(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "History of homeopathy and its institutions in America; their founders, benefactors, faculties, officers, Hospitals, alumni, etc., with a record of achievement of its representatives in the world of medicine"

u^ 




CD 




O^^^ss^*^ 


'^^^st^ 


a:=^^=l^ 


t" 00 


1-1 ,_ 




1=*— ri 






z^^^=CD 


^ — — r- 


' 




_^^^v 


CO 




Carroll Dunham, ^I. D. 



HISTORY 



OF 



HOMOEOPATHY 



AND 



ITS INSTITUTIONS IN AMERICA 

Their Founders, Benefactors, Faculties, Officers, Hospitals, Alumni, Etc. 

with a Record of Achievement of Its Representatives 

in the World of Medicine 



•flllustrate^ 



VOLUXIE III 



EDITED BY 

WILLIAM HARVEY KING, M. D., LL. D. 

Dea.n of the Faculty Neiv York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital 



NEW YORK CHICAGO 

THE LEWIS PUBLISHING COMPANY 

1905 






r-. 



Copyright, 1905 

BY 

LEWIS PUBLISHING COMPANY 

New York :: Chicago 




THIS VOLUME 

is 
DEDICATED 

To those luho by their Industry, Ability and Sincerity of 
Purpose have created Homoeopathic Literature; Men <zuho 
have sifted Facts from Fancies and have placed these 
Fads before the Profession in an Interesting and Reli- 
able form— Many Names should be Inscribed here, but 
the One ivhich Stands oat Most Clearly is that of 

CARROLL DUNHAM 

THE SWEET MELANCHTHON OF HOMOEOPATHY 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 
The Western College of Homceopatitic Medicine 13 

CHAPTER H 
HoMa:oPATHic ^Iedical College of the University of ^Michigan 87 

CHAPTER n[ 
Dunham Medical College of Chicago 118 

CHAPTER IV 
New York Medical College and Hospital for Women 125 

CHAPTER V 
Boston University School of Medicine 159 

CHAPTER AT 
Hahnemann ATedical College of the Pacific 214 

CHAPTER Yll 

College of HoMa-:oPATHic Medicine and Surgery of the University 
OF ]\Itnnesota 240 

CHAPTER VLH 
HoMOiOPATHic Societies 254 

CHAPTER IX 
Carroll Dunham, M.D 271 

CHAPTER X 
The Professional Record 275 

CHAPTER XI 
The Collaborators 347 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Page 

Carroll Dunham, M.D Frontispiece 

Arthur F. Bissell, ^l.D 15 

Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College 17 

Seth R. Beckwith. ;\LD 19 

Thomas P. Wilson. ]M.D 21 

John C. Sanders. :M.D.. LLT) 23 

A. O. Blair. M.D 25 

Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College 30 

A. R. Bartlett, M.D },2 

Myra K. :Merrick. :\I.D 34 

B. L. Hill, :M.D 2,7 

G. W. Barnes. ]\1.D 40 

Cle\'xland Homoeopathic Medical College 42 

Hospital. College and ^Iateknitv Home 45 

James C. Wood, A.M., MD 47 

Faculty of the Cleveland Univ. of ^Ied. & Surg 50 

Faculty of the Cleveland Medical College 54 

N. C. Schneider, M.D 60 

E. H. Jewitt, \M., M.D (>2 

Adolph B. Schneider, ^TD * 63 

William A. Phillips. ^LD 64 

• Harlan Pomeroy, ^LD 65 

Cyrus Vl. Thurston. ^I.D ; 66 

Hiram W. Richmond. }^TD 67 

Herbert L. Frost, A.B., M.D 68 

Ernest O. Adams. M.D 69 

Charles C. True, ]M.D 70 

N. T. B. Nobles. MD 71 

William Edgar Trego. M.D 72 

Harris H. Baxter, ^^LD "j^ 

John B. Woodworth. M.D .' 74 

William T. Miller. M.D 75 

John Kent Sanders. A.M., ]^LD "j^ 

B. F. Gameer. M.D "/J 

Arthur F. Baldinger. M.D 78 

DeForrest Baker. ^LD 79 

Clarence S. Cutter, M.D 80 

George E. Turrill. M.D 81 

E. R. Eggleston, M.D 82 

Justin E. Rowland. ^I.D 82 

Byron B. Viets. :\TD 82 

F. O. Reev-e, A.m., M.D 82 

Martha A. Canfield, A.AL, M.D 83 

Clifton D. Ellis. ^I.D 84 

Homoeopathic Clinical Hospit.\l — University of Michigan 86 

Homoeopathic Hospital — University of Michigan go 

New Science Building — University of ^Michigan 94 

General Library — University of Michig.\n 98 

Students' Reading Room — University of Michigan lor 

Gymnasium — University of Michigan 104 

Diagonal Walk — Campu.s — Uni\-ersity of ^iIichigan 107 



viii ILLLTSTRATIONS 

Dunham Medical College ii(> 

New York Medical College and Hospital for Women 126 

Clemence Sophia Lozier, M.D 152 

New England Female Medical College 160 

Boston University School of Medicine (i873-'92) 161 

Massachusetts Homoeopathic Hospital (1876) 161 

Boston UNnrERSiTY School of Medicine (1892) 163 

jNIassachusetts Homoeopathic Hospital 163 

I. TiSDALE Talbot, M.D 164 

Boston University School of Medicine (1892) 166 

Library 168 

Museum 169 

Laboratory Building (1892) with Tennis Court 170 

Prof. Rockwell's Private Laboratory 171 

Private Histological Laboratory ' 171 

Microscopical Laboratory 174 

Chemical Laboratory 174 

Dr. Conrad Wesselhoeft 175 

Experiments in Physiological Laboratory 177 

Physiological Laboratory 179 

Biological Laboratory 179 

Dispensary — Surgical Clinic 182 

Dispensary — Eye Clinic 182 

Gold Medal — Louisiana Purchase Exposition 184 

C. B. Currier, M.D 215 

Hahnemann Hospital College of San Francisco 223 

Library Building — University of Minnesota 241 

University of Minnesota — Department of Medicine 249 

A Few of Our Sanitarium and Hospital Men 257 

Officers of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, 1902 260 

Local Committee of the American Institute 263 

William Harvey King, M.D., LL.D 346 

Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M.D 349 

Pemberton Dudley, M.D., LL.D 35 ? 

Howard Roy Chislett, M.D 364 

Allen C. Cowperthwaite, M.D., LL.D \ .368 

David Herrick Beckwith, M.D 37^ 

James Richey Horner, A.M., M.D 376 

Gaius J. Jones, M.D 379 

Wilbert B. Hinsdale, M.D 382 

M. Belle Brown, M.D 385 

John Preston Sutherland, M.D 387 

Annie S. Hxgbie, M.D 390 

James William Ward, M.D 393 

Henry C. Allen, M.D 396 

Guernsey Penny Waring, M.D 399 



INDEX 



Ackernian, August C. 314. 

Adams. Ernest O., 67. 

Allen, Henry C, 397. 

Allen, Jonathan H.. 339. 

Alliaume, Charles E., 319. 

Ambler, Henry L., 280. 

Ambler. John E., 278. 

American Assn. of Orificial Surgeons. 266. 

American Health Resort Association. 267. 

American Homceopathic Editorial Associ- 
ation. 267. 

American Homoeopathic Ophthalmological 
and Otological Society. 266. 

American Institute of Homoeopathic Phar- 
macy. 266. 

American Institute of Homceopathy, 255. 

American Obstetrical Society. 266. 

American Predological Society, 266. 

Anderson. Alfred W., 2,2i7- 

Anderson. Bradley B., 275. 

Anderson. Herbert A.. 315. 

Andrews, William R., 307. 

Andruss. Edward, 328. 

Armstrong. \\'ear F.. 306. 

Arnold. Oliver H., 313. 

Aten, William H.. 286. 

Avery, Aaron B.. 275. 

B 

Babbitt, Otis H., 302. 
Bacon. Casper L., 295. 
Bailey, Edwin H., 317. 
Baker, De Forrest. 76. 
Baker, Will H., 339. 
Baldinger. Arthur F., 7;. 
Baldwin. William IM.. Jr.. 278. 
Ball, James. 343. 
Ball. Joseph H., 289. 
Balyeat. Edmund A., 292. 
Barbour. Julius E.. 296. 
Barnes. William A.. 306. 
Bartlett. A. R., 21. 
Bassett, Howard W., 328. 
Batchelder, John C. 293. 
Batesman, Hiram F.. 317. 
Battin, James F.. 293. 
Battles. Charles E.. 285. 
Baxter. Harris H., 70. 
Beach, Carroll C. 339. 



Beach, Charles L.. 338. 

Beaman, Carroll J.. 334. 

Beaman. Charles P., 329. 

Beard. Wilbur A., 332. 

irieattie. Joseph H.. 302. 

Bebout. Sarah Jane. 310. 

Beck with, David H., 24, 372. 

Beckwith. Seth R.. 20. 

Beckwith. Sidney A., 308. 

Beggs, William F.. 325. 

Belding. Rufus E.. 303. 

Bender. Mrs. H. L., 158. 

Bennett, John H.. 289. 

Bergen. Everett D., 342. 

Bcsemer. Arthur. 298. 

Besser. Emil, 335. 

Bettely. George W.. 24. 

Birdsall, Stephen T., 309. 

Birdsall. William G., 306. 

Bishop. Hudson D.. 81. 

Bissell. Arthur F.. 14. 

Bissell, Fred C. 283. 

Bixbv, Ernest P.. 292. 

Black. Charles D.. 275. 

Blackman. William J., 306. 

Blair. A. O.. 22. 

Blakeslee, Emily, 284. 

Bland. John Perrv. 275. 

Bleeker. William H., 284. 

Blunt, Arthur W., 297. 

Bond. Aaron J., 289. 

Booth, ]Mary J., 277. 

Boston Female Med. Sch., 159. 

Boston Univ. School of Med., 159. 

book of beginnings, .159. 

Female Med. Col., 159. 

Female Educa. Soc, 159. 

legislative action. 159. 

scholarships estab., 159. 

object of the college, 162. 

Pres. Warren's address, 162. 

Talbot's efforts. 165. 

the founders, 167. 

incorporation, 168. 

Gate's address, 168. 

first female faculty. 172. 

Thayer's address. 172. 

the grand fair. 176. 

resolutions. 176. 

a liberal charter, 17S. 

college established, 178. 



INDEX 



a univcFsity department, 178. 

Female Col. merged, 178. 

a side light, 180. 

character of Boston Univ.. 181. 

preliminary announcement. 183. 

the faculty, 183. 

Talbot's inaugural address, 185. 

three years' course, 185. 

the requirements, 186. 

advance measures adopted, 186. 

faculty notes. 187. 

present faculty. 188. 

review, 189. 

clinical facilities, 190. 

the dispensary. 190. 

the hospital, 192. 

Westboro Insane Hosp., 192. 

Louisiana Purch. Expo, medal. 192. 

alumni list, 193. 

Alumni New Eng. Female Med. Col 
211. 
Bowen, George W., 322. 
Boyer, Cyrus ^L, 307. 
Bracken, Lawson E., 310. 
Bradford, Thomas L., 348. 
Brainerd, Jehu, 15. 
Bray, Nicholas, 308. 
Brewster, George F., 302. 
Bronson, Miles Hall, 324. 
Brooks. Ervin D., 280. 
Brown, David P., 331. 
Brown. Jenks E., 280. 
Brown, Luther A., 313. 
Brow^n, M. Belle, 384. 
Brucker, Charles H., 275. 
Bryant, Susannah L., 313. 
Buck, jirah D.. 360. 
Bulla, Joseph M., 302. 
Bunnell. Louis ]M., 298. 
Burgner, B. R.. 80. 
Burns, William H., 322. 
Burritt, Alice. 301. 
Buskirk. Thomas C. 291. 
Butler, David P.. 276. 

C 

Caldwell, Frank E., 285. 
Calisch, Alex. C, 308. 
Cameron. ^Malcolm, 329. 
Campbell. Louise E., 277. 
Canfield. Guy M., 283. 
Canfield. Martha A., "JT . 
Capen, Thomas A., 290. 
Carlson, Oscar W., 343. 
Carman. William B., 297. 
Carr, Ada, 327. 
Carter, Grace A. B., 310. 
Casey, Lee E., 2)^']. 
Castle. Morrison H., 336. 
Cauffield, Edwin J.. 310. 
Chaffee, David J.. 326. 



Champlin. H. D., 62. 
Chandler, David H.. 287. 
Chapman, Harriet B., 281. 
Chase, Edgar F., 308. 
Childs, Alpha G. W., 333. 
Chislett, Howard R., 365. 
Ghristophe, Herman, 322. 
Cincinnati Reporter, t^}^. 
Clapsadel. Frederick A., 314. 
Clark. Byron G., 282. 
Clark, Jeptha C. 320. 
Clement, Edgar, 313. 

Cleveland Homoeopathic Med. College, 39. 
Cleveland i\Ied. and Surg. Reporter, 53. 
Cleveland Reporter, t,2)- 

Cleveland University of Medicine and Sur- 
gery, 43- 
Clift, Edwin B., 302. 
Cochrane, Harold D., 309. 
Coffeen, Charles R., 343. 
Coffin. George H.. 280. 
Coffman, George W., 330. 
Colby, Edwin A., 287. 
Cole. D. DeForest, 312. 
Coleman, Jennie ]\I.. 295. 
Coles, Howard L., 305. 

College of Homo. Med. and Surgy. Univ. of 
Minn., 240. 

growth of Homo, in Minn., 240. 
Minneapolis a center of education, 240. 
the Homo. Hosp.. 240. 
the Clinical Society, 240. 
address to the profession, 241. 
committee report, 241. 
its adoption, 242. 
college corporators, 242. 
officers and faculty, 243. 
opening session, 243. 
the first class, 244. 
change in policy, 244. 
petition to regents, 245. 
circular to the profession. 245. 
the college a part of the university. 246- 
faculty reorganized. 246. 
later changes, 249. 
new medical building, 249. 
college statistics, 251. 
Dr. Mann's resolutions, 251. 
alumni list, 2^2. 
Conklin, Charles R.. 278. 
Constans. Frank E.. 286. 
Cook, Edgar B.. 324. 
Cook, Edgar P.. 319. 
Cooley. George P. Jr., 296. 
Cooper, Charles N.. 282. 
Cornell. Albert B., 291. 
Corwin, Elizabeth. 329. 
Cory, Harvey W., 329. 
Couch. Louis B.. 292. 
Cowles, Edgar C, 324. 
Cowperthwaite. Allen C. 369. 
Cranz, Daniel E.. 324. 



INDEX 



Crebbin. John T., 292. 
Creswell, John ^,1., 289. 
Lnsand, Carl, 279. 
Crosby, George W., 317. 
Cross, Grace E., 285. 
Crowell, Lewis Clark, 299. 
Crum, Harry H., 326. 
Crumvine, Charles G., 284. 
Cummings, Henry A., 297. 
Currier, Lester 'SI., 339. 
Cushman, ]\lary F., 305. 
Cutter, Clarence S.. 76, 281. 
Cutting, Charles T., 293. 
Cyphers, Edward O., 314. 

D 

Dake, Jabez P., 25. 
Dake, William E.. 296. 
Dakin, Edward A.. 287. 
Danforth, Josephine M., 78, 307. 
Davis, Franklin S., 340. 
iJavis, Sara, 312. 
Davis, T. Henry, 338. 
Davison. Rachel J., 277. 
Deady, Howard P., 304. 
Dean, Hubert T., 290. 
Delabarre, Walter E., 291. 
DeLaureal, George R., 301. 
Demorest, Mrs. Ellen Louise, 158. 
Dennis, Frank F.. 296. 
Dewey, Willis A., 351. 
DeWolf, Frank L.. 342. 
Diebel, William H.. 276. 
Dietrich, Frederick W., 278. 
Dix, Isaac H., 320. 
Dixon, Charles A., 313. 
Dodge, Lewis C. 15. 
Doremus, Widmer E., 32^. 
Douglas, Charles J., 291. 
Douglas, J. S., 20. 
Drake, Franklin J., 331. 
Draper, Fanny L., 275. 
Dryer, Francis H.. 319. 
Dudley. Pemberton, 352. 
Dui^ield. Alfred M.. 307. 
Dunham, Carroll, life of, 271. 
Dunham, Frank H.. 320. 
Dunham Medical College, 118. 

its organization, :i8. 

declaration of principles, 118. 

charter secured, 118. 

pure homoeopathy taught, 119. 

college home, 120. 

consolidated. 120. 

faculty enlarged through consolida- 
tion, 121. 

amalgamation with Hering ^ledical 
College, 121. 

list of deans. 121. 

alumni list. 122. 
Dunlap, Minnie C. 307. 



Ebbs, Bertha E.. 286. 
Ebeling, Albert W., 313. 
Edgar, Silas F.. 313. 
Edmunds, Charles W., 289. 
Eggleston, E. R., 76. 
Ekings, Frank P., 342. 
Elder. William R., 304. 
Eldridge, Isaac H., 97. 
Ellis, Clifton D., 77. 
Ellis, John, 20. 
Ellis, John F., 289. 
Ely, Edward S.. 282. 
Ely, Nina :M., 281. 
English, Martin L.. 294. 
Evans, Amanda J., 287. 
Evans, Belle B., 290. 
Everett, Edward A., 318. 



Fahnestock, Aug. A.. 3S7- 
Fahncstock, Joseph C. 276. 
Fancher, Edwin, 297. 
Faulkner, ^Morris R., 312. 
Female Educa. Soc. 159. 
Fisher, Albert L., 316. 
Fisher. Hugh F.. 288. 
Fletcher. Samuel E., 279. 
Flower, Howland SI., 340. 
Foljambe. Theodore D., 279. 
Foster. Edward A.. 276. 
Foster. William Davis, 362. 
Franklin, Edward C. 99. 
Franklin, Edward D., 323. 
Freeman, Franklin C, 301. 
Fritz. Arthur R., 323. 
Frost, Herbert L.. 66. 
Frye, Closes McK., 303. 



Gale, Charles A., 311. 
Gallup, Leonard E., 319. 
Gamber. B. F., 74. 
Gamble, Ernest F., 324. 
Garard. William Jay, 322. 
Gardner, Eva A. C.. 293. 
Gardner. Henry S.. 293. 
Gaston. Sarah P.. 312. 
Gatchell. H. P.. 16. 
Gayde. Earle A., 290. 
George. Rebecca R., 303. 
George. William E.. 314. 
Gibbs, Frank L., 333. 
Gibson, William A., 287. 
Gilbert. Nelson R., 286. 
Gill, Luther T.. 327. 
Gill, William E., 284. 
Gilleland. Leland H., 286. 
Ginn, Charles M., 323. 



INDEX 



Ginn. Curtiss, 343. 
Gmnever, Arthur, 312. 
Gleason, Willis W., 294. 
Glendinning, William B., 282. 
Goings, Martha A., 312. 
Good Samaritan Dispensary, 53. 
Goodman, Charles H., 289. 
Goodwin, Edward i\I., 281. 
Gorham, George E., 318. 
Graening, Adele P. K., 327. 
Graening, C. H., 321. 
Grant, George D., 291. 
Graves, Rex V., 336. 
Gregg, Samuel, 167. 
Gregory. Dr. Samuel, 159, 165. 
Griffis, Arthur A., 298.'^ 
Guilbert, Edward A., 22. 
Guile, Elias B., .340. 
Gullifer. Thomas B., 342. 
Gundelath, Charles H., 323. 
Gurnee, George W., 67. 

H 

Haas, Homer C, 299. 

Haerr, Jacob A.. 332. 

Hahnemann Hospital College, 228. 

Hahnemann ]\Ied. Col. of the Pacific, 214. 

the first meeting, 214. 

trustees, 214. 

factors and founders, 214. 

Boricke's editorial, 215. 

appeal to the profession, 216. 

the first faculty, 216. 

Currier's zeal, 216. 

arguments in behalf of the college, 217. 

first college home, 218. 

opening session, 218. 

college removal, 218. 

the dispensary, 219. 

first commencement. 219. 

editorial comment, 219. 

clinical facilities, 220. 

degrees conferred. 220. 

Institute delegates, 220. 

the hospital. 220. 

its officers, 220. 

hospital closed, 221. 

college changes. 221. 

new officers. 221. 

Currier again dean. 222. 

college prosperity, 222. 

new hospital project, 222. 

plans to close the college, 225. 

the crash avoided, 225. 

change in management, 225. 

new era of progress, 225. 

new college home, 226. 

faculty of 1899. 226. 

college benefactors. 227. 

the new building. 228. 

Epsilon Kappa Delta, 230. 



Pacific Homoeopathic Disp., 230. 

Lilienthal's gift, 230. 

the W^ard memorial, 230. 

present college conditions, 231. 

the new hospital, 232. 

municipal recognition, 2^;^. 

hospital staff, 233. 

college journals. 233. 

officers and faculty, 234. 

deceased faculty members, 235. 

deceased alumni, 235. 

alumni list, 2^6. 
Haight, Alfred M., 290. 
Hall, Asa Z., 334. 
Hall, Charles F. A., 331. 
Hall, ]\Iatthew J., 316. 
Hallock. Bina J., 317. 
Hamilton, John K., 308. 
Hammond. John H.. 335. 
Hansen, Jorgen W., 308. 
Hard\% Arthur H., 311. 
Hardy, William J., 297. 
Harpole, Charles B., 320. 
Harris, Rolland O., 333. 
Harris, Sally A., 291. 
Hartson, Oscar Samuel, 275. 
Harvey, John PL, 341. 
Hasbrouck, Everett, 283. 
Hatch, Elmer M., 301. 
Hawley, Hercules R., 295. 
Playes, Royal E. S., 341. 
Hays, Emma L. B.. 282. 
Hayward, Abner, 297. 
Haywood, George W., 278. 
Heath, Gertrude E., 310. 
Heckman. William H., 297. 
Herman, Howard H.. 294. 
Herr, Ira J., 326. 
Herzer, Edward. 279. 
Hetherington, Clark E., 326. 
Hetrick, Samuel L., 283. 
Hewes, Ara Bird, 275. 
Hewitt, Homer S.. 341. 
Hewitt, Warren C, 335. 
Hicks, Horace M., 296. 
Hicks, James Morris, 303. 
Hicks, Susan M., 300. 
Higbie, Annie S.. 391. 
Higgins, Henry R., 282. 
Hill, B. L., 16. 
Hills, Cole, 277. 
Hinman, Clarke E., 298. 
Hinman, Elmer L.. 314. 
Hinman, Spencer D., 329. 
Hinsdale. Wilbert B.. 383. 
Hislop, Margaret, 333. 
Hitchcock, Lena E., 338. 
Hoard, Volney A., 325. 
Hodge, Scott F., 300. 
Hoehne. Evelyn, 337. 
Hoffendahl, Chas. F.. 167. 
Holly, Eugene D., 326. 



INDEX 



Homan, Ralph W., 288. 

Home, Franklin B., 326. 

Homoeopathic Assn. of Boston Univ., 181. 

Homoeopathic Hospital, Ann Arbor, 102. 

Homoeopathic Hospital College, 31. 

Homoeopathic Intercollegiate Congress of 

the U. S., 267. 
Homoeopathic Medical College of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, 87. 

branch of state university, 87. 

early efforts to establish college, 88. 

act of legislature, 89. 

provision ignored by regents, 89. 

agitation continued, 91. 

regents attempt compromise, 92. 

resolutions adopted by regents, 92. 

bills brought before legislature, 93. 

college established at Lansing, 93. 

college established at Detroit, 93. 

second action brought against regents, 

93- 

litigation, 95. 

legislation in favor of honKxopathy, 95. 

resolutions adopted, 96. 

college of homoeopathy in state uni- 
versity founded, 96. 

act passed by legislature, 97. 

first session, 97. 

first dean, 97. 

faculty enlarged, 97. 

titles of present professors, 97. 

faculty reminiscences. 99. 

internal dissension. 100. 

resolutions adopted, too. 

act passed to transfer college to De- 
troit, 100. 

plan to amalgamate the two schools, 
100. 

reorganization, 102. 

present faculty, 102. 

site for new hospital donated by citj^ 
102. 

hospital building provided. 102. 

training school for nurses organized, 
102. 

clinical facilities, 102. 

four years' course adopted. 103. 

laboratories of Science Hall, 103. 

medical library, 103. 

college journal. 103. 

practitioners' course, 103. 

standard of education raised, 105. 

faculty since organization, 105. 

alumni list. 106. 
Homoeopathic ^Medical Dispensarj', 190. 
Homoeopathic Societies, 254. 
Hook, Charles O., 300. 
Hooker, Frederick, 304. 
Hopper, George H., 311. 
Horner, J. Richey. 377. 
House, Frederick C. 337. 
House, Walter B.. 318. 



Houston, Henry C. 276. 
Howe, Edwin J., 315. 
Howland, Josephine, 339. 
Hoxie, Albertus T., 287. 
Hoyt, Herbert W., 295. 
Hubbell. Adelbert M.. 280. 
Hudson, Mary D., 299. 
Hults, Eugene A.. 315. 
Hunt. James G., 20. 
Huntley, Fred M., 302. 
Hurd, S. Wright, 342. 
Hyde, Louis D., 314. 

I 

Imus, Harry L., 288. 

Ingalls, Orlando D., 286. 

International Hahnemannian Association. 
264. 

International Women Provers' Union, 268. 

Interstate Homeopathic Medical Associa- 
tion, 268. 

Irvin. Geo.rge H., ;^3i. 

Irwin, Frederick C, 315. 

J 

Jackson, Lindsay A.. 342. 
Jackson, Mercy B., 169. 
Jenkins, Charlie G.. 330. 
Jepson. Mary B.. 306. 
Jewitt, Edward H., 63. 
Jirock. Ralph S., 319. 
Johnson, Harry C.. 305. 
Johnson, Samuel H.. 316. 
Johnson. Soloman D.. 320. 
Jones, Gains J.. 61. 378. 
Jones, George W., 84. 
Jones. Herbert S., 317. 
Jones, Oliver Q., 275. 
Jones, Samuel A., 97. 
Junkermann, Charles F.. 321. 

K 

Kaple, John D., 31S. 
Kapp, Michael W., 330. 
Kehr, Samuel S., 322. 
Kelly, Wallace B., 332. 
Kelso, Isabella F., 334. 
Kendrick, Chalmers N., 303. 
Kester. Richard S.. 319. 
Kimmel. Benjamin B., 75, 279. 
King, Benjamin D., 323. 
King. Frederick A., 280. 
King, George H., 333. 
King, Jerome H., 315. 
King, John B. S., 371. 
King, William H., 347. 
Kingsley. Orrin D.. 294. 
Kinj'on, Claudius B., 344. 
Kirk. Lucy A., 284. 
Kirkland, William H., 297. 



INDEX 



Kistler, Abraham L., 324. 
Knapp, Edgar R., 286. 
Knapp, James C, 319. 
Knight, Waker B., 327. 
Knott, Harriet A.. 294. 
Knox, Frankhn T., 314. 
Kraft, Frank, 72. 
Krebs. F. H,, 172. 
Kriclibaum, James \V., 306. 

L 

Landon. Charles C, 334. 
Lane, On-ille W., 282. 
Lang, Otto. Sen., 284. 
La Salle. Gilbert M., 299. 
Lathrop, Egbert H., 289. 
Latimer, William C, 285. 
Layman, Ernest W., 335. 
Leach, Albert E.. 303. 
Lehman, Franklin F., 277. 
Lenz, John G., 301. 
Lewis, Frederick D., 295. 
Lewis, John G., 298. 
Libbey, Charles E., 326. 
Lindquist, Niles S., 325. 
Lines, Mary L, 283. 
Linsley, John S., 337. 
Livermore. Frank B., 312. 
Livermcre, Roll in F., 85. 
Lloyd, Charles, 286. 
Lockwood, Reuben L., 316. 
Long, Charles H., 326. 
Long, William E., 296. 
Losee, James W., 303. 
Lounsbery, George, 306. 
Love, William L., 285. 
Lozier, Clemence Sophia, 125, 
Lumby, Linal R.. 305. 
Lyon, Annie I.. 286. 
Lyon, Oliver J., 343. 

M 

Maas, Elizabeth C, 308. 
INIacCarthy, Francis H., 285. 
JklacCrficken, Elizabeth A., 305. 
INIacLachlan, Daniel A.. 358. 
Ale A fee, James D.. 337. 
AIcBride, Marion G., 327. 
IVlcClure, Albert E., 324. 
jMcCullouch, Carleton B., 305. 
McElwee, Lucien C, 366. 
AIcKown, William J., 318. 
McMurray, John W.. 324. 
Alann, Thomas H.. 321. 
Mansfield, William A., 317. 
Marden, Wilmot L., 279. 
Marsh, Henry M., 278. 
Marshall, Bertram E.. 318. 
Marshall, Emory J., 320. 
Martin, James C., 285. 
Alartin, John S., 318. 



Martz, Christian, 324. 

Maxwell, Adelbert B., 321. 

iviaycock, James B., 302. 

Mead, Jay S., 312. 

Mead, V\ alter G., 299. 

Merchant, William M., 290. 

Meredith, W. G., 75. 

Merriam, Henry E., 308. 

Merrick, Eliza ]., 69. 306. 

Merrill, Benj. E., 320. 

Mesick, John C, 320. 

Milford, Ethan S., 322. 

Miller, William T., 72. 

Mills, Charles A., 283. 

Milner, Samuel G., 286. 

Minard, Will Frank, 322. 

Minneapolis Clinical Society, 240. 

Minneapolis Homoeo. Hosp., 240. 

Minnesota Homoeo. Med. Col., 236. 

Missouri Valley Homoeo. Med. Assn., 268. 

Montague. Charles E.. 281. , 

Moody, Charles W., 335. 

Moore. Charles L., 312. 

Mordoff, Charles H., 293. 

Morlcy, Charles S., 292. 

Morris, Arthur J., 321. 

Morris, Isaac E., 331. 

Morris, William T., 329. 

Morrison, Caldwell, 335. 

Moss, O. B., 77. 

Mulliner, Mary R., 283. 

Mumaw, Henry, 331. 

Murdock, Edward A., 276. 

Alurdock, William, 279. 

Murphy. Frank W., 290. 

Myers, George P., 277.. 

IMyers, Samuel I., 317. 

N 

National Association of Med. Examiners, 

2S8. 
National Association of Members of Com- 
mittees on Med. Legislation, 267. 
National Association of Supts. and Mgrs. 

of Homoeo. Hosps. for Insane, 268. 
National Association of Surgeons of the 

Homoeo. School, 267. 
National Society of Electro-Therapeutists, 

267. 
Naumann, Charles, 299. 
Needham. Hugh J., 295. 
Nell, William V.. 304. 
Nelson. Charles Q., 328. 
Newell, Charles E., 339. 
New England Female Med. Col., 159. 
New England Hahnemannian Association, 

270. 
Nevyman, Louis G., 314. 
Newman, Mrs. Angelina, 158. 
New York Medical College and Hospital 

for Women, 125, 



INDEX 



early efforts. 125. 
sex prejudice, 126. 
charter obtained, 126. 
act of legislature, 126. 
officers, first board trustees, 128. 
first college home, 128. 
first faculty, 128. 
first announcement, 128. 
college becomes homceopathic. 129. 
second woman's medical college es- 
tablished, 129. 
pioneer class. 130. 
act by legislature amended. 130. 
rc-incorporated, 130. 
regents of Univ. assume control, 130. 
dispensary, 132. 

three years' course adopted. 132. 
clinical facilities, 133. 
hospital opened, 133. 
college a success, 133. 
faculty increased, 134. 
second college home. 134. 
first hospital staff. 134. 
the "Hospital Managers,"' 134. 
financial difficulties, 135. 
third college home, 135. 
. fourth college home, 135. 

alumnse association organized. 135. 

gold prizes awarded, 136. 

death of the founder, 136. 

four years' graded course adopted, 137. 

re-incorporated, 138. 

building fund created. 138. 

present college home, 139. 

description of new building. 139. 

the "Lozier ^lemorial Pavilion" fund. 

139- 

Hospital Guild contributions. 139. 

the faculty, 1863-1905, 140. 

officers of the faculty, 142. 

the trustees, 142. 

association officers. 145. 

college publication. 146. 

the hospital guild, 146. 

alumni list, 146. 

prominent characters in the life of the 
college, 151. 
Nicholas, George D.. 275. 
Nichols, Frank I., 290. 
Nobles. Newman T. B.. 68. 
Norris. :\Iaria W.. 288. 
Nottingham. John C. 298. 
Noyes. Franklin. 295. 
Noyes, Ward R.. 326. 



O 



Obetz, Henry L., 99. 
Ogle. Albert A.. Jr.. 32^,. 
Oley, Simon W., 328. 
Oliver, Nina W., 279. 
Olson, Emma E., 333. 



Oren, Samuel A., 337. 
Ostroni. Homer I., 278. 
Otis, Charles F.. 335. 
Ottofy, Ladislaus M., 310. 



Painter, Charles D., 281. 
Painter, Ehvood G., 282. 
Paisley, Charles L., 298. 
Palmer, Harry E., 331. 
Pardee, Moses C, 286. 
Parsons, Thomas, 342. 
Partridge, Joel M., 330. 
Patch, Frank W., 290. 
Paterson. William, 332. 
Payne. Charles O., 312. 
Pearsall. Perly W., 341. 
Pearson, Edson D., 321. 
Peck, George B., 343. 
Peck. George H.. 298. 
Peck. Raymond E., 335. 
Peckham. Allen G., 318. 
Felton, Byron H., 325. 
Pettit, Alonzo R., 305. 
■Phillipps. Robert S., 301. 
Phillips, Richard O., 308. 
Phillips. William A., 64, 344. 
Phillips, William H., 79. 
Pierce. Almon \., 304. 
Pierce. Helen F.. 291. 
Piper, Fred S., 286. 
Pitcher, Festus F., 336. 
Polglase. William A., 279. 
Pomeroy. Harlan. 65. 
Potter, Hulda M., 300. 
Potter, Leman W., 311. 
Potter Winfred L., 311. 
Powell, George V., 292. 
Powell. Lefferts M., 278. 
Preston, Frederick L., 278. 
Preston. Howard P., 339. 
Price, James C. 309. 
Price, William H., 285. 
Priest, Frank Allen, 298. 
Prindle, E. S., 305. 
Prish, William J., 327. 
Puget Sound Med. Assn., 269. 
Pulliam, Samuel B., 301. 
Pulte, J. H.. 19. 
Purdy. }^Iarkwell S., 292. 
Putnam. Caro!3-n E.. 288. 
Putnam. Warren E.. 283. 
Putney. Willis S., 289. 

Q 

Quay, George H., 83. 
Quint. Silas H., 299. 



Randall. Albert F., 279. 
Randall, Edward G., 316. 



INDEX 



Ransom, Eliza T., 290. 
Raynes, Myrton B., 344. 
Read, Georgiana D., 305. 
Reeve, Florentine O., ^T, 278. 
Reid, John M., 330. 
Rennison, Allen G., 340. 
Rether, Charles H., 327. 
Reynolds, Ralph W., 276. 
Rich, Frederick W., 291. 
Richards, George H., 309. 
Richmond, Hiram W., 66. 
Rieger, Joseph, 338. 
Riemenschneider, Ernst W., 332. 
Ring, Charles F., 277. 
Ritchie, Charles h., 300. 
Robbins, Ansel J., 204. 
Robbins, Frederick C, 334. 
Roberts, Warren F., 320. 
Robertson, George A. Jr., 338. 
Robinson, Mrs. Mary Knox, 158. 
Rockefeller, Henry O., 287. 
Rockwell, Alfred E. P., 281. 
Rodgers, Albert H., 293. 
Roe, Samnel A., 300. 
Roemer, Jacob F., 337. 
Roper, Pulaski B., 62. 
Ross, George A., 325. 
Roth, Albert W., 283. 
Rowland, Justin E., 78. 
Rowley, Charles A., 306. 
Royal, George, 398. 
Rudy, Robert C, 284. 
Runnels, Sollis, 296. 
Rupin, Adam, 276. 
Rupin, Anton, 276. 
Rushmore, Edward, 310. 
Russell, H. Everett, 2TJ. 



Sabin, Stephen B., 341. 
Sage, Henry P., 334. 
Sanders, John C, 22. 
Sanders, John Kent, 74. 
Sanger, Henry M., 291. 
Satterer, William, 315. 
Sawyer, Alfred Isaac, 96. 
Scheib, Frederick W., 280. 
Schell, Francis H., 332. 
Schneider, Adolph B., 63. 
Schneider, N. C, 61. 
Schnel], Arthur E., 328. 
Schultz, Adolph F., 304. 
Schultz, Frederick J., 334. 
Schulz, Herman, 336. 
Schuman, Carl, 298. 
Schwartz, Edward J., 316. 
Science Hall Univ. of Mich., 103. 
Scott, Robert C, 332. 
Sears, Albert H., 328. 
Sears, Eloise A., 287. 
Sevringhaus, Edwin A., 341. 



Shane, Thomas A., 313. 

Shannon, Elmer E., 327. 

Sharp, Edgar B., 2<2>2>- 

Shaw, James C, 305. 

Shaw, William H., 307. 

Shawen, Charles E., 325. 

Sheldon, Edward S., 312. 

Shepherd, Zephaniah W., 289. 

Sherman, Irving P., 276. 

Sherwood, Herbert A., 300. 

Shimansky, Clarence A., 284. 

Shower, George T., 357. 

vSilviens, Amy L., 320. 

Silviens, Elmer O., 319. 

Sleght, Bevier H., 293. 

Smith, Arthur A., 321. 

Smith, Arthur B., 293. 

Smith, Dudley, 47. 

Smith, Edward S., 32S. 

Smith, Ployd D., 313. 

Smythe, Milton B., 325. 

Snell, Louis A., 293. 

Snitkay, Charles J., 304. 

Snow, Shirley R., 334. 

Snyder, Charles F., 317. 

Snyder, William H., 323. 

Societies, 254. 

Sommer, Henry O., 304. 

Southern Homoeopathic Medical Associa- 
tion, 269. 

Spalding, Samuel H., 278. 

Spencer, George F. A., 288. 

Spencer, George W., 62. 

Spencer, Thomas D., 338. 

Springstead, Arthur E., 321. 

Squire, Alice A., 281. 

Stafford, Frederick A., 282. 

Stanhope, Leonard E., 276. 

Staples, Henry F., 281. 

Starcke, Bernhard, 320. 

Steele, Charles M., ^^^^2. 

Steele, Harvey L., 282. 

Stephens, William R., 337. 

Stewart, Frank C, z^^. 

Stewart, Frederick W., 317. 

Stewart, John W. G., 340. 

Stewart, Milton B., 302. 

Stewart, Thomas M., 343. 

Stewart, William R., 302. 

Stewart, Willis B., 299. 

Stilwell, Benjamin W., 308. 

Stober, John P., 325. 

Stone, Felix B., z-'^- 

Stowell, Fred A., 283. 

Street, Herman E., 282. 

Streeter, Howard A., 290. 

Strong, Charles H., 282. 

Suess, Henry C, 294. 

Summers, Daniel, 324. 

Sumner, Charles O., 332. 

Surgical and Gynecological Assn. of ilu- 
Am. Inst, of Homcxo., 268. 



IXDKX 



Sutherland. John P., .3<S4. 
Swctt. Emily 1'"., 292. 
Swift. Miriam A. P... 336. 



'faft, Mary F., JcSS. 
Tahnage. John B.. 321. 
Talbot, L Tisdale. 165. 
Taylor, Allan A., 343. 
Taylor, James M.. 291. 
Thayer, David, 172. 
The Argonaut, 58. 
The Cresset. 146. 
The Ohio ^^ledical and Surgical Rcporier. 

26. 
The University Homoeopathic Observer. 103. 
Thomas, Edmund P., 318. 
Thompson. Charles L.. 322. 
Thompson. Edward K., 288. 
Thompson, Eugene C, 330. 
Thompson. Lester O., 302. 
Thornburg. Rolla W., 296. 
Thorne, Sarah E., 315. 
Thorpe, Stanley L., 336. 
Thorpe, Walter E., 331. 
Thurston, Cyrus ^I.. 65. 
Tillotson, Willie C, 319. 
Titus, Emily N., 315. 
Tobey, Walter H., 307. 
Toole, Earle H., 330. 
'rra\ers, Osmond J., 291. 
Trego, William Edgar, 69. 
Tretton, John K.. ^^2=,. 
Trimmer. Will S., 300. 
True, Charles C, 68. 
'1 rue, Richard S., 310. 
Tucker. Frew A., 339. 
Tuholky. Louis S.. 323. 
Turner, Jason, 312. 
Turner, Reeve, 307. 
Tiirrill, George E.. 76. 
Turrill, George R., 25. 
Tuttle, Ella M.. 316. 
Tuttle. Samuel P.. 288. 
'I yler, Frank H., 293. 
'i\ier, William L, 303. 
Tytler, James E., 277. 



U 



Ulbrey, Arthur O.. 306. 

L'nited States Assn. of Honiceo. German 
Phys . 269. 

V 

\ arney. James D., 339. 
Viets, 'Byron B.. 80. ' 
Vischer, Carl V., 336. 
Vosburg, Walter H.. 329. 



W 

Waite, Kent B.. 7 5. 
Wait, Phoebe J. B., 155. 
Waldo. Elmer E.. 292. 
Waldo. Howard L.. 303. 
Walker. Charles .\., 336. 
Walker. Lester E.. 341. 
Walton. Charles E., 359. 
Ward, Charles A., 286. 
Ward, Henry A., 316. 
Ward, James W., 392. 
Ward. William F., 285. 
Waring, Guernsey P., 398. 
Warner, .Vlton G., 284. 
Warren. John K.. 288. 
Washburne, (.Jeorge F.. 316. 
Watson, h'red L., 334. 
Walters. Fowler A., 338. 
Watters. William H.. 292. 
Watts, William, 281. 
Webb, Charles V., ^^37. 

Webb. Harry P.. 291. , 

Webster. William H.. 315. 
Welk-meyre. William A., 323. 
Welliver. James E.. 295. 
Wells, David W., 276. 
Wells. George S.. 306. 
Wells, W. E.. 72. ' 
Wesselhoeft, Conrad, 187. 
West, Charles E., 334. 
West. Hester R., 317. 
Western Academy of Homoeopathy, 269. 
Western College of Honrneopathic Medi- 
cine. 13. 

its organization. 14. 

first college home, 14. 

first faculty, 14. 

first commencement, 16. 

class of '51, 16. 

faculty enlarged, 16. 

the riot of 1851, 17. 

second college home, 18. 

class of '52. 18. ; 

class of "53, 18. ' 

class of '54, 18. 

three years' course adopted, 18. 

class of '55, 19. 

class of '56. 20. 

Western College of Homoeopathy. 20. 

name changed. 20. 

class of '57. 20. 

class of "58, 21. 

class of '59, 21. 

faculty reorganized. 22. 

third college home. 22. 

co-education adopted, 22. 

class of "60, 24. 

Western Homcropathic Medical Col- 
lege, 24. 

name again changed. 24. 

faculty changes, 24. 



10 



INDEX 



women students excluded, 25. 

woman's college organized, 25. 

faculty woman's college. 25. 

women again admitted, 26. 

hospital established, 26. 

free dispensarj' established, 26. 

department of specialties added, 26. 

Memorial on Education. 26. 

report of committee on memorial. 28. 

graduates. 1861-1870, 28. 

giving of prizes instituted. 31. 

additions to facult3% 31. 

consolidation discussed. ;i2. 

The Reporter, 32. 

four years' course adopted, ;^^. 

faculty, 1873-74, 33. 

advances made in the third decade, 34. 

faculty, 1879-80, Id. 

graduates, 1871-1880, 35. 

fourth decade, 36. 

graduates. 1881-1890, 38. 

Cleveland Homteopathic ^Medical Col- 
lege. 39. 

fifth decade, 39. 

reorganized faculty, 40. 

building committee appointed, 41. 

property purchased, 41. 

faculty changes. 41. 

school of dentistry established, 41. 

post-graduate course given, 41. 

new college home opened, 43. 

name changed to Cleveland Uhi\ersity 
of Medicine and Surgery. 43. 

dental department transferred, 43. 

list of lectures, 43. 

college term lengthened. 44. 

scholarships established, 44. 

facult}', 1894-95. 44- 

management, 46. 

consolidation discussed, 46. 

additions to faculty, 47. 

graduates Homoeopathic Hospital Col- 
lege, 1891-92, 48. 

graduates Cleveland University of 
Medicine and Surgery, 1893-97, 48. 

faculty, 1897, 49. 

faculty, 1905-06, 51. 

admission obtained in city hospital, 53. 

dispensary reorganized, 53. 

Hahnemann Society, 53. 

college journal, 53. 

graduates, Cleveland Homoeopathic 
Medical College, 1898- 1905, 55. 

Cleveland Medical College, 56. 

plan of government changed, 57. 

new college organized, 57. 



faculty. ^/. 

first college home. 58. 

new college building erected, 58. 

consolidation effected, 59. 

faculty reminiscences, 61. 
Western Homoeopathic Convention, 269. 
Western Homoeopathic ^Medical College, 24. 
Western Institute of Homoeopathy, 270. 
Westfall. Floyd E.. 287. 
Wetherell, E. C. 15. 
\v heeler, John, 16. 
Whipple. Alfred A.. 341, 
White, George E., 289. 
White, Henry Clav, 71. 
White. William M.. 299. 
Whitney, Mrs. Emmer A.. 339. 
Whitney, William D., 338. 
Whitv>orth. Herbert. 301. 
Wilcox, Frederick E., 311. 
Wilcoxen, S. Hurley, 313. 
Wilder, David G., 277. 
Wiley, Otis M., 303. 
Wilkins, George H., 284. 
Willard, James P., 361. 
Williams, C. D., 14. 
Williams, Cordelia, 158. 
'\\'illianis, Dudley A., 309. 
Williams. Eli C. 305. 
Wilson, George H., 325. 
Wilson, Harold, 284. 
Wilson, Harry D. W., 331. 
Wilson, ]\Irs. Lucius E., 158. 
Wilson, Thomas P.. 22, 99. 
Wilson, William. 329. 
Winchell, George P., 297. 
Winnard, Wellington L., 332. 
Wintsch, Carl PL, 233- 
Wood, Anna, 304. 
Wood, James Craven, 61. 
Woodburn, William, 296. 
Woodman, Robert C, 311. 
Woods, George W., 280. 
Woodward, Archie C, 335. 
Woodward, Robert B., 281. 
Woodworth, John B., 71. 
Wright, Clinton C, 284. 
Wright, Ernest S., 309. 
Wyant, Cary, 279. 



Z 



Zbinden, Christian. 309. 
Zeckhausen. Harry, 280. 
Zimmerman. Erastus R.. 314. 
Zimmerman, William W., 314. 
Zurmuhlen, Charles. 279. 



History of Homoeopath) 



r 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 



ITS INSTITUTIONS IN AMERICA 



CHAPTER I 



THE WESTERN COLLEGE OF HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINE. 
By David Herrick Beckwith, M. D., Cleveland, Ohio. 

The feasibility of establishing a homoeopathic college in Cleveland was 
discussed by the physicians of the new school of medicine in the west in 
May, 1849, though no definite action was taken. June 9 of the same year 
a circular was issued by T. V. Alorrow, dean of the Eclectic Medical Insti- 
tute of Cincinnati, in part as follows : 

" Resolved : That we invite the homoeopathic physicians of the United 
States, and of the west especially, to unite in recommending and nominating 
a professor to fill the chair of homoeopathy in the Eclectic ^Medical Institute." 

That same month a committee composed of Drs. B. W. Richmond of 
Chardon, John Wheeler and C. D. \\'illiams of Cleveland, David Sheppard 
of Bainbridge and A. Plympton of Painesville, selected Storm Rosa, ]M. D., 
of Painesville, to take this professorship. He was well received by the trus- 
tees of the college, its president, Hon. Edwin Fletcher, being particularly 
felicitous in statements made concerning Dr. Rosa, characterizing him as 
a " clear, judicious and practical teacher, imbued with a liberal progressive 
spirit of the new schools, and desirous not of exciting idle and angry dis- 
cussions of abstract theories, but of filling the minds with useful knowledge." 
Nor did he disappoint them. In fact, so thorough was his teaching that 
a num.ber of eclectic students were converted to homoeopathy, and ^larch 6, 
1850, six of them, David H. Beckwith, Lemuel Rosa, E. R. Fuller, George 
Storm, L. E. Ober and one other, received both the eclectic and homoe- 
opathic diplomas. These six homoeopathic diplomas were the first given in 
the west, and the date preceded by just nine days the graduation of six 
men from the Homoeopathic ^^ledical College of Pennsylvania. 

Dr. Rosa being homoeopathy's pioneer in the wesi, it is appropriate that 
his work should be particularly noted in these columns. His work made 
a decided impression not only upon his class but upon those who were inter- 
ested in either a friendly or an official way in the eclectic college. He had 
been instructed to prepare two courses of lectures for the institute, but 
upon consideration of the situation the trustees of the Eclectic Medical 
Institute abolished the chair of homoeopathy, saying that 



14 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

" A special homoeopathic professorship is of no utility ; the homoeopathic 
party is in reality but a more subtle modern form of medical hunkerism, the 
progress of which tends to delude and contract the mind and to hinder the 
free progress of medical science. The homoeopathic system is but a limited 
portion of medical science and contains practical errors, delusions and false 
philosophy; for these reasons and others the chair is immediately abolished." 

Just what the strong personality of Dr. Rosa and the stronger truths 
of homoeopathy in influencing the eclectic students toward homoeopathy had 
to do with the decision of the board of trustees is not for us to say. 

Meanwhile a college was being formed in Cleveland. March 20, 1859, 
a meeting of the physicians of the west was held at the Dunham house, now 
the Forest City house, at which an organization was effected with John H. 
Wheeler, M. D., president; A. H. Burritt, M. D., vice-president; Earl Tif- 
fany, secretary, and Dudley Baldwin, treasurer. June 21, of the same year, 
the trustees presented a plan for formal organization, wuth a course of study 
for the session of 1 850-1 851. The following faculty was chosen: 

Edwin C. Wether^ll, M. D., Canandaigua, New York, professor of anat- 
omy. 

Lansing Briggs, M. D., Syracuse, New York, professor of surgery. 

Charles D. Williams, M. D., Cleveland. Ohio, professor of institutes of 
homoeopathic medicine. 

Alfred H. Burritt, M. D., Burton, Ohio, professor of gynecology and 
obstetrics. 

Lewis Dodge, M. D.. Detroit, Michigan, professor of materia medica. 

Hamilton H. Smith, M. D., Cleveland, Ohio, professor of chemistry. 

Jehu Brainard, A. M., M. D., Cleveland, Ohio, professor of physical 
science. 

Before the lecture term commenced A. H. Barritt resigned and Storm 
Rosa was chosen to fill his chair. Dr. Briggs also tendered his resignation 
and Arthur E. Bissell of Toledo acccepted the chair of surgery. 

A building at the corner of Prospect and Ontario streets was secured, 
and early in the fall was held the first session of the institution which to- 
day stands as the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College. At the open- 
ing exercises a large, enthusiastic and fashionable audience greeted with 
cheers the opening address of Prof. C. D. Williams. This address was pub- 
lished in the daily press, and was made the subject of bitter criticism and 
discussion in which the members of the old school of practice took active 
part. The different chairs of the college were filled by men of marked a-bility. 

Prof. C. D. Williams had the chair of practice of medicine. He was a 
strong man, having practiced for a number of years at Seneca Falls. New 
York. He located in Qeveland in 1846. very rapidly building up a fine prac- 
tice. It was he who drew up the charter for the Western Homoeopathic 
College. In 1854 he published a quarterly homoeopathic magazine in the 
interests of the college. He held his chair until 1856, afterward continuing 
the practice of medicine in Cleveland until 1863, when he removed to St. 
Paul, Minnesota, where on the 7th of May, 1882, he died suddenly from 
disease of the heart. 

The chair of surgery was filled by Dr. Arthur F. Bissell of Toledo, a man 
well equipped for the work, giving during his course of lectures most emi- 
nent satisfaction. He remained with the college onlv one vear. at the end 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 15 

of that time removing- to New York and giving^ up the practice of medicine 
for a business career. 

In Dr. E. C. Wetherell of Canandiagua, New York, the trustees found 
a man of abihty. energy and education, to whom they g^ave the chair of anat- 
omy. He was an excellent teacher, remaining with the college until 1858, 
when he resigned and removed to Cincinnati. He fell a victim to the cholera 
epidemic of tliat year. Dr. Wetherell was president of the seventeenth ses- 
sion of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, held in Philadelphia in i860. 
He was one of the charter members of the Ohio Homoeopathic Medical So- 
ciety. 

Materia medica in 1850 was just as difficult a chair to fill satisfactorilv 
as it is to-dav. but in Dr. Lewis C. Dodge of Detroit was found a 




Arthur F Bis^ell. M. D. 

man whose education was exceptional!}' complete, and who was particularly 
interested in materia medica. He filled this chair in 1850-185 1, and later 
was transferred to the chair of obstetrics and diseases of women and chil- 
dren, being at the time of his death dean of the faculty. In 1853 he re- 
signed his professorship in the college, some years later removing to Chi- 
cago, and finally to Michigan, where he died recently at the advanced age of 
82 years. 

Jehu Brainard, A. M.. ]\I. D., was a very versatile man. He had a 
wide experience as a teacher, having at various times and in various col- 
leges successfully filled the chairs of natural history, botany, medical juris- 
prudence, chemistry, anatomy and histology. He was a public man in the 
sense that he interested himself in matters which involved his appearance in 



^6 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

public roles. Having removed to Washington, District of Columbia, he inter- 
ested himself m the repeal of certain laws passed by congress which were 
oppressive to all who practiced according to the homoeopathic school of 
medicine, and as a result of his efforts the obnoxious laws were cancelled; 
he was a writer whose publications commanded attention; he was not edu- 
cated at any semniary or college, but received degrees from several colleges 
for his scientific and practical work. 

The president of the board of trustees, John Wheeler, M. D., was a 
broad, courteous, strong man, whose warmest interests could be always en- 
listed in that which was for the good of mankind. He never shrank from 
duty, and when assailed by enemies in the profession he knew no fear. Dur- 
ing most of the time of the first ten years of -its existence, he was at the 
head of the college, directing and advising its policy. In 1876 he " died in 
the harness " at the age of 81 years. 

The first year of the college was very prosperous, some sixty students 
being in attendance, and twelve graduated on the 19th of February, 185 1. 
They were George W. Barnes, Hileno F. Bennett, George H. Blair, Eben- 
ezer S. Brown, William Cain, Samuel Fulton, Jr., Zebulon Hollinsworth, 
Eli H. Kennedy, Horatio Robinson, Jr., Lester A. Rogers, Calvin Starr, 
Samuel A. Steward. 

. At that time there were about fifty homoeopathic physicians in the en- 
tire state of Ohio. The next year showed an increase in the number of 
students in attendance. The faculty had been strengthened by the addition 
of H. P. Gatchell, M. D., former professor in the Eclectic Medical Institute 
in Cincinnati. He occupied the chair of general and special anatomy, while 
B. L. Hill, M. D., who also came from the eclectic institute, was elected 
professor of surgery. Dr. Wetherell was transferred to the chair of physiol- 
ogv. Otherwise the faculty for the second year was the same as that of the 
first. 

Dr. Hill was a surgeon of national reputation. He was the author and 
the publisher of " Hill's Surgery," which was used as a text-book in the 
eclectic colleges. ^He proved tc be an excellent teacher, a man of great energy 
and a decided acquisition to the strength of the college. It is interesting, 
to note that he was associated with Dr. J. C. Douglas in the proving of black 
cohosh (Macroty's racemosa) in 1854-1857, the proving being made with 
great care upon forty students, male and female. He was a strong man in 
the state, having been twice elected a member of the legislature, and for 
one term was United States consul at San Juan. He died in 1871, at the age 
of 58 years. 

Dr. H. P. Gatchell was a tower of strength to the institution. He had 
prepared himself for the pulpit, but finally decided to take up medicine. For 
six years before coming into the college he was a professor in the Eclectic 
Medical College in Cincinnati, and in connection with Dr. J. H. Pulte, of 
that city, edited for two years a journal called the " American Magazine," 
which contained popular articles on hygiene, hydropathy, dietetics, anat- 
omy, physiology and chemistry. He was in the college for some years, later 
removing to Kenosha, Wisconsin, and afterward to Asheville, North Carolina, 
where he died in 1885, at the age of 71 years. 

During this year occurred the disgraceful episode which is remembered 
as a blot upon the treatment of the college by the citizens of Cleveland. A's 
is well known, at that time there was no provision for the supply of 



HISTORY OF HO^rOiOPATHY 



17 



bodies for the dissecting room, consequently they were procured from var- 
ious sources by outside parties and sold to medical colleges. A grave in 
one of the Cleveland cemeteries was found to have been opened and the 
body taken away. This act of vandalism created great excitement, and for 
some reason or \Dther suspicion was directed to the homoeopathic college. 
It did not take much effort on the part of those interested to gather together 
a mob whose purpose was to force an entrance into the college building and 
search the premises for the body. In a very short time a riot was in progress, 
the college doors being broken open and the mob swarming through the 
rooms in search of the body. Not satisfied with simply entering and search- 
ing the buildinii, the work of destruction was begun, and before the mob 




Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College. 



was controlled the windows of the building were broken, the extensive chemi- 
cal laboratory was dismantled and the contents destroyed, and a very fine 
museum, the property of Prof. Brainard and the result of years of collec- 
tion, was entirely destroyed. All the anatomical models, manikins and charts 
were broken and ruined, and every piece of furniture in the rooms was 
either thrown cut of the windows or carried away by the mob. Several 
times the torch was applied, and it was only by the greatest efforts on the 
part of the fire department that the destruction of the building was pre- 
vented. Just when the mob was starting for Prof. Williams' residence with 
the intention of destroying it, a force of state troops appeared on the scene, 
and quelled the disturbance. It was afterward successfully proven that the 



18 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

body which had been stolen from the grave never found a resting place in 
the homoeopathic college. The entire loss sustamed in the college build- 
ing was borne by the faculty, no recompense having been received from the 
state or the city of Cleveland. 

February 28, 1852, occurred the second annual commencement, twenty- 
one graduates receiving their diplomas. They were as follows : 

Lewis Barnes, David I. Barr. Benj. W. Brice, Avery P. Clark, Charles 
A. Drake, Hiram E. Driggs, John M. Evans, Joseph McFarland, Terah J. 
Patchin, Hiram Beadle. J. Cnristy Peterson, Francis W. Skiles, John N. 
Thorp, John A. Williams, John N. Wheat. Frances Woodruff, Helen Cook, 
William Wolcott, Isaac L. Drake, Henry Sheffield, Jr. 

The register shows an attendance of eighty students. 

As a direct reaction from the spirit of persecution and revenge exhibited 
during the winter, came a revival — or rather a strengthening — of the good 
will of the citizens toward the college. With money contributed by these 
citizens the trustees purchased the building known as the " Belvidere," in 
what is now called the " hay market," and August 20, 1852, the property 
was deeded to the trustees of the Homoeopathic Medical College. Late that 
year, after making man}- changes and improvements in the building it was 
occupied. The college was legally incorporated in March, 1852, by Drs. C. 
D. Williams, Lewis Dodge, Hamilton Smith, Jehu Brainard and Horatio P, 
Gatchell. 

In preparation for the work of the year 1852-1853, a notable addition _ 
was m.ade to the faculty, that of J. H. Pulte, M. D., who took the chair of 
clinical medicine. A change also was made in the time of study required 
before graduation, three years" study being demanded, with two courses of 
lectures. It is interesting to note that the fees for the year's instruction 
amounted to $99, being divided as follows: matriculation, $5.00; tuition, 
S64.00 ; demonstration, v$5.oo ; graduation, $25.00. 

February 26, 1853, the dean presented the following names of students 
to the board of trustees for graduation : 

Seth R. Beckwith, Asa W. Brown, Melancthon W. Campbell, Charles 
W. Taylor, John R. Jewett, Phillip Goff, H. P. Burdict, Alvin A. Lewis, 
Amastus R. Burritt, Samuel Landers, James L. Fuller, David J. Gish, Jep- 
thera Davis, Benjamin B. Marcey, Orso D. Bostford, Eugene Bitely, Thomas 
F. Pomerov, Joseph Watson, David S. \^anRansellaer, C. L. Rawson, George 
S. Hill, James M. Johnson. 

The class of 1853-1854 was a large one. the graduates being as follows: 

Norman N. Getman, George W. Foote, Elizabeth J: Blanchard, James 
Melrose, C. C. White, Flenry Bowen, W. B. Chamberlain, G. C. Field, J. P. 
Chase, F. T. McLain. S. S. Wheeler, Francis Wixson, W. H. Dake, Lemuel 
Eaton, Geo. W. Barker, S. M. Gate, W. W. Gray, Richard G. Nye, J. Kibby 
Morton, Josiah A. Blanchard, Elsie H. Barry, R. W. Spangler, F. D. Stowe, 
Alfred J. Sawver, C. A. Jeeger, W. A. Jones, Susan Edson, W. H. Bacon, A. 
Plvmpton, P. E. Johnson, J. B. Walters, G. J. Joulin, Carroll Kendricks. 

Some changes were made in the faculty, due to the resignation of Prof. 
Wetherill. Dr. Gatchell took the chair of anatomy, and Dr. Pvtlte the chair 
of obstetrics and gynecology. 



HISTORY OF HOMGEOPATHY 



19 



The class of 1855 was composed of the following: 

Charles Nubling, S. Bolivar Williams, Samuel C. Whiting. D. Wil- 
liam Gulick, S. K. Rowland. David Joslin, Isaac X. Elinor, John Babcock, 
Charles Morrell, Frederick Finstcr. Philip H. Morley. J. Wesley Failing, 
N. G. Burnham. Oliver A. Goodhue, Isaac Hollinsworth, Albert C. Barlow, 
Alvin Bagley, J. W. Woodbury. 

Two changes were made in the faculty this year : The election 6i 
Dr. Seth R. Beckwith to the chair of surgical and pathological anatomy, 
and that of Flon. John Crowell to the chair of medical jurisprudence. Dr. 
Pulte, who during his professorship retained his residence in Cincinnati, 






Seth R. Btckwith. M. D. 



found that it was too much of a tax upon him to continue his relations with 
the college, and consequently resigned. 

Dr. Pulte was one of the notable men concerned in the development of 
homoeopathv in the middle states. He was a German, coming to the United 
States in 1834 and locating in. Cincinnati in 1840, where he remained dur- 
ing the next thirty-five years. He was" a prolific writer, having published 
the Organon, and a work of domestic practice which reached its seventh 
edition and was translated into several foreign languages. He also pub- 
lished a work entitled " Woman's ^ledical Guide." and an exhaustive mono- 
graph on diphtheria. He translated many German works into English, scat- 
tering them broadcast throughout the United States, thereby advancing the 
cause of homoeopathy. His long and useful life ended in Cincinnati in 1874, 
he having reached the age of 73 years. 



20 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

Dr. Seth R. Beckwith was no less notable in his relation to the homoe- 
opathic cause throughout the middle states. After graduating from the col- 
lege in 1853, he located in Norwalk, Ohio, where he was practicing at the 
time of his call to take the chair of surgical anatomy in the Cleveland col- 
lege. He interested himself particularly in surgical work and was the sur- 
geon of the railways entering Cleveland. Later he secured the control of 
the county hospital, using it for clinical teaching for the benefit of his stu- 
dents. He became prominent in national circles, having been an officer of 
the American Institute of Homoeopathy and of the Ohio State Homoeopathic 
Society. 

The session of 1855-1856 was a great success, a larger number of stu- 
dents being present than at any previous year. February 27, 1856, there 
Avere twenty-four graduates, as follows : 

George B. Palmer, W. H. Eddy, L. H. Olds, O. H. P. Fall D. D. 
Loomis, A. S. Hinlev, C. Brown, C. S. Woodruff, L. W. Sapp, J. J. Carlow, 
P. Austin, R. D. Rhodes, Cvrus B. Herrick, A. P. Holt, T. J. Vinall, W. S. 
Potwine. W. Curran, A. R.' Bartlett, J. E. Smith, C. F.*Reed, H. Loomis, 
W. B. Disbro, W. Springer, R. B. Clkrk. 

THE WESTERN COLLEGE OF HOMCEOPATLIY. 

During this year the name of the college was changed to The Western 
College of Homoeopathy. Several of the men who this year occupied chairs 
in the faculty are worthy of notice. 

Dr. J. S. Douglas, who was professor of materia medica and clinical 
medicine, was one of the strong men, paying special attention to the study 
of drugs. He was one of the provers of gelsemium and Alacroty's racemosa. 
He remained with the college until 1859, removing afterward to St. Louis, 
where he accepted a professorship in the same chair. 

Dr. James G. Hunt was professor of surgery in the college in 1855- 
1856, during that year publishing, in conjunction with Prof. Hill, a very 
creditable work on surgery, bearing the title " Hill and Hunt's Homoeopathic 
Surgery." It was the first work on surgery published by any homoeopathic 
author. 

Dr. John Ellis was another of the strong men, retaining the professor- 
ship of principles and practice. of medicine for six years in this college, after- 
ward removing to New York, v/here he filled the same chair in the New 
York Homoeopathic Medical College. He was author of " Ellis' Family 
Physician " and popular treatises on medicine, and also of other books which 
were circulated throughout the United States. He lived to the good old 
age of 82 years, dying in New York, December 3, 1895. 

The year 1856-1857 was a successful one, at its close degrees being 
conferred upon twentv-eight students. They were as follows : 

F. Baker, F. C. Kiger, E. Penfield, R. S. Sanderson. G. W. Parke, S. F. 
Guilbert, F. B. Gardner, J. H. Lewis, L. Springer, J. O. M. Cratsley, S. C. 
Watson. J. Hewitt, L. H. Fenner, D. C. Van Renssalaer, W. R. Patchin, 
S. S. Hatch, A. L. Avery, N. R. Seeley, W. Rowley, P. Covill, E. R. Ellis, 
C. Pearson, J. S. Beach, Peter B. Hoyt, j. F. Johnson, F. B. Hancock, Thomas 
P. Wilson, f. W. Lawin. 

For the next year A. R. Bartlett, ^\. D., took the chair, of physiology, 
pathologv and diagnosis, and Dr. E. A. Gilbert the chair of obstetrics and 



HISTORY OF HO^ICEOPATHY 



21 



gynecology. It was during this year that Prof. Gatchell tendered his resig- 
nation, much to the regret of his associates. 

February 20, 1858, the following were graduated : 

M. G. Davis, T. Price Tisdale, H. Martin, J. T. Jones, W. H. Burt, 
J. H. Vanliew, R. C. Green, A. R. Segar. Charles Lusch. David Waldron, 
Alex. Duncanson, W. H. Richardson. O. G. ^l. Eells. E. C. Franklin, G. D. 
McManus, George W. Betterly. L. M. Jones, T. J. Linton, R. B. Leach, J. 
Stuard, S. A. Robinson, "E. G. Painter, John Hall, Joseph R. Paddock, 
D. T. Brown, M. Tafel. Mrs. D. S. Hall. 

The year 1858-1859 was a very successful one, the graduating class 
consisting of 

Jonathan H. Hamilton, Benjamin C. Keys, Andrew B. Spinney, Jerome 




Thomas P. Wilson, U. D. 

B. Frazier, Edward P. Scales, David H. Gregory. Maria M. Gross, Anna 
M. Gatchell, David Cromlish, Vinia C. Wallace, Janet C. MacLean, Sarah 
M._ Ellis, Orrin Fowle, Chester Smith, Frances Burrit, L. Caboche, Llewellyn 
Oliver, Eady Stevenson, George Pyburn, John M. Rucker, Frederick A. 
Lathrop, John Davis, Douglas S. Lowe. 

Of the two new members of the faculty this year. Dr. A. R. Bartlett 
was notable. He had prepared himself for the ministry, but becoming inter- 
ested in homoeopathy took a course of study, graduating at the age of 



22 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

forty-four years, and the next year after graduation receiving his appoint- 
ment on the faculty. He practiced six years, dying in 1862, at the age 
of 50 years. 

Dr. Edward A. Guilbert was a graduate of Rush Medical College, Chi- 
cago, class of 1847, b"t becoming interested in homceopathy, practiced it, 
and in 1857 was elected to a professorship on the faculty. He became inter- 
ested in the establishment of a homoeopathic college in St. Louis, inducing 
Profs, Bartlett, Douglas, Plill and Brainard to join him. 

In 1859 trouble appeared on the horizon, occasioned by the establish- 
ment by Prof. Guilbert of this new college. After considerable trouble the 
faculty was entirely reorganized, the following members being . appointed 
July I, 1859: 

John C. Sanders, professor of obstetrics and diseases of women and 
children. 

A. O. Blair, materia medica and therapeutics. 

John Ellis, principles and practice of medicine. 

R. F. Humiston, chemistry and toxicology. 

S. R. Beckwith, surgery and surgical diseases. 

John Crowell, medical jurisprudence. 

George F. Turrill, special and surgical anatomy. 

D. H. Beckwith, lecturer on physiology. 

This year for the first time the announcement of the college contained 
an invitation to women to become students, giving them the same rights and 
privileges as other students. The college building having become inadequate, 
the authorities purchased the college buildings of the Cleveland institute, 
a school on University heights, owned and managed by Prof. R. F. Humis- 
ton, who was elected a member of the faculty in the department of chemistry 
and toxicology. 

A notable addition to the faculty this year was that of Thomas P. Wil- 
son, M. D., who in 1859 took the chair of anatomy. Prof. Wilson was in 
many respects a remarkable man. For a number of years he was a minister 
of the Methodist Episcopal church, noted for his oratory, his sermons draw- 
ing the largest congregations in northern Ohio. Having a strong predilec- 
tion for medicine, however, he resigned the ministry and studied medi- 
cine, graduating from the Western College of Homoeopathy in 1857. The next 
year he located in Cleveland and the following year was elected a member 
of the facultv, serving in the department of anatomy, pathology, physiology, 
surgery and obstetrics. He remained with the college a number of years, 
having held the office of dean for several consecutive sessions. He was 
prominent in his relations to the American Institute of Homoeopathy, being 
its president in 1880. and the most efficient one up to that time. He occu- 
pied many prominent positions, was editor of medical journals, and wrote 
very profusely. He is still living, in^ failing health, having his home with 
his son. Dr. Harold Wilson of Detroit. 

Dr. A. O. Blair, who took the chair of materia medica and therapeutics, 
was another strong advocate of homoeopathy. lie practiced medicine 
over fifty years, and died in 1882. 

Probably the best known of the faculty among the present generation 
of physicians is Dr. John C. Sanders, who stands to-day as the most able 
exponent of obstetrics ever on the faculty of the college. He is a Yale grad- 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



23 



uate, and a graduate also of the Western Reserve ^Medical College, class of 
1848. For nearly forty years he lectured to the students on his specialty, 
giving to the college the best of his life-work, and many physicians all over 
our land hold him in loving remembrance. He is still connected with the 
college as emeritus orofessor of obstetrics, each year delivering a special 
course on medical ethics. 

Dr. Geors^e R. Turnll was another of the strong men of that time. As 




luiin L. .^aii'i-jr-, ^\. l>.. ia^.\>. 



a student he stood at the head of his class, and as an anatomist he was un- 
excelled by any. 

It w^as during this year that Dr. D. H. Beckwith became connected with 
the college as a lecturer on physiology. He was a graduate from the Eclec- 
tic Medical Institute in 1850, afterward attending the Western College of 
Homoeopathy. He at once entered into practice, rapidly pushing his way 
to the front. After more than half a century of hard work Dr. Beckwith 
is still engaged in active practice, although past four score years. He has 



24 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

been associated with the local state and national societies since 1867, hav- 
ing been president of the Ohio State Homoeopathic Medical Society and 
president of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. He has always taken a 
special interest m sanitary science, having been for a number of years a 
member of the city board of health, and also for a term president of the 
Ohio state board of health in 1890. He also is a member of the American 
Public Health Association. He is to-day a worker in the college, being 
emeritus professor of sanitary science, each year delivering a special course 
of lectures on climatology. 

The class of 1859-1860 was a large one, the graduates being as follows: 
W. C. Barker, C. W. Babcock, B.^R. Rush, C. A. Seaman, Miss J. Rabon 
(degree in obstetrics). W. S. Cornelius, B. F. Bailev, R. C. McClelland, 
H. B. Dale. C. C. Olmsted, J. W. Dake, P. C. Harter,' A. F. Ward, Walter 
Pardee, H. W. Smith, George Logan, A. J. ]\Ioulton. W. W. Thomas, C. J. 
Lippe. 

\\'ESTERN HOMCEOPATHIC MEDICAL COLLEGE. 

With the arrangements for the session of 1860-1861 conies the third 
name under which the college was known, namely, the Western Homoe- 
opathic Medical College. The faculty for this year was as follows : 

John Ellis, M. D.. of Detroit, principles and practice of medicine. 
A. O. Blair, M. D., materia medica and therapeutics. 
J. C. Sanders, M. D., obstetrics, diseases of women and children. 
R. F. Humiston, M. D., chemistry and toxicology. 
G. F. Turrill, M. D., general and descriptive anatomy. 
T. P. Wilson, M. D., physiology and special pathology. 
S. R. Beckwith, M. D., surgery. 
M. King, Esq., medical jurisprudence. 

Dr. J. C. Sanders was elected president of the board, and Dr. S. R. 
Beckwith, dean. 

During this session the trustees gave the extraordinary order that " all 
dissecting material required for the students must be obtained outside of the 
Western Reserve," an order which looked well on the records and was 
noted more for its breach than its observance. 

The years following were quiet ones ; there were a number of changes 
made in the faculty. Dr. C. F. Gushing, now practicing in Elyria, Ohio, 
became demonstrator of anatomy. In 1862 Dr. John Ellis resigned and 
Dr. A. O. Blair was appointed to fill his chair of principles and practice of 
medicine. At the same time Dr. T. P. Wilson was appointed professor of 
anatomy. The next year Dr. Blair resigned and Dr. George W. Bettely 
was appointed to this vacancy. 

Dr. Bettely was a self-made man, a student of Dr. S. R. Beckwith and 
an enthusiast in the study of materia medica. It is probable that the course 
of lectures delivered by him in the college was as scientific and complete as 
that of any lecturer in the country. It was extremely unfortunate for both 
the college and homoeopathy that his work in medicihe was to be limited to 
a very few years. The second year after his appointment as professor he 
died of pulmonary trouble. 

Another change was the appointment of Henry C. Allen, M. D., as 
professor of anatomy. Dr. Wilson having resigned. In 1866 the college 



HISTORY OF HO.MCEOPATHY 



25 



was honored in having as a teacher of materia meclica the late Dr. Jabez P. 
Dake, who as early as 1857 had given great promise of the future. The 
course of lectures delivered by Dr. Dake was one always to be remembered. 
In this vear also Dr. A. O. Blair was made dean of the faculty. 

In 1867 Prof. King resigned as professor of medical jurisprudence and 
Hon. George Willev was chosen to fill the vacancy. He held the chair for 
several years and was succeeded by Dr. Joseph Hooper, who gave a splendid 

course of lectures. . r. , 

It was during this year that Prof. Sanders started the movement toward 
the admission of women as students of the college. This had been dis- 




A. O. Blair, M. D. 

cussed several years before but no definite action was taken. Late m the 
fall of 1867 women students were, by resolution of the faculty, excluded 
from the classes of the college, and in spite of the protests of those m attend- 
ance that vear, the facultv persisted in its action. As a result of this the 
female students left the college and early in 1868 a woman's college was 
organized and chartered, the following faculty being appointed: 

Jehu Brainard, M. D.. professor of chemistrv^ and toxicolog}-. 

George H. Blair, M. D.. professor of theory and practice of medicme. 

Myra K. Merrick, M. D., professor of obstetrics and diseases of women 
and children. 

William E. Saunders, ^I. D.. professor of principles and practice ot 
surgery, and microscopv. 

Charles E. Brush, M. E., professor of chemistry and toxicology. 



26 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

B. Cyriax, M. D., professor of materia medica. 

S. A.Boynton, M. D., professor of physiology, pathology and microscopic 

anatomy. 

P. "B. Brown, J\I. D., professor general and descriptive anatomy. 
T, R. Chase, M. A., professor of medical jurisprudence. 
M. C. T. Canfield, M. D., demonstrator of anatomy. 
George H. Blair, dean. Wm. E. Saunders, registrar. 
Mrs. C. A. Seaman was president of the board of trustees. 

During the three years of the existence of this college some forty-five 
students were in attendance. At the end of this period a change of heart 
took place and women were again admitted to the classes, where they have 
been welcome ever since. 

In April, 1868, the college acquired possession of the Humiston Insti- 
tute, situated on the west side, with a building which gave the college all 
the room required, and also enabled the board to establish a hospital depart- 
ment, some fifty beds being available. 

October 14, 1868, the nineteenth annual session of the college began 
under the most favorable conditions. Even thus early was begun in this 
college a movement looking toward the higher medical education, and it 
is noteworthy that at this time also what was then called a department of 
specialti(^s was organized. Irj this department Prof. S. R. Beckwith had 
orthopaedic surgery; Prof. T. P. Wilson, ophthalmology; Prof. H. F. Biggar, 
surgical diseases of the genito-urinary organs ; Prof. N. Schneider, mihtary 
surgery ; Prof. J. C. Sanders, uterine displacements ; Prof. L. W. Sapp, instru- 
mental labor ; and Prof. H. L. Ambler, a 'prominent dentist of the city, dental 
surger\'. 

The college authorities also established this year a free dispensary for 
the poor, which was located in a building on Ontario street, opposite the 
" old stone church." 

In 1869 Prof. S. R. Beckwith resigned his connection with the college, 
his retirement being deeply regretted, and removing from the college a very 
popular and thorough teacher. His resignation, however, brought his stu- 
dent. Prof. N. Schneider, to the chair of surgery, a chair that he filled 
many years. In 1869 ^^e college adopted " The Ohio Medical and Surgical 
Reporter." a bi-monthly magazine which had been in existence some two 
•years, having been conducted by Drs. D. H. Beckwith, T. P. Wilson and 
N. Schneider. It had a large circulation and no doubt was a great advan- 
tage to the college in elevating the standard of medical education, as well 
as inducing students to attend the Cleveland college. During this year also 
the college sent Prof. George W. Barnes on a tour through the western 
states to solicit students for its classes. Another interesting action taken 
during the year was the adoption of a " Alemorial on Education " which, 
under date of May i, was sent to all of the members of the homoeopathic 
profession in the state of Ohio. The full text of this memorial was as fol- 
lows : 

MEMORIAL ON EDUCATION. 

Qevcland. O., May i, 1869. 

To tlic PrcsiiJciit cvid Mcuibers of the Honiocof^athic Medical Sociefy of 
Ohio : 
The undersigned, appointed in behalf of the faculty of Cleveland Homoe- 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 27 

opathic College, and the Cuyahoga County Medical Society, to memorialize 
your honorable body on the subject of medical education, beg leave to pre- 
sent the following for }Our consideration : 

The need of a higher standard of medical scholarship is too universally 
apparent to require jjroof. Moreover, we do not deem it necessary to arouse 
the minds and conscience of the members of the medical profession to a 
realization of this truth, for without exception, the proposition to elevate, 
enlarge and otherwise improve medical education meets the hearty sanc- 
tion of all. 

It remains, therefore, for us to point out the steps to be taken in order 
to accomplish this most desirable result. And first, we believe that what- 
ever recommendations to meet this end are adopted, should spring from 
the great body of the profession, through its county and state societies, and 
its national institutes or associations, for our medical colleges will adopt 
only such improved plans of education as are known to be approved by the 
profession. 

And secondly, w'e believe that in order that any proposed plan shall 
be successfully carried out, it is absolutely necessarv' that the concurrence 
and co-operation of all our medical schools should be secured. And we do 
not disguise the fact that it is extremely doubtful if the united homoeopathic 
colleges can maintain an elevated standard of scholarship against the pres- 
ent loose and imperfect mode of education which prevails in other medical 
colleges. ^\T' should, therefore, seek for a more desirable way of improv- 
ing our present plan of medical examination. 

Among the improvements to be adopted, we believe the following should 
be included : 

1. Students wishing to matriculate at a medical college should be sub- 
jected to a preliminary examination, and should thereby show themselves 
proficient in English scholarship, and elementary scholarship, and elementary 
chemistry. A knowledge of the Latin language is especially to be com- 
mended ; but the present state of popular education does not admit of its 
being made an indispensable part of preliminary acquirements. 

2. The college course should be divided into three sessions of lectures, 
each session to consist of not less than sixteen weeks of lectures, with not 
more than four lectures daily. The studies to be pursued should be graded 
somewhat after the following order: 

The first, or freshman year, should be devoted to the study of anat- 
omy, materia medica. and chemistry; the second, or junior year, should add 
to the foregoing, pathology, principles and practice of medicine, and physiol- 
ogy ; the third, or senior year, should include a review of all previous studies, 
and the study of surgery, obstetrics, and medical jurisprudence. Students 
should be subjected to an examination for each year, and prove themselves 
qualified before being admitted to either of the several classes. 

An A. B. or a B. S. should have the right of admission to the junior year. 
Xo student should be graduated in course who does not first attend on 
the foregoing course, and otherwise prove to be properly qualified. 

We would further recommend that the time-honored but useless re- 
quirements of thesis from candidates for graduation be abandoned ; that 
each candidate be required to give written answers to printed questions, and 
that each member of the faculty shall furnish a copy of his questions, to- 
gether with the per cent of each candidate, to a joint board of censors, to 



28 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

consist of such persons as may be appointed by the highest collective body 
of the profession. Such board of censors are to have advisory powers only, 
and are to keep a yearly record of the standing of all persons who may be 
from time to time admitted to the degree of doctor of medicine. 

REPORT OP' COMMITTEE OX THE FOREGOING MEMORIAL. 

The committee appointed to consider the memorial of the Cleveland 
Homoeopathic College, respectfully submit the following report : 

Whereas, There exists an imperative necessity for a more elevated 
standard of literary and medical training for the members of our profession: 

Whereas. It is evident that the teachers in our medical colleges can- 
not effect this much-needed reform without the support of the profession at 
large ; 

Whereas, The faculty of the Cleveland Homoeopathic College have, 
through their committee, memorialized the Homoeopathic Medical Society of 
Ohio, asking an expression of opinion upon certain measures of reform in the 
course of study ; therefore 

Resolved, That we will, individually and collectively, use all honorable 
means to sustain the faculty of said college in their efforts to elevate the 
standard of medical education. 

Resolved, That we heartily endorse the general outline of reform, as 
set forth in the petition of said faculty. 

J. B. Hunt, M.D., 
E. B. Thompson,. M.D., 
Committee. 

The graduates of this second decade of the college, in chronological 
order, were as follows : 

1861.— F. H. Roberts, W. S. Butler, H. C. Allen, R. F. Turner, J. A. 
Gale, C. F. Cushing, I. S. Robinson. M. C. Earnsberger, M. Mattison, R. H. 
Milliken, M. A. Halstead, Wm. L. Cleveland, O. F. Brandows, R. A. Bishop, 
T. B. Benedict, Oliver Springer. F. Breck, Geo. H. Morrill, S. I. Knicker- 
bocker, A. E. Smith, H. B. Fellows, D. H. W. Carley, H. Slosson, J. R. 
Hyde, S. P. Swift, H. F. Logee, D. M. Brown, A. F. Jencks, J. B. Flowers, 
Charles Osterlan, M. Y. Turrell, Francis Brick, Constantine Lippe. 

1862.— C. P. Ailing, A. R. Bell, J. B. Bailey, S. A. Boynton, N. B. 
Covert, T. B. Crocker. T. E. Clark, B. F. Dake, Homer Dunn, G. M. Dorsey, 
J. C. Freeland, E. Fowler, H. G. Field, E. R. Fuller. C. P. Graves, B. F. 
Green, J. N. Ginley. W. H.. Graham, W. C. Gribben, W. H. Jenney, C. A. 
Lenthstrom, W. F. Morgan. J. C. McLean, T. E. Pomeroy, F. F. Randolph, 
Thos. Rowsey. W. E. Saunders. C. M. Sampson. S. J. Smith, S. W. West, 
H. A. Wales, M. W. Wallace. S. G. Wilmot. 

1863. — E. J. Bates, H. S. Benedict, Alanson Bishop, D. J. Chaffee, Geo. 
W. Clark, E. C. Cook, S. S. Cook, S. N. Coons', H. Craig, John Fry, H. 
J. Hazleton, J. B. Hunt. E. D. Kanouse, J. H. Lancaster, E. L. Lodge, 
Francis D. Ormes, G. W. Rumsey, J. P. Russell. S. C. Shane, E. P. K. 
Smith, H.L. Sook. R. T. Speekman. Wm. Stanley, S. B. Tavlor, S. P. Town, 
A. R. Vail, L. B. Waldo, H. A. Warren. 

1864.— H. D. Squires, F. H. Spranger. P. B. Hale. F. Flowers. J. W. 
Sheldon, H. H. Logee. E. M. Knowles, M. E. Tripp, William Hemter, J. 
D. Brook, C. P. Chapm.an. L. Grosvenor, C. W. F. Metzger, J. F. Boynton, 



HISTORY OF HO^ICEOPATHY '^i> 

J. L. Evans, Xathaniel Schneider, H. B. Van Xorman, M. A. B. Woods, 
J. Rust. A. C. Hofic. Frank Thompkin. 

1865.— J. C. Harrington. W. D. Williams, W. H. Jackson, Wm. White, 
H. Trelles. L. M. Charlton, Joseph Hooper, H. B. Bagley, L. H. Sparhawk, 
Frank Xoyes, S. G. Warren, N. B. Wilson. J. M. Pond, W. H. Nelson, M. 
B. M. Hausland, H. JVI. Warren, Edmund Beckwith, Peter McDonald, D. A. 
Davis, G. W. Burns, Wm. M. Eddv, W. D. Linn, Clarence T. Campbell, 
L. D. Crawford, H. L. Knapp, A. O. Hunter, L. W. Carpenter, X. T. Hub- 
bell, Samuel Shell, J. Dixon. 

1866.— E. T. Adams, G. D. Allen, T. R. Allen, W. P. Armstrong, D. P. 
Badger, H. F. Biggar, John Br^an, Thomas Bryan, W. P. Burge, J. M. 
Cadmus, L. D. Clark. Wm. Qark, T- A. Compton, Samuel Cowles, H. B. 
Cross, E. B. De la Martyr, H. T. Gatchell. E. B. Graham, J. A. Hall, 
Abner Hayward, G. C. Hibbard, P. S. Hollett, Robert A. Hudson, B. F. Jack- 
son, P. J. Liedbeck (Hon.) Louis Merrette, J. R. Moody, E. C. Morrill, 
J. D. McCreary, H. E. Powell, L. W. Pratt. A. L. Roberts, J. G. Schmitt, 
J. W. Scott, W. G. Scott, ^L C. Sturtevant, W. G. Ware. 

1867.— T. E. Allen, Charles Allnard, J. W. Bucklev, W. E. Camabon, 
O. D. Childs, E. L. Cook, H. M. Dayfoot, W. M. Detwiler. Alfred Dickin- 
son, D, Dodge, G. A. Gifford. J. Goucher, B. F. Grant, Wm. Hovt. G. S. 
Kelsea, A. P. Ketchum, J. E. Lowes, G. H. McLion, E. J. L. Parten. B. L. 
Nye, John Outhwaite, X. L. Parmater, E. H.. Peck, E. A. Robertson. J. B. 
Walters, R. B. Woodward. 

1868.— H. H. Baxter. H. C. Carpenter. W. W. Clapp. J. L. Bean. T. C. 
Wallace, W\ M. Bailev. A. D. Tohnscn. R. X. Warren, ^vL :\r. Catlin. S. A. 
Harrington, H. L. Bradley, FL L. Ambler, G. A. Tracy, W. S. Whiting. A. S. 
Tohnson. G. T. Blair. O. B. Spencer, I. W. Jenney, D. H. Crowlev, C. S. 
Xellis. C. P. Burch. W. W. Booth. L. S. Ingram. 

1869.— A. B. Armstrong, C. Arndt. W. E. Atwell. John Austin. \\'. M. 
Baldwin. Jr., H. H. Bartlett, D. R. Belding, Xew York; B. J. Brown, On- 
tario; W. T. Bryan. X^ew York; H. H. Carter, Ohio; C. P. Collins. Eng- 
land; H. C. Coolm.an, Ohio; O. B. Crumbaker, Ohio; A. H. Dix, Ohio; J. 
G. Heaton. Australia". J. B. Hickson, Michigan; R. B. House. Ohio; R. B. 
Tohnson, Ohio; L. E. Knapp, Michigan: R. C. W. Lewis. Ontario; L. S. 
Mann, Ohio; F. B. Marr, Ontario; H. W. Miller, Ontario; H. Pond, Ohio; 
J. A. Sapp, Ohio; W. L. Smith, Ontario: ^I. B. Smyth. Ohio: A. South- 
ward, Ohio; G. W. Strong, Ohio; E. W. \'eits, Ohio; M. T. Wallin, Sweden; 
W. H. Woodyett, Ontario; H. R. Arndt. Ohio; J. A. Hubinger. 

1870. — U. F. Cassady, Hazard D. Chase, Sarah B. Chase. B. L. Cleve- 
land, F. L. Davis, T. K. Dawson, P. S. Duff. A. L. Gardiner. M. D.. George 
A. Gordon, C. W. Hovt, Mrs. E. :Miller. Geo. W. Moore, O. B. Moss. G. C 
McDermott. S. S. Parker, J. A. Partridge. Chas. F. Petsch. Jonathan M. A. 
Petitt, J. D. A. Pohle, E. D. Preston. ^^^ H. Riley. A. S. Rosenberger. A. E. 
Scheble. F. B. Sherburne. B. Sovereign, G. O. Spence. M. D.. H. S. Strong. 
L. P. Truman. E. Van X'orman. H. B. A'an X'orman, I. J. ^^'hitfield, W. A. 
Whitnev. C. D. Woodburn. A. F. Wcrthington. 

At this time, as at present, the question of co-education was occupying 
the attention of medical educators. As previously noted, the college had 
been on both sides of the question, finally concluding to take the position 
which is held to-day that the adm.ission of women to the class was proper 



30 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



and wise. As will be remembered, the " Ohio Medical and Surgical Re- 
porter " was being published at that time. The issue of August. 1870, was 
devoted almost entirely to a discussion of the question of co-education, and 
an extra edition of five thousand copies was circulated broadcast. A very 
strong letter o\er the signature of Mrs. Sarah B. Chase, M. D., who grad- 




uated in February, 1870, was probably the best advertisement the college 
has had during the half-century of its existence. The letter makes a strong 
plea for this school, saying that the institution offers peculiar advantages for 
the prosecution of medical education, and that in addition to this — as be- 
ing most interesting to the woman — her treatment by the professors and 
students is marked with profound respect and consideration. This action 
was taken by the faculty in face of the fact that the woman's college was 
then in existence and making a desperate struggle for life. One of the 
daily papers of the city contained the following: 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 31 



MEDICAL EDUCATION OF THE SEXES IIOMCEOPATII IC HOSPITAL COLLEGE. 

Anxious that al! women who have aspirations for the profession and 
are determined on a course of medical education shall become comprehen- 
siveh and thoroughly qualified, this college will most cordially welcome them 
to its classes. We are convinced by experience that students of both sexes 
do best under the curriculum of a joint education. We commend these 
propositions to the careful attention of every woman in the land whO' is inter- 
ested in medical education. 

For further information, address: — 

H. F. BiGGAR, M. D., Registrar. 

The following year the woman's college gave up the fight and trans- 
ferred the property, if not the good will, of the Cleveland Homoeopathic Col- 
lege and Hospital for Women to the Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital Col- 
lege. Then Prof. S. R. Beckwith, whose opposition to co-education was pro- 
nounced, gracefully surrendered and took the lead in announcing to the 
medical profession that the college doors would thereafter be open to women, 
with equal rights to those of the men. 

In 1 87 1 there were several notable additions to the faculty. S. A. 
Boynton. M. D., was appointed professor of physiology : D. H. Beckwnth, 
M. D., was engaged to give ten special lectures upon the practice of medi- 
cine ; and Lewis Barnes, M. D.. of Elyria. Ohio, and Hamilton Ring, M. D., 
of Urbana, Ohio, undertook a series of lectures on special subjects. About 
this time also the course of optional study was extended to three years and 
the term lengthened to eighteen weeks. 

There was instituted also the practice of giving prizes for special work, 
the following being the list of prizes : 

To the student who could sustain the best written examination in Eng- 
lish scholarship, $50.00 in fees. Four prizes based on efficiency in quiz and 
examinations were offered to students of the college, the first being a scholar- 
ship worth $90.00 ; the second, a graduation fee, worth $30.00 ; the third, 
a copy of " Baehr's Therapeutics," w^orth $10.00; the fourth, a copy of 
" Raue's Pathology," worth $5.00; and to all students failing to secure any 
one of the above, but who could make out a creditable report of cases, one 
year's subscription to the " Ohio IN'Iedical and Surgical Reporter." 

The professor of anatomy offered a prize of $25.00 to the student who 
stood highest in the final examination in all the branches taught in the col- 
lege ; to the second highest, a prize of $15.00; to the third, a prize of $10.00. 
Prof. Sanders offered a prize of $40.00 to the student who sustained the 
best examination in regular quizzes during the session of 1872- 1873. This 
practice was kept up for a number of years, but finally fell into disuse. 

During the following year there were a number of losses from the fac- 
ulty. R. F. Humiston, A. M., resigned the chair of chemistry, N. B. Wil- 
son, M. D., the chair of pathology and differential diagnosis, and J. D. Buck, 
M. D., the chair of physiology and microscopy. Dr. Sarah B. Chase was 
appointed demonstrator of anatomy for female students. 

An interesting point to be noted here is the fact that each member 
of the faculty received $2.00 per lecture delivered during the session of 1871- 
1872, Profs. S. R. Beckwith and J. D. Buck having each been paid $100 
for the lectures given to the students during the preceding year. 



32 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



The year 1872 is notable in tlie history of the college because of the ef- 
forts made to remove the institution to Cincinnati. Dr. J. H. Pulte, of that 
city, was instrumental in the formation of a college and had endowed it 
with $70,000, in consideration of its bearing his name. Inducements of 
such a nature that could not be resisted were ofF,ered Prof. T. P. Wilson, 
the result being that he resigned his professorship in the Cleveland college, 
following his late co-workers. Buck and Beckwith, to Cincinnati. Then 
came a strenuous effort to unite the two colleges, the Cincinnati people feel- 
ino- that with an endowment fund of $70,000 and three of the Qeveland 
professors already in the faculty, the future of the Pulte college was assured, 
and that there would be no necessity for the existence of a college in 




A. R. Bartlelt. ^I. D. 

Cleveland. Prof. J. C. Sanders, at the request of the Cleveland faculty, 
visited Cincinnati and made a careful investigation of the entire situation. 
He came back full of enthusiasm, reporting that amalgamation of the two 
schools was the thing most to be desired. The faculty, however, thought 
differentlv. and his report was negatived by a large majority. No further 
attempts 'have been made from that day to this to promote the union of 
the two colleges. 

In 1872 the faculty inaugurated a course of practical instruction on spe- 
cial subjects to be given during the spring term of ten weeks. It was in 
this year also that the " Reporter " was declared to be under the control 
of the college authorities, with Drs. T. P. Wilson and H. H. Baxter as edi- 
tors. When Dr. Wilson moved to Cincinnati he took his \ti\i of that journal 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 33 

with him, Dr. Baxter retaining the balance. Thus it came about that for 
a short time there were two journals published, the " Cincinnati Reporter " 
and the " Cleveland Reporter.*' This, however, proved to be unsatisfactory 
and the " Cincinnati Reporter "' was merged in another journal. The " Cleve- 
land Reporter '' maintained a separate existence as a college journal until 
January, 1874. It then passed to the control of Dr. H. F. Biggar, he be- 
coming the surgical editor and Dr. W. A. Phillips taking up the general 
editorship, the college agreeing to pay the sum of $250 per year for three 
years and to receive certain pages for advertising, together with the support 
of the paper. This plan, however, proved unsatisfactory, existing for only 
a few months, the " Reporter " finally closing its career after seven years of 
useful service for homoeopathy. 

The faculty of 1873-1874 consisted of the following: 

Jehu Brainerd, M. D., emeritus professor of chemistry. 

George W. Barnes, M. D., emeritus professor of materia medica. 

A. O. Blair, M. D., professor of theory and practice of medicine. 

John C. Sanders, A. M., M. D., professor of obstetrics and gynecology. 

N. Schneider, M. D., professor of surgen,-. 

H. F. Biggar, A. B., ^l. D., professor of clinical surgery. 

H. H. Baxter, M. D., professor of materia medica. 

S. A. Boynton, M. D., professor of physiology. 

G. J. Jones, M. D., professor of anatomy. 

C, H. Von Tagen, M. D., professor ophthalmology and otology. 

E. R. Taylor, B. S., professor of chemistry and toxicologv'. 

W. E. Saunders, Isl. D., professor of surgical anatomy. 

Wm. F. Hocking, ^I. D., professor of pathology and differential diag- 
nosis. 

G. O. Spence, M. D., lecturer on gynecology. 

G. M. Barber, A. M., lecturer on medical jurisprudence. 

H. B. Van Norman, AI. D., lecturer on hygiene, and librarian, and cura- 
tor of the museum. 

N. Schneider, dean. 

C. H. Von Tagen, registrar. 

H. H. Baxter, recording secretary. 

This large body of faculty members was unwieldy, for we find that in the 
session of 1875- 1876 there were just nine teachers, and that small number 
of workers continued in force up to the advent of the four years' graded 
course of instruction. 

The year 1876 witnessed the election to the faculty of two men, one 
of whom is still an honored professor. March 14, Wm. A. Phillips, M. D., 
was elected professor of ophthalmology and otology, and J. Pettit, M. D., 
professor of chemistry and toxicology. The next year Dr. J. Edwards 
Smith was given the work- in microscopy ; Dr. B. F. Gamber began his col- 
lege work during this year. As a consequence of the resignation of Dr. 
G. O. Spence from the chair of gvnecology. Dr. H. F. Biggar was appointed 
to the vacancy, his acceptance being coupled with the condition that he be 
allowed to hold a surgical clinic in addition to the clinic in g}'necology. Dr. 
G. J. Jones was given a surgical clinic at the same time. 

On May 10, 1878, the facidty unanimously agreed to extend the terrr 
of studv to four vears, giving an advanced standing of one vear to stu- 



34 



HISTORY OF HOAICEOPATHY 



dents who held degrees in arts and science. By wav of comparison, it may 
be stated that during the winter of 1878 and 1879 four hundred and eighty 
lectures were delivered and two hundred and four clinics were held, thus 
showing the difference in what then was required and the requirements of 
the present day. the latter being as a minimum, 900 hours. During this 
vear Prof. S. R. Beckwith delivered a special course of twelve lectures on 
operative surgery and Prof. Slosson of Cincinnati a special course on dis- 
eases of the respiratory organs. 

It is worthv of note also that 'at the end of this third decade of the col- 



:-9 




Mvra K. Alerrick, M. D. 



lege existence an effort was made to have its history written, but the effort 
failed, Prof. Smith, who was requested to do the work, declining to under- 
take it. 

The faculty during the session of 1879-1880 was as follows: 

J. C. Sanders, protessor of principles and practice of medicine. 

N. Schneider, professor of surgery. 

H. H. Baxter, professor of materia medica and clinical medicine. 

S. A. Boynton, professor of physiology and microscopical anatomy. 

G. J. Jones, professor of anatomy. 

W. A. Phillips, professor of ophthalmology and otology. 

PI. F. Biggar, professor of gynecology. 

J. Edwards Smith, professor of histology and microscopy. 

"N. B. Wilson, professor of obstetrics. 

The third decade of the college history was a most successful one, the 
institution having made during that time several distinct advances in its cur- 



HISTORY OF HOAICEOPATHY 35 

riculum and in the requirements for graduation. As has been noted, it first 
provided an optional four years' course, with an obHgatory three years' course, 
and in other ways demonstrated that its professors were progressive and 
wilHng, and anxious to meet the requirements of advancing medical science. 
We herewith append a list of graduates of that decade, and among the 
names will be found many of those who have attained high eminence in the 
profession and who have done great work in keeping the homoeopathic school 
of medicine well in the front. The graduates from 1870 to 1880 are as 
follows : 

1871— A. Baldwin, Jr.. F. H. Barr, A. W. Blakeslee, H. W. Brozie, 
A. Colvin, Julia W. Dunning, J. C. Ellsworth, Julia A. Ford, M. B. Garver, 
J. G. Gates. R. S. Gee, U. R. Guilbert. E. M. Hall, C. W. Harinsfar, C. W. 
Haves, S. Hoag, M. E. Hughes, A. J: Krehbill, B. H. Lawson, L. L. Leggett, 
S. S. Mills, J. H. McLellan, H. W. Osborn, O. S. Runnels, J. Schneider, 
Geo. A. Slack, J. Q. Smith, O. P. Sook. Anna A. Sowles, S. P. Town, 
Edward Ulrich. J. H. Wilson, W. H. Wise. Geo. Wright. 

1872— A. J. Adams. A. B., H. L. Barbour. U. J. Bearbv. F. R. R. Berry, 
C. T. Canfield, Harry E. Colton, L. C. Crowell, W. C. Day. Alfred Eddy, 
John Eisenhauer, Richard Epps, M. D.. Edwin Gillard, E. T. Goucher, S. G. 
Graves, N. J. W. Hanson. S. [. Hill, Martha Hollett, G. J. Jones. S. U. 
Jones. C. A. Mills. M. H. Mills. A. J. S. Neville, Henry Neville, M. A., 
Geo. M. Ockford, A. S. Parker, N. D."Peck, A. J. Pickard, M. A., R. H. Y. 
Ramage, G. W. Righter. Wm. Teegarden, "M. O. Terry, H. C. Wells, C. J. 
Wolcott. 

1873— Joseph C. Anderson, Tobias G. Barnhill, George G. Biggar, 
Henry E. Beebe, Edward W. Br^an, U. S. Qarke, Wm. D. Clarke, Albert 

E. Elliott, Herman A. Flick. A. M., Juha T. Furlong, A. Gleason, Maria L. 
Green, George T. Harding, Wm. T. Hamilton. Norman H. Haviland. M. E. 
Hickox, Olive I. Jones, Herbert H. Lyons, O. W. Lounsbury, Will ]\Iurdock, 
Wm. L. McCleary, Kate Parsons. Chas. F. Park, Wm. L. Parmenter, Thos. F. 
Spittle, Michael Stone, Leander T. Van Horn, A. E. Watson, Reuben W. 
Walters, Johnson Wright, Arthur M. Woodruff, Daniel G. Wilder, B. S., 
J. Whitely, Chas. H. Wagoner. 

1874 — S. W. Aldrich, J. C. Campbell, John Burrough, John G. Boyd, 
J. Burling. Millie J. Chapman. P. M. Cowles, S. C. Chapman, G. B. Durant, 
H. C. Frost. G. H. Gilbert, Kate M. Goss, Mrs. L. P. Griffiths, L. C. Gusto, 
J. H. Jackson. J. Kimberling. E. B. Nash, John A. McGill. H. L. Obetz, 
A. F. Olmstead. '}.{. T. Runnels. Miss Kate Shephardson. Chas. G. Smith, 
L. P. Sturtevanr, O. R. Shannon, E. H. Way, T. H. Whitehead, N. E. Weight, 
J. H. Young. A. B. Botsford. Mary W. Ellis.' Miss E. A. Davis. 

1875 — G. E. Barker, Martin Besemer, J. W. Borger, Miss A. T. Brindle, 
Mrs. M. A. Canfield, James Dickson. Will A. Egbert. E. R. Eggleston, 
A. A. Harding, J. D. C. Heinemann. S. H. Hickman, Mrs. E. F. Hollings- 
head. W. E. Keith. T- B. Lewis. Mrs. L. M. Lincoln. T- ^I. List, Chas.."T. 
Mitchell. J. S. More. Miss S. F. Rose. Miss L. A. Robinson, J. B. Sargeant, 

F. C. Steingraver, Qias. H. Strong, T- F. Thompson. 

1876— Wm. H. Barr, L. B. Bartlett. R. S. Boner. A. Cunningham, W. 
Cunningham. Mrs. A. A. Darby, Ira W. Disbro, James D. Easton, C. A. 
Edgerton, Miss A. Eldred. J. W. Fere^uson, R. Hathawav. R. Hevm. Miss 
S. A. Henderson. R. H. Hurlbut. A. M., Geo. M. Ireland. P. F.' Johnson, 



36 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

T. B. Judson, Jno. Laffertv, Geo. Lee, C. S. Morlev, N. K. Morris, Geo. W. 
Phinney, D. E. Pratt, T- M. Rickets, F. G. Robinson, HI C. Roger, A. 
Sheldon, H. A. Sherwood, L. W. Smith, R. L. Spencer, D. B. Stumpf, M. A. 
Todd, W. S. Todd, Jr., A. F. Turner, L. G. Von Scoyoc, B. F. WiUiamson, 
W. Wohlgemuth. 

1877— W. P. Bennett, H. S. Boardman, Mrs. E. J- Beach, W. L. Case, 
C. W. Courtright, S. W. Darrow, Mrs. M. Devoe, C. P. Ehrman, B. F. 
Gamber, John A. Gann, R. A. Goodell, C. D. Hale, Mrs. C. M. Haynes, 
H. C. Houston, W. S. Hudson, J. W. Hurlbut, J. C. Kirkpatrick, John Lance, 
T. L. Nunamaker, F. E, Palmer, William Peach, T. J. Putnam, Mrs. H. H. 
Sheffield, George G. Storm, John P. Sobey, Mrs. M. M. Stowe, E. Taylor, 
J. O. Pritch, 6. J. Travers, D. M. Turner. 

The following composed the graduating class of 1877 and 1878: D. F. 
Baker, J. E. Barbour, W. W. Bird, L. W. Carpenter, E. A. Clarke, A. J. 
Crane, E. H. Damon, G. F. Fields, Lena Fink, F. O. Eggleston, C. S. Geer, 
B. R. Gifford, D. Gillard, M. D. V. Hibbard, D. W. Harner, E. H. Jewitt, 
Harrison Lilly, W. H. Kirkland, C. F. Manter, W. T. Miller, Geo. B. Par- 
melee, R. Y. Pitcairn, C. L. Porter, Wm. Raymer, E. B. Sabin, J. E. Slaught, 
H. J. Smith, J. W. Swayer, R. D. Tipples, S. A. Townsend. W. F. Waltz, 
F. H. Woodard, J. S. Whiteley, Miss H. E. Warner. Honorary degree con- 
ferred on J. Edward Smith. 

March 8th, 1879, the following were given the degree of doctor of med- 
icine : Reuel Bartlett, D. W. Clausen, J. W. Covert, J. W. Daly, Mrs. M. E. 
Kurtz, W. B. Putnam, T- S. Dale. E. C. Van Numan Emery, J. J. A. Morgan, 
Alfred Sales, J. G. Sutton, C. L. Williams, E. W. Southall, G. E. Turrill, 
M. P. Hunt, W. H. Palm.er, A. M. Sexton, W. S. Thompson, H. Pomeroy, 
Miss C. H. Fisher, F. H. Spence, E. D. Warner, J.'B. Hershey, F. B, 
Putnam. 

The graduates of the class of 1879-1880 were Bert A. Anthony, N. 
Anthony, D. A. Ames, J. A. Backus, G. S. Boyd, N. O. Branizer, A. C. Buell, 
L. A. Barnes, C. F. Barnes, F, H. Bangs, D. D. Bartholomew, George Col- 
lister, F. N. Clarke, J. N. Downs, E. C. Eddy, J. DeWitt George, W. H. 
Horr, Mrs. M. M. Hatfield, J. S. Kirkendall, G. A. Kellev, W. E. Long, 
W. W. Wolfe, B. B. Viets, R. S. Lycan, E. N. Lowry, C. H. Landfear, 
W. D. Gill, John A. Mitchell, R. F. Marks, T. B. Monroe, L. R. Porter, 
E. G. Rust, F. T- Ritter, Peter Stammer, Judson E. Strong, J. A. Simpson, 
Mary P. Sook.'Wm. H. Thompson, J. W. Swartz, W. B. Thomas, C. J. 
Thatcher, J. T. Turrill, DeWitt Wilcox, A. L. Wilson, Miss Kate W^hipple, 
Helen Weeks, A. E. Wheeler, C. E. Walton, A. Horton. 

1880-1890 — The fourth decade of the college history opened with the 
pfter of two resignations from the faculty. One of these was that of Prof. 
Baxter, the other that of Prof. J. Edwards Smith. The faculty refused to 
accept Prof. Baxter's resignation, insisting upon his continuing with his work, 
though they were forced to allow Prof. Smith to give up his chair. Prof. 
S. A. Boynton also offered his resignation, being compelled to do this on 
account of ill health. As acquisitions to the faculty we note the appointment 
of Dr. Wm. T. Miller as adjunct professor of anatomy; Dr. Harlan Pomeroy, 
adjunct professor of materia medica ; Dr. A. Y. Moore, lecturer on micro- 
scopy and histology. It is interesting also to note that the college closed a 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



37 



ten-year lease for the Prospect street building:, thus insuring a more perma- 
nent home. 

This fourth decade shows in its history but httle indication of what was 
to follow. It seems like the calm which often precedes the storm. If there 




B. L. Hill, -Al. D. 



were any internal dissentions they did not appear anywhere in the college 
records. ' The whole course of the ten years was noted for the success of the 
college work and increasing attendance of students and the heightened interest 
shown by practitioners of our school within the district from which its 



38 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

students were drawn. The students were mostly men beyond their teens, 
men who had become mature in thought and intellect, and the majority of 
them dependent entirely upon their own resources for the money required 
to defray their expenses. Here, as in the list of those graduating in the 
former decades, the reader will find men whose names are to-day recog- 
nized wherever homoeopathy is known. Many of them are earnest workers 
in other colleges, giving out the training and experience gained from the 
professors in their alma mater. The list of graduates from 1880 to 1890 is 
as follows : 

1881— E. F. Allen, C. M. Baldwin, E. D. Bottorf, W. R. Barton, R. 
Buckingham, Miss Jennie R. Gulp, J. W. Cook, Mrs. A. E. Burroughs, H. R. 
Chesboro, M. G. Edgerton, J- M. Douds, E. B. Emory, Mrs. Sarah Ellis, 
J. F. Elliott. A. D. Flagg, R. G. Finlay, C. F. Ginn, Oscar P. Griggs, J. Seth. 
Gardiner, Morris H. Goodrick, J. R. Hooper, A. S. Hayden, R. L. Hanks, 
C. W. Johnson, S. L. King, Helen L. Kent, O. A. Lyons, E. H. Lathrop, 
J. F. Miller, Allen Y. Moore, W. L. Miller, J. O. Morrow, W. E. Putnam, 
E. C. Quinby, W. E. Roper, George W. Rhonehouse, Chas. E. Sawyer, J. G. 
Seiter, J. O. Shaw, A. K. Smith, J. A. Stephens, Mrs. M. M. Scheble, Tyson 
Smith, y. Kent Sanders, John A. Thompson, G. Tell, E. L. Stvles. 

1882— C. S. Albertson, W. L. Athon, W. B. Baker, E. L. Boice, L. H. A. 
Brown, A. A. Brooks, C. A. Brown. F. W. Burlingame, C. W. Carrol, W. B. 
Croft, H. D. Champlin, A. B., T. T. Church, J. B. Davidson, S. R. Davis, 
W. J. H. Emory. A. M. Erwin, James Gillard, L. M. Glessner, J. E. Harner, 
W. A. Harlan, C. W. Haines, L. R. Heath, C. E. House, F. R. Hudson. T- O. 
Jackson, J. M. Kelley, F. A. Krill, H. F. Kramer, F. B. Knight, F. R. 
Loomis, M. W. Manahan, M. M. Moffit. C. L. ^luhleman. W. E. Newton, 
C. O. Pavne, C. P. Painter, Miss M. T- Pendleton. F. D. Pratt, G. C. Quezada, 
H. W. Richard, S. W. Sellew. B. W. Severance, G. H. Smith, E. B. Smith, 
U. H. Squires, A. B., T. H. Taylor, L. O. Thompson, S. L. Thorp, A. M. 
Tracy, E. P. Wilmot, E. J. Wunderlich. C. Zbinden, J. D. Zwetsch. 

1883 — C. B. Adams, I. T- Baughman. H. V. Beardsley, C. A. Beach, 
R. Belle Beach, G. W. Bond,' C. Y. Brewer, E. B. R. Criswell, C. L. Cleve- 
land. A. B., E. D. Covert, C. B. Dixon, A. B., C. D. Ellis, L. R. French, 
Mary A. Gault, H. B. Garrigues, M. D,. R. S. Graves, C. Gangloff, ,G. E. 
Harrison. C. W. Hains, T. Richev Horner. A. j\I., M. Kingslev, Kate I. 
Kelsev, T- King, B. E. Miller. T. S. Martin, A. L. Mitchell, E. H. Morrow, 
M. G; McBride. L. K. Maxwell L. J. Olmsted. P. W. Ostrander, A. Bi Phil- 
lips, J. R. Phillips, W. O. Phillips, L. R. Pelton, G. H. Quay. A. P. ^eeher, 
A. W. Reddish, E. T- Robinson, L. G. Rousseau, C. Schumacher, A. E^ Step- 
field. Pearl Starr. E. A. Shay, B. W. Stillings, C. W. St. John, Arlna C. 
Smith, William Steele, Lovine Thorpe, Louisa Toles. C. E. Ward, M. D., 
A. L. Waltz, C. A. Wilson, E. T. White, T. A. Wilcox. 

1884— M. H. Abel. W. P. Armstrong. H. F. Batter. L C. Blinn. M. 
Bennett, J. H. Burch, M. F. Cole, J. F. Clarke, H. H. Crippen, T. O. 
Clingan, R. B. Carter. N. C. Davis, J. W. Frizzell, J. F. Fabre, J. T. Horton, 
H. Genung, C. F. Hough. G. A. Henninges. J- C. Irvine, ]. C. Jump, E. E. 
Johnson, E. H. Maltbie, J. P. ?^lcGill. F. W! ^lorlev, H. "M. Marsh, F. G. 
McGranaghan, J. C. Norris, W. M. Nead. W. K. Paul, F. R. Smith. A. E. 
Sprinsfsted, C. A. Stedman. F. E. Talladav. F. P. Tavlor. D. P. Terry, 
C. C.^True. W. H. Wallace, E. J. Whittleton, W. E. Winget, F. D. Wood, 
W. A. Farnsworth. 



history" of HO^ICEOPATHY 39 

i88^— S. D. Allen, A. J. Atwood, ]. T. Beckwith, A. C. Bollinger, T- S. 
Cleeland, W. A. Cook, Miss M. Dixon. B. S.. J. B. Egts, J. F. Fabre. A. B., 
J. H. Ferrell, E. E. Flickinger. B. S., R. F. Gates, F. C. Gundlach, G. A. 
Henninges. E. L. Herrick. E. Herzer, A. B.. Miss L. E. Hitchcock. W. Z. 
Kumbler. A. B., F. W. Lefevre. F. Lenggenhager, T. T. McXish, R. H. 
Pepper. A. Pulford, G. B. Richards, E. ]\I. Rodenberger. H. L. Spence. L. H. 
Tillotson, Mrs. P. M. Webster, AV. E. Wells. R. M. White. 

1886 — ]^Iiss A. B. Crowlev. George T. Damon. Charles S. Elliott. Schuv- 
ler C. Elliott. Herbert L. Frost, A. B.. MVs. Julia P. Greene. William H. Hill, 
Samuel A. Hollister, Robert A. Hudson. Harlan T. Kerr. Miss Alfa R. Leib, 
Frank E. Lewis, John P. Maratta, T. Charles ^Martin, W. George ^Meredith, 
James A. Miller. Samuel A. Moore, Josiah F. Roberts. William B. Sanders, 
Oscar D. Shay, B. E.. Richard ]M. Skinner, Miss ^Marion Spaulding, Henry 
C. Statzer, Thomas A. W^asson, George W. Wood, Mrs. Emmer A. Whitney. 

1887 — J- ^^- Adair, N. W. Bodenbender, Tames Edgehill, Miss L. H. 
Ellis, X. M. Follett, J. A. Gold. N. F. Golling. "W. B. Hinsdale, A. H. Mid- 
dleton. B. J. :Miller. O. A. McDonald, T. N. Smith. J. Rollin Sook, Geo. D. 
Sturtev^ant. W. R. Wall. Mrs. A. Grace White. Mrs. M. E. Barnes, H. B. 
Stiles. C. H. Ellis, J. Cvrus Thomas. 

1888— C. B. Adanis, M. L. Adams, W. T. Anderson. C. L. \'. Bell, 
Martha E. Benson. Stella :\I. Clarke, P. A. Cole, E. B. Guile. C. A. Howell, 
F. :\I. Hunt, C. E. Hauver. C. A. Hall, Xettie S. Hathaway, F. I. Henderson, 
Jno. H. Haegy, Alice Harris. W. C. Hewitt. Frank G. Jones, Wm. T. Kim- 
berly, R. L. Lockwood. Annie E. ^Mehwrin. Chas. R. Rowdey, F. E. Roper, 
E. H. Robinson, J. S. Read, E. E. Shaw. Jno. F. Shafer. E. A. Smith, C. H. 
Slos.son, M. E. Sherman. I. W. Stoner. T. J. TifFanv, W. A. Tims, Kent B. 
Waite. 

1889 — Alfred G. Bailey. Emily L. Barnes. Marietta Brumbach. Frank 
W. Brand. Arthur F. Baldinger. Jerry E. Brainard. Wm. H. Bacon. ^Mary J. 
Cochran. Clara Isabel Darr. T. T. Fyfe. John Rossiter Gleason. F. G. Gilbert, 
Harry J. Garber. Wm. A. M. Hadley, Clarence W. Kellogg, Wm. T. 
McCormick. Guy C. Marsh. J. B. Patterson. Fred D. Page, Jennie A. Sloan, 
Ormiston W. Swavse. John P. Stober. Helen 'SI. Stein, Francis M. Smersh. 

i89(^-W. B. Andrews. D. W. Baker. H. D. Bishop, C. A. Buell, Emnia 
H. Butman. Laura E. Brown. John T. Carter. C. K. Conard. ^I. E. Campbell, 
William W. Cole. Albert S. Dabney. W. C. DuBois. Daniel Dillman, Georgia 
Fultonn. Rosetta L. Gilchrist, G. H. Horwell. W. A. Kitchen, Alice E. 
Loomis. J. W. ^Ic^lurray. J. C. ^NlcCauley, Elizabeth Murray, Jennie B. 
Prentiss. ]\Iargaret X'. Ouiiilev. DeForest A. Reid. Frank A. Reed, Geo. W. 
Redmon. Edwin \'. Ross. W.H. Shane. R. D. Self, Frank W. Stuart. J. B. 
Stansbury. C. C. Taylor. L. B. Tow^nley. Flora E. Wasserman. J. F. Wel- 
lington. 

THE CLEVELAND HOMCEOPATHIC MEDICAL COLLEGE. 
By James Richey Horner, A. M., M. D. 

The opening of the fifth decade of the historv of the college marks the 
culmination of a conflict of opinions and wishes which had been waging for 
some time. Strenuous efforts were made by mutual friends to prevent an 
open outbreak of what might reasonably be called hostilities. These friends 
realized that such an outbreak could be productive of nothing but harm in the 



40 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



long run, and were anxious to avoid the trouble. It is our purpose to give, 
in a separate article, the history of the Cleveland Medical College during the 
seven years of its existence, and we shall take the liberty of waiving, until 
discussing that history, any consideration of the factors involved in the dis- 
sentions which led to its establishment. 

As a natural consequence of the formation of a new college in Cleveland, 
the year 1890-1891 was unsatisfactory in many respects, principal among 
which was the fact that only a very small number of students attended and 
the o-raduating class numbered but nine. The reorganized faculty consisted 
of the following: 

John C. Sanders, A. M., M. D., professor of obstetrics. 

H. F. Biggar, A. B., M. D., professor of gynecology, operative and clin- 
ical surtierv. 




G. \V. Barnes, M. D. 

W. A. Phillips, AI. D., professor of ophthalmology and otology. 

H. Pomerov. M. D., professor of phvsiology and differential diagnosis. 

J. Kent Sanders, B. S., M. D.. professor of practical surgery and sur- 
gical pathology. 

E. R. Eggleston, M. D., professor of theory and practice and pathology. 

Frank Kraft, M. D., professor of materia medica and the organon. 

S. L. Hall, M. D.. professor of the principles of surgery and lecturer on 
diseases of the nose and throat. 

Edward A. Darby, M. D., professor of anatomy. 

T. P. Wilson, M. D., professor of physiology. 

D. H. Beckwith, M. D., professor of sanitary science. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY il 

Auxiliary Corps. 
John A. Gann. A. i\[., M. D.. lecturer on physical diagnosis. 
DeForest Baker. M. D., lecturer on diseases of children. 
C. D. Ellis, M. D., lecturer on osteology and dermatology. 
H, D. Bishop, M. D., lecturer on chemistry, toxicology and urinary 
analysis. 

W. E. Weils, M. D., lecturer on orificial surgery. 

R. Dayton, M. D., lecturer on technical microscopy and histology. 

A. W. Barber, A. M., lecturer on medical jurisprudence. 

\\'. B. Andrews, M. D., demonstrator of anatomy. 

Prof. John C. Sanders was elected dean, and Prof. W. A. Phillips reg- 
istrar and deputy treasurer. The faculty at once established a journal, '"The 
Argus," with Profs. Phillips and Eggleston as editors. 

The following year marks the purchase of property on which is located 
the college building. A most desirable location just next to the hospital was 
secured, the lot fronting 40 feet on Huron street, being 165 feet deep, and 
having a 40-foot ell facing an alley. The price approximated $17,000. Profs. 
D. H. Beckwith, J. Kent Sanders and S. L. Hall were appointed building 
committee and instructed to proceed at once with their work. 

This year also marks the establishment of a school of dentistry in con- 
nection with the college. It was completely equipped with all modern con- 
veniences and compared favorably with anv dental college in the country, 
A faculty of six specialists in dentistry was appointed, these instructors being 
augmented by such others from the regular faculty as were found necessary 
in order to make a complete course. A three years' course was required, in- 
cluding all the branches taught in the foremost dental collages of the 
country. 

The college opened for the year September 23, and on the next day — so 
energetic had been the building committee in its work — the cornerstone of 
the new building was laid with imposing ceremonies. Throughout the year 
the college work progressed with splendid enthusiasm, those interested be- 
ing stimulated in their work by the fact that they were in competition with 
another institution, whose adherents were working with might and main to 
w'in in the race. Twenty-five students were graduated, six of these being 
dental students. 

Following the conclusion of the regular course a post-graduate course of 
three weeks was given, and was attended by a large class, about twent}' being 
given a certificate of attendance at the end of the course. 

The third year of the decade showed a decided increase in the enthusiasm 
as well as in the number of students in attendance upon the college. A great 
deal of money had been spent in advertising, during the interval between the 
sessions, and the natural result was that more students were drawn. 

The changes in the faculty were as follows : 

Martha A. Canfield, A. M.. AI. D., was appointed by the trustees as 
assistant to the chair of g}'necology. Prof. Harlan Pomeroy became asso- 
ciated v/ith Prof. J. C. Sanders in the chair of obstetrics. 

In the department of surgery C. D. Ellis, !M. D., took the work in minor 
surgery : Kent B. Waite, A. 'ST., M. D., genito-urinary and operative sur- 
gery ; W. E. Wells. M. D., surgical and medical diseases of the rectum ; 
H. L. Frost, A. B.. M. D.. surgical anatomy: and G. E. Turrill, M. D.. sur- 
gical diseases of the nose and throat. 




Cleveland Honnccpalliir .Medical CuUtge. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 43 

T. P. Wilson, M. D., shared. with W. A. PhiUips. M. D., the chair of 
ophthalmology. 

Theory and practice of medicine had the following new professors : 
DeForrest Baker, M. D., pediatrics and specific fevers; Kent B. Waite, A. M., 
M. D., diseases of kidne}s and bladder; G. W. Spencer, M. D., clinical der- 
matology, and George E. Turrill, M. D., diseases of nose and throat. 

