ci^'"pii<.'. 
well known. Let it fuihce to mention here, 
that the prince was unfuccefsful in all his attempts 
upon Bengal ; and was, at laft, obliged to fur- 
render himfelf to the commander of the Britifli 
forces, at Geiah in Behar. He received intelli- 
gence, foon after, of the aflaiTination of his fa- 
ther at Delhi, He was accordingly proclaimed 
emperor at Patna ; but nothing being done tor 
him, by the Britilh, the unfortunate prince found 
himfelf obliged to throw himfelf into the hands 

D d 2 of 



Seized by 
Suja 111 

A.D. 1764. of Suja 111 Dowlat, who, in the abfence of Kuli 
Chan, had feized upon the province of Allahabad. 
The villainy of Suja ul Dowlat did not reft there : 
he invited Kuli to a conference, and bafely aflaf- 
finated him. 

Suja ul Dowlat, having poffefTed himfelf of 
the king's perfon, clofely confined him. He, 
at the fame time, mocked the unhappy man 
with a farce of royalty, and obliged him to 
ratify all grants and commiflions, which might 
ferve his own purpofes. Under the fan6tion of 
thefe extorted deeds, Suja ul Dowlat made war 
upon the neighbouring ftates, in which, how- 
ever, he was not very fuccefsful. When Cafiim 
Ali was driven from the fubafhip of Bengal, Suja 
ul Dowlat joined him, in order to recover his 
government. He was defeated at Buxar, by the 
Britifli, and the king being, in his flight, left 
behind him, threw himfelf a fecond time under 
our proteclion. 

He hoped, now, that as Suja ul Dowlat's domi- 
nions fell into the hands of the Britifh, in confe- 
quence of this victory, that they would confer 
them upon him. But the unfortunate prince 
deceived himfelf. He had no monev, and con- 
fequently had no friends. Suja ul Uowlat was 
ftill poilefled of wealth : and the virtue of the con- 
querors was by no means proof againft temp- 
tation. They reftored to him his dominions, 
and, by a mere mockery of terms, called in- 
juftice by the name of generoiity. A fmall part 
of the province of Allahabad was allotted to the 
king, for a fubfiftence, and the infamous fon 
of a ftill more infamous Perfian pedlar enjoys the 
extenfive province of Oud, as a reward for a 
feries of uncommon villainies. — But the tranf- 

ed by the 
avaiice of 
the Biilifh. 

actions of the British Subas in India, 

will fur- 

S H A W A L L U M. 405 

nifli materials for a diftin(5l hiftory. We fhall npt, a.d. 1764. 
therefore, break in upon that fubjeft in this place ; 
as to mention them flightly would be, in fbme 
meafure, detradling from the fame, which thofe 
Great Men have fo unjuftly acquired. 




A.D. 17^4- ^-|-SflI? fJiort &etch which we have given in 
fn fhf °r 1 '-^e preceding Hiftory of Hindoftan, may 
cinofthe ferve to throvv' light on the dccHne of the great 
empire. empire of tlie Moguls in that part of the world. 
We faw it gradually fhrinking into itfelf, till the 
race of Timur are, at laft, confined within the 
narrow limits of an infignilicant province. It 
muft, however, be allowed, that the uncommon 
misfortunes of that family proceeded no Icfs 
from their own weaknefs than from the villainy 
of their fervants. Had a man of parts fucceed- 
ed the debility of Mahommed's government, 
\ the ancient glory of the empire might have been 
ftill refiored. The revokeci fubas were not, then, 
well eflabliilied in their independance ; and the 
gallant refrfiance which Abdalla met with, in the 
reign of Ahmed, fhewed that the Moguls could 
ftill defend themfelves from foreign invalions. 
^kxes b- This, like other great ftates, fell into pieces, 
domsitic more by domeftic factions than by foreign arms. 
fadons. £ven the miniftcrs of the unfortunate Mahom- 
med were men of parts ; thofe who managed 
the affa-rs of Ahmed were poiTeffed of great abi- 
lities ; and, in the reign of Allumgire Sani, 
young Ghazi difplayed an uncommon and 
enterprizing genius. But virtue had lied from 
the land : no principle of honour, patriotifm, or 
loyalty, remained ; great abilities produced nothing 
but great crimes j and the eyes of individuals 



e 40 &■ 

SHAW ALL U M. .. 407 

being wholly intent upon private advantage, a. d. 1764. 
the affairs of the public fell into ruin and con'fu- 

As from the ruins of the extenfive empire ^'f^'-^rent 
of the Moguls, many dependent governments lutoVk^ 
have ftarted up of late years, it may not be im-*"'"^- 
proper in this place, to take a curfory view of 
the prefent Hate of Hindoftan. To begin with 
the northern provinces. We have already ob- 
ferved, that Candahar, Cabul, Ghizni, Pifliawir, 
with a part of Moultan and Sind, are under^ 
the dominion of Ahmet AbdalJa. That prince 
poffeffes alfo, upon the lide of Periia, the greateft 
part of ChoraiTan andSeiftan, and all Bamia, on 
that of Tartary. Abdalla, in fhort, reigns over 
almoft all the countries which formed the em- 
pire of Ghizni, before it defcended from the 
mountains of Afganlfian to Lahore and Delhi. 
It is highly probable that, as Kerim Chan has 
fettled the weftern Perfian, he may ((ion extend 
the empire to its ancient boundaries towards the 
eaft, and drive Abdalla into Hindoftan ; fo that 
a third dynafty of kings of India may arife from 
^mong the Afgans. 

