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iGc 977.201 HS3m v.l 
Morrow, Jsckson. 
History of Howard County, 











AHenCoonly Public Ubrory 
R. Wayne/ " 



Soon after beg-inning the editing of tlie History of Howard 
County, at the request of B. F. Bowen & Company, two facts became 
Very prominent. The first was that the undertaking was greater 
than at first appeared and the other was that there are now very, 
\-ery few of tlie pioneers remaining to rehearse the beginnings of 
Howard County history. It is largel}' now the verifying and 
arranging such historical matter as has lieretofore been published, 
supplemented by matters alreadv known by the writer, and others, 
gathered from old newspapers and the few surx-ivors of a far away 

In preparing this work it has seemed very unfair and short 
sighted to assume that all this magnificent country should have re- 
mained idle and unused by man for thousands of )-ears until seventy 
years ago. for the coming of the white man, and so I have devoted 
a chapter to the Mound Builders and another to their successors — 
the Indians. Since the coming of the white man I ha\'e tried to 
describe conditions as tliey were in the beginning and the many 
changes he has wrought along the various lines of life. 

This work has been largely along general lines. The limits of 
this work have precluded the going into the purely local and individ- 
ual. There ha\-e been certain individual schools of more than pass- 
ing inip(^rtance. as the Old Normal and some out township schools, 
of which it would have been a real pleasure to have written. Beau- 
tiful Crown Point Cemeterv is another instance and the Old Ceme- 

tery, where lie the unmarked graves of many of the early pioneers 
of Kokonio and vicinity whose memory should especially be cher- 
ished as the real founders of our goodly heritage ; and too, our de- 
lightful City Park. 

I have consulted and drawn freely from the Kingman County 
Atlas of 1876 and the History of Howard and Tipton County of 
1S83. Mr. Otis C. Pollard has rendered much valuable assistance; 
the chapters prepared by him are accredited to him. Isir. INIilton 
Garrigus has prepared a very valuable history of early financial con- 
ditions, a compact statement of facts difficult to find, especially 
interesting in our pioneer history as the Blue Dog and White Dog 
and the Wild Cat currencies. Posterity is under a real debt to Mr. 
Garrigus for this chapter. 

J.-vcKSON Morrow. 


Able Jurist 380 

Armstrong-Landon Company. Stock of 224 

Automobiles 248 

Abolitionists 355 

Account of St. Clair's Defeat 40 

Agricultural Implements 74 

Apples in Kokomo, First 324 

Bank. Citizen's National 278 

Banks 266 

Bank of Russiaville. First National 281 

Bank, First National of Kokomo 2"/"/ 

Bank, Kokomo National 279 

Bank, Indian Reserve 327 

Buggies, Manufactured 226 

Bennett, Dan 408 

Brouse, Judge Henry A 397 

Biddle, Judge Horace P ij-j 

Bell, Lewis Cass, Reminiscences 425 

Blanche. Willis 164 

Brewer. James. Assassination of 285 

Bee Hunter 218 

Bench and Bar 362 

Bee Hive \2j 

Business House. First 206 

Bounties 176 

Bounties in 1865 178 

Block & Thalman ijy 

Banks 276 

Bit Works 242 

Brick, Making 229 

Buildings, Public 1 1 1 

Calamities. Some Earl}- 330 

Commissioners, Board of 60 

Clothing 22 

Convention of Delegates 262 

Commercial Development 331 

Combination ]ylill 212 

Courtship 51 

Contempt of Court tj2 

Crimes and Casualties 282 

Cabin Furnishings "ji 

Clearing the Land j}, 

Com 75 

Conditions, Present Day 98 

Court, Probate and Common Pleas 421 

Chills and Fever 84 

County Boards 97 

Court House and Surroundings 115 

Counterfeiters, Arrest of 333 

Civil War, Close of 183 

Conditions are Changing 201 

Civil War, Howard in the 130 

Cooper and Robinson ". 406 

Churches 429 

City and Township Life 320 

Circuit Judge, First 373 

Carnegie's Gift • 467 

Drafts 182 

Domestic Life ^2 

Doxey's Factory 257 

Doxey Factory, Committee's Report on 259 

Davis, Judge John 399 

Drains, Public 78 

Debating Society, First 325 

Democrat, Radical 309 

Donations 152 

Enlistment, Final 174 

Extensive Improvements 114 

Eighty-nintli Regiment 167 

Exciting Times 346 

Ervin, Judge 368 

Elections, First 58 

Eleventh Cavalry, Company K 170 

Early Roads 80 

Education 81 

Fairfield Steam Flouring- Mill 211 

Factories, Canning 246 

Free Soil Supporters 352 

Floriculture 252 

Foster. David 319 

First to Fall 150 

Fort Sumpter, Xews of 147 

Friday, D 22"] 

Farms, Development of 198 

Financial History 260 

Ford & Donnelly 251 

Fifty-seventh Regiment '. 164 

Free Public School System 87 

Garrigus, Milton 395 

Greentown Gem 316 

Glass Company, Pittsburg Plate 249 

Green, Judge 423 

Gazette, Kokomo 312 

Garver, Judge William 424 

Govemment Disappointed 41 

Glass Factory, Opalescent 248 

Government Among the Indians 49 

Gravel Roads, First 103 

Hardships and Privations 165 

Hanged by a Mob 288 

Hopkins, John B 367 

Hawkins, Reuben 211 

Hanged from a Bridge 296 

Hardware Business, Head of the 222 

Heading and Stave Business 226 

Interurban Lines 421 

Independent, Kokomo 307 

Institutions, Strong' Financial 281 

Indian Villages 426 

Indiana Near Bankruptcy 273 

Infirmary, County 1 18 

Indiana Tiunbler and Goblet Company 243 

Industrial Histor}- 196 

Invaders 26 

Indians Give Up Land 45 

Indians 28 

Jails 116 

Jealousy Leads to Crime 292 

Journal, Kokomo 309 

Kern, John W 401 

Kokomo Bale Tie Company 252 

Kokomo, Early Days in . 318 

Kokomo Steel and ^^'ire Works 250 

Knerr Board and Paper Company 251 

Kokomo Rul)ber Compau}' 244 

Kokomo \^'o()(l Enameling Company 244 

Kokomoko. Chief 48 

Kokomo Canning Company 246 

Kokomo Library 463 

Leach, J. M. & Company 231 

Lincoln to the Kentuckians 142 

Little Turtle's Idea 27 

Licensed to Teach 93 

Local History 30 

Log- Court House 370 

Long, Judge 368 

Lewis, Joe 394 

Linsday, Judge N. R 324 

Little Turtle 36 

Lumbering 197 


Milroy, Judge R. H 383 

Miller, John , 127 

Maple Sugar Industry 220 

Money Was Scarce 220 

Molihan Gang 299 

Malaria 321 

Morgan's Raid 1,75 

Memory of Soldiers Revered 187 

Modem Methods 199 

Mercantile Life 202 

Mound Builders 17 

Mound Remains 18 

Militar)- History, Addenda 468 

Medical Society, First 360 

Modes of Worship 19 

Mounds, Various Kinds of 20 

Miamis 34 

Miamis in Howard 48 

Military Histor}' 125 

Militia Companies 1 59 

Mail in Pioneer Days 84 

Morning Times. Kokonio 315 

National Road 269 

Nation, David 396 

Name Changed to Howard 63 

Ninetieth Regiment 193 

Number of Men Sent from Howard in the Civil War 196 

Newspapers 304 

New London , 335 

Newman Paper Company 241 

National Mint 263 

Nursery, the First 216 

News, Kokomo 317 

National Bank, Howard z'j'j 

Natural Gas, Search for 234 

One House in Kokomo 57 

Oil, Exploring for 329 

O'Brien, Judge James 400 

( )verman, Judge X. R 412 

Othei- Banks 280 

One Hundred and Thirtieth Regiment 171 

One Hundred Day Men 173 

One Hundred Thirt}--tifth and One Hundred Tliirty-Seventh 

Regiments 1/3 

Organization and Early History 55 

Orphans' Home 120 

Oath 155 

Old System 86 

One Hundred and Forty-second Regiment. Company 1 174 

One Cent Reward 348 

Pre-emption Law 68 

Pioneer Life in Howard County 70 

Paths of Early Days 71 

Public Road Sentiment 107 

Preacher and the Corner Stone 113 

President Lincoln's Message 135 

Peace Party Fails 146 

Public Sentiment in Howard 141 

Picture Writing 54 

Pottawattomies 32 

Pay of Petit Jurors 364 

Pollard, Judge Clark X 4" 

Pettit. Judge John U 386 

Purdum, Xelson 394 

Pioneer Lawyers. Leading 370 

Pumping Stations 239 

Planing Mill Business 225 

Paper Mills 240 

Pipe Lines -37 

Pottery Company. Great Western 245 

Report, County Treasurer's 64 

Rich. Experience of Thomas 345 

Representatives, House of 137 

Richardville. Chief 55 

Richardville, County of 56 

Real Estate, Boom in 235 

Railroad Bonds, Trouble Over 255 

Richmond, Col. X. P 407 

Richmond, Corydon, M. D 321, 364 

Robinson, James W 390 

Religion 53 

Railroads : 416 

Roller. Mills, Greentown 213 

Rule or Ruin Policy 138 

Race, Industrious 23 

Roads in Howard County 101 

Shiloh, Relief Sent to .... .' 166 

Spanish- American War 414 

St. Clair's Army 38 

Stone, Judge E. S 422 

Steward, John 290 

Sutton- Yager Mystery 301 

Seventy-fifth Regiment 166 

Specie, Great Demand for 271 

Soldiers Who Died in the Sen-ice 188 

Streets, First Macadam 230 

Schools, Howard County 85 

State Road, Howard's First 102 

School System, Changes in yi 

Social Gatherings 322 

Saw Mills Becoming Scarce 209 

Star Machine Works 251 

Slave-holders, Views of 145 

Secession and Disunion 131; 

Stove Works, Globe 245 

State Road, First 95 

Sympathizers, Southern 132 

State Stipt. of Public Instruction 94 

Stores, \'arious Kinds of 22"/ 

Sur\-evs 66 

Town. Incorporating the 326 

Traveling on Horseback 81 

Trading Points 204 

Thirteenth Regiment 1 57 

Tribtme. Howard 304 

Thirty-fourth Regiment 160 

Total Mileage 108 

Treaty of Greenville 44 

Trust Company. Kokomo 280 

Thirty-ninth Regiment 162 

Trading Centers 342 

Tanneries 215 

Traveling Shoemakers 216 

Trapping and Hunting 217 

T^-jmato Growing 246 

Traction Company 253 

Turpin, William H 313 

Union Tigers 160 

Volunteers, First Call for 149 

\*aile, J. Fred 401 

\'aile, Rawson 394 

\'olunteers, Families of the 163 

Volapuck 317 

Water Mill Flour Popular 213 

\\'omen Helped 77 

West Middleton Steam Flouring Mill 210 

Wild Game 8^ 

War with Mexico 129 

Walked in His Sleep 378 

Wouldn't Pay Office Rent 112 

^^'ant Law Repealed 1 1 1 

When the Europeans Came 24 

Warriors 29 

Western Indians 37 

Wayne's \'icti )ry 43 


Welcome Home 185 

Water Cure Era 316 

Wallace, Judge John AI 384 

\\'right. Judge John W 373 

Workmen. Skilled 21 

WovLii ^\■ire, Making 250 

\\'arehouse, Thirst 208 

Wickersham. Moses R 349 


In writing- the history of Howard county we must not omit the 
people who dwelt in the country of which it is now a part before 
the coming of the Europeans. 

An ancient race, entirely distinct from the Indians, inhabited 
all that vast, fertile valley system extending- from western New 
York on the east to Nebraska on the west, and from the great lakes 
on the north to the Gulf of Mexico on the south. 

These people possessed a modified degree of civilization. They 
tilled the soil and grew corn, potatoes, tobacco and other products 
of this western hemisphere of that early time. They carried on 
commerce, both domestic and foreign, not so extensively perhaps 
as do the present modern inhabitants. They had made considerable 
progress in the arts; their potter}' wares especially displayed skill 
and finish. Their sculptors reached a high degree of perfection. 
They were an industrious race. Many of their public works were 
massive and required the labor of many men for months or perhaps 
years to construct. They were evidently a people of fixed habita- 
tion and settled and organized government, and were given rather 
to the pursuits of peace than war. 

^^'ho these people were we have no means of knowing: by 
what name or names they were known to themselves or their con- 
temporaries we know not. So far as we know they left no written 
records. Tradition is absolutely silent concerning them. Many 
centuries of past time have entirely extinguished the memory of 

i8 morrow's history 

them. They are to us a lost race. We know them as Mound 
Builders, but this term has no real significance. So far as 
we know they never built a mound. Time has been the 
real Mound Builder, converting the buildings and structures 
of this ancient people into the various mounds as we know 
them today. All that we know of them is gathered from the 
monuments that remain of them, consisting of mounds, inclosures, 
implements, works of art, etc. These remains have been carefully 
examined, and after long and patient investigation the archaeolo- 
gist has arrived at certain definite conclusions, and so apparently 
accurate are they that we may safely say that we are Avell acquainted 
with' this lost race. 


These remains are very numerous and widely distributed. In 
Ohio more than twelve hundred inclosures and ten thousand mounds 
have been counted. Indiana has probably as many, and the A-arious 
implements that have been found are almost countless. The mound 
remains of Ohio have been much more thoroughl}- and carefully 
examined than those of any other state, hence they are better known 
and more frequent reference made to them. These works are chiefly 
found in the river valleys, and are only occasionally met with in the 
hilly or broken country, and are there small in size. The}' are irreg- 
vilarly distributed, being dense in places and sparse in others, indi- 
cating thickly settled localities and scattered settlements. The fact 
that their remains are found chiefly in the river valleys and alnng 
the watercourses would suggest that they used the streams of water 
as their highways, transporting themselves and their commerce in 
canoes or rude boats, fashioned from the giant trees growing then 
as at the coming- of the white man in the forests of these fertile 


These ancient works were constructed sometimes of earth 
alone, at other times of earth' and stone together, and were of two 
classes — enclosures and mounds proper. The enclosures were mas- 
sive walls and sometimes of great dimensions, ranging- from three 
feet to thirty feet in height and enclosing areas of from one acre 
to four hundred acres in extent. Many of them evidently were con- 
structed for fortifications or defensive purposes and some were ad- 
mirably chosen as natural strongholds. Others were sacred en- 
closures, protecting their altars and holy places of worship from un- 
hallowed intmsion, and perhaps affording homes for the priesthood, 
for it is known that these people had their places of worship and a 
regular priesthood. Altars have been found within these enclosures, 
presenting positive evidence of sacrifice. 


In some respects the ceremonials of their worship seem to have 
been very like the Jewish as set out in the book of Exodus. The 
location of bodies of numerous mounds indicates that the Mound 
Builders were influenced by the same motives in selecting sites 
for their cities and towns which influenced their European succes- 
sors. Practically the same natural conditions existed when this 
numerous population Of bygone times lived and made homes as those 
that fascinated the European when he came — an attractive country, 
broad, alluvial terraces overlooking flowing rivers and the same 
capabilities for development. 

It has been said that nearly even- town of importance in the 
valleys of the Ohio and ^lissisippi and their tributaries, is founded 
upon tlie ruins of this ancient people. The city of St. Louis was a 
cit}' of mounds, and is known as the "^lound City," while on the 
opposite side of the river more than two hundred were counted. 


among which was th^ great Cahokia, the mammoth mound oi the 
Mississippi valley. Before the desecrating hand of the white man 
had despoiled tliis magnificent temple it rose in height ninety feet. 
In shape it was at the base a parallelogram, the sides at the base 
measuring seven hundred b}^ fi^-e hundred feet. On the southwest 
there was a terrace one hundred and sixty feet by three hundred 
feet, the top being level and constituting a platfonn two hundred 
feet wide by four hundred feet long, upon which could congregate 
man)- thousands of people at an elevation of nearly one hundred feet 
above the surrounding country. 


Other important mound centers now occupied by towns and 
cities are Grave Creek, Marietta, ]\Iiami and Vincennes. Of the 
one at Vincennes Professor Collett says: "Perhaps the seat of a 
royal priesthood, their efforts essayed to build a series of tanples 
which constituted at once capital and 'holy city,' the Heliojxilis of 
the ^^'est. Three sacred mounds thrown upon or against the sides 
of the second terrace or bluff east and southeast of Vincennes are 
the result and in size, symmetry and grandeur of aspect ri\al, if not 
excel any prehistoric remains in the United States." 

Another class of mounds were the sepulchral mounds where 
they buried their illustrious dead. Skeletons have been unearthed 
in these mounds and with them have been found personal ornaments, 
such as bracelets, perforated plates of copper and beads of bone, 
ivory, shell or metal. Few weapons such as spear or arrow points 
are found. Stone implements are common. Plates of mica are fre- 
quently met with, and of such size as to almost completely cover the 
skeleton. Vases of pottery are occasionally found. These nmunds 
are the principal depositories of ancient art. The implements and 


ornaments found in tliese mounds are made i_)f minerals, clay, 
bones, fossils and shells. The lirst implements used by them were 
made of stone. Among the INIound Builders we find many and 
various implements of stone, ha\'ing- a great variety of form and 
used for different purposes. Their arrow and spearheads were made 
of flint, ninety-five per cent, of them being made of the different 
varieties of chert. Many points made of obsidian have been found. 
Chalcedony occurs, but not in abundance. Knives and other cutting 
instruments made of obsidian and flint have been taken from the 
mounds. Axes fashioned with great skill out of rare and beau- 
tiful materials, mostly of the granitic series of minerals, are found 
in great abundance in the valleys, but rarely in the mounds, many 
of them with- grooves for the adjustmait of handles, and varying 
in weight from one pound to sixteen pounds. Their hatchets, de- 
signed for use in war as well as domestic use, weighed from one 
to two pounds, and had no grooves. Some had holes for the in- 
sertion of handles. These instmments for the most part were pid- 
ished. Some were ground and polished with great care. Many 
stone mauls and chisels ha\-e been found. Quartz pestles and mor- 
tars or boulders with platter-shaped depressions for grinding the 
grain are found iui great numbers. An interesting feature of their 
works of art is the pottery ware, comprising- kettles, water jugs, 
cups, vases, urns, etc. In this they attained to a considerable de- 
gree of perfection, exhibiting a variety of forms and elegance of 
finish. They made these wares of fine clay. In the finer specimens 
they worked the clay pure. In some of the coarser specimens they 
intermixed the clay with quartz, in others with salmon-colored mica 
in small flakes, giving it a rather brilliant appearance. 


The surface was ornamented, some with cur\-ed lines, others 


have the images of birds, quadiaipeds and the human form molded 
upon them. They were all moulded by hand and there is no evi- 
dence that they had any knowledge of the potter's wheel. Xone i^f 
their vessels were glazed. The stone pipes found in the mounds 
display the most elaborate skill. 

The workmen portrayed the object sought to be represented 
with great faithfulness, the more elaborate ones delineating the 
squirrel, opossum, beaver, otter, wildcat, bear, elk, wolf, panther, 
grouse, duck, raven and also the human head and form. Their high- 
est grade of art is found in their sculptures. They accurately ex- 
hibited the g-eneral form and features of the object intended to be 
represented. In all of their work there is a remarkable avoidance 
of obscenity. Their largest instruments made out of quartz or 
chert are the spade and hoe. 

The Mound Builders were acquainted with se\-eral of the 
metals. They had implements and ornaments of copper. Silver is 
found occasionally in the form of ornaments. There is nothing to 
indicate that it was ever used as money. Galena is found in consid- 
erable quantities, but there is no trace of iron. They made knives. 
axes, chisels, awls, spearheads and arrowheads out of copper. These 
were hammered out cold for the most part, though some show evi- 
dence of having been molded. Hence the conclusion is warranted 
that the art of smelting was known to them in their later times. 
They made for themselves awls or needles of the bones of the deer 
and elk. which they used in the sewing of the hides of animals. 

The Mound Builders used for clothing sometimes the skins of 
wild animals, but for the most part their clothing was made from 
a cloth regularly spun with a uniform thread and woven with warp 


and woof. In making a railroad grade through a mound near Mid- 
dletown, Ohio, among other things found was cloth connected with 
tassels and ornaments. The cloth was in thick folds and very mucli 
charred. It api>eared to be of some material allied to hanp, and 
the separation of wood and fiber was as thorough as at this day 
by rotting and hackeling. The thread is coarse, uniform in size 
and regularly spun. Their process of spinning and weaving is un- 
known. The fact that large numbers of copper implements and 
ornaments have been found in the mounds, the fact also that the 
Mound Builders used galena, obsidian, mica and some silver, sug- 
gest that they either engag-ed in mining" or traded \\ith people wlio 
did. Considerable quantities of galena have been found in the 
mounds of Ohio. It is of frequent occurrence on the sacrificial al- 
tars. Plumb bobs and net sinkers are found made out of this ma- 
terial, and yet no original deposits are known in the state of Ohio. 
Obsidian, a peculiar glass-like stone of volcanic origin, is obtained 
from some of the mounds in the fonn of arrowheads, spearheads 
and cutting instalments, 3"et this material is not found in its nat- 
ural state north of Mexico nor east of the Rocky mountains in the 
United States. Mica is found in large quantities in and about the 
mounds. It was used for mirrors, ornaments and« often for the cov- 
ering of their dead. There were no mica mines nearer than New 
Hampshire or North Carolina. The mines of North Carolina give 
conclusive evidence of having been worked in long past times. It 
is a fair inference that these people of the Ohio and Mississippi 
valleys journeyed either as miners or traders to the mines of Caro- 
lina and thus obtained the mica now found. In the copper mines 
of the Lake Superior region excavations have been found which 
appear to be very ancient. 


In these ancient excavations numerous stone hammers ;n"e 
found. Here again the inference seems fair that the Mound Build- 


ers of the Ohio valley journeyed to these far-away copper mines 
as miners, going in the springiime, taking a store of provisions 
with them, and returning in the autumn to their homes. The cold 
of the Lake Superior region was such as to forbid their growing 
their food there. The wide distribution 'of copper implements shows 
that an extensive business was carried on in this metal. From the 
valley of the Ohio it was a journey of a thousand miles. There is 
no evidence of settled life at that time in the copper regions. The 
people who did this were energetic and enterprising. The same 
must be said of a people who journeyed to far-away ^Mexico for a 
supply of obsidian. 

It appears to be indisputable that the Mound Builders were 
an industrious people, well settled, extensively engaged in mining 
operations and various mechanical pursuits, well skilled and far 
from a state of barbarism. They were somewhat advanced in the 
arts and sciences and occupied no mean position in life. For their 
times and surroundings they had made great strides towards a per- 
manent civilization and must be ranked as one of the g'reat people 
of ancient times. 

Who were the Mound Builders ? Where did they come from ? 
When were they here? When did they leave here? What was the 
manner of their going? Who occupied this countiy at their going? 
are questions naturally suggested. 

To the first two questions we must frankly admit that we are 
in absolute ignorance. 


When the Europeans first came here they found the Indians 
without a trace of a tradition of the people who dwelt here before 
them. The people themselves left no written records whose authen- 


ticity may be said to be unquestioned. The darkness of the past 
has completely enveloped them. \\'hat we do know is that there 
now remain here the ruins of the works of a prehistoric people 
whose only history we can interpret froni' these ruins. 

The next two questions admit of a somewhat more satisfactory 
repl}'. We know that many centuries have passed since the Mound 
Builders went out from their homes here. When the earliest Euro- 
pean explorers visited these mounds time had completed their wreck- 
ing. Mounds only remained of great buildings and massive walls. 
Forests of giant trees, centuries old, had grown upon the ruins and 
had fallen to decay, probably many times repeated. 

The ruins of the new world may be as ancient as those of the 
old. ]May we not safely say that the Mound Builders of America 
were contemporaneous with the great peoples of antiquity in the 
old world? While the Pharaohs of Egypt were erecting their pyra- 
mids and building magnificent temples to their gods and were en- 
gaging in great national enterprises ; while Abraham of Ur of the 
Chaldees. at the command of the living God. and imbued with the 
spirit of enterprise of his age. was g'oing out to found a new home 
and nation of his own ; while Nineveh and Babylon were growing 
up to be mighty cities through the entei-prise of their citizens, may 
not this people have been engaged in the building of their temples 
to the Great Spirit and in the constniction of other great works 
whose ruins yet remain ? 

There is no evidence that the nations of the old and new worlds 
had any knowledge of each other. They appear, however, tn have 
g'rown in power and advanced in civilizatidn very much alike. The}' 
had the same kinds of mills for grinding their grain. ]\Iay not 
the spirit of enterprise and civilization that prevailed in the old 
world in those centuries before Christ have been world-wide and 
found its expression in the M(iund Builders (if the new? 

26 morrow's history 

\Miat was the manner of their gomg? The probabihties are 
that they were dri\-en out by a barbarous, warhke people. For ages 
they and their ancestors had Uved in these rich and fertile valleys ; 
they had builded towns and cities and made homes as dear to them 

as life itself. 


Antiquarians who have studied the mounds, which were once 
the fortifications of this people, assert that they were placed and ar- 
ranged to protect the inhabitants from northern invaders. Signal 
stations have been traced to the northward, indicating that they 
kept sentinels posted in times of danger to warn them of the ap- 
proach of foes b)^ signaling from station to station. 

It is further declared that the Mound Builders had their hab- 
itations from the Ohio river southward to later times than on the 
north. The remains of many of the mounds indicate that their 
going had been precipitate; that they had not been given time to 
gather up their belongings and move out orderly. It seems very prob- 
able that a savage or barbarous people to the north of them waged 
war with them probably at intervals for a long time and finally had 
overcome them and had driven them across the Ohio river, which, 
for a time at least, was the boundary between them. 

In thus disposing of the Mound Builders we must admit that 
the evidence is purely circumstantial ; that no eye^vitness has been 
found whose record bears positive testimony to the facts regarding 
this people. It is true that there have been found what was pur- 
ported to be the writings of prehistoric man. Some of these have 
been determined as impositions, others have not been deciphered. 
We do not know whether they are false oi"" genuine, and if genuine 
what their testimony is. \\'e can say positively, however, that there 


was an ancient people who lived here in Howard count\-, who made 
considerable progress in the arts and sciences in civilization, who 
had settled homes, who cleared away the forests and engaged in 
agriculture in perhaps a crude manner compared with our twen- 
tieth century methods, and who carried on a limited commerce, 
using Wildcat and its tributaries as their highway, carrj'ing it in 
canoes or rude boats made with their very primitive tools, and that 
after a long occupancy they were driven out by a savage people, 
who, so far as we know, remained in possession of the countr)' initil 
the coming of the Europeans in recent times. 

LITTLE turtle's IDEA. 

It would certainly be a matter of very great satisfaction to be 
able to give the origin of the Mound Builders or their successors, the 
red men, but we are ini complete ignorance, and mere conjecture is 
idle. The various conjectures found in our school histories attempt- 
ing to account for the origin of these people are certainly unworthy 
the place they occupy in teaching the young. That they are or were 
the descendants of the ten lost tribes of Israel is absurd. That 
they are or were the descendants of the Tartars who crossed by the 
way of Behring strait and spread out over America was well an- 
swered by Little Turtle, who, when it was suggested to him that 
the Tartars and Indians resembled each other, that Asia and .\mer- 
ica at Behring strait were only a few miles apart and that the In- 
dians were probably descendants of the Tartars, replied : "Why 
should not these Tartars who resemble us have come from America? 
Are there any reasons for the contrar\^? Or why should we not 
both have been bom in our own country?" The other suggestion 
that Europeans sailing by way of Iceland and Greenland reached 
the mainland of America and settled it, becoming Indians, is no 

28 morrow's history 

better. Tlie better explanation seems to be that the Indian is a dis- 
tinct type of mankind ; that the ]^Iound Builders were the highest 
examples of this Indian type, and that the Indians peopled this con- 
tinent in very ancient times. 