W. B. Hinsdale, M. S., M. D., took the professorship of materia medica 
in the place of Prof. Frank Kraft, resigned. 

The chair of anatomy had several additions : H. L. Frost, A. B., M. D., 
surgical anatomy : E. A. Darby, M. D., brain and nerve centers ; C. D. Ellis, 
M. D., osteology, with R. S. Evelyn, IVl. D., as demonstrator, assisted by H. 
Primm, M. D., A. D. ]\lcElroy and F. O. Reeve, prosectors. 

In the department of phvsiolog^•, G. W. Spencer, 'SI. D., was associated 
with Prof. T. P. Wilson. 

Dr. Spencer was chosen as director of the physiological laboratory, and 
W. G. r^ilereditb, M. D., lectured on sanitary science. 

During this year a medical college extension course of lectures was es- 
tablished under the auspices of the faculty, the object being to enable the 
people to become better acquainted with the essential facts that pertain to 
their existence. The followmg was the list of subjects assigned : 

The invisible forces of the universe, as related to life and health ; the 
world of atoms, and their relation to the universe ; protoplasm and its relations 
to vegetable and animal life; the blood: the fountain of life; respiration, 
ventilation and the value of fresh air ; digestion — food, cooking, eating ; the 
brain and nervous system ; heredity, its relation to society and families ; the 
man wonderful in the house beautiful — anatomy ; sanitary science — state, 
municipal, personal ; diseases — nature, causes and prevention ; chemistry — 
elements, atoms, molecules, etc. — relations to the human body ; the origin of 
races; development — education, physical, moral, mental; the special senses — 
seeing, hearing, etc., etc. ; temperance — alcohol, tobacco, tea, coffee, opium ; 
how to care for the sick — in canip, hospital, home : the rearing of children — 
infancy, sleeping and eating, work and play ; emergencies — till the 'doctor 
comes ; the beauty of physical development. 

The list of lecturers included Professors S. L. Hall, H. F. Biggar, W. A. 
Phillips, E. P. Banning, W. B. Hinsdale, T. P. Wilson, A. F. Baldinger, 
G. W. Spencer, E. R. Eggieston, Martha A. Canfield. Kent B. W^aite, V. P. 
English, G. W. Meredith.^!- Kent Sanders, H. D. Bishop, C. D. Ellis. The 
lectures were well attended throughout the winter and the idea received com- 
mendation from all sources. 

The crowning event of the year was the opening of the new college 
building in September ; more than one thousand people attended the opening 
exercises. Dr. D. H. Beckwith, chairman of the building committee, pre- 
sented the keys to the board of trustees, and Dr. James H. McClelland of 
Pittsburgh delivered the opening address. 

It was during this year also that the name of the college was changed to 
"The Cleveland University of Medicine and Surgery." A number of reasons 
were given for the change, all of which appeared to be good. January i, 1893, 
the dental department was transferred to the W'estern Reserve University, 
the university purchasing the entire equipment. In March, 1893, twenty-five 
men and women were graduated from the medical department and two men 
from the dental department. 



•44 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

The most noteworthy action taken at the mid-term meeting of the fac- 
ulty in 1893^ was the estabhshment, with the consent of the board of trustees, 
of three scholarships, to be granted each year and awarded after a competitive 
examination. It was required that the applicant should be a graduate of some 
literary college in Ohio. We believe our college to be the first homoeopathic 
college in the world to oft'er free scholarships. 

Progressive as ever, the college established a lunch-room for the purpose 
of providing at cost price a simple and inexpensive luncheon for students 
living at a distance. 

A complimentary banquet to Prof. E. R. Eggleston was one of the events 
of the year, Dr. Eggleston at that time being a member of the faculty of the 
homoeopathic department of the University of Michigan. 

The commencement exercises of the session took place March 20, 1894, 
the program including a report from Prof. J. C. Sanders, dean of the medical 
department, Prof. S. B. Dewey, dean of the dental department, and other in- 
teresting addresses. At the first meeting following commencement the board 
of trustees lengthened the college term to seven calendar months, and estab- 
lished a four years' graded course which took effect at the opening of the 
next term. 

Up to this time the finances of the college were in the hands of a com- 
mittee who, with the dean and executive committee, governed the institution. 
This created considerable dissatisfaction and the finance committee resigned, 
which left the entire management of the college, financially and educationally 
in the hands of the dean. 

As there had been some changes in the faculty, we take occasion to note 
the com.position of that body as found in the announcement for the year 
1 894- 1 895 : 

Obstetricy. 

John C. Sanders, M. D., LL.D., dean, professor of preternatural labor, 
instrumentation, and maladies of the lying-in; H. Pomeroy, M. D., professor 
of gestation and natural labor. 

Gynopathy. 

H. F. Biggar, M. D., LL.D.. professor of surgical diseases of women ; 
]^Iartha A. Canfield, A. M., M. D., professor of medical diseases of women. 

Surgery. 

H. F. Biggar, M. D., LL.D., professor of gynopathical and clinical sur- 
gery; J. Kent Sanders, A. M., M. D., professor of principles and practice of 
surgerv, surgical pathology and clinical surgery ; Kent B. Waite, A. M. M. D., 
registrar, professor genito-urinary and operative surgery ; C. D. Ellis, ]\I. D., 
professor of minor surger}' ; W." E. Wells, M. D., professor of surgical and 
medical diseases of theWtum; H. L. Frost, A. B., M. D., professor of sur- 
gical anatomy; G. E. Turrill, Isl. D., professor of surgical diseases of the 
nose and throat. 

Ophthalmology and Otology. 

W. A. Phihips, M. D.' professor' of didactic and practical opththalmology 
and otology; T. P. Wilson, M. D., professor of clinical ophthalmology and 
otology. 

Materia Medico. 

W. B. Hinsdale. M. S., 'M. D..' professor of principles of homoeopathy, 
materia medica and the organon. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



45 



Anatomy. 

IT. T. Frost, A. B., M. D., professor of descriptive and surgical anatomy ; 
C. D. Ellis, M. D., professor of osteology. 

Theory and Practice. 

W. B. Hinsdale, M. S., M. D., professor of general and clinical medi- 
cine and pathology; D. F. Baker, M. D., deputy treasurer, professor of 
paediatrics; G. E. Turrill. M. D., professor of diseases of nose, throat and 
lungs; H. D. Champlin, A. M., M. D., lecturer on nervous diseases; H. G. 
Pyle, M. D., lecturer on the medical diseases of the kidneys and bladder; 
A. F. Baldinger, M. D., lecturer on normal histology; E. O. Adams, M. D., 




Hospital. College and ^ilaternity Home. 

lecturer on microscopy and pathological histology. T. P. Wilson, M. D., 
professor of physiology, psychology and psychiatry. 

Phariuacy. 
F. O. Reeve, A. M., M. D., instructor in pharmacy. 

Medical Jurisprudence. 
A. W. Barber, A. M., lecturer. 

Stereopticon. 
W. H. Price. Jr. 

Demonstrators of Anatomy. 
F. O. Reeve, A. IM., M. D. ; A. D. McElroy, :M. D. 

Prosectors. 

C. W. Ginii : E. B. Kaple. 

Sanitary Science. 

D. H. Beckwith. M. D.. professor of sanitary science ; W. G. Meredith, 
M. D., professor of hygiene. 



46 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

Chemistry. 

M. E. Kleckner, A. M., professor of geology and biology, Heidelberg 
University, Tiffin, Ohio, professor of chemistry ; Thos. W. Ranson, Ph. G., 
M. D., lecturer on chemistry, toxicology and director of laboratories ; Chas. 
L. Mosher, assistant. 

Dental Faculty. 

S. B. Dewey, M. D.. D. D. S., professor of dental histolog};. pathology 
and embryology; J. E. Robinson, M. D., D. D. S., professor of operative 
dentistry; H. Barnes, M. D., D. D. S., professor of dental anatomy and 
dental technics; L. P. Bethel, M. D., D. D. S., professor of dental medicine 
and therapeutics ; W. T. Jackman, D. D. S., professor of prosthetic dentistry 
and metallurgy; Grant Mitchell. D. D. S., professor of crown and bridge 
work and orthodontia. 

This session was attended with but little outside of the regular systematic 
filling of the scheduled hours by the professors. At the graduating exercises, 
which occurred March 26, 1895, the principal speaker of the evening was 
the superintendent of the Cleveland public schools. Prof. L. H. Jones, who 
delivered a strong, scholarly address. 

As was foreshadowed by the resignation previously noted, the faculty 
this year assumed a more prominent part in the management of the college. 
As evidencing their desire of change in the governing rules, they submitted 
to the trustees a complete plan. This took up the consideration of the entire 
work of the college and provided for the election of officers by the members 
of the faculty independent of the board of trustees. The most radical measure, 
however, was the provision that nominations of officers and members of the 
faculty be made by the trustees only upon recommendation of at least three- 
fourths of the faculty. It was also provided that no removal of members of 
the faculty should be made except upon a three-fourths vote.. 

The board of trustees unanimously approved this plan, and it went into 
effect for the session of 1895-1896. A very decided effect of this action, how- 
ever, was the immediate resignation of Prof. H. F. Biggar, and a most aston- 
ishing fact was that it was accepted unanimously by both the faculty and the 
trustees. Prof. J. Kent Sanders took Prof. Bis^gar's place as professor of 
gynecology and clinical surgery. Dr. C. D. Ellis taking the work formerly 
assigned to Dr. Sanders. 

The college opened in September with a large class, the work of the 
faculty giving universal satisfaction, the clinical work particularly increasing 
during the session, so that the record shows the greatest number of clinical 
cases of any year since the opening of the college. There seemed to be a 
desire on the part of every one to do the best work possible for the students. 
A noteworthy fact also was that a more friendly feeling was evidenced be- 
tween the students of the rival colleges, even the professors becoming more 
congenial. March 26, 1896, a large class was graduated, the men and women 
showing exceptional ability. 

So pronounced was the feeling of friendship between the students that 
-on May 4, i8q6. the trustees appointed a committee to meet a committee from 
the Cleveland Medical College to take action relative to a union of the two 
institutions according to a plan nresented by Profs. Beckwith and Baxter. 

The committee from the Cleveland Medical College in presenting their 
-side of the case made the claim that the equipment of the new college was 
•superior to that of the old. and that the faculty was better qualified to do the 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 47 

work, this claim being made to offset the difference in the valuation of the 
two properties, that of the university being conceded to be worth consider- 
ably more than the property of the Cleveland Medical College. This claim 
of superiority, however, was not admitted by the members of the committee 
from the university, and after a long time spent in discussion the committees 
were unable to find any common ground on which they could meet, and there- 
fore each college again began efforts to enroll students for the ensuing year. 

A number of additions were made to the faculty this year, these being as 
follows : 

E. R. Eggleston, M. D., professor of the theory and practice of medicine; 
H. D. Bishop, M. D., professor of orthopedic surgery ; C. S. Cutter, M. D., 




James C. Wood, A. M., M. D. 



lecturer on pediatry; R. J. Cummer, yi. D., lecturer on pharmacology and 
the theory and practice of medicine ; C. M. Thurston, M. D., lecturer on 
histolog>', pathology and urinary analvsis; C. A. Latimer, B. Sc, instructor 
in chemistry and toxicology; A. W. Sanders, D. V. 'S., instructor in bacteri- 
ology ; N. T. B. Nobles, C. A. Bingham, J. T. Frawley, M. D., demonstrators 
of anatomy. The officers were Wm. A. Phillips, M. D., dean ; Dudley Smith, 
M. D., registrar ; H. Pomeroy, M. D., treasurer. 

The election of Dr. Dudley Smith as registrar is worthy of especial note, 
as he was probably the best registrar the college ever had. His plans met 
with universal endorsement and had they been followed out to the letter would 
have resulted in a much more systematic and careful planning of college 



i8 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

work than was actually the case. The session was extremely successful, the 
classes large, and especial efforts were made to give the best possible courses 
of instruction. The commencement exercises were held March 22, 1897, ^nd 
were of unusual interest. 

We append a list of graduates from the first year of this decade until the 
consolidation. 

HOMOEOPATHIC HOSPITAL COLLEGE. 

1890-1891 — A. E. Chamberlain, R. S. Evelyn, T. F. Hogue, Lucy S. 
Hertzog, Thad. L. Johnson, J. D. McAfee, J. E. Rowland, Augustus B. 
Smith. 

1891-1892 — M. Margaret Hassler-Schantz. G. G. Frost, E. P. Banning, 
Margaret G. Darbv, C. "R. Bates, Phillip T. Johnson, R. E. Pond, O. C. 
Standish, W. E. Pryor, C. H. Moore, H. R. Hawkins, W. C. Hodges, Chas. L. 
Gangloff. G. B. Sturgeon, George B. Haggart. L. L. Mong, V. P. English, 
Adah M. Rowland, S. B. Sabin.' 

CLEVELAND UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 

1892-1893 — Ernest O. Adams, G. E. Bishop, H. J. Cranmer, J. B. Clif- 
ford, F. C. Dennison, Gora D. Fenton, Alice J. Gillespie-Allen, Mary E. 
Heston, L. L. Jones, Thos. M. Lanahan, Mary F. Lemmon, Eleanore G. 
Lennox, L. L. Laronge. J. E. Monroe, J. H. Myers, A. D. McElroy, Percy L. 
Prentiss, Henry Primm, Carl H. Rust, E. E. Richardson, Rose R. Robinson, 
Nina M. Stevens, Melissa Sayles, J. B. Woodworth, Elizabeth Young-Taylor, 
Bessie Schultze. 

1893-1894— O. S. Allen, C. F. Baker, Carina B. C. Banning, L M. Beatty, 
F. D. Bishop, Hiram Brown, May M. Brown, W. C. Crouch, Chas. H. Cushin, 
Anna J. Erskine, G. J. Gray, Sara A. Gray, G. L. Gridlev, F. W. Judson, 
F. A. Licht, C. H. McLaughlin, H. G. Pvle, W. H. Pulford, T. W. Ransom, 
F. O. Reeve, A. C. Rideout, R. A'. Saint. 'Dudley Smith, Ada F. Slick, W. F. 
Steadman, M. B. Todd, S. R. Walker, C. C. Williams, Ira L. W^ant, H. C. 
Zimmerly. 

1894-1895 — D. H. Braden, Alice L. Bishop, D. J. Close, J. G. Colton, 
H. Olivia Corell, H. D. Cox, Anna R. Cooper, E. J. Cauffield, G. D. Cameron, 
L. E. Casey, Mary E. Cruise, J. H. Davis, F. F. Finch, E. B. Guile, C. W. 
Ginn, Abilla J. Fisher, Sarah P. Gaston, L. W. Hilliard, C. W. Johnson, Wm. 
Koch, E. B. Kaple, Sarah A. Kroll, C. R. Luton, F. B. Livermore, W. L. 
Laser. W. H. Merriam, C. A. Marquart, W. D. Meyer, Wm. A. Mansfield, 
C. L. Moser, Ida B. Peffers, J. H. Quayle. H. H. Smith, R. S. Snyder, R. W. 
Thornburg, Emma A. Van Buren, Jane C. VanHyning, E. S. Wrig'ht, C. H. 
Young. 

1895-1896— F. P. Ames, L. M. Andrews, C. A. Bingham, Clara M. 
Benson, W. C. Cross, J. R. Cox, Eva E. Correll, J. L. Cowden, S. E. Deeley, 
F. F. Davis, L. C. Ellis, J. T. Frawley, J. E. Gaston, L. T. Gill, Edith R. 
Hornberger, Marv G. Hunter, Ellen F. Hawkins, C. T- Huyck, H. W. James, 
Dale M." King, E". J. Koontz. T- D. Kaple, D. L. Mohn, A. H. Martin, J. H. 
McBride. C. E. Merrill, N. T. B. Nobles, W^ W^ Osgood, H. J. O'Donnell, 
Rose A. Ralston. F. A. Russell, E. W. Riemenschnedier, L. E. Siemon, H. F. 
Staples. G. B. Smith, W. F. Steer, T. H. Tubman, R. O. Totten, A. Von 
Fried. T. C. Wallace, Jr., F. C. Watson, C. G. Webster, G. T. York, J. W. 
Young, Isa Teed-Crannton. 

1896- 1897— F. E. Bard, F. D. Brown, R. A. Brugger, Ola M. Buckman, 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 49 

Emily Blakeslee ; F. A. Clapsadel, Chas. E. Clobridge. L. P. Conley, Edgar C. 
Cowies, F. J. Edmonds, G. T. Ely, Chas. P. Geddes, J. C. Gilfillan, Edward 
Grove. F. S. Haggart, Adda T. Hedges-Bradv, Edward H. Hermann, Ed- 
ward J.JHill, J. H. Johnson,, H. A. K?ep, W. H. Kennedy, E. E. Lamb, Ella M. 
Lance, t. H. Latimer, George T. Leeds, Fred L. Lewis, Martha A. McBride, 
T. A. Miller, W. C. E. Nobles, E. L Osgood, X. G. Parker, Fred W. Peck, 
H. L. Prouty, W. J. Renwick, D. W. Roberts. George J. Roberts, J. T. 
Schlesselman. H. W. Shaffer. x\my L. Silvieus, A. B. Smith, Mabelle G. A. 
Spaulding Watson. Clavton E. Spire, E. A. Stanley, J. C. Steel. Jr., C. G. 
Swan. G. H. Wilkinson, G. H. Williamson, Edward A. Willis, D.'M. Win- 
gate, Mara L. Wingate. Marcus Zophie. 

The governing faculty of the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 
which came into actual corporate existence through action of the board of 
trustees October 2, 1897. consisted of the majority of the members of the 
faculties of both the university and the Cleveland ^Medical College, which 
latter institution by the above action went out of existence on that date. The 
names and the chairs occupied are as follows : 

Hon. Henry C. White, professor of medical jurisprudence. 

G. J. Jones, ]\L D., professor of theory and practice of medicine. 

C. C. True, M. D., professor of theory and practice of medicine. 

G. E. Turrill, M. D., professor of physical diagnosis. 

J. Richey Horner, M. D., professor of neurolog}". 

H. D. Champlin, j\L D.. professor of neurology. 

H. H. Baxter, M. D., professor of materia medica. 

Frank Kraft. M. D., professor of materia medica. 

Wm. T. Miller, M. D., professor of surgery. 

H. L. Frost. j\L D., professor of surgery. 

Wm. E. Wells. AL D., professor of diseases of the rectum. 

Kent B. Waite, ]\L D., professor of genito-urinary diseases. 

G. W. Spencer, AT. D., professor of dermatology. 

W. A. Tims, M. D., professor of anatomy. 

James C. Wood, M. D., professor of gynecology. 

J. Kent Sanders, ]\L D., professor of gynecology. 

B. B. Viets, M. D., professor of ophthalmology and otology. 

W. A. Phillips, M. D., professor of ophthalmology and otology. 

G. W. Spencer, M. D., professor of physiology. 

H. Pomeroy, M. D., professor of obstetrics. 

E. H. Jewitt, M. D., professor of obstetrics. 

A. F. Baldinger, M. D., professor of clinical obstetrics. 

G. H. Quay, M. D., professor of rhinology and laryngology. 

F. L. Crobaugh, professor of chemistry. 
Hudson D. Bishop, ]NJ. D., professor of dietetrics. 
Eliza J. INIerrick, ISi. D., professor of pediatrics. 

As might be expected the class was a very large one, numbering more 
than two hundred students, and the graduating class was the largest one in 
the history of the college. The years following noted an upward progress 
from an educational standpoint, which was as' marked as the retrograde move- 
ment from the standpoint of the number of students. There were but few 
changes in the faculty, the majority of the professors holding over from one 




u 



tn 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 51 

year to another, with comparatively little change in their assignment of duty. 

For two years following the consolidation Prof. W. A. Phillips, who had 
been dean of the university, acted as dean of the college, while Prof. Gains J- 
Jones, former dean of the Cleveland Medical College, acted as vice-dean of 
the new college. At the end of the second year Prof. Phillips declined a re- 
election, and Prof. Jones was given the leadership of the new college. This 
he has retained until the present day. Prof. Pomeroy retained the treasurer- 
ship, with Dr. R. G. Baird as deputy, for two years, followed by Prof. A, L. 
Waltz for one year. Prof. Waltz was then elected treasurer, serving for 
several years, being followed by Prof. B. B. Viets for a few months, he in 
turn being followed by Prof. B. B. Kimmel, who retains the office at the pres- 
ent time. 

Prof. Phillips retained the vice-deanship, being succeeded by Prof. H. L. 
Frost, who in turn gave way in 1905 to Prof. George H. Quay. Prof. C. C. 
True was registrar for the first two sessions after the combination, being fol- 
lowed by Prof. J. Richey Horner for two years. Prof. A. B. Schneider for the 
next two years, the office being again given to Prof. J. Richey Horner for the 
sessions of 1903-1904 and 1904-1905, he being succeeded in 1905 bv Prof. 
W. T. Miller. 

As we noted, the class steadily decreased in number, dropping from 
nearly two hundred tlie first year of the combined college to fifty-six, which 
was the number in attendance during the session of 1904-1905. The chief 
causes for this retrograde were the advance in the requirements for matricu- 
lation and the adoption of the four years' graded course, both of which 
causes prevented hundredls of students from entering upon the course of 
study. The requirements of the present day demand that a student shall 
have a degree in science or letters, a four years' high school course, which 
includes at least two years' Latin, or a permanent teacher's certificate. In 
lieu of these, he must pass an examination held by agents of the state board of 
medical registration, this examination being such as to tax the knowledge of 
the applicant, up to the standard of a four years' high school course. Whereas 
formerly advanced standing was given for a degree in dentistry, veterinary 
surgery and pharmacv this is not now permitted, only one year being given 
for the degree of A. B. or B. S. 

The facult} announced for the session of 1905-1906 is as follows : 

John C. Sanders, A. M., M. D., LL.D., emeritus professor of obstetrics. 

Thomas P. Wilson, M. D., emeritus professor of physiology. 

David H. Beckwith, M. D.. emeritus professor of sanitary science. 

Gaius J. Jones, M. D., professor of the theory and practice of medicine, 
clinical medicine and differential diagnosis. 

George W. Spencer, ^l. D., professor of physiology and dermatology. 

J. Richey Horner, A. M., M. D., professor of neurology. 

A. B. Schneider, M. D., professor of the theory and practice of medicine,, 
physical diagnosis and clinical medicine. 

E. O. Adams, M. D., professor of the theory and practice of medicine 
and clinical medicine. 

G. W. Gurnee, A. M., M. D., professor of the theory and practice of 
medicine. 

R. J. Cummer, M. D., professor of pediatrics. 

Herbert L. Frost, A. B., M. D., professor of surgery and clinical surgery. 

William T. ]Miller, 2\1. D., professor of surgery and clinical surgery. 



52 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

Hudson D. Bishop, M. D., professor of surgery and clinical professor of 
rectal and genito-urinary surgery. 

W. E. Trego, M. D., professor of surgery and clinical professor of minor 
surgery. 

Newman T. B. Nobles, M. D., professor of surgery and diseases of bones 
and joints. 

J. A. Lytle, M. D., professor of genito-urinary and rectal diseases and 
fractures and dislocations. 

Benjamin B. Kinmiel, M. D., professor of surgical anatomy, and lecturer 
on minor surgery. 

James C. Wood, A. M., M. D., professor of surgical gynecology. 

P. B Roper, M. D., professor of medical and clinical gynecology. 

Alvan L. Waltz, M. D., professor of materia medica. 

F. W. Somers, M. D., professor of materia medica. 

E. H. Jewitt, A. M., M. D., professor of materia medica, the organon 
and principles of homoeopathy. 

William A. Phillips, M. D., professor of ophthalmology and otology. 

Byron B. Viets, M. D., O. et A. Chir., professor of ophthalmology and 
otology. 

H. W. Richmond, M. D., clinical professor of obstetrics. 

Lester E. Siemon, M. D., professor of obstetrics. 

George H. Quay, M. D., clinical professor of rhinology and laryngology. 

W. H. Phillips, M. D., professor of rhinology and laryngology. 

L. A. Noble, Ph. G., M. D., professor of chemistry. 

C. M. Thurston, M. D., professor of histology, bacteriology, pathology and 
principles of surgery. 

George W. Jones. M. D., professor and demonstrator of anatomy. 

Daniel J. Bryant, M. D., professor of visceral anatomy and clinical in- 
structor in surgery. 

B. R. Burgner, M. D., lecturer on anatomy and anaesthetist. 

Josephine M. Danforth, M. D.. lecturer on dietetics and clinical in- 
structor in pediatrics. 

John P. Sobey, M. D., lecturer on pharmacology. 

George R. Wilkins, M. D., lecturer on materia medica. 

E. O. Bonsteel, M. D., Ph.G., lecturer on physiological materia medica. 

H. D. Fowler, Ph.G., M. D., lecturer on toxicology and pharmacology. 

PI. F. Staples, B. S., M. D., lecturer on hygiene, state medicine and 
obstetrics. 

T. S. Dunlap, lecturer on medical jurisprudence. 

Pauline H. Barton, M. D., lecturer on the theory and practice of med- 
icine, and clinical assistant in medicine. 

H. R. Clarke, M. D., instructor in physiology and clinical instructor in 
surgery. 

T. H. George, B. S.. M. D., anaesthetist and instructor in bacteriology, 
histology and pathology. 

R. F. Livermore, M. D., assistant to the chair of gynecology. 

H. F. Ryder, M. D.. clinical assistant in gynecology. 

Carl V. Schneider, M. D., lecturer on anatomy and clinical instructor in 
surgery. 

H. Landon Taylor. M. D., clinical assistant in surgery. 

Frieda E. Weiss, M. D.. clinical assistant in gynecology. 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY SP. 

Denver H. Patterson, M. D., instructor in electro therapeutics and hydro- 
therapy and cHnical assistant in medicine. 

George H. Benton, M. D., cHnicai assistant in diagnosis. 

Arthur W. King, M. D., clinical assistant in physical diagnosis. 

Walter H. Loomis, M. D., clinical assistant in rhinology. 

Alice Butler, A. B., M. D., clinical assistant in rhinology. 

A. G. Schnabel, demonstrator of histology, pathology and bacteriology. 

A noteworthy part of the history of these years is the establishment of 
a journal by the college. It was given the name of " Cleveland Medical 
and Surgical Reporter," the same name held by the journal which was pub- 
lished in the interests of the college nearly forty years before. The first 
year — 1899 — it was published quarterly, the two following years bi-monthly, 
and since 1901 monthly. During all this time Prof. J. Richey Horner has 
been its editor. It has attained a wide circulation, not alone among the 
alumni of the institution, but is a welcome visitor to many who do not own 
the college as their alma mater. It consists of from sixty-four to eighty 
pages monthly, and contains articles of interest to the general medical pro- 
fession, together with editorials, materia medica notes, excerpts from other 
journals, and alumni notes, besides a full quota of general news. 

In 1898 the Hahnemann and Dunham societies were united, the Hahne- 
mann society, incorporated, being the name given to the new organization. 
This is still active, full of life, and doing its part toward promulgating medical 
knowledge among the students. 

The Good Samaritan Dispensary, which had been operating for so many 
years in connection with the college, was in 1899 completely re-organized 
upon a departmental basis. This consisted of dividing the work into depart- 
ments of general medicine, gynecology, genito-urinary diseases, surgery, 
ophthalmologv, otology and laryngology, pediatrics, physical diagnosis and 
neurology. Each of these departments was placed in charge of clinical in- 
structors, and the senior class was divided into sections, each section being 
assigned work in a department and rotating at the end of each week. In this 
way the entire facilities of the dispensary were utilized. Patients are as- 
signed to the proper department, and the student obtains a careful personal 
training in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. 

The liberality of the Cleveland city administration has given to the 
homoeopathic profession in the city a part of the work of the Cleveland City 
Hospital. We have now a complete homoeopathic staff of attending physi- 
cians, with three resident physicians to care for the patients assigned to our 
school of medicine. The proportion of assignment is one-fourth of all patients 
admitted, and these are kept under distinct homoeopathic treatment. One- 
half of the members of the visiting staff are members of the college faculty 
and their assignment of work is coincident with the term of the college ses- 
sion. The patients are utilized in college instruction, two days each week the 
entire senior class being scheduled for work in the hospital, at which time not 
only are general clinics held on all branches of medicine and surgery, but a 
coniplete system of bedside instruction is provided. This, of course, adds 
much to the value of the training given in the college, nearly doubling its 
clinical facilities. 

Taken all in all the college is doing better work to-day than ever before 
durinof its more than half centurv of existence. The laboratories are fully 




o 
U 



U 



fe 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 55 

eqni]iped, giving instruction which compares favorably with that of tlie best 
tiniversilies of the country. 

The classes graduating" in the respective years from 1897 to the present 
time are as follows : 

CLEVELAND HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICAL COLLEGE. 

1897-1898 — C. W. Abels, Qaude C. Anderson. F, S. Basquin, Harry G. 
Bevington ; Albert Carey, W. A. Crecelius, Clara K. Clendon, John S. Cross, 
H. L. Davis, Jessie C. Dickerson, J. H. Erskine, H. H. Ewing, A. A. Grififis, 
E. W. Gurley, W. B. Glendinning, Arba S. Green. W. J. Gilbert, Edwin E. 
Gillard, Ida B. Hamblin, Hugh A. Hagerty, D. Handmacher, Chas. L. Ire- 
land, Tomo Inouye, Margaret Johnson, Anna Johnston, Wm. H. James, L. A. 
Jackson, B. B. Kimmel, A. A. LaVigne, J. A. Lytle, Edwin C. Livingston, 
Jerry H. Leaming, Thos. Alinahan. H. P. Mera, John A. Mellon, George P. 
MyerS; H. C. Neff, F. C. Newcomb, C. A. Overholt, W. T. Parsons, Lucy I. 
Pierce. R. C. Pease, G. C. Radcliffe, Marv D. Ridgwav, A. L. Reusing, Alex C. 
Smith, J. G. Schild, Standley G. Small, J. S. Steiner, W. W. Smith,. C. E. 
Silbernagel, Lamont B. Smith, E. E. Shannon, J. H. Schneider, Jr., Bert D. 
Shedd. fennie P. Turner, Wm. V. Van Norman. Herbert C. Waite, Wilson 
W. \\'alters. C- E. Watson, Thos. ^^'elch. Albert D. Williams, Marv H. 
Wliite. 

1898-1899 — Frank E. Adams, Enos B. Allen. Harry J. Austin, C. W. 
Banks, Fred C. Bissell, C. E. Bradshaw, Albert J. Brainarcl, L. ^I. Bunnell, 
Carl J. Cannon, Jay L. Cecil, W. R. Cleave, Sara Davies, Edward B. Doan, 
G. W. Ellison, Prudence Fennemann, Chas. 'SI. Ginn, F. B. Groesbeck, J. 
W. Henderson. John C. Hill, Julia E. Hoover, Harry F. Hunt, Rose F. 
Jackson, Phillip M. Johnson, R. O. Keiser, George A. Kreiger, Florence 
W. Lyde, R. W. McLain. Augustus \Y. Mercer, C. L. Moore, Van V. Mor- 
gan, Garry Mount, C. H. Murphy, Emma A. ^lurphy. Mary C. !Murphy- 
Brightman. Johnson Xiles. Isabelle B. Xixon, G. ^^'. O'Grady, J. M. Olin, 
James B. Orwig, Albert Porter, W. H. Price. C. J. Richards, J. A. Ruder. 

E. J. Schwartz. T. P. Shepherd, Ethel W. Walters. Samuel Warner, Fred 
L. Watson. M. H. Westbrook, G. R. Wllkins. Wm. Wilson, C. J. Wright. 

1 899- 1900 — B. R. Burgner, Mrs. Alice Butler, J. A. Black, H. R. Clarke, 

F, C. Goombes, E. W. Crecelius, H. H. Crum, E. A. Dale, C. A. Eraser, 
A. E. Ganglofif, T. H. George, J. K. Hamilton, S. Blanche Harpst-Jackson, 
J. T. Henderson. Robert Hodgson, W. C. Holbrook, Israel S. Milstone, Perry 
L. Morgan, j. D. Parker. E. G. Radwav, F. X. Richardson. E. T. Smith, 
Xina J. Stansbury, O. B. A'anEpp, J. J. Waite. R. M. \\'allace, C. C. Wright. 

1900-1901 — E. O. Willoughbv. M. C. Barker. Pauline H. Barton. Elrov 
V. Bishop, T. L. Blackledge.' R.' A. Buchanan. R. A. Case. W. H. Diebel. 
T. W. Donaldson. H. B. Faulder. T- A. Ferree, Robert M. Ganow, J. G. Hem- 
"ington. G. A. Hildebrand, E. C. Hofif, W. K. Hoffmann, F. C. House, G. E. 
Hull, A. P. Hvde, F. B. Jackson, George W. Jones. J. K. Kiser, C. L. McCov, 
A. A. Alackintosh. A. O. Aliller. :Marv D. ^lumford. G. D. Nicholas. D. H. 
Patterson, G. O. Rovsdand, R. C. Rush, Ida ^I. Scott. L. F. Sipher. F. H. 
Sislev. E. O. Silvieus, G. P. Spaulding, E. T. Tripp, H. D. ^^'allace, Carl 
Watson. H. O. Whitaker. 

1901-1902 — A. W. Andersen. W. H. Burns. F. R. Carvell. E. W. Dean, 
E. E. Esley, R. R. Ewing, C. K. Farber. Edwardena McK. Grant, W. C. 
Hirzel,- G. H. Irvin, A\\ J. Jend, J. H. King. Gertrude S. King, W. E. 



56 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

Kneale. R. F. Livermore, J. C. Morrow, F. H. Newland, Mabel E. Price- 
Hazel, G. W. Root, R. W. Reynolds, A. A. Tavlor, C. E. White, W. H. 
Wyckoff. 

1902-1903 — W. E. Allyn, A. H. Berr, O. J. Bready, E. O. Bonsteel, 
B. G. Boyce, C. E. Beeman, G. H, Benton, C. E. Battles, D. I. Cochran, 
F. F. Crandell, M. H. Castle, J. E. Frasch, F. W. D. Finke, H. D. Fowler, 
H. E. Griswold, E. W. Grubb, A. B. Hewes, A. Z. Hall, A. G. Hinman, 
F. L. Johnson, R. F. Lamberton, L. A. Noble, J, C. Price, W. J. Quigley, 
H. F. Ryder, O. H. Riemenschneider, R. DeW. Robinson, F. M. Rumsey, 
Fred Stork, H. H. Sink, W. A. Smith, F. L. Stratton, D. C. Thomas, H. L. 
Taylor, I. A. Tawney, J. B. Talmage. Frieda E. Weiss, J. B. Wilkinson, 
R. C. Warren. 

1903-1904 — Frank H. Barr, Rosa Gould-Barr, Harry C. Barr, M. L. 
Battles, W. W. Campbell, R. B. Chamberlain, W. J. Francis, T- E. Flinn, 
John V. Hartman, W. H. Ketchum, W. H. Loomis, F. H. Mersfelder, R. R. 
Parcher, M. E. Roasberry, A. N. Robinson, P. D. Russell, Carl Von Arx 
Schneider, Harvey A. Snyder, W. M. Wallace, Chas. N. Welles. 

1904-1905 — Fridolin Aeberli, A. E. Biddinger, John C. Brisbine, C. A. 
Burrett, Arthur L. Canfield, William L. Case, Mary E. Coffin, Franklin E. 
Cutler, Robert A. Gans, Earle V. Gray, Frederick P. Goodwin, H. Hugh 
Hill, James E. Hulett, Arthur W. King, George R. McGee, Philip Lee Ring, 
Wm. F. Rohland, Jesse L. Saddler. Braden C. Tiffany, Floyd C. Thompson, 
Henry Lycurgus Wells, Walton Henry W^illiams. 

THE CLEVELAND MEDICAL COLLEGE. 
By James Richey Horner, A. M., M. D., Cleveland, Ohio. 

In every institution where a number of men are concerned in the man- 
agement there is bound to come a time in its history when disturbances occur. 
This is necessarily a fact and it would be a pity if it were not so. Given 
a faculty of a dozen men, or less, it could not be expected that on every 
point all would agree and that the course pursued by that faculty would be 
the course dominated by the stronger party. Thus it is that a division in 
the faculty demonstrates the strength of that faculty, because it shows that 
there arc in its component parts men whose strength of character and force 
of mind are such that they insist upon the justness and correctness of the 
views they have, and failing to carry their point, yet being convinced of 
the impossibility and impracticability of the plans proposed by the party 
stronger by reason of the possession of votes do not permit themselves to 
be made subservient. 

Such a situation obtained in the faculty of the Cleveland Homoeopathic 
Hospital College in the decade between 1880 and 1890. The college was 
considered one of the best — if not the best — in the country ; and it was 
so considered because the teachers in the college were men of such attain- 
ments and such ability as to force their recognition. These six men — Nathaniel 
Schneider, H. F. Biggar, G. J. Jones, Wm. A. Phillips, H. H. Baxter and 
J. C. Sanders — had been teaching for years. To them was due all the credit 
for the high standing 01 the college, but there came a time when these 
men could no longer work together. Allied on one side were Drs. Schneider, 
Jones and Baxter ; on the other, Drs. Sanders, Biggar and Phillips — all 
strong men, all good men ; men who were vitally connected with the col- 
leee and its interests in every detail. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 57 

It is not necessary to go into a detail of the history which led to a rup- 
ture; it began back in 1872, when by action of the board of trustees the 
entire management of the college, both financial and educational, was placed 
in the hands of the faculty. Upon assuming control the faculty found a 
considerable debt against the college, which in the years following, by hard 
work and careful management, they paid. Not only this, but they built 
up the college to a point ol excellence well known throughout the United 
States, and furthermore, there was a surplus in the college treasury at 
the end of the year in 1889- 1890. 

It was with a feeling of profound astonishment that a number of the 
faculty learned that the trustees had been so influenced as to change the 
plan of government so that the financial management was placed in the 
hands of a committee of five appointed by the board. No reason for this 
action was given ; in spite of the repeated questions of those most interested it 
was not explained, and a number of members of the faculty felt called upon 
to close their connection with the college. This they did, resignations to 
the number of six being presented to the board of trustees July 14, 1890. 
Profs. Wm. T. Miller, C. C. True and E. B. Bauder had joined with Profs 
Jones, Schneider and Baxter. 

At the time of their resignation these men had not the least thought of 
establishing a new college ; it was only upon repeated and insistent demands 
by the medical profession throughout the United States, especially of the 
alumni and friends of the old college, that they determined upon the organ- 
ization of a college in which they could have a place. From all sides came 
letters demanding that they should not bury themselves and that their ability 
as instructors and teachers should not be lost. On July 31, 1890, a charter 
was obtained, and early in August the first announcement was issued. 

The faculty was as follows : 

N. Schneider, M. D., professor of surgery. 

H, H. Baxter, M. D., professor of materia medica and therapeutics and 
lecturer on the Organon. 

G. J. Jones, M. D., professor of the theory and practice of medicine, 
pathology and diflerential diagnosis. 

Wm. T. Miller, M. D.. professor of principles of surgery and clinical 
surgery. 

Charles C. True, M. D., professor of anatomy. 

E. B. Bauder, A. M., LL.B., professor of medical jurisprudence. 

Edwin Giliard, M. D., Sandusky, O., professor of gynecolog}-. 

B. B. Viets, M. D., O. et A. Chir., professor of ophthalmology and 
otology. 

E. H. Jewitt, A. M., M. D., professor of obstetrics. 

Kent B. Waite, A. M., M. D., professor of descriptive anatomy and 
demonstrator of anatomy. 

John A. Gann, A. M., M. D., professor of physiology. 

Perry A. Cole, M. D., professor of physiology. 

H. L. Spence, M. D., clinical lecturer on diseases of nose and throat. 

Eliza J. Merrick, A. B., M. D., lecturer on diseases of children. 

H. D. Champlm, A. B., M. D., lecturer on hygiene and sanitary science. 

John T. Carter, M. D., lecturer on chemistry, toxicolog}- and urinary 
analysis. 



58 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

R. Dayton, D. D. S., lecturer on microscopy and histology and dental 
surgery. 

S. A. Jones, M. D., professor of materia medica. 

G. W. Spencer, M. D., professor of dermatology. 

H. W. Osborn, M. D., professor of orificial surgery. 

T. C. Martin, M. D., lecturer on genito-rinnary diseases. 

W. A. Tims, M. D., assistant demonstrator of anatomy. 

F. G. Jones, M. D., assistant to the chair of gynecology. 

The first faculty meeting was held September ii, 1890, at the office 
of Dr. G. J. Jones, and two weeks later the opening session was held in a 
building on Prospect street, forty-seven students attending the opening exer- 
cises. To this number others were added in the course of the term. The 
work of the year progressed splendidly, six hundred and fifty lecture, clinic 
and laboratory hours being filled. 

The summer of 1891 witnessed the erection on a part of the lot front- 
ing on Bolivar street of a commodious three story brick building. This 
was completel}^ furnished and ready for the opening of the second annual 
session of the college. The building that fronts directly on the Bolivar 
street line was erected the next year. 

There were but few changes in the faculty and the work was such as 
to commend itself to all. It was during this year that the " Argonaut," one 
of the college journals, was established, being issued irregularly at first, but 
beginning with January, 1892, was made a monthly journal, with Dr. Frank 
Kraft, editor. 

The class was larger than that of the year before, and there seemed 
to be permeating the entire membership a spirit of loyalty and progressive- 
ness which augured a brilliant future. For the third year the scope of the 
curriculum was much extended, this action necessitating an enlargement of 
the faculty. The following were added : 

M. P. Hunt, M. D., of Delaware, professor of gynecology, and C. A. 
Hall, M. D., assistant ; H. W. Osborn, M. D., lecturer on diseases of the 
rectum ; W. C. Pardee, -M. D., lecturer on dermatology, filling the position 
vacated by the resignation of Dr. George W. Spencer; H. W. Richmond, 
M. D., assistant to the chair of obstetrics; John E. White, M. D., lecturer 
on histology and microscopy, and George H. Quav, M. D., lecturer on dis- 
eases of the nose and throat. Kent B. Waite, M. D., resigned his position as 
professor of anatomy. 

One hundred and twenty-nine students were registered during the year, 
the graduating class showing the same growth in number. 

The opening of the fourth year was notable in the addition to the fac- 
ulty of Prof. James C. Wood, who took the chair of gynecology, after hav- 
ing served eight vears in the same office in the University of Michigan. 
One hundred and thirtv-one students were in attendance, and the graduating 
class numbered thirty-five. 

The fifth year, was one of natural progress, the number of students in 
attendance being greater, and the graduating class larger than in the previous 
year. 

It was a sadly memorable year from the fact that on the 4th of Feb- 
ruary, 1895, occurred the death of Nathaniel Schneider, who had been con- 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 59 

nected with the college thirty years, had been dean for fifteen years and 
for mgny years was at the head of the surgical department. 

One hundred and forty-four students attended the sixth course of lec- 
tures, and about the same number the seventh and last course. A decided 
change in the atmosphere around both colleges was noticeable at this time, 
the tendency being towards union. Many forces were at work, all tending 
toward the bringing about of this desirable result. It is not necessary to 
go into detail as to how it was done : suffice it to say that with the com- 
mencement exercises of 1897 the Cleveland Medical College closed its sepa- 
rate existence and became with the Cleveland University of Medicine and 
Surgery the present Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College. How the 
faculties were united and a department was given each member has be,en 
told in the history of the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College. 

A complete list of graduates of the Cleveland Medical College is as 
follows : 

ALUMXI OF TKE CLEVELAND MEDICAL COLLEGE. 

1890-1891 — Richard \V. Bell. Glenn G. Caswell, Theodore D. Foljambe, 
Samuel D. McClure, Chas. B. Thomas. Julia Washburn, A. C. Graham, 
Frank C- Lee, Cash C. Mantz. William S. Priestley, Fred W. Stewart, 
Perry C. Williams, Henry F. Zink, Owa O. Hausch, Justice S. Lunger, 
Christian I. LaTrobe Mottlev, William Patterson, Thad. B. Smith. John E. 
White. 

1891-1892 — Cornelia C. Albert. Arthur Besemer, Helen Babcock, Homer 
Bryant, Geo. H.* Bradt, -George H. Cole, Harriet W. Carman, Henry Franck, 
H. C. Galster, B. W. Genung, Ruth B. Kirch, J. E. Moore, Monroe Manges, 
Hannah B. Mulford, H. L. Stem, F. W. Somers, A. E. McQure, H. L. 
Sexton, A. D. Smith, P. H. Sigrist. H. Josephine Wright, John L. Winslow, 
J. M. Wallace. 

1892-1893— T. H. Ablett, J. W. Barnhill, W. D. Barnhill, A. C. Barrett, 
H. B. Bryson, Celia O. Clemans, W. B. Dawson, W. L. Ely. W. G. Fish, 
C. B. Forward, Eva E. Furlow-Collins, Mary E. George, E. F. Gifford, 
A. ^^^ Goodwin. Julia Cleves Harrison, S. S. Jordan, R. G. Kerstine, W. G. 
Krauss, J. D. Lewis, Katherine F. Ozmun-Phillips, P. E. Kerlin, W. H. 
Phillips, W. J. Richey, M. D. Satterlee, A. Preston Steele, Chas. J. Suet- 
terle, N. L. Wakeman, Hannah W. Walter, C. L. Yakey, Onie A. Barrett. 

1893-1894 — Marjorie Ailing, Edward A. Anderson, Edward A. Boden- 
bender, Louise E. Campbell, Guy ^lortimer Canfield, Addison E. Cattron, 
Clinton Albert Crosby, Francis Edwin Chase, Clarence Starr Cutter, Charles 
Alfred Dixon, William Walter Dixon, James R. Elliott, George Washing- 
ton Gurnee, William Moody Hunt, Jerome Howard King, Francis Horace 
Lower, Ella Jane Littell, Joseph A. ^laurice, Frances McMillan, William 
Elbon Xoble, Evelyn Sarah Pettit, Robert Milton Richards, William D. Rad- 
cliffe, B. B. Ronk, Pulaski B. Rcper, Joseph Franklin Roe, Bertha May Sat- 
terlee. Christopher W. Sigrist, William A. Stuckenholt, Adolph B. Schneider, 
Alba Langdon See, Helen Kaulbach Smith, Henry Salomon, Charley Gless- 
ner A'an Tilburg. Seth Stewart Webb. 

1894-1895 — Edward F. Reuscher. Emmett Burns Whicram. Charles A. 
A'lonroe, William Meredith, Lyman E. Baker, Ambrose L. Robinson, Joseph 
Eugene Burnham, Wade K. Chamberlin, S. Elliott McAdco. ^Vlichael Will- 
iam Kapp, Daley Gates Frisbie. Albert X. Seidel, George Lincoln King, 



60 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

James Ignatius Murray, Ella J. Collins, Francis A. Kirch, Carl E. Waldeck, 
Harriet Simons, John George Layton. Mark Pardee, Tracy Eugene Mapes, 
James William Burnham, R. Ross Ewing. Charles James Ray, Madge ,A. 
Golden, Arthur H. Patterson, Evelyn Eicher, Melville L. Combes, Brent E. 
Sankey, Albert D. Young, Comfort W. A. Commings, Thomas Armor Ablett, ^ 
William Alexander Stanley, Allen Bennett Collins, William Orrville Osborn, 
Frederick Alvin Houck, Robert J. Cummer, Eva E. Ebersole, J. Holman 
Griffin. 

1895-1896— J. A. Shafer, C. D. Shafer, L. C. Haefli, H. H. Bean, W. J. 
A'enen, M. D. Pass, A. A. Smith, B. L. Johnson, Anna D. Varner, Harriet 




N. C. Schneider. M. D. 

B. Chapman, Effie J. Croft. J. E. Johnston, F. D. Smith, G. W. Hopkins, 
J. W. Calvert, O. H. Boulee, W. R. Wall, Richard Kittle, J. S. Lehman, 
A. M. Doutt, W. H. Henninges, Miss B. A. Bickle, E. I. Vredenburg, H. E. 
Ramsev, H. Nvvall, John Van Hee, J. W. Hassenflue, A. E. Ewing, W. P. 
Ellis, H. F. Littell, C. L. Bacon. 

1896-1897 — U. L. Adams, A. B. Armsburv, R. G. Baird, D. C. Burson, 
Ralph E. Brake, D. J. Bryant, G. K. Beyer, Claude C. Craig, Edgar P. Cook, 
Caroline W. Coats, John C. Calhoun, F. C. Crawford, Sherman Cook, Daniel 
Christy, M. H. G. Carmedy, Josephine M. Danforth, F. W. Devitt, Eliza- 
beth H. Delaven, H. G. C. Engels, Qifton B. Green, John L. Hadley, 
P. L. Hatch, H. P. Hurley, Minnietta Hervey. E. DeA. Holly, Chauncey O. 
Hudson, George S. Iddings. Frederick C. Johnson, F. E. Keep, Ellia L. 
Linder, M. W. Livingston, Chas. P. McComb, H. H. Metcalfe, F. X. Mc- 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY til 

Namara, E. S. H. McCanley. \V. P. McClure. A. H. Perry, H. W. Pyle, 
F. F. Qiiiiliams, Clarence G. Robinson, Luther Schofield, Wm. Snearer, Mil- 
ton A. Stewart, M. J. Sample, Jessie W. Smith, Mindia P. Sears, W. H. 
Vosburg, Louis H. Wagner, Chas. R. Wallace, Wm. T. Whan. 

l-ACUI-TY REMINISCENCES. 

Nathaniel Churchill Schneider was born in Canada in 1839. His early 
life was spent on the farm and his early education was such as was obtained 
in the common schools. Later on. however, he removed to Ohio and took 
a course olf instruction in Baldwin University, Berea. Still later on he 
went to Cleveland, entering as a student of medicine under Dr. Seth R. 
Beckwith. He entered the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, from 
which he received his degree. He then formd a partnership with Dr. D. H. 
Beckwith and settled down in what proved to be his life home. 

Surgery was a passion with him, and it was as a surgeon that he ob- 
tained his greatest prominence. Soon after graduating he was given a pro- 
fessorship in his alma mater, occupying the chair of surgery throughout the 
greater part of his professional life. He was for sixteen years surgeon of 
the Lake Shore railroad. In 1873 he spent a year abroad in hospital clinics, 
bringing his knowledge up to date. 

He was a strong member of the medical societies of Ohio, and of the 
American Institute of Homoeopathy, in which bodies he held a number of 
offices. Stricken desperately ill in the winter of 1889, he was compelled 
to leave all work for a year, but returned full of desire to labor on. Four 
more years were given, but his strength was becoming weakness and the 
last year was that of an invalid, eager to finish his course manfully and 
w^ell. " Thus this man died, leaving his death for an example of a noble 
courage, and a memorial of virtue not only unto young men, but unto all 
his nation." 

Gaius J. Jones was born in New York state in 1843. He took up the 
study of medicine with Dr. M. M. Gardner of Holland Patent, N. Y. ; attended 
lectures at the Homoeopathic Medical College of Cleveland and in March, 1865, 
began practice. In 1872 he was appointed lecturer on anatomy in the Homoeo- 
pathic Hospital College of Cleveland, and one year later became professor, 
which chair he held until 1878. In 1878 he was appointed to the chair of 
theory and practice, and from 1890 to 1897 was dean of the Cleveland Medical 
College, and was vice-dean of its successor, the Cleveland Homoeopathic Med- 
ical College, two years ; since that time he has been dean of the college. Dr. 
Jones has been a member of the stafif of Huron Street Hospital since 1874; he 
also is lecturer in the Cleveland training school of nurses. For further men- 
tion of Dr. Jones' career see a later chapter of this volume. 

James Craven Wood was born in Wood county, Ohio, January 11. 1858. 
He was a student in the Ohio Wesleyan University, from which he received 
the honorary degree of M. A. in 1894. He graduated in 1879 from the homoeo- 
pathic department of the University of Michigan, and served as professor of 
obstetrics, gynecology and paedology in that institution eight years. In 1893 
he accepted the chair of surgical gynecology in the Cleveland Medical College, 
continuing as such to the present time in its successor, the Cleveland Homoeo- 
pathic Medical College. He is g^^necologist to the Cleveland Homoeopathic 
Hospital, the Cleveland City Hospital and the Good Samaritan Dispensary. 
Dr. Wood is a frequent contributor to the current medical literature of both 



€2 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

schools of medicine. A fuller account of his professional career will be found 
in a later volume of this work. 

H. D. Champlin, A. B., was born in L853 i" New Orleans, Louisiana, 
where he lived during- the early part of his life and received his education. 
He graduated from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College in 1883, 
takmg high honors in his class. During the first three years of the existence 
of the Cleveland Medical College he was lecturer first on hygiene and sanitary 
science, then on microscopy and histology and later on nervous diseases. In 
1894 he was made professor of nervous diseases, in the University of ]\Iedicine 




E. H. .lewiti, A. M., M. D. 

and Surgery, contmuing until 1898, when the pressure of business compelled 
his resignation. 

Pulaski B. Roper was born in New York in 1859, being brought up 
in Elmira, Xew York, graduating from the Elmira Free Academy in 1877. 
He attended a year at the medical department of Wooster University, and 
graduated in 1882 from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore, 
Alarvland. In 1894 he graduated from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medi- 
cal College. For two years he lectured in this college on anatomy, being 
then appointed to the department of gynecology, where he has served to the 
present time. 

George W. Spencer has been lecturing in the Cleveland Homoeopathic 
Medical College since 1890. His first subject was dermatology, later taking 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 



63 



up in connection Vv-ith it, physiology, upon both of which he is lecturing 
to-day, being professor of dermatology and physiology. 

Edward H. Jewitt, A. M., w^as born in 1851. He received his early 
education in the common schools, later attending the Ohio Wesleyan Uni- 
versity, Delaware, Ohio, from which he received his degree of A. M. He 
attended the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, graduating from that 
institution in 1878. 

He practiced two years in Oberlin, Ohio, then removed to Cleveland, 
in which city he has been practicing to the present time. In 1890 he re- 
<:eived the professorship of obstetrics in his alma mater, and retained the 




Adolph B. Schneider, M. D. 



chair until the present year, when at his own request he was transferred to 
the department of materia medica for the ensuing year. Dr. Jewitt is a 
member of the Ohio local societies and of the American Institute of Homoe- 
opathy. He also is obstetrician to the Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital. 

Adolph B. Schneider was born in 1866 in Dunkirk, New York, his early 
education being gained in the public schools of that city. He graduated 
in 1894 from the Cleveland Medical College, and the same year w'as appointed 
assistant demonstrator of anatomy. The next two years he lectured on 
physical diagnosis, and in 1898 was elected professor of anatomy. In 1900 
he was transferred to the department of theory and practice, having the 
chair of physical diagnosis and clinical medicine, later taking the professor- 



64 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 



ship of theory and practice of medicine in addition to the other branches 
of work. He served as registrar of the college from 1901 to 1903. 

Dr. Schneider is visiting physician to the Cleveland Homoeopathic and 
Cleveland City hospitals, consultant to the Maternity Home and head of the 
department of diseases of the chest in the Good Samaritan Dispensary. He 
is a member of the board of trustees of the Cleveland Tuberculosis League, 
a member also of the local societies of the state, the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy and of the Anglo-American Society of Vienna, Austria. 

William A. Phillips was born in Ohio in 1840. He had a good pre- 
paratory education in the public schools before taking up the study of medi- 
cine. He graduated in 1866 from the Homoeopathic Medical College of Mis- 
souri, and in 1890 from the Cleveland University of Medicine and Surgery. 




William A. Phillips, M. D. 

He took a special course of instruction in the New York Ophthalmic Hos- 
pital preparatory to entering upon his special work in diseases of the eye. 
He has been a member of the faculty of the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical 
College for nearly one-third of a century, having served a number of years 
as treasurer and registrar, and for several terms as dean of the faculty. He 
has been a member of its board of trustees for years and has contributed 
much to the excellent reputation of the college. 

He is a member of the local societies of Ohio, and of the American 
Institute of Homoeopathy. He was one of the charter members of the 
Ophthalmological, Otological and Laryngological Society of the United 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 65 

States, and subsequently was its president. He is an honorary member of 
a number of state societies, notably the Homoeopathic Medical Society of 
the State of Pennsylvania. At present he retains his professorship in the 
Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, and is on the medical staff of the 
Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital and the Cleveland City Hospital. 

Harlan Pomeroy was born in 1853. His early education consisted of a 
five years' course in Oberlin College. He studied medicine in Dr. C. F. 
Cushing's office, Elyria, Ohio, graduating from the Cleveland Homoeopathic 
Medical Colege in 1879. being the honor man of that year. He then took 
a position as resident physician in the Toledo Protestant Hospital, subse- 




Harlan Pomeroy, M. D. 

quently taking a post-graduate course in Bellevue Hospital College, New York 
city. 

He then located in Cleveland, being appointed to the chair of materia 
medica in his alma mater in 1881, and professor of physiology in 1884. In 
1891 he took the chair of obstetrics, which he retained throughout the re- 
maining years of his connection with the college. A full sketch of Dr. Pome- 
roy's professional life may be found in another volume. 

Cyrus M. Thurston was born in Galien, Michigan, in 1865. He studied 
medicine in the University of Michigan and graduated from that institution 
in 1892. In 1895 he removed to Cleveland to take the chair of microscopy 
in the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College. This position he has occu- 
pied to the present time. 



66 HISTORY OF HOMGEOPATHY 

Hiram W. Richmond was born in 1856, his early Hfe being spent on 
the farm. He attended high school and college at Oberlin, Ohio. He grad- 
uated from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College in 1882, locating 
immediately m Cleveland, where he has practiced ever since. In 1890 he 
began teaching in his alma mater, and has continued to the present time 
on its faculty. He is now professor of clinical obstetrics. He is a member 
of the staff of the Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital and a member of a num- 
ber of professional organizations. 

Herbert L. Frost, A. B., was born in 1859. His education was obtained 
in the public schools, Brooks Military Academy, Cleveland, and Yale Uni- 
versitv, from which latter institution in 1883 he received the degree of A. B. 




Cyrus M. Thurston, M. D. 

He graduated from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College in 1886, 
subsequently being house surgeon m the Buft'alo Homoeopathic Hospital 
for two years. 

He then visited Europe, spending a year in the study of surgery at St. 
Batholomew's Hospital, London. On his return to Cleveland he was made 
a demonstrator of anatomy in his alma mater, in 1891 being appointed pro- 
fessor in the same department. Three years later he was appointed pro- 
fessor of surgery, still being at the head of that department. He is surgeon 
to the Cleveland' Homoeopathic Hospital and to the Cleveland City Hospital. 
He is a member of a number of local organizations and is doing a large surgi- 
cal practice in and around Cleveland. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOl'ATilV 



67 



George W. Gurnee. A. M., was born in 1860, in New York state. He 
received his education in the public schools, and graduated from the Univer- 
sity of Rochester in 1885. For six years following graduation he was prin- 
cipal of schools in New York and Pennsylvania. Finally deciding to study 
medicine, he graduated from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College in 
1894. The fall of 1895 he was appointed to the chair of physiology, accept- 
ing the professorship in 1898, which position he filled for the ensuing five 
years. He is now professor of theory and practice. 

During his professional life he has occupied a number of official posi- 
tions, being at present president of the homoeopathic staff of the Qeveland 




Hiram W. Richmond, M. D. 



City Hospital. He is a member of a number of societies and of the Greek 
letter fraternity. 

Ernest O. Adams was born in 1868, attending the public schools and 
BaldAvin University. Berea, Ohio. He graduated from the Cleveland Homoe- 
opathic Medical College in 1893, during his senior year having been demon- 
strator of microscopical anatomy. Since that time he has held various posi- 
tions in his alma mater, among them lecturer on histology, pathology and 
bacteriology, and also professor of anatomy, .state medicine and physiology. 
At the present time he is professor of dietetics and the theory and' practice 
of medicine. He is giving special attention to diseases of the digestive tract, 
being on the medical staff of the Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital and the 
Cleveland City Hospital. 



68 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



Charles C. True was born in 1855, receiving his early education in the 
public schools. In early life he took an active part in politics, having been 
recorder for Ottawa county in 1878. Three years later he began the study 
of medicine, graduating from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College 
in 1884. In the same year he was appointed to the chair of anatomy, two 
years later receiving the professorship. This position he held for eight years, 
then being promoted to a professorship in the department of theory and prac- 




Herbert L. Frost, A. B., M. D. 



tice, taking up neurology and clinical medicine. In 1889 he was appointed 
registiar of the college, a position he held for ten years. Recently he re- 
signed his college positions in order that he might give his entire time to 
his large general practice. 

Newman T. B. Nobles was born in 1872. His early education was ob- 
tained in the public schools of Batavia, New York, and the Rochester acad- 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 69 

emy. During his young- manhood he was a reporter on the " New York Sun " 
and also on the " Toledo Blade." 

He took up the study of medicine, however, graduating from the Cleve- 
land Homoeopathic Medical College in 1896. Since graduating he has at- 
tended special courses in surgery in Johns Hopkins Hospital, Harvard Medi- 
cal School. New York Polyclinic and the Chicago Post-Graduate Medical 
College. In 1900 he was appointed in the anatomical department, lecturing 
there two years, being then promoted to the department of surgery, where 
he was first lecturer and, in 1902, professor of surgery. Dr. Noble is author of 
a work on minor surgerv. 




Ernest O. Adams, M. D. 

Eliza J. Merrick was educated in Oberlin College, graduating there- 
from in 1879, with the degree of A. B., from which she was later advanced 
to the higher degree of A. M. She read medicine in the office of Dr. Huldah 
Sheffield of Napoleon, Ohio, and graduated from the Cleveland Homoeogathic 
Medical College in 1884. She has held the chair of obstetrics in her alma 
mater, making a record of which she might well be proud. She is a mem- 
ber of a number of societies, physician to several hospitals, and now is en- 
gaged in general practice in the city of Cleveland. 

William Edgar Trego was born in 1866, obtaining his education in the 
public schools and in the Ohio Weslevan University. He graduated from 
the Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College in 1894, immediately thereafter 
locating in Cleveland. He was appointed to the chair of anatomy in the 



70 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical Colieg-e and was elected professor in that 
department in 1900. The lollovving year he was elected professor of sur- 
gical anatomy, which chair he still holds. Dr. Trego is engaged in general 
practice in Cleveland, being on the staff of the Cleveland Homoeopathic Hos- 
pital, the Cleveland City Hospital and physician to the Eliza Jennings Home, 
a charitable institution of that city. He is a member of various societies and 
organizations and is active in his profession. 

Harris H. Baxter was born in 1846, his early education being obtained 
in the common schools and later at the Highland Military Academy, Wor- 




Charles C. True, M. D. 

cester, Massachusetts. He immediately entered upon the study of medicine, 
graduating from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College in 1868. Two 
years later he was appointed professor of materia medica, a position he held 
for almost thirty years. 

He was intensely interested in college work, and during all the years 
of his connection with the college was a vital factor in its management. For 
a number of years he held the position of registrar in addition to his pro- 
fessorship, his conduct of that ofifice being an index of the executive ability 
of the man. Immediately upon graduating he became a member of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Homoeopathy and the Ohio State Homoeopathic Medical So- 
ciety, as well as of local societies. In these he has been active and has con- 
tributed much to their strength. 

Ui5on the organization of the Ohio State Board of Medical Registration, 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY ' 71 

Dr. Baxter was appointed one of its members and has retained the position 
ever since. It was due to this fact and the demands made upon him by 
his active practice that several years ago he resigned his professorship. For 
two years, however, he has given a course of lectures upon the organon and 
principles of medicine, a subject which he is well qualified to discuss. 

Henry Clay White. A. ^i., LL.B.. was bom in 1839. His education 
was obtained in the public schools and later at Hiram College, Hiram, Ohio, 
trom which he graduated while the late President Garfield was its -president. 
Afterward he attended the law department of the University of Michigan, 
graduating in 1862. He located in Cleveland in 1887, being elected probate 




N. T. B. Nobles, ^I. D. 

judge of Cuyahoga county, and being re-elected to that position five times 
for terms of three years each. In 1890 Judge White was appointed vice- 
president of the board of trustees of the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical 
College, and two years later became its president. 

For many years before his death, which occurred January 15, 1905, he 
held the professorship of medical jurisprudence, making that department one 
of the most prominent in the curriculum. That he was a strong man in all 
respects goes without saying. By every student he taught, by every pro- 
fessor with whom he was associated, he was respected and beloved. He 
was an ideal college president and teacher. 

John B. Woodworth graduated from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medi- 
cal College in 1893, becoming almost immediately connected with the college, 



I'l 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 



and in several years following doing splendid work in the departments of 
physical diagnosis and nose and throat. 

Frank Kraft was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1851. His education was 
obtained in the public schools, after which he went into general business. 
In 1876 he began the study of law, but did not complete his course. In 
1886 he graduated from the HomcEOpathic Medical College of Missouri. He 
practiced a short time in St. Louis, removing thence to Ann Arbor, Michi- 
gan, for »six months assuming the editorial management of the " Medical 
Advance." 




William Edgar Trego, M. D. 

The next year he removed to Sylvania, Ohio, where he practiced until 
1889, when he' was called to Cleveland to take the professorship of materia 
medica in the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College. He held this posi- 
tion almost continuously until 1896. A more detailed account of Dr. Kraft's 
professional and journalistic career will be found in another volume of this 
work. 

W. E. Wells, M. D., graduated from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medi- 
cal College in 1886. He became connected with the college later, serving in 
various positions, and finally becoming professor of medica and surgical dis- 
eases of the rectum, a position he held until his growing practice made it 
necessary for him to resign. He is still in active practice in Cleveland. 

William T. Miller was born in 1855. receiving his early education in 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 73 

the common schools. In 1878 he graduated from the Cleveland Homoe- 
opathic Medical College, having been a student of Prof. Nathaniel Schneider, 
who at that time held the professorship of surgery. Dr. Miller was appointed 
house physician in the Emergency Hospital and also demonstrator of anat- 
omy in his alma mater. Later he was house physician to the Qeveland HomcE- 
opathic Hospital. He was appointed assistant to Prof. Schneider in the 
department of surgery in the college, later being advanced to a professorship. 
He is at present professor of surgery and registrar of the Cleveland Homoe- 




Harris H. Baxter, M. D. 

opathic Medical College. He is a member of various organizations in the 
city of Cleveland and has a large surgical practice. 

Kent B. Waite was born in 1862, his education being obtained in the 
public schools and high school, Hudson Preparatory School, and Adelbert 
College of Western Reserve University. From this institution he graduated 
in 1886, with the degree of A. B., three years later receiving the degree of 
A. M. as a sequence. 

He entered upon the study of medicine, graduating in 1888. He was 
demonstrator of anatomy two years and then professor in the same depart- 
ment. In 1892 he was made professor of genito-urinary surgery, and later 
professor of general surgery. He continued his work in the college until 
failing health compelled his resignation. Dr. Waite was an able man in 
many ways. He was editor of two of the medical journals issued by the 
college, and is the author of a monograph on genito-urinary surgery, a 



74 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 



work which is used as a text-book in the college. He is a member of a 
number of organizations and has alwavs been very active. He is essentially 
a self-made man, having had no financial advantages during his early life. 

John Kent Sanders, A. M., was born in 1858, son of the well known 
Prof. John C. Sanders of Cleveland. His early school life was in the pub- 
lic schools of Cleveland, later at Whipple Academy, Jacksonville, 111., there- 
after entering Jacksonville College, from which he received the degree first 
of A. B., and later A. M. 

He graduated from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College in 1881. 
and entered practice with his father in Cleveland. Later he went abroad, 




[ohn B. Woodworth, M. D. 



spending considerable time in study, specializing in surgical work. He was 
elected professor of surgery in the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 
retaining it during his stay in that city. Since 1898 Dr. Sanders has been 
abroad, following a line of professional studies. 

B. F. Gamber was born in 1844, receiving his schooling in the public 
schools and later in the First Pennsylvania Normal School, graduating in 
1865. For eight years he was principal of the public schools of Allegheny 
City, Pennsylvania, but took up the study of medicine, and in 1877 graduated 
from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College. 

Dr. Gamber was professor of anatomy in this college for ten years, then 



HISTORY UF H OAl CEO PATH Y 75 

resigned his position and removed to California. In 1894 he visited Europe, 
making' a special study of hematology, and on his return was elected pro- 
fessor in the Hahnemann College of the Pacific, San Francisco. In 1891 
he returned to Cleveland, delivering a special course of lectures on hematol- 
ogy in the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College. He has since re- 
turned to California and is now engaged in active practice in that state, 

Arthur F. Baldingcr graduated from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medi- 
cal College in 1889. He located in Cleveland, building up a large general 
practice and doing considerable work in surgery and obstetrics. His princi- 




William T. Miller. x\i. U. 



pal work connected with the college was as clinical professor of obstetrics, 
a position he held a number of years, until failing health forced his resigna- 
tion. 

W. G. Meredith graduated from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical 
College in 1886. then located in Cleveland, and received from the college the 
appointment of professor of hygiene, a position he occupied for several years. 

Benjamin B. Kimmel is a graduate from the Qeveland Homoeopathic 
Medical College, class of 1898. Plis first appointment was as demonstrator 
of anatomy, from which position he steadily advanced through the various 
courses in that department until he became professor in charge. Later he 
was transferred to tb.c surgical department, becoming professor of surgical 



76 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



anatomy, a position he holds at the present time. He is also treasurer of the 
college, serving" his second year. 

De Forrest Baker graduated from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical 
College in 1878, and during his long practice — principally in Cleveland — 
has been on the faculty in various positions. His principal work, however, 
was done as professor of pediatrics, a position which he held for a number of 
years, and also as professor of obstetrics. 

Clarence S. Cutter graduated from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical 
College in 1894, since which time he has held a number of positions on the 




John Kent Sanders, A. M., M. D. 



faculty, his principal work being done in the department of theory and prac- 
tice, where he has been clinical professor of paediatrics. 

George E. Turrill graduated from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical 
College in 1879, ^"d was prominent among its professors for a number of 
years, his positions being professor of theory and practice with special refer- 
ence to diseases of the chest, and professor of laryngology and rhinology. 

E. R. Eggleston graduated from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical 
College in 1875. While in active practice since graduation has been most of 
the time at Mt. Vernon, Ohio, he has been called several times by the fac- 
ulty to serve as professor, chiefly in the department of theory and practice, 
where he was recognized as one of the best men ever lectiu'ing in that branch. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 77 

F. O. Reeve. A. M., graduated from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medi- 
cal College in 1894. His first appointment was as a lecturer on pharmacy, 
but later he received the appointment of professor of materia medica, which 
position he held for a number of years. 

Clifton D. Ellis graduated from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical 
College in 1883. He has served it faithfully, principally in the department of 
surgery, where he was appointed professor of minor surgery, lecturing upon 
that subject for a number of years. He is still in active practice, but the 
pressure of private work is such as to prohibit college service. 

O. B. Moss was born in 1845, '^^s early life spent on a farm in Xew 
York state. He early gave evidence of an active mind and improved the 
few advantages of the country so as to fit himself for teaching. Later he 
entered a business college at Flint, ^lichigan. becoming one of its teachers. 
A\'hile engaged in that capacity he began the study of medicine, attending 




B. F. Gamber. M. D. 

the University of ^^lichigan one term, later coniing to the Cleveland Homoe- 
opathic Medical College, from which he graduated in 1870. Later he gave 
up the practice of. medicine, attended Oberlin College for a time, and finally 
went to Allegheny College, Meadville, Pennsvlvania, from which institution 
he graduated in 1879 with the degree of A. B. 

In 1882 he was made professor of physiology and microscopical anat- 
omy in his alma mater, later relinquishing this position to move to Topeka, 
and afterward going to Kansas City. He removed from there to Iowa and 
afterward to Grand Rapids, in which place he died June 27, 1901. 

Dr. Moss w-as a man of ability. He was the author of three books, 
one entitled '' Beauty, Health and Strength for Every Woman," another 
" Before the Mirror, or Sex Laws Revealed," and the other, " A Compara- 
tive Materia Medica." 

Martha A. Canfield, A. M., was born in 1845, and is a graduate of Ober- 
lin College. She studied medicine in 1870 under Dr. Charles Morrill of 
Cleveland, graduating in 1875, having stood highest in her class. She imme- 
diately located in Cleveland, where she is still in general practice. 



78 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



Dr. Canfield has had large experience in private hospital work, having 
had for a number of years a sanitarium at Blue Rock Springs, near Cleve- 
land, and later a private hospital- in the city. In 1890 she was appointed 
to the chair of diseases of women in the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical 
College, and at the end of two years was made full professor. Her work 
along this line gave her such prominence that in 1893 she was chosen to 
deliver an address before the World's Congress of Homoeopathic Physi- 
cians and Surgeons, an honor which placed her in the front rank in her 
profession. 

Recently, under the stram of excessive work, her health became broken 
and she resigned the professorship in the college and the work she was 




Arthur F. Baldinger, M. D. 



doing in the Maternity Hospital and the Women's and Children's Dispensary, 
and spent several years abroad, this being her second trip to the old world. 
Lately she has returned and has taken up practice, resuming her work in 
the hospitals and dispensary where she had formerly been so successful. 

Justin E. Rowland was born in 1864. He is a graduate of the classical 
•department of Oberlin College, having taken a four years' course. He 
graduated from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College in 1891, locat- 
ing in South Euclid, where he has since practiced. He has been professor 
•of materia medica in his alma mater and is a member of a number of local 
societies. 

Josephine M. Danforth was born in Dover, Ohio, in 1874. She attended 
the public schools and high school, graduating therefrom, and in 1897 took 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



79 



her degree in medicine from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College. 
She then served three years as resident in the Woman's HomcEopathic Hos- 
pital, Philadelphia, making a special studv of pathology. Upon her return 
to Cleveland, where she located, she was appointed lecturer on bacteriology, 
histology and pathology, and later lecturer on dietetics in her alma mater. 
She is chief of the Children's Clinic in the Good Samaritan Dispensary and 
a member of the visiting staff of the Woman's and Qiildren's Free Dispen- 
sary of Cleveland. She is pathologist to the Cleveland Homoeopathic Hos- 
pital and member of the staff" of the Women's Homoeopathic Association of 
Philadelphia. 

William H. Phillips v.-as born in Ohio in 1871. He early removed to 
Cleveland, where be received his education in the common schools and high 




De Forrest Baker, Yi. D. 



school. He graduated from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College 
in 1893, and the following year received the appointment of lecturer on 
anatomy. This position he retained two years. In 1901 he was appointed 
lecturer on otology and laryngology-, and in 1903 was advanced to the full 
professorship. He is chief of the department of nose and throat in the Good 
Samaritan Disj)ensary ; laryngologist to the Cleveland Homoeopathic Hos- 
pital and also to the Cleveland City Hospital, and president of the Qeve- 
land Homoeopathic Medical Society. Dr. Phillips spent the first years of 



80 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



his professional life in general practice^ but later took up his specialty of 
nose and throat, going alaroad in 1904 for special studies along that line. 

Byron Bushnell Viets, O. et A. Chir., was born in Ohio in 1849, receiv- 
ing his early education in the public schools and graduating from the Kings- 
ville x\cademy. He spent two years in special studies and one year in the 
law department of the University of Michigan. He graduated from the 
Cleveland Homceopathic Medical College in 1880, and after following gen- 
eral practice four years in Ashtabula, took a two years' course at the New 
York Ophthalmic College, receiving the degree of Oculi et Auris Chirurgus. 

He settled in Cleveland in 1885, limiting his practice to the eye, ear, 
nose and throat. Tn 1891 he received the professorship of ophthalmology- 




Clarence S. Cutter, M. D. 



and otology in his alma mater. He spent the winter of 1889- 1890 abroad, 
taking special studies in the hospitals for the eye, ear, nose and throat. Dr. 
Viets is oculist to the Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital, member of the 
local Ohio societies, of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, and of the 
Ophthalmological. Otological. and the Laryngological Societv. Dr. Viets is 
further mentioned in a subsequent volume of this work. 

B. R. Burgner, A. B., was born in 1875, in Pennsylvania, receiving 
his education in the common schools and later in Wurtemburg College, from 
which institution he graduated in 1897, with the degree of bachelor of 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



81 



arts. He attended the Cleveland Homoeopathic !\ledical .College, graduating 
in 1900. He was appointed to the position of lecturer on embryology, and 
is still working in that department. He is anaesthetist to the college, making 
a special study of it for his practice. He has done considerable surgery 
and is surgeon of the genito-urinary stafif of the Cleveland Homceopathic 
Hospital. 

Hudson D. Bishop was born October 7, 1866, in Smithville, Ohio. His 
early education was acquired in the public and high schools of his native city. 
He took a full preparatory medical course in the Ohio State University, and 
then attended the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 1887-1890, from 





Gcoi-ee E. Turrill. }kl. D. 



which he graduated in the latter year. Shortly after graduation he received 
the appointment of professor of chemistry ; later that of professor of dietetics ; 
then that of professor of orthopaedic surgery, and now holds the chair of 
surgery; he also is clinical professor of rectal and genito-urinary surgen,". 
Dr. Bishop has been surgeon to the Cleveland Homceopathic Hospital for the 
past SIX years, surgeon to the ^^laternity Hospital for ten years, and is gyne- 
cologist to the Cleveland City Hospital. He has been actively identified with 
the work in his alma mater for many years and the improved course of study 
instituted in the college in 1903 was largely the result of his efforts as chair- 
man of the curriculum committee. 




E. R. Eggleston, M. D. 



Justin E. Row innd, Al, U. 




Byron B. Vicls, M. D. 



v. ' I K.evc, A. .M., M. D. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



83 



George Henry Quay was born in 1856 in Cleveland, Ohio. His education 
was acquired in the Cleveland public and high schools and in Dennison Uni- 
versity. He attended the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College from 1880 
to 1883, obtaining his diploma and degree in the last named year, and at once 
entered upon the practice of medicine in Cleveland, later taking special courses 
which fitted him for his specialty — diseases of the nose and throat. In 1892 




Martha A. Canfield, A. :M., AI. D. 



he was made professor of rhinology and laryngology in his alma mater, which 
chair he still holds. Dr. Quay is author of a popular text work on nose and 
throat, which has been translated into Spanish and has a large circulation in 
Spain and South America. He is rhinologist to the Cleveland Homoeopathic 
and the Cleveland City hospitals, and has been mayor of East Cleveland for 
several vears. 



84 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



George W. Jones was born February 22, 1871. He is a son of Dr. Gaius 
J. Jones, who for so many years has been dean and executive ofiEicer of the 
Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College. His early education was obtained 
in the public and high schools of Cleveland ; he then took up the study of law 
and was admitted to the bar after attending a full course at Harvard Law 




Clifton D. Ellis, .AI. D. 



School. Later, however, he decided tc study medicine and matriculated at the 
Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, from which he graduated in 1901. 
He then took a year's general course in the New York Post-Graduate School 
of Medicine, after which he became associated with his father in practice. He 
accepted the appointment in his alma mater as lecturer on osteology in the 
department of anatomy, served in this capacity two terms, and then (1904) 
was made professor in charge of that department of college work. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 85 

Rollin Fay Livermore was born in Starksboro. X'ermont, August 26, 1873. 
He was educated in the public and high schools of his native town, and a 
special preparatory course in Yale College particularly well fitted him for 
taking up the study of medicine. He graduated in 1903 from the Qeveland 
Homceopatliic Medical College and at once commenced the practice of his 
profession in Cleveland. Dr. Livermore has served as demonstrator of anatomy 
in his alma mater, also as lecturer on anatomy of the nervous system, and is 
now serving a second year as assistant to the chair of gynecology. 




'^ "-t-< 



O 'i^ 

8 ^ 



E 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 87 



CHAPTER H. 

HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICAL COLLEGE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN. 
By Wilbert B. Hinsdale, A. M., M. D. 

The HomcEopathic Medical College at Ann Arbor, Michigan, is a branch 
or department of the state university. The University of Michigan was 
founded under an act of congress approved May 20, 1826, which made an 
appropriation of lands for the support of a university in the state. In 1836 
the lands amounting to ^2 sections, which had been reserved ten years before, 
were conveyed by congress to the newly admitted state, and were accepted 
by its legislature! In 1837 the university was located at Ann Arbor. The 
department of literature, science and the arts received its first class four 
years later, in 1841. The department of medicine and surgery was estab- 
lished in. 1850, and the department of law in 1859. The Homoeopathic 
Medical College, School of Pharmacy, the College of Dental Surgery and 
the Department of Engineering have been added in later times. 

The university derives its revenues from the interest upon its land 
endowment, from students' fees, in the amount of which there is a discrimina- 
tion in favor of those residing in Michigan, from special appropriations 
by the legislature, and in more recent times from an annual tax levied by 
tlie legislature for the benefit of the institution. According to the first con- 
stitution of the state, the government of the university was in the hands 
of the legislature, which body had powder to appoint regents and professors, 
and to establish departments, but by the constitution which went into opera- 
tion in 1852 the government is vested in a board of eight regents. The 
members of this board are elected by popular vote, two being chosen every 
alternate year for a term of eight years. All the departments of the uni- 
versity, except the first two, have been established by this body, either at 
its own instance, or as measures of expediency in compliance with acts of 
the legislature. 

The first step in the long series of events that led to the establish- 
ment of the Homoeopathic Medical College seems to have been taken by Dr. 
Zina Pitcher, an allopathic physician who lived in Detroit. Dr. Pitcher was 
a regent of the university from 1837 until the present constitutional pro- 
vision making the office of regent elective went into effect, in 1852. Like 
the majority of his professional associates, he became disturbed on account 
of the appearance in the state of a few homoeopathic physicians, the most 
of them converts from his own school of practice, and in order to prevent 
the new school from getting respectable recognition, he was instrumental 
in inducing Senator Kibbee of Lenaw^ee county to introduce a bill in the 
legislature on January 16. 1846. requiring " all who might wish to prac- 
tice medicine as a physician and surgeon " to be licensed, and declaring that 
they should otherwise be guilty of a misdemeanor and deserving of punish- 
ment, etc. On the face of it, this was plausible enough but the intent was 
that " only such as shall be in regular standing in the medical society of 
this state should be licensed." The Medical Societv of the Territorv of 



88 HISTORY OF HO^ICEOPATHY 

Michigan had been approved by the governor and judges of the territory, 
June 14, 1819. 

This was before the advent of homoeopathy. The medical society of the 
territory became the medical society of the state, and was the body which 
Senator Kibbee's bill proposed to have decide as to the ability of applicants 
for license to practice medicine. The bill was hurried through the senate 
and transmitted to the house before the friends of homoeopathy became 
aware that their rights were threatened. 

Dr. John Ellis, a leading homoeopathist of Detroit, who had had some 
correspondence with Dr. Pitcher in regard to medical matters, was apprised 
of what was going on in the legislature. He caused remonstrances to be 
made in the house, and, assisted by colleagues, succeeded at almost the last 
minute in defeating the measure. 

This circumstance bears directly upon the question of establishing a 
homoeopathic college by legislative enactment. The homoeopathists had been 
drawn forcibly into a struggle for life, and being victorious on the defensive, 
thev were emboldened to hope for something substantial should they become 
aggressive. If it had not been for Dr. Pitcher's bill, medical matters in 
Michigan would have taken different shape. 

At the third annual meeting of the Michigan Institute of Homoeopathy, 
held June 27, 1849, I^^s. S. B. Thayer. John Ellis and E. W. Coles were 
appointed a committee to address the regents of the university relative to 
the e.>tablishment of a professorship of homoeopathy in the medical depart- 
ment. Their efforts with the regents proved a failure and accordingly the 
committee took measures to bring the subject before the legislature. 

All the homoeopathic physicians in the state interested themselves in 
the circulation of petitions and the procuring of signatures, which in due 
timie were sent to the legislature of 185 1. Among the many signatures to 
the petitions occur the names of H. H. Emmons of Detroit, afterward United 
States district judge ; J. ]\I. Howard of Detroit, afterward governor of the 
state, and H. P. Baldwin, afterward United States senator and also gov- 
ernor of the state two terms. The petitions prayed in substance for the 
repeal of all laws of a restrictive character regulating the practice of medi- 
cine, also for the establishment of a homoeopathic professorship in the state 
university. 

The law in force at the time was the modified remnant of an old terri- 
torial regulation which virtually created a monopoly in favor of those who 
had been longest organized as a state medical body. 

The success of the homoeopathists in 1846 in their first legislative ex- 
perience had not done away with existing discrimination, but had prevented 
further restrictions. The petitions were referred to the house committee 
on judiciary, a part of its report being in substance as follows : The law 
should bestow no exclusive privileges upon medical practitioners of a certain 
school. The cause of science cannot suffer, but must be eminently pro- 
moted by free inquiry and investigation. All laws with tendency to favorit- 
ism are, in the opinion of the committee, not only subversive of the great 
constitutional guarantee, but are repugnant to the genius and spirit of 
our institutions. As a large portion of citizens of the highest respectability 
and intelligence favor and adopt the theory and practice of both schools, 
they have a right to demand that no invidious distinction shall be made 
by the laws, but that all systems shall be placed on an equal footing. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 89 

While the committee reported in favor of hberahzing the practice of 
medicine, it made no recommendation as to the estabhshment of a professor- 
ship in the university. Ihis action was taken the year before the board of 
regents became elective, and the committee believed the new board would 
dispose of the matter of establishing a chair of homoeopathy in a proper and 
just manner. That part of the law which appertains to the liberalizing of 
the practice of medicine in the state was passed April 7, 1851, and the 
last vestige of legal restriction was thereby swept away. Homoeopathy was 
now to stand in the state at large, if not in the university, as the peer of allo- 
pathy before the law. 

The effort to secure recognition of reformed medicine in the university, 
which had been begun during the legislative session of 1851, was con- 
tinued, but not energetically, in the session of 1853. Nothing of special 
importance was undertaken or accomplished, although a number of peti- 
tions were presented to the senate asking for the establishment of a chair 
of homoeopathy. 

The legislature of 1855 attached a proviso to a bill granting to the re- 
gents of the university certain privileges which they desired, to wit, that 
" there shall always be at least one professor of homoeopathy in the depart- 
ment of medicine." This measure had been drafted at the request of the 
committee on education by H6n. Jacob X. Howard, then attorney general 
and afterward United States senator, in consultation with Hon. H. H. Em- 
mons, subsequently United States judge. These two gentlemen were also 
aided by Hon. J. A. \'an Dyke, a lawyer of ability. Their aim, of course, 
was to make a bill that would set forth the clear intent of what they wanted 
and that would also stand the test of the Supreme court. This cjuestion 
and others arising on the same subject finally gave rise to some of the 
most perplexing questions that the court was called upon to answer with 
regard to the universit}-. The board of regents appreciated the fact that 
the intent of the legislature and a large number of people who from time to 
time petitioned that honorable body would have to be recognized in some 
manner. It maintained, sincerely without doubt, that it would be not only 
impolitic but impossible at that time to put a single professorship of homoe- 
opathy in the department of medicine and surger\- ; that it would antagonize 
those who were alreadv connected with that department : and that a single 
chair would be a lonesome position, hard to fill and still harder to maintain. 

The friends and advocates of homoeopathy soon found that the legisla- 
ture had not the power to secure for them the privileges they sought in 
the university. The regents ignored the provision of 1855, and the matter 
was taken to the Supreme court of the state. Dr. E. H. Drake of Detroit 
made application for mandamus. Able legal talent was employed on both 
sides. The case was heard in January, 1856, and the application was denied. 
Thus it was left optional with the regents whether they would establish the 
chair of homoeopath}' as provided in the statute. The court did not decide 
directly the c[uestion whether the regents were amenable to the legislature. 
Later decisions, however, have left no doubt but that the regents stand 
upon the same constitutional basis as the legislature itself, and cannot be 
dictated to by enactment. The legislature controls largely the revenues of 
the university, and by withholding appropriations or placing conditions upon 
them can make it expedient for the regents to conform to their wishes. 
President Tappan is said to have taken great interest in the case while it 




D 



ffi 



ffi 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 91 

was before the Supreme court, because it involved, in his judgment, other 
matters of great moment to the university. 

The champions of homcEopathy were not induced by the unfavorable 
decision to abandon their purpose of securing recognition of the reformed 
system of medicine in the state university. Their labors through the medium 
of the legislature covered a period of more than twenty years, that period 
being the precise interval between the enactment of the original " homoe- 
opathic proviso " in 1855. and the actual establishment of the Homoeopathic 
Medical College in' the university in 1875. 

The history of the founding of the college, in so far as it was agitated 
and furthered by legislative enactment, may be centered around four years — 
1855, 1867, 1873 ^"<-^ 1^75- Thus there is an interval of twelve years be- 
tween the first and second acts of the legislature that looked to such an end. 
During this period the homoeopathic physicians in the state were ever gain- 
ing in numbers, and were becoming able to point to a large and intelligent 
body of patrons. At the university the position proceeding from the College 
of Medicine and Surgery was becoming more and more strenuous. In the 
proceedings of the board of regents for March, 1866, may be found the fol- 
lowing : 

"A communication was received from Drs. Woodrufif and Drake, a corn- 
mittee of the homoeopathic institute, praving for the establishment of a chair 
of homcjeopathy in the university, which was read and referred to the com- 
mittee on the medical department." 

Nothing further is heard of this petition, and it appears in the transac- 
tions of the following year that the regents feared the disruption of the 
department of medicine' and surgery if "the} should furnish instruction in 
both systems of practice inside of one college organization. 

, The year 1867 marked an important change in the system by which the 
University of Michigan has since been supported. The regents had found 
that the income which the institution was deriving from the interest upon its 
land endowment and from students' fee^s was no longer adequate to its 
needs, and accordingly they began to petition the legislature for appropria- 
tions of money. At this juncture the champions of homoeopathic instruction 
in the university were not slow to improve their opportunity to bring a new 
pressure to bear. A bill has been mtroduced in aid to the university, by 
assessing upon the taxable property of the state a tax of one-twentieth of a 
mill, and paying over such tax, when collected, to the treasurer of the board 
in the same manner as the interest on the university land fund was paid, 
but when this bill became a law it contained a proviso that the regents of 
the university should carry into effect the law providing that there should 
be at least one professor of homoeopathy in the department of medicine. ^ A 
flood of petitions were presented at that session of the legislature, proceeding 
generally from groups of signers in different towns of the state, and headed, 
as a rule, by homoeopathic physicians. This feature of the agitation con- 
tinued without interruption until success was secured, in 1875. A study of 
these, petitions would be most interesting, as showing in what communities 
homoeopathy was then strongest, and where its champions were best organized. 
The board of regents now found themselves in serious difficulty. Al- 
though the legislature had not been sustained by the Supreme court in the 
"homoeopathic proviso" of 1855. it had now prepared to make the govern^ 



92 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

ing body of the university feel its power bv withholding the proffered aid 
unless a like condition was complied with. How sorely they were tried by 
the college of medicine and surgery became apparent when leading members 
of that faculty waited upon the regents at their meetings to protest against 
the proposed step. 

A little later it became necessary for the regents to pass a resolution 
forbidding a professor in the medical department to deliver a course of lec- 
tures against homoeopathy to the medical students within university halls. 
Still it should be noticed that this want of catholicity in their science did 
not, in all cases, proceed from those gentlemen as independent individuals, 
but as members of medical societies whose censure they were likely to suffer 
if they associated professionally with representatives of the reformed sys- 
tem. An elaborate attempt to compromise was then made by the regents. 
They first postponed action until the spring of 1868, inasmuch as the tax 
that had been conditionally voted to the university was not payable until 
that time. In March of that year the following resolutions were adopted : 

1. That the board of regents accept the aid proffered by the legisla- 
ture of Michigan by the act approved March 15, 1867, with the terms and 
conditions thereto. 

2. That in order to comply with the conditions imposed by said act, 
there be organized in the department of medicine a school to be called the 
" Michigan School of Homoeopathy," to be located at such place, suitable in 
the opinion of the board of regents, other, than Ann Arbor, in the state of 
Michigan, as shall pledge to the board of regents by June 20th, next, the 
greatest amount for the buildings and endowment of said school. 

3. That two professors be appointed for said school, one at this time 
and another prior to the opening of said school, and others as may be nec- 
essary. 

4. That the sum of $3,000 be appropriated, besides the salary of the 
professors, out of the state tax so donated to the university, to be expended 
in establishing said school of homoeopathy. 

5. That Dr. Charles J. Hempel be appointed professor of the theorv 
and practice oi homoeopathic medicine in the Michigan School of Homoeop- 
athy, at the salary of $1,000 per annum, from this date, to be paid out of said 
fund so donated. 

In consequence of this action, the inembers of the faculty of the College 
of Aledicine and Surgery tendered their resignations. They were induced, 
however, to withdraw them. The compromise thus attempted failed to be 
acceptable to the state government. When the regents made application to the 
state treasurer for the payment of the $3,000 which they had appropriated 
for this purpose, it was withheld on the advice of the attorney general. It 
was now the regents' turn to institute proceedings in the Supreme court, but 
that tribunal failed to issue an order for the payment of the money. With a 
considerable body of the homoeopathists. the proposition to establish a school 
devoted to their system of medicine at Detroit, for such was the meaning of 
the resolution adopted by the regents, found favor, and this fact did much 
to defer their entrance into the university at Ann Arbor. Dr. Hempel ac- 
cepted his appointment, and in the summer of 1869 applied for a year's salary. 
The regents took the ground that the appointment had been illegal, and re- 
fused to pay the salary. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 93 

In the autumn of 1868 a second action against the regents was brought 
in the Supreme court. In October of that year the attorney general caused 
a petition to be presented on behalf of the people, asking the court to grant 
an order requiring the board of regents of the University of Michigan to 
show cause why a writ of mandamus should not issue to compel them to ap- 
point a professor of homoeopathy in the medical department. The petition 
was granted and made returnable on the first day of the January term of the 
court. When the case was argued the regents relied on the former claim 
that their authority was based on the state constitution, independent of the 
legislature, and they urged that the fear of strife in the department of medicine, 
together with the lack of funds, prevented them. The judges were equally 
divided, and nothing came of this action. 

During the interval between 1867 and 1873. the tide turned for a time 
to the advantage of those who would exclude homoeopath}- from the univer- 
sity. As the legislature convened biennially in Michigan, plans were per- 
fected to secure aid for the university from the assembly of 1869. without 
conditions. An act was passed to pay the sum of $15,000 annually, also to 
pay over the fund that had resulted from the one-twentieth of a mill tax. 
which had been assessed two years before. Moreover, the homoeopathic 
"proviso" disappeared. The champions of homoeopathic instruction in the 
imiversity had been thrown oflf their guard, because their case in the Supreme 
court begun in the preceding October was not decided until after the adjourn- 
ment of the legislature, and certain assurances had been held out that it would 
result in their favor. It was also felt by some friends of the cause that the 
heaping up of statutes would only complicate the matter. 

Though baffled thus far on every hand, the champions of the reformed 
system of medicine gave succeeding legislatures little peace until the orig- 
inal purpose of securing at the state university instruction in the system for 
which they contended was accomplished. However, the numerous bills that 
were proposed began to contemplate a variety of schemes. Four different 
propositions were brought before the legislature of 1871. One of these pro- 
vided for the appointment of two homoeopathic professors in the medical 
department at Ann Arbor, one of materia medica and one of theory and 
practice. Another proposed to divide the medical year at the university into 
two terms, one to be devoted to instruction in each system. A third proposed 
to provide for two professors of homoeopathy in the medical department and 
to establish as well a homoeopathic state hospital. The fourth was in the in- 
terest of a faction that favored locating the homoeopathic college at Detroit. 
None of these bills, however, became a law. 

The disunion indicated bv this variety of measures began to show serious 
results. Two of the lac'tions within the school established medical colleges, 
and each christened its own college a "Branch of the University." One was 
located at Lansing, with Dr. E. D. Burr at its head. This institution seems 
to have suspended operation m the second y^ar of its existence. The second 
of these colleges was inaugurated at Detroit under the leadership of Dr. E. R. 
Ellis, and had a more substantial existence than the other, as it was supported 
by a number of Detroit physicians, and was regarded with favor by the regents 
of the university, as being a fulfillment of the plan which they had under- 
taken to carry out in order to secure the tax fund appropriated by the legis- 
lature in 1867. 

The proceedings of the board of regents at this time show that resolu- 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 9.-) 

tions were introduced looking- to the adoption of the Detroit college as a 
branch of the university, to which end influences were being brought to bear 
by physicians who were friends of the " separate college'' plan. In September 
of 1871 a resolution was passed to the effect that the board approve efforts 
being made to establish a homceopathic medical school at Detroit, to be even- 
tually connected with the university, and that when the board should be 
authorized by law to make this college a part of the university, with proper 
provision for its support, they would administer its affairs to the best of their 
ability. But the law enacted on the subject did not take this course. 

The year 1873 saw important legislation in favor of the cause of homoe- 
opathy at the state university. An act was passed providing for the appoint- 
ment of two professors of homoeopathy in the department of medicine of the 
university, one to be a professor of theory and practice and one of materia 
medica. Both were to receive the same salary and be entitled to all the rights 
and privileges of other professors in the department of medicine. The credit 
of securmg the passage of this act belongs to Dr. S. B. Thayer and Dr. A. I. 
Sawyer. 

Their task was particularly difficult because the factions within the school 
differed in their desires still more than they had done during the preceding 
session of the legislature. There were those who wished to have the Detroit 
Homoeopathic College recognized as a branch of the university. A second 
faction wished the same thing for the college at Lansing. A third wished to 
organize a new college at Detroit in place of the one recently established 
there. 

The advocates of homoeopathy in the university represented two different 
plans. One of these was to divide the year into two terms, one to be devoted 
to instruction in rhe old system and the other in the new. The other partv 
demanded the carrying out of the proviso of 1855, that there should always 
be one or more professors of homoeopathy in the medical department. Never- 
theless, the bill passed both houses by a large majority. A convention of 
homoeopathic physicians was held at Ann Arbor, soon after the adjournment 
of the legislature, to consider the jnatter of filling the two chairs provided for 
by the new law. Candidates were recommended to the board of regents, but 
the board was not yet ready to carry out the law. They adopted resolutions 
reaffirming their old position that the legislature by ordering them to make 
certain appointments had infringed upon their rights and prerogatives under 
the constitution, asserting also that the Supreme court had upheld them in 
this position. Accordingly, litigation followed the enactment of the law of 
1873, ^s had been the case with the acts of 1855 and 1867. On this occasion 
the action was begun in the Circuit court. Dr. Thayer took principal charge 
of the case, and the necessary funds were subscribed by individual physicians. 
After considerable delay the arguments were heard. The court then promptly 
dismissed the case on the ground that it had no jurisdiction. 

An action in the Supreme court followed, begun under the directing care 
of Dr. Thayer, who died while the case was pending. The decision rendered 
in October, 1874, was merely this: "The very able argument in this case 
has not brought any member of the court to any different views from those 
heretofore sufficiently expressed, and we therefore make no order." In 1875, 
twenty years after the enactment of the original homoeopathic proviso and 
twenty-four years after the earliest petitions on the subject were presented 
to the legislature, instruction in homoeopathy became an accomplished fact in 



96 HISTORY OF HO^ICEOPATHY 

the University of Michigan. The legislature of that year passed the follow- 
ing act : 

" The board of regents of tlie University of ^Michigan are hereby author- 
ized to establish a Homoeopathic ^Medical College, as a branch or department 
of said university, which shall be located at the city of Ann Arbor. 

" The treasurer of the state of ^lichigan shall, on the first day of Jan- 
uary, 1876, pay out of the general fund, to the order of the treasurer of the 
board of regents, the sum of $6,000, and the same amount on the first day of 
January of each year thereafter, wdiich moneys shall be used by said regents 
exclusively for the benefit of said department." 

It is in fulfillment of this act, which bears date April zj , 1875, that the 
College of Homoeopathy in the state university was founded. The cause 
found a friend in the board of regents in the person of Mr. Charles Rynd of 
Adrian, who was himself a doctor of the old school of practice. Under the 
leadership of Regent Rynd, the board adopted on ]May 12 the following reso- 
lutions: (i) That a homoeopathic medical college be established in the city 
of Ann Arbor. (2) That two professors be appointed who shall be desig- 
nated, respectively, professor of materia medica and therapeutics, and pro- 
fessor of the theory and practice of medicine, in the Homoeopathic Medical 
College of the University of Michigan. (3) Students entering the Homoeo- 
pathic ^Medical College shall receive instruction in the now existing medical 
department in all branches not provided for by the chairs established above, 
including practical anatomy ; they shall be entitled to all the privileges ac- 
corded to students in the medical department, and shall conform to all re- 
quirements of said medical department so far as they apply to all branches in 
which such students shall receive instruction in the now existing department. 
(4) The same conditions shall be applied to their matriculation, time of study, 
and graduation, as now exist or rnay hereafter be fixed in the medical depart- 
ment of the university ; and it shall be the duty of the president to satisfy 
himself that such conditions are duly enforced in the Homoeopathic Medical 
College and in the medical department of the university. ( 5 ) All students 
graduating from the Homoeopathic Medical College shall be furnished with 
diplomas so designated. Other resolutions were passed at the same time, 
adjusting the two colleges on the administrative side. The new college was 
placed under the charge of the committee on the medical department. 

The title of "founder of the Homoeopathic Medical College" belongs to 
Alfred Isaac Sawyer, ^I. D., more properly than to any other person, as he 
labored unremittingly with the legislature and with the board of regents of 
the university to secure just treatment for the school of practice that he repre- 
sented. Being the leader of the opposition to all compromises, he also had 
very much to do with securing the desired action from the homoeopathic 
societies of the state. 

Dr. Savvver was born in Huron county, Ohio, October 31, 1819. He 
graduated in 1854 from the Western College of Homoeopathy at Cleveland. 
Two years later, after opening a practice at Marietta and Zanesville, he re- 
sumed his medical studies in New York. He obtained a degree in ophthalmic 
surgery under A'alentine Mott. He then settled in Monroe, Michigan, where 
he carried on one of the largest practices in the state until his death in 189T. 
Dr. Sawver wrote a detailed hi;-tory of the founding of the Homoeopathic 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 97 

Medical College at Ann Arbor. Although it has not been published, it is in 
its manuscript form the authority for all events pertaining to the subject. 

The most faithful and efficient of Dr. Sawyer's coadjutors was Dr. Isaac 
H. Eidridge, who was born in Ontario county, Xew York, in 1818. He 
studied medicine in the office of Dr. Dake of Genesee, X. Y. Locating in 
Michigan in 1843. '''^' practiced eight years at Ann Arbor, then removed to 
E"lint in 185 1, >vherc he carried on a large practice. He died in 1893. 

On June 29. 1875, the board of regents elected Samuel A. Jones. M. D., 
of Engeiwood, Xew Jersey, and John C. ^Morgan. ]\I. D., professor of sur- 
gery in the Hahnemannian Institute of Philadelphia, professors in the new 
college, the first of materia medica and therapeutics and the latter of theory 
and practice. This action was had on the recommendation of the state ho- 
moeopathic society, which bo(l\ , however, had followed the lead of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Homoeopath} . The institute, meeting at Put-in-Bay in the 
early summer of 1875, endorsed the homoeopathic college in the University of 
Michigan, pledged it its support, and recommended for the two chairs in its 
faculty the gentlemen who were appointed. The new college had during its 
first year an enrollment of twenty-four students, two of them women. It 
graduated its first class in 1877. Th\> consisted of thirteen members. In 
1879 ^^ graduated a class of twenty-five members, and in 1881 its enrollment 
mounted up to eighty-eight students. Dr. Jones held the office of dean of the 
college from 1875 to 1878. In 1880 he resigned from the faculty. 

Dr. Jones' career has been a distinguished one. Born of Welsh parents in 
Manchester, England, June 11, 1834, he received his education in Utica, Xew 
York. He opened his medical practice at Engeiwood, X"^. J., but left it to 
serve as a surgeon in the civil war. On resuming practice in Xew Jersey for 
a time he held the chair of histology and pathology in the Xew York Homoeo- 
pathic Medical College, and also was a member of the Xew York state exam- 
ining board. He served five years as a member of the faculty of the Homoeo- 
pathic ^Medical College of the Universitv of ^^lichigan. During this time he 
successfully conducted the provings of several homoeopathic drugs. On re- 
signing his position he settled down for practice in the city of Ann Arbor. 

The establishment of professorships additional to those provided for by 
the law of 1875 has proceeded as follows: lecturers on surgical therapeutics 
and obstetrical therapeutics were appointed by the regents in 1876. In 1878 
a professor of surgery was appointed, and in 1880 the title attached to this 
chair seems to have been changed to professor of surgery and clinical sur- 
gery. In 1879 the regents permitted the homoeopathic faculty to appoint a 
professor of the diseases of children, and obstetrics and gynecology, who 
should serve without compensation. Two years later, in 1881, this subject 
was provided for on a nev.' footing, a chair was created with the title of 
obstetrics and diseases of women and children, the legislature making an 
appropriation for its support. Instruction in ophthalmology and otology was 
given from 1881 to 1885 by the professor of theory and practice, without extra 
compensation, and in the latter year an associate professor of those subjects 
Avas appointed: and in 1886, the position was created of a professorship of 
ophthalmology and otology. 

Since 1886 the facultv has consisted of five chairs. As the titles of the 
professors stand at the present time ( igo^) thev are theory and practice of 
medicine and clinical medicine, materia medica and therapeutics, surgerv and 
clinical surgerv. obstetrics and gynaecology, and ophthalmologv, otologv and 







^ -^ 
2 ,„ 






5 ^ 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 99 

diseases of nose and throat. Beginning with the college year 1905-6, there is 
to be an additional member of the faculty with the title of director of the 
homoeopathic pathogenetic and hospital laboratories. The duties of this officer 
will be to investigate subjects appertaining to materia medica and the testing 
of drugs, also to supervise the pathological work connected with the hospital 
clinics. 

Dr. Jones was succeeded as dean by Dr. Edward C. Franklin, who was 
the first professor of surgery appointed in the college. Dr. Franklin was born 
in Flushmg, New York, in 1822, and received his medical education in Xew 
York city, where he was a private pupil of Dr. Valentine Mott. Soon after 
entering practice he moved to California and there, for a time, had charge of 
the Marine Hospital of San Francisco. He next went to the Isthmus of 
Panama, as physician to the Panama railroad ; and in the treatment of the 
Panama fever he embraced the homoeopathic system of medicine, which he 
continued to practice until the close of his life. 

In i860 Dr. Franklin was made professor of surgery in the Homoeopathic 
Medical College of Missouri. The following year he served as a surgeon in 
the civil war, and a year later became professor of surgery in the Hahnemann 
Medical College of Chicago. In 1871 he was surgeon to the Good Samaritan 
Hospital in that city. His service as dean and professor of surgery of the 
Homoeopathic ^ledical College of the University of Michigan covered the 
period 1878-83. In the latter year he removed to St. Louis, where he died 
in 1885. In 1862 he published a work entitled " The Science and Art 
of Surgery." For the year 1877 he was president of the American Institute 
of Homoeopathy. During his service in the war he once performed thirteen 
amputations before breakfast, making a record which at the time had been 
surpassed only by Baron Larrey, the celebrated surgeon of Napoleon I. 

Internal dissensions had begun to make trouble in the administration of 
the college before the retirement of Dr. Franklin. Dr. Thomas P. Wilson, 
already a member of the faculty, was singled out by the medical committee of 
the board of regents to succeed to the deanship. 

Dr. Wilson was born in Huron county, Ohio, in 1831, and received his 
medical education at the Cleveland Homoeopathic ^Medical College, from 
which he was graduated in 1857. He was later connected with that college 
as professor and also as president. In 1872 he accepted a chair in Pulte Med- 
ical College, Cincinnati, and in 1880 he was called from that position to the 
Homoeopathic Medical College at Ann Arbor, to take the chair of theory and 
practice. Dr. Wilson also assumed the instruction in ophthalmology and 
otology, for which the college had hitherto depended upon a professor of the 
faculty of medicine and surgery. He rendered this service without compen- 
sation. He held the office of dean only for the period 1883-85, as he was 
compelled by ill health to resign at the latter date. In 1892 he resumed 
practice and college duties at Cleveland and retired from active work in 1899 
and has since Ifved in Detroit. 

For the period 1885-95 the deanship was held by Dr. Henry L. Obetz, 
who had been appointed to the professorship of surger>- in 1883. He was 
born in Columbus, Ohio, in 1851, and graduated from the Cleveland Homoeo- 
pathic College in 1874, in which institution he remained four years longer as 
lecturer on anatomy and surgery. He then practiced medicine in Illinois until 
he was called to the Cniversity of Michigan. Some years before his retire- 



JUO HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

ment from the college faculty he set up his residence and opened a practice 
in Detroit, to which he has entirely devoted himself since 1895. 

The Homoeopathic Medical College has suffered much on two occasions 
from internal dissensions, which involved also a lack of support on the part 
of the physicians in the state. In the early eighties and again in the nineties 
the number of students seriously declined. The trouble that culminated in 
1895 has had so much to do with shaping the history of the college that some 
account of it is necessary. 

As early as 1893 I^e^n ^-)betz had brought forward a tentative plan to 
amalgamate the two medical schools. This plan, as described in a report 
afterward adopted by the board of regents, was to establish one school of 
medicine in which both faculties were to be retained, and each student was to 
register as a student of medicine and surgery, receive instruction from both 
faculties and graduate as doctor of medicine from the University of Michigan. 
But this plan was proposed only in the event of its concurrent acceptance by 
both faculties. The scheme was objected to by the other members of the 
homoeopathic faculty and a majority of the profession throughout the state. 
The Homceopathic Medical Society of the State of Michigan held a special 
meeting at Lansing in May, 1893, to consider and express itself regarding the 
project. Resolutions were adopted charging Dr. Obetz with disloyalty to 
homoeopathy; the project was also disapproved by the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy. After a long controversy Dr. Obetz offered his resignation, 
which the regents accepted, and those gentlemen having come to the conclu- 
sion that a thorough reorganization was necessary, they requested the other 
members of the faculty to resign. 

While the college was suffering the consequences of a schism in its fac- 
ultv, a movement was set on foot to remove it to Detroit. The legislature of 
1895 passerl the following act on June 3, shortly before its adjournment: 

" The Ijoard of regents of the University of Michigan are hereby author- 
ized and directed to establisli a homoeopathic medical college as a branch or 
department of said university, which shall be located in the city of Detroit, 
and the said board of regents are hereby authorized and directed to discon- 
tinue the existing homoeopathic medical college now maintained in the city 
of Ann Arboi as a branch of said university, and to transfer the same to the 
city of Detroit." 

Two conditions v;ere stated in the act, viz : that a suitable site should be 
donated in Detroit, and that an arrangement should be made with the trustees 
and managers of Grace Hospital for clinical work. The board of regents had 
so completely reversed its policy since the years prior to the founding of the 
college that it ignored this action to locate it in Detroit. An action was begun 
in the Supreme court in May, 1896. to compel obedience, and in July follow- 
ing the court denied the application for mandamus, declaring that the effect of 
certain sections of the constitution is to " vest in the regents direct and ex- 
clusive supervision and control ;" and the legislature, therefore, does not 
possess the pov/er attempted to be exercised by the law in question. The 
same argument had been urged at an earlier date against an attempt to re- 
move the College of Medicine and Surgery. It was also the same position 
i\s had been taken by the regents in postponing the founding of the college. 

In 1897 the advocates of removal brought the question again before the 
legislature, but the proposed action was defeated. 



r 




3 02 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

With the reorganization in 1895 the college entered upon a new era of 
prosperity. The numbers have been restored to what they had been in earlier 
time and the graduating classes have come to average twenty members. In view 
of the advanced standards of work these facts denote a much greater work 
than has ever been done before. The faculty as constituted at the present time 
is as follows : 

W. B. Hinsdale, A. M., M. D., dean of the college and professor of 
theory and practice of medicine and clinical medicine. 

R. S. Copeland, A. M., M. D., professor of ophthalmology, otology and 
diseases of the nose and throat, and secretary of the college. 

W. A. Dewey, M. D., professor of materia medica and therapeutics. 

C. B. Kinyon, M. D., professor of obstetrics and gynaecology. 

D. T. Smith, B. S., M. D., professor of surgery and clinical surgery. 

The prosperity of the college appears in its fine equipment for clinics 
and the rapid growth of that branch of its work. The first surgeon of the 
faculty was obliged to care for such patients as desired homoeopathic treat- 
ment in the hospital of the College of Medicine and Surgery. Within a year 
or two, however, an amphitheatre and hospital ward were added to one of 
the original buildings on the campus for the use of the College of Homoeop- 
athy. In 1892 new hospitals were provided for both medical colleges on a 
site rem.oved from the campus. These were commodious and at the time 
fully up to date in their appointments, but in 1900 a more perfect hospital 
building was provided for the College of Homoeopathy, and the one that it 
had occupied for the preceding eight years was annexed to the buildings of 
the College of Medicine and Surgery. 

The building site for the new hospital, costing $17,000, was donated by 
the city of Ann Arbor. It is finely located, being immediately across . the 
street from the university campus, and comprises attractive grounds of about 
five acres in extent. For the erection and equipment of the building the 
regents appropriated the sum which resulted that year from increasing the 
annual ta.x allowed to the university by the legislature from one-sixth to one- 
fourth of a mill. This amounted to $95,000. The structure is pronounced by 
persons of competent taste the most attractive building in the entire university 
group, while among surgeons and doctors of both schools of practice it is said 
to be the most correctly built and equipped clinical hospital in the state, 
having been designed after plans furnished by a specialist in hospital con- 
stFuction. There are accommodations for one hundred and twenty patients. 
These include a medical ward and surgical ward for men, also a medical and 
a surgical ward for women, and a children's ward. There are twenty sep- 
arate rooms to be occupied by single patients on payment of special fees. The 
feds for beds in the wards are $7.00 per week ; those for separate rooms are 
$11.00 per week. No private patients are admitted, as the hospital is entirely 
for clinical work ; neither are patients admitted without payment of fees, ex- 
cept as free beds are provided as special charities. If the financial report 
may be taken as an indication of the extent of work done, it may be stated 
that the income of the Homoeopatliic Hospital for the university year 1904- 1905 
was $21,000. Prior to the reorganization of the college in 1895, the income 
of the hospital for a year had never exceeded $4,000. 

The hospital has an important adjunct in the training school for nurses, 
which was organized in 1896. Beginning with two nurses in training, it has 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY lo:; 

attained to an enrollment of thirty. The school was one of the first in the 
country to raise the length of the course of training to three years. The 
students in the school are required to present as a certificate for admission a 
diploma from a first-class public high school, or evidences of- equivalent 
degree of education. A fine old residence situated on the grounds at the 
time when they were donated to the university has been converted into a home 
for nurses. 

The clinical course for practitioners has become an important feature of 
the work of the college. This has been offered annually for the past seven 
years. Solid clinical work is done for five days, illustrating all the new 
medical and surgical methods. Lectures are given in the evenings by dis- 
tinguished visiting physicians and by members of the faculty. At the second 
course of this character, Avhich was given in February, 1899, Dr. H. F. 
Biggar of Cleveland, the nestor of homoeopathic gynaecology, was the most 
prominent of the assisting surgeons. On his return to Cleveland he wrote : 

" It was my privilege and pleasure to visit Ann Arbor during the prac- 
titioners' course of the college. It was a surprise as well as a revelation to me 
to know of the grand work now being carried on by the reorganized faculty 
under the able and efficient management of Professor W. B. Hinsdale as 
dean, and his loyal collaborators." 

The time for the practitioners' course is chosen so that as many practicing 
physicians as possible can visit Ann Arbor. Thus far more than three hundred 
have availed themselves of this opportunity, representing a number of states. 
No fee is charged for the course. At its close, however, a second week is 
devoted to a graduate course of lectures and demonstration, for which a fee 
of $10 is exacted. A certificate, duly signed by the faculty, is granted to such 
graduates in medicine as attend these courses. 

In 1902 the legislature and regents provided for a fine new building 
called " Science Hall," to be used by both schools of medicine. In the labora- 
tories of this building the homceopathic students receive their instruction in 
osteology, general anatomy, histology and embryology, anatomy of joints and 
ligaments, physiology, bacteriology, physiological chemistry, hygiene, path- 
ology and practical pathology. These branches include nearly all the work 
done during the first two years of the medical course. During the junior and 
senior years the major part of the w'ork is done in the clinic rooms and the 
amphitheatre of the hospital, as nearly all the classes require patients for 
demonstration. 

The medical libraries are included in the general library of the university. 
The medical works number about 16,000. of which 2,300 are homceopathic. 
The library also has several hundred medical periodicals, representing nearly 
every language in which is printed any medical literature. The homoeopathic 
periodicals, which are regularly recei\ed at the library, number 50. 

The principal publication of the college is " The University Homoeopathic 
Observer," a quarterly devoted chiefly to reporting the varied medical and 
surgical work done in the college. 

The steady advancement in the standard of work required by the college 
is indicated by the following facts. In 1877 the length of the annual medical 
term was extended from six months to nine months. In 189 1 the length of 
the college course, hitherto only three years, was advanced to four years. The 
standard of admission has been raised, keeping pace with the movement of all 



HISTORY, OF HOMCEOPATHY 105 

the first-class medical colle.tjes in the land, to require a greater degree of 
general culture in the students. 

In 1903 the legislature passed a law calculated to still further raise the 
standard of education in the medical profession throughout the state : It is 
hereby required that every person who shall be admitted to the examinations 
given by the state board shall possess a diploma from a high school whose 
course of study requires four years, or credentials equivalent thereto. The 
state university aims to secure a still higher standard. A six year medical 
course is offered, which is so arranged that a student, by electing scientific 
studies, can secure tl^e degree of A. B. at the end of four years, and the degree 
of M. D. two years later. The college encourages all of its students to pursue 
this course, and a considerable percentage of them secure both degrees. 

Since 1895 the Homoeopathic Medical College has had a separate com- 
rnittee of the board of regents to look after its needs. At the hands of this 
body it enjoys very generous treatment. 

Following is a list of the persons who have served in the facult\- of the 
college : 

I'ROFliSSORS, LF.CTrRF.RS AXI) INSTRUCTORS. 

Samuel Arthur Jones. M. D., professor of materia medica, therapeutics 
and experimental pathogenesy, 1878-1880; professor of materia medica and 
therapeutics, 1875- 1878. 

John Coleman Morgan. '\l. D., professor of theory and practice of medi- 
cine, 1 875- 1 877. 

Frank Augustus Rockwith. M. D.. lecturer on obstetrical therapeutics, 
1 876- 1 877. 

Charles Gatchell, ]\l. D.. lecturer on theory and practice of medicine, 
1877-1878; professor of theory and practice, 1878-1880, 1889-1893. 

Edwin Carroll Franklin, M. D., professor of surgery, 1878-1880: pro- 
fessor of surgery and clinical surgery, 1880-1883. 

H. C. Allen. M. D.. associate professor of obstetrics and gvnjecologv, 
1880-1885. 

Thomas Pardon Wilson. '\\. D., professor of the principles and practice 
of medicine, ophthalmolog}- and otology, 1880- 1885. 

Flenry Lorenz Obetz, M. D., professor of surgerv and clinical surgerv, 
1 883- 1 895. 

Allen Corson Cowperthwaite, Ph.D.. ^[. D., LL. D., professor of materia 
medica. pharmacology and clinical medicine. 1884- 1885. 

David ]\IcGuire. M. D.. professor of ophthalmologv and otologv, 
1 885- 1 887. 

Hugo Rudolph Arndt, Yl. D., professor of materia medica, 1885-1888; 
professor of materia medica and therapeutics and clinical professor of the 
diseases of the nervous system, 1888-1889. 

James Craven Wood, A. M., M. D.. professor of obstetrics and diseases 
of women and children, 1885-1895. 

Charles Frederick Sterling, M. D.. professor of ophthalmology and 
otology, 1887-1889. 

Daniel A. MacLachlan. ]M. D.. professor of theory and practice of medi- 
cine, 1885-1889: professor of ophthalmologv, otologv and paedology, 
1889-1895.^ 



106 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

Qiarles Samuel Mack, A. B., M. D., professor of materia medica and 
therapeutics, 1889- 1895. 

Maurice Patterson Hunt, M. D., professor of gynsecology and obstetrics, 
1893-1895. 

Eugene Ransom Eggleston, M. D., professor of the theory and practice 
of medicine, 1893-1895. 

Wilbert B. Hinsdale, A. M., M. D., professor of materia medica and 
therapeutics and clinical medicine, 1895-1896; professor of theory and prac- 
tice of medicine, 1896-. 

Myron Holley Parmelee, M. D., acting professor of gynsecology and 
obstetrics, 1895-1897. 

Oscar LeSeure, M. D., professor of surgery and clinical surgery, 
1895-1900. 

Royal Samuel Copeland, A. M., M. D., professor of ophthalmology, 
otology and diseases of the nose and throat, 1895-. 

Willis Alonzo Dewey, M. D., professor of materia medica and thera- 
peutics, 1896-. 

Claudius Bligh Kinyon, M. D., professor of obstetrics and gynaecol- 
ogy, 1897-- _ _ 

Perry Wessel Cornue, M. D.. actmg professor ot surgery, 1900-1901. 

Dean Tyler Smith, B. S., M. D., acting professor of surgery and clinical 
surgery, 1901, Feb.-July ; professor of surgery and clinical surgery, 1901-. 

ALUMNI OF THE HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICAL COLLEGE 
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN. 

1877. 

Erasmus Edward Adams, Big Flat, Ark. 

Joseph Albert Baker, Mitchell, S. Dak. 

Patrick Henry Bumpus, A. B., '70. 

Juliet Caldwell, San Francisco, Cal. 

Charles Hercules Dale, Springport, Mich. 

Sarah Parker Engle, d. Detroit, Mich., Feb. 9, 1889. 

John Oscar Garmon, Oakland, Cal. 

Chester Smith Hubbard, d. Bradford. Pa., Feb. 6, 1901. 

Qiarles Perrv Miller, Fort Collins, Col. 

Rollin Carolus Olin, Capt. 3d Minn. Inf., 1863, Detroit, Mich. 

Warren Harvey Rand, Charlotte, Mich. 

Alexander Hamilton Rogers, Canton, S. Dak. 

George Albert Tabor, Richmond, Va. 

1878. 

Amelia Martha Atkins (Mrs. Nathaniel C. Whitfield), Los Angeles, Cal. 
Aaron B. Avery, Pontiac, Mich. 
James Douglas' Baker, McMinnville, Ore. 
Sarah J. Coe, Wilkesbarre, Pa. 
Florace Marvin Corey, Chicago, 111. 
Clark DeMuth. d. Los Angeles, Cal. Feb. 22, 1887. 
WiUiam Alvaro Franklin, Ph.B., Univ. of Wis., '72, LL.B., '75, Harvey, 
Illinois. 

Merritt Eugene Graham, Rochester, N. Y. 



108 HISTORY OF HO^IGEOPATHY 

Edward Everett Hoit, AI. D., Rush. "85, Detroit City, :\Iinn. 

William B. Knapp, M. D.. '66. Grand Rapids, Mich. 

John ]\Iallory Lee, Rochester, N. Y. 

John Summerfield Martin, Plymouth. Jnd. 

Samuel Stewart Moffatt. d. Washington, D. C, April 25. 1896. 

Israel Ohlinger, Belding. ^lich. 

Grace Roberts. M. D.. Howard, yy, d. Washington, D. C., Nov. i, 1899. 

Charles Eugene Walker, West Henrietta. X. Y. 

Stephen Eugene Warner, d. Milford. ]\Iich.. Ian. 10, 1880. 

William Watts. B. S.. Univ. of 111., '98. Toledo. Ohio. 

Ellen Maria W^ebster. Put-in-Bay, Ohio. 

Joel Sylvanus W^heelock, d. Bancroft, Mich., June 8, 1896. 

Frank Newman White. Romeo, Mich. 

Frances M. Wright (Mrs. Matthew B. Gault). Dawson, Pa. 

T879. 

Alvin Byron AUyn, d. Cleveland. Ohio, April 16. 1900. 

Archibald Herbert Babcock, Randolph, N. Y. 

John Wesley Coolidge. Scranton, Pa. 

Elijah Nash Cooper, d. Jackson, ^fich.. Oct. 6. 1880. 

Jabez Percy Drake, d. Nashville, Tenn.. Nov. 14, 1886. 

John Henr\- DeMay, Jackson, Mich. 

John Wesley Dill, Logansport, Ind. 

Mary Tanner Dill (Mrs. John W. Dill), Logansport, Ind. 

Ann Elizabeth Portia Eastman (Mrs. Lebbeus E. Marsh), d. Greeley, Col., 
Feb. 20, 1896. 