The revenues of Abdalla are very confidera- Achmct 
b!e, amounting to about three crorcs of roupees. -A-^'^'^'^- 
But as he is always in the field, and maintains 
an army of 100,000 horfe, to defend himfelf 
from the Perfians and Tartars, he is in crreat dif- 
trefs for money. This circumftance obliges him, 
not only to opprefs his own i'ubjecls, but alfo 
to carry his depredations to foreign countries. 
During the conipctition of the fcvcn confpira- 
tors for the tlirone of Perfia, Abdalla had little 
to fear from that quarter. But as Kcrim Chan has 
cftabUflicd himfcif, by the defeat and death of 
his rivals, it is extremely probable, that Ab- 
dalla will foon feel, as wc have already ob- 
fcrved, the weight of his arms, as Chorrall-in 



and Seiftan are properly provinces of the Perfian 

Hispoiiti- However, Abdalla is at prefent at peace with 
cuUituaiipii j;[gj-im, and has taken that favourable opportu- 
nity for invading Hindoflan. He had, in April 
1767, defeated the Seiks in three different 
actions, and advanced to Sirhind, about forty 
crores from Delhi, with an army of fifty thou- 
fand horfe. It is fuppofed that Nigib ul Dowla, 
who, in the name of the prefent emperor's fon, 
manages the affairs of Delhi, had, as he himfelf 
was hard preifed by the Seiks and Jates, called 
in Abdalla, to take upon him the government. 
Nigib ul Dowla, by our beft intelligence, 
marched out of the city to meet his ally, with 
forty thoufand mien. The armies lay in fight of 
one another, and they were bufy in negotiation, 
and in fettling a plan for their future operati- 
ons. Abdalla, in the mean time wrote circular 
letters to all the princes of India, commanding 
them to acknowledge him King of Kings, and 
demanding a tribute. Suja ul Dowlat, in parti- 
cular, had received a very iharp letter from him, 
upbraiding him for his alliance with Infidels, 
and demanding the imperial revenues, which that 
fuba had converted to his own ufe for fome 
years back. 
Kiseharac- Such was thc fituatiou of the affairs of Abdal- 
^"- la, by our laft accounts from Delhi. This prince 

is brave and active, but he is now in the decline 
of life. His perfon is tali and robuft, and incli- 
nable to being fat. His face is remarkably broad, 
his beard very black, and his complexion mode- 
rately fair. His appearance, upon the whole, is 
majeftic, and expreilive of an uncommon dignity 
2nd Orenirth oF mind. Thou2:h he is not (o 
fierce and cruel as Nadir Shaw, he fupports his 
authority with no icfs rigor, and he is by no 
' means 

SHAW A L L U M. 409 

means lefs brave than that extraordinary mo- 
narch. He, in fhort, is the moft likely perfon 
now in India, to reftore the ancient power of the 
empire, Ihould he affume the title of kino; of 

The Seiks border upon the Indian dominions The Seits. 
of Abdalla. That nation, it is faid, take their 
name of Seiks, which fignifies disciples, from 
their being followers of a certain philofopher of 
Thibet, who taught the idea of a commonwealth, 
and the pure dodrine of Deifm, without any 
mixture of either the Mahommedan or Hindoo 
fuperftitions. They made their firft appearance 
about the commencement of this century, in the 
reign of Bahadar Shaw, but were rather reckon- 
ed then a particular feci: than a nation. Since 
the empire began to decline, they have prodigi- 
oufly increafeci -their numbers, by admitting 
profelytes of all religions, without any other cere- 
mony than an oath, which they tender to them, 
to oppofe monarchy. 

The Seiks are, at prefent, divided into feveral '^''^ '^o"^^- 
ftates, which in their internal government are tLirgo- 
perfectly independent of one another, but they vemmcnt. 
form a powerful alliance againfl their neighbours. 
When they are threatened with invafions, an af- 
fembly of the ftates is called, and a general 
chofen by them, to lead their refpeclive quotas 
of militia into the field ; but, as foon as peace 
is reftored, the power of this kind of didator 
ceafes, and he returns, in a private capacity, to 
his own community. The Seiks are now in 
polfeflion of the whole province of Punjab, 
the greateft part of Moultan and Sind, both the 
banks of the Indus from Caflimire to Tatta, and 
all the country towards Delhi, from Lahore to 
Sirhind. I'hey have, of late years, been a great 
check upon the arms of Abdalla ; and, though 



in the courfe of the laft year they have been un- 
fuccefsful againft that prince in three aclions, 
they are by no means fubdued, but continue a 
fevere clog upon his ambitious views in India. 
Theirchkrs The chicf vvho leads at prefent the army of 
andfcrc^. j^e Sciks, Is Jeflarit Singh ; there is alio one 
Nitteh Singh, who is in great efteem among 
them. They can, upon an emergency, muller 
60000 good horie ; but, though in India they 
are eileemed brave, they chufe rather to carry 
on their wars by i'urprize and llratagem, than 
by regular operations in the field. By their 
principles of religion and government, as well as 
on account of national injuries, they are invete- 
rate enemies to Abdalla, and to the Rohilla 
Robiih^ To the eaft of the dominions of the republic 
of the Seiks lie the countries \^:hich are poffeffed 
by the Rohilla Afgans. Nigub ul DowLi, whofe 
■ hiftory is comprehended in the preceeding fecTi- 
ons, is, from his power, as well as from the 
ftrenglh of his councils and his own bravery, 
reckoned tlieir prince. He pofiefles the city of 
Delhi, in the name of the family of Timur, to- 
gether with a coniiderable territory around it, 
on both the banks of the Jumma, and his revenue 
amounts to one crore of roupees. He publickly 
r.cknowledgcd the unfortunate Shaw Allum, at 
Allahabad,' king, and allows a penfion to his fon 
Jewan Bucht, who, without any power main- 
tains a kind of regal dignity at Delhi. 
Kigibui Nigub ul Dovvla has been known, when hard 

^^^^•■^■'■prelied by his hoitile neighbours, to raife 60000 
horfe ; but his revenues arc not fufncient to fup- 
port one tenth part of that number. He conti- 
nues to take the field under the name of captain- 
general of the Mogul empire : and though he has 
not the power, or perhaps the inclination to af- 


S H A W A L L U M. 411 

lift the king, he keeps up a friendly correfpond- 
ence with him, and, without any neceflity, pro- 
fefles obedience and a (hew of loyalty. 