The inference seems fair that the ancestors of the Indians who 
dwelt here at the discoveiy of America by Columbus were the bar- 
barous and warlike people who choxe out the Mound Builders, for 
when European explorers first became acquainted with the Indians 
dwelling in that region, which had fomierly been the country of 
the Mound Builders, they found two powerful Indian families — 
the Algonquin and the Huron-Iroquois. 

At the beginning of the seventeenth centuiw the Algonquins 
numbered a quarter of a million people. The tribes of this great 
family were nomadic in their habits, roaming from one hunting 
ground and river to another, according to the exigencies of the chase 
and fishing. Agriculture was little esteemed. They were divided 
into many subordinate tribes, each having a local name, dialect and 
tradition. When the European settlements were planted the Al- 
gonquin race was already declining in numbers and influence. Wast- 
ing diseases destroyed whole tribes. Of all the Indians the Algon- 
quins suffered most from contact with the white man. Before his 
aggressive spirit, his fiery rum and his destructive weapons the war- 
riors were unable to stand. The race has withered to a shadow and 
only a few thousands remain to rehearse the story of their ancestors. 

Witliin the territoiw occupied by the Algonquins lived the pow- 
erful nation of the Huron-Iroquois. Their domain extended over 


the country reaching from the Georgian Bay and Lake Huron to 
Lakes Erie and Ontario, south of these lakes to tlie ^■a^ey of the 
upper Ohio, and eastward to the Sorel river. Within this exten- 
sive district was a confederacy of vigorous tribes having a common 
ancestiT and generally, though not always, acting tog"ether in war. 
This confederacy was nearly always at war with the Algonquins. 
At the time of their greatest power and influence the Huron-Iro- 
quois embraced no less than nine allied nations. These were the 
Hurons proper, living north of Lake Erie ; the Eries and Andastes, 
south of the same water; the Tuscaroras, of Carolina, who ulti- 
mately joined their kinsmen in the north ; the Senecas, Cayugas, 
Onondagas, Oneidas and Mohawks, constituting the fi\-e nations 
of New York — the Iroquois people. 


The warriors of this great confederacy presented the Indian 
character in its most favorable aspect. They were brave, patriotic 
and eloquent, not wholly averse to useful industry. li\ing in respect- 
able villages, tilling- the soil with considerable success, faithful as 
friends and terrible as enemies. It has been said of them that, know- 
ing well the advantages of their position on the great waterways 
which led to the interior of the continent, they made themselves 
feared by all their race. From Canada to the Carolinas and from 
]\Iaine to the Mississippi, Indian women shuddered at the name 
of the Ho-de-no-san-nee, while e\-en the bravest warriors of other 
triljes went far out of their way in the wintry forests to avoid an 
encounter with them. Within si.xty years from their first acquaint- 
ance with white men the Iroquois had become the 1)itterest foes of 
their nearest kinsmen — the Hurons — and had exterminated them; 
also the Eries and Neutrals about Lake Erie and the Andastes of the 


Upper Susquehanna, while they had forced a humiHating peace upon 
the Delawares, the most powerful of the Algonquins. and had driven 
the Ottawas from their home upon the river which bears their name. 
Their government and laws, similar to those of the United 
States, guaranteed to the people of the tribes the right to manage 
their local affairs in their own way, subject only to the general and 
foreign polity of the confederacy. Their union was based upon 
pure principles of friendship and voluntaiy adhesion. One of their 
chiefs, Canassatego, in 1774 delivered a speech to the commission- 
ers of Pennsylvania, Virginia and Maryland, announcing the basis 
of their union. He said : "Our wise forefathers established amity 
and union between the five nations. This has made us fonuidable. 
This has given us great weight and authority with our neighboring 
nations. \\'e are a powerful confederacy, and by observing the 
sane methods our wise forefathers have taken, you will acquire fresh 
strength and power. Therefore I counsel you. whatever befalls you, 
never to fall out with one another." 


The local Indian history of Howard county is confined chiefly 
to the three Algonquin tribes — the Delawares, Pottawottamies and 
Rliamis. The Miamis held the territory south of the Wabash river 
from Ohio to Illinois, also a part of the territoiy north of the ^^'a- 
bash from the site of Peru eastward ; the Pottawottamies the north- 
western part of the state to the \\'abash river, and the Delawares 
the territory along the \Miite ri\-er ; but on terms of friendship each 
used the territoiy of Howard county as hunting and fishing ground. 
The Delawares were once the most powerful of the Algonquins and 
dwelt along the Delaware river. They claimed that in the past 
tlie\- held an eminent position for antiquity, wisdom and valor. This 


claim seems to have been well founded, as the neighboring- Indian 
tribes were disposed to concede it. In their wars with the Iroquois 
they were defeated and reduced to a state of vassalage. In 1744. 
during the progress of the treaty negotiations at Lancaster, Penn- 
sylvania, the Iroquois denied the Delawares the right to participate 
in the privileges incident to the treaty and refused to recognize them 
as an independent nation, entitled to the right to sell and transfer 
lands. The Iroquois chief upbraided them for attempting to exer- 
cise any other rights than such as belonged to a conquered nation 
or people. Arrogantly he bade them to make no reply, but to lea\e 
the council in silence. He ordered them in a peremptory manner 
to lea\e the lands where they then resided and go to the Susc|ue- 
hanna. In silence they went otit and not long afterward they left 
fore\'er their homes and happy hunting grounds on the banks of the 
Delaware and sought a new home on the Pennsylvania frontier, hu- 
miliated and ^•ery unhappy in the memory of their former high es- 
tate and greatness. The encroaching white man and die hostile Irn- 
quois left them no peace in their new home and again in 1751 they 
started for the far ^^'est and founded a settlement on the White 
river in Indiana. Here a missionarv' effort was made to introduce 
Christianity among them. This was frustrated by the Prophet, a 
brother of Tecumseh, who was then very popular among the In- 
dians. In the ^^'ar of 1812 the Delawares refused to join Tecum- 
seh in his hostilities against the United States, but remained faith- 
ful to the states. In 181 8 eighteen hundred of them, leaving a 
small ])and in Ohio, moved westward again and settled on the White 
ri\er in ^Missouri. Soon they moved again, some going to the Red 
river, but the larger number were settled by treaty upon the Kan- 
sas and Missouri rivers. They numbered about one thousand and 
were brave, enterprising- hunters on the plains, cultivated the soil 
and were friendly to the whites. The Baptists and ^Methodists had 


mission schools among them and bulk a church. They suffered 
much from lawless whites and hostile Sioux. The Kansas Dela- 
wares during the Civil war were strong Unionists and sent one hun- 
dred and sevent}' out of two hundred and ten able-bodied men into 
the Union sen'ice and proved efficient soldiers and guides to the 
Union army. 


From their home in the northwestern part of the state the 
Pottawattomies kept pushing out upon the ancient possessions of the 
Miamis and were familiar objects to the early settlers of Howard 
county. Of these Indians we quote : "At the beginning of the sev- 
enteenth centuiy they occupied the lower peninsula of Michigan 
apparently in scattered bands, independent of each other, there be- 
ing at no period in their history any trace of a general authority or 
government. They were hunters and fishers, cultivating a little 
maize, but warlike and frequently in collision with neighboring 
tribes. They were finally driven west by the tribes of the Iroquois 
family and settled on the islands and shores of Green Bay, and the 
French established a mission among them. Perrot acquired great 
influence with the tribe, who soon took part with the French against 
the Iroquois. Owangnice. their chief, was one of the parties to the 
Montreal treaty of 1701 and they actively aided the French in the 
subsequent wars. They gradually spread over what is now south- 
em Michigan and upper Illinois and Indiana, a mission on the St. 
Joseph river being a sort of central point. The Pottawattomies 
joined Pontiac and surprised Fort St. Joseph, capturing Schlosser, 
the commandant. May 25, 1763. They were hostile to the Ameri- 
cans in the Revolution and subsequently, but after ^^'ayne's victory 
joined the treaty of Greenville, December 22. 1795. The trilKS 
comprising the families or clans of the Golden Carp Frog. Crab 


and Tortoise were then composed of the St. Joseph, Wabash and 
Huron river bands, with a large scattering population, generally 
called the Pottawattoraies of the Prairie, who were a mixture of 
many Algonquin tribes. From 1803 to 1809 the various bands 
sold to the government portions of lands claimed by them, receiv- 
ing money and annuities. Yet in the War of 1812 they again joined 
the English, influenced by Tecumseh. A new treaty of peace was 
made in 181 5, followed rapidly by others, by which their lands 
were almost entirely conveyed away. A large tract was assigned 
to them on the Missouri, and in 1838 the St. Joseph band was cai"- 
ried ofif by troops, losing one hundred and fifty out of eight hundred 
men on the way by death and desertion. The whole tribe then num- 
bered about four thousands. The St. Joseph, Wabash and Huron 
bands had made progress in civilization and were Catholics, while 
the Pottawattomies of the Prairie were still roving and pagan. A 
part of the tribe was removed with some Chippewas and Ottawas, 
but they eventually joined the others or disappeared. In Kansas 
the civilized band with the Jesuit mission founded by DeSmet and 
Hoecken advanced rapidly with good schools for both sexes. A 
Baptist mission and school was more than once undertaken among 
the less tractable Prairie band, but was finally abandoned. 

The Kansas trouble brought difficulties for the Indians, made 
the Prairie band more restless and the civilized anxious to settle. A 
treaty proclaimed April 19, 1862, gave individual Indians a title 
to their several tracts of land under certain conditions, and thougli 
delayed by the Civil war, this policy was carried out in the treaty 
of Febniary 27, 1867. Out of the population of two thousand one 
hundred and eight)^ fourteen hundred elected to become citizens and 
take lands in severalty and seven hundred and eighty to hold lands 
as a tribe. Some of the Prairie band were then absent. The experi- 
ment met with varied success. Some did well and improved, others 



squandered their lands and their portion of the funds and became 
paupers. Many of these scattered, one band even going to Mexico. 


\Vhen the Europeans first became acquainted with the Indians 
the Miamis were a leading and powerful branch of the Algonquin 
family. The trite has been known by a variety of names, the first 
probably having been "Twa Twas," followed by "Twe Twees," 
"Twighwess," "Omees," "Omamees." "Aumannees." and finally 
as the Miamis. Bancroft says of them : "They were the most pow- 
erful confederacy in the West, excelling the Six Nations (Iroquois). 
Their influence reached to the Mississippi and they recei\ed frequent 
visits from tribes beyond the river." Mr. LaSalle says : "When 
the Miamis were first invited by the French authorities to Chicago 
in 1670 they were a leading and very powerful Indian nation. A 
body of them assembled near that place for war against the power- 
ful Iroquois of the Hudson and the still more powerful Sioux 
of the upper Mississippi. They numbered at least three thousand 
warriors, and were under the lead of a chief who never sallied forth 
but with a bodyguard of forty warriors. He could at any time call 
into the field an anny of three thousand to five thousand men." 

The Miamis were first known to Europeans about the year 
1669 in the vicinity of Green Bay, where they were first visited by 
the French missionary. Father Allouez. and later by Father Dalton. 
From this region they passed south and eastward around the south- 
ern point of Lake Michigan, occupying the regions of Chicago and 
later establishing a village on the St. Joseph, another on the Miami 
and another on the \\'abash. The territory claimed by this confed- 
eracy at the close of the eighteenth centuiw is clearly set forth by 
their chief. Little Turtle, in a speech delivered by him at the treaty 



at Greenville, July 22, 1795, in which he said: "General Wayne. 
I hope you will pay attention to what I now say to you. I wish 
to inform you where your younger brothers, the Miamis, live, and 
also the Pottawottamies of St. Joseph, together with the Wabash 
Indians. You have pointed out to us the boundary line between 
the Indians and the United States, but now I take the liberty to in- 
form you that that line cuts off from the Indians a large portion of 
country which has been enjoyed by my forefathers from time imme- 
morial without molestation or dispute. The prints of my ancestors' 
houses are everywhere to be seen in this portion. I was a little as- 
tonished at hearing you and my brothers who are now present tell- 
ing each other what business you had transacted together at Mus- 
kingum concerning this countiy. It is well known by all my broth- 
ers present that my forefather kindled the first fire at Detroit ; from 
thence he extended his line to the headwaters of the Scioto, from 
thence to its mouth, from thence down the Ohio to the mouth of the 
Wabash river, and from thence to Chicago on Lake Michigan. At 
this place I first saw my elder brothers, the Shawnees. I have now 
informed you of the boundary line of' the Miami nation, where the 
Great Spirit placed my forefather a long time ago and charged him 
not to sell or part with his lands, but to preserve them for his pos- 
terity. This charge has been handed down to me. I was much 
surprised to find that my other brothers difi^ered so much from me 
on this subject, for their conduct would lead one to suppose that 
the Great Spirit and their forefathers had nnt given them the same 
charge that was given to me, Ixit, on the contrar}-, had directed 
them to sell their land to any white man who wore a hat as soon 
as he should it of them. Xow, elder brother, your younger 
brothers, the Miamis, have pointed out to you their counti-y, and 
also our brothers present. When I hear _\iiur remarks and proposals 
on this subject I will be ready to gi\-e you an answer. I came with 

36 morrow's history 

an expectation of hearing j-ou say good things, but I have not heard 
what I expected." 


Little Turtle was probably the ablest and -most illustrious of 
the Miami chieftains and has set forth most accurately the claims 
of the Miamis to territory and their policy of retaining it. The 
claim he put forth included all of Indiana, a part of eastern Illinois, 
southern Michigan and western Ohio. It is a noteworthy fact that 
all the treaties they made in which they sold lands to the United 
States government were after they had suffered overwhelming 

In the early Indian wars the Miamis were the enemies of the 
English and the friends of the French. Aftenvards in the trouble 
between the king and the colonies they were generally the allies of 
the English and the foes of the States. They looked upon the ap- 
proach of the white man with the deepest distrust, fearing degra- 
dation, destruction and ultimate extinction. They loved their na- 
tive forests, worshiped freedom and hated restraint. They feared 
the advance of invaders and abhorred the forms of civilization. It 
is said the Miamis were early and earnestly impressed with a fear- 
ful foreboding of ultimate ruin, and therefore seized upon every 
opportunity to terrify, destroy and drive back the invading enemy. 
Their chiefs, their officers and warriors -were found in the fiercest 
battles in the most desperate places. They bared their savage forms 
to civilized bullets and bayonets and died without a murmur or a 
groan. In their treatment of the whites they were as savage as 
they were brave. The}- often murdered the defenseless pioneer 
without regard to age. sex or condition with the most shocking and 
brutal savager}-. X'ot only men Init lielpless women and children 
were burned to death or cut to pieces in the most painful manner 


while the warriors and squaws in fiendish ferocity gloated over the 
misen- and suffering of the victim. 

As against Anglo-Saxon armies no tribe did more to stay the 
tide of civilization or the flow of emigration into their venerated for- 
ests and none record so many victories with so few defeats. Their 
love for the land of their fathers, for their forest homes burned in 
their barbarous bosoms with an intensity that pleads some extenu- 
ation for their savage cruelty. They were a leading power in de- 
feating- General Braddock in 1755, and from that time fonvard the 
blood of the Miamis moistened nearly every battlefield. 

The following sketches are taken from Drake's "Indians of 
North America :" We now pass to a chief far more prominent in 
Indian histoiy than many who have received greater notice from 
historians. This was Mishikinakwa (by no means settled in orthog- 
raphy), which, interpreted, is said to mean Little Turtle. 

"Little Turtle was chief of the Miamis, and the scenes of his 
warlike achievements were in the countiw of his birth. He had in 
conjunction with the tribes of that region successfully fought the 
amiies of Hamiar and St. Clair, and in the fight with the latter is 
said to have had the chief command, hence a detailed account of the 
affair belongs to his life. 


"The western Indians were only emboldened by the battles be- 
tweai them and detachments of General Hannar's army in 1790. 
and under such a leader as Mishikinakwa they entertained sanguine 
hopes of bringing the Americans to their own temis. One murder 
followed another in rapid succession, attended by all the horrors pe- 
culiar to their warfare, which caused President Washington to take 
the earliest opportunity of recommending congress to adopt effi- 

38 morrow's history 

cient measures for checking these calamities, and two thousand men 
were immediately raised and put under the command of General 
St. Clair, then governor of the Northwest Territoiy. He received 
his appointment on the 4th of March, 1791. and proceeded to Fort 
Washington by way of Kentucky with all dispatch, where he ar- 
rived on the 15th of May. There was much time lost in g"etting- the 
troops collected at this place, General Butler with the residue not 
arriving until the middle of September. There were various cir- 
cumstances to account for the delays which it is not necessary to re- 
count here. Colonel Drake proceeded immediately on his arrival, 
which was about the end of August, and built Fort Hamilton on 
the Miami, in the country of Little Turtle, and soon after Fort Jef- 
ferson was built forty miles farther onward. These two forts be- 
ing left manned, about the end of October the army advanced, being 
about two thousand strong, militia included, whose numbers were 
not inconsiderable, as will appear by the miserable manner in which 
they not only confused themselves but the regular soldiers also. 


"General St. Clair had advanced about six miles in front of 
Fort Jefferson when sixty of his militia, from pretended disaffec- 
tion, commenced to retreat, and it was discovered that the evil had 
spread considerably among the rest of the anny. Being fearful that 
they would seize upon the convoy of provisions the general ordered 
Colonel Hamtranack to pursue them with his regiment and f^rce 
them to return. The army now consisted of fourteen hundred ef- 
fective men, and this was the number attacked by Little Turtle and 
his warriors fifteen miles from the Miami villages. Colonel Butler 
commanded the right wing and Colonel Drake the left. The militia 
were posted a cjuarter of a mile in advance and were encamped in 


two lines. The troops had not finished securing- their baggage when 
they were attacked in their camp. It was their intention to march 
immediately upon the Miami villages and destroy them. The sav- 
ag:es being apprised of this acted with great wisdom and firmness. 
They fell upon the militia before sunrise November 4th. The latter 
at once fled into the main camp in the most disorderly manner, many 
of them having thrown away their guns were pursued and slaugh- 

"At the main camp the first was sustained some time by the 
g"reat exertion of the officers, but with great inequality, the Indians 
under Little Turtle amounting to fifteen hundred warriors. Colo- 
nels Drake, Butler and Major Clarke made several successful 
charg'es. which enabled them to save some of their number by check- 
ing the enemy until flight was more practicable. Of the Americans 
five hundred and ninety-three were killed and missing, besides 
thirty-eight officers, two hundred and forty-two soldiers and twenty- 
one officers were wounded, many of whom died. Colonel Butler was 
among the slain. The account of his fall is shocking. He was se- 
verely wounded and left on the field. The well known and infa- 
mous Simon Girty came up to him and observed him writhing un- 
der the severe pains from his wounds. Girty knew and spoke to 
him. Knowing that he could not live, the colonel begged of him to 
put an end to his misery. This Girty refused to do, but turned to 
an Indian and told him that the officer was the commander of the 
army, upon which the Indian drove his tomahawk into the colonel's 
head. A number of others came aniund, and after taking off his 
scalp they took out his heart and cut it into as many pieces as there 
were tribes in the action and divided it anmng them. All manner 
of brutal acts were committed on the bodies of the slain. It need 
not be mentioned, for the observers of Indian affairs know that 
land was the main cause of this as well as all other wars between 


the Indians and the whites, and hence it was easy to account for the 
Indians filHng the mouths of the slain with earth after this battle. 
It was actually the case, as reported by those who visited the scene 
of action and buried the dead. 


"General St. Clair was called to account for this disastrous 
campaign and was honorably acquitted. He published a narrative in 
vindation of his conduct, which at this day few will think required. 
What he says of his retreat we will give in his own words: 'The 
retreat, you may be sure, was a precipitate one. It was, in fact, a 
flight. The camp and the artillery were abandoned, but that was 
unavoidable, for not a horse was left to draw it off had it otherwise 
been practicable. But the most disgraceful part of the business is 
that the greatest part of the men threw away their amis and ac- 
coutrements even after the pursuit, which continued about four 
miles, had ceased. I found the road strewn with them for many 
miles, but was unable to remedy it, for, ha\-ing had all my horses 
killed and being- mounted upon one that could not be pricked out 
of a walk, I could not get forward myself, and the orders I sent 
forward either to halt the front or prevent the men from parting 
\\ith their arms were unattended to. The remnant of the anny ar- 
rived at Fort Jefferson the same day just before sunset, the place 
from whence they fled being twenty-nine miles distant.' General 
St. Clair did eveiything that a brave general could do. He ex- 
posed himself to every danger, having during the action eight bul- 
lets shot through his clothes. In no attack on record did the In- 
dians discover greater bravery or determination. After giving the 
first fire they rushed forward with towahawk in hand. Their loss 
was inconsiderable, but the traders afterwards learned among them 


that Little Turtle had one huii(h-ed and fifty killed and many 
wounded. They rushed on the artillery, heedless oi their fire, and 
took two pieces in an instant. They were again retaken by the 
troops, and whenever the army charged them they were seen to give 
way, and advanced again as soon as they began to retreat. Six or 
eight pieces of artillery fell into their hands, with about four hun- 
dred horses, all the baggage, ammunition and provisions. 


"This terrible defeat disappointed the expectations of the gen- 
eral government, alarmed the frontier inhabitants, checked the tide 
of emigration from the eastern and middle states and many fearful, 
frightful and horrible murders were committed upon white settlers. 
St. Clair resigned the office of major general and Anthony Wayne, 
a distinguished officer of the Revolutionaiy war, was appointed in 
his place. In the month of June, 1792, he arrived at Pittsburg, the 
appointed place of rendezvous. On the 28th of November. 1792. 
the army left Pittsburg and moved down the Ohio about twenty 
miles to a point called Legionville, where they remained until April 
30, 1793, and then moved down the river to Fort Washington (Cin- 
cinnati) and encamped near the fort at a place called Hobson's 
Choice. They were kept here until the 7th of October, and on the 
23d of the same month they arrived at Fort Jefferson with an effect- 
ive force of three thousand six hundred and thirty men. together 
with a small number of friendly Indians froni the South. On the 
8th of August, 1794, they arri\-ed at the confluence of the rivers 
Auglaize and Maumee, where they built Fort Defiance. It was the 
general's design to have met the enemy unprepared in this move, 
but a fellow deserted his camp and notified the Indians. He now 
tried again to bring them to a reconciliation, and so artful were the 


replies he received from them it was some time revohed in his mind 
whether they were for peace or war. At length, being fully satisfied, 
he marched down the INIaumee and arrived at the rapids on the i8th 
of August, two days before the battle. His army consisted of three 
thousand men, two thousand of whom were regulars. Fort De- 
posit was erected at this place for the security of the supplies. They 
now set out to meet the enemy, who had chosen their position on 
the banks of the river with much judgment. The troops had a 
breastwork of fallen trees in front and the high, rocky shore gave 
them much security, as also did the thick woods of Presque Isle. 
The force was divided and disposed at supporting distances for 
about two miles. When the -\mericans had arrived at a proper dis- 
tance a body was sent out to begin the attack with orders to rouse 
the enemy from the covert at the point of the bayonet, and when up 
to deliver a close fire upon their backs and press them so hard as not 
to give them time to reload. This order was so well executed, and 
the battle at the point of attack so short, that only about nine hun- 
dred Americans participated in it. But they pursued the Indians 
with great slaughter through the woods to Fort Maumee, where the 
carnage ended. The Indians were so unexpectedly driven from 
their stronghold that their ntmibers only increased their distress 
and confusion, and the cavalr\- made horrible havoc among them 
with their long sabers. Of the Americans there were killed and 
wounded about one hundred and thirtj-. The loss of the Indians 
could not be ascertained, but must have been ven,'^ severe. The 
-\merican loss was chieflj- at the commencement of the action as 
they advanced upon the mouths of the Indian rifles. They main- 
tained their coverts but a short time, being forced in ever}' direction 
by the bayonets. But until that was effected the Americans fell fast 
and we only wonder that men could be found to thus advance in the 
face of certain death. It has been generally said that had the ad- 


vice of Little Turtle been regarded the disastrous fight with Gen- 
eral Wayne would not ha\-e occurred. He was not for fighting Gen- 
eral ^^'ayne at Presque Isle, and rather inclined to peace than fight- 
ing him at all. In a council held the night liefore the battle he ar- 
gued : 'We ha^■e beaten the enemy twice under separate command- 
ers. ^^'e cannot expect the same good fortune to always attend us. 
The Americans are now led by a chief who never sleeps: the night 
and the day are alike to him, and during all the time he has been 
marching on our villages, notwithstanding the watchfulness of our 
}oung men. they have never been able to surprise him. Think well 
of it. There is something whispers to me it would be well to listen 
to his offer of peace.' For using such language he was reproached 
by another chief with cowardice, which put an end to further dis- 
course. Xothing wounds the feelings of a warrior like the reproach 
of cowardice, but Little Turtle stifled his resentment, did his duty 
in battle, and its issue proved him a truer prophet than his accuser 

wayxe's victory. 

General A\'ayne's victor}' broke the ix)wer of the iliamis. but 
they were not conquered, and were yet hostile to the invading whites. 
The government adopted a policy of conciliation, hoping to win 
them to friendship and peace. The government built Little Turtle 
a house upon Eel ri\er. twenty miles from Fort A\^ayne, to induce 
the other :\Iiamis to a like mode of life by their own exertions, but 
because they had to work for their homes and he had been given 
his they became envious and thus prejudiced the cause sought to 
be advanced and engendered hatred of Little Turtle by the other 
Indians. He was not a chief by birth, but had been raised to that 
position by his superior talents. This was a cause of much jealousy 
and en\-y at this time, as also a neglect of his counsel heretofore. 


Drake says that Little Turtle was the son of a Miami chief by a 
]\Iohegan woman. As the Indian maxim with regard to descents 
is precisely that of the civil law in relation to slaves, that the con- 
dition of the woman adheres to the offspring, he was not a chief 
by birth. Little Turtle died in the summer of 1812 at his home 
but a short time after the declaration of war against England by 
the United States. His portrait by Stewart graces the walls of the 
war ofifice of our nation. The following notice appeared in public 
prints at the time of his death at Fort Wayne in July. 1812 : "On 
the 14th inst. the celebrated Miami chief, Little Turtle, died at this 
place at the age of sixty-five years. Perhaps there is not left on 
this continent one so distinguished in councils and war. His disor- 
der was the gout. He died in camp because he chose to be in the 
open air. He met death with great firmness. The agent for Indian 
affairs had him buried with the honors of war and other marks of 
distinction suitable to his character. He was generally in his time 
styled the Messissago Chief, and a gentleman who saw him soon 
after St. Clair's defeat says he was six feet high, about forty-five 
years of age, of a ver\- sour and morose countenance and apparently 
very ci-afty and subtle. He was alike courageous and humane, pos- 
sessing great wisdom." The author before quoted says: "There 
have been few indi\-iduals among aborigines who have done so much 
to abolish the rites of human sacrifice. The grave of this noted 
warrior is shown to the visitor near Fort ^^'ayne. It is frequently 
visited by the Indians in that part of the countiy. by whom his 
memorv' is cherished with the greatest respect and veneration." 


Soon after General \A'a}-ne's victoiy the treaty of Greenville 
in 1795 followed. In that and subsequent treaties the government 
obtained large bodies of their lands. The Indian policy of the gov- 


emment was to purchase their lands, excepting what they them- 
selves would cultivate, to lead them to agriculture instead of war 
and hunting, and to remove them west of the Mississippi as soon as 
it could be peacefully and justly done. 