John Henry Enloe, Nashville. Tenn. 

Peter Erb. Buffalo. N. Y. 

Charlotte Elizabeth Fitzgerald, Ann Arbor, }^[ich. 

Phoebe Ann French (Mrs. Moses Allye). d. Grand Rapids, Mich., Jan.. 
12, 1899. 

Leonard Edwin Gallup, ^larshall. ^lich. 

Oscar Samuel Hartson. Jackson, Mich. 

Albert Lodge, Detroit. ]NIich. 

Edward Augustus Lodge, ^iilford, Mich. 

Daniel A. McLachlan, Detroit, ]\Iich. 

Charles Osborne Padley, Utica. N. Y. 

Elise Jane Ray, d. Findlav. Ohio, April 12, 1892. 

Eugene Clarence Story, Montesano. \\'ash. 

Charles Morton W'aelder, Hannibal, !Mo. 

Aaron Robert Wheeler, St. Louis. Mich. 

Amos Huran Winslow, West Toledo, Ohio. 

James Craven W^ood, Cleveland, Ohio. 

1880. 

Florace Kimball Brasted, Delta, Colo. 

Ellis Charles Brown. Portland, Ore. 

Samuel Arthur Brown, Portland. Ore. 

Hiram Rufus Clark, d. Beloit, Wis.. Jan. 10, 1890. 

John Butler Dodge. St. John's, 'SUch. 

Amanda Jane Evans (iSIrs. Patrick H. Evans). Grand Rapids. Mich. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 109 

Patrick Henry Evans, d. Jesup, Iowa, 

William Alonzo Frost, Tecumseh, Mich. 

George Edmund Gray, Pueblo, Colo. 

R. Celia Henderson. 

Thomas Jefferson Jackson, Alilford, Mich. 

John Johnston Miller, Ph.C. ''/'&, San Jose, Cal. 

Emma Tolbert Schrtiner. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Emma Moore Snyder (Mrs. John R. Sayles), Rochester, N. Y. 

Emeline Tanner, Fairmount, Minn. 

Franklin Russell Timmerman. Hastings, Mich. 

Genevieve Tucker, Pueblo, Colo. 

Frank Harold Tyler. Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Ashley Jay Williams, Clergyman, Rock Rapids, Iowa. 



Marshall P. Austin, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Moses Nathan Avery, Banker, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Samuel Edgar Murchfield, Latrobe, Pa. 

Henry William Champlin, Bloomsburg, Pa. 

Daniel Peck Cook, Clay Centre, Kan. 

Richard Gay DePuy, A. B. '79, Jamestown, N. Dak. 

George Washington Dreher, Shamokin, Pa. 

Edward Albert Fisher, Buffalo, N. Y. 

John Franiclin Flint, Erie, Pa. 

Albert R. Halsted, Marion, N. Y. 

Florence Barbara Holden (Mrs. Joseph H. Matthews), Arkansas City, Kan. 

Charles Cecil Huff", ist Lieut. 14th Pa. Inf. 1898, Homestead, Pa.' 

Fayette D wight Kendrick, St. Paul, Minn. 

Lavinia Dunn Lambert, Santa Barbara, Cal. 

Henry Lewis Miller, D. D. S., Kansas City, '96, Otsego, Mich. 

Addison Morgan, Ensign U. S. N., 1898, San Diego, Cal. 

Charles Henry Penniman, d. Oakland. Cal., July 2, 1881. 

William Pomeroy Polhemus, San Diego, Cal. 

Theodore Oliver Potter, Sturgis, Mich. 

Llewellyn Bartlett Richards, Oswego. N. Y. 

Seaver Chauncey Ross, Gloucester City, N. J. 

Fred S. Ruggles, Byron, Mich. 

Edward Parrish Thatcher, Newark, N. Y. 

1882. 

Addison Lee Ambrose, Hanover, Mich. 
Charles H. Brucker, Lansing, Mich. 

Evelyn Augustus Churchill (Mrs, Franklin H. Kollock), Peabody, Kan. 
Harvey Llewellyn Clarke, M. D., N, Y. Horn,, '82. Fairbury, Neb. 
William Hempstead Davis, with Parke, Davis & Co., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Albert Stanley Dolan, pharmacology, U. of M. 1884 to 1885 ; physician. 
to the Southern Cal. State Hosp. for Insane, Patton, Cal. 
Olive Lucy Eddy, 
Benedict Emerson, Chicago, 111. 
Walter Ingersoll Howard, Portland, Ore. 
John Hunter, d. Independence, Mo., April 12, i[ 



110 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

William Charles Jones,, Hosp. Steward, U. S. A., Iloilo, P. I. 

Thomas Harris Turner, Northville, Mich. 

William Edgar Vananda, Charlotte, Mich. 

James Waite Vidal, pharmacist. Fargo, N. Dak. 

Jane Ann Walker, Salem, Mich. 

Charles Gaston Wilson, Clarksville, Tenn. 

1883. 

Elmer Jefferson Bissell, Rochester, N. Y. 

Charles Hinton Blackburn, d. Evanston, Wyo., April 25, 1898. 

Emma Eliza Bower, great record keeper Ladies of the Modern Mac- 
cabees of Mich., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

William Dunn Cooper, Chicago, 111. 

Theodore Lincoln Hazard, Iowa City, Iowa. 

Susan Mary Hicks (Mrs. Lewis H. Hicks), Atlanta, Ga. 

Jacob Oliver Hoffman, Orleans, Neb. 

Juliam Bertine Hubbell, Red Cross work, care of Clara Barton, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Myron Leslie Huntington, Moline, 111. 

Harry Christian Kasselman, Midway, Ky. 

Ann Louise Laub (Mrs. George F. Bartholomew), Chicago, 111. 

Harry McCurdy Lufkin, M. D., N. Y. Univ., '85, St. Paul, Minn. 

James Thurston Martin, B. S., Pacific Univ., '76. Sacramento, Cal. 

Jay S. Mead, Lorain, Ohio. 

William Bidwell Pas'e, Smithton, Mo. 

IMorton C. Reeves. Clinton, Mich. 

Carrie Gertrude Waters (Mrs. Edward C. Lovell), d. Elgin, 111., Feb. 
10, 1896. 

1884. 

Frank Belville Adams. Plvmouth, Mich. 

James Henry Allen, Prof, in Hering Med. Col., Chicago, 111. 

Eldee Edward Austin, Prof, in Univ. of Minn., INIinneapolis, Minn. 

George Blatchford. Clinton, Mich. 

Frank Asbury Cameron, d. Owosso. Mich., Nov. 5, 1899. 

Frederick Morris Gibson, Prof, in Univ. of Minn, since 1896. 

Frank Orrin Hart, d. West Unity, Ohio, Oct. 10, 1898. 

Louisa M. Hayes, Minneapolis, Minn. ' 

Rufus James Hyde, Eaton Rapids, Mich. 

Frank Arthur Johnson, A. B., '81. 

Charles Lindlev Johnston, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

J. Katherine Laub (Mrs. William T. Perkins), Bismarck, N. Dak. 

Mary Louise Lines, Brooklyn. N. Y. 

Charles Douglas Long, Detroit, Mich. 

Charles Orville Munns, Oxford, Ohio. 

Walter Hume Sawyer, Hillsdale, Mich. 

Tohn Ravmond Shank, Flint, Mich. 

Louis Norton Tuttle. Holland, Mich. 

William Irvine Wallace, Saugerties-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

TLosella Cv;itha Wilder, Buffalo, N. Y. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 111 

1885. 

Ervin Davis Brooks, B, S.. Mich. Agr. Col., 76, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Charles Stevens Hunting, Jacksonville, 111. 

Stella Flora Chapman Jacobi (Mrs. William O. Jacobi), Chicago, 111. 

William Orlando Jacobi, d. Chicago, 111., Jan. 20, 1892. 

Ira Albert Leighton. Boulder, Mont. 

Perley Putnam Sanborn, d. Angola, Ind., Jan. 29. 1897. 

1886. 

Lawrence Baldwin, Maybee, Mich. 
George Gabriel Caron, Detroit, Mich. 

Anna Elizabeth Clarke (Mrs. George B. Kelso), Bloomington, 111. 
Laura Amanda Sawyer Edwards, Omaha, Neb. 
Joseph Johnson Fowler, Washington, Mo. 
George Wirt Hathaway, Lapeer, Mich. 

Mary Tufts Hathaway (Mrs. George \\'. Hathaway), d. Lapeer, Mich. 
May 13, 1887. 

George Benson Kelso, Bloomington. 111. 

Roscoe Dudley Mack, Solomonsville. Ariz. 

John Wesley McLachlan, Dayton. Wash. 

Isaiah Snvder Morris, Belding. Mich. 

Edward Herman Pond, A. B.\\llegheny, '83. A. M., '86, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Hugh B. Revnolds, Escanaba, Mich. 

Nana Pamela Braden Riddell (Mrs. William C. Riddell), Helena. Mont. 

Robert Coleman Rudy, Detroit, Mich. 

Elizabeth Uncapher, Houston, Tex. 

Harold Beckwith Wilson, B. S., '82, Detroit, Mich. 

1887. 

George Lake Bailey, d. Buchanan, Mich., Dec. 12, 1900. 

Olivia Artemisia Baldwin, M. D., Chicago Hahn., "86, medical mis- 
sionary, Bilaspore, India. 

John Stuart Cam.pbell, Cadiz, Ohio. 

George Willard Kispaugh, Lot, Ky. 

Matilda Jamison Lyons (Mrs. James B. Lyons), Cadiz, Ohio. 

Arabella Merrill, Astoria. 111. 

Samuel George Milner, A. B., ''/2, Detroit, Mich. 

Eliza Louise Orleman, Detroit, Mich. 

Earl Fuller Shaw, William.ston, Mich. 

Melancthon B. Snyder, A. B., Westminster, '84, A. M. '87, Council 
Bluffs, Iowa. 

Susan McGlaughlin Snyder (Mrs. Melancthon B. Snyder), Council 
Bluffs, Iowa. 

Rodney Chester Taylor, M. D., Beaumont, "89, St. Louis, Mo. 

Zilpha' Rosannah Wheelock (Mrs. Joel S. Wheelock), Jackson, Mich. 



George Dute Arndt. Mt. Vernon, Ohio. 
William Frederick Brooks, Florence, Colo. 
Marv Ann Cooke, Philadelphia. Pa. 



112 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

Edward Arthur Darby, Northampton, Mass. 

Ella Kyes Dearborn, Portland, Ore. 

Lizzie Amanda Hendershort, Irving, Mich. 

John Plancock Lawrence, Storm Lake, Iowa. 

Sarah Idella Ives Lee (Mrs. John M. Lee), d. Savannah, N. Y., Oct. 
10, 1897. 

Hutoka Lucy Porter (Mrs. William B. Porter), Black River Falls, Wis. 

Eugene Woodman Ruggles, Chicago, 111. 

Harriet Swathel Sanborn (Mrs. William J. Carbaugh), Portland, Mich; 

Duncan Sinclair, M. D., Col. of P. and S., Ont., '88, Woodstock, Ont. 

Mary Ella Thompson, A. B. '85 (Mrs. Rollin H. Stevens), Detroit, 
Michigan. 

1889. 

Sara Bartlett Armstrong, Chicago, 111. 

James Nelson Ayers, Ph.C, '79, Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Elizabeth Stacy Carey (Mrs. Laban H. Shank), d. Empire, Mich., Aug. 
18, 1895. 

Albert Britton Clark, Swartz Creek, Mich. 

Royal Samuel Copeland, A. M., M. D., Prof, of ophthalmology, otology, 
and p£edology in the Homoeopathic INIedical College, 1895, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

William A. Cotton, Escanaba, Mich. 

Sallie Maria Davis (Mrs. George W. Halliwell), Bethlehem, Pa. 

Denias Dawe, Monroe, Mich. 

Walton Newton Fowler, Blufflon, Ind. 

Cora Yan Hill (Mrs. Andrew McGrill). d. Boston, ^lass., June 16, 1896. 

James Archie McLachlan, Dayton, Wash. 

Charles Albert Macrum, Portland, Ore. 

Laban Henry Shank, Empire, Mich. 

Walter Longyor Slack, Saginaw, Mich. 

Rollin Howard Stevens, Detroit, Mich. 

WiUiam Isaac Tyler, Niles, Mich. 

Bovle Vance, Springfield, 111. 

Annette Haseltihe Wheelock (Mrs. Jerome B. Wheelock), Minneapolis, 
Minn. 

Jerome Bonaparte Wheelock, d. Good Thunder, Minn., May 17, 1899. 

Eli Cone Williams, A. B., '84. Hot Springs, Va. 

Miranda Poyer Wiswell, B. L., Delaware, Colo., '80, Philadelphia, Pa. 

1890. 

James Cordon Avery, Vassar, Mich. 

Leigh Yerkes Baker, Washington, D. C. 

WilHam Colfax Brownell, McCracken, Kan. 

Ernest Albert Clark, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Anna Calista . Clarke, Scranton, Pa. 

Eva Alice Cunningham (Mrs. Henry S. Gardner), Lawrence, Kan. 

Mary Denison, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Francis Chipman Ford, A. B., '88, Chicago, 111. 

Harvey Elmer Hoffman, Ludington, Mich. 

Leshe Allen Howe, Breckenbridge, Mich. 

Amelia Tohnston, Toronto, Ont. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 113 

Alfred Bernard Jordan. 

Alice Keefer (Mrs. Petrus Nelson), St. Paul, Minn. 

Frances Jennings Miner (Mrs. John L. Miner), d. Pasadena, Cal., April 
12, 1898. 

Mary Anna Morley (Mrs. William H. Hodge), d. Niagara Falls, N. Y., 
Jan. 17, 1896. 

Andrew Bodwell Nelles, Columbus, Ohio. 

Grant Sherman Peck, Denver, Colo. 

Paul Augustus Perrenoud. 

Everett J. Phelps, Markesan, Wis. 

Lewis Frank Rice, Chester, Mich. 

Fred Clyde Sanford, Clare. Mich. 

Harriet Augusta Spinney (Mrs. Frank S. Sovereen). Evart, Mich. 

1891. 

Arza Van Avery, Parma, Mich. 

Sara Howard Bostwick (Mrs. Harvey E. Hoffman), Ludington, Mich. 

Philip Horton Bourne. Salamanca, N. Y. 

Arthur Wordsworth Burdick, Toll House, Cal. 

William Franklin Dean, B. S., Iowa State Univ., '89, LaGrange, 111. 

Harvey Elmer Flint, Miles Grove, Pa. 

Bina Jane Hallock, West Bay City, Mich. 

John Howard Harvey, Toledo, Ohio. 

Charles William Kirkland, Napoleon, Mich. 

Emma Klein (Mrs. Emma K. Bowen), New York, N. Y. 

Franklin Frees Lehman, A. B., '88, Sandusky, Ohio. 

James W. Losee, Pontiac, Mich. 

Myra Alanson Patterson, Caro, ]\Iich. 

Rebecca Williams Rogers (Mrs. William E. George), Indianapolis. Ind. 

Orlando Leon Sutherland, LaPorte, Ind. 

Frank Scott Tuthill, Concord, Mich. 

Mary Emma \^an Schoonhoven, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Guert Elmer Wilder, Chautauqua, N. Y. 

1892. 

Charles William Behm, M. D., N. W. Univ., 1900, Chicago, 111. 

John Campbell Buell, Rivers Junction, Mich. 

Nelson Hoyt Chamberlain, Oakland, Cal. 

William Whittelsey Cheney, A. B., Minnesota, '89. Chicago, 111. 

x\nnie Bissell Dillon, 'd. Minneapolis, Minn., 1894. 

Frank Wilmot French, d. Otsego, Mich., July 25, 1894. 

Ernest Frank Gamble, Coldwater, Mich. 

Lewis Bradstreet Gardner, Iosco, Mich. 

Joseph Qifford Harder, d. Bancroft, Mich., Oct., 1896. 

Jennie Hughes (^Mrs. Thomas W. Hughes), Urbana, 111. 

Francis V. >.Iartin, Westville, Ind. 

Elmer Douglass Osmun. Allegan, j\Iich. 

Fred Johnson Peck, xA.nsonia, Conn. 

Charles Dwight Pullen, Mt. Pleasant. Mich. 

Anna Barrington Taylor, Chicago, 111. 

Cvrus Milton Thurston, Cleveland, Ohio. 



lU HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

Essington Tracy Trimmer, Tempoai, Mex. 
Ida Clerk Woolsey, Xenia, Ohio. 

1893- 

Roy Leighton Bentley, Stanton, Mich. 

Rose Anna Bower, missionary to W. C. Africa. 

Ernest C. Brown, Madrid, Iowa. 

George Frederick Clarke, Detroit, Mich. 

Nora May Dakin (Mrs. E. U. Walker), Joliet, 111. 

]\Table Geneva Dixey, Fremont, Ohio. ' 

Franklin Flenderson Doud, Lysander, X. Y, 

Elman Parker Felch, Hudson. Mich. 

Samuel Harfell, X^oblesville, Ind. 

Clifford Reeder Hervey, Perry, N. Y. 

Francis Leslie Hoft'man, Sanoma, Mich. 

Frederick ^Clifton Laur, Sagole, Wis. 

John Alexander Lenfesty, Mt. Clemens, ]\iich. 

Linal Rideout Lumby, Pontiac, Mich. 

Frances Eliza Nieberg (Mrs. Dwight Goddard), Lancaster, Mass. 

Henry Martyn Northam, Glandorf, Ohio. 

Oscar Luman Ramsdell. Petoskey, ]\Iich. 

Frank Rich. Chicago, 111. 

Charles Kimball Stewart, Brownsdale. ]\Iinn. 

Harvey George Young, Pioneer, Ohio. 

1894. 

Charles Augustus Kirchlow, Eau Claire, Alich. 
Charles Gitiford Jenkins, Lansing, [Mich. 
Frederick Charles Krumling, Blis&held, ^I'lch. 
Lester Elmer Peck, Buchanan, Mich. 
Issie Sharring Powers, Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Susan Emo Pullin, Pasadena, Cal. 
Cora Luarky Stitt, Stockbridge, Mich. 
Glenn Guy Towsley, Lowell Mich. 
Burt Dexter Walker, New York, N. Y. 

1895- 

William Hodgins Atterbury, Litchfield, :\Iich. 

1896. 

Summer George Bush, Chelsea, Mich. 
Frederick Charles Gilcher, Republic, Ohio. 
William. Franklin Holmes, Randolph, ^lass. 
Fred Alvord Miner, Champaign, 111. 
Charles William Ryan, Battle Creek, Mich. 
John Frank Titus, Attica, Ohio. 

1897. 

William Grant Decker, Norwood, ^Nlich. 
Albert J. Elliott. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 115 

Murray Maywood Sears, M. D., "96, B. S., '97, Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Charles Martin Steele, Fenville, Mich. 

Leonard Herbert Stewart, Ph.B., Kalamazoo, '85, Ph.^1., "88, Kala- 
mazoo, Mich. 

1898. 

John Newton Babcock, Bay City, Mich. 

Joseph Harris Ball, Bay City, Mich. 

R. A. Clift'ord, M. D., Jefferson, '99, Ypsilanti, Mich. 

Ernest Bigelow ^Maynard, Leslie, IVIich. 

Charles Augustus Montague, Frankfort, Mich. 

Charles Armand Rabethge, M. D., Jeft'erson, '95, instructor in gym- 
nasium, 1896 to 1899, Boston, Mass. 

Clarence Augustus Schimansky, Sandusky, Ohio. 

Samuel Porter Tuttle, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Marion Wells (Mrs. Sharon J. Thorns), missionary, d. April 25, 1905, 
Bahrein, Arabia. 

1899. 

Ida Gatura Coler (Mrs. George P. Coler), M. D., Baltimore Woman's 
Med. Col., '88, -Ajin Arbor, .Mich. 

Robert Lloyd Johnson, Wadsworth, Ohio. 

Dean Wentworth Myers, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Harry Melvin Piper, Denver, Ind. 

William Colfax Roberts, B. S., Nebraska, '96, Owatonna, Minn. 

Tisdale Sartoris Walker, d. Salem, Mich., Nov. 26, 1901. 

William Rudolph \\'egert, Kawkawlin, Mich. 

Charles Edward Wherle, d. Toledo, Ohio, Aug. 21, 1900. 

Floyd Edward Westfall, Ypsilanti, Mich. 

Erie Brice Woodward, Lincoln, Neb. , 

1900. 

Russell Ebenezer Atchison, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Theodore Bachmeister, A. B.. "98. Chicago, 111. 
John Rutherford Ballah, Azalia, ^lich. 
William Henry Belknap, Greenville, Mich. 
Homer Stephen Carr, Niles, ]).lich. 
Grace Arvilla Banks Carter. Rochester, N. Y. 
William Asbury Chapman, Flartford, Mich. 
Charles Wesley Edmunds. Bay City, ^^lich. 
Mina Bianca Gault, Seattle, Wash. 
Paul E. N. Greelev, Waterman. 111. 
Scott F. Hodge, Detroit, Mich. 
George Eldridge Mann, Mason, Mich. 
Pauline Rundell Wilson, Tecumseh, ]Mich. 

1901. 

Herbert Rodney Allen, Bedford, , Mich. 
Overton '\\'iiliam Bradlev, Montreal, P. O. 
Albertus Tribue Hoxie, Grand Rapids, ^lich. 
Francis H. Husband. Sault Ste. Marie. Mich. 
Thomas Richard McHugh, Caseville, ^vlich. 



116 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

James McKee. 

Arthur Selwyn Moore, Middleton, N. Y. 

Gilbert Roy Owen, San Bernardino, Cal. 

Carl Frost Raver, California. 

George Anthony Robertson, Battle Creek, Mich. 

William Theodore Rowley, Tucson, Arizona. 

Joseph Scheidler, Flushing, Mich. 

Evelyn Scott, Detroit, Mich. 

Joaquin Mokelumne Stevens, A. B., Toronto, '98, Traverse City, Mich., 

Nelson Salter Thompson, B. S., '99, Detroit, Mich. 

Charles Mason Williams, Alpena, Mich. 

1902. - ^ 
H. A. Haynes, Ionia, Mich. 
G. C. Lamb, Canon City, Colo. 
Harry L. Imus, Holland, Mich. 
C. E. Johnson, Otis, Ind. 
R. J. Pelton, Chesaning, Mich. 
F. ]. Schultz, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Fred Henry Mosher Long, M. D., Chicago Hom. Col., Eaton Rapids, 
Michigan. 

1Q03. 
O. R. Austin, Mason, Mich. 
E. G. H. Beck, Rochester, N. Y. 
Miss L. H. Black, Erie, Pa. 
E. S. Blair, Patten, Cal. 
William Don Brooks, Leslie, Mich. 
Obed Cooley. Lexington, Conn. 

Mav H. Cravath, A. B., Univ. of N. Dak.. Atlanta, Ga. 
James L. Hoffman, M. B., Univ. of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 
Adolph Ernest Ibershbff, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Cecil Jordan, Wabash, Ind. 
C. D.'Mulger, Spring Lake. Mich. 
Ernest Dean, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
A. J. Reynolds. Flint, Mich. 
Gustavus Wilson, Patton, Cal. 

E. R. Zimmerman, Waterloo, N. Y. 

1904. 

O. C. Dixon, Eau Claire, Mich. 

William E. Doran, Colon, Mich. 

Leon J. Gibson, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Cordon T. Graham, Rochester, N. Y. . 

A. A. Hoyt, Colorado. 

Harold L. Lown, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Clyde Allen Lown. 

F.'W. McAfee, Davisburg, Mich. 

F. C. McCormick, Normal, 111. 

Arthur H. Norton, A. B., '03, Allen, Mich. 
Ebenezer Pavne, Great Barrington, Mass. 
Luther Peck,' Plymouth, Mich. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 117 

Samuel Schaefer, New York, N. Y. 

H. F. Schell, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

J. W. Sooy, Metropolitan Hosp., New York N Y 

C. F. Swift, Marcellus, N. Y. 

Virgil L. Weir, Toledo, Ohio. 

G. P. Winchell, Ionia, Mich. 

Miss A. Genevieve White, B. S., Bucknell Univ., Philadelphia, Pa. 

1905- 
Harold Hill Baker, Rochester, N. Y. 
Mrs. M. Andrews Bunker, Cleveland, Ohio 
Bertha Anna Davis, Ann Arbor, .Mich. 
Alexander Sanders DeWitt, Dexter, Mich 
Minetta Celina Flinn, Wabash, Ind.' 
Lewis Edward Inman, Oklahoma Citv, Okla 
Ethel May Knisely, Philadelphia, Pa.' 
Helen Lee, A. B., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Harlan McMullen, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
William Frank Maxwell, Toledo, Ohio. 
Llewella Maria Merrov/, Marion, Ohio. 
Henry Clyde Telford, Attica, Ohio. 
William George Weideman, West Bay Citv, Mich 



118 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



CHAPTER HI 

DUNHAM MEDICAL COLLEGE OF CHICAGO. 
By Guernsey P. Waring, M. D. 

The organization of the Dunham Medical College of Chicago during the 
summer- of 1895 resulted principally from two causes : first, the conscientious 
desire on the part of a few enthusiasts to advance true homoeopathy as they 
understood Hahnemann's teaching; and second, because of some personal dif- 
ferences arising in the faculty of Hering Medical college. 

Consequently, early in August. 1895, Elwyn D. Seaton, a layman, pro- 
posed to erect a model college building for the use of a new institution, pro- 
viding a satisfactory organization could be effected. 

Those identified with the movement in its inception, and who became 
most active, were Frederick O. Pease, M. D., Howard Crutcher, M. D., 
Eugene W. Sawyer, M. D., S. Mills Fowler, M. D., Elwyn D. Seaton and 
Jeremiah Watts, who a little later became the original board of directors. 
However, it was not long before Temple S. Hoyne, M. D., and Charles S. 
Fahnestock, M. D., were also elected members of the board, giving substan- 
tial assistance. 

The following " Declaration of Principles " was adopted at the organiza- 
tion of the college, and remained in force during its existence : 

" The great object of this institution shall be the education of the student 
in the science and art of medicine and surgery in accordance with the doc- 
trines promulgated by Samuel Hahnemann in his 'Organon of the Art of 
Healing' and the 'Chronic Diseases ;' the therapeutic belief and practice of 
each and every member of the faculty shall be expressed in the formula 
'simdlia similihus ciirantur ;' no palliative treatment or repressive measures will 
be advocated or employed in any of the lectures or clinics of this college ; 
surgery has its legitimate sphere of action for the meeting of strictly mechan- 
ical conditions and emergency cases." 

A constitution and by-laws was in time adopted and a charter secured 
for the corporation, bearing the name of that illustrious and much beloved 
American homoeopathic physician, " who fought, bled, and died in the front 
rank " for the cause he dearly desired to see triumph — Carroll Dunham. 

The future reader and student of the history of homoeopathy will be in- 
terested to know more regarding the motive and purpose of the men who 
initiated this enterprise and published such a radical declaration of principles. 
They firmly believed and repeatedly gave expression to their convictions that 
" when Dunham College was organized it was questioned, and very properly, 
whether in view of the large number of homoeopathic colleges already in ex- 
istence, there was any reason for the organization of another. 

" Truly, there would be no reason if it were to be like other homoeopathic 
colleges, it has no right to. exist unless it presents some peculiar features, 
some excellencies not possessed by other colleges. The peculiar excellence 
which gives to Dunham College this right is that it is one of the very few 



HISTORY OF HO^rCEOPATHY 



119 



schools where pure homoeopathy is to be taught in the lecture room, and its 
great value demonstrated in the clinics." 

Homoeopathy had not, up to this time especially, been maintaining the 
high position which it should occupy. Its standard was slowly but surely 
being lowered ; its truths had been falsified ; its good had been adulterated ; 
new fads, new and unknown medicines, hypnotics, anti-pyretics, sedatives, 
temporary expedients, unwise palliatives and aggressive surgery were cor- 
rupting the purity and weakening the efficiency of Hahnemann's art of 
healing. 




Dunham Medical College. 

In many colleges, called homoeopathic, these questionable expedients had 
been taught persistently, until our noble materia medica, the principles and 
philosophy given us by the master mind, were being crowded far to the back- 
ground. Faculties had been composed of men who had little knowledge of 
and less faith in the philosophy of homoeopathy. 

It is an old saying that " a man cannot teach what he does not know, a 
man cannot thoroughly know a thing until there exists a belief in the neces- 
sity for such a knowledge," consequently, the principles involved in the system 
promulgated by Hahnemann cannot be thoroughly taught in a college whose 



120 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

faculty, or any member of it, is indifferent to or ignorant of its fundamental 
truths. 

As a result of such teaching hundreds of young men have been gradu- 
ated who are therapeutic skeptics. They may have much knowledge of 
microscopy, bacteriology, serum-therapy, chemistry, suggestion, manual and 
electro-therapeutics, but in the essential principles of healing the sick 
(homoeopathy) they are remarkably weak and ignorant. 

These adjunct fields of learning, important and useful in their sphere, 
when too much dwelt upon largely prepare the student to detect and treat the 
results of disease — to practice allopathy — instead of teaching how to detect 
and remove the causes of disease, the true mission of homoeopathy. 

Thus is will be understood by those who hereafter read the history of 
homoeopathy, that the reason, motive and purpose of the founders of Dunham 
Medical College, as expressed largely in their own announcement, as above 
given, was to call back wanderers to the camp fire, to revive and extend the 
grandest system of medicine ever given to the world. It was for the sole 
object of teaching that art which enabled Hahnemann and his followers to 
achieve greater success in healing the sick than has ever been shown by any 
other system of medicine since the dawn of civilization. 

The good work inaugurated a few years before by Hering Medical Col- 
lege, and the agitation started anew by this movement soon began to bear 
fruit, and other colleges began to reinstate the Organon and kindred text 
books in their required course of study, until today a general discussion is 
on, pointing toward a certain conclusion, that to save our homoeopathic col- 
leges it is necessary to get back to the principles and philosophy of Hahne- 
mann. 

Those who were very soon prominently identified with the college and 
became associated officially, or in the teaching faculty, with the men hereto- 
fore mentioned, were Herman W. Pierson, M. D., Hubert Straten, M. D., 
Frederick H. Lockwood, M. D., John Storer, M. D., Edward T. Allen, M. D., 
Frank R. Waters, M. D., Ransom M. Barrows, M. D., Charles B. Stayt, 
M. D., Helen M. Parker, M. D., Benjamin L. Hotchkin, M. D., Frank Branen, 
M. D., John C. McPherson, M. D., John H. Stotts, M. D., and Thomas H. 
Hudson, M. D. 

Although the first meeting for organization was held early in August, 
yet before the month closed ground was broken at 370 South Wood street 
for the college building. The second week in November, less than ninety 
days later, lectures were given in the completed structure, acknowledged by 
all, considering its size, to be an ideal college home. All who were connected 
with the college, and many others who were interested in the teaching of 
true homoeopathy, .did, at the time, and alwavs will appreciate the devotion 
and self-sacrifice manifested by Mr. Elwyn D. Seaton, who fully completed 
his part of the agreement in the construction of the building. 

Early in the year 1900, negotiations were matured by which the Post- 
Graduate School of Homoeopathies of Philadelphia, which had been operated 
for a number of years by James Tyler Kent, M. D., and a few earnest sup- 
porters, was brought to Chicago and affiliated with Dunham Medical Col- 
lege. Dr. Kent became dean of the combined institutions, and Harvey Far- 
rington, M. D., who came with the post-graduate school, was given a pro- 
fessorship in the department of materia medica. 

During the same year and before the opening of the session of 1900-1. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 121 

an arrangement was made by which a part of the faculty and a good portion 
of the student body was transferred to the Dunham from what was then 
known as the National Medical College of Chicago. 

This change added to the teaching force Thomas C. Duncan, M. D., 
Edwin R. Mclntyer, M. D., George E. Dienst, M. D., Francis C. Ford, M. D., 
A. Sylvester Fish, M. D., and several others who had been associated pre- 
viously with them in college work. 

At the time of these acquisitions, Dunham Medical College had grown 
to be a positive force, gradually strengthening its faculty, while the num- 
ber of students increased year by year, until the registration in the fall of 
1900 reached over one hundred, nearly one-fourth of the number being in 
the senior class, and graduated with honor to themselves and great credit to 
the college. 

The management from the beginning had aimed to maintain a high 
social and moral standard, the co-educational feature supporting, as it always 
should, both of these qualifications. 

The furnishings for the faculty and reception rooms, the equipment of 
the laboratories and the management of the dispensary, gave a home-like 
appearance and influence which was much appreciated by the students and 
often occasioned complimentary remarks on the part of visitors. 

The library was without exception the best collection of homceopathic 
books and magazines in the city. Dr. Charles J- Watts, whose death occurred 
November 18, 1895, bequeathed his entire private library to the college. La- 
ter, other valuable donations were made by friends and members of the fac- 
ulty until the library and reading room became the pride of the institution. 

During the existence of the college, those who acted in the capacity of 
dean, in the oider named, ^^■ere Doctors Fahnestock, Hoyne and Kent. In 
the office of registrar, Doctors Crutcher, Allen, Storer, McPherson and War- 
ing. The last board of directors, which had remained unchanged for some 
time, was as follows : Mr. E. D. Seaton. president and business manager ; 
Dr. F. H. Lockwood, vice-president ; Dr. G. P. Waring, secretary : Dr. John 
Storer, treasurer; and Mr. E. Lathop. 

During the school year of 1901-2. and even before, the spirit of centraliza- 
tion and combination which dominated the commercial world, forced the 
smaller and financially weaker homceopathic colleges of Chicago to consider 
the inevitable. Careful observation readilv discerned that Chicago would 
soon have but two homoeopathic colleges. The Dunham and the Hering, be- 
ing in the same class, should amalgamate, the same being true of the Chi- 
cago Homoeopathic and Hahnemann Medical colleges. The first union, that 
of the Dunham and the Hering, was accomplished in the summer of 1902 ; 
the latter, two years later. 

That Dunham Medical College filled its mission well, attaining in a great 
measure the ideal originally announced, is attested by the fact that better 
homoeopathy is being taught in several surviving homoeopathic colleges, and 
that nearly all of the alumni, as given herewith, are continuallv preaching 
and practicing as they were taught, maintaining with unflinching devotion the 
principles and philosophv promulgated by Hahnemann. The last catalogue 
issued bv the college included in its facultv several members of the alumni, 
who are worthv of mention, and are Anna Doven. M. D., H. M. ; Charles 
W. Becker, M. D., H. M. : Van E. Freeman. M. D. ; T. Martin Littlejohn, 
M. D. ; Theresa K. Jennings. M. D., H. M. ; George L. Knapp. M. D. : Ernest 



122 HISTORY OF HOAICEOPATHY 

C. White, M. D. ; Henry S. Llewellyn, M. D., Ernest A. Farrington, M. D. 
Many pleasant memories are cherished by the officers and faculty, as 
well as the alumni, " of the good old college days " at Dunham. Now that 
a new alma mater and college home is needed for all the friends of Dunham 
Medical College, it is natural to look to its successor — The Hering Medical 
College — as being the best representative of their ambitions, hopes and ideals. 
Hering Medical College now stands practically alone in the field formerly 
occupied by the Dunham. May that institution prove worthy of the respect 
and confidence of all who wish to continue to be its friends, is the earnest 
desire of every sincere follower of Hahnemann. 

GRADUATES OF DUNHAM MEDICAL COLLEGE. 

Anderson, Oscar, D. S., '02, Kansas. 

Allen, Abby D., 'oc. Illinois. 

Blair, John W., '00, Illinois. 

Brown, Ralph D. P., "02. Colorado. 

Biggs, Ernest L., '01, Arkansas. 

Barnes, Samuel D.. B. S., '01, Illinois. 

Cole, James C, M. D., '98, New York. 

Crutcher, Louis P., '97, Illinois. 

Coffin, Eugene, '00, Illinois, 

Del Mas, Raymond, Ph. D., M. D., 01, Minnesota. 

Dailey, Ada S., M. D., '98, Iowa. 

Doyen, Anna, '96, Illinois. 

Duncan, Andrew B.. '97, IlHnois. 

Evans, John M., M. D., '97, Indiana. 

Estock, Andrew, '01, Illinois. 

Farrington, Ernest A., '02, Pennsylvania.' 

Freeman, Van E., D. D. S., '01, Ilhnois. 

Fitzsimofls, James E., A. B., '96, Connecticut. 

Grover, Daniel R., 99, Illinois. 

Glasgow, William A., 01. North Dakota. 

Hoover, Hugh, '00, Illinois. 

Hake, Edward H., M. S., '02, Ohio. 

Harrison, Edwin M., '02, Illinois. 

Hinshaw, Levi E., B. S-, '02, Illinois. 

Hollison, John H., '02, Illinois. 

Hunt, Vere V., B. A., '02, Illinois. 

Healey, Ida Wendle, '01, Wisconsin. 

•Higgins, Kittie Waldo, '01, Colorado. 

Huffman, Joseph E., '97, California. 

Jennings, Theresa Kline, '01, Illinois. 

klinetop, Arthur F., '97, Illinois. 

Knapp, George L., '02. Colorado. 

Lipscomb, Jam.es W., '00, Michigan. 

Littlejohn. J. Martin, Ph. D.. F. R. S., '02, Illinois. 

Ludden, Ella Amelia, '01, Illinois. 

Latz. Peter J., A. B., Ph. C. '96. Illinois. 

Miller, Loren B., '01. Iowa. 

Murphv, Anna M., '02, New York. 

Moore,' Wm. L, '02, New York. 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 123 

McGraw, Wm. H., '02, New York. 

McKenzie, Wm., '02, Pennsylvania. 

McKinney, Edward, '01, Pennsylvania-. 

Ozanne, Irving E., '99, Illinois. 

Osenbangh, John, '01, Illinois. 

Phelps. Claire M., '02, Illinois. 

Pickrell, Wm. B., '98. Illinois. 

Powell, Thomas M., '98, Illinois. 

Otienzer, John F., '01, Illinois. 

Raibourn, R. L., 02, Indiana. 

Richardson, Frank M., D. D. S., '01, Illinois. 

Robertson, John D.. D. D. S., '97, Illinois. 

Stranze, Ludislau? \'.. A. B., Ph. D., '96, Illinois. 

Sutton, Ella A., '01. Illinois. 

Schwartz Wm. H., '02, Pennsylvania. 

Thatcher, Fletcher J.. '00, Illinois. 

Thomas, Harvey C. '00. Indiana. 

Waring, Guernsey P.„ '97, Illinois. 

Winkler, Rose. '98, New York. 

White, j\lyron L., '01, Kansas. 

Waltenbaugh, Charles C. '01, Ohio. 

White, Ernest C, '02, Illinois. 

W'illiams, H. Emeline, '02, Illinois. 

Wickland, Carl A., '00, Illinois. 

Zimmerman. Florence D., '98. New York. 

Those receiving- the degree of master of homoeopathies (H. M.) from 

the Post-Graduate School of Homoeopathies were : 
Baker, Harrv Burgwyn, M. D., '01, Virginia. 
Becker, Chas. W., M. D., '03, Illinois. 
Barton. Clyde E., M. D., '99, Pennsylvania. 

Bassett, Alice H., M. D., '99, Massachusetts. • • 

Cameron, Hugh A., M. D., '97, Pennsylvania. 
Carpenter. Helen B., M. D., 95, Massachusetts. 
Cooper, George W., M. D., '97, Pennsylvania. 
Doyen, Anna, M. D., '01, Illinois. 
Enos, Clinton B., M. D,, 95, Colorado. 
Farrington, Harvey, A. B., M. D., 99, Pennsylvania. 
Gladwin, Frederica E., M. D., '92, Pennsylvania. 
Harrison, Wm., M. D., '02, Texas. 
Huffman, Joseph E., M. D.. '03, California. 
Hess, Amelia L., M. D., '96, Pennsylvania. 
Houghton, Henry L., M. D., '96. Massachusetts. 
Howland, Josephine. M. D.. '97. New York. 
Ives, S. Mary. M. D., '95, Pennsylvania. 
Jennings, Theresa K., M. D., '92, Illinois. 
Jackson. Marv K., M. D., '96, Pennsylvania. 
Johnson, William M., M. D.. '92, Illinois. 
Johnson, Marv T.. M. D., '94, Pennsylvania. 
Keith, Frederick S.. M. D.. '93, Massachusetts. 
Lockwood, Frederick H., M. D., '01, Illinois. 



124 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

Leggett, S. L. Guild, M. D., '93, New York. 
Lewis, Margaret C, M. D., '97, Pennsylvania. 
Loos, Julia C, M. D., '96, Pennsylvania. 
McKenzie, Peter L., M. D., '02, Oregon. 
Medley, Jennie, M. D., '92, Pennsylvania. 
Newton, Carrie E., M. D., '92, Massachusetts. 
Olds, Charles L., M. D. '94, Pennsylvania. 
Parke, Maybelle, M. D., '95, Wisconsin. 
Phelps, Josephine, M. D., '93, Pennsylvania. 
Stankowitch, Rosahe, M. D., '94, Pennsylvania. 
Stokes, Lvdia W., M. D., '96, Pennsylvania. 
Thatcher, 'G. H., M. D., '95, Pennsylvania. 
Tomhagen, John A., M. D., '91, Illinois. 
Tremaine, J. Eugene, M. D., 93, Illinois. 
Waring, Guernsey P., M. D., '03, Illinois. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 125. 



CHAPTER IV. 

XEW YORK MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL FOR WOMEN. 
By L. C. Aldrich; M. Belle Brown, M. D., Editor. 

Hahnemann was the founder of homoeopathy; Gram was its pioneer in 
America ; Hering founded the first homoeopathic school of medical instruc- 
tion in the world ; Lozier founded the first woman's homoeopathic medical 
college in the world — the New York Medical College for Women. 

Clemence Sophia Lozier belonged to a family of physicians, and imbibed 
a medical spirit in her childhood. Y'ears of ill health and the loss of little 
children impressed upon her the desirability of enlightenment as to the pre- 
vention of infantile diseases and mortality. In search of her own physical 
strength she attended the lectures of many health reformers, and followed out 
so far as possible their schemes of treatment. She afterward devoted several 
years of her middle life to earnest endeavors to ameliorate the sufferings of 
those about her, and she was famed for her skill in the care of the sick 
and was known among the people as a gentle teacher and healer. But she 
was conscious of her own limitations of medical knowledge, and in her ardent 
desire to help the sick she was led to seek admission to a medical school and 
provide herself with a diploma or license to practice. In 1849 she attended 
lectures at an eclectic college and was graduated with the highest honor of 
her class from the New York Central Medical College, in Syracuse, in 1853. 

It cannot be said that Dr. Lozier was at heart an eclectic. Her ambition 
was to become a licensed practitioner of medicine, and a course of study in 
either of the dominant schools was denied her, hence there was no other course 
than that adopted by her. To accomplish her purpose she was compelled 
to accept the eclectic school as her alma mater. She began her career in 
the city of New York, and soon built up an extensive and profitable prac- 
tice, but when she became a personal witness to all the distressing scenes 
in the homes of the sick, due in a great measure to ignorance of the simple 
laws of health, she conceived the idea of giving weekly lectures at her own 
home to whomsoever would comiC to hear them. She was then doing what 
she believed to be a plain duty to humanity, and it is doubtful if at that 
time she had in mind the founding of an institution for the medical instruc- 
tion of her own sex. The lectures from the beginning were instructive and' 
interesting, and were especially intended to furnish physical, mental and moral 
training to women for the functions of maternity and the care of children. 
But it was a beginning from which developed the idea of a medical college 
for v.'omen, and the institution of which this chapter treats was its direct 
outgrowth. 

Dr. Lozier was the guiding spirit of the new school movement, and 
drew about her many earnest friends and supporters. . Their plans soon took 
definite form, but there were obstacles to be overcome, chiefest among which 
was the opposition of the schools whose governing powers would not concede 
that women were qualified by nature or acquirement for the practice of 
medicine, miuch less to be honored with the degree of doctor of medicine. 



126 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



Fully impressed with these prejudiced notions, female applicants were re- 
fused matriculation tickets in the so-called regular schools, and even the 
action of the eclectic college in Syracuse which had the temporary courage 
to confer the degrees on three women, one of whom was Dr. Lozier, was 
made to smart for its action and to close its doors against further applicants. 
An act of incorporation was necessary to the establishment of a medical 
school if the institution proposed to award diplomas and confer the doctor's 
degree, and such surely was the purpose of Dr. Lozier and her associates 
when they made application to the legislature in 1863 ; and when the bill 
was offered there were developed opposition to it and a determination to 




C. t. €.. €^. & 




: d □ .ii 




^^■?^'i^.^ ifi-s^^ai " i?s*.:f-:-' 'r,-^-**. 




New York Aledical College and Hospital for Women. 

prevent its passage. But this opposition was not well founded; it was based 
on prejudice alone, and its champions did not succeed in swaying the legis- 
lative mind to the extent of accom.piishing its defeat. On the contrary a 
liberal charter was obtained and thereby was secured to woman the right to 
equal collegiate advantages with men, in the passage of 

" An Act to Incorporate the New York Medical College for Women.'' 
Section i. Maria Louise Ewen, Nancy Fish, Alaria L. Oscanyan, Eliza- 
beth S. S. Eaton, Martha A. Elliott, Augusta T. C. Niven, A. Ensign New- 



HISTORY OF HO:\r(EOPATHY 127 

man, of Xew York city: Matilda C. Perry, of Albany city; Maria S. Con- 
nolly, of Xew York city; Elizabeth Ransom, of Fort Hamilton, Xew York; 
Mary Ward, Sarah Ann Martin. Elvina A. Lane, Sarah A. King, Laura ^L 
Ward, Anna C. \'an Xess, Georgianna Gray. Frances S. Rugg, Mary A, 
Camerden. Harriet P. R. White, Catherine Buckley, Eliza A. King, Sarah 
Andrews, of Xew York city ; !Marie A. 'M. Fowle, of Brooklyn, Xew York ; 
Lydia E. Rushby, Mary F. James, Charlotte Fowler Wells, Margaret Austin, 
of Xew York city; and S. S. Xivison, of Tompkins county, Xew York, and 
their associates, are hereby constituted a body corporate, by the name of the 
" X'ew York Medical College for Women," to be located in the city of X'ew 
York, for the purpose of instruction in the department of learning and medical 
science professed and taught by said college. 

Sec. 2. The said corporation may hold and possess real and personal 
estate to the amount of one hundred thousand dollars, and the funds or prop- 
erty thereof shall not be used for any other purpose than that declared in 
the preceding section. The said corporation may also hold such collections 
of books, and of the productions of nature and of art, as it mav need for 
purposes of medical and clinical instruction. 

Sec. 3. The persons severally named in the first section of this act. are 
hereby appointed trustees of the said corporation, with power to fill any 
vacancy in their board. 

Sec. 4. The trustees, for the time being, shall have power to grant and 
confer the degree of doctor of medicine upon any person of the age of twenty- 
one years, of good moral character, upon the recomm.endation of the board 
of professors, who shall be appointed by the trustees of said college : but no 
person shall receive a diploma, conferring such degree, unless said person 
have pursued the study of medical science for at least three years, after 
the age of sixteen, with some physician or surgeon, duly authorized by law 
to practice in the profession, and shall also, after that age. have attended two 
complete courses of all the lectures delivered in some incorporated medical 
colleges : the last of which course shall have been delivered by the professors 
of said college. 

Sec. 5. The said college shall be subject to the visitation of the regents 
of the university, and shall annually report to them. 

Sec. 6. The corporation herebv created shall possess the powers, and be 
subject to the provisions and liabilities of title three, of chapter eighteen, 
of the first part of the revised statutes. 

Sec. 7. The legislature may at any time alter, modify, or repeal this 
act. 

Sec. 8. This act shall take effect immediately. 

(Passed April 14. 1863.) 

Thus was brought into active existence the first woman's medical college 
not only in America but in the world: thus was secured the triumph of 
the great principle of right for which the advocates of the institution had 
contended in the face of bitter opposition on the part of those who would 
have denied woman the right to practice and teach medicine. It was not 
a dearlv bought victory, nor was it secured at the sacrifice of personal or pro- 
fessional honor. They who fought the battle in the legislature were of those 
mentioned in the act of incorporation, and they were led by a woman not 
strong phvsicallv, but of v;onderful strength of character and firmness of 



128 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

purpose. Nor was it wholly a woman's contest on the one side, for there 
were men of influence and means among the advocates of this pioneer institu- 
tion, and the glories of victory were shared by many who were not mentioned 
as incorporators, but who had given more than moral support to the measure. 
The act constituted the incorporators a board of trustees and provided 
for the succession of its members. The board at once organized and pro- 
ceeded with the work laid out for it, for much was to be done before the 
opening of the first session, October 19, 1863. The first officers were as 
follows: Mrs. Maria L. Ewen, president; Mrs. Mary Ward, Mrs. Laura M. 
Ward, Mrs. C. F. Wells, vice-presidents; Mrs. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, re- 
cording secretary ; Mrs. Maria L. Oscanyan, corresponding secretary ; Miss 
Lydia E. Rushby, treasurer; Miss Marie A. M. Fowle, librarian; Mrs. Char- 
lotte F. Wells, Mrs. A. Ensign Newman, Mrs. Sarah A. King, Mrs. Elvina 
A. Lane, Mrs. Laura M. Ward, executive committee. Dr. Lozier was made 
president of the college and under that official position she performed the 
duties of dean. The folowing year she was made president of the faculty, 
and in the next year was chosen dean, which office she held until her death in 
1888. The first faculty chairs were filled as follows : 

Mrs. Clemence S. Lozier, M. D., professor of diseases of women and 
children. 

Mrs. Lydia F. Fowler, AL D., professor of pathology, principles and 
practice of medicine. 

Mrs. Sarah M. Ellis, M. D., professor of anatomy. 

Mrs. Huldah Allen, M. D., professor of physiology and hygiene. 

Isaac M. Ward, A. M., M. D., professor of obstetrics and medical juris- 
prudence. 

J. V. C. Smith, M. D., professor of clinical and operative surgery. 

Edward P. Fowler, M. D., professor of materia medica and diseases of 
the chest. 

A. W. Lozier, A. M., M. D., professor of chemistry and toxicology. 

While the subject of professorships was under consideration the trus- 
tees were in search of a suitable location for the college, and soon leased 
the building and premises at No. 74 East Twelfth street. From the beginning 
it was the purpose of the founders of the school to establish a hospital in 
connection with the college, but owing to various circumstances this acquisition 
was delayed for one year. When all the important preliminaries had been 
arranged the trustees and faculty issued a " Prospectus and Announcement 
for the Year 1863-64," from which some extracts will be found of interest: 

" The corporators have been stimulated in their efiforts to carry out the 
beneficent intentions of the projectors of this institution, by the conviction 
that the sufiferings of women, from the derangements peculiar to their organiza- 
tion, are liable to be misunderstood on account of the relation usually exist- 
ing between the patient and the physician, which does not permit that thorough 
investigation of symptoms essential to their proper treatment ; and that this 
evil, connected with the employment of physicians of the opposite sex, in the 
treatment of the diseases of women, will continue to exist so long as purity 
and delicacy continue to be recognized as the crowning excellencies of the fe- 
male character. 

" Recognizing the fact that there exists in society an imperative de- 
mand for female physicians, and a growing conviction that women should 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 129 

be educated to meet it, the legislature has granted a special charter for a 
college, in which women desirous of entering the profession, but excluded 
from the existing schools of medicine, may receive instruction in all the 
branches of medical science."' 

In addition the trustees take occasion to commend the faculty to the 
favorable consideration of the public, and also announce that applicants for 
admission will be afforded every facility for a thorough scientific course of 
instruction m all the branches of medicine. " In short," says the announce- 
ment, " the college occupies, under the laws of the state, a position equal 
to that of any medical college, and enjoys equal protection and facilities with 
other similar institutions. It will be wholly unsectarian, and no effort will 
be spared to earn for it a position of scientific value second to none in the 
world." 

The declaration of purpose to maintain the college on a " wholly unsec- 
tarian " basis evidently was made in perfect good faith, for at that time none 
of the female faculty members were graduates of a homoeopathic medical 
college, although perhaps one or more of them may have held views favor- 
able to the teachings of Hahnemann. But before the end of the first year 
there developed a tendency to adopt homoeopathic teachings, although the sec- 
ond annual announcement discloses nothing to indicate a change in the policy 
of the institution. The change, if it was such in fact, was really made after 
the end of the second school year and before the opening of the session of 
1865-66. On this subject the announcement for the session last mentioned 
says : " Although the wide-spread and imperative demand for female phy- 
sicians has been responded to by the organization of two colleges exclusively 
for women, this is the first and only one in the world where the law of 
' smtiHa ' is recognized as the only true guide in the administration of drugs ;" 
and further : " With homoeopathic teachings in addition to all the branches of 
medical science taught in other medical schools, this institution presents itself 
to the public with appeals for patronage such as no other medical school 
for the education of women can claim." The change, however, did not lead 
to a revolution in the school, although some faculty changes was the result ; 
but it did lead to the establishment of a second woman's medical college in 
the city — the " Woman's College of Physicians and Surgeons," connected with 
the New York Dispensary and Hospital for Women and Children, which 
has since maintained an existence and now is the medical department of 
Cornell University. 

In the new school, which was classed as " regular," Dr. Clemence S. 
Lozier was the first incumbent ot the chair of theory and practice, also that 
of diseases of women and children, and was dean of the faculty, while Dr. 
A. W. Lozier then was professor of microscopic anatomy and pathologv in the 
homoeopathic institution, also held the chair of surgery, pathology and micro- 
scopic anatomy in the new school. Professor James Hyatt, who in 1864-65 
held the chair of chemistrv and toxicology in the older college, arrayed him- 
self in 1865-66 with the new school. But Dr. Clemence S. Lozier severed 
her connection with the dissentient school and identified herself thoroughly 
and lovallv with the institution she had founded. She became a complete 
convert to homoeopathy, teaching and practicing according to the law of simi- 
lars until the end of her useful life. The organization of the new college 
had the effect to draw awav a few students in the mother school, but without 
serious impairment of its strength or interruption of the course of instruction. 



130 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

When the New York Medical College for Women opened its doors to 
students in October, 1863, eighteen applicants for admission to its classes were 
enrolled. They constituted the first class — the pioneer class of a pioneer 
college of medicine, and as such are entitled to be mentioned in these annals. 
Their names, residence, and vear of graduation were as follows : Miss Emily 
C. Schettler, New York city, 1864; Mrs. Elizabeth D. Wright, Mrs. Eliza- 
beth B. A. Hamilton, Mrs. Amelia G. Pollock, Mrs. Anna C. Van Ness, Mrs. 
Margaret Cooper, New York city, 1865 ; Mrs. Harriet E. Hall, Peterboro, 
New York, 1865 ; Miss Anna A. Manning, New London, Conn., 1865 ; Miss 
Mary E. Tracy, Cromwell, Conn., 1865 ; Mrs. Eloise B. Smith, Boston, Mass., 
1865 ; Miss Harriet Clisby, Australia, 1865 ; Miss S. Amelia Barnet, Newai;k, 
New Jersey, 1865; Miss Jane E. Spalding, Cold Water, Mich., 1865. 

The legislature in 1864 (April 19) passed an act by which the act of 
incorporation of 1863 was amended, and the second section was made to read 
as follows : 

The said corporation may hold and possess real and personal estate to 
the amount of one hundred thousand dollars, and the funds and property 
thereof shall not be used for any other purpose than that declared in the 
preceding section, except for hospital purposes. The said corporation may 
also hold such collections of books, and the pjoductions of nature and art, 
as it may need for the purpose of medical and clinical instruction ; and the 
said corporation sliall be known and designated as the '' New York Medical 
College and Hospital for Women and Children." 

The most important feature of this amendment was the authority to estab-' 
lish a hospital for women and children in connection with the college, accord- 
ing to the original purpose of its founders, and the less important feature, 
yet interesting as a matter of history, was the change in name of the insti- 
tution. The act, however, gave the trustees all the authority they desired, 
and they at once proceeded to regulate the affairs of their own body by 
the adoption of a constitution and by-laws, the preamble of which read as 
follows : 

" The object of this body shall be to promote the public good, by estab- 
lishing and maintaining a Scientific Medical College for the thorough medi- 
cal education of women — for afifording ladies a course of instruction in 
physiology and hygiene, and in the art of nurSing and taking care of the 
sick, and also for ameliorating the sufferings of our sex by establishing and 
maintaining a hospital for women and children." 

In 1866 the act of incorporation of 1863. and the amendatory act of 
1864, were somewhat modified by the action of the regents of the University 
of the State of New York, who under special authority of the legislature, 
were vested with control of the affairs of the college. The action of the 
regents worked important changes in the proposed operation of the college 
and constituted the real foundation on -which the institution was permanently 
founded and subsequently maintained. It was a virtual re-incorporation upon 
the application of the trustees, which being duly considered were acted upon 
as follows : 

" Now. therefore, be it known, that the said regents, by virtue of the 
authority in them by law vested, do ordain, determine and declare 

" First. That the name of the said corporation is hereby changed to 



HISTORY OF HO:\ICEOPATHY 131 

' The New York Medical College and Hospital for Women ; ' by which name 
it shall hereafter be called and known. 

" Second. Hereafter nine members of the board of trustees of the said 
institution shall form a quorum for the transaction of business ; and no elec- 
tion shall be held to fill the place of any trustee whose seat may have become 
vacant, until after the number of trustees have been reduced to less than 
seventeen and thereafter the number of trustees shall be seventeen. Neither 
the wife nor the husband of any professor in said college or hospital shall 
be a member of the board of trustees. 

" Third. The trustees shall have power to grant and confer the degree 
of doctor of medicine upon any person of the age of twenty-one years, of 
good moral character, upon the recommendation of the board of professors, 
■and the approval of a board of censors composed of at least five reputable 
physicians, to be appointed by the said trustees, who shall certify that such 
person has creditably sustained, in their presence, a critical examination in all 
the related branches of medical science ; but no person shall receive a diploma 
conferring such degree unless such person shall have pursued the study of 
medical science for at least three years after the age of eighteen years with 
some physician or surgeon duly authorized by law to practice in the pro- 
fession, and shall also after that age have attended two complete courses 
of all the lectures delivered in some incorporated medical college, the latter 
of which courses shall have been delivered by the professors of the said college. 

" Fourth. The officers of the said board of trustees, elected at the 
last election of such officers, shall continue to hold their offices until the next 
annual meeting of the board, and they and their successors shall hold their 
oflfices until others shall have been elected in their places ; and in case of 
failure to elect such officers, or any of them, at any annual meeting, such 
election mav be held at any subsequent meeting of the trustees. 

" Fifth. This ordinance shall take effect immediately, and the said re- 
gents may at anv time alter, amend, or repeal the same," 

Under an ordinance adopted by the regents, April 6, 1875, the college 
was authorized to hold real and personal estate of the value of three hundred 
thousand dollars. 

The reorganization effected under the ordinances of the regents in 1866 
placed the college on a more secure foundation and strengthened its hold 
upon the public. The authority to establish a hospital in accordance with 
the design of the founders was encouraging, but the trustees at that time 
had not at their command sufficient means to do all that was hoped for in 
that direction, either in the matter of treating patients or in clinical instruc- 
tion for the benefit of students. The announcement for the session of 1865- 
66 referred in particular to this subject, and made an urgent appeal to the 
public for assistance. The school already had accomplished much good work 
in the education of women for the practice of medicine, and in addition it 
even then was carrying on philanthropic work on a "benefice foundation " in 
offering free instruction to women to better fit themselves for missionary 
labor among the heathen. In 1867 it was announced that " six capable and 
well educated women, whose means are limited, may be annually received 
on payment of matriculation and demonstration fees," of five dollars each. 
In 1868 the trustees made a more direct appeal for help, and in their announce- 
ment said : " We have a college building, which the timely aid of our legis- 



132 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

lature and city has enabled us to secure and in part pay for. A permanent 
dispensary has been estabHshed, and as soon as we have the requisite funds 
($100,000) our hospital also will be permanently estabHshed. To aid in our 
labors Mrs. C. S. Lozier has given us $6,000 of her $10,000 subscription, 
made March i, 1867." The total donations of cash prior to 1867 amounted 
to about $3,000, but in that year the city appropriated $5,000, the state 
$3,400, while other contributions from friends made an aggregate of more 
than $10,000. In addition to this the city gave the trustees in 1868 the 
sum of $6,000. 

It was with much satisfaction that the trustees in 1868 announced: " We 
have a College Building," The structure was located at the corner of Second 
avenue and Twelfth street, and was acquired by purchase. The building 
was remodeled to meet the new requirements, with provision for a free dis- 
pensary, which now was one of the attractive features of the institution. The 
hospital department was gradually taking form, but was not sufficiently ad- 
vanced to be designated as such. In this year the state appropriation for 
the college amounted to $10,000; the city gave $5,500; Mrs. A. Rusche, 
$1,000, and the contributions of others made an aggregate of nearly $15,000, 

The session of 1869-70 was eventful in the history of the school. Be- 
fore the session was opened the trustees announced to the public that there- 
after the New York Medical College and Hospital for Women had advanced 
the standard ot requirement of medical education in the institution by the 
adoption of a compulsory three years' course of study ; and in support of 
their position, say : 

'■ The need of a higher standard of medical education has long been felt 
so that any move in that direction meets with general approval. It has been 
the opinion of the trustees and faculty of this institution that the method of 
instruction generally adopted in our medical schools is not conducive to the 
highest success. Instead of requiring students of different classes to attend 
upon the same course of lectures through each of two successive terms, it is 
deemed more philosophical to divide and grade the studies, and therefore 
essential to a thorough education, to extend the period of academic attend- 
ance. Our course of studv is arranged in conformity with these convictions. 
This plan has been partially adopted heretofore, and will be fully maintained 
hereafter, in the case of those matriculants whose private study has not been 
carried on one year, and whose classical and scientific attainments are not 
of a superior order." 

The condition of the college at this time was interesting, and there was 
much in results already accomplished to justify the prediction that a pros- 
perous future would reward the labors of those who were concerned in its 
management. The dispensary department was engaged in an important work, 
and had virtually resolved itself into a hospital in fact, if not in name. It 
was in safe hands and for some years had been in charge of a regularly 
appointed committee. For the session of 1868-69 thirty-three students were 
enrolled, fifteen in the first, seven in the second, and eleven in the third or 
senior class; and at the end of the session in the spring of 1869 ten diplomas 
in medicine were awarded. The .faculty comprised ten professorships, with 
one demonstrator and one lecturer. In six years of its existence the school 
had sent forty-five graduates into the medical profession, and in view of all 
that had been accomplished the trustees and faculty felt justified in raising 




HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 138 

the standard of education in this the mother school of its kind, and also in 
advancing the standard of requirement for matriculants. 

The hospital was formally opened September 15, 1869, ^^^ from that 
time to the end of the next session 43 patients were treated, 25 births took 
place; the dispensary physicians treated 1,300 cases, attended 1,530 outside 
calls, and gave 8,000 prescriptions. As a public charity the hospital from 
the beginning was of great benefit to suffering humanity, while its clinical 
advantages to students gave the school a much better standing with the pro- 
fessional world. 

The college was maintained at Second avenue . and Twelfth street for 
twelve years, the greater part of which period constituted an era of progress 
not before enjoyed. The property was owned by the corporation, and there 
were no dissentions on the part of the faculty and trustees. Indeed in 
the history of this school from first to last there seems to have been a remark- 
able freedom from internal strife. 

The board of trustees for several years had been composed entirely of 
women, who administered the physical afifairs of the institution in all its 
departments with excellent good judgment. Yet they were not wholly alone 
in all that was accomplished, for working hand in hand with them was a 
strong faculty body, an advisory council and a board of censors, the council 
comprising business men of wide experience in educational matters, and the 
censors comprising five well known medical practitioners. 

•For the session of 1870-1871 thirty-five students were in attendance, 
and in the spring of the latter year six diplomas in medicine were awarded, 
against five of the preceding year, and eleven for the year 1869. This 
did not indicate a falling oft' in normal attendance, but was the natural result 
of the adoption of the compulsory three years' course of study. The sys- 
tem now was in satisfactory working order and met with the approval of 
the profession at large. 

It is true the adoption of the longer course slightly alTected the attend- 
ance for a time, but the quality of work accomplished was better than before. 
In addition to didactic teaching in the course of study there were four clinics 
held weekly in the college building, two in the New York Homceopathic 
Dispensary, and two in the New York Ophthalmic Hospital. Some years 
before this time the supplementary or spring term had been introduced and 
gave opportunity for special study of ophthalmology, obstetrical surgery, aus- 
cultation, and microscopic examinations. 

At the time indicated the school had passed the experimental period 
of its history, and had proved to be a success with every promise of perma- 
nency, and that despite the predictions of the wiseacres of former years that 
it would run its course and then quietly pass out of existence. When the 
question of the professional education of women was first presented medical 
colleges closed their doors against them, but after the New York Medical 
College and Hospital for Women had been in operation for about ten years, 
a few other schools became co-educational and admitted women to their 
classes : and at the time referred to this school still held sway and was 
known as the leading institution of its kind in America, a reputation it has 
since easily maintained. The announcement for the eleventh session refers 
at some length to this subject, and with pardonable pride the trustees and 
faculty take occasion to say : 

*' The medical education of women is no longer a question. It is now 



134 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

a fact, accomplished and accepted as such, even by those who were at first 
its strongest opponents. * * * The practical accomplishment of this edu- 
cational task has, however, been surrounded with many difficulties, and in 
overcoming these the trustees and faculty have become convinced that the 
proper development of this wide and comparatively new field of woman's 
work and usefulness requires not simply the same teaching and the same 
advantages as are afiforded to men, but, more than this, it demands a longer 
course of study, greater attention to details and a more exhaustive treat- 
ment of the subjects of study than is found in the ordinary medical colleges. 
In other words, the medical education of ufomen must be more thorough and 
carried to a higher degree than the medical education of m>en. 

" When the question of the professional education of women was first 
agitated the medical colleges of the country were closed against them, and, 
with a few exceptions, so remain. It therefore became necessary to establish 
a medical college expressly for their instruction. Hospital advantages were 
at first denied them, and were finally procured with difficulty, but not without 
being subjected to many annoyances, so that it was decided to supplement 
the college with a hospital and dispensary. All this has been accomplished, 
and not only this. The college has been thoroughly equipped with every 
material and apparatus requisite for medical instruction. * * * The re- 
quirements for every department have been fully provided for." 

The trustees and faculty at this time also announced an increase in the 
teaching force, by the appointment of Prof. James O. Carmichael to the 
chair of anatomy, and Prof. William O. MacDonald to the chair of diseases 
of women and children, both men of ability and high professional standing. 
At the same time Dr. J. Antonio Terry was appointed to the lectureship on 
laryngoscopy, and Dr. Emma Scott to that of principles and practice of medi- 
cine. The school now offered unusual facilities for clinical teaching, and was 
greater and stronger than ever before in its history. 

In 1874 the educational facilities of the college and hospital were ma- 
terially improved by the acquisition of a new property at 301 Lexington ave- 
nue, where it was proposed to erect in the near future large and commodious 
buildings for all the purposes of the institution. The cost of this property 
was $125,000, and when it was ready for occupancy the former college home 
was sold. For more perfect operation of the new hospital department an 
aid society of ladies, known as the " Hospital Managers " was organized to 
assist the medical staff provided to be appointed for its general supervision. 
The especial purpose of the managers was to raise funds for hospital main- 
tenance, and look to the welfare and comfort of the unfortunates brought 
there for treatment. The hospital managers were a factor for good in the 
history of the institution and carried forward a noble charity for several years. 
The medical staff comprised many professional men of prominence, and gave 
to the department under their attendance a deserved popularity. The per- 
sonnel of the first staff was as follows: Dr. John F. Gray, Edward Bayard, 
Henrv D. Paine, Lewis Hallock, Plenrv B. Smith, E. I. P. Fowler, William 
J. Baner, S. Lilienthal, C. S. Lozier, Marv W. Noxon, Alfred K. Hills, R. 
McMurray, Orlena F. Smith, William Tod Helmuth, E. Carleton, Jr.. F. E. 
Doughty, William O. MacDonald. 

With the acquisition of the new property the college corporation became 
the owner of a valuable estate, and the charter amendment of April 6, 1875, 
was secured to increase the total amount authorized to be held. But with 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 135 

the increased educational facilities there came increased responsibilities in 
the business management and maintenance of the institutions, and it was 
deemed necessary to make some changes in the personnel of the board of 
trustees, which prior to 1875 had been composed of women, by replacing 
some of them with persons of the opposite sex. 

The corporation not only owned real and personal estate of considerable 
value, but the property was encumbered with debt, not large, yet still a mort- 
gage indebtedness which in the course of events must be satisfied, and man's 
experiences in aflfairs of the kind was supposed to be essential to the future 
welfare of the institution, hence the election to the board of trustees of Isaac 
C. Kendall, Henry G. Stebbins, David I. Ely and Charles Butler. But this 
acquisition of strength, however strong, did not prevent disaster, and the 
project of erecting costlv buildings on the Lexington avenue lots was com- 
pelled to be abandoned, the property was sold, and the college found a tempo- 
rary home at Lexington avenue and Thirty-seventh street, where it was 
maintained in insufficient quarters until 1881. This was the most unfortunate 
event in the history of the institution, but it was not due to bad business 
management and was only one of the results of the financial panics which 
swept the country during and after 1873 wrecking thousands of interests and 
institutions and causing a depression in business circles which continued sev- 
eral years. 

In the history of this school the efifects of the period began to be felt 
soon after 1875, and continued until about 1888; but there was no closing 
of doors, and the college was standing on as firm foundation as ever, although 
the graduating class of 1876 numbered only four persons, as against twenty- 
three in the preceding year. In 1877 nine degrees were conferred, in 1878 
there were twenty-seven, in 1879, six, and seven in 1880. Upon the sur- 
render of the Lexington avenue property there was little interruption of 
college routine life, and never at any time were the trustees and 'faculty 
alarmed for the safety of the institution. The teaching force was main- 
tained, and for the session of 1879-80 included twelve regular professors 
and as many lecturers. 

In 1880 a new and important factor for good appeared in the life of 
the college. On the day following the commencement exercises of that year 
the graduates of the New York Medical College and Hospital for Women 
held a general meeting and organized an alumnae association, whose object 
was, and is. " to work for the higher interests of the medical profession, 
and bv united action to promote social and harmonious feeling among its 
members, and especially to awaken personal interest in their alma mater." In 
the association the college found a new and needed friend, and from the 
day of its organization to the present time it has exercised a powerful influence 
in molding the policv and promoting the welfare of the institution. During 
the first year of its existence the association contributed to the hospital mam- 
tenance fund by collections from various sources nearly $1,400. 

In the nineteenth annual announcement the trustees mentioned with 
gratification that they had secured " a commodious building admirably adapted 
to the want? of the college and hospital." The property referred to was 
leased in 1881. and was the home of the school for nearly twenty years 
afterward. It was on West Fifty-fourth street, between Broadway and 
Seventh avenue, and while in some respects lacking in facilities for intended 
use, was readilv adapted to its intended occupancy only as women of deter- 



rs6 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

mination can adapt conditions to suit their requirements. The change, how- 
ever, was a decided improvement on former conditions. 

The first session opened auspiciously, and at its end in 1882 the doctor's 
degree was conferred on ten graduates, a larger class than any since 1878, 
The hospital and its clinics had now become a prominent feature of the cur- 
riculum and the school was increasing in popularity notwithstanding the 
introduction of medical co-education in other colleges. 

For the session of 1883-84 gold prizes were introduced by Prof. W. 
Storm White for the best and most complete set of notes on his lectures 
on pathological anatomy and also on histology. For the next session Dr. 
Lozier, the dean, offered a gold prize for the best notes on her clinical lectures 
on diseases of women and children. This w^as followed in the next year 
by Dr. Boynton with first and second senior class prizes for the best stand- 
ing in ophthalmology and otolog>' ; the Demorest prize, a handsome gold 
medal, for the best notes on lectures in physiology, and " to encourage woman 
to practice the art of surgery," a gold medal was oft"ered to the most pro- 
ficient senior in " operations upon the cadaver." 

In 1888 (April 26) Dr. Clemence Sophia Lozier, founder of the col- 
lege, dean, and emeritus professor of diseases of women and children, was 
taken away by the hand of death. For more than twenty-five years she had 
been the guiding spirit of the school, and during all that long period she 
had labored imceasingly, giving her strength, her time, and her money 
with free and unstinted hand for the purpose of securing to women a medi- 
cal education equal to that given to men. When her death was announced 
the homoeopathic medical profession mourned with her family, and the feel- 
ings of the trustees and faculty found expression in' resolutions which were 
printed in the announcement for the next session. The faculty resolutions 
were as follows : 

" W^HEREAS^ our co-worker, Dr. Clemence S. Lozier. has been called by 
death to enter into her eternal reward, 

Therefore resolved, that in her death, the cause of medical education 
for women has lost a pioneer and earnest advocate, the Xew York Medical 
College and Hospital for Women its founder and benefactor, its first presi- 
dent, its professor from its foundation, its dean for the past twenty-two years, 
and, above all, its faithful friend, who for a quarter of a century has per- 
mitted no selfish motives to come between her and its best interests. 

'' Resolved, that the faculty have always found her gentle and womanly, 
but firm in her convictions of what she believed to be right; also that in 
this Providence thev have lost not only a fellow worker, but each one of 
them a personal friend. 

Resolved, that these resolutions be placed on file, and a copy of them 
be forwarded bv the secretarv to the familv of the deceased. 

'M. L. Holbrook. M. D. 
Phoebe J. B. Wait, M. D. 
Louise Gerrard, M. D. 

Committee. 

Since 1868 Dr. Lozier has been emeritus professor of diseases of w^omen 
and children in the college, but for several years the arduous duties of her 
chair had been performed by others. Dr. Mary A. Brinckman being professor 
of diseases of w^omen, and Dr. Juliet P. Van Evera of diseases of children. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 187 

There had been a disposition to relieve Dr. Lozier of the onerous duties of 
her chair for some time previous to her death, and the eminent founder 
herself was at times inclined to lay aside the responsibilities of her posi- 
tion, but the trustees and her co-workers of the faculty were desirous that 
her name should head the faculty roster as long as she lived. At the beginning 
of the twenty-sixth session Dr. Phoebe J. B. Wait began her service as dean 
of the faculty, and still continued her former duties in connection with the 
chair of obstetrics. 

During her more than twenty-live years of intimate association with the 
growth and progress of the New York Medical College and Hospital for 
Women, Dr. Lozier was a witness to many changes in its character, methods 
and history, and it was gratifying to her to know that at the end of the 
twenty-fifth session of the school she had founded there had been sent out 
into the ranks of the profession two hundred and twenty women physicians 
and surgeons. 

In 1864, when Emily Schettler took her degree, the first diploma in 
medicine ever awarded by a woman's medical college, Dr. Lozier felt that 
her energies had not been wasted or spent in vain ; and at the close of the 
session of 1887-88 it was her pleasure to see nine splendidly equipped women 
go out from her school with diplomas which ranked equal to those of any 
medical school in this country ; and to feel that she had been an instrument 
in the accomplishment of this result was to her a source of deep gratifica- 
tion. In 1863 there were eight members of the faculty who entered upon 
their duties in that little building in East Twelfth street : there were fifteen 
regular faculty chairs and five minor professorships when she closed her 
labors in connection with the college at the end of the session in the spring 
of 1888. 

Dr. Phoebe J. B. ^\'ait. the new dean, found healthful conditions when 
she took up the duties of office as successor to Dr. Lozier, and the trustees 
chose well when they elected this graduate of the class of '71 to a position 
in the business department of the college. In 1880 she had succeeded Prof. 
Loomis L. Danforth in the chair of obstetrics, and had been a member of 
the teaching force nearly ten years when she was called to the deanship. She 
served in that capacity until 1896. and then was succeeded by Dr. J. De La 
M. Lozier. 

In 1893 the trustees with the aid and full approval of the faculty 
adopted the four years' graded course, and thereby again raised the standard 
of medical education m the college. This step was taken advisedly and 
after full consideration of its probable effect and ultimate result, for it 
was assumed that the change would increase the cost of medical education 
to students, and would probably reduce the attendance and also the reve7 
nues of the school ; but the four years' compulsory course was being adopted 
by other medical colleges in the interest of more thorough education and 
to meet the exacting requirements of the laws ; and as the Xew York 
Medical College and Hospital for Women never was a follower, but always 
a leader, as it was in fact a pioneer, the new advance step was taken early, 
even before the standard of professional education was raised by the re- 
gents. Dr. Wait was dean of the faculty at the time this change was made, 
and to her executive ability and wise administration much of the success 
of tlie college at that time and afterward was due. It was said of her that 
she knew every matriculate by name, knew all their trials and perplexities, 



138 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

and by her tact and sympathy helped many discouraged students over the 
rough paths of college life. 

Having declared " unequivocally " for the four years' course, as a " ne- 
cessity to the sick " and '' a duty to the public," and having learned by prac- 
tical experience that the new plan was successful beyond their expectations, 
the trustees and faculty realized that their aim to " make this college equal 
to any in the world " had not failed of its purpose in any respect. As in 
former years they had calculated on the probable results, and had considered 
the contingencies, and they were gratified to learn that the innovation had 
not in the least impaired the efficiency of the school, nor affected its stand- 
ing, except to advance its popularity. But this was not the end of progress 
in the direction of higher medical education. 

In 1895 --^^ application was made to the regents for an ordinance of 
re-incorporation, and that body, after official inspection, having become satis- 
fied that all suitable provision had been made for the proper maintenance 
of both college and hospital, and that all other requirements had been fullv 
met, did re-incorporate the legal successors of the original incorporators, and 
their successors in office, under the name of New York Medical College and 
Hospital for Women, and declared the first trustees of the corporation under 
the new charter to be Amelia Wright, M. D., Charlotte Fowler Wells, Ellen 
Louise Demorest, Rosalie ]\IacBride, Cordelia Williams. M. D., Henry 
S. Day, Mary Knox Robinson. Louise A. Wilson. Jefferson M. Levy, Clarion 
Gurney, Andrew J. Robinson, Harriet L. Bender, Mary Day, Mary Eliza 
Merritt, Margaritta Kingsland Welsh and Mary Lloyd. 

The action of the regents incorporated the New York ]^Iedical College 
and Hospital for \^'^omen a part of the L'niversity of the State of New York. 
All diplomas are granted and signed by the trustees, the faculty, and also 
by the regents. As then established and now existing, the diploma of this 
college is equal to that of any medical institution in America. Its degree, 
]\I. D.. is conferred by the regents on students of good moral character, not 
less than twenty-two years old, who are recommended by the faculty as 
having completed the course and passed the examination required by law 
for medical license, or their equivalent approved by the regents, and as 
having conformed to the laws and ordinances regulating the practice of 
medicine and the conferment of medical degrees in this state. 

In the report of the trustees of the hospital department of the college 
for the vear 1886, one paragraph reads : " Our work has outgrown the limits 
of the building we now occupy ; and our onlv hope is that some noble persons 
noted for good deeds will aid us in securing a building adequate in size 
and better calculated for the work we have to do." Tbis indirect appeal 
was the real beginning of the movement which led ultimately to the erec- 
tion of the splendid college and hospital building on One Hundred and 
First street, although the intention at that time was to found a hospital 
separate from. \et connected with the college, and for the use of the medical 
students attending there. 

In 1887 the trustees began the work of creating a building fund, but 
progress in that direction was slow until after the death of Dr. Lozier, when 
the alumnae and personal friends of the late dean undertook to raise funds 
for the erection of a hospital building to be known as "The Lozier Memorial 
Pavilion." Soon afterward a fair was held under the direction of the 
alumnse association, and therebv the fund-; in the treasurer's hands were 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 139 

increased by nearly $2,000. For several years afterward the subject was one 
chiefly of discussion and various means were adopted to raise money to buv 
land and begin the work of construction. The memorial fund in 1895 
amounted to more than S8,ooo, and was gradually growing. 

In 1896 the trustees took more decisive action in selecting a location, 
and in 1897 purchased land on One Hundred and First street, west of 
Central park : but in the meantime it had been decided to erect both college 
and hospital buildings, the college first and the latter as soon as the needed 
funds could be raised. The estimated cost of the college building was 
$25,000. and of the hospital, $45,000, the latter being larger from the fact 
that the law required fire-proof construction. The work of the subscription 
committee and the alumnje was carried forward with commendable vigor ; 
the trustees and building committee were equally earnest in their endeavors, 
and in October, 1898, the trustees abandoned the old structure on Fifty- 
fourth street for occupancy of the new building, which is the west half, or 
No. 19. of the front shown in the accompanying illustration. The project, 
however, was not allowed to rest with the completion of the work men- 
tioned, but was carried on until the finished structure was occupied. Ground 
was broken for the new part on April 14, 1901. and the completed edifice 
was occupied at the opening of the session of 1902-03. 

One of the most efficient agents in providing funds for the completion 
of the hospital building was the Hospital Guild, through whose efforts, 
directly and indirectlv. the sum of S12.000 was paid over to the treasurer. 
The erection of the right half of the building, shown in the illustration, was 
the work to which the guild dedicated itself. 

The total frontage of the building is forty-five feet, and the style is 
French renaissance. The material up to the line of the first floor is lime- 
stone of grayish-white color. Above this the front, except the cornice and 
its balustrade, is of terra cotta. of color in harmony with that of the lime- 
stone. The terra cotta is well modeled, the free columns of the second story 
being among the best wrought examples in the city of such architectural 
details in this material. 

The corporation of the New York Medical College and Hospital for 
Women is the possessor of one of the most modern medical school buildings 
in the country. The structure is the result of years of earnest endeavor, and 
faithful, persistent efifort : and within its walls is maintained one of the best 
educational institutions of its kind of which America can boast. Both are 
established on foundations as solid and safe as mechanical skill and educa- 
tional ingenuity can produce, and from the inception of the school in 1863 
both have kept even step in the march of progress. There have been periods 
of adversity and discouragement, but never in the life of the school has there 
been a time when its existence was threatened, and never an occasion when 
there was a disposition to surrender the charter. 

At times it has been necessarv to inaugurate methods that called for 
reorganization of various departments, esnecially in the faculty, and in 
keeping pace with advanced ideas of teaching medical science it has been 
necessarv to replace old instructors with new. and occasionally to infuse new 
life and spirit into the tpaching force. At times these changes have created 
dissatisfaction, but without serious disturbance, and all have been made for 
the welfare of the school. And there have been times, too, when the students. 



140 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

mindful of their own future interests, as well as of the college, have asserted 
authority and secured necessary changes. 

Two all-important factors in the life of the New York Medical College 
and Hospital for Women during the more than forty years of its history 
have been a capable board of trustees and an efficient faculty, the former 
having authority over the physical affairs of the college in all departments, 
including the faculty, and the latter having immediate charge of the work 
of education, with an advisory relation to the action of the trustees ; but 
from the day the school was founded these bodies have worked in harmony, 
and by their united endeavors have produced the healthful conditions that 
prevail in the college life to-day. 

THE FACULTY. 

The faculty of the New York Medical College and Hospital for Women 
always has been noted for its strength, and its roster includes the names of 
professors and teachers who attained prominence in the ranks of the homoeo- 
pathic medical profession. Of those who served on the faculty since the 
school was founded, it would be an injustice to select a few as subjects of 
special mention, and a proper record of the lives of all who are worthy of 
notice would require a volume. Therefore in this connection only the roster 
of the faculty will be given, showing names of incumbents and the year each 
chair was established. In this way something of the growth of the school 
may be learned. In the following list the names of faculty members are not 
continued from year to year imless they were assigned to other chairs and 
duties, but as new names appear on the roll they are noted ; and it may be 
assumed that they held their respective chairs until their successors were 
elected. The appended list shows the original faculty, with subsequent 
changes and increase. For purposes of concise statement abbreviations are 
used. 

1863. Mrs. Clemence Sophia Lozier, M. D., Dis. of Women and Chil. ; Mrs. Lydia 
F. Fowler, M. D., Path. Prin. and Prac. of Med.; Mrs. Sarah M. Ellis, M. D., Anat. ; 
Mrs. Huldah Allen, M. D., Phys. and Hyg. ; Isaac M. Ward, A. M., M. D., Obst. and 
Med. Jur. ; J. V. C. Smith, M. D., Clin, and Op. Surg. ; Edward P. Fowler, M. D., Mat. 
Med. and Dis. of Chest; A. W. Lozier, A. M., M. D., Chem. and Toxicol. 

1864. John Ellis, M. D., Theory and Prac. of Med.; Joel R. Andrews, M. D., 
Prin. and Prac. of Surg. ; James Hyatt, M. D., Chem. and Toxicol. ; S. R. Kirby, M. D., 
Therap. and Mat. Med. 

1865. Timothy Field Allen, M. D., Chem. and Toxicol.; Carroll Dunham, M. D., 
Therap. and Mat. Med. 

1867. J. V. C. Smith, M. D., Anat. ; E. P. Fowler, M. D., Theo. and Prac. ; F. L. H. 
Willis, M. D., Mat. Med. and Toxicol.; B. D. Penfield, Esq., Med. Jur.; Anna Inman, 
M. D., Obst. 

t868. Henry B. Millard. M. D., Theo. and Prac. and Thera. ; William T. Okie, 
M. D., Mat. Med. and Toxicol. ; Mrs. Clemence S. Lozier, Emer. Prof. Dis. of Women. 

1869. Samuel Lilienthal, Clin. Med.; Mrs. Charlotte A. Lozier, M. D., Asst. to 
chair of Physiol, and Hyg. 

1870. Mrs. C. S. Lozier. Emer. Prof. Dis. of Women and Chil. ; John C. Minor, 
M. D., Princ. and Prac. of Surg.; S. P. Burdick, Obst.; E. M. Kellogg, M. D., Dis. of 
Women and Chil. 

1871. F. E. Doughty, M. D.. Surgy. ; H. C. Houghton, M. D., Physiol. 

1872. Alfred K. Hills, M. D., Mat. Med. and Thera.; Mary H. Everett, M. D., 
Dem. of Anat. ; Abraham W. Lozier, M. D., Histol. 

1873. James A. Carmichael, M. D., Anat, Robert McMurray, M. D., Clin. Med.; 
William O. MacDonald, M. D., Dis. of Women and Chil.; Charles A. Avery, L.L. D., 
Chem. and Toxicol. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 141 

1875. William Tod Helmuth, M. D.. Clin. Surg.; E. Carleton, Jr., M. D., Surg.; 
William N. Guernsey. M. D., and Amelia Barnett, M. D., Obstet. 

1877. Henry R. Stiles, M. D., A. M., Physiol, and Psychol. Med. ; George M. Dillow, 
M. D., Chem. and Toxicol. 

1878. Timothy F. Allen, M. D., Mat. Med. ; N. A. Mosman, M. D., Dis. of Women ; 
St. Clair Smith, M. D., Phvs. and Hyg. ; Loomis L. Dai^orth, M. D., Obstet. 

1879. Mary E. Bond, M. D., Mat. Med.; J. M. Schlly, M. D., Princ. and Prac. of 
Med. ; Louise Gerrard, M. D., Anat. ; Jennie DeLa M. Lozier, M. D., Asso. Prof. Physiol. 

1880. William J. Baner, M. D., Princ. and Prac. of Med. ; Phoebe J. B. Wait, M. D., 
Obstet.; Mrs. J. G. Brinkman, Gynecol.; Mary H. Everett, M. D., Path. Anat. and 
Histol. ; Henry A. Mott, M. D., Ph. D., Chem.; F. H. Boynton, M. D.. Ophthal. and 
Otol.; J. M. Schley, M. D., Dis. of Throat and Chest. 

1881. Sarah J. White. M. D.. Dis. of the Chest. 

1882. William B. Wait, Esq.. Med. Juris.; Henry R. Stiles. M. D., Men. and Nerv. 
Dis.; M. L. Holbrook, M. D., Hyg. 

1883. Juliet P. VanEvera, M. D.. Dis. of Chil. ; W. Storm White, M. D., Path. 
Anat. and Histol. 

1884. R. Heber Bedell. M. D.. Princ. and Prac. of Med. 

1886. M. H. Dearborn. M. D.. Princ. and Prac. of Med.; Annie Smith. M. D., 
Anat. ; George C. Hawley. M. D.. Chem. ; J. T. O'Connor, M. D., 'Ment. and Nerv. Dis. 

1887. William H. Bennett, A. B.. Chem.; Thomas C. Williams, M. D., Phys. Diag. 
and Dis. of Heart and Lungs. 

1888. Alexander S. Lyman. Esq.. Med. Juris. 

1889. M. Belle Brown, M. D.. Dis. of Women; Bushrod W. James, M. D., Physiol.; 
Louise Ziegelmeier Buckholz, M. D., Chem. 

1890. Emily Kempin, L.L. D., Med. Juris. 

1892. Malcolm Leal. M. D., Asso. Prof. Princ. and Prac. of Med. ; Louise Lanin, 
Dis. of Chil. ; Frank Moss, Esq., Med. Juris. 

1893. A. R. Mc^NIichael. M. D.. Mat. Med.; Sidney F. Wilcox, M. D., Surg.; 
William Francis Honan. M. D.. Physiol. 

1894. Gertrude Allen. M. D., Physiol. 

1895. Harriette D'Esmonde Keatinge, M. D., Path. Anat. and Histol. 

1896. Emily V. Pardee, M. D.. Hyg. and Dietetics; Marea H. Brokhaus, M. D., 
Laryng. and Rhinol. ; William H. King. M. D.. Electro-Therap. ; William E. Rounds, 
M. D.. Otologv. 

1897- Rita Dunlevv. :M. D.. Otol: St. Clair Smith, M. D., Dis. of Chil.; George 
W. Roberts. M. D.. Ph. B.. Adj. Prof, of Surgy. 

1898. George G. Shelton. M. D.. Phys. Diag. and Dis. of Heart and Lungs; J. Perry 
Seward, M. D.. Hyg. and Dietetics. 

1S99. Helen Coole}% M. D., Chem.; Elizabeth Jarrett, M. D.. Adj. Prof. Prac of 
Med. 

1900. Helen Cooley Palmer. M. D.. Chemistry. 

1901. William H. Vanderburg. M. D.. Phys. Diag. and Dis. of Heart and Lungs ; 
George W. Roberts, M. D., Ph. D., Surgery. 

1902. William Tod Helmuth. M. D..'Orthop. Surgy.; Elizabeth Jarrett. M. D., 
Asso. Prac. of Med. ; Sophia Morganthaler. M. D.. Asso. Dis. of Women. 

1903. Rita Dunlevy, M. D., Princ. of Surgy. ; Eirene Laselle Rounds, M. D., Electro- 
Therap. 

The Faculty, igo4-igo5. 

F. H. Boynton, M. D., Prof. Clin. Ophthalmology. 

J. T. O'Connor, ]\L D., Emer. Prof, of Mental and Nervous Diseases. 

Annie Smith Campbell, M. D., Prof, of Anatomy. 

M. Belle Brown, M. D., Prof, of Clinical Gynaecology. 

Louise Z. Buckholz. M. D., Prof of Clin. Obst. 

Malcolm Leal. M. D., Prof, of Theo. and Prac. of Med. 

Frank Moss, L.L. D.. Prof, of INIedical Jurisprudence. 

Sidney F. Wilcox. M. D., Prof, of Clinical Surgerv. 

A. R. McMichael. A. M.. M. D.. Prof, of Clinical Physical Diagnosis and of 
Materia Medica and Therapeutics. 

Emily V. Pardee Disbrow. M. D., Prof, of Diseases of Children. 

Helen Cooley Palmer, M. D., Prof, of Ophthalmology and Gynaecology. 

Rita Dunlevy, M.- D., Prof, of Principles of Surgery. 



142 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

Elizabeth Jarrett, ]M. D., Prof, of Practice of Medicine. 

E. D. Rudderow, M. D., Prof, of Physical Diagnosis and Diseases of the Heart and 
Lungs. 

Charles Deady. M. D., Prof, of Otology. 

Clarence C. Howard, M. D., Prof, of Clinical Mental and Nervous Diseases. 

John E. Wilson, M. D., Prof, of Mental and Nervous Diseases. 

William Francis Honan, M. D., Prof, of Surgery. 

Ralph A. Stewart, M. D., Prof, of Pathological Anatomy. 

B. B. Clark, M. D., Prof, of Histology. 

Gertrude G. Mack, M. D., Adjunct Prof, of Materia Medica. 

Stella Q. Root, I\I. D., Adj. Prof., of Obstetrics. 

Emily C. Charles, M. D., Diseases of Children. 

Frederick M. Dearborn, M. D., Dermatology. 

Carroll Dunham Smith. Pharmacology. 

Sophie B. Scheel. Practice. 

Mary Louise Foster, A. B., Chemistry. 

Margaret Adelina Reed, A. B., Physiology. 

Cornelia C. Brant, M. D., Gynaecology. 

Lucy Osborne Wight, M. D., Electro-Therapeutics. 

Elizabeth Cahoon, IM. D., Obstetrics and Minor Surgery. 

S. Drysdale Buchanan, M. D., Fractures and Dislocations. 

James G. Miller, M. D., Hygiene and Dietetics. 

Robert ^I. Jones. M. D., Diseases of Nose and Throat. 

E. D. Simpson, M. D., Clinical Instructor in Diseases of Children. 

E. P. Swift, ]M. D., Clinical Instructor in Practice of Medicine. 

Officers of the Faculty. 

President of the College — Mrs. Clemence Sophia Lozier, 1863. 

President of the Faculty — ^Mrs. Clemence Sophia Lozier, 1864: H. M. Dearborn, 

1896-99: F. H. Boynton, 1899—. 
Dean of the College — Isaac M. Ward. 1864; Mrs. C. S. Lozier. 1S66. 
Dean of the Faculty— Mrs. C. S. Lozier, 1868-88; Phoebe J. B. Wait, 1888-96; 

Jennie De La M. Lozier, 1896-98; 'M. Belle Brown. 1898 — . 
Secretary of the Faculty— J. M. Schley, 1880-81; ]\Irs. J. G. Brinkman, 1881-86; 

Louise Gerrard, 1886-90; M. Belle Brown, 1890-98: Harriet D'Esmonde Keatinge, 

1898-99: Helen Cooley, 1899; Helen Cooley Palmer, 1900 — . 
Treasurer — Loomis L. Danforth, 1881-84. 
Registrar — Edmund Carleton, 1884-92. 

THE TRUSTEES. 

The incorporators of the Xew York ^Medical College and Hospital for 
Women, as the institution is now knowi"i, constituted the first board of 
trustees, and since that time have been properly known either as trustees or 
the corporation. To this body in the beginning- was entrusted the manage- 
ment of the physical as well as the educational affairs of the college, and at 
all times to members have been chosen with reference to business capacity, 
influence and individual integrity. Previous to the amendment of 1875 the 
board was composed entirely of women, but in that year four of them were 
replaced with men. At first, too. the founders of the college adopted a 
policy of having a numerous board of trustees, but it soinetimes proved to 
iDe a large and cttmbersome body, greater than the interests of the institution 
required, hence the number was reduced. 

It cannot be said that at any time in the history of the college the ex- 
•clusively women's board of trustees was incapable to manage its affairs, still 
when the school and its hospital had become thoroughly organized, and was 
Toeing operated at large expense, it became advisable for the best interests 
of the entire institution to elect male members to take more than nominal 
part in ih'e councils of the board of trustees ; and when the corporation had 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHV U:; 

become possessed of valuable real property, and considerable sums of money 
were required to be raised, man's experience in such matters was found nec- 
essary. However, from the founding of the institution to the present time 
its trustees, of whatever sex, have been chosen solely with reference to the 
welfare of the college and its hospital. Since the original act of incorpora- 
tion v.as passed the following persons have been elected to the office of 
trustee. 

1863. ]^Iaria Louisa Ewen, Nancy Fish. ^laria L. Oscanyan. Elizabeth S. S. Eaton, 
Martha A. Elliott. Augusta T. C. Xiven, A. Ensign Newman, Matilda C. Perry, Maria 
S. Connelly, Elizabetjj Ransom, Mary Ward. Sarah .\nn Martin, Elvina A. Lane, Sarah 
A. King, Laura M. Ward, .\nna C. VanNess, Georgianna Gray. Frances S. Rugg. Mary 
A. Camerden. Harriet P. R. White. Catherine Buckley, Eliza A. King, Sarah .\ndre\vs, 
Marie A. M. Fowle, Lydia E. Rushby, Mary F. James, Charlotte Fowler Wells. Mar- 
garet Austin. S. S. Nivison. 

1864. Mrs. William H. Greenough, Mrs. Dr. Bayard, Mrs. Richard T. Haines, Mrs. 
Jonathan Sturges, Mrs. Amos C. White, Mrs. Anna Brouwer. Mrs. Dr. Baner, Mrs. 
James H. Partridge, Mrs. Dr. J. T. Evans, Mrs. S. R. L Bennett. Elizabeth Cady 
Stanton, Mrs. J. R. Davis, Mrs. C. C. North, Mrs. C. S. Knapp, Mrs. Dr. Lafon, Mr^. 
R. H. Blatchford, Mrs. D. E. Sackett. 

1865. Mrs. James McKaye, Mrs. E. E. Bowen, ^Mrs. B. F. Bowers, Mrs. Carroll 
Dunham. Mrs. F. Humphreys, Mrs. Oliver Johnson, Mrs. F. C. M'Gonegal, Mrs. Henry 
M. Smith. 

1866. Mrs. C. L. Brace. Mrs. H. G. Blinn, :Miss M. B. Dewey. Mrs. V. C. King, 
Mrs. F. L. Potter, Mrs. ^L E. Winchester, Mrs. George E. VanDerburg. 

1868. Mrs. A. Lynch Botta, Mrs. H. Pendleton, Mrs. K. H. Browning. 

1869. Mrs. D. V. Ropes. 

1870. Mrs. David Ely. 

1871. Mrs. Stephen Cutter. 

1872. Mrs. L. T. Warner. 

1874. Mrs. Dyer, ^Irs. Eunice Bigelow, Mrs. C. C. Wakeley, ^Irs. Emma Keep 
Schley. 

1875. :Mrs. E. K. Harley, Mr. Isaac C. Kendall, Mr. Henry G. Stebbins, Mr. David 
L Ely, :\Ir. Charles Butler. 

1876. Mrs. L. Ralston Smith, Mrs. John Gray, Mrs. Peet. 

1877. Rev. H. A. Sackett, Mr. Stephen Cutter. 

1878. Mr. William Hering. 

1879. Mrs. C. Fowler Wells, Mrs. Dr. M. H. Gilbert, Mr. George E. \'anDerburg. 

1880. Amelia Wright. M. D., Mrs. F. Bringues. :^rrs. Mary S. Wells. :Mrs. John P. 
Newman. :^Irs. Alice B. Campbell. M. D.. Mrs. M. A. Gilbert, M. D., :Mrs. Mars^ F. 
Mann, AL D. 

1881. [Mrs. Sylvia A. Dewey, Mrs. Mary E. Allen, Mrs. Sara Keables Hunt. Mr. 
Charles B. Wait. 

1882. Madame Demorest, Miss Susan King. Mrs. Lizzie Palmer. 

1883. Mrs. Sarah A. Moffatt, Mrs. Mary Day. 

1884. W'illiams Jennings Demorest, Rev. Henry S. Day, Mrs. F. J. Spaulding, Mrs. 
J. J. Little, Mrs. Annie Monell. 

1885. Mrs. Nathaniel Appleton. Cordelia Williams, M. D. 

1886. Mrs. Louise Wolcott. Mrs. Henrv Welsh, Mrs. Louise Wilson. Mr. Henrv 
Welsh. ' ' 

1888. Jilrs. Robert Burns, ]Mrs. [Mary Lloyd, Mrs. Irvin A. Martin. 

1889. Mrs. Clark Armstrong, [Mrs. H. Robinson, [Mrs. J. P. Campbell. [Mr. J. P. 
Campbell, Mrs. Charles Buck. 

1890. Mrs. H. L. Bender, [Mrs. N. L. [McBride. 
i8gi. Mrs. Stephen [Merritt. 

1893. Andrew J. Robinson, William H. Kelly, [Mrs. Elizabeth Clayton Lewis. 

1894. Mrs. [Mary Kno.x Robinson, [Mrs. Henry S. Day. Jefferson [SL Levy. Miss 
Janet C. Lewis, [Miss [Marion Gumey, William Burnet Tuthill. 

1896. N. L. [McBride, [NL D.. Emerson [Mc[Millen, Dave Hennen [Morris, Mrs. Dave 
[Hennen Morris. 

1897. Mrs. Walter Ernest Hope, A. H. [Morris. Joseph [NL Deuel. 

1898. [Mrs. Esther Herman, W. Kintzing Post. 



144 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

1899. Edward Harding, Austin Corbin, !Mrs. William Curtis Demorest, J\lrs. Au- 
gustus C. Dexter. 

1900. IMrs. Mary Fiske Park, George T. Wilson, Mrs. Paul F. Schoen, Mrs. S. 
Theodore Hodgman. Mrs. F. Warren Montgomery, Robert Lozier, C. B. J. Snyder. 

1901. William W. Cole. 

1903. ^Irs. Mary E. Plummer, William Curtis Demorest, Mrs. Charles E. Church, 
Charles E. Church, Stephen VanWyck. 

Trustees, 1904-1905. ■Mrs. William Tod Helmuth, Cordelia Williams, M. D., Mrs. 
Lucius E. Wilson, ]\Irs. H. L. Bender. Mrs. ^lary Knox Robinson, Andrew J. Robinson, 
Joseph M. Deuel, Mrs. Augustus C. Dexter, Mrs. William Curtis Demorest, Mrs. Mary 
Fisk Clark, George T. Wilson, Mrs. S. Theodore Hodgman, William W. Cole, Mrs. M. 
E. Plummer, William Curtis Demorest, Mrs. Charles B. Church, Charles B. Church, 
Stephen VanWyck. 
Officers of the Board. 

Presidents: IMrs. Maria L. Ewen, 1863-1864; Mis. William H. Greenough, 1864- 
1870; Mrs. Richard B. Connolly, 1870-1874: ]Mrs. Edward Bayard, 1874-1876; Mrs. D. E. 
Sackett, 1876-1879; Charles Butler, 1879-1881 ; Stephen Cutter, 1881-1886; Rev. Henry S. 
Day, 1886-1894; Amelia Wright, M. D.. 1894-1896; Mary Knox Robinson, 1896-1898; 
Mrs. Dave Hennen Morris, 1898-1899; Mary Knox Robinson, 1899-1904; Mrs. William 
Tod Helmuth, 1904 — . 

Vice-Presidents: Mrs. Mary Ward. 1863-1864; INIrs. Dr. Isaac M. Ward, 1864- 
1867; Mrs. Edward Bavard, 1867-1874; Mrs. D. E. Sackett, 1874-1876; Charles Butler, 
1876-1879; Mrs. D. E. Sackett, 1879-1880; Mrs. C. Fowler Wells, 1880-1896; Cordelia 
Williams, M. D., 1896-1898; E. Louise Demorest, 1898-1899; Cordelia Williams, M. D., 
1899—. 

Second Vice-Presidents: Mrs. Laura I\I. Ward, 1863-1864; Charlotte Fowler Wells, 
1864-1865 ; Mrs. Jonathan Sturges, 1865 ; office abolished until 1887 ; Henry Welsh, 1887- 
1889; William Jennings Demorest, 1889-1890; no incumbent until 1896; Mrs. Mary Day, 
1896-1897; Mrs. Dave Hennen Morris. 1897. 

Treasurers: Lydia E. Rushby. 1863-1865; I\Irs. M. G. Lane, 1865-1869; Mrs. Richard 

B. Connolly, 1869-1870; Mrs Caroline D. Ely, 1870-1877; Rev. Henry A. Sackett. 1877- 
1878; Mrs. John Gray. 1878-1879; ]\lrs. Stephen Cutter, 1879-1881; Mrs. Sylvia A. Dewey, 
1882-1884; Madame Demorest. 1884-1894: E. Louise Demorest, 1894-1898; ^Nlary Knox 
Robinson, 1898-1899; Mrs. Lucius E. Wilson, 1899 — . 

Recording Secretaries: Elizabeth Cady Stanton. 1863-1864; Mrs. Amos C. White, 
1864-1868; Mrs. F. G. Blinn, 1868-1872; Mrs. Katherine H. Browning, 1872-1880; Amelia 
Wright, 1880-1888; Cordelia Williams. M. D., 1888-1896; Mrs. H. L. Bender, 1896—. 

Corresponding Secretaries : Mrs. Maria L. Oscanyan, 1863-1864 ; Mrs. H. B. Elliott, 
1864-1865; Mrs. James McKaye, 1865-1868; Mrs. C. Fowler Wells, 1868-1876; Mrs. A. 

C. L. Botta, 1876-1881; Alice B. Campbell, 1881-1888; Mary S. Mann. M. D.. 1888-1892; 
Mrs. N. L. McBride. 1892-1897; Mrs. Lucius E. Wilson, 1897-1899, when the office was 
merged with that of Recording Secretary. 

THE ALUMN/E ASSOCIATION. 

The movement to organize an association of the alumnae of the New 
York Medical College and Hospital for Women first took definite form in 
1880 at a time when the college was recovering from the depressing effects 
of preceding years, and just when some new friend was needed to aid the 
trustees, encourage the faculty, and infuse new life in the institution. At 
that time many things were needed and much was required to be done, for 
the resources of the trustees were taxed to the utmost to properly provide 
for the maintenance of the school and its hospital in the insufficient quarters 
at Lexington avenue and Thirty-seventh street. The educational welfare of 
the school was Vx^ell guarded by an efficient faculty, and the physical affairs 
of the institution were protected by a capable board of trustees, but there 
was required to be done a certain work in connection with the institution in 
general, and the hospital in particular, that none other than an association of 
the alumnse could well perform ; and it was at this period of history that 



HISTORY OF HO^rCEOPATHV 145 

the graduates of the college determined to come to the relief of their alma 
mater. They held the usual preliminary meetings and with commendable 
promptness, but with little ceremony, and "associated themselves together 
for mutual strength and benefit to work for all the higher interests of the 
medical profession : to promote a social and harmonious feeling among the 
members, and to awaken a personal Interest in their alma mater." 

Such was declared purpose of the alumnae association, and subsequent 
events have shown that its special mission was well and nobly performed. 
The various means necessary to be employed in order to provide funds and 
supplies for the hospital, and m whatever else was to be done, this association 
found some way to accomplish : each member appeared to understand 
something of the peculiar needs of the institution, for all were graduates, 
and now were m position to make some contribution in the interest of the 
school that had done so much for them ; and with such zeal did the members 
enter into the spirit of the occasion that almost within a single year after the 
organization was perfected it contributed ? generous sum of monev and other 
valuable material to the hospital maintenance fund. From that time the 
trustees regarded the association as their chief ally and friend. When the 
college was removed to Fifty-fourth street a committee of the association 
took an earnest part in improving the surroundings of the new location, 
and when the new combined college and hospital was in contemplation, and 
later in course of erection, the alumn?e associcUion was an important factor 
in providing w"ays and means for the prosecution of the work. Indeed, since 
1880 hardly a single year has passed in which the work and influence of the 
association has not in some direct way contributed to the welfare of the in- 
stitution to which its energies are devoted. The association includes nearly 
all the living graduates of the college, and its regulations are such that 
meml.ership is desirable. It has ii? social side as well as its business mis- 
sion in life in behalf of the pioneer woman's medical college in the world. 

The succession of officers of the association is as follows : 

Presidents: Phoebe J. B. Wait. M. D.. 1880-1881 ; Amelia Wright. M. D., 1881- 
1882; Alice B. Campbell, M. D.. 1882-1883: Marv F. :^Iann. M. D., 1883-1884; Helene S. 
Lassen, M. D., 1884-1885; Isabelle M. Rankin. 'SI. D., 1885-1886: Jennie De La ^L Lozier, 
M. D., 1886-1887: Phoebe J. B. Wait, SI. D.. 1887-1888; Louise Gerrard. ^L D.. 1888- 
r889; Abbie H. Maclvor. SI. D., 1889-1890; ^L Belle Brown, M. D.. 1 890-1 892 : Louise 
Lannin. M. D., 1892-1894: Rita Dunlevv. 1894-1896; Harriette D'Esmonde Keatinge, 
U. D, 1896-1897; Helene S. Lassen, SI. D., 1897-1899; Phoebe J. B. Wait, M. D., 1899- 
1900; Sophia Morganthaler, M. D., 1 900-1 901 ; Luella Gorham Beecher, SI. D., 1901- 
1902 : Katherine G. Townsend. SI. D.. 1902-1903 ; Helen Cooler Palmer. SI. D.. 1903 — . 

Vice-Presidents: Cordelia Williams, M. D.. 1880-1881 : Alice B. Campbell, M. D. 
1881-1882: :\L Belle Brown. 1882-1883 : Jennie De La SI. Lozier. ^L D.. 1883-1884 
Harriet E. Brown. M. D., 1 884-1 885 : Harriet C. Keatinge, :M. D.. 1885-1887; Abbie H 
Maclvor. SI. D., 1887-1889; Jennie E. Gore, 1889-1890; I^uise Lannin, SI. D., 1890-1892 
Jeannette Reid Durkee. M. D.. 1892-1893; Harriette D'R Keatinge, ^L D.. 1893-1894, 
Marea H. Brokhaus, M. D.. 1 894-1 895 ; Sarah C. Spottiswoode. SI. D.. 1895-1896; Rita 
Dunle\-y, SI. D.. 1896-1897: Emily V. D. Pardee. SI. D., 1897-1899; Elizabeth Jarratt, 
M. D.. 1899-1902; M. Louise Turton, ^L D.. 1902-1903; Rita Dunle\y, SI. D., 1903-1904; 
Sara D. Smallej^ M. D., 1904 — . 

Treasurers: Mary H. Everett. SI. D.. 1880-1886; M. Belle Brown. :\r. D.. 1886-1890: 
Euphemia J. Myers. M. D.. 1890-1891 : Euphemia J. ^Myers Sturtevant, ^L D., 1891-1893; 
Louise Z. Buckholz. SI. D.. 1893 — . 

Recording Secretaries : Jennie De La ^M. Lozier. SI. D.. 1880-1881 ; Sallie A. Harris, 
M. D., 1881-1882: Annie Smith. SI. D.. 1882-1883: Euphemia J. Mvers. M. D.. 1883- 
1884: Mary A. Willard. M. D., 1884-1886: Rosalie A. Stolz. M. D., 1886-1887: Louise 
Lannin, M. D.. 1887-1889: Eirine K. Lassell, :Nr. D., 1889-1890: Rita Dunlevv. M. D. 



146 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

1890-1891; E. C. D. O'Brien. M. D, 1891-1892; Kate G. Townsend, ]\I. D., 1892-1893; 
M. Ruth Worrall, M. D.. 1893-1895; Cordelia A. Campbell, M. D., 1895-1896; Marie H. 
Ohlmyer, M. D.. 1896-1897; Ruih Worrall. M. D.. 1897-1898; Annie L. Langworthy, 
yi. D., 1898-1900; Sarah D. Smalley, ^I. D., 1900-1902; Harriet W. Hale, M. D.. 1902- 
1904; Cornelia C. Brant, M. D., 1904 — . 

Corresponding Secretaries: Helena S. Lassen, ~\L D.. 1880-1882; Isabelle M. Ran- 
kine, I\I. D.. 1882-1883; M. Ella Mann. M. D., 1883-1888 ; Sarah C. Spottiswoode. M. D., 
1888-1889; Mary E. Grady, M. D., 1889-1890; Lenora White. M. D., 1890-1892; Harriette 
D'E. Keating, M. D., 1892-1893; Ella M. Martin. AI. D.. 1893-1894: Elizabeth Jarratt, 
M. D.. 1894-1896; Emma D. Wilcox. M. D., 1896-1897; Anna F. Donaghue, M. D.. 1897- 
1898; Ruth Worrall. M. D., 1898-1900: Margarita Stewart. M. D., 1900-1901; Hattie C. 
VanBuren, I\I. D.. 1901-1903; Sophie B. Scheel, M. D.. 1903 — . 

THE GUIID AND THE GUILDER. 

One of the important factors in the Hfe of the institution of which this 
chapter is intended to treat is that known in college circles as the "Hospjtal 
Guild of the New York Medical College and Hospital for Women," whose 
motto is' "Amicus Humani Generis," or "Friend of the Human Race." The 
organization of the guild was effected at a meeting held March 7, 1900, 
when by-laws were adopted and its mission in life was declared to be the 
building and subsequent maintenance of the hospital in connection with the 
college. It will be remembered that before the erection of any part of the 
present college and hospital building a movement was set on foot to provide 
suitabie hospital quarters, and that subsequently it became expedient to erect 
first the college building on the loist street lots, with the ultimate intention 
to build a considerable addition for tli^ hospital department. The guild 
devoted its energies particularly to the latter work and proved an efficient 
agent in carrying it to successful completion, for through its efforts a con- 
siderable sum of money was raised, and wdien the hospital was completed, 
the guild turned its attention to maintenance and support. It is now one ot 
the most valuable auxiliary bodies existing in connection with the corpora- 
tion in its hospital department. 

For the purpose of better carrying forward its commendable work the 
guild in April, 1900, founded and issued the first number of "The Guilder," 
its organ, the purpose of which w^as, and is, "to disseminate knowledge of 
the work of the Hospital Guild." Although the primary and principal pur- 
pose of the organization has been accomplished, publication of "The Guilder" 
has been continued. 

' The Cresset," a college publication, made its initial appearance in 1898 
under the business and editorial management of the students of the New 
York Medical College and Hospital for Women. During the college year 
it is published monthlv and is chiefly devoted to college news, with an inter- 
esting collection of general miscellany, while its managers have a generous 
regard for the value of advertising matter. 

GRADUATES OF TItE NEW YORK MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL FOR WOMEN. 

1864. Harriet Clisby 
Emily Schettler* M. F. Cooper 

M. A. Densmore (French)''' 

1865. Annie E. Hall (Lucky) 
Amelia Barnett* Harriet Hall* 

Anna A. ?vlanning (Comfort) 

^Deceased. Amelia Pollock* 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHV 



147 



Eloise B. Smith* 
Jane E. Spaulding 
Mary E. Tracy 
Annie C. A'anXess 
Adaline \\'illiams* 

E. D. Wright 

1866. 
Sarah E. Bissell 
A. E. Elkins 
X. A. Williams 

1867. 
Alice B. Campbell 

F. R. Coddington (Xickerson) 
Mary H. Dunbar (Adams) 
Gertrude Hammond (Harper) 
Xancy M. Miller 

E. Teannie Pierce (Fountain) 
Susan F. Piatt 
O. Fowler Smith (Swinton) 
Emilv H. Stowe 



Mary C. Brown 

Harriett A. Dada 

Harriett X'. Fairbank (Cooke) 

M. B. Fuller (DeHartt) 

Anna C. Howland 

C. A. Loring 

Em.ilv L. ^ilanning (Smith; 

Annie T. X'ivison 

1869. 
Elizabeth Adams* 
Bella C. Barrows 
Maria J. Cushing 
Sarah Ferguson (Harrah) 
Sarah E. Furnas (Wells) 
Sarah M. Harrah* 
Caroline LeBeau 
Charlotte I. Lozier* 
Rebecca P. Page 
Sophia Pennfield 
^lary Jane Safford* 

1870. 
Sarah E. DeHartt (Feinald) 
Marv H. Everett 
M. A. R. Gilbert 



Elmira Y. Howard 

Susan M. Smith ( McKinney) 

1871. 
Charlotte C. Drummond* 
Fannie B. Holden 
Helene S. Lassen 
Josephine Smith 
Phoebe J. H. Wait. A.M. 
Fannie E. White* 

1872. 
Julia E. S. Bell 
Harriet E. Brown 
Amanda Jerrard* 
Mary F. Mann 
Mary P. Sawtelle 
Emma Scott ( \\'right ) * 
Juliet P. Tiffany ( X'anEvera) 
Helen J. Underwood 

1873- 
Lucy Almy Babcock 
Kate E. Goeway 
Georgia Merriman 
Mary W. X'oxon* 
Phoebe C. Patterson 
L. A. Ren Dell 
Ellen B. Sevmour 
M. E. Stiles 
Sarah J. White 

1874. 
Marv^ A. Qapp (Brinkman) 
M. C. W. Cogswell 
Anna E. Griffith 
Emma Onderdonk 
Clara C. Plimpton 
'M. H. Crane Woodruff" 
H. Amelia Wright 

1875- 
Marv W. Bates ('Stevens) 
Mary E. Bond, :\LD. 
Mary C. Ford 
Elizabeth Kaiser (Wren) 
Emily V. D. Pardee 
Jennie A. Rich* 
Emma B. Ryder 
x\nna C. R. Stevens 
Ella F. Swinny, A.'Sl. 



148 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



1876. 
Ella M. Barrett 
Jeanette Caldwell 
Louise Gerrard 
Caroline E. Manning 

1877. 
Caroline S. Chamberlin 
Lydia A. Craft* 
Gertrude A. Goeway (Bishop) 
Thamsin Janney 
Jennie L. Kellogg 
Ellen Maria Kirk 
Lucia A. Maravlag* 
Harriet F. R. Peet 
Sarah N. Smith 

1878. 
Caroline L. Black 
Julia E. Bradner 
Frances C. Burnes 
Kate V. Cochrane (Scott) 
Mary L. Douglass 
N. Campbell Graham 
Eliza Dunham 
Sally A. Harris 
Martha M. Ho wells 
Ella A. Jennings (McDonald) 
Emile H. Jones (Barker) 
Elsie D. Lester (Dana) 
Jennie de la Montagnie Lozier 
Adelaide E. Merritt 
Mary E. Miller 
Mary A. Bostwick (Mount) 
Isadora L. Murray 
Hannah Muckleston (Carmichel) 
Agnes C. McCahey (Victor) 
Laura M. Porter 
Anna L. Snyder* 
Kate S. Stanton 
Alice A. Stoddard 
Kate E. Taylor 
Harriet M. Watson 
Cordelia Williams 
Alice Way* 

1879. 
M. Belle Brown 
Alice Burritt 
Charlotte Jenkins 
Harriett C. Keatinge 



Mary A. Lull 
Ellen M. White 

1880. 
Harriet Barkeloo 
Georgia M, Cassidy, M.D. 
Eliza H. S. Cook 
Fanny M. Day* 
Ida B. Hunt ' 
Anna M. Siraganian 
H. Oba Siraganian* 

1881. 
Marguerite E. Clarke 
Helen Eudora Curtis 
Maria Generoso Estrella 
Lucv Smead Forbes 
Isabella M. Pettit 

1882' 
Jennie A'an Holland Baker 
Ada Carr 
Sarah A. Clock 
Annie J. Crouthers 
Fannie Herriott Kellogg 
Margaretha B. Von der Luhe 
Isabella Matheson Rankine 
Mary Ella Mann 
Georgiana Delancey Read 
Annie Smith (Campbell) 

1883. 
Adelia D. Barber 
Lottie A. Cort 

Harriette d'Esmond Keatinge 
Euphemia J. Meyers (Sturtevant) 
Maria M. Robinson 
Cornelia S. Simpson* 
Mary A. Willard 
Gertrude L. Zabriskie 

1884. 
Lizzie C. Blair 
Mary A. Dale 
Marah S. Fredericks 
Mary E. Grady 
Eliza J. E. Hays* 
Sarah C. Martineau 
Mary E. Pease-Partridge 
Mav Whittaker (Straley) 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



IVJ 



1885. 
Loretta Abel 

Sarah Allen Baldwin (Newton) 
Phoebe Day Brown 
Josephine Ida Burpeau 
Sarah Grace Dougall 
Jennie E. Fredericks 
Lizzie Safford Gillespie 
Jennie E. Gore 
Adeline S. B. Grinnell* 
Pauline Morton 
Lillian Rae Safford 
Rosalie Harriet Stolz 
Eliza lean Wall 

1886. 
Kate Curry Cobham'"^' 
Elizabeth Corwin 
Alice M. Eaton (Lyon)* 
Mary Emerson Gage 
Janes G. Goss 
Ada Y. Hobby 

Harriette Loring Knudsen (Burnet) 
Louise Lannin 
Abbie H. Maclvor 
Ida E. Norris (Bruce) 
Sarah C. Spottiswoode 
Ellen P. Van Nostrand 
Louise Ziegelmeier (Buchholz) 

1887. 
Matilda Hannah Aldridge (Jardine) 
Helen Maria Cox (O'Connor) 
Margaret Lulu Crumpton (Nicoli) 
Ida Louise Dildine 
Joanna Gaston Leary 
Anna Machado 
Jennie W. Newell (Martine) 
Gertrude Gail Wellington 
Margaret Whittemore 
Charlotte H. Woollev 



Emma F. Ayres 
Rita Dunlevy 
Julia Goodman 
Lizzie Gray Gutherz 
Francena L. Irons 
Lizzie B. Roder 
Ella M. Tuttle 
Anna Leonora White 
M. Louise White 



1889. 
Marea H. Brockhaus 
Eirene K. Lasell (Rounds) 
Fannie W. Pakey 
Louise Schiegel 
Amelia D. von der Luhe 

1890. 
Gertrude Allen 
M. Edith Bance 
Lilian Dell 
N. C. Detrich 
Jeannette R. Durkee 
Mary L. Edwards 
Annie B. Elkins (Kilmer) 
Annie Lowe Geddes 
Maria Upton Hanford 
Laura Long (Reiglcman) 
Ella M. Martin 
Antoinette E. C. Russell 
S. Eliza Talcott 
LJrania Tyrrel 
Hattie E. C. Van Buren 

189 1. 
Carrie Evelyn Brown (Tiffany) 
Ellen Beattie 
Jane M. Bo wen 
Elizabeth Fahnstock Lewis 
Libbie Hamilton Muncie 
Evelina C. D. O'Brien 
Clara Louise Smith 
Kate Goodall Townsend 
Louise Lowrie Wylie, M.D. (Hatch) 

1892. 
Emma T. P. Allen 
Katherine D. Burnette, A.B. 
Martha F. ISIiller 
Marie E. Ohlmeyer 
Isabel Werner 
Frances Wood (Holmes) 
Ellen E. Woodward (Howell) 
M. Ruth Worrall 
Emma D. Wilcox, M.D. 

1893. 
DeEtte Brownell 
Elizabeth Jarrett 
Minnie J. Lawrence 
Frances Minshull 



150 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



Ella C. Jones Tappen 
Delia Z. Hughes 

1894. 
Anna L. Allaben 
Rebecca J. Ayres 
Lydia A. Bickford 
Mary Brewer 
Emily C. Charles 
S. Elizabeth Curry 
Anna F. Donoghue 
Mary E. Fish 

Luella K. Gorham (Beecher) 
Abbie G. Hinckley 
Clarice Johnston (Parsons) 
Harriet A. Knott 
Sophia Morgenthaler 
Harriet A. Thayer 
Emily N. Titus 
M. Louise Turton 
Julia G. ^^'aylan 
Hannah G. Yoseph 

1895. 
Cordelia A. Campbell 
Helen Cooley 
Jane Conger Davis 
Elizabeth Edmonston 
IMargaret R. McKenzie 
Mary E. Richards 
Sarah C. Silver 
Caroline M. Smith 
Harriet E. Tracv 
Isabella i\I. Wilson. A.B. 

1896. 
Roxana K. Barnes 
Lillian E. Garabrant (Perrv) 
Flarnet W. Hale 
Harriet E. Hughes 
Stella O. Root 

1897. 
Mary E. Clark 
Laura Deming (Strong) 
Laura L. Foulds (Dugan) 
.Gertrude G. Mack 
Mary A. Stolz 
Clara L. Scott* 
JNIarsrarita A. Stewart 



1898. 
Elizabeth E. Gillett 
Annie L. Langworthy (Wait) 
Henriete Mayer 
Rachel R. Xottage 

1899. 
Alice R. Bowman 
Grace Flanders 
Sue E. Hertz 
Anna Klein 
Hattie M. Poindexter 
^Mary Emma Potter 

1900. 
Elizabeth R. Cahoon 
:\Iathilde A. Pelham 
.Sara Dunham Smalley 
Theodora Garthwait Tucker 

1901. 
Eva May Blake 
Edna Cowan Carlough 
Sophie G. Klenk 
Harriet Meyers 
Sophie Bade Scheel 
Alice A. Squires 
Florence E. Yoorhees 
Emma Shurman 

1902. 
]vlary Campbell Pearson 
Eleanor Louise Rundeau* 
Jane H. Sutherland 
Daisy I. \\'hittemore (Rodenberg) 
]^Iary E. Butterworth 
Anna Xovenski 

1903. 
Annie S. Higbie 
Bertha Rosenfeld 
Lucy Osborne Wight 
^labelle Jean Perry 
Cornelia Chase Brant 
Annie U. Hull 
Mary Goddard Potter 
Etta Folley 

1904. 
]^Iarv Sutton ^lacv 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



151 



May Darrach 
Isabella T. Thompson 
Etlielyn Fuller (Hansen) 
Gudrnn Holm 
Thancy Daviddow 

1905. 
Marv :\I. Benedict 



Mary Ethel Broadnax 
Ethel Dolinsky 
Bertha Florence Johnson 
Eva W'ilensky 
Jean Williams 
(iertrude \'an de ^lark- 
Harriet Eliza Kenney, M.D. 
Adelaide Wallerstein 



SOME PRO.MIXEXT CHARACTERS IX THE LIFE OF THE COLLEGE. 
By Annie S. Higbie, M. D. 