Befides Nigib ul Dowla, there are chiefs of the other ro. 
Rohiila race, who are perfedly independent ; but i^'^'^ chiefs. 
when danger prelTes, they unite with him their 
forces. The moft refpeclable of their chiefs is 
Hafiz Rhimut, who poffeffes a confiderable dif- 
trici between the rivers. The next to him, in 
power, is Doondi Chan ; and with him we may 
number Mutta Huflein, Jacob Ali Chan, Fatte 
Chan Zurein, and others of lefs note, who com- 
mand independent tribes beyond the Ganges to 
the north of Delhi. 

The whole power of the Rohillas may amount Their f»rep. 
to 100,000 horfe, and an equal number of infan- 
try, upon an emergency ; but thefe are fo wretch- 
edly appointed and ill paid, that they furnilh 
more of ridicule, than they can imprefs of ter- 
ror in the field. Their infantry are armed v/ith 
rockets, pointed with iron, which they difcharge 
in vollies among cavalry, which frighten more 
with their noife and uncommon appearance, than 
by the execution which they make. The Rohil- 
las are remarkable for nothing more than their 
natural antipathy to the Mahrattors, which might 
be turned to advantage by the Britifh in their fu- 
ture views upon Hindoftan : but the truth is, 
that the Hindoos and Mahommedans fo equally 
ballance one another in that country, that by 
fupporting one, we may, with great f^icility, 
commancl both. 

There is a fmall government of the Patans to ^"'"<^'r3'''y 
the eaft of the Rohiila tribes. Their diltricl is abad. 
bounded by the dominions of the prefent king, 
by thofe of Sujah ul Dowlat, and by the terri- 
tories of the Jates. The capital of this petty prin- 
cipality is Ferochabad, which is fituatcd upon the 



banks of the Ganges, a few crores above the ruins 
of the celebrated city of Kinnoge. Ahmed 
Chan Bunguifh, who made a great figure agamft 
Seifdar Jung, the father of Suja ul Dowiat, rules 
over this dirtrict. Ahmed is more dilHnguifhed 
by his abilities and perfonal bravery, than by 
the extent of his power. His revenues do not 
exceed fifty lacks ; but he always keeps a Hand- 
ing force of two or three thoufand good horfe, 
which he pays well ; and, upon an emergency, he 
raifes ail liis vafTals, who confift of about 20000 
men. His country is full of forts ; and he has, 
confequently been hitherto able to defend himfelf 
againft the Mahrattors, Jates, and Suja ul Dow- 
iat, who have refpectively invaded his domi- 

Thcjatcs. 1 he city of Agra, and a very confiderable 
tract of country round it, extending along the 
Jumna, from forty crores below that city to 
within five of Delhi, and ftretching back to 
Gualier and Barampulla, are now in the hands 
of a Hindoo nation, called the Jates. The 
raja, who commands the Jates, is defcended of 
the ancient race of the Jits, who polTelTed the 
banks of the Indus, as far back as the reign of 
Mahmood of Ghizni. From their prince, the 
whole body of the Jates, though made up of 
many diftintl tribes and feels, take their name ; 
but others, with lefs probability, trace it to 
Jate, which in the Hindoo language fignifies a 

Theirorjgin The Jatcs made no figure in the Mogul em- 
pire, as a nation, till the reign of Allumgire, 
commonly known in Europe by the name of 
Aurungzebe. In that monarch's expedition to the 
Decan, they were firft heard of as a gang of ban- 
ditti, under an intrepid fellow, called Chura 
Mun. They were then fo daring as to harrals 


S H A W A L L U M. 413 

the rear of the imperial army. After the death 
of AUumgire, the Jates took advantage of the 
growing imbecility of the empire, and fortifying 
themfelves among the hills of Narvar, fpread 
their depredations to the gates of Agra. Mokun 
Singh, who, after the death of Chura Mun, 
commanded the Jates, took upon himfelf the ti- 
tle of Raja. Their power increafed under Bo- 
dun Singh and Sourage Mull, which laft was 
dignified with titles from the emperor. 

Joahir Singh, the fon of Sourage Mull, now Prj^eat 
reigns over the Jates, and is a very weak prince. 
His revenues do not exceed two crores ot rou- 
pees ; his dominions, like the reft of India, 
being harraffed by the Mahrattors. He may, 
upon fome occcafions, be able to bring into the 
field fixty or fevcnty thoufand men, but he can- 
not keep long in pay one third of that number. 
The dominions of the Jates abound with ftrong 
fortrefles, fuch as Dieg, Cumbere, and Aliver ; 
in one of which their prince frequently refidcs, 
though he fpends the moft part of his time at 

To the fouth-weft of the Jates, Mudoo Singh, f^'P'^f 
an India raja, poiTes a very confiderable territory, 
and refides for the muft part at Joinagur. He is 
the fon of Joy Singh, a prince famous for his 
knowleda:e in aftronomy, and other mathemati- 
cal fcienccs. He entertained above a thouiand 
learned brahmins for fome years, in rectifying 
the kalcndar, and in makinff new tables for the 

• • • 1 

calculation of ecHpfcs, and for determining the 
longitude and declination of the ftars. — The re- 
venues of Mudoo Singh are not very conlidcrable, 
being reckoned only eiglity lacks ; his domini- 
ons being woody, mountainous, and confe- 
quently ill cultivated. He can, however, rail'c 
forty thoufand men 5 and he himfelf is cftccmcd 
a good foldier. 