In the War of 1812 they again fought the United States and 
were whipped by the forces under Lieutenant Colonel Campbell on 
the 1 8th day of December, 18 12, in the southern part of what is now 
Wabash county, being the last battle of any note with the Miamis 
in this region. The expedition against them was resolved upon by 
General Harrison in November, 181 2. Six hundred mounted men 
and a small company of scouts and spies were accordingly sent out 
from Greenville, Ohio, in December under Lieutenant Colonel John 
B. Campbell, who reached the north bank of the Mississinewa, near 
the mouth of Josina creek, December 17, 1812, and surprised an 
Lidian village there, destroying it, killing eight warriors and taking 
forty-two prisoners. The troops then destroyed three other villages 
farther west on the river and encamped for the night. While hold- 
ing a council of war on the morning of the i8th they were attacked 
by the Indians under Little Thunder in considerable force. The 
fight lasted about an hour, and the Indians were defeated, leaving 
fifteen dead upon the field and carrying many away in their retreat. 

A portion of the tribe were then friendly to the United States, 
but they could not control the hostile portion. In 1818 a treaty 
was made with them, and again another on the north side of the 
Wabash river, just east of the city of Wabash, on the 26th day of 
October, 1826, by General John Tipton, then Indian agent, assisted 
by General Cass and James B. Ray. The place was called "Para- 
dise Springs." 


The tribe which under Little Turtle had sent fifteen hundred 
warriors to the field had dwindled down in 1822 to between two 


thousand and three tliousand people all told. They had acquired 
a bunimg desire for liquor, and drunkenness led to innumerable 
fights among the members of the tribe, and it is estimated that as 
many as five hundred were killed in eighteen years in these broils. 
In the treaty of October, 1826, the Indians gave up large quantities 
of land, but resented some valuable tracts, among which was a res- 
ervation beginning two and a half miles below the mouth of the 
Mississinewa, extending five miles up and along the Wabash, and 
north to the Eel river, including the present site of Peru, Indiana. 
In payment for this they received thirty-one thousand dollars in 
goods and thirty thousand dollars in cash immediately and twenty- 
six thousand dollars in goods and thirty-five thousand dollars in cash 
in 1827, thirty thousand dollars in 1828 and twenty-five thousand 
dollars annually thereafter. In 1838 the Miamis numbered but 
ele\'en hundred, and in this year they sold to the go\-ernment one 
hundred and seventy-seven thousand acres of land in Indiana for 
three hundred and thirty-fi\'e thousand six hundred and eighty dol- 
lars, among- which was a seven-mile tract off of the west side of the 
"Resen-e" in what is now Cass, Howard and Clinton counties, 
which was transferred by the United States to the state of Indiana 
and by it the proceeds were used for the completion of the \\'abas]i 
and Erie canal from the mouth of the Tippecanoe river down. Pre- 
vious to this a five-mile strip oft' of the north side of the "Resen-e" 
and on the south side of the ^^'abash ri\-er had been used in the same 
way to build the same canal down to the mouth of the Tippecanoe 
river, ^^'illiam Marshall, of Jackson county, Indiana, helped nego- 
tiate with the Miamis the treaty of November 28, 1840, at the "forks 
of the Wabash," in which they finally relinquished the tract known 
as the "Miami Resene," being all of their remaining land in In- 
diana, to the United States for the consideration of five hundred 
and fiftv thousand dollars and several smaller items, such as reser- 


vations, houses for their chiefs, etc. Tliree of these reservations 
He in Howard county. Previous to tliis, in 1834-1845, the Wea 
and Piankeshaw bands, three hundred and eighty-four in number, 
had moved to the south side of the Kansas river. By the treaty of 
1840 the remainder agreed to remove at the expense of the United 
States in five years, but their departure was delayed until 1847, i" 
which year they were removed to the Marais des Cygnes, in the Fort 
Leavenworth agency. They were gathered to Peru for removal, 
and from there they were taken to Cincinnati and thence to their 
new home in the West beyond the Mississippi. Not all of the Mi- 
amis went. Many of them had renounced their tribal relations and 
elected to remain with their white brothers and to receive their in- 
terest on money held for them by the government through the spe- 
cial Indian agency at Peru. In 1875 there was disbursed at Peru 
twelve thousand dollars interest money. Some of these Indians 
own large fanns, well improved and with fine residences. Rich- 
ardville was the successor of Little Turtle as the INIiami chief. His 
other name was Pee-jee-wah. He signed by his mark ( X ) the treaty 
of Greenville in August, 1795. From him Howard county was orig- 
inally named Richardville county. 

From the treaty at Greenville in 1795 the Miamis had contin- 
ued to yield by purchase portions of their territory until 1838 only 
a part of the Miami reserve remained to them of that princely do- 
main they once claimed as theirs. The Miami Indian reseiwe was 
originally thirty-six miles square, commencing- near the town of 
La Gro, on the Wabash, where the Salamonie; unites with the Wa- 
bash, numing thence through Wabash and Grant counties into Mad- 
ison county: its southeast comer was about four miles southeast 
of Independence at the center of section 27, thence running south 
of west parallel with the general course of the \\'abash ri\-er across 
Tipton county and thrnugh tlie town of Tipton and crossing the west 

48 morrow's history 

line of Tipton county about three miles from its southwest corner 
to where it intersects a line running north and south from Logans- 
port, which is the western boundaiy of Howard coiuity, one mile 
west of rang-e line No. i east; thence north to Logansport ; thence 
up the Wabash to the mouth o'f the Salamonie, then embracing parts 
of Wabash, Grant, Madison, Tipton, Clinton, Cass and Miami coun- 
ties, and all of Richardville (now Howard) county, and containing 
about eight hundred and thirty thousand acres. 


The IMiami Indian population of Howard county in 1S40 was 
about two hundred. The most important point of this population 
was the Indian village, Kokomo, on the south side of Wildcat, 
where South Kokomo is located. There were Indian villages south 
of Cassville and Greentown. There were "traces" or Indian paths 
from Kokomo down Wildcat and across to Frankfort and Thorn- 
town ; from Kokomo to Peru by way of the \-illage of Cassville, and 
from Kokomo to Meshingomesia by way of a village south of Green- 
town. These paths were much used and well worn. It is said that 
Chief Pee-jee-wah, or Richardville, had four sons — Kokomoko, 
shortened to Kokomo (Black Walnut), Shock-o-mo (Poplar), Me- 
shin-go-me-sia (Burr Oak), Shap-pan-do-sia (Sugar Tree). 

Kokomoko, from whom the city of Kokomo was named, is 
said to have been bom alxiut 1775. and according to the most au- 
thentic reports he died in 1838. He was a strong and silent man, 
'who left to the women and his three brothers the trading so com- 
mon to the Miamis. He died in loneliness and was buried according 
to the customs of his people, although directed by white men. 
His remains now lie buried in the old cemeterv- at Kokomo. 

\\'ith the deportation of the Miamis in 1847 Indian life may 


be said tu have closed in tliis countn-, for while many Indians of 
that tribe remained, they adopted the manners, customs and style 
of living of the whites. It is proper and fitting" to close this chapter 
with a brief account of their government, customs and laws, as of a 
people whose work is done and whose history is of the past. 


They were emphaticalh' a free people. Their government was 
democratic. Having no written language, they had no written laws 
defining their rights and duties, but they had usages and customs 
consented to and acquiesced in by the members of the tribe. No 
man's property or consent could be commanded except by his con- 
sent. War could not be declared nor peace concluded only through 
their ctnincils, in which women participated as well as men. They 
had no organized form of government. They had no officers chosen 
to enforce their unwritten laws. They had no courts of justice to 
right the wrongs done to each other or to mete out justice to the 
offender. There were certain customs and usages consented to 
and acquiesced in, granting to the party injured or his relatives re- 
dress for the wrong, but that redress was not afforded by govern- 
mental aid. If one stole from another the party aggrieved might by 
force or otherwise take twofold from the thief. Bancroft says: 
"Unconscious of political principles, they remained under the in- 
fluence of instincts. Their forms of government grew out of their 
passions and wants and were therefore nearly the same. Without 
a code of laws, without a distinct recognition of succession in the 
magistracy by inheritance or election, government was conducted 
harmoniously by the influence of native genius, virtue and experi- 
ence. Prohibitor}' laws were hardly sanctioned by savage opinion. 
The wild man hates restraint and loves to do what is right in his 
own eyes." 



"The Illinois." writes IMarest, "are absolute masters of them- 
selves, subject to no law." The Delawares. it was said, "are. in 
general, wholly unacquainted with civil laws and proceedings, nor 
have any kind of notion of civil judicatures, of persons being ar- 
raigned and tried, condemned or acquitted." As there was no com- 
merce, m;) coin, no promissoi-y notes, no employment of others for 
hire, there were no contracts. Exchanges were but a reciprocity of 
presents, and mutual g'ifts were the only traffic. Arrests and pris- 
oners, lawyers and sheriffs were unknown. Each man was his own 
protector, and. as there was no public justice, each man issued to 
himself his letters of reprisal and became his own avenger. In case 
of death by violence the departed shade could not rest till appeased 
by a retaliation. "His kindred would go a thousand miles for the 
puqjose of revenge, over hills and mountains, through large swamps 
full of grapevines and briars, over broad lakes, rapid rivers and deep 
creeks, and all the way in danger of poisonous snakes, exposed to 
the extremes of heat and cold, to hung-er and thirst. And blood be- 
ing once shed, the reciprocity of attacks involved family in mortal 
strife against family, tribe against tribe, often continuing from gen- 
eration to generation. Yet mercy could make itself heard, even 
among barbarians, and peace was restored by atoning presents, if 
they were enough to cover up the graves of the dead." 

A tribe of Indians is a body of kindred, subdivided into the 
clan, the gens and the family. The gens constituted an organized 
band of relatives, the family the household. The name of the mother 
fiillows the children and fixes the line of kinship. If her father 
was a chief her son inherits the honor. In their domestic relations 
she is the head of the family and through her blood all property, 
political and personal rights, must descend. If she was a "Turtle" the 
name of all her children is "Turtle." and they are known as the Tur- 
tle gens, clan or famih'. .\n Indian man or woman may marrv a 


cousin on the father's side, but not on the mother's. The father, 
though a chief and crowned with a hundred victories, though he has 
Hned his wigwam, with the scalps of enemies, cannot cast upon his 
kin his property, his fame or name, and though he be Wolf, Beaver, 
Bear or Hare, the children are all "Turtle." Big, Black or Little 
"Turtle," as fancy may direct. It is not the province of the his- 
torian to say that the Indian rule as here set out is wrong and that 
the civilized rule is right. The Indian rule is certainly veiw close 
to nature. 


.\ man seeking a wife usuall}' cnnsults her mother, sometimes 
b_\- himself, sometimes through his mother. AMien agreed upon the 
parties usually comply, making promises of faithfulness to the par- 
ents of both. Polygamy was permitted but was practiced ^•er}• lit- 
tle. AA'ife Xo. I remained at the head of the family, while wife No. 
2 l)ecame the sen-ant. Divorces are pennitted but do not often oc- 
cur. The Indian's idea of marriage and divorce is well illustrated 
bv this anecdote: "An aged Indian, who for many years had spent 
much time 'in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, one day, about the 
year 1770. obsen-ed that the Indians had a much easier way of get- 
ting a wife than the whites, but also a more certain way of getting 
a good one. 'For,' said he, 'white man court — court maybe one 
whule year, maybe two years before he marry. \\'ell — maybe then 
be get a very good wife, but maybe not; maybe very cross. \\'ell, 
now, su]3pi>se cross. Scold so soon as get awake in the morning. 
Scold all day. Scold until sleep. All one — he must keep him. 
\\'hite ]>enple ha\e laws forbidding throw wife away, he be ever 
so — must keep him alwa}-s. WeU. how does Indian do? In- 
dian, when he sees industrious squaw, he go to him, place his two 
forefingers close aside each other, make two like one — then look 


squaw in the face. See him smile; this is all one. He say yes. 
So take him home — no danger he be cross. Xo, no; squaw know 
too well what Indian do if he cross. Throw him away and take 
another. Squaw love to eat meat : no husband no meat. Squaw do 
everything to please husband, he do everj-thing to please squaw — 
live happy." " 


The council of the tribe assigns to the gens a particular tract 
of land for cultivation. The woman council carefully divides and 
distributes that tract of land among the heads of the families, who 
are responsible for its cultivation. The crops are planted, culti- 
vated and gathered by the squaws. The wigwam and all articles 
of the household belong to the woman and at her death descend to 
her eldest daughter or nearest of female kin. In their criminal code 
adultery is punished in the first offense by cropping the hair, re- 
peated offenses by cutting the left ear. If the mother fails to in- 
flict the penalty it is done by the council of women of the gens. 
Theft is punished by twofold restitution. It is tried by the coun- 
cil of gens, from which there is no appeal. ]\Iaiming is compounded 
and tried in the same wa}-. Murder is triable by the gens, but an 
appeal lies to the council of the tribes ; technical errors in the prose- 
cution are proofs positive of defendant's innocence; if found guilty 
the friends of the accused must pay for the dead man, and on fail- 
ure to do so the friends of the dead man may kill the murderer at 
pleasure, ^\'itchcraft is punishable by death, by tomahawking, stab- 
bing or burning ; an appeal lies from the grand council of the trilje 
to the holy ordeal by fire. A circular fire is built, and if the ac- 
cused can nm through it from east to west and from north to south 
without injur)^ he is adjudged innocent. Treason is punished with 
death and consists in first giving aid or comfort to enemies of the 
tribe, secondly in revealing the secrets of the medicine men. 


Each tribe had a sachem or chief counselor in matters of peace, 
whose place was filled on his death by the election of another mem- 
ber of his family, usually his brother or his sister's son. Women as 
well as men \-oted at these elections. In times of war or other emer- 
g'encies chiefs were chosen, who continued in office as long as they 
lived. Being chosen for personal qualities, such as wisdom, elo- 
quence or braveiy, these chiefs were often very able men. 

The sorcerers, called powwows or medicine men, had still 
greater power, owing to the superstition of the people. They really 
had some skill in healing sick persons by vapor baths and decoctions 
of roots and herbs, but to these rational remedies they added bowl- 
ings and incantations, which were supposed to frighten away the 
evil spirits that occasioned disease. 


According to the dark notions of barbarians the Indians were 
a very religious people. The}- believed in a Great Spirit, the Master 
of Life, who had made the world, and whose bounty they celebrated 
by six annual thangsgivings — at the first flowing of maple sap, at 
planting, at the ripening of berries, when their green com was ready 
for eating, at haiwest and at New Year. They believed also in an 
evil spirit, who might bring upon them famine, pestilence or defeat 
in war, and whom they sought to appease by fastings and sacrifice. 
They expected another life after death, and desired to have their 
weapons, and sometimes a favorite dog, buried with them for use 
in the "happy hunting grounds." No matter how great the fam- 
ine in the land, they provided the departed spirit with plenty of food 
ti) last it until its arrival at that bourne. Their heaven was limitless 
])lains and lx)undless forests abounding in game of all sorts and 
flowing ri\-ers stocked with all manner of fish — a place where the 


imperfect conditions of this life for happiness would be perfect. 
They had no priesthood nor ceremonials of worship. As illustrating 
their religious ideas it is related that "In the year 1791 two Creek 
chiefs accompanied an American to England, where, as usual, they 
attracted great attention and many flocked around them, as well to 
ascertain their ideas of certain things as to behold the savages. Be- 
ing asked their opinion of religion or of what religion they were, 
one made answer that they had no priest in their country, nor estab- 
lished religion, for they thought that upon a subject where there 
was no possibility of people agreeing in opinion, and as it was al- 
together a matter of opinion, it was best that every one should pad- 
dle his canoe in his own way." Dancing and singing were impor- 
tant parts of ever\^ religious observance. No sick person could be 
cured, no war planned and no treaty made without a dance, which 
oftai continued several days. Their musical instruments were 
drums, rattles and a nide kind of fliute. The war dance was com- 
mon to all tribes, but each clan had peculiar dances of its own, some- 
times numbering thirty or more. 


Though they had neither books nor writing, some Indian tribes 
practiced picture writing, which answered all their purposes. They 
had even a sort of musical notation, by which a leader could read 
off his song from a piece of birch bark marked with a stick. Beads 
made of shells or stone served them as money. Communion was the 
social law of the Indian race. In some of the "long houses" of the 
Iroquois twenty families were fed dail)^ from the common kettle of 
boiled com and beans. Hunters left their game to be carried home 
by other members of their clan while thev pushed on for fresh 


The Indians were of an almost uniform dark brown color, with 
straight shining black hair and high cheek bones. With but few 
exceptions they were treacherous, cruel and revengeful. Often hos- 
pitable and friendly while at peace, they were merciless and brutal 
in war. Prisoners were tortured with fiendish barbarity. It was 
thought an ill omen for the conquerors if they failed to make their 
victims cry out with pain ; therefore, though they tore out bits of 
flesh with teeth or pincers night after night and at last roasted him 
in a slow fire, he continued to sing his death song with a calm, un- 
wavering voice until his last breath released him from their 


Howard county was organized in 1844. For three years it 
was known as Richardville county in memory of the Miami Indian, 
Chief Richardville, the successor of Little Turtle. 

The covinty was fomied wholly out of the Miami Indian Re- 
serve. Ervin, Monroe and Honey Creek townships were a part of 
the seven mile strip sold off of the west side of the reseiwe and given 
by the government to the state of Indiana to use the proceeds of the 
sale of these lands for the completion of the Wabash and Erie canal. 
After the Indians had sold this strip, Ervin and Monroe townships 
had been annexed to Carroll county, which had been organized in 
1828, and Honey Creek had been annexed to Clinton county, which 
had been organized about 1830. The remainder of the county was 
formed from their final sale of the "Reserve" in 1840 and on which 
the Indians were granted five years to give possession. The white 
man had possession of the territory surrounding the "Reser\e" ; he 
was anxious to move into the new possessions. It was to tlie in- 

56 morrow's history 

coming tide of settlers a real "Promised Land". The Indians had 
chosen it from all their possessions as being the choice. It was a 
goodly land. It originally contained the choice lands from the 
Wabash southwards, along Big and Little Deer creeks, along Big 
and Little Wild Cats and tributaries and along Kokomo creek. 
While it was an almost unbroken forest, the trees were tall and 
stately, denoting a rich and productive soil. It is true that those 
early comers did not see in the giant poplar, walnut, ash and oak 
trees the wealth that a later generation would ha^•e found. In those 
vast sugar orchards they saw an obstruction to the use of the land 
as cultivated fields ; but in the rolling lands along the creeks they saw 
golden opportunities to make pleasant, comfortable homes. 


To prepare this land for settlement as soon as the Indians 
should go, an act was passed by the legislature and approved Janu- 
aiy 15, 1844, to organize the county of Richardville. In the form- 
ing of Richardville county only Ervin and ]\Ionroe townships west 
of the boundary line were added to the county. Honey Creek town- 
ship was not made a part until several years later. John jNIoulder, 
then of Parke county, Himelias Mendenhall, of Miami county. John 
Armstrong, of Carroll county, Oliver Raymond, of \\'abash caunty. 
and Samuel Calip, of Hamilton county, were appointed commission- 
ers to permanently fix the seat of justice; and these commissioners 
were instructed to meet at the house of John Harrison in this 
county on the 2d Monday in ]\Iay, 1844, to proceed with their duty. 
And it was ordered by that act that on and after the ist day of May 
of that year, the county of Richard\ille should enjoy all the rights 
and jurisdiction which to a separate county belong. It was made 
the dutv of the sheriff of Carroll countv to notifv the commissioners 


of their appointment and place of meeting. By this act the circuit 
and other courts of RichardviUe county were ordered to l)e held at 
the house of John Harrison until other accommodations should 
be provided. The circuit court was ordered to be held on Thursday 
succeeding the court of Tipton county, and "shall continue three 
days if the business require it." Also by that act RichardviUe was 
attached to Carroll county for representative purposes, and to Car- 
roll and Clinton for senatorial purposes. The house of John Harri- 
son referred to in the act was about seven miles west of Kokomo, on 
the south side of A\'ild Cat creek, in the northwest quarter of section 
2. It was a double log house, and the largest in this settlement. 

The commissioners appointed to fix the county seat met at the 
time and place fixed in their order. All were present. Mr. Arm- 
strong was a surv'eyor and had his instruments with him. There 
was a large gathering of pioneers at Harrison's. Some of them 
wanted the site of the county town at Harrison's, others at Crom- 
well's mill, about two miles east, but a large majority favored the 
site at Kokomo. The commissioners viewed the sites at Harrison's 
and Cromwell's mill and then came to Kokomo. 


There was then no improvements at Kokomo except Dax'id 
Foster's log house, log barn and a small clearing around them. On 
the south side there were two or three Indian huts and a small field. 
\\'hat is now the business district of Kokomo was covered with a 
dense furest i)f great trees and a thick undergrowth, the greater part 
being swampy, presenting a very uninviting appearance. 

The commissioners examined both sides of \\'ild Cat and 
unanimciusly decided that the south side should be .selected. Foster 
refused t(i make the dimatiim on the snuth side, alleging, it is said, 


that the south side was dry and very fertile and well suited for the 
making- of a good farm, while the north side was swampy, hard to 
clear and not \-ery fit for a farm. The commissioners remained 
with him two days trying* to induce him to yield to their choice. He 
was obdurate and the commissioners finally agreed to the site on the 
north side. His donation was forty acres. The donation as made 
by Foster and accepted by the commissioners began at the northwest 
corner of the LaFountain Reserve, thence east with the north line of 
the Resen-e to the west side of Union street, thence south along 
the west side of Union street to a point about seventy-four feet south 
of High street, thence west to a point abi^ut one hundred feet west 
of Washington street, thence north to the beginning. By agree- 
ment the rude fence on the north line of the cleared "patch" about 
the house and bam was to be the south line of the donation, and the 
north line of the float section was to be the north line of the dona- 
tion. Looked at from a present day standpoint this was a magnifi- 
cent donation. In that early day it was far different. Xo lands 
had been surve}'ed east of the boundary line except the Indian Re- 
serve, of which this was a part. The time of the Indians had not 
then expired and they were still in the neig'hborhood. Lands were 
rated as worth two dollars an acre. 

In addition to the donation of land, Foster paid the expenses of 
the locating commissioners. They made their report to the county 
commissioners in called session on the 17th day of August follow- 
ing recommending the acceptance of the Foster donation. The 
county commissioners formally accepted the report, and David Fos- 
ter delivered the deed to the land December 5th following. 


The first election held in any part of what is now Howard 
county was in the presidential election of 1840. The voting precinct 


was at the house of John Harrison and included all the voters in 
that part then attached to Carroll county. Twenty-four \-otes were 
cast and resulted in a tie; twelve Democrat and twelve Whig votes. 
The first election under the count)' organization was held May 27, 
1844, at which the following county officers were chosen: clerk, 
Franklin S. Price; auditor, Benjamin Newhouse; recorder, Austin 
North; treasurer, Harless Ashley; sheriff, John Harrison; county 
commissioners, John Lamb, Benjamin Fawcett and David Bailey. 

The county commissioners held their first meeting June 17th, 
following their election, meeting at the home of John Harrison. At 
this session they divided the county into three townships ; the west 
one being Monroe and including all west of the boundary line, the 
middle one Kokomo, extending from the boundary line east to a 
line running north and south through or near Vermont and all the 
remainder formed Greene township. Little else was done at this 

The regular session, meeting on the ist ]\Ionday in September, 
was held at David Foster's. At this term Peter Gay was appointed 
county agent and Austin C. Sheets, county sur\-eyor, who was 
directed to plat the donation into town lots and thus to make the 
beginning of Kokomo. The other sulxirdinate officers were ap- 
pointed so that the local government was ready for the county. The 
first tax levy was also made, consisting of twenty-five cents on each 
one hundred dollars valuation and twenty-five cents poll tax. 

At the December term, 1844, the board ordered an election to 
be held in each of the three townships on the 3d Monday in Janu- 
ary, 1845, to elect a justice of the peace for each township. At this 
tenn they granted the first retail liquor license to Charles J. Allison. 
His license fee was ten dollars. In the succeeding year the com- 
missioners raised the fee to fifty dollars. Mr. Allison was the first 
licensed retail liquor seller in Howard county; he was also tlie first 

6o morrow's history 

liquiir law violator, ha\-ing been indicted for \-iolating the license 
law while holding this first license. At the September term Charles 
Price had been appointed county assessor: and at this term he was 
allowed thirty-four dollars and fifty cents for his services in mak- 
ing the assessment for the whole county. At this term the com- 
missioners acted upon the first road report. During the early his- 
tory of the county much of the time of the board of commissioners 
was taken up in ordering the location of roads or public highways, 
and in hearing reports of such roads as were located. As showing 
the lack of accuracy and permanency of much of the work then done, 
a few of these reports are here transcribed. The first report was 
made by Isaac Price, Jonathan Hayworth and J. C. Barnett. viewers : 
"In pursuance of the order of the board, we have viewed and laid 
out a road of public utility, to-wit : Beginning at the fi:)rks of 
Honey Creek, and running the nearest and best route in the direc- 
tion of Peter Duncan's ta\-ern, on the Michigan road, ending at the 
county line." 


J. C. Barnett and J. C. Chitwood made this report on a road 
they were ordered to view : "We viewed the same, commencing 
near the southwest corner of section 30, in township 24 north of 
range 2 east: thence northeast to the south end of Abraham Bru- 
baker's lane : thence through said lane to the north end of the same ; 
thence northeast to the quarter post between Judge Ervin and \\'il- 
liam Cullup's farms: thence north to Judge En'in's fence: thence 
northeast along said fence to the mouth of Judge Ervin's lane: 
thence through said lane: thence northeast to the northeast corner 
of section 29 and so on, and report the same of public utility." In a 
few years this road was lost and could not be found. Ar.other 
countv road was located bv Rich Staunton and George Tavlor. as 


follows : "Commencing- at Xew London ; tlience with the Delplii 
and Aluncie state road to INlr. Walls' ; thence east via Miles Judkin's 
lane to James Shank's on Little Wild Cat; thence east to Laomi 
Ashle}-'s; thence east to a school house near McCune's." 

It must be remembered that these were the pioneers of a new 
countr}' : that they were very busy in clearing and making farms 
(Hit of the wilderness as well as attending to the public business: and 
that they had enough to do in loijking after the pressing needs of 
the hour without planning f(ir the future. 

At the ]\Iarch term, 1845. '^lis board took preliminary steps f(ir 
the building (if a court house. Thej' decided that it should be 
twent_\--four feet square, two stories high, and built out (jf hewn 
logs, and covered with boards three feet long and showing one foot 
to the weather. Da\i(l Foster and Dennis McCormack were ap- 
pcjinted to let the contract, which \\-as taken by Rufus L. Blower 
at t\vent_\--eight dollars. 

-Vrrangements also were c<immenced for the building of a jail. 
This was luiilt of hewn timl^ers twe1\-e inches square throughout, 
walls, rtcior and ceiling; the logs notched down close and boarded 
on the outside, and double doors of two-inch oak plank. The lock 
to the door was made by Judge Thomas A. Long; the key was 
aljout ten inches long and weighed about four pounds. The build- 
ing was to be eighteen feet b}' tweh-e feet in the clear. 

At this session the report of T. A. Long, one of the commis- 
sioners appointed by the legislature to view a state road from Burl- 
ington, in Carroll county, by the way of Kokomo to Marion, in 
(".rant county, was made to the board, this being the first state road 
through the county. 

Alost of the time of the board was taken up in making orders 
directing various officers and other persons to perform certain ser- 
vices for the public good, and in appointing various petit officers in 

62 morrow's history 

the townships where the rapidly increasing settlement of the country 
seemed to demand it, and the looking after pubHc property as is 
evidenced by this order: "It appearing to the satisfaction of this 
court that H. C. Stewart has taken eight pieces of plank from the 
court house, and that others have done the same, it is ordered that 
David Foster be requested to call on all such persons as have taken 
lumber and require them to return it in fifteen days." 

It was no unusual thing in those days for persons to use any 
lumber lying around loose. Lumber was very scarce and in great 
demand in fitting up houses to live in, and only one slow going saw 
mill in many miles. It seems the lumber was returned as there is no 
further mention of it. 

At the September term, two state roads were located : one from 
Kokomo to ]Michiganto\\n and one from Kokomo to Peru. At 
the December term, the court house was accepted of the contractor, 
R. L. Blower, after deducting- two dollars from the contract price 
for some defect in the work. 