The histor} of liomoeopathy in this country would not be complete with- 
out more than a passing glance at the life work of that noble woman, Dr. 
Clemence Sophia Lozier, who by her bravery and strength of purpose opened 
a way for a medical education for women. She was the founder of the first 
medical college for women. This college was the first in which women could 
study the laws and principles of homoeopathy. 

Dr. Lozier was noted for the strength and sweetness of her character. 
Her son, Dr. A. W. Lozier, in speaking of his mother, says "She was strong, 
because no woman of her time possessed to a greater degree the courage 
of her convictions or was quicker to act upon them. She felt that one with 
God was a majority. She never quailed before the face of man in the dis- 
charge of any duty, and, next to her faith in God, w^as an abiding, profound 
faith in womanhood — in herself — her mission. Xo Luther, or Joan of Arc, 
ever trod this earth more keenly impressed with the high sense of a sacred 
calling to a special work, and its accompanying self-sacrifice. 

"She was formed out of the stuff martyrs are made of, and she emi- 
nently possessed the martyr spirit. Born at a time w'hen many reforms first 
challenged public attention, she soon drank in the atmosphere of the early 
apC'Stles of anti-slavery, total abstinence and the elevation of woman, and 
threw herself into the combat with all the force of her earnest nature. She 
scorned compromises and would not temporize ; she would not hold a truce 
with the devil, and would not call a halt until victory -was assured. 

"She rejoiced that she had been permitted to live to see the triumph of 
the principles she had advocated. Xo one can understand the prejudice, the 
bigotry, the depraved condition of public sentiment, even among the chris- 
tian community, as to these vital reforms forty or fifty years ago ; the 
obloquy, the scorn, the bitter hatred and the persecution incurred by those 
engaged in breaking the way for them. 

"Meetings of the anti-slavery societv w-ere held monthly at my mother's 
house in Tenth street, near Fifth avenue, when the leaders of that cause 
would have been stoned or pelted with decayed eggs had they met in a 
public hall. 

"During the July riots of 1862. her house. 361 West Thirty-fourth street, 
was an asvlum for several colored people who fled from the violence of the 
mob, and she went with me to take medicine and food to the sick and terri- 
fied children of the Colored Orphan Asylum, which had been burned and the 
inmates pitilessly driven under the protection of platoons of police to find 
shelter in the Thirty-fifth street station house. Some of the rioters threat- 
ened to burn any bakery which would supply the hungry children with bread, 
and our ow^n house was marked and threatened ; a threat which would have 



152 



HISTORY OF HO:\ICEOPATHY 



been .carried out had not General Butler on his timely arrival persuaded the 
rioters by military arguments to desist. 

"For years, as secretary of the Female Guardian Society, my mother 
visited, with Margaret Pryor, the prisons and slums of New York, rescuing 
the destitute and degraded women and children, and helped to found that 
societv, now so widely successful and honored, at a time when a stigma at- 
taclied to the wc^rk and when many in the church looked upon it as a con- 
tamination. In later years she stood in this city almost single-handed in the 
contest for woman's right to study and practice medicine and to equal col- 
legiate advantages and honors with men. In spite of detraction and organized 




Clcmence Sophia Lozier, M. D. 

opposition, she carried the legislature and after obtaining a liberal charter 
for the New York Medical College and Hospital for Women was. obliged to 
grapple with Bellevue Hospital "College in order to establish the right of 
the students to clinical advantages there. The women students were sub- 
jected to a course of studied, persistent, gross insults from the students of 
that institution. 

"She called a public indignation meeting at Cooper Institute to denounce 
this outrageous conduct. The meeting was addressed by Horace Greeley, 
Henry \\'ard Beecher and other prominent citizens. The pulpit, the plat- 
form and the press quickly sided with her, and public opinion was so strongly 
pronounced that the mayor sent a marshal ^and police force to Bellevue 
Hospital clinics to protect the ladies in their rights. The faculty whose voice 
had been strangely paralyzed until then foimd strength enough to declare 
that thev would thereafter enforce order and see that the ladies were undis- 
turbed in their privileges." 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 153 

^Irs. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a uarm personal friend of Dr. Lozier and 
co-worker with her in all reforms, a member of the first board of trustees 
of the woman's college, writes of her as follows: "'Having known Dr. 
Clemence Lozier for nearly thirty years, and been associated with her in 
earnest endeavor to secure for women a foothold in the medical profession, 
I have many 'ielightful memories of the hours passed in her society. Before 
seeing her I had heard much of her sweetness as a woman and of her skill 
as a physician. 

"Dr. Lozier was an affectionate, faithful wife, a tender, loving mother, 
a kind, patient mistress ; she nobly filled all the relations of domestic life. 
She was sincerely loved by her servants, by her children in the first and second 
generation, and idolized by the husband of her youth. Her hospitality was 
generous and indiscriminating. She not only entertained those whose society 
she enjoyed, but many who were a severe tax on her patience and charity. 
Her house was indeed a haven of rest to the wayworn and desolate. She 
gave alike freely bread to the hungry and mone\ to the needy. 

"Early thrown upon her own resources, she taught school while study- 
ing for her chosen profession. Fortunately for her success, Dr. Lozier was 
in all respects an attractive woman. She had a well-formed head, luxuriant 
hair, fine features, a sweet expression, and most winning manners. She had 
a personal dignity that alwa\s commanded the respect of those about her. 

"As a physician she had a tender, sympathizing way in meeting her 
patients, that won their confidence and alTection. Though a graduate of an 
eclectic institution, she inclined to the homoeopathic practice : but in addition 
to her medicine, of whatever school, she taught her patients the laws of life 
and health. Her instruction on all the practical questions of hygiene, diet, 
dress, exercise and sanitary conditions, were of incalculable benefit to those 
who would listen and had the faith to act on what she told them. I once 
spent six weeks in her house, and seeing that many patients who flocked to 
her for relief, and listening to her advice, I became so enthusiastic about the 
health of woman that 1 attended an entire course of lectures at the college 
and gained much valuable information, which in season and out of season 
I have given to other women. 

"Woman can never too highly appreciate all she suffered to make the 
privileges thev now enjoy possible. She was am.ong the first to meet the 
defiant resistance made by men to prevent women from entering the col- 
leges and the professions. Every possible phase of persecution she encountered. 
She was closely watched to see if by some legal quirk she might not be 
arrested and forbidden to practice. Physicians would not recognize her as 
a member of the profession, would not consult with her, nor give her the 
slightest advantage cf their knowledge. Thev tampered with her patients 
to see if they could find aught against her ; but in spite of all the machina- 
tions of her enemies she triumphed. She attended the required course of 
lectures at the eclectic college in Syracuse, took her diploma, graduated with 
honor, and had not long to wait before securing a most extensive practice. 

"Being one of the trustees of the Hom.oeopathic College for Women, I 
know from my own observations and experience the long and weary struggles 
and disappointments she suffered before the college in Fifty-fourth street 
became an established fact. As soon as a measure of success crowned her 
efforts, then men became most pertinacious in their attentions and were 
determined to dominate her and the funds she raised to carry out her projects. 



154 HISTORY OF HOAIGiC JPATHY 

"In the inauguration of the woman's college, as there were no women 
ready they were obliged to choose men as professors, but when in the process 
of time we found capable graduates, and desired to place a woman in the 
chair of obstetrics it took us a whole year to oust the male professor. By 
exerting his influence on certain members of the board of trustees, he pre- 
vented us from having a quorum. We held innumerable meetings to no 
purpose, and at last were compelled to go to Albany and present the case 
iDcfore the regents of the university. Dr. Lozier and I represented the 
woman's side of the question and got a decision in our favor. 

"During all these exasperating and multitudinous trials. Dr. Lozier 
never lost her courage or faith in our final success, but calmly and steadily 
worked on until she secured buildings for a college and a hospital for women 
and children. Through her influence we got an appropriation from the 
legislature, to which she added $10,000. At this time with our buildings 
paid for, the hospital established and the property worth $70,000 free from 
mortgage, we all felt that our trials were ended. With students crowding 
into the classes and patients into the hospital, some professors and physi- 
sians from our own graduates, with an efficient and untiring dean in Dr. 
Lozier, what more could we desire? We were on a sure basis, on the high 
road to success ; but certain male professors in the institution, desiring larger 
buildings up-town, persuaded the women, with fair promises of aid, to sell 
out and take possession of more desirable quarters. 

"Dr. Lozier advised strenuously against the project, but was overruled. 
The new buildings being heavily mortgaged and the promised help unreal- 
ized, another reverse in the college interest was inevitable. Still Dr. Lozier 
worked on hopefully to the end, doing as she had always done everything 
possible for the medical education of women. 

'"To give a realizing sense of the persecutions endured by those who took 
the initiative steps .to secure a medical education, let me describe the recep- 
tion of the first class of girls at Bellevue Hospital. 

"Dr. Lozier, having by the aid of her lawyer investigated the legal 
aspect of the question, ascertained that the students belonging to any ac- 
credited medical college had the right to attend clinical lectures in state 
hospitals. As there was "no reservation on the ground of sex. she secured 
tickets of admission for the class in the Homoeopathic College for Women. 

"Accordingly, it was arranged one Saturday morning that they should 
go. accompanied by one of the trustees of the college. As the press of the 
city, getting wind of the proposed invasion, had made many adverse com- 
ments, there was a disinclination on the part of the trustees to make the first 
venture. Dr. Lozier could not leave her pressing engagements at that hour, 
so she persuaded me to take the initiative.- 

"Accordingly, at the appointed time with the class of thirty I entered the 
am.phitheatre. We were greeted by a thousand students with shouts of 
derisive laughter, and ever and anon during the lecture were pelted with 
chewed balls of paper. The professor selected the most offensive subject 
and disease for the day. thinking thereby to end the experiment. But the 
question how much we could, should and would endure had been freely dis- 
cussed and decided, and it was agreed by both trustees and students that, 
barring forcible expulsion, whatever was done and said we would maintain 
our ground for one season at least and vindicate the rights of our students 
to ail the advantages of clinics and lectures in the hospital. Although the 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY lo.") 

professor took especial pains to be as coarse as possible, and all his worst 
periods were vociferously applauded by the students, we quietly sat there 
through the entire lecture. 

"One very touching ei^isode for the credit of manhood occurred at the 
close of the lecture, that in a measure redeemed the occasion. Three }oung 
men, sitting behind us on a bench quite alone, politely accosted me with many 
kind expressions of regret at our rude reception. One said "pray do not 
judge all men by what you have witnessed to-day. There are many students 
here as shocked as you have been, who would be glad of some protection 
against the vulgarity seemingly inevitable to a medical education. We do 
hope you will continue to bring your class; there must be enough chivalry 
and moral sense among so many students to prevent a recurrence of the dis- 
graceful proceedings of to-day." I thanked the young men and told them we 
would come regularly all winter, no matter what was done. As we left the 
building the students had formed themselves into a double line, through 
which we passed, mid jeers and groans, coarse jokes and shouts, pelted with 
bits of wood and gravel. When seated at last in the onmibuses. they gave 
three cheers and a tiger. Of course the lecturer of the day had it in- his 
power to check all such manifestation, but as he encouraged it, we had no 
appeal. He was one of the most distinguished physicians in the city, but I 
will not mention his name, as he redeemed himself afterward by extra kind- 
ness and attention to the class. In the woman's college in Philadelphia sim- 
ilar scenes were enacted and later, in Edinburgh, Scotland, .we heard of other 
forms of persecution. Talking of these things one day with the late lamented 
William Henry Channing, he said T blush for my sex as I read and hear of 
these outrageous persecutions of young women, struggling to acquire knowl- 
edge which will be as great a benefit to men as it will be to themselves.' 
And all these trials our dear friend suffered twice and thrice over, first in 
her own personal experience, and then in every class of students that fol- 
lowed in her footsteps. 

"But in spite of all adverse winds, as a physician she was pre-eminently 
successful, not only in curing disease, but in a financial point of view — that 
is, she made large sums of money, but was not alwavs fortunate in her in- 
vestments. She was most generous in her gifts to ail reforms for the benefit 
of her sex. Her successes far outnumber her trials, and her influence for 
good will be felt more and more as the years roll on. The world is better 
through what she has suflfered, and her life must be a new inspiration to 
woman " 

An incident connected with her funeral, worthy of note, is that six 
women physicians, niece, grand-nieces and cousin, all descendants of her 
brothers, followed her remains into the church. Forty-eight women physi- 
cians, graduates of the college which she founded, passed her cofifin and 
took their last look at her sweet face, and dropped into the casket a sprig of 
arbor vitse as their tribute of love. 

The work laid down by Dr. Lozier was taken up by Dr. Phoebe J. B. 
Wait, the second dean of the college, a woman of great strength of char- 
acter and one who had already w^on the love of the students as professor of 
obstetrics. It was said of her that she knew everv matriculate by name, and 
also knew all their trials and perplexities, and her never-failing tact and 
sympathy helped many a discouraged student over some of the rough places 
of life. ' Her intense interest in all matters relating to the advancement of 
women made her untiring in her service for the women students of the 



li>« HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

college, and she cheerfully responded to countless calls for help from younger 
physicians in trying cases along the line of her specialty; while the number 
of needy patients to whom her service was given, without stint and without 
price, was legion. 

A'lany times did she go at midnight or later in response to urgent calls 
from those patients who were unable to give more than grateful thanks. 
Her personal fatigue was always forgotten in the joy she experienced in 
helping to bring a new life into thi^ world, and in saving that of the mother. 
One who stood closest to her said soon after her death, "I am thinking of 
all the poor people who came to her from day to day for medical help and 
counsel and advice. The rest of us can get along in some way, but what 
they will do troubles me. She entered into their lives and their sorrows and 
misfortunes, and was able to help and encourage, as few can help and en- 
courage." 

Dr. Wait's career was a most interesting one. Although she had often 
considered the advisability of studying medicine,^ it was not until after her 
marriage with Mr. William Bell Wait, principal of the Institution for the 
Blind in New York city, that she actually began to do so. One evening she 
attended the commencement exercises of the New York Medical College 
and Hospital for Women. The principal address on this occasion was deliv- 
ered by Rev. Stephen H. Ling, D. D., rector of St. George's church in New 
York city. He spoke earnestly of the high calling of the physician, and of 
the possibilities the medical profession offered to woman. She was deeply 
impressed by this address and soon afterward determined to enter upon a 
course of study at that institution. This decision was reached only after 
the most careful consideration, for as yet there were but few women engaged 
in the practice of medicine, and they met with no little hostility from the 
laity and profession alike. 

Aside from her professional duties, Dr. Wait was interested in various 
activities. As piesident of the Society for Promoting the Welfare of the 
Insane, she went before the state legislature on various occasions and for 
various objects, and to her influence is due the passage of the act providing 
for one woman physician for women patients in hospitals for the insane ; and 
also for the cottage system in preference to large hospitals, special schools 
for training nurses to work among the insane, and the free use of the United 
States mails for patients in hospitals for the insane of this state. 

Dr. Wait and her co-workers communicated with every medical college 
in the United States to induce them to establish a chair of mental and 
nervous diseases in their respective institutions, that young physicians might 
thus be better prepared to deal with such diseases. 

To show how deeply her heart was stirred for women who had the 
misfortune to be secluded in correctional institutions or in hospitals for the 
insane, the following extract from an address made by her in 1898 is here 
given : "Upon the same principle that police stations each have a matron 
for the care of the women inmates, every almshouse, workhouse, prison, re- 
formatory or hospital for the insane where women are kept should be pro- 
vided with competent women physicians for all women inmates. It is sor- 
rowful enough to think of these vast armies of women being shut away 
from the world for sickness or for vice, without friends or hope or comfort, 
but it is still more so to think that with women physicians all about, humanity 
should not open its eyes to the absolute importance of placing them wher- 
ever women are being cared for in institutions which are philanthropic, cor- 



HISTORY OF H(JM(E()PATHY 157 

rectional or reformatorx. This idea, \vhich is so strongly fixed in m) mind, 
is not shared by the popular mind, an(i it appeals to me that the mission of 
women physicians, and all of those who believe in the wisdom of women 
practicing medicine, should be to advocate a reform which shall require every 
public institution where women are cared for, to employ for them women 
physicians in case of sickness. In New York state alone there are ten thou- 
sand women being cared for to-day in hospitals for the insane, and only one 
woman physician to each hospital. In the United States there are in round 
numbers sixty thousand insane women in the hospitals for the insane, and 
all of these should be treated by women physicians." 

Dr. Wait was a prolific writer, her numerous published and unpublished 
articles along various lines, chietiy medical, are marked by great ability and 
originality. In the man}- societies and clubs of which she was a member 
she willingly responded to all requests for papers on diverse subjects. A 
few years ago the "Ladies' Home Journal" published a series of articles on 
the associations and professions open to women. In response to an invita- 
tion from the editor of that magazine. Doctor Wait contributed an interesting 
paper on "Medicine as a Profession for Women." Another valuable con- 
tribution was a paper entitled "The Education of Our Girls," prepared for 
the meeting of the alumni association of Alfred Academy, from which she 
was graduated. Stili another paper requiring much careful research was 
that prepared to be read before the Phalo Club of New Y^ork city. It was a 
description and history of the ancient Babylonian city of Nippur, as exem- 
plified in the ruins and tablets unearthed during the past decade and a halt 
by the oriental department of the University of Pennsylvania under the 
supervision of such well known archjelogists as Peters, Haynes and Hil- 
precht. These three papers might be multiplied many times, but they are 
sufficient to exhibit the character and scope of the work to which Dr. Wait 
turned her versatile mind. 

As an instance of the care with which Dr. Wait did her work, one case 
may be cited. She was to write on some phase of the care of infants. Know- 
ing that there are fully len times as many deaf children as there are blind, 
and that while blindness is decreasing in proportion to the population, deaf- 
ness is not decreasing, she looked about for causes leading to deafness. She 
traveled the length of the elevated and many of the surface roads, noticing 
the exposure of children to draughts from open windows and doors. She 
visited the homes of man}' poor people, and there found so many cases of 
ear trouble, that these facts and observations, coupled with what she knew 
from medical sources, led her to write most forcibly on "A Plea for the In- 
fants' Care." 

So active a life necessarily makes heavy draughts upon the physical 
and nervous resources. Naturally strong and robust. Dr. Wait neverthel^s 
early recognized the necessity of periodical respites from her professional 
duties in order to insure continued good health and the strength necessary to 
prosecute her work. She was fond of the seashore, and for years spent the 
summer inonths quietly with her family at Spray Rock cottage at Weeka- 
pang (Noyes' Beach, Rhode Island). 

In the summer of 1903, after the close of the meetings of the Interna- 
tional Woman's Christian Temperance Union at Geneva, she spent several 
weeks traveling in continental Europe and in Great Britain. This trip she 
greatly enjoyed and returned from it to her accustomed work with renewed 
physical and mental vigor. 



158 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

Ihis useful career was terminated very unexpectedly. To all appear- 
ances she was in her usual health up to Monday, January 25, 1904, and that 
afternoon attended a reception given by Phalo, where she served as a mem- 
ber of the reception committee. In the midst of the luncheon she was taken 
ill. In reaching- home a physician was immediately summoned, but pneu- 
monia speedily developed and she passed peacefully away on the following 
Sunday morning, January thirtieth. 

When the sad tidings of the sudden death of Dr. Wait reached her many 
friends, the thought voiced by one and all in their letters to the stricken 
family was that she was so strong. That word characterizes her every 
thought, word and deed. Her mind was clear and brilliant ; she was always 
ready to give wise counsel when asked and every hour was filled with loving 
and efficient service for others. As a wife, mother and friend, she was ideal, 
always bestowing and never desiring a return for services rendered. 

She was a charming hostess. No guest ever went from her home with- 
out feeling better, happier and more cheery for having been in her presence. 
Seldom did one pass hence leaving, a larger circle of personal mourners than 
did Dr. Wait. 

Another noble woman who gave freely of her time, strength and money 
was Mrs. Ellen Louise Demorest, who was for sixteen years a valued mem- 
ber of the hoard of trustees of the woman's college, and for fourteen years 
its honored treasurer. During the early struggles to maintain the work, her 
financial ability, supported by her interest in the education of women and 
her philanthropic sentiments for the needy poor of the hospital, largely con- 
tributed to the success and in a great measure to the present prosperity of 
the institution. In emergencies she was ever ready to render substantial 
aid and the frec[uency with which the phrase, "borrowed from the treasurer," 
occurred in her reports to the board, often provoked a smile from the mem- 
bers present; but it was that "friend in need" who was the "friend indeed." 
She was active and helpful in all good works, and an especially enthusiastic 
supporter of all temperance reforms ; her sympathies were deeply interested 
in the welfare of the insane, and her eftorts to improve their condition are 
\vell known to her colaborers in this most beneficent work. She was an 
ardent advocate of the higher education of women — social, political and in- 
dustrial; and with the courage and zeal to carry out her convictions, she 
hesitated neither to condemn the wrong nor to defend the right; and the 
world is better for her having lived in it. 

Among others of the pioneer women on the board of trustees, who by 
their faithful and devoted service helped the college through its dark days, 
may be mentioned Mrs. Elizabeth Cadv Stanton, Mrs. Angelina Newman, 
Mrs. Emma Keep Schley, Alice B. Campbell, M. D., Amelia Wright, M. D., 
Mrs. Fowler Wells, Cordelia Williams, M. D., Mrs. Lucius E. Wilson, Mrs. 
Mary Knox Robinson and Mrs. H. L. Bender. 

Mrs. Angelina Newman was one of the original incorporators and is 
the only one now living. Mrs. Mary Knox Robinson, Dr. Cordelia Williams, 
Mrs. Lucius E. Wilson and Mrs. H. L. Bender are still members of the 
board of trustees, after over twenty years of constant service, and they are 
still laboring untiringly for the best welfare of the institution, Dr. Williams 
as vice-president of the board, Mrs. Bender as secretary and Mrs. Wilson as 
treasurer. Their faithful, loving service is of inestimable value to the col- 
lege and its hospital. 



HISTORY OF HO^IOTOPATHV 159 



CHAPTER V 

IJOSTON UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE. 
By John Preston Sutherland, M. D. 

Boston University School of Medicine may be described in metaphor, 
as a stream, confluent from three contributing sources. Three apparently 
divergent interests united in its inception ; the New England Female Medical 
College; the rise of homoeopathy in New England; the founding of Boston 
University. These were the three great chapters in the " Book of the Begin- 
nings of the School " whose history we are setting ourselves to record. A 
glance at each of these is necessary to the right understanding of the school's 
origin and traditions. 

First, then, no sketch of Boston University School of Medicine can 
be considered m the least degree adequate that fails to include a tribute 
to the institution whose brave pioneer life contributed so materially to its 
own existence. This institution for a quarter of a century was known as 
the New England Female Medical College. It began its career as the Bos- 
ton Female Medical School, but during the fourth year of its life its name 
was changed. It had the support of a society organized for the purpose of en- 
lightening public sentiment, and enlisting it in favor of the professional edu- 
cation and employment of women ; and of providing facilities for the medical 
education of suitable women. 

It was through the progressive, liberal spirit, broad-mindedness, faith, 
earnestness and unfailing activity of Dr. Samuel Gregory that the society 
and the college came to be. As early as 1845 preparatory steps were taken 
by Dr. Gregor}^ by the distribution of circulars and pamphlets, which ulti- 
mated in the establishment of the Boston Female Medical School on No- 
vember I, 1848, and the Female Education Society, November 23, 1848. It 
is worthy of note that when the act to incorporate this society was before 
the Massachusetts legislature in April, 1850, after a thorough investigation 
and a protracted debate, it passed the senate with only four votes in the 
negative, and the house without a dissenting voice. The school was opened 
in Boston in 1848 with two lecturers and twelve pupils; *' the first class of 
females ever assembled in America for the purpose of qualifying themselves 
to enter the medical profession." It se.ems fitting that so radical a departure 
fro'm contemporary opinion as that which invited women so far from domes- 
tic interests as to the field of medical practice should date from Boston, 
*' that three-hilled rebel town," so brave in new departures on the road 
to freedom. From its inception in 1848 to the time of its being merged 
with Boston University School of Medicine, in 1873, ninety-eight women 
completed their studies in this college and received its diploma, among them 
women widely and honorably known, thereafter, for notable usefulness in 
their chosen profession. 

In 1854 the legislature appropriated the sum of $1,000 annually for 
five years for the establishment of forty scholarships in the college. 



160 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



In 1855 the legislature further appropriated the sum of $10,000 " to 
be applied in providing a suitable building, library, and the necessary furni- 
ture and fixtures " for the college. 

In 1856 a reorganization was permitted by an act of the legislature 
whereby the society was merged into the college and its affairs entrusted 
to a board of trustees. 

In 1857 the trustees announced that the widow of Dr. Benjamin Wa- 
terhouse, a professor in the medical department of Harvard University, had 
generously started an endowment fund for the chair of anatomy, by a gift 




New England Female Medical College. 



of $1,000; which in 1864 as a bequest in her will, was raised to $10,000; 
the first professional endowment fund in history to be established by a 
woman for the medical education of women. 

In the annual report for the same year occurs the sentence : " The 
object of this college is not only to educate physicians and nurses; but to 
diffuse among wom.en generally a knowledge of anatomy and physiology, 
and of the rational means of preserving and restoring health — a matter of 
vital importance in this generation of sickly women and superabounding 
quackery." Although these words were written nearly a half century ago, 
humanity has not yet outgrown the necessity for such an education. 

Dr. Gregory advocated the technical education of women for work 
in the mission field. He claimed that women were needed as physicians 
in the female departments of our insane and other hospitals, and that the 



162 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

* * * " first and main object of the college is, of course, to educate 
women as physicians." He also claimed that the lectures should be open 
to young women who desired to obtain a knowledge of anatomy, physiology 
and health for their own benefit or domestic usefulness ; also to those pre- 
paring to be teachers in the public schools, or qualifying themselves .for the 
responsible vocation of nurses. 

In 1870, in the twenty-third year of its existence, the New England 
Female Medical College was able to build and complete a home of its own 
on East Concord street, Boston, the corner stone being laid by Joshua Mer- 
rill, Esq., acting-president of the board of trustees, who was later an active 
and beloved trustee of Boston University. 

The dedicatory exercises, held on November 2, 1870, were participated 
in, among others, by Rev. W. H. H. Murray, Rev. W. H. Cudworth, and 
the Rev. Dr. Eddy ; eminent and brilliant men long remembered in Boston 
and New England. 

In his scholarly "Quarter Centennial Address," June i, 1898, President 
William F. Warren, referring to the New England Female Medical Col- 
lege, said, " In the year 1848, just fifty years ago, a movement that had 
been initiated some three years before reached the point of crystallization,. 
and an application was made to the legislature for a charter. The object 
of the petitioners was to provide for another new departure in education. 
The petition was duly referred to the legislative committee on education, 
and this committee returned a favorable report. It is curious to note that 
of that small committee of seven, one was the father of the present presi- 
dent of Harvard University, and a second the father of General Walker,, 
late president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Supported by 
such men and their colleagues, it is not strange that the petitioners readily 
obtained the desired charter. The object of the thus created corporation 
was to provide for the medical education of suitably qualified women. 

'■ As just intimated, it was decidedly a new departure. At that date 
there was not a medically educated woman in America ; nowhere in the 
world was there a college for the training of such. Instruction was at once 
begun, but only with the narrowest resources. Indeed for the next twenty- 
five years the best energies of the corporation and of its friends were taxed 
to provide the money needed for the barest maintenance of the work under- 
taken. Only the most advanced minds seemed capable of appreciating the 
appeal. To the great mass of citizens, especially those of wealth, the idea 
of fitting women for medical practice seemed unutterably wild and fatuous. 
On this account the hundreds of names preserved to us as members, life 
members, or patrons of the pioneer organization, or as trustees and annual 
supporters of the college, have in these days a unique interest. They give 
a kind of municipal and national peerage, representing the progressive spirits 
of fifty years ago, the intellectual aristocracy of the city and of the nation. 
In this roll of honor stand the names of Horace Mann, Francis Wayland, 
Calvin E. Stowe, Wendell Phillips, James Freeman Clarke, Charles Francis 
Adams, Peleg W. Qiandler, Theodore Parker, Lee Claflin, Josiah Quincy,. 
Cyrus A. Bartol, William I. Bowditch. Isaac Rich, George W. Blagden, 
Ezra S. Gannett, Samuel E. Sewall, Rollin H. Neale, Robert G. Shaw, 
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Jacob Sleeper, Alpheus Hardy, Augustus 
Hemenway, David Snow, William Claflin, Octavus B. Frothingham, Alex- 
ander H. Vinton, Amos A. Lawrence, and others of like character. Of 











yr^ ^'- _r -'- fL<-'i:a*3»' 














M'^S^i^M'^'g^' '^' 









„-j y>a^ . 



164 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

the contributing women, hundreds in number, I will mention but a few ; 
the poetess, Mrs. L. H. Sigourney of Hartford, Miss Sarah J. Hale of 
Philadelphia, Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, Mrs. Chief Justice Lemuel Shaw, 
Mrs. Dr. Charles Lowell, mother of James Russell Lowell, Mrs. Francis 
Wayland, Mrs. Mary B. Claflin, Mrs. Ednah D. Cheney, Miss Katharine 
E. Beecher, Mrs. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Year after year with 
their modest contributions appeared these names. * * * 'jhe gifts 
were modest, but they educated the country and the world. They made 
possible new and stronger colleges and schools in other states and nations. 
They made it possible for a Johns Hopkins LTniversity to receive in the very 




I. Tisdale Talbot, M. D. 

next generation, the gift of $100,000 from the hand of one woman, to secure 
the opening of its departments in medicine to women and men alike." 

Dr. Gregory's work has probably never been appreciated at its full 
value. He was unquestionably the pioneer of the medical education of 
women, and the success of his efforts in establishing the New England Fe- 
male Medical College encouraged others all over the world to follow in 
his footsteps. He opened a new and enormous field of usefulness to women ; 
and it must be remembered that as far back as 1845 he began this work 
in the pamphlet entitled " A Letter to Ladies, in favor of female physicians, 
for their own sex." For over twenty years the college carried on its work 
in private houses and in halls, and in houses hired for that purpose, lead- 
ing all the while a somewhat migratory existence. Less than a year and a 
half after the completion and occupancy of the new college buildings Dr. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 165 

Gregory died. The mural tablet to his menior}', placed in the main hall 
of Boston University School of Medicine, bears this inscription : 

" IX :S[EMORV OF 

SAMUEL GREGORY. M. D. 
Died March 2t,, 1872. Aged 58 years. 

To his efforts is due the origin of the Xew England Female 
Medical College. Established in 1848. Incorporated in 1850. 
This building erected in 1870. By his unceasing labors the insti- 
tution was sustained from its commencement to the time of 
his death. 

This was the first Female Medical College ever established." 

The death of Dr. Gregory was a great blow to the college and the 
trustees hardly knew what course to pursue. Upon the new building there 
was a debt of many thousands unprovided for, and the one who had always 
solicited funds for the institution was taken away. The autumn of the year 
of Dr. Gregory's death was signalized by Boston's great fire, which left the 
city and its most responsible citizens in a state of profound financial de- 
pression. 

The college, staggering braveh' under burdens too heavy to be borne, 
welcomed in 1873 the offer of Boston University to be merged into that insti- 
tution, and become its medical school. In so doing it sacrificed nothing 
of its unique ideals and purposes: for. as we shall later see, Boston Univer- 
sity from its inception freely welcomed women to all the opportunities it 
offered to men. 

Thus the torch of the advancement of women in medical science, kindled 
at the fires of New England idealism, never fell to earth ; it was taken from 
the brave and tired hands which lit it first, by stronger hands, moved by 
identical will and purpose. And in the college of newer name, the name 
of the old college is held in affectionate and unforgetting respect. 



Tracing the second and third streams which united to the making of Boston 
Universitv School of Medicine — namely the rise of homoeopathy in New Eng- 
land and the founding of Boston University — we find it matter of historical 
record that homoeopathy was introduced into America in 1825, by Hans Burch 
Gram. M. D., who was born in Boston, Mass., but obtained his medical educa- 
tion in Denmark ; and that Dr. Samuel Gregg was the pioneer of the new thera- 
peutic system in New England. Dr. Gregg in 1838, through Dr. Vanderburgh 
of New York, became interested in homoeopathy and began his studies of the 
system. In 1840 he moved from INIedford, where for years he had been prac- 
ticing his profession, to Boston, where he acquired a notable practice, and in 
addition wielded a potent influence in spreading a knowledge of homoeopathic 
principles among the laity. 

Dr. Gregg, however, did not lim.it his sphere of influence to the laity ; 
he was particularly fortunate in convincing other physicians of the efficacy 
of the law of similars, and many younger physicians owed to him their intro- 
duction to the gentler and more successful therapeutics. Among the younger 
physicians who profited by his counsel and assistance and absorbed, as it 
were, of his enthusiasm and force of character, was Dr. T. T. Talbot, who 
later was to become a dominating spirit in the homoeopatlnc profession. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 167 

While to Dr. Gregg is credited the privilege of being the pioneer of 
homcEopathy in New England, it so happened that through other sources 
and at about the same time (1838) knowledge of the new truth was mak- 
ing its way into Boston and its environs. It is a matter of record (Pub- 
lications of the Massachuetts HomcEopathic Medical Society, Volume i) 
that chronolcgicall}- homoeopathy was " adopted " in 1838 by Drs. Samuel 
Gregg and Josiah F. Flagg; in 1839 by Dr. Charles Wild (through Dr. 
Flagg's influence) and Dr. J. P. Spooner ; in 1840 by Drs. Daniel Swan and 
Luther Clark; in 1841 by Dr. W. W. Cutler, and on ^vlarch 2. 1841, the 
constitution and by-iaws of the " ^^lassachusetts Homoeopathic Fraternity " 
were signed by Drs. Gregg, Flagg, Wild, Spooner, Cutler and Clark. This 
fraternity was the forerunner of the ^lassachusetts Homoeopathic Medical 
Society, the name being changed in 1851. 

Among the early adherents of homoeopathy must be mentioned Dr. 
Charles Frederic Hoffendahl, who became interested in the new medical 
doctrine before receiving his medical degree at Berlin, in 1829. In 1841 
he settled in Boston and rapidly earned a wide and enviable reputation. 
Among those who, in whole or in part, received their homoeopathic educa- 
tion in his ofifice were Dr. E. B. de Gersdorflf and Dr. David Thayer ; men 
who later became " pillars of strength " to the cause they had adopted. 
The first homoeopathic " dispensary " for the gratuitious treatment of the 
poor to be established in ^^.lassachusetts was opened by Dr. Hofifendahl. aided 
by Dr. Thayer in 1846, In a room over the Boylston market, at the corner 
of Washington and Boylston streets. 

The professional and lay adherents of homoeopathy in Boston and its 
neighborhood steadily increased in numbers and influence. In 1855 the 
Massachusetts Homoeopathic Hospital was incorporated, followed in 1856 
by the incorporation of the Homoeopathic Medical Dispensary and the ]Mas- 
sachusetts Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

Gradually, as the popularity of the new medical ideas spread through- 
out the community, and as the adherents of the established, traditional 
school began their unreasonable demonstrations of enmity toward those who 
embraced the doctrine of similars, it became evident that education in homoe- 
opathic practice must be provided for in homoeopathic schools. The first 
public plea for the establishment of a medical college was made by Dr. J. 
E. Linnell of Worcester, who in his presidential address on October 11, 
1865, before the state society when referring to medical education, said : 
" The demand for homoeopathic physicians is far in excess of the supply. 
* * * " " jjj ^.j^jg connection I would suggest for the consideration of the 
society the establishment of a Xew England Homoeopathic ^Medical College. 
It is within our power to command talent and learning sufficient to establish 
and give character to such an institution ; and the public demand for phy- 
sicians of our school would, within a reasonable period, insure its prosperity." 

This suggestion was referred to the executive committee of the society 
who at the semi-annual meeting held in October, 1866, reported that ■"' the 
committee had carefully examined the various suggestions proposed (by Dr. 
Linnell), but were prepared to report on one of these only at this time," 
and this one was in connection with the establishment of a homoeopathic 
journal in New England. The medical college suggestion was ignored 
completely by the committee. The seed, however, had been sown, and at 
the annual meeting held on April 10, 1867, Dr. David Thayer, who as 



168 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 



a member of the state legislature had been largely instrumental in securing 
the passage of the act, " congratulated the society on the prospective estab- 
lishment of a medical college, a charter for which had just been granted by 
the legislature." 

The act of incorporation to which Dr. Thayer referred is the following: 

An Act to Incorporate the New England Homoeopathic Medical College. 

Be it enacted, etc., as fellows : 

Section i. Daniel B. Stedman, Otis Clapp, David Thayer, their asso- 
ciates and successors aVe hereby incorporated by the name of the New Eng- 
land Homoeopathic Medical College ; with all the powers and privileges, and 
subject to all the duties, restrictions and liabilities set forth in the sixty- 
eighth chapter of the General Statutes. 




Library. 

Section 2. Said corporation mav hold real and personal estate to the 
amount of two hundred thousand dollars. 

Section 3. The trustees, together with the regularly constituted officers 
of the New England Homoeopathic Medical College, shall have power to confer 
the degree of doctor in medicine, subject to the restrictions and regulations 
which are adopted and required in conferring the same degree by Harvard 
College and the Berkshire Medical Institution. 

Approved February 14, 1867. 

At the same meeting of the society, April 10, 1867, the president. Dr. 
S. M. Cate of Salem, in his address said : " During the past year, an impor- 
tant step has been taken for the advancement of our science. Application 
was made to the legislature of our state, at its present session, for a charter 
for a Homoeopathic Medical College to be located in Boston. The bill for 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



169 



such a charter received the unanimous approval of the committee on educa- 
tion, who reported it to the house, through which it passed unopposed. But 
the faculty of the medical department of Harvard University, backed by 
other influential physicians of that school, made their appearance in the 
senate chamber, determined on its defeat. No proper cause for their attack 
was obvious. *> * * Every effort was made to kill the bill outright; 
but, finding their efforts useless in this direction, they endeavored to have 
a clause inserted in the charter, limiting the degrees to be conferred under 
it. But in this, too, they signally failed; and a charter, as liberal as its 
friends asked for, was freely granted." 

The rejoicing over the prospect opened up by the granting of the char- 
ter was voiced by Dr. de Gersdorff, who in an address before the state so- 




^viuseum. 



ciety, April iQ, 1867, said: * * * " It was, therefore, with thankfulness 
and joy that I lately heard of our prospect of having a medical college in our 
state, where homoeopathy could be freely taught, * * * here, at this center 
of learning, where the old school has 'held a high rank for so many years." 
It is curious that in so far as a medical school is concerned there is 
no word from Dr. I. T. Talbot in April. 1868, in his presidential address 
before the state society. It is also interesting to note that at this very meet- 
ing in April, 1868, when Dr. Mercy B. Jackson, a graduate of the New 
England Female Medical College, was nominated for election into the Mas- 
sachusetts Homoeopathic Medical Society, she was refused membership by 
thirty-three to thirty-one votes, although the executive committee had recom- 
mended her. Hers was the first woman's name to be offered as a candidate 



HISTORY OF ^()^[CEOPATHY 



171 




^ Professor Rockwell's Private Laboratory. 




Private Histological Laboratory. 



172 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

for membership in the state society. In 1874 she was elected; and she 
later served on the faculty of Boston University School of Medicine. 

The society was then twenty-eight years old. Six years later, in April, 
1874, the society being thirty-four years old, at the first meeting the so- 
ciety ever held in the halls of Boston University School of Medicine, with- 
out discussion or dissenting voice, Mercy B. Jackson, M. D., Mary J. S. 
Blake, M. D., Caroline E. Hastings, M. D., and Anna Monroe, M. D., were 
elected to membership. Drs. Jackson, Blake and Hastings were members 
of the first faculty of the medical school. 

In 1867 the question of " female medical education " attracted the atten- 
tion of the American Medical Association and the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy. At the annual session of the latter organization the well- 
known Dr. P. P. Wells, ex-president of the institute, offered the following 
resolution, which was supported by Dr. David Thayer of Boston (later 
president of the institute), and Dr. D. Holt of Lowell, both of whom had 
been favorably impressed by knowledge of graduates of the New England 
Female Medical College : " Resolved, That the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy admit to membership properly educated females." The reso- 
lution was at that time lost by a vote of fifty-six to sixty-eight ; two years 
later, in 1869, ^ similar resolution passed the institute by a vote of eighty 
to forty-five, thus anticipating by five years the action of the Massachusetts 
Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

Dr. F. H. Krebs (later a member of the faculty) in April, 1869, before 
the state society, said, '' We hold also charters for the establishment of a 
hospital and a college. The question arises, how shall these charters be made 
of use? Shall we exert all our energies to set them m operation * * *? 
Mr. President, in order to accomplish our great purpose, I would move that 
a committee of five be appointed to devise a plan by which the necessary 
sum of money can be collected to establish a homoeopathic hospital in this 
city." 

Dr. G. W. Swazey of Springfield, in his presidential address before the 
state society, April 13, 1870, said, " We need no spoken word to remind us 
that we have laid no college corner-stone, nor made any other show of a 
determination to do our share in the homework of liberal education. The 
state waits for Boston, where, b}" the terms of the charter, the college must' 
be located." 

It was at this same meeting of the state society, in April, 1870, that 
Dr. David Thayer delivered an elaborate and memorable address in the 
course of which he made an exceptionally logical and effective plea for the 
recognition of woman in medicine. Among other things, he said : " There 
is one question daily assummg increased importance. I mean the recogni- 
tion of woman as a fellow-practitioner with ourselves of the healing art. 

" Everything points toward the wider usefulness of woman. Socially, in 
literature, in many channels of philanthropic effort, in that most important 
of all human concerns, education, woman's place has been generously recog- 
nized within the last century. Every year, and every great event, has con- 
tributed to bring her in closer and more important relations with the great 
moving world. * "^^ '" Another very special reason why we should wel- 
come woman to our society, and invite her to full fellowship with us in the 
study and the practice of the healing art, is the great help she imll he as a 
prover of drugs. ^Tost of our provings have been made by men, and the 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 17iJ. 

pathogenetic S3^mptoms developed by these provings relate specially to men ; 
and we never can know all the powers of drugs till women shall join in 
the very important work of drng-proving. And I venture the opinion^ 
that the provings to be made by women will be quite as reliable as those 
made by men. * * * Science accepts help from every quarter, and 
shrinks from discouraging the slightest possibility of aid. * * * But 
I desire to record my judgment, that our school especially, and all schools 
of really scientific medicine, must inevitably accept and encourage the par- 
ticipation of woman in the study and practice of our art. We cannot put 
back the current of the age, even if we would ; only the bigoted victims of 
a narrow and timid philosophy attempt it. * * * Wg must accept the 
tendency of the age, recognizing it as true progress, not dreading it as rash 
experiment. The civilization which produced and welcomed Maria Edge- 
worth, Mrs. Browning, Chailotte Bronte, Mrs. Child and Mrs. Stowe in 
literature, Mrs. Somerville, Alaria Mitchell in science, Lucretia Mott, Mrs. 
Howe, Miss Dix, Florence Nightingale and Clara Barton in philanthropy, 
will not support us in the presumptuous assumption that aid from woman is 
not possible. Woman can help in medicine. I will not chronicle the wom- 
en's names who have already done so here and in Europe, now as in past 
years. T only pledge homoeopathy, I trust with your concurrence, to a readv 
sympathy with the age in accepting this new ally." 

In 1869 Dr. F. H. Krebs called the attention of the state society to 
the fact that charters had been granted for the establishment of a hospital 
and a college, but that no use had been made of these charters. On his 
motion it was voted by the society to appoint a committee of five to devise 
plans for the establishment of a hospital. In April, 1870, this committee, 
consisting of Drs. F. H. Krebs, I. T. Talbot, David Thayer, J. T. Harris, 
and G. M. Pease, reported as follows : " The committee, appointed at the 
last annual meeting of this society to adopt plans to secure funds for the 
establishment of a hospital, beg leave to submit the following report: 

" We have conferred with the trustees of the Massachusetts Homoe- 
opathic Hospital and have ascertained that the charter of that organization 
has been and is now in full force ; that said trustees, as far as interviewed, 
are unanimous in their willingness and' desire to co-operate under the exist- 
ing charter, and they think it high time that measures be taken to that end. 

" Your committee would suggest that the society should take such action 
as shall at once result in the immediate establishment of a hospital under 
the charter which has so long been kept in force, and therefore would recom- 
mend that a central or executive committee of seven be appointed to take 
active measures in securing a building suitable for the purpose. 

" We would also recommend that local and county societies should ap- 
point committees to report to the central committee, and that these commit- 
tees should use every endeavor to raise funds among their patrons and 
friends, and also articles to be sold at a fair, which should be initiated upon 
as large a scale as the central committee may judge expedient ; said fair to 
come off early in the coming winter. 

" Should these sucgestions and recommendations be entertained by the 
society, and the committee be appointed, we would earnestlv entreat all mem- 
bers of this society, irrespective of the committee, to lend a strong helping 
hand in pushing forward so desirable a work." 

Following the recommendation contained in this report a committee of 



174 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 




Microscopical Laboratory. 




Chemical Laboratorv. 



HISTOKV OF HOMCEOPATHY 



ITo 



seven (after some discussion, raised to ten), ^vas appointed to take active 
measures to secure a hospital. During the same year. 1870, but six months 
later, this committee of ten, consisting of Drs. David Thaver, W. P. Wessel- 
hoeft, Conrad Wesselhoeft. G. M. Pease, Charles Cullis, I. T. Talbot, D. G. 
Woodvine, H. C. Angell. E. B. deGersdorfif, J. H. Woodbury, presented to 
the society a report in which the following resolution is found : 

*■' Resolved. That this committee cordially approves the establishment 
of a homoeopathic hospital in Burroughs place, believing that in this modest 
beginning we have the germ of an institution which under the fostering 
care of the homoeopaths of the city and the state, will grow into a New 




Dr. Conrad Wesselhoeft. 



England homoeopathic hospital and a Nem England Homceopathic College." 
In 1871, well into the fourth decade of homoeopathy in New England, 
evidences were apparent on all hands that the new school had grown steadily 
and solidly and that its activities were of such a nature that it was destined 
to become a potent influence in the life of the community. Naturally, this 
phenomenal success had been achieved in the face of opposition, and the 
opposition to homoeopathy had reached a climax in the refusal of the sur. 
gecn general of Massachusetts to sanction the appointment of Dr. H. P 
Shattuck of Boston as medical director of the first brigade of Massachusetts 
volunteer militia, because he was a homoeopathist ; and in the action of the 



170 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

Massachusetts Medical Societ}- in adopting measures for the disfranchise- 
ment and expulsion of such of its members as believed in -homoeopathy. 

In April, 1871, Dr. Thayer reported to the state society that " a bill 
was introduced into the Massachusetts house of representatives this winter, 
aimed at the homoeopathists, which fined a man ten dollars who dispensed 
his own medicines. It had got into the senate and would soon have become a 
law ; but when the attention of senators was called to its real meaning it was 
at once dropped." 

It is well known, however, that such intolerance was not confined to 
Massachusetts. Pension Surgeons Spooner and Bull of New York and 
Hoppin of Rhode Island had just been removed from ofifice by Commis- 
sioner Van Aernam, who gave as reason for his action simply that these 
surgeons " did not belong to the school of medicine recognized by this bureau." 
Many other instances of intolerance might be cited, but it is enough that 
in Alassachusetts as elsewhere persecution of homoeopathists by old school 
organizations so aroused public opinion, sympathy and support that homoe- 
opathic institutions rapidly grew m favor and new projects received assist- 
ance that otherwise might not have been given them. . 

The year 1872 proved a period of great and successful activity among 
the homoeopathists of New England. A " grand fair " was held in Boston 
to raise funds for the Massachusetts Homoeopathic Hospital, and some idea 
of the widespread public interest that was taken in this event may be ob- 
tained from the fact that the sum of $76,000 was raised during the week 
of the fair. 

On October 9, 1872, Dr. I. T. Talbot, for a committee, made a report 
to the Massachusetts Homoeopathic Medical Society which closed with the 
following : 

'" Resolved, That the interests of the community and the progress of 
medical science demand that a medical college be established in New Eng- 
land, on a broad, comprehensive, and permanent basis, in which physicians 
may be educated in the principles and practice of homoeopathy, as well 
as in all the collateral branches of medical science ; and for this purpose, 
we pledge the influence and assistance of this society, so far as may be con- 
sistent with its legitimate object; and we solicit for it the active co-opera- 
tion and aid of every m.ember of the medical profession. 

■' Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed, with full powers to 
take such action as thev may deem expedient for the permanent establish- 
ment and active operation of such a medical college." 

An earnest discussion showing a deep appreciation of the circumstances 
by the society followed the presentation of the report, and on the adoption 
of the report the following were appointed a committee to carry out the 
object of the resolution : Drs. David Thayer, I. T. Talbot, Conrad Wessel- 
hoeft, D. G. Woodvine,' N. R. Morse, J. H. Woodbury and T. S. Scales. 
This committee, at the next meeting of the society, April 9, 1873, made a 
somewhat elaborate report from which the following is quoted : 

" At the last semi-annual meeting of this society the subject of the 
establishment of a homoeopathic medical college in New England was intro- 
duced and fully discussed ; and it was unanimously decided that the' time 
had arrived for the establishment of such a college, and this committee was 
appointed, 'with full power to take such action as they may deem expedient 
for the permanent establishment and active operation of such a medical college.' 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 





Experiments in Phj-siological Laboratory. 



178 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

" Clothed with these full powers, and sustained by the general senti- 
ment of the society, the committee met to consider the best method of estab- 
lishing this college. 

" The state of Massachusetts had granted a liberal charter for a college 
with the title of the ' New England Homceopathic Medical College,' and 
there was little doubt in the minds of any of the committee but that such a 
college could be successfully established. At the same time, judging from 
the history of every medical college of our school, and in fact of the great 
majority of educational institutions which stand alone, or not associated 
with any other institutions, their success is too often dependent upon the 
influence and personal effort of a few individuals, and does not secure that 
permanence and combined power which should chai'acterize a medical insti- 
tution. 

" Happily, at this juncture, it came to the knowledge of your commit- 
tee that a new university, upon the broadest scale, known as the Boston 
University, was about to be established in this, city (Boston). The plan 
of this university includes four superior professional departments or schools, 
viz.: law, theology, medicine and. universal science; and no less than eleven 
distinct colleges, including all the arts and sciences, and an under-graduate 
or classical department. 

■' The schools of theology and law. and the college of music, have already 
been established, and are in successfid operation. 

" The advantages of establishing a medical school in connection with 
this university were too obvious and too great to be overlooked, and a com- 
mittee was appointed by the trustees of the university to devise such plans 
as should render it permanently successful beyond any reasonable doubt. 
To do this, your committee deemed it essential to raise $10,000 for the out- 
fit;' $5,000 a year for five years, and in the meantime to secure A perma- 
nent fund of $200,000, which vour committee felt confident could be raised 
among the physicians and friends of homoeopathy in New England. The 
prospect of a medical department tmder such favorable auspices determined 
the question with the board of trustees of the university, and it was decided 
by them unanimously to establish such a medical school or department under 
the charge of homoeopathists. 

" Thus, for the first time in the history of homoeopathy, have we secured 
a medical school in connection with a university or other educational insti- 
tution. 

" This university is connected with a large and liberal denomination 
— the Methodists — second only in numbers in the United States, which will 
give to it and its medical department a powerful support. It has already 
received many donations, and an endowment of several millions from one 
of the warmest friends of homoeopathy, Hon. Isaac Rich, which will come in 
full possession of the university at the expiration of ten vears ; a part of 
which will, if necessary, be applied to the uses of the medical school. 

" A meeting of the homceopathic physicians of New England was called 
by your committee, and after discussion it was unanimously voted to accept 
the proposition, and establish the school under the auspices of the Boston 
University. Already We have seen some of the advantages of this combina- 
tion. The board of trustees, men of ability and eminence in the communitv, 
feel an interest in the success of this department, and have entered into nego- 
tiations with the New England Female Medical College, and have made 



HIS'r( )RV I )!• H( )M(l-:( Jl' \THV 



179 




Physiological Laboratory. 




Biuluc;ical Laburatury. 



180 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

arrangements by which the whole property, amounting to nearly $160,000, 
shall be transferred to this medical department upon the payment of its 
debt, amounting to $42,000. 

" The importance of this seems worthy of every effort, and already some 
$30,000 of this amount has been secured. There still remains some $12,000 
to be obtained, and $10,000 at once to put the college in an efficient and 
active working condition. 

" When we consider the immense advantages which will accrue to our 
cause, that it is an opportunity which probably can never occur again, it 
seems of the greatest importance that an effort should now be made not only 
to secure what has been off'ered to us but to place it in a position of use- 
fulness of which we may all feel proud." 

To give one the " side-lights " on this subject, and to show that inter- 
est in the establishment of a medical school in Boston was not confined 
to the medical profession, the following is quoted from a letter by one of 
New England's famous writers, Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, to the " New Eng- 
land Medical Gazette." It was published in the issue of January, 1873. 

" Editors of tlie Gazette — The continued want in this city of a homoe- 
opathic medical school — hardly second to, and walking hand in hand with 
that of a hospital — begins to wear, it seems to me, a serious aspect. * * 
* Boston must open a homoeopathic medical school, in which the most 
accurate and scientific standards of study shall express themselves in the 
most practical and most liberal curriculum — and Boston must do this before 
long. Upon the immediate establishment of such a school may depend, 
in the somewhat chaotic transition state of medical instruction now pre- 
vailing in America, more of the character of New England homoeopathy for 
the coming decade than we may be fully aware of ; or, at least, attentive to. 
Next year is as suitable for the commencement of such an undertaking as 
next century. It can require but two conditions to the opening of a course 
of lectures in this town another autumn — means and wits; 

"' In the former we are not wont to suppose the homoeopathic laity of this 
vicinity to be deficient — perhaps, indeed, it is more generally a laity of 
wealth and culture than is really well for the broader interests of the sys- 
tem (a medical no less than a religious creed is never secure of its footing 
till 'the common people hear it gladly'). 

" As to the latter, my acquaintance with the local profession is limited, 
and I prefer to found my hopes or fears upon an assumption or an infer- 
ence. From an opinion I pray thee have me excused ! 

'' In one pre-eminent particular it will be found that a medical college 
of the new school, dating its inception from times like these, will possess a 
signal advantage over any other institution of its kind in the country. I 
refer to the ease with which it can start right upon the subject of educat- 
ing women. * * ■'■ That women might, could, would and should share 
in the study and practice of medicine, the world found out some time since. 
Tt is too late for the most incredulous or reluctant to question this. Con- 
testing interests now clash about the fact. Rival svstems have begun to 
prove themselves ingenious in their methods of meeting it. That school 
which most thoroughly and heartily educates its women, hangs out the ban- 
ner of its ultimate triumphs as surely as ' God created them male and female,' 
with the instincts upon which social purities and securities rest alike. 

" It remains for the New England new school to found an institution 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 181 

on this new plank in the platform of medical progress. The more obvious 
advantages of this opportunity, by which the instructive, receptive, and pecun- 
iary force of the college will be quite or nearly doubled — as well as the public 
interest upon which it relies for patronage — are the least of its claims to 
respect. The courage to build a new enterprise upon the cornerstone of a 
yet struggling truth ; the freedom from petty professional and masculine 
jealousies which alone can uphold it; the reputation for a spirit of advanced 
liberality and acessibilitv to those beckoning moral forces by which the higher 
science nuist ultimately be illuminated — these will form an endowment as 
solid as the college walls, and as available as a draft at ^ght." 

So rapidly do things move when momentum has once been acquired 
that in two months after the publication of Miss Phelps' letter, the " New 
England Medical Gazette " was able to announce authoritatively : 

" On Saturday, February 15, 1873, the Supreme court removed the in- 
junction from the Massachusetts Medical Society, and said virtually, ' We 
•can no longer protect you homoeopaths from intentional wTong on the part 
of that time-honored institution.' // is a somezchat remarkable coincidence 
that on the same day another body of men — men zi.>ho are not looking into 
the dead past, but into the living futtire — offered a cordial zvelcome to the 
homa'opatkists. 

" The Boston University is chartered by the state of Massachusetts with 
the greatest powers that it has ever given to any educational institution. 
Its plan is the broadest and most extensive of any in America. Aside from 
the classical or undergraduate department, it already contemplates not less 
than eleven distinct colleges, giving thorough instruction in the principal 
sciences and arts. Besides these colleges there will be four schools or de- 
partments of higher grade. 

" These departments have no conflicting theories or ethics to conciliate 
or offend. But in establishing a school of medicine a more delicate ques- 
tion arose. What system shall be taught? Into whose hands shall it be 
committed? That the founder was a decided homoeopath might not alone 
have determined the answer. It is possible that this question would not 
have been met for years to come but for the obnoxious proceedings of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, and the spirit which it elicited. The energy 
and decision with which the bigotry and intolerance of its leaders were 
resisted by the homceopaths, and the success which attended their efforts, the 
undivided sympathy of the press and the Avhole public, the popular upris- 
ing in the great homoeopathic hospital fair — all this tended to show the trus- 
tees of the university that homoeopathy was a living power and, at least, not 
to be despised. After a long and careful examination and thorough dis- 
cussion of the whole subject, it was unanimously voted by them to establish 
a medical department and place it under the charge of the homceopaths." 

At a meeting of the homceopathic physicians of Massachusetts held 
Wednesday, February 19, 1873. the matter of co-operation with Boston Uni- 
versity in the establishment of a medical school was fully considered, and 
the proposition w^as unanimously approved. It was voted at this meeting 
to form an organization to raise funds with which to start such a school. 
On March 13, 1873, an organization styled " The Homoeopathic Association 
of Boston University " to aid in founding and supporting a homoeopathic 
medical school for the education of men and womien in the medical depart- 
ment of Boston University was formed. Alembership fee was three dollars and 



182 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 




Dispensary — Surgical Clinic. 




Dispensary — Eye Clinic. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 181:^ 

a gift of thirty dollars constituted the donor a " life member." At this meeting' 
two hundred persons made themselves annual members and forty became 
life members. 

In July, 1873, a " Preliminary Announcement " was made which showed 
how far organization had progressed : 

BOSTOX UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE. 

Preliminary Announcement. 

The trustees of Boston University will open a school of medicine on 
Wednesday, tVie fifth of November, 1873. 

The following professors and lecturers have been appointed, on nomina- 
tion of the Massachusetts Homoeopathic Medical Society. Their distinguished 
professional ability and skill in the specialties which they are respectively to 
teach, have also found formal and full indorsement at the hands of the Bos- 
ton Homceopathic Medical Society. Entering with earnest enthusiasm upon 
their work, they will spare no effort to give the new school at once the com- 
manding position to which its advantages of location and university rela- 
tions entitle it. 

Students of both sexes will be admitted to the school of medicine on 
uniform terms and conditions. The regular course of instruction will be 
of the most thorough and comprenhensive character, covering three full 
years of study. Students who satisfactorily complete their curriculum will 
receive the diploma of the university. Suitable arrangements will be made 
for those students who have partially completed their courses of study else- 
where. 

A later announcement will contain the full course of instruction and 
other information in relation to the school. 

AJeanwhile, inquiries may be addressed to the dean. I. T. Talbot, !M. D., 
31 Mt. Vernon street, or to the registrar, J. H. \\'oodbury, ^I. D., 58 Temple 
street, Boston. 

FACULTY. 

William E. Payne. M. D., Conrad ^^'esselhoeft, ^NI. D., professors of 
materia medica and therapeutics. 

J. Heber Smith. M. D., adjunct professor of materia medica and thera- 
peutics. 

'David Thaver. M. D., professor of the practice of medicine. 

Ernst B. De Gersdorff, M. D.. professor of special pathology and diag- 
nosis. 

Henry B. Clarke, yi. D., professor of clinical medicine. 

I. Tisdale Talbot, ]M. D.. professor of surgery and surgical pathology,. 

Henry M. Jernegan, ]M. D., professor of operative and clinical surgery. 

Henry C. Angell. M. D.. professor of ophthalmology. 

Francis H. Krebs, ^1. D.. professor of obstetrics. 

John H. Woodbury, 'M. D., Mary Safford Blake. "M. D., professors of 
diseases of women. 

Nathan P. Morse, ]\I. D., ^lercy B. Jackson, !M. D., professors of dis- 
eases of children. 

W'alter Wesselhoeft. M. D., professor of general anatomy. 

* , professor of physiologv. 

* , professor of chemistry. 



* Arrangements are in progress, but not yet full}' completed, for furnishing thor- 
ough instruction in the departments of physiology and chemistry. 



184 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPx\THY 



John Ordronaux, AI. D., LL. D., professor of medical jurisprudence. 
Archibald K. Carruthers, M. D., lecturer on physiology. 
Frederic W. Payne, M. D., lecturer on ophthalmic surgery. 
Edward P. Colby, M. D.. lecturer on pharmacology and medical botany. 
Charles R. Brown, M. D., lecturer on histology. 
T. Dwight Stowe, M. D., lecturer on diagnostics. 

Erastus E. Marcy, M. D., William Tod Helmuth, M. D., special lecturers. 
Alonzo Boothby, M. D., demonstrator. 

Caroline E. Hastings, M. D., assistant demonstrator and special lecturer 
on anatomy. 




I. Tisdale Talbot, M. D.. dean. 
John H. Woodbury. \L 1).. registrar. 

The records of the New England Female Medical College show that 
after the death of Dr. Gregory various plans for the future of the college 
were entertained, as follows: 

" At this time a very large and successful fair was held in aid of the 
Massachusetts Homoeopathic Hospital ; it netted $76,000. A majority of the 
trustees of the New England Female Medical College favored homoeopathy 
and many of the contributors to this college had been of the same school. 
Negotiations were entered into at once for placing the college in affilia- 
tion with the hospital named, and a committee was appointed to report 
what arrangeiuents could be made for the mutual benefit of these institu- 
tions. While these negotiations Avere still pending, propositions came from 
some of the overseers of Harvard Cniversitv, suggesting the uniting of this 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 185 

college with that university. Soon after this the great Boston fire (Novem- 
ber, 1872), so crippled the resources of Harvard University that notice was 
given of its inability to do anything for this college. Meanwhile, Boston 
University had made arrangements to establish a medical department in con- 
nection with the Massachusetts Homoeopathic Hospital. In* the following 
year upon the establishment of the school known as the Boston University 
School of Medicine the New England Female ^Medical College was joined 
with it, and in 1874 by an enabling act of the Massachusetts legislature the 
two institutions were legally united." 

Plans of all sorts, however, culminated in the opening exercises of Bos- 
ton University School of ]\Iedicine, which were held in Wesleyan hall, 
Boston, on Wednesday evening. November 5, 1873. The faculty, a large 
portion of the students, the officers of the university and of the Massa- 
chusetts Homoeopathic Hospital and Dispensary, together with other invited 
guests, were present. Among these were " His Honor, the Mayor," Ex- 
Governor Claflin, Hon. Jacob Sleeper, Hon. Rufus S. Frost and others. 
The dean, Dr. I. T. Talbot, presided. Rev. \V. F. Warren, D. D., president 
of the university, invoked the divine blessing. 

' An '"Inaugural Address " was made by Dean I. T. Talbot. Remarks 
were made by Franklin Snow, Esq. An original poem was read by Julia 
Ward Howe. An address was delivered by William E. Payne, M. D., pro- 
fessor of materia medica and therapeutics of the new faculty. A letter 
from Governor Washburn and appropriate music completed the programme. 
The regular work of the school proceeded without delays or embarrass- 
ments, the entire matriculation numbering seventy-eight students, five grad- 
uating at the end of the year's work on March 4, 1874. 

The first gathering of the Massachusetts Homoeopathic Medical So- 
ciety in the new college buildings occurred on April 8, 1874, when the thirty- 
fourth annual meeting was held. It so happened Dr. J. H. Woodbury, the 
president of the society, was also registrar of the school, and in his double 
official capacity he extended to the society a graceful and hearty welcome. 
The society that had done so much to make possible the existence of the 
school had this early opportunity to inspect its charge, and for quite a num- 
ber of years the society held its annual and semi-annual meetings in the 
lecture rooms of the college. 

During the first four years of the school's history students were per- 
mitted to graduate at the end of two years of study, although the full three 
years' course was the one strongly advocated by the faculty, but in 

June, 1877, the three years' graded course was made compulsory, the 
following announcement being made : 

The graded course by which the various branches are taught in proper 
succession having, after a four years' trial, proved the best method for 
thorough medical instruction, the faculty have adopted it exclusively, and 
will require of all candidates for graduation who may matriculate hereafter 
three full years of study and attendance upon three full courses of lectures. 

In June, 1878, optional four years' courses were introduced and for 
years these courses were elected by many students. The annual circular for 
1878 contains so many characteristic features that it is quoted from as 
follows : 

For several years prior to the founding of this school there had been a 
profound dissatisfaction with the state of medical education in this country. 



186 HISTORY^OF HOMCEOPATHY 

This dissatisfaction seemed to be shared by every branch of the profession, 
whatever its principles or practice. The laxity of the existing schools with 
respect to the qualifications of students for admission, the period of their 
attendance, the conditions of promotion and of admission to the degree of 
doctor of medicine, was almost universally felt to be disgraceful. During 
the decade immediately preceding 1873 several praiseworthy efforts were 
made in sonlfe of the stronger institutions to correct one or another of these 
perceived defects, but in no case was it attempted to correct them all. The 
Boston University School of Medicine was the first, and it remains the 
onlv one, to present in combination the following ©ssential elements of a 
thorough reform in this department of education : 

First. The requirement that the candidate for admission must either 
present the diploma of a bachelor of arts, or pass a suitable entrance exam- 
ination. 

Second. The provision of a carefully graded course of instruction 
covering three scholastic years. 

Third. The requirement that every student pass a successful examina- 
tion upon the work of each year before promotion to the next. 

Fourth. The requirement, as a condition of graduation, not merely 
that the candidate shall have studied medicine three full years, but that he 
shall have attended a reputable medical school for three years. 

Fifth. A faculty trained in and practically acquainted with the in- 
most principles and peculiarities of both the conservative and the progressive 
branches of the profession. 

Si.vth. The abolition of all sex disabilities, either in teaching or learning. 

The unexampled success which has attended the new institution is suf- 
ficient evidence that the attempted reform is fully sustained by the public 
sentiment of the countr\'. Encouraged by this support, the authorities of the 
school have decided to announce other advance measures. These are 

1. The introdtiction of two new elective courses of three years. 

2. The restoration of the long-lost degrees of bachelor of medicine and 
bachelor of surgery. 

3. The provision of two optional four years' courses for those who 
wish to pursue their professional studies with exceptional thoroughness and 
with suitable leisure for collateral reading. 

4. The extension of the lecture term of each year from five months to 
eight months. 

Under this arrangement, the sixth annual course of lectures will com- 
mence on Wednesday, October 9, 1878. 

In October, 1890. there w^ent into eft'ect the new requirement that all 
students shall take a four years' graded course before presenting themselves 
for graduation. 

The first facultv of the school numbered twenty-six. Of this original 
faculty no less than seven were Harvard graduates, v^-hile eleven had re- 
ceived their professional training in part or in whole in Europe ; three of the 
number were women. This M-as simply an illustration of the principle re- 
ferred to by President Warren in his quarter-centennial address, when he 
said that so far as known Miss Anna Ohver was the first woman in the 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 1>7 

history of the world to whom a university ever gave the privilege of study- 
ing the bible and its themes as scholars study them, and to whom, in simple 
justice, without flourish of trumpet, it then gave the jura et privilegia of a 
theological graduate. It was fitting that this first illustration of consistent 
"university freedom" should have been given in Boston, and especially fitting 
that it should have been given in the iirst university ez'er organized, logic- 
ally and fro)n the start, on the principle of no discrimination in privilege 
on the ground of sex. 

In 1905 the faculty numbered sixty, forty-three of whom were grad- 
uates of the school. 

Of the original faculty of tweiity-six only two names, Professor Walter 
Wesselhoeft and Professor Edward P. Colby, are to be found in the faculty 
of 1905. During that interval of thirty-two years many noble men and 
women had given their best efforts and most faithful service, patiently, 
generously and efhciently to the school in which were embodied their hopes 
and their ideals. To the many who in this third of a century have died, a 
brief but loving and affectionate tribute may be paid by those in whose 
memories these respected and honored teachers, colleagues and friends still 
live as active, stimulating, encouraging and helpful forces. In the list of 
those who have died may be found the names of David Thayer, John H. 
Woodbury, E. Bruno de Gersdorflf, Francis H. Krebs, Xathan R. Morse, 
Mercy B. Jackson, ^Jary J. Saflford, Elijah. U. Jones, Denton G. W'oodvine, 
J. Heber Smith, Alonzo Boothby, I. Tisdale Talbot, Henry C. Ahlborn, 
Conrad Wesselhoeft, \\'illiam L. Jackson. 

Few names outlive the generation to which they belong, but these names 
recall a group of earnest, loyal and devoted men and women who might 
well be placed as examples to their successors. 

The m.ost striking figure in the history of the school is that of Dr. I. 
Tisdale Talbot, who in many ways paralleled Dr. Samuel Gregory of the 
Xew England Female 2^Iedical College. Dr. Talbot, the active organizer of 
the school, was dean of the original faculty and held that position for twenty- 
six years, until his death, Julv 2(^, 189Q. As a champion of homoeopathy Dr. 
Talbot was known throughout the length and breadth of our country, and 
his reputation was international. 

Dr. Talbot was noted for his indomitable courage, determined character, 
great executive ability and resourcefulness : he was keen-sighted, at times in- 
flexible, and always tactful and persevering. He had to an unusual extent the 
faculty of stimulating others to work, and as he himself was encouraged, in- 
fluenced and assisted by Dr. Samuel Gregg, the pioneer of homcEopathy in 
Xew England, so in his turn he encouraged, advised and helped in many 
ways many young physicians. 

Dr. Talbot's voice was well known and heeded in dispensaries, hospitals, 
local, state, national and international associations, but it was to the school 
that he devoted his best thoughts and energies. 

A special word is due Professor Conrad Wesselhoeft, who was a member 
of the faculty from 1873 to the time of his death, December 17, 1904; a 
period of over thirty years. Dr. Wesselhoeft was a truth-seeker, a thorough- 
going, indefatigable student, a searcher for knowledge, an impressive teacher: 
he was modest, honest, upright and gentle ; and throughout his busy life was 
a liberal contributor to homoeopathic literature, serving as co-editor of the 
" Cyclopedia of Drug Pathogenesy " and the " Pharmacopoeia of the American 



188 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

Institute of Homoeopathy." He also was translator of " Hahnemann's 
Organon." 

American homceopathy has as its most distinguished gift the presidency 
of its national association, to which office have been elected four of the mem- 
bers of the faculty of Boston University School of Medicine, viz: David 
Thayer, I. Tisdale Talbot, Conrad Wesselhoeft and John P. Sutherland. 

Those members of the faculty who have translated or written books 
which have become text-books in our colleges are Conrad Wesselhoeft, " The 
Organon," etc. ; Henry C. Angell, " Diseases of the Eye ; " Herbert C. Clapp, 
" Auscultation and Percussion ; " and George R. Southwick, " Practical Gyne- 
cology." ' 

The subjoined faculty list for 1905 contains names that are known even 
beyond the confines of their own immediate neighborhoods, but crowded space 
forbids detailed reference to any of them. 

Wilham E. Huntington, Plr.D., S. T. D., president. 

John P. Sutherland. M. D., dean, professor of anatomy. 

Frank C. Richardson, M. D., registrar, professor of clinical neurology 
and electro-therapeutics. 

George B. Rice, M. D., treasurer, professor of diseases of the nose and 
throat. 

Herbert C. Clapp, M. D., secretary, professor of the diseases of the chest. 

Walter Wesselhoeft, M. D., professor of clinical medicine. 

Frederick B. Percy, M. D., professor of materia medica. 

Edwin E. Calder, A. M., Ph.C, professor of chemistry. 

Howard P. Bellows, Yi. D., professor of otology. 

Edward P. Colby, M. D., professor of nervous diseases. 

John L. Coffin, M. D., professor of diseases of the skin. 

John H. Payne, M. D., professor of ophthalmology. 

Horace Packard, M. D., professor of surgery. 

Joseph W. Hayward, M. D., professor of fractures, dislocations and 
military surgery. 

Winfield Smith, M. D., professor of operative surgery. 

N. Emmons Paine, J\I. D., professor of mental diseases. 

J. Wilkinson Clapp, M. D., emeritus professor of pharmaceutics. 

Nathaniel W. Emerson, M. D.. professor of gynaecology. 

George R. Southwick, M. D.. M. R. C. S., professor of medical gynae- 
cology. 

Frederick P. Batchelder, M. D., professor of physiology. 

George H. Earl, M. D., professor of obstetrics and lecturer on ortho- 
paedics. 

Arthur W^ Weysse, Ph.D.. professor of experimental physiology. 

William H. Watters, M. D., professor of pathologv and curator of the 
museum. 

In addition to the above the following constitute the full faculty : 

Sarah S. Windsor, M. D.. associate professor of obstetrics. 

Maurice W. Turner. M. D., associate professor of theory and practice. 

Edward E. Allen, M. D., associate professor of anatomy. 

Charles H. Thomas, M. D.. associate professor of clinical medicine. 

J. Emmons Briggs, M. D., associate professor of surgery. 

J. Plerbert Moore, ]\I. D., associate profe'^sor of diseases of children. 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 189 

Eliza B. Cahill, M. D., adjunct professor of gynaecology. 

Charles L. Nichols, ]\I. D., lecturer on the history of medicine. 

Frederick W. Halsey, M. D., lecturer on diseases of the rectum. 

Everett W. Burdett, LL.B., lecturer on medical jurisprudence, 

!Martha E. Maun, M. D., lecturer on the medical diseases of women. 

William F. Wesselhoeft, M. D., lecturer on surgery. 

Percy G. Browne, M. D.-, lecturer on chest diseases. 

EJovey L. Shepherd, M. D., lecturer on materia medica. 

Neidhard H. Houghton, ^T. D., lecturer on diseases of the nose and 
throat. 

William P. Defriez. M. D., lecturer on the " Organon " and " Chronic 
Diseases." 

Stephen H. Blodgett, M. D., lecturer on renal diseases, and clinical in- 
structor in urinary analysis. 

Geo. S. Adams, M. D.. clinical lecturer on insanity. 

Frank E. AUard, M. D., lecturer on life insurance. 

Wesley T. Lee, M. D., lecturer on surgical pathology. 

Charles T. Howard, M. D., lecturer on minor surgery. 

J. Arnold Rockwell, Jr., M. D., lecturer on materia medica. 

Walter F. Adams, M. D., lecturer on pharmaceutics. 

George E. Percy, M. D., lecturer on diseases of the digestive organs. 

A. Howard Powers. M. D., instructor in clinical surgery. 

Alonzo G. Howard, M. D.. instructor in mechanical and hydro-thera- 
peutics. 

Clarence Crane, AI. D., instructor in physiology. 

Frank E. Schubmthl. M. D.,> instructor in obstetrics. 

Nelson M. Wood. M. D., instructor in sanitary science. 

Orville R. Chadwell, M. D., instructor in microscopy and bacteriological 
technique. 

Orren B. Sanders, M. D., instructor in venereal diseases. 

Gilbert McC. Mason, M. D., demonstrator of anatomy. 

James S. Shaw, M. D., assistant in the medical diseases of women. 

W'illard A. Paul, M. D., assistant in the medical diseases of women. 

David W. Wells, M. D., assistant in ophthalmology and lecturer on 
mental physiology. 

Fred'k W. Colburn, M. D., assistant in otology. 

Albert S. Briggs, M. D., assistant in materia medica. 

Anna T. Levering, M. D., librarian. 

The pictorial method of conveying ideas and facts as well as making 
impressions may be permitted in describing the growth of Boston University 
School of Medicine. The building erected for the New England Female 
Medical College was nearly doubled in size before being used as the medical 
school of Boston University. Gradually the facilities available became crowded, 
then seriously taxed, and finally altogether insufficient. With the progress 
of the last quarter of the last century a change took place in methods of im- 
parting medical knowledge. The old-fashioned didactic lecture was grad- 
ually replaced in many departments, by laboratory, clinical and practical 
methods of teaching. One of the first- departments to suffer from cramped 
quarters was that of histology, for which a lecture hall was converted into a 
laboratory and utilized as such several hours per week. Physiology next 



190 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

demanded more room as there were absolutely no facilities for experimental 
work ; and after the introduction of Professor John A. Rockwell to this de- 
partment the necessity for laboratory work became urgent. The department 
and the school are deeply indebted to Professor Rockwell for insisting that 
a laboratory is absolutely essential to the proper study of physiology, and it 
was due greatly to his agitation of the subject that a laboratory building of 
ample and imposing proportions cam.e to be. In April, 1892, shortly after 
the establishment of the four \ears' course, the much needed structure was 
completed and dedicated with appropriate ceremony. Pathology naturally 
soon followed physiology in demanding adequate facilities and in the new 
building, of modern fire-proof construction, was found ample room for 
biological, microscopical, bacteriological, histological, physiological and patho- 
log'cal work, besides private laboratories, museum, library and small lecture- 
rooms. 

In clinical facilities the growth of the school has kept pace with the 
demands of modern times. In close affiliation with the school are the Homoeo- 
pathic Medical Dispensary, the Massachusetts Homoeopathic Hospital, the 
Roxbury Homoeopathic Dispensary, the Medical Mission (a North End dis- 
pensary), and the Cullis Consumptives Home. Other public and private 
hospitals and sanatoria are accessible to students, so that in 1905 upwards 
of 30,000 patients were available for clinical instruction. 

The most valuable adjunct the school has had in the way of clinical ad- 
vantages is the Homoeopathic ^Medical Dispensary, which was incorporated by 
the legislature of Massachusetts in the year 1856. It commenced its actual 
work in April, 1857. ^t occupied at that time one small room in the Tremont 
Temple. * * * 

From the first its work was so successful as to inspire the desire for 
treatment by this system among those who saw the effects for good on its 
patients, and its opportunities for usefulness rapidly multiplied. In 1857 Hon. 
John \Mlkins offered to give the institution the sum of $500 provided a fund 
of Sio.ooo could be raised for its increasing needs. As a result a fair was 
held for the dispensary in Boston music hall in March, 1859, and through 
gains thus realized, and other eft'orts to the same end, there was raised by 
April, 1859, 3. permanent fund of $13,600. 

The number of patients treated by the dispensary in the first year of its 
work was 195; in its second year, 218. In its first 16 years the dispensary 
cared for 10,206 patients. After 1872 the number increased with great 
rapidity, as witness the following figures : 

YEAR. NUMBER OF PATIENTS. 

1873 1,062 

1874 2,369 

187s 3,650 

1876 7702 

1877 10,011 

In April, 1870, the dispensary purchased the estate numT3ered 14 Bur- 
roughs Place, paying therefor $I4".277.67, and further expending the sum_ of 
$1,200 to fit the building for its new uses. The basement only of this building 
was used for the dispensary's work, and the remainder of the building 
was leased for the sum of $700 yearly, to the' Massachusetts Homoeopathic 
Hospital. At this time began the close association of the hospital and the dis- 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 191 

pensary which has been of very great benefit to them both, the staff of the two 
institutions having been for many years largely of the same personnel. 

The establishment of the Boston University School of Medicine, in 1873, 
gave the dispensary a co-worker with which it has ever since collaborated in 
harmony and mutual usefulness. For a considerable time the dispensary made 
its home in the basement of the building on East Concord street, which was 
occupied by the medical school, using the larger portion of this basement for 
its needs. In 1889 these needs had so increased, and the burden of trying to 
meet them in the space at its command became so trying, that a determined 
effort was begun to secure a home of its own more nearly commensurate with 
its requirements and its dignity of service. The matter being ably laid before 
the city council so appealed to that honorable body that a generous lot of land, 
10,597 f^ct in all, at the corner of Harrison avenue and Stoughton street, was 
deeded to the dispensary by the city in whose midst it had so long and fruit- 
fully labored. On that land with the aid of funds raised by a fair and by in- 
dividual subscription — funds whose total amount was S53.966.75 — there was 
erected the basement and lower story of a fine and appropriate building, in 
which the work of the dispensary is today carried on. It was and is intended 
that this building shall have the additional stories contemplated in the original 
plan of the architects. 

" In the year 1902, the dispensary treated 19,017 patients, with a total of 
50,773 prescriptions. Since its establishment, up to January i, 1903, it has 
treated 420,135 patients, wirh a total of 1. 173. 513 prescriptions." 

All the various departments of the dispensary are utilized for clinical 
teaching, and the senior students of the school do practically all the maternity 
work, of which there are annually over five hundred cases, and make most of 
the domiciliary visits. The experience they thus gain is of incalculable value 
to them. 

The Massachusetts Homoeopathic Hospital and Boston University School 
of Medicine, although separate corporate bodies, are essentially closely affili- 
ated, the staff of the one being composed almost wholly of the faculty of the 
other. To briefly epitomize a story that adequately told would take long to 
tell, it may be stated that the ^lassachusetts Homoeopathic Hospital was incor- 
porated in 1855, but the hosts of homoeopathy were at that time unorganized. 
It was not until 1870, fifteen years after the charter was granted, that a leader 
arose who was able to coordinate the scattered and heterogeneous forces of 
homoeopathy and convert them into a united body of harmonious and successful 
activities. That leader was Dr. Israel Tisdale Talbot, and the hospital owes 
vastlv more to his influence than to that of any other individual. , 

In 1870 an independent hospital movement was instituted and most of the 
building owned by the dispensary in Burroughs place was rented for hospital 
purposes. This movement almost in its incipiency was merged with the regu- 
larly chartered institution, and the first home of the hospital was in the dis- 
pensary's property, where it utilized rooms and space for fourteen beds. 

With the establishment of Boston University School of Medicine and the 
rapid growth of homoeopathy in public favor, it became necessary for the hos- 
pital to have larger quarters, and a building of sufficient size to accommodate 
forty patients was erected on land adjoining that of the medical school. This 
hospital building was completed and occupied in 1876. In 1884, at an expense 
of about $100,000, the hospital was enlarged, by the addition of a surgical 



192 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

wing, to a capacity of one hundred beds, thus markedly increasing the facili- 
ties for clinical instruction, to the benefit of the medical school. 

Five years later, in 1889, the state legislature made a grant of $120,000 for 
a still further enlargement of the hospital, and a medical wing, a surgical 
annex, a, small contagious pavilion and other needed facilities were added, the 
entire work being completed and the buildings thrown open for occupancy in- 
1892. At this time the hospital's capacity was two hundred beds, with needed 
adminstrative quarters. Still further additions of lesser magnitude were made,, 
and in 1904 the capacity of the hospital was two hundred and thirty-five beds, 
three thousand seven hundred and twenty cases being treated during the year. 

Recognizing the fact that the hospital is destined to continued growth and 
that no further growth on the land now occupied is possible, the trustees in 
1904 purchased a tract of land in one of the nearer suburbs, Jamaica Plain,, 
consisting of thirty-seven acres. The tract covers a hill of such elevation that 
the views are exceptionally fine and extended, including the distant sea to the 
east and the picturesque hills of suburban towns in other directions, with beau- 
tiful parks in the immediate neighborhood forming in its entirety an ideal loca- 
tion for a hospital. 

Among the expansions of homceopathy which have affected the school, 
mention should be made of the Westborough Insane Hospital, which was 
established by the state in 1883 and was opened for patients in 1886. It is 
about an hour's ride from Boston. Its original capacity was four hundred 
patients, but additions have been made year after year until in 1905 it accom- 
modates nearly nine hundred patients, the total number of inmates treated 
during its nineteen years of existence being more than four thousand. During 
their senior year students are permitted to visit the hospital at stated times and 
receive the practical instruction in the diagnosis and treatment of cases of 
mental disease elsewhere unobtainable. 

As early as April, 1874, a most earnest and ardent appeal for a hospital 
for the insane was made before the Massachusetts Homoeopathic Medical 
Society by Dr. Samuel Worcester, later the author of a book on insanity and a 
lecturer on mental diseases at Boston University School of Medicine. He 
began his appeal by saying: 

" In occupying a portion of the time today I hope to arouse some degree of 
interest in a cause that I have deeply at heart; the establishment of a Massa- 
chusetts Hospital for the Insane, to be under homoeopathic management; a 
project that for the last eight years has seldom been absent from my mind."^ 

The society approved the idea, but here again it was the organizing and 
executive ability of Dr. Talbot that secured the establishment of the West- 
borough Insane Hospital. 

The storv of Boston University School of Medicine, however brief, can- 
not be concluded without reference to a possession which it prizes highly and 
which means much to those familiar with the modern tendencies of medical 
education. The school made at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition held at St. 
Louis in 1904 an exhibit, consisting chiefly of work from its pathological and 
phvsiological laboratories. This demonstration of methods and results was so 
original and convincing that the exhibit received an award of a gold medal. It 
mav not be too much to claim that all advocates of high standards of educa- 
tior.al work and all friends of homoeopathic medical schools should find cause 
for rejoicing in this recognition of value in work done by a school whose 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 193 

history covers less than a third oi^a century; a school which cannot boast of 
xmlimited or even any considerable financial endowments, but which has as a 
precious inheritance the fearless courage, the unselfish earnestness of purpose 
and the lofty ideals of its progenitors. 

ALUMNI OF BOSTON UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE. 

1903 Abbott, Albert Francis, Leominster, Mass. 

1899 Abbott, Eulalie IMarie, High Pt., N. C. 

J902 Abbott-W'ooldridge, Susan- Edgar, Ch.B., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
1884 Adams, Charles Wesley, Ch.B., Franklin Falls, N. H. 

1900 Adams, Walter Forester. A. B., Waltham, Mass. 

1878 Albert, Tsidor, 

1879 Aldrich, Clara Elizabeth, Portsmouth, Ohio (d. Nov. 6, 1881). 

1892 Allard, Frank E., Sc.B., Boston, Mass. 
1875 Allen, Albion Horace, New London, Conn. 

1904 Allen, Belle Jane, Litt. B.. M. B., in Europe. 

1896 Allen, Edward Everett, Ch.B., Charlestown, I\Iass. 
1887 Allen, Frank Neute, Everett, Mass. 

1875 Allen, Galen, Red Wing, Minn. (d. Dec. 25, 1900). 
J 877 Allen George Edgar, Youngstown, Ohio. 

1891 Allison, George Freeman, E. Providence, R. L 

1890 Amesbury, Ivan Cuthbert Raleigh, Boston, Mass, 
j886 Amesbury, Walter Raleigh, Kingston, ]Mass. 
J896 Ams'den, Henry Hubbard, Ch.B., Attleboro, Mass. 
1882 Angell-Drake, Emma Frances, Denver, Col. 

1904 Anthony, George Chenery, Wellesley, Mass. 
1887 Appleton, Lucy, Boston, Mass. 

3888 Armstrong-Guernsey, Mary ^Margaret, Roger \\'illiams University, 
Nashville, Tenn. 

1 89 1 Arnold, Teannie Oliver, Providence, R. I. 
189^ Atkins-Jordan, Grace Elizabeth, Maiden, Mass. 

1884 Atkinson, Leonard AVoods. North Fryeburg, ^le. 
1882 Austin, Clara Celestia, Boston, Mass. 

3888 Babbitt, Henry Bradford, Ch.B., Arlington Heights, ]\Iass. 

1879 Babcock, Francis Lester, Ch.B., Dedham, Mass. 

1897 Badanes, Ida, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1880 Bailey, Stephen Goodhue, A. B., Lowell, Mass. 

1876 Baker-FHnt, Almena Jane, Boston, Mass. 

1894 Baker, Lcland Gladden, Lynn, Mass. 

1895 Balcom, John Alvin, Ph.D.. Lvnn, Mass. 

1885 Baldwin-Bruce, Orphia Desiah, Tamua, Florida. 
1900 Baldwin, Harrison P., D. D. S., Manchester, N. H. 

1881 Ballou, Lucinda Bullard, Concord (d. June 13, 1889). 
1878 Bangs, Edwin Mayo, Parker Mem.orial, Boston, Mass. 
1904 Barker, Ruth, West Newton, Mass. 

1889 Barlow-Cook, Drusilla Gertrude, Ch.B.. Wilmington, Del. (d. Sept. 

9, 1901). 
1897 Bar*nard, Belle Strickland, Cambridge, ]Mass. 
1900 Barnard, Esther Subia. New York. 

1893 Barnes, Ida Florence, Somerville. Mass. 
1893 Barnes, William Ellsworth, Dorchester, Mass. 



194 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

1896 Barney, Jennie Sarah, Franklin Falls, N. H. 

1893 Barney-Hall, Lucy Robinson, Hyde Park, Mass. 

1888 Barrus, Clara, State Homoeo. Hospital, Middletown, N. Y. 

1882 Barstow, Benjamin Parker, Kingston (d. Aug. 1904). 

1877 Bartlett, William Reed, Chicopee (d. Dec. 7, 1879). 

1898 Bassett, Alice Haley, Boston, Mass. 

1891 Batchelder. Frederick P., Qi.B., Boston, Mass. 

1883 Batchelder^ Henry F., Ch.B., Danvers (d. Feb. 15, 1901). 
1887 Batchelder, John Couch, Rockland (d. May 11, 1905). 

1887 Bates, George VVinsor, Schenectady, N. Y. 

1885 Baynum, Mary Herrick, Dexter, Maine. 

1899 Beach, Carroll Charles, Sc.B., Hartford, Conn. 

1899 Beardslee, Fred Nicholson, Manchester, N. H. 
1879 Beck, Judson Lee, Vineland, N. J. 

1878 Bedell, Leila Gertrude, Marshall Field Building, Chicago, 111. 

1877 Bellows, HoAvard Perry, Sc.B., Boston, Mass. 
1883 Bellville, Jacob Edgar, M. D., Germantown, Pa. 

1891 Bennett, John Hillman, Pawtucket, R. I. 

1892 Bent, Gilbert W. W., Walpole (d. Oct. 7, 1896). 

1900 Bigelow, Alfred Mahlon, M. D. V., Mansfield, Mass. 
1903 Billington, Charles, A. B., Portland, Oregon. 

1879 Bingham, Ada, Denver, Col. 

1881 Bingham, Helen Maria, Denver, Col. 

1888 Biscoe, Ellis F., Philadelphia, Pa. 

1889 Bishop, Qianning, Bristol, N. H. 

1886 Bishop, John Sessions, Ph.B., Astoria, Ore. 

1893 Bittner, Albert Jacob, A. B., Allentown, Pa. 
1902 Blackmore, Richard, Jr., So. Ashburnham, Mass. 

1878 Blackwood-Chamberlain, Ellen R., Boston, Mass. 

1902 Blaney, Cyril Arthur, Dorchester, Mass. 

1881 Bliss, George Danforth, Field's Comer, Boston, Mass. 

1883 Bongartz, Walter Eugene, Beverly, Mass. 
1899 Boomhower, Alberta Sylvia, Westboro, Mass. 

1893 Booth, Anthony Francis, Roxbury, Mass. 
IQ05 Boothby, lanthis Roland, Bangor, Maine. 
1876 Bos worth, John William, Roslindale, Mass. 

1888 Bothfeld, Tames Francis, Ch.B., Newton, Mass. 
188=; Bouton, Wilbur Knibloc, Ch.B., Melbourne, Australia. 
1892 Bowman, Arthur Deering, M. D., Hartland, Me. 

1903 Bowen, Enos E., East Boston, Mass. 
1892 Bovd, Herbert Drummond, Boston, Mass. 

1903 Boynton, Solon Richard, Bellingham, Washington. 
T891 Brackett, Elizabeth Anastatia, Boston, Mass. 

1884 Brackett, Humphrey F., Ch.B., Brighton, Mass. 

1894 Bradley, Hannah Laura, Lawrence. Mass. 

1889 Braley, Henrv Hudson, Concord, Mass. 
1891 Bray, Amanda Currier, Worcester, Mass. 
1898 Brennan, John C, Chestnut Hill, Mass. 

1880 Bresenharn, Charles Wilson. West Medway, Mass. 

1884 Brewer, Clarissa Ann, Ch.B., Hartford, Conn. (d. Sept. 18, 1900), 

1902 Briggs, Albert Simmons, A. B., Boston, Mass. 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 195 

1889 Briggs, CJifton Dean, New Bedford, Mass. 

1898 Briggs, Emily Frances, Volnntown, Conn. 

1890 Briggs, Joseph Emmons, Boston, Alass. 
1902 Briggs, Merton Lawrence, Hyde Park, Mass. 

1883 Brigham, Lucy Louise, Hartford, Conn. (d. Apr. 3, 1901). 

1899 Bridge, Emma Frances, Ch.B., Chestnut Hill, Mass. 

1884 Briry, Edward Everett, A. B., Bath, Me. 
1884 Brooks, Caroline Frances, Independence, la. 

1891 Brooks, Ida Josephine, A. M., Insane Hospital. Westborough, Mass. 
1877 Brown, Henry Albert, Reading (d. Sept. 3, 1889). 

1894 Brown, Clara Coffin, Women's Homceo. Hospital, Phila., Pa. 

1900 Brown, John Bean, Farley, Minn. 

1901 Brown, Luther Ainsley, Portland, Maine. 

1901 Brown, William John, Provincetowrl, Mass. 

1892 Browne, Percy Gilbert, Boston, Mass. 
1875 Browning, Matthew Poole, 

1884 Bruce, Emily Allen, Roxbury (d. Jan. 7, 1897). 

1884 Bryant, Virginia Frances, Nahant, Alass. 

1899 Bryer, James Allen, Xorth Attleboro. Mass. 
^^896 Burpee. Carroll Colby, ]\Ialden, Mass. 

1900 Burt, Edward Walter, Westport, Mass. 

1899 Bush, Charles William, Ch.B., Boston, Mass. 
1898 Butler, David Presbury. Boston, Mass. 

1879 Butler, Edward Allison, Prescott, Arizona. 

1904 Butler, Lester Emmons, Dighton, Mass. 

1877 Butler, Lorenzo Fowler, Ouincy (d. May 5, 1882). 
1888 Butterfield, Emma Robv, Lowell, Mass. 

1883 Butterfield, Geo. W., Jr., Ch.B., Wakefield, Mass. 

1905 Byam, Bernard Haines, Grace Hospital, New Haven, Conn. 

1896 Bvington, Helene Cleghorn, Denver, Col. 

1886 Cahill. Eliza Buckman, The Westminster, Boston, Mass. 

1890 Cain, Henrv Walter, [Melrose, Mass. 

1904 Calderwood, Edward Swazen, A. B., Roxbury, IMass. 

1875 Calderwood, Samuel H., Roxbury, Mass. 

1900 Calef, Frank Taylor. Providence, R. I. 

1876 Campbell, Eliza Ann Ladd, Boston (d. April 8, 1890). 
1881 Campbell, George Abbott, Manchester, N. H. 

1 89 1 Canedy, Fred Snow, Wellfleet, Mass. 

1897 Capelle, Chas. Stanislaus, M. B., Roxbury, Mass. 

1902 Capen, Elwyn WinsloAV, IMonson, Mass. 

1894 Carleton. Francis Boyd, M. D. V., Boston, Mass. 

1895 Carr, George Byron. M. B., Lynn. Mass. 

1880 Carr, Lucy Stearns. Brockton (d. Dec. 22, 1896). ' 

1888 Carry, William Hammett. Newport, R. I. 

1903 Castie, Catharine White, ^M. B., Somerville, Mass. 

1884 Causey, Levin Patrick, Lynn, Mass. 

1903 Chadwell, Orville Rogers, Jamaica Plain, Boston, Mass. 

1887 Chalmers, Robert. Woburn. Mass. 

1878 Chamberlayne, Louise Florence. Rochester, N. Y. 

1885 Champlin, John Carder. Block Island. R. I. 

1889 Champlin Slartha Godfrey, Brookline, Mass. 



19(; HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

1900 Chandler, Thomas Evans, Ch.B., Boston, Mass. 
1888 Chapin, Francis Coburn, North Cambrid.s^e, Mass. 
1897 Chapman, WilHam Louis, Providence, R. 1. 

1876 Chase, Herbert Augustus, A. B., Cambridgeport, Mass. 

1878 Chase, Joseph, Jr., East Weymouth, Mass. 

1 90 1 Cheney, Harry Cleveland, Pahner, Mass. 
T896 Chesniitt, Arthur Allan, Antrim, N. H. 

1890 Childs, Helen Simonds, So. Huntington Ave., Jamaica Plain. 
1888 Chipman-Palmer. Anna Mary, Mattapan, Mass. 

1900 Christophe, Herman, A. B., Manchester, N. H. 

1894 Chubbuck, Lurana Abbie, New Bedford, Mass. 

1879 Church, Adaline Barnard, Boston, Mass. 

1877 Clapp, James Wilkinson, Boston, Mass. 

1884 Clark-Stewart, Consuelo, Youngstown, Ohio. 
1888 Clark, Frederick Lincoln, New Bedford, Mass. 

1895 Clark, William Goodwin Chadbourne, Hobart, Tasmania. 

1885 Clarke, Edwin Augustus, Worcester, Mass. 

1892 Clarke-Westergren. Frances Elizabeth, Boston, Mass. 

1884 Clarke, Henry Little, Andover, Mass. 

1888 Clarke, Mortimer Hall, A. B., Auburndale, Mass. ^ 

1878 Clement, Lydia Ramsdell, Brookline, Mass. 

1875 Clock, Frank Benson, Chicago, 111. 

1896 Cobb, Georg-e Herbert, Fergus Falls, Minn. (d. Jan. 20, 1899). 
1878 Cobb, Harriet Hodges, Cambridge, Mass. 

1874 Coburn. Jesse Milton, South Norwalk, Conn. 

1892 Cocke, James Richard, Boston (d. April 12, 1900). 

1900 Coffin, Frank Herbert, Ph.G., Haverhill, Mass. 
1878 Coffin, Fred Gustavus, Brockwayville, Pa. 

1903 Coffin, George Henry, A. M., Hopedale, Mass. : 

1876 Coffin, John Lambert, A. M., Boston, Mass. 

1896 Cohill, David Young-, M. B., Salem, Mass. 

1897 Colburn, Fred'k Wilkinson, Ph., Boston, Mass. 
1876 Colbv, Edwin Alonzo, Gardner, Mass. 

1898 Colby, William Morrill, No. Cambridge, Mass. 

1880 Cole. Frances Henrietta. 

1887 Coles, David Smalley, A. M., Wakefield. Mass. 

1904 Coles, William Wharton. A. B., Insane Hospital, Westborough, Mass. 

1878 Colesworthy-Ohler, Anna G., Portland, Me. 

1901 Colgate, Charles Henry, Jr., A. B., Rockland, Mass. 

1875 Collins, Charles Sumner, Nashua, N. H. 
1897 Collins, Harriette M., Montrose, Colo. 

1897 Collins-Baker, Mertie Gay. Cambridge, Mass. 

1875 Connollv, lohn James, Boston (d. April 15, 1875). "' .- 

1888 Cooke, William "Harvey, A. P.., East Orange, N. J. 

1891 Coon, Marion, Boston, Mass. 

1901 Cooper, Roy Cummings, B. S., Allegheny, Pa. 

1879 Copp, Laura Worthington, Easton, Pa. • 
1896 Corey, Harry Sanborn, A. B.. Ch.B., Richmond, A'a. 

1898 Corr, Francis Xavier, Dorchester, Mass. 
1898 Couch, Oscar Roberts, Dalton, Mass. 

1889 Coy, Seth Willard Ch.B., Boston, Mass. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 197 

1900 Crane, Clarence Ch.B., Boston, Mass. 

1890 Crane, George Walker, Foxboro (d. Sept., 1895). 

1894 Crocker, Harry Clinton, A. B.. Providence, R. 1. 

1893 Crockett, George Langtry, Thomaston, Me. 

1900 Cross, Albert Elmer, Ch.B., Worcester, Mass. 
1886 Cross, Grace Ella. South Boston, Mass. 
1899 Cross, Louis Kent, Winchendon, Mass. 

1888 Crowell, Hannali Hall, Dorchester, Mass. 

1879 Culver, Jane Kendrick, Boston (d. May 23, 1901). 

1889 Cummings, Charles Stearns, Middleborough, Mass. 
1886 Cummings-Park, Emma Jane, Maiden, Mass. 

1880 Cummings, George Seymour, 

1879 Cummings, Maria Louisa, Roxbury, Mass. 

1881 Currier, Edward Merrill, Boston, Mass. 

1893 Currier, Mary Barnard, Somerville, ]\Iass. 

1878 Gushing. Harry Horton, Boston Highlands (d. Aug. 3, 1880). 

1892 Cushman, Mary Floyd, Farmington, Me. 

1894 Cutler, James Tucker, A. B., M. D., Roxbury, Mass. 
1899 Dalrymple, Addie Blanche Higgins. South Boston, Mass. 
1899 Dalrymple, Alfred Tomblinson, South Boston, Mass. 
1883 Damon, Newcomb Lincoln, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1903 Davies, Ray H.. Newport News, Va. 

1898 Davis, Anna Belle, Ch.B., Cambridge, Mass. 

1898 Davis, Frank Albert. Sc.B., M. B.. Boston, [Mass. 

1878 Davis, Frank Stewart. Ouincy. Mass. 

1893 Davis, Roland Augustiis, E. Somerville, Mass. 
1883 Davy, Georgia Lindsay, 

1903 Dean, Flubert Tidd, Holyoke, Mass. 

1883 Dean, Maria Morrison, Sc.B., Helena, Mont. 

1881 Defriez. William Peabodv. Brookline, Mass. 

1898 Delaven, Elizabeth Hinckley, M. D., Troy, N. Y. 

1880 Devereaux, Jane Smith, Marblehead, ]\Iass. 

1896 Dews, Frederick Gifford, Boston, INIass. 
1898 Diemar, Lena Hess, Cambridge, Mass. 
1888 Dike, John, A. B., Melrose, Mass. 

1890 Dike, Thomas Worcester, A. B., Boston, I\Iass. 

1874 Dillingham, Thomas Manly, New York. 

1891 Dodge, PYed Wilder, Hyde Park, Mass. 

1875 Dodge, Rodolph Lorenzo, Portland, ]\Ie. 

1901 Doleman. Nathan Freeman, Ch.B., Fergus Falls, Minn. 
1893 Dolot¥, Eugene Malcolm, Lynn, IMass. 

1897 Donnelly, James Harvey, A. B.. Hoosick. N. Y. 

1898 Doolittle. Margaret Augusta. A. B., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1890 Dorgan-Dakin, Mary Anna, Boston, Mass. 
1883 Dorsey, Rebecca Lee, Los Angeles, Cal. 

1877 Dowdell-Wil&on, Maria Louise. Round Lake, N. Y. (d. Oct. 15, 1902). 

1904 Downing. Dana Fletcher. A. B.. Newton Nervine. West Newton, INIass. 
1893 Downs. Harry Ashton, Somerville, Mass. 

1877 Dudlev-Clapp, S. Ida, Dorchester, Mass. 

1885 Duffieid, Alfred ^lanley, Huntsville, Ala. 

1891 Dunham, George Perry, Methuen, ]Mass. 



198 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

88/ Dnnn-Cary, Jennie Sophia, Dorchester, Mass. 

889 Durgin, Edwin Harvey, West Side, Cal, 
895 Dutra, Joseph, M. B., Worcester, Mass. 

878 Dwinnell, Byron Lee, A. B., Taunton, Mass. 

883 Dwinnell, Maurice Kennon, Waterville, Me. 

884 Earl, George Henry, Boston, Mass. 
893 Eastman, Charles Albert, M. D. 

890 Eastman, Chas. Alexander, Sc.B., Washington, D. C. 

880 Eastman-Schenck, Ellen Louise, Fitchburg, Mass. 

904 Eastman, Eugene Samuel, Metropolitan Hospital, New York City. 

886 Eaton, Reuben F"erris, Providence, R. L 

901 Ebbs, Bertha Evelyn, Dedham, Mass. 

881 Eckert, Edward O'Neil, Ch.B., Kingston, N. Y. 

885 Eddy, Richard Henry, A. B., Providence, R. L 

895 Egland, Christopher, Horn. Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. 

876 Eldridge, Benjamin Francis, Middleborough (d. Nov. 19, 1899). 

888 Elliott, Frederick William, A. B., Roxbury (d. June 25, 1899). 

879 Ellis, Edward Harvey, Marlborough, Mass. 

903 Ellis, Mertie Elizabeth, Woman's Homoe. Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa, 

892 Em.erson, Fred Lincoln, Dorchester, Mass. 

881 Emerson, Nathaniel Waldo, Boston, ]\Iass. 

882 Emery, Mary Elizabeth, New York. 

891 Emery, Winfred Newell, Waltham, Mass. 

902 Enmions, Henry Manning, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 
890 Estes, Florella, Springfield, Mass. 

902 Evans, Joseph Harold, Guilford, Conn. 

899 Eveleth, Fred Shailer, Amesburv, ^Mass. 

883 Fancher, Edwin, Middleton, N. 'Y. 

893 Farnham-Whitney, Mary Eudora, Roxbury, Mass. 

900 Farnum, Mary Louise Rolfe, Penacook, N. H. 

893 Farrington, Annie Louise, Cambridge (d. Oct. 9, 1897). 

893 Farwell, Charles Luther, Allston (d. Dec. 18, 1900). 

903 Fawcett, Deborah, Newton, Mass. 

876 Faxon, William Otis, Stoughton, Mass. 

887 Ferguson, Arthur Bixby, Ph.B., Salem, Mass. 
902 Ferguson. Franklin Archie, Ch.B., Bath, Me. 

895 Fernald, Herbert Elwood, A. B., Cohasset, Mass. 

878 Fesler, Frank Joy (d. Feb. 16, 1901). 

886 Fessenden, Charles Hill, Newton Centre, Mass. 

901 Fischbein, Louis, Boston, Mass. 

877 Fisher, Annie Elizabeth, Boston, Mass. 

887 Fisher, Edgar Alexander, Worcester, Mass. 

878 Fiske. Kate Chamberlayne. Schenectady, N. Y. 
899 Fitzgerald. James Bernard, ]\L D.. Boston, Mass. 
899 Flanders, Walter Hubert, Melrose. Mass. 

892 Fletcher. Samuel Ernest. Chicopee, Mass. 

874 Forbes, George Foster, Worcester, Mass. 
8q6 Ford, Marv Etta. Denver, Col. 

888 Ford, Nehemiah Butler, A. M., Owasco, N. Y. 

897 Foss, Percy Harold. Ch.B., Brewer, Me. (d. April 8, 1902). 

875 Foster, Edwy Wells, Boston, Mass. 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 191^ 

1899 Foster, Frank Brooks, Santa Barbara, Cal. 

1899 Foster, Louis Everett, 

1897 Foster, Winifred S., Sc.B., San Rafael, Cal. 

1876 Fox, John Joseph, Flushing, L. I. 

1895 Francis, Neal Adeline Eliza, Claremont, N. H. 

1881 Freeman, Frederick Augustus, Boston (d. July 31, 1903). 
1880 French-Mills, Alice Bird, Binghamton, N. Y. 

1891 French, Winslow Burrill. Boston, Mass. 
1883 Frisby, Almah Jane, Sc.B., Madison, Wis. 

1880 Fulford, George Howard, Sioux Falls, So. Dak. 

1878 Fuller, Charles Metcalf, Medfield (d. Nov., 1903). 

1882 Fuller, Jennie, Hartland, Me. 

1897 Fuller, Solomon Carter, A. B., Insane Hospital, Westborough, Mass. 

1895 Fuller, Walter Tracy, Dorchester, Mass. 

1885 Furber-Smith, Anna Margaret Lee, Cincinnati, O. (d. March 30, 1901). 

1897 Furniss, ]Maud Granger, Boston, Mass. 

1877 Gage, George Newton, E. Washington, N, H. Cd. Jan., 1903). 

1877 Gale- Warren, Mary Kendall, Boston (d. July 31, 1903). 

1875 Gallison, Jefferson Gushing, Franklin. Mass. (d. Fjsb. 27, 1904). 

1888 Galloway, William Lincoln, St. Louis, Mo. 

1888 Gannon, Annie Margaret, Boston, Mass. 

1895 Gardiner-Smith. Grace, Ch.E., Red Wing, Minn. 

1900 Gardner, David Moulton, Ch.B., Caldwell, N. J. 

1883 Gardner, Frank Augustine, Ch.B.. Salem, Mass. 

1889 Garey, Charles Wendell, Ch.B., Ouincy, Mass. 

1875 Garrison-Pomeroy, Mary A., Ocean Grove, N. J. (d. Jan. 17, 1892). 

1883 Garwood, Vashti Detwiller, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
1885 Gary, Clara Emerette, Boston, Mass. 

1904 Gary, Wm. H. H., Winthrop, Mass. 

1889 Gauthier, Leo Didier. Providence, R. T. 

1893 Gay, Arthur Park, A. B., LL.B., Boston, Mass. 

1885 Geisse, Emma Cora, Chicago, 111. (d. 1896). 

1878 Gerry, Charles William. Trenton, N. J. 

1884 Getchell, Ellen Southard, Roxbury (d. Sept. 26, 1888). 

1882 Gibbs, Howard Augustine, Worcester, Mass. 

1898 Gibbs, Susan B. Harris, Danvers, ^lass. 
1893 Gibby, Isa*bella Parker, Worcester, Mass. 

1875 Gilbert, Aurelia Eliza, Boston (d. Oct. 29, 1899). 

1878 Gill, Gregor Wymond, Westover, Md. 

1883 Glazier, Frederick Prentiss, Hudson, ^Nlass. 

1892 Gleason, Charles Sherman. Wareham, Mass. 
1877 Gleason, Willis W^ebster, Marlborough. Mass. 

1S98 Goddard. Abigail Elma. Nongong Bundelhand, Central India. 

1891 Goff, Ella D., A. M., Allegheny City, Pa. 

1880 Goldwaite, Seth Vale, Boston, Mass. 

1877 Gooding, Emma Jeanette, Boston, Mass. 

1884 Gooding, Gertrude, Bristol, R. I. 

1877 Goodwin, Charles Otis, Worcester, Mass. 

• 1899 Goodwin, Edward Everett, Brockton, Mass. 

1875 Goodwin, Tirzah Eveline, Boston, Mass. 

1877 Gottschalck, William \^on. Central Falls, R. I. (d. April 3, 1902). 



200 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

1896 Gouid, Chester Harlow, Eraintree, Mass. 

1905 Gould, Eben Colman, Homoeopathic Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, 

1900 Gove, Harry Frederick. 

1881 Graham, Mary Jane, Boston (d. Jan. 31, 1883). 

1902 Grant, William Victor, Ch.B., Lawrence, Mass. 
1899 Graves, Walter John, The Peabody, Ashmont, Mass. 
1898 Green, Julia Minerva, Sc.B., Washington, D. C. 
1894 Grenne, Harrie William, Springfield, Mass. 

1891 Grenne, Thomas William, Chelsea, Mass. 

1889 Griffin, Louise Amanda, Middletown, Conn. 

1898 Griffith, Thomas Richards, Imperial, Cal. 

1882 Grove, Clara Pricilla, M. B., 

1899 Guy, Walter Bryant, Roxbury, Mass. 

1881 Hadley, Charles Harvey, Blythebourne, Kings Co., N. Y. 

1882 Hadley, Joseph Franklin, Waltham (d. Jan. 8, 1894). 

1904 Haigis, Peter, Ch.B., Mass. Homoe. Hospital, Boston, Mass. 
1889 Hald, Edwin Emery, A. B., North Attleboro, Mass. 

1876 Hale, Frank Albert, Colorado Springs, Col. (d. May 27, 1893). 
1889 Hale, Lucv Sturgis, 

1878 Hall, Charles Brackett, Rockport, Mass. 

1898 Hall, Charles Francis Adams, Newburyport, Mass. 

1881 Hall, Edgar lanson, Rutland, Vt. 

1899 Hall, Fred Augustus, Hyde Park, Mass. 

1880 Flall-Williams, Mary Jane, Liberty, Montgomery County, Kansas. 

1884 Hall, Sarah Adelaide, Watertown, Mass. 

1882 Hall, Walter Augustus, 

1879 Hallowell, Clement Howard, A. B., Walpole, Mass. 

1903 Ham, WiP.iam Addison, Dorchester, Mass. 

1882 Hamisfar, Florence Nightingale, Sc.B., Chicago, 111. 

1893 Hammond, Allen Dexter, Brockton, Mass. 

1887 Hammond, Charlotte Frances, Paris, Me. 

1880 Hammond-Field, Susan Peck, Boston, Mass. 

1897 Hanks, Mary Elizabeth, Chicago, 111. 

1891 Hanlon, Daniel James, Hyde Park, Mass. 

1878 Hanson, William Greene, Everett, Mass. 

1879 Hardy, Webster Oliver, Roxbury, Mass. 

1877 Hare, Andrew Jackson, 

1876 Harris-FIarwood, Celia E., Lincoln, Neb. 

1875 Harris, Mary Briggs, Andover (d. Jan. 5, 1886). 

1899 Hartley, Rebecca Agnes, W. Somerville, Mass. 

T878 Hartwell, Francis Wayland, Salida, Col. (d. Aug. 20, 1890). 

T878 Hartwell, Jessine Melicent, Salida, Col. 

T882 Hasbrouck, Sayer, Providence, R. I. 

1879 Hascall, Henry Jefferson, Shrewsbury, Mass. 

1897 Haskell, Lyman George, Bradford, Mass. 

1893 Haub, Augustine Catherine, The Cambridge, Boston, Mass. 

1897 Hawkes, Edgar Sampson, Winthrop, Me. 

1892 Hawks, Alfred Joseph, Medford, Mass. 

1903 Haves, David Patrick, Ch.B., So. Boston, Mass. 

1896 Hayford, Herbert Scott, M. B., Ouincy, Mass. 

1905 Hayman, Ralph Wilbur, Mass. Homoe. Hospital, Boston, Mass. 



HISTORY OF H( )M OTOPATHY 201 

1874 HaywaiJ, Levi Thomas, Orange ( d. June, 1903). 

1897 Hayward, Walter Barrows, Taunton, Mass. 

1899 Haywood, George William, Lynn. Mass. 

1889 Henderson, Charles Russell. Reading, Mass. 
1877 Hethernigton, Gilbert Edwin. Somerville, Mass. 

1883 Higg-ins, Henry Rich. Allston. Mass. 
1887 Hill, Almond Ward. Lowell. Mass. 

1890 Hill, Lucy Chaloner. Fall River, Mass. 
1892 Hill, Noble Hind, Boston, Mass. 

1892 Flines, Archelaus Don, San Jose, Cal. 
1890 Hines, Isaac Bright, A. B., Fresno, Cal. 

1895 Hinds. William Henry Weed", Jr., Milford, X. H. 

1875 Hobart, John Wilbur, - 

1890 Hobson, Sarah ^latilda, Ph.B., Chicago, 111. 

1904 Hodgdon, Ola W., West Milan, X. H. 

1876 Hodgson, Thomas. Middleborough, Mass. 

1898 Hodsdon, Walter Grant, Rutland. \'t. 

1898 Hoffses, Granville Ernest, East Dedham, Mass. 

1880 Holbrook, Amos Lindsay, Rockland (d. Oct. 17, 1882). 

1884 Holbrook, Levi Bradford, Revere (d. July 4, 1897). 

1893 Flolly, Arthur Cleveland Coxe, Port au Prince, Hayti. 

1904 Holmes, Le \^erne, Ch.B., 

1879 Holmes Manuel Scott. Oakland, Me. 

1877 Hooker, Edward Beecher, Hartford, Conn. 

1880 Hopkins, Stephen Worcester, Lynn (d. June 23, 1895). 

1890 Hopkins, William Thorpe. Lynn, Mass. 

1891 Hornby-Frost, Mary Stamper, Dorchester, Mass. 
1903 Horner, Harriet, Castine, Me. 

1891 Horr, Albert Winslow, A. B., Boston, ^Mass. 

1905 Horton, Marion Robbins, Ch.B., ^^'indsor, \T. 

1896 Hoskins, Bertha Ladd, Coakston, Pa. 

1895 Howard, Alonzo Gale, Boston. }^Iass. 

1898 Howard, Charles Tilden, A. B., Watertown, ]Mass. 

1900 Howard-Crane. Stella Spaulding, Boston, Mass. 
1900 Howe-Turton, Effie Ezzett, Roseville, N. J. 

1877 Flowe, Lorenzo Gilman, Jr., Worcester (d. July 29, 1879). 

1882 Howland, Charles Cahoone, (deceased). 

1891 Hoyt, Herbert Waldo, A. B., So. Rochester, X. Y. 

1889 Hubbell. Adelbert xMerton, Haverhill, :\Iass. 

1896 Huck, Marie Estelle, Austin, Texas. 

1885 Humphrey, Frank ]\ierrill, Xew Britain, Conn. 
1887 Hunt, Charles Richard, Xew Bedford, ?^Iass. 

1881 Hunt, George. Bridgewater, ]Mass. 
1893 Hunt, John Abram, Taunton, Mass. 

1875 Hurd, Caroline Amanda. Taunton (d. Jan. 22. 1878). 

1876 Hussey, Elisha Pinkham, Bufifalo, X. Y. 

1877 Hutchison, Adele Stuart, Minneapolis, Minn. 
1893 Hutchinson-Gay, Ellen Angeline K.. Boston, [Mass. 
1877 Hutchinson-Shaw. Sarah fane, Beachmont, Alass. 
1884 Irwin. Frank, V. S. Marine Hospital Service. 
1875 Irwin, Harlan Miller. 



-'02 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

877 Jackson, Anna Woodward, Boston (d. Aug. 22, 1878). 

882 Jackson, Frances Maria White, M. B., Emporia, Kansas (deceased). 

880 Jackson, Henry Ames, Providence, R. I. 

882 Jackson-Knapp, Lois Ophelia, Danbury, Conn. 
880 Jackson-Blackman, Lora Coates, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
880 James, Charity, Boston (d. Oct. 4, 1883). 

897 James, Lucille Amanda, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

877 Janney-Derby, Frances Gage, Columbus, O. (d. Sept. i, 1892). 
889 Jenness, Sarah Abbie, Boston, Mass. 

888 Jenney, Arthur Barker, Stoneham, Mass. 

876 Jewell, Leslie Clifton, A. B., Cape Elizabeth, Me. 

905 Jillson, Walter Arthur, Trull Hospital, Biddeford, Me. 

884 Johnson, Charles Frederic, Ch.B., Newburyport, Mass. 

883 Johnson, Cora Alay, Skowhegan, Me. 

895 Johnson, Elmon Reuben, Wollaston, Mass. 

888 Johnson, Henry Warren, A. B., Berlin, N. H. 

903 Johnson, Mary, Woman's Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa. 
894 Johnson-Hall, Sara, Newburyport, Mass. 

904 Johnston, Amelia, 

903 Johnston, Reuben Thomas, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

905 Jones, Claude Perry, M. D. (Harvard), Somerville, Mass. 

898 Jones, Everett, M. B., Brookline, Mass. 

900 Jones, James Arthur, Boston, Mass. 

901 Jones, John Thomas Paul, South Boston, Mass. 

899 Jordan, Ernest Major, Ch.B., Maiden, Mass. 

903 Junkins, Helen MacDuffee, Ch.B., Lowell, Mass. 
888 Kaiser, Rudolph Carl, Rochester, N. Y. (d. 1899). 

887 Kalbfleisch, Emma Augusta, Bridgeport, Conn. 
875 Kavalgian, D. Serope C, Adapazar, Turkey. 
899 Kawase, Motokuro, Kojimachi, Tokyo, Japan. 

888 • Keith, Ellen Louisa, Framingham, ]\lass. 

885 Keith, Ernest Wardwell, Chicago, 111. (d. July 26, 1901). 

878 Kelsey, Orville Robinson, Waterbury, Conn. (d. April 11, 1886). 

882 Kempton, Amanda Harriet, Newport, N. H. 

875 Kennedy, Alonzo Lewis, Brookline (d. April 13, 1905). 

876 Kennedy, Evan, New Glasgow, N. S. 

894 Kennedy, James Simon, A. B., West Medford, Mass. 

896 Kennedy, Hattie Eliza, New York. 
899 Kennison, William Herman, Newfield, Me. 

886 Kent, Maude, Boston, Mass. 

904 Kiesling, Irving Henry, Insane Hospital, Fergus Falls, Minn. 

877 Kimball, Levi Houghton, A. B., Roxbury, Mass. 

883 Kimball, Sam Ayer, A. B., M. D., Newton, Mass. 

895 King, Frederick Augustine, Chelsea, Mass. 
880 King, Joseph Melville, Damariscotta, Me. 

902 King, Sarah Ella, Brookline, Mass. 
880 Kinney, John Edgar, Roxbury, Mass. 
893 Kirk, Lucy Ann, Dorchester, Mass. 

882 Klein, August Andreas, Boston, Mass. 

883 Knight. Joseph Noble, Cliftondale, Mass. 
876 Knight, Wilham Elbridge, Stoneham (d. Feb. 17, 1883). 



HISTORY OF HO^ICEOPATHY 203 

1893 Knowlton. James Matthews, Indiana, Pa. 

1889 Krauss, James, Boston, ^Fass. 

1895 Lakeman, Mary Ropes, Salem, Mass. 

1893 Lamb, Frances Gertrude, Haverhill, Mass. 

1884 Lambert. Adelaide. New Haven, Conn. 
1900 Lambert, Fred DeForest. Ch.B.. Salem, Mass. 

1899 Lambert, John Henry, Ch.B., Lowell, Mass. 
1878 Lane, Hannah Lewella. 

1877 Lang-McClure, Eliza H., Philadelphia, Pa. 

1877 Langmaid, George Batcheider, East Greenwich, R. I. 

1889 Lantzius-Beninga, S. Rudolph R., Boston (d. Sept. 26. 1895). 

1900 Lapham, George Nelson, A. B., Mass. State Sanatorium, Rutland, Mass. 
1891 Latham, Carrie Augusta. Leominster. Mass. 

1904 Lathbury, Vincent T.. Searsport, Me. 

1900 Laughton, \\'illiam Johnson. Old Orchard, Me. (d. Sept. 30. 1900). 

1888 Lawrence-Davenport. Clara Bell, ^landalay, Burma. 
1893 Laurence, ]\Iary Elizabeth, New London, Conn. 

1885 Lawrence, Rhoda Ashley, Roxbury (d. June 30, 1895). 

1902 Leavitt, Mary Augusta, A. B., Somerville, Mass. 

1885 Leavitt-Clark, Edith, Worcester, Mass. 

1904 Lee, Harry Jason, Ch.B., Mass. Homoeo. Hospital, Boston, Mass. 

1898 Lee, Wesley Terrence, Ch.B., Somerville, Mass. 

1878 Leeds, Charles, Chelsea, Mas§. 

1899 Leib. Edwin Roy, Worcester, Mass. 

1893 LeLacheur, Ellis Sweetlove, West Bridgewater, Mass. 

1879 Leslie, Freeland David, Milton, Mass. 

1901 Lewis, Edwin Ray, Clinton, Mass. 

1890 Lewis, George Fred, A. B., M. D., New Bedford, Mass. 
1895 Lewis, Marion Hall, Boston, ^lass. 

1900 Lewis, Seth Ames, Springfield, Mass. 

1897 Libbey, Qiarles Emerson. Danville, Yt. 

1875 Lincoln, Guy Alva Theodore. 769 Tremont St. (d. July, 1895). 
1884 Little, Harry James. Norwell, Mass. 

1895 Lombard-]Moriarty, Julia Mary, Boston, Mass. 

1886 Lonergan, Thomas Daniel, Canton (d. Jan. 31. 1896). 

1883 Lord, George Augustus. Ch.B., Amherst, Me. (d. April 6, 1894). 

1898 Loring, Benjamin Tappan. Boston, Mass. 

1876 Loring. Harriet Augusta, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1903 Loughlin, John Joseph. Lynn, ^lass. 