Marwar. Bordering upon Mudoo Singh, upon the fron- 
tiers of the Decan, is the extenfive country of 
Marwar, ruled at prefent, by Bija Sing, the fon 
of Bucht Singh, and grandfon of Jeffawind Singh. 
Marwar, when the empire was in a flourifliing 
condition, yielded annually five crores of rou- 
pees : at prefent its revenues do not amount to 
half that fum, on account of the inceffant depre- 
dations of the Mahrattors, its next neighbours 

rn,-^.„r The next Hindoo s;overnment to Marwar, is 

that of Odipour. The raja of this country is dil- 
tinguifhed by the name of Rana. That prince, 
more from his nobility of family than from his 
power, alTumes a fuperiority over all the rajas of 
Hindoftan. His dominions were formerly very 
extenfive, but, of late years, they have been cir- 
cumfcribed within narrower bounds. His terri- 
tories abound with mountai. s and foreils, and 
are almoft furrounded by the kingdoms of Ma- 
lava and Guzerat. His revenues are inconfide- 
rable, and he cannot bring into the field above 
fifteen" thoufand men. — In the vallies between the 
m.ountains of Odipour, there ?,re many petty in- 
dependent rajas ; Bundi, Cottu, Rupnagur, 
JelFelmere, and Bianere, being governed by their 
refpeciive princes, each of whom can muller fix 
or eight thoufand men. 

ATor,,.. The Mahrattors are the moft confiderable Hin- 

doo power m liincioitan. ine principal ieat or 
their 2:overnment is Sattarah, and ibmedmes 
Puna, on the coaft towards Bombay. Though 
the genuine Mahrattors all over India do noi ex- 
ceed 6 coco mien, yet, from their fuperior brave- 
ry and fuccefs in depredation, thoufands of all 
tribes enlift themfelves under their banners. 
Tliefe, inflead of pay, receive a certain propor- 
tion of the plunder. By this means an army of 
Mahrattors increafes like a river, the farther it 

advances ; 

S H A W A L L U M. 4^5. 

advances ; fo that it is no uncommon thing for 
a force of ten or twelve thoufand genuine Mah- 
rattors to grow into 100,000, before they arrive 
in the place which they deftine to plunder. 

The prefent chief of the Mahrattors is Rag-enot Their aiUfs 
Raw, the fon of Bagiraw. He poiTeffes one half queft. 
of Guzerat, and all the territories between that 
province and the Decan. He has, of late years, 
extanded his conquefts to all the provinces of Ma- 
lava, and to a part of Allahabad ; having re- 
duced Himmut Singh, raja of Gualier, An arid 
Singh, raja of Badawir, Anarid Singh, of 
Chunderi, and the princes of Dittea, Orcha, 
Elichpoor, Bandere, and Jaffey ; all of whom 
have become tributary to the Mahrattors. They 
hav^e, moreover, poflelTed themfelves of Orilla, 
which ought, in propriety, to be annexed to the 
fubafliip of Bengal, according to the late grant 
of the kinc: to the Britifli. Thus the dominions 
o^ ' he Mahrattors extend quite acrofs the penin- 
: ./:a of India, from the bay of Bengal to the 
i uiph of Cam bait or Cambav. .^^ . 

The amount of the revenues of the Mahrat-nues. 
tors cannot eafily be afcertained. They muft, 
however, be very confidcrable. They fubiift 
their armies bv depredations on their nciizhbours, 
and are beLiom^e the terror of the Eaft, more on 
account of their barbarity than their valour. 
They never want a pretence for hoililities. They 
demand the Chout, or fourth part of the reve- 
nues of any province; and, in cafe of a refufal, 
they invade, plunder, and lay wafte the country. 
Their horles being very hardy, their incurfions 
are fudden, unexpected, and dreadful. They 
generally appoint a place of rendezvous, and their 
invafions are carried on by detached parties. 
Should a confidcrable force at any time oppofe 
them, they decline coming to action ; and, as 



they invigorate their hardy horfes with opium, 
their flight, like their incurhons, is very ex- 

Forces. ^^^ armies of the Mahrattors do not, like 

the troops of other Indian powers, incumber 
themfelves with bazars or markets. They truft for 
their fubfiftence to the countries through which 
they march. They are armed with firelocks, fome 
with match-lock guns, and others with bows, 
fpears, javelins, fwords and daggers. They have, 
within three years back, made fome advances 
towards forming a difciplined army of infantry. 
They have, accordingly, at prefent, ten or twelvd 
battalions, of Seapoys, uniformly cloathed and 
armed. — All the powers of India being now fen- 
lible of the advantages which the Britifli have 
gained by difciplined infantry, turned their 
thoughts to a hmilar regulation in their armies, 
and to improve their artillery, which was for- 
merly too unwieldy and ill-mounted, to be of any 
fervice in the field. 

Bundei- To the caft of Malava, and to the fouth of 

Allahabad, is the country of Bundelcund, go- 
verned by Hindoput. His territories are of a 
confiderable extent and very fertile, and he more- 
over draws great wealth from his diamond 
mines of Hieragur and Punagur. He alfo claims 
a right to the mines of Sommclpour, but ano- 
ther raia poffefles them at prefent. — The annual 
revenues of Hindoput amount to near two 
crores of roupces, including the profits arifing 
from the mines. Thefe he farms out to merchant- 
adventurers, who purchafe a certain number of 
fuperficial feet of ground, and they are permit- 
ted " to dig down perpendicularly as far as they 
pleafe. Diamonds beyond a certain weight are 
the property of the prince, who has infpecT:ors, 
to fupcrintend the works. 