At the June term, 1846, Harles Ashley, the first county treas- 
urer, made his first report to the county commissioners, showing the 
receipts and expenditures for the first year of the county: "Re- 
ceived for the year ending June ist, one thousand twenty-one dollars 
and forty-four cents : paid out for the same time nine hundred and 
eighty-four dollars and fifty-one cents ; balance in treasury, thirty- 
six dollars and ninety-three cents." He was paid mie hundred and 
twenty-five dollars and twenty-five cents for his ser\'ices. The as- 
sessed \'aluation of personal property for the }-ear 1846 was sixty 
thousand one hundred and forty-diree dollars, real estate, fifty-eight 
thousand six hundred and ninety-five dollars, total, one hundred 
and eighteen thousand eight hundred and thirty-eight dollars. At 
the same term the lioard recei\'ed the jail of contractor, James H. 
Johnsim. paying him nne hundred and seventy-eight dollars and ten 


cents for its construction. At the December term. 1846, Howard 
county was subdivided into nine townships — Center, En-in, Monroe, 
Clay, Harrison, Taylor, Howard, Jackson and Greene. At this 
term the board appropriated one hundred dollars for the building" 
of a bridge across \\'ild Cat where the New London road crossed it. 


The name Richard\-ille was n()t satisfactory; many advocated 
a change. In the discussions that followed, some advocated the 
union of Richardx'ille and Tipton with the county seat at Sharp.s- 
ville. Others advocated the division of the county and the forma- 
tion of a county out of the western part of Howard and the eastern 
part of Carroll and the count}- seat to be at Burlington : others 
wanted a new name. X. R. Lindsay, a young attorney, was elected 
to the legislature this year and was a staunch friend to Kokomo re- 
maining- the county seat, and at the convening of the legislature in 
Decenilier, 1846, he and John Bohan, C. D. ]Murry and Da\-id Fos- 
ter were present as also were the friends of the other interests. The 
Hon. T. A. Howard, a popular Deniocratic politician, who had 
recently died, had many friends in the legislature who wished to per- 
petuate his memory. The friends of the county and the county seat. 
remaining- the same without change, took advantage of this senti- 
ment and late in the evening a bill was prepared changing the name 
from Richard\-ille to Howard, and the ne.xt morning" upon the as- 
sembling" of the house, one of the friends of Howard, while the other 
parties were still in rooms near the legislature hall preparing bills 
to spring- upon the legislature, arose in his place and offered the fol- 
lowing bill : 

An act to change the nan-ie of Richardville county. 

Section i. Be it enacted bv the General .\sseniljh- of the state 


of Indiana, that the name of the county of Richardville be and tlie 
same is hereby changed to that of Howard. 

Sec. 2. Xothing- in this act contained shall be Sd construed 
as to in any manner affect an}- of tiie rights or habihties of said 
county or any of the citizens thereof, but the said county sliaH be 
entitled, under the name of Howard, to all the rights, and be subject 
t(j all the liabilities the present county of Richardville is entitled or 
liable Ux 

Sec. 3. This act to take eft'ect and be in force from and 
after its passage and it is hereby made the tluty of the secretary of 
state to forward a certified copy of this act to the clerk of the circuit 
court of said county. 

The liill was immediately put upon its passage, quickly taken to 
the other house and passed, taken to the governor and approved and 
the name was Howard before the others knew what was happening. 
It is related that some of the other parties coming in later ar.d call- 
ing up the matter of Richard\ille county, a member arose and called 
the gentleman to order saying — ""there was no such county as Rich- 
ardville in Indiana: there was a county of Howard, but Richard- 
ville, Richardville — that county must be in some other state." A 
good natured laugh was had and after some explanation all seemed 
to be satisfied. 

The act was approved by the Governor, December 28. 1S46, 
and the act was filed with the clerk of the circuit court on the 13th 
of February, 1S47, <'>i'"^l from that date all Inisiness was transacted 
in Howard county. 

COUXTY treasurer's REPORT. 

At the June term, 1847, the county treasurer's repiirt showed, 
receipts one thousand two hundred and ten dollars and seventy-four 


cents, expenditures one thousand one hundred and fifty-three dollars 
and thirty-three cents. The previous year the receipts were one 
thousand twenty-one dollars and forty-four cents and expenditures 
nine hundred and eighty-four dollars and fifty-one cents. For the 
following year, 1848. receipts were two thousand one hundred and 
ninety-seven dollars and eighty-six cents, expenditures one thousand 
six hundred and eighty-five dollars and ninety-seven cents. For the 
year 1849, receipts were two thousand eight hundred and ninety-two 
dollars and three cents, and expenditures two thousand four hun- 
dred and fifty dollars and fifty-six cents. For the year 1849 the 
assessed valuation of property was one hundred and forty-eight 
thousand three hundred and ninety dollars. The assessed valua- 
tion in 1846 was one hundred and eighteen thousand eight hundred 
and thirty-eight dollars. 

These figures show a veiy gradual increase in Howard county 
values. It must, however, be borne in mind that the people who 
came to Howard county to make homes were of very limited means 
when they came here and any increase must come from the ground 
by their labor; that this land was covered with heavy forests that 
had to be largely cleared away before growing a crop. While clear- 
ing their lands they did well to provide themselves with food and 
clothing. The privation and hardships endured by them can not be 
realized by those who have never gone through similar experience. 
These men of limited means and opportunity for anything but hard 
work had 'all the public business to attend to in addition to making 
their clearings and paying for their lands when the time came for 
making the entries. They also came from different localities, each 
having a method of its own for transacting business, many of them 
without experience. Thus it is not a matter of wonder that much 
of their public work was crude and imperfect and without any regu- 
lar form. Experience in their case proved a good teacher, and they 


66 morrow's history 

soon acquired habits of correct and regular transaction of the pubHc 
business. It is said of the officers of these early years of the county, 
that they were not controlled by rings nor special interests ; that 
they put forth their best efiforts to serve the people. In 1853 Greene 
and Jackson townships were subdivided into three townships — Lib- 
erty, Jackson and Union, and in 1858 Samuel \\'oody and Elijah 
Johnson presented a petition of several citizens of Clinton county 
asking to be annexed to Howard county. Earl}^ in 1859 the fonnal 
proceedings were completed and Honey Creek township was added 
to the roll of Howard county townships, making, as it has since re- 
mained, a county of eleven townships. 


The boundary line and all lands west of that line were sur- 
veyed in 1838. Because of the fact, that the seven mile strip was 
first surveyed and the lands placed on the market, the first settle- 
ments were in this part of the county. The remainder of the county 
was not surveyed until 1846-7. In this sun-ey Benjamin Harden, 
of Johnson county, Indiana, ran out the range and township lines; 
that is, he blocked out the lands into districts six miles square. 
Van Xess, of Logansport, subdivided these squares into sections 
one mile square, and on each side of each section at the middle point 
a corner was established subdividing the section into quarter sec- 
tions. The whole systein of range lines, township lines and section 
lines is in accordance with directions from the general land office at 
Washington. These general instructions for the sur\-ey of public 
lands in Indiana required that all lands should be located with 
reference to two principal lines — one running east and west and 
called the Base Line, and the other running north and south and 
called the First Principal Meridian. The Base Line is in the 


soutliern part of the state and tlie First Principal Meridian is slight- 
ly west of the middle of the state and is five miles west of Howard 
county. They intersect each other in the southern part of Orange 

The township lines run east and west, parallel to the Base Line 
and are six miles apart. The first six mile strip north of the Base 
Line is in township i, north; the next six mile strip is in township 
2. north, and so on north. Kokomo is chiefly in township 24 north. 
Meridians or range lines run north and south, parallel with the First 
Principal Meridian and are six miles apart. The first six mile strip 
east of the First Principal Meridian is in range i, east, and so on 
east. A congressional township is one of these six miles square 
tracts bounded on the east and west by range lines and on the north 
and south by township lines. A congressional township is a square 
territory containing thirty-six square miles or thirty-six sections. 
The sections in a township are numbered by beginning at the section 
in the northeast corner and numbering that i , and the next one west 
2, the next one west 3, and thus to the west line, the last one being 
6, and then beginning at the west end of the next row south calling 
the first one 7, the next east 8 and thus until the east side is reached 
and then starting at the east end of the next row south and going 
west and thus back and forth until the south side is reached and the 
last section is number 36. 

From the organization of the county until the suiwey of the 
lands in 1846-7, there had been a large incoming tide of settlers, 
and the county was rapidly settled ; but no one was able to tell where 
his lines were and two or more settlers were liable to make improve- 
ments on the same tract of land, and it actually occurred that some 
failed io get their improvements on the right tract of land. There 
was mi)re or less confusion in these first settlements. 

68 morrow's history 


The pre-emption law was passed in congress, August 3, 1846. 
After its passage settlers rapidly endeavored to secure homes in ac- 
cordance with its provision. The usual procedure in a claim was 
iirst to select a building site, then to cut down the saplings and 
make some brush heaps and then to build a shanty ten or twelve feet 
square of poles and cover it with bark or clapboards, and sleep in it 
at least one night. 

It was his claim then and he could go back to move his family 
and no one else could "jump" his claim. Some people did quite a 
business in taking and selling claims. They would take as desirable 
a claim as they could and make some improvement, and then sell 
out to a new comer and then take another and make other improve- 
ments and sell again. A new comer often was willing to pay fifty 
dollars or one hundred dollars rather than go back into marshy 
level lands away from the rolling lands along the streams of water. 

That the public lands might become the homes of actual settlers 
certain improvement and evidences of intention to settle upon 
them were required in addition to the purchase price before the issu- 
ance of patents by the government for the lands. The land offices 
for filing claims to these lands were at Indianapolis for all south of 
township 24; at Winamac for all north of township 23, and west of 
range line 5 ; at Ft. Wayne for all east of range line 5 and north of 
township 23. 

The old state constitution before its i-evision in 1850, attempted 
to make the civil township identical with the congressional town- 
ship. There were then three township tmstees for each township 
instead of one as now. 

By law the sixteenth section of land in each congressional 
township was set apart for school purposes and when sold the 
money was to go into the pennanent school fund. 


Reference has already been made to the fact that at the first 
election held in the county, the result was a tie, twelve Democrat 
and twelve Whig votes; that was in the presidential election of 
1840, and was in the portion of the county west of the boundary 
line. In the fall of 1847 Dr. Corydon Richmond defeated Dr. J. H. 
Kern (father of John W. Kem), by seventeen votes. Adam Clark, 
Democrat, was elected county clerk in 1854 and again in 1858. In 
the election of 1858 the county was so evenly balanced that the re- 
sult of the election of county auditor hinged on the admission of the 
vote of Honey Creek township. If the vote of Honey Creek town- 
ship was counted in the vote of Howard county, James A. Wild- 
man, Republican, was elected : if the vote of Honey Creek was not 
counted, Peter Hersleb. Democrat, was elected. Honey Creek was 
attached to Howard county and that gave Wildman, Republican, a 
majority. The political campaign of i860 was the most intense of 
any in its history. The Democrats were disposed to concede a 
small majority in the county. Certain wagers were made by local 
Democrats that Morton, Republican, would have a majority not 
exceeding three hundred in the county over Hendricks, Democrat. 
Morton's majority of more than six hundred was a mighty sur- 
prise. The county since then has been overwhelmingly and uni- 
formly Republican, except in two instances, a Democrat having 
been twice elected sur\eyor. 

Since the county has taken fixed and permanent form it has 
been eleven miles wide and twenty-seven miles long and has an area 
of two hundred and ninety-five and one half square miles. Cass and 
Miami counties bound it on the north, Grant on the east, Tipton 
and Clinton on the south and Clinton and Carroll on the west. 

The natural drainage of the county is good ; \Yi\d Cat flows 
through tlie entire county from east to west ; on the south side Ko- 
komo creek and Little \\"ild Cat creek and Honev creek flow into 


\\'ild Cat and thus drain or afford outlets for drains for the south 
part of the county ; On the north side Lilly creek, Pipe creek and 
Deer creek drain or aft'ord outlets for drains for that part of the 


Pioneer life as it existed in Howard county in the forties has 
long since completely ceased to exist. Circumstances and condi- 
tions which produced and called it forth have passed away, and it is 
difficult now to convey an intelligible idea of it. 

Conditions have so changed in the past sixty years that we are 
practically living in another world. 

The pioneers of that early time in our county history were 
mostly persons of limited worldly possessions, who were looking for 
opportunities to secure homes for themselves and their families. 
Many of them were young people, or fathers and mothers with 
families of young people for whom they wished to give a start in 
life by getting possession of land while it was cheap in price. 

Having heard of excellent lands out in the Indian country that 
were either on the market or soon would be, and that by going and 
taking a claim, making certain improvements and paying almost 
a nominal price each would come into the ownership of forty acres, 
eighty acres, or one hundred and sixty acres of land that he could 
improve into a good fann home in a few years. Leaving wife to 
look after things while he was gone to hunt a new home, the home- 
seeker went out, sometimes alone and on foot, sometimes on horse- 
back and sometimes two or more would go together, pro\-iding 
themselves with wagon and team and a regular camping outfit. 
After selecting the site of the future home and taking the necessaiw 


Steps to secure it, he returned for his family, blaziug the trees on 
his way back, to guide him in his moving-. 


There were no traveled highways then. There were a few 
Indian traces, or paths, leading to the principal points on the out- 
side of the Reserve. These led to Noblesville on the south, to 
Frankfort on the southwest, to Burlington and Delphi on the west, 
to Logansport on the northwest, and Peru on the north ; to Mar- 
ion and \Vabash and other points on the northeast. Many of the 
early settlers on the south side came from Hamilton and Boone 
counties by way of the Noblesville trace. The settler, with his 
wagon and team, more frecjuently an ox team, must of necessity 
cut out his own wagon road and so made slow progress. He carried 
a limited housekeeping outfit, a stock of provisions, enough to last 
until the family could be settled in the new home and he could re- 
turn for a fresh supply. 

This new home was a "cabin" in the clearing. The timber 
was cut away on the building site so that there would be no danger 
from trees blowing down or falling on the cabin. The cabin was 
built of round logs, not dressed, cut from the trees round about the 
future home. The ends of the logs were notched and saddled so 
that they would fit upon each other at the house corners ; chunks 
were placed in the spaces or cracks between the logs and then 
daubed with mud, the mud being pressed into place and smoothed 
dnwn with the bare hand, the finished job showing the finger prints. 
The tlo<_irs were laid on sleepers made out of round 'logs hewn off 
on one side with a broad-axe, and were of puncheons, or thick 
slabs split from ash, oak, hickory or elm logs and dressed ofif with 
a broad-axe. They had no ceilings, but lofts instead, supported by 


round poles for joists. The roofs were covered with clapboards 
held in place with weight poles kept up by "knees." 


The chimney had pounded earth jambs and packed mud 
hearths, and sticks and clay upper part. It is said that one of the 
last thing-s of their evening vigil before retiring was to go out and 
inspect the chimney to see that it was not on fire. The fireplaces 
of those old-time chimneys were capacious affairs and held quite a 
pile of wood. In the evening, after the chores were done, the fami- 
ly sat about the blazing, crackling fire of logs and smaller pieces of 
wood in these huge fireplaces and enjoyed to the full the bright- 
ness, the warmth and the cheerfulness of the open fire in their one- 
room house. These open fireplaces wei-e not only the heating plant, 
but also the cooking range of the home. The patient wife and 
mother, with her scant store of cooking utensils, cooked the meals 
of the family on the hearth with live coals shoveled from the fire- 
place. The blazing fires also furnished much of the light of the 
house, making a light far superior to the tallow candle. The door 
or doors were in keeping with the rest of the house — made of thin 
slabs, hewn smooth and hung with wooden hinges and fastened 
with a wooden latch. A string was fastened to the latch and was 
hung on the outside by passing the end through a small hole above 
the latch, so that the end would be suspended on the outside. At 
night, when all were in, the string would be pulled in and no one 
on the outside could lift the latch, and thus the door was locked to 
outsiders. A\^hen the latch string hung out neighbors deemed it a 
useless formality to ring the door bell, but pulled the string, lifted 
the latch and walked in. Hence the origin of the hospitable ex- 
clamation, "]My latch string hangs out." 


They drew the water from wells with a windlass, a sweep or 
a pole with a natural h(iok to it. A sweep was a pole mounted in 
the fork of an upright pole set in the ground, with a bucket fastened 
to one end of the mounted pole by a rope long enough to let the buck- 
et to the water when that end of the mounted pole was drawn down ; 
the outer end of the pole, being heavier, helped to lift the bucket 
of water. 


Having erected his cabin and a iTide stable the pioneer at once 
set about clearing the land for a garden and a patch of corn. This 
was done by cutting the smaller trees and the bushes and piling 
them about the larger trees and burning them, thus killing the 
larger trees at once and destroying the shade. Breaking the ground 
was done with a jumping shovel, a shovel-plow, with a short, thick 
beam and an upright cutter extending to the point of the shovel. 
The ground was full of green roots, and it took strength and pa- 
tience to do what at best was a poor job of breaking. The corn 
was planted by hand, covered with a hoe and cultivated by hand with 
a single shovel plow and the hoe — mostly with the latter. Later 
clearings were made by first deadening the timber, that is, girdling 
the trees and allowing them to stand two or three years or longer 
for the timber to die and dry out so that it would burn better in the 
heaps. When it was ready to clear much of the timber would be 
cut down and burned, chopped or sawed into suitable lengths for 
rolling, and at an appointed day there would be a log-rolling, to 
which all the neighbors would be invited. The men would come, 
bringing their neat handspikes, w^ell seasoned and strong. .\ yi)ke 
of oxen was nearly always present to assist in getting heavy logs 
into place. Most logs, however, were rolled or carried by the men 
with their spikes, and many feats of strength in lifting were shown. 


The men always worked with a wiU and logs were rapidly piled in 
heaps. After the logs were piled the man and his boys, sometimes 
the girls, piled the trash and smaller logs on the heaps and burned 
them. Stooping and picking trash all day long and burning log- 
heaps in smoking clearings deserve to have a place in the class of 
the hardest and most disagreeable of all work. The early fields had 
many standing dead trees and these continued to fall, generally in 
the crop season, for several years, and always were very much in 
the way. All rows were the proverbial "stumpy row to hoe." The 
hoe was the indispensable agricultural tool — a heavy, clumsy tool, 
not suited to make the boy on the farm enthusiastic in his calling. 


The Other cultivating tool was a heavy single shovel plow, 
sometimes known as the "bull-tongue," which required three trips 
to the row to plow out the weeds between the rows. Planting was 
done bv crossing off the field one way with this single shovel plow 
into furrows the width of com rows and then making furrows 
crossing these with the same plow, followed by a person dropping 
the com into the crosses; dropping the com was often done by a 
woman, as being light work, and the corn was covered by men 
and boys with hoes, generally three persons did the covering. Thus 
the planting force was one man to lay off the ground into rows, one 
person to drop the corn, and three with hoes to cover. Com was 
the first crop grown ; soon, however, wheat growing was attanpted. 
This was done by a person carrying a part of a sack of wheat across 
the shoulders and sowing it broadcast with the hand as he walked. 
He was followed, if in the corn, with a man with his single shovel 
plow, pulling down the weeds (the weeds grew luxuriantly in the 
new ground) and partially plowing under the wheat; if on ground 


that had been Ijroken for wheat, with an A harrow. Because of the 
fertihty of the fresh new soil this method of farming produced good 

The harvesting- of the wheat was done with reap hooks by the 
men and women, for the women often helped in the wheat harvest. 
With one hand they seized a handful of grain, and with the other 
they cut it off with the reap hook. Each bound his or her sheaves. 
This was a slow, laborious mode of harvesting. The coming of 
the grain cradle a few years later was hailed as a great advance. 
When one man cut the grain and threw it into swaths, ready for 
another man to gather up and bind that was thought up-to-date 
farming. The threshing was done either with a flail or by spread- 
ing on a threshing floor and tramping with horses until the kernels 
were loosened from the chaff. The flail was a short pole or spike, 
with a shorter pole or spike fastened to the end of it with a stout 
withe or thong, and required an expert to use it without danger 
to the user's head, for in the overhead swing of the flail the sus- 
pended end, which was intended to hit the grain with its full length, 
was liable to make a head-on collision with the user's head. 

After the separation of the straw from the wheat and chaft" by 
forking, the wheat and chaff were run through a fanning mill and 
the chaff blown out. It was all hand work from start to finish — 
slow, tedious and laborious, and allowed the growing of limited 
crops only. 


Com was the staple crop of the early settlers. It was the food 
crop of their stock and largely for themselves. Corn-bread, mush 
and milk were their principal articles of diet. 

Mills for the grinding of the grain were not plentiful nor con- 
venient. There were a few "com crackers," home-made affairs, 

76 morrow's history 

manufactured from boulders by flattening and rougbing the sur- 
face and fixed to turn one face on the other. This mill crashed 
the com as it passed between the faces of the boulders, the upper 
one revolving on the lower. Nathan C. Beals, who lived not far 
northeast of Oakford in very early times, had one. 

Mills operated by water power were the main reliance of the 
early settlers, both for grinding grain and sawing lumber. 

The clothing of that time was also largely of home manufac- 
ture. The farmer grew flax, which he pulled and rotted and 
scutched. The good housewife spun the tow on her wheel and often 
wove it herself. The linen gannents were possibly a little rough 
and coarse, but were soon bleached into snowy whiteness. The 
farmer also had a flock of sheep and grew the wool that was con- 
verted into home-made woolen goods. The wool was scoured and 
picked at home, the men and boys helping on rainy days. Ofttimes 
there were wool pickings, to which the neighbor women were in- 
vited. These were social occasions and were real red-letter days in 
the social life of the community. After the wool was picked it was 
taken to a woolen mill and made into rolls, and then brought back 
home to be spun into yarn. The yarn was dyed or colored, and 
some of it was woven into cloth for the clothing of the men and 
women and the boys and girls of the home, and the other part was 
twisted into yarn for stockings and socks for all, and then would 
begin a season of knitting. The women would rise up early in the 
morning to knit and would sit up late at night for the same pur- 
pose. \\^oolsey-linsey dresses and jeans coats and pants were the 
fashionable clothing of the time. Not only was the cloth for the 
clothing home-made, but the ^•arious garments were home-made 
and hand-made also, for there were no homes into which a sewing 
machine had come. All the sewing was done bv hand. 



The wives and mothers and daughters, too, of the pioneer 
period, were very industrious, for in addition to the various kinds 
of work ah'eady referred to which they did, they also attended to 
the household cares, the rearing of the families, the milking of the 
cows and a great number of other things, as they presented them- 
selves. They were brave, uncomplaining burden bearers, who 
cheerfully and well did their full share in transforming the wilder- 
ness into a country of pleasant homes. We shall do well if we al- 
ways pay loving tribute to their memory. 

Reference has already been made to the effect that the first 
settlers sought homes on the rolling lands along the watercourses. 
These lands were soon taken, and the later comers had to go back 
into the level lands for their homes. These lands being level and 
covered with fallen timber held the water so that it did not flow 
away readily, and the counti"y was thus rendered swampy and wet 
for much of the year. 


The settler, after looking about and finding a knoll sufficiently 
dry for building purposes, would locate. He had a double work 
to do in clearing his land and in making surface drains or ditches 
to cari-y ofif the water. There were certain natural channels, which, 
when the logs and other obstructions were removed, and were 
deepened and straightened, served as fair drains. At first open 
channels were thrown out in the fields to permit the water to flow 
away. These were so much in the way that the farmers cut ditch 
timbers out of the oak trees, then in the way, and placed them in 
these drains after deepening them, covering- the stringers or side 

y% morrow's history 

pieces with slabs or cross headers, and then filhng in with dirt, thus 
making- good underground drains. The benefit was so marked that 
the farmers rrtshed the construction of wooden drains, cutting the 
channels or ditches themselves and having the boys to saw the ditch 
timbers with the old plain-toothed saws without drags. There 
never was a man who remembered the time he spent as a boy in 
sawing ditch timber except with the utmost aversion. 

These swampy, wet lands when drained were by far the rich- 
est and most productive lands. The soil was black and deep, and 
when underdrained dried off quickly and yielded immense crops. 
After a few years the timber ditches began to decay and it was 
necessary to replace them with new ones. Meanwhile a good tile 
clay had been found in many places and tile mills and kilns were 
turning out red tile in large numbers. Farmers, therefore, turned 
their attention to putting in permanent drains of red tile. Tile 
drainage has been continued since by putting in regular drainage 
systems, using large sized tiles, until now the wet lands of Howard 
county are no longer wet lands. Because large areas have needed 
a common drainage and many farms have needed the same drain- 
age system, the county has constructed many excellent public drains 
and drainage systems. 


The first public drains were large open ditches passing in a 
meandering way through farms and rendering not a little land 
waste, the ditch channels growing up each year with bushes and 
weeds, and requiring frequent cleaning out. Many of these have 
since had one or more rows of large sized tiles laid in them and 
covered up so that fanning operations are now carried on over 
them. There are no lands in the county so low and wet that they 


cannot be drained. The county nia.y be said to be without Vv'et 
waste land. 

The pioneers of the county had vast forests to contend with. 
Almost every acre had one or more large yellow poplar trees upon it. 
Much of the land had many large black walnut trees; there were 
many fine gray ash trees and almost numberless large oak trees of 
the different varieties, while the common kinds of beech, sugar, elm, 
sycamore, lynn and other kinds were so plentiful it was a problem 
how to get them out of the way. In the veiy early pioneer days 
there were no saw-mills and no market whatever for even the 
choicest of the timber. Large poplar, wralnut, ash and oak trees 
were made into rails that a few years later could have been sold 
for many dollars. \\'here the early farmer wanted a field he dead- 
ened the large walnuts and poplars to destroy their shade, and al- 
lowed them to waste away, to blow down and then to be burned or 
worked into rails. The other timber was cut down and rolled into 
heaps and burned. 

In this, our time of growing scarcity of timber, the acts of the 
pioneer settlers seem to have been wanton waste. They wanted 
clear fields rather than timber. A few years later, with the coming 
of the railroads and the building of steam saw-mills, quite a traffic 
in lumber sprang up. An immense amount of walnut, poplar and 
ash lumber was shipped to Cincinnati and other points. Saw-mill 
men and others bought of the owners of woodland where the tim- 
ber had not yet been disturbed either for a lump sum all their pop- 
lar and walnut timber good enough for the saw, or else bought the 
trees singly, paying as high as five dollars for a good, straight, 
sound, yellow poplar thirty inches in diameter and tall enough for 
four twelve-foot sticks or logs. Some choice walnuts sold for eight 
dollars. Farmers derived quite a revenue from this source, and it was 
a time just previous to the Civil war when mbney was very scarce 

8o morrow's history 

and hard to get. Later timber sold for higlier prices. It is doubt- 
ful if at any time the sale of timber in Howard county ever met 
a more needed want than in the few years preceding and the early 
years of the Civil war period. 


The early roads of the county were made by felling the trees 
along the line of the proposed highway, cutting off so much of the 
tree as remained in the roadway, rolling or dragging it to the road- 
side ; so that the new road was full of stumps and it rec|uired a care- 
ful and skillful driver to miss the stumps ; mts and roots could not be 
avoided. Swamps had to be bridged. This was done by cutting 
logs of various sizes, long aiough for a single track, and placing 
them crosswise of the roadway and side by side the width of the 
swamp and throwing some dirt upon them to fill up the uneven 
surface. This dirt soon wore away and there remained the cor- 
duroy road. How rough and jolty it was to ride over this kind of 
a road in a farm wagon with no spring seat is not in the power of 
language to tell. 

The pioneers did not, however, have as much use for rciids as 
the modem inhabitants. They did imich of their traveling on foor, 
a great deal on horseback, and not so much with wagons. It was 
no unusual thing for men to make long journeys on foot. Men 
who had moved to the vicinity of Kokomo from near Noblesville 
frequently visited the people of their former home, walking both 
ways ; going one day and returning another. The usual mode of 
going about in the settlement, either to the village, to the country 
church or to the neighbor, near or far, was to walk, mostly in 
paths through the woods. 