1889 Lovering, Anna Temple. Boston, I\Iass. 

1897 Lowe. Evelyn E. A., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1884 Lummis-Moore, Mary Dorothea, A. B., 

1885 Luscombe, Job Everett, Fitchburg, Mass. 
1889 Lyon, Annie Isabell, Boston, Mass. 

1876 Macdonald, Angus. Boston. ]vlass. 

1900 MacCarthy, Francis Hamilton. Boston, ^Nlass. 

1893 MacDougall, Duncan, Haverhill, IMass. 

1898 MacGowan, Philip Talmage, A. B.. Mystic, Conn. 
1895 Mack, ^^harles David Gibson, Boston, Mass. 
1895 Maciv. Helen Georgina Flagler, Cambridge. ^lass. 
1900 Maclean, Emmeline Helen, Brooklvn, N. Y. 



204 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

1898 Mahoney, John Lewis, Boston, Mass. 

1901 Mann-Richardson, Anna Root, Hartford, Conn. 

1883 Mann, FrankHn Weston, Sc.B., Milford, Mass. 
1903 Mann, Henry Levi, Auburndale, Mass. 

1885 Mann, Martha EHzabeth, Boston, Mass. 

1892 Mann, Wilham Orris, Mass. Horn. Hospital, Boston, Mass. 

1880 Manning-Perkins. Stella. Lynn, Mass. 

1895 Marciey, Walter John, Litt. B., Mass. State Sanatorinm, Rutland, Mass. 

1889 Marden, Augustus Erdman, A. B., Casa Grande, Arizona. 
1898 Marden, Wilmot Leighton. M. B., Lvnn, Mass. 

1884 Mark, Ella Virginia. A. B., Baltimore, Md. 

1879 Marshall, Anna Mary, Philadelphia, Pa. 

1892 Marshall, Foster Leroy, Marblchead, Mass. 
1877 Marshall, Julia Ann, Somerville, Mass. 

1881 Martin, George Henr}', San Francisco, Gal. 

1903 Martyn, Millie Agnes, Roxbury, Mass. 

1890 Marvin, Grace, Roxbury, Mass. 

1898 Mason, Gilbert McClellan, Dorchester, Mass. 

1877 Mason, Herbert Barker, Calais, Me. 

1878 Mason. Monica, Minneapolis, Minn. (d. Aug. 22, 1882). 

1890 May, George Elisha, Newton Centre. 

1904 May, John Bichard, Ch.B., Gloucester, Mass. 

1902 Maynard, Herbert Ernest, Winchester, Mass. 

1898 McClintock, Thomas Henry, Hartford, Conn. 

1882 McCrillis, Mary Francilla, Century Building, Evanston, 111. 
1901 McDonald, Charles Dearborn, Bath, Me. 

1896 McGovern. Catherine Elizabeth, Providence, R. I. 

1893 McOuitty-Wilson, Martha Sylvia, A. B., Somerset, Pa. 

1897 Merrick, Sara Newcomb, Boston, Mass. 

1899 Merrill. Theodore Clarkson, Ph'.B., Colorado, Texas. 
1877 Metcalf-Richardson, Emily, Pasadena. Cal. 

1899 Miller, Edward Alexander, Natick, Mass. 

1887 Miller, Edward Roscoe, Leominster, Mass. 

1892 Miller-Howard, Lizbeth Dora, West Medford, Mass. 

1880 Mills-Weatherlovv, Catherine Ann, Seneca Falls, N. Y. (d. Oct, 19, 

1900). 

1896 Miner-Lane, Jennie Theodate, Rockland, Mass. 

1886 Mitchell, Arthur, Medfield, Mass. 

1896 Montague, Charles Elbert, A. B., Wakefield, Mass. 

1905 Moore, Howard, Mass. Homoeo. Hospital, Boston, Mass. 

1 89 1 Moore-Hoy t, Mary Martha, So. Rochester, N. Y. 

1885 Morey-Pearson, Mary, Boston, Mass. 

1904 Morin, Harry Franklin, Mass. Homoeo. Hospital, Boston, Mass. 

1885 Morris, F'annie Morris, Boston, Mass. 

1881 Morrison, William Somerville, St. John, N. B. 
1875 Morse, Abbie Swan, Gloucester, Mass. 

1889 Morse, Charles Wheeler, East Salem, INlass. 

1875 Morse, George, Gloucester, Mass. 

1896 Morse, Harry Martin, Peterboro, N. H. 

1887 Mosher, Mary Edna, Roxbury, Mass. 

1875 Moss, Mary D., Providence, R. I. (d. March 25, 1904). 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 205 

t88o Mudge, Catherine Gertrude. Salem, Mass. 

[896 Miiller, Laura, M. D., Montreal, Can. 

[896 Mulliner, Mary Rees, Boston, Mass. 

[878 Murdock, Edward Arthur, Spencer, Mass. 

[904 Musson, William Robinson, Antrim, N. H. 

[884 Myers-Davenport, Mary Rachel. Dondo, Africa (d. July 18, 1887), 

[899 Nalchajian, Dikran Davis. Chelsea, Mass. 

[891 Nason, Osmon Oleander Baker, A. M., !Med\vay, Mass. 

[898 Neale, Lillian Belie, Boston, Mass. 

[896 Nesmith, Edwin Clarendon, 

[898 Newman, Elizabeth Benham. 

[898 Newton, Carrie E., Brewer, Me. 

[884 Newton, Frank Loomis, Somerville, Mass. 

[896 Newton, William Curtis, Crescent Beach, Mass. 

[874 Nichols, Sophronia, Lakeside, San Diego Co., Cal. 

[894 Nixon, Alfred John, 

[892 Norcross, Ernest Freeman. Dorchester, Mass. 

[880 Norcross, George Edward. Great Falls, N. H. (d. Nov. 6, 1882). 

[883 Nordstrom, Cynthia Alaria, Maiden, ^lass. 

^5 Normandie, ^lyra Frances de, Boston (d. Jan. 10, 1896). 

[892 Norris, Maria Whittelsey, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

[904 Noves, John Russel. Brockton, Mass. 

[884 Nutter, Mary Elizabeth, New York. 

[883 Oakes, Charles Henry, Livermore Falls, ^Me. 

[893 Odiorne-Fogg, Florence Ada, Portland, Me. 

[887 O'Leary, Joseph Augustus. Wakefield, Mass. 

[904 Oeser, Paul Richard, Cumberland Homoeo. Hospital, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

)i Orglert-Porag, Maria Thecle, 

[898 Osgood, Flarry Weldon, A. B., Ellsworth, Me. 

[875 Osgood. James Henry, Jamaica Plain (d. Sept. 10, 1898). 

[895 Owen-Weeks, Mary Angell. Lawrence (d. Oct. 23, 1901). 

[880 Packard, Horace, Boston, Mass. 

[901 Padelford. Frank ]\Iason. Ch.B., Fall River, Alass. 

[880 Page, Charlotte Evans, Braintree, Mass. 

[870 Parker, Nelson Cobleigh, A. B., 

[898 Parker, Ralph Walter, Lowell, .Mass. 

[879 Parkhurst, Lumen Boyden, Allston (d. Nov. 7, 1896). 

[896 Parmenter, Kenneth Raymond, Ch.B., South Framingham, Mass. 

[889 Partridge. Thomas Jefferson, Cambridgeport, Mass. 

[888 Patch, Frank Wallace, South Framingham, Mass. 

[900 Patterson, Agnes Christy, Maiden, ]\Iass. 

[893 Patterson, Alice Maria, Peabody. Alass. 

[896 Patterson, Alice Zelia, Emergency Hospital, New Bedford, ]Mass. 

[875 Payne, George Harkness, Boston, Mass. 

^79 Payne, John Howard, A. B., Pierce Bldg., Boston, Alass. 

lyy Payne, Mary Amelia, Westboro (d. March, 1903). 

[896 Pearce, Mary Alice, 

[891 Peasley, Emma Janet, Boston, Mass. 

[891 Percy, David Thomas, Jr., ^L D., Arlington. Mass. 

sO Percy, Frederick Bosworth, A. B.. Brookline. Mass. 

[879 Percy, George Emery, Salem, Mass. . ' ; 



206 HISTORY OF H( )MCEOPATHY 

1899 Perkins, Alfred Raymond. Ch.B., Baldwinsville, ^lass. 

1897 Perkins, Anne Elizabeth, So. Berwick. j\Ie. 

[887 Perkins, Charles Edwin, Warren, Mass. 

[876 Perkins, Nathaniel Royal, Dorchester, Mass. 

[898 Perkins, Thomas Tounge, Cliftondale, jMass. 

[889 Petersen. Henrik George. Boston, Alass. 

[901 Phelps, Edith jMindwell. Calhoun, ^Ala. 

[887 Philbrook, Edgar Brayton, Salem. Ore. 

[881 Philbrook, Edward Everett, Castine, Me. 

>i Phillips, Emma Arabella, Pawtucket, R. I. 

[893 Phillips, Eugenie Marian, Somerville, Mass. 

I'j'j Phillips, Leslie Almon, Boston (d. April 3, 1896). 

[896 Phillips, William Converse. Springfield. At. 

[898 Phillips. Wilson Frank, Dorchester, ^Mass. 

[890 Pick, Albert, Brockton (d. Feb. 12, 1899). 

\2 Pierce, Amos Hagar, West Newbury, Mass. 

[887 Pierce, Helen Frances, Plymouth, Mass. 

?79 Pierce, Robert Ernest, San Jose, C-al. 

\'j'j Pierce-Emerson, Sarah Eliza, 

[904 Pierce, Ward Irving, tlomceo. Hospital, Pittsburg, Pa. 

[885 Pike, Lucy Johnson, Trinity College, Washington, D. C. 

[891 Pilling, Simeon Orison, Newburyport. Mass. 

[878 Pinckney, Edward Marion, Blufifton, South Car. 

[890 Piper, Fred Smith, Lexington, Mass. 

[898 Plumer, Herbert Hall, Union, Me. 

?7 Plummer, Julia Morton, Sharon. Mass. 

(893 Pollock, Martha Hays. Harrisburg, Pa. 

>5 Porter, Amelia Abigail, Waterbury. Conn. (d. Jan. 2, 1891). 

[888 Porter, Charles Ilsley. Canton, ]^Iass. 

[901 Porter-Padelford, Elizabeth Dwight, Fall River, Mass. 

[882 Porter-Hovey, Henrietta N., Rockford, 111. 

I'/'j Potter, Hulda McArthur, Gardiner, Me. (d. Oct. 16, 1904). 

[884 Potter, La Forest, New York. 

[885 Powers, Abner Howard, Boston, Mass. 

[883 Powers, Charles Hubbard, King River, Fresno Co., Cal. 

1879 Pratt, Charles Sumner. Shrewsbury (d. 1904). 

9 Pratt, Mara Louise, ]\Ialden, ]\Iass. 

[886 Preston, Grace Alma, A. B., Northampton (d. ^Nlarch 20, 1896). 

[889 Pritchard, Frank Hiram, Alonroeville, Ohio. 

[890 Pulsifer, Ralph Howard, A. B., A^assalboro, Ale. 

[901 Purmort, Jennie Grace, Insane Hospital, Fergus Falls, INIinn. 

[875 Radclifife, Frank Laimbeer, Washington, D. C. (d. April 2, 1889), 

[900 Rand, George Henry, Livermore Falls, Me. 

[900 Ransom, Eliza Taylor, Boston, Mass. 

[900 Ratten, Arthur A. ]\I.. Ph.D., Kew, Melbourne. Australia. 

?82 Ray. William Robert, Melbourne. Australia. 

^87 Reed. Albert Church. Georgetown, Mass. 

^78 Reed, Clara Deborah Whitman, Newton, Mass. 

[877 Reed, Robert Gates, Woonsocket. R. I. 

[892 Reeves, Harriet Almira, West AJedford, Mass. 

[883 Reynolds, Henry \'ose. Dorchester, ]\Iass. 



HISTORY OF HO:\I(EOPATHY 207 

1884 Reynolds, Margaret Jackson, Oneida, X. Y. 
1900 Rice, Carrie Elizabeth, Melrose. Mass. 
1886 Rice. George Brackett. Boston, Mass. 
J891 Richardson, Edward Blake, Rochester. Vt. 

1899 Richardson-Briggs. Elizabeth May. Beverly, Mass. 

1879 Richardson, Frank Chase, Boston. Mass. 

1897 Ring, Arthur Hallarn, Arlington Heights, ^^lass. 

3883 Ripley, Martha George, S. ^iinneapolis, Minn. 

1902 Roberts, Frank Eugene, Boston. Mass. 
1879 Roberts, Oscar Waldo, Springfield, Mass. 
1894 Roberts, Percy W'illard. New York. 

1889 Robinson. Florence Nightingale. Lawrence, Mass, 

1897 Robinson, Mary Emma Bliss. Waltham. ]^Iass. 

1896 Robbins, Frederick Carver. State Homoeo. Hospital, Gowanda, X. Y. 

1899 Rockwell, Alfred Elijah Perkins, Ch.B.. Worcester, Mass. 

3877 Rockwell, John Arnold, Harriman, Tenn. 

1899 Rockwell, John Arnold, Jr., Sc.B., Ch.B.. Cambridge, ^Nlass. 
1879 Rogers, Charles Rufus. Plymouth. ^lass. 

1879 Rogers-Rutter, Clara Hannah, Lawrence, Mass. 

1877 Rollins. Charlotte Abbie, Xorwood, Mass. 

1903 Roper, Florence Turner, Mobile, Ala. 
1893 Rowe, Alice Eliza, Springfield. Mass. 

1885 Royal, Osmon, Marquam Building. Portland, Ore. 

1900 Ruggles, Edwin Pakenham. X'ew Dorchester, Mass. 

1880 Ruggles. William Osman, ^Mattapan, Mass. 

3878 Russegue. Henry Elmore. Hartford, Conn. 
1880 Russell. Edwin Herbert, Los Angeles. Cal. 

1878 Russell. John Henry, Dorchester, Mass. 
1880 Russell, Julia Ann Bray. Maiden. Mass. 

1888 St. John, Edward Thomas. Bentham's. St. Lucy, Barbadoes, \\'. L 

1890 Sampson, Lottie Emma, Maiden, Mass. 
3905 Sanborn, Edwin Parker. Ashland, X'. H. 

3876 Sanborn, Emma Mary Eastman. Andover, Mass. 

3883 Sanborn, Kate, Medway, ^Mass. 

1879 Sanders. Orren Burnham, Boston. Mass. 

1898 Sanford, ^largaret McPhee. Arlington Heights, ^lass. 
1878 Sanford. Wilbur Fiske. A. B.. Stephentown Center, X". Y. 

3879 Sargent, Charles Samuel. Worcester, Mass. 

3884 Sargent, Fenora Weston. St. Louis, Mo. 

3902 Sargent, Oscar Franklyn Libby, Littleton. X'. H. 

3878 Sasse, Otto, Toledo, Ohio. 

1902 Savage, Grace Gertrude, X'ewton X'ervine. \\'est X'ewton, Mass. 

3875 Sawtelle, Benjamin Albert. Xorfolk. Conn. 

3876 Sawtelle. Frederick Appleton, 

3893 Sawyer, Herbert Houston. Boston. ^lass. 

3898 Schubmehl. Frank Edward. Brookline. Mass. 

3890 Sealey, Thomas Edwin. Hedgeheld, Barbadoes, W. L 

1888 Searle, George James. Phmouth. Ohio. 

1888 Sears, Eloise Augusta. Waltham. Mass. 

1901 Sears. Frederick ^Nlanning. So. Boston. ^Nlass. 

1902 Sedgley, Frank Robert, Insane Hospital. Fergus Falls. ]^Iinn. 



208 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

1885 Seibert, William Adams, A. B., Easton, Pa. 

1882 Selee, Anna Maria, Melrose, Mass. 
1901 Severance, Ella Eliza, Lynn, Mass. 

1880 Sewall, Samuel Greene, A. B., New York City. 

1905 Shadman, Alonzo Jay, Emerson Hospital, Forest Hills, Mass. 

1886 Shaw, Anna Howard, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Pa. 

1905 Shaw, Elizabeth Emma, A. B., Ch.B., Mattapoisett, Mass. 

1876 Shaw, James Scott, Boston, Mass. 

1893 Shaw, John Holbrook, M. D., Plymouth, Mass. 

1881 Shea, William Joseph, 

1888 Sheldon, Martha A.. A. B.. Bhot, India. 

1888 Shephard, Jesse, Buffalo, N. Y. (d. 1891). 

1895 Shepherd, Hovey Learned, Pli.B., M. B., Winchester, IMass. 

1877 Sherman, Charles Francis, Holland, Mich. 

1876 Sherman, Sarah Eva, Salem (d. Dec. 6, 1900). 
1 88 1 Short, Susan Downer, Arcadia, Florida. 

1897 Sidis, Sarah Mandelbaum, Roxbury, Mass. 

1904 Simon, Harold Francis, Mass. Homoeo. Hospital, Boston, Mass. 

1886 Simons, Nancy Jane Abrams. Vancouver, Clarke Co., Washington. 

1883 Simpson, Edmund S., Hotel Pelha'm, Boston, Mass. 
1899 Sisson, Mabel Cornelia, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1896 Skelton, Grace Evelyn, South Boston, Mass. 

1903 Skinner, ■ Anna Mabel, M. B., Watertown, Mass. 

1898 Slagle, Sarah Elizabeth, Ch.B., Easton, Pa. 

1880 Slocomb, George Albert, Worcester, Mass. 
1879 Small, Herbert Elwyn, Roxbury, Mass. 

1893 Smith, Abraham Lincoln, Americus, Ga. (deceased). 

1877 Smith, Asa Dennis, Boston, Mass. 

1899 Smith, Conrad, A. B., Ch.B., Boston, Alass. 

1892 Smith-Eaton, Cora Eliza, .Sc.B., Minneapolis, Minn. 

1901 Smith, Edwin Wallace, Ch.B., Wellfleet, Mass. 

1884 Smith, Ella Gertrude. Roxbury, Mass. 

1898 Smith, Joseph Arthur, Athol, Mass. 

1894 Smith, Laura May, 

1875 Smith, Moses Edwin, Colton, St. Lawrence Co., N. Y. 

1895 Smith, Myron Walker, Sc.B., Ch.B., Red Wing, Minn. 
1888 Smith, Virginia Tennev, Detroit, Mich. 

1883 Smith, Winfield Scott,' Ch.B., Boston, Mass. 

1886 Snell, Margaret Comstock, State Agricultural Col., Corvallis, Ore. 

1904 Solakian, Esther K., Boston, Mass. 

1896 Soule, William Lamson, A. B., Melbourne, Australia. 

1899 Souther, Robert Fulton, FJrookline, Mass. 

1881 Southgate, Robert William, Boston, Mass. 
i88t South wick, George Rinaldo. Barton, Mass. 

1897 Spalding, Harry Osgood, A. B., Insane Hospital, Norwich, Conn. 

1884 Spalding, Samuel Hopkins, A. B., Hingham, Mass. 

1876 Spears, George William, Boston, Mass. 
1890 Springer, Nathan Ayer, Somerville. Mass. 
1901 Sproull, John, Ch.B., Haverhill, Mass. 
1879 Squire, Edmund Burnard, Boston, Mass. 

1878 Stanford, Flora Hay ward, Sundance, Wyoming (d). 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY. 209 

1878 Stanley, Charles Henry, Lowell (d. May 20. 1885). 

1880 Stanley, Charles Sullivan, Amesbury (d. 1903). 

1898 Starkweather, Alary x-Vllen, Xew London, Conn. 
1882 Stedman, James Parker, Brockton, Mass. 

1899 Steele, Harry Leon, Norwood, Mass. 

1877 Steene-Wanstall, Emma E., Baltimore, ]\Id. (d. Sept. 10, 1882). 

1877 Stephens, Charles Asbury, A. AL, Norway Lake, Me. 
1892 Stephenson, Benjamin Smith, W. Thompson, Conn. 
1903 Stephens, Edna Harriet, A. B., Norway Lake, Me. 
1892 Stephenson, Nellie Witter, W. Thompson, Conn. 
1895 Stevens, Edwin Dearborn, Francestown, N. H. 
19CI Stevens, Grace, Litt. B., Northampton, Mass. 

1903 Stevens, James Edward, Saxonville. Mass. 

1900 Stevens, Michel Alallett. Jr., Woburn, Alass. 
1897 Stevenson, Arthur William. Rome, Ga. 

1897 Stevenson, Effie Allyne. Rome, Ga. 

1887 Ste\vart, Anne Clark, East Cambridge, Mass. 

1895 Stewart, Lincoln A., Clinton (d. Sept. 20, 1903). 

1878 Stiles, Charles Wallace, Somerville, Mass. 
1878 Stockwell, Amelia Wood, 

1904 Stoddard, John E., Meriden, Conn. 

1898 Stone, Arthur Lile. Waltham, Alass. 
1882 Stone, Waldo Hodges, Providence, R. L 

1882 Story, Alvin Francis, Natick, Mass. 

1892 Stowell, Maude Evelyn, East Dennis, Mass. 

1878 Stratton, Wallace Clinton, San Francisco. Cal. 

1898 Streeter, Howard Alvertus, Marblehead, Mass. 

1877 Stronach, Abraham Booth, Alargaretville, Wilmot, N. S. 

1876 Studley, Cordelia Adelaide, Boston (d. Dec. 3, 1887). 

1899 Sturtevant, Giarles Alton. Alanchester, N. H. 

1903 Sturtevant, Martha Louise, A. B., Ch.B., Somerville, Mass. 

1902 Sugimoto. Jungo, AL D., Chyo, Shiba. Tokio, Japan. 

1888 Sumner Arthur Foster, Concord, N. H. 
1902 Surry-Cutler, Alice Gertrude. Lvnn. Mass. 

1879 Sutherland, John Preston, Boston, Alass. 

1877 Swain, Alary Lizzie. Boston, Mass. 

T876 Swan, Justin Morrill, Brockton (d. Dec, 8, 1881). j 

T894 Sweet, Clara Maria, Springfield, Mass. 

1877 Swift, George Parsons, 

1896 Swope, Dalva Hamit, AL B., Brockton, Alass. 
1902 Swope, Oscar Clinton, Ch.B.. Kingston, Alass. 
1875 S}'lvester, Stephen Alden, Newton Centre, Alass. 

1883 Tabor, James Atwood, AL D., Corinne, Alaine. 
1887 Taft, Alary Florence, Newtonville, Alass. 
1882 Talbot, George Henry, ,Newtonville, Alass. 

1890 Talbot, Winthrop Tisdale, A. B.. Holderness, N. H. 

1899 Taliman, Arthur Doyle. 

1902 Taylor, Alary Elizabeth, Boston, Alass. 

1899 Taylor-Ring. Lina Barbara. Arlington Heights, Alass. 

1884 Taylor-Cole, Anna Bessie, East Somerville, Alass. 
3903 Taylor, Jr., James Ralph, Boston, Alass. 



210 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

886 Terry, Edna Griffin, Tientsin, China. 

901 Thomas, Carlton Revere, Xeponset, Mass. 

888 Thomas, Charles Holt, Cambridge, Mass. 

903 Thomas, William Kilpack Smith, A. B., Cambridge, Mass. 

897 Thompson, Arthur Percival, A. B., Wollaston, Mass. 

903 Thompson, Chas. Edward Percy, Boston, Mass. 
878 Thompson, Joseph Marshall, Brooklyn, N. Y, 
878 Thurber, Emily iMetcalf, Providence, R. L 

902 Tilton, Nellie Norris, Brockton, Mass. 

889 Todd, Frank Paige, Danielson, Conn. 

884 Todd, James Arthur, Manchester, N, H. 

875 Tompkins, Albert Henry, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 
877 Tower, George Augustus, Watertown, Mass. 

890 Towle, George Nash. Bucksport, Me. 

893 Townsend, Willis Merrick, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 
895 Tresilian, Florence Harvey, Stoneham, Mass. 

904 Trigg, Frank Ryder, Princesse Anne, Virginia. 

881 Tripp, Frederick Daniel, Taunton (d. Aug. 14, 1884). 

877 Trotter, Richard R., Yonkers, N. Y. 

894 Trull, Toel Frank, A. B., Biddeford, Me. 

878 Tuck, Arthur Elmer, Gloversville, N. Y. 

895 Tupper, John Darrow, Westport, Mass. 

889 Turner, Maurice Worcester, Brookline, Mass. 

885 Tuttle, Walter, Exeter, N. H. 

903 Twiss, Henry Irving, A. B., Homoeo. Hosp., Melbourne. Australia. 

892 Urich, John Henry, Boston, Mass. 

899 Valentine, John Forrest, Ph.G., Danvers, Alass. 

893 Varney. Edith Charles, Lynn, Mass. 

876 Vose, Edward Faxon, Portland, Me. 
884 Walker, Frank Clifford, Taunton, Mass. 

882 Walker, Granville Joseph, S. Framingham (d. July 11, 1888). 
881 Walker, Peleg Francis, Providence. R. I. 

895 Walkley, William Samuel, A. B., M. B., Chelsea, ]Mass. 

901 Walsh, Thomas Emmet, Dorchester, JMass. 

876 Watkins, William Lane. Hardesty, Prince George Co., Md. 

905 Watson, Joshua Alexander, Jamaica, West Indies. 
905 Watters, Henry. Newton Hospital, Newton. Mass. 

900 Watters, William Henry. A. B., Boston, Mass. 

890 Way Frank Emerson, Wahoo, Neb. 

893 Weaver, Harry Vernon, 

890 Webb, Mary Elizabeth, 



902 Webster, Aubrey Bradford, A. B., 

903 Webster, Daniel Oscar. A. B., Portland, Oregon. 
903 Webster, Frederick Alonzo, Salem, Mass. 

898 Weeks, Rufus William, Manchester, N. H. 

877 Weeks. Walter Hubliard. East Hardwick, Vt. 

887 Welch, George Oakes, Insane Hospital, Fergus Falls, r^linn. 

876 Welch, Willard Choate, Jr., San Francisco, Cal. 

897 Wells, David Washburn, The Westminster, Boston, ]\[ass. 

880 AVelty, Emma Jane, Portland, Oregon. 

895 Wentworth, Caroline Young, Ch.B., Newton Highlands, Mass. 



HISTORY OF HOMG^.OPATHY 211 

Syi.) W'esl-Alannini;", Carrie Helen, EJillerica, Alass. 

896 West Helen, Meriden, Conn. 

903 Weston, Arthur Francis, Westdale. Mass. 

887 Weston. Isabel Gray, Wellesley, Mass. 

899 Wethcrbee, Lucy Fmma, Worcester, Mass. 

899 Wheeler, Harrv Devereaux. Dorchester, Mass. 

876 Whitconib. Fidelia jane M.. Nunda, X. Y. (d. April i, 1888). ' ' 

876 White, Everett Park, Merrimac (d. 1882). 

878 \\'hite, Sue Almira, Utica, N. Y. (d. March 20, 1899). 

882 White, Walter Henrv, Boston, Mass. 

899 Whitehead, Mary Charlotte, Dover, N. H. 
905 Whitint;. Spencer Draper, l*awtucket, R. I. 

8<S:^ Whitman, Martha Fairfield. Lexinj^ton (d. Dec. 12, 1884). 

887 Whittemore, D\vij;ht Stanley, Brockton, Mass. 

895 Whitlier. Cordelia Melvina. Fitchburg, IMass. 

895 Wii^o-ins, Henry Mayhew. Whitetiekk N. H. 

900 Wii^gin, Ralph Cleaves, Cambridge, ^Nlass. 

895 Wilbur. Aliiston Chester, Middleborough, Mass. 

900 Wilcox, Roswell Storrs, Ph.B., Providence, R. I. 

878 Wild. George Warren, Jr., 

879 Wilder, Sarah Elizabeth, Boston, Mass. 

881 Wildes, Adeline Wilkins, Roxbury, Mass. 

882 Wiley, Rebecca Weeks. Laconia, X. H. 
900 \Mlliams, Dudley Abeel. Providence, R. L 
903 Williams-Baker, Hattie Agnes. 



903 Williams, Ruby-May, Ch.B., Hartford, Conn. 

898 Willis, John Embert, Somersworth, N. H. 

885 Windsor. Sarah Sweet, A. B., Boston, Mass. 

886 Winn, William John, Cambridge (d. June 21, 1899). 
882 Winship-Patch, Annette Thomas, 

898 Winslow, Richard Eliot. Xorwood. ]^lass. 

887 Wiswail. Edward Hastings, Wellesley, Mass. 

893 Wood. Xelson Merwin, Qiariestcwn. ^lass. 

899 Woodbury, George Frank, Patten, Me. 

903 Woodman. Alice Stuart, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

878 Woods, Charles Livingston, Lowell, Mass. 

895 Woods, Prince Tannatt. M. B., Salem, Alass. 

897 Woodvine, Liverus rlull, A. B., Boston, Mass. 

887 Woodward, Harriet. Somerville (d. July 30, 1890). 
903 Wooldridge, Frederick Vanuxem, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

894 Woolley, Emma Myrtice, Boston, Mass. 

888 Worcester, John Fonderden, Dorchester. Mass. 

888 Wright, Edward Olin, A. B.. Lynn (d. Jan. i, 1892). 

881 Wright. Helen La Forrest, Boston, Mass. 

9c I Yager, Lewis, A. B.. X^^o. Cambridge (d. 1905). 

880 Young, Benjamin Herbert, A. B., x*\mesbury, Mass. 

893 Young-O'Brien, Emilie Ayers, A. B., Washington, D. C. 

GRADUATES OF THE XE\\' ENGLAND FEMALE MEDICAL COLLEGE. 

1864 Allen, ]\farv Lockwood, Williston, Vt. 

1858 Angell. Anna Sarah. Providence, R. L 



212 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

1861 Arnold. Hannah An,2:elina. Wrentham, INIass. 
1867 Arnold. Lucy Marilla, Almont, Mich. 

1872 Atvvood. Louisa B., Newbury, Vt. 

1862 Avery, Alida Cornelia, Lebanon, N. Y. 
1862 Baker, Mary Green, Middleborough, Mass. 

1867 Bassett, Mary Augusta, Mount Vision, N. Y. 

1858 Belden, Emily Norton, Lenox, Mass. 
1857 Breed, Mary Elizabeth, Lynn, Mass. 
1857 Brigham Harriette Sophia. Bolton. Mass. 
1870 Brink, Phila Ann. Leraysville, Pa. 

1872 Bucknell. Martha E., Natick, Mass. 

i860 Burroughs, De Lavene, Elmira, N. Y. 

1869 Callender, Emma Huldah, Ferrisburg, Vt. 
1857 Capen, Susan Richard, Sharon, Mass. 
1872 Carleton, Elizabeth A., Kingston, N. H. 

1855 Chamberlain, Elizabeth B.. Boston, Mass. 

1870 Chubbuck. Lurana Ann, Wareham, Mass. 

1856 Cook, Maria Louisa, Horner, N. Y. 

1857 Cooke, Frances Sproat, Taunton, Mass. 

1872 Devoll, Sarah W., New Bedford, Mass. 
1866 Durfee, Julia Maria, Northville, Mich. 

1865 Dyer, Mercee Howes, Shelburne Falls, Mass. 

1868 Fernald, Ellen Louisa, Lowell, Mass. 

1859 Fitield, Almira. \"alparaiso, Ind. 

1861 Flanders. Mary Jane. Concord, N. H. 

1869 Fletcher, Sarah Avers, Boston, Mass. 
1854 Fletcher, Sophronia, Lowell, Mass. 

1873 Fulton, Abby M., Ellsworth, Me. 
1873 Greenough, Emily J.. Haverhill, Mass. 

1866 Hall, Mary Ann, Tyngsborough, Mass. 
1854 Harris, Lucy A. B.,' Waterville, Me. 
1859 Harris, Mary Ann. Troy, N. H. 

1863 Hart, Susanna Miller, Boston, Mass. 

i860 Haskins, Hannah Hall, Boston, Mass. 

1868 Hastings, Caroline Eliza, Barre, Mass. 

1871 Hathaway, Sarah Lewis, Wareham, Mass. 
1857 Hawks, Esther Hill, Manchester, N. H. 

1866 Haynes, Arvilla Breton, Chelsea, Mass. 

1863 Hill. Rebecca Frances Howard, Warwick, Mass. 

1859 Horner, Mary Ann Brown, Brimfield, Mass. 

1867 Howe, Eleanor Elizabeth. Auburn, Mass. 
1863 Hunt, Mary Olive Ann. Manchester, N. H. 
1857 Inman, iVnna, Smithfield. R. L 

i860 Jackson. Mercy Bisbe, Plymouth, Mass. 

1854 Jenks, INlary Reed, Springfield, Mass. 

1863 Jones, Sophia Carlton. Roxbury, Mass. 
1866 Kimball, Catharine, B. A., Boston, Mass. 

1864 Kimball, Elizabeth, South Reading, Mass. 

1870 Kimball. Mary Ann Theresa. Petersborough, N. H. 

1866 Lathe, Leonora Fletcher. Boston, Mass. 

1873 Lawrence, Annie F., Boston, Mass. 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 213 

1864 Lee, Rebecca, Boston, Mass. 
1873 ]\larqiiette, Lydia \l., Xew York. 

1871 ^[arsh, Helen Maria. Tewksburv. Mass. 
1863 Meservey, ]\laria Antoinette, Bangor, ~ Me. 
1.865 Meriani, Minerva* Caldwell, Boston, Mass. 
1873 Miller, Emily C, Hartford, Conn. 

1866 Monroe, Anna E., Washington, N. H. 
1862 JNlorton, Helen, Plymouth. ]\iass. 
1873 Newton, Sarah P., Hyde Park, Mass. 

1872 Norris. Sarah P., Rumney, X. H. 

187 1 Xye, Fannie Asenath. Bellevue, Me. 

1857 Packard, Elizabeth Ann. X'o. Bridgewater, Mass. 

1861 Parker, Louisa Fearing, Boston, ^lass. 
1868 Payne, Etta, Boston, Mass. 

1873 Peckham, Mary L., Boston, Mass. 

1870 Pope, Caroline Augusta. Jamaica Plain. Mass. 

1870 Pope, Emily Frances. Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

1865 Pope, Mary Elizabf^th DeLong, \Vest Burlington, Vt. 
1856 Salisbury, Sarah V\'hitman. East Weymouth, Mass. 

1862 Sewall, Lucy Ellen, ^lelrose, jNIass. 

1872 Siller, Catherine J., Boston, Alass. 

1866 Skinner, Jennie Pierce. X'ew Bedford, Mass. 
1861 Somerby, Elizabeth Phillips. Chelsea, }klass. 

1867 Southmayd. Lucy Waterman. Middletown, Conn. 
1872 Springer, Aurilla. Belgrade, ]\Ie. 

1867 Stacy, Mary Cobb. Taunton, ]\Iass. 
1861 Stone, Eliza Leavitt. Greenfield, Mass. 
1859 Taylor, Elizabeth. Pitcher. X. Y. 

1863 Thompson. ^larv Harris, X'antucket. Mass. 

1854 Thurston, Martha X'^., Lowell, Mass. 

1867 Trask, ]\Iary Peabody, Boston, Mass. 

1868 Tyler, Abbie Cutter, Warren, Mass. 

1858 A'aile, Elizabeth Josephine, West Kendall, N. Y. 

1855 AN'alcott. Hannah 'SI., Boston, ^lass. 

1858 Warfield, Sarah Elizabeth, Holliston. Mass. 
1868 W'aters. Amelia Flint, X^ewton, ]\Iass. 

1866 Wetherbee, Angeline Giles, Charlestown, !\Iass. 

1859 Wetherbee, Sarah Abigail Sheldon, Charlestown, Mass. 

1871 Whiting, Laura Ann. Boston, Mass. 

1865 W inegar. Emogene Ramenla, Manchester, X". H. 

1866 Winslow. Julia Ann Williams, East Abington, IMass. 

1861 Witherby, Lai-rtoille, ]\Iorley, X". Y. 

1862 Worthing, Flelen Baker, Xew Bedford, Mass. 
1873 Wright. Lucretia M., Gloversville, X^. Y. 
1858 Wright. :\Iary, Eagleville, O. 



214 HISTORY (3F HOMCEOPATHY 



CHAPTER VI 

HAHNEMANN MEDICAL COLLEGE OF THE PACIFIC. 
By James William Ward, M. D. 

The Hahnemann Medical College of the Pacific was the outgrowth of 
urgent needs in the west, understood best by those pioneers of homoeopathy 
who located here in 1850. The geographical isolation and distance from 
local centers demanded the establishment of a special school for the teaching 
of homoeopathy on this Pacific coast. Notwithstanding grave difficulties in- 
cident to all new ventures in our limited territory, the college started and has 
kept on with gratifying success, meanwhile graduating each year well trained 
representatives of the new school in medical practice. 

On Jan. 12, 1881, the first meeting directed toward the creation of .this 
college was held in the office of Dr. J. A. Albertson. The article states "for 
the purpose of founding and establishing a homoeopathic college in San 
Francisco and incorporating under the law as made and provided in the 
state of California." To forward this object nine trustees were elected with 
Dr. H. H. Ingerson, president. Dr. W. E. Ledyard, secretary, and Dr. Sidney 
Worth, treasurer. This institution chose the name of the Hahnemann Med- 
ical College of San Francisco and the corporation was to exist for fifty years. 
At the next meeting the capital stock was fixed at $5,000, with shares of $25 
each. The date for beginning the first course of lectures was June, 1882. 

Monthly meetings were held until July 6, 1881. Because of the discour- 
aging financial and professional interest exhibited, we find the minutes of 
the last meeting to read " adjourned to meet at the call of the president and 
secretary at the same time and place." The adjournment proved a sine die, 
for it was not until two years thereafter, March 27, 1883, that five of the 
directors — Drs. Ingerson, Palmer, French, Canney and Ledyard — again as- 
sembled. An urgent invitation to every homoeopathic physician interested 
to meet the directors called out at the next meeting besides those just men- 
tioned, Drs. Eckel, Bradley, Davis, Max Werder, Boericke and Wilson, all. 
of San Francisco, Wilcox of Woodland, and McMahan of Oakland. Cal- 
ifornia. 

At this stage of the college history there are four names that should be 
written in letters of gold' in expression of indefatigable labor, keen initiative 
and untiring energy — Drs. F. E. J. Canney, J. N. Eckel, C. B. Currier and 
William Boericke. Year after year they labored unselfishly for the cause, 
and special mention should here be made of their services. Their interest 
began in 1881 and never has ended. In April, 1883, Dr. Sidney Worth re- 
signed as trustee and Dr. J. N. Eckel was elected to take his place. About 
this time Dr. Ingerson died, a most active spirit in the enterprise, and his 
loss was keenly felt. Dr. Eckel was wdsely elected at the following meeting 
to the presidency, and Dr. Boericke became a director. Dr. Currier was 
chosen to fill the vacancy made bv the resignation of Dr. W. A. Ely. 

In July, 1883, though not in compliance with the law mitil January,. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 215 

1884, $5,000 capital stock was increased to $25,000. and the number of the 
directors was fixed at nine. At this time there appeared in the July, 1883, 
issue of the " California Homoeojiath " the following editorial written by its 
editor, Dr. Wm. Boericke, clearly reaching out for aid from a united pro- 
fession : 

" The Hahnemann Medical College of San Francisco is an accomplished 
fact — on paper and in the intention of earnest and live men. The last meet- 
ing of the directors gave assurance that the foundations of the new college 
will be broad and deep, and in sympathy with the best phases of our pro- 
fessional life, and will do honor to the cause. A committee was appointed to 




C. 1'). Currier, M. D., Fir>t Dean of the College. 

make an appeal to every homoeopathic physician on this coast, and also to 
enlist the symipathetic co-operation of influential laymen. This latter will 
certainly follow if we first do our duty. Every homoeopathic physician on 
this coast, and especially in this state, has a personal interest in this most 
important and far-reaching move. He ought to contribute his influence and 
money and mental endowments to this object: his influence to bring general 
recognition to this new centre of homoeopathy ; his money to make it inde- 
pendent and self-supporting; and his intellectual aid to keep it free from all 
narrowness and bigotry and professional axe-grinding. We all have a duty 
in this matter from which there is no escape ; let us meet it enthusiastically 
and devotedly. Then the new college wall be an honor to the cause; if will 
advance homoeopathy, and thus be of untold advantage to the community 
at large ; and it will take its stand among its sister colleges throuohout the 



216 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

land (their peer) and form another star in the galaxy of luminaries that 
spread the light and truth of the law of cure, siinilia siinilibus. 

The following appeal is issued by the committee appointed by the direc- 
tors of the Hahnemann Medical College of San Francisco, to which we 
gladlv give space ; hoping the response thereto will be prompt and worthy 
of it': 

San Francisco, July loth, 1883. 
Dear Doctor : 

In the interests of homoeopathy on the Pacific coast, it has been finally decided to 
establish a medical college in this city, to be opened in June of the coming year, and 
which shall be known as the Hahnemann ^Medical College of San Francisco. 

In order that the institution may be based upon a firm and substantial foundation, 
it has been deemed advisable by the undersigned directors that a stock combination shall 
be formed with a capital of $25,000 in shares of $100 each — with the understanding that 
until the whole amount of $25,000 has been guaranteed by subscription, no claim shall 
be made upon subscribers. 

In case that the whole amount 'asked for is subscribed, 10 or 20 per cent will be all 
that will be required on subscription for the first year. 

Trusting that the course adopted by the directors will meet your approval, th^y 
earnestly appeal to you for your hearty co-operation, and substantial proof of your en- 
dorsement in a subscription worthy of a good cause and the medical profession on this 
coast. 

Please return at your earliest opportunity to the secretary of the Hahnemann Medical 
College of San Francisco, Dr. W. E. Ledyard, 209 Powell street, San Francisco, the en- 
closed blank for the number of shares with which you desire to help on the good work. 

Fraternally yours, 

J. N. ECKEL, M. D. 
W. E. LEDYARD, M. D. 
G. H. PALMIER, M. D. 
C. B. CURRIER, ^I. D. 
J. A. ALBERTSON, M. D. 
. H. C. FRENCH, M. D. 
F. E. J. CANNEY, M. D. 
\VM. BOERICKE, M. D. 
F. F. DE DERKY, M. D. 
C. B. CURRIER. 
WM. BOERICKE, Committee. 

This letter and the consequent subscription to the stock was really the 
beginning of the college. In March, 1884, by resolution the unsold stock 
was taken up by the directors of the college, who again filled the breach. 
On September 25, 1883, the first faculty meeting was called at 209 Powell 
street. There were present at that meeting Drs. Albertson, professor emeri- 
tus of obstetrics ; Eckel, professor of children's diseases ; Palmer and Canney, 
professors of surgery ; Currier, professor of diseases of the throat ; Boericke, 
professor of materia medica ; Pease, professor of gynaecology; Curtis, pro- 
fessor of anatomy ; Worth, professor of theory and practice ; Ledyard, pro- 
fessor of clinical medicine ; Davis, professor of obstetrics ; French, professor 
of ophthalmolog}' and otology ; and E. A. Schreck, professor of chemistry. 
By the unanimous vote of the faculty, Dr. C. B. Currier was elected dean, 
and with the exception of a couple of years, he served in that capacity for 
eleven years, in season and out of season, through thick and thin, working 
not for self, but entirely for the good of the institution. 

It was to Dr. Currier's untiring energy and unflinching zeal during the 
early years of this college that its very existence was due. Through him 
the spirit of development rose and penetrated the profession from north to 
south. Bv him was conceived the idea for the erection of a new building 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 217 

and by him plans were formed for the same, but for lack of help from pro- 
fessional friends it was not consummated during his service. 

At the meeting mentioned above Dr. H. C. French was made registrar. 
To the above list of names constituting the faculty was later on added those 
of Dr. B. P. Wall, professor of physiology; Dr. A. C. Peterson, lecturer on 
anatomy and histology of the eye and ear; Dr. McMahon. lecturer on path- 
ology ; Dr. W. A. Dewey, lecturer on venereal and skin diseases ; and Dr. 
W. E. Ledyard, demonstrator of anatomy. 

These, then, with the names already mentioned, constituted the faculty 
v/ith which the Hahnemann ^ledical College of San Francisco opened its 
doors. According to a resolution passed at that time, they were to serve 
without remuneration and, I am pleased to say, that resolution never was 
repealed. In the editorial for the concluding number of the first year of the 
" California Hom.oeopath " the pen of its able writer and editor again pleads 
for an earnest upbuilding. 

" The establishment of a homoeopathic medical college in San Fran- 
cisco is no longer a debatable question, but is rapidly assuming a shape of 
reality ; and even those among us who a few months ago were inclined to 
declare the action premature, are now unanimously agreed that the time is 
ripe when the interests of homceopathy in California absolutely require a 
medical college. 

" In the rapid march of railroad progress hundreds of new towns and 
villages are springing up like magic all over our own state and through the 
territories of the Pacific slope — and the growing demand for physicians is 
supplied almost entirely from the two old school colleges in this city — not- 
withstanding Ihat from these new and flourishing places the cry constantly 
comes ' send us good homoeopathic physicians.' but the call has been made 
in vain, there being no supply to meet the demand. 

" Students in our eastern colleges, as a rule, find good locations among 
friends nearer home, and as a result homoeopathy is more poorly represented 
in California than alm^ost any other portion of the United States. 

" Among the objections raised by some who have opposed our move- 
ment is the one that w^e have no experienced teachers at home, but the agita- 
tion of that question has proven the fact that we have among us a number 
of physicians who have been teachers in eastern colleges and others possess- 
ing splendid abiiit}' for teaching, and the professional chairs in our colleges 
can all be filled by men of ripe experience and good ability. 

" Another objection offered has been that not enough students could be 
found to form a full class, but this objection has already been met and 
answered by the fact that several students have at this early day made appli- 
cation for admission to the first course of lectures in the proposed homoeo- 
pathic college and the first session will undoubtedly not fail for want of 
students, and the necessity of relinquishing a medical education for want 
of means to go east to prosecute studies need no longer deter a young man 
from entering the profession. 

" Among the advantages in favor of a medical college in San Francisco 
is foremost the particular adaptability of the climate to the study of anatomy, 
the cool summer months with their constant sea breezes giving a fine tem- 
]jerature for purposes of dissection. Xo other city in the world can offer so 
great advantages in summer for this study, and an advantage to be con- 
sidered in a summer term of lectures is that it is the healthiest season of the 



218 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

year in San Francisco and professors would consequently have ample time 
to devote to their college duties. 

" It is earnestly hoped that every member of our profession will, each and 
every one, "by moral support, money, students and in any other way, as much 
as in them lies, do all in his power to forward the cause of medical educa- 
tion in our midst, and make for this, the first institution of its kind on the 
Pacific coast liaving for its standard the grand law of similia similibus cur- 
^ntiir a reputation that shall grow stronger and higher as years roll on. until 
its alumni shall be found in every portion of the civilized globe — ranking 
among the first in , the healing art." 

The college now chose for its home the building formerly 'occupied by 
the university college and built for a Baptist church, on the corner of Stock- 
ton and Geary streets. Here its first course of lectures were delivered as 
told hi an editorial from the " California Homoeopath," appearing at the 
time : 

" The Hahnemann Medical College of San Francisco began its first 
course of lectures on Tuesday, June 3. 1884. to continue five months. A 
class of sixteen students, as bright and promising a set of medical students 
as we ever saw congregated in any college, matriculated, and there is promise 
of a few more who could not be here on time. The professors entered upon 
their duties enthusiastically ; the clinics offer abundant material for instruc- 
tion ; the dissecting room is well provided with subjects and everything 
promises a brilliant and in every way successful future. We hope ovir col- 
leagues in the country will come forward and support heartily this important 
institution — important for homoeopathv on this coast, and indeed for the 
homoeopathic school everywhere: for our isolation and distance from the 
medical centres demand a separate school, which we must develop and sup- 
port in order to worthily represent the noble cause we have espoused. 

" It may be asked, in view of the existing medical colleges in this city, 
Avhat right we have for the establishment of another one devoted to the 
teachings of homoeopathy. Plainly, the right that comes from the possession 
of a principle that is net recognized bv these colleges. We believe that we 
have such a principle m the law of similia. and just so long as we are faith- 
ful to.it and in our teachings uphold only the best and truest interpretations 
of that law — in short, just so long as we teach homoeopathy as an inductive 
science in the spirit of Hahnemann, Hering and Dunham — just so long we 
have a right to our separate existence, and no longer ; for if our college 
gives up in its teachings and practice the purity of the homoeopathic method 
it becomes eclectic merely, and with it forfeits its right to a separate ex- 
istence. In the words of Constantine Hering : ' If our school gives up the 
strict inductive method of Hahnemann we are lost and deserve only to be 
mentioned as a caricature in the history of medicine.' " 

The college was soon removed to No. 115 Haight street, to a building 
formerly used by the medical department of the University of the Pacific. 
Here we have the home of the. college passing from hydropathy to allopathy 
and from allopathy to homoeopathy. For fifteen years the college made its 
home on Haight street, in a building ill-adapted for college work, cold, cheer- 
less, dark and unsanitary. The class was composed of those who were 
entering college for the first year and by others who by necessity were com- 
pelled to go to other medical colleges in San Francisco, there being no 
homoeopathic institutions Having admitted such, it permitted a senior class 



HISTORY OF HO.MCf:OPATHY :^11> 

to be formed and a graduation to take place at the close of the year. Pre- 
liminary to the opening- a dispensary, long in existence and known as the 
Pacific Homoeopathic Dispensary, was affiliated with the college and thereby 
affortled clinical opportimity to the students which they could have received 
in no other way. 

On March 17, 1884. a gift of twenty volumes of medical works by Dr. 
J. N. Eckel formed the nucleus of a library which now numbers several 
thousand volumes. Afterward Dr. Eckel supplemented his original gift, 
and material additions have been made through funds furnished by the fac- 
ulty in 1887 and by gifts from Drs. Arndt, Simpson. Guy, Hiller and others 
who in ihese early days added those gifts year after year and so created a 
substantial basis for a library. 

The first graduation of the Hahnemann ^iledical College occurred on 
the evening of the last Friday in October, 1884. The exercises were held in 
Red Men's hall on Post street. Some one present at the time described it "" a 
home-like afifair and most enjoyable." Addresses were made by Drs. S. P. 
Burdick, of New York, C. B. Currier and J. X. Eckel. Six students were 
graduated at this first commencement, namely : C. X. Bronson, F. C. Hood, 
J. L. McClelland. W. H. Roberts. J. Townsend and J. X". Young. The 
graduating exercises were followed by a banquet to the faculty and graduates 
at the home of that chief of hosts, the president. Prof. J. X'^. Eckel. At this 
period the earnestness of the nrofession is best expressed in the following 
editorial of the September. 1884. issue of the " California Homoeopath." 

" We hold it to be the dutv of every homoeopathic physician to encourage 
the efforts of the Hahnemann Medical College of San Francisco to teach 
pure homoeopathy on this coast. The most feasible method of encouraging 
this effort is to send to this institution students who are intelligent, with 
good preliminary education, to receive their medical training. It is both 
unnecessary and unjust to our workers in this cause to send students desiring 
homoeopathic instruction east, or to one of the old school colleges on this 
coast. The results will prove that w^e are as able to insure good work as 
our eastern and old school colleagues here, and we save our students the 
expense of a long journey on the one hand and the deleterious influences of 
a one-sided, exclusive, dogmatic medical training on the other — a training 
whose every phase is characterized bv faithlessness in the efficiency of drugs 
chosen according to the homoeopathic law of cure — the only method that is 
in harmony with physiology and all scientific researches. 

" The policy of the college is one that ought to appeal to every homoeo- 
path throughout the land, and certainly gain for it the respect at least of all 
medical men of every school. It is to teach the principles of homoeopathy as 
a science and to illustrate practically their application to the various branches 
of medicine. It is the desire of the faculty and directors of the Hahnemann 
college to abide by the literal interpretation of their announcement, and our 
ready acceptance of the programme of the inter-collegiate committee of the 
American institute shews our position in aiming at and maintaining a high 
standard of medical education, and thereby achieve the only desirable re- 
sults. We do not care for great numbers and certainly do not want any un- 
less thev com.e to us in freedom and with the earnest desire to learn true 
homceopathy from a homoeopathic institution. Have we not a right, there- 
fore, to expect the sympathy and co-operation of every homoeopathic physi- 
cian on this coast? " 



2ii0 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

Following the first graduation, tlje success of the college being now 
assured, the faculty for the next year was selected with but few changes to 
be noted. Effort was made at this time to obtain clinical facilities at the city 
and comity hospital, but notwithstanding the consent of the board of super- 
visors, the municipal medical authorities denied the privilege. In the fall 
of 1885 Dr. F, E. J. Canney, one of the earliest workers toward college up- 
building and harmony, resigned from the directorate to take up his home in 
]Montana. Dr. James W. Ward was elected to fill the vacancy thus created 
by the resignation of Dr. Canney. 

The graduating class of 1885 consisted of four students. It is interest- 
ing to note that as early as this date a committee was appointed to select a 
building site for the college. This, however, never materialized. In 1886 
Mr. E. A. Schreck, a valued worker who had been registrar of the college 
and professor of chemistry, suddenlv died. Dr. W. A. Dewey was now 
elected registrar, which position he held for several years following. In 
1886, upon motion of Dr. Ward, Prof. Wm. Tod Helmuth, of New York 
city, was given an honorary degree. This was given in honor of the vast 
labors of this illustrious surgeon and as a token of the regard in which he 
was held b}' his admirers in San Francisco. 

It was in 1886 that the first delegates to the international committee of 
the American Institute of Homoeopathy was chosen, consisting of Drs. 
Boericke and French. During 1885 and 1886 the institution passed through 
one of those severe professional trials common to young institutions and in 
sections where professional strife is possible. It arose upon the granting 
of a pro hoiiore diploma, which caused a break in the faculty and several 
resignations. It was finally explained to the satisfaction of those who were 
friendly to the upbuilding of this western institution. At this time resolu- 
tions of confidence in Dean Currier's labors were passed, in opposition to 
circulatory letters and statements which were spread broadcast by his oppo- 
nents. 

The Hospital Movement. Early in 1887 the college developed its first 
hospital enterprise, established in a very modest way a few beds in a small 
cottage on Sacramento street. Dr. Tames W. Ward as superintendent, and 
Dr. Sidney Smith as resident physician. 

It became necessary in order to develop a hospital to change the title 
of the college and to form a corporation called the Hahnemann Hospital 
College of San Francisco was turned over to the new board and the institu- 
yard as secretary and Dr. J. A. Albertson as treasurer. Immediately upon 
the organization on December 2, 1887, the stock of the- Hahnemann Medical 
College of San Francisco was turned over to the new board and the institu- 
tion under its new name commenced life, which continued for several years. 
In 1888 the board of trustees was increased to thirteen, and at this time the 
names of Dr. James Lilienthal, G. E. Davis, A. C. Peterson and R. H. 
Curtis were added to the pre-existing trustees. Treasurer J. A. Albertson 
resigned and was elected dean and Dr. Dewey continued as registrar. Dr. 
Boericke was made treasurer, remaining so but a few months, to be followed 
by Dr. A. C. Peterson, who held office for fifteen years. About this time, 
because of failing health. Dr. Eckel found it necessary to resign the office of 
president, and Dr. J. A. Albertson was elected to fill the vacancy thus created- 
Dr. Dewev resigned from, the trustee? and facultv. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 221 

The next step in development of better hospital facilities was the moving 
of the institution to Paige street, in 1888. within two blocks of the college, 
thus affording better opportunities for clinical demonstration. The internal 
strife which had lasted for some time in the college, the lack of support 
from professional men throughout the state, the assessment upon the college 
stock and the constant financial depletion of its professors, caused a dissen- 
sion within the faculty concerning the propriety of maintaining the hospital. 
This was increased bv the antagonism raised in the vicinity of the hospital 
by declaring it a nuisance and the arrest and imprisonment of its superin- 
tendent. Dr. James W. Ward. It may be added in passing that his arrest 
was instituted on the ground of an ordinance which the supervisors of the 
city and county of San Francisco had enacted, prohibiting the establishment 
or maintenance of hospitals within certain distances of the city hall. Upon 
instituting habeas corpus proceedings, Dr. Ward carried the suit to the 
Supreme court and through the counsel of T. I. Bergin, a prominent at- 
torney at the tin:e. the ordinance was found defective and the proceedings 
were dismissed. 

A difference of opinion as to the policy of suppressing the hospital be- 
came so active, maintained to be absolutely essential by Drs. Ward and 
James Lilienthal, that they resigned rather than to give consent to the 
doing away with the clinical arm of the college. It was then closed. Dr. 
Samuel E. Lilienthal, at the time ])rofessor of neurology, in sympathy with 
the position taken by his son and Dr. Ward, resigned and never again was 
connected with the college faculty. 

Returning now to the college history. Dr. George H. Martin was elected 
to fill the vacancy among the trustees and several laymen also were chosen — • 
Columbus Waterhouse, David Bush and Hon. S. M. Shortridge. Dr. Davis 
was chosen dean in 1890, Dr. Dewey as registrar, and an advisory board was 
appointed to aid in the management of affairs. Dr. Geo. H. Palmer resigned 
at this time and Dr. C. B. Currier retired from the deanship. The senior 
class became dissatisfied with the retrenching policy of the new board of 
trustees, and because of the leaving from the faculty of several of its best 
teachers felt it incumbent upon themselves to leave the institution as students 
and to complete their course in medicine in Chicago. 

Several changes in 1890 are to be recorded : Dr. Boericke and Dr. 
Ledyard resigned from the board of trustees, and W. G. Campbell and W. A.' 
Dorn were selected to fill their places. Dr. J. A. Albertson resigned as 
trustee, and Columbus \\'aterhouse was chosen as head of the board; Dr. 
Geo. H. Martin became secretary of that body. In 1891 legal questions of 
incorporation were raised, and in order to fulfill conditions of law regarding 
the Hahnemann Hospital College of San Francisco, papers were again taken 
out. with Columbus Waterhouse, president; Dr. J. A. Albertson, vice-presi- 
dent; Dr. G. H. Martin, secretarv. and W. S. Dorn. W. G. Campbell, David 
Bush, Dr. R. H. Curtis, Dr. A. C. Peterson, Dr. Sidney Worth, Dr. H. C. 
French and Dr. G. E. Davis as co-working trustees. Some few changes 
took place in the faculty. The graduating exercises were held in the new 
I. O. O. F. hall on Dec. 10, 1891. " 

During 1892 Drs. Davis and Dewey were again dean and registrar. 
The changes that then took place in the board of trustees were the resigna- 



222 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

tions of Mr. Bush and Dr. Worth, and the expiration of Mr. Campbell's 
term, with Drs. Currier, Boericke and Dewey to fill their places. 

A desire was uppermost at this time in the minds of the trustees and 
faculty to do something toward obtaining a permanent home and thereby 
advancing homoeopathy. The former desire caused inquiries to be made 
toward the purchase of the theological seminary building on Haight street, 
and also the property occupied by the college. Endeavors were made to raise 
funds, all of which did not succeed, so that the lease of the former quarters 
was renewed. 

Toward the advancement of homoeopathy a petition was presented to 
the board of health for a ward in the city and county hospital, while articles 
were written for the papers, but all to no purpose. Then was first suggested 
the plan for afiiliation with the state university. 

Commencement exercises took place December i, again at Odd Fellows 
hall, with a class of eight, the address being given by Dr. Geo. H. Martin, 
a large audience being present. 

In 1893 the old board of trustees was elected at the annual meeting, 
and organized with Columbus Waterhouse, president; t)r. J. A, Albertson, 
vice-president. Dr. Geo. H. Martin, secretary, and Dr. A. C. Peterson, 
treasurer. This year was marked by many changes in the board and faculty. 
Financial affairs were not of the best, and it was necessary to levy an assess- 
ment on the stock, which helped to straighten out the condition. Dr. Currier 
was again placed at the head as dean, and Dr. Boericke became registrar. 
Among the several changes in the board were the resignations of Dr. R. H. 
Curtis, Dr. G. E. Davis, Dr. H. C. French, Dr. Dewey, and Mr. Waterhouse 
and Mr. Dorn, and in their places were put Dr. Eckel, president, Dr. J. W. 
Ward, Hon. Horace Davis, P. G. Galpin, Dr. G. H. Palmer and Dr. J. E. 
Lilienthal. The faculty changes were more numerous, but did not interfere 
with the course as laid out. The library was increased this year by fifty 
volumes given by Dr. H. R. Arndt, and later by the donation of Dr. Wm. 
Simpson. The graduating exercises were held at the I. O. O. F. hall on 
November 18, and degrees were conferred upon a class of seven. 

The year 1894 showed fewer changes, and matters moved more smoothly 
than for some time. The board of trustees then consisted of Dr. Eckel, 
president; Dr. Albertson, vice-president; Dr. Martin, secretary, and Dr. 
Peterson, treasurer, also Drs. Plamer. Currier, Ward, Lilienthal, Wm. Boer- 
icke and Messrs. Davis and Galpin. Drs. Currier and Boericke continued as 
dean and registrar, respectively. 

Dr. Boericke, who had for some time been superintendent of the dis- 
pensary, wished to be relieved, and consequently Dr. James E. Lilienthal took 
his place. As delegates to the intercollegiate association of the American 
Institute of Homoeopathy which met at Denver, Drs. Simpson and Boericke 
were appointed. It w^as at this time that Dr. Boericke and others from the 
west endeavored to show that a four years' course would be detrimental to 
the interest and growth of small colleges, but the institute decided to advise 
such a coi:rse, and this college at once inaugurated such a course, of seven 
months each, to begin with the next session. This was to its credit, and was 
in advance of the action of the eastern colleges. 

The homoeopathic hospital having closed its doors some time previous, 
as mentioned heretofore, many plans were suggested for raising funds for the 
erection of a hospital building. Again the subject of the college owning 




s^^f 



P^BS*?" 



J»«CJ| - 



i; 



M 






u 



I >> 



^U, 



^ L% , 





224 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

its own building was discussed and some plans were suggested looking ta 
ihe purchase of the Haight street property, but it was found that it could 
not be obtained, thus disposing of that idea for all time. 

A class of twelve graduated November 30, 1894, at the I. O. O. F. hall, 
with address by General Barnes. It was the greatest gathering in the history 
of the college. It vvas then decided that a fall term should be re-established, 
to be begun in October of the next year. 

In 1895 the same board of directors, the same officers, and the same 
faculty were elected, and no change was made in dean or registrar. A new 
governor having come into office and his leanings being toward homoeop- 
athy, he was petitioned for a homoeopathic representative on the board of 
health, but it was decided against us i6r fear of " disagreements in the 
board." A new charter for the city of San Francisco was now being drawn 
up for the forthcoming election. 

Among the freeholders elected to form this charter were three outspoken 
friends of homoeopathy — Joseph Britton, J. J, O'Brien and H. L. Davis, all 
patients of Dr. Ward, through whose influence they gave their hearty sup- 
port in order that nothing should be inserted in the charter departing from 
the lines of liberal medicine. Earnest effort was then made by old school 
colleges of the city to designate the institutions to supply internes to the 
citv and county hospital. The three distinguished freeholders mentioned, 
through earnest efforts of the chairman, Mr. Joseph Britton, prevented any 
infringement upon the rights of the homoeopathic school. This laid the 
foundation for the present prosperity in municipal recognition. 

College and hospital plans were again suggested, and a committee con- 
sisting of Drs. Palmer and Currier was appointed to select a site for a new 
college and hospital. Early in 1895 was chosen the lot on the corner of 
Sacramento and Maple streets, and an assessment upon the capital stock 
paid for it. Dr. Lilienthal was appointed a delegate to the inter-collegiate 
association. Dr. Albert Hiller made a donation of books to the library at 
this time. 

On August 29 the graduating exercises took place at Odd Fellows' hall, 
with a class of thirteen. At the close of the term Dr. Eckel resigned the 
presidency and Dr. Martin the secretaryship. In September, 1895, the death 
of Dr. J E. Lilienthal, an active worker and a strong friend of the college, 
took place. This was indeed a great loss. This left three vacancies on the 
board, which were later filled by Drs. Bronson, E. R. Bryant and Mr. 
J. Brooks Palmer, LL. D., the latter also being made secretary. The change 
having been made to a winter term, the semester opened early in October, 
1895. 

Meanwhile "The Little Jim Ward" at the Children's Hospital having 
been erected, an offer was made by the college to take charge of a portion 
of it, but was declined, as well as another request for some other ward in 
the same institution. 

For a time in 1896 it seemed as if the college would have to discontinue 
sessions, for while the classes were large the financial condition was poor, 
and manv were losing their interest in its affairs. True, the site had been 
selected for a new college, but the assessments were not met with favor and 
much dissatisfaction w^as felt. The winter term closed April 29, 1896. at 
Native Sons' hall, with a class of eleven, Dr. H. R. Arndt of San Diego 
delivering the a^ddress. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 225 

Soon it became necessary to prepare for the announcement and the 
selection of a faculty for the coming year. Many plans arose; some favored 
the closing of the college for two years, others favored moving, and still 
others advocated an assessment. The position of dean was not a sinecure, 
and was not eagerly sought. Under such conditions Dr. A. C. Peterson was 
elected dean, and great credit is due him for his endeavors in tiding over 
the affairs at this critical time, when, if the suggestions of some had been 
acted upon and the college closed, it is doubtful if it would have ever been 
opened again. The directors lost some seven of their number by resigna- 
tion. Drs. C. L. Tisdale, J. S. .Ballard and F. G. Canney and later Dr. A. E. 
Small of Oakland, and Dr. Worth were appointed in their place. Dr. Albert- 
son was made president and Dr. Tisdale vice-president. Many of the old 
members of the faculty resigned, so that with a new board, new officers and 
almost a new faculty the term began on September 30, 1896. 

The college expenses were reduced wherever practicable, and as far as 
could be economical measures were employed. The faculty and class, under- 
standing the condition of things, worked together for the benefit of the col- 
lege. At one time it was rumored that a change was to be made and new 
quarters provided on Mission and Fourteenth streets, but these plans never 
materialized on account of other suggestion's. 

Very early in 1897, the previous difficulty having been patched up and 
a better understanding arrived at, Drs. Palmer, Ward, Boericke and Martin 
were re-appointed on the board, Drs. Small, Worth and Ballard resigning to 
give them place. New energy was then infused and ever\^ endeavor was 
made toward the plan of affiliation with the state university. A petition 
and strong resolutions were drawn up and presented to the board of regents, 
proposing such affiliation, and a committee consisting of Drs. Ward, Palmer, 
Martin, Tisdale, Currier, Boericke and Peterson was appointed to attend to 
the matter. This committee, with prominent laymen, worked hard for the 
success of the plan. The allopaths, by their county societies, individual 
members, resolutions, influence and other means worked to defeat the propo- 
sition. Although it was held in abe}'ance for some months by the regents, 
of whom the governor and several regents were homoeopaths and favorable, 
and although arguments from both sides were listened to and considered, 
the proposition was defeated " for economic reasons." 

Such defeat failed to discourage and in fact seemed to stimulate, for 
from this time on the thoughts centered upon a home of their own. This 
decision of the regents did not take place until August, 1897. Meanwhile, 
on April 29 a class of nineteen — the largest in the history of the institution — 
Avas graduated with most enjoyable exercises at the Native Sons' hall, ad- 
dressed by Hon. \\m. H. Jordan. At the July meeting of the trustees Dr. 
Bronson retired from the board, and later Drs. Albertson and Martin pre- 
sented their resignations. Drs. Peterson and Bryant w^ere re-elected dean 
and registrar. The suggestion to move was deemed unwise at the time, and it 
w^as decided to hold one miore year at "the old stand," so the term was opened 
October 13, 1897, wnth an address by Dr. Ward. During this year a small 
"bequest from N. L. F. Morgan of London to the Hahnemann dispensary 
Avas received, coming at an opportune time. 

The 1898 graduating class was small, being the first class under the 
four years' course. It consisted of two members, and the exercises were 
held at the college on iMay 5. At that time also was conferred on T. Oris- 



226 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

woid Comstock, M. D., of St. Louis, an honorary degree for his active and noble 
work for homoeopathy. At the next election Drs. Peterson and Bryant were 
for the third time elected. The current debts were met by an assessment on 
stockholders. The course was again changed in 1899 from winter to sum- 
mer (July to February), as having special advantages in this climate with 
western conditions. 

THE NEW HOME OF THE COLLEGE. 

During 1899 the building and its construction filled the minds of all. 
On May 4 the last class to graduate in the old building, occupied since 1884, 
completed its course, and three graduates received the degree of M. D. from 
the hands of the vice-president, Dr. Tisdale, Dr. Palmer making the address. 
At the meeting May 24, 1899, Dr. James W. Ward was elected dean and 
Dr. E. R. Bryant registrar. The cornerstone of the college had been laid 
on February 4 and on July 25 dedicatory exercises were held, marking the 
opening of the seventeenth session. Addresses were made at that time by 
the vice-president, Dr. Tisdale, Mayor Phelan and the dean. Dr. Ward, and 
were listened to by the large audience filling Eldridge hall. On the next 
day the new faculty began lectures. 

It is interesting (as the first faculty with a list of the chairs has been 
given) to mention the names of the faculty for the term of 1899-1900: 

C. B. Currier, M. D., emeritus professor of diseases of throat and chest. 

Wm. Boericke, M. D., professor of materia medica and therapeutics. 

Guy E. Manning, M. D., lecturer on materia medica. 

C. L. Tisdale, M. D., professor of theory and practice. 

J. N. Eckel, M. D., professor of psediatry. 

Sidney Worth, A. B., M. D., professor of clinical medicine. 

J. Kastendieck, M. D., professor of mental and nervous diseases. 

A. C. Hart, M. D., D. D. S., lecturer on stomatology. 
J. E. Nicholson, M. D., lecturer on hygiene. 

Geo. PI. Palmer, M. D., professor of surgery. 

E. R. Bryant, Ph.M., M. D., associate professor of surgery. 

B. N. Dov\r, M. D,, lecturer on genito-urinary diseases. 

E. S. Grigsby, M. D., lecturer on orthopoedic surgery. 
Florence N. Ward, M. D., professor of obstetrics. 

James W. Ward, M. D., professor of medical and surgical diseases of 
women. 

A. C. Peterson, M. D., professor of opthalmology, otology and laryn- 
gology. 

Grant Selfridge, M. D., clinical professor of otology, rhinology and 
laryngology. 

F. G. Canney, M. D., professor of descriptive and surgical anatomy. 
R. H. Clement, M. D., lecturer on descriptive and surgical anatomy. 
Joseph Brooks, M. D., lecturer on osteography and syndesmography. 

C. D. Potter, M. D., demonstrator of anatomy. 

F, H. Hadley, A. M., of Stanford University, lecturer on comparative 
anatomy and histology. 

Guy E. Manning, M. D., professor of physiology. 

Wm. Simpson, M. D., lecturer on sanitary science. 

H. M. McOueen, Ph.G., lecturer on medical chemistry and botany. 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 227 

F. L. Bateman, M. D., lecturer on toxicclof^y. 

F. G. Canney, M. D., professor of pathology and bacteriology. 
Brooks Palmer, Ph.B., LL. B., professor of medical jurisprudence. 
C. D. Potter, M. D., lecturer on dermatology and sypliilography. 

G. S. VonWedelstaedt, M, D., lecturer on electrology. 

It is interesting to note the incipient efforts toward acquiring a college 
building in 1898. The first suggestion of the plan finally fulfilled was made 
by a student of tlie college, then in attendance, that a subscription list should 
be developed to form a fund for building purposes. This suggestion was 
made at a dinner given to the senior class at the home of Dr. Ward by the 
student mentioned, I. R, Aikin, Seventeen himdred and fifty dollars was 
raised within a few minutes. 

Mr. Hoyle, taking up the plan, devoted almost his entire time to the 
object in hand. Taking the subscription list and going to the rescue, he 
renewed the notes and traveling from one end of the state to the other at 
his own expense ; interviewed all homceopathic practitioners and obtained 
from them promises of aid. About $7,S50 was finallv pledged through Drs. Geo. 
H. Palmer, A. C. Peterson, J. W.' Ward, F. N. Ward, E. S. Breyfogle, 
E. R. Bryant. J. A. Albertson, Wm. Boericke, J. S. Ballard, S. Worth, 
G. Selfridge, F. G. Canney, J. Kastendieck, H. R. Qement, G. E. Manning, 
A. G. Bailey, B. X. Dow, J. Brooks, C. D. Potter, W. M. Lamb, Ida B. 
Cameron, E. S. Lynch, F. L. Bateman, Laura B. Hurd, and E. P. Hoyle, 
Esq., of San Francisco; Drs. Carra B. Scofield, N. H. Chamberlain, Eva L. 
Harris, Susan J. Fenton, Hugh Ross, Alice M. Bush, E. Nicholson and R. L. 
Hill, Jr., of Oakland; Dr. C. L. Tisdale of Alameda; Drs. H. B. Gates, 
Amelia L. Gates, W. E. Keith of San Jose; Drs. Tapley and Russell of 
Marysville; Dr. Rachael Lain of Vallejo; Dr. Phillipina Wagner of Carson, 
Nevada, and Dr. N. P. Crooks of Santa Barbara. 

But the limit seemed co be reached, and while there were many more 
whose wishes were with them in their endeavors, other plans and purposes 
prevented. This was the case with the southern brethren, who already had 
hospital plans on the way, but who showed their good will a few months 
later in fitting up the laboratory. Word was finally sent to the trustees of 
the Southern Homoeopathic Dispensary, asking their aid. They most nobly 
responded with a subscription of $3,000, payable at once. These trustees 
comprised Drs. J. W. Ward and F. N. Ward and Messrs. E. R. and Jesse 
Lilienthal. and the amount given was what had accrued in thirteen years 
from a dispensary started by the Drs. W^ard and James E. Lilienthal in 
1888. This glorious addition of almost one-half of what had already been 
raised brought the sum up to more than ten thousand dollars and raised the 
hopes of all the interested ones, for the appeal stated that no amount would 
be due unless the sum of $10,000 was subscribed. 

Next came an assessment of ten dollars per share on the capital stock 
in order to free the lot of debt, and $2,900 was raised from the trustees. 
This freed the land of incumbrance and left $1,000 in gold coin in the bank. 

Too much praise cannot be given to Mr. George Lang, the contractor of 
the college, who, being an ardent homceopath, refused to accept a single 
dollar of personal remuneration for all his painstaking and admirable work. 
He watched it all most carefully, and it is through him that there was 
erected for $10,000 what is mentioned as a marvel of a building for that 



228 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

price. Dr. Guy E. ]\Ianning, to whom we are indebted for many details of this 
history, lias well described the structure : 

" The new building stands on the corner of Maple and Sacramento 
streets, with a frontage of tifty-four feet on the latter and fifty-nine feet on 
the former street. There is still left sufficient ground on the south for a 
hospital, and on the east for enlargmg the college when necessary. The 
building is colonial in style, and while it is nearly square the entrances and 
the architecture of the roof relieve the plainness which otherwise would 
exist. The basement is of brick, the remainder frame, making in all four 
floors. The main entrance, from Sacramento street, is by a wide stairway 
leading to a porch which, by means of four fluted pillars, support the porch. 
Above the pillars in bold relief, with letters of gold upon a pure white 
background, are the words ' Hahnemann Hospital College." 

" As Maple street slopes materially toward the south it permits of an- 
other entrance to the basement, which forms the polyclinic entrance. It is 
protected by a small awning, mounted on pillars, and containing the word 
' Polyclinic' The main corridor of the basement is entered from Sacra- 
mento street. The roof supports several dormer windows and is surmounted 
by an artistic railing. Windows are plentiful, and with the skylights giving 
an abundance of light in each of the apartments, which is not even prevented 
by adjoining structures. 

'■ In the basement, entering from Sacramento street, is a main corridor, 
on the left side of which are two rooms for the use of the student, one for 
ladies and the other for gentlemen, both containing numerous lock closets 
for wraps, etc. On the right oi the hall are wide stairs to the next floor. 
Further down opens a small corridor, entering the heating and ventilating 
room in front, and a light gynecological room with dressing room attached. 
The gynecological room is one of the suite forming the college dispensary, 
and is supplied with a Yale chair, instrument case and glass enamel table, 
besides necessary extras. These rooms are arranged on each side of a cor- 
ridor, running across the building, and can be entered directly from Maple 
street. This suite consists of a medical room, ophthalmic room, surgical 
ward, and an operating amphitheatre, all provided with a fine southern light, 
the latter having also a skylight which admirably adapts it for small opera- 
tions. These rooms open into each other and also into the hall. On the oppo- 
site side of the corridor is the pharmacy, where the medicines for the clinics 
are dispensed, and from which a stairway leads to the college floor. Further 
on is a dark room, which may be used by all, and still further is the gyneco- 
logical room already described. 

" The first floor is entered by a wide stairway and portico from Sacra- 
mento street. A wide entrance from above and below runs back to Eldridge 
hall, the main lecture room, thirty-four by forty-five feet in size, with a seat- 
ing capacity for two hundred and fifty. It is abundantly supplied with 
light from the south and west. The platform is fitted up with a neat reading 
desk and chairs, is reached from the back passageway leading from the pro- 
fessors' room, and also from a chart room on the corresponding side. On 
the right side of the main hall is a large and exceedingly pleasant students' 
room, supplied with reading desk and table, on which are found medical 
journals from all over the world. A part of this room is an alcove, around 
the sides of which run cushioned benches built into the wall, making a 
typical study-room. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 229 

" On the other side of the hall is the commodious library, containing the 
handsome collection of volumes by Drs. Samuel and James Lilienthal, which 
now belongs to the college. These are encased behind glass doors. From 
this room entrance can be made into a professors' room and into a reading 
room in front, which is in realit}- an annex to the library and contains a 
portion of the books. 

" Occupying the greater part of the second floor and running up through 
the third is the amphitheatre, sem.i-circular in form and beautifully lighted 
by two large skylights. This is capable of seating about two hundred, and is 
a model room for anatomical and other demonstrations, being so arranged 
that those in front cannot interfere with the view of the others. This 
amphitheatre is nearly encircled on both floors by a corridor. A large 
triangular room in front, fitted up with proper cases, is the museum, which 
will grow more and more interesting as time goes on, but which already 
shows much work and care. On the east side are the small laboratory, 
toilet room and dressing room. Back of the amphitheatre are two rooms, 
which attract admiration, and these are the chemical and bacteriological 
laboratories. Both are fitted up with desks, tables and sinks, and provided 
with plenty of Bunsen burners and other necessary paraphernalia for a 
thorough and practical course, not only inorganic but organic as well, and 
this latter is something that is so often neglected and yet pertains to medicine 
more particularly than even the general chemistry. 

" Above these is a magnificent room occupying one-half the space on the 
third floor. This is the dissecting room, not a substitute, not a cramped back 
room in the attic which could be used for nothing else, but a large, light 
room, well ventilated, clean, inviting — to a medical student — supplied with 
plenty of tables and the latest equipments for embalming and necropsy, as 
well as apparatus for practical surgery. In this room alone the student be- 
comes familiar with descriptive and regional anatomy, and all ordinar}^ opera- 
tions in practical surgery. 

" Besides the rooms already mentioned there are janitors' cjuarters, 
plenty of storage rooms, closets and toilet rooms, and four or five small 
lecture rooms which can be used either for general lectures or practical 
courses. In fact all the space is utilized to good advantage, and while the 
needs of the present are well supplied there is still reserve room which can 
be used to acconmiodate many more students, thus being prepared for the 
future growth of the classes." 

But to return to the history and to the completion of the building. As 
it began to assume shape, plans materialized for the furnishing and the 
fitting up of the difterent laboratories. Again friends and the profession 
came to the rescue and gave liberally, as if they had not already signed their 
names to the subscription list. The first call was made to the alumni by 
means of the following circular: 

San Francisco, ]Mar. 2nd, 1899. 
Dear Doctor : 

Through the generosity of the homoeopathic profession of the coast, the Hahne- 
mann Hospital College of San Francisco has been enabled to begin the construction of 
a new college building, which is now rapidly nearing completion. It is a four-story 
building, costing $10,000, and is on a lot of about equal value, situated at the corner 
of Sacramento and ]\Iaple streets. The furnishing remains to be accomplished and the 
alumni association feels that it should be its duty and pleasure to second the efforts 
of the college by undertaking to start a furnishing fund. This is a special plea to the 
alumni, their friends and friends of the college to contribute, each according to his 



230 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

means, for the finishing touches to this enterprise. What will you contribute? As it 
is hoped to dedicate the new building in May, it will be seen that there is no time to 
lose. Subscriptions are therefore in order, and receivable on presentation of this notice, 
either to DR. FLORENCE N. WARD, 

Chairman Furnishing Committee, 
or E. PETRIE HOYLE, 
Secretary and Treasurer of Hahnemann College Furnishing Fund. 

This appeal for funds met with prompt response, and $500 was raised, 
and this although the same names had been appended to' several other lists. 
The alumni sum was used for general furnishmg, and was used so well 
that it served its purpose to a remarkable degree. 

The Epsilon Kappa Delta, a medical fraternity among our brethren 
of Los Angeles, unexpectedly and vmasked, showed its friendly feeling in 
sending a gift to be devoted to the chemical laboratory, and which proved 
sufficient to fit it up in first class order ; in consequence of which a tablet 
upon the .door of the laboratory dedicates it to the fraternity. 

The Pacific Homceopathic Dispensary, composed of a number of the 
physicians of this city and managed by a board of ladies with Mrs. McKee 
as president, by private subscription raised $756 for the development of the 
bacteriological laboratory. 

Drs. Alice Goss and J. Staw Ballard deserve liberal praise for their 
enthusiasm in aiding this gift. 

" We now turn to the Lilienthal gift, which is so highly appreciated. 
Who of us are not lovers of these books, around which clusters so much 
that is sacred in homoeopathy throughout the world? Surrounded with these 
same volumes, bearing his reference marks, they were the intimate compan- 
ions of the greatest compiler as well as most original worker that homoeop- 
athy ever had in America. It was with these before him and around him 
that Samuel Lilienthal performed his arduous labors and spent his energies 
of lite. Every volume breathes of him and makes them more sacred to 
those who can now turn to them. There are over two thousand volumes, 
representing the life collection of Dr. Lilienthal and his son James, and 
through the heirs of the estate they are now the choice property of the 
college." 

The furnishings of the library were the gift of Drs. James and Florence 
N. Ward, in the names of their little daughters, Dorothy and Jean. The 
close relationship that existed between Drs. Ward and Drs. Lilienthal makes 
the gift for the installation of this library strikingly appropriate. Another 
two hundred and sixty dollars from the Southern Homoeopathic Dispensary 
was given for the museum, and was used in the fittings of that room, besides 
supplying specimen jars. 

Another gift most pleasantly bequeathed and gratefully accepted was that 
of five hundred dollars from Mrs. Almira Eldridge. This sum had been 
given to the Southern Llomoeopathic Dispensary and through its trustees was 
bestowed upon the college. This bequest was used in furnishing the main 
hall, which has been designated " Eldridge Hall," in commemoration of this 
kindly woman. In connection with all this, there must be remembered the 
Pacific Homoeopathic Polyclinic, which has been created by the union of the 
three homoeopathic dispensaries in the city, that like prodigal sons have re- 
turned to claim relationship with and to unite more strongly the bonds which 
should and does now unite the college and all her children. Through this 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 231 

polyclinic and the abundance of clinical material presented there has been 
offered marvelous opportunity for teaching and study. 

Upon the death of Dr. J. N. Eckel, for years the professor of pediatrics^ 
and also president of the college, his valuable library was given by his widow 
to this institution. It was installed in a separate room and forms a part of 
the library of the college ; the several hundred volumes of rare and valuable 
books have been a distinct addition to the college possessions. 

The erection of a new building gave great impetus to college affairs. In- 
ternal development became marked. A laboratory of physics and physiological 
chemistry was provided at an expense of $800, which was paid for by savings 
from the current expense account. Great attention was paid to the executive 
management pertaining to the preliminary education of students and to the 
financial side of their relationship to the college. Dr. George H. Palmer was 
elected president, following the death of Dr. J. A. Albertson, and Mr. Wm. 
Letts Oliver was elected to trusteeship and very soon thereafter made the 
treasurer of the college. The dean, during 1900, visited the various medical 
colleges of the country in the view of obtaining knowledge of the system of 
record books and card systems in vogue. From that experience a complete 
plan was created which maintains at the present time. Application was made 
to the regents of the University of the State of New York to become accred- 
ited z.nd registered with them, and by conforming with the exactions of that 
body, this was accomplished. 

The sessions of 1900, 1901, 1902 and 1903 were held during early spring 
until late fall. A minimum of seven months has always been the plan of 
the college. In 1903 a change was again made to the winter season, conform- 
ing with the usage obtaining in eastern colleges from autumn to late spring. 
Accordingly the college session opened in 1903 in October and closed its 
session in June, 1904. 

In 1903 the college became registered and accredited with the Illinois 
and the Michigan state boards of health, making the exactions of our curric- 
ulum to conform with the full requirements of these boards. During the 
changes necessary from the summer to the winter courses, which was inspired 
mainly by the difficulty in acquiring students, the college suffered greatly in 
the numbers of its college body. From 1900 to 1905, inclusive, the average 
number of students graduated was ten. The exactions of the state board of 
health, the operation of which law v/ent into effect in 1903, compelled the 
college to prolong its lecture courses in order that at least six months of teach- 
ing should be found within each calendar year, as separate courses. The 
changing of the time of its sessions exacted from this institution that it should 
either close one year entirely or operate its sessions through prolonged months. 
Accordingly it was found best to extend the course of 1903-1904 three weeks, 
to the first of July. The sessions of 1904-5 extended to the first of June, 
having then a vacation period of two weeks, followed by an additional session 
of six weeks, extending to August i, 1905. 

During the years 1900 to 1905, but few changes are to be noted in the 
personnel of the board of trustees or in the personnel of the faculty. The 
additions were the result only of death within the boards, or as were sug- 
gested, by vacancies previously unfilled. In 1904 Dr. Geo. H. Palmer resigned 
as president of the board, still retaining his position as trustee. In 1905 Dr. 
Geo. H. Palmer, Mr. Brooks Palmer, for several years secretary of the college, 
and Mr. Wm. Letts Oliver, treasurer, resigned. Dr. C. L. Tisdale's term of 



i232 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

office had expired. There were then elected W. W. Van Arsdale as trustee 
and president; Dr. Hartland Law, trustee and treasurer, and Mr. Marshall 
Hale and Dr. C. L. Tisdale. Dr. H. R. Arndt, a trustee chosen in 1903, was 
made secretar} of the reorganized board. At this point it is important to take 
up the furtherance of the hospital movement, which had been abandoned in 
1888. 

No new measures aiming to the creation of a homoeopathic hospital were 
taken until 1896. In January Drs. James W. and Florence N. Ward directed 
their influence toward a unification of effort in the organization of an institu- 
tion known thereafter as the Homceopathic Sanatorium. This was an asso- 
-ciation of five physicians, organized for the purpose of creating a sanatorium 
where all physicians of the homoeopathic school were welcome to send patients 
for personal supervision and treatment. The association was composed of 
Drs. C. B. Currier, Geo. H. Palmier, Wm. Boericke, James W. and Florence 
N. Ward. In a rented building at Sixteenth and Capp streets, February 15th, 
1896, die institution was opened to the reception of patients, having fifteen 
beds. The movement was developed by each of the five physicians contribut- 
ing to a common fund of $3,000 in equal proportions. 

In 1898 Dr. Currier retired, his place being filled by Dr. E. R. Bryant, 
who contributed his pro rata to the maintenance fund. In 1899 the sanatorium 
moved to larger rented quarters in Central avenue. The institution has been 
more than self-supporting. Through the years following the moving to Central 
avenue, it has given as a building fund to the new hospital $3,000 as a fur- 
nishing fund, giving in 1904 $1,500 toward the current expense account of 
the college ; and while at the present day or in its past history it has never been 
under college control, it has always claimed affiliation with the college, repre- 
senting to a large degree the clinical arm thereto. Dr. C. B. Currier was its 
first chairman, and after his retirement Dr. G. H. Palmer held the position 
until his retirement in April, 1905. The only requirement in this association 
of physicians was the unanimous consent to all propositions, and this feeling 
and expression mamtained through these nine years of its existence was its 
■chief factor in the up-building, creating a sentiment favorable to the larger 
accomplishment of the Hahnemann Hospital. 

In 1903 the first step was begun toward the creation of the Hahnemann 
Hospital (whose building will shortly be completed) by the gift of $5,000 
from Drs. James W. and Florence N. Ward. W^ith this sum as a nucleus 
many other gifts have followed until the building fund reached proportions 
that enable the trustees to proceed with the plans for its erection. While the 
Hahnemann Hospital movement as a part of the general hospital movement 
lias a deserved and special history of its own, it nevertheless bears such close 
relationship to the college as to be accorded a place in the historj^ of college 
progress. To William Letts Oliver more than any one else is due the praise 
of having worked out the hospital construction, its plans and specifications, as 
the result of special knowledge and marked fitness for the work. 

It was in anticipation of the Hahnemann Hospital that in 1902 the col- 
lege, realizing that its charter did not include the right to maintain a training 
school for nurses and ability to grant diplomas for the same, that a new cor- 
poration was formed on a non-stock basis, and known as the Hahnemann 
Medical College of the Pacific. The Hahnemann Hospital College gave up its 
charter and bestowed its holdings to the corporation bearing the present 
name. On March 14, 1905, the contract for the building of the Hahnemann 



HISTORY OF H0:MCE0PATHY 283 

Hospital was signed in the office of the clean of the colleg-e. Dr. Ward. On 
May 31 the cornerstone of the hospital was laid with appropriate ceremonies. 

MUXICIPAL RECOGNITIOX. 

In the fall of 1901 Hon. E. E. Schmitz was elected mayor of San Fran- 
cisco. For the first time in the municipal history of the city, as an ardent 
homoeopath he had the courage to appoint as a health commissioner Dr. 
James W. Ward, representing the homoeopathic school, for four years of 
service. At his re-election in 1903 it became possible through absolute con- 
trol of the department of health of the city and county of San Francisco, and 
by the election of Dr. Ward, president of the commission, to assign the 
homcEopathic school its just representation in the various departments. Ac- 
cordingly in January, 1904. the Hahnemann Medical College of the Pacific 
was assigned two wards in the city and county hospital, with the following 
stafif : 

MEDICAL STAFF. 

Visitmg Physidans—K: R. Arndt. M. D.. T. G. McConkey, :M. D. 
Assistants — Guy E. Manning, M. D.. A. J. Minaker, M. D. 

SURGICAL STAFF. 

General Surgeon — E. R. Bryant, M. D. 

Assistants — C. D. Potter, M. D.. O. G. Freyermutli, M. D.. R. F. Tom- 
linson, M. D. 

Abdominal Surgeon and Gynecologist — James ^^^ Ward. M. D. 
Assistant — Laura !>. Hurd. M. D. 

SPECIALISTS. 

Genito -Urinary — D. Gates PJennett. M. D. 
Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat — Philip Rice, M. D. 
Consultant Pathologist — F. G. Canney, M. D. 
Consultant Obstetrician — Florence X. Ward, !M. D. 
Consultant Surgeon — Geo. H. Palmer, M. D. 
Consultant Physician — \\m. Boericke, M. D. 
OtHcial Anaesthetist— Ediih Wells, M. D. 

THE COLLEGE JOURXALS. 

In 1900 Dr. Wm. Boericke, owner of the " Pacific Coast Journal of 
Homoeopathy," gave to the college the journal, since whjch time it has con- 
tinued to edit and maintain a larger monthly periodical under the manage- 
ment of Prof. H. R. Arndt as editor-in-chief: Dr. Francis Kellogg of Los 
Angeles, Dr. Guy Manning and Thomas McConkey of San Francisco as 
assistant editors ; Dr. C. L. Tisdale, business manager. The aim of this 
journal has been the united effort to give to the profession of the Pacific 
states a journal worthy of the profession which it represents and the official 
organ of the college which supports it. 

It is worthv of note that since 1901 the students of the college have 
edited and supported a journal known as " The Periscope." The object has 
been to encourage independent and original thought among students, besides 
the acquisition of a larger power of expression on medical subjects. The 
class bodv has controlled its publication under the supervision of the dean of 
the facultv. Three issues have been produced vearly.- The editorial produc- 
tion has compared favorably w-ith the best of other college journals. 



234 • HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

The present personnel of the trustees and faculty of the college is as 
follows : 

Trustees — Hon. W. W. Van Arsdale, Ph.B., president; E. R. Lilienthal, 
Esq., vice-president; H. R. Arndt, M. D.. secretary; H. Law, M. D., treasurer; 
James W. Ward, M. D., Wm. Boericke, M. D., Edgar R. Brvant, M. D., 
Marshall Hale, Esq., A. C. Peterson, M. D., C. L. Tisdale, M.^D., Wm. P. 
Fuller, Esq. 

Standing Committees— rExeaitive — E. R. Lilienthal, Esq., H. R. Arndt, 
M. D., Marshall Hale, Esq. Finance and Attditing — H. Law, M. D., C. L. 
Tisdale, M. D., Wm. P. Fuller, Esq. Library— A. C. Peterson, M. D., E. R. 
Lilienthal, Esq. Credentials and Admissions — Wm. Boericke, M. D., James 
W. Ward, M. D. Printing— James W. Ward, M. D., Edgar R. Bryant, M. D. 

THE FACULTY. 

C. B. Currier, M. D., emeritus professor of diseases of the heart and 
lungs. 

Geo. H. Palmer, M. D., emeritus professor of surgery. 

C. L. Tisdale, M. D., emeritus professor of practice. 

Materia Medico, Institutes, Therapeutics, Pharntuceutics and Ethics — 
Wm. Boericke, M. D., professor; Guy E. Manning, assistant professor; Philip 
Rice, M. D., assistant professor; A. J. Minaker, M. D., lecturer; G. P. Gar- 
lick, M. D., lecturer. 

Theory and Practice of Medicine — H. R. Arndt, M. D., professor of 
theory and practice and of mental and nervous diseases ; Sidney Worth, A. M., 
M. D., professor of pediatry ; A. K. Crawford, M. D., professor of diseases 
of the heart and lungs ; J. Kastendieck, M. D,, professor of physical diagnosis ; 
Thomas G. McC^onkey, M. D., professor of clinical medicine; C. E. Hart, 
D. D. S., lecturer on stomatology; O. G. Freyermuth, M. D., lecturer on 
disease of the kidneys. 

Surgery — Edgar R. Bryant, M. D., professor of surgery ; C. D. Potter, 
M. D., assistant professor ; Joseph S. Brooks, M. D., lecturer on orthopedic 
surgery ; R. F. Tomlinson, M. D., lecturer on minor surgery and operative 
technique ; D. Gates Bennett, M. D., lecturer on genito-urinary diseases and 
syphilography ; O. G. Freyermuth, M. D., lecturer on diseases of the rectum. 

Obstetrics — Florence N. Ward, M. D., professor of obstetrics; Ida B. 
Cameron, M. D., lecturer on embryology and clinical assistant ; Joseph Brooks, 
M. D., lecturer on junior obstetrics; N. B. Bailey, M. D., clinical instructor; 
Sarah J. Hatton, M. D., instructor. 

Abdominal Surgery and Gynaecology — James W. Ward. ]\I. D., professor 
of gynaecology ; Laura B. Hurd, M'. D., lecturer on gynaecology and clinical 
assistant. 

Ophthalmology, Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology — A. C. Peterson, 
M. D., professor; Philip Rice, M. D., assistant professor. 

Anatomy — Joseph S. Brooks, M. D., professor; C. B. Pinkham, M. D., 
assistant professor; R. F. Tomlinson, M. D., lecturer on regional anatomy 
and demonstrator ; E. L. Fassett, M. D., lecturer on and professor of anatomy. 

Physiology — Guy E. Manning, M. D., professor; H. M. McQueen, Ph.G., 
lecturer on physiological chemistry. 

Hygiene and Sanitary Science — Thos. G. McConkey, M. D.. lecturer. 

Medical Chemistrv, Urinalysis and Toxicology — H. M. McQueen, Ph.G., 
professor; G. P. Garlick, M. D., lecturer on toxicology. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY - 235 

Pathology, Bacteriology and Histology — F. G. Canney, M. D.. professor; 
E. L. Fassett, M. D., lecturer on special pathology ; X. B. Bailey, M. D., 
lecturer on bacteriology ; G. P. Garlick, M. D., lecturer on histology ; C. H. 
Lashlee, M. D., instructor in general pathology ; C. S. Powell, M, D., instructor 
on hsematology and bacteriology. 

Medical Jurisprudence — Hon. Wm. H. Jordan, A. M. (Yale), professor. 

Emergencies — R. F. Tomlinson, M. D., lecturer. 

History of Medicine — Hartland Law, M. D., lecturer. 

Dermatology — C. D. Potter, M. D., lecturer. 

Hydro-Therapy — A. J. Minaker, ]M. D., lecturer. 

Electro-Therapeutics — H. L. Lcrentzen, M. D., lecturer. 

Manual Therapeutics — J. W. Henderson, M, D., D. O., lecturer. 

Officers of the Faculty — James W. Ward, M. D., dean; Edgar R. Bryant, 
M. D., registrar; Guy E. Manning, M. D., librarian. 

The college always has been an exponent of higher education. Begotten 
during a period when two year courses were the rule, it advocated in its 
by-laws at the very first the three full courses of lectures. Nor was that all. 
When the American Institute of Homoeopathy advised the four years' course 
this college did not falter, though it meant more serious consequences than 
to colleges in the east, but boldly hung out her banner and was the first 
college west of Chicago, allopathic or homoeopathic, to fall into line. 

When the subject of women's admission was one of the rocks upon 
which it was endeavored to wreck her, we find that at the very first a motion 
was passed "that women should be admitted on an equal footing with men 
to all the privileges of the college." They have not forgotten that when 
they were vainly knocking at the doors of other institutions they were gra- 
ciously welcomed with open arms to Hahnemann of San Francisco. Early 
in her career co-education was strengthened by the appointment of woman 
•clinical assistants, lecturers and professors. 

The standard for graduation has been kept at seventy-five per cent for 
years, and today the tendency is to be more strict and more severe in the 
requirements for graduation. A failure to pass final examinations means, 
not a taking up of those branches in which a failure was recorded, but of all 
the senior studies and a second examination upon them. Higher require- 
ments for admission also are depended upon : so it is plain that the constant 
endeavor has been to raise the level of medical education to make the degree 
of M. D. an honor, and to graduate bright and educated men and women 
for usefulness in the profession on the Pacific slope. 

DECEASED MEMBERS OF FACULTY. 

Professor Lilienthal, Samuel. 
Professor Lilienthal, James E. 
Professor x\lbertson. J. A. 
Professor Eckel. J. X. 
Professor Clement. R. Herbert. 

DECEASED MEMBERS OF ALUMNI. 

Professor \\'illiam Tod Helmuth. honorarv. New York city. 
Baldwin, J^. R., Honolulu, H. I. 
Ballard, L. R., San Francisco, Cal. 



236 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

Damkroeger, H., San Francisco, Cal. 

Davis. Geo. B., San Francisco, Cal. 

Edmonds, ]\Iary E.. San Francisco, Cal. 

Houston, W. j.. Manila. 

Ostrander, T- A., Suisun. Cal. 

Pelton, H. S., Alaska. 

Reamy, May, Stockton, Cal. 

Taubner, C. (Honorary), Sacramento, Cal. 

Tisdale, D. L., Alameda, Cal. 

Uttley, W. H., San Francisco, Cal. 

ALUMNI OF HAHXEMAXX MEDICAL COLLEGE OF THE PACIFIC. 

Honorary ^Member. T. (iriswold Comstock, St. Louis, Mo. 
1898 Aikin, I. R., City of Mexico. 
1897 Alumbaugh, F. W., Vacaville. Cal. 
1889 Alumbaugh, W. E., Napa, Cal. 

1892 Anker, T. C, Chicago, III. 

1896 Armstrong, Bessie C, San Francisco, Cal. 

1891 Atkins, M. H., San Francisco, Cal. 

1902 Atwood, C. H., Eugene, Ore. 

1889 Badger, Alice, San Francisco, Cal. 

1902 Bailey, N. B., San Francisco, Cal. 
1887 Barnes, Anna H., San Francisco, Cal. 
1905 Bass, Annie, Redding, Cal. 

1896 Bateman, F. L., Berkeley, Cal. 

1897 Beck, J. A., Salinas, Cal. 

1895 Biegeleisen, N., Chicago. 111. 

1893 Birdsey, F., El Cajon, Cal. 

1896 Boldemann, Lillie, San Francisco. Cal. 

1896 Bowen, Amy G., San Francisco, Cal. 

1 89 1 Bowen, jane M., San Francisco, Cal. 

1884 Bronson, C. W., Alameda, Cal. 

1905 Bronson, Lois V., Alameda, Cal. 

1894 Brooks. J. S., San Francisco, Cal. 

1898 Buchanan, R. A., San Francisco, Cal. 

1895 Cabral, J. S. A., Centerville, Cal. 
1895 Cameron, Ida B., San Francisco, Cal. 

1897 Camp. i\Irs. Angle M.. Kansas. 

1891 Case, Clara H., San Francisco. Cal. 
1900 Case, L. H., Santa Monica, Cal. 

1887 Chaffee, J. D., Long Beach, Cal. ^ • 

1900 Chamberlain. Harriet Lane, Oakland, Cal. 

1895 Chapell, E. A., San Francisco, Cal. 

1903 Chapelle, Clarence C, N^irgima City, Nev. 
1903 Chapelle, Grace A., San Francisco, Cal. 

1890 Chisholm, Mary D., y\laska. 

1894 Clement, Elvira M., Flonolulu, H. I. 

1892 Crawford, J. G., San Francisco, Cal. 
1897 Crooks, N. P., Santa Barbara, Cal. 
1894 Cross, H., Sisson, Cal. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 237 



9oi Crittenden. C. F.. Potter \'ariey, Cal. 

894 Couture, A. X., Auburn, Cal. 
900 Uail, C. F"., Eureka, Cal. 

903 Daily, F. A.. Berryessa, Cal. 
892 Dawson, J., Wamconda, 111. 

892 Detrick, E. M., San Francisco, Cal. 

904 De \'ighne, Harry C, Xew York City, X. Y. 
887 Dodge, H. T., Denver, Colo. 

895 Dow, B. N., San Francisco, Cal. 
900 Evans, Margaret R., Eureka, Cal. 
900 Evans, T. J., Eureka, Cal. 

903 Fassette, Edward L.. San Francisco, Cal. 

889 Fenton, Susan J.. Oakland. Cal. 

887 Fichtner, C. G., San Francisco, Cal. 
892 Finch, A. A., Astoria, Ore. 

905 Fisher, John IT., Sacramento. Cal. 

899 Foster, R. DeL., San Diego. Cal. 
897 Fouchy, A. D., Alameda. Cal. 
895 Gage. Frances ^L. Chicago, 111. 

890 Garfield. H. S., Pendleton. Ore. 
903 Garlick, P. G.. San Francisco, Cal. 
905 Glover, Mary E., San Francisco, Cal. 

900 Gregory, Abel L., ^lanton, Cal. 

807 Greenwood, Edna AI., San Francisco. Cal. 

886 Grove, W. F., Visalia, Cal. 

888 Guild. Caroline L.. San Francisco. Cal. 
895 Harris. Eva L., Oakland. Cal. 

903 Hart, Frank, Pacific Grove. Cal. 
897 Hartman, Emily, San Francisco, Cal. 

904 Hatton. Sarah J., San Francisco, Cal. 

891 Havashi. H. S., Aomori, lapan. 

889 Heidrich, R., Dutch Flat, Cal. 

899 Heiss-Sanborn, Blanche L.. San Francisco, Cal. 
903 Henderson, I. H.. San Francisco. Cal. 

895 Hill. R. L., Jr., Oakland. Cal. 

896 Hofmann. Mary E., San Francisco, Cal. 
903 Hogg, Cora B.. San Francisco, Cal. 
889 Holmgren, C. J.. San Francisco, Cal. 
884 Hood, F. C, Gold Run, Cal. 

897 Hood, \\\ L., Groveland, Cal. 

896 Howell. Harriett, Los Gatos, Cal. 

900 Hoyle. E. Petrie. London, Eng. 

903 Huckins, Milicent S., San Jose, Cal. 

894 Huffman. Ruth P., Petaluma. Cal. 

897 Hulme, F. W., Oakland, Cal. 

897 Hurd, Laura B., San Francisco, Cal. 

891 Jaffa, Rachel A., Xew York. 

888 Janes, S. M., Jordan. Minn. 

888 Janes, T. I., San Francisco. Cal. 

Janes, T. B. Cosack, San Francisco. Cal. 



238 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

1897 Jellings, E. A., Alameda, Cal. 

1895 Jones, C. E., San Francisco, Cal. 

1897 Jorgensen, Sophus N., Fortuna, Cal. 

1903 Keeler, J. L., China. 

1897 Kirkpatrick. J. H., Los Angeles, Cal. 

1900 Klenck, August G., San Francisco, Cal. 
1895 Kobicke, Sophie B., San Francisco, Cal. 
1894 Kroetz, Mary M., San Francisco, Cal. 
1894 Kunstlich, D., Passaic, N. J. 

1897 Lain, Lizzie, Santa Rosa, Cal. 

1894 Lamb, W. N., San Francisco, Cal. 

1904 Lashiee, Claude H., San Francisco, Cal. 
1904 Lavy, VV. S., Nevada City, Cal. 

1893 Law, H., San Francisco, Cal. 

1885 Liljeroth, Anna, Chicago, 111. 

1886 Long, G. L., Fresno, Cal. 

1901 Long, S. C, Bakersfield, Cal. 

J900 Lorentzen, >H. L., San Francisco, Cal. 

1889 Lynch, EHzabeth S., San Francisco, Cal. 

1895 Mansfield, Beulah L., Los Angeles, Cal. 

1896 Mansfield, J. M., Los Angeles, Cal. 

1894 Mansur, A. H., Los Alamitos, Cal. 

1892 Martin, Eleanor F., San Francisco, Cal. 

1887 Mattner, E. H., San Francisco, Cal. 

1891 Morgan, xA.lice Bush, Oakland, Cal. 

1904 McAulay, Martin, Newman, Cal. 

1905 McAulav, Marion B., San Francisco, Cal. 
1884 McClelland, J. L.. Los Banos, Cal. 

18S5 McClelland, Sophia B. J., Los Banos, Cal. 

1897 McCullough, A. R., Flora, Ore. * 
1896 McNally, J. B., Prescott, Ariz. 
1905 Nesbit, Jennie E., Vallejo, Cal. 
1886 Merrell, C. G., San Francisco, Cal. 

1899 Minaker, A. J., San Francisco, Cal. 

1900 ]\linaker, R. May, San Francisco, Cal. 
1889 Mitchell, J. S., Hanford, Cal. ■ 

1892 Morgan, Mary A., Berkeley. Cal. 

1902 Morton, J. E., Midway, Utah. 
1886 Munson, Marv F., San Diego, Cal. 

1888 Nellis, J. G., 'Irvington, Cal. 
1891 Nevins, H., Chicago, 111. 

1902 Newsome, Benj. W., Garden Grove, Cal. 

1900 Orr, Charles S., B. S., Ontario, Cal. 

1893 . Parker-Batts, Alice M., Marysville, Cal. 
1891 Pease, Ella G., Boston, Mass. 

1891 Pleasants, G. W., Willow Ranch. 

t8q6 Potter, C. D., San Francisco, Cal. 

1886 Potts. Flora M., National City, Cal. 

1904 Powell, Chas. S., San Francisco, Cal. 

1886 Reed-Button. lulia F.. San Francisco. Cal. 



HISTORY OF HO^ICEOPATHY 239 



1897 Rich, C. L., Fullerton, Cal. 

1901 Robbins. O. M. Byers, Santa Paula, Cal. 
1886 Rockwell, Amanda J., St. Louis, Mo. 
1884 Roberts, W. H., San Francisco, Cal. 

1902 Robinson, T. C, Grass Valley, Cal. 

1900 Rose, Overend G., Kentfield, Ross P. O., Cal. 

1894 Saunders, G. C, Orestes, Ind. 

1895 Schofield, Carra B., Oakland, Cal. 
1897 Shafer, J. E., Salinas, Cal. 

1893 Schrader, C. A., San Diego, Cal. 

1900 Shute, J. W., Iqerua, Cal. 

1905 Simpson, Jessie PL, San Francisco, Cal. 

1896 Small, C. K., Fresno, Cal. 

1886 Smith, S. H., San Francisco, Cal. 

1901 Smith, \'irginia P., Fallon, Nev. 

1893 Solomons- Jaffa, Adele R., Berkeley, Cal. 

1 89 1 Spencer, Huldah, San Francisco, Cal. 

1888 Stambach, Ida V., Santa Barbara, Cal. 

1897 Stewart, S. J., Seattle, Wash. 

1904 Stockton, Belle C, Oakland. Cal. 
1802 Swallow, Rev. R., Xingo, China. 
1891 Telson, Mary K.. St. Louis, Mo. 

1902 Tenney, L. M., Oakland. Cal. 

1896 Thompson, A. J., China. 

1905 Thomson, Mary Leno, San Francisco, Cal. 
1900 Tomlinson, R. F., San Francisco, Cal. 

1900 Tomlinson, May Palmer, San Francisco, Cal. 

1884 Townsend, J., San Francisco. Cal. 
1900 Tracy, C. J., Pasadena, Cal. 

T904 Turnbull, Walter. Jr., San Francisco, Cal. 

1895 Wagner, Bertha J\f. E. Stark, San Francisco, Cal. 

1897 Wagner, H. W., Sacramento, Cal. 

1888 Wagner, Phillipina, Carson, Nev. 

1887 Ward, Florence X., San Francisco, Cal. 

1903 Warner, C. C. 

J890 Waterhouse. Amelia A., San Francisco. Cal. 

1905 Wartenpaugh, J. W., San Francisco, Cal. 

1902 Watson, M. J.. Sacramento, Cal. 

1902 Webster, G. M., Los Angeles. Cal. 

1889 Weirich, E. W.. Angels. Cal. 
1900 W^ells, E. M., San Francisco. Cal. 
1889 West, R. W.. Robinson's Ferry, Cal. 

1885 W^ightman. Anna B., Napa, Cal. 
1893 Wise, S. E., San Francisco, Cal. 
1884 Young. ^I. J.. Chicago. 111. 



240 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



CHAPTER MI 

THE COLLEGE OF HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINE AND SURGERY OF THE l-NIVERSITY 

OF MINNESOTA. 

The Minnesota Honift^opathic Medical College, located at ^Minneapolis, 
and which is now a department of the University of the State of Minnesota, 
was incorporated, organized and opened to students in 1886. As early 
as 1883 the great importance of establishing a homoeopathic college in the 
northwest was fully understood by the members of the school founded by 
Hahnemann. The growth of homoeopathy in Minnesota had been rapid and 
from one physician in 1852 of that school, in 1886 there were one hundred 
and thirt}-. The system was popular and many of the best people of the 
communities were its believers and exponents. But any one who wished 
to studv homoeopathic medicine was obliged to go to San Francisco or to 
Chicago, or still further from home. Minneapolis also was becoming a cen- 
ter of education, and it was deemed fitting that some means should be taken 
so that the yoinig men and women of Minnesota, who wished to become 
doctors, might be educated within the limits of their own state. Accord- 
ingly, in 1883, eight members of this profession met, and, after some con- 
sultation, formulated articles of incorporation in accordance with the statutes 
of the state and made other preparations for establishing a homoeopathic 
college. But, owing to certain events, it was thought that the proper time 
for such a project had not arrived and the matter was deferred. The fol- 
lowing year, 1884, a plan for a mutual training school was formulated and 
adopted in connection with the dispensary attached to the Minneapolis. 
Homoeopathic Hospital. This also had in view the ultimate establishment 
of a homoeopathic college. The organization was called the Minneapolis 
Clinical Society and its membership consisted of the physicians connected 
with the hospital dispensary. It w'as organized in 1884: its first president 
was Dr. Asa S. Hutchinson, and its first secretary. Dr. William E. Leonard. 
It was never incorporated. Its meetings were held weekly and the members 
lectured to each other. The meetings were held at the office of Dr. A. L. 
Bausman during the winter of 1886 and the subject of a college was again 
discussed. 

It was now thought advisable to ascertain the sentiment of the pro- 
fession as to the advisability of establishing a medical college in Minne- 
.sota ; consequently a mass meeting of the physicians of ^Minneapolis was 
called at the Nicollet house on January 20, 1886. There were twenty phy- 
sicians present and the question of a college was freely and informally dis- 
cussed. A formal vote on the question of starting a homoeopathic college 
immediately resulted ; there were ten votes cast for doing so, live against 
it, and five of those present who declined to vote. It was this majority in 
favor that decided that measures should be taken at once which would result 
in the establishment of a homoeopathic college. A committee of five was 
appointed to take the necessarv steps. On January 27 this committee made 
t\to reports, one member making a minority report ; these reports were both 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 



241 



tabled. A new committee of nine physicians was then appointed with in- 
structions to take a month for dehberation and to present a unanimous re- 
port or none at all. Un February 23. a mass meetinj^^ was aj^^ain held at the 
Nicollet house, this being the third meetino- of the homoeopathic ph\siciaiis 
of Minneapolis. At this meeting the committee of nine previously appointed 
presented the following written report, which was signed bv each mem- 
ber. It is as follows : 

" To ihe Members of the Homoeopathic Profession of the City of Minneapolis: 
Your committee appointed to inquire into the feasibility of establish- 
ing a school of medicine in our city, and to ascertain the best means of unit- 
ing and promoting the true interests of the profession, beg leave to report 
as follows : 




Liljrar\' Bu 



We recognize that what has already been done through the Minneapolis 
Homceopathic Hospital Association in starting, and placing upon a firm basis, 
a first class hospital, is a nucleus around which it is anticipated that other 
interests to the medical profession shall gather, and we feel that now is the 
time to take such steps as shall bring a realization of this, ^^'e can not 
ignore ihe fact that this is a metropolitan city and an educational center ; 
and all interests of whatever character are pushed with true western zeal. 
As homceopathists we should not stand by and watch the commendable energy 
of those about us without partaking of it to further the interests of our school 
of medicine. 



242 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

Therefore we recommend as the first step, the estabhshment of a Home- 
opathic Medical Journal, for the purpose of bringing together and utilizing 
such medical literature as may emanate from the medical fraternity of our 
city and state. We think the time is near at hand when there should be a 
school of medicine to teach our particular tenets. Therefore, we also recom- 
mend that steps be taken to lay such foundation as in your wisdom may be 
thought best, by incorporating according to the laws of the state; and that 
the trustees of said corporation shall be from the older and conservative ele- 
ment of the profession, and such lay members as may be deemed eligible, 
and that said board of trustees shall, when the proper time arrives, appoint 
a faculty of medicine. Also, we recommend that this board of trustees 
shall be in charge of the journal to be published, and shall directly see to 
the publishing of it, or indirectly by an editorial or publishing committee, and 
this to be accomplished as soon as possible. 

In making these recommendations your committee feel that they are 
important steps, and would solicit your immediate action. 

Respectfully submitted : W. H. Leonard, M. D., Chairman ; Drs. O. 
M. Humphrey, D. M. Goodwin, Jno. F. Beaumont, J. F. Fargo, George F. 
Roberts, Adele S. Hutchinson, A. L. Bausman, Committee." 

This report was unanimously adopted and the committee discharged 
and another provisional committee was chosen to take proper measures for 
establishing a homceopathic medical journal. This committee consisted of 
five members and resulted from the following resolution : " Resolved, That 
a committee of five be appointed to prepare the articles of incorporation of a 
Homoeopathic College of Medicine, select the incorporators, secure their 
signatures, proceed with all necessary work for the establishment of the 
journal, and do such other work as would naturally devolve upon the board 
of trustees, until such board shall be legally formed, when such board shall 
legally become the successors of the committee.'" The committee consisted 
of Dr. A. L. Bausman, chairman, Drs. O. M. Humphrey, Jno. F. Fargo, Will- 
iam E. Leonard, and P. M. Hall. 

From this resulted the' establishment of the " Minnesota Medical 
Monthly," the initial number being issued May, 1886. This provisional com- 
mittee of five not only organized the journal but also prepared articles of incor- 
poration for the college and procured the sixty-five signatures of the incor- 
porators. A board of trustees was elected and a faculty appointed. The in- 
corporators were as follows : 

THE INCORPORATORS OF THE MINNESOTA HOMGiOPATHIC MEDICAL COLLEGE. 

John F. Beaumont, M. D. ; Petrus Nelson, M. D. ; Rufus L. Thurston, 
M. D.; Wm. E. Leonard, M. D. ; S. A. Locke. M. D. ; W. D. Lawrence, 
M. D. : J. F. Fargo, M. D. ; G. E. Ricker. M. D. ; P. L. Hatch, M. D. ; Adele 
S. Hutchinson, M. D. ; J. A. Steele, M. D. ; Alex Donald, M. D., Still- 
water; H. C. Leonard, M. D., Fergus Falls; A. M. Hutchinson. M. D., 
Waseca; H. W. Brazie. M. D. ; L. P. Foster, M. D. ; B. H. Ogden, M. D., 
St. Paul; Wm. L. Craddock. M. D.. St. Paul; S. W. Rutledge, M. D., Grand 
Forks, Dak.; R. W. Hatch; A. H. Linton: Hon. S. C. Gale; Hon. Sam. 
P. Snider; L. S. Bufifington ; Hon. Geo. A. Pillsburv; Thos. S. King; Hon. 
R. B. Langdon; R. R.^Rand; Weslev Neill ; Hon." E. H. Moulton ; Hon. 
David C. Bell; W. H. Pettit, M..D., Cedar Falls, Iowa; L. Hall, M. D: 



HISTORY OF HOMCROPATHV 243 

Martha G. Riplev, :\r. D. ; G. E. Dennis, M. D. : H. B. Ehle, M. D. : S. 
Francis Brown, ^I. D. : D. M. Goodwin. :\1. D. ; Geo. F. Roberts, M. D. ; 
W. H. Caine, M. D., Stillwater; S. Martin Spaulding, M. D. ; A. L. Bails- 
man ; Lvman R. Palmer, M. D. ; Pearl M. Hall. :\1-. D. ; W. W. Huntington ; 
A. E. Higbee. M. D. ; D. W. Horning. :\I. D., Lake Citv ; D. A. Strickler, 
M. D., Diihith; C. F. Mitchell, M. D. ; G. H. Hawes. M. D., Hastings; 
E. Hubbell. M. D., Clearwater; D. H. Roberts. ^[. D.. Owatonna ; Hon. 
W. D. Washburn; X. F. Griswold ; A. F. Gale: L. P. -Hubbard: Chas. 
T. Leonard; Hon. C. M. Loring; Thos. Gardiner; Hon. Henry G. Hicks; 
Qiarles P. Stevens ; J. H. Thompson ; Hon. B. F. Nelson ; A. B. Xettleton. 

Officers : President, Hon. W. D. Washburn ; vice-president. P. L. 
Hatch, M. D. ; secretary, H. W. Brazie, M. D. : treasurer. Hon. E. H. Moul- 
ton. Trustees : Dr. D. \l. Goodwin, Hon. S. P. Snider, Dr. William E. 
Leonard, Hon. B. F. Nelson. Dr. A. A. Camp, Hon. R. B. Langdon, Dr. 
A. E. Higbee, Dr. S. ]\L Spaulding, Dr. A. L. Bausman. Dr. J. F. Beau- 
mont, Dr. P. M. Hall. Dr. P. L. Hatch was elected dean, and Dr. A. E. 
Higbee, registrar. 

The board of trustees appointed the following faculty of medicine for 
the new^ institution : 

Philo L. Hatch, ;M. D., professor of obstetrics and dean of the faculty. 

David ^L Goodwin, M. D., professor of principles and practice of sur- 
gery. 

Henry W. Brazie, M. D., professor of physiology. 

Albert E. Higbee, ?il. D., professor of gynecology and registrar of the 
faculty. 

John F. Beaumont, 'M. D., professor of ophthalmology and otology. 

George E. Ricker. A. B., M. D.. professor of theory and practice of 
medicine. 

\\'illiam E. Leonard, A. B.. ^l. D., professor of materia medica and 
institutes. 

Robert D. Matchan. 'SI. D., professor of clinical surgery. 

Saiathiel M. Spaulding. ]M. D.. professor of mental and nervous dis- 
eases. 

Pearl !M. Hall, M. D.. professor of clinical medicine and physical diag- 
nosis. 

^Martha G. Ripley. 'Si. D.. professor of paedology. 

Samuel A. Locke, B. S., Af. D., professor of chemistrv and toxicologv. 

S. Francis Ijrow'n. M. D., professor of chemistry and toxicology. 

Hon. Flenry G. Hicks, professor of medical jurisprudence. 

Cyrus F. ^litchell. 'SI. D., demonstrator of anatomy. 

Asa S. Wilcox. M. D.. adjunct to the chair of surgery. 

\Mth great enthusiasm the practical steps toward making the college an 
established reality went on. A building was secured at No. 1929 Fovirth 
avenue, south, next to the corner of Franklin avenue (Twentieth street) 
and but three squares from the Minneapolis Homoeopathic Hospital. The 
first announcement was a handsome pamphlet of fifteen pages. The college 
was opened, the first lecture being delivered on October 4. 1886. At this 
initial session there were twenty matriculants and the course was continued 
for six months. The first commencement occurred on the evening of Mon- 
day, April 4. 1887. at the Central Baptist church. Dr. Higbee. the registrar. 



244 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

gave a succinct history of the new institution ; there was an address hy 
Dean Hatch, the Rev. \\\ T. Chase dehvered the valedictory and two were 
graduated. Diederich T. Krudop of Pennsylvania, and Charles E. Hove- 
land of Minnesota. iVfter the graduating exercises a 1)anquet was held at 
the Hotel x\rdmore. 

A meeting of the incorporators took place on May lo, 1887. At this 
meeting it w^as decided to elect no one to a professorship who had not served 
for one }ear as a lecturer in the college. The following were elected upon 
the teaching corps: Judge James O. Pierce, professor of medical jurispru- 
dence ; George E. Dennis, M. D., lecturer on sanitary science and preventive 
medicine, and Henr} C. Aldrich, M. D., lecturer on pathology, histology, and 
microscopy. 

At a special meeting held in June, 1887, Dr. Philo L. Hatch, the dean, 
tendered his resignation from the deanship and from his chair of obstetrics, 
being compelled to remove from Minnesota on account of illness in his fam- 
il}-. He was unanimously elected emeritus professor of obstetrics. Dr. D. 
M. Goodwin was elected dean and also to the vacant chair of obstetrics. Dr. 
Asa S. Wilcox, Dr. Goodwin's adjunct during the session just closed, w^as 
now given the chair of principles and practice of surgery, while Dr. R. D. 
Matchan remained professor of operative and clinical surgery. 

The second announcement was a neat pamphlet of sixteen pages ; upon 
the outside title page this legend was printed : " The first college in the 
West to require a full six months' term." In this announcement the new 
medical law was fully explained and was shown to be no bar to the student 
wishing to graduate in Minnesota and to practice outside of the state. The 
three years" course was advised though not yet made obligatory. 