S H A W A L L U M. 417 

The raja of Bundelcund poffefles the impreg- its nja tn. 
nable fortrefs of Callinger, and feveral other J*,;fiJ^5r 
confiderable ftrong holds. He has, notwith- rattor*. 
ftanding, been obHged to compound for a cer- 
tain tribute with the Mahrattors, who generally 
paid him an annual vifit. Between Bundelcund 
and Cattack, in Orifla, lie the rajafhips of 
Patna and Sommelpour, which are not very con- 
fiderable; the country being mountainous, 
woody, and unhealthy, and the inhabitants bar- 
barous in every refped. 

Part of the province of Allahabad is now pof- shawAiinm 
feffed by ShawAllum, by birthright and title, m^u7/° 
though nothing lefs fo in power, emperor of 
Hindoftan. He keeps the poor refemblance of 
a court at Allahabad, where a few ruined 
omrahs, in hopes of better days to their 
prince, having expended their fortunes in his 
fervice, ftill exift the ragged penfioners of his 
poverty, and burden his gratitude with their 
prefence. The diftricls of Korah and Allahabad, 
in the king's poffeffion, are rated at thirty 
lacks, which is one half more than they are able 
to bear. Inftead of gaining by this bad policy, 
that prince, unfortunate in many refpefts, has the 
mortification to fee his poor fubjects opprefTed 
by thofe who farm the revenue, while he him- 
felf is obliged to compound with the farmers 
for half the flipulated fum. Befides the reve- 
nue arifing from Allahabad and Korah, which we 
may at a medium eftimate at twelve lacks, the Bri- 
tifh pay to the king twenty-fix lacks out of the 
revenues of Bengal ; which is all Shaw Allum 
poffefTes to fupport the dignity of the imperial 
houfe of Timur. — It may not, perhaps, be un- 
acceptable to the public, to delineate, in this 
place, the character of that unfortunate prince. 

Shaw Allum is robuft in his perfon, and h;s ciiarac- 
about fix feet .high. His complexion is rather '" 
Vol. II, E e darker 


darker than that which was common to the race 
of Timur, and his countenance is expreflive of 
the melancholy which naturally arofe from his 
many misfortunes. He poffeffes perfonal courage ; 
but it is of the paflive kind, and may be rather 
called fortitude to bear adverfity, than that dar- 
ing boldnefs which loves to face danger. — He 
has been fo often difmounted in the courfe of 
ambition, that he now fears to give it the rein ; 
and feems lefs defirous to make any efforts to re- 
trieve the power of his family, than to live quiet- 
ly under the fliadow of its eclipfed majefty. — His 
clemency borders upon weaknefs, and his good- 
nature has totally fubverted his authority. He 
is daily induced, by importunity, to iffue out or- 
ders which he takes no means to enforce, and 
which, he is certain, will not be obeyed. From 
this blemilh in the character of Shaw Allum, 
arofe the half of his misfortunes ; for the great 
fecret of eftablifhing authority, is to give no or- 
ders which cannot be inforced, and rather to fuffer 
fmall injuries, than fliew refentment, without the 
power of punifhing. 

His generolity is more than equal to his abili- 
ties, and too often ill beftowed. He is too much 
addifted to women, and takes more pains to 
maintain his Haram, than to fupport an army.— 
But though we cannot call him a great prince, 
we muft allow him to be a good man. His vir- 
tues are many ; but they are thofe of private 
life, which never appear with luftre upon a 
throne. His judgment is by no means weak ; 
but his paflions are not ftrong : the eafinefs of 
his temper is therefore moulded like wax by 
every hand ; and he always gives up his ovi'n bet- 
ter opinion for thofe of men of inferior parts. 
— He is affable in his converfation, but feldom de- 
fcends to pleafantry. Upon the whole, though 


S H A W A L L U M. 419 

Shaw Allum is by no means qualified to reilore a ' 
loft empire, he might have maintained it with 
dignity in proiperous time, and trani'mitted his 
name, as a virtuous prince, to pofterity. It is . 
with great regret that the author, from his re- 
gard to truth, cannot fpeak more favourably of 
a prince, to whom his gratitude and attachment 
are due, for repeated teftimonies of his efteem and 

The territories of Suja ul Dowlat, who poffef- s„ja ui 
fes the province of Oud, border upon thofe of i^*^*'"' 
the king. His revenues amount to near two 
crores of roupees, out of which he pays nothing 
to the emperor, though he pretends to recognize 
his title as his fovereign. Since his defeat at 
Buxar, Suja ul Dowlat attends very much to 
the difcipline of his army, and the proper re- 
gulation of his finances. He has already formed 
ten battalions of Seapoys, and has made great 
improvements in his artillery. When the news 
of Abdalla's late invafion came, he levied twelve 
thoufand horfe, upon a better footing than is 
generally pra<fl:ifed in Hindoftan. He is now the 
ally of the Britifli in India, and as his revenues will 
never enable him to fupport himfelf in the field 
againft them, it is probable his principle of fear, 
for he has none of honour or gratitude, will 
make him ftand to the letter of the treaty. 