The farmer usually went to mill on horseback with his grist 
in a sack swung across the horse's back. The preacher went from 
one preaching appointment to another on horseback ; the attorneys 
and the judges went to the various places of holding court on 
horseback and the physicians answered the call of the sick in the 
same manner, with his saddle bags swung across the horse's back, 
before or behind him. The wagon was used to carry heavy loads 
and was frequently drawn by a yoke of oxen. All the methods of 
getting about were slow and tedious. An ordinary trip in those 
days required two days — one going and one coming. If done in 
one day it was far into the night when finished. 


The pioneers did not neglect the education of their children. 
They provided as best they could log school-houses with rude slab 
seats and scant school supplies. The early schools were subscrip- 
tion schools and had a three-months' term in the year. The text- 
books were the elementary spelling books, readers and Talbot's 
arithmetic. The master taught his system of writing. The only 
classes were the spelling and reading classes. Each worked alone 
in arithmetic and writing. When out of copy the master set a new 
one. When one stalled in arithmetic, he or she went to the master 
for help. The old-time schoolhouse had no blackboard and the 
lesson could not be illustrated by blackboard exercises. In fact, 
there were no arithmetic lessons assigned ; each worked on as fast 
as he could toward the back of the book. 

Those pioneer schools produced many excellent spellers. The 
school terms were short and the range of studies limited to orthog- 



raphy, reading, writing and arithmetic, }-et they produced wide- 
awake, intehigent men and women. 

A spelhng school was held in the evening about once a week, 
at which nearly everybody in the district would be present and en- 
gage in the spelling contests. Sometimes a neighboring school 
would be present and there would be quite a rivalry as to which 
could excel in correct spelling. The contests took various forms, 
but the real test was as to who could spell the most words without 
misspelling one. In most cases those present were divided by two 
persons selected to "choose up," who alternated with each other in 
selecting from those present the ones they wanted on their side, un- 
til all were chosen; then each captain would take his company to 
the opposite side of the house, and standing in line, endeavor to 
spell the other side down first. The teacher or other person would 
pronounce the first word to one side, starting with the captain, and 
the second word to the captain of the other side, alternating sides 
and going down the line to the end, or foot, and beginning again at 
the captain or head. Whoever missed a word took his seat and did 
not spell again until the contest was finished. Whiche\-er side kept 
a speller on the floor longest won. 

At first the pioneers had not church houses, but religious ser\-- 
ices were held in the homes of the settlers. Preaching sendee was 
conducted by a traveling evangelist who happened along that 
way and stopped a while to hold meetings. There were also minis- 
ters among these early settlers, who combined the work of founding 
a home in the new country with that of preaching, working during 
the week and preaching on Sunday. Several religious denomina- 
tions sent workers into these new settlements, so that they were 
soon supplied with religious services. 



The woods all about the liomes of the early settlers abounded 
in wild game, deer, wild turkeys, raccoons and squirrels, and it is 
said that it was no unusual thing for the church-going people to 
carry a rifle along for "emergencies." 

The life of the pioneer was one of privation and endurance. 
Bravely and uncomplainingly, even cheerfully, they bore it. They 
helped each other in the time of need without the thought of pay 
or reward. Open-handed hospitality was on every side. The hard- 
ships of their pioneer life seemed to have united them in a common 
sympathy. They lived a broader, more sympathetic life than their 
present successors. They visited with each other freely and shared 
their meals and had all things more in common than now. There 
was less of envy and jealousy, less disposition to take an undue ad- 
vantage of their neighbors than in more recent times. For the most 
part they were strong and hardy and the adverse conditions of their 
lives only seemed to make them broader and more sympathetic. 
Ofttimes in their struggles they would have their money all spent 
and would be compelled to go out into the older settled communities 
to earn some money with which to buy the few necessities of their 
lives. Much of the trading with the local merchants was done with 
produce of various kinds. Money was exceedingly scarce. The 
trade was of necessity largely barter. The local merchants traded 
for hides, wild meat, wild honey and anything they could take to 
other markets and dispose of. Oxen were largely used as the 
teams for work, because they were cheaper in price, could be fed 
and kept more cheaply than horses and were supposed to move 
around in the mud more easily. The pioneers had no fruit except 
as they hauled it into the new settlements. Howe\'er, they early 
planted orchards in the new country, and within a very few years 

£-4 morrow's history 

there was a plentiful supply of apples and an abundance of smaller 


Those pioneers did not have free rural delivery of the mail at 
their cabin doors each day. Indeed, we are told that in those days 
they had no stamps nor envelopes, and that it cost eighteen and 
three-quarters cents to carry a letter across the state, and it was 
paid for when received. There were then no daily papers contain- 
ing all the news of the world up to the hour of going to press, with 
all the latest market quotations and. delivered to all parts of the 
settlement on the day of publication. Instead there was a small 
weekly folio published at New London about 1848 and called "The 
Pioneer." From it we learn that the pioneers of the early times dis- 
cussed the public questions of their day quite as vigorously as pub- 
lic questions are now discussed. The pro-slavery men and the Free- 
Soilers were more vigorous and forcible in enforcing their beliefs 
than the average modern citizen. The temperance and the anti- 
temperance forces did not lie down together in peace. 


Among the many disagreeable features of the new countrj-, 
and by no means the least, was the chills and fever. From mid- 
summer to early winter ague was well-nigh universal, hardly a per- 
son escaped being a victim. There were also many cases of bilious, 
malarial, intermittent and other kinds of fever resulting from the 
swampy country and stagnant water all about. Quinine was more 
staple than flour. The doctors were more than busy administering 
quinine, Dover's powders and calomel. In many farriilies there were 
hardly enough well ones to nurse the sick ones. It is said that it 
was as much a custom among the people then to get ready for the 


ague and fever as it is for us now to prepare for winter. Happily, 
with the draining of the country this condition has been eradicated. 
^^'ith tlie passing of the conditions which produced the hard- 
sliips and disagreeable features of the pioneer life, the life itself 
passed away in its entirety. Would that the virtues could have re- 
mained without its disadvantag'es and unpleasant parts. 


The early schools of Howard county were very poorly equipped 
in every way. The houses were the primitive log cabins furnished 
with slab benches with no backs for seats; for writing desks thei-e 
was a broad board or boards fastened to the wall sloping sufficiently 
high for the larger pupils to write upon ; the smaller ones did 
not need it. The room was lighted by a narrow window or windows 
extending along the entire side. The house wam warmed by wood 
fires in the huge fireplace, the teacher and the larger pupils cutting 
the wood morning and noons. 

Those were the days of subscription schools, that is. the par- 
ents or guardians subscribed a given number of pupils at so much 
each for the school temi, usually three months. The teacher ordi- 
narily boarded with dififerent families in the district, spending a 
week in one family, the next week ini another, and so on until he had 
passed around, the board was a part of his compensation. The 
teachers as a class were not very learned. Many of them had not 
secured any training in grammar, and physiology was an unknown 
science to all except the most learned doctors. Arithmetic and 
spelling were their specialties. In arithmetic they were especially 
strong in single and double rules of three, and yet had they been 
asked to define proportion it would have been a dead language to 
them. Decimal fractions and square and cube roots were beyond 
them. As was the custom of the times they were past masters in 


the use of the rod or rather the long, green switches cut from tlie 
neighboring trees. A big switcli was an indispensable part of their 
ec|uipment for the day's work. They were workers and required the 
pupils to work. 

The contrast between the school system or want of system of 
that time, and the present is very great. It must not be supposed 
that this difference is wholly due to the different conditions of a new 
and older settlement. These did affect it to a greater or lesser e.x- 
tent, but the school system in Indiana prior to the taking effect of 
the revised constitution in 1851 was quite different from that in 
force since. 


Under the old system there were three trustees instead of one 
as now, yet the three had less power and latitude in the management 
of the schools than the one has now. 

The civil township was required to conform as nearly as possi- 
ble to the congressional for the reason that the general government 
had given to the state the sixteenth section in each congressional 
township for school purposes and the township trustees were given 
the control and management of the school lands and the funds 
arising from the sale of the school lands. The school lands could 
be oft'ered for sale, when five residents of the congressional township 
petitioned the trustees or trustee to order an election by the voters 
of the township on the question of offering them for sale, a township 
local option proposition. If a majority voted to sell they were ac- 
cordingly offered for sale. Within ten years these lands had been 
sold realizing about twenty thousand dollars. This sum constituted 
the pemianent common school fund of the early years ; the interest 
on this fund was available for tuition purposes and any tuition fund 
in excess of this was raised bv a direct tuition tax. Under the old 


system when the trustees thought it necessary to buihl a new scliool- 
house, it was necessar)' to refer the question to the voters of the 
township, and if the majority voted to build, the house was built; 
but if the majority voted no, the house was not built. It did not 
matter how great was the need there was no appeal. It frequently 
happened under this itile that communities without a school house 
and with a large number of children of school age refused to vote 
for the building of the much needed school house. In illustration 
of this, this incident is vouched for by a reputable citizen. In a 
township in another county there was no school house. The better 
and more progressive citizens asked for the building of a school 
house, and the matter was referred to the voters of the township. A 
citizen with several children of school age, but none of whom had 
ever been in school and whose proportionate part of the cost of the 
house would probably have not exceeded seventy-five cents, worked 
all day at the polls against the building of the house and he was 
joined by a sufficiently large number of like spirits to defeat the 
school house proposition. 


In the matter of erecting school houses, the referendum feature 
was a failure and in the revised state constitution it was left out. 
The progressive citizenship favored a free public school system, but 
were opposed by a large conservative element who contented that the 
expenses would be burdensome and to make it practical would neces- 
sitate putting too much power in the hands of the school officers. 

The general government had given the people an example of 
generosity in caring for the education of the people and that policy 
was adopted by the state: and the constitutional convention of 
1850-1 which adopted our present ci:)nstituti<;in declared "knowledge 


and learning generally diffused throughout a community being es- 
sential to the presei-vation of a free govemmait, it shall be the duty 
-of the general assembly to encourage, by all suitable means, moral, 
•intellectual, scientific and agricultural improvement, and to provide, 
by law, for a general and uniform system of common schools, where- 
in tuition shall be without charge, and equally open to all." 

That there should be a common school fund, from which there 
should be an interest income sufficiently large to almost insure free 
tuition they followed the foregoing declaration with this provision : 

"The common school fund shall consist of the congressional 
township fund and the lands belonging thereto ; the surplus revenue 
fund ; the salime fund, and the lands belonging thereto ; the bank tax 
fund, and the fund arising from the one hundred and fourteenth 
section of the charter of the State Bank of Indiana ; the fund to be 
derived from the sale of county seminaries and the moneys and 
property heretofore held for such seminaries ; from the fines assessed 
for breeches of the penal laws of the state ; and from all forfeitures 
which may accrae : all lands and other estate which shall escheat to 
the state for want of heirs or kindred entitled to the inheritance ; all 
lands that have been, or may hereafter be, granted to the state where 
no special purpose is expressed in the grant, and the proceeds of 
the sales thereof, including the proceeds of the sales of the swamp 
lands granted to the state of Indiana by the act of congress of the 
twenty-eighth of September, one thousand eight hundred and fifty, 
after deducting the expense of selecting and draining the same; 
taxes on the property of corporations that may be assessed by the 
general assembly for common school purposes." 

To pei-petuate these provisions for free tuition they provided 
further that. "The principal of the common school fund shall remain 
a perpetual fund, which may be increased, but never shall be dimin- 
ished, and the income thereof shall be inviolably appropriated to 


1. -^ 

-- " ■ - -- • 1 

.-, . h.-r-. 



the support of common schools, and to no other purpose whatever." 

In 1865 the legislature divided the common school fund as 
provided for above, taking out the congressional township school 
land and the money derived from the sale of such lands, making 
these the "congressional township school fund" and pro\iding that 
"it shall never be diministed in amount, the income of which, to- 
gether with the taxes mentioned and specified in the first section of 
this act. the money and income derived from licenses for the sale 
of intoxicating liquors, and unclaimed fees, as provided by law, shall 
be denominated the "School revenue for tuition, the whole of which 
is hereby appropriated, and shall be applied exclusively to furnishing 
tuition to the common schools of the state, without any deduction 
for the expense of collection or disbursement." 

The first section of the act referred to is "There shall be an- 
nually assessed and collected as state and county revenues are as- 
sessed and collected, sixteen cents on each one hundred dollars of 
taxable property, real and personal in the state, and fifty cents on 
each taxable poll, for the purpose of supporting a general system of 
common schools." 

In 1875 the fees from licenses to retail intoxicating liquors 
were changed from this fund to the common school fund of the 
county where paid. 

The setting apart of one section of land in each congressional 
township had its beginning in May, 1785, when congress passed an 
act for the suiwey of the Northwest Territory in which it was pro- 
vided that this territory be divided into tracts six miles square called 
congressional townships, thus making them the units for future or- 
ganization : the townships were directed to be subdivided into tracts 
one mile square to be called sections. 



In 1787 congress passed the famous ordinance for tlie organ- 
izing of a settled government for the Northwest Territory : the most 
important act of tlie last continental congress. It was in fact "the 
most notable law ever enacted by representatives of the American 
people," and to insure its perpetual enforcement, it was not left as a 
mere act of congress, which could be repealed at a subsequent ses- 
sion, but its six main provisions were made articles of solemn com- 
pact between the inhabitants of the territory, present and to come, 
and the people of the thirteen states. 

Xo man was to be restricted of his liberty excepting as a pun- 
ishment for crime : life, property and religious freedom were pro- 
tected by just and equal laws. A clause, which several western 
states have copied in their constitutions, declared that "Religion, 
morality and knowledge being necessary to good go\-ernment 
schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged." To 
this end one section in every township was set apart for the support 
of common schools, and two entire townships for tb.e establishment 
of a university in this territoiy. 

County supervisiijn has come to be what it is today through 
a long process of development. As early as 1818 the general assem- 
bly made it the duty of the Governor to appoint for each county a 
seminary trustee. The duty of this officer was almost entirely con- 
nected with the financial problem. In 1824 the law provided for the 
election of three trustees in each township and placed the examining 
of teachers and granting licenses among their duties. The exami- 
ners were school men and the meager test covered the subjects of 
reading, writing and arithmetic. 

In 1830 the law provided for a school commissioner for each 
Cdunty who looked after the funds (^f the local school corporation 
and was elected for three \-ears. 


In 1833 in addition to the school commissioner for the county 
and the three tmstees for the township, provision was made for the 
election of three sub-trustees in each district to hold office for one 
year. These district trustees examined applicants and employed 
teachers. The law of 1836 made it legal for any householder to em- 
ploy a teacher in case of failure to elect district trustees. In 1837 
in addition to all these officers and with only a slight modification of 
their duties, the circuit court was authorized to appoint annually 
three examiners whose duty it should be "to certify the branches of 
learning each applicant was qualified to teach." 

During the next ten years no change was made in the county 


In 1847 Caleb Mills, state superintendent of schools, urged as 
an essential of the schools, efficient supervision, both state and 
county. The school law of 1849 abolished the office of county 
school commissioner, retained the three school examiners in each 
county and the three township trustees, but substituted one sub- 
trustee in each district for the three formerly. This law als(i pre- 
scribed the minimum length of the school term and made the length 
of term of all the schools in the township unifomi. 

The constitution of 1851 left the county school machinery 
practically as the law of 1849 left it, and so it remained until the 
sixties. The law of 1861 substituted one county e.xaminer foi" the 
three that fomierl}' held office in each county. The examiners under 
this was appointed by the county commissioners and held office for 
three years. This law made all examinations public and prohibited 
the granting of licenses upon private examinations. Prior to this 
an applicant for license could have an examination whenever he hap- 
pened to find one of the examiners at home. This law further pro- 


vided that the examiner of each c<.ninty shall be the medium of com- 
munication between the state superintendent of public instruction 
and the subordinate school officers and schools; they shall also visit 
the schools of their respective counties as often as they may .deem 
it necessary during each term, for the purpose of increasing their 
usefulness and elevating as far as practicable to the standard of the 
best; advising and securing as far as practicable uniformity in their 
organization and management and their conformity to the law and 
the regulations and instructions of the state board of edu- 
cation and of the state superintendent of public instruction, and 
shall encourage teachers" institutes and associations. The law of 
1861 was a great advance in the educational system of bur state. 

In 1873 the office of county superintendent was created and 
that of examiner was abolished. This law provided that the "town- 
ship trustees of the se\-eral townships shall meet at the ofifice of the 
county auditor of their respective counties on the first Monday of 
June, 1873, and biennially thereafter and appoint a county superin- 
tendent." This act did not create a new office, it merely changed the 
name of an old one and enlarged its powers. 

The term was for two years and carried with it no educational 
or professional requirement for eligibility. 

In 1899 the term was extended to four years and required the 
holding of a thirty months' teacher's license, or a life or professional 
license to be eligible. 

Since 1873 supen-ision of the countn,- schools has meant some- 
thing in Indiana. The teachers are required to pass rigid examina- 
tions for which the questions are provided by the state board of ed- 
ucation and the examining and grading of the manuscripts may be 
done by the county superintendent or the state superintendent. The 
county superintendent makes systematic supennsion a large part of 
his work. The rural schools have been graded; the standard of efii- 


ciency has been constantly raised ; and through the good work of the 
county superintendent the children are receiving advantages equal to 
those of the towns and cities. 

The common school teacher is a teacher in the district schools 
of the county or in grades in the towns and cities. 


The standard of granting licenses to teach in the common 
schools has been advanced from orthography, reading, writing and 
arithmetic with a private examination to a rigid public examination 
in orthography, reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, English 
grammar, physiology, United States history, scientific temperance 
and the literature and science of education. 

A general average of eighty-five per cent, and not falling below 
seventy-five per cent, in any one of the ten items nor in success en- 
titles the applicant to a twelve months' license. A general average 
of ninety per cent, and not falling below eighty-five per cent, in any 
one of the ten items nor in success entitles the applicant to twenty- 
four months' license. A general average of ninety-five per cent, and 
not falling below ninety per cent, in any one of the ten items nor in 
success entitles the applicant to thirty-six months' license. 

Until 1852 there was much local confusion in school matters 
due to the fact that the law contemplated that the civil township 
should confomi to the congressional township which in fact it did 
not. The civil township really confonned to local conditions and 
the convenience of the people so that for the most part a congres- 
sional township was divided among two or more civil townships and 
thus the school lands or the money derived from the sale of such 
lands would rightfully belong to more than one township. With 
the reorganization under the new constitution this difficulty was 


done away with. The three township tiaistees were continued until 
1859 \vhen one trustee was substituted for the three. By law he has 
charge of the school aflfairs of the township. His duty is to locate 
con\-eniently a sufficient number of schools for the education of the 
children therein; and builds or otherwise provides suitable houses, 
furniture, apparatus or other articles and educational appliances nec- 
essary for the thorough organization and efficient management of 
the schools. When a township has twenty-fi\'e common school 
graduates, he may establish and maintain in the center of the town- 
ship a township graded high school to which all pupils sufficiently 
advanced must be admitted. If the township does not maintain a 
graded high school, . the common school graduates are entitled to 
transfers at public expense to a high school in another corporation. 

It is the duty of each township trustee and each city school trus- 
tee to furnish the necessary school books, so far as they have been 
adopted or may be adopted by the state, to all such poor and indigent 
children as may desire to attend the common schools. 

As a protection to the township against excessive or ill advised 
expenditures of public money the legislature passed a law in that 
in each township there should be an advisory board of three mem- 
bers elected by the voters of the township to hold the office for two 
years. They are to meet annually on the first Tuesday in September 
to consider the various estimates of township expenditure as fur- 
nished by the trustee for the ensuing year which they may accept or 
reject in part or in whole. These meetings are public and are open 
to anv tax payer who desires to be heard on any estimate or pro- 
posed tax \e\\. 


In 1843 t'lc st'it^ treasurer was made superintendent of com- 
mon schools ex-officio. The treasurer was chosen liecause his duties 


were financial rather than educational ; the preservation and manage- 
ment of the school fund being the chief requirement of the ofifice. 
He was required to make annual reports to the general assembly, 
showing the condition and amount of funds and property devoted 
to education ; the condition of colleges, academies, county semi- 
naries ; common schools, public and private : estimates and accounts 
of school expenditures and plans for the management and improve- 
ment of the common school fund and for the better organization of 
the common schools, but his chief duty was to look after the finances. 

The new state constitution created the office of superintendent 
of public instruction by popular election. In 1852 the general 
assembly directed his election and fixed his salary at one thousand 
three hundred dollars. There were no educational or professional 
requirements for his eligibility. The people, however, have been 
careful and fortunate in electing men who were able and active in ed- 
ucational work. 

The superintendent has charge of the system of public instruc- 
tion, and a general superintendence of the business relating to the 
common schools of the state, and of the school funds and school rev- 
enues set apart and apportioned for their support. At the request of 
the school officials it is his duty to render, in writing-, opinions touch- 
ing all phases of administration or construction of the school law. 


The state board of education was finst organized in 1852 and 
consisted of superintendent of public instruction, the governor, the 
secretary', treasurer and auditor of state. In 1855 the attorney 
general was added. In 1861 the board was changed to cosist of the 
state superintendent of public instruction, the Go\-ern(:)r. the jjresi- 
dent of the state university, the president of the state normal, and 


the school superintendents of the tliree largest cities in the state. In 
1875 the president of Purdue University was added. In 1899 three 
men to be appointed by the governor were added. These men must 
be prominent citizens, actively engaged in educational work, and one 
at least must be a county superintendent, and no one to be appointed 
from a county already represented on the board. E. E. Robey is 
at present ( 1908 ) a member of the board as a county superintendent. 

The board is responsible for all examinations of teachers and 
makes all questions used in their examinations which are for the fol- 
lowing grades of license : 

One, primary license, one year, two years and three years ; two, 
common school license, one year, two years and three years ; three, 
high school license, one year, two years, three years and five years ; 
four, professional, eight years ; five, life state license. 

In addition to making the questions, the board conducts the ex- 
amination and grades the manuscripts of applicants for professional 
and life state licenses. 

The board is also the state board of school book cornmissioners. 
As such it adopts text books for the common schools for periods of 
five years. \\'hen a contract has been made with a publisher the 
books are secured for the public by a requisition of the county super- 
intendent for the number of books needed in his county, upon the 
state superintendent, who in turn, makes requisition upon the con- 
tractor for the number of books needed in the state. The county 
superintendent thus becomes the agent for the sale of the books and 
makes his reports to the various contractors. 

The state board of education, in order to keep some uniform 
standard of efificiency in high schools has established certain require- 
ments in the work which entitles high schools to commissions. These 
commissions carry with them exemption from examination for en- 
trance to the freshman class in the higher institutions of learning. 


L'pon the recommendation of the state superintendent, members of 
the board inspect the work of the high schools and determine 
whether the requirements for commissions have been met. 

The work of the board has resulted in a perceptible increase in 
the efficiency of the high schools ; since all schools want the commis- 
sion and when once obtained eveiy effort is made by the school offi- 
cers, teachers and patrons to retain it. 


The county boards of education are composed of the county 
superintendent, the several township tiiistees and the heads of the 
boards of trustees of town and city schools. They are not officially 
charged with duties ; the purpose appears to be that by meeting and 
discussing the various school interests they may be able to intro- 
duce better and more uniform methods in their several schools. 

The teachers are required, by law, to attend a township institute 
in their township once each school month. The purpose being, by 
the addresses and discussions, to awaken greater interest among the 
teachers in their work, to impart new and improved methods in 

The minimum length of the school tenn in any school corpora- 
tion in a year shall be six months and the trustee is directed to levy 
sufficient tax to raise the money necessary to do so, provided he does 
not exceed the legal tax limit. 

The law fixes the legal minimum wages that shall be paid 
teachers and any violation of this law subjects the violator to a 
heavy penalty. 

The amount of money collected and distributed for tuition in 
Howard comity for the year 1908 was : 

Common school revenue, thirty thousand eight hundred and 


98 morrow's history 

tliirteen dollars and fifty-three cents; congressional township rev- 
enue, one thousand three hundred and twenty-three dollars and forty 
cents ; tuition from local taxation, fort}'-one thousand four hundred 
and eighty dollars and fifteen cents ; received from liquor license, 
two thousand nine hundred dollars ; receix-ed from dog fund, one 
thousand eight hundred and se\-enty-nine dollars and sixty-five 
cents ; total, seventy-eight thousand three hundred and ninety-six 
dollars and seventy-three cents. The amount collected for the city 
of Kokomo, thirty-seven thousand five hundred and forty-three dol- 
lars and sixty-t\\o cents ; the amount for the county outside of the 
city of Kokomo. forty thousand eight hundred and fifty-three dol- 
lars and eleven cents. The amount of special school tax levied and 
collected in 1908 was forty-nine thousand three hundred and ten 
dollars and twenty-one cents; the amount collected for the city of 
Kokomo was twenty-two thousand six hundred and thirty-six dol- 
lars and thirty cents ; the amount collected for the county outside of 
Kokomo was twenty-six thousand six hundred and seventy-three 
dollars and ninety-one cents. The whole amount of school money, 
tuition and special for Howard county for the year 1908 was one 
hundred and twenty-seven thousand, seven hundred and six dollars 
and ninety-four cents. 


In this county there are se\-enty-two brick school buildings and 
si.x frame buildings. 

There are one hundred and seventy-two teachers of the various 
grades employed in Howard county, and the total number of chil- 
dren of school age in the county is eight thousand five hundred and 

The past sixty years has witnessed such a wonderful material 
de\-elopment and ach-ance in Howard county that its magnitude is 


almost beyond belief; and the educational advance is equally great 
if not greater. From the rude and scanty furnishings and almost 
chaotic want of system" of the early schools, the change has been to 
large and commodious houses almost all built of brick, well heated 
and well lighted and equipped with the best of school furnishings. 
The organization from the state superintendent and state board of 
education down to the township and even the school district is so 
perfect that it constitutes a machine, the parts of which fit so well 
and work so harmoniously that they would delig^ht a mechanical en- 

An educator of today whenever he refers to our school system 
at once becomes enthusiastic. He declares that we have the finest 
school system in the world, that we have a school fund so large and 
so well managed that tuition in the common schools is practically 
free; that our schools are so well graded that by easy stages one 
passes on up through the high schools to the higher institutions of 
learning. The people, too, are proud of their schools. The people 
our our neighboring state, Michigan, point with justifiable pride to 
their great state university at Ann Arbor with its learned professors 
and its thousands of students attracted from all lands and they give 
it generous support. The people of Indiana are no less justified in 
their pride for their excellent school system. They get closer to the 
masses of the people. The people of Michigan have good common 
schools, but their specialty is their great university, which only the 
few can reach, while ours comes to the masses and prepares the many 
for the ordinary affairs of life. In this symphony of praise there 
comes a discordant note. 


It is suggested that the system is too well organized ; that it has 
become a machine, where all are treated to the same process ; that 


material for this educational process is intelligent beings with very 
different mental equipments and that the purpose of an education is 
to lead out, develop and train the natural gifts and powers of the 
student ; to stimulate him to independent thinking" and research, and 
to avoid the mechanical mental processes. 

Whether these suggestions are opportune it is not the province 
of the historian to say. In reviewing the school history of the past 
sixty years of our county, certain facts stand out prominently. Many 
students in the early schools with their two months' training became 
excellent spellers, good readers and penmen and acquired a practical 
knowledge of arithmetic that was surprising, and later the "old 
nonnal" in the late sixties and early seventies sent out from its 
school rooms men and women who stand out now living or in mem- 
ory for their learning, and sound original thinking, men like John 
W. Kern, J. Fred Vaile, J. O. Henderson, Bronson Keeler, O. A. 
Somers, L. J. Kirkpatrick, A. B. Kirkpatrick, Professor W. A. 
Greeson, Professor John B. Johnson and scores of others of that 
date. To one looking over the personnel of those who have had 
their education in the schools of Howard county the period referred 
to seems to have been the golden age of school work in this county. 
The fact also is prominent that at that time there was less of the 
close organization than at the present time. The teacher of that 
time had much freedom and many of them had strong personalities 
which was impressed upon the pupils. 