The second course of lectures commenced on September 29. 1887, with 
twenty-five matriculants. During the latter part of the session Dr. Henry 
\'\'. Brazie acted as dean, as Dr. Goodwin was obliged to absent. The ses- 
sion was prosperous and successful and the second commencement took place 
at tlte First Baptist church on Monday evening, April 2. 1888. After the 
customary addresses. Judge James O. Pierce presented diplomas to the grad- 
uates : Ulysses Grant Campbell of Wisconsin ; Peter AIcDougall of Minne- 
sota ; Lester A. Wolcott of Wisconsin, and Fred W. Urie of Minnesota. A 
banquet was again held at the Hotel Ardmore. 

x\nd now certain events occurred to change the policy of the new homoe- 
opathic college of the northwest. In an editorial in the " Minnesota Medical 
Monthly" for April i,. 1888, appeared the following: " At last the time has 
come in this great commonwealth as it came in Michigan, Iowa, and Ne- 
braska, when the hitercsts of the medical profession seem to demand the 
establishment of a medical department in the state university." In this edi- 
torial the history of the state university is sketched and the fact that the 
homoeopathists were to be allowed two representatives in the new medical 
department is commented on. To quote : " Are the homoeopathists going 
to sit idly by and see state medicine established in their midst and not utter 
one word of protest? For twenty-five years and more in all the larger cities 
of this state, and especially in Minneapolis and St. Paul, have the prac- 
titioners of the new school quietly but surely been building up a wealthy and 
intelligent patronage. For more than five years the homoeopathic practi- 
tioners of Minneapolis have sustained a completely equipped and modern 
hospital and dispensary, and recently the same have been established in St. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 245 

Paul. Two years ago steps were taken to establish in Minneapolis a school 
for the teaching of homoeopathic doctrines, in order that those inclined to 
that system of practice ought not be compelled to either go away from home 
for a medical education or accept the other kind, with its constant invective 
toward and contempt of homoeopathy. These steps were taken in self-pro- 
tection, tliere being already three colleges of medicine in the state. Our suc- 
cess seems to have warranted the enterprise for twenty students enrolled 
for the first year and twenty-five for the second. Two students, who had 
received instruction in medicine in other colleges, were graduated in April, 
1887, and four others on April 2d. Sixteen departments of medicine have 
been taught and well illustrated by clinical cases, over 400 cases being shown 
in one clinic alone. With such a record, there is no necessity for this latest 
scion of homoeopathy to ask for adoption by the state. But the college could 
not be blind to the machinations of our opponent brethren, and therefore 
sent a committee before the regents to lay these and other facts before that 
bodv. and instructed them to say that the ^Minnesota Homoeopathic Medical 
College would be as liberal as any other in the state, provided the school 
thev represent should be conceded a full department of eight chairs in the 
new university medical department. ^loreover, the following blank peti- 
tion has been sent out to all practitioners of our school in the state. 

" To the Honorable the Board of Regents of the University of Minnesota: 
■'We, the undersigned citizens of Minnesota, do hereby respectfully re- 
quest of your honorable body, that in establishmg the medical department 
of the University of ]\[innesota, you will see to it that the constantly growing 
and popular school of homoeopa'tliy receives its proportiAi of the chairs ap- 
pointed; and we believe that its just interests can be best subserved by a 
separate department of homoeopathic medicine and surgery, with no less num- 
ber of professors than has. been accorded their system of practice in the Iowa 
and Michigan universities; and we further believe that such just recogni- 
tion, now in the beginning, will save much of the unpleasant controversies 
attending the establishment of other university medical departments, and give 
general satisfaction among the large and intelligent body of homoeopathic pa- 
trons and taxpayers in this great commonwealth.'" 

This petition received numerous signatures. The board of trustees of 
the Minnesota Homoeopathic ^Medical College m.ade a formal proposal to the 
board of regents to waive its charter as a college and cease to teach, pro- 
vided homoeopathy should have a fair representation in the new medical de- 
partment of the university. It also ofliered to provide such a place for the 
work of a homoeopathic faculty as the regents might require. The regents 
accepted these propositions and a special committee, consisting of President 
Cyrus Northrop and Professor D. L. Kiehle, was appointed to nominate a 
faculty for the college of homoeopathy. 

This faculty was duly appointed. During the summer of 1888 the fol- 
lowing circular was sent out : 

"A Circular Letter to the Honia^opathic Medical Profession in the Xorthzi'cst: 
In view of the establishment of a medical department in the University 
of Minnesota, a few words of explanation are necessary. As will be seen by 
the catalogue of the university the new department of medicine is the result 
•of the concerted effort of the medical colleges of the state, to elevate the 



24(J HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

standard of medical education in the Northwest, by centering at the uni- 
versity a representative faculty. Although the success of the Minnesota Homoe- 
opathic Medical College had been so flattering as to make any change un- 
necessary, the trustees of that institution saw in the praiseworthy effort on 
the part of the old school an excellent opportunity to secure a proper repre- 
sentation for homoeopathy in state education." 

They accordingly made a proposition to the regents (as stated in the 
catalogue) agreeing to give up their charter and cease teaching if homoe- 
opathy was accorded a proper representation, and also to furnish the proper 
building necessary for the purposes of a college if the regents should so re- 
quire. The regents accepted the propositions, chose the faculties, and the de- 
partment of medicine became a reality. The College of Homoeopathic Medi- 
cine and Surgery thus created is larger than in any other state institution, 
comprising fourteen professors and all branches in which the therapeutics of 
homaopathy should be taught. Such a school under the patronage of the 
state and the management of a rich university, offers greater attractions than 
any private school possibly can. 

The library of the university with its twenty-one thousand volumes and 
the splendid laboratory facilities of the institution are in themselves no mean 
attraction to the student. The homoeopathic hospitals of Minneapolis and St. 
Paul, with their dispensaries, and the various charitable institutions in both 
cities under the patronage of homoeopathy, afford abundant clinical facilities. 

The trustees of St. Barnabas, the oldest and largest hospital in the city, 
appointed a homoeopathic staff, and offered the homoeopathic faculty the use 
of the grounds adjoining the hospital, for the purpose of erecting a building, 
in which to establish the homoeopathic free dispensary of the university, which 
takes the place of the former college dispensary. The hospital is just across 
the street from the college building and this affords the students the same 
privileges as those of the other school. By permission of the board of re- 
gents all former students of the Minnesota Homoeopathic Medical College 
were admitted to the university medical department without the entrance 
examinations, and also were allowed advanced standing on presentation of the 
lecture tickets of that institution. 

The curriculum of the college covers a period of three years, each year 
comprising a course of lectures of six months' duration. The students of 
this college attend lectures in common with those of the entire department of 
anatomy, physiology and chemistry, and must pass satisfactory examinations 
in all these studies before they complete the course or enter for the general 
examinations. They also attend lectures in common with other students of 
the department on medical jurisprudence, pathology, histology and hygiene. 

The first faculty appointed, and whose names were given in the pamphlet 
from which tlie preceding matter was taken, consisted of the following phy- 
sicians : President, Cyrus Northrop, LL. D. (president of the university). 

Henry W. Brazie, M. D., dean. 

Wilham E. Leonard, A. B., ^[. D.. professor of materia medica and 
therapeutics. 

Henry Hutchinson, M. D., professor of theory and practice of medicine. 

George E. Ricker, A. B.. M. D., professor of clinical medicine. 

Robert D. Matchan. W. D., professor of ]irinciples and practice of sur- 
gery. 

W^arren S. Briggs, B. S., ]\L D., professor of clinical surgerv. 



HISTORY OF HO!\[CEOPATHY • 247 

Hcnry C. Leonard, B. S., M. D., professor of obstetrics. 
Albert E. Higbee, M. D., professor of gynecology. 
John F. Beaumont, M. D., professor of ophthalmology. 
Henr}' W. Brazie, M. D., professor of paedology. 

Salathiel AI. Spaulding, AI. D.. professor of mental and nervous diseases. 
Eugene L. Alann, A. B., AI. D., professor of physical diagnosis and 
laryngology. 

B. Harvey Ogden, A. AI.. AI. D., professor of genito-urinary diseases. 
Henry C. Aldrich. D. D. S.. AI. D., professor of dermatology. 
D. A. Stiickler, AI. D., professor of otology. 

Now in 1 888, but two years after the establishment of a homoeopathic col- 
lege, we find this college as one of the medical departments in the state uni- 
versity, bound by its rules, and subject to its authority. While there were 
a good corps of homoeopathic teachers, yet in certain of the primary branches, 
both the students of the allopathic and the homoeopathic department re- 
ceived instruction from the same professors. The College of Homoeopathic 
Aledicine and Surgery, or the homoeopathic department of the University 
of Alinnesota, occupied rooms in common with the allopathic department of 
medicine in three buildings located on the college campus, known as Aledical 
Hall, Laboratory of Aledical Sciences, and Laboratory of Chemistry. Aledi- 
cal Hall contains the offices of the deans of the medical and dental schools. 
There were the library, reading rooms, the dissecting room and other medi- 
cal apartments. 

The college opened on October i, 1888, in its new home with thirteen 
matriculants. The university commencements are held in June and from 
the College of Homeopathic Aledicine and Surgery there were four grad- 
uated. 

With a few slight changes the original faculty was continued until 1893. 
At that time a difficulty occurred resulting in the suspension of entire homoe- 
opathic faculty. A mass meeting of the homoeopathic fraternity was held 
and it was resolved to ask the regents to make nominations for a new fac- 
ulty. The meeting then made the nominations and submitted these names 
to the regents. The regents then appointed the old faculty with two excep- 
tions. This suspension of the faculty really resulted from the intrigues and 
jealousies in the ranks of the homoeopathic profession. The editor of the 
" Alinneapolis Homoeopathic Alagazine," commenting upon it in Julv, 1893. 
called upon the members of the profession to loyally support the facultv of 
the college without personal jealousies. 

The faculty 01 1893 was as follows: 

Dr. W. E. Leonard, professor of materia mediea and therapeutics. 

Dr. George E. Ricker. professor of clinical medicine and physical diag- 
nosis. 

Dr. Robert D. Alatchan, professor of principles and practice of surgery. 

Dr. Warren S. Briggs, professor of clinical and orthopedic surgery. 

Dr. B. H. Ogden. professor of gynaecology and genito-urinary diseases. 

Dr. A. E. Higbee, professor of clinical gynaecology. 

Dr. Eugene L. Alann. professor of diseases of the heart and respiratory 
organs. 

Dr. John F. Beaumont, professor of ophthalmology. 



248 . HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

Dr. D. A. Strickler, professor of otology and rhinolog-v. 

Dr. A. P. Williamson, lecturer on mental and nervous diseases. 

Dr. Henry C. Aldrich, professor of skin and venereal diseases. 

Dr. Asa S. Wilcox, professor of obstetrics. 

In October. 1893. certain changes were made in this faculty. Drs. 
A. . E. Higbee and J. F. Beaumont resigned ; Dr. H. C. Aldrich was made 
professor of clinical gynecology, and Dr. D. A. Strickler professor of 'ophthal- 
mology as well as of otology and rhinology. Dr. L. E. Penny of St. Paul 
was made lecturer on skin and genito-urinary diseases. Dr. George E. Clark 
of Stillwater became professor of theory and practice of medicine and Dr. 
H. H. Leavitt of Alinneapolis, professor of paedology, while Dr. Alonzo P. 
Williamson, who had been lecturing upon mental diseases since 189 1, be- 
came professor of the same branch, and in July. 1893, he was appointed dean 
of the homoeopathic faculty. 

As has been statetl, the commencements of the homoeopathic school took 
place with those of the other schools of the university. 

The faculty in 1894 was as follows: 
. Cyrus Northrop, LL. D., president. 

Alonzo P. Williamson, A. !M., M. D., dean and professor of mental and 
nervous diseases. 

AMlHam E. Leonard. A. B., M. D., professor of materia medica and 
therapeutics. 

George E. Ricker. A. B., M. D., professor of clinical medicine and phys- 
ical diagnosis. 

Robert D. ]\Iatchan. ]\I. D., professor of principles and practice of sur- 
gery. 

Warren S. Briggs, B. S., -^M. D., professor of clinical and orthopaedic 
surgery. 

B. Harvey Ogden, A. ^[.. Isl. D., professor of gynaecology. 

Eugene L. ^lann,, A. B.. 3.1. D., professor of the diseases of the heart 
and respiratory organs. 

David A. Strickler. 'SI. D., professor of otology, ophthalmology and 
rhinology. 

George E. Clark, Ph. B.. M. D., professor of theory and practice of 
medicine. 

Asa \Vilcox, ]\I. D., professor of obstetrics. 

Henry H. Leavitt, A. M., M. D., professor of psedology. 

Lincoln E. Penny, AI. D., professor of skin and genito-urinary diseases. 

John E. Sawyer, M. D., professor of history and methodology of medi- 
cine. 

George A. Hendricks, M. S., M. D., professor of anatomy. 

Pilchard O. Beard, M. D., professor of physiology. 

Charles J. Bell, M. A., professor of chemistry. 

Perry H. Millard, M. D., professor of medical jurisprudence. 

John F. Fulton, Ph. D., professor of hygiene. 

W. Xavier Sudduth, A. M., M. D., D. D. S., professor of oral surgery. 

Thomas G. Lee, A. M., M. D., professor of histology and bacteriology. 

J. Clark Stewart, B. S., IvI. D., professor of pathology. 

H. L. Staples, M. D., instructor in medical and pharmaceutical Latin. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 249 

The course of 1894-95 was the last one requiring but three years of 
stud}-. With the session of 1895-96 a course requiring four years was estab- 
lishefl. Lectures usually commence on October first and end the last of 
May. In 1895 Dr. Thomas J. Gray became professor of history and meth- 
odology of medicine, and Dr. R. R. Ramussen, professor of clinical obstet- 
rics. In 1896' Dr. George F. Roberts was appointed to the chair of (didac- 
tic) diseases of women; Dr. M. P. Austin to that of clinical diseases of 
women ; Dr. T. J. Gray to the chair of history and methodology of medi- 
cine ; Dr. R. R. Rome became adjunct to the professor of clinical obstetrics, 
and Dr. Frederic M. Gibson professor of ophthalmology. The corps of clini- 
cal teachers was also increased. Dr. T. J. Gray was associated with Dr. 
Matchan in the chair of surgery, and Dr. ^I. P. Austin with Dr. liriggs in 
the chair of clinical and orthopaedic surgery. 

In 1898 Dr. Harry M. Lufkin became professor of diseases of children 
and Dr. Asa S. Goodrich took the chair of skin and genito-urinary dis- 
eases ; Alonzo P. Williamson, dean and professor of mental and nervous dis- 
eases and medical jurisprudence ; William E. Leonard, materia medica and 
therapeutics ; George E. Ricker, clinical medicine and physical diagnosis ; 
Robert D. Matchan and A. E. Comstock. principles and practice of surgery ; 
Warren S. Briggs and Marshall P. Austin, clinical and orthopaedic surgery : 
B. Jiarvey Ogden, obstetrics ; Eugene L. Mann, nose, throat and ear ; Fred- 
eric M. Gibson, ophthalmology; George E. Clarke, theory and practice of 
medicine ; George F. Roberts, diseases of women ; Harry M. Lufkin, dis- 
eases of children ; Robert R. Rome, professor of obstetrics. And the fol- 
lowing lecturers and assistants : Oscar H. Hall, lecturer on history and 
methodology of medicine ; Ralph St. John Perrv. skin and genito-urinary 
diseases; A. E. Booth, surgical emergencies; W. H. Caine, clinical and ortho- 
paedic surgery; O. K. Richardson, life insurance examination; Edward M. 
Freeman, botany ; Fred S. Beckley, assistant in diseases of w^omen ; Ethel E. 
Hurd, assistant in ophthaimology ; Annah H. Hurd, ear, nose and throat ; 
Paul A. Higbee, surgery ; William B. Roberts, surgery ; David \\'. Horn- 
ing, practice of medicine : Margaret Koch, paedology ; Hugh J. Tunstead, 
obstetrics ; Gottfried Schmidt, Charles Arthur Dawson, dispensary assistants. 
Instruction in common m the following branches : Anatomy, physiology, 
chem.istry, histology and embryology, bacteriology and pathologv'. 

There has always been more or less desire on the part of the profession 
that the College of Homojopathic ^Medicine and Surgery, although an ad- 
junct of the state university, should have its own buildings and be free from 
the restrictions that hampered it. The two medical schools occupying the 
same buildings, the lesser school suffered. In 1900 the faculty of the homoe- 
opathic college matured a plan and presented it to the board of regents 
asking for a separation of the two medical colleges of the university. The 
homoeopathic faculty went before the medical board of the regents several 
times but it was of no avail ; nothing was accomplished. 

In 1892 a new medical building had been erected partly to favor the 
homcEOpathic department. This building w'as dedicated October 4, 1892; but 
it was a union building and the classes of the two colleges were together. 
Dr. Williamson has been accustomed to making valuable reports of the col- 
lege and these reports have been published each year in the " ^Minneapolis 
Homoeopathic Magazine." 

A very good idea of the growth and status of this school may be ob- 



HISTORY OF HOAICEOPATHY ■ '251 

tained from the following- statements regarding- the annual attendance and 
gradiiation. in 1888-1889 there were in attendance in the homoeopathic school 
of the university, thirteen students; in 1889-90, eight; in 1890-91, fifteen; 
in 1891-92, twenty-one; in 1892-93, twenty-three; in 1893-94, seventeen; in 
1894-95. thirty-three; in 1895-96, thirty-one; in 1896-97. thirty-two; in 
1897-98, twenty-seven; in 1898-99, twenty-two; in 1899-1900. thirty-four; in 
1900-01, twenty-six; in 1901-02. twenty-one; in 1902-03, eighteen, and in 
1903-04, eighteen. 

The numher of graduates since the opening of the college in 1886 is as 
follows: In 1887 there were two graduates; in 1888, four; in 1889, four; 
in 1890. two; in 1891,- four; in 1892, four; in 1893, eight; in 1894, three; 
in 1895, five; in 1896, eight; in 1897, eleven; in 1898 there were no gradu- 
ates as at this time the course was changed from a three to a four years' 
attendance. In 1899 there were four; in 1900, seven; in 1901, four; in 

1902. three; in 1903, seven, and in 1904 there were four graduates. At the 
meeting of the Minnesota State Homoeopathic Institute in 1903 the topic of 
interest was the condition of the homoeopathic department of the University 
of Minnesota. A committee presented the matter to the institute at an 
evening session. On the part of the regents it w'as proposed to abolish the 
homoeopathic college and to establish in its place two professorships in ma- 
teria medica and therapeutics in the general college of medicine, and to permit 
the students to choose between the homoeopathic and allopathic systems of 
these branches. This crisis resulted from the fact that but one student con- 
stituted the freshman class. Dr. E. L. Mann presented the following reso- 
lutions : 

" Whereas, The ^Minnesota State Homoeopathic Institute in convention 
assembled realizes that a crisis has come in the history of the Homoeopathic 
College of Medicine and Surgery of the State University, and that the life 
and perpetuity of the college is in great danger because of impossible con- 
ditions of growth ; and, 

" Whereas, It has been demonstrated in other universities that under 
proper conditions, growtli is unquestionable ; therefore, as furthering the 
individuality and entity of our college ; be it 

" Resolved, That the elementary branches of medicine common to both 
systems of practice be placed in the college of science, literature and the arts ; 
and, further, be it 

" Resolved, That a standing committee be appointed from your honor- 
able body who shall represent the homoeopathic college, and who in conjunc- 
tion with the faculty shall have absolute control of all matters pertaining to 
qualification and government of the same; and, further, be it 

" Resolved, That we are unalterably opposed to the abolishing of the 
homoeopathic college and the substitution therefor of two professorships in 
materia medica and therapeutics in the department of medicine." 

These resolutions were addressed to the regents. This was in July, 

1903. and in August the homoeopathic departm.ent of the university had se- 
cured its own committee upon the board of regents. 

It is to be hoped that in time the College of Homoeopathic Aledicine and 
Surgery of the University of -Minnesota will become a powerful institution 
in the northwest. 



252 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

ALUMNI COLLEGE OF HOMCEOPATHIC MEDICINE AND SURGERY OF THE 
UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA. 

1896 Balcom, George Goodrich. Michigan. 

1897 Ballard, Charles Albert, Minnesota. 
1904 Ballard, J. A., Minnesota. 

1893 Beach, William Artemus, Minnesota. 

1895 Beatty, James H., Minnesota. 

1896 Beck, James F., Minnesota. 

1897 Beckley, Fred Lee, Minnesota. 
1889 Belt, Wallace E., Minnesota. 

1900 Bertelson, Oscar Leonard, Minnesota. 

1901 Bickford, Harley Gray, Minnesota. 

1896 Bingham, Hiram Henry, Wisconsin. 
1899 Booth, Albert E., ^Minnesota. 

1897 Braiiti, Mrs. Andree Ellingson, ]\Iinnesota. 

1899 Caine, Arthur T., Minnesota. 

1888 Campbell, Ulysses Grant, Wisconsin. 

1889 Carlson, Benedicta L. (JNLD.), Minnesota. 

1890 Carrell, Fred Augustus, Minnesota. 
1904 Cole, C. O., Minnesota. 

1892 Cooper, Charles ]\lcHenry, Minnesota. 

1903 Dawson, Charles Arthur, Minnesota. 

1897 DeCoster, William Thompson, Minnesota. 

1892 Dight, Mary A. Glidden, Minnesota. 

1891 Drought, Warren Wesley, Minnesota. 

1894 Frost, Bertha L., Wisconsin. 

1894 Gilman, Addie Ford, Minnesota. 

1900 Gramenz, Ferdinand, Germany. 

1902 Hall, Earl Lester, Wisconsin. 

1896 Hamlin, George Baldwin, Minnesota. 

1896 Hammond, Asa John (B. A.), Minnesota. 
1900 Hartung, Herman August, Minnesota. 

1893 Hedlund, John, ^Minnesota. 

1903 Holmes, Charles Franklin, South Dakota. 
1887 Hoveland, Charles E., Minnesota. 

1900 Hurd, Annah, Minnesota. 

1897 Hurd, Mrs. Ethel Edgerton. ]\Iinnesota. 

1897 Keeney, Emma Adaline, [Minnesota. 

1891 King, Ellsworth Emerson, ]\Iinnesota. 

1895 Kirkpatrick, William David, Minnesota. 
1893 Kleine, James Franklin, Minnesota. 
1895 Koch, Margaret, Minnesota. 

1887 Krudop, Diederich T., Pennsylvania. 

1900 Lares, Bert Victor, Minnesota. 

1900 Leek, Clifford Cleon, [Minnesota. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHV 

1888 McDougall, Peter, Minnesota. 

1904 McKean, ^Irs. j. A., Minnesota. 

1899 Matchan, Glen Robert, [Minnesota. 

1899 Matchan, Wesley George, Minnesota. 
1901 [Mitchell, Roy Ernst, Wisconsin. 

1895 [Nloffat, Albert Groves, South Dakota. 
1892 [Morrison, Alma Eudora. Minnesota. 

1903 Xewkirk, Harris ]!)ana. [Minnesota. 

1903 Page. George Edgar. [Minnesota. 

1897 Penny, Lincoln E. ([M. D.}, [Minnesota. 

1896 Phelps, Alva Gilbert. [Minnesota. 

1897 Pollock, Henry Meeker, [Minnesota. 

1892 Rasmussen, Robert Ralph. Minnesota. 
1896 Reineke, George Ferdinand, Minnesota. 

1893 Richardson, Oscar Kelsev (B. S. ), Minnesota. 
1903 Riley, Percy E., Wisconsin. 

1 801 Roberts, Alfonso Adelbert, [Minnesota. 

i()02 Rogers, Frederick Drake, [Minnesota. 

1903 Schmidt, Gottfried (B. S.), [Minnesota. 

1896 Shipman, Louis Dwight. [Minnesota. 

1900 Smith, Edwin Harwood. [Minnesota. 
1893 Smith, \Vade Winfield. Wisconsin. 
1893 Spurr. Stephen Howard. [Minnesota. 
1893 Stephens, Edna Amanda. [Minnesota. 

1901 Sutton. Harry Everett, [Minnesota. 

1895 Terwilligcr. [Mrs. Innis Lucetta, [Minnesota. 

1897 Torgen-on, William. Iowa. 

1 901 Tunstead, Hugh John, [Minnesota. 

1888 L'rie, Fred W., [Minnesota. 

1897 ^o" ^^ edelstaedt, George S., [Minnesota. 

1891 Wait, Leon Adelbert. [Minnesota. 

1888 Walcott, Lester A.. \\'isconsin. 

1902 Warner, Eugene Frederick. [Minnesota. 
1890 White, Arthur Eugene, Minnesota. 

1903 \Muttemore, J. Gooch, [Minnesota. 
7904 \\'ilkawske, C. W., [Minnesota. 

1897 Williams, Leon Arlington. [Minnesota. 

1897 Woutat, Henry Gustav, [Minnesota. 

1893 A\Vight, Edwin Adams. [Minnesota. 

1897 \Vulling, Frederick I. (Ph.D.), [Minnesota. 

1889 Younsf, Edward ^^^. [Minnesota. 

1893 Young, [Mrs. Esther Ha^es. [Minnesota. 



254 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



CHAPTER VJn 

HOMOEOPATHIC SOCIETIES. 
By Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M. D. 

The homct'opathic medical profession believes firmly in organization as 
the most efficient means of advancing the welfare of the homoeopathic school. 
In the early history of homoeopathy in America the iew practitioners who 
dared — dared is right, and that right was challenged — lay aside the arbitrary 
dogmas which governed the practice of the self-styled regulars and tp think 
and act according to the rational methods of cure propounded by Hahnemann, 
and improved upon and elaborated by those who followed him, were not 
infrequently socially ostracised, held up to public ridicule and scorn, and 
occasionally subjected to open indignity and insult; but notwithstanding this 
there is no long record of desertion by converts to the new school, and the 
abuse heaped on the proselytes of Hahnemann and the immediate followers of 
Gram only served to strengthen their determination to persevere in their 
endeavors in upholding the new principle and advancing its standing and 
efficacy in the world of medicine. The full accomplishment of this object 
naturally called for organization, both as a means of defense against avowed 
and at times unscrupulous enemies and the more thorough dissemination of 
the gospel of the new doctrine. 

As the story is told in a preceding chapter, homoeopathy was first planted 
in America by Gram in 1825. Although a convert himself, a man. too. of 
education and refined tastes. Gram was not possessed of an aggressive char- 
acter to the degree necessary to successfully defend himself and his medical 
principles against the assaults of adversaries. He was a splendid exemplar 
of the then new means of cure, a faithful friend of those whom he brought 
within its influence, but the conflict with foes was compelled to be carried 
to successful issue under other and stronger generalship. This, however, 
was not done in open battle in the public prints, or by arguments put forth 
in public assemblages, but by quiet, effective endeavor and honest, rational 
methods of treatment of cases as they arose one after another until the truths 
of homoeopathy became rooted in the minds of a reasoning public and in 
due season found lodgment in the hearts of that element of the old school 
which was honestly open to conviction. Then, when the ranks of homoe- 
opathy had gained sufficient numerical strength to successfully combat the 
prejudices of the common enemy, a union of forces by the little handful of 
followers of Halinemann and Gram was afifected. and the New York Homoe- 
opathic Medical Society was organized in the city of that name in Septem- 
ber, 1834, just nine years after Gram brought from Europe the medical 
principles he had espoused and ever afterward advocated. Its membership 
included both physicians and laymen, but some years later another society 
succeeded and replaced the pioneer organization and enrolled as members 
only professional men — physicians, and almost every one a convert from the 
older school of practice. 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 255 

This was almost the beginning- of homoeeopathic society life in America, 
which, like the school itself in the country, was planted in the city of New 
York — a city to-day, as it was three score years ago, the chief center of 
homoeopathy on this side of the Atlantic. However, in the classification of 
subjects treated in the present chapter it is deemed prudent to give precedence 
to societies of a general character and follow with those whose operations are 
confined to narrower limits. 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 

For more than sixty years the American Institute of Homoeopathy has 
exerted a powerful influence as conservator of the policy of the homoeopathic 
medical profession, whether in the limitless field of practice, the school of 
medical instruction, or the individual welfare and conduct of its members in 
the usual walks of life. Somewhat at variance with the fair interpretation 
of the first preamble in the declaration of purposes and principles which 
served as the original foundation of the association, the primary object of 
the organization was not to defend the followers of Hahnemann and Gram 
against the shafts of the enemy, nor to retaliate in kind upon those who 
during the second quarter of the last century waged wordy warfare against 
the exemplars of homoeopathy — they neither needed nor asked united effort 
in their defense ; but the chief purpose of organization at that time was the 
protection of the profession and its materia medica against the misrepre- 
sentations of quacks, charletans and medical pirates, who without the war- 
rant of medical training sought to prey upon the credulous public at the 
expense of the new school and thus to bring its legitimate practitioners into 
the disrepute which was so exceedingly gratifying to its natural enemies. 
Side by side the homoeopath and the " regular " practiced half a century and 
more ago, and in the comparison of achieved results the former was not put 
to shame, while the latter frequently was made to see a new light, and to 
investigate, and thereby learned that which before he conceived not pi ; and 
being convinced of rational truth allied himself with the new forces and 
defended his principles with his work as a shield and buckler. In this way 
the homoeopathic ranks were almost whoUv recruited during the twenty years 
following Gram's advent into the medical life of New York and America. 

Previous to 1843 several local homoeopathic societies had been formed 
In various cities, and while each in its own way acomplished much good 
work there arose a demand for a general union of all the homoeopathic forces 
in a national organization for the more ample protection of legitimate homoe- 
opathy and the better promulgation of its doctrines. To this end the 
New York Homoeopathic Physicians' Society at its meeting in July, 1843, 
appointed a committee to invite the homoeopathic physicians of the United 
States to meet in convention in the city of New York on the next anniversary 
of Hahnemann's birth — April 10, 1844 — and effect a permanent organization. 
The response was general ; the convention was held at the appointed time 
and place, and after a temporary- organization, and a declaration of prin- 
ciples, the first session of tiie American Institute of Homoeopathy was held. 
The temporary officers were Dr. Constantine Hering. president ; Dr. Josiah F. 
Flagg of Boston and Dr. William Channing of New York, vice-presidents, 
and Dr. Henry G. Dunnel of New York, secretary. 

The declaration of purposes of the institute was set forth in the fol- 
lowing preamble and resolutions adopted at that time : 



:^56 HISTORY OF HOAICEOPATHY 

Whereas, a majority of the allopathic physicians continue to deride and oppose the 
contributions to the materia medica that have been made by the homceopathic school, 
and, 'vhereas the state of the materia medica in both schools is such as to imperatively 
demand a more satisfactory arrangement and greater purity of observation, which can 
only be obtained by ?f.ssociate action on the part of those who seek diligently for the 
truth alone; and inasmuch as the state of the public information respecting the principles 
and practice of homoeopathy is so defective as to make it easy for mere pretenders to- 
this very diffici:it branch of the healing art, to acquire credit as proficients in the same; 
therefore 

Resolved, That it is deemed expedient to establish a society, entitled the "Americarr 
Institute of Homoeopath)'," and the following are declared to be the essential purposes- 
of said society : 

First. The reformation and augmentation of the materia medica. 

Second. The restraining of physicians from pretending to be competent to practice 
homceopathy, who have not studied it in a careful and skillful manner. 

Dr. John F. Gray was elected general secretary, and Dr. Stephen R. 
Kirby, treasurer. The first session of the institute was held after the 
adjournment of the convention on the evening of April lo, at the call of 
the general secretary elect. Dr. Flagg was chosen chairman. 

At this meeting six boards of censors were also elected whose duty was 
to examine applicants for membership. The gentlemen constituting these 
boards were : 

First Board.— Drs. Albus Rea, Eliphalet Clark, John Merrill, all of Portland, Maine, 
Second Board. — Drs. Josiah F. Flagg, Charles Wild, Luther Clark, F. Clark, Wm, 
Wesselhoeft, all of Boston, Mass. 

Third Board. — Drs. John F. Gray, Wm. Channing, Alonzo S. Ball, Abram D. 
Wilson, Henry G. Dunnell, all of New York city. 

Fourth Board.- — For Western New York, Drs. John Taylor, of Rochester; H. Hull 
Cator. of Syracuse; Williams, of Geneva; Horatio Robinson, of Auburn; and Erastus- 
Humphreys, of Utica. 

Fifth Board. — Drs. Constantine Hering, James Kitchen, Qiarles Neidhard, Jacob 
Jeanes and Jonas Green, of Philadelphia. 

Sixth Board. — Drs. .\. F. Haynel, of New York: F. R. McManus, of Baltimore; and 
Dr. J. R. Piper, of Washington, D. C. 

Dr. A. G. Hull was elected provisional secretary. 

The second session was held at New York, May 14, 1845. Officers 
elected : Dr. Jacob Jeanes of Philadelphia, president ; Dr. Edward Bayard 
of New York, general secretary ; Dr. R. A. Snow of New York, provisional 
secretary ; Dr. Stephen R. Kirby of New York, treasurer. A committee was 
appointed to draft a constitution. 

At the third session, held in I'hiladelphia. Mav 13-14, 1846. a constitu- 
tion and by-laws were adopted. There were 144 members on the rolls. A 
seal was presented and accepted. A bureau of materia medica, or "cen- 
tral bureau," previously appointed, made a report of certain provings of. 
medicines under its direction, which report was promulgated in 1846 under 
the title, " Transactions of the American Institute of Homoeopathy." Eight 
pages were devoted to the minutes of the sessions of 1844 and 1845. and 
the remainder to valuable provings. This book was re-issued in 1853 under 
the title, " Materia ]\Iedica of American Provings." with a repertory by 
W. P. Esrey. It was decided to form certain local societies on the basis of 
the instittite, each societv to appoint r. Imreau of materia medica and to 
report to the institute. Several such were formed — the Philadelphia, Albany 
(New York), New Jersey and Cincinnati branches, and the ^^lassachusetts 



A FEW OF OUR SANITARIUM AND HOSPITAL MEN. 




F. W. Seward, M. D. Goshev N V „ .. 

; ° " • ' • , • ^ , Robert Walter, M. D., Walter's Park, Pa. 

A T GivPx-« M n c ^^''■^^'' • L'^''^°'-^'' ^^"- A. B. Spi.vnev. M. D., Reed City, Mich. 

A. J. GrvENS, M.D., STAMFORD, CoN.v. C. E. SAv^^ER, M. D., Marion-. Ohio. John T. Greenleaf. M. D., Owego N V 

J S BaRV.RD M n \ T"^"- I- ""•• ^""^^°- ''■'■■ J- ■'■ LHNFESTEV, M. D.. MT. CLEMENS. MiCH. 

J. S. Bar.sard, M. D., Baltimore, Md. O S R^s^^^. M. D., I.vd.anapolis Ivd 



^''''^ HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

fraternity and branch. Some of these local bodies published their own pro-. 
ceedings, with the constitution of the institute. 

The fourth session was held in Boston, June 9, 1847. The membership 
at this time represented thirteen states. The proceedings of the year 1847 
were published in a pamphlet of sixteen pages. The membership and influ- 
ence of the society continued to increase yearly. Meetings were subsequently 
held as follows:' ist and 2nd sessions. New York; 3rd, Philadelphia; 4th, 
Boston; 5th, New York; 6th, Philadelphia; 7th, Albany; 8th, New Haven; 
9th, Baltimore; loth, Cleveland; nth, Albany; 12th, Buffalo; 13th, Wash- 
ington; 14th, Chicago; 15th, Brooklyn; i6th, Boston; 17th, Philadelphia, 
held in June, i860. 

The next session, the eighteenth, was appointed to be held in Cincin- 
nati in June, 1861, but owing to the unsettled state of the country it was 
deferred for four years, and was finally assembled in that city, June, 1865. 
A notable action at this session was the establishment of bureaus of materia 
medica, pharmacy, clinical medicine, zymoses, surgery, and of homcEopathic 
organization, registration and statistics, each bureau being composed of five 
members appointed by the president. These bureaus have been continued, 
and are of great value, especially that of registration and statistics. Through 
this medium there has been furnished tabulated reports from the homoe- 
opathic societies, hospitals, homes, dispensaries, journals, etc., of the United 
States. The reports form a very creditable history of homoeopathic institu- 
tions. A bureau of obstetrics was added at the next meeting, and still later 
bureaus of physiology, anatomy, hygiene, psychological medicine, ophthal- 
mology and otology, microscopy, gynaecology, paedology, sanitary science 
and climatology. 

At the m.eeting of 1872 in Washington it was resolved that members of 
1848 and previous be considered seniors and " that their ranks be augmented 
annually by all those who have maintained twenty-five successive years of 
membership ; and that they be earnestly requested to attend all meetings 
of the institute and deliberate in their conferences any advisory measures 
for its continued success." The senate of the seniors has filled an important 
part in the proceedings of the institute. It has been its court of appeal in 
all doubtful questions of ethics, and its members are exempted from dues. 

As early as 1847 the subject of medical education claimed the interest of 
the institute. At that time a committee of five was appointed to inquire if 
an improvement could be made in the method of medical education. In 
1869 a joint committee consisting of one member from each homoeopathic 
college was appointed to devise more thorough plans for medical education. 
An intercollegiate committee was appointed in 1874, and reported in 1875, 
giving a schedule of a college course, studies, text-books, etc. At the meeting 
in 1877 this committee reported in favor of a three years' graded course, 
which should be regarded as the minimum time for even the rudiments of a 
medical education, and that practical teaching should receive more earnest 
attention. In 1888 the committee on medical education, after emphasizing 
the need of a good preliminary education, presented the following: "Re- 
solved, That from and after the year 1890 the American Institute of Homoe- 
opathy will not recognize the diploma of any college requiring less than 
four years., of study, and attendance upon three annual courses of lectures 
of at least six months each." This was endorsed by the intercollegiate com- 
mittee. It was finally decided to make the three years' course obligatory 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 259 

after 1891. In 1894 the collegiate committee reported that all the nineteen 
homoeopathic collges had adopted the four years' course of study with three 
full six months' courses of lectures, and then presented a resolution to the 
effect that beginning with the session of 1895-96 all colleges recognized by 
this collegiate committee require attendance upon four courses of lectures 
of not less than six months each, in separate years. This resolution was 
adopted by and became a recognized regulation of the institute. 

An important bureau is that of organization, registration and statistics. 
At the meeting of 1865, when certain bureaus were established and the instir 
tute was reorganized, this bureau of statistics was determined upon " to 
keep a record of the names of all homceopathists in the United States, together 
with lists of medical colleges, societies, hospitals," etc. This has since been 
done and the series of annual reports form a very good statistical history 
of the growth of the institutions of homoeopathy. Since 1882 the names of 
the graduates of each college have been published yearly. Since 1875 the 
institute has given attention to securing proper legislative enactments in the 
different states to secure the homceopathic school protection in practice. 

In the centennial year, 1876, a meeting was held in Philadelphia called 
the " World's Convention of Homoeopathic Physicians." It was a gathering 
of physicians from all over the world, who held sessions under the auspices 
of the American institute for several days. Historical reports were made 
from different countries and papers were offered. The records of this con- 
vention were published in two large volumes, one containing the medical 
papers, the other containing a history of the progress of homoeopathy, both 
in foreign countries and in the diiiferent states of the Union. These inter- 
national meetings have since been held at intervals of five years in different 
countries, two having been held in America. Since 1865 meetings have been 
held vearly in different cities, each meeting place being decided upon at the 
previous session. They continue for several days and consist of medical ses- 
sions. whi!e social functions, banquets and other entertainments to the 
members are provided by the physicians of the city in which the institute 
may at the time be assembled. 

In June, 1900, a magnificent monument to the memory of Hahnemann 
was unveiled with formal ceremony in the city erf Washington, D. C, under 
the auspices of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. As early as 1892 a 
committee was appointed to take measures for raising the requisite funds 
for this purpose, and eight years later, on the occasion of the annual meeting 
of the institute in the capital city of America, the unveiling and dedicatory 
ceremonv took place. The homoeopathic profession was fully represented on 
this memorable occasion, and the acceptance of its splendid gift by the 
appointed representatives of the government was regarded not only a 
deserved recognition of the worth of the founder of the homoeopathic school, 
but also a recognition of the wide influence and usefulness of the homoe- 
opathic profession in the world of medicine. 

One of the most commendable actions of the institute in the interest of 
its members and the profession at large is that which had its beginning in 
1868. and the object of which has been to secure an authorized and approved 
pharmacopoeia of established standard medical strength and uniformity in 
homceopathic medicines. To the accomplishment of this end a committee 
of the institute began its difficult labors in 1888, and in 1897 there was pub- 
lished in Boston the " Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the American Insti- 



OfiQcers of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 1902. 




CHARLES GATCHELi. M. D.. See. Thos. franklin smith. M. V.,Treas. 

James C. Wood. M. D., Pres. 
E. B. HOOKER. M. D.. Firsi Vue Pres. E. Z. Cole. M. D.. Second Vi" P^es 

H. C. ALDRiCH, M. D.. Reg^strar. A. C. Cowperthwaite. M. D., Censor. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



2G1 



tute of Homoeopathy." The importance of the work is not easily estimated, 
and its usefulness is equally appreciated by the entire profession, young and 
old, as well as by all pharmacists and compounders. The " Provers' Col- 
lege," established in 1904, is an important auxiliary to the greater work of 
the institute and of much value to the profession in general. A fund is 
maintained for its purposes in proving the action of substances on healthy 
organism. Transactions have been published annually since 1846. From a 
small pamphlet of a few pages the annual report of the proceedings has 
increased until it requires a large volume of one thousand or more pages. 
In the earlier years of the institute all its medical reports were presented in 
general session, but in later years they have been presented in special session, 
according to the subject, and the bureaus have in great measure become sub- 
societies although under the supervision of the general body. 

This society meets annually in June. Membership in 1903, 2100. It 
may be mentioned that this is the oldest national medical societ}' in the 
United States. In 1900-02 Dr. Bushrod W. James published a history of 
the institute, which was in part printed in the " Homoeopathic Recorder," 
and later in book form. 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY OFFICIARY. 

Sessions of the American Institute of Homoeopathy have been held as 
follows : 



1844 

1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1S51 
1852 
T853 
1854 
1855 
18^6 
1857 
1858 
1859 
i860 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
187 1 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 



April 10, 

May 14, 

May 13, 

June 9, 

June 14, 

June 13, 

June 12, 

June II, 

May 19, 

June 8, 

June 7, 

June 6, 

June 4. 

June 3, 

June 4, 

June I. 

June 2, 

June 7, 

June 6. 

June 4, 

June 2, 

June 8, 

June 7, 

June 6, 

June 21, 

June 3, 

June 9, 

June 16, 

June 26, 



New York. 

New York. 

Philadelphia. 

Boston. 

New York. 

Philadelphia. 

Albany. 

New Haven. 

Baltimore. 

Cleveland. 

Albany. 

Buffalo. 

Washington. 

Chicago. 

Brooklyn. 

Boston. 

Philadelphia. 

Cincinnati. 

Pittsburgh. 

New York. 

St. Louis. 

Boston. 

Chicago. 

Philadelphia. 

Washington. 

Cleveland. 

Niagara Falls. 

Put-in-Bay, Ohio. 

Philadelphia. 



1877 


June 


26, 


Lake Chautauqua. 


1878 


June 


18, 


Put-in-Bay, Ohio. 


1879 


June 


17, 


Lake George. 


1880 


June 


18, 


Milwaukee. 


I88I 


June 


14, 


Brighton Beach. 


1882 


June 


13, 


Indianapolis. 


1883 


June 


19, 


Niagara Falls. 


1884 


June 


17, 


Deer Park, Md. 


1885 


June 


2, 


St. Louis. 


1886 


June 


28, 


Saratoga Springs. 


1887 


June 


^7, 


Saratoga Springs. 


1888 


June 


29, 


Niagara Falls. 


1889 


June 


24. 


Minnetonka Beach 


1890 


June 


16. 


Waukesha. 


I89I 


June 


16, 


Atlantic' City. 


1892 


June 


12, 


Washington. 


1893 


:May 


29 


Chicago. 


1894 


June 


14, 


Denver. 


1895 


June 


20, 


Newport. 


1896 


June 


17, 


Detroit. 


1897 


June 


24, 


Buffalo. 


1898 


June 


23, 


Omaha. 


1899 


June 


20, 


Atlantic City. 


1900 


June 


19. 


Washington. 


I90I 


June 


18. 


Richfield Springs. 


1902 


June 


17, 


Cleveland. 


1903 


June 


22. 


Boston. 


1904 


June 


20, 


Niagara Falls. 



Chairmen. — Josiah Foster Flagg, Boston, 1844; Jacob Jeanes, Phila- 
delphia, 1845; Stephen Reynolds Kirby, New York, 1846; Felix R. Mc- 
Manus, Baltimore, 1847; Walter Williamson, Philadelphia, 1848-1849; Ed- 
ward Bayard, New York, 1850; William E. Payne, Bath, ]Me., 1851 ; Elial 



262 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

Todd Foote, New Haven, 1852; Richard Gardiner, Philadelphia, 1853; Lyman 
Clary, Syracuse, 1854; Charles H. Skiff, Xew Haven, 1855; George Wash- 
ington Swazey, Springfield, Mass., 1856; Jabez Philander Dake, Pittsburgh, 
1857; David Sheppard Smith, Chicago, 1858; Phineas Parkhurst Wells, 
Brooklyn, 1859; Edwin C. Witherill, Cincinnati, i860. 

Presidents. — Samuel Smith Guy, Brooklyn, 1865; James S. Douglas, 
Milwaukee, 1866; William Tod Helmuth, St. Louis, 1867; Henry Delavan 
Paine, Xew York, 1868; Reuben Ludlam, Chicago. 1869; David Thayer, 
Boston, 1870; David Herrick Beckwith. Cleveland, 1871 ; Israel Tisclale 
Talbot, Boston, 1872 ; Alvan Edmond Small, Chicago^. 1873 ; John Juvenal 
Youlin. Jersey City, 1874; William Henry Holcombe, X^ew Orleans, 1875; 
Carroll Dunham, Irvington-on-Hudson, 1876; Edward C. Franklin, St. Louis, 
1877; John C. Burgher, Pittsburgh, 1878; Conrad Wesselhoeft, Boston, 1879; 
Thomas P. Wilson, Ann Arbor, 1880; John William Dowling, New York, 
1881 ; William Lamottine Breyfogle, Louisville. 1882 ; Bushrod Washington 
James, Pkiladelphia, 1883; John Chapin Sanders, Cleveland, 1884; Timothy 
Field Allen, X'ew York, 1885 ; Orange Scott Runnells, Indianapolis, 1886 ; 
Francis Hodgson Orme, Atlanta, 1887; Allen Corson Cowperthwaite, Iowa 
City, 1888 : Seldon Haines Talcott, ]\Iiddletown, 1889 ; Alfred Isaac Sawyer, 
Monroe, Mich., 1890; (acting) Jirah D. Buck, Cincinnati; Theo. Y. Kinne, 
Paterson, 1891-1892; James Henderson McClelland, Pittsburgh, 1893-1894; 
Charles Edmund Fisher, Chicago, 1895 ; Pemberton Dudley, Philadelphia, 
1896; James Bayard Gregg Custis, Washington, 1897; Andrew R. Wright, 
Buft'alo, 1898; Benjamin F. Bailey, Lincoln, X^eb., 1899; Charles E. Walton, 
Cincinnati, 1900; Arthur B. X^orton, X^ew York, 1901 : James Craven Wood, 
Ann Arbor, 1902 ; Joseph P. Cobb, Chicago, 1903 ; John Preston Sutherland, 
Boston, 1904. 

Vice-Presidents. — Israel Tisdale Talbot, Boston, 1865 ; Seth R. Beck- 
with, Cleveland, 1866; Phineas Parkhurst Wells, Brooklyn, 1867; Thomas 
Griswold Comstock, St. Louis, 1868 ; David Herrick Beckwith, Cleveland, 
1869; John Juvenal Youlin, Jersey City, 1870; John Taylor Temple. St. 
Louis, 1871 ; John Juvenal Youlin, jersey City, 1872: John C. Burgher, Pitts- 
burgh, 1873; N'athaniel Schneider, Cleveland, 1874; Levi E. Ober, La Crosse, 
Wis.,. 1875 ; Edward C. Franklin, St. Louis, 1876 ; Thomas P. Wilson. Cin- 
cinnati, 1877; John Chapin Sanders, Cleveland. 1878; X'^icholas Francis 
Cooke, Chicago, 1879; George Alexander Hall, Chicago, 1880; A\'illiam 
Lamottine Breyfogle, Louisville, 1881 ; Bushrod ^^^ashington James, Phila- 
delphia, 1882; Orange Scott Runnells, Indianapolis, 1883; Timothy Field 
Allen, New York, 1884; Allen Corson Cowperthwaite, Iowa City, 1885; 
Alfred Isaac Sawver, Monroe. Mich.. 1886 ; Andrew R. Wright, Buffalo, 
1887; Nathaniel Schneider, Qeveland, 1888: Theo. Y. Kinne. Paterson, 1889; 
Chester G. Higbee. St. Paul. 1890; James Henderson ]^IcClelland. Pittsburgh. 
1891 ; James Henderson ^McClelland, Pittsburgh, 1892. 

First Vice-Presidents. — Charles Edmund Fisher, Chicago, 1803-1894; 
James Bayard Gregg Custis, Washington, 1895; Daniel A. MacLachlan, 
Detroit, 1896; Charles E. Walton, Cincinnati, 1897; William E. Green, Little 
Rock, Ark., 1898; Arthur B. Norton, New York. 1899; Joseph P. Cobb, 
Chicago, 1900 ; George Royal, Des Moines, 1901 ; Edward Beecher Hooker, 
Hartford, 1902 ; Hamilton Fisk Biggar, Cleveland, 1903 ; Henry E. Beebe, 
Sydney, O., 1904. 

Second Vice-Presidents. — [Millie J. Chapman, Pittsburgii, 1893-1894; 



LOCAL COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE. 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



W v^ i^^^K WT^. 


I 


't^TM 


1 9f'' I 


4 






)( 


" ff^i 


P»^^ 




V^^^ 






^^^BBK|^^.f^~-M ^,,1 ' 


^^^■■•1^ 


V- 


^^'^-..^.^i^HiP'''^^^;,...,-^^ 


k^v 




■1^9 


^ ^ff^^^^^^'^ ?^d^B 




^iS 


■HIbI^iIIi^^ 




g||||||g||g2Q|||| 



Dr. \V. M. Stearns, Dr. S. H. .\uraxd. Dr. C. E. Kahlke, Dr.- A. L. Blackwood. 

Dr. M. B. Blouke, Dr. H. V. Halbert, 

Dr. T. E. Costaix, Dr. B. .\. McBuRXEv, Dr. C. G. Fellows, Dr. C. G. Swax, 

Dr. J.. P.- Cobb, Cliairaian. 

Dr. L. .4. Shultz, Dr. \V. S. H\rvev. Dr. M. M. Thompsox. Dr. J. H. .\llen. 

Dr.. E. C. Sweet. Dr. Fraxk Wieland, 

Dr-. a. E. Thomas, Dr. G. E. Rich.^.rds, Dr. R. V. Morris, Dr. S. T. Mitchell. 



264 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

Eugene F. Storke, Denver, 1895; John Clark Budlong, Providence, 1896; 
Christopher C. Miller, Detroit, 1897; Charles Gatchell, Chicago, 1898; Sarah 
J. Millsop, Bowling Green, Ky., 1899; Nancy Tiffany WiUiams, Augusta, 
Me., 1900; Florence N. Ward, San Francisco, 1901 ; Edward Zina Cole, 
Baltimore, 1902 ; M. Belle Brown, New York, 1903 ; Annie E. Spencer, 
Batavia, 111., 1904. 

General Secretaries. — John Franklin Gray, New York, 1844; Edward 
Bayard, New York, 1845- 1848; Alvan Edmond Small, Philadelphia, 1849- 
1850; George Washington Swazey, Springfield, Mass., 1851 ; William A. 
Gardiner, Philadelphia, 1852-1853; Samuel Smith Guy, Brooklyn, 1854 
Jabez Philander Dake, Pittsburgh, 1855; Felix R. McManus, Baltimore, 1856 
David Sheppard Smith, Qiicago, 1857; William E. Payne, Bath, Me., 1858 
Henry Delavan Paine, Albany, 1859; Jacob Beakley, New York, i860; Gaylor 
D. Beebe, Chicago, 1865; Israel Tisdale Talbot, Boston, 1866-1869; Reuben 
Ludlam, Chicago, 1 870-1 871 ; Robert John McClatchey, Philadelphia, 1872- 
1879; John C. Burgher, Pittsburgh, 1880- 1887; Pemberton Dudley, Phila- 
delphia, 1888-1894; Eugene H. Porter, New York, 1895-1901 ; Charles 
Gatchell, Chicago, 1902-1904. 

Provisional Secretaries. — Amos Gerald Hull, New York, 1844; Ralph 
Albert Snow, New York; 1845-1848; William P. Esrey, Springfield, Mass., 
1849; George Washington Swazey, Springfield, Mass., 1850; Charles Cheney 
Foote, New Haven, 185 1 ; Samuel Smith Guy, Brooklvn, 1852; John Redman 
Coxe, Jr., Philadelphia, 1854; Alfred H. Beers, Buffalo, 1855; J. D. Middle- 
ton, Baltimore, 1856; George Elias Shipman, Chicago, 1857; Edward T. 
Richardson, Brookl}^, 1858; Israel Tisdale Talbot, Boston, 1859; Henry 
Mitchell Smith, New York, i860; William Tod Helmuth, St. Louis, 1865; 
Henry Bradford Clarke, New Bedford, 1866; Horace Marshfield Paine, 
Albany, 1867; Hiram Luce Chase, Cambridge, 1868; Timothy Field Allen, 
New York, 1869; Thomas Cation Duncan, Chicago, 1870-1871 ; Bushrod 
AVashington James, Philadelphia, 1872- 1875 ; Thomas Cation Duncan, Chi- 
cago, 1876; Joseph Colburn Guernsey, Philadelphia, 1877-1879; James Hen- 
derson McClelland, Pittsburgh, 1880-1881 ; Joseph Colburn Guernsey, Phila- 
delphia, 1882; Thomas Morris Strong, Ward's Island, N. Y., 1883-1894. 

Recording Secretaries. — Frank Kraft, Cleveland, 1895-1899; Wilson A. 
Smith, Morgan Park, 111., 1900-1902; J. Richey Horner, Cleveland, 1903. 

Treasurers. — Stephen Reynolds Kirby. New York, 1844-1853; Alonzo 
Spafford Ball, New York, 1854; Samuel Smith Guy, Brooklyn, 1855-1858; 
Charles H. Skiff, New Haven, 1859-1860; David Sheppard Smith, Chicago, 
1865; Edwin Merritt Kellogg, New York, 1866-1899; Thomas Franklin 
Smith, New York, 1900- 1904. 

Assistant Treasurers. — Thomas Franklin Smith, New York, 1891 ; 
I 893- I 899. 

Registrars. — J. Richey Horner, Cleveland, 1904. 

INTERNATIONAL HAHNEMANNIAN ASSOCIATION. 

This association was organized in 1880 by certain members of the Ameri- 
can institute who considered that the opinions and practice of homoeopathy 
maintained by that body were not sufficiently in accord with the best teach- 
ings of Hahnemann. Consequently, at the session of the institute in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, in June, 1873, a meeting of the Hahnemannian homoeopaths was 
held in a lecture room of the homoeopathic college there, but no decisive 



HISTORY OF IlOMQ'.Oi'ATHY 265 

action was then taken, and nothing was clone until at a meeting of the insti- 
tute in Milwaukee in June, 1880. At that time a meeting of the Uahne- 
mannians was convened at the court house on June 16. Dr. Phineas P. Wells 
was elected chairman, and Dr. Henry C. Allen secretary. Dr. Clement Pear- 
son presented the following resolutions : 

Whereas, We believe the Organon of the Healing Art as promulgated by Samuel 
Hahnemann to be the only reliable guide in therapeutics ; and 

Whereas, This clearly teaches that homoeopathy consists in the law of the similars, 
the single remedy, and the minimum dose of the dynamized drug, not singly but col- 
lectively; and 

VVhereas, a number of professed hom.oeopathists, not only repudiate these tenets, but 
violate them in practice ; and 

Whereas, An effort has been made on the part of such physicians to unite the 
homoeopathic with the allopathic school, therefore 

Resolved. That the time has fully come when legitimate Hahnemannian homoe- 
opathy should free itself from all such innovations, hurtful alike to its reputation as a 
science and fatal to the best interests of the sick. 

Resolved, That the mixing or alternating of two or more medicines displays on the 
part of the prescriber a lack of skill, besides being a species of empiricism inexcusable 
and non-homoeopathic. 

Resolved, That in non-surgical cases we regard medicated topical applications, and 
mechanical appliances as relics of the defunct customs of past ages, unscientific, non- 
homoeopathic and often injurious. 

Resolved, That as " the best dose of medicine is ever the smallest," we cannot recog- 
nize as homoeopathic the treatment of any physician who administers medicines in such 
quantities as to suppress symptoms by their primary or toxical action. 

Resolved, That we have no sympathy in common with those physicians who would 
engraft on homoeopathy the crude ideas and doses of the eclectics, and we will not hold 
ourselves responsible for their " fatal errors " and failures in practice. 

Resolved, That as some self-styled homoeopathists have taken occasion to traduce 
Hahnemann as a " fanatic," " dishonest," and " visionary," and his teachings as " not 
being the standard of the homoeopathy of to-day," we denounce all such as being traitors 
to our cause, and recreant to its best interests. 

The next meeting was held at the Newhall house, June 17, Dr. Adolph 
Lippe, president. The resolutions above quoted were adopted, and the fol- 
lowing physicians signed a constitution and became members : Adolph 
Lippe, George F. Foote, Clement Pearson, Henry C. Allen, O. P. Baer, 
Phineas P. Wells, Edward W. Berridge, W. H. Leonard. T. F. Pomerov, 
J. P. Mills, E. Rushmore, T. F. Smith, E. A. Ballard, T. P. Wilson, T. W. 
Poulson. E. Cranch. First officers : Dr. P. P. Wells of Brooklyn, president : 
Dr. T. F. Pomeroy of New York city, vice-president ; Dr. Henry C. Allen of 
Ann Arbor, secretary and treasurer; Dr. Edward W. Berridge of London, 
England, corresponding secretary. 

This society always has stood for the principles of pure homoeopathv as 
declared in the resolutions presented at the first meeting. It has held meet- 
ings annually in June in different cities. It has a seal of which each member 
has a duplicate and which he is permitted to use in his personal correspond- 
ence. No person not a member is allowed to present a paper at the meet- 
ings. It publishes annual transactions. 

During the period of its existence the International Hahnemannian Asso- 
ciation has accomplished much good work in the homoeopathic profession, and 
its strict adherence to the equallv strict svstem propounded bv the founder 
has exercised a restraining influence on its own members and also checked 
radical departures from the methods of cure which are not regarded thor- 
oughlv Hahnemannian. In this respect the members of the association are 



266 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

essentially orthodox, yet it does not follow that they are narrow in their 
views or in any sense non-professional in methods ; the fact is quite to the 
contrary. 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ORIFICIAL SURGEONS. 



This association w^as organized in 1889, and under its regulations holds 
annual meetings in Qiicago. Its members number about 330, comprising 
physicians who believe in orificial surgery. Meetings are held in September, 
and the proceedings are regularly published. 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHIC PHARMACY. 

I 

This society w-as organized in Philadelphia, June 24, 1868, and held its 
final meeting in that city, June 9, 1873. Its sessions were held in connection 
with those of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, of which it was an 
ofifshoot and to which it w^as allied. The first officers were Dr. William 
Radde. president; Dr. Henry M. Smith, secretary; Dr. Francis E. Boericke, 
treasurer. 

AMERICAN HOMOEOPATHIC OPHTHALMOLOGICAL AND OTOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

The bureau of ophthalmology and otology of the American institute was 
established in 1871, and in 1877 it w^as deemed best by those immediately 
interested to organize themselves into a separate society in order to increase 
the sphere of usefulness and work of their organization. This was done at 
the institute meeting at Chautauqua Lake, June 28, 1877, but no incorporation 
was ever effected. The first officers were : Dr. T. P. Wilson, president ; Dr. 
W. H. Woodyat, vice-president ; Dr. A. K. Hill, secretary ; Drs. H. C. Hough- 
ton, W. A. Phillips and J. A. Campbell, censors. After the ninth session 
in connection with that of the institute, no further meeting was held until 
1896, when six of the old members revived and reorganized the society. At 
that time the present name was suggested and adopted : " American Homoe- 
apathic Ophthalmological, Otological and Laryngological Society." The 
meetings, now as before, are held in connection with the sessions of the insti- 
tute; present membership, about 175. The "Homoeopathic Eye, Ear and 
Throat Journal " is the official organ of the society. 

AMERICAN OBSTETRICAL SOCIETY. 

This society was organized in the office of Dr. G. W. Winterburn, New 
York city, October 28, 1885 ; incorporated in 1885 ; first officers : Dr. G. W. 
Winterburn of New York, president; Drs. H. Minton of Brooklyn, Sheldon 
Leavitt of Chicago, and Walter Wesselhoeft of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
vice-presidents; Dr. Everett Hasbrouck of Brooklyn, secretary; Dr. C. M. 
Conant of Orange, New Jersey, treasurer. Meetings were held in December, 
February and April, in New York ; and in June with the American Institute 
of Homoeopathy. Transactions were published in 1885. Membership, 119. 
No meetings have been held since 1894. 

AMERICAN PAEDOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

This society was organized in Chicago, June 14, and in Milwaukee, 
June 16, 1880. First officers: Dr. T. C. Duncan of Chicago, president; Dr. 
William Owens of Cincinnati, vice-president; Dr. Edward Cranch of Erie, 
Pa., secretary and treasurer; Drs. E. A. Ballard of Chicago, George F. Foote 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 267 

of Stamford, Conn., C. W. Earle, H. M. Hobart and Juliet A. Caldwell, of 
Chicago, censors. ^Meetings were held annually with the American insti- 
tute, but tlie society has not been called together for several years. 

AMERICAX HOMOEOPATHIC EDITORIAL ASSOCIATION. 

This association was organized in Boston. June lo, 1869, in the office of 
Dr. I. T. Talbot. Officers : Dr. Carroll Dunham, president ; Dr. R. J. 
McClatchey, secretary. Annual meetings were held with the institute for 
three years ; the association then became decadent, was afterward revived, 
but finally lost its entity. No meetings have been held for several years. 

AMERICAN HEALTH RESORT ASSOCIATION. 

This association was organized in 1891 in Chicago. Officers : Dr. T. C. 
Duncan of Chicago, president : Drs. J. F. Danter of Toronto and W. P. 
Roberts of Evansville, Ind., vice-presidents ; Dr. T. S. Hoyne of Chicago, 
treasurer ; Dr. W. A. Chatterton of Chicago, secretary. The seat of opera- 
tion is in Chicago. The object is the collection of health statistics, 

HOMOEOPATHIC INTERCOLLEGIATE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

This association was organized in Indianapolis at the time of the meeting 
of the American institute, May 22, 1878. Officers: Dr. E. C. Franklin of 
St. Louis, president ; Dr. C. H. Mlas of Chicago, secretary. Not incorpo- 
rated. I\Ieets annually with the institute. Its object is to regulate medical 
education and to advance the mutual interests of the homoeopathic colleges. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF MEMBERS OF COMMITTEES ON MEDICAL LEGISLATION. 

This association was organized in Atlantic City at the meeting of the 
American Institute of Homceopathy and the International Congress, in June, 
1891. First officers: Dr. Alexander Donald of St. Paul, president; Dr. 
H. M. Paine of Albany, X. Y., secretary. Meets in conjunction with the 
American institute. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SURGEONS OF THE HOMOEOPATHIC SCHOOL. 

This association was organized at the meeting of the Xew York State 
Homoeopathic Aledical Society in Buffalo, September 5, 1891. Dr. William 
Tod Helmuth, chairman; Dr. J. M. Lee, secretary'. Drs. M. O. Terry, J. M. 
Terry and H. C. Frost were chosen to draft by-laws. Drs. Helmuth, Biggar 
and Snyder were elected advisory committee and instructed to report to the 
American institute at Washington in June, 1892. 

NATIONAL SOCIETY OF ELECTRO-THERAPEUTISTS. 

This society was organized in the office of William Harvey King, Xew 
York city, October 6, 1892. At this meeting a constitution was adopted 
and the following officers chosen : Dr. William H. King of New York city, 
president; Drs. E. Stillman Bailey of Chicago and Clarence Bartlett of Phila- 
delphia, vice-presidents ; Dr. F. E. Caldwell of Brooklyn, secretary ; Dr. F. A. 
Gardiner of Washington, D. C, treasurer. Includes physicians interested 
in electro-therapeutics. Existent. 



26S HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY. 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF MEDICAL EXAMINERS. 

This association was organized in Washington. June, 1892. Not incor- 
porated. ^Meets with the American institute. Membership in 1903, 100. 
Composed of members of the homoeopathic examining boards of each state. 
Existent. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SUPERINTENDENTS AND MANAGERS OF HOMOE- 
OPATHIC HOSPITALS FOR THE INSANE. 

This association was organized in Denver, June, 1894, and meets in con- 
junction with the American institute. Membership, 100. 

INTERNATIONAL WOMEN PROVERS' UNION. 

This society was organized at the World's Congress of Homoeopathy 
held in Atlantic City in 1893. First officers : Dr. Martha A. Canfield of 
Cleveland, president; Dr. Millie J. Chapman of Pittsburgh, Pa., vice-presi- 
dent ; Dr. S. Penfield of Danbury, Conn., secretary. Each state was to have its 
own vice-president to superintend the w'ork in that state. 

SURGICAL AND GYNAECOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF 

HOMOEOPATHY. 

This association was organized during the convention of the American 
institute in Atlantic City in 1899. At that time the surgeons and gynaecolo- 
gists belonging to the institute held an informal meeting in the Turkish room 
on the steel pier on the morning of June 23, 1899. Dr. W. B. Van Lennep 
of Philadelphia was elected chairman ; Dr. George W. Roberts of New York- 
city, secretary ; Dr. W. L. Hartman of Syracuse, treasurer. This society 
admits members of the institute by a majority vote. Meets at the same time 
and place as the institute. Membership in 1903, 114. Transactions were 
published in 1900. 

INTERSTATE HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 

This association was organized in 1894. Annual meeting held at Bing- 
hamton, N. Y.. in June; semi-annual meeting at Scranton, Pa., in Novem- 
ber. Membership, 60. Existent. 

MISSOURI VALLEY HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 

This association was organized as the North Missouri Valley Homoeo- 
pathic Medical Society, in Hamburg, Iowa, June i, 1876, but was not incor- 
porated. First officers: Dr. A. S. Kridler of Red Oak, Iowa, president; 
Drs. J. F. Froin of Adel, Iowa, and T. H. Bragg of Hamburg, Iowa, vice- 
presidents ; Dr. C. R. Henderson of \\'atson. Mo., secretary ; Dr. A. W. 
Smith of Nebraska City, Neb., treasurer; Drs. A. C. Cowperthwaite and 
W. D. Stillman of Council Blufts, Iowa, and Dr. Westover of St. Joseph, 
Mo., censors. The society was discontinued in 1879 and was reorganized in 
Omaha, November 21, 1894, as the Missouri Valley Homoeopathic Medical 
Association. Officers: Dr. D. A. Foote of Omaha, president; Dr. P. F. H. 
Hudson of Kansas City, vice-president ; Dr. W. H. Humphrey of Platts- 
mouth, secretary; Dr. C. F. ]\Iinningcr of Topeka, treasurer; Drs. A. H. 
Dorris of Lincoln, H. P. Holmes of Omaha and P. I. [Montgomery of Coun- 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 269 

cil Bluffs, censors. Meetings are held annually in September or October, 
alternately in St. Louis and Kansas City. Membership in 1902, 303. No 
transactions. 

PUGET SOUND MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 

This association was organized by the homoeopathic physicians of west- 
ern Washington, May 19, 1893, i" Seattle. Officers: Dr. C. A. Walsh of 
Tacoma, president; Dr. C. E. Baldwin of Port Townsend, vice-president; 
Dr. F. B. Kellogg of Tacoma, secretary; Drs. T. M. Young, H. B. Bagley, 
F. A. Churchill of Seattle and Dr. F. R. Hill of Tacoma, censors. The asso- 
ciation meets semi-annually. 

SOUTHERN HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 

This association was organized in New Orleans, April 9-11, 1885. Of- 
ficers of the convention : Dr. George Fellows of Wisconsin, chairman : Dr. 
Joseph Jones of Texas, secretary ; Dr. L. A. Falligant of Georgia, assistant 
secretary. First officers : Dr. C. E. Fisher of Austin, Texas, president ; 
Drs. J, H, Henry of Montgomery, Ala., and L. A. Falligant of Savannah, 
Ga., vice-presidents ; Dr. A. L. Monroe of Birmingham, Ala., recording sec- 
retary ; Dr. C. A. Deady of San Antonio, Texas, corresponding secretary ; 
Dr. J. G. Belden, New Orleans, La., treasurer ; Drs. Bussy, Lee, Angell and 
Lopez, censors. The association was incorporated in 1885. It meets annu- 
ally in November in different cities of the south. Membership in 1903, 108. 
No transactions. 

UNITED STATES ASSOCIATION OF HOMOEOPATHIC GERMAN PHYSICIANS. 

At the time the Western Institute of Homoeopathy held its second ses- 
sion in Chicago, in 1864. a number of German homoeopathists organized a 
homoeopathic society wnth these officers : Dr. C. Hering of Philadelphia, 
president; Dr. J. Birnstill of Newton, Mass., vice-president; Dr. Fellerer of 
St. Louis, Mo., treasurer; Dr. Kniepcke of Chicago, recording secretary; 
Dr. Blumenthal of New York, corresponding secretary ; Dr. Lilienthal of 
New York, Dr. Ad. Lippe of Philadelphia and Dr. Jaeger of Chicago, assist- 
ant secretaries. Not incorporated. Met semi-annually. But few meetings 
were held. This society also was known as the Society of the Homoeopathic 
Physicians of the Northwest. 

WESTERN ACADEMY OF HOMOEOPATHY. 

The Western Academy of Homoeopathy was organized^ by the Kansas 
and Missouri Valley Homoeopathic Medical Society in the Homoeopathic 
Medical College of St. Louis, September 15, 1874. It was not incorporated. 
The first officers were : Dr. M. Mayer Marix of Denver, president ; Dr. 
George H. Blair of Fairfield, Iowa, vice-president ; Dr. F. C. Valentine of 
St. Louis, general secretary; Dr. W. C. Hempstead of Illinois, provisional 
secretary : Dr. R. H. McFarland of Kentucky, treasurer : Drs. James Lillie 
of Kansas City, R. L. Hill of Dubuque, Iowa. W. H. Parsons of Atchison, 
Kan.. W. C. Richardson and A. E. Bliss of St. Louis, censors. Annual trans- 
actions. 

WESTERN HOMOEOPATHIC CONVENTION. 

This convention was organized in Indianapolis. 'Slav 29-31, 1877, and 
consisted of joint meetings of the Western Institute of Homoeopathy and 



270 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY. 

various western state societies. The first meeting was with the Indiana In- 
stitute of Homoeopathy. It continued only a few years. 

WESTERN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY.' 

The Western Institute of Homoeopathy was organized in the office of 
Drs. Skinner and Hoyne, Chicago, June 3, 1851. At this convention Dr. L. 
Dodge of Cleveland was chairman, and Dr. T. G. Comstock of St. Louis, 
secretary. At a meeting held June 4, at Warner's hall, the following officers 
were elected : Dr. L. M. Tracy of Milwaukee, president ; Drs. T. G. Com- 
stock of St. Louis, D. S. Smith of Chicago, Lewis Dodge of Cleveland and 
A. Giles of Southport, Wis., vice-presidents (one for each western state rep- 
resented) ; Dr. George E. Shipman of Chicago, secretary. The institute was 
not incorporated, and met annually in May. It admitted students of homoe- 
opathy as junior members. It was continued but a short time. 

At a meeting of a number of homoeopathic physicians of the north- 
western states to form an association for the extension of homoeopathy, held 
in the rooms of the Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago on May 20, 1863, 
a new society was formed, also called the Western Institute of Homoeopathy. 
The chairman of this initial meeting was Dr. C. J. Hempel of Grand Rapids, 
Mich., and Dr. William Tod Helmuth of St. Louis, secretary. This pro- 
ceeding was, had at the ninth annual meeting of the Illinois Homoeopathic 
Medical Association, which body took a recess to enable the new society to 
organize. A delegate was appointed from each state to present a plan of 
organization. A constitution and by-laws were adopted and the following 
officers were chosen : Dr. Charles J. Hempel of Grand Rapids, Mich., presi- 
dent; Drs. A. O. Blair of Cleveland and John T. Temple of St. Louis, vice- 
presidents ; Dr. Reuben Ludlam of Chicago, recording secretary ; Dr. E. M. 
Hale of Chicago, corresponding secretary; Dr. L. Pratt of Rock Creek, 111., 
treasurer; Drs. G. D. Beebe of Chicago, William Tod Helmuth of St. Louis, 
Smith Rogers of Battle Creek, Mich., A. H, Bottsford of Grand Rapids, 
Mich., and R. E. W. Adams of Springfield, 111., censors. Not incorporated. 
The members met annually in May in dififerent cities of the west, but only 
eight meetings were held, when at a meeting of the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy in Chicago, June 9, 1870, it united with that body. Proceed- 
ings were published yearly, 1864-69. 

NEW ENGLAND HAHNEMANNIAN ASSOCIATION. 

This association was organized in January, 1895, and its especial mission 
is to support the Boston University School of Medicine. It draws member- 
ship from all the New England states. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 271 



CHArTER IX* 

CARROLL DUNHAM, ^LL). 

I'ix->i(lriU of the American Institute of Homceopathy and of the World's Homoeopathic 

Convention of 1876. 

Xo event in tlie history of homoeopathy in this country has awakened so 
profound an impression or awakened such universal regret as the death of 
this eminent and estimable physician. Justly regarded by his colleagues, not 
in America only but in Europe also, as one of the most able, accomplished 
and zealous expositors of the Hahnemannian reform in medicine, and pos- 
sessing in a remarkable degree the confidence of the entire homoeopathic pro- 
fession, his loss is imiversally felt as a public bereavement. 

To the American Institute of Homoeopathy, of which he was the hon- 
ored and efficient president during the last year of his life and during the 
most eventful year of its existence, his loss is well nigh irreparable. Ever 
prompt, conscientious and thorough in the performance of every duty, he 
was the one man who could always be depended on when others failed, and 
whose example of systematic industry was an invaluable incentive to all. He 
not only assisted largely and efficiently in the work of the society, but did 
much by v^^ay of encouraging others, especially the younger members, to 
maintain and increase the value and interest of its transactions. Too modest 
to assume the leadership which by general consent was conceded to him, he 
did not shrink from accepting its duties and responsibilities. The extraordi- 
nary energy, tact and judgment that he displayed in organizing and success- 
fully carrying through the great homoeopathic convention of last year, its 
comprehensive plan and judicious settlement of details, and the dignity, 
courtesy and perfect impartiality that marked his conduct in the presidential 
office, elicited the spontaneous and universal tribute of admiration. 

The hopes that all indulged of still more and greater benefits to the 
cause of homoeopathy in the future from a long continuance of his wisely 
directed efforts, were suddenly dispelled by the news of his decease on the 
i8th of February last (1877) at his residence in Irvington-on-the-Hudson, 
in the forty-ninth year of his age. 

It is an additional cause of regret that this sad event was in some degree 
due to the physical exhaustion consequent upon his successive and protracted 
exertions in connection with the world's convention. 

Dr. Dunham was born in New York in 1828. His father, Mr. Edward 
W. Dunham, was a substantial and prosperous merchant of the old school, 
of strictest integrity, exact and methodical in his business transactions. A 
friend of learning and himself a man of culture, he gave his son the advan- 
tages of a complete education. During the cholera epidemic of 1834 Carroll, 
then six years old. had the misfortune to lose his mother, and was himself 
very near falling a victim to the prevailing sickness. Soon after this the 
family removed to Brooklyn, and at a proper age he was sent to an excellent 



* Republished from " Transactions of the American Institute of Homoeopathy " — 1877. 



272 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

boarding- school. At fifteen he matriculated at Columbia College, from which 
he was graduated with honor in 1847. Even as a school boy he was of a 
quiet, studious disposition, more given to reading than play, especially of 
the rough and noisy sort. This tendency of his mind became still more 
marked during his college course, but his reserve had in it no touch of moodi- 
ness, for he was naturally and always of a peculiarly cheerful and friendly 
disposition. 

After leavmg college, in accordance with his father's preference and his 
own tastes, he began the study of medicine, placing himself as a pupil under 
the direction of Dr. Whittaker, an old school physician of much repute as a 
trainer of medical students. Having been relieved of a trying illness by 
homoeopathic treatment, he determined to investigate the claims of the new 
school, and did so during the whole course of studies, becoming in the end 
a firm adherent of its principles and practice. In this decision he was con- 
firmed by his father, who had also from observation and personal experience 
of its advantages been fully converted to homoeopathy. 

Young Dunham, however, did not on this account in the least relax his 
diligent study of the doctrines and practice of the dominant school, but at- 
tended with the assiduity characteristic of him the course of instruction 
afforded by the New York College of Physicians and Surgeons and by the 
various clinics to which he had access. 

Soon after receiving his degree of doctor of medicine, in 1850, he went 
to Europe, partly for the purpose of general medical and scientific improve- 
ment, but especially with the design of studying in the land of its birth the 
methods and results of the homoeopathic practice as compared with those of 
the best allopathic treatment. 

In pursuance of this double plan he visited Dublin, where he served a 
term in the lying-in hospital, Paris, Vienna and other centers of medical 
science. He seized every opportunity of observing, with a discrimination 
beyond his years, the difllerent kinds of treatment in hospitals and private 
practise. Proceeding to Miinster, the residence of Dr. Von Boenninghausen^ 
he became an assiduous pupil of that distinguished practitioner, daily attend- 
ing at his office and making careful and elaborate notes of the cases that he 
saw, their treatment and the results. 

Having thus profitably spent a year in the diligent prosecution of his 
mission, he returned home fully persuaded of the truth of the great thera- 
peutic principle propounded by Hahnemann, and an ardent disciple and ad- 
mirer of that master. During the period of his absence he had not only 
satisfied himself of the substantial verity of the fundamental dogmas of 
homoeopathy, but had acquired already a considerable knowledge of its materia 
medica, a department for which he seems to have had a particular aptitude 
and in which, as we all know, he has for years been considered an authority. 
His familiarity with the effects of drug action upon the human system was 
something marvellous to those who have given the most attention to that 
difficult branch of medical science. 

Immediately after his return from abroad Dr. Dunham commenced in 
Brooklyn the practice of the profession for which he had made such pro- 
tracted and conscientious preparation, and in which he subsequently became 
such a shining light. Unlike the majority of young physicians, the pecun- 
iary rewards of practice were not necessary to his support, while the uncer- 
tain state of his health, never very robust and subject to occasional lapses,. 



J 



I 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 273 

might to a less enthusiastic or to a less conscientious person have seemed a 
sufficient reason for declinmg the labors and responsibilities of this arduous 
vocation, but inspired by noble and humane motives and stirred by a generous 
enthusiasm he did not feel at liberty, nor had he any desire, to rest satisfied 
with the theoretical and abstract knowledge he had gained, but sought to 
make it practical for the benefit of the sick ^nd suffering, and to enlarge and 
extend the beneficent reform in the value of which he held the most implicit 
faith. 

After practicing four or five years in Brooklyn with good success, not- 
withstanding some interruptions from sickness — in one instance extending 
-over several months — it was deemed necessary for sanitary reasons to take a 
vacation. He again went to Europe, and a second time spent several weeks 
in ]\Iiinster, renewing his studies with Boenninghausen and passing the greater 
part of every day with him. The winter was passed in Italy, where he ac- 
quired the Italian language and reviewed his studies in anatomy. 

On his return to Brooklyn iie shcv»-ed a tendency to disease of the throat, 
and consequently removed to Xewburg on tl:e Hudson, where for a time he 
enjoyed better health and soon attracted to him a numerous body of intelli- 
gent and devoted adherents. 

But again the exigencies of his varying health compelled a change after 
a six years' occupancy of that attractive field. He visited the West Indies 
and other foreign parts in search of health or relief. Finally he became a 
resident of the beautiful and picturesque village of Irvington-on-the-Hudson, 
where he continued to reside until his death. He passed much time, how- 
ever, in New York, both before and after his removal to Irvington, keeping 
an office there and attending to professional calls as his health and strength 
allowed. 

His last voyage to Europe, on which he was accompanied by his whole 
family and which Avas undertaken in the fall of 1874, seemed to many of his 
friends so hopeless of benefit that they scarcely dared to anticipate his return. 
He seemed to have doubts of his own recovery, as previous to his departure 
he resigned from all positions of trust or responsibility, and arranged his 
afifairs with reference to an indefinite sojourn abroad. Happily, however, 
the result of this absence of about one year was so much more favorable to 
his health than was expected that he came back at the end of that time greatly 
improved in strength and spirits, and apparently able to resume with renewed 
activity his former occupations. 

Some time before his last enforced departure, as early, indeed, as 1871, 
at a meeting of the American Institute of Homceopathy, Dr. Dunham an- 
nounced a proposal for holding an international congress of the disciples of 
Hahnemann on the occasion of our American centennial jubilee in 1876. The 
idea was received with enthusiasm and a committee was appointed, of which, 
of course, he was chief, to make the preparatory arrangements and secure, if 
possible, the co-operation of homceopathists in other countries. The history 
of that unprecedented gathering will be a lasting and glorious memorial of 
the zeal, foresight and self-sacrificing devotion of its originator. None but 
those most intimately associated with him in the work can justly estimate the 
amount of labor and anxiety it cost him, and none will be more ready than 
thev to ascribe the entire credit of its success to his masterly management. 
Even when obliged to seek abroad, with small encouragement, for the health 
he could not lonsr retain at home, he did not lose sight of this grand and 



274 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

favorite project, but used every opportunity during his stay in Europe to 
enlist the sympathies of foreign physicians in its behalf. 

So general and hearty have been the manifestations of sorrow and of 
tender and affectionate regard for the memory of our friend, at home and 
abroad, and so well understood among us were the admirable qualities of his 
head and heart that an extended eulogy is scarcely necessary. It is the less 
so in this connection because the institute will, doubtless, at this its first 
session since the deplored event, desire to express by some appropriate and 
united action its estimate of his superior merit and its grateful sense of the 
obligations resting upon the whole homoeopathic fraternity for his very impor- 
tant and valuable labors. 

It is a subject of congratulation for those who are to come after us. 
and especially to the rising generation of physicians, that they will have an 
opportunity to profit by his writings, and to study to their benefit the lessons 
of his pure and useful life. Friendly hands, it is announced, are already 
gathering the most important of his widely scattered contributions to medical 
literature into a permanent volume, to be supplemented, it is said, with a 
comprehensive memoir. 

Dr. Dunham was a facile and agreeable writer, clear in his statements 
and felicitous in expression ; his writings were chiefly contributions to the 
medical journals of his own school, and comprise some of the most lucid and 
convincing expositions extant of the doctrines and practice of homoeopathy. 
From i860 be was for three years editor of the " American Homoeopathic 
Review." 

In 1865 he accepted the professorship of materia medica in the New 
York Homoeopathic ^ledical College, a position that he filled for several years 
with great success. During the latter part of his incumbency he was also 
dean of the college, which by his administration was completely reorganized 
and established upon a permanent and prosperous basis. 

As one of the original incorporators of the New York State Homoeopathic 
Asylum for the Insane, he labored earnestly for the foundation of that, the 
first institution of the kind in the world. At different times his services 
were invoked in various official positions of responsibility in the numerous 
societies and institutions that were so fortunate as to enjoy his co-operation, 
in all of which, small as well as great, it was a matter of conscience w'ith 
him to perform the duties faithfully. Whatever was to be done he did at 
once ; he was never unprepared, nor ever late. And yet, while so ready and 
apt himself, he was always lenient and even helpful towards his tardy or 
inefficient associates, not unfrequently supplementing their defects in the 
most quiet and unobtrusive way. A\'hile president of the New York County 
Homoeopathic Medical Society he always went to the meetings with some 
scientific papers — " papers concealed about his person " — ready to be brought 
forth in the case of the failure of any appointed essayist. 

With a large and well balanced mind, a clear and discriminating judg- 
ment, a great store of learning gathered from books and observation, with 
definite views on most questions of human interest, he combined a wonderful 
simplicity and purity of character and an amiable and cheerful disposition. 
While his public discourses were models of clear and concise argumentation, 
the richness and sprightliness of his ordinary conversation made him the 
charm of the social and domestic circle. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 



CHAPTER X 

THE PROFESSIONAL RECORD. 

AARON B. AVERY, Pontiac, Michigan, born Washtenaw county, [Michigan, August 
26, 1853; graduated. 1878, homoeopathic medical department University of Michigan; 
ex-first vice-president Homoeopathic Medical Society of the State of Michigan ; ex- 
health officer of Farmington, Michigan ; member of the American Institute of Homoe- 
opathy. 

ARA BIRD HEWES. Adrian, Michigan, born Medina. Ohio, December 27, 1873; 
literary education Hillsdale College; taught school two years; graduated Cleveland 
Homoeopathic Medical College, 1903. 

JOHN PERRY BLAND. Adrian, Michigan, born Nelsonville, Ohio. 'SlaTch 30, 1875; 
graduated. 1901, from Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago. 

OSCAR SAMUEL HARTSON. Jackson, Michigan, born Cleveland, Ohio, April 22, 
185 1 ; literary education Hillsdale College; graduated, 1879, homoeopathic medical depart- 
ment of University of Michigan ; post-graduate courses New York Post-Graduate 
Medical College, 1891 ; Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College. 1893. 

FANNIE LUCRETIA DRAPER, Jackson, Michigan, born Tompkins. Jackson 
county. Mich., March 24, 1870; literary education, Jackson High School; taught school 
five years ; graduated. 1902, Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College. 

BRADLEY BEECHER ANDERSON, Jackson, Michigan, born Calhoun county, 
Mich., November 16, 1841 ; literary education, Albion Wesleyan Seminary; graduated, 
1880, Hahnemann ^ledical College of Chicago. 

CHARLES H. BRUCKER, Lansing, Michigan, born Detroit, Mich., August i, 1849; 
graduated, 1882, homoeopathic medical department L'niversity of Michigan; ex-city 
physician and health officer of Lansing. 

CHARLES D. BLACK, Lansing, Michigan, born near Belmont, Allegheny county, 
N. Y., December 9, 1852; educated Alfred University, Alfred, New York; graduated, 
Kansas City Homoeopathic Medical College, 1891 ; city physician and health officer, 
Lansing, 1902-1904. 

OLIVER QUINCY JONES, Tecumseh, Michigan, born Camden, Hillsdale county, 
Mich., April 24, 1851 ; educated at Albion College, Albion, Mich. ; graduated, 1873, 
Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College; organizer Lenawee County Homoeopathic 
Medical Association. 

GEORGE D. NICHOLAS, Elyria, Ohio, born Cleveland, Ohio, December 27, 1877; 
graduated, 1901, Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College; member of American Insti- 
tute of Homoeopathy and Phi Alpha Gamma fraternity. 



276 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

JOSEPH CALVIN FAHNESTOCK, Piqua, Ohio, bom Covington, Ohio, July i, 
1858; graduated, A. M., McPherson College, McPherson, Kansas; graduated, 1891, 
Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College; member of the American Institute of Homoe- 
opathy. 

IRVING PRESCOTT SHERMAN, New York city, N. Y, born in that city, 
December 10, 1872 ; graduated, 1894, New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hos- 
pital ; former clinical assistant, genito-urinary department, New York Homoeopathic Med- 
ical College and Hospital ; former attending physician Flower Hospital. 

WILLIAIM HENRY DIEBEL, Detroit, Michigan, born Cleveland, Ohio, November 
16, 1872 ; graduated, Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 1901 ; member of American 
Institute of Homoeopathy and of the Ustion fraternity; lecturer on pathology, Detroit 
Homeopathic College, 1901-1903. 

RALPH W. REYNOLDS, Cleveland, Ohio, born Conneaut, Ohio, May 21, 1869; 
educated at Case School of Applied Science, class of 1895 ; graduated, Cleveland Homoe- 
opathic Medical College, 1902 ; post-graduate course New York Ophthalmic and Aural 
Institute, 1903. 

ADAM RUPIN, Topeka, Kansas, is a native of Germany, born June 30, 1838; grad- 
uated, M. D. from Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri, 1878. 

ANTON RUPIN, Topeka, Kansas, is a native of Germany, born 1866; graduated 
M. D. from Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri, 1890. 

EDWARD AGATE FOSTER, Patchogue, Long Island, New York, born Ossining- 
on-Hudson, N. Y., April i, 1867; educated Mt. Pleasant Military Academy, class of 1884; 
graduated, New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 1890. 

LEONARD ERASTUS STANHOPE, Nevada, yernon county, Missouri, born 
Macon county. Mo., December 31, i860; graduated M. D., 1887, Homoeopathic Medical 
College of Missouri; D. D. S., Kansas City College of Dental Surgery, 1896; Ph. G., 
1890; author of "Scientific Religion." 

DAVID P. BUTLER, Rutland, Massachusetts, born Boston, Mass., June 8, 1873; 
graduated from Harvard College, 1896; from Boston University School of Medicine, 1898; 
member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

DAVID WASHBURN WELLS, Boston, Massachusetts, born West Newton, Mass; 
graduated from Boston University School of Medicine, 1897; ex-secretary of American 
Ophthalmological, Otological and Laryngological Society, and member of American Insti- 
tute of Homoeopathy. 

HENRY C. HOUSTON, Urbana, Ohio, born Piqua, Ohio, October 14, 1847; educated 
at Piqua high school; graduated, 1877, Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College; chair- 
man of board of censors of Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College fifteen years; 
ex-president of board of trustees, Ohio Soldiers and Sailors Orphan Home; director, 
Citizens National Bank. 

EDWARD ARTHUR MURDOCK, Spencer, Massachusetts, born West Boylston, 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 277 

Mass., May 24, 1854; student at Dartmouth College two years; graduated, Boston 
University School of Medicine, 1878; president of Spencer Good Samaritan Association. 

JAMES EDWIN TYTLER, New York city, N. Y.. born in that city, October 30, 
1880; student Peddie Institute, Hightstown, N. J.; graduated. New York Homoeopathic 
Medical College and Hospital, 1903; post-graduate course in rhinology and laryngology, 
N. Y. Ophthalmic Hospital, and later clinical assistant in that institution. 

LOUISE E. CAMPBELL, Detroit, Michigan, born Elbridge, N. Y., August 19, 1869; 
graduated from Monroe Collegiate Institute, Elbridge, and from Cleveland Medical 
College, 1894; physician to Woman's Homoeopathic Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa., 1894-1897. 

FRANKLIN F. LEHMAN, Sandusky, Ohio, born Madisonburg, Ohio, July 13, 1861 ; 
graduated, A. B., North Western Ohio Normal School, 1884; A. B., University of Mich- 
igan, 1888; M. D., from homoeopathic department, L'niversity of Michigan, 1891 ; coroner 
Erie county, Ohio, 1898- 1902. 

CHARLES FRANCIS RING, Urbana, Ohio, born in that city, December 6, 1854; 
educated Urbana University preparatory school ; graduated, New York Homoeopathic 
Medical College, 1881 ; post-graduate studies in London, Paris and Edinburgh, 1887. 

COLE HILLS, New York city, N. Y., born London, England, December 17, 1868; 
educated at School of the Worshipful Company of Haberdashers, London ; graduated. New 
York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 1894; secretary, Connecticut Homoe- 
opathic Medical Societj', 1897-1904; secretary National Society of Electro-Therapeutists, 
1897-1904; secretary National Society of Physical Therapeutists, 1904; member of the 
American Institute of Homoeopathy; assistant managing editor of "North American 
Journal of Homoeopathy '"' since 1902. 

DAVID GEORGE WILDER, Cleveland, Ohio, born Verona, Oneida county, N. Y., 
Decem.ber 15, 1846; graduated B. S., Hillsdale College, Mich., 1872; M. S., 1874; M. D., 
Cleveland Homoeopathic College, 1873. 

RACHEL J. DAVISON, Flint, Michigan, born Grand Blanc, Genesee county, Mich. ; 
graduated, Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, 1882; vice-president Homoeopathic 
Medical Society of the State of Michigan, 1897. 

MARY JANE BOOTH, Cincinnati, Ohio, born Pittsburgh, Pa., October 10, 1839; 
graduate of Pittsburgh Normal School ; graduated, Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, 
1885; ex-national president of Ladies of Union Veteran Legion. 

H. EVERETT RUSSELL, New York city. New York, born Cambridge, Mass., 1863; 
educated at College of the City of New York, Everson's Collegiate Institute, Packard's 
Business College ; graduated, New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital ; 
member of American Institute of Homoeopathy and National Society of Electro-Thera- 
peutists. 

GEORGE PARCELL MYERS, Detroit, Michigan, born .Elk Point, So. Dak., 
December 20, 1875 ; graduated B. A., State University, Vermillion, So. Dak., 1894 ; A. M., 
1895; M. D.. Cleveland Medical College, 1898; member of Ustion fraternity. 



278 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

WILLIAM ^lOXTGOMERY BALDWIN. Jr.. Xeuark. Ohi.,'. born in that city. June 
29, 1846; graduated. Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College. 1869; post-graduate course, 
Hahnemann ^ledical College of Chicago, 1875. 

LEFFERTS MORRELL POWELL. Groton, :\Iassachusetts, born Old Chatham. N. 
Y., February 15, 1862; graduated A. B., National University of 111., 1890; M. D., Indiana 
Eclectic ]\Iedical College, Indianapolis. 1885 ; diploma endorsed by Eclectic Medical 
College of the City of New York. 1885, and by Hahnemann Aledical College of Philadel- 
phia. 1893; ad eundem degree from Hahnemann jNIedical College and Hospital of Chicago, 
1896; member of American Institute of HomcEopathy and Psi Upsilon fraternity, Union 
College chapter. 

CHARLES RODGER^ CONKLIN. Nev.- York city, New York, born Albany, N. Y., 
February 28, 1874; graduated M. D., Albany Medical College, 1899, and from New York 
Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 1901. 

HENRY McGRANAHAN MARSH, Auburn, Kentucky, born Maysville, Ky., Jan- 
uary 5, 1861 ; graduated, Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, 1884; ex-president 
Kentucky Homoeopathic jNIedical Association. 

FREDERICK WILLIAIM DIEDRICH. born Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania, March 26. 
1870; educated at Capital L'niversity, Columbus. Ohio; graduated, Cleveland Homoeopathic 
Medical College, 1903. 

FREDERICK L. PRESTON, Chester, Pennsylvania, born in Chester county, Pa.; 
graduated from Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, 1877. 

SAMUEL HOPKINS SPALDING, Hingham, Massachusetts, born Hilton. N. H., 
August 31, 1856; educated Phillips Andover and Phillips Exeter academies; graduated 
A. B., Harvard University, 1881 ; M. D., Boston University School of Medicine, 1884; 
house surgeon Massachusetts Homoeopathic Hospital, 1883-1884. 

JOHN EDGAR AMBLER, New York city. New York, born Westerly, R. I., July 
24, 187 1 ; graduated, New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 1893; 
member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy ; clinical assistant, nose and throat 
department, New York Ophthalmic Hospital. 

GEORGE WILLIAM HAYWOOD, Lynn, Massachusetts, born Amsterdam, N. Y., 
October 11, 1868; graduated from Boston University School of Medicine, 1890; post- 
graduate course. Harvard Medical School, 1892. 

FLORENTINE O. REEVE, Cleveland, Ohio, born Colebrook, Ohio, January 28, 
1851 ; graduated A. B., Mount Union College, 1872, and A. M., 1875 ; M. D., from 
Cleveland University of Medicine and Surgery, 1894; demonstrator of anatomy and in- 
structor, Cleveland University of Medicine and Surgery, 1894-1895. 

HOMER IRWIN OSTROM, New York city, New York, born Goshen, Orange 
county, N. Y., February 16, 1.852; graduated from New York Homoeopathic Medical 
College, 1873; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, the American Obstet- 
rical Society and the British Gynecological Society; fellow of the Medico-Chirurgical 
Society. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 27i^ 

ALBERT FRANXIS RANDALL, Port Huron, Michigan, born Province Bolton. 
Quebec, Canada, December ii, 1848; graduated from Detroit Homoeopathic College, 1873; 
post-graduate courses in Post-Graduate Medical College, New York, New York Polyclinic, 
New York Ophthalmic Hospital and the Metropolitan Post-Graduate School ; member 
board of censors. Detroit Homoeopathic College; ex-vice-president, Homoeopathic Med- 
ical Society of the State of Michigan. 

CHARLES ZURMUHLEN, Dayton, Ohio; graduated from Pulte Medical College^ 
1897; demonstrator of pathology, Pulte Medical College, 1899-1903; present lecturer on 
pharmacologj'. 

WILMOT LEIGHTON MARDEN, Lynn, [Massachusetts, born North Woburn, 
Mass., April 2, 1876; graduated M. B., Boston University School of Medicine, 1897, and 
AL D., 1898; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

EDWARD HERZER, New York city. New York, born Defiance county, Ohio, 
December 25, 1861 ; graduated B. S., Baldwin University, Bcrea, Ohio, 1882; A. M., 
German Wallace College, 1889; M. D., Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, 1885. 

NINA WALKER OLIVER, La Peer, Michigan, born Salem, Mich., November 3,. 
1868; graduated from Detroit Homoeopathic College, 1895. 

WILLIAM MURDOCK, Akron, Ohio, born Ayrshire, Scotland, January 4, 1842; 
educated at W^estern Reserve Seminary, 1862- 1863, Orwell Normal Institute, 1867-1868; 
graduated, Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, 1873; superintendent Garretsville 
public schools, 1869-1872. 

SAMUEL ERNEST FLETCHER, Chicopee. Massachusetts, born INIilford, Worcester 
county, Mass., June 10, 1867; graduated, Milford High School. 1884; graduated, Boston 
University School of Medicine, 1891 ; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy; 
city physician of Chicopee, 1897 ; president of board of aldermen, 1903 ; member of school' 
committee, 1904. 

BENJAMIN B. KIMMEL, Cleveland. Ohio, born Palmyra,. Ohio, Januarj- 14, 1870; 
student at Mt. Union College; graduated, Cle^-eland Homoeopathic Medical College, 1898; 
member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy; professor of surgical anatomy, 
Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, and treasurer of the college. 

THEODORE DWIGHT FOLJAMBE. Cleveland, Ohio, born Taylorville, 111., Feb- 
ruary 28, 1870; studied at Jefferson Educational Institute and Ohio State University; 
graduated, Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 1891. 

GARY WIANT, Marion, Ohio, born Bellefontaine. Ohio, April 22, 1858; graduated 
D.D. S., Ohio Dental College, 1880; M. D., Pulte Medical College, 1882. 

WILLIAM AUSTIN POLGLASE, La Peer, [Michigan, born March 8, 1856; grad- 
uate of Detroit grammar and high school ; graduated Chicago Homoeopathic Medical Col- 
lege, 1870; superintendent of Michigan Home for Feeble Minded and Epileptics, 1895- 
fo the present time ; member of National Association for Study of Epilepsy. 

CARL CRISAND, Worcester, [Massachusetts, born New Haven, Conn., February i,. 



280 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

1858; student at University of Rochester, 1879-1881 ; graduated from New York Homoe- 
opalhic Medical College, 1884; post-graduate studies at New York Post-Graduate Hos- 
pital and College, 1904 ; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy ; trustee and 
member of staff of Worcester Hahnemann Hospital since 1903. 

HARRY ZECKHAUSEN, New York city, New York, born Kovno, Russia, May 31, 
1863 ; graduated A. B., Kovno Gymnasium, 1884 ; M. D., New York HomcEopathic Med- 
ical College and' Hospital, 1896. 

ADELBERT MERTON HUBBELL. Haverhill, Massachusetts, born Enosburg, Vt., 
August 5, 1863 ; student at Phillips Andover Academy ; graduated Boston University 
School of Medicine, 1889; post-graduate studies in dermatology and laryngology at Har- 
vard Medical School ; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

GEORGE WASHINGTON WOODS, Columbus, Ohio, born Logan, Ohio, February 

5, 1864 ; educated in Denison University, Ohio ; graduated, Pulte Medical College, 1894 ; 
bas since practiced in Columbus. 

FREDERICK WILLIA^I SCHEIE, Toledo. Ohio, born Tiffin, Ohio, April 3, 1859; 
■educated at Swarthmore in Pennsylvania and Heidelberg in Tiffin ; graduated, Pulte 
Medical College, 1881 ; practiced in Tiffin, 1881-1884; Beltsville, 1884-1886; Fremont, 1886- 
1901 ; and since 1901 in Toledo. 

GEORGE HENRY COFFIN, Hopedale, Massachusetts, born Boston, Mass., April 
29, 1851; graduated A. B. and A. M., Brown University, 1874; M. D., Boston University 
School of Medicine, 1903; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy; medical 
interne and obstetrical externe, Massachusetts Homoeopathic Hospital ; pathologist to 
Milford (Mass.) Hospital. 

ERVIN DAVIS BROOKS, Ann Arbor, Michigan, born Dundee, Mich., September 

6, 1854; graduated B. S., Michigan Agricultural College, 1876; M. D., homoeopathic depart- 
ment. University of Michigan, 1885 ; graduated, Chicago Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat 
College, 1898; member of the American Homoeopathic Ophthalmological, Otological and 
Laryngological Society ; house surgeon. Homoeopathic Hospital, University of Michigan, 
1885-1886; member of the staff of New York Ophthalmic Hospital, 1903. 

FREDERICK AUGUSTINE KING, Chelsea, Massachusetts, born Chelsea, Mass., 
November 18, 1868; graduated, Boston University School of Medicine, 1895; practiced 
in Boston, 1895-1896, and in Chelsea since 1897. 

JENKS EDWIN BROWN, New York city. New York, born Elmira, N. Y., March 
S, 1877; graduated B. S., Cornell University, 1898; M. D., New York Homoeopathic Med- 
ical College and Hospital, 1901 ; clinical assistant to nose and throat department, New 
York Ophthalmic Hospital ; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, 

HENRY LOVEJOY AMBLER, Cleveland, Ohio, born IMedina, Ohio, September 
TO, 1843; graduated M. D., Hillsdale College, 1864; D. D. S., Ohio College of Dental 
Surgery, Cincinnati, 1867; M. D., Cleveland LTniversity of Medicine and Surgery, 1868; 
member of National Dental Association and National Association Dental Faculties; dean 
of dental department, Western Reserve LTniversity, Cleveland ; author of " Tin Foil and 
Its Combinations for Filling Teeth " (text-book) and " Facts, Fads and Fancies about 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 281 

Teeth"; lecturer on institutes of dental science, Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical Col- 
lege, 1869- 1872. 

CHARLES ELBERT MONTAGUE, Wakefield, Massachusetts, born Bridgewater, 
Vt., September 7, 1866; graduated A. B., Williams College, 1891, j\L D., Boston Uni- 
versity School of Medicine, 



ALICE ADELE SQUIRE, Brooklyn, New York, born Brooklyn, N. Y., November 
10, 1877; student Brooklyn Grammar School No. 39, 1893; Packer Collegiate Institute, 
1893-1897; graduated, New York Medical College and Hospital for Women, 1901. 

ROBERT BRUCE WOODWARD, Somerset, Ohio, born White Cottage. Ohio, 
March 4, 1839; literary education. National Normal University, Lebanon, Ohio; graduated, 
Cleveland Homoeopathic College, 1867; served in Co. G. 196th O. Vol. Inf., 1861-1865; 
mayor of Somerset sixteen years and member of board of education fifteen years. 

NINA MAYNARD ELY, Bay City, ^Michigan, born Corunna, Mich., August 24, 
1869; graduated from Hering Medical College and Hospital, 1900. 

CHARLES DALLAS PAINTER, Alliance, Stark county, Ohio, bom Salem, Ohio, 
April 26, 1858; graduated A. B., Bethany College, 1879; M. D., Cleveland Homoeopathic 
Hospital College, 1882. 

ALFRED E. P. ROCKWELL, Worcester, Massachusetts, born Heidelberg, Germany, 
1870; graduated, Boston University School of Medicine, 1899; member of the Military 
Order of the Loyal Legion. 

WILLIAM WATTS, Toledo, Ohio, born February 6, 1854; graduated B. S., Uni- 
versity of Illinois, 1874; M. D., homoeopathic department, University of Michigan, 1878; 
member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy; major and surgeon, Ohio National 
Guard. 

CLARENCE S. CUTTER, Cleveland. Ohio, born Newfield, N. Y., October 25, 1867; 
educated Ithaca (N. Y.) high school; graduated, Cleveland Medical College, 1894; prO" 
fessor of diseases of children in Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College four years. 

HARRIET BARDWELL, CHAPMAN, Cleveland, Ohio, born Euclid, Ohio, 1869; 
graduated B. A., Wellesley College, 1893; M. D., Cleveland Medical College, 1896; post- 
graduate courses in study of diseases of the eye and ear in New York city, London and 
Vienna ; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

EDWARD MARCUS GOODWIN, Toledo, Ohio, born at Otisco, Onondaga county, 
N. Y. ; educated in Pompey Hill and Cazenovia academies ; graduated, Albany Medical 
College, f 863 ; practiced in Syracuse in 1865 and in Toledo since 1866; entered U. S. 
navy Jan. 12, 1864, as acting assistant surgeon and served in North Atlantic and Missis- 
sippi squadrons until close of the war. 

HENRY FRANKLIN STAPLES, Cleveland, Ohio, born Berlin, Mass., March 29, 
1870; graduated B. S., Boston University, 1893; M. D., Cleveland University of Medicine 
and Surgery, 1896; lecturer on hygiene and state medicine, Cleveland Homoeopathic Med- 
ical College, 1904. 



282 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATH\ 

EDWIN STERLING ELY, Bay City, Michigan, bom Mexico, Oswego county, N. Y., 
April 7, 1867; graduated from Hering Medical College, iqoo. 

BYRON GEORGE CLARK, New York city, New York, born Charlestown, N. H., 
February 5, 1847; graduated, Dartmouth r\Iedical School, Hanover, N. H., 1878; post- 
graduate course. New York Polyclinic and New York Post-Graduate School ; member of 
the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

WILLIA.M BELL GLENDINNING, Cleveland. Ohio, born Troy, N. Y., 1876; edu- 
cated First Arts Royal University of Ireland; graduated, Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical 
College, 1898, and Ohio Wesleyan University, 1903; lecturer on anatomy, Cleveland Homoe- 
opathic Medical College. 

HARVEY LEON STEELE, Norwood. :\lassachusetts, born Peterboro, N. H., August 
22, 12,72; graduated Gushing Academy, Ashburnham, Mass., 1894; graduated, Boston Uni- 
versity School of Medicine, 1899; passed State Board of Registration, 1899; secretary 
Norwood board of health since 1902; secretary Norwood sewerage committee, 1904-1905. 

EiMMA LOUISA BOICE HAYS, Toledo, Ohio, born Toledo, Ohio, June 22, 1857; 
-educated Ursulihe Convent ; graduated, Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, 1882 ; 
O. et A. Chir., New York Ophthalmic Hospital College, 1884; member of the American 
Institute of Homoeopathy and the American Ophthalmological, Otological and Laryngo- 
logical Society. 

ORVILLE WILBUR LANE, Great Barrington, Massachusetts, born Orange, Vt., 
October 20, 1855 ; graduated, Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, 1887 ; member 
of the American Institute of Homceopathy ; chairman Great Barrington board of health. 

HERMAN EDWARD STREET, Brooklyn, New York, born London, Ontario, Can- 
ada, February i, 1846; graduated, New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1892; gradu- 
ated in gynecolog3% New York Post-Graduate College, 1892; clinical assistant nose and 
throat department. New York Ophthalmic Hospital ; medical inspector department of 

health. 

ELWOOD GRIFFITH PAINTER, deceased, born Salem, Ohio, 1833; graduated, 
"Western Homoeopathic College, 1858; practiced from 1858 until his death in 1866. 

FREDERICK ALLEN STAFFORD, Toledo, Ohio, born Attica, Mich., April 26, 
1869; graduated from Hahnemann ]\Iedical College of Chicago, 1895. 

CHARLES NELSON COOPER, Cincinnati, Ohio, born New Brighton, Pa., Decem- 
ber 17, 1861 ; educated in University of West Virginia ; graduated, Hahnemann Medical 
College of Philadelphia, 1885; professor of physiological materia medica at Pulte Medical 
College. 

CHARLES HENRY STRONG, Toledo, Ohio, born Delavan, N. Y.; graduated, 
Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, 1875; assistant surgeon New York Ophthalmic 
Hospital, 1892. 

HENRY RICH HIGGINS, Boston, Massachusetts, born in Massachusetts, September 
•6, 1844; graduated from Boston University School of Medicine, 1883. 



HISTORY OF HO.AIOEOPATHY 283 

WARREN EDWARD PUTNAM, Bennington, Vermont, born Putnam, Ontario, 
Canada, May 6, 1857 ; educated Brantford Collegiate Institute ; graduated, Cleveland Ho- 
moeopathic Hospital College, 1881 ; post-graduate course, St. Thomas Hospital, London, 
Eng., 1884; Chicago, 1891 ; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy; appointed 
surgeon general of Vermont, 1896 and 1904; brigadier general Vermont National Guard; 
member of governor's military staff; member Sons of the American Revolution, Society 
of Colonial Wars. 

FRED CRAWFORD BIS SELL, Oberlin, Ohio, born Twinsburg, Ohio, November 
23, 1871 ; student Geauga Seminary, 1884-1890, and later at Oberlin College ; graduated, 
Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 1899; post-graduate course in orificial surgery 
under Prof. E. H. Pratt, Chicago ; member American Association of Orificial Surgeons. 

MARY LOUISE LINES, Brooklyn, New York, was born in that city, 1868; educated 
Adelphi Academy, Brooklyn; graduated homoeopathic department, University of Mich- 
igan, 1884; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy; clinical assistant to Prof. 
Roosa, of Manhattan Eye and Ear Hospital, 1885-1890; diploma from New York Post- 
Graduate Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital. 

GUY MORTIMER CANFIELD, Detroit, Michigan, born Detroit, November 20, 
1872 ; educated Albion College ; graduated, Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 1894. 

MARY REES MULLINER, Boston, Massachusetts, born Camden, N. J., August 23, 
1859; educated at Friends' High School, Philadelphia; graduated, Boston University School 
of Medicine, 1896; secretary five years, Boston Physical Education Society; member 
national council, American Physical Education Society. 

EVERETT HASBROUCK, Brooklyn, New York, born New Paltz, Ulster county, 
N. Y., April 3, 1840; graduated. New York Homoeopathic Jvledical College, and the Long 
Island College, 1865; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy; ex-secretary 
and ex-president Kings County Homoeopathic Medical Society'. 

ALBERT WALTON ROTH, Detroit, Michigan, born Fairfield, Iowa. July 7, 1873; 
educated Parsons' College; graduated, Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1900; 
post-graduate Manhattan, and New York Ophthalmic Hospital; member of the American 
Institute of Homoeopathy; clinical assistant to Prof. ^^lacLachlan, Detroit Homoeopathic 
College. 

CHARLES A. MILLS, Norwalk, Ohio, born Niles, Ohio, February 4, 1850; gradu- 
ated from Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, 1872. 

FRED AUSTIN STOWELL, Lawrence, Massachusetts, born Lawrence, Mass., June 
20, 1867; graduated from Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, 1902; member of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Homoeopathy. 

SAMUEL LE ROY HETRICK, Brooklyn, New York, born Asbury Park, N. J.. 
July 5, 1880; graduated, Asbury Park High School, 1896; graduated, Hahnemann Medical 
College of Philadelphia, 1900. 



284 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

OTTO LANG, Sr., Detroit, Michigan, born Bufifalo, N. Y., December 4, 1849; edu- 
cated in medicine, Detroit Homceopathic College, 1874-1875; Bellevue Medical College, 
New York, T875-1876; graduated, Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, 1880. 

ROBERT COLEMAN RUDY, Detroit, Michigan, born Edgar county, near Paris, 
111., November i, 1862; educated Butler University, Indianapolis; graduated, homoeopathic 
department, University of Michigan, 1886; professor of obstetrics, Detroit Homoeopathic 
College. 

CLINTON CARL WRIGHT, Detroit, Michigan, born Edinboro, Pa., March 23, 
1876; graduated M. E., State Normal School, Edinboro (teacher's course), 1895; M. D., 
Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 1900; lecturer on physiology, Detroit Homoe- 
opathic College; lecturer on principles of surgery, Grace Hospital training school for 
nurses. 

LUCY ANNE KIRK, Boston, Massachusetts, born Dorchester, Mass., March 31, 
1859; graduated, Boston University School of Medicine, 1893; student at New York 
Post-Graduate School of Medicine; member Daughters of the Revolution. 

EMILY BLAKESLEE, Sandusky, Ohio, born Medina, Ohio, 187 1 ; graduated from 
Cleveland University of Medicine and Surgery, 1897. 

ALTON GRAHAM WARNER, Brooklyn, New York, born Dundee, N. Y., May 7, 
1858; literary education, Hudson River Academy; graduated M. D., New York Homoe- 
opathic Medical College and Hospital, 1883; O. et A. Chir., New York Ophthalmic Hos- 
pital, 1884; resident surgeon N. Y. Ophthalmic Hospital, 1885-1887; member of the 
Am.erican Institute of Homoeopathy. 

HAROLD WILSON, Detroit, Michigan, born Cleveland, Ohio, August i, i860; grad- 
uated B. S., University of Michigan, 1882; M. D., homoeopathic department. University 
of Michigan, 1886; post-graduate studies, Wurtzburg and other European clinics; mem- 
ber of the American Homoeopathic Ophthalmological Society. 

CHARLES GREENFIELD CRUMRINE, Detroit, Michigan, born Beallsville, Pa., 
June 8, 1865 ; educated Waynesburg College and Thiel College, Pa. ; graduated, Chicago 
Homoeopathic Medical College, 1889; professor of gynecology and rectal surgery, Detroit 
Homoeopathic College; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy; ex-president 
Detroit Homoeopathic Practitioners' Society. 

CLARENCE AUGUSTUS SCHIMANSKY, Sandusky, Ohio, born Toledo. Ohio, 
October 28, 1874; literary education, Oberlin College, 1 892-1 893 ; graduated, homoeopathic 
department. University of Michigan, 1898. 

WILLIAM HENNION BLEECKER, Brooklyn, New York, born Parsippany, N. J., 
March 11, 1845; graduated. New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 1887; 
former proprietor of " New Jersey Republican." 

WILLIAM ED. GILL, Norwalk, Ohio, born Erie county, Ohio ; literary education,. 
Ohio State University; graduated, Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, 1877. 

GEORGE HENRY WILKINS, Newtonville, Massachusetts, born Amherst, N. H., 
December 28, 1855 ; literary education New Hampshire College of Agriculture and Me- 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 285 

chanic Arts; graduated, New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1883; post-graduate 
course. Harvard, 1899; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

WILLIAM CLEVELAND LATIMER, Brooklyn, New York, born Newport, N. H., 
May 4, 1849; graduated from New York Homoeopathic jMedical College and Hospital, 
1881. 

CHARLES EDWIN BATTLES, Cleveland, Ohio, born East Cleveland, Ohio, March 
II, 1877; graduated A. B., Mt. Union College, Alliance, Ohio, 1898; M. D., Cleveland 
Homoeopathic IMedical College, 1903. 

WILLIAM FORD W^ARD, Binghamton, New York, born Holland Patent, N. Y., 
January 20, 1873 ; graduated, Binghamton High School, 1892 ; graduated, Hahnemann 
Medical College and Hospital of Philadelphia, 1897; interne Brooklyn Homoeopathic Hos- 
pital, 1897-1898. 

GRACE ELLA CROSS, South Boston, Massachusetts, born Boston, Mass., March 

26, 1863; literary education, Shurtleff Grammar School, grad. 1876; Girls' High School, 
Boston, 1880; Boston Normal School, 1882; graduated M. D., Boston University School of 
Medicine. 1886. 

FRANK EDDY CALDW^ELL, Brooklyn, New York, born New York city, February 

27, 1858; literary education, Cornell University; graduated M. D., Hahnemann Medical 
College of Philadelphia, 1880; a manager of Empire State Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion. 

WILLIAM HENRY PRICE, Detroit, Michigan, born Cleveland, Ohio, October 9, 
^^771 graduated M. D., Cleveland Medical College, 1899; lecturer on osteology, Detroit 
Homoeopathic College. 

FRANCIS HAMILTON MAC CARTHY, Boston, Massachusetts, born Canton, 
Mass., December 4, 1871 ; literary education, Tilton Seminary and Redfield College; grad- 
uated, Boston University School of Medicine, 1900. 

JAMES CURTIS MARTIN, Detroit, Michigan, born Hancock, N. Y., October 7, 
1869 ; student Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital of Philadelphia ; graduated, 
Detroit Homoeopathic College, 1903; lecturer on materia medica, Detroit Homoeopathic 
College, since 1903; captain Co. F, ist N. Y. Vols., Spanish-American war; captain Co. 
F, 1st Inf., N. G. S. N. Y., 1898-1901 ; department editor " Medical Counsellor." 

WILLIAM LATHROP LOVE, Brooklyn, New York, born New York city, July 
27, 1872; graduated A. B., Philadelphia City College, 1891, and A. M., 1895; M. D., New 
York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 1894; associate editor of the "North 
American Journal of Homoeopathy." 

VIRGIL WALTER CONNER, Lansing, Michigan, born New Market, Randolph 
county, N. C, May 20, 1850; graduated B. A., Trinity College, Durham, N. C, 1870; 
M. D., Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1890; city physician and health officer, 
1894, 1896 and 1898; commissioner of the poor, 1894 and 1898. 



286 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

BERTHA EVELYN EBBS, Dedham, Massachusetts, was born in that city in 1879; 
graduated M. D., Boston University School of jMedicine, 1901. 

NELSON ROBERT GILBERT, Bay City, :Michigan, born Norwich, Ont.. :March 
7, 1842 ; graduated M. D., Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, 1871 ; member board 
of censors, Detroit Homoeopathic College; member and president of board of pardons; 
president of board of control. Alichigan Home for Feeble Minded and Epileptics. 

MOSES CLIFFORD PARDEE, Brooklyn, New York, born South Norwalk, Conn.. 
April 25, 1865; graduated M. D., New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 
1899. 

EDGAR RICHARD KNAPP, Saginaw, :Michigan, born Danby, Tompkins county, 
N. Y., February 7, 1834; graduated M. D., College of Medicine and Surgery, University 
of ^Michigan, 1856; has practiced in Saginaw since 1864. 

ANNIE ISABELLE LYON, Boston, Massachusetts, born in that city, October 17, 
1867; graduated 'SI. D., Boston University School of Medicine, 1889. 

CHARLES AUSTIN WARD. Binghamton, New York, born Holland Patent, N. Y., 
September 8, 1862; graduated -M. D., New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1887; 
consulting physician, Binghamton City Hospital ; member of the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy. 

SAMUEL GEORGE ^IILNER. Detroit, ^Michigan, born Salineville, Ohio, May 18, 
1846; graduated A. B., University of Michigan, 1872; A. M., 1876; M. D., homoeopathic 
department, 1887: member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy; member state board 
of health. 1893-1899; ex-president College of Physicians and Surgeons, Grand Rapids. 

FRANK ELMORE CONSTANS, Brockton, ^Massachusetts, bom Blue Earth. Minn., 
August 2. 1866; literary education. Carleton College, B. S., 1886; graduated, Hahnemann 
]\Iedical College of Philadelphia, 1889. 

ORLANDO DUBOIS INGALLS, Brooklyn, New York, born Kingston, N. Y., 
October 11, 1878; educated at Kingston Academy; graduated, New York Homoeopathic 
Medical College and Hospital, 1903. 

WILLIAM HENRY ATEN. Brooklyn. New York, born in Tecumseh, ?klich.; grad- 
uated. Long Island College and Hospital, 1883; surgeon U. S. and Brazil IMail Steamship 
Co., 1885-1886; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy; ex-president Kings 
County Homoeopathic Medical Societj'. 

LELAND HEDGES GILLELAND, Grand Rapids, IMichigan, born White Pigeon, 
Mich., May 5, 1876; graduated, National ^ledical College, Chicago, 1899. 

FRED SiMITH PIPER, Lexington, Massachusetts, born Dublin, N. H., November 
21, 1867; literary education. Gushing Academy, Ashburnham, Mass.; graduated, Boston 
University School of Medicine; 1890; justice of the peace in New Ham.pshire; member of 
school committee in Lexington. 

CHARLES LLOYD, Brooklyn, New York, born Norwich, England, November 23, 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATKY • 287 

1839; graduated, Eclectic Medical College of Pennsylvania, 1867; surgeon's steward U. S. 
navy, war of 1861-1865. 

WILLIAM ALEXANDER GIBSON, Jackson. Michigan, born Ypsilanti, Mich., July 
18, 1843; graduated, medical department, University of Michigan, 1866; hospital steward, 
8th ^lich. Inf., 1862-1865; converted to homoeopathy, 1870: physician and surgeon. Mich- 
igan state prison, 1892- 1902. 

HENRY OSCAR ROCKEFELLER, Brooklyn, New York, born Germantown, Co- 
lumbia county. N. Y., June 8, 1862; literary education, Claverack College and Hudson 
River Institute ; graduated, Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1887 ; organizer, and 
from 1894 to 1905 medical director of Twenty-sixth Ward Homoeopathic Hospital. 

DAVID HENRY CHANDLER. Comwall-on-Hudson. New York, born Little Britain, 
X. Y., February 21, 186 1 ; graduated A. B., Brown University, 1886; A. M., 1888; M. D., 
New York Homceopathic Medical College and Hospital. 1892; post surgeon, New York 
Military Academy since 1900 ; health officer, Cornwall since 1903. 

■ EDWIN ALONZO COLBY. Gardner, Massachusetts, born Lowell, Mass., April 8, 
1854; graduated, Boston University School of Medicine, 1876; member of the American 
Institute of Homoeopathy; ex-member of Gardner school committee and ex-member board 
of health. 

ALBERTUS TRIBUE HOXIE, Grand Rapids, Michigan, born near Adrian, Mich., 
February 22. i860; graduated, homoeopathic department. University of Michigan, 1901 ; 
member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

FLOYD EDWARD WESTFALL. Ypsilanti, Michigan, born Niles, Mich., May 20, 
1876; graduate of Niles High School; graduated, homoeopathic department, University of 
Michigan, 1S99; rhember of the American Institute of Homoeopathy; assistant to chair 
of theory and practice, 1901-1904, and assistant to chair of surgery, 1904, homoeopathic 
department, University of Michigan. 

ELOISE AUGUSTA SEARS, Waltham, Massachusetts, born South Yarmouth, 
Mass., March i, 1854; graduate of Wilbraham Academy and of State Normal School of 
Bridgewater. Mass.; graduated, Boston University School of Medicine, 1888; post-graduate 
courses in New York and clinics in Paris and Vienna ; president of Waltham Woman's 
Club. 

AMANDA JANE EVANS, Grand Rapids, Michigan, born near White Pigeon, Ind., 
December 6, 1844; taught school eight years in Allegan and Barry counties; graduated, 
homoeopathic department. University of Michigan, 1880; post-graduate course under Prof. 
E. H. Pratt Chicago, 1898. 

EDWARD ARTHUR DAKIN, Boston, Massachusetts, born Digby, Nova Scotia, 
August 16, 185s; literary education, Arcadia College, Wolfville, N. S.; graduated, Hahne- 
mann Medical College of Philadelphia, 1881 ; post-graduate studies in Harvard Medical 
School ; ex-city physician and ex-member of board of health, Brockton, Mass. ; removed 
to Boston in 1890. 



<J88 ' HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

RALPH WALDO HOMAN, Webster City, Iowa, born Coming, Iowa; graduated. 
College of Homceopathic Medicine, University of the State of Iowa, 1894; assistant to 
chair of ophthalmology, otology, rhinology and laryngology in alma mater, 1895-1899. 

HUGH FRANXIS FISHER, Kansas City, Missouri, born Lawrence, Kan., February 
8, 1863; graduated M. D., Hahnemann Medical College, Chicago, 1884; O. et A. Chir., 
New York Ophthalmic Hospital, 1890, ad eundum. University Medical College, Kansas 
Cit3', 1905 ; professor of ophthalmology, otolog>% rhinologj^ and laryngology of the College 
Homoeopathic Medicine and Surgery of Kansas City University; ex-member of the 
American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

MARY FLORENCE TAFT, Newtonville, Massachusetts, born Putney, Vt., June 19, 
1853; literary education, Somerville High School; graduated, Boston University School 
of Medicine, 1886; ex-professor of diseases of women, Hering Medical College, Chicago; 
member of International Hahnemannian Association. 

MARIA WHITTELSEY NORRIS, Grand Rapids, Michigan, born Ypsilanti, Mich., 
January 28, 1856; literary education at Saybrock Hall, Montreal, Canada; graduated, Bos- 
ton University School of Medicine, 1892 ; member of the American Institute of Homoe- 
opathy; secretary Homoeopathic Medical Society of the State of Michigan, 1899. 