Suja ul Dowlat is extremely handfome in his His charac 
perfon ; about five feet eleven inches in height,^ 
and fo nervous and ftrong, that, with one ftroke 
of the fabre, he can cut off the head of a buffalo. 
He is aclive, pafiionate, ambitious ; his penetrat- 
ing eye feems, at firft light, to promife uncom- 
mon acutcnels and fire of mind : but his genius 
is too volatile for depth of thought ; and he is 
confequently more fit for the manly cxcrcifcs of 
the field, than I'or deliberation in the clofet. — 

E e 2 Till 



Till of late he gave little attention to bufinefs. 
He was up before the fun, mounted his horfe, 
rufhed into the foreft, and hunted down tigers 
or deer till the noon of day. He then returned, 
plunged into the cold bath, and fpent his after- 
noons in the Haram among his women. — Such 
was the bias of Suja ul Dowlat's mind till the 
late war. Ambitious without true policy, and 
intoxicated with the paffions of youth, he began 
a wild career, in which he was foon checked. 
Stung with the lofs of reputation, his paffions 
have taken another courfe. His activity is em- 
ployed in difciplining his army, and he now 
fpends more time at the comptoir of his finances, 
than in dallying with the ladies of the feraglio. 
His authority therefore, is eftablilhed, his reve- 
nues increafed, and his army on a refpectable 
footing. But, with all his fplendid qualities, he 
is cruel, treacherous, unprincipled, deceitful : 
carrying a fpeeious appearance, purpofely to be- 
tray, and when he embraces with one hand, will 
ftab with the other to the heart. Together with 
being heir to the fruits of his father's crimes, he 
inherits all his latent bafenefs of mind ; for, if we 
except perfonal courage, he pofleffes not one vir- 
tue more than Seifdar Jung. 

The province of Oud is fituated to the north- 
eaft of the Ganges, bordering upon Behar, from 
which it is, on the one fide, divided by the river 
Deo, or Gagera, and on the other by the Carum- 
nall'a- The country is level, well cultivated and 
watered. It is divided, on the north, by a chain 
of mountains from Thibet. In the vallies, 
which interfect that immenfe ridge of hills, 
there are feveral independent rajas, too incon- 
fiderable to be formidable to Suja ul Dowlat. 


S H A W A L L U M. 421 

The provinces of Bengal and Behar are pof- Bengal. 
feffed by the Britifh Eaft-India company, in 
reaHty, by the right of arms, though, in appear- 
ance, by a grant from the prefent emperor. This 
is not a proper place to enter into particulars 
concerning thofe provinces : it may fuffice to ob- 
ferve, that Bengal and Behar, including what is 
called the company's lands and duties upon 
merchandize, yielded in April, 1766, 33,025,968 
Sicca roupees. The expences of government, 
the tribute to the king, and a penfion to a na- 
bob, fet up on account of the villanies of his 
father, amounted to 22,450,000 roupees, and 
confequently the balance in favour of the com- 
pany was 10,575,968 roupees, or 1,321,994!. 
1 5s. of our money. — The Britifh force in Ben- 
gal confifts of three battalions of Europeans, 
and thirty of Seapoys, regularly armed, difci- 
plined, and uniformly cloathed ; fo that we are 
much fuperior, even upon that eltablifliment, 
to any other power at prefent in HIndoftan. 

In the Decan the Britifh are almofl as power- Nabob of 
ful as in Bengal. We fupport Mahommed AH, 
as nabob of the Carnatic, and he defrays the 
expence of our army, in defence of his own 
country. There is, in a manner, no feparatc 
intereft, between the nabob and the company. 
It is from him they derive their confequence 
in the Carnatic, and it is by their force he is 
maintained in his government. Maliommed, till 
of late, kept in pay a body of troops, which, 
from their expence and want of difcipline, he 
has been prevailed upon to reduce to a fmall 
number. His nabobfhip being guarantied 
to him, by the late definitive treaty between 
Great Britain and France, he pofTcfles a greater 
fecurity of power than any other prince in Afia. 
The character of Mahommed has recommended 



him fo much to the prefent Mogul, that that 
prince has given him a perpetual grant of the 
government of that immenfe country, extending 
from the river Chriftna to cape Comorin. 
Hischarac- Mahommed Ali Chan is five feet ten inches 
'^^'' high ; well proportioned and of an engaging 

afpecl. His eye is full, lively and penetrating ; 
his features are expreflive of fenfibility and a 
noble difpofition of mind. His manner attaches 
the ftranger to him ; and com.mands the friend. 
The fir 11 rarely fees him, without feeling an im- 
mediate interefi in his welfare ; and the latter 
has never been known to defert him. Calm, 
affkbie, and full of dignity, he has improved the 
elevated paflions of the Afiatic, with what is 
amiable in the character of the European. The 
duplicity of the eaft is loft in the good heart 
of Mahommed. He" is polTefied of ambition, 
without any one of thofe vices, which too fre- 
quently att-nd that paffion ; and his policy is 
never unworthy of the magnanimity of a vir- 
tuous prince—" A great man," fays Mahom- 
med Ali, ** may conceal his fentiments, but ought 
" never to deceive It was my fortune to place 
" the way of reclitude before me, in my youth, 
" and I never deviated into the paths of decep- 
*' tion. I met the Britifli with that opennefs, 
" which they love ; and it is my honor, as well as 
*^ fecurity, to be the ally of a nation compofed 
•' of princes." This was his declaration, at the 
conclufion of the late war, when he was put in 
peaceable poirefiion of the Carnatic ; and thefe 
were his fentiments when, at *he head of his fa- 
• ther's army, he rejected the offers of France, and 
laved the very being of the company, by raifmg 
the fiege of Fort St. David. 

Mahommed has frequently experienced the 
(•jccefTive extremes of fortunes; and that cir- 


\VplJT.p,7,r,- 4r 

, ^ M-ffrccai Seulp 

S H A W A L L U M. 423 

cumftance has manifeclly afFecled his fplrits. A 
fimilar folicitude of fituation, with other nabobs, 
who have fallen facrifices to their own ambition 
or the iniquitous avarice of European, has im- 
preffed an affecting melancholy on his mind. 
His joy is confeqiiently, at times, the more ex- 
quifitc ; and the appearance of a friend, in whom 
he could confide in his diltrefs, has been known 
to overwhelm him more than the lofs of a battle. 
The greateft encomium upon his character, is 
his being able to have ftruggled, with fuccefs, 
during the fpace of eighteen years, againft the 
avaricious and revengeful pailions of Europeans, 
without lofing his dominions, or forfeiting his 
faith to the Britifh nation. — Mahommed has 
five fons. They are inftrufted in the languages 
and manners of Europe ; and from their natu- 
ral genius and education they promife, one day, 
to make a figure in India. 