Whatever differences of opinion men may entertain of the 
merits or demerits of this close organization and the tendency to ma- 
chine work in our schools all are heartily glad that so abundant 
means are provided for the education of the youth of our county. 

The men of middle age watch the passing along of the school 
wagon with its load of happy noisy children going to or from school 
protected from the storm and mud or deep snow, and remember 


again that he walked long distances to school often through rain 
stomis and deep mud or else through the blizzard and biting cold 
and is glad that the children of today are not subjected to the like 


The Indians had no roads. Their highways were paths or 
"traces" through the forests, over which they traveled on foot or 
on their ponies. The white man, of necessity, must have roadways 
over which to travel with his wagon and team. His first roads were 
but temporary affairs. They built them the nearest ways and where 
they were the least difficult to construct. Farmers' lanes formed 
important links in them, but after the lands were suiweyed and 
township, range and section lines were run out and established they 
began to locate the roads on these lines, and many of the former 
meandering roadways were abandoned. These for several years 
were dirt roads, or, more correctly speaking, mud roads, during 
most of the year. They were built by the supervisor, who "warned 
out" all the able-bodied men of his road district between the ages 
of twenty-one and fifty to work the roads each spring from two to 
four days for no remuneration save the public good. This service 
was never enthusiastic. 

These roads were often impassable in places detours were made 
around such places by going out and over the adjacent farms. As 
the fanns were ditched and public drains constructed the roadbeds 
became drier and the roads became good much sooner. 

There were no gravel or macadam roads constracted in How- 
ard county before 1867, so that for more than twenty years the 
people had to be content with dirt roads. 



Tlie first state road located in the county was the Burlington 
and ]\Iarion state road from Burlington, in Carroll county, to Ma- 
rion, in Grant county. The repurt on this road was made to the 
commissioners at their June tenn, 1845, by Thomas A. Long, one 
of the commissioners appointed by the legislature to do this work 
The road as reported by them was one and one-half miles in Carroll 
county, twenty-nine and one-fourth miles in Richardville county 
and eleven miles in Grant county. This was a winding road, 
changing its course fourteen times in Carroll county and sixty-four 
times in crossing Richardville county. In passing through Kokomo 
it altered at the west end of Sycamore street and passed out at the 
east end of this street. There were two state roads reported at 
the September term of the commissioners' court : The Kokomo and 
Michigantown state road, by David Foster and George W. Snod- 
grass, commissioners. This road began at the southwest cnrner 
of the public square in Kokomo and ran south in Bucke)-e street 
to the bluffs of Wild Cat creek, thence southwesterly to the north 
bank of ^^'ild Cat creek, crossing at the rapids, thence in a general 
southwesterly direction, zigzagging back and forth, finally reach- 
ing Michigantown. The other road was the Peru and Canton state 
road from Peru, in Miami county, to Canton (Tipton), in Tipton 
county. This road came into Kokomo from t!ie northeast in the 
general direction of the Lanby gravel road until it intersected Union 
street : thence in Union street to the southeast comer of the Dona- 
tion, thence south on the line of Union street to Home avenue, 
thence southeast on the line of Home avenue almost to Kokomo 
creek, thence easterly and southeasterly , through the Purdum. 
the Dyas and other farms, to the intersection of the line of the 
Albright gravel mad. The Loganspi^rt state road was laid out 


a little later. The outline map of this road from the Cass county 
line to Kokomo shows wet prairies, ponds and sloughs almost the 
entire way. The general direction of this road was from the north- 
west to Washington street in Kokomo, and Washington and Walnut 
streets afforded entrance to the town proper. 


The first gravel roads in Howard county were toll roads. The 
tra\eler upon these roads must always go prepared to pay fare or 
toll, and at frequent intervals were toll-gates, or toll-houses, and 
the inevitable pole swung across the passage in front of the toll- 
house, ready to be pulled down in front of the luckless rider or 
driver who attempted to pass without first settling with the keeper. 
It did not matter how great the hurry, the urgency of the call or 
how fierce the storm, toll must be paid. It did not matter that it 
was a public highwa}-, that had been cut out oi the forests twenty 
years before by the supervisor and the men of the road district, and 
had been worked by them e\'ery year since, a gravel road company 
could occupy it to the exclusion of these very men who had made 
the road, and by doing additional work, compel every one traveling 
with horse and vehicle to pay a toll for the privilege of passing over 
it. The land owner whose lands had been appropriated was not re- 
spected in this operation. 

The law permitting this seizure said, "The Board of County 
Commissioners of the several counties of the state are hereby au- 
thorized to give their consent to the appropriation and occupation 
of any such state or county road or other public highway ovev and 
upon which any company may locate any such road." 

The law pemiitting the formation of gravel road companies 
was, ".-\.ny number of persons may fonn themselves into a corp(ira- 


tioii for the purpose of constructing or owning plank, macadamized, 
gravel, clay and dirt roads, by complying with the following re- 
quirements" : Then followed the usual requirements of stock com- 
panies. Whenever they had subscriptions for stock to the amount 
of five hundred dollars per mile they were pemiitted to file their 
articles of incorporation in the recorder's office and to become known 
publicly as a corporation. It is true that the toll gravel I'oads were 
not vei-y paying- investments from a pecuniary standpoint, and were 
built largely by public spirited men whose main purpose was to 
have good roads for travel the entire year. The grievance of tlie 
other party was that the road, whose right of way he had given, 
and upon which he had spent much labor and which was his only or 
main outlet from his home, was wholly occupied by the company and 
he was compelled to pay, willing or unwilling, for the privilege of 
pasisng over it. 

The Kokomo & New London gravel, road was the first gravel 
road built in the county and was built under this law. 

It was commenced in 1867 and was completed in 1870, being 
three years in the building; is ten miles long and cost twenty-seven 
thousand dollars. It connected the county seat, Kokomo, with the 
then metropolis of western Howard county, New London, and 
passed through Alto and the future West Middleton, and was the 
main thoroughfare to the southwest. The city of Kokomo paid 
two thousand dollars toward the building of this road and indi- 
viduals gave thirteen thousand dollars to assist in its building-. The 
leading citizens in forming the company to build and manage this 
road were Captain Barny Busby, Dr. E. W. Hinton, Isaac Ram- 
sey, Jonathan Hansell, Josiah Beeson, Shadrach Stringer. Samuel 
Stratton, C. S. Wilson, Joseph Stratton, Hiram Newlin and Rich- 
mond Terrell, a splendid company of men. This was continued as 
a toll road until the growing- sentiment for free roads caused the 


legislature to enact a law permitting- companies to sell their roads 
to the county. 


The other gravel roads built by companies organized a little 
later under the same or similar laws were: The Kokomo and 
Greentown gravel road, reaching from Kokomo to Greentown, 
eight and two-thirds miles long and mostly on the south side of 
Wild Cat creek. This road was commenced in 1869 and finished 
in 1874, and cost twenty-three thousand, two hundred and eighteen 
dollars. Vaile avenue was the western end and a toll-gate . stood 
where a brick business building now stands at the intersection of 
Union street. The leaders in the building of this road were Raw- 
son Vaile, Xoah Carter, J. W. Smith, William T. ^Nlannering. Ves- 
pasian Goyer, Paul Miller, Clarke Boggs and N. J. Owings. This 
continued a toll road like the others until the growing free gravel 
road sentiment made it possible to sell out to the county, and it is 
now a free gravel road. 

The Kokomo, Greentown and Jerome gravel road was organ- 
ized in 1869 and was completed in 1871 at a cost of thirty-eight 
thousand dollars. It extends from Kokomo, running east on the 
north side of Wild Cat creek, through old Vermont, to Greentown, 
and thence to Jerome, a distance of twelve miles, and is a promi- 
nent eastern thoroughfare. The active friends of this road were 
David Smith, Andrew Patterson, C. C. Willetts, Rossiter Gray, 
Jacob Brunk, Bamhart Learner, D. S. Farley, John S. Trees, Jona- 
than Covalt, E. P. Gallion, W. M. Sims, J. R. Curlee and Milton 
Garrigus. This road is now a free gravel road, the toll system go- 
ing with the others. 

The Kokomo and Pete's Run gravel road was organized in 
1869 and completed in 1871 at a cost of thirty-three thousand, fifty- 

io6 morrow's history 

eight dollars. It is eleven miles in length and is popularly known 
as the Jefferson street pike, beginning at the west end of Jefferson 
street and running directly west. It is the principal thoroughfare 
for the west end of the county toward Burlingion and Delphi. The 
active citizens in the building of this road were H. \\'. Smith, 
James McCool, Israel Brubaker, Michael Price, S. D. Hawkins, D. 
B. Hendrickson, Thomas M. Kirkpatrick and others. This, too. is 
now a free gravel njad, after a prosperous series of years as a toll 

The \\'ild Cat gravel road was commenced in 1869 and com- 
pleted in 1 87 1. This is popularly known as the \\'est Sycan^jre 
street pike, and begins at the west end of Sycamore street and runs 
west along Wild Cat ten miles, costing twenty-two thousand dol- 
lars. The principal friends and managers of this gravel road were 
Judge X. R. Linsday. William B. Smith, X. P. Richmond. Isaac 
Hawk, Silas Grantham, S. E. Overholser and Thomas Dimmitt. 
This road parallels the Petes Run gra\-el road and at no point is it 
far from it. It is built over hills and through bottoms, making it 
both more expensive to build and to keep in repair, and has Ijesides 
been unfortunate in having- the collection of the assessments en- 
joined and then being reassessed. The legislature then repealed 
the law authorizing the collection of gravel road taxes, making a 
combination of adverse conditions its friends were not able to 
overcome, hence they abandoned it. 

The Deer Creek gravel road was commenced in 1873 and com- 
pleted in 1875, at a cost of fifteen thousand dollars. The road be- 
gan at the north end of Smith street and extended north five miles 
to the Miami county line. The active workers in securing this 
gravel road were William Kirkpatrick, John Davis, J. ^I. Leeds, 
Jesse Swisher, William Mills, Jacob Early and John ^^^ Lovin. 


These were the only roads constructed under the company s}^s- 
tem. One of them reached the southwestern part of the county and 
did a good business ; one reached the north hne of the county and 
did a fair business ; two paralleled each other closeh' both to the 
east and west and one of each pair did not pay. 


The sentiment that all roads should be public and free had 
grown rapidly and in 1877 the legislature passed a law for the con- 
struction of free gravel roads and providing for the payment for the 
same by assessing all lands lying within two miles of the road to 
be improved, according to the benefits to the several tracts to be 
assessed. The first roads to be built under this law were the Al- 
bright, commenced in 1878 and finished in 1879. This road begins 
at the south end of Home avenue and runs somewhat east of south, 
and terminates one mile east of Fairfield and cost fourteen thou- 
sand, seven hundred fifty-one dollars. Also the Rickett's road, 
which also begins at the south end of Home avenue and runs south 
on the range line to the south line of the county. This road was 
commenced in 1878 and finished in 1879 and cost thirteen thou- 
sand, nine hundred forty-six dollars and twenty-two cents. These 
two roads furnished excellent outlets for the south side of this coun- 
ty and the north side of Tipton county. 

In 1882 the Peter Trouby gravel road was built at a cost of 
twenty-eight thousand, eight hundred sixty dollars and twenty 
cents. This road begins at the east end of Jefiferson street and runs 
in a northeasterly direction four miles, thence east four miles, end- 
ing at the west line of Liberty township. This road has since been 
extended east by the construction of the Gorsett gravel road, end- 
ing at the Darby road, one-half mile west of the Grant county line, 
and thus provides a splendid outlet for the entire northeastern part 
of the county. 

io8 morrow's history 

In the same year, 1882, the J. L. Smith and; Harrison Harian 
gravel roads were built to the northwest, both starting together at 
the intersection of North and Smith streets and running together 
west and north three-fourths of a mile, and then separating, the 
Harlan following a general northwesterly direction along the line 
of the Logansport state road nearly four miles, ending at its inter- 
section with the Smith road and was built at a cost of nineteen 
thousand, nine hundred ninety dollars and twenty-seven cents. The 
Smith road ran west after its separation two and one-half miles, 
thence north one and one-half miles, thence westerly to the vicinity 
of Poplar Grove, and is fourteen miles in length. This road pro- 
vides the entire northwest part of the county with a good outlet to 

In 1887 the P. N. Schrader gravel road, commonly known as 
"the pumpkin vine" because of its many directions, was built. This 
road provided the entire southeast part of the county a good outlet 
over a free gravel road to Kokomo. 

These various gravel roads having a common center at Koko- 
mo and radiating to all parts of the county, formed an admirable 
gravel road system for the entire county, affording citizens of all 
parts of the county an excellent highway at all seasons of the year 
direct to the county seat, his system of roads cost more than three 
hundred thousand dollars to construct and the annual repair cost is 
a very large sum. 

Since 1887 many g-ravel roads have been constructed, most ()f 
them shorter roads, using the roads heretofore described a-^ a trunk 
system and building" branches and cross roads from one line to an- 


In- round numbers the mileage of all kinds of roads in Howard 
county is six hundred. Prior to the year 1908 there had been fifty- 


nine gravel roads built with a total length of two hundred and sev- 
enty miles and at an aggregate cost of six hundred and fifty thou- 
sand dollars. 

Under the 1905 gra\'el road law as amended in 1907 and 
known as the three mile limit law there have been fifty-four roads 
sold for construction with a mileage of one hundred and fifteen. 
Thirty other roads are petitioned for and awaiting sale, ^^■hen 
the roads now sold for construction are completed and paid for the 
citizens will have invested about nine hundred thousand dollars in 
gravel road construction, and should the others now petitioned 
for be built, three-fourths or more of the road mileage of Howard 
county will be macadam or gravel and more than one million dol- 
lars will have been invested in their construction. 

The annual cost of repair is now fifteen thousand dollars. \^dien 
the increased mileage now started is completed, the repair cost, if 
increased in like ratio, will amount to nearly twenty-five thousand 
dollars annually. 

Were all the gravel roads in Howard county, constructed or 
ordered to be constructed, placed in a continuous line, end to end, 
and a railroad track laid on the line it would require a train running 
thirty miles an hour, fifteen hours to traverse it. 


These roads have been constructed by varying methods. The 
first as we have seen was by companies and the stock system and 
the accompanying toll-gate. These became free roads only after 
they were purchased and paid for by an assessment on all lands ly- 
ing within two miles of the road. The second step was under the 
law of 1877, which provided that the commissioners shall begin pro- 
ceedings for the improvement upon the filing of a petition sigmed 


bv five or more persons whose lands would be assessed for the im- 
provement asked for. and the filing of a bond to secure the costs 
sh(.utkl the proposed improvement fail. Under this law the costs of 
the improvement were paid out of an assessment made upon the 
lands lying- within two miles of the improved highway: each tract 
of land was to be assessed according to its relative benefit. 

The next change provided that townships by a popular vote 
could order certain roads improved and the costs of the improve- 
ment were to be paid from the sale of a twenty year series of bonds 
against the assessed v-aluation of the township. 

Then the system was changed to the assessment of the lands 
lying within two miles of the road proposed to be improved. This 
law provided that a majority of the resident land owners along the 
line and abutting the highway and also owners of a maojrity of the 
acres of land abutting should be represented on the petition before 
starting proceedings. 

The next change was to the present law with its amendmen* 
that on the presentation of a petition signed by fifty resident land 
owners and voters of a township for the improvement of a highway 
less than three miles in length and which has a United States mail 
route upon it, either in whole or in part, or connects two gravel 
roads already constructed, it shall be the duty of the county com- 
missioners! to take the necessary steps for the improvement and the 
cost of the improvement shall be paid from the sale of bonds at not 
less than par. the l)onds to be issued in a ten year series, bearing 
four and one-half per cent, interest: to be a lien upon the property 
of the township and not to exceed four per cent, of the assessed 
valuation of the township. Under this law there has been a flood 
tide of petitions for roads: the residents along any unimproved 
road insisting that inasmuch as they were compelled to help pay for 
the roads of others that they were justly entitled to have the others 
help them to pay for their inprovement. 



There is already a clamor for the repeal of this law because it 
is alleged that in the eager haste of each section to build its roads, a 
great debt is created and ci_)nsequent high taxes for a great number 
of years. On the other hand, it is justly urged that those communi- 
ties which are now taxed to pay for road for other communities 
should have the benefit of a similar taxation to pay for the improve- 
ment of dieir roads. 

The constant chang-e in the methods of paying for public im- 
provements is the bane of our times. A fixed and equitable system 
of paying for public improvements should be adopted and rigidly 
adhered to. Those who have paid for their gravel roads by special 
assessments and then by a township tax are compelled to help pay 
for a distant improvement are wronged. Since so large a per cent, 
of the highway is now being improved under this law taxing all 
the people of the township, it seems the more equitable to continue 
it in force. 


The first court house was built in 1845 of hewn logs with a 
clapboard roof. It was twenty-four feet square and two stories 
high. It was so larg-e and commodious that the lower storv was 
divided by board partitions into offices and business rooms. One 
of the first-floor rooms was occupied by the clerk, another was used 
by H. B. Havens as a saddlery and harness shop and another by 
(;. W. Poisal as a tailor shop. Dr. Richmond alsn used this as a 
doctor's office. 


The upper room was fitted up for a court room, ha\-ing- a rough 
board rostrum for the judge and a large table for the use of the 
clerk and the attorneys, and was fitted up with slab seats for the 
audience. This was the main auditorium of the town, and here 
were held all public meetings for several years. 

By the tenns of the donation which Foster made for locating 
the county seat at Kokomo, Foster was to build this court house, 
By some change not satisfactorily explained Foster was released 
from this part of the contract. The commissioners, however, ap- 
pointed Foster and Dennis McCormack to let the job and by in- 
ference to superintend the constiaiction. The contract was let to 
Rufus L. Blowers for twenty-eight dollars, and because of his fail- 
ure to complete it within the time specified he was penalized two dol- 
lars, receiving twenty-six dollars for the job. 

wouldn't p.\y office rent. 

That the men who had offices in the court house were not very 
prompt in paying rent appears in this: At the June term, 1851, the 
following order was issued by the board of commissioners : "Or- 
dered, that the sheriff be required to notify G. W. Poisal, C. and O. 
Richmond, X. R. Linsday and C. D. Murray to meet the board at 
its next meeting to settle with said board for office rent of the court 

The county was growing and the spirit of enterprise and prog- 
ress which has ever characterized the people of Kokomo and How- 
ard count}- determined the commissioners that the first court house 
was now out of date, and they accordingly appointed C. D. Mur- 
ray, Corydon Richmond and Austin C. Sheets a committee on plans 
and specifications, letting contract and superintending the construc- 
tion of buildings for county offices. 


Tliey adopted plans for two brick buildings eighteen feet wide, 
thirty-six feet long and one story high, one building to be located 
near the east entrance and on the north side of the path crossing the 
public square from the east to the west, and the other building near 
the west entrance and on the north side of the same path. The 
contract for the construction of these buildings was let to D. C. 
Hurley, Jesse Arnold and Henry C. Stewart for nine hundred and 
seventy-five dollars. The east building was occupied by the auditor 
and treasurer and the clerk and recorder occupied the west building. 


In the erection of these buildings it was detennined that there 
should be a cornerstone laying with all proper ceremony. Uncle 
Billy Albright, as he was jjopularly known, was a stonemason and 
a popular local Methodist preacher of that day — a tall man, of 
strong build and powerful \-oice. Albright had spent two days 
dressing a cornerstone which had been taken from the Morrow (now 
Deffenbaugh) stone quarry. His work was almost done to his sat- 
isfaction ; there was a small place he thought he could improve. In 
chipping" it with his hammer the entire stone fell to pieces. In utter 
disgust he threw down his hammer, straightened himself up and 
after a moment's contemplation he realized that he could not do jus- 
tice to his feelings, and cried out at the top of his voice, "Where is 
Mike Craver ? Run here, everybody. Here is something to be done. 
\\'here is Mike Craver?" Mike Craver was a pioneer plasterer 
and was not hampered by religious scruples. 

The work went forward satisfactorily after this mishap so far 
as the records disclose, and the buildings were completed and for 
sixteen years they served the county. At the March term, 1868, 
the ciiunt}- commissioners — |erome Brown. Henrv L. ]\Ioreland and 


Samuel Stratton, ordered tliat bids for building a court hnuse be 
ad\-ertised for. U> be considered at a special session on the 15th of 
April fiillinving. They reserved the right to reject any or all bids, 
if they were not satisfactory. .-Vll the bids were rejected and the 
board determined to hire the work done themselves. They accord- 
ingly appointed one of their number. Samuel E. Stratton, superin- 
tendent, with full power to ccintract for work and materials as 
seemed best for the interests of the county. J- ^^'■ Coffman had 
charge of the work as a mechanic and builder. The whole work 
was under the general supervision of the architect. Mr. Rimibaugh, 
and the final approval was to be by the board. 


It was commenced in 1868 and finished in 1870, and cost nine- 
ty-seven thousand, five hundred and forty-eight dollars and forty 
cents. The natural surface of the public scjuare was low and level. 
This was filled and sloped as we now see it, walks were built of 
large cut stones, a heavy iron fence with stone foundation was built 
around the entire square, outside of the fence was a paved way, and 
outside of the paved way was stretched a heavy iron chain supported 
by iron posts. This served as a public hitchrack for a numlier of 
years. The cost of these improvements with the cost of the town 
clock added increased the total cost of the court house to approxi- 
mately one hundred and ten thousand dollars. 

As originally constructed, the heating plant was in the base- 
ment, the several county offices — clerk, auditor, treasurer, recorder 
and sheriff, were on the first floor, and the entire second floor was 
given over to the court room, the judge's room and the jury room. 
The court room served also as the public auditorium for many 


Tlie acoustic properties of the room were bad, the reverberation 
was sucli tliat accurate hearing was difficult. After trying- the ex 
periment of stretclu'ng a network of o\-erhead wires without satis- 
factory results it was determined to remodel the second floor by re- 
ducing the size of the court room and partitioning the other part 
into a larger jury room and ofifices for the county assessor, county 
superintendent of schools and the county surveyor. 

From a description of this court house, written shortly after 
its completion we learn: "It is a tine and substantial brick, two 
stories in height, besides the basement. It is eighty-two by eighty- 
six feet in size and one hundred and twenty-six feet high to the top 
of the tower. The court room in the second story is iifty-one by 
eighty-two feet in size and thirty-eight and one-half feet in height 
from floor to ceiling. There are four rooms or offices on the first 
floor, each twenty-two by twenty-four feet and sixteen feet high, 
used respectively by the clerk, recorder, auditor and treasurer. The 
sherift"s office, also on the first floor, is twelve by fourteen feet and 
sixteen feet story, and on the upper floor there are four jur}' rooms, 
all the same size as the sherifif's. Outside, the first story is sixteen 
feet, the second twenty-three feet and the mansard fourteen feet, 
and under the whole building is a basement in which is a furnace, 
with which at a cust of five thousand dollars for construction, the 
whole building is heated with steam. It presents an imposing ap- 
pearance, is covered with slate, has good \-aults and compares very 
favorably with an}- other building in the state of the kind and cost." 


Twenty-fi\-e years ago it was written : "The building is sub- 
stantialh- built of good, durable material, and has within it fireproi-)f 
vaults for the different offices in which to store the records and val- 

Il6 morrow's HISTORY 

uables belonging to the: county. Tlie square upon which it is built 
was filled up several feet so that it appears to stand on high ground ; 
there is surrounding the grounds an iron fence with stone founda- 
tions and a heav_v guard chain entirely around outside the sidewalk, 
which is well paved. All the walks leading to the building are paved 
with large cut stones. It is a fine appearing house, and when the 
forest trees that ha\'e been planted around it are sufficiently grown 
it will be a beautiful place. 'I"he dream of a (piarter of a century 
ago has more than been realized. The thrifty well grown trees 
and the sloping greensward make a beautiful place indeed. The 
unsightly, unsanitary hitching rack of that elder day, which seemed 
a permanent fixture, has given place to brick pa\-ements, wide 
cement walks and flowing; fountains. That high iron fence, which 
seemed as durable as time, is gone, and the weary sit upon the stone 
foundations and sigh for wooden seats. The hitch rack had many 
friends who were reluctant to see it go. It was a \'ery convenient 
hitching place and free of cost. One dark nig-ht the chain mys- 
teriously disappeared and did not come back. At the time it was 
thought that the advocates of the city beautiful and clean knew 
where it was. 


The first jail, as has alread}- been stated, was built of 
hewn timbers one foot square throughout walls, floor and ceiling ; 
the logs notched down close and boarded on the outside, with 
double doors of two-inch oak plank, with a home-made lock and 
key, the key alone weighing four pounds. It is said that no prisoner 
broke out of this jail. It was located at the southwest corner of 
VA^'Sshington and High streets. For twenty years the log jail did 
its work faithfulh'. In 1865 the board let a contract to J. \\'. 
Coft'man to build a brick and stone jail for $g,6oo. The front ]iart 


was the residence part fur the jailer's family and was of brick. The 
prison part was back of that and attached to it in such a way that 
the entrance to the jail was through the hallway of the dwelling. 
The prison part was built of stone and the cells of iron. There was 
a dug- well on the inside where the prisoners could get water. This 
well, on one occasion, furnished the means of escape for several 
prisoners by digging- from the well out under the wall of the 
prison. This jail and its location soon became unsatisfactory. It 
was urged that the sewerage was not good, though it was not far 
to a good outlet and that could ha\'e been overcome with no great 
expense. The prison itself seems to have been defective and was 
not a secure place to detain, prisoners. In 1880, fifteen years after 
the building- of this new jail, the con-unissioners planned to secure a 
new location for the building of a larger and safer jail where the 
sanitary conditions would be better for the ini-nates. A site was 
secured on the east side of South Main street, on the bluff of Wild 
Cat creek, large enough to furnish ample room for all necessai-y 
buildings and sightly surroundings, with the grounds well kept. 
The elevation of the grounds made it an easy matter to dump the 
sewage into ^^'ildcat. In 1882 a contract was let to McCorn-iack 
& Sweeney for the building nf a new jail at a cost of thirty-four 
thousand, three hundred and fourteen dollars. The building is 
one hundred and three feet fi\-e inches long : the front or residence 
part is thirty-seven feet nine inches wide and the jail part is forty- 
three feet seven inches wide; it is two stories and a basement in 
height. In the basement is placed the steam heating plant and two 
or three dungeons, the walls of which are made with a single stone. 
The cells are built out from the walls of the jail, so that communi- 
cation from without is cut off. Accommodations are providetl for 
different classes of prisoners and a hospital room for the sick. The 
grounds and the surroundings are well kept and our jail has an 
inviting appearai-ice. 