CAROLYN ELIZABETH PUTNAM, Kansas City, Missouri, born Rochester, N. Y., 
January 28, 1857; literary education, Rochester (N. Y.") Free Academy; graduated, Kan- 
sas City Homoeopathic Medical College, 1897; professor of materia medica, 1902, diseases 
of children, 1902, and of materia- medica since 1904 in the Kansas City Homoeopathic 
Medical College. 

JOHN KELSO WARREN, Worcester, Massachusetts, born Manchester, N. H., 
March i, 1846; literary education, Francestown and Mt. Vernon academies; graduated. 
New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1870; in 1894 established a private surgical 
hospital, which in 1896 was incorporated under the laws of Massachusetts and name 
changed to Worcester Hahnemann Hospital, of which he is president; member of the 
American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

SAMUEL PORTER TUTTLE, Grand Rapids, Michigan, born Springport, Jackson 
county, Mich., May 14, 1869; graduate of St. Louis (Mich.) High School; graduated, ho- 
mceopathic department. University of Michigan, 1898 ; assistant to chair of gynecology and 
obstetrics, University of Michigan, 1898-1899; president Sigma Alpha fraternity, 1898. 

EDWARD KENNEY THOMPSON, Kansas City, Missouri, born Seville, Medina 
county, Ohio, May 6, 1862; literary education, Whitehall (Mich.) High School; gradu- 
ated, Hahnemann Medical College, Chicago, 1888; professor of principles and practice of 
medicine, Kansas City Hahnemann Medical College; ex-president Kansas State Homoe- 
opathic Medical Society. 

GEORGE FREDERICK ALLEN SPENCER, Ware, Massachusetts, born New Leb- 
anon, N. Y., December 16, 1856; graduated from Albany Medical College, 1881. 

HARRY LYMAN IMUS, Holland, Michigan, born Galesburg, Mich., May 29, 1875 ; 
graduated, homoeopathic department. University of Michigan, 1902; ex-president North 
American Union Club. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 289 

GEORGE EDWIX WHITE. Sandwich, Massachusetts, born Skowhegan, Maine, June 
13, 1849; graduated, Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, 1880; ex-member board 
of health ; member of the legislature, 1894-1895 ; ex-member board of pension examiners. 

CHARLES HOLMES GOODMAN, St. Louis, Missouri, born Rochester, N. Y., 
August 8, 1844 ; graduated A. B., Yale College, 1867 ; M. D., Hahnemann Medical College 
of Philadelphia, 1869; ex-professor of theory and practice, Homceopathic Medical College 
of Missouri ; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

JOHN HILLMAN BENNETT, Pawtucket, Rhode Island, born New Bedford. Mass., 
December 12, 1869; graduated from Boston University School of Medicine, 1891 ; member 
of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

CHARLES WESLEY EDMUNDS, Bay City, Michigan, bom Watford, Ontario, 
Canada, January 8, 1874; graduated, homoeopathic department. University of Michigan, 
1900; post-graduate course. University of Michigan, 1901 ; member of the American Insti- 
tute of Homoeopathy; ex-president Saginaw Valley Homoeopathic Medical Societj'. 

JOHN MANN CRESWELL, Pineville, Arkansas, was born in Arkansas, 1857; Ht- 
•erary education. La Crosse Academy; graduated. Homoeopathic Medical College of St. 
Louis, 1882. 

ZEPHANIAH WILSON SHEPHERD, Toledo, Ohio, born Shreve, Wayne county, 
Ohio, May 17, 1838; graduated, Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital of Chicago, 
1877; special course, 1885; deputy register Mecosta county, Mich., 1867; county superin- 
tendent of public schools. 1867-1868; practiced ten years in Waterloo, Ind., three years 
in Scranton, Pa., and in Toledo since 1899. 

JOHN FREMONT ELLIS, Eureka Springs, Arkansas, born Elkhart, Ind., July 16, 
1856; graduated. New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1879; ex-member Interna- 
tional Hahnemannian Association; member Sons of the Revolution. 

JOSEPH HARRIS BALL, Bay City, Michigan, born Dexter, Mich., June 16, 1873; 
■graduated, homoeopathic department. University of Michigan, 1898; under-graduate assist- 
ant to chair of ophthalmology', otology and lar}-ngolog\', 1897-1898; graduate assistant, 
1898-1899 ; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy : general secretary, 1901, 
Homoeopathic [Medical Society of the State of Michigan ; member board of censors, Oph- 
thalmclogical and Laryngological Societ>', 1903; acting hospital steward, 1st Regt., M, N. 
G., 1896-1898. 

WILLIS SIMPSON PUTNEY, Milford, Connecticut, born New York city. May 
26. 1859; literary education. Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute, Brooklyn, N. 
Y. ; graduated. New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1882; member of the American 
Institute of Homoeopathy. 

AARON JOHN BOND, Adams, Massachusetts, born Dalton, N. H.. May 7, 1857; 
graduated from New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1883 ; member of the American 
Institute of Homoeopathy. 

EGBERT HAMILTON LATHROP, Hastings, Michigan, born Marengo, Calhoun 
county, INIich., May 17, 1839 ; educated. Lansing Literary College ; graduated, Cleveland 



290 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

Homoeopathic Hospital College, 1882; two years hospital steward 8ist III. Vols.; prisoner 
June II, 1864, and held in Andersonville; member Hastings school board, 1S88-1894; 
alderman, 1^94-1900; health officer, 1900-1902. 

WILLIAM MORRIS MERCHANT, Ironton, Ohio, born Wheeling, W. Va., October 
17, 1875; graduated from Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, 1900. 

HUBERT T. DEAN, Holyoke, ]\Iassachusetts, born Manchester, Iowa, July 6, 1870; 
graduated from Boston University School of Medicine, 1903. 

BELLE BUCHANAN EVANS, Piqua, Ohio, was born in that city, April 2, 1854; 
graduated M. D., Pulte Medical College. Cincinnati, 1883, and from the Woman's Medical 
College, Cincinnati, 1894. 

HOWARD A. STREETER, Marblehead, Massachusetts, born Norfolk, N. Y., August 
12, 1875 ; literary education. Classical High School, Worcester, Mass. ; graduated, Boston 
University School of Medicine, 1898; member of the American Institute of Homceopathy; 
member board of health since 1904. 

FRANK IRWIN NICHOLS, White Plains, New York, born Springfield, Mass., May 
27, 1878; literary education, Springfield High School; graduated, New York HonKEopathic 
Medical College, 1902; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

THOAIAS A. CAPEN, Fall River, Massachusetts, born Wrentham, Mass., June 12, 
1845 ; student at Massachusetts Agricultural College, Amherst ; graduated, Hahnemann 
Medical College of Philadelphia, 1872. 

ELIZA TAYLOR RANSOM, Boston, Massachusetts, born E.scott, Ontario, Canada, 
May I, 1867; literary education, Oswego State Normal School; graduated, Boston Uni- 
versity School'of Medicine, 1900; post-graduate courses. New York Post-Graduate School, 
New York Polyclinic, New York Pathological Institute and Johns Hopkins Medical 
School, Baltimore; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

ALFRED MILLER HAIGHT, White Plains, New York, born Bedford, N. Y., De- 
cember 12, 185s ; graduated. New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1879 ; member of 
the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

EARLE APPLETON GAYDE, Utica, New York, born Philadelphia, Pa., March 
21, 1869; literary education, Girard College; graduated, New York Homoeopathic Medical 
College and Hospital, 1898; University of the State of New York (purple seal). 

FRANK WALLACE PATCH, Framingham, Massachusetts, born Wayland, M^ss., 
March 22, 1862; literary education, Weston High School, 1877; graduated, Boston Uni- 
versity School of Medicine, 1888; certificate. Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ire., member of 
the International Hahnemannian Association; established Woodside Cottage in 1900; ex- 
president, Worcester County Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

FRANK WELLINGTON MURPHY, Dayton, Ohio, born Concord, Ohio, September 
7, 1870; graduated, Pulte Medical College, 1894; member of the American In.stitute of 
Homoeopathy. 



I 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 291 

CHARLES JOSEPH DOUGLAS, Boston, Massachusetts, born Hebron, Conn., Sep- 
tember 29, i860; graduated, Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital of Chicago, 1891 ; 
member of the American Medical Society for the Study of Alcohol and Narcotics; 
founder and proprietor of Dr. Douglas' Sanitarium, Boston. 

ALBERT BABCOCK CORNELL. Kalamazoo, Michigan, was born in that city, June 
22, 1843; literary education, Kalamazoo College; student, Bellevue, N. Y., 1867-1868; 
graduated, Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital of Chicago, 1869; member of the 
American Institute of Homoeopathy; health officer three terms; ex-vice-president Homoe- 
opathic Medical Society of the State of Michigan; president Southwestern Michigan 
Homoeopathic ^Medical Society. 

HENRY M. SANGER, Providence, Rhode Island, was born in that city, August 
30, 1870; graduated from Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, 1892. 

JAMES MITCHELL TAYLOR, Chicago, Illinois, born St. Louis, Mo., March 20, 
1848; graduated. Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri, 1869; practiced in Mason 
City until 1891 and then removed to Chicago ; was city treasurer of Mason City one year. 

GEORGE DARLING GRANT, Springfield, Ohio, was born in that city, December 
30, 1855; literary education, Wittenburg and Marietta colleges; graduated, Pulte Medical 
College, 1878. 

SALLY ANN HARRIS, White Plains, New York, born Greensburgh, Westchester 
county. N. Y. ; literary education, Rutgers Female Institute, graduated 1855; graduated, 
New York Medical College and Hospital for Women, 1878. 

HARRY PERCY WEBB, Royal, Iowa, was born in England, 1867; graduated from 
Chicago HomcEopathic Medical College, 1896. 

HELEN FRANCES PIERCE, Plymouth, Massachusetts, was born in that city, 
March i, 1861 ; literar>- education, Plymouth High School, graduated 1878; graduated, 
Boston University School of Medicine, 1887; member of the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy. 

THO^^IAS CORWIN BUSKIRK, Portland, Michigan, born Dover, Ohio, February 
20, 1853 ; graduated, Chicago Homoeopathic ^ledical College, 1888 ; president Northern 
Indiana and Southern Michigan Homoeopathic ^Medical Association, 1898; health officer 
Oshtenee, 1888-1893. 

FREDERICK W. RICH, Riverside, Illinois, born Chicago, 111., March 24, 1859; 
graduated, Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1889; health officer village board. 
Riverside, ten years. 

WALTER EDWARD DELABARRE, White Plains, New York, born Blackstone, 
Mass., June 14, 1858; graduated A. B., Brown University, 1880; ^I. D.. New York 
Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 1891 ; post-graduate courses, New York 
Post-Graduate School and New York Ophthalmic Hospital ; member of the American 
Institute of Homoeopathy; medical director Rosemont Springs Sanitarium. 

OSMOND J. TRAVERS. Saratoga Springs, New York, born South Schodack, N. Y., 



292 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

March 12, 185 1 ; student Cornell University, 1868-1869; graduated, Cleveland Homoe- 
opathic Hospital College, 1877 ; member board of education. North Brookfield, Mass., 1878. 

WILLIAM HENRY WATTERS, Lynn, Massachusetts, born Mechanic's Falls, 
Maine, June 23, 1876; graduated A. A., St. Francis College, Canada, 1892; A. B., McGill 
University, Montreal, 1897; M. D., Boston University School of Medicine, 1900; post- 
graduate courses Harvard Medical School, 1901-1902; Glasgow University, 1900; Uni- 
versity of Birmingham, 1901 ; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

CHARLES S. MORLEY, Detroit, Michigan, born Victory, Oswego county, N. Y., 
January 18, 1855 ; literary education. State Normal School, Fredonia, N. Y. ; graduated, 
Qeveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, 1876; ex-president Homoeopathic Medical So- 
ciety of the State of Michigan; surgeon, 34th Mich. Vols.. Spanish-American war; health 
commissioner, Detroit, 1898-1900. 

ELMER EUGENE WALDO, Hannibal, Missouri, born President, Venango county, 
Pa., November 25, 1862; graduated from Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1894; 
member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

GEORGE VICTOR POWELL, Bowling Green, Ohio, was born in that city, Novem- 
ber II, 1873; student, Otterbein University four years; graduated, Chicago Homoeopathic 
Medical College, 1901 ; interne Chicago Homoeopathic Hospital, 1901-1902. 

EDMUND ALONZO BALYEAT, Kalamazoo. Michigan, born Van W^ert, Ohio, 
August 15, 1859; educated at Hillsdale College; graduated. Chicago Homoeopathic Med- 
ical College, 1882; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy; ex-president of 
late Southwestern Michigan Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

ERNEST PIERRE BIXBY, Barre, Massachusetts, born Francestown, N. H., June 
3, 1873; literary education. Gushing Academy, Ashburnham, Mass.; graduated, New 
York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 1897; member of the American Insti- 
tute of Homoeopathy. 

EMILY FRANCES SWETT, Medina, Orleans county. New York, born Royalton, 
N. Y., September 9, 1854; literary education, Medina Free Academy; graduated, Hahne- 
mann Medical College and Hospital of Chicago, 1885; post-graduate courses in Chicago 
1888 ; New York Post-Graduate College, 1900 ; Paris, France, 1891 ; member of the 
American Institute of Homoeopathy; member of board of managers Western House of 
Refuge; member of Daughters of the American Revolution. 

JOHN T. CREBBIN, New Orleans, Louisiana, born Lawrence, Kans., December 8, 
1873; literary education, Soule's College; graduated, Hahnemann Medical College and 
Hospital, Chicago, 1900; secretary of Hahnemann Medical Association of Louisiana. 

LOUIS BRADFORD COUCH, Nyack, New York, born Lee. Berkshire county, 
Mass., October i, 1851 ; graduated, New York Ophthalmic Hospital College, 1874; M. D., 
New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1874; awarded T. F. Allen gold medal for the 
proving of picric acid, 1874. 

MARKWELL SEWARD PURDY, Corning, New York, born Bradford, N. Y., Sep- 
tember I, 1858; graduated, Cornell University, B. Sc, 1882; graduated, Chicago Homoe- 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 29:; 

opathic Medical College, 1884; founder and eleven years medical director of Highland 
Pines Sanitarium ; first health officer city of Corning. 

JOHN COUCH BATCHELDER, Rockland, Massachusetts, born Middleton, Mass., 
May 9, 1864; graduated, Boston University School of Medicine, 1887; chairman board of 
health, Wrenham, 1891-1894; of Rockland, 1896-1905; town physician, Rockland, 1895- 
1905. 

BEVIER HASBROUCK SLEGHT, Newark. New Jersey, born Sleghtsburg, N. Y. ; 
graduated A. B., Rutgers College, 1880; A. M., 1883; graduated M. D., Hahnemann Med- 
ical College of Philadelphia, 1882. 

JAMES FRANKLIN BATTIX, Onawa, Iowa, born Marshall county, Iowa, August 
■9, 1869; graduated from College of Homoeopathic Medicine, University of the State of 
Iowa, 1897; health officer of Onawa; member of commission of insanity. 

EVA ALICE CUNNINGHAM GARDNER, Lawrence, Kansas, born Crawfords- 
ville, Iowa, April 26, 1855; graduated. Eastern Iowa Normal School, 1879; graduated, 
■homoeopathic department, University of Michigan, 1890. 

ALBERT HUSTED RODGERS. Corning, New York, born Albany, N. Y., July 4, 
1867; graduated A. B., Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y., 1890; M. D., Albany Medical 
College, 1896; M. D., New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 1898; ex- 
•secretary. Southern Tier Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

ARTHUR BARR SMITH, Springfield, Ohio, was born in that city, October 14, 
1872 ; literary education, Wittenberg College ; graduated. New York Homoeopathic ^led- 
ical College, 1897; police surgeon, Springfield, since 1899; founder of Phi Alpha Gamma 
fraternity. 

CHARLES THEODORE CUTTING, Newtonville. Massachusetts, born Maiden, 
Mass., 1874; graduated, Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital of Philadelphia, 1898; 
-member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

FRANK HAROLD TYLER, Kalamazoo, I'Nlichigan, born Nottawa, Mich., August 
28, 1855 ; literary education. Northwestern University, Chicago ; graduated, homoeopathic 
•department. University of Michigan, 1880; post-graduate course, New York Polyclinic, 
1891, New York Post-Graduate School, 1901. 

HENRY SETH GARDNER. Lawrence, Michigan, born near Vandalia, 111., Sep- 
tember 9, 1845 ; student one year, Wesleyan University, Bloomington, 111. ; graduated, 
Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, 1881 ; member of the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy since 1894. 

LEWIS AUSTIN SNELL, Charlotte, Michigan, born Charleston. Vt., July 14. 1841 ; 
■student in Detroit Homoeopathic College and in Homoeopathic Medical College of Mis- 
souri ; graduated M. D. from Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1886. 

CHARLES HIRAM MORDOFF, Genoa, Illinois, born near Belvidere, 111.. July 22, 
1856; graduated M. D., Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1881, and ad eundum, 



294 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

Hahnemann IMedical College of Chicago ; secretary of the De Kalb County Homoeopathic 
Medical Society and member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

ORRIN DAYTON KINGSLEY, White Plains, New York, born Sodus, Wayne 
county, N. Y'., 1849; literary education, Marion Collegiate Institute and Phillips Andover 
Academy ; graduated, Detroit Homoeopathic College, 1S73, and New York Homoeopathic 
Medical College and Hospital, 1874; practitioners' course. New York Homoeopathic Med- 
ical College, 1905; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy; president Village 
Park Association, White Plains. 

WILLIS WEBSTER GLEASON, Marlboro, Alassachusetts, born Chelsea, Mass., 
May 29, 1853 ; graduated from Boston University School of Medicine, 1877 ; practiced in 
Weston, Vt., in 1877; Gardner, Mass., 1878; Provincetown, Mass., 1879 to 1889; licensed 
as minister, 1890; ordained, 1891 ; pastor in Muncie, Ind., 1891-1892; Warren (Mass.) 
Universalist church, 1893-1894; Sherman, N. Y., 1895; re-entered medical profession in 
Attleboro, Mass., 1895, and practiced there until 1890; removed to Provincetown in 1899, 
and to Marlboro in 1904. 

HENRY CHARLES SUESS, Garden City, Kansas, born Detmold, Germany, August 
25, 1843; M. A. degree, 1864, Jones Commercial College, St. Louis, Mo.; M. D. degree, 
1875, Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri ; degree of doctor of homoeopathic med- 
icine, 1878. Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia ; health officer, Garfield county^ 
Kans., 1888 to 1892; county physician Finney county, Kans., 1897; was volunteer United 
States army during civil war, Co. B, 8oth 111. Vol. Inf. ; wounded at taking of Mission 
Ridge; made prisoner of war, and honorably discharged; member G. A. R. 

HARRIET A. KNOTT, Saginaw, Michigan, is a native of Utah, born April 5, 1867; 
literary education acquired in public schools and Lansingburgh Academy; graduate of the 
New York Medical College and Hospital for Women, 1894; member American Institute 
of Homoeopathy; secretary of Saginaw Valley Homoeopathic Medical Society; ex-secretary 
Montgomery County (N. Y.) Homoeopathic Medical Society; practiced in Gloversville, 
N. Y., 1896-1900, and since in Saginaw. 

HOWARD HUNTER HERAIAN, Dayton, Ohio, born in West Alexandria, Ohio, 
May I, 1872; literary education acquired in Heidelberg University, Ohio, and Miami Uni- 
versity, Ohio, graduated from the latter with degree of A. B. in 1904; graduated from 
Cleveland University of Medicine and Surgery in 1897; served as physician to Mont- 
gomery County Infirmary from 1899 to 1902; member ^lontgomery' County and ]\Hami 
Valley Homoeopathic Aledical societies. 

ANSEL JEROME ROBBINS, Jamestown, New York, born Winchester, Jackson 
count}-, Ohio ; graduated from Kansas Normal College, Fort Scott, with B. S. degree ;. 
from Georgetown University (medical department) in 1891 as an allopathic physician; 
Southern Homoeopathic College of Baltimore as 'SI. D. in 1896; medical examiner for 
several life insurance companies and lodges; member of the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy and the New York State and County Homoeopathic Medical societies. 

MARTIN LEWTS ENGLISH, Clarinda, Iowa, born East Windsor, N. Y., September 
18, 1862; graduate of the Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1889; practiced in 
Troy, 111., 1889 to 1892; Villa Ridge, 111., 1892 to 1894, and since that time continuously 
in Clarinda. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 295 

CASPER L. BACON. Muncie. Indiana, born in Watertown, N. Y., October I, 1853; 
graduated from State Normal and Training School at Pottsdam, N. Y. ; studied medicine 
under preceptorship of Dr. W. H. Giflford of Cleveland, Ohio; graduated from Cleveland 
Homoeopathic Medical College, 1896; practiced in Cleveland, Ohio., 1896 to 1900; Muncie, 
Ind., continuously since 1900. 

HERCULES REED HAWLEY, Staatsburg, New York, born in Virginia City, Nev., 
December 14, 1868; graduated from New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hos- 
pital. 1892; practiced in Brooklyn. N. Y.. 1892 to 1894; Washington, D. C, 1894 to 1896; 
in Staatsburg, N. Y., from 1896 to 1901, and in the latter year retired from practice. 

FRANKLIN NOYES, North Adams, Michigan, born in township of Palmyra, Mich., 
April 14, 1836; was a student in Hillsdale College; read medicine with Dr. C. A. Williams; 
entered medical department of University of Michigan in 1863 (allopathic), and in 1865 
graduated from the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College ; president of North Adams 
Village several terms ; master two years of the F. & A. M. ; special courses in Western 
Homoeopathic College of Chicago, 1873, and the Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 
1874. 

HERBERT WALDO HOYT, Rochester, New York, native of Wellsville, N. Y., 
born July 3, 1863; literary education in Riverside Academy, Geneseo State Normal 
School and University of Rochester, graduating A. B. from the latter in 1888; studied 
medicine in the Boston University School of Medicine, M. D. 1891 ; pathologist to Roch- 
ester Homoeopathic Hospital, 1894 to 1904, and laryngologist to same institution from 
1898 up to the present time; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, the 
New York State and ^lonroe County, also the Western New York Homoeopathic Medical 
societies; member and first vice-president (1905) of the Homoeopathic Ophthalmological, 
Otological and Laryngological Society. 

JA^ilES EVERSON WELLIVER. Dayton, Ohio, born in Bunker Hill, Ohio, August 
8, 1851 ; literar\' education National Normal School, Lebanon, Ohio, and Mt. Union College. 
Mt. Union. Ohio; graduated Puke Medical College, 1877; attending surgeon to Miami 
Valley Hospital ; member American Institute of Homoeopathy, the Ohio State, Miami Val- 
ley and Dayton Homoeopathic Medical societies. 

FREDERICK DANIEL LEWIS, Buffalo, New York, born in Hamilton, Ontario, 
January 27, 1861 ; graduate of Conisin's College, Buffalo, 1876 ; New York Homoeopathic 
Medical College and Hospital, 1892 ; laryngologist to Buffalo Homoeopathic Hospital ; civil 
service commissioner of Buffalo, 1892 to 1901, and served as secretarj' of Buffalo Catholic 
Institute. 

HUGH JOHN NEEDHAM, New Albany, Indiana, born in Louisville, Ky., May 27, 
1843; graduate of Oberlin College; Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, 1881 ; private Co. 
M. ist Cav., New Mexican Vols.; promoted 2d Lieut., Co. E, ist Cav., New Mexican 
Vols.; 2d Lieut., ist Inf., Co. F, New Mexican Vols.; entered service in August. 1862, 
mustered out October, 1866. 

JENNIE :MAY COLEMAN, Des Moines, Iowa, born Fairview, Iowa, February 17, 
1868; attended two terms Drake University, normal department; two years at College 
of Physicians and Surgeons, same university; one year homoeopathic department. Uni- 



296 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

versity of the State of Iowa, receiving M. D. degree in 1898; physician in charge of 
Benedict Home, Des Moines, since 1898; member of the International Hahnemannian 
Association. 

GEORGE PITKIN COOLEY, Jr., Detroit, Michigan, born April 12, 1867; literary 
•education, Greylock Institute, Williamstown, Mass., graduating in 1887; graduate of Uni- 
versity of New York, 1890; Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College in 1891 ; member of 
Ihe medical board of Grace Hospital, Detroit. 

WILLIAM EMBURY DAKE, Rochester, New York, born in that city December 
28, 1874; graduated from Rochester High School, 1894; student in University of Buffalo, 
1894-1895; studied medicine in Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, graduating 
in 1898; succeeded the late Dr. Allen B. Carr of Rochester in practice; member of staff 
Hahnemann Hospital, Rochester. 

WILLIAM WOODBURN, Des Moines, Iowa, born Bancroft, Kan., February 4, 
l86o; educated, State Agricultural College of Kansas and State' Normal University, 
Holton, Kan.; graduate Hahnemann Medical College of Chic5ago, 1888; New York Post- 
Graduate School of Medicine, 1894; secretary Des Moines Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

ROLLA WESLEY THORNBURG, Toledo, Ohio, born Napoleon, O., September 
.26, 1858 ; educated Republic Normal School and Baldwin University, Ohio ; attended 
Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1890-1 ; graduated Cleveland University of 
Medicine and Surgery, 1895 ; special course for treatment of cancer in 1897 ; practiced 
Blumville, O., 1895-99; Toledo since 1899. 

WILLIAM EVERETT LONG, Buffalo, New York, born Buffalo, February 8, 1859; 
■educated Buffalo State Normal School, Jamestown Union School and Collegiate Institute; 
.graduate, commercial course, 1876; Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, 1880; 
surgeon Buffalo City Guard Cadets, afterward formed into Buffalo City Battalion, 1881-85. 

JULIUS E. BARBOUR, Bristol, Indiana, born Romeo, Michigan, October 26, 1848; 
•graduated from Pontiac High School, 1868; Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 
1878; coroner of Elk county, 1895-1896; trustee Washington township, 1897-98; secretary 
of board of health continuously since 1898. 

HORACE MADISON HICKS, Amsterdam, New York, born Delta, N. Y., November 
3, 1862 ; literary education Whitestown Seminary, Whitesboro, N. Y. ; graduated from 
Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1886; member of staff of Amsterdam City Hos- 
pital and St. Mary's Hospital, Amsterdam ; assistant surgeon 2nd Reg., N. G., N. Y. ; mem- 
"ber Amsterdam board of health for the past nine years; president Amsterdam Medical 
Society, 1905. 

FRANK FOSTER DENNIS, Kokomo, Indiana, born Amanda, Fairfield county, 
•Ohio, April 4, 1862 ; took scientific course State Normal School, Oshkosh, Wis. ; attended 
Ohio State University, 1881-83; graduated from Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 
1894; practiced one year in his native town; in North Platte, Neb., until 1903, and since 
then in Kokomo. 

SOLLIS RUNNELS, Indianapolis, Indiana, born Delaware, Ohio, in 1854; literary 
■education, Oberlin College, Ohio, 1879-1S84; graduated from Chicago Homoeopathic 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 2!i7 

Medical College, 1887 ; practitioner in Indianapolis since graduation ; member Americarv 
Institute of Homoeopathy; ex-president Marion County (Indiana) Homoeopathic Med- 
ical Society. 

WILLIAM JAMES HARDY, Belmont, New York, born New Germantown, N. J., 
October 22, 1861 ; literary education acquired in Belvidere (New Jersey) Seminary and 
a private school at Washington, N. J. ; graduated from New York Homoeopathic Medical 
College and Hospital in 1889; has been a practitioner in Belmont since graduation, and 
is now serving as health officer of that town; member American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

GEORGE PRAY WINCHELL, Ionia, Michigan, born Ionia county, Mich, November 
I. 1873 ; graduate of Ionia High School, 1896 ; taught school in Ionia and Travers, Mich, 
three years; entered the homceopathic department of the University of Michigan, 1900; 
received M. D. degree in 1904; member American Gynecological Society; was justice of 
peace, Kalkaska county, Mich, 1888-89. 

ARTHUR WOOD BLUNT, Clinton, Iowa, born Dalton, Ga, July 30, 1854; graduated 
from Wheaton College with A. B. and A. M. degrees ; Chicago Homoeopathic Medical 
College, M. D. degree, in 1878; practiced in Winona, Minn., 1879-1881 ; in Clinton, since 
1881 ; member medical staff Agatha Hospital, Clinton; member American Institute of 
Homoeopathy; secretary Rock River Institute of Homoeopathy. 

EDWIN FANCHER, Middletown, New York, born Orange county, N. Y., April 22, 
i860; graduate of Warwick Institute, 1877; Boston University School of Medicine, M. D, 
1883; member medical staff Thrall Hospital, Middletown; practiced in Beverly, Mass, 
1883-84; in Middletown since 1884; United States pension surgeon, 1893-1897. 

WILLIAM BURGESS CARMAN, Rochester, New York, born Peoria, Ills., Sep- 
tember 27, 1857; graduated from University of Illinois, B. S. degree, 1882; Hahnemann 
Medical College and Hospital of Chicago, M. D. degree, 1884; is member of dispensary^ 
staff and of medical and surgical staff of Rochester Homoeopathic Hospital ; has been a 
practitioner in Rochester since 1884. 

WILLIAM HENRY KIRKLAND, Massillon, Ohio, born Bucyrus, Ohio, November 
10,^1840; graduated from Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 1878; has been a 
practitioner in Massillon since graduation; member Northeastern Ohio Homoeopathic 
Medical Society. 

HENRY ASHLEIGH CUMMINGS, Muskegon, Michigan, born La Peer, Mich., 
July IS, 1876; graduated from Muskegon High School, 1896, and from Hahnemann Med- 
ical College of Chicago in 1901 ; member medical staff of Hackley Hospital, Muskegon ; 
served as health officer Ada township, Mich., 1902-1903 ; practiced in Ada, Mich., 1901-03 ; 
in Muskegon since 1903. 

WILLIAM HENRY HECKMAN, Bedford, Indiana, born Greenville, Pa., April 
9, 1867; graduated from Edinboro Normal School, B. S. degree, 1889; was a student 
in Fredonia Academy, Fredonia, Pa.; graduated from Chicago Homoeopathic Medical 
College, M. D. degree, 1895 ; student in New York Post-Graduate School of Medicine, 1902. 

ABNER HAYWARD, Mt. Clemens, Michigan, born Johnstown, (Providence), R. 
T., September 26, 1829; literary education University of Michigan; medical, University 



298 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

of Michigan. 1859-1860, Cleveland HomcEOpathic Hospital College, Cleveland, Ohio, 
M. D. degree. 1864; practiced in Romeo, Mich., five and one-half years; Mt Clemens 
since 1872; served as county physician, 1876: memher American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

CLARKE EUGENE HINMAN, Syracuse. New York, born Phelps, Ontario county, 
N. Y. ; graduated from New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital in 1895 ; 
gynecologist and obstetrician to the Hospital of the Good Shepherd, Syracuse. 

CHARLES L. PAISLEY, Farmington, Iowa, born Burlington, Iowa, September 28, 
1866; literary education Baptist College, Burlington; graduated from Homoeopathic 
College of the State University of Iowa, 1891 ; has been a practitioner in Farmington 
since graduation ; served as city health officer six years and city alderman five years. 

FRANK ALLEN PRIEST, Marion, Indiana, born Clarke county, Ohio, April 13, 
1874; literary education Marion Normal College; medical, Hahnemann Medical College 
of Chicago, M. D. degree in 1898; has practiced in Marion ever since graduation; member 
Indiana Institute of Homoeopathy. 

GEORGE HIRAM PECK, New Philadelphia, Ohio, bom Woodbury, Conn., Sep- 
tember 21. 1838; literary education Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio; graduated from Detroit 
Homoeopathic College in 1873; is pioneer of homoeopathy in Tuscarawas county, Ohio, 
having commenced practice there in April, 1874; was health officer of New Philadelphia 
seven years. 

ARTHUR BESEIMER, Dundee, New York, born Slaterville Springs, N. Y., Sep- 
tember 7. 1869; literary education Ithaca High School; medical, Cleveland Homoeopathic 
Medical College, M. D. degree, 1892; practitioner's course, 1904, New York Homoeopathic 
Medical College and Hospital ; has been a practitioner in Dundee since 1892 ; served as 
health officer of town of Starkey, Yates county, five years ; is at present coroner of that 
county, and president of Southern Tier Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

ARTHUR A. GRIFFIS. Tipton, born in Ohio, November 25, 1861 ; graduated from 
Cleveland HouKieopathic ^ledical College, 1898; is a member of the Hahnemann Medical 
Association of Iowa. 

CARL SCHUMAN, Delhi, New York, born Arolsen, Germany, June 3, 1863; 
graduated from New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1887; was United States 
pension examiner from 1894-1897; is a member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

LOUIS MARQUIS BUNNELL, Tecumseh, Michigan, born Scranton, Pennsyl- 
vania, October 15, 1873; student in the Merrill's Preparatory School, Scranton; graduated 
A. B., Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut, 1895; M. D., Cleveland Homoeopathic 
Medical College, 1899. 

JOHN CHAPLIN NOTTINGHAM, Bay City, Michigan, born Muncie, Indiana, 
February 5, 1842; was a student in Muncie Academy, and graduated from Bennett 
Medical College, Chicago, 1873; member and ex-president of the Michigan State Homoe- 
opathic Medical Society ; owner and manager for two years of the Bay City Hospital ; 
author of " Practical Physiological Philosophy " and numerous papers. 

JOHN G. LEWIS, Rushville, Indiana, born Fortville, Indiana, February 28, 1863; 
graduated from Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College in 1895. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 299 

LEWIS CLARK CROWELL, Syracuse. New York, born ^Lincliester, New York, 
Februarj' 12, 1847; graduated from Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College in 1872. 

^L\RY DORA HUDSON. Evansville, Indiana, born Boonville, Indiana, May 17, 
1870; student in the Central Normal School, Danville; graduated from Southwestern 
Homoeopathic Medical College, Louisville, 1898; ex-president of the Round Table (a 
local homoeopathic society). 

WALTER GLOVER MEAD. Deposit. New York, born Orange. New Jersey, 
October 23, 1875 ; graduated from New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hos- 
pital, 1900; member of the American Institute of Homtxopathy. 

GILBERT MAHLON LaSALLE, Wabash. Indiana, born Wabash county, Indiana, 
August 29, 1870; graduated from Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital of Chicago, 
1895- 

WILLIS BENTON STEWART. Indianapolis. Indiana, born in Indiana, November 
I, 1855 ; literary education South Wabash Academy and state normal school at Terre 
Haute, Ind. ; medical education Indiana r^Iedical College two years (1881-82 and 
1882-83) and Hahnemann ^ledical College of Chicago, 1887-1888; received M. D. degree 
in the latter year ; practiced in Peru, Ind., five years ; in Indianapolis since 1893, giving 
special attention to stomach and medical diseases of women; has been a frequent contrib- 
utor to medical journals; member American Institute of Homoeopathy since 1893; 
president Sharon County Homoeopathic Medical Society, 1896, and of the Indiana 
Institute of Homoeopathy, 1898. 

HOMER CORWIN HAAS, Peru, Indiana, born Wabash, Ind., September 19, 1866; 
literary education high school, Wabash, Ind. ; medical. Hahnemann ^Medical College 
of Chicago, graduated M. D., 1890; member Indiana Institute of Homoeopathy. 

WILLIA?.! MAXWELL W^HITE. Amsterdam. New York, born in that city ^larch 
28, 1856; literary education Amsterdam Academy and Union College; graduated from 
the latter with A. B. degree in 1881 ; graduated from Albany Medical College in 1886 as 
valedictorian of his class ; has practiced in Amsterdam since graduation, and is attending 
physician to the Amsterdam City Hospital, the Children's Home and the Elderly 
Women's Home; served as health officer of Amsterdam six years. 

CHARLES NAUMANN, Circleville, Ohio, native of R.henish-Prussia, born Novem- 
ber I. 1837; literary education Smithville Academy, private schools, and in 1868 entered 
Northwestern College, Naperville, 111., from which he graduated with B. S. degree in 
1872; student in Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago for first course of lectures, 
1874; graduated from Pulte Aledical College, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1876; practiced in 
Naperville, 111.. 1876-1884; was superintendent of the high school at Frankfort, S. D., one 
year (1875) ; located in Circleville in 1885, and has since practiced there; served in city 
council two years, and has been member of board of city teachers* examiners since 1892, 
clerk of board for the past five years, and member of board of elections two terms of 
three years each. 

SILAS HURD QUINT, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, born Philadelphia, Pa., 
December 3, 1849; graduated from Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia in 1873; 
was a practitioner in Camden, N. J., until July 30, 1903, when he retired from practice; 



300 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

during his residence there he was on the medical staff of West Jersey Homoeopathic 
Hospital and on the surgical staff of the Camden Homoeopathic Hospital ; in practice he 
made a specialty of treatment of nervous and mental diseases. 

CHARLES OTIS HOOK, La Salle, Illinois, born Green Castle, Mo., December 6, 
1876; literary education Missouri State Normal School; medical education, American 
School of Osteopathy, D. O. degree; National Medical University, M. D. degree, and 
Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, M. D. degree in 1903; practiced osteopathy 
from 1898 to 1902, and medicine since May, 1903. 

HULDA MacARTHUR POTTER, Gardiner, Maine, born Parsonsfield, Maine, March 
2, 1838; literary education Congregational Academy and Gorham Academy; graduated 
from Boston University School of Medicine in 1877; practiced in Brookline one year; 
in 1882 she took a post-graduate course in Hahnemann Medical College of ^Chicago ; Dr. 
Potter practiced in Gardiner from 1878 until the time of her death — October 16, 1904. 

SCOTT FRASER HODGE, Detroit, Michigan, is a native of Plymouth, Mich., 
born February 21, 1876'; graduated from the Plymouth High School and the Homoeopathic 
department of the University of Michigan; received M. D. degree in 1900. 

SAMUEL ALAGA ROE, Lewiston, Idaho, is a native of Aullville, Mo.; literary 
education Hannibal High School, graduate, class of 1894; graduated from Missouri 
Medical College with M. D. degree, 1897; from New York Homoeopathic Medical College 
and Hospital, 1898, and received degree of O. et A. Chir. from N. Y. Ophthalmic Hospital, 
1898; practiced in Butler, Mo., 1 897-1 901 ; Arkansas City, Ark., 1901-02; in Lewiston 
since 1902, with diseases of the eye, ear, nose and throat as a special line; served as city 
health officer of Lewiston in 1904. 

CHARLES A. RITCHIE, Middletown, Delaware, born Zanesville, Ohio, December 
19, 1870; literary education, Zanesville High School, graduate, class of 1890; medical, 
Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, receiving M. D. degree in 1895 ; has been 
a practitioner in Middletown since graduation; is member of the Middletown board of 
health and president of the State of Delaware Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

HERBERT ALTON SHERWOOD, Warren, Ohio, born Fredericktown, Ohio, 
March 27, 1851 ; literary education Fredericktown High School ; graduated from the 
Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College in 1876; has practiced in Warren since gradu- 
ation ; was house physician in Huron Street Hospital, Cleveland, during last year of 
medical course; member American Institute of Homoeopathy since 1881. 

SUSAN MARY HICKS, San Francisco, California, native of Howard county, Mo., 
born October 19, 1848 ; educated at home and in a Quaker school at Richmond, Ind. ; 
graduated from homoeopathic department of the University of Michigan in 1883 ; 
practiced in Atlanta, Ga., 1883-1904, and is now taking a year's post-graduate course in 
Hahnemann Medical College of the Pacific; member American Institute of Homoeopathy 
and president Southern Homoeopathic Association. 

WILL STACY TRIMMER, Livonia, New York, born Honeoye, N. Y., June 6, 
1861 ; literary education Genesee Wesleyan Seminary. Lima, N. Y. ; medical, Pulte Med- 
ical College, M. D. degree in 1889; has been a practitioner in Livonia since 1890; served 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 301 

as health officer of Livonia, 1890; coroner Livingston county for past seven years, and 
supervisor of Livonia, 1898-99. 

GEORGE RENE De LAUREAL, Broussard, Louisiana, is a native of St. Martin- 
ville, La.; graduated from Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, 1891 ; did post-graduate 
work in the Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital, New Orleans, La., 1901 ; was president 
Lafayette Parish board of health, 1902-03. 

ALICE BURRITT, Washington, D. C, born Union Dale, Susquehanna county. 
Pa.; literary education. Normal School of Montrose, Pa., and Geneseo State 
Normal School, Geneseo, N. Y. ; graduated from New York Medical College and 
Hospital for Women, 1879; 'was staff physician for Fabiola Hospital, Oakland, Cal., 1883- 
1889; for Alameda County Homoeopathic Dispensary, 1880-85 and Washington City 
Homoeopathic Dispensary, 1893-4; member American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

ROBERT SIMMONS PHILLIPS, Providence, Rhode Island, born in Philadelphia, 
Pa., January 18, 1873 ; literary education. New Bedford High School, 1891 ; Brown 
University, Providence, R. I., 1896 with Ph. B. degree ; medical. New York Hdmoeopathic 
Medical College and Hospital, M. D. degree in 1900; took special course in New York 
Post-Graduate School of Medicine, 1901 ; one course with Dr. Louis Heitzman of New 
York, and in 1900-01 served as interne to Flower Hospital, New York city ; member 
American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

ELMER MARTIN HATCH, Logansport, Indiana, born Kingsville, Ohio, January 
22, 1863; literary education, high school of Kingsville; medical, New York Homoeopathic 
Medical College and Hospital, M. D. degree 1888; has practiced in Logansport since 
1891 ; served on staff of Grace Hospital, Detroit, 1889-90. 

FRANKLIN CALVIN FREEMAN, Chelsea, Georgia, born Amherst, Ohio. October 
2, 1858; literary education, high school of Oberlin and Oberlin College, graduating with 
A. B. degree in 1884 from the latter; received A. M. degree from Oberlin College in 
1888; medical education, Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, M. D. degree in 1889; 
took post-graduate course, Chicago Post-Graduate School, 1894; located in Chelsea since 
1902. 

JOHN GREENLEAF LENZ, Ilo, Idaho, born Buffalo Prairie, Ills. ; literary educa- 
tion, Maryville Seminary, 1891-92; State University of Iowa, 1896-97; graduate of Cedar 
Rapids Business College, 1896; spent freshman and sophomore years at Homoeopathic 
College, State University of Iowa, junior and senior years at Chicago Homoeopathic 
Medical College, and graduated from the latter in 1901 ; has been located in Ilo since 
graduation; spent one term in Homoeopathic Hospital, Iowa City; member American 
Institute of Homoeopathy. 

HERBERT WHITWORTH, Dodge City, Kansas, native of Notinghamshire, 
England, born February 19, 1843 ; literary education interrupted by service in the civil 
war ; medical education acquired in Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery, one " 
year, and in Pulte Medical College, from which he graduated in 1875; did post-graduate 
work in New York and Chicago ; is coroner and county health officer, also United States 
examining surgeon ; vice-president Ford County Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

SAMUEL BROWN PULLIAM, Paducah, Kentucky, born Warsaw, Ky., October 



302 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

19, 1869; literary education acquired under private preceptors; medical, Chicago Homce- 
opathic Medical College, class of 1902; has been a practitioner in Paducah since graduation. 

JOSEPH HOYT. BEATTIE. Dobbs Ferry, New York, born Warwick. X. Y., 
September 7. 1879; literary education acquired in Warwick Institute, 1885-1898; medical, 
New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, class of 1902, winning second 
faculty prize; interne Hahnemann Hospital, New York city, two years; did post-graduate 
work in England ; member American Institute of Homneopathy. 

MILTON BERT STEWART, Logansport, Indiana, born Virgil, Kan., March 14, 
1873; literary education, Columbia City High School, class of 1890; Indiana State 
Normal School, class of 1893; medical education, Cleveland Homoeopathic ^Medical Col- 
lege, class of 1897; has been a practitioner in Logansport since graduation. 

EDWIN BUXTON CLIFT, Fair Haven, Vermont, born Middletown Springs, Vt., 
May 25, 1868; literary education. Troy Conference Academy, Poultney. Vt. ; Middlebury 
College, A. B. degree, 1890; A. 'SL. 1893; medical education, Hahnemann ^Medical College 
of Philadelphia, 1900, with degrees M. D. and M. H. D. ; has practiced in Fair Haven 
since graduation ; member American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

WILLIAM ROBERT STEWART, Indianapolis, Indiana, born La Fontaine. Ind.. 
July 10, 1865; literary education. La Fontaine High School, 1884; taught school from 
1885-1888; graduated from Hahnemann iMedical College of Chicago, 1890. and later took 
a post-graduate course at that institution ; member American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

GEORGE FRANKLIN BREWSTER. ^liddletown. New York, was born in ]\Iiddle- 
town. Conn., February 22, 1.878; literary education, ^Middletown High School, grad. 1896; 
graduated M. D., 1900, New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital ; present 
assistant physician Middletown State Homoeopathic Hospital ; member of the American 
Institute of Homoeopathy. 

JOSEPH 'SI. BULLA. Richmond, Indiana born Wayne county, Ind.; literary 
education. National Normal School, Lebanon, Ohio; graduated M. D. Pulte Medical 
College. 1868; post-graduate course New York Post-Graduate School of Medicine; 
coroner of Wayne count^^ Ind.. two terms; member of the American Medical Association. 

LESTER OLIN THOMPSON, Red Oak, Iowa, born Vernon, Ohio, November 4. 
1857; M. D. Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, 1882; removed to Minneapolis, 
Minn., 1897, and took up study of osteopathy ; professor of anatomy Northern Institute 
of Osteopathy, 1897-98; lecturer on skin and venereal diseases. Still College of Oste- 
opathy, I 899- I 900. 

FRED MORTIMER HUNTLEY, Reed City. Michigan, born Goshen. Ind., Novem- 
ber 8, 1880; graduated 'SI. D. Chicago Homoeopathic ^ledical College, 1903. 

OTIS HENRY BABBITT, Auburn, New York, born Otsego, Otsego county, N. Y. ; 
literary education, Oswego State Normal School ; graduated M. D. New York Homoe- 
opathic Medical College, 1882; practiced in Cooperstown, N. Y., 1882-1896, and in Auburn 
since 1898; president of village of Cooperstown six years. 

JA:\IES BURT SIAYCOCK, Buffalo, New York, born Buffalo, August i. 1864; 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 303 

graduated M. D. Hahnemann ^ledical College of Chicago, 1886; spent one year in 
London attending clinics at Children's Hospital. Golden Square Hospital for diseases 
of the throat, and doing pathology at St. Bartholomew's; medical examiner for New 
York State Hospital for Tuberculosis ; member of American Institute of Homceopathy. 

JAMES' WILSON LOSEE, Pontiac, Michigan, born Oakland county, :Mich., 
November 19, 1865 ; graduated ^I. D. homoeopathic department L'niversity of Michigan, 
1891 ; health officer Pontiac five years ; county physician Oakland county nine years. 

MOSES McK. FRYE, Auburn, New York, bom Erie county, N. Y., February 21, 
1841; student New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1869; graduated Hahnemann 
Medical College of Philadelphia. 1870; practiced in Auburn since 1874; six years coroner 
of Cayuga county; served during war of 1861-1865; entered as private and served three 
and one half years; promoted ist and 2d lieut. ; member of Loyal Legion. 

CHALMERS N. KENDRICK. Buflfalo. New York, born Upper Alton. Ills., October 
18, 1872; literary education, Shurtleff College, Alton, A. B. 1894; graduated M. D. 
Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1898. 

ALBERT EDWIN LEACH, Mount Morris, New York, born Brooklyn, N. Y., 
IMarch 29, 1866; literary education, Lyons Union School and Penn. Military College; 
graduated M. D. New York Hom.oeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 1891 ; practiced 
one year in Rochester and since then in Mt. Morris ; village health officer four years. 

WILLIAM I. TYLER. Niles, :^Iichigan, born Portland, Mich.. January 31. 1865: 
graduated M. D. homoeopathic department University of Michigan, 1889; post-graduate 
studies New York Post-Graduate School of Medicine, 1901 ; practiced in Niles since 1889. 

REBECCA ROGERS GEORGE. Indianapolis, Indiana, born Pendleton, Ind.. :\Iay 
28, 1862; graduated M. D. homoeopathic department University of Michigan, 1891 ; pro- 
fessor of special physiolog>- and hygiene for women in Indiana L'niversity since 1898 ; 
member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

JAMES MORRIS HICKS, Huntington, Indiana, born Reading, Pa., April 21, 
1867; graduated M. D. Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1893; post-graduate 
studies at Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1895-1897, and in Vienna, Austria, 
1900; practiced in Huntington since 1894. 

HOWARD LANSING WALDO, Troy. New York, born Centerville, N. Y., Sep- 
tember 13, 1852; literary education, Oswego High School, graduated 1872; graduated 
M. D. (degree) from the regents of the University of the State of New York, 1875; 
practiced in Rensselaer county since 1875. 

RUFUS ELISHA BELDING, Troy, New York, born [Minerva, Stark county, Ohio, 
January 28, 1841 ; studied medicine, 1863-1864, in Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical Col- 
lege; graduated M. D. 1866, Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania; practiced' 
five years in Syracuse, N. Y., and for the last thirty-five years in Troy; surgeon 2d 
■battalion Troy militia, 1880-1885; member of the International Hahnemannian Association. 

OTIS :\IONROE WILEY, Syracuse. New York, bom Hardwick, ^lass., August 
14, 1868; literarj- education. Thayer Academy. So. Braintree. ^lass.. and Coburn Class- 



304 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

ical Institute, Waterville, Maine; studied medicine in the college of medicine of Syracuse 
University; graduated M. D. from New York HomcEopathic Medical College, 1902. 

ADOLPH FREDERICK SCHULZ, Ft. Wayne, Indiana, born Rostock, Germany, 
February 28, 1854; literary education in public schools of Rostock; medical education 
in Rostock University; practiced in Ft. Wayne since April, 1880. 

WILLIAM RUSSELL ELDER, Terre Haute, Indiana, born Chester, Mass., June 
21, 1824; literary education, Easthampton, Mass., seminary; student Berkshire Medical 
College, 1844-1847 ; studied homoeopathic medicine with Dr. Seth R. Beckwith ; practiced 
in Terre Haute since 1869; ex-president Indiana Institute of Homoeopathy; member of 
the National Association of Orificial Surgeons. 

CHARLES JOHN SNITKAY, Belle Plain, Iowa, bom Harvard, Ills., July 9, 1874; 
literary education, Tobin College, 1897 ; graduated M. D. homoeopathic medical department, 
University of the State of Iowa, 1901. 

FREDERICK HOOKER, Syracuse, New York, born Pillar Bluff, N. Y., April 30, 
1866; literary education, Glen Seminary, Williamstown, Mass., 1882-1883; graduated 
M. D. Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1886; president Onondaga County Homoe- 
opathic Medical Society, 1903-1904. 

ANNA WOOD, Terre Haute, Indiana, born Dale, Spencer county, Ind., 1848; 
graduated from State Normal School, Terre Haute, 1886; graduated M. D. from 
Woman's Hospital Medical College of Chicago, 1887; diploma also from Columbia 
College of Osteopathy, Chicago. 

WILLIAM VICKER NELL, Henderson, Kentucky, born Hitesville, Union county, 
Ky., February 8, 1877; literary education, Henderson High School, 1894; graduated 
Southwestern Homoeopathic ]\Iedical College, Louisville, Ky., 1902; present secretary of 
West Kentucky Homoeopathic Medical Society, and the Southern Homoeopathic Medical 
Society. 

ALMON NATHAN PIERCE, Lake Charles, Louisiana, born Kilbourne City, Wis- 
consin; graduated from State University of Nebraska, 1882; graduated M. D. from Pulte 
Medical College, Cincinnati, 1885. 

HENRY OTTO SOMMER, Washington, D. C, born Washington, December, 11, 
1875; graduated Southern Homoeopathic Medical College, Baltimore, 1897, third in his 
class; diploma from Metropolitan Hospital, Blackwell's Island, N. Y., 1898; degree of 
doctor of medicine at Freiberg in Baden, Germany, 1900; post-graduate studies in London, 
Paris, Berlin, Munich, Stuttgart, Zurich and in other great medical centers; member of 
the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

HOWARD PERCY DEADY, Liberty, Sullivan county. New York, born Hackensack, 
N. J., February 5, 1875, son of Charles Deady; literary education, College of the City 
of New York; graduated M. D. from New York Homoeopathic Medical College and 
Hospital, 1897; post-graduate course in diseases of the eye and ear in 1898; diseases of 
the chest, 1897 ; the throat and nose, 1903-1904 ; ex-secretary and ex-treasurer of Sullivan 
County Homoeopathic Medical Society, and now (1905) president of same. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 305 

HARRY CHARLES JOHNSON, Logansport, Indiana, bom in Logansport, August 
l8, 1880; high school graduate, 1900; graduated from Chicago Homoeopathic Medical 
College, 1904. 

ELIZABETH AVERY MacCRACKEN, Chicago, Illinois, born Aurora. Cayuga 
Lake, New York, in '1853 ; literary- education, Cayuga Lake Academy ; graduated from 
Wells College, 1870; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1887. 

HOWARD LAWRENCE COLES, Tarrj-town, New York, born Brooklyn, N. Y.; 
literary education, Cornell University; graduated degree M. D. from New York Homoe- 
opathic Medical College and Hospital, 1895. 

MARY FLOYD CUSHMAN, Farmington, Maine, born Boston, Mass., July 24, 
1870; graduated, 1888, Eastern Star Normal School, Castine, Me.; graduated M. D. from 
Boston University School of Medicine, 1892 ; post-graduate studies in New York Post- 
Graduate School of Medicine, 1894-1895; assistant physician to Westboro Insane Hospital, 
1896- 1897; member of American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

ELI CONE WILLIA:\IS, Hot Springs, \'irginia, born Bellevue, Ohio, April 18, 
1853; graduated A. B. from University of Michigan, 1884; graduated M. D. from homoe- 
opathic department. University of Michigan, 1889; member of American Institute of 
Homoeopathy. 

LINAL R. LUMBY, Pontiac, Michigan, born Farmington, Me., August 6, 1862; 
graduated ]\I. D. from homoeopathic medical department, University of Michigan, 1893; 
city physician, Pontiac, 1900-1905; vice-president Lansing Physicians and Surgeons 
Association. 

E. S. PRINDLE, Priest River, Idaho, born Charlotte, Vermont, June 10, 1869; 
educated in chemical department of University of Vermont ; graduated M. D. from 
Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1893. 

ALONZO REDFIELD PETTIT, Patchogue, New York, born Brooklyn, N. Y., 
March 18, 1848; graduated from New York Eclectic Medical College, 1874. 

GEORGIANA DELANCY READ, Providence, Rhode Island, bom Providence, 
March 13, 1842; graduated from Providence high school in i860, and taught in Provi- 
dence lower schools ten years ; graduated from New^ York Medical College and Hospital 
for Women, M. D., 1882; course in microscopy, 1892, New York Post-Graduate School 
of Medicine. 

CARLETON BUEL M'CULLOCH, Indianapolis, Indiana, born Cheboygan, Mich., 
June 30, 1871 ; literary education. Rose Polytechnic Institute, Terre Haute; graduated 
M. D. from Chicago Homceopathic Medical College; post-graduate course, same college, 
1896. 

JAMES CLAYTON SHAW, Hoosic Falls, New York, born South Berlin, N. Y., 
November i, 1850; graduated M. D. from Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 
1881. 



306 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

GEORGE LOUNSBERY, Charleston, West Virginia, born Ellenville, Ulster county, 
N. Y. ; graduated M. D. from New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1878; member 
of American Institute of Homoeopathy; homoeopathic medical examiner, state board, 
1896-1904. 

WILLIAiM GEDNEY BIRDSALL, Clintondale, Ulster county, New York, born in 
the town of Marlborough, Ulster county, son of Andrew C. Birdsall and Julia Ann. 
Weygant, his wife; literary education, Friends' Seminary, Union Springs, N. Y. ; gradu- 
ated from New York Homceopathic Medical College, M. D., 1888; health officer of the 
town of Plattekill. 

ELIZA JOHNSON AIERRICK. Cleveland, Ohio, born Hartland, Ohio, June 26, 
1857; literary education, Oberlin College, A. B. 1879, A. M. 1896; graduated M. D.. 
Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, 1884; post-graduate. New York Polyclinic; 
professor of diseases of children, Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College for two years. 

WILLIAM J. BLACKMAN. Salem, Ohio, born in Sullivan county, Pa., March 24. 
1862; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, 1891. 

WILLIAM ALLEN BARNES, Martinsburg, West Virginia, born in Washington 
county, Md. ; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, 1895. 

ARTHUR O. ULBREY, Niles, Michigan, born Berrien county, Mieh., July 24, 1862; 
graduated M. D. from the homoeopathic department of the University of Michigan in 
1886; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

JAMES WESLEY KRICHBAUM, Danville, Kentucky, born Green Bay. Wis., 
March 7, 1862; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1891 ; 
practiced in Somerset. Ky., five years, and in Danville eight years ; treasurer Kansas City 
Homoeopathic Medical Society, 1894-1903; president same, 1903-1904; member of Inter- 
national Hahnemannian Association. 

GEORGE SELMON WELLS, Wheeling. West Virginia, born Ben's Run. Tyler 
county, W. Va., October 9, 1863 ; literary education, Washington and Jefferson College, 
Washington, Pa.; graduated M. D. from Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, 1892; studied 
in Metropolitan Post-Graduate School, New York city. 1902; president, 1902, West Vir- 
ginia State Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

WEAR FRANCIS ARMSTRONG, Henderson, Kentucky, born Knoxville, Tenn., 
May 24, 1875 ; literary education. University of Tennessee ; graduated M. D. from South- 
western Homoeopathic Medical College, Louisville, 1899. 

MARY BUNKER JEPSON, Olean, New York, born Syracuse, N. Y„ July 18, 1867; 
classical course in State Normal School, Cortland, N. Y., finished in 1889; graduated 
M. D. from Hering Medical College, Chicago, 1895 ; member of the American Institute 
of Homoeopathy. 

CHARLES ANDREW ROWLEY, Victor, Ontario county, New York, born in Vic> 
tor, January 13, 1863; literary education, Victor High School (1878); graduated front 
Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, Lima, N. Y., literary and scientific course, class of 1884; 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 307 

graduated M. D. from Cleveland Homoeopathic ^^Fedical College, 1.S.S8; took post-graduate 
course in New York Polyclinic. 1894-1895. 

WILLIAM RANDALL ANDREWS. Clarksburg, West Virginia, born in the town 
of Thornapple, Barry county, Mich.. October i, 1861 ; attended lectures two terms and 
three spring courses in Columbian College, Washington, D. C. ; graduated M. D. from 
Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, 1892; ex-president and chairman of several 
sections of ^Maryland State Homoeopathic Medical Society; ex-vice-president Montgomery 
County Anti-saloon League ; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

REEVE TURNER. Goshen. New York, born New York city, September 23. 1873; 
literary education. New York City College; graduated ^I. D. from New York Homoe- 
opathic ^Jedical College and Hospital, 1899; ex-attache Middletown State Homoeopathic 
Hospital, and now connected with Dr. Seward's sanitarium at Goshen. 

CYRUS MAXWELL BOYER, Parkersburg, West Virginia, born in the academy 
building (now high school) in Lebanon, Pa.. May 13, 1861 ; graduated Ph. G., Philadel- 
phia College of Pharmacy, 1882; M. D.. Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, 
1888; took post-graduate courses at Hering Medical College, Chicago, and New York 
Polyclinic; special lecturer on materia medica, Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati; presi- 
dent of the Intern<itional Hahneniannian Association in 1904. 

JOSEPHINE MERLE DANFORTH, Cleveland, Ohio, born Dover, Cuyahoga 
count}', Ohio, ]\Iarch 11. 1874; literary education. East Cleveland High School; graduated 
]\I. D. from Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 1899; graduated M. D. from 
Cleveland College of Physicians and Surgeons (allopathic), 1903; post-graduate work in 
histology, pathology and bacteriologj' in Philadelphia Polyclinic, 1900; assistant to the 
chair of histology, pathology and bacteriolog>'. Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 
1900-1902. 

ALFRED :MANLEY DUFFIELD. Citronelle, Alabaina, born in ^^lassachusetts, :\lay 
18. 1859, of Puritan ancestors ; educated in Boston public schools and the Dorchester 
high school ; graduated M. D. from Boston University School of Medicine, 1885 ; ex- 
honorary vice-president of the American Institute of Homoeopathy ; ex-president Southern 
Homoeopathic Medical Association ; ex-president Alabama Homoeopathic Medical Asso- 
ciation ; ex-vice-president Homoeopathic ^ledical Society of Alabama ; delegate to Inter- 
national Homoeopathic Congress in London, 1896, representing the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy. 

MINNIE CROUCH DUNLAP, Lexington, Kentucky, born Aberdeen. Miss.. Janu- 
ary 22, 1858; literary education, IMethodist Episcopal College, ]\Iemphis, Tenn., and 
Georgetown Female Seminary, Georgetown, Ky. ; graduated M. D. from Southwestern 
Homoeopathic Medical College, Louisville, Ky., 1899; assistant lecturer and clinician, 
chair of otology and laryngology in her alma mater from 1899 to 1901 ; assistant physi- 
cian to Eastern Kentucky Asylum for Insane since 1901. 

WALTER HENRY TOBEY, Boston, ^Massachusetts, born in Jay. Essex county, 
N. Y., December 2, 1847; graduated M. D. from New York Homoeopathic Medical Col- 
lege, 1874; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

WILLIA}*! HUBBARD SHAW, :Manchester, New Hampshire, born December 3, 



308 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

1868 ; literary education, Grinnell College,^ Grinnell, Iowa ; entered Hahnemann Medical 
College of Philadelphia, and graduated M. D. from Hering Medical College, Chicago, 
1894. 

ELIZABETH C. MAAS, Rockford, Illinois, born Kenosha, Wis, March 30, 1863; 
literary education, University of Wisconsin ; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann Medical 
College and Hospital, Chicago, 1804; attending physician to Rockford City Hospital. 

SIDNEY ANSON BECKWITH, Yonkers, New York, born Whitehall, N. Y., Feb- 
ruary 12, 1877; graduated M. D. from New York Homoeopathic Medical College and 
Hospital, igoi ; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

HENRY ESTES MERRIAM, Owego, New York, born Waverly, N. Y., May 21, 
1869; literary education, Cornell University, 1888-1891 ; graduated M. D. from New 
York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 1894. 

EDGAR FERANT CHASE, Dexter, Michigan, born Monroe, Mich., May i, 1858; 
literary education, Michigan State Normal School ; graduated M. D. from Pulte Medical 
College, Cincinnati, 1879. 

NICHOLAS BRAY, Dubuque, Iowa, born Rushylvania, Ohio ; literary education, 
Washington Academy, Washington, Iowa; graduated M. D. from University of the State 
of Iowa, 1885; graduated from Chicago Ophthalmic College, 1892; member of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Homoeopathy. 

RICHARD OLIVER PHILLIPS, Yonkers, New York, born West Hurley, Ulster 
county, N. Y., September 11, 1848; literary education, Andes Collegiate Institute, 1867- 
1868; Fairfield Seminary, Fairfield, N. Y., 1873-1874, graduating in the latter year; 
student at Bellevue Hospital Medical College ; graduated from New York Homoeopathic 
Medical College, 1877. honorable mention; member of the American Institute of Homoe- 
opathy 

ALEXANDER CHARLES CALISCH, Oswego. New Y6rk, born Jersey City, New 
Jersey, January 29, 1871 ; graduated from the New York Homoeopathic Medical College 
and Hospital, M. D. 1891 ; special nose and throat course, New York Ophthalmic Hos- 
pital, 1892-93 ; assistant surgeon 48th Separate Company, N. G. N. Y. ; president Oswego 
County Homoeopathic Medical Society; president Oswego Ph3'sicians' Association. 

JOHN KING HAMILTON, Youngstown, Ohio, born New Hamburg, Pa., September 
3, 1867 ; literary education, Edinboro State Normal School, graduating in 1891, and later 
a course at Grove City College; graduated M. D. from Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical 
College, 1900. 

BENJAMIN WATSON STILWELL, Yonkers, New York, born Yonkers, July 19, 
1858; graduated LL. B. from Columbia College Law School, 1870: graduated M. D. 
from New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 1887; took a post-graduate 
course in New York Polyclinic ; nose and throat course in London, Berlin and Vienna ; 
president Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Children, 1897-98; secretary and assistant 
treasurer Westchester Lighting Company; director Yonkers Savings Bank. 

JORGEN WALDEMAR HANSEN, Racine, Wisconsin, born Denmark, January 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 309 

2-7, 1871; literary education, Elkhorn College and Iowa State Normal College (special 
course) ; graduated M. D. from homoeopathic department, University of the State of 
Iowa, 1897; city physician Racine, 1903. 

CHRISTIAN ZBINDEN, Toledo, Ohio, born Switzerland, February 7, 1846; literary 
education, University of Berne, Switzerland, 1871-74; medical education, University of 
Strassburg, Alsace, 1877 and 1878, and Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, from 
which he graduated in 1882; has been a practitioner in Toledo since graduation; served 
as member of the hospital stafif of the Toledo Hospital at various times; member Amer- 
ican Institute of Homoeopathy. 

GEORGE HERBERT RICHARDS, Orange, New Jersey, was born in that city, 
January 7, 1863, and is a direct descendant from Thomas Richards, who settled in Hart- 
ford, Conn., in 1634; graduated from Orange High School, 1881 ; New York Homoe- 
opathic Medical College, 1885; visiting physician Essex Homoeopathic Hospital, Newark, 
N. J., and secretary of its board of trustees; visiting physician East Orange Dispensary, 
and associate physician St. Marj''s Hospital, Passaic, N. J. ; school commissioner city 
of Orange, 1902-06, and president of its board of health, 1905 ; member American Institute 
of Homoeopathy. 

JAMES CALDWELLL PRICE, Cleveland, Ohio, born Erie, Ontario, Canada; lit- 
erary education, High School, Plainwell, Mich., 1889; Hiram College, Ohio, 1899, A. B. 
aegree; medical, Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 1903, M. D. degree; served as 
interne Cleveland City Hospital, thirteen months ; has practiced in Cleveland since gradu- 
ation ; member American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

STEPHEN TAPER BIRDSALL, Glens Falls, New York, born in Newburgh, 
N. Y., December 15, 1845; literary education, Oakwood Seminar}', N. Y. ; medical educa- 
tion. Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania, 1869; New York Homoeopathic 
Medical College, 1869; practiced in New York city and Brooklyn from time of gradua- 
tion to 1886 ; since then in Glens Falls ; member horhceopathic staff of Parks Hospital ; 
member Glens Falls board of education and of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

DUDLEY ABELL WILLIAMS, Providence, Rhode Island, born Hackensack, N. J., 
March 16, 1874; graduate of Hackensack High School, 1891 ; Boston University School 
of Medicine, M. D. degree, 1900; practiced in Middletown, Conn., 1900-1901 ; Dighton, 
Mass., 1901-1904, and in Providence since November, 1904; took post-graduate courses 
in radio-therapy in 1904 in New York and Boston; radio-therapeutist to Channing Hos- 
pital, Providence; member American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

ERNEST SYLVESTER WRIGHT, Conneaut, Ohio, born Franklin, Pa.; literary 
•education, Edinboro State Normal School, Clarion State Normal School, B. E. degree, 
1892, and holds professional teacher's certificate; medical, Cleveland Homoeopathic Med- 
ical College, M. D. degree, 1895 ; practiced in Freeport, Mich., 1895-1901 ; since then in 
Conneaut ; served as staff physician Conneaut General Hospital, in 1902, and as political 
township^clerk of Irving township, Barry county, Mich. 

HAROLD DUNCAN COCHRANE, Albany, New York, born Bedford, N. Y., May 
23, 1877 ; graduated from New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital in 1898, 
and in 1898-99 served as house physician to Albany Homoeopathic Hospital and Dis- 
pensary, and now is attending physician and pathologist to that institution. 



310 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

GRACE ARVILLE RANKS CAR'l'ER. Rochester, New York, born in Onondaga 
Valley, N. Y., February 22, 1875; literary education, Greene High School, 1893; medical, 
homcEopathic medical department, University of Michigan, Al. I), degree. 1900; served 
as interne to Memorial Hospital, Brooklyn, N. Y., 1900-01. . 

LADISLAUS MICHAEL OTTOFY, born in Budapesth, Austro-Hungary, March 
II, 1865; attended schools in Budapesth, Cincinnati and St. Louis to 1883, and from 1883 
to 1885 studied under private tutors ; graduated from the Homoeopathic Medical College 
of Missouri in i888; practiced in St. Louis, 1888-91; in Los Angeles, Cal., 1891-92, and 
ag<:in in St. Louis since 1892. 

EDWARD RUSH MORE, Plainfield, New Jersey, born Westbury, L. L, N. Y., 
ALiy 18. 1845 ; educated in public and private schools in Queens county and in Poly- 
technic Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; studied medicine 'at Jefiferson Medical College, Phila- 
delphia, and Bellevue Hospital Medical College, receiving the M. D. degree from the 
former institution in 1872; he adopted homoeopathy in 1878; nas consulting physician, 
hospital of Women's Homoeopathic Association of Pennsylvania ; has practiced in Plain- 
field since 1877, ^"d is attending physician of the Children's Home there ; is member of 
the y\merican Institute of Honut^opathy and the International Hahncmannian Association. 

SARAH JANE BEBOUT, Norwalk, Ohio, born in Ashland county, Ohio, in 1850; 
literary education. Savannah Academy. 1867-73 : classical course Oberlin College, gradu- 
ating in 1879 with A. B. degree, and in 1884 with A. M. degree ; medical education, Pulte 
Medical College. Cincinnati, graduating with M. D. degree in 1882 ; practiced in Norwalk 
since 1884; i" 1892 took course in Post-Graduate College of Chicago, also in the Chicago 
Polyclinic; from 1882 to 1884 was resident physician Ohio Hospital for Women and 
Children, and from 1881 to 1884 had charge of Free Dispensary for Women, Cincinnati, 
two days in each week. 

LAWSON ELMER BRACKEN, Indianapolis. Indiana, born Olio. Ind.. October 22, 
1867 ; studied medicine with Dr. Samuel Harrell of Noblesville, Ind., as preceptor, and 
in 1892 graduated from the Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri; has been a prac- 
titioner in Indianapolis since graduation. 

RICHARD S:\HTH TRUE, Marblehead, Massachusetts, Ixirn in Corinth, Vermont, 
October 7, 1844; literary education. New Hampton Literary Institute, New Hampton, 
N. H. : Newbury Seminary, Newbury, Vt., and Connecticut Literary Institute, Suffield, 
Conn. ; graduated from the Long Island College Hospital in 1880, and from New York 
Homoeopathic Medical College in 1881 ; practiced in Syracuse from time of graduation 
to 1892; in Manchester, N. H., 1892-1897, and in Marblehead since 1897; while residing 
in Syracuse he was connected with the House of the Good Shepherd. 

EDWIN JAMES CAUFFIELD, Akron, Ohio, born Kenilworth, Ohio, November 12, 
1871; literary education. North Bloomfield High School. 1888. and Ohio Northern Uni- 
versity; medical, Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, M. D. degree, 1895; prac- 
ticed in Middlefield, Ohio, 1895-97, and since the latter year in Akron; took Dr. E. H. 
Pratt's course in orificial surgery in 1904; member American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

GERTRUDE EMMA HEATH, Gardiner, Maine, is a native of that place, born Jan- 
uary 20, 1859; graduated from Gardiner High School, 1877; studied medicine one year 
with Dr. II. M. Potter; graduated from Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1883, 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY :ni 

and later took a special course, diseases of the eye and car, under Dr. C. H. Vilas; prac- 
ticed in Chicago, 1883. and in (lardiner since 1884; is fourth assistant, staff of :\Iaine 
Insane Hospital since igoo; mi.mber American Institute of HonKvopathy. 

ARTHUR HUGILL HARDY. Mount \'crnon. New York, horn Woodstock, On- 
tario, Canada. October 2. 1880; graduated from Mt. Vernon High School, 1898; New York 
Homoeopatlnc Medical College and Hospital. 1902. M. D. degree; member of house 
staff. Flower Hospital. 1902-04; practiced in ^]t. Vernon since September. 1904. 

CHARLES ALSON GALE. Rutland. Vermont, is a native of Williamstown, Vt. ; 
literary education, Goddard Seminary. Barre. Vt.. class of '76; took two courses at Dart- 
mouth Medical College, 1876-77 ; University of Vermont, one course, 1878, and Hahne- 
mann Medical College of Philadelphia, two years, graduating with class of 1880; has 
been a practitioner in Rutland since graduation ; is attending physician, Rutland Hospital,, 
and a trustee of that institution since its organization in 1893; has been school com- 
missioner of Rutland city nine years, and United States pension examiner since 1893; 
member American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

FREDERICK ERNEST WILCOX. Willimantic, Connecticut, bo,rn Pomfret, Conn., 
May II, i860; literary education. Putnam High School, 1874-75; W'oodstock Academy, 
Woodstock, Conn., 1875-78; graduated from New York Homoeopathic Medical College 
and Hospital in 1884; practiced in Rochester. N. H.. 1884-89; in Willimantic since 1889; 
served as health officer of Willimantic, 1894-98, and as health officer of the town of 
Windham since 1894; is trustee Norwich Hospital for the Insane, Norwich, Conn., ap- 
pointed in 1904. 

LEMAN \Y. POTTER, Homer, New York, born Scott, Cortland county, N. Y., 
April 26, 1853 ; literary education. Cortland Normal School and Alfred L'uiversity. Alfred, 
N. Y., from which he graduated in 1876; attended the New York Homoeopathic Medical 
College and was licensed to practice in 1881 ; has practiced in Homer continuously since 
1881, with the exception of six months spent in Scott, N. Y. ; was president of Homer 
board of education eleven years. 

WINFRED LEMAN POTTER. Homer, New York, was born in Richmond. R. I.,, 
in 1877, son of Dr. Leman \\\ Potter; literary education, Homer Academy and Alfred 
University, Alfred, N. Y., graduating from the latter in 1900; medical education, New 
York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, M. D. degree in 1904; has been prac- 
ticing in Homer since graduation. 

GEORGE HENRY HOPPER, Logansport, Indiana, born in Elkhart, Ind., Januarjr 
IS, 1877; literary education, Wabash (Indiana) High School; graduated from Hahne- 
mann Medical College of Chicago in 1897; practiced in Piano, 111., one year after gradu- 
ation, and since then in Logansport. 

ROBERT CARLISLE W^OODMAN, Middletown, New York, was born January i, 
1875, of Quaker descent; graduated from Abington Friends' School, Jenkintown, Pa., 
in 1892, and completed the course in Hahnemann ^Medical College of Philadelphia in- 
1895, but diploma was withheld one year, awaiting his majority; served as interne in 
Rochester Homoeopathic Hospital, two years; practiced in Lambertville, N. J., one year,, 
and since June, 1898. has been a physician at the Middletown State Homceopathic Hos- 
pital for the Insane, Middletown, N. Y. 



312 HISTORY OF HOAICEOPATHY 

MARTHA ALLEN GOINGS, Red Key, Indiana, born Springsboro, Warren county, 
Ohio, July 21, 1834; graduated from Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College in 1881 ; 
took a post-graduate course in 1882 at her alma mater; is secretary of the board of 
liealth of Red Key and president of a local literary society. 

D. DE FOREST COLE, Caledonia, New York, born La Fargeville, Me., August il, 
1854 ; literary education, Woodhull Academy, Woodhull, N. Y. ; medical, New York 
University Medical College, 1875-76, and Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, M. D. 
degree, 1881 ; practiced in Pamelia, N. Y., 1878-1880; Morrisville, N. Y., 1881-90; took 
a post-graduate course, Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1890-91 ; practiced in 
Albion, N. Y., 1891-97; Batavia, N. Y., 1897-1900, and since 1900 in Caledonia. 

JASON TURNER, Heuselton, New York, born in Depeyster, N. Y., April 14, 1847; 
graduated M. D. from Detroit Homoeopathic College; practiced in Heuselton since 1876. 

SARA DAVIS, Toledo, Ohio, born Columbus Grove, Ohio, July i, 1870; graduated 
M. D., Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 1899. 

FRANK B LIVERMORE. Barberton, Ohio, born Port Henry, N. Y., in 1872; lit- 
erary education, Allegheny College, Meadville. Pa.; graduated M. D., Cleveland Homoe- 
opathic Medical College 1895 ; assistant demonstrator of anatomy in his alma mater. 

JAY S. MEAD, Lorain, Ohio, born Edwardsburg, Cass county, Mich., July 13, 1854; 
educated at Michigan Agricultural College; graduated M. D., homoeopathic department, 
University of Michigan, 1883. 

CHARLES L. MOORE, Burghill, Trumbull county, Ohio, born Orangeville. Ohio, 
May 31, 1873; literary education in McElwain Institute, 1889-1890, and Fredonia Insti- 
tute, Fredonia, Pa., from the latter graduating B. Sc. in 1S93 ; graduated M. D; from 
Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College in 1899; health officer Vernon township since 
1903. 

ARTHUR GINNEVER, Glen Cove, Long Island, New York, born in Nottingham, 
Eng., in 1865; graduated M. D., New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital 
in 1901. 

EDWARD SCHOCK SHELDON, Collingswood, New Jersey, born Camden, N. J. ; 
graduated M. D., Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital, Philadelphia, 1895; borough 
and board of health physician, Collingswood. 

SARAH PHYLINDA GASTON, Niles, Ohio, born. Meadville, Pa., October 10, 1869; 
literary education, Utica High School and Edinboro Normal School; graduated M. D., 
Cleveland University of Medicine and Surgery, 1895 ; member of American Institute of 
Homoeopathy. 

. CHARLES ORLANDO PAYNE, Port Jeflferson, Long Island, New York, born in 
Spafford, Onondaga county, N. Y. ; literary education. State Normal College, Albany ; 
graduated M. D., Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, 1882; health officer Port 
Jefferson, 1901-1903. 

MORRIS R. FAULKNER, Vineland, New Jersey, born Philadelphia, Pa., June 19, 
1872; good academic education; graduated M. D., Hahnemann Medical College and 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 313 

Hospital of Philadelphia, 1895 ; member National Association of U. S. Pension Examining 
Surgeons ; pension examiner since 1898. 

LUTHER AINSLEY BROWN, Portland, Maine, born Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, 
July II, 1875; literary education. Tuft's College, Boston, Mass.; graduated M. D., Boston 
University School of Medicine, 1901. 

CHARLES ALFRED DIXON, Akron, Ohio, born East Bethany, Genesee county. 
New York, December 24, 1871 ; literary education, Devaux Preparatory School; gradu- 
ated M. D., Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 1894. 

EDGAR CLEMENT, Haddonfield, New Jersey, born Leed's Point, Atlantic county, 
N. J. ; literary education, Friends' School, Philadelphia and a Westtown boarding school ; 
graduated M. D., Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital of Philadelphia, 1898. 

THOMAS A. SHANE, Columbus, Indiana, born Beaver county. Pa., June 20, 1839; 

studied medicine with his brother, Dr. Smith Shane; attended Cleveland Homoeopathic 

Hospital College, 1864-1865; graduated M. D., Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, 1881 ; 
practiced in Columbus since 1868. 

SUSANNAH LONG BRYANT, Columbus, Ohio, born Urbana, Ohio, February 12, 
1866; graduated M. D., Hahnemann Medical College, Chicago, 1899; rnember of Ohio 
State Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

FLOYD D. SMITH, Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, bom Granger, Ohio, March 8, 1869; 
literary education, Baldwin University; graduated M. D., Cleveland Homoeopathic Med- 
ical College, 1896. 

S. HURLEY WILCOXEN, Bowling Green, Missouri, born Pike county, Mo., No- 
vember 21, 1875; literary education. Pike College, Missouri University; graduated M. D., 
Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri, 1900. 

OLIVER HENRY ARNOLD, Providence, Rhode Island, born Coventry, R. I., June 
23, 1841 ; entered Brown University in 1861 and graduated A. B., 1865, commencement 
orator, and his subject, "The Saracens in Europe"; degree of A. M. in 1868; entered 
Harvard Medical School in the fall of 1865 and graduated M. D. in 1867; began practice 
in Pawtucket with the late Dr. Charles N. Manchester; practiced alone from 1870; took 
post-graduate courses in Europe in 1883 and 1884, in Vienna, Paris, London and Glasgow ; 
returned home in 1885 and resumed practice; member of the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy. 

SILAS FULTON EDGAR, Zanesville, Ohio, born Dalton, Ohio, May 12, 1835; 
literary education, Miami University at Oxford, Ohio; studied medicine in Ohio Med- 
ical College, Cincinnati; graduated from Pulte Medical College, 1874; did post-graduate 
work in Prof. E. H. Pratt's school in Chicago; practiced in Zanesville since 1875. 

ALBERT WILLIAM EBELING, Warrenton, Missouri, born Memphis, Mo., July 
28, 1868; literary education, Central Wesleyan College, graduating B. S., 1893; studied 
medicine one year at Marion Sims College, St. Louis; graduated M. D., Homoeopathic 
Medical College of Missouri, 1897; physician to Central Wesleyan Orphan Asylum; 
teacher of physiology. Central Wesleyan College. 



314 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

EDWARD OGLETHROPE CYPHERS, Belleville. New Jersey, born Washington, 
N. J., August I, 1865; graduated AI. D., Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, 
1893; member township committee. Belleville. 1807; president lioard of health and health 
officer, 1899-1904; member of American Institute of HouKjeopathy. 

FREDERICK ALLEN CLAPSADEL. Akron. Ohio, born Painesville. Ohio, May 17. 
1867; literary education, Painesville High School and Michigan Military Academy; 
graduated jNL D.. Cleveland University of Medicine and Surgery, 1897; post-graduate 
studies in Chicago Clinical School. Chicago Eye. Ear. Nose and Throat College and 
the Chicago School of Electro-Therapeutics; vice-president Homoeopathic Medical So- 
ciety of Eastern Ohio, 1902. 

WTLLL\]\I ELAIER GEORGE. Indianapolis. Indiana, born near Madison. Jefferson 
county, Indiana, May 13, 1863 ; literary education. Central Normal College, Danville, 
Ind. ; graduated M. D., Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1889; student New York 
Post-Graduate School of Medicine, 1891 ; member of American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

ERASTUS R. ZIMMERMAN, Waterloo, New York, born Medina, N. Y., July 22, 
1878; educated Medina High School; graduated M. D., homoeopathic department. Uni- 
versity of Michigan, 1903 ; clinical assistant to chair of obstetrics and gjmecology. Uni- 
versity of Michigan, 1903-1904; Phi Alpha Gamma, IQ03. 

LOUIS D. HYDE, Owego, New York, born in that village October 14, 1891 ; graduate 
Owego Academy ; graduated M. D., New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hos- 
pital, 1894; graduated O. et A. Chir., New York Ophthalmic Hospital, 1902; interne 
Middletown State Homceopathic Hospital, 1894; assistant physician, Germany Sanitarium, 
1894-1899 ; medical superintendent Oak Hill Sanitarium, 1900-1901 ; post-graduate course, 
• New York Ophthalmic Hospital, 1901-1902. 

AUGUST CARL ACKERMANN. Lafayette, Indiana, was born in Germany, April 
27, i860; graduate of the Gymnasium, Darmstadt; student Polytechnic Institute, Darm- 
stadt, special course in chemistry and botany; medical course at Giessen University; 
graduated M. D., Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1883; health officer, Linwood 
(Lafayette) ; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

FRANKLIN TIMOTHY KNOX, St. Louis. Missouri, born St. Louis, January 20, 
1847; graduated M. D., Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri, 1873; ex-secretary 
and ex-treasurer St. Louis Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

ELMER LLEWELLYN HINMAN. Oswego, New York, born Kendall, N. Y., 
January 16, 1868; literary education, Brockport State Normal School; graduated M. D., 
New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 1891 ; examining surgeon U. S. 
army, 1900- 1903. 

LOUIS GILBERT NEWMAN, Brewster, Putnam county. New York, born Plain- 
f^eld, N. J., June 15, 1873; graduated M. D., New York Homoeopathic Medical College 
and Hospital, 1895. 

WILLIAM WALLACE ZOBIERMAN, Richmond, Indiana, born Richmond, Sep- 
tember 24, 1855; graduated IM. D., Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, 1888; coroner 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 315 

Wayne couiuy, Ind., 1888-1892; same, 1896-1898; mayor of Richmond, 1898-1902, 1902- 
1904, 1904-1906. 

HERBERT ALEXANDER ANDERSON, Rochester, New York, born in the town 
of Riga. July 22. 1858; graduated ^l. D. from Hahnemann :Medical College of Philadel- 
phia in 1889. 

EMILY NEWBOLD TITUS, Portland. Maine, born Glen Cove. Long Island, New 
York, November 15, 1862; graduated M. D., New York ^Medical College and Hospital for 
Women, 1894; treasurer Maine Woman's Suffrage Association, 1897-1904; member of 
the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

EDWTN JENKINS HOWE, Newark, New Jersey, born Orange, N. J., July 2, 
1849; literary education, Wesleyan Academy, Wilbraham, Mass., 1863-1866; Wesleyan 
University. A. B., 1870; A. M., 1873; graduated M. D.. College oi Physicians and Sur- 
geons, New York citj', 1873 : graduated ]\I. D., New York Plomoeopathic ?kledical College, 
1873; practiced in Newark since 1873; member of board of governors, St. Mary's Hos- 
pital, Passaic, N. J., and consulting physician to same; trustee Newark Academy of 
Science since 1902; ex-president New Jersey State Homoeopathic ^ledical Society; ex- 
president Essex County Homoeopathic Medical Society; president Newark Wesleyan 
University Alumni Association, 1905 ; member of New Jersey Historical Society, and of 
the Sons of the Revolution. 

EUGENE ARTHUR HULTS, Perth Amboy, New Jersey, born Plainsboro, N. J., 
August 26, 1861; literary education, Model School, Trenton; teacher in public schools 
six years; graduated M. D. and H. M. D., Hahnemann Tkledical College of Philadelphia, 
1886; practiced in Perth Amboy since 1886; health officer, 1896-1899; health officer port 
■of Perth Amboy, appointed by Gov. Voorhees in May, 1900, for five years. 

WILLIA^I HERR WEBSTER, Dayton, Ohio, born Dayton July 6, 1869; literarj' 
■education, Ohio Wesleyan L'niversity, 1887-1891 ; graduated M. D., Pulte Medical Col- 
lege, Cincinnati, 1894. 

JEROME HOWARD KING, Ashland, Ohio, born ^lansfield, Ohio, February 23, 
1870; literary education, Wooster L'niversity, Wooster. Ohio; graduated M. D., Cleve- 
land Homoeopathic Medical College. 1894 ; coroner xAshland county for past five years ; 
member Delta Tau Delta, Psi Chapter, Wooster University. 

FREDERICK CANFIELD IRWIN, Cranford, New Jersey, born Fabius, Onondaga 
■county, N. Y., in 1874; literary education, Waterville Academy; graduated IM. D., New 
York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 1898; began practice in Cranford in 
1900. 

SARAH EDDY THORNE, Elmira, New York, born Horse Heads, N. Y.,. JNIarch 
-28, 1845 ; literary education in Elmira Free Academy ; left and began teaching and did 
not return to graduate ; graduated M. D., Woman's Medical College, Philadelphia, 1872 ; 
student in Woman's Hospital, Philadelphia. 1870-1871 : resident physician Woman's 
Southern Homoeopathic Hospital, 1903. 

WILLIAM SATTERER, Vailsburg (Newark), New Jersey, born Newark. Novem- 



316 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

ber 24, 1875; literary education, Newark High School; graduated M. D., Hahnemann 
Medical College and Hospital of Philadelphia, iQdts. 

GEORGE FOOTE WASHBURNE, Elkhart, Indiana, born Chappaqua, N. Y., 
April 7, 1855; literary education, New York Military Academy, Ossinning; medical pre- 
ceptor. Dr. R. N. Foster, Chicago; graduated M. D., Chicago Homoeopathic Medical Col- 
lege, 1885 ; member of the faculty, Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1887-1898, 
holding clinics in gynecology, obstetrics and heart and lungs; lecturer at Clarke Hospital, 
Elkhart, on physiology to Nurses' Training School. 

REUBEN L. LOCKWOOD, Elkhart, Indiana, was born in that city, December 23, 
185S; graduated M. D., 1888, Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, 1888; took a 
post-graduate course in Chicago Eye^ Ear, Nose and Throat College, 1902. 

MATTHEW J. HALL, Mamaroneck, New York, born New Bedford, Mass., April 
10, 1864; graduated M. D., New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1885; physician 
to board of health, town of Rye and village of Mamaroneck nine years; ex-president 
Westchester County Homoeopathic Medical Society; member of American Institute of 
Homoeopath}'. 

ALBERT LE ROY FISHER, Elkhart, Indiana, born Bristol, Ontario county, N. Y., 
August I, 1845 ; medical preceptor, the late Dr. J. B. Voak of Canandaigua, N. Y. ; gradu- 
ated M. D., Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, 1871 ; took a post-graduate 
course in Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College and Dr. E. H. Pratt's lectures, 1888; 
Chicago Foundlings' Home (Dr. T. C. Duncan's lectures), 1880; trustee since its organ- 
ization of the Clark Homoeopathic Hospital, Elkhart; president of its Nurses' Training 
School ; ex-member Elkhart board of health ; ex-president Elkhart school board ; mem- 
ber of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

SAMUEL H. JOHNSON, Califon, New Jersey, born near Hackettstown, N. J., 
January 11, 1858; graduated M. D., College of Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore, Md.,. 
1884; graduated M. D., Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1886. 

EDWARD J. SCHWARTZ, Salem, Ohio, born Columbiana county, Ohio, August 
8, 1873; graduated M. D., Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 1899; city health 
officer of Salem ; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

ELLA MARIE TUTTLE, New Berlin, New York, born April 5, 1856; literary edu- 
cation, Whitestown Seminary, graduating in 1879, collegiate course; graduated M. D.,. 
New York Medical College and Hospital for Women, 1888; took a post-graduate course,. 
Boston University School of Medicine, 1899. 

EDWARD GOVE RANDALL,, Waterville, New York, born Poultney, Vermont,. 
April 3, 1872; literary education, Troy Conference Academy, Poultney, and University 
of Vermont, graduating from the latter A. B., 1895 ; graduated M. D., Hahnemann Med- 
ical College and Hospital of Philadelphia, 1898; member of the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy. 

HENRY ALSON WARD, Richfield Springs. New York, born Hartland, Niagara 
county, N. Y., December i, 1853 1 literary education, Syracuse High School ; graduated 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 317 

M. D., Puke Medical College, Cincinnati, 1887; coroner of Otsego county, 1897-1906; 
member of the American Institute of Homoeopjtthy. 

WILLIAM AMOS MANSFIELD, Barberton, Ohio, born Ravenna, Mich.; graduated 
from the Emerson College of Oratory, Boston, Mass., 1889; graduated M. D., Cleveland 
University of Medicine and Surgery, 1895; health officer of Barberton, 1903-1905. 

CHARLES FRA\XIS SNYDER, Florham Park, New Jersey, born Ulster county, 
N. Y., October 17, 1858; graduated M. D., New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 
1887. 

HESTER READ WEST, Phillipsburg, New Jersey, born in Hope, N. J.; literary 
education in the State Normal School at Trenton; graduated M. D., Hahnemann Med- 
ical College of Philadelphia, 1884; member of the New Jersey State Homoeopathic Med- 
ical Society. 

HERBERT S. JONES, Oradell, New Jersey, born in South Sudbury, Mass., No- 
vember 5, 1851 ; literary education in Williston Seminary, Easthampton, Mass. ; graduated 
M. D., New York Homoeopathic jMedical College, 1888; ex-borough councilman and 
schoor trustee. 

HIRAM F. BATESMAN, Passaic, New Jersey, born Northampton county. Pa., 
February 4, 185 1 ; literary education, Pennsylvania State Normal School, Millersville; 
graduated AI. D., New York Homoeopathic ]Medical College and Hospital, 1899; visiting 
physician St. Mary's Hospital, Passaic; president Union Loan and Building Association. 

BINA JANE HALLOCK, Detroit, Michigan, born in Albion, N. Y., May 3, 185 1 ; 
literary education at University of Michigan; graduated M. D., homoeopathic department, 
University of Michigan, 1891 ; practiced twelve years in West Bay City and since in 
Detroit. 

GEORGE WASHINGTON CROSBY, Atlantic City, New Jersey, born Margaret- 
ville, Delaware county, N. Y., September i, 1851 ; educated at Delaware Literary Insti- 
tute, Franklin, and Eastman's Business College, Poughkeepsie ; graduated M. D., New 
York Homoeopathic Aledical College, 1878; pjacticed five years in Walton, N. Y., and 
in Atlantic City for the last twenty-two years; member of the American Institute of 
Homoeopath}'. 

FREDERICK WILLIAM STEWART. Coldwater, Michigan, born Cayuga, On- 
tario, Canada, February 22, 1861 ; literary education, Woodstock College, Ontario ; med- 
ical preceptor. Dr. W. D. McGill; graduated M. D.. Cleveland Medical College, 1891 ; 
health officer, Coldwater, 1896- 1897. 

EDWIN HUNTINGTON BAILEY, Harbor Beach, Michigan, born Detroit, Mich., 
July 18, 1879; educated Detroit Central High School and Detroit Business College; 
graduated ^M. D., Detroit Homoeopathic College; health officer, township of Orion, IQ04; 
vice-president of Hahnemannian Society of Detroit Homoeopathic College; charter mem- 
ber of U.stian fraternity. 

SAMUEL I. ]MYERS, Bayonne, New Jersey, born Middletown, N. Y., in 1852; grad- 
uate of College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York city, 1878. 



318 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

JOHN DELMER KAPLE, South Bend, Indiana, born Westford, Otsego county, 
N. Y., September 30, 1848; educated at Westford Literary Institute, and later taught 
school four years ; medical preceptor, Dr. E. B. Warren of Middlefield, N. Y. ; practiced 
under medical society certificate until 1896 at Plainfield and Portlandville, N. Y. ; grad- 
uated M. D., Cleveland University of Medicine and Surgery, i8g6; took a post-graduate 
course in 1896, New York Post-Graduate College. 

EDWARD ALFRED EVERETT, Aliddletown, New York, born New York city, 
September 19, 1873 ; literary education in New York city schools, City College, Cooper 
Union; graduated M. D., New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 1897; 
member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

JOHN SUMMERFIELD MARTIN, Plymouth, Indiana, born Morristown, N. J., 
June 21, 1836; acquired his education in the common schools of Michigan, and after- 
ward taught school about twenty years; literary education in Hillsdale College; gradu- 
ated I\I. D., homceopathic department, University of Michigan, 1878; secretary Marshall 
county (Indiana) board of health two terms; practiced in Galesburg, Mich., 1878-1887, 
and since then in Plymouth. 

WILLIAM JAMES M'KOWN, Albany, New York, born in Albany, January 23, 
1872; graduated from Albany Medical College in 1904; visiting physician to Albany 
Homoeopathic Hospital ; vice-president Albany County Homoeopathic IMedical Society. 

EDMUND PERCY THOMAS, Bowling Green, Ohio, born in Bowling Green, 
March 2, 1852 ; literary education at Blackburn LTiiversity, Carlinville, 111. ; graduated 
M. D. from Hahnemann ^ledical College of Chicago in 1882; practiced in Portage, Ohio, 
ten years and in Bowling Green twelve years ; coroner from 1894 to 1896. 

ALLEN GIFFORD PECKHAM, Waterford, New York, born Easton, Washing- 
ton county, N. Y., December 6. 1848; literary education, ^Marshall Seminary, 1864-1867; 
Brattleboro Academy, Brattleboro, Vermont, 1867-1868; studied medicine at Albany Med- 
ical College ; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann INIedical College of Philadelphia in 1871 ; 
practiced in Waterford since 1871 ; president in 1875 of the Homoeopathic Medical So- 
ciety of Northern New York; health officer, Waterford three years. 

WALTER BRADLEY HOUSE, De Tour, Michigan, born Chicago, June 4. 1857; 
literary education, Oberlin College, four years' course ; graduated M. D., from Chicago 
Homoeopathic Medical College, 1885 ; studied one year at Chicago Post-Graduate School ; 
coroner of Chippewa county ten years. 

GEORGE ELIMER GORHAM, Albany, New York, born Le Raysville, Pa., Novem- 
ber 8, 1850, direct descendant of Capt. John Gorham and Desire Howland, daughter of 
Capt. John Howland ; literary education, Le Raysville Academy ; graduated M. D., from 
Hahnemann ]\Iedical College of Philadelphia, 1874; member of the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy ; member of State Board of Medical Examiners ; member of board of 
managers of Craig Colony for Epileptics; secretary of board of trustees of Bender 
Hygienic Laboratory. 

BERTRAM EDWIN MARSHALL, Albany, New York, born IMiddlebury, Vermont. 
April 9, 1874; literary education in Middlebury College, A. B.. 1895; two years in the 
medical department of Columbian University, Washington, D. C. ; graduated M. D., New 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 319 

York Homoeopathic !Medica! College and Hospital, 1899; instructor in chemistry, Colum- 
bian University Medical College, 1897. 

FRANCIS HELMUTH DRYER, Searsville, Orange county, New York, born New 
York city, November 28, 1873; literary education, New York high school and College 
of the City of New York ; certificate in chemistry and first prize ; graduated from the 
New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, M. D., 1894; regents' license 
cum laude, 1895; assistant to the chair of chemistry, New York Homoeopathic Medical 
College, 1889-1892; health officer town of Crawford, Orange county, since 1903. 

RICHARD SAjNIUEL KESTER, Toledo, Ohio, born Butler, De Kalb county, In- 
diana, May 5, 1847; preceptor in medicine. Dr. W. Z. Shepard of Waterloo, Ind. ; gradu- 
ated M. D., Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital of Chicago. 1883; member of the 
Northern Indiana and Southern Michigan Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

WILLIE CLINTON TILLOTSON, Rockville. Tolland county, Conn., born West 
Topsham, Vt., October 23, 1856; literary education, Barre Academy; graduated M. D. 
from Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1882; secretary and treasurer of Echo Gold 
Mining Company since 1903 ; secretary Verm.ont Homoeopathic Medical Society, 1888- 
1890; president of same, 1901 ; practiced ten years in Lyndonville, Vt., and thirteen years 
in Rockville. 

RALPH SYLVESTER JIROCK, Muskegon. Michigan, born Muskegon, June 20, 
1882; graduate of Muskegon High School; medical preceptor. Dr. LeRoy Marvin of 
Muskegon ; graduated M. D. from Chicago -Homoeopathic Medical College, 1900. 

EDGAR PARSONS COOK, Granville, Ohio, born in Delaware county, Ohio, March 
25, 1867; graduated M. D. from Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 1897. 

ELMER O. SILVIEUS, Medina. Ohio, bom Ashtabula. Ohio, August 21, 1872; 
graduated M. D. from Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College. 1901. 

JAMES CHESTER KNAPP, Geneva, New York, born Union Springs, N. Y., 
November 25, 1853; literary education, Brockport Normal School and Genesee Wesleyan 
Seminary; graduated M. D., New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1884; student 
Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia; since graduation has been connected with 
Geneva Hygienic Institute. 

CHARLES EDWARD ALLIAUME, Utica, New York, born Oriskany, N. Y., Sep- 
tember 12, 1873; graduated M. D. from Hering Medical College and Hospital, Chicago, 
1895; practiced in Los Angeles, Cal., 1895; Chicago, 1896-1898; took full year post- 
graduate course, Hering Medical College, 1897-1898; lectured on sanitary science and 
hygiene, Hering Medical College, two years; secured regents' certificate (New York), 
1898; began practice in Utica in 1900; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy 
and the International Hahnemannian Association. 

LEONARD EDWIN GALLUP, Marshall, ISIichigan, born [Marshall Januan.- 17, 
185 1 ; literary education, Olivet College; medical preceptor Dr. Benjamin A. Gallup 
(father) ; graduated M. D. from the homoeopathic department of University of Mich- 
igan, 1879; practiced in Marshall since 1879; ex-health officer of that town. 



320 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

BERNHARD STARCKE, Kansas City, Missouri, born Naumburg on the Saale, 
Germany, April 2, 1840; educated, Dome Gymnasium, Naumburg, 1849-1855; student at 
Kansas City Homceopathic Medical College, 1900-1902 ; graduated ]\T. D. from Kansas 
City Hahnemann Medical College, 1904. 

BENJAMIN EUGENE MERRILL, Dent's Run, Elk county, Pa., born Hanover, 
N. H., March 4, 1871 ; diploma Lebanon High School, 1892; graduated M. D. from 
Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital, Philadelphia, 1901 ; M. D., Medico-Chi., 
Philadelphia, 1904. 

SOLOMON D. JOHNSON, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, born Fond du Lac, January 

17, 1852; medical preceptor. Dr. A. H. Dorris of Fond du Lac; graduated M. D. from 
Hahnem.ann Medical of Chicago, 1879; took a post-graduate course in Dr. E. H. Pratt's 
mstitution on orificial surgery; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

FRANK HUNT DUNHAM, Richmond, Indiana, born Richmond, December 20, 
1873; special course, Earlham College, in physiology, anatomy and chemistry; graduated 
M. D., Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, 1899. 

AMY L. SILVIEUS, Ashtabula, Ohio, born Ashtabula, November 12, 1875; literary 
education, Ashtabula High School, 1894; graduated M. D., Cleveland University of Med- 
icine and Surgery, 1897; practiced in Lima, Ohio, 1897-1898; Ada, Ohio, 1898-1899; Cleve- 
land, 1899-1904; Ashtabula since 1904. 

JOHN CALVIN MESICK, Spencertown,. New York, born Chatham, N. Y., October 

18, 1852 ; graduated M. D., New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1881 ; health officer 
for the past eight years. 

ISAAC HUTCHIN DIX, Pratt, Kansas, born West Elkton, Ohio, September 12, 
1836 ; literary education. Green Mount College, near Richmond, Ind. ; educated in med- 
icine at Medical College, Cincinnati ; graduated M. D., Cleveland University of Medicine 
and Surgery, 1869; coroner ten years; president of board of pension examiners. 

WARREN FRANKLIN ROBERTS, Marshall, Michigan, born Pinckney, Mich., 
June 27, 1862; medical preceptor, Dr. Eliphalet Lewis Roberts (his father); graduated 
M. D., Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1884; practiced in Marshall since 1887. 

CHARLES BENTON HARPOLE, Evansville. Indiana, born Booneville, Ind., Oc- 
tober 28, 1865; scientific course. Central Normal College, Danville; medical preceptor, 
.Drs. P. N. Hoover and Jerome S. Beeler of Booneville; student in Kentucky School of 
Medicine, 1891-1892; graduated M. D. from Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 
1894; ex-vice-president Vanderburgh County Homoeopathic Medical Society; ex-vice- 
president Round Table Club ; member of American Medical Association. 

EMORY JASON MARSHALL, Marshall, Michigan, born DeWitt, Mich., February 
II, 1853; educated, ^academic department. University of Michigan; student at Lansing 
(Mich.) Homoeopathic Medical College; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann Medical Col- 
lege of Chicago, 1875 ; took a post-graduate course in Chicago, 1876 ; practiced in Mar- 
shall since 1879. 

JEPTHA C. CLARK, Andover, New Jersey, born Hainesville, N. J., November 23, 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 321 

1859; literary education, Newton Collegiate Institute and Centenary Collegiate Institute, 
Hackettstown (class of •'82) ; graduated M. D. from New York Homoeopathic Medical 
College, 1885; secretary board of education, 1886; coroner, 1902-1906. 

CHARLES FRANKLIN JUNKERMANN. Lancaster, Ohio, born Sugar Grove, 
Ohio, January 12, 1862; at the age of nineteen left school and learned telegrapliy; em- 
ployed by a railroad company from 1881 to 1888, and during that time took up the study 
of medicine; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann ^Medical College and Hospital of Chi- 
cago, 1889; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

ARTHUR JOHN MORRIS. Bloomington, Illinois, born Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1854; 
acquired a good academic education and then taught school eleven years; graduated 
M. D. from Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1891 ; president of Mason City 
school board, 1892-1893. 

ARTHUR EDMUND SPRINGSTEAD. Bluffton. Indiana, born near Stony Creek, 
Ontario, Canada, April 7, i860; educated at Collegiate Institute, Hamilton, Ont. ; matric- 
ulated at College of Physicians and Surgeons, Toronto ; graduated M. D. from Cleve- 
land Homoeopathic Medical College, 1884; secretary United States pension examining 
board. 

C. H. GRAENING, Waverly, Iowa, born in Michigan, August 5, 1871 ; literary edu- 
cation, Wartburg College, A. B., 1890; graduated M. D., homoeopathic medical depart- 
ment. University of the State of Iowa, 1893. 

EDSON DORWIN PEARSON, Wabash, Indiana, born Wabash county, February 
28, 187 1 ; literary education, Indiana University; medical preceptor, Dr. J. W. G. Stewart 
of Wabash; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1899. 

ARTHUR ALBERT SMITH, Berea, Ohio, was born in that place, July 8, 187 1 ; 
literar>' education, Baldwin University; graduated from Cleveland Medical College, 1896; 
from Western Reserve Dental College, 1903; ex-health officer and town physician. 

THOMAS HENRY IMANN, Norwich, Conn., born Wrentham, Mass., April 8, 1843; 
literary education, Union College, Schenectady, N. Y. ; graduated M. D. from Albany 
Medical College, 1870; resident physician Albany City Dispensary, two years; practiced 
four years on Block Island, R. I., the only physician there and converted its entire 
population to homoeopathy ; practiced fifteen 3'ears in Woonsocket ; surgeon on Gov. 
Littlefield's staff two years ; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

ADELBERT BERTEL !\IAXWELL, Ames, Iowa, born Du Page county. 111., 
February 10, 1863 ; education, Iowa State College, agricultural and mechanic arts depart- 
ments (1880); student in medical department, University of the State of Iowa; gradu- 
ated M. D. from Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1901 ; assistant demonstrator 
of histology, Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1899; assistant instructor and 
demonstrator of pathology and microscopy, 1900-1901 ; city clerk, Ames, ten years ; sec- 
retary of board of health ; secretary of school district. 

JOHN BURR TAHNAGE, Columbiana, Ohio, born Chesterville, Ohio, March 26, 
1866; student Battle Creek (Mich.) College, 1887-1889; student Ohio Normal University; 



322 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

graduated M. D., Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 1903; member of the board of 
health ; member of American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

CHARLES LYMAN THOMPSON, Muskegon, Michigan, born Wadsworth, Ohio, 
January 16, 1850; medical preceptor. Dr. Le Roy Marvin of Muskegon; graduated M. D., 
Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1882 ; health officer and city physician, 1885- 
1886. 

WILLIAM JAY GARARD, Rutland, Illinois, born Mendota, 111., October 15, 1875 1 
literary educatfon, Mendota Advent Christian College, B. Sc, 1896 ; A. B., 1899 ; graduated 
M. D. from Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College. 1903; private, Co. K., 6th 111. Inf., 
Spaijish-American war. 

WILL FRANK MINARD, Waterbury, Vermont, born May 13, 1867; graduated 
from Green Mountain Seminary in 1884; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann Medical 
College of Philadelphia, 1887; student in urinalysis and pathology. University of Ver- 
mont; health officer of Waterbury and Danbury two terms. 

SAMUEL S. KEHR, Sterling, Illinois, born Goshen, Ind., October 3, 1853; good 
early education, and afterward taught school from 1875 to 1878; graduated M. D. from 
Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1880; began practice in Abiline, Kansas, ind 
soon removed to Sterling; post-graduate course in the Chicago Polj'clinic; removed to 
.Denver in 1893 and practiced exclusively in diseases of the eye, ear, nose and throat for 
seven years, and then returned to Sterling; professor of diseases of the eye, ear, nose and 
throat in Denver Homoeopathic Medical College from its organization; elected professor 
of ophthalmology, same institution, 1898; one of the editors and business managers of 
"Denver Journal of Homoeopathy" three years; president of Denver Medical Club, 1898; 
member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

ETHAN St. CLAIR MILFORD, Wichita, Kansas, born Butler county, Pa., Sep- 
tember 7, 187 1 ; literary education at Tarkia College, Tcpeka, Kan.; graduated M. D. 
Hering Medical College, Chicago; graduated D. O., American School of Osteopathy; 
member of the International Hahnemannian Association. 

GEORGE W. BOWEN, Ft. Wayne, Indiana, born Meredith, Delaware county, N. 
Y., September 11, 1826; medical student in Cleveland, 1851-1852; graduated M. D. from 
Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1863; practiced in Ft. Wayne since May 3, 
1852; author of " Insanity and Malaria;" senior of the American Institute of Homoe- 
opathy; ex-president of the Indiana State Homceopathic Medical Society, and ex-president 
of the county medical society. 

WILLIAM HENRY BURNS. Alliance, Ohio, born Brush Creek, Beaver county. 
Pa. ; literary education. Grove City College, 1885-1888 ; graduated M. D. from the Cleveland 
Medical College, 1902; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

HERMAN CHRISTOPHE, Manchester, New Hampshire, born Manchester, Sep- 
tember 28, 1874; literary education, Dartmouth College, A. B. 1S97; graduated M. D. 
from Boston University School of Medicine, June 5, 1900; interne Roxbury Dispensary, 
1899-1900; treasurer of Gen. Stark Grange, P. of H., 1903-1905. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 325 

EDWARD DEVILLO FRANKLIN, Ithaca. Ne-.v York, born North Collins. Erie 
county, N. Y., September 15, 1848; literary education, Griffith Institute and Oberlin 
College; graduated M. D. from New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1879; member 
of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

WIDMER ELIJAH DOREMUS, Arlington, New Jersey, born East Orange, N. J., 
June 5, 1878 ; graduated M. D. from New York Homoeopathic Medical College and 
Hospital, 1901 ; interne Flower Hospital, 1901-1903 ; member of the American Institute 
of Homoeopathy. 

WILLIAM ANTONE WELLEMEYRE, Vassar, Michigan, born Port Gibson, N. Y., 
February 20, 1877; graduated M. D. from Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1900; 
health officer of Vassar. 

LOUIS SAMOELOWITZ TUHOLKY, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, born Racincin, 
Russia, April 25, 1871 ; educated under private tutors and in Gymnasium in Wloclawek, 
Russia, and a preparatory course at Northwestern University, Evanston, Ills. ; medical 
preceptor, Dr. G. L. Barber of Chicago ; graduated M. D. from Hering Medical College, 
Chicago, 1901 ; member of the International Hahnemannian Association. 

CHARLES H. GUNDELATH, St. Louis, Missouri, born Detmold, Germany, October 
I, 1838; educated at the Gymnasium in Lippe, Detmold; studied medicine in Berlin; 
graduated M. D. from the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania, being one of 
the few surviving alumni of that famous old institution ; practiced in St. Louis since 
1865; member of the Missouri Institute of Homoeopathy and of the American Institute 
of Homoeopathy. 

ALBERT ADELFORD OGLE, Jr., Indianapolis, Indiana, born Upper Alton, Ills., 
November 23, 1867 ; literary education, Franklin College, Franklin, Ind. ; medical precep- 
tor. Dr. J. DeWitt George of Indianapolis ; student, 1895, Indiana Medical College ; 
graduated M. D. from Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1898; interne Chicago 
Homoeopathic Hospital, 1899; practiced in Indianapolis since 1899. 

WILLIAM HASBROUCK SNYDER, Newburgh, New York, born at High Falls, 
Ulster county, N. Y., June 23, 1873 ; graduated M. D. from New York Homoeopathic 
Medical College and Hospital, 1895; city physician of Newburgh since 1896; jail physician 
since 1897; health officer since 1904. 

BENJAMIN D. KING, Muskegon, Michigan, born New Haven, N. Y., June 22, 1850; 
medical preceptor, Dr. W. W. Wilson of Alpena, Mich. ; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann 
Medical College of Chicago, 1884; post-graduate courses in 1884 at alma mater and 
subsequently in clinics and hospitals of Chicago; treasurer of Alpena township, two 
terms ; member of school board, 1877-1880. 

CHARLES MILLER GINN, Dayton, Ohio, born Sidney. Ohio, April 13, 1876; 
literary education, Miami University, 1895-1896; student at Cleveland University of 
Medicine and Surgery, 1899; graduated M. D. from Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical 
College, 1899; practiced in Dayton since 1900. 

ARTHUR ROBERT FRITZ, Rochester, New York, born Guelph, Canada, April 
25, 1873 ; graduated M. D. New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 



324 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

1895; on the staff of Hahnemann Hospital, Rochester; visiting physician to the German 
Home ; member of the Holland-American Society, and member of the board of censors 
of the Hahnemannian Society of Rochester. 

ALBERT EDWARD McCLURE, Lakewood, Ohio, born Brampton, Ontario, March 
14, 1870; graduated M. D. from Cleveland Medical College, 1892; health officer of 
Lakewood ten years. 

EDGAR BALDWIN COOK, Rochester, New York, born Rochester, January 10, 
1882; graduated M. D. from the New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hos- 
pital in 1903; interne Rochester Homoeopathic Hospital, 1903-1905. 

DANIEL EDWARD CRANZ, Akron, Ohio, born Mt. Hope, Ohio, October 31, 
1854; literary education Buchtel College; graduated M. D. Hahnemann Medical 
College of Chicago, 1877; post-graduate Dr. E. H. Pratt's orificial course, 1900; member 
surgical staff, Akron City Hospital. 

JOHN W. McMURRAY. Marion. Ohio, born Steubenvillc, Ohio, June 23. 1839; 
medical preceptor, Dr. H. A. Sherwood of. Warren; graduated M. D. Cleveland Homoe- 
opathic Hospital College, 1890; principal anaesthetist to Marion City and County Hos- 
pital ; president Marion Homceopathic Medical Society. 

CHRISTIAN MARTZ, Ft. Wayne, Indiana, born Fairfield, Ind.. September 23, 
1853; literary education, Concordia College, Ft. Wayne; medical preceptor, the late Dr. 
Henry Lehman of Fairfield ; graduated M. D. Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 
1882; pre-graduate studies in gynecology with Dr. Reuben Ludlam. 

ERNEST FRANK GAMBLE, Coldwater, Michigan, born Tecumseh, Mich.. I\Iay 
12, 1867 ; graduated M. D'. from the homoeopathic department of the University of 
Michigan in 1892 ; secretary Branch county board of pension examiners. 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN KISTLER, Allentown, Pennsylvania, born in Pennsylvania ; 
graduated M. D. from Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, 1883; member of the 
American Institute of Homoeopathy, the Homceopathic Medical Society of the State of 
Pennsylvania and of the Lehigh Valley Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

DANIEL SUMMERS, Shelby, Ohio, born Shelby, February 12. 1863; literary educa- 
tion Wittenburg College, 1885-1888, graduate of the scientific course; graduated M. D. 
from Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, 1888, and since then has practiced in Shelby. 

EDGAR CLARENCE COWLES, Hartford, Connecticut, born Hartford, September 
I, 1875; educated at Connecticut Literary Institution, Suffield, 1891-1894; graduated 
M. D. from Cleveland University of Medicine and Surgery, 1897; post-graduate studies 
at New York Polyclinic, 1897-1898; operative surgery, 1898; operative gynecology, 1898; 
in Mothers' and Babies' Hospital, New York, 1898. 

MILES HALL BRONSON, Lowville, Lewis county, New York, born Newport, 
N. Y. ; literary edlication, Whitestown Academy; graduated M. D. from the Homoe- 
opathic Medical College of Pennsylvania; began practice in Trumansburg, N. Y., in 
1861, and in 1863 removed to Lowville; now retired from active practice. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 325 

MILTON BURWELL SMYTHE, Holton, Kansas, born in Jefferson county, Ohio, 
October 28, 1844; graduated M. D. from Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, 
1869; mayor of Holton, 1882; secretary of board of pension examiners, 1898-1902. 

WILLIAM FRANKLIN BEGGS, Newark, New Jersey, born Petaluma, Cal., 
December 30, 1865; student in New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1891-1892; 
graduated M. D. from Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, 1893; post-graduate 
work, Edinburgh University, 1893; New York Ophthalmic Hospital, 1898, degree Oculi 
et Auris Chir. ; University of Halle (summer course) 1904; member of the American 
Institute of Homoeopathy and the American Ophthalmological, Otological and Laryngo- 
logical Society. 

BYRON H. PELTON, Chicago, Illinois, born Innerkip, Ontario, Canada, October 
22, 1865; literary education at Hillsdale College, Hillsdale, Mich.; graduated M. D. from 
Hering Medical College, Chicago, 1899; M. D. from Chicago Homoeopathic Medical 
College, 1903. 

VOLNEY A. HOARD, Rochester, New York, born Dundee, N. Y., July 28, 1859; 
literary education Macedon Academy; student in University of Michigan; graduated 
M. D. New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1881 ; city physician, Rochester, 1888- 
1891 ; member of the International Hahnemannian Association. 

GEORGE ALBERT ROSS, Ft. Wayne, Indiana, born Lebanon, Ohio, January 8, 
1857; educated in public schools and taught school several years; medical preceptor, 
Dr. J. B. Owens; graduated. M. D. Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, 1879; member of 
the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

JOHN P. STOBER, Lexington, Richland county, Ohio, born in Ashland county, 
July 8, 1862; literary education at Ashland Normal College; graduated M. D. from 
Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, 1889; practiced in Ashland until 1891 and 
then removed to Lexington ; now village and township health officer ; was village council- 
man four years and three years a member of the school board. 

GEORGE HIRAM WILSON, Painesville, Ohio, born Concord, Ohio, in 1880; 
literary education, Ohio Normal College at Geneva; graduated M. D. from Kansas City 
Homoeopathic Medical College, 1900; M. D. Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital 
of Philadelphia, 1903. 

J0H:N KELLIHER TRETTON, Rochester, New York, born Ireland, October 4, 
1859 ; educated at the State Normal School, Mansfield, Pa. ; graduated M. D. Hahnemann 
Medical College of Philadelphia, 1888; attending physician to Hahnemann Hospital, 
Rochester. 

CHARLES EDWIN SHAWEN, Dayton, Ohio, born Dayton November 4, 1875; 
graduated M. D. from the Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1901 ; M. D. Rush 
Medical College, Chicago, 1903. 

NILES S. LINDQUIST, Plymouth, Indiana, born Plymouth August 27, 1875; 
medical preceptor the late Dr. E. W. Viets of Plymouth; graduated M. D. Hahnemann 
Medical College of Chicago, 1899. 



326 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

DAVID JUDSON CHAFFEE, Rochester, New York, born Palmyra, May 6, 1835; 
literary education, Falley's Seminary, Fulton, N. Y. ; student one year Albany Medical 
College; practiced three years in Palmyra, then matriculated at the Homoeopathic Med- 
ical College of Pennsylvania, but graduated in 1863 from the Cleveland Homoeopathic 
Medical College, and in 1868 from the college in Philadelphia ; practiced six years in 
Palmyra and for thirty-three years in Rochester. 

FRANKLIN B. HOME, Beloit, Kansas, born Quincy, Ills., February 2"], 1840; 
literary education at Monmouth Academy; medical preceptor. Dr. J. C. Holingsworth of 
Keithsburg, Ills. ; graduated M. D. Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1873 ; in 
charge of the medical department and hospital at the Industrial School for Girls, Beloit, 
for the past ten years; mayor of Keata, 1886-1888; member of city board of aldermen, 
Beloit, 1890-1892; president of Mitchell County Medical Society (old school). 

WARD RAYMOND NOYES, West Burke, Vermont, born Sutton, Vt, November 
17, 1870; literary education, Lyndon Institute, Lyndon, Vt. ; graduated M. D. New York 
Homa-opathic Medical College and Hospital, i8g6; school trustee, superintendent of 
schools, health officer. 

CHARLES HENRY LONG, Pontiac, Illinois, born LaSalle, Ills., May 14, 1850; 
student Wheaton College, 1865-1866; entered Illinois Wesleyan University, Bloomington, 
in 1867, and graduated in 1873, elective scientific course, and degree of B. S. ; taught 
school from 1873 to 1875 ; student at Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1875 ; 
graduated M. D. from Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1878; ad eundem degree, 
Hahnemann Medical College, 1905 ; appointed medical examiner for pensions in 1879 and 
served five years; elected coroner in 1880 and serve,d three terms; ex-president Central 
Illinois Homoeopathic Medical Society; provisional secretary Illinois State Homoeopathic 
Medical Association, 1898-1899; trustee Illinois Wesleyan University since 1898; member 
of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

IRA JOHN HERR, Dayton, Ohio, born Salem, Ohio, April 27, i86^; literary educa- 
tion Central High School, Dayton, graduating in 1887; graduated M. D. from Pulte 
Medical College, Cincinnati, 1894. 

HARRY HERBERT CRUM, Ithaca, New York, born West Candor, N. Y., July 10, 
1871; literary education, Cornell University, B. L. 1897; graduated M. D. from Cleveland 
Homoeopathic Medical College, 1900; health officer of Ithaca since 1003; member of the 
American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

CLARK EDWARD HETHERINGTON, Piqua, Ohio, born Piqua, January 2, 1875 ; 
educated Ohio Wesleyan University, A. B. 1896; A. M. 1901 ; graduated M. D. from 
Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1901. 

CHARLES EMERSON LIBBEY, Danville, Vermont, born Machiasport, Maine, July 
16, 1873; literary education, Sanburn Seminary, Kingston, N. H., class of '93; graduated 
M. D. from Boston University School of Medicine, 1897; licensed to practice in New 
Hampshire, Maine and Massachusetts; superintendent of public schools, 1901-1905; 
member of prudential committee, Phillips Academy, 1900-1905; health officer town of 
Danville, 1904-1905. 

EUGENE De ALTON HOLLY, Candor, Tioga county. New York, born Candor, 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 327 

November 23, 1873; literary education, Candor Academy; medical preceptor, Dr. William 
E. Roper of Candor; graduated I\I. D. from Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 
1897; coroner of Tioga county two terms; member of the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy. 

FRANK CORWIN STEWART, Indianapolis. Indiana, born in Wabash county, 
December 8, 1853; literary education, Wabash Academy and Indiana State Normal School; 
student in Kentucky School of Medicine, Louisville, 1881 ; Rush Medical, Chicago, spring 
term, 1884; Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1885-1886; graduated from the 
latter, M. D., in 1886; practitioners' course. New York Homoeopathic Medical College 
and Hospital, 1902, and president of the class ; surgeon to Camp Mount Field Hospital, 
1898; president of Indiana Institute of Homoeopathy, 1902; member of the American 
Institute of Homoeopathy. 

ELMER ELLSWORTH SHANNON, Ivoryton, Conn., born May 3, 1876; medical 
preceptor, Dr. George S. Boyd; graduated M. D. from Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical 
College, 1878; post-graduate study at Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital of 
Philadelphia, 1900; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

MARION GAGE McBRIDE, Ravenna, Ohio, born Freedom, Ohio; literary educa- 
tion, Hiram College, Hiram, Ohio ; graduated M. D. from Cleveland Homoeopathic 
Hospital College, 1883; member of city board of health since 1889; now secretary and 
physician of the board. 

ADELE P. KIMBALL GRAENING, Waverly, Jowa, born East Lebanon, New 
Hampshire, July 17, 1861 ; graduated M. D. from homoeopathic medical department of 
State University of Iowa, 1894. 

WILLIAM JEFFERSON PRISH, Fredonia, New York, born Royalton, N. Y., 
January 6, 1861 ; literary education, Troy Conference Academy, Poultney, Vermont ; 
medical preceptor. Dr. A. J. Evans of Lockport, N. Y. ; graduated M. D. Hahnemann 
Medical College of Philadelphia, 1885; town physician, Wilson, N. Y., 1885-1887; health 
officer, 1887-1890; tow-n clerk, Royalton, N. Y., 1888-1890; present health officer, Pomfret. 

LUTHER THOMAS GILL, Gibsonburg, Ohio, born Exeter, Ontario, Canada, 
January 12, 1870; graduated M. D. Cleveland University of Medicine and Surgery, 1896; 
clerk Gibsonburg special school district, 1900-1902; member of board of health, 1900-1903. 

CHARLES HOFFMAN RETHER,, Columbus, Ohio, born Biglerville, Pa., June 
24, 1866; literary education. New Oxford College, New Oxford, Pa.; graduated M. D. 
from Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital, Philadelphia, 1899. 

LEE EDWARD CASEY, Minerva, Stark county, Ohio, born Colton, N. Y., January 
5, 1872 ; literary education, Colton high school ; graduated M. D. Cleveland University 
of Medicine and Surgery, 1895. 