The author of this hiftory is indebted, for the 
above character of Mahommed, to a perfon, who 
had a perfect view of the original. That prince 
is fo well known and fo much eileemed in Europe, 
that the curfory mention made of him, was a great 
defed in the firft edition. The author, though 
no fi:ranger to Mahommed's merit and fituation, 
was not perfectly informed ; and he chofc to 
pafs flightly over a character, which he could not 
delineate either from perfonal knowledge or cer- 
tain intelligence from others. The Carnatic has 
lately been an important fcene of war ; and the 
circumftance of the nabob of Arcot being the firft 
Afiatic prince, who had his dominions guaran- 
tied to him in Europe, renders him an objed of 
public attention, exclufive of his uniullied repu- . 
tation, for honor and fidehty to the Britifli na- 

The power of the Nizam, who refides at Hy-NUnm. 
drabad, though he pofl'efles all the province of 



Golconda, is, of late, very much circumfcribed. 
He, however, ftill maintains an army of 60 or 
70,000 men ; but without difcipline, and ill paid, 
they are by no means formidable. He, fome 
time ago, entered into a treaty with the Britiih, 
but he has of late fhewn no dilpofition to adhere 
to it long. 
HyderNaL>, Hydcr-Naig, a foldier of fortune, who, by his 
Tthtnal" P^^^o"^^ merit, raifed himfelf from a low ftation 
of Hydcr to the fovercignty of almoft all the coaft of Mala- 
^^' bar, has by his abilities in the cabinet, as well as 

by his valour in the field, rendered himfelf ex- 
tremely forniidable to the Britifti in Hindoftan. 
The character which the author received of him 
in India enabled him to foretel, in the preced- 
ing edition, the figure which he has fince made ; 
though no man could forefee the difpirited poli- 
tics of our councils on the coaft. After managing 
the war with uncommon abiUties, Hyder, by a 
ilroke of generalfhip, obtained a peace, which 
cHir manifeft liiperiority had no excufe to grant. 
As the laft defperate pufh of his fortunes, he 
turned the rear of our armies, and prefented 
himfelf before Madrafs. We were alarmed, as if 
his horie had wings to fly over our walls. We 
complied with his infolent demands ; and our 
army, which was in full march after him, was 
ordered not to advance a ftep. Friendfliip was 
made with the Ii<^n, for bravely ftruggling when 
he found himfelf entangled in the toils. 

A current of many victories will not be able 
to wafli away the flain which this treaty has af- 
fixed to the Britifli character in India. The 
peace however which we obtained will not be 
lafting. Hyder, who has fome title to the name 
of AH, or the fublime, which he has affumed, 
has already turned his arms againft the Mahrat- 
tors ; and, by the laft advices from Puna, he 
has worfted thefe Marauders in feveral engage- 
ments*^e 4-24 . 

^^x^r- 9^¥/A 

S H A W A L L U M. 425 

ments. They are, however, on account of their 
numbers and their predatory manner of war, very 
formidable to Hyder ; and, in fpite of all his ef- 
forts, they wafted his dominion when they durft 
not meet him face to face on the field. Their 
force, according to the beft accounts, confifts of 
60,000 horfe, 65,000 foot, 10,000 for the ufe 
of the artillery, and 400 elephants. 

The low ftate of Hyder- Ali*s finances, and the 
ravages committed in his dominions, induced 
him in January 1770 to offer even to purchafe a 
peace at the enormous expence of two millions 
five hundred thoufand pounds of our money. 
This fum was rejefted by Madeo-Raw, the chief 
of the Mahrattor ariftocracy, who abfolutely re- 
fufed to clofe with any terms, till Hyder- AH fhould 
evacuate all his conquefts on the coaft of Malabar. 
Hyder would not comply with thefe exorbitant 
demands, and, in the mean time, took his mea- 
fures fo well, that he has hemmed in, by the 
laft accounts, the immenfe army of the Mahrat- 
tors in a fweep of the river Tungbudra. 

In the month of March 1770, the Mahrattor 
army was in this difaftrous fituation. They had 
fcarce a month left to determine their fate, as 
their provifions were gradually decreafmg, and 
the rains fwelling the rivers apace. Hyder,^ in 
the mean time, by his emiflaries, fomented divi- 
fions in their camp. There arofe great diflenfi- 
ons among their chiefs, as is generally the cafe 
in every nation when the affairs of the public arc 
in an untoward fituation. The common foldiers 
in particular, together with many leaders, re- 
monftrated againll the confinement of Raja-Baw, 
the uncle of the commanding Prince. Hyder by 
his public declarations abets the faction ; he exalts 
to the Ikies the abilities of Raja-Baw, and pre- 
tends to fear his enlargement. This piece of po- 
litical art and refinement has had its cffecT: ; and 


His charac 


if it does not occalion a revolution in the Mah- 
rattor (late, it will, at leaft, bring Hyder with 
reputation out of a very deftrudive war with 
thofe Marauders. 