It was not so \-en- many }-ears after the permanent settling 
and organization of the count}-, the county commissioners, impress- 
ed with the growing need of a permanent home for the helpless and 
unfortunate poor who must be cared for at public expense, purchased 
the Thomas Galewood farm, lying then two and one-half miles south 
of town. Willis Blanche, Harvey Brown and B. W. Gififord purchas- 
ed this farm in 1857. containing one hundred and sixty-five acres for 
forty-five hundred dollars. This was a fine, dry, rolling farm, with 
Kokomo creek running diagonally through it from the southeast to 
the northwest. The Indianapolis & Peru Railroad ran through it 
from south to north, cutting off twenty-six and one-fourth acres on 
the west side. Because this small tract was across the railroad the 
commissioners sold it at once to \\'illis Blanche for seven hundred 
fifteen dollars and eighty-four cents. There were no buildings of 
consequence on the farm ; a log hut for a home and a log stable for 
a bam afiforded poor accommodations for a colony of frail men and 
women. The land was largely covered with the native forests and 
fields and grain and grassy meadows seemed a long wa}- off. After 
three years of possession it was decided to sell the farm and buy one 
closer to town. On Deceml^er 5, i860, the commissioners. Wil- 
liam Woods, John Knight and Robert Coate, sold the fann to Nel- 
son Purdum for three thousand, four hundred seventy-two dollars 
and seventy-five cents. January 8, 1861, the same commissioners 
bought eighty acres off the west side of the farm of James H. ]\Ic- 
Cool for two thousand, eight hundred dollars. In April. i86t, tliey 
contracted with James Linville to build a house on the farm for 
three hundred sixty-nine dollars. In 1865 the commissioners con- 
tracted with William Chadwick to build another and larger house 
on the fami ; the building was to be two stories high, twenty by 


thirty-six feet in size, with a wing running back sixteen by thirty-six 
feet, and one story high, for one thousand, eight hundred dollars. 
This house was desigmed for the use of .the superintendent of the 
farm and as a home for the count}-'s poor. It is said that it would 
be difficult to constract a house more illy adapted for the purpose 
than this one, and in a few years, the board becoming satisfied of 
its bad arrangement and unhealthfulness, determined to build a bet- 
ter one. They resolved to build a house that would not only be a 
comfortable home for the poor of the county, but one that would 
reflect credit upon the county as well. They carefully investigated 
plans and specifications until fully satisfied Ijefore approving. May 
24, 1 88 1, bids were received for constructing the building. David 
O. Freeman submitted the lowest bid and was awarded the contract 
at fourteen thousand, nine hundred sixty-five dollars and eighty-five 
cents, to furnish all the material and complete the building. Peter 
A. Sassaman was associated with him in carrying out this contract. 

G. \\'. Bunting, of Indianapolis, was the architect and superin- 
tended the erection of the building. They erected a very creditable 
building: an enduring structure of good material, well built and ar- 
ranged for comfort, health and convenience. The building is two 
stories and a basement in height, is one hundred and thirty-six feet 
in length, and forty-five feet in width, and is divided into forty-fi\e 
rooms. There are several rooms in the basement, in one of which 
is the outfit for heating the whole building by steam. The fann has 
a good barn and other farm buildings. It has also a good tile drain- 
age and is a first-class farm, well located. The Kokomo & Pete's 
Run gra\-el road runs through it. The infirmary building fronts 
directly on the gravel road and is one-half mile west of the city 

P. H. Y. Haynes is the present superintendent and is paid 
eight hundred dollars a year salary, out of which he must pay for 


his help in operating the farm. The products sold from the farm 
belong to the county. The farm contains one hundred fifty-three 
and twenty-six hundredths acres. 

orphan's home. 

During the years prior to the founding of the Orphan's Home 
Association, orphan children, half orphan children and other chil- 
dren who had been rendered homeless by the varying misfoii:unes of 
life and who were without friends or kindred to provide homes for 
them, were taken to the county poor asylum to be cared for. Here 
they were housed, clothed and fed, but the associations were not suit- 
able to develop good men and women. It was impossible for the 
superintendent to care for their training and teaching and their en- 
vironment was not such as to stimulate them to make the best of 
their lives. In 1868 the ladies comprising the Ladies' Union Mis- 
sionary Society, recognizing these facts, and prompted by the idea 
of a home especially for orphan children, arranged for and gave a 
festival October 22, 1868, in aid of this project, and realized one 
hundred and twenty-five dollars in money, which was placed in the 
First National Bank of Kokomo and set apart as the beginning of 
a fund for this purpose: to this was added other sums from time 
to time, raised in like manner. In January, 1873, ^ number of 
these ladies who had actively interested themselves in this work 
formed and incorporated an association called the Orphans" Home 
Association of Howard county. Under the direction of this or- 
ganization they continued to hold festivals and systematically so- 
licited donations to their funds, so that at the close of the year 1873 
they had in bank, money and notes approximating one thousand, 
two hundred dollars. The object of the association, as announced, 
was "to provide ways and means by which the orphan and destitute 


children of tlie county might be provided a comfortable home, cloth- 
ing and food, and also to bring- them as far as possible under the 
influence of good moral training-, leading them into habits of in- 
dustr)-, and extending to them the hygienic benefits of cleanliness 
and fresh air, and finally procuring homes for them in good families. 
Having amassed a fund suflficient to start with, and feeling confident 
in the beneficial influaice of an illustration of their work by opening 
a home, they, on the first day of November, 1873, rented a house 
and secured the sendees of I\Irs. Mary A. Street as matron, wIkt 
took charge with five children under her care. ^liss Anna Street 
acted as teacher. Having put the purpose of the association into 
actual operation, they increased their efforts to add to its material 
resources. The home was first opened in the west part of the city, 
but its increasing demands made it necessary to secure greater ac- 
commodations, and a larger house was rented on North Union 
street, where they remained until the opening of their new home in 
the autumn of 1875. During the year 1874 it became very manifest 
that other and more extensive accommodations were needed, as de- 
mands were constantly coming to the managers for the admission 
of children. The management had also extended the sphere of their 
design and had now, in view of the removal of all small children 
from the county infirmary, regarding it as an unsuitable place for 
rearing the young, and also to remove from them in after years the 
odium of having been paupers. The association was limited in 
means, but determined to procure, if possible, a site on which to 
erect a Imilding that would be ample in its capacity for years to 
crime. In can\-assing for this a committee called on Peter B. Hers- 
leb. a bachelor living alone on his farm just south of the city. Tvlr. 
Hersleb was a Dane, said to have been of princely lineage, who 
came to this country because of a love of freedom, with possibly a 
bit of adventure. ]\Ir. Hersleb was a cultured gentleman with all 


the finer instincts of his nature well developed. The fact that he 
li\-ed alone in his bachelor quarters impressed many that he was 
somewhat eccentric. In this he was misjudg'ed. as all testified who 
came into close personal touch with him. In his den, as he termed 
it, he was ever affable and polite. He it was who in the campaign of 
1858 came so near defeating- James A. W'ildman for count}- auditor 
that it required the \'ote of Honey Creek township to do it. Such 
was the man the comniittee called upon to ask to sell theni a build- 
ing- site at the southeast corner of the intersection of Markland ave- 
nue and Home avenue, that being the northwest corner of his land. 
He refused to sell to them. Instead he g-ave them an acre at that 
place and also three hundred dollars in money, and afterward gave 
them five hundred dollars more, and many other donations that 
were of value to the association. Mr. Hersleb's generosity stimu- 
lated them to greater efforts in getting the means to build with. 
They applied to the county commissioners for assistance. The com- 
missioners replied that they had no power under the law to make 
such donations. However, after much importuning, they gave them 
fifteen dollars, and at the next term twenty dollars, and at the next 
thirty-five dollars. Believing that benefit would accrue to the home 
if recognized as a county institution, they procured the services of 
Judge James O'Brien in the preparation of a bill to be laid before 
the legislature, which was passed and became a law in 1875, by 
which they were authorized to take orphan and destitute children 
into their home and receive for each child twenty-five cents per day 
toward its support. Another soiuxe of income was a dining hall 
at the county fair, which netted them two hundred dollars, P. E. 
Hoss giving them twenty-five dollars for one meal. The Young 
Ladies' Sigournean Band gave one hundred and seventy-five dol- 
lars, several citizens gave one hundred dollars each, and smaller 
donations, down to five cents for the children's treasury, were made. 


Eliciim Boggs, deceased, Ijequeatlied eight hundred diillars, six liun- 
clred of which was in city bonds. After securing these funds tlie 
association feU justified in commencing their l_iuil(hng. They let 
tlie contract to J. W. Cottman in tlie spring of 1875 and (hu'ing tlie 
summer it was Imilt and completed so that it was occupied October. 
1875. The building was a two-story and basement building, forty 
In- fiirt}--six feet, containing thirteen rooms, all heated by a furnace 
in the b.nsement : the total cost nf the building, including the heating 
plant, was four thousand dollars. In 1876 the home had been in 
practical operation for three years, antl this statement was given 
out: "During the three years this home has been in operation six- 
tv-se\-en homeless children have found refuge there : se\'eral have 
been returned to their friends: thirty-three have had homes fur- 
nished them in the cnuntr}-, and but three ha\-e died. The expense 
of the home for the past year, 1876, was eight hundred ninety dol- 
lars and fifty-nine cents." In 1883 this statement was made regard- 
ing the work of the home: "The number of children now in the 
home is twenty, and the average number is about twenty. In the 
ten years of the home there have been over two hundred children 
provided with good homes, in good families, thus securing them 
from want, neglect, ignorance and possible pauperism and degrada- 
tion. \^'e are justified in saying that through the efforts put forth 
by this org-anization it was that the present law was enacted by 
which young children are taken from the county poor houses and 
cared for properly until good homes can be secured for them, thus 
saving many from becoming not only paupers, but criminals. \\'ith 
the twenty-five cents a day given by the county for each child they 
are aiabled to keep the home in active operation, paying the matron 
from twenty to twenty-five dollars per month and a go\erness 
twelve dollars per month and the cook two dollars per week. Peo- 
l^le from the country often bring them donations of eatables, and 


sometimes articles of clothing. The most active and continuous 
workers in promoting the interests of the home from the beginning 
are Mrs. Emma E. Dixon. Mrs. Eva Davis, ]Mrs. Jane Turner. Mrs. 
Dr. Dayhuff, Mrs. Hendry. ]\Irs. Mariah Leach, Airs. Lizzie Has- 
ket, Mrs. L. B. Xixon. :Mrs. J. Coffman, ]Mrs. L. \\". Leeds and 
Electa Lindley. Others that have come into the association since 
and ha\-e been acti\-e workers are }iL-s. A. F. Armstrong, Airs. 
Sarah Davis. Airs. X. R. Lindsay, Airs. T. C. Philips, Airs. Dosh, 
Airs. Dr. Alavity. Airs. Kraus. Airs. Rosenthal and Airs. Dr. I. C. 
Johnson. In June. 1902. after twenty-seven years" service, bids 
were submitted for the repair and improvement of the building. 
Both bids were above the appropriation for the purpose, and the 
commissioners of necessity rejected them. The next year. 1903. 
the county council appropriated six thousand dollars for a new 
orphans' home building. In September of that year two bids were 
received ; the lower one proposed to build complete the home, with 
a heating plant, for seven thousand, eight hundred forty-seven dol- 
lars, and without a heating plant for seven' thousand, four hundred 
ninety-seven dollars. This, being in excess of the appropriation, 
was rejected. At the October term of that year there is the fol- 
lowing record of release and consent : "Whereas, No suitable build- 
ings or equipment have been prepared or arranged for the orphans' 
home of Howard county, Indiana, and it is impossible for the 
Howard County Orphans' Home Association, for said reasons, to 
continue its work at the present time, and said association is, because 
of the lack of proper buildings and equipment and the failure of 
the county to provide the same, compelled to give up its work of 
caring for the orphans at present, the said association does there- 
fore hereby consent to the temporan,- abandonment of the orphans' 
home in Howard county, Indiana, and does, under the present cir- 
cumstances, release to the board of commissioners the children now 


in the orphans' home of Howard county, Indiana. Signed by the 
president. Mary S. Armstrong." Whereupon the board ordered the 
children in the home transferred to the \M:ite Institute at Treaty, 
near Wabash, in ^^'abash county. Since that date Howard county 
lias had no orphans' home and the orphan and homeless children of 
our county have been kept at the ^^'hite Institute at a charge of 
thirty cents a day for each one. The present expense to Howard 
county and her citizens is about thirteen hundred dollars annually. 
From the best infonnation at hand it appears that the White In- 
stitute is a corporation founded and managed under the control of 
the. Friends church for the care, training and instruction of orphan 
and liomeless children. 


Sixty-one years had passed after the close of the war of Inde- 
pendence when Howard county was organized, in 1844, and if any 
soldier of that war ever made his home within this county, he must 
have been an old man. It is not definitely known that any soldier 
of the Revolution lived within our county. Tradition says that an 
aged man named Barngrover, who died mau)^ years ago and whose 
solitary grave is in a pasture field just off the New London gravel 
road about two miles southwest of Kokomo, was a hero of that war. 

The soldiers of the War of 1812 had a fair representation 
among the early settlers of our county. From the "Military Histoiw 
of Howard Count}-," compiled b}- John \\'. Barnes, we gather that 
the following were once residents of our county. Their names and 
lives, as presented in that sketch, are : Alexander G. Forgey settled 
in Howard county in 1842 and made a home just east of Poplar 
Grove, and died in 1855. aged seventy-five years. 


Israel Ferree was born in Virginia about the year 1775. He 
was stationed for a considerable part of his enlistment at Norfolk, 
\'irginia. He came to this county in 1850 and died in 1863. 

Daniel Heaton was born in Pennsylvania August 27. 1780. 
While quite young he formed a strong liking for frontier life, and 
leaving his home, came westward and purchased land in what is 
now Preble county, Ohio. The town of Eaton, the county seat of 
this countv. was afterward named in his honor. Here he married 
Mary Furgeson, who bore him eleven children. It is probable that 
he resided at this place at the time of his enlistment. Whether he 
was captain of the company to which he belonged at its first organi- 
zation is not known, but that he held this office afterward, and by 
successive promotions was finally made colonel, is well known. He 
was stationed part of the time at Fort Wayne and participated in the 
battle of Tippecanoe with General Harrison, to whom he was ever 
afterward greatly attached. After the war his desire for Western 
life brought him to Indiana, where he engaged in hunting, trapping 
beaver, and trading with the Indians. In this pursuit he made sev- 
eral trips as far westward as Iowa on horseback. In 1841 he came 
to Howard county and settled on Little Wild Cat creek, in Harrison 
township, a short distance east of West Middleton. He was a mem- 
ber of the ]\Iasonic Order and at the time of his death he was the 
oldest member in the county, having belonged to the order nearly 
fifty years. The sword that he carried during the War of 1812 
he presented to the ^Masonic lodge in New London. He was an 
ardent and enthusiastic LTnion man during the war of the Rebellion 
and a great admirer of Lincoln. He firmly believed that the admin- 
istration would be finally triumphant but did not live to see it. The 
Tribune of April 23. 1861, has this to say of him. "Colonel Heaton. 
the ^•eteran soldier, eighty-one years old. was in town on Sunday. 
He wants to volunteer. He says a man had better say his prayers. 


make his will and prepare to go to hell, than to speak against our 
country in his presence." 

Colonel Heaton was small of stature, energetic and active, posi- 
ti\-e in his nature and a great reader, especially of the current litera- 
ture of the day. He was married three times and had sixteen chil- 
dren, eight boys and eight girls. On the 14th day of January, 1863, 
when the rebellion had grown to gigantic proportions, when the 
fierce winds of winter were howling without, and all nature seemed 
agitated, his life went out with the storm. His funeral rites were 
said by the Rev. Mr. Keelen, a Baptist minister, and his remains 
were laid forever at rest in the little burial ground at Alto. 

Samuel Giles was born in Lexington, Kentucky, in 1792. He 
enlisted in his native state and served under Colonel Richard M. 
Johnson. He was in the battles of Tippecanoe and the Thames. He 
came to this county in 1861 and died in 1866. 

Robert Morrison, also a soldier of 18 12, died in 1868. 


John ]\Iiller was born .in \\'estmoreland county, Pennsylvania, 
October 13, 1794. His father dietl when he was seventeen years 
old. He, in company with his brother, George [Miller, moved to 
\\'arren county, Ohio, near Lebanon, about the year 181 1, which 
was then almost a wilderness. In 1814 he helped to organize a 
company, which was being recruited at the military post at Dayton, 
Ohio. This company was sent to Fort Meigs, on the Maumee. He 
was sent from this place to Hamilton, Ohio, as a recruiting officer. 
His regiment Avas transferred to the command of General Brown, 
and took part in the battle of Lundy's Lane. He also helped to 
defend Fort Erie against the repeated attempts of the British to 
take it. The siege lasted more than six weeks, when the British 

128 morrow's history 

were repulsed. After the war Aliller resided for a time in Darke 
county, near Fort Jefferson, famous in history as the place where 
St. Clair retreated after his defeat by the Indians at Fort Recovery. 
In 1826 he married Sarah Broderick. In 1850 he moved to How- 
ard county, three-quarters of a mile north of Jerome, where he 
resided until his deatli. wliich occurred February 22, 1873. His 
wife survived him five years. The ashes of both repose in the 
Jerome cemetery, on the banks of Wild Cat, where rest many of 
the pioneers of Howard county. John Miller was an industrious 
citizen, identified with all of the early improvements of the county 
and a firm friend of education and free schools. 

\\'illiam Appersnn was born in Culpeper county, Virginia, 
April 12, 1786. \\'hen tiie war was declared lie was living in 
Washington county, Virginia. He enlisted in Captain Byer's com- 
pany and ser\-ed his full term. He came to Clinton county, Indiana, 
in 1843, moved to Howard county in September, 1844, and settled 
on and pre-empted the farm owned by the late Elbert S. Apperson, 
but now owned by the Apperson brothers of automobile fame. He 
died December 20. 1874. 

Henry Jackson, born in Fleming county, Kentucky, in 1795, 
enlisted in his native state in 181 3. serving nine months and par- 
ticipating in the battle of the Thames. In 1843 he emigrated to 
this county and settled in Clay township. He died in 1853 and 
was buried in the Barnett graveyard, about eight miles west of 

Peter Gray was born in Kentucky in 1780 or 1781. He en- 
listed in his native state and served five years in the regular army. 
He was under General Jacob Brown and helped to gain the brilliant 
victory at Lundy's Lane. In this fierce contest he received three 
wounds, one in the forehead and one in the breast by saber strokes, 
and (ine a musket ball, in the leg, which he bore with him to the 
grave. He died and was buried at Russiaville in 1879. 


John Rivers was born in North Carohna September 5, 1795. 
He enbsted when only seventeen years of age as a soldier from that 
state. He came to this county about the year 1841 and settled two 
miles southwest of Russiaville. 

Captain John Harrison, a veteran of the War of 181 2, should 
not be omitted from this list. He came to Howard county in 1839 
and settled in the southeastern part of Ervin township, building a 
two-room log house, using one room as a store and various pub- 
lic uses, as a polling place, the commissioners' meeting place, etc. 
At the election in 1844, held at his house, he was elected as the first 
sheriff of Richardville county. 


In 1846, when war was declared with Mexico, this county was 
very sparsely settled and there was no attempt at raising a com- 
pany here. The sentiment of patriotism was very strong among 
the settlers, though they were scattered and few and were waging 
a mighty contest in making liomes in the forests and swamps of 
this new country. While no opportunity presented itself for them 
to volunteer for this war at home, they sought and found it in 
another county. Captain Milroy was organizing Company A of 
the First Indiana Regiment at Delphi, in Can-oil county, and the 
following persons from our county went there to join it : Barnabas 
Busby, Boston Orb, Andrew J. Forgey, Thomas Kennedy, W^illiam 
Gearhart, George Ei-vin, John Gearhart, Edward Irvin, Andrew 
Gerhart, James A. Forgey, Samuel Gerhart, Isaac Landrum, Daniel 
Isley, Thomas Landrum, William Harrison, Samuel Yager, John 
Barngrover, Samuel Gay, James Barngrover, W^illiam Judkins and 
Anthony Emley. Andrew Park also went from this county, but 
probably not in the same company. 



Of the ^Mexican war veterans who have since made their homes 
in tliis county may be mentioned B. F. Voiles. Pollard J. Brown, 
John Myers, James A. Haggard, John Twinum, Charles M. Fifer, 
Irvin Tennell, Job Tennell, Michael Craner, Williams S. Reeves, 
Norvell Fleming, Paul Miller, Daniel Barnhart, Calvin Carter, 
James L. Bailey, William Vandenbark, David Randall and Philip 
McDade. Of those who went to the war from this county only six 
served their entire term of enlistment and these were Barnabas 
Busby, Andrew J. Forgey, John and James Barngrover, William 
Judkins and Anthony Emley. The others either died or were dis- 
charged. John Gearhart was the first man from this county to die, 
as he also was the first of his regiment. 

It may well be noticed that these soldiers and veterans of the 
A\'ar of 1 81 2 and of the war with Mexico were not men actuated 
solely by a spirit of adventure, or men who were out of settled 
employment, or men who had not found their place in the work of 
life and who went into the army because they had nothing else to 
do. They were the useful citizens of their several communities, 
and when their work was accomplished in overcoming the nation's 
foes and peace was restored these men returned to their homes and 
took up again their civic duties and began again their usefuf lives 
of peace. The citizen soldiery of our county is its great safeguard. 


The great war of our country and perhaps the greatest of all 
countries and of all times was the war of the Rebellion, sometimes 
called the war of the States, but more correctly the war for the 
Preser\'ation of the Union. Those who began the war did it for 
the purpose of establishing a separate government, another nation 
whose chief cornerstone was to be negro slavery throughout its 


entire territory. The North and the South were to be separate but 
neighboring nations, with no natural boundaries; only state lines 
should separate them. 

Governments thus located, because of their different adminis- 
trations and conflicting interests and close proximity, would be sub- 
ject to much friction, leading to wars and national hatreds. In the 
course of events the time would come when the East or the West 
would conclude, because of some local interest, that it would be best 
for them to form a separate government, and thus disintegration 
having commenced it would go on until this mighty Republic would 
be separated into many jarring republics or kingdoms. Thus the 
war of the Rebellion was a war by the Government of the United 
States for its own preservation. 

Negro slavery wais the principal cause of the war. In the 
Southern, or slave-holding states, a large majority of the white peo- 
ple regarded negro slavery as a useful institution, without a moral 
wrong; their education and the custom of their country had con- 
firmed them in the belief that the negro was an inferior race and as 
such was designed for service for their masters, the whites. The 
laws of the land had made property of the slaves and thus the slave- 
owner not only looked on his negro slaves as useful burden-bearers 
and toilers, but as his individual property. This domestic condi- 
tion had produced in the South a class of idle, proud aristocrats 
who looked on the laboring classes, whether negro or poor whites, 
as inferiors. So strong was this feeling at the beginning of the 
war that they boasted that one Southern gentleman could whip five 

On the other side there was a large number of people in the 
Northern states who believed that negro slavery was morally wrong, 
and that it was a national sin to tolerate it. by enacting laws regu- 
lating it and recognizing property rights in human beings. The 
Tugitive Slave Law was especially odious to these people. 


This class of people were especially numerous and active in 
Howard county. There was another and a conservative class who 
contended that advancing civilization and time would solve the 
slavery question in the gradual emancipation of the slaves ; that the 
bitter agitation of the ultra pro-slavery people of the South and 
anti-slavery people of the North was exceedingly dangerous and 
unwise: and sought, by all manner of compromise suggestions, to 
Cjuiet the public feeling. 

During the presidential campaign of i860 John C. Brecken- 
ridge was the candidate of the pro-slavery people. Abraham Lincoln 
of the anti-sla^■ery people and Stephen A. Douglas of the conserva- 
tives. Every element was wonderfully stirred, and public feeling 
ran high. Breckenridge received some votes in Howard county. 
Douglas a large number, but Lincoln had a majority, ^^'hen Lin- 
coln was declared elected the pro-slavery people felt that a crisis had 
come: that the end of their cherished institution, slavery, was in 
sight, and they immediately began preparations to resist it. And 
though Lincoln had been lawfully elected President, they declared 
they would not submit to his government, and began to pass seces- 
sion ordinances in the Southern states and to organize another gov- 
ernment in the South. 


Their pro-slavery friends of the North sympathized with them 
and thus almost all sections of the North had "Southern sympa- 

The friends of Douglas saw the impending storm and sought. 
by every means, to avert it. They predicted it would be a long 
and bloody war : that the flower of the manhood of the North 
would be sacrificed before the war would be successfullv ended : and 


that it would cost an enormous amount in treasure and war sup- 
plies. They contended that the freeing of four million negroes 
would not near justify such a war. They pleaded with the vic- 
torious anti-slavery people to give the pro-slaver)' people of the 
South guarantees that their rights would not be interfered with and 
that the national go\'ernment would not interfere with what the 
Southern people denominated their domestic affairs. They pleaded 
with the Southern people, saying it would be ruinous to dissolve the 
Union and to engage in a fratricidal war. Foreseeing that war 
was inevitable unless the antagonistic elements could be reconciled, 
John J. Chittenden, a senator from Kentucky, a man universally 
respected for his patriotism, his ability and great moral worth, on 
the 1 8th of December, i860, presented in the United States Sen- 
ate a series of Compromise Resolutions, which were long debated 
and finally rejected by nineteen votes for and twenty votes against. 

Early in February the famous Peace Conference, called on the 
initiative of Virginia, met at Washington; only twenty states were 
represented. For twenty-one days this conference deliberated be- 
hind closed doors, but it was learned afterwards that the sole matter 
debated and considered was the slave question. The question fore- 
most was, how much could the North yield to the South on the 
slave question to avoid war? 

The final conclusion of the conference was really a surrender 
by the North on all the points in controversy ; providing, first, that 
Congress should never interfere with slavery in the District of 
Columbia, over which, by the Constitution, Congress held exclusive 
jurisdiction without the consent of the slave-holding state of Mary- 
land and the consent of the slave-holders of the District: second, 
that Congress should not forbid slave-holders from bringing their 
slaves to Washington, nor abolish slavery in any of the dockyards, 
fortresses, or territories under the jurisdiction of the United States 
where slavery then existed. 


Third, that Congress should not prohibit and should so amend 
the Constitution that the states should not prohibit the transporta- 
tion of slaves from and through any of the states and territories 
where slavery then existed, either by law or usage. 

On the other hand, the South was to consent to the suppression 
of the slave trade ; that the District of Columbia should not be used 
as a slave market, and that slavery should be prohibited north of 
thirty-six degrees, thirty minutes north latitude. 

Of the twenty states represented eleven voted for. seven \oted 
against and two divided. 

The extreme Southern states were not represented. They 
were resolved upon breaking up the Government entirely and estab- 
lishing for themselves a thorough slave-holding oligarchy and re- 
fused to take any part in the Peace Convention. 

Notwithstanding this stand of these Southern states many good 
and well-meaning citizens of the North petitioned Congress to pass 
the Crittenden Resolutions, which differed in no great degree from 
the Peace Conference Resolutions. 

Probably the fairest presentation of the views of the anti-slavery 
people was made by Senator Charles Sumner, November 27, 1861. 
But looking at the concessions proposed I have always found them 
utterly unreasonable and indefensible. I should not expose them 
now% if they did not constantly testify to the origin and mainspring 
of this rebellion. Slavery was always the single subject-matter and 
nothing else. Slavery was not only an integral part of every con- 
cession, but the single integer. The single idea was to give some 
new security in some form to slavery. That brilliant statesman, 
Mr. Canning, in one of those eloquent speeches which charm so 
much by the style, said that he was "tired of being a 'security 
grinder,' " but his experience was not comparable to ours. "Se- 
curity grinding," in the name of slavery, has been for years the way 
in which we have encountered this conspiracy. 


THE president's MESSAGE. 

The proposition of the last Congress began with the Presi- 
dent's message, which was in itself one long concession. You do 
not forget his sympathetic portraiture of the disaffection through- 
out the slave states or his testimony to the cause. Notoriously and 
shamefully his heart was with the conspirators, and he knew inti- 
mately the mainspring of their conduct. He proposed nothing 
short of a general surrender to slavery, and thus did he proclaim 
slaverv as the head and front — the very causa causaus of the whole 

You have not forgotten the Peace Conference — as it was delu- 
sively styled — convened at Washington, on the summons of Vir- 
ginia, with John Tyler in the chair, where New York, as well as 
Massachusetts, was represented by some of her ablest and most 
honored citizens. The sessions were with closed doors ; but it is 
now known that throughout the proceedings, lasting for weeks, 
nothing was discussed but slavery. And the propositions finally 
adopted by the convention were confined to slavery. Forbearing 
all details, it will be enough to say that they undertook to give to 
slavery positive protection in the Constitution, with new sanction 
and immunity, making it, notwithstanding the determination of our 
fathers, national instead of sectional; and even more than this, 
making it one of the essentials and permanent parts of our Repub- 
lican system. 