ADA CARR, Paterson, New Jersey, born Paterson, June 17, 1852; graduated M. D. 
New York Medical College and Hospital for Women, 1882; visiting physician to Florence 
Crittenden Home, 1900-1902; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

WALTER BENNETT KNIGHT, Cincinnati, Ohio, born Janesville, W^is., February 



328 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

3, 1867; literary education, Chickering Academy; graduated M. D. Pulte Medical College, 
Cincinnati, 1888. 

EDWARD ANDRUSS, Holden, Missouri, born Warrensburg, Mo, October i, 
1863; educated State Normal School, General City Business College (Quincy, Ills.); 
graduated M. D. Kansas City Hahnemann Medical College, 1897; post-graduate course, 
New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 1903 ; registered pharmacist in 
Missouri. 

EDWARD SYLVESTER SMITH, Bridgeport. Conn., born New Haven, Conn., 
1857; graduated M. D. from the New York Homoeopathic Medical College in 1888; post- 
graduate courses. University of Vienna, 1888-1889; practitioners' course, alma mater, 1890 
and 1902; v/ith Dr. Carl Heitzman, 1890; president Connecticut State Homoeopathic 
Medical Society, 1899-1900. 

ARTHUR EDWARD SCHNELL, St. Louis. Missouri, born Rochester, N. Y., 
April 22, 1870; student New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital. 1893- 
1895 ; graduated M. D. Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri, 1900. 

SIMON WILLARD OLEY, Danbury, Conn., born Rush, Monroe county, New York, 
September 19, 1854 ; literary education. State Normal School, Geneseo, N. Y. ; student 
in medical department. New York University, 1884-1885 ; graduated M. D. from New 
York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1886. 

CHARLES QUINCY NELSON, Albia, Iowa, born Hillsboro, Ohio. August 31, 
1855 ; literary education, Hillsboro High School ; medical, Pulte IMedical College, 
Cincinnati, graduating in 1878; practiced in Owensboro, Ky., 1878; Leesburg, O., 1879- 
80; Madisonville, O., 1882-83; El Dorado, Kans.. 1885-86; Canon City, Col., 1886-91; 
Grove City, O., 1892-93 ; served as committeeman of Franklin county, Ohio, during the 
years 1893-97. 

FELIX BERTOULIN STONE, Wabash, Indiana, born Wabash county, Ind., 
September 9, 1866 ; graduated from Wabash High School, 1887 ; studied medicine under 
preceptorship of Dr. J. W. G. Stewart of Wabash, and in 1902 graduated M. D. from 
Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago; practiced in Chicago four months after 
graduation, and since then in Wabash. 

ALBERT H. SEARS, Anderson, Indiana, born in Madison county, Ind., May 5. 
i860; graduated 1886, from National Normal University, Lebanon, Ohio, with B. S. 
degree; graduated from Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago in 1890, since which 
time he has been a practitioner in Anderson ; member American Institute of Homoeopathy 
and the International Hahnemannian Association. 

HOWARD W. BASSETT Richmond, Virginia, born Sacramento, Cal., November 
27, 1861 ; graduated from Sacramento High School in 1877 ; medical education acquired 
at Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, receiving degree M. D. in 1889; practiced in 
Oak Park, Ills., 1891-1900; took a post-graduate course at the Chicago Polyclinic, 1892, 
and has been a practitioner in Richmond since 1900; was a member of staflf, St. Anthony's 
Hospital, Chicago, and clinical assistant .chair of neurology, Chicago Homoeopathic 
Medical College. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 329 

WALTER HALL VOSBURG, Dunkirk, New York, born Perrysburgh, N. Y., 
November 14, 1874; literary education, Gowanda Academy, 1893; medical, Cleveland 
Homoeopathic Medical College, graduated 'M. D. 1897 ; attending surgeon Brooks Memo- 
rial Hospital, Dunkirk, and member Dunkirk board of health. 

MALCOLM CAMEROX, Washington, D. C, born in Canada, September 5. 1845; 
medical education acquired in University of New York and Hahnemann Medical College 
of Philadelphia, graduating with M. D. degree in 1881 from the latter institution; 
commenced practice, 1881, in New York city, and while located there served as physician 
to Ward's Island Hospital; later took a post-graduate course in the New York Post- 
Graduate School of Medicine. 

SPENCER D. HINMAX, Grand Rapids, Michigan, born in Kent county, Mich., 
September 16, 1850; literary education, Batavia (New York) High School and Cazenovia 
(New York) Seminary; graduated ^I. D. from New York Homoeopathic Medical 
College in 1877 ; practiced in Genesee county, N. Y. until 1881 ; in Sparta, Mich., 1881-96, 
and in Grand Rapids since 1806; member of medical staff of United Benevolent Asso- 
ciation Hospital. 

ELIZABETH CORWIX, Binghamton, New York, born Corwin Homestead, near 
Middletown, N. Y., July lo, 1852 ; literary education, Mountain Home Institute ; med- 
ical. New York Medical College and Hospital for Women, receiving M. D. degree in 
1886; took a post-graduate course in Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, and an- 
other on orificial surgery in Xew York city; is resident physician and proprietor of 
the Corwin Sanatorium, and on the staff of the Binghamton city hospital ; member Amer- 
ican Institute of Homoeopathy, American Association of Orificial Surgeons and vice- 
president of Broome County Homoeopathic ]Medical Society. 

WILLIAM WILSOX, Akron, Ohio, was born in Leeds, England, March 24, 1861 ; 
attended parochial schools of England, and was a special student in Hiram College, 
Ohio; graduated M. D. from Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, in 1900, and again from 
the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College in 1901 ; member American Institute of 
Homoeopathy ; vice-president Hiram Medical Society, 1897; president Summit County 
Clinical Society, 1903 and 1905. 

CHARLES PARSOXS BEAMAN, Ithaca, New York, born Philadelphia. Pa., Oc- 
tober 6, i860; received degree of M. D. from the New York Homoeopathic r^Iedical Col- 
lege in 1882. 

WILLIAM TURNER MORRIS, Sistersville, West Virginia, born Wheeling, W. 
Va., February 26, 1880; attended public and private schools until 1891, Linsley Institute 
(military), 1891-1893, and the University of Notre Dame, 1893-1898; was graduated 
M. D. from Pulte Medical College in 1902, and has been a practitioner of Sistersville 
since then; member American Institute of Homoeopathy and vice-president West Vir- 
ginia State Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

HARVEY WOODS CORY, Marion, Indiana, was born in Wabash, Ind., August 18. 
1866; literary education, South Wabash Seminary Cnormal course) ; taught school sev- 
eral terms in Wabash county; studied medicine under preceptorship of the late Dr. Wes- 
ley A. Dunn, and in 1890 graduated from Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago with 
M. D. degree; practiced in Huntington, Ind., 1890-1897; Detroit, Mich., 1897-1898; in 



330 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

Marion since 1898; in 1897-98 served on the clinics at Grace Hospital, Detroit; member 
Indiana Institute of Homoeopathy. 

MICHAEL WILLIAM KAPP, Akron, Ohio, born Medina, Ohio, March 13, 1S66; 
literary education, Medina High School and National Normal University; graduated from 
Cleveland Medical College in 1895 with M. D. degree; practiced in Akron from 1895 
to February i, 1905 ; nov\r taking a post-graduate course in the New York Post-Graduate 
School of Medicine and the New York Post-Graduate College ; member American Insti- 
tute of Homoeopathy. 

JOHN MANLEY REID, Eureka, Kansas, born Kenton, Ohio, November 4, 1847; 
literary education. Northwestern Normal College, 1868; Cornell University, 1869-70, and 
Ohio Normal University, A. M. degree in 1876; graduated M. D. from, Kansas City 
Homoeopathic Medical College in 1897; took a course in Chicago in 1902 in electro- 
therapeutics ; was appointed United States pension examining surgeon in December, 
1903; member American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

JOEL MORGAN PARTRIDGE, South Bend, Indiana, born in Gustavus, Ohio, 
May 17, 1835 ; literary education, Oberlin University, Oberlin, Ohio, graduating with 
A. M. and A. B. degrees; studied medicine in Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 
1865; Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1866-68, graduating M. D. from the 
latter in 1868; has been a practitioner in South Bend since graduation; member of staff 
of Epworth Hospital at South Bend; also member Indiana Institute of Homoeopathy and 
the American Public Health Association. 

EARLE H. TOOLE, Quincy, Illinois, born St. Joseph, Mo., July 28, 1875; literary 
education, high school of Quincy; graduated from Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College 
with M. D. degree in 1897, and from Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, with ad 
eundum degree in 1905 ; has been engaged in practice of medicine and surgery at Quincy 
since graduation ; member International Hahnemannian Association. 

EUGENE C. THOMPSON, Indianapolis, Indiana, born Columbus, Ind., June 25, 
1849; literary education, Normal School, Lebanon, Ohio; medical, Hahnemann Medical 
College of Philadelphia, graduating with M. D. degree in 1870; practiced in Connersville, 
Ind., 1870-72; Liberty, Ind., 1872-1896, and since 1896 continuously in Indianapolis; 
served as health officer of Liberty, Ind., six years and as physician to infirmary at Liberty 
twenty-one years. 

GEORGE WILLIAMSON COFFMAN. St. Louis, Missouri, born Lancaster, Ohio, 
February 8, 1859; attended Missouri State University from 1879 to 1884, graduating in 
the latter year with degree of bachelor of letters; graduated from Chicago Homoeopathic 
Medical College in 1887 with degree of M. D. ; has been engaged in practice continuously 
since graduation; served as pension examiner at Garden City, Kansas, 1893-1897, and 
secretary of Kansas State Homoeopathic Medical Society, 1896. 

CHARLIE- GIFFORD JENKINS. Lansing. Michigan, born Woodville. Jefferson 
county, N. Y., July 2, 1864; graduated from the high school at Mason, Mich., in 1881. 
taught school ten years, and in 1890 commenced the study of medicine under the pre- 
ceptorship of Dr. Geo. D. Green of Mason; entered the homoeopathic department of the 
University of Michigan, graduating M. D. in 1894; practiced in Mason, Mich., 1894-1899; 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 331 

in 1899 took a post-graduate course in diseases of the eye and ear at his alma mater; 
in 1901 entered the Chicago Eye and Ear Hospital, remained for some time and then 
located for practice in Lansing; member American Institute of Homoeopathy and Amer- 
ican Medical Association. 

DAVID POSEY BROWN, Trenton, New Jersey, born Philadelphia, Pa., December 
17, 1877; literary education. Central High School of Philadelphia, graduating with B. A. 
degree in 1897; medical, Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, graduating with- 
M. D. degree in 1901 ; served as interne to William McKinley Memorial Hospital of 
Trenton, N. J., eighteen months, and then located in that city for practice; member of 
staff and secretary of medical board of McKinley Memorial Hospital; visiting physician 
and obstetrician to Florence Crittenton Memorial Hospital, and secretary Hahnemann 
Clinical Club of Trenton. 

ISAAC E. MORRIS, Fort Wayne, Indiana, born Alliance, Ohio, February 11, 1874; 
literary education. Mount Union College, Alliance; studied medicine, 1898-1901, in the 
Eclectic Medical Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio, and 1901-02 in Hahnemann Medical College 
of Philadelphia, graduating M. D. from the latter; has been a practitioner in Fort Wayne 
since 1902; secretary Allen County Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

HARRY E. PALMER, Dayton, Ohio, born Logan county, III., literary education 
acquired in Wooster College, Wooster, Ohio; graduated from New York Homoeopathic 
Medical College in 1885, and later took a post-graduate course in Chicago; member of 
the medical staflf of Miami Valley Hospital. 

HARRY DEACON W. WILSON, Rock Island, Illinois, was born in Trenton, N. J., 
January 6, 1861 ; educated at Trenton Academy, and studied medicine in the University 
of Pennsylvania three years (1879-82), and in Hahnemann Medical College of Phila- 
delphia, 1893-97; received M. D. degree from the latter institution in 1897; served one 
year on the staff of the Children's Homoeopathic Hospital, Philadelphia. 

FRANKLIN J. DRAKE, Webster City, Iowa, was born in Ontario, Canada, in 1869; 
literary education, Iowa Wesleyan University, Mt. Pleasant, Iowa.; medical, Chicago 
Homoeopathic Medical College, from which he received the M. D. degree in 1895. 

HENRY MUMAW, Elkhart. Indiana, born in Winesburg, Ohio. January 27, 1850; 
literary education acquired at a local academy and Smithville High School; graduated 
from Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago with M. D. degree in 1886; took one 
course post-graduate work in Michigan College of Medicine and Surgery, Detroit; has 
been secretary of the Northern Indiana and Southern Michigan Homoeopathic Medical 
Association fourteen years. 

WALTER ELBERT THORPE, Bristol, Conn., born Southington, Conn., December 
14, 1858; graduated M. D. New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1886. 

CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS HALL, Newburyport, Mass., born St. Johnsbury, 
Vermont, December 31, 1873; graduated M. D., Boston University School of Medicine, 
1898; practiced in Rockport, Mass., until 1901, and since then in Newburyport; member 
of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 



332 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

ROBERT CASE SCOTT, Fulton, New York, born Oswego, N. Y., July lo, 1875; 
literary education, Baldwinsville Academy; graduated M. D., Hahnemann Medical Col- 
lege and Hospital, Philadelphia, 1899; spent three months at Rush Medical College, Chi- 
cago, in 1901 ; clinical instructor in diseases of the eye, ear, nose and throat, Dunham 
Medical College, 1900. 

CHARLES OLIVER SUMNER, Norwood, New York; graduated from Canton 
Union School in 1885, and from St. Lawrence University, B. S., 1890; graduated M. D., 
New York Homoeopathic ^Medical College, 1894; practiced in Norwood since 1898. 

WALLACE B. KELLY, Independence, Kansas, born in Halcottville, Delaware ' 
county, N. Y. ; literary education at Claverack College and Hudson River Institute, and 
Stamford University ; graduated M. D., New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1881 ; 
city physician. Independence, ten years. 

WILLIAM PATERSON, Cleveland, Ohio, born Cleveland, October 21, 1863; gradu- 
ated M. D. from Cleveland Medical College, 1891 ; member of the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy and of the Ohio State Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

ERNEST WILLIAM RIEMENSCHNEIDER, Cleveland, Ohio, born in Berea, 
Ohio, in 1872; graduated, German Wallace College, M. A. 1892; graduated M. D. from 
Cleveland University of Medicine and Surgery, 1896. 

FRANCIS HOWARD SCHELL, Cincinnati, Ohio, was born in Canada in 1841 ; 
literary education in the public and grammar schools of Ingersoll, Canada, and specially 
studied German, French and Spanish; student in Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical Col- 
lege, 1865, and graduated from the New York Homoeopathic Medical College in 1866; 
post-graduate studies in Berhn, Vienna and Paris, 1870-1872 ; practiced in Oxford, Ohio, 
1866-1870, and since then in Cincinnati. 

WELLINGTON LEROY WINNARD, Warsaw, Illinois, born Greeley, Delaware 
county, Iowa, November 7, 1867; literary education, Lenox College, Hopkinton, Iowa; 
graduated there B. D., 1887; graduated M. D., Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 
1890; subsequently took three post-graduate courses with Dr. E. H. Pratt of Chicago, 
in orificial surgery ; physician to board of health of Warsaw, appointed April 3, 1892 ; 
member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy and of the American Association of 
Orificial Surgeons. 

WILBUR A. BEARD, New Albany, Indiana, born Georgetown, Ind., December 4, 1876; 
literary education at State Normal School in Valparaiso (teacher's course) ; medical 
preceptor, Dr. John F. Weathers of New Albany; graduated M. D. from the Hospital 
College of Medicine of Central University of Kentuckj^ 1901. 

JACOB A. HAERR, Cincinnati, Ohio, born in Clark county, Ohio, in i860; literary 
education, Wittenburg College; graduated M. D., Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, 
1882; coroner of Hamilton county, 1895-1898; correspondent for State Medical Board, 
1897-1898. 

CHARLES MARTIN STEELE, Battle Creek, Michigan, born Kalamazoo, Mich- 
April 12, 1872 ; student of pharmacy, University of Michigan, 1892-1893 ; graduated M. D. 
from the homoeopathic department of the University of Michigan, 1897; post-graduate 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 333 

course, 1901-1902. Philadelphia Polyclinic and Wills Eye Hospital, and also clincs at 
Jefiferson Medical College Hospital and Philadelphia Hospital; health officer, Fennville, 
Mich., 1898-1899; president Hahnemannian (college) Society, 1896-1897; eye specialist to 
Phelps Sanatorium, appointed 1903. 

MARGARET HISLOP, Strasburg, Ontario, Canada, born Dumfries, Ontario, June 
22, 1853; graduated M. D., Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital, Chicago, 1880; 
member of the International Hahnemannian Association. 

EMMA E. OLSON, ^Milwaukee, Wisconsin, born Racine county. Wis.. February 10, 
1870; literary education, Rochester Seminarj' and State Normal School, Oshkosh ; sub- 
sequently taught school and was assistant principal at Union Grove (Wis.) high school ; 
medical preceptor, Dr. George L. Alexander; graduated M. D. (with honors, class secre- 
tary and treasurer). Hahnemann, Medical College of Chicago, 1899; ex-health officer 
and city physician, Medford. 

ROLLAND O. HARRIS, Carrolton. Missouri, born New Massillon, 111., in June, 1851 ; 
graduated M. D. from the Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery, 1873, and from the 
Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri, 1887; post-graduate course, Hering Medical 
College. Chicago, 1893; health officer, Carrolton; member of Missouri Valley Homoe- 
opathic Medical Society. 

GEORGE HOPE IRVIN, Orrville, Ohio, born Creston, Ohio, January I, 1874; lit- 
erary education, Juniata College, Huntingdon, Pa., graduated B. E. 1894; graduated 
M. D. from Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College in 1903; member of Ustion fra- 
ternity, C. H. M. C. 

CARL HERMAN WINTSCH, Newark, New Jersey, born New York city, February 
5, 1871; literary education. New York public and high schools; regent's certificate; 
graduated M. D. from New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 1895; 
founder and organizer of Homoeopathic Hospital of Essex county, and now one of its 
"directors; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy and of the New Jersey 
State Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

FRANK L. GIBBS. Chillicothe. Ohio, born Salem. Ohio, June 6, 1871 ; graduated 
M. D. from Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, 1896; coroner Ross county, 1903-1904; 
re-elected in 1904. 

EDGAR B. SHARP, Berlin, New Jersey, bom Berlin, October 21, 1855; medical 
preceptor. Dr. Amos Russell Thomas of Philadelphia; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann 
Medical College of Philadelphia, 1876. 

ALPHA GARRETT WRIGHT CHILDS, Madison, Indiana, bom Heno, Butler 
county, Ohio, April 2i, 1871 ; literary education, Danville Normal College (1890) ; taught 
school during the winter of 1890-1891 ; student in Franklin preparatory school and gradu- 
ated from there A. B., 1898; A. M., 1899; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann Medical 
College of Chicago, 1900; practitioner's course. New York Homoeopathic Medical College 
and Hospital, 1903. 

GEORGE HENRY KING. Watkins, Schuyler county, New York, born Mecklen- 
burg, N. Y., December 24. 1844; literary- education, Trumansburg Academy; graduated 
M. D. from Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, 1S68; practiced in Watkins since 1870. 



334 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

ASA ZADEL HALL, Saquache, Colorado, born Granville, Ohio, December 15, 1875; 
literary education, Colgate Academy, Hamilton, N. Y., 1891-1894; graduated M. D., 
Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 1903 ; Huron Street Hospital, three years' 
clinical course, diploma, 1903 ; Hahnemann Medical Society diploma, 1903. 

CHARLES CHAPIN LANDON, Battle Creek, INIichigan, born near Parma, Mich, 
March 8, 1859; literary education, Albion College; medical preceptor, Dr. M. Rorabacher 
of Battle Creek; student homoeopathic department, University of Michigan, 1883-1884; 
graduated M. D. from Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1885 ; post-graduate 
course, Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1899; member of board of education. 
Battle Creek. 1897-1900. 

ISABELLA FLORENCE KELSO, Waterloo, Iowa, born Union, Hardin county, 
Iowa, March 14, 1856 ; diploma, 1899, Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle ; diploma, 
1902, from Vernon Academy of Mental Sciences, Rochester, N. Y. ; medical preceptor. 
Dr. W. H. McClain; diploma M. D. from homoeopathic department. State University of 
Iowa, 1893, and honorary degree from the Hahnemann Society of Iowa City. 

FREDERICK JOHNSON SCHULZ, Ft. Wayne, Indiana, born Bremen, Germany, 
June 27, 1878; graduated M. D. from the homoeopathic department of University of 
Michigan, 1902. 

CHARLES EDWARD WEST, Lincoln, Illinois, born Hannibal, Mo., October 3, 
1871 ; literary education. Dean College, 1888 ; graduated M. D. from Chicago Homoe- 
opathic Medical College, 1898; post-graduate course, alma mater, 1899, and in the Eye, 
Ear, Nose and Throat College, Chicago, 1902. 

CARROLL JOHN BEAMAN, Cleveland, Ohio, born Oregon, 111., February 20, 
187s; medical preceptor. Dr. William M. Chapell of Oregon; graduated M. D. from 
Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1896; practiced in Cleveland since 1900. 

FRED LAW^RENCE WATSON, Conneaut, Ohio, bom Clean, N. Y., October 23, 
1874; literary education, Genesee Weslej'an Seminary, Lima, N. Y., 1892-1894; graduated 
M. D. from Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 1899; physician to Conneaut Gen- 
eral Hospital. 

SHIRLEY ROBINSON SNOW, Rochester, New York, born Auburn, N. Y., March 
12, 1863; literary education. Auburn High School, Phillips Exeter Academy, 1882, Har- 
vard University, A. B. 1886; graduated M. D. from the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, New York city, 1889; practiced in Rochester since 1890, with surgery as specialty; 
surgeon to Rochester Homoeopathic Hospital. 

FREDERICK CARVER ROBBINS, Gowanda, New York, born Boston, Mass., 
Novem.ber 6, 1873; graduate of Brimmer Grammar School; student, Boston Latin School 
and Eighth High School, Boston; graduated M. D., Boston University School of Med- 
icine, 1896; practiced in Wollaston, Mass., 1896-1897; Yarmouthport, 1897-1901; Dedham, 
1901-1904; now junior assistant physician, Gowanda Homoeopathic State Hospital. 

HENRY PINNEY SAGE, New Haven, Conn., born Unionville, Conn., September 
23, 1865; literary education. New Haven public schools and Hopkins Grammar School; 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 335 

graduated M. D. from New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1891 ; member of the 
American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

CHARLES FRANCIS OTIS, Rochester, New York, born Rochester March 27, 
i860; medical preceptor, Dr. Clark Otis (his father) ; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann 
Medical College of Chicago, 1882 ; post-graduate course in New York Polyclinic ; prac- 
tice confined to diseases of women and children and chronic diseases. 

WARREN CUSHMAN HEWITT, Xenia, Ohio, born Woodstock, Ohio; graduated 
M. D. from Cleveland University of Medicine and Surgery, 1888; coroner of Champaign 
county, 1895-1899; physician and surgeon to Ohio Soldiers and Sailors Orphans' Home 
since 1902; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy; the only homoeopathic 
physician in Ohio serving in a state institution. 

ERNEST W. LAYMAN. Terre Haute, Indiana, born Smithtcn, Mo., June 10, 1872; 
literary education, Franklin College ; medical preceptor, Dr. M. H. Waters of Terre 
Haute; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1899; member 
of the state board of health. 

EMIL BESSER, Remington, Jasper county. Indiana, born in Harper. Iowa, April 
II, 1868; student Iowa State Agricultural College one year; Iowa University, pharmacy 
department, one year, and medical department, one year; graduated M. D. from Chicago 
Homoeopathic ]\Iedical College, 1899; U. S. pension examiner. 

CALDWELL MORRISON. Newark, New Jersey, born Gambier, Ohio, August 9, 
1866; degree of A. B. from Columbia University, 1886; graduated M. D., from the New 
York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 1889; member of New Jersey State 
Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

CHARLES WHITING MOODY. Plainville. Conn,, is a native of that city; was 
a student two years at Yale Medical College; graduated 'SI. D. from New York Homoe- 
opathic Medical College, 1S84 ; consulting physician to New Britain City Hospital ; mem- 
ber of Plainville school board for the last six years. 

RAYMOND EDWARD PECK, Davenport, Iowa, born Atlantic, Iowa, January 9, 
1877 ; literary education, Davenport public and high schools ; graduated M. D. from the 
College of Homoeopathic Medicine, State University of Iowa, 1897; assistant professor of 
surgery and lecturer on surgery, alma mater, 1899-1905 ; member of the American Insti- 
tute of Homoeopathy and of the Society of Colonial Wars. 

ARCHIE CLARK WOODWARD, Decorah, Iowa, born Sandwich, Iowa, August 
20, 1862 ; graduated M. D. from homoeopathic department. State University of Iowa, 
1894; practiced in Decorah, 1894-1898; Elma, 1898-1900, and again in Decorah since 
1900. 

LLEWELLYN JACKSON SANDERS. Rochester, New York, born October 27, 
1872; graduated M. D. from New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 
1895; interne Rochester Homoeopathic Hospital, 1895-1896: member of hospital corps 
N. G. S. N. Y., 1891-1898. 

JOHN HUNNEWELL HAMMOND, Anderson, Indiana, born Cincinnati, Ohio, 



336 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

December ii, 1848; medical preceptor, the late Dr. Metcalf of Vincennes; graduated 
M. D. from Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1887; member of Indiana Institute 
of HomcEOpathy. 

MORRISON HENRY CASTLE, Cleveland, Ohio, born Ashtabula, Ohio, September 
7, 1877 ; graduated M. D., Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, 1903 ; house physi- 
cian Huron Street Hospital, 1903-1904; visiting surgeon Dalrymple Hospital; secretary- 
Doctor's Round Table Club, 1904; secretary grand chapter Phi Alpha Gamma, 1902. 

CHARLES ALBERT WALKER, Rockford, Illinois, born Lake Geneva, September 
3, 1872 ; graduated Lake Geneva high school, 1892 ; graduated M. D. from Chicago 
Homoeopathic Medical College, 1896; attending physician and surgeon to Rockford City 
Hospital. 

HERMAN SCHULZ, Lafayette, Indiana, born Rochester, N. Y., December 31, 
1879; graduated from Rochester High School, 1897; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann 
Medical College and Hospital, Philadelphia, 1901 ; interne Rochester Homoeopathic Hos- 
pital, 1902-1903. 

REX VALI GRAVES, Lamont, Iowa, born Hillsboro, Iowa, September 24, 1878; 
student at Iowa Wesleyan University two years, and also at Gem City Business College ; 
graduated M. D. from homoeopathic department, University of the State of Iowa, 1903 ; 
health phj'sician, Lamont. 

FESTUS FRANKLIN PITCHER, Battle Creek, Michigan, born Mt. Pleasant, 
Iowa, September 10, 1872 ; literary education at Morgan Park Military Academy, and 
at St. John's College at Annapolis, Md. ; medical preceptor, Dr. Alfred Pitcher (his 
father) ; graduated M. D. from Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1894; interne 
Cook County Hospital, 1894-1896. 

CARL V. VISCHER, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, born in that city, June 6, 1866; 
educated in Philadelphia public and private schools ; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann 
Medical College of Philadelphia, 1887, and subsequently attended courses at the Uni- 
versity of Heidelberg and at the University at Vienna; practices surgery exclusively; 
member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

MIRIAM A. BLAKESLEE SWIFT, Topeka, Kansas, born Chester, Ohio, May 16, 
1847 ; literary education in normal department of Grinnell College, but did not graduate ; 
graduated M. D. from the homoeopathic department of the University of the State of 
Iowa, class of 1891 ; lecturer on obstetrics in Topeka Homoeopathic night school ; ex- 
treasurer of Homoeopathic Medical Society of the State of Kansas. 

STANLEY L. THORPE, Cleveland, Ohio, born Sandusky, Ohio, in 1851 ; graduated 
M. D. from Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, 1882; post-graduate course in 
New York Post-Graduate School of Medicine, 1891. 

BURKE L. JOHNSON, Kenton, Ohio, born Kenton, February 3, 1874; literary 
education, Oberlin and Buchtel colleges; graduated M. D. from Cleveland Medical Col- 
lege, 1896; coroner of Hudson county, 1897; acting assistant surgeon U. S. army, 1898- 
1901 ; captain and assistant surgeon, Ohio National Guard, 1901-1904, resigned. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 337 

CHARLES VALORES WEBB, Wallingford, Conn., born Salem, Ohio, December 
21, 1872; literary education, Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio, 1892-1894; graduated M. D. 
from Hahnemann ]\Iedical College and Hospital, Philadelphia, 1898; practiced in Tor- 
rington, Conn., from 1898 to 1900, and since that time in Wallingford. 

EVELYN HOEHNE, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, born Milwaukee, April 22, 1850; grad- 
uated M. D. from Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1887; ex-corresponding sec- 
retary and ex-treasurer of the Homoeopathic Medical Society of the State of Wisconsin. 

AUGUSTUS ALFRED FAHNESTOCK, LaPorte, Indiana, born Frederick, Md., 
August 24, 1833; graduated M. D., Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1861 ; prac- 
ticed in Monroeville, Ohio, 1861-1868; Lancaster, 1868-1870; Elkhart, Ind., 1870-1880; 
in LaPorte since 1880; at the age of sixteen was a professor and lecturer on materia 
medica and chemistry in the New York Eclectic Medical College. 

WILLIAM RICHARDS STEPHENS, Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania, bom in Penn- 
sylvania in 1858; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1887; 
member of city board of health of Wilkinsburg; member of the Homoeopathic IMedical 
Society of the State of Pennsylvania. 

FREDERICK CHANDLER HOUSE, Canton, Ohio, born North Hector, N. Y., 
January 26, 1877; literary education, Ithaca high school; graduated M. D. from Cleve- 
land Homoeopathic Medical College, 1902. 

JOHN STEPHEN LINSLEY, Bethel, Connnecticut, born Northford, Conn., January 
19, 1838; literary education at the State Normal School of Connecticut, New Britain, 
•class of 1859; studied medicine with Dr. Charles E. Sanford of Bridgeport from 1861 
to 1862 ; enlisted in the 14th U. S. Inf., October, 1862 ; served three years as hospital 
steward and received full appointment to that rank in May, 1864; matriculated at Bellevue 
Hospital Medical College in October, 1864; graduated M. D. from New York Homoe- 
opathic Medical College in 1866; house physician New York Homoeopathic Dispensary, 
1866-1872; retired from practice in the city in 1902 and removed to Bethel, Corm. 

JACOB F. ROEMER, Waukegan, Illinois, born Duncan's Falls, Ohio, December 15, 
t86i ; normal school education, degree of B. S., 1888; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann 
Medical College of Chicago, 1891. 

ALFRED WILLIAM ANDERSON, Lakewood, Ohio, born Erie, Pa., June 20, 
1879 ; medical preceptor. Dr. John M. Davies of Warren, Pa. ; graduated M. D. from 
■Cleveland Homceopathic Medical College, 1902; member of Lakewood board of health, 
1903-1904; health officer, 1904. 

JAMES D. McAFEE, Cleveland, Ohio, born Peninsula, Summit county, Ohio, in 
1861 ; literary education, Ada Normal School ; graduated M. D. from Cleveland Homoe- 
opathic Hospital College, 1891 ; appointed member of Cleveland board of health in June, 
1903. 

SAMUEL ALLEN OREN, Lewistown, III, born Philadelphia, Pa., November 16, 
1854; literary education. State University of low^a and Upper Iowa University; degree 
of LL. B. from State University of Iowa, 1878; graduated M. D. from the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, Keokuk, Iowa, 1877; graduated I\I. D. from the homceopathic 



338 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

department of the State University of Iowa, 1878; post-graduate course at Chicago Poly- 
clinic, 1895 ; member of the American Medical Association ; ex-vice-president of Fulton 
County Medical Society. 

FOWLER ALFRED WATTERS, Lockport, New York, born in that city, September 
14, 1869; medical preceptors, Drs. Evans and Hurd of Lockport; graduated M. D. from 
Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, 1892; health officer Lockport, 1904; city 
physician, 1904; physician and surgeon to Niagara county almshouse, 1904. 

LENA E. HITCHCOCK, Geneva, Ohio, born Geneva, August 10, 1849; literary 
education, Oberlin College ; graduated M. D. Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, 
1885 ; Hahnemann Medical Society, 1885 ; Cleveland Hospital, 1885 ; post-graduate course, 
Boston University School of INIedicine, 1895 ; practiced in Geneva since 1886. 

JOSEPH RIEGER, Dunkirk, New York, born Niagara Falls, N. Y, September i, 
1865; academic education, full course, but did not graduate; graduated M. D. from Chi- 
cago Homceopathic Medical College, 1893 ; post-graduate studies at New York Post- 
Graduate School of Medicine and Chicago Polyclinic; member of the American Institute 
of Homoeopathy. 

GEORGE ANTHONY, ROBERTSON, Jr., Battle Creek, Michigan, born Chelsea, 
Mich., June 2, 1878; graduate of Battle Creek high school; medical preceptor. Dr. George 
Anthony Robertson (his father) ; graduated M. D. from the homoeopathic department of 
the University of Michigan, 1901 ; post-graduate course. New York Homoeopathic Med- 
ical College, 1882, and at Ann Arbor in 1902; ex-member of the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy; coroner Calhoun county, 1899-1903; ex-treasurer, ex-vice-president and 
ex-president of the Homoeopathic Medical Society of the State of Michigan. 

T HENRY DAVIS, Richmond, Indiana, born Nantucket, Mass., September 29, 
1836; medical preceptor. Dr. William P. Cross of Nantucket; student Cleveland Homoe- 
opathic Medical College, 1856; graduated M. D. from the Homoeopathic Medical College 
of Missouri, 1869; practiced in Richmond since 1857; president of medical staff of St. 
Stephen's Hospital twelve years ; president of medical staff of Reid Memorial Hospital ; 
member of city council, 1869-1880; health officer of Richmond thirty-five years; member 
of state board of health twelve years and four years its president. 

CHARLES LEWIS BEACH, Hartford, Connecticut, born Southington, Conn., Feb- 
ruary 13, 1848; literary education at Southington Academy and afterward a teacher; 
graduated M. D. from the New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1872; practiced in 
Berlin, Conn., 1872; Unionville, 1872 to 1880; Rockville, 1880-1882, and in Hartford 
since 1882. 

THOMAS DICKINSON SPENCER, Rochester, New York, born Richmondville, 
N. Y. ; educated in Utica public schools ; graduated M. D. New York Homoeopathic 
Medical College, 1878; practiced in Rochester since 1878. 

WILLIAM DAVIS WHITNEY, Muncie, Indiana, born Youngsville, Pa., April 28, 
1852; graduated M. D. from the University of Buffalo, 1874; practiced in Lottsville, Pa., 
1874-1889; in Muncie since 1889; attended Dr. E. H. Pratt's clinics in Chicago in 1892; 
superintendent of Muncie Hospital, a private institution, receiving city support. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 339 

MRS. EMMER A. WHITNEY, Muncie, Indiana, born in Warren county, Pa., No- 
f ember 14, 1853; graduated M. D. from Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, 1886; 
post-graduate course, Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, 1891 ; matron Muncie 
Hospital. 

CARROLL CHARLES BEACH, Hartford, Connecticut, born Unionville, Conn., 
December 12, 1874; degree of Trinity College, B. Sc, 1896; graduated M. D. from 
Boston University School of Medicine, 1899; ensign and assistant surgeon, naval bat- 
talion, Connecticut National Guard, since 1901. 

LESTER M. CURRIER, Freeport, Illinois, born Stockholm, N. Y., January 14, 
1847; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1873; ex-coroner 
of Stephenson county, 111. 

JAMES DELMER VARNEY, Chesterville, Ohio, born Sumner, 'Me., January 26, 
^^73\ graduated from Sumner High School (private) in 1890; student in Cary Collegiate 
Institute, 1893-1896; graduated M. D. from Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, 1900; 
Dr. E. H. Pratt's special course and the post-graduate course of Chicago Plomoeopathic 
Medical College in 1901 ; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

CHARLES EMERY NEWELL, Stamford, Conn., born West Concord, Vt., May 2, 
1849; graduated M. D. from New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 1874; pension 
surgeon for Northern New Hampshire, 1876-1880; highway surgeon and health officer for 
Lancaster, N. H., 1877-1879; councilman, city of Hartford, 1894-1896; representative in 
the legislature, 1896-1897; post surgeon, 1894-1900. 

HOWARD PAUL PRESTON, Plymouth, Indiana, was born in LaPorte county, 
Ind., January 13, 1874; graduated from LaPorte High School, and M. D. from Chicago 
Homoeopathic Medical College, 1901 ; has been a practitioner in LaPorte since gradua- 
tion ; member x\merican iMedical Association. 

FREW ALBERTUS TUCKER, Marshalltown, Iowa, born in Marshall county, 
Iowa ; educated in country schools ; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann Medical College' 
of Chicago, 1899; graduated D. O., igoo, and 'SI. E., 1901 ; took a general course, 1902, 
in Chicago Post-Graduate Hospital ; served as health officer of Guthrie county, Iowa, 
1901-02. 

JONATHAN H. ALLEN, Norwich, Connecticut, born Montville, Conn., May 17, 
1858; descended from old Puritan stock; studied in common schools, took a private 
course under Henry Gorton of New London, Conn., a Yale graduate, and graduated 
M. D. from New York Homoeopathic College and Hospital, 1888; practiced in Rock- 
ville, 1888-92, since then in Norwich. 

WILL H. BAKER, Terre Haute, Indiana, born Byron, N. Y., October 13, 1858; 
educated in the common schools of Medina, N. Y., and Jersey City, N. J. ; graduated 
M. D. from Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 1882 ; practiced in Medina, N. Y., 
1882-86; Rochester, N. Y., 1886-89; since then in Terre Haute; member International 
Hahnemannian Association and Indiana Institute of Homoeopathy. 

JOSEPHINE HOWLAND, Auburn, New York, born Scipio, Cayuga county, N. Y., 
May 14, 1853; literary education, Friends' Academj', L^nion Springs, N. Y., graduating in 



340 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

1873 ; studied one year in the Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania, 1891 ; one year 
in the Women's Medical College of Chicago, and in 1895 graduated M. D. from the for- 
mer institution; studied two years in Dr. Kent's Post-Graduate School, graduating in 
1897; practiced for a short time after graduation in Philadelphia and then moved to 
New York state, locating in Auburn in 1897; was appointed physician to the Home of 
the Friendless, Auburn, 1891 ; president of the anti-compulsory vaccination league of 
Auburn, 1902; vice-president of the Central New York Homoeopathic Medical Society, 
1902, and president in 1904 ; author of a pamphlet entitled " Why Homoeopathy Cures " ; 
has lectured on the " Wants of the Age, Considered Religiously and Educationally " ; 
and in addition to her medical practice is an instructor of music. 

ALLEN GEORGE RENNISON, West Union, Iowa, born Liverpool, England, Feb- 
ruary 24, 1870; literary education, Chicago High School, Bryant and Stratton College 
and Carroll College, Waukesha, Wis., graduating from the latter in 1893; graduated 
M. D. from the National Medical College of Chicago, 1898; post-graduate course. Rush 
Medical College ; surgeon National Emergency Hospital, 1898-99 ; lecturer in his alma 
mater on physiological chemistry, 1899, and surgeon City Emergency Hospital, Chicago, 
1901 ; member American Medical Association and Academy of Sciences, Chicago. 

JOHN WADE GRAVES STEW^^RT, Wabash, Indiana, born Wabash county, Ind., 
October 22, 1861 ; educated in the common schools of Wabash county, and took a com- 
mercial course in Valparaiso Business College; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann Med- 
ical College of Chicago, 1889; has practiced in Wabash since graduation; post-graduate 
course, 1895, in Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College; member staff, W' abash County 
Hospital; member American Institute of Homoeopathy, Indiana Institute of Plomoeopathy 
and vice-president hospital board of Wabash County Hospital. 

HOWLAND i\IADISON FLOWER, Toledo, Ohio, born Moline, 111., May 30, 1864; 
educated in the common schools; graduated from the Chicago Homoeopathic Medical 
College and Chicago Homoeopathic Hospital, 1895 ; post-graduate course in his alma 
mater, 1895; studied abroad in 1903-04; attending aurist of Toledo Hospital and the 
Toledo Hospital Free Dispensary; practice limited to diseases of the ear, nose and 
throat. 

FRANKLIN SILVER DAVIS, Peoria, Illinois, born Lacon, 111., in 1869; literary 
education, Lacon High School, graduated, 1877, and student one year in Urbana Uni- 
versity of Ohio; medical, Rush jNIedical College, Chicago, College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, Chicago, and graduated ]M. D. from Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College 
in 1893; has been a practitioner in Peoria since graduation; member staff Deaconess 
Hospital, attending physician Home for the Friendless and the Florence Crittenton 
Home. 

ELIAS BUSH GUILE, Utica, New York, born Copenhagen, N. Y., June 26, 1866; 
literary education, Ives Seminary, 1877-79; Boonville Academy, 1881-83; Cazenovia Semi- 
nary, 1883-85; medical, Cleveland Homoeopathic ]\Iedical College, 1885-88, receiving JNI. D. 
degree in the latter year; practiced in Boonville, N. Y., 1888-90; Angelica, N. Y., 1890-93; 
Lima, Ohio, 1893-94, and in Utica since 1894; served as county physician, Allegheny 
county, N. Y. ; surgeon Home for Aged Men and Couples, Utica ; president Utica Rifle 
Association, 1903-05. 



HISTORY OF H0:M(E0PATHY 341 

JOHN HOWARD HARVEY, Toledo, Ohio, born Center county, Pa.; graduated 
from Bellefonte High School, Pa., 1886; graduated M. D., homceopathic department, Uni- 
versity of Michigan, 1891 ; New York Ophthalmic College and Hospital, degree O. et A. 
Chir., 1894; eye, ear, nose and throat specialist in Toledo since 1894; did post-graduate 
work in New York Eye and Ear Infirmary and in Dr. Heitzman's pathological laboratory, 
N. Y. ; oculist and aurist to Toledo Hospital. 

ROYAL ELMORE SWIFT HAYES, Hazardville, Connecticut, born Torrington, 
Conn. ; graduated, 1898, from Eclectic IMedical College of the City of New York, and in 
1900 became a convert to homoeopathy ; member International Hahnemannian Association 
and Connecticut Homceopathic Medical Society. 

HOMER SPURGEON HEWITT, Mishawaka, Indiana, born Chicago, III, Septem- 
ber 12, 1875 ; graduated, 1895, from high school at Grand Rapids, jNIich. ; student in 
Kalamazoo (jSIich.) College, 1895-96; studied in dental department. Northwestern Uni- 
versity, Chicago, one year, and then entered Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 
from which he received M. D. degree in 1901 ; has been a practitioner in Mishawaka 
sipce graduation. 

STEPHEN B\TiON SABIN, Hillsdale, }^Iichigan, born Rockport, Cayuga county, 
Ohio, May 12, 1846; graduated from Baldwin University, Berea, Ohio, in pharmacy; 
from Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, M. D. degree, 1878; practiced in Pitts- 
ford, Mich., 1880-88; North Adams, Mich., 1888-98, and since 1898 in Hillsdale; took a 
post-graduate course in Cleveland Homceopathic ^Medical College in 1892; served as 
health officer of North Adams, also of Pittsford. 

ALFRED AUGUSTUS WHIPPLE, Quincy, Illinois, born Mansfield, N. Y., October 
31, 1845 ; was educated in the common schools ; student one year. Eclectic Medical Insti- 
tute, Cincinnati, 1876; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, 
1880; took post-graduate courses at his alma mater and Dr. E. H. Pratt's clinic; member 
American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

LESTER ENS WORTH WALKER, Norwich, Connecticut, born in that city, April 
29, 1872; graduated from Norwich Free Academy, 1894: New York Homoeopathic Med- 
ical College and Hospital, 1898 ; post-graduate work in his alma mater, 1898, and in New 
York Post-Graduate Hospital, microscopical course, 1901 ; town physician of Norwich 
gnd member of staff at Alms House. 

PERLY W. PEARSALL, Kalkaska, Michigan, born Alpine, Kent county, Mich.; 
literary education, high school, Grand Rapids, ^Mich. ; graduated in 1880 from Grand 
Rapids Business College; took two courses at Rush Medical College, and in 1889 gradu- 
:ated M. D. from Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College ; practiced in Grand Ledge, 
Mich., 1889; Waconsta, ]^Iich., 1889-92; ^^luskegon, Mich., 1892-95; Grand Rapids, Mich., 
189s, since t&en in Kalkaska ; was coroner, Clinton county, 1890-92 ; member U. S. 
pension board. 

EDWIN ALBERT SEVRINGHAUS, New Albany, Indiana, born Piqua, Ohio, 
April II, 1868; literary education, high school, Seymour, Ind. ; graduated in 1890 from 
Louisville Medical College, and in 1891 from Hahnemann Medical College of Philadel- 
phia; has practiced in New Albany since graduation; president Floyd County Humane 
Society, elected, 1903. 



342 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

S. WRIGHT HURD, Lockport, New York, born Yates Center, Orleans county, 
N. Y., September 19, 1856 ; literary education, Yates High School, Orleans county, N. Y. ; 
graduated M. D. from Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, 1880; member 
America;! Institute of Homoeopathy. 

LINDSAY ANDERSON JACKSON, Columbus, Ohio, born Chesterville, Ohio, 
September 3, 1875 ; educated in public and high schools ; graduated M. D. from Cleve- 
land Homoeopathic Medical College, 1898; practiced in Gahanna, Ohio, 1898-1903, and in 
Columbus since March, 1903 ; member of staflf, Huron Street Hospital, Cleveland. 

THOMAS B. GULLEFER, Greensburg, Indiana, born Indianapolis, Ind., March 12, 
185 1 ; literary education, Depaw University, Greeen Castle, Ind.; graduated M. D. from 
Medical College of Indiana, 1881 ; began practice in Plainfield, Ind., May 1881, remaining 
four years ; practiced in Mt. Vernon, Ind., two years, and since then in Greensburg ; 
took a post-gradurite course in Chicago Homoeopathic ]\Iedical College, 1891 ; secretary 
of the city and county boards of health ; physician to County Infirmary, County Jail, 
County Orphans' Home and County Poor House; was coroner of Decatur county six 
years. 

THOMAS PARSONS, Rochester, New York, born Buffalo, N. Y., September 27, 
1870; literary education, Hale's Preparatory School, Rochester, N. Y. ; University of 
Rochester, Ph. B. degree, 1892; graduated from New York Homoeopathic Medical Col- 
lege and Hospital, 1895 ; did post-graduate work in Berlin, Germany, 1895-96, and in 
New York Ophthalmic Hospital, 1897; oculist and aurist to Rochester Homoeopathic 
Hospital and to Rochester Homoeopathic Free Dispensary; member American Institute 
of Homoeopathy and American Homoeopathic Ophthalmological, Otological and Laryngo- 
logical Societj'. 

FRANK PARKER EKINGS, Paterson, New Jersey, born in that city, December 
16, 1877; literary education, Bordentown (N. J.) Military Institute, 1891-93; Rogers and 
Magee's School, 1893-95; Princeton University, 1895-99, B. Sc. degree, 1899; medical. 
New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, M. D. degree, 1903; interne. 
Flower Hospital, 1903-1904; succeeded Dr. T. Y. Kinne of Paterson, in practice; visiting 
physician, pathologist and lecturer on anatomy, St. Mary's Hospital, Passaic, N. J. ; 
visiting physician St. Mary's Hospital free dispensary clinics ; member American Insti- 
tute of Homoeopathy. 

FRANK LEONARD DE WOLF, Topeka. Kansas, born Belvidere, 111., April 23, 
1862; graduated from Geneva (111.) High School, 1883; student two years at Illinois 
State Normal School, 1883-84 and 1885-86; graduated D. V. S., Chicago Veterinary 
College, 1889; M. D., Kansas City Homoeopathic Medical College, 1892; practiced in 
Kansas City. Mo., 1892-95 ; since then in Topeka ; government inspector, Bureau of 
Animal Industry, Department of Agriculture, since 1895. 

EVERETT DUNNING BERGEN, Frankfort. Indiana, born Benton county, Iowa, 
December 6, 1866; literary education, Tilford Collegiate Academy, Vinton, la., gradu- 
ated, 1888; professional education, medical department. University of Michigan, 1888-89; 
Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, M. D. degree, 1891 ; has practiced in Frankford 
continuously since 1891 ; member Indiana Institute of Homoeopathy. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 343 

CHARLES ROLLIN COFFEEN, Piqua, Ohio, born Warren county, Ohio, August 
31, 1845; graduated from commercial department, 1868, Southwestern Normal School at 
Lebanon; graduated M. D. from Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, 1878; has been a 
practitioner of Piqua since 1880; took a post-graduate course, Hahnemann Medical Col- 
lege of Philadelphia, 1880; member Ohio State and ]\Iiami Valley Homoeopathic ^led- 
ical societies. 

OLIVER JAMES LYON, Sabetha, Kansas, born Butler county, Ohio, June 13, 
1842 ; literary education, Howes University, Mt. Pleasant, Iowa ; graduated M. D. from 
Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, 1875 ; practiced in Harrison, Ohio, 1875-1881 ; Mt. 
Pleasant, Iowa, and Durham. Mo., 1881 ; Batavia, Iowa, 1881-1884 and since that time 
in Sabetha, with the exception of six months spent in Pawnee City, Neb. ; served as 
notary public four years; commissioned as attorney before U. S. bureau of pensions, 
1890; admitted to practice before war department, 1893; served in 17th army corps during 
the civil war, and was honorably discharged September, 1864. 

THOMAS ]MILTON STEWART, Cincinnati, Ohio, born Cincinnati, May 13, 1866; 
literary education in public schools of Cincinnati and Chickering Institute (1885) ; gradu- 
ated M. D. from Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, 1887 ; graduated O. et A. Chir. from 
New York Ophthalmic Hospital, 1888; professor of anatomy, Pulte Medical College, 
1888-1892; professor of ophthalmology' and otology, Pulte, 1893-1904; secretary, Pulte 
Medical College since 1895 ; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy and of 
the American Ophthalmological, Otological and Laryngological Society. 

CURTISS GINN, Dayton, Ohio, born Jaiuiary 7, 1872; literary education, Oberlin 
College (three years) ; graduated M. D. from Cleveland University of Medicine and 
Surgery, 1895; interne Miami Valley Hospital, 1895; visiting surgeon, same institution, 
since 1896. 

ALLAN ARDEN TAYLOR, Delta, Ohio, born Metamora, Ohio, August 25, 1879; 
literary education at Aletamora high school, 1898; graduated M. D. from Cleveland 
Homoeopathic Medical College, 1902. 

OSCAR WILHEL^I CARLSON, Milwaukee, Wis., born Stockholm, Sweden, August 
I, 1843; came to Waukesha, Wis., in 1853; enlisted Co. A, 28th Wis. Inf., and served 
in the war of 1861-1865; medical preceptor, Dr. Charles Augustus Lothstrom (his uncle) 
a pioneer homoeopathic physician in Wisconsin and said to have been the first practi- 
tioner of his school in Columbus, Ohio; graduated M. D. from Hahnemann Medical 
College of Chicago, 1872; began practice in Milwaukee in 1872, partner with Dr. Loths- 
strom, and continued until the latter retired ; partner with Dr. William Danforth from 
1879 until the death of the latter in 1885 ; since practiced alone ; ex-president of the 
Homoeopathic Medical Society of the State of Wisconsin and ex-president of the Mil- 
waukee Academy of Medicine ; ex-surgeon 4th battalion. Wis. National Guard ; past 
commander G. A. R. ; member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

JAMES BALL, Melvern, Kansas, born Keokuk count}', Iowa ;' literary education at 
Kansas State Normal School ; graduated M. D. from the Kansas City Homoeopathic 
Medical College, 1893. 

GEORGE BACHELER PECK. Providence, Rhode Island, born Providence, August 
12. 1843; prepared for college in Providence citv schools; graduated from Brown Uni- 



344 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

versity, A. B. 1864, A. M. 1868; took a winter and a summer course at Hahnemann 
Medical College of Philadelphia, 1869-1870; graduated M. D. from Yale Medical College, 
1871 ; post-graduate course Sheffield Scientific School, devoting especial attention to 
chemistrj^ assaying and determinative mineralogy, with incidental attention to stock- 
hreeding and physical and military geography; assistant chemist, U. S. naval torpedo 
station, 1872-1874; in charge of chemistry department, University of Vermont, 1874; 
began general practice in 1875; admitting physician to Rhode Island Homoeopathic Hos- 
pital at its opening in March, 1886; trustee same institution from about 1886 to 1889; 
member Providence school committee, 1881-1885 ; member Providence marine corps of 
artillery, 1863-1871 ; appointed 2d lieutenant, 2d regiment, Rhode Island Vols., 1864; 
wounded at Sailor's Creek, Va., April 6, 1865 ; resigned and honorably discharged, July 

5, 1865 ; surgeon and battalion lieutenant of infantry, R. I. militia, 1876-1879 ; lieutenant 
commanding battalion A, R. I. militia during Spanish- American war; secretary Rhode 
Island Homoeopathic Medical Society, 1875-1883; vice-president, 1883-1884; president, 
1885-1886; censor, 1887-1889; treasurer, 1890-1892; member of American Institute of 
Homoeopathy since 1879, acting chairman of its bureau of obstetrics, 1880; censor, 1895- 
1905; chairman of committee on foreign correspondence, 1895-1896; chairman interna- 
tional bureau of homoeopathy, 1902-1904; vice-president of Western Massachusetts Homoe- 
opathic Medical Society, 1886-1887 ; a founder of Prescott Post, No. i, G. A. R., and its 
surgeon, 1881-1883, and since 1890; ex-president R. I, Soldiers' and Sailors' Historical 
Society (1892-1895) ; member of board of managers of R. I. Baptist State Convention 
since 1876; treasurer of Narragansett Baptist Association and its clerk from 1877 to 1886, 
and since 1892; moderator of the association, 1889. 

WILLIAM ALVAH PHILLIPS, Cleveland, Ohio, born 1840; literary education, 
Baldwin University, Berea, Ohio; graduated M. D. from the Homoeopathic Medical Col- 
lege of Missouri, 1866; post-graduate courses at New York Ophthalmic Hospital and 
in clinics in Europe ; member of clinical staff, Huron Street Hospital ; eye and ear clinic 
of Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College ; member of the American Institute of Homoe- 
opathy; ex-secretary and ex-president of the Ohio State Homoeopathic Medical Society; 
ex-president of the American Ophthalmological, Otological and Laryngological Society; 
honorary member of the Homoeopathic Medical Society of the State of Pennsylvania. 

CLAUDIUS BLIGH KINYON, Ann Arbor, Michigan, born Sharon, Wis., January 

6, 1851 ; graduated in June, 1876, from the Illinois State Normal University at Normal; 
student one year in the homoeopathic department of University of Michigan; graduated 
M. D. from Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, 1878; post-graduate studies in Balti- 
more, Philadelphia and New York city; professor of obstetrics and gynecology in the 
homoeopathic department of University of INIichigan since 1897; gynecological surgeon 
and obstetrician to Homoeopathic Hospital of same institution; member of board of health 
and board of education; ex-president Tri-city Clinical Society (1881-1884) ; president 
Illinois State Homoeopathic Medical Society. 1887 : president Rock River Institute of 
Homoeopathy, 1892-1897; member American Institute of Homoeopathy; ex-chairman 
United States examining board for pensions. 

MYRTON B. RAYNES, Melrose Highlands, Massachusetts ; graduated M. D. from 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore, 1896; acquired knowledge of homoe- 
opathy through private study and since practiced it ; in 1903 took a course in general 
medicine in the Massachusetts General Hospital under Dr. Vickery; member of Massa- 
chusetts Homoeopathic Medical Society and the Massachusetts Medical Society (regular), 
Middlesex branch. 




William Harvey King, M.D, LL.D. 



HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 347 



CHAPTER XI 
THE COLLABORATORS. 

WILLIAM HARVEY KING, M.D., LL.D. 

William Harvey King, New York city, professor of electro-therapeutics, 
head of the department of physical and physiological therapeutics, and dean 
of the faculty of the New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 
was born in the village of Waverly, Tioga county, New York, February 21. 
1861. His parents were George King and Sarah West, his father having 
been in his lifetmie a lumberman in the southern tier counties of New York, 
a raftsman on the Susquehanna river, a moderately successful business man, 
politically a Clay whig, and one of the most intense abolitionists in all that 
region, with the honor of having been in the service of the " underground 
railroad " between the slave states and the free soil of the north and of 
Canada. George King was a son of William King, who was son of William 
King of Dutchess county, New York, who served some years in the army 
during the revolution, the youngest of seven brothers and the only one of 
them who entered the American service, the others openly showing strong 
tory proclivities. Dr. King acquired his elementary education in the country 
schools of his native town of Barton, and prepared for college in the once 
famous Waverly Academy. He did not enter college, neither did he lay aside 
his books ; he became possessed of Humbolt's library, was a student of 
Tyndall's works, and thus devoted a year to the study of the sciences. Then, 
under the persuasion of an uncle, he Went to New York city and in Sep- 
tem^ber, 1880, matriculated at the New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 
and after a two years' course in that institution was graduated (March 16, 
1882) M. D., fourth honorable mention man of his class. His degree of 
doctor of laws was conferred by the Central University of Iowa in 1902. 

Having graduated, Dr. King at once began practice in New York city, 
associated with Dr. Stephen P. Burdick, then professor of obstetrics in the 
college, while he himself was demonstrator of obstetrics in the same school. 
In 1883 he was appointed surgeon of the Sixth avenue surface railroad, and 
served in that capacity several years. 

After a year of association with Dr. Burdick, Dr. King established him- 
self in practice, and in 1884 took up special work in electro-therapeutics, 
devoting himself to thorough investigation and study of its principles and 
application, for at that time the college had furnished no instruction on the 
subject, there were no clinics and the practitioners in that branch numbered 



348 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

less than a dozen ; but he applied himself diligently to personal research 
for three years and then went abroad for a year and was a student under 
Apostoli, and also attended some of Charcot's clinics in Paris. Two years 
later, 1889, ^^^ ^^^t treatise, " Electro-Therapeutics," was published, followed 
in 1895 by a new and original work on neurosis, and in 1901 by his " Elec- 
tricity in Medicine and Surgery" (second edition, 1902), a work recognized 
as standard with the electro-medical world. 

For eleven years, beginning in 1890, Dr. King was editor of the '' Journal 
of Electro-Therapeutics," and in subsequent years he has been a liberal con- 
tributor to the literature of the profession, treating of various subjects, but of 
electro-therapeutics more than any other. In 1905 he published a work on 
" Static-High Frequency, Radio-Photo and Radium-Therapy." In 1894 he 
became actively identified with the faculty of his alma mater, professor of 
electro-therapeutics, which chair he still holds. He also is head of the de- 
partment of physical and physiological therapeutics, and holds the responsible 
office of dean of the faculty, by appointment of the trustees in 1902. From 
1897 to 1903 Dr. King held the chair of electro-therapeutics in the New 
York Medical College and Hospital for Women. From 1885 to 1894 he 
was electro-therapeutist to Hahnemann Hospital, New York city. He is now 
electro-therapeutist to the Metropolitan Hospital, Blackwell's Island, New 
York, and visiting physician to the department of physical therapeutics at 
Flower Hospital. He holds membership in the American X-Ray Society, 
the National Society of Electro-Therapeutists, the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy and the New York State Homoeopathic Medical Society. 



THOMAS LINDSLEY BRADFORD, M.D. 

Thomas Lindsley Bradford, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, physician, his- 
torian and bibliographer, is a native of Francestown, New Hampshire, born 
June 6, 1847, son of Thomas Bixby Bradford and Emily Hutchinson Brown, 
his wife, on the paternal side a descendant of Gov. William Bradford of 
the Plymouth colony in Massachusetts, while on the maternal side his grand- 
father, Titus Brown, was a noted New Hampshire lawyer and statesman, 
member of congress from that state from 1824 to 1828. 

Dr. Bradford acquired his literary education at Francestown Academy 
and the famous Phillips (Andover) Academy, and his medical education in 
Harvard Medical School, 1866-1867, and the Homoeopathic Medical College 
of Pennsylvania, where he came to his degree in 1869. His professional 
career was begun in Skowhegan, Maine, where he practiced three years 
and then went abroad, visiting various medical institutions in London, Paris 
and elsewhere on the continent. Returning, he resumed practice in Skow- 
hegan, and remained there with the exception of a few months until 1877, 




Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M.D. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 351 

when he removed to Philatlelphia and took up his permanent residence in 
that city. 

For nearly thirty years Dr. Bradford has been a prominent figure in 
homoeopathic circles in Philadelphia, in the practice of his profession (treat- 
ing specially diseases of children) and in its colleges of medical instruction, 
and he also enjoys distinction as the author of several homoeopathic publi- 
cations, among the more promment of which are his " Homoeopathic Bibliog- 
raphy of the United States," " History of The Hahnemann Medical College 
and Hospital of Philadelphia," " Index to Homoeopathic Provings," " Life 
and Letters of Dr. Samuel Hahnemann," " The Pioneers of Homoeopathy," 
'' The Logic of Figures," and " A Characteristic Materia Medica." He 
also is of the collaborators whose united efforts have produced these vol- 
umes, and in various departments of the work, other than those under his 
immediate charge, the writers have to acknowledge free access to his vast 
collection of homoeopathic literature, which comprises the most complete 
library of its kind in the world. 

From 1895 to 1900 Dr. Bradford was lecturer on the history of medicine 
in the Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, his alma mater, and since 
1894 he has been curator of the college library. In 1869 he became a mem- 
ber of the American Institute of Homoeopathy and of the Maine State Homoe- 
opathic Medical Society. His membership in the Philadelphia County Homoe- 
opathic Medical Society dates from 1891, and in the Pennsylvania State 
Homoeopathic Medical Society from 1894. He married, June 15. 1887, Eliza 
Virginia Hough. 

WILLIS ALONZO DEWEY, M.D. 

Willis Aionzo Dewey, Ann Arbor, Michigan, physician, author, editor 
and proprietor of " The Medical Century," contributor to these annals of 
a comprehensive history of the journalism of American homoeopathy, is a 
native of Aliddlebury, Vermont, born October 25, 1858, son of Josiah Earl 
Dewey and Eunice Converse Carpenter, his wife, and is of old Xew England 
ancestors, among whom were patriots and soldiers of the revolution. 

Dr. Dewey acquired his literary education in the high school at Middle- 
bury, 1872, Burr and Burton Seminary, Manchester, Vermont, 1873, and 
the public schools of New York city, where he was a student from 1868 to 
1872. He is a graduate of Packard's Business College, Xew York city. 
He was educated in medicine at the Xew York Homoeopathic Medical Col- 
lege, where he came to the degree in 1880. The years 1881 and 1882 were 
spent in post-graduate studies in Berlin, Heidelberg, A'ienna, Paris anB 
London. 

Dr. Dewey's professional, pedagogical and editorial life and experiences 
have called him into various localities, and the field of his activities has ex- 



352 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

tended from the Atlantic ocean to the Pacific. In 1880 he was interne at 
Ward's Island Homoeopathic Hospital, New York city, and the next two 
years were spent abroad. From 1884 until 1888 he was professor of anatomy 
in Hahnemann Medical College of the Pacific, and from 1888 until 1892 held 
the chair of materia medica in that institution ; and also from 1888 until 1892 
was editor of the " California Homoeopath." In 1803 ^"^^ 1894 he filled 
the chair of materia medica in the Metropolitan Post-Graduate School of 
Medicine, New York city, and in 1896 he was appointed to the same chair 
in the homoeopathic department of the University of Michigan, with which 
institution he has since been associated. 

In recent years he has devoted much of his attention to editorial work 
and the conduct of his periodical — " The Medical Century " — ; but throughout 
the period of his medical life he has been a faithful contributor to the litera- 
ture of his profession, the works of which he is author, or in which he has 
been collaborator, being as follows : Boericke and Dewey's " Twelve Tissue 
Remedies," 4 editions, with Spanish translation ; Dewey's " Essentials of 
Homoeopathic Materia Medica," 3 editions, with translations into German, 
Spanish, Portuguese and Bengalese ; " " Essentials of Homoeopathic Thera- 
peutics," 2 editions, and " Practical Homoeopathic Therapeutics," which is 
being translated into Spanish. 

Dr. Dewey is a member of the California, the Ohio, the Michigan and the 
New York State Homoeopathic ]\Iedical societies, the Amerian Institute of 
Homoeopathy, the British Homoeopathic Society, Societe Francaise d' Homoe- 
opathic, Sociedad Nacional de Homoeopathia de Mexico, and of the New 
York Athletic Club. He is a Mason, K. T., and also has traveled the desert 
sands with the A. A. O. N. M, S. He is married and has one son. 

PEMBERTON DUDLEY, M.D., LL.D. 

Pemberton Dudley, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was born at Torresdale, 
Philadelphia county, October 17, 1837. His father, William Dudley, was 
a descendant of one of the brothers Dudley who joined the Plymouth colony 
about ten years after the famous voyage of the " Mayflower." The family 
name is of Saxon origin and is traced without difficulty along some of the 
most interesting lines of English history. It is antedated by very few of 
even the oldest family names of the British realm. The father of the two 
emigrant brothers was Captain Roger Dudlev, an officer in the service of 
Queen Elizabeth, though Governor Thomas Dudley is said to have been so 
cordial a hater of aristocracy that he would rarely speak of his descent through 
the English nobility. 

The Dudleys. are now widely scattered, not only throughout New Eng- 
land but in several other Atlantic states, and also in Tennessee, Kentucky, 
Indiana, Illinois, Minnesota and California. Dr. Dudley's mother was Eleanor 



^^Bp .,^^^^^1 


1 


H ^ i»$ mm 


1 


^^1 


1 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^B V. 





Pemberton Dudley, M.D., LL.D. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 355 

Wood, a descendant of Sir Richard and Alice Wood of Gloucester, England, 
through their son Robert, who came to America in 1699 and settled in New- 
town, Long Island, New York, and some of whose posterity afterwards 
removed to Newtown, Bucks county, Pennsylvania. 

Dr. Dudley acquired his early education in the public schools and in 
Treemount Academy, Norristown, Pennsylvania. Two years were then spent 
in teaching school and in reading medicine under the preceptorship of the 
late David James, M. D. A portion of his medical college instruction was 
acquired in the Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia, and the rest in 
the Homoeopathic ^^ledical College of Pennsylvania, now the Hahnemann 
Medical College of Philadelphia. He graduated from the latter March i, 
1861, since wliicli lime he has been engaged in the practice of medicine in 
Philadelphia. 

In March, 1866, Dr. Dudley was one of the thirty-three physicians who 
united in the formation of the Homoeopathic Medical Society of Philadelphia. 
In 1867 he joined the newly organized state society and in 1869 became a 
member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. He contributed numerous 
papers to the county, state and national societies, and to various medical jour- 
nals', principally to the " Hahnemannian Monthly," of which he was editor 
from 1880 to 1887. He was one of the secretaries of the state society for 
two years, and for one year its president. In the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy he was general secretary from 1888 to 1894, inclusive, and was 
its president in 1896. In 1885 he was appointed a member of the newly 
organized state board of health and held that office nearly fourteen years, 
being president of the board for two years. In 1899 he v.^as awarded the 
honorary degree of LL. D. by the senate of Rutherford College of North 
Carolina. 

Besides the societies mentioned. Dr. Dudley is an honorary member of 
the Southern Homoeopathic Society, the Mexican Institute of Homoeopathy, 
and of the British Plomoeopathic Society. He has been a member of the 
Hahnemann Medical Club of Philadelphia since its organization in 1873, 
and co-operated with it in establishing the Children's Homoeopathic Hospital 
in 1876. For several years he served the hospital on its visiting staff and 
board of directors. In 1868 he was appointed professor of chemistry and 
toxicology in the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania. At that 
time there were two rival homoeopathic colleges in Philadelphia. During 
the following winter he identified himself wdth his fellow professors in a 
quiet endeavor to secure the consolidation of the two schools, and partici- 
pated in the general satisfaction with which it was finally achieved. The 
union of the schools in 1869 relieved him of his duties as a teacher. In 1872 
it- was proposed to him to accept a professorship in the consolidated insti- 
tution. He gave no encouragement, however, to this proposal, but in 1876 



356 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

he accepted the professorship of physiology and microscopic anatomy. This 
position he held until 1890, at which time he was transferred to the chair of 
hygiene and the institutes of medicine, which he still holds. 

When Dr. Dudley became a member of the college faculty in 1876, the 
government of the institution was in an unsatisfactory condition. There 
was, in the first place, the anomaly of a double-headed board of trustees ; 
the members of the faculty constituted a board of professorial trustees, be- 
sides which there was a board of corporation trustees, the latter composed 
of well-known business men. It gradually came about that the lay trustees 
were interested more particularly in the hospital connected with the insti- 
tution and were disposed to let the whole responsibility of the management 
and prosperity of the college rest upon the shoulders of the professorial 
board. 

The two bodies of trustees failed to agree regarding the hospital clinics, 
and certain of the lay members wanted the clinical teaching work excluded 
from the facilities of the hospital. In addition to this difficulty, the faculty 
was beginning to perceive the necessity for a new college building, and 
that unless the trustees could unite on some method to secure it the college 
must soon be compelled to close its doors. These subjects came up in nearly 
every joint meeting of the boards and resulted in mutual recrimination, which 
engendered bitter personal feeling, to the great detriment of both college 
and hospital. With the college professors the subject presented a problem 
frequently and earnestly considered and discussed, but without immediate 
prospect of a satisfactory solution. 

Dr. Dudley was one of the most earnest in the endeavor to secure a 
settlement of the vexed and vexing question. Early in the session of 1881-82 
he prepared an elaborate paper, containing a thinly disguised arraignment 
of the corporation trustees, and intimating their responsibility for the unfor- 
tunate state of college affairs. It suggested three possible ways of settling 
the difficulty between the two boards, two of which had been discussed in 
faculty meetings, the third being entirely new. This paper he showed to 
Dean A. R. Thomas, by whom it was submitted to William MacGeorge, the 
widely known corporation lawyer. He was a member of the board of corpora- 
tion trustees, and was the best and most disinterested lay friend the college 
had in its board. After a careful consideration, and some emendations of 
the paper, that gentleman feared that the third suggestion mentioned (the 
proposition to divorce the two institutions) might arouse the opposition of 
certain trustees, merely because it had its origin in the college faculty. He 
therefore sapiently suggested that he be permitted to offer it to the lay 
trustees as a proposition coming from them to the medical trustees. This 
was agreed to, and presently the board of corporation trustees proposed a 
separation of the college and hospital. The proposition was, of course, very 
cordiallv n(xepted by the faculty. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 357 

Dr. Dudley has not hesitated to express his personal pride and grati- 
fication in view of his own part in this business, particularly as it proved 
to be the beginning of an era of college prosperity which has continued to 
this time. Later in the history of the institution he again had the opportunity 
of indirectly aiding it in an unexpected manner. The old hospital on Cuth- 
bert street, in the rear of the old college building, had been closed for lack of 
pecuniary support, and it was proposed to merge it with another hospital 
located in the northern part of the city. He again sought to enlist Mr. 
MacGeorge's interest in the matter, and suggested to him that the charter 
of the old Cuthbert street hospital provided that the institution was to be 
maintained partly for clinical instruction of the students of the Hahnemann 
Medical College, and that the merging of the hospital with a distant institu- 
tion, one, moreover, which refused to admit students to any educational en- 
joyment of its clinical facilities, would be to violate the provisions of its 
charter, and might invalidate any gifts or legacies pertaining to it. Mr. 
MacGeorge promptly moved in the matter, with the result that the property 
of the old- hospital was merged with the Hahnemann Hospital. 

In January, 1896, Dr. Dudley was elected to the deanship of the college. 
Finding that his views respecting college discipline and management and his 
suggestions for improving the efficiency and usefulness of the course of in- 
struction did not and were not likely to receive the hearty support and 
sympathy of a portion of the faculty, he resigned the office May 31, 1903. 
He still retains his chair of hygiene and the institutes of medicine. He has 
given twenty-eight years of service to the institution as a member of the board 
of trustees. In 1867 Dr. Dudley was united in marriage with Sara K. Hall, 
daughter of Rev. John Perry Hall, a Baptist clergyman well known through- 
out southeastern Pennsylvania, southern New Jersey and in western Pennsyl- 
vania. They have two children — a son, Perry Hall Dudley, M. D., and a 
daughter, Florence, wife of David Baily Perkins of Philadelphia. 

GEORGE TnEODORE SHOWER^ M.D. 

George Theodore Shower, Baltimore, Maryland, professor of materia 
medica and dean of the faculty of the Southern Homoeopathic Medical Col- 
lege, Baltimore, author of the history of that institution which is contributed 
to this work, is a native of Maryland, born in Manchester, August 20, 1841, 
son of Adam Shower and Mary Ann Geiger, his wife. His paternal grand- 
father, John Adam Shower, commanded a company of American soldiers at 
Bladensburg and also in the defense of Baltimore, in 1814, during the second 
war with Great Britain. On the maternal side his grandfather, Rev. Jacob 
Geiger, was the pioneer homoeopathic practitioner in Maryland, in 1836. 

Dr. Shower was educated in Manchester Academy, attending there from 
1848 to 1857, ^Iso in Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsyl- 



31)8 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

vania, where he graduated A. B. i860; A. M.i 1896, During the war of 
1861-1865 he served as private, Co. D, First Maryland cavalry (confederate) 
from Gettysburg to Appomattox. 

After the war Dr. Shower engaged in business pursuits, chiefly in rail- 
road construction, and while so employed contracted sciatica of such invet- 
erate type that he was compelled to abandon his former vocation and turn to 
the pedagogue's chair; and while thus employed his attention was turned to 
medicine, chiefly on account of his own affliction and his desire to relieve 
himself of it, and in pursuance of his determination he matriculated at 
Hahnemann ]\Iedical College of Philadelphia, completed his course there, 
and came to the degree in 1882. At- the age of forty-one years he began 
practice in Hampden, then a suburb and now a part of Baltimore, and has 
continued his professional work to the present time. His connection with 
the teaching corps of the Southern Homoeopathic Medical College began in 
1892, when he was appointed lecturer on pharmacy and toxicology. In 1894 
he began lecturmg on physiology and in 1895 was made professor, the in- 
cumbent of that chair, continuing as such until 1899, when he was made 
professor of materia medica and therapeutics, his present chair. He was 
elected dean of the faculty in 190(3. 

Since 1890 Dr. Shower has been consulting physician to the Maryland 
Homoeopathic Hospital. From 1898 to 1904 he was associate editor of the 
*' American Medical Monthly." He is a member of the American Institute 
of Homoeopathy (since 1899), member and now (1905) president of the 
Maryland State Homoeopathic Medical Society, and was a member of the 
INIedical Investigation Club of Baltimore from 1882 until its suspension in 
1895. 

Dr. Shower was one of the founders of Trinity Reformed church of 
Baltimore and has been elder and treasurer of the congregation since its 
establishment in 1884. He is also treasurer of the Reformed Church Ex- 
tension Society of Baltimore. In 1890 he married Ida M. Leslie of Loudon 
county, Va. She died, childless, Septem.ber 25, 1895. 

DANIEL A. MAC LACHLAN, M.D. 

Daniel A. INIacLaclilan, Detroit, Michigan, dean of the faculty of the 
Detroit Homoeopathic College and also incumbent of its chair of ophthal- 
mology, otology and laryngology, is a native of Aylmer, Ontario, Canada j 
born November 10, 1852, son of Archibald IMacLachlan and Mary Robert- 
son, his wife. On his father's side he is of Highland Scotch ancestry and 
on his mother's side a mixture of Scotch Lowland and Irish ancestry. His 
father's family in America first settled in Caledonia, New York, (in which 
locality manv of the surname still live) and later removed to Aylmer in the 
province of Ontario. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY :}5!> 

Dr. IMacLachlan acquired his elementary and secondary education in 
the public schools of his native town, and also studied the languages — 
Latin, Greek and French — under private tutors. Later on he spent two 
years in teaching, and then took up the study of medicine with the Drs. 
Clark of Aylmer, one of whom, Dr. G. F. Clark, was a specialist in ophthal- 
mology and otology. Li 1876 he matriculated at the medical department of 
the I'niversity of JMichigan, and came to his degree in medicine in 1879. 
For a time, too, he continued his studies in medicine in Toronto and there 
passed the examination before the College of Physicians and Surgeons. His 
professional career was begun in Pontiac, Michigan, and after a year, in 
1880. he removed to Holly, from which place in 1885 he was called to the 
chair of theory and practice in his alma mater, with which he ever has con- 
tinued in close touch, having served as president of its alumni association 
and otherwise identified himself with its best interests. 

In 1885 Dr. IMacLachlan became business manager and co-editor of the 
" ]\ledical Counselor," and later its .sole editor, continuing in that capacity 
iintil 1893. I" 1889 he went abroad and visited and studied in the hospitals 
of London. Heidelberg, \'ienna and Paris; then returned to America to 
accept the chair of diseases of the eye, ear, nose and throat in the university. 
In 1892 he again visited Europe and spent several months in the hospitals 
of London and Edinburgh ; and on his return again occupied his professorial 
chair, holding the same until 1895, when he resigned and located in Detroit. 
In 1899 he was elected to the chair of ophthalmology, otology and laryngology 
in the Detroit Homoeopathic College, which he still holds, and also during 
Ihe same time has filled the oftice of dean of the faculty. In 1901-1902, in 
connection with his other duties, he lectured on sanitary science and hygiene. 

Dr. MacLachlan was one of the founders of the American Homoeo- 
pathic Ophthalmological, Otological and Laryngological Society, and still 
is one of its active members. In 1895 he was elected president of the 
]\Iichigan State Homoeopathic Medical Society, and held that office two years. 
In 1896 he was elected first vice-president of the American Institute of 
Homceopathy. He is a member of the Detroit Homoeopathic Practitioners' 
Society, and of the medical stafif of Grace Hospital. In 1899 he was ap- 
pointed member of the Michigan state board of health. He is a mason, a 
member of the Fellowcraft Club and of the Wayne Qub. 

In 1882 Dr. MacLachlan married Bertha Hadley of Holly, Michigan. 
Their children are Mary Winifred and Ruth MacLachlan. 

CHARLES EDGAR WALTON, A.M., M.D., LL.D. 

Charles Edgar Walton, Cincinnati, Ohio, was born in that city, May 
30, 1849, son of Joshua Pinnock and Elizabeth Alice (Swain) Walton. He 
was graduated from the high school at Ironton, Ohio (valedictorian), irt 



360 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

1867, and in 1871 he graduated from the Marietta TOhio) College with 
the degree of A. B., when he was again valedictorian; A. M., 1874; the 
degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him by this college in 1893. He 
attended the Cleveland Homceopathic Medical College one yea..r, and com- 
pleted his professional education in Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, where 
he won valedictorian honors on his graduation in 1874. 

Dr. Walton practiced in Cincinnati until July, 1875 ; in Hamilton, Ohio, 
to May, 1899, when he removed to Cincinnati, where he has since practiced. 
He supplemented his medical education by taking up post-graduate studies 
in the New York Polyclinic in 1883. and in Vienna, Austria, in 1884. He 
was professor of anatomy in Pulte Medical College several years, professor 
of surgery since 1888, and professor of surgery and gynecology since 1891. 

Dr. Walton is a member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, 
having been president of that body in 1900; the Ohio State Homoeopathic 
Medical Society, of which he was president in 1889 ; the Montgomery County 
(Ohio) Homceopathic Medical Society, the Southern Homoeopathic Medical 
Association, Cincinnati Homoeopathic Lyceum and of the Cincinnati Literary 
Qub. He married, January i, 1878, Jean Grey Mitchell of St. Cloud, Min- 
nesota. 

JIRAH DEWEY BUCK, M.D. 

Jirah Dewey Buck, Cincinnati, Ohio, was born in Fredonia, New York, 
November 20, 1838, son of Reuben and Fanny (Morton) Buck. He was 
educated in Belvidere Academy, Belvidere, Illinois. He attended a course 
of lectures in the Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, and later ma- 
triculated at the Western Homoeopathic College, Cleveland, Ohio, from which 
he was graduated in 1864. In 1866 he was elected professor of physiology 
and microscopy in Cleveland Homoeopathic College, and occupied that chair 
until 1 87 1. In that year he assisted in the organization of the Pulte Medical 
College, Cincinnati, was appointed its first registrar and professor of physi- 
ology, histology and microscopy, and so continued for ten years. 

In 1882 Dr. Buck was elected dean and professor of theory and practice 
of medicine, and later of therapeutics and mental and nervous diseases, which 
chairs he still occupies. In 1904 Dr. Charles E. Walton was elected his suc- 
cessor as dean. In 1876 Dr. Buck was president of the Homoeopathic Med- 
ical Society of Ohio, and in 1890 was president of the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy. He is an ex-president of the Theosophical Society of America, 
a member of the Cincinnati Literary Club and its vice-president, and mem- 
ber of the Cosmic Club of Cincinnati. 

Dr. Buck is the author of " A Study of Man and the Way to Health " 
(1888), "Mystic Masonry," "Paracelsus and Other Essays," and also of 
numerous magazine articles on medicine, science and philosophy. He mar- 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 361 

ried, in 1864, at Fredonia, New York, ^Melissa M. Clough, who bore him 
three sons and three daughters, all of whom are living. The two elder sons 
— Edgar C. and Charles R. Buck — are physicians. 

JAMES POLK WILLARD, M.D. 

James Polk Willard, Denver, Colorado, was born May 8, 1844, son of 
James Madison and Hester Ann (Rucker) Willard. He was educated in 
the ward schools and high school of his native city, Jacksonville, Illinois, 
and in Illinois College. After several years of business life, he began the 
study of medicine with Dr. George Y. Shirley as preceptor. He subsequently 
attended the Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri and graduated in 
the class of 1868. On May 5 of the same year he was united in marriage 
with Lydia Larimore. 

Dr. Willard began practice in Jacksonville, Illinois, where he remained 
until failing health required that he find a more suitable climate, hence in 
1891 he removed to Denver. While a resident of his native city he was fre- 
quently called upon to ser^'^e the community in a public capacity, and was hon- 
ored with election to official positions in different relations, being twice mayor : 
was president of the board of education, and trustee of various Important 
local institutions. Since his removal to Denver he has become identified 
with the various homoeopathic interests of the community, being at this time 
in medical charge of the Belle Lennox Nursery and the Industrial School for 
Girls. He also is a member of the staff of the Denver Homoeopathic Hos- 
pital and of the board of directors of the college and hospital association. 

For the past six years Dr. Willard has been dean of the faculty and 
senior professor of materia medica, Denver Hom.oeopathic College. He is 
a member of the Colorado State Homoeopathic Medical Society and ex- 
president of the Denver Homoeopathic Gub; is one of the department editors 
of " Progress," and president of the Progress publishing company. 

ANDREW LEIGHT MONROE, M. D. 

Andrew Leight Monroe, Louisville, Kentucky, professor of materia med- 
ica and clinical gynecology and dean of the Southwestern Homoeopathic 
Medical College of Louisville, is a native of that city, born April 4, 1856, 
son of Andrew Monroe and Julia Foster Bull. On the paternal side he is 
a descendant of Sir Hector Monroe, a Scottish cavalier of the county of 
Montrose. Andrew Monroe, his father, was a great-great-nephew of Presi- 
dent James Monroe, and the son of the author of " Ben Monroe's Kentucky 
Law Reports." The doctor on the maternal side is of English descent. 

His early education was obtained in the city schools of Louisville and 
Harcourt Acaderrry, Gambler, Ohio; his medical education was acquired in 
Louisville University, one course, and two courses in Hahnemann Medical 



362 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

College of Philadelphia, where he came to his degree in 1879. His profes- 
sional career was begun in Danville, Kentucky, in 1879, but in 1882 he re- 
moved to Birmingham, Alabama, remaining in that city until 1885, when he 
settled permanently in Louisville. For three sessions, beginning in 1890, 
Dr. Monroe held the chair of materia medica in Pulte Medical College, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, and from thence transferred his faculty work to the South- 
western HomcEopathic Medical College, Louisville, with the best interests 
and history of which he has since been prominently connected, both in the 
professor's chair of materia medica and clinical gynecology and in the re- 
sponsible office of dean. 

Besides this. Dr. Monroe is consulting rectal surgeon to the Louisville 
City Hospital and a member of the medical staff of the Deaconess Hospital. 
He is a member of the Falls Cities Homoeopathic Society, the Kentucky 
State Homoeopathic Medical Society, the Southern Homoeopathic Medical 
Association, an honorary member of the Missouri, Indiana and Ohio State 
Homoeopathic Medical societies, and member and ex-president of the South- 
ern and Kentucky Homoeopathic Medical societies. 

Dr. Monroe married, September 9, 1879, Martha Quigley. Of their 
children three are living — E. Humphrey Monroe, age twenty-one years ; 
Julia Bull Monroe, age twenty-three years; and Pattie May Monroe, age 
nine years. 

WILLIAM DAVIS FOSTER, M. D. 

William Davis Foster, Kansas City, Missouri, for nearly twenty-five 
years an important figure in the professional circles in that city, a senior 
member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, was born in Birming- 
ham, Van Buren county, Iowa, September 7, 1841, son of Joseph Foster and 
Elizabeth Kummler, his wife. On the paternal side he is a descendant of 
Rev. Thomas Foster, born England, and his wife Abigail Wimes, of Ips- 
wich. Their son Thomas, born England about 1600, and wife Elizabeth 

, came to America in ship " Hercules," 1634. Their son, Dr. Thomas 

Foster, born Weymouth, Massachusetts, 1640, married, 1662, Sarah Parker 
of Cambridge, who was born 1640. Their son Jonathan Foster, born Cam- 
bridge or Roxbury, 1671, married about 1692 Abigail , and had John 

Foster, born Stow, about 1703-8. He married Eunice Hardy, born about 
1703, Bradford. Their son, Joseph Foster, born Stow, 1730, married, I75i> 
Susannah Roberts of Brookfield. Their son Asa, born Ware, Massachusetts, 
1761, married Ruth Cheadle, Ashford, Connecticut. Their son, Joseph Fos- 
ter, born Barnard, Vermont, 1789, married (first), 1819, Margaret Albright; 
married (second), 1830, Elizabeth Kummler Griffith (widow) and removed 
TO the territory of Iowa, 1837. Their son, William Davis Foster, married 
Christie K. Farwell (widow) October 16, 1878. 




Howard Roy Chislett, M.D. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 365 

On the niaternal side Dr. Foster's ancestry traces in direct line from 
John Hans Kummler, 1707, Basel, Switzerland, through John Jacob, who 
wrth his son John settled in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, 1731 ; son 
Jacob (date of birth not verified) married Elizabeth Young, 1764. Their 
son Jacob (date of birth and marriage unknown) had daughter Elizabeth, 
born Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, about 1793, who married, as above, 
Joseph Foster, 1830, father of William Davis Foster. 

Dr. Foster acquired his early education in the common schools of Van 
Buren county, his higher literary education in Birmingham Academy, 1856-57, 
and his preliminary medical education under the private instruction of Dr. 
David Prince of Jacksonville, Illinois, and Dr. Robertson of Tallula, Illinois. 
From 1861 to 1865 he was in service in the army, and upon his return he 
matriculated at the Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri, where he 
came to the degree in 1869. 

Dr. Foster's army service may be noted about as follow^s : hospital 
steward, 7th Cavalry, ^lissouri volunteers, 1861-63: assistant surgeon, same 
regiment, 1863-65. Returning, he practiced in Hannibal, Missouri, from 1865 
to 1881, and then located permanently in Kansas City, where he has since 
lived except during the \ear 1886, which was spent in special study in 
Europe. 

In connection with liis practice, which has always been large, Dr. Foster 
has taken an earnest, commendable interest in the work of medical education. 
He was manager of the Kansas City Homoeopathic Hospital, 1888-1898; 
vice-president of the board of trustees, Kansas City Homoeopathic ^^ledical 
College, 1889-1902; dean of the faculty, same institution, 1897-1899; senior 
professor of surgery, 1889-1902; surgical clinic. City Hospital, 1893-1902. 

From 1893 to 1898 Dr. Foster was chief surgeon for the Kansas City, 
Osceola and Southern railway company. He is senior member of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Homoeopathy ; was delegate to the International Medical Con- 
gress, Basel, Switzerland, 1886; is ex-president and member of the ^lissouri 
Institute of Homoeopathy : member of the Western Academy of Homoeopathy, 
Kansas State Homoeopathic "Medical Society, International Association of 
Railwav Surgeons, Loyal Legion of Missouri, Sons of the Revolution. Penn- 
svlvania German Society, Kansas City Club, Albert Pike Lodge, 219, F. & 
A. M., and of the Commercial Gub. 

HOWARD ROY CHISLETT, M.D. 

Howard Roy Chislett, Chicago, Illinois, dean of the faculty and pro- 
fessor of surgery and clinical surgery in Hahnemann ^Medical College, is 
a native of Salt Lake City, born of English parents, John Chislett and Mary 
A. Stockdale, on April 6, 1862. He acquired his early education in the com- 
mon schools and in the high school department of St. ]\Iark's Academy ; his 



366 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

medical education in Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, where he 
came to his degree in 1888. i\side from the time taken in post-graduate 
studies in Europe in 1893 and 1895, and in New York city and Baltimore 
in 1901 and 1903, his professional life has been spent in Qiicago. 

Dr. Chislett's connection with the faculty work in his alma mater began 
in 1889, after a service of one year in the position of house surgeon in 
Hahnemann Hospital, as lecturer on minor surgery. The subsequent steps 
of his promotion are as follows: adjunct professor of surgery, 1893; asso- 
ciate professor to same chair in 1895; professor of surgery and clinical sur- 
gery, 1897; dean of the faculty in 1903. 

Since 1895 Dr. Chislett has devoted himself to surgical practice only. 
In 1893 he was appointed attending surgeon to Cook County Hospital; in 
1894 attending surgeon to the new Hahnemann Hospital, and to Streeter 
Hospital in 1900. In 1896 he married Maude A. Coddington. 

LUCIEN CLAUDE MC ELWEE, M.D. 

Lucien Claude McElwee, Saint Louis, Missouri, dean of the Homoeo- 
pathic Medical College of Missouri and an active figure in the history of 
that institution for more than fifteen years, is a native of Mount Gilead, 
Kentucky, born March 26, 1862, son of John James McElwee (who was 
grandson of James ]\IcElwee, a soldier and patriot of thd revolution, who 
was son of William McElwee, a native of County Tyrone, Ireland), and 
Laura Goodman, his wife. 

His early education was acqunxd in the public schools of Lincoln county, 
Missouri, and he also received special instruction in private German schools 
in Louisiana, Missouri, under Professors Reubyn and Willoth. He was 
educated professionally in the medical department of Washington University, 
Saint Louis, where he came to the degree in 1882. The scene of his profes- 
sional career has been laid chiefly in Saint Louis, where, in connection with 
an extensive practice, he has been for seventeen years a part of the life of 
the medical college of which he is now the executive officer, and whose ad 
eundem degree he holds, 1888, 

He was appointed professor of physiology, 1888; professor of clinical 
medicine and physical diagnosis, 1890; professor of materia medica and 
organon, 1894; professor of gynecolog}% 1899; professor of surgery, 1901 ; 
registrar, 1891 ; dean of the college, 1903, and is still serving in that 
capacity. 

In 1898 Dr. McElwee found temporary release from the cares of practice 
and the duties of his chair and went abroad for post-graduate studies in 
the surgical clinics of Heidelberg and Paris; and he also during the three 
years next preceding that time took private courses in Saint Louis, under 
A. C. Bernays, Early in his practice in the city (1887) he was appointed 




m 



^*" 




AUfii C. Cowpcrthw tin 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY iwv.i 

it l»h\ -i' i.iii .1* th« Ov!.!r« t)*> !f. N|,|t,ii .m.l in li«)i u.iv rU-rlid lOii- 

h ill liyjj. N^ii-^ 

... . /v 5. commissioned 

\|., in 1800. He is a member 

ly. the Saint Lt)uis U- 'lic 

• ' "■- Children's Frtv 11. -j^iUl; 

.]. A F. and A. M.; past 

•on, Ascalon com- 

M.-'iah temple, A. A. 

>, 1891, Anna Harris Barnes and 
Ate, John James McElwcc and Pinck- 



M.D. PH.D., LL.t' 

ut 

- • „- .-, '-TS 

iicrs of the homoe- 

' 3. 

, , ;..;. ..... ;.:.ucd 

V .) .I, a mathi-matician of dis- 

M ii ill.- .^ommon 

.rents had removed 

1 n New Jc: later he was tor a time a student m Toulon Seminary; 

• • ' . « - 1 iming the printer's 

1 the prcceptorship 

! 'r. Baaneister oi T'lil'ii. anl c titinued it under Hering of Philadelphia. 

.». •■ ■ ■• ,}icai College of Phila- 

i'lu... ;. - .---. ... - > 

Leaving the medical college with his prized diploma, Dr. Cowperthw aite 
ated for practice in Galva. Illinois, remained there four years, and then 
tied in Nebraska City, Nebraska, where he was one of the pioneers of 

- school, and where also he was chiefly instrumental in organizing the 
braska State" Homoeopathic Medical Society, in 1873, being its first sec- 

:ar>-. 

In 1877, after about four years of successful practice in the west, Dr. 

)wperthwaite was called by his alma mater to the lectureship of diseases 
the mind and ners'ous system. This he accepted but did not fill, as within 
few weeks afterward he was offered and accepted the chair of materia 

edica and also the office of dean in the recently organized homoeopathic 



370 HISTORY OF HOMCKOPaTHY 

department of the State University of Iowa. He lived and practiced and 
taught in Iowa City from 1878 until 1892, when he removed to Chicago 
and began his connection with the Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College 
in the capacity of professor of materia medica and therapeutics, which he 
held until the merger of that institution with Hahnemann Medical College 
in the early part of 1905. In 1901 he was elected president of the college, 
continuing until the union of the college interests was effected, 

However, in 1884, while living in Iowa City, practicing, teaching and 
also performing the duties of executive officer of the college. Dr. Cowper- 
thwaite took upon himself the additional duties of the chair of materia medica 
and therapeutics and the deanship in the Homoeopathic Medical College of the 
University of Michigan, which he performed one year and then resigned 
because the demands of both college connections proved a serious tax upon 
his power of endurance. 

Although always engaged in an extensive practice in connection with 
his equally exacting pedagogical and official duties. Dr. Cowperthwaite has 
been a faithful contributor to the literature of the profession during the last 
more than quarter century, ever since the latter part of his residence in 
Nebraska. In 1876 his '* Insanity in its Medico-Legal Relations " was issued 
(J. M. Stoddart & Co.) and was first published as a supplement to the 
" American Journal of Homoeopathic Materia Medica." His " Science in 
Therapeutics" (1877, Redfield Bros., Omaha) appeared first as an address 
before the Nebraska Homoeopathic Medical Association, and was deemed 
worthy of general promulgation. " An Elementary Text Book of the Materia 
Medica " — characteristic, analytical, and comparative — was published first in 
1880, followed by his " Text Book of Materia Medica " (a second edition of 
the original), which in revised and enlarged form appeared in its sixth edition 
in 1 89 1 as " A Text Book of Materia Medica and Therapeutics." This 
work, generally referred to as " Cowperthwaite's Materia Medica," has passed 
through nine distinct editions, and always has been regarded as standard with 
the profession. " A Text Book of Gynaecology," designed for students and 
general practitioners, was published in 1888. His most recent work, " Text 
Book of the Practice of Medicine," was given to the public in 1902. 

The homoeopathic medical profession has always shown an appreciation 
of Dr. Cowperthwaite's endeavors in behalf of his school of medicine, and 
has frequently elevated him to high office; and the educational world, too, 
has made acknowledgment of his work in the bestowal of its honors. In 1876 
he lectured before the students of the Central University of Iowa, and was 
awarded by that institution the degree of Ph.D., and in 1885, in recognition 
of his literary attainments, Shurtleff College honored him with its degree 
of LL. D. In 1887 he was elected a fellow of the Society of Science, Litera- 
ture and Arts of London. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY > 371 

In more distinctive professional circles he has been variously honored 
with membership in its societies and associations, and has been president 
of the homoeopathic medical societies of the states of Nebraska, Iowa and 
Illinois. In 1875 he became a member of the American Institute of Homoe- 
opathy, was its vice-president in 1884, and president in 1887. He is an 
Odd Fellow of high degree, has passed all the chairs and been a member of 
the grand lodge of each of the states of Nebraska, Iowa and Illinois, and as 
well has filled the highest offices in the grand encampment. In 1870 Dr. 
Cowperthwaite married Ida E. Erving of Oskaloosa, Iowa, by whom he has 
one son. Dr. J, E. Cowperthwaite of Butte, Montana, and one daughter, 
Elfleda, wife of L. S. Thomas of Portland, Oregon. 

JOHN BLAIR SMITH KING, M.D. 

John Blair Smith King, Chicago, Illinois, secretary of the International 
Hahnemannian Association since 1900, professor of chemistry and toxicology 
in Hering Medical College, and contributor of the history of that institution 
to these annals, is a native of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, born February 11, 
1855, son of Edwin King and Sarah Clement Smith, his wife. On the 
paternal side he is a grandson of Captain William King, born in England, 
1764, lost at sea, 1801. On the maternal side, he is the great-great-grandson 
of Robert Smith, born in Wigton, Scotland, about 1720; great-grandson of 
John Blair Smith, born in Pequa, Pennsylvania, June 19, 1755, and grandson 
of John Nash Smith, a native of Philadelphia. Sarah Clement Smith, mother 
of the doctor, was born in Cecil county, Maryland, August 22, 1813 (Sprague's 
" Annals of the American Pulpit " contains an account of the lives of Robert 
Smith and John Blair Smith). 

Dr. King acquired his education in the Friends' school in Philadelphia, 
where he attended from 1865 to 1868, and in IT. D. Gregory's classical school, 
where he was a student from 1868 to 187 1. In 1870 he entered the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy and graduated Ph.M. He was a student of 
medicine in Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia during the winter 
of 1873-74, and his course was completed in the Hahnemann Medical College 
of Chicago, where he came to his degree in 1883. In 1891 he took a post- 
graduate course in surgery with Professor E. H. Pratt, Chicago. 

Since 1883 Dr. King has practiced continuously in Chicago, and through- 
out nearly that whole period he has been in some manner identified with 
faculty work, as professor of chemistry and toxicology in Hahnemann Med- 
ical College of Chicago from 1884 to 1891, and incumbent of the same chair 
in Hering Medical College from 1893 to 1899. He was president of the 
£nglewood Homoeopathic Club in 1903, and since 1900 has been secretary of 
the International Hahnemannian Association. In both of these organizations 
he is an active member, and he also is a member of the Illinois Homoeopathic 
Association and the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 



372 ' HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

Dr. King married, May 22, 1883, Mae Arabella Surbridge. Their chil- 
dren are Jules M., Eugenia (died in infancy), Vivien, Louis B., Cedric S., 
Hilary, Raymond, Arthur, Laurence Merle (died in infancy) and Margarite 
King, 

DAVID HERRICK BECKWITH, M.D. 

David Herrick Beckwith, Cleveland, Ohio, a pioneer of homoeopathy in 
northern Ohio, ex-vice-president and ex-president of the American Institute 
of Homoeopathy and a senior of that great professional body, monographic 
author, and orator on many occasions of public gatherings of his professional 
brethren, was born in Bronson, Huron county, Ohio, February 13, 1825, 
son of Wm. Whitney Beckwith and Anna Herrick, his wife, and a descendant 
of revolutionary stock. 

Dr. BeCkwith's early education was acquired in the common schools, 
which in his boyhood days offered only limited advantages even to the am- 
bitious student mind, but by diligent application he managed to secure from 
three to four years' schooling, for his time was in part devoted to work as 
a means of support. He found employment as druggist's clerk and learned 
that business, and then took up the study of medicine. In 1847 ^"^1 1848 he 
attended lectures at the Cleveland Medical College; 1849-50 in the Eclectic 
Medical Institute, Cincinnati, graduated there in 1850, and afterward attended 
the Western College of Homoeopathy, where he became proficient in the 
science of homioeopathic medicine. In 1859 ^^ became a part of the faculty 
life of the institution last mentioned, and from that to the present time 
be has been either directly or indirectly identified with its history — a period 
of earnest endeavor rarely equalled in medical annals in this or any other 
country. 

In the year last mentioned Dr. Beckwith began a course of lectures on 
physiology, and later was assigned to the professorship of public health and 
sanitary science ; and during all these years he has been engaged in active 
practice in the city of his adoption, and is known in medical circles not only 
in Ohio but throughout America. From 1885 to 1899 he was member of 
the Cleveland board of health, and for more than a quarter of a century was 
member of the staff of Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital. He holds member- 
ship in American Public Health Association, and also in many professional 
associations and organizations, having been prominently identified with the 
officiary of several of them. 

In 1869 Dr. Beckwith was vice-president and in 1871 was president of 
the American Institute of Homoeopathy, of which organization he is a senior. 
He also is a member and in 1867 was president of the Homoeopathic Medical 
Society of Ohio; member and in 1888 was president of the Ohio State Sani- 
tary Association; member and in 1890 was president of the Ohio State Board 




David Herrick Beckwith, M.D. 




James Richey Horner, A. M., ]M. D. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 377 

of Health ; member of the Sociologic Society, and of the Cuyahoga County 
Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

From 1867 to 1870 Dr. Beckwith published the " Ohio Medical and 
Surgical Reporter." His published monograph articles, many of which were 
first made public in orations and addresses, include the " President's Address 
before the American Institute of Homoeopathy," 1871 ; " Construction of 
Hospitals," 1876; "Pioneers of Homoeopathy in Northern Ohio," 1877; 
"Adulterations of Food," 1880; "Sewers and Sewer Gases." 1881 ; " \'acci- 
nation," 1882: ■"' Hot Springs of Arkansas as a Health Resort," 1884; " Sani- 
tary Disposal of the Dead." 1885 ; " Pioneers of the Xew School of Medi- 
cine," 1885; "Pioneers of Homoeopathy in Southern Ohio," 1886: "Adul- 
teration of Food, Drinks and Drugs," 1887 and 1889: "Home Sanitation." 
1888; "Cholera, its Prevention and Sanitation." 1888: "Pork and its Re- 
lation to Sanitation," 1889; "Is Life Worth Living?" 1891 ; "History of 
the Cleveland HomcEopathic College from 1850 to 1880." 

In Januarv, 1852. Dr. Beck with married ^laria Haynes, by whom he 
has one son, George H. Beckwith. attorney and counsellor at law, Toledo, 
Ohio. 

JAMES RICHEV HORNER, A.M.. M.D. 

James Richey Horner, Cleveland. Ohio, is a native of Western Pennsyl- 
vania, having been born at Tarentum, Allegheny county, about ten miles 
north of Pittsburgh. His father, who is still living at the age of eighty-three 
years, is a clergyman of the Methodist Episcopal church, but for nearly 
forty years has had charge of the interests in Pittsburgh of the publishing 
house of that great body. 

Dr. Horner was educated in Pittsburgh schools, graduating from the 
high school and afterwards being granted the degree of master of arts by 
Allegheny College, at :\Ieadville, Pa. He is a graduate, class of 1883. of the 
Homoeopathic Hospital College, now the Qeveland Homoeopathic Aledical 
College. He also is a graduate, class of 1884, of the Xew York Homoeopathic 
Medical College. Following this he was resident physician and later resident 
surgeon at Ward's Island Hom.oeopathic Hospital, now the ^^letropolitan Hos- 
pital, Blackwell's Island. From there he went to the Pittsburgh Homoe- 
opathic Hospital, where he served as resident physician until he entered into 
active practice in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. While there he served as obstet- 
rrcian to the Pittsburgh Homoeopathic Hospital and was physician in charge 
of the Christian Home for Women, an institution for aged women and for 
maternity cases. He remained in Allegheny until 1896, when he went abroad 
to contirme the special stud>- he had for some time been making of diseases 
of the mind and nervous system. He spent his time abroad at the Hospital 
for the Paralyzed and Epileptic, Queen's Square, London, being clerk to 



378 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

Hnghlings Jackson. He also took a course on insanity in Bethlehem Hospital 
for the Insane, under Dr. Savage, England's most noted alienist. 

Returning to the United States, Dr. Horner took special courses at the 
I^Iew York Post-Graduate School, under Dana and Hammond, and at the 
New York Polyclinic, under Sachs and Langdon Carter Gray. He then ob- 
tained an appointment on the staff of the Homoeopathic State Hospital for 
the Insane at Middletown, New York, under Selden Haines Talcott, remain- 
ing there until the winter of 1897, at which time he removed to Cleveland 
to accept the professorship of mental and nervous diseases and electrology in 
his alma mater, the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College. 

Dr. Horner during his professional life of nearly a quarter of a century 
has been very active in public matters relating to his school. For several 
years he was secretary of the Pennsylvania State Homoeopathic Medical 
Society, having served in the same capacity in the local society of his county. 
For twenty-three years he has been a member of the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy, having served as its recording secretary, and being now regis- 
trar of that body. He is registrar of his college, being now in his fourth 
year of service. He also is serving his second year as president of the staff 
of the Cleveland Homceopathic Hospital, to which institution he is neurolo- 
gist, as he is also to the Cleveland City Hospital. For six years he has 
edited the " Cleveland Medical and Surgical Reporter," a monthly journal 
devoted to the interests of his college in particular and homoeopathy in 
general. 

Dr. Horner has been twice married. His first wife was a daughter of 
Mr. W. W. Wattles of Pittsburgh. She died suddenly in 1896, leaving two 
boys, three and four years old. In 1900 he married a daughter of Mr. Horace 
Benton of Cleveland. Dr. Horner is now in active practice in Cleveland, 
making a specialty of insanity, nervous diseases and electrology. 

GAIUS J. JONES, M.D. 

Gains J. .Jones, Cleveland, Ohio, was born in Remsen, Oneida county, 
New York, on February 27, 1843. Both his father, Jonathan Jones, and 
his mother, Elizabeth Roberts, were of Welsh stock. After attending the 
district schools he was sent to a select school at Remsen, and then to an 
academy at Prospect, New York. He taught school for a time, but on 
account of ill health he abandoned that occupation and found employment 
as clerk in a dry goods store in Utica, where he remained until the beginning 
of the war of 1861-65. He at once enlisted in Co. E, 14th New York 
Vol. Inf., being the first volunteer from his town. 

During his army service. Dr. Jones suft'ered an attack of typhoid fever, 
from the effects of which he did not readily recover, and in consequence of 
which he was discharged and returned to his home. When sufficiently recov- 




Gains J. Jones, INl.D. 




Wilbert B. Hinsdale, U.D. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 383 

^red he took up the study of medicine with Dr. M. M. Gardner of Holland 
Patent, New York. He attended upon the lectures of the Homoeopathic 
Medical College of Cleveland, Ohio, and in March, 1865, began the practice 
of medicine at Liverpool, ]\Iedina county. New York. The next year he 
removed to Holland Patent and assumed the practice of his former pre- 
ceptor, but returned to Liverpool in 1867. In 1871 he located at Grafton, 
Ohio. 

In 1872 Dr. Jones accepted a position as lecturer on anatomy in the Homoe- 
opathic Hospital College of Cleveland, and in the following year was ad- 
vanced to the full professorship, which chair he filled until 1878; during two 
years of this time he also lectured on surgery. In 1878 he was appointed to 
the professorship of theory and practice of medicine. From 1890 to 1897 
he was dean of the Cleveland Medical College, but when that institution was 
merged with the University of Medicine and Surgery under the name, The 
Cleveland Homoeopathic ]Medical College, he was made vice-dean, which posi- 
tion he held two years. Since that time he has been dean of the college. 

Dr. Jones has been a member of the staff of the Huron Street Hospital 
since 1874, and also a lecturer in the Cleveland training school for nurses. 
For several years he was surgeon of the Fifth regiment, O. N. G., surgeon 
of the N. Y., P. & O. R. R.. and surgeon-in-chief of the L. S. & M. S. R. R. 
employes' relief association. He is a member of the Northeastern Ohio, the 
Qeveland, and the Ohio State Homoeopathic Medical societies., of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Homoeopathy, a charter member of the Army and Nav}'' 
post, member of Oriental Commandery of Cleveland, a charter member of 
Lake Erie Consistory of Scottish Rite Masons of Cleveland, and is a member 
of various other associations. In July, 1866, Dr. Jones married Emma Wil- 
mot. Their children are Frank G., George W., Ida May, Nellie B. and Clara 
Jones. Both sons are practicing medicine in Cleveland. Dr. Jones has been 
the principal stockholder and president of the National Safe and Lock Com- 
l^any of Cleveland for fifteen years. 

WILBERT B. HINSDALE^ A.M., M.D. 

Wilbert B. Hinsdale, Ann Arbor, ^Michigan, dean, professor of theory 
and practice of medicine and clinical medicine and director of the hospital, 
homoeopathic department of the L'niversity of Michigan, trustee of Hiram 
College, is a son of Albert Hinsdale and Clarinda E. Eyles, his wife. His 
paternal ancestors came from England, about 1680, and settled in New 
England. Elisha Hinsdale, Dr. Hinsdale's grandfather, was a captain in 
the American army in the revolution, and was Avith Washington at Valley 
Forge. On the maternal side, also, Dr. Hinsdale's ancestors Avere English, 
his mother's people having left New England about 1816 and immigrated 
to Ohio. 



384 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

The doctor acquired his elementary education in public schools in north- 
ern Ohio, and his higher education in Hiram College, where he graduated 
in 1875, and whose degrees he earned — B.Sc, M.Sc, M.A. After leaving 
college he taught in public and high schools in northern Ohio. He was 
educated in medicine in Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital College, and came 
to his degree in 1887; was professor of materia medica in his alma mater 
three years ; professor of theory and practice, same, two years ; registrar of 
the college, two years. In 1895 he removed to Ann Arbor and was elected 
professor of materia medica and dean of the homoeopathic department. Uni- 
versity of Michigan ; was made professor of theory and practice, 1896, and 
later professor of theory and practice of medicine and clinical medicine, his 
present chair, also director of the hospital. 

Dr. Hinsdale is a member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, 
the Ohio State Homceopathic Medical Society, the Homoeopathic Medical 
Society of the State of Michigan, the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, the Michigan Academy of Science, the Michigan 
Ornithological Club, and of the Wisconsin Archaeological Society. He mar- 
ried Estella Stone of Hiram, Ohio. 

M. BELLE BROWN, M.D. 

Mary Belle Brown, New York city, dean of the New York Medical Col- 
lege and Hospital for Women ^nd clinical professor of diseases of women 
in that institution, is a native of Troy, Ohio, daughter of Daniel Brown and 
Eliza Telford, his wife, and is of English descent. She was educated in 
the Troy high school, and also in the Oxford Female College in Oxford, 
Ohio, after which she took up the study of medicine in the New York Med- 
ical College and Hospital for Women, where she graduated M. D. 1879. 

In the same year Dr. Brown began her professional career in New 
York city, and also her connection with faculty work in her alma mater; first 
as lecturer on chemistry, 1879; lecturer and demonstrator of physiology, 
1880-1889; professor of diseases of women, 1889-1903; and clinical professor 
of diseases of women, her present chair, which she has held since 1904. She 
was elected secretary of the faculty in 1889 and served in that capacity until 
1898, when she was elected to the office of dean. She is a member of the 
hospital staff of the New York Medical College and Hospital for "Women; 
member of the consulting staff of the Memorial Hospital, Brooklyn ; member 
of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, and of the New York State and 
New York County Homoeopathic Medical societies. 

JOHN PRESTON SUTHERLAND, M. D. 

John Preston Sutherland, dean of Boston University School of Medicine, 
was born of Scottish parentage, at Charlestown, Massachusetts, February 9, 
1854. His father, John Sutherland, came of a long ancestry of men of 




M. Belle Brown, J^I.D. 




John Preston Sutherland, ]\I.D. 




Annie S. Higbie, ^I.D. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 391 

Caithness-shire, the northermost county of Scotland ; stalwart, silent men,, 
who for the most part followed the sea, or fought with the 42d Highlanders 
— the " Black Watch " — in foreign wars. John Sutherland came to this 
country from Scotland in his early manhood ; married Mary Ross, of his own 
country, and for a long and honorable life was identified prominently with 
the Scottish-American interests of Boston, his adopted city. He was an 
elder of the Presbyterian church, treasurer of the Scottish Charitable Society, 
and acting chaplain of Clan IMackenzie. 

John Preston Sutherland received his education in the public schools of 
Boston. He studied medicine in Boston University School of Medicine, and 
graduated from that institution in 1879. During his last year in the school 
he was resident surgeon at the !\Iassachusetts Homceopathic Hospital. 

On March 10, 1879, Dr. Sutherland married Evelyn Greenleaf Baker, 
daughter of James and Rachel Arnold-Greenleaf Baker. Immediately fol- 
lowing his marriage he spent some months in England and on the continent ; 
returning to practice, for a year, in Concord, Massachusetts. Thence he 
removed to Boston, in 1881, and since that time has been in active practice in 
that city; with the interruptions, only, of two foreign journeys for recreation 
and study, and two years spent in the south during a serious illness of his 
wife. 

Dean Sutherland has been identified with Boston University School of 
Medicine almost since his graduation from it ; first as instructor in materia 
medica, later as instructor in anatomy, then — since 1888 — as full professor of 
anatomy, which position he still occupies. He was registrar and acting dean 
of the school from 1895 to 1899, and in the latter year was elected to the 
deanship, which office he still holds. He was editor of the " New England 
Medical Gazette " from 1883 to 1897. He is a member of the medical board 
of the Massachusetts Homoeopathic Hospital, of the consulting board of the 
Massachusetts State Hospital for the Insane,' and of the Worcester Homoer 
opathic Plospital. He is a member and ex-president of the Boston Homoe- 
opathic Medical Society, the Massachusetts Homoeopathic Medical Society, 
and of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

Apart from his editorial writings, w^hich cover a period of fourteen 
years. Dr. Sutherland is author of "Hints on Urinary Analysis" (1895), 
and of many brochures. 

ANNIE S. HIGBIE_, M.D. 

Annie S. liigbie, Xew York city, was born in Babylon, Suffolk county. 
New York, daughter of John Robbins and Selinda Smith. On the paternal 
side she is descended from the first settlers of Dutchess county and Long 
Island. They were Quakers whose ancestry traces to early mediaeval history 
and the time of the reign of Richard Coeur de Leon. On the maternal side 



392 HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 

Dr. Higbie is descended from the Smiths who were among the first settlers 
in Suffolk county, and among whom were patriots of the revolution. Her 
great-grandfather was in service during the war and the old family home- 
stead on Long Island contained a " dark room," built between chimneys, 
Avhere her great-grandmother concealed the American soldiers when the 
British troops held the island. 

Dr. Higbie acquired her literary education in private schools in Babylon 
and Poughkcepsie, and also in Miss Johnson's boarding school for young 
ladies, where she graduated in June, 1883. She afterward took several special 
courses in literature, the sciences and music. Her medical education was 
obtained chiefly in the New York Medical College and Hospital for Women, 
where she graduated in 1903. This was supplemented with the practitioner's 
course in the New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital. 

Since graduation Dr. Higbie has practiced in New York city, and in 
connection with her professional work has served as visiting physician to the 
Crippled Children's Home, and also as clinical assistant in electro-therapeutics 
in the Flower Hospital. She is a member of the Homoeopathic Medical So- 
ciety of the County of New York, the New York State Homoeopathic Medical 
Society, the American Institute of Homoeopathy, the Meissen Club, the Round 
Table Club, and the Electro-Therapeutic Society. She married, June 2, 
1885, Richard Higbie of Babylon, for six years senator in the New York 
state legislature for Suffolk and Richmond counties, and who died April 
10, 1900. 

JAMES WILLIAM WARD, M.D. 

James William Ward, San Francisco, California, dean of the Hahne- 
mann Medical College of the Pacific and for twenty years its professor of 
abdominal and pelvic surgery, is a native of Minneapolis, Minnesota, born 
March 14, 1862, son of William Emerson Ward and Elvira Jane Canney, his 
wife, and a descendant of Phineas Ward, a revolutionary soldier and patriot. 

Dr. Ward acquired his elementary education in the common and public 
schools and graduated at the San Jose high school in 1878. He studied the 
classics under a private tutor. The foundation of his medical education was 
laid in a three year's preparatory course with a medical preceptor, after 
which he entered as a student the New York Homoeopathic Medical College 
and Hospital, and completed the usual three years' course in two years, 
coming to his degree March 15, 1883, winner of the coveted faculty prize — 
the appointment as resident surgeon to Hahnemann Hospital, New York 
city ; and he also was the winner of the faculty prize for the highest grade of 
scholarship, and thereby became possessor of a complete office case of med- 
icines — five hundred remedies of various potencies. 

In 1883 Dr. Ward was resident physician to Ward's Island Homoeopathic 




James William Ward. M.D. 




Henry C. Allen, M. D. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 397 

Hospital, and in i8';5 he spent six months in Europe perfecting his profes- 
sional education ; and again in 1901 he went abroad for further study in 
N'ienna, Herlin and Berne. The scene of his professional life has been laid 
chiefly in San brancisco. although his name and reputation are not unknown 
in other Pacific slope cities. He has served as surgeon to the City and 
County Hospital of San Francisco, the Fabiola Hospital of Oakland, and the 
Hahnemann Hospital of San Francisco. 

Dr. Ward is a member and now president of the health commission of 
the city and county of San Francisco; a member of the American Institute 
of Homoeopathy, member and ex-president of the California State Homoe- 
opathic Medical Society, member of the Southern California Homoeopathic 
Medical Society, the Surgical and Gynecological Society of the American 
Institute of Homoeopathy, the Sons of the American Revolution, the Bo- 
hemian Club, the Union League Club, and of the Unitarian Club. By his 
first marriage Dr. Ward has two daughters, Ruth and Aila Ward ; by his 
second wife (Florence X Fergerson) his children are Dorothy, Jean, and 
James W. Ward, Jr. 

HENRY C. ALLEX, M.D. 

Henry C. Allen, Chicago. Illinois, one of the founders of Hering Medical 
College, its professor of materia medica since that institution was organized, 
editor of the " ^^ledical Advance," is a native of Canada, born October 2, 1836, 
son of Hugh Allen and Martha Billings, his wife, and a descendant on the 
paternal side of that distinguished family of \'ermonters that produced Gen. 
Ira Allen and his patriot brother, Ethan Allen, both of revolutionary fame. 
( )n the maternal side the Billingses were among the colonial families of Massa- 
chusetts Bay, and one of its representatives, great-grandfather of Dr. Allen, 
owne*l the farm lands on which the present city of Salem is built up. After 
selling the land there the family removed to the then frontier settlement of 
Deerfield in the Connecticut valley, and was there when the Indians ravaged 
the region with the tomahawk and with fire. Dr. Allen acquired his early 
education in the common and grammar schools of London, Ontario, and his 
merlical education in Cleveland Homoeopathic College and also in the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, having graduated from the former 
mstitution in 1861. Since that time he has been engaged in the practice of 
medicine, and during much of that long period of almost forty-five years he 
has been in some prominent manner identified with the cause of medical educa- 
tion ; first as professor of anatomy in his alma mater, and afterward incumbent 
of the same chair in Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago. In the latter 
institution in 1868 he was ofifered the chair of surgery, to succeed Beebe, but 
v/as unable to accept. From 1880 to 1885 he was professor of materia medica 
and clinical medicine in the homoeopathic department of the University of 



398 HISTORY OF HOMOEOPATHY 

Michigan, and in 1892 was one of the founders of Hering Medical College, 
incumbent of its chair of materia medica since that time, one of the guiding 
spirits of its policy, and president of its governing board. Dr. Allen is a mem- 
ber of the American Institute of Homceopathy, the International Hahnemannian 
Association, honorary member of the New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and 
Michigan State Homoeopathic Medical societies, and member of the Homoeo- 
pathic Medical Society of the State of Illinois and of the Englewood Homoeo- 
pathic Medical Society. He married, December 24, 1867, Selina Louise Goold, 
and has children : Franklin Lyman Allen and Helen Marian Allen. 

GEORGE ROYAL, M.D. 

George Royal, Des Moines, Iowa, president of the American Institute 
of Homoeopathy, professor of materia medica and therapeutics, and also 
dean of the College of Homoeopathic Medicine of the State University of 
Iowa, is a native of Alford. Berkshire county, Massachusetts, Iwrn July 15, 
1853, son of Ambrose Royal and Mary Adelaide Bucher, and is of French 
descent. His early and higher education was acquired in the Coventry, Con- 
necticut, public schools, Natchaugh high school, 187 1 -1874, and Amherst 
College, 1874-1875. His medical education was acquired in the New York 
Homoeopathic Medical College, where he graduated M. D., March 16, 1882. 

Dr. Royal's professional career was begun in Rockville, Connecticut, 
where he practiced untd 1883, and then removed to Des Moines, Iowa, where 
he now lives. Since 1892 he has held the chair of materia medica and thera- 
peutics in the College of Plomoeopathic Medicine of the State University of 
Iowa, and now in connection with his professional Avork performs the re- 
sponsible duties of dean of the faculty. He has been a member of the Des 
Moines Homoeopathic Medical Society since 1883; of the Hahnemann Med- 
ical Association of Iowa since 1885, and of the American Institute of Homoe- 
opathy since 1891, having been' president of the latter for the year 1904-1905. 
He was a member of the Des Moines school board from 1886 to 1892, and 
president of the board from 1887 to 1892. Dr. Royal married, November 
27, 1879, Ella Jane Kingsbury of Coventry, Conn. Their children are Mal- 
colm Allen, Wilmot Kingsbury, Paul Ambrose and Adelaide Janette Royal. 
In the chapter devoted to the history of the College of Homoeopathic Medicine 
of the State University of Iowa, which chapter comes from the pen of Dr. 
Royal, he has therein made allusion to his professional and pedagogical career, 
but at the hazard of repetition the editors have assumed to refer in this 
chapter to some of the leading events of the life of one of the most faithful 
contributors to these annals. 

GUERNSEY p. WARING, M. D. 

Guernsey Penny Waring, Evanston, Illinois, former secretary of the board 
of trustees and registrar of Dunham Medical College and Post-Graduate 




Guernsey Penny Waring, I\I.D. 



HISTORY OF HOMCEOPATHY 401 

School of Homoeopathies, later professor of materia medica in Hahnemann 
Medical College, Chicago, author of the history of Dunham Medical College, 
published elsewhere in this work, and, withal, a firm adherent to the teaching 
and principle of the single remedy and minimum dose as indicated by the total- 
ity of symptoms, is a native of Ridgeway, Lenawee county, Michigan, where 
he was born in 1852. He is a son of Joshua Waring and Ruth Ann Lock wood, 
his wife, on the maternal side a descendant of the New England Guernseys 
and the English Pcnnys, who were related to his grandparents and through 
whom he gets his christian name. The Fenny family came from England 
nearly two centuries ago, and consisted of parents and their twelve sons, who 
settled and developed a large tract of land in Ulster county, New York. 

Dr. Waring was educated in the public and union schools of Tecumseh, 
Michigaii, graduating from the latter in 1873. His medical education was 
secured in the Hering Medical College, Dunham Medical College and Post 
Graduate School of Homoeopathies of Chicago, whence he acquired his medical, 
degree in 1897, and five years later, master of homccopathics, a post-graduate 
degree. Since entering the profession he has practiced in Chicago and also in 
Evanston, his home town, a suburban city near that great western metropolis. 
Since 1897 ^^^ ''■'^s filled various chairs in college work, and was an active 
officer of his alma mater until that institution united with Hering Medical 
College in 1902, and at the present time is identified with the successor school, 
which teaches ptire Hahnemannian homreopathy, while he himself is one of 
the firmest advocates of the principles enunciated and promulgated by the 
great founder. 

Previous to 1884 Dr. Waring was active in politics, an ardent republican, 
holding various offices, and in the legislative sessions of 1881-1882 represented 
the first district of Lenawee county, Michigan, in the state legislattire. He is a 
member of the International Hahnemannian Association, the American Insti- 
ttite of Homceopathy, and of the Illinois State Homoeopathic Medical Society. 
He married, January 27, 1886, Ella Cadmus, by whom he has two children : 
Ruth Waring, April 4, 1888, and Richard Waring, January 12, 1897. 



n 



62t 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 




BioMed