Nor does Hyder-Ali confine his thoughts to 
the trophies of the field. He has extended his 
ambition with fuccefs to the cabinets of the 
neighbouring powers. By intrigues in the court 
of the Nizam he has raifed his brother to the 
command of that prince's armies ; fo that a revo- 
lution in Golconda feems to roll within his 

Hyder-Ali is an extraordinary character, even 
in a country where men have an ample field for 
the exertion of great talents. With all the vi- 
gour of his councils he can neither read or write ; 
but thefe qualifications are not effential to a mi- 
litary genius, nor can learning give fi:rengh of 
mind. He is pofl^efled of a furprifing memory, 
deep penetration, quicknefs of refolution, great 
perfeverancc, conduct aided by perfonai courage, 
and that inexorable temper of mind, whether 
from policy or difpofition, that never forgives a 
crime. In his Durbar^ where he fmokes his 
HuccA, he pronounces fentence of death by 
■waving his hand ; or if he ufes words upon the 
occafion, they are only thefe — Take him away. 
He thinks no more of the fubject, but proceeds 
coolly to other bufinefs. Notwithftanding this 
fummary kind of barbarous juftice, his decifions 
are generally equitable : he is feared, obeyed, 
and beloved. 

If men are juftly faid to be conquered firft in 
their own imaginations, they are certainly kept 
in fubjection by the means which reduced them 
to obedience. The circumftance which threw the 
difcipline of Europe into our hands, enabled us to 
fubdue the Indians with their own domeftic 
force ; and they afcribed to our abihties, what 



S H A W A L L U M. 42-7 

was the refult of accident. Had our addrefs in 
the cabinet continued to us the reputation which 
our arms had acquired in the field, the obferva- 
tions which the firft edition of this work conveyed 
concerning the conqueft of India, could not be 
deemed either vifionary or impradicable. The 
charm is now broke ; Hyder-Ali has difcovered 
that we are not invincible ; and that knowledge 
is of itfelf fufficient to circumfcribe our power. 
It cannot however be altogether out of place to 
continue to the public the opinions which the 
author had formed to himfelf in the year 1767, 
from an accurate furvey of the political ftate of 
India, at that" period. 

' 1 hus have we, in a few words, endeavoured Sj'ions."^ 
to give a general idea of the prefent ftate of Hin- 
doftan. The reflexions which naturally arife 
from the fubjed, might fwell this w^ork into a 
volume. It is apparent, however, from what has 
been faid, that the immenfe regions of Hindoftan 
might be all reduced by a handful of regular 
troops. — Ten thouland European infantry, toge- 
ther with the Seapoys in the company's fervice, 
are not only fufHcient to conquer all India, but, 
with proper policy, to maintain it, for ages, as 
an appendage of the Britifh crown. — Ihis pofition 
may, at firft fight, appear a paradox, to people 
unacquainted with the genius and difpofttion of 
the inhabitants of Hindoftan ; but to thofe who 
have confidered both with attention, the thing 
feems not only practicable, but eafy. 

That ftavery and opprelTion, which the Indi- 
ans fuffer from their native princes, make the 
juftice and regularity of a Britifh government 
appear to them in the moft favourable light- The 
great men in the country have no more idea of 
patriotifm, than the mcaneif flaves ; and the peo- 
ple can have no attachm.ent to chiefs whom they 
regard as tyrants. Soldiers of fortune are fo 



numerous in India, that they comprehend one 
fourth of the inhabitants of that extenfive coun- 
try. They are never paid one third of the ftipu- 
lated fum, by the princes of Hindoftan, which 
renders them mutinous and difcontented ; but 
they would moft certainly approve themfelves 
obedient, faithful, and brave, in the fervice of 
a power who fhould pay them regularly. ^ 

In a country like India, where all religions arc 
tolerated, the people can have no objcdion to the 
Britifli, on account of theirs. The' army might 
be compofed of an equal number of Mahom- 
medans and Hindoos, who would be a check 
upon one another, while a fmall body of Europe- 
ans would be a fufficient check upon both. The 
battalions ought to be commanded altogether 
by European officers, who, if they do their duty 
properly, and behave with juftice to their men, 
inay attach them to their perfons, with ftronger 
ties than any troops born in Europe. But if 
juftice is not obferved to foldiers, human na- 
ture, in this, as in all countries, will and muft 
revolt again ft opprellion. 

At prefcnt, the black oiftcers of the Seapoys 
muft rife from the ranks. This is found policy, 
and ou-ht to be continued. Men of family and 
influence are deterred, by this circumftance, 
from entering into the fervice. Thefe officers 
are, therefore, entirely our creatures, and will 
never defert a people, among whom alone they 
can have any power ; for no acquired difcipline 
will give weight to a mean man, fufficient to 
bring to the field an army ot Indians. 

'I he advantages of a conqueft of Hindoftan to 
this country are obvious. It would pay as much 
of the national debt, as government Ihould 
pleafe to difcharge. Should the influx of wealth 
raife the price of the necefiaries and convenien- 
cies of life, the poor, on the other hand, by be- 


ing eafed of moft of their taxes, would be more 
able to purchafe them. — But, fay fome grave mo- 
ralifts, how can fuch a fcheme be reconciled to 
juftice and humanity ? — This is an objection of 
no weight. — Hindoftan is, at prefent, torn to 
pieces by factions. All laws, divine and human, 
are trampled under foot. — Inftead of one tyrant, 
as in the times of the empire, the country now 
groans under thoufands ; and the voice of the 
opprefled multitude reaches heaven. It would, 
therefore, be promoting the caufc of juftice and 
humanity, to pull thofe petty tyrants from the 
height to which their villainies have raifed them, 
and to give to fo many millions of mankind, a 
government founded upon the principles of 
\'irtue and juftice. — The talk is no lefs glorious 
than it is pradicable ; for it might be accom- 
plifhed with half the blood vt^hich is often ex- 
pended, in Europe, upon an ideal fyftem of a 
balance of power, and in commercial wars, which 
muft be attended with little eclat, as they are def- 
titute of ftriking and beneficial confecjuences. 





■f. '.J-' 







Firishtah, Muhammad Qasim ibn 
Hindu Shah, AstarSbadi 

The history of Hindostan 
3d ed.