But slavery is sometimes as deceptive as at other times it is 
bold; and these propositions were still further offensive from their 
studied uncertainty, amounting to positive duplicity. 

At a moment when frankness was needed above all things, v/e 
were treated to phases pregnant with doubts and controversies, and 
were gravely asked, in the name of slavery, to embody them in the 

136 morrow's history 

There was another string of propositions, much discussed last 
winter, which bore the name of the venerable senator from whom 
they came — Mr. Crittenden, of Kentucky. These also related to 
slavery, and nothing else. They were more obnoxious even than 
those from the Peace Conference. And yet there were petitioners 
from the North — and even from Massachusetts — who prayed for this 
great surrender to slavery. 

Considering the character of these propositions — that they 
sought to change the Constitution in a manner revolting to the 
moral sense; to foist into the Constitution the idea of property in 
man; to protect slavery in all present territory south of thirty-six 
degrees, thirty minutes, and to canw it into all territory hereafter 
acquired south of that line, and thus to make our beautiful Stars 
and Stripes, in their southern march, the flag of slavery; consider- 
ing that they further sought to give new constitutional securities to 
slavery in the national Capital and in other places within the exclu- 
sive Federal jurisdiction ; that they sought to give new constitu- 
tional securities to the transit of slaves from state to state, opening 
the way to a roll call of slaves at the foot of Bunker Hill or the 
gates of Faneuil Hall; and that they also sought the disfranchise- 
ment of more than ten thousand of my fellow citizens in Massa- 
chusetts, whose rights are fixed by the Constitution of that Com- 
monwealth, drawn by John Adams; considering these things I felt 
at the time, and I still feel, that the best apology of these petitioners 
was, that they were ignorant of the true character of these proposi- 
tions, and that in signing these petitions they knew not what they 
did. But even in their ignorance they testified to slavery, while 
the propositions were the familiar voice of slavery crying, 'Give, 
give.' " 



As typifying the feelings of the more radical men on each side 
these quotations are given. Mr. Lovejoy, in the national house of 
representatives, said: "There never was a more causeless revolt 
since Lucifer led his cohorts of apostate angels against the throne 
of God; but I never heard that the Almighty proposed to com- 
promise the matter by allowing the rebels to kindle the fires of hell 
south of the celestial meridian of thirty-six thirty." 

Mr. W^igfall, senator from Te.xas, said : "It is the merest 
balderdash — that is, what it is — it is the most unmitigated fudge 
for any one to get up here and tell men who ha^'e sense and who 
have brains, that there is any prospect of two-thirds of this Con- 
gress passing any propositions as an amendment to the Constitu- 
tion, that any man who is white, twenty-one years old, and whose 
hair is straig'ht, living south of Mason and Dixon's line, will be 
content with." 

The following- extract from the Mobile Advertiser is but a fair 
reflection of much of the work of the Southern press to fire the 
hearts and minds of the Southern people against the North : "They 
may raise plenty of men ; men who prefer enlisting to starvation ; 
scurvy fellows from the back scum of cities, whom Falstaff would 
not have marched through Coventry with : but these recruits are 
not soldiers, least of all the soldiers to meet hot-blooded, thorough- 
bred, impetuous men of the South. Trencher soldiers, who enlisted 
to war on their rations, not on men, they are; such as marched 
through Baltimore, squalid, wretched, ragged and half-naked, as 
the newspapers of that city report them. Fellows who do not know 
the breech of a musket from its muzzle, and had rather filch a hand- 
kerchief than fight an enemy in manly cnmbat. White sla\-es, ped- 
dling wretches, small-change kna^•es and vagrants, the dregs and 

138 morrow's history 

offscouring of the populace ; these are the levied forces whom Lin- 
coln suddenly arrays as candidates for the honor of being slaugh- 
tered by gentlemen — such as Mobile sent to battle yesterday. Let 
them come South and we will put our negroes to the dirty work of 
killing them. But they will not come South. Not a wretch of 
them will live this side of the border longer than it will take us to 
reach the ground and drive them over." 


There was a large element in the South in the beginning who 
were opposed to this rule and ruin policy, not only among the 
masses but many of the prominent leaders. 

The Hon. A. H. Stephens, on the 14th of November, i860, in 
the hall of the House of Representatives at Milledgeville, Georgia, 
made these patriotic remarks: "The first question that presents 
itself is. shall the people of the South secede from the Union in 
consequence of the election of Mr. Lincoln to the Presidency of 
the United States? 

"]\Iy countrymen, I tell you frankly, candidly and earnestly 
that I do not think the}- ought. Li my judgment the election of 
no man. constitutionally chosen to that high office, is sufficient 
cause for any state to separate from the Union. It ought to stand 
by and aid still in maintaining the Constitution of the country. 
To make a point of resistance to the Government, to withdraw from 
it. because a man has been constitutionally elected, puts us in the 
wrong. We are pledged to maintain the Constitution. 'Sla.ny of 
us have sworn to support it. Can we, therefore, for the mere elec- 
tion of a man to the Presidency, and that, too, in accordance with 
the prescribed forms of the Constitution, make a point of resist- 
ance to the government without becoming breakers of that sacred 
instrument ourselves? 


"But that this government of our fathers, with all its defects, 
conies nearer the objects of all good governments than any other on 
the face of the earth, is my settled conviction. Contrast it now 
with any other on the face of the earth. ('England,' said Mr. 
Toombs.) England, my friend says. Well, that is next best, I 
grant ; but I think we have improved upon England. Statesmen 
tried their apprentice hand on the government of England and 
then ours was made. Ours sprung from that, avoiding many of 
its defects, taking most of the good, and leaving out many of its 
errors, and, from the whole, constructing and building up this model 
Republic — the best which the history of the world gives any account 
of. ^^'here will you go, following the sun in its circuit around 
the globe, to find a government that better protects the liberties of 
the people and secures to them the blessings we enjoy? I think 
one of the evils that beset us is a surfeit of liberty, an exuberance 
of the priceless blessings for which we are ungrateful. 

"I look upon this country, with our institutions, as the Eden 
of the world — the paradise of the universe. It may be that out of 
it we may become greater and more prosperous ; but I am candid 
and sincere in telling you, that I fear, if we rashly evince passion, 
and without sufficient cause shall take that step, that, instead of 
becoming greater or more peaceful, prosperous and happy, instead 
of becoming gods, we will become demons, and at no distant day 
commence cutting one another's throats." 

This speech was received with great applause. 


Secession and disunion were sweeping over the South like a 
tidal wave and within three months the author of this patriotic 
address accepted the vice-presidency of the Southern Confederacy, 


and on the 21st of March, 1861, he made this declaration: "The 
new Constitution has put at rest forever ah the agitating questions 
relating to our peculiar institution — African slavery as it exists 
among us — the proper status of the negro in our form of civiliza- 
tion. This was the immediate cause of the late rupture and pres- 
ent revolution. Jefferson, in his forecast, had anticipated this as 
the rock on which the old Union would split. He was right. 

"What was conjecture with him is now realized fact. But 
whether he fully comprehended the great truth upon which the rock 
stood and stands may be doubted. 

"The prevailing idea entertained by him and most of the lead- 
ing statesmen at the time of the fomiation of the old Constitution 
was that the enslavement of the i\frican was in violation of the 
laws of nature ; that it was wrong in principle, socially, morally 
and politically. 

"These ideas were, however, fundamentally wrong. They 
rested, however, upon the assumption of the ecjuality of the races. 
This was an error. It was a sandy foundation and the idea of a 
government built upon it, when the storm came and the wind blew 
it fell. Our new government is founded upon exactly the oppo- 
site ideas. Its foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests upon the 
great truths, that the negro is not equal to the white man ; that 
slavery subordination to the superior race is his natural and normal 
condition. Thus our new government is the first in the history 
of the world based upon this great physical, philosophical and 
moral truth. 

"Our Confederacy is founded upon principles in strict con- 
formity with these laws. 

"This stone, which was rejected by the first builders, is become 
the chief cornerstone in our new edifice." 



The cause of the war of the Rebellion and the public sentiments 
in relation to it have thus been set forth at some length as explain- 
ing most fully the division of sentiment in Howard county at the 
beginning and throughout that war. 

If there were any at all who really wished the Confederates to 
win and the Union destroyed they were few indeed.' The citizenship 
of the county were practically unanimous in wishing the Union 

They differed as to methods and policies. The Republicans 
believed that the Southern states were in rebellion because they 
were victors in the national election, having elected Lincoln Presi- 
dent. For that reason they had a personal interest in putting 
down the rebellion ; they also were in direct opposition to the slave- 
holders on the slavery question, and because of these antagonisms 
the feelings between them was hot and bitter, and being largely in 
the majority in the county, the war sentiment was o\'erwhelmingly 
in the majority. 

These made the same mistake the Southerners had made in 
underestimating the fighting powers of their opponents. Many of 
them declared that it would only be a before-breakfast job to put 
down the rebellion. 

Those who had supported Douglas for President were for 
peace first and war only as the last resort. Their forecast of the 
impending struggle Avas more nearly correct than either of the 
others; they foresaw that it would be long and bloody and would 
end only when one side was completely exhausted. They, too, con- 
sidered slavery the sole issue to wage war for and they did not 
consider this of such paramount importance to justify a long, bloody 
and exhaustive war, and so they urged a peaceable settlement if pos- 
sible. They urged both sides to make concessions in the interests 


of peace and to cultivate a spirit of friendship rather than hostihty. 
While the war was going on, they urged that every opportunity for 
concluding an honorable peace with a reunited country be used. 
At no time did they consait to a dissolution of our Union. 

Because of the highly wrought up feelings of all of the people, 
there was more or less friction between the war and the peace ele- 
ments and many unkind and unjust things were said and done. 
Dr. Lewis Rern, in April, 1861, came near being mobbed on the 
streets of Kokomo, a victim of this excited condition of the public 
mind because of some alleged saying imputed to him reflecting on 
the war spirit of the times. 

But when Fort Sumpter was fired on and the flag went down 
in surrender to the rebels, their differences were forgotten and the 
followers of Douglas followed their leader in offering themselves 
for sen'ice for their country and the Union. It is true that in the 
Congressional elections of 1862 and the national election of 1864 
that party lines were clearly drawn, and the Democrats representing 
the peace party polled a large vote. They clung tenaciously and 
fondly to the delusive hope that the people of the South could be 
induced to lay down their rebellious arms and return to their alle- 
giance to the Union by making certain guarantees respecting their 
negro slaves. After more than forty years have passed and time 
has cleared up all things we are constrained to wonder how those 
people could so elude themselves. We must remember, however, 
that the mists of partisan prejudice were all about them and their 
An'sion was not clear. 


They were wholly ignorant of the feeling and purposes of the 
Southern leaders; they thought that if Lincoln and his party 


friends would give guarantees that negro slavery would not be 
interfered with in the South ; that the trouble would end. And yet 
they had no reason for believing this. Lincoln himself had made 
this clear. In a speech at Cincinnati, when on his way to Wash- 
ington for the first inauguration, addressing directly a party of ' 
Kenutckians, he said, "You perhaps want to know what we will 
do with you. I will tell you so far as I am authorized to speak 
for the opposition. We mean to treat you, as nearly as possible, 
as Washington, Jefferson and Madison treated you. We mean to 
leave you alone, and in no way to interfere with your institutions ; 
to abide by all and every compromise of the Constitution. We 
mean to remember that you are as good as we; that there is no 
difference between us other than the difference of circumstances. 
We mean to recognize and bear in mind always that you have as 
good hearts in your bosoms as other people, or as we claim to have, 
and treat you accordingly." 

In the same journey, at Philadelphia, he said, "I have often 
inquired of myself what great principle or idea it was that kept 
this Confederacy so long together. It was not the mere matter of 
the separation of the colonies from the motherland ; but that senti- 
ment in the Declaration of Independence which gave liberty, not 
alone to the people of this count^\^ but I hope to the world for all 
future time. It was that which gave promise that, in due time, 
the weight would be lifted from the shoulders of all men. This 
was a sentiment embodied in the Declaration of Independaice. 

"Now, my friends, can this country be saved on this basis? If 
it can I shall consider myself one of the happiest men in the world 
if I can help save it. If it cannot be saved on that principle, it will 
be truly awful. 

"But if this countn- can not be saved without giving up that 
principle, I was about to say, I would rather be assassinated on this 


spot than surrender it. Now in my view of the present aspect of 
affairs, tliere is no need of bloodshed or war. There is no necessity 
for it. I am not in fa\-or of such a course, and I may say, in advance, 
that there will be no bloodshed unless it be forced upon the go\-em- 
ment, and then it will be compelled to act in self-defense." 

The fairmindedness of Lincoln is shown in the following extract 
from a speech delivered at Peoria, Illinois, a short time before : 

"I think that I have no prejudice against the Southern people. 
If slavery did not now exist among them they would not intro- 
duce it. If it did now exist among us we would not instantly give 
it up. This I believe of the masses Xolth and South. Doubtless 
there are individuals, on both sides, who would not hold slaves 
under any circumstances : and others who would gladly introduce 
sla\-ery anew, if it were out of existence. \\'e know that some 
Southern men do free their slaves, go North and become tip-top 
abolitionists ; while some Northern men go South and become most 
cruel slave-masters." 

Mr. Lincoln closed his first inaugural address with these words : 
"In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, 
is the momentous issue of ci\-il war. The government will not 
assail you. You can have no conflict without yourselves being the 

"You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the gov- 
ernment : while I shall have the most solemn one to 'preserve, pro- 
tect and defend it." I am loath to close. \\'e are not enemies but 
friends. W'e must not be enemies. Though passion may have 
strained it must not break our bond of affection. The mystic 
chords of memor3^ stretching from every battle field and patriot 
grave, to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, 
will vet swell the chorus of the L"''nion, when again touched, as 
surely thev will be, by the better angels of our nature." 


In view of the developments of the past forty-eight years 
and tlie light we now ha\-e it may be coniidently asserted that the 
real questions and conditions of the country at the beginning of 
the Civil war were not fully realized and understood by any of the 
parties then existing. The slavery question was treated and con- 
sidered the sole question in controversy and as the whole cause of 
the disruption of the Union. The real cause seems rather to have 
been a condition growing out of slavery. 


The slave-holders, accustomed for generations to having col- 
ored servants to wait upon them and to do all their various kinds 
of labor, had come to look upon labor as degrading and to con- 
sider themselves as socially above the laboring classes. A slave- 
holding aristocracy had grown up in our country. They had 
become proud and domineering, and were wholly out of sympathy 
with the spirit of a free people. The poor whites of the South 
were ostracised by them and considered by them as little better 
than the negroes. 

Senator Toombs gave expression to this aristocratic feeling 
when he said to Stephens that England was a better government 
than ours. He had in mind their lords and titled nobilities. 

It was the design of the rebels to overthrow our free institu- 
tions and to introduce in their stead the reign of slavery. Capital 
was to own labor. The industrial classes were to be slaves kept 
in ignorance. The privileged class were to live in indolence and 
luxury, maintained by the toil of their unpaid serfs. 

It was really the old, old problem of the privileged few and 
the toiling masses being solved again in a new form. 

It is said of the Austrian Prince Mettemick that, standing 


146 morrow's history 

upon the balcony of his beautiful palace overlooking the Rhine and 
looking out upon his vineyards filled with men and women per- 
forming feudal sen'ice for their lord, he exclaimed to the brilliant 
company about him, "Behold the true philosophy of society — gen- 
tlemen in the palace, laborers in the field, with an impassable gulf 

That was the philosophy of society that appealed to the slave- 
holders of the South and the real cause of the rebellion. It is a 
matter of great wonder that such a gigantic struggle could have 
been precipitated by so few persons. The whole number of slave- 
holders in the South did not probably exceed three hundred thou- 

Not more than one hundred thousand possessed any consider- 
able number of slaves. And yet this petty oligarch, entirely subor- 
dinate to a few leading minds, organized the most gigantic rebel- 
lion which ever shook the globe. Senator Sumner has said, "The 
future historian will record that the present rebellion, notwithstand- 
ing its protracted origin, the multitude it has enlisted, and its exten- 
sive sweep, was at last precipitated by fewer than twenty men; 
Mr. Everett says by as few as ten." 


Notwithstanding the efforts of the peace party of the North 
to stay the oncoming stmggle ; notwithstanding Mr. Lincoln's con- 
ciliatory declarations, the Southern leaders went industriously on 
in getting ready for the struggle. They planned to precipitate a 
riot in Baltimore while Mr. Lincoln was passing through and to 
assassinate him, and had planned a way for the assassin to escape. 

Detectives disco^■ered the plot and notified Mr. Lincoln at Phil- 
adelphia of it. He went on to Harrisburg, as he had planned: but 


at nightfall he stole out with a few friends, took a special train to 
Baltimore, was transferred from one depot to another unobserved, 
and was in Washington ahead of time and unannounced. General 
Scott and Secretary of War Holt took active measures to secure 
Mr. Lincoln's safety in Washington. 

On the morning of April 12th, the rebel batteries opened fire 
on Fort Sumter, and on the following day the garrison was forced 
to surrender. 

The efifect of the bombardment and capture of Fort Sumpter 
on the North was electrical. As the news of the insult to the 
national flag, of the battle and the capture of the fort by the rebels, 
was flashed along the wires, excitement, perhaps unparalleled in 
the history of the world, pervaded every city and hamlet and almost 
€very heart. All party distinctions seemed to be forgotten. There 
were only two parties — patriots and traitors. The feeling in How- 
ard county was intense. The people, in their anxiety for the war 
news, engaged all the papers of the newsdealers before they arrived 
and besieged the newsboys on the trains for the daily papers, and 
often the supply was exhausted before all were supplied. 

The writer of this was the newsboy of the rural community 
in which he lived almost the entire period of the Civil war, and 
through storm and shine daily he went to the nearest station for 
the papers. Interest in the war news from the many battlefields 
of the South never flagged. 


In speaking of the fall of Fort Sumpter the Tribune said, "Let 
all old party lines be obliterated and all angry words of other days 
be forgotten. These are not times in which to remember former 
difficulties. A dark cloud hangs over the country. All the world 


looks on amazed and anxious. Already has our Government been 
disgraced and wherever civilization is known the people are await- 
ing in astonishmait to see whether or not the American Union is 
what it has been represented or no government at all." 

The unanimity with which the whole North arose in this crisis 
is one of the most extraordinary events of history. 

Men who, but a few days before, had been bitterly hostile, 
were at once seen standing side by side on the same platform to 
resist this rebellion. 

Senator Douglas, the great leader of the Northern Democrats, 
made a speech at Chicago, from which the following extracts are 
made : "That the present danger is imminent, no man can conceal. 

"If war must come — if the ba}-onet must be used to maintain 
the Constitution — I say before God. my conscience is clean, I have 
struggled long for a peaceful solution of the difficulty. I have not 
only tendered those states what was theirs of right, but I have gone 
to the very extreme of magnanimity. 

"The slavery question is a mere excuse, the election of Lin- 
coln a mere pretext. The present secession movement is the result 
of an enormous conspiracy formed more than a year since, formed 
by the leaders in the Southern Confederacy more than twelve 
months ago. The conspiracy is now known. Armies have been 
raised, war is levied to accomplish it. There are only two sides 
to the question. Eveiy man must be for the United States or 
against it. There can be no neutrals in this war : only patriots or 

"I know they expected to present a united South against a 
divided North. They hoped in the Northern states party questions 
would bring civil war between Democrats and Republicans, when 
the South would step in, with her cohorts, aid one partv to con- 
quer the other and then make easy prey of the victors. Their 
scheme was carnage and civil war in the North. 


"^^'hile there was hope of peace, I was ready for any reason- 
able sacrifice or compromise to maintain it. But when the ques- 
tion comes of war in the cotton fields of the South or corn fields of 
Illinois, I say the further ofif the better. 

"It is a sad task to discuss questions so fearful as civil war; 
but sad as it is, bloody and disastrous as I expect it will be, I 
express it as my conviction before God that it is the duty of every 
American citizen to rally around the flag of his counti-y." 


On JMonday, April 15th, the President issued a call for seventy- 
five thousand volunteers for three months' service in putting down 
the rebellion and called an extra session of Congress for July 
4th. Following close upon the call of the President came the fol- 
lowing proclamation by the governor of Indiana : 

"Whereas, An armed rebellion has been organized in certain 
states of this Union, having for its purpose the overthrow of the 
United States; and 

"Whereas, The authors and movers in this rebellion have 
seized, by violence, various forts and arsenals belonging to the 
United States and otherwise plundered the government of large 
amounts of money and valuable property ; and 

"Whereas, Fort Sumter, a fortress belonging to the United 
States, the exclusive possession and jurisdiction over which were 
vested in the general government by the Constitution of the United 
States, has been besieged by a large army and assaulted by a 
destructive cannonade, and reduced to submission, and the national 
flag hauled down and dishonored ; and 

"Whereas, The President of the United States, in the exercise 
of the power vested in him by the Federal Constitution, has called 


upon the several states remaining true to their allegiance to aid him 
in the enforcement of the laws, the recovery of the national prop- 
erty and the maintenance of the rightful authority of the United 
States; now, therefore, I, Oliver P. Morton, governor of the state 
of Indiana, call upon loyal and patriotic men of the state to the 
number of six regiments to organize themselves into military com- 
panies and forthwith report the same to the adjutant-general in 
order that they may be speedily mustered into the service of the 
United States. The details of the organization are set forth in the 
instructions of the adjutant-general herewith published. 

"Oliver P. Morton, Governor." 

In response to this proclamation the Tribune of the i6th inst. 
contained this call : 

"Dr. Richmond and other citizens request us to call a meet- 
ing at Richmond & Leed's Hall to-night for the purpose of con- 
sidering the duties of citizens in the present crisis. Turn out. 
patriots. Volunteers are being offered all over the countr}\ All 
parties agree now." Although the notice was short, the meeting 
was well attended. Fiery speeches were made and ringing resolu- 
tions passed and preparations were immediately begun for the 
organization of a company. 


William R. Philips, who was one of the first to fall in defense 
of his country from this county, headed the list of volunteers. In 
less than one week nearly two hundred names were enrolled. On 
Friday evening, April 19th, the company met in Richmond & 
Leed's Hall and elected the following officers: Thomas J. Harri- 
son, captain; Thomas Herring, first lieutenant, and William R. 
Philips, second lieutenant. 


On tlie Saturday afternoon following posters were put out call- 
ing a meeting at the Methodist Episcopal church in the evening for 
the purpose of securing a fund for the support of the families of 
volunteers who were about to start in the service of their country. 
Accordingly, at an early hour, the house was filled to overflowing. 
Mr. Charles Murray was made chairman, and, on motion of Mr. 
James \\\ Robinson, the following persons were appointed an 
executive committee: J. W. Robinson, Thomas Auter, Herman 
Keeler, Benjamin R. Norman and Samuel Rosenthal. Thomas Jay 
was elected treasurer. The books were opened for subscriptions 
and the people responded liberally. Jay and Dolman headed the 
list with two hundred dollars. Nearly every one present gave 
something in amounts from two dollars to five dollars. One man 
gave a lot in the city of Kokomo and several farmers subscribed 
one hundred bushels of corn each. The total subscription amounted 
to more than two thousand dollars. 

Someone suggested that the citizens should furnish the volun- 
teers with blankets. Here, again, was a great rush to see who 
should have the privilege. Gentlemen ofifered all they had, together 
with comforts, to answer until the volunteers could get where 
they could buy blankets, and twenty-five dollars to buy them with. 
This was the spirit of the people, and in five minutes over one hun- 
dred blankets were provided. Flannel shirts and drawers were also 
named. As the boys were to leave on Monday morning it was 
suggested that, as the company would remain a week or two at 
Indianapolis, these could be made and shipped down to the care 
of Captain Harrison. This was agreed upon, when immediately 
ladies offered a dozen each, gentlemen offered bolts of flannel, 
others came up and handed in money, and in a few minutes the 
whole company was provided for. 

The following persons were appointed a committee to solicit 


further aid in Center township : Worley Leas, R. F. Kennedy and 
George W. Hocker. By a motion the people in each township 
were requested to act immediately and secure a large fund for the 
support of the families of volunteers. Messrs. Thomas Jay, Sam- 
uel Rosenthal and Chapin were appointed to receive and 

distribute blankets on Sunday. Several short speeches were made 
and the assembly adjourned with the most patriotic feeling pre- 


These patriotic, and generous donations for the comfort and 
well-being of the volunteers were not only the substantial expression 
of the feelings of the people but were also necessary contributions 
to the needs of the volunteer soldiery as well, for in the beginning 
the government had no well-disciplined commissary department. 

Sunday, April 21st, was a memorable day in the history' of 
Howard county. In the issue of April 23. 1861, the Tribune thus 
describes it: "The streets were crowded early in the morning. 
The people from all parts of the county came in by scores and fifties. 
Both churches were filled at the usual hour for holding meeting. 
At the Methodist Episcopal church a first-rate sermon and devout 
prayers for the safety of the country were listened to with close 
attention. At the Christian church, Francis O'Dowd addressed a 
large audience in the most patriotic style, pledging his all at the 
close for the government. 

Meanwhile volunteers were constantly enrolling their names. 
About noon the fife and drum were heard and most of the afternoon 
the companies were under drill. At three o'clock p. m. the volun- 
teers marched out the East Road and met a tremendous procession 
coming from that direction. There was a large number of four- 
horse wagons and a large procession of horsemen. In the crowd 


were many volunteers coming down to leave for the service. When 
the two multitudes met, thundering cheers for the stars and stripes 
were heard for miles aroitnd. The procession, about a quarter of 
a mile in length, returned to the public square, where Professor 
Baldwin addressed the assembly most eloquently. So great was 
the enthusiasm that Professor Baldwin himself and all the teeachers 
and pupils who were old enough enlisted, so that the school was 
discontinued for some time. The dry goods stores were kept open 
and such things as were needed by soldiers were freely given with- 
out a cent of pav. Money was distributed for use while in camp 
and every want that could be thought of was provided for. Such 
a Sabbath never was or perhaps never will be witnessed in Kokomo 
as this one was." As the evening shadows thickened into night 
the bells pealed forth a strange, sweet music to those who were to 
leave on the morrow. The churches were crowded again and many 
fervent prayers were ofifered for the flag of our country and for 
those who had pledged themselves to stand by it against every foe. 

At sunrise on the following day the town was full of wagons~ 
and horses, and from six o'clock until train time an immense multi- 
tude thronged all the streets about the depot. The time had come 
when the first company of soldiers ever organized in Howard 
county were waiting to depart for a service of which no one at 
that time had the least conception. 

There were hundreds of tearful eyes as the last farewells were 
said. It was the parting of parents with children, of husbands 
with their wives, brothers with sisters and lovers with each other, 
with pledges to be true till war's desolation was over. The thought 
of it being the last good-bye paled many a cheek and moistened 
many eyes unused to tears. 

As the train steamed up not a word of complaint was made : 
it was a firm pressure, a warm look of encouragement and a God- 


bless-you and tliey were gone. The Tribune of the next day con- 
tained this patriotic sentiment from the able pen of the late T. C. 
Philips: "The times that try men"s souls are upon us. Every 
man. every woman. e\-ery person able to work has important duties 
to perform. Let us begin now. There must not be an idle person. 
A large crop must be raised and fewer men than usual must raise 
it. Every acre of ground must be tilled. Patriots are in demand 
and, thank heaven, they are ready. Thousands of strong men will 
be needed in defense of our country, and they are presenting" them- 
selves, asking to serve in that defense. Everj^ one left at home 
can do the work of two. In the days of the revolution, women 
performed the labor of men, and men did double labor. 

"The days of '76 are present with us in '61. The battles must 
be fought over again. An anny of rebels ten times worse than 
the tyrants who denied us liberty in '76 would now wrench that 
liberty from us and drag the flag of our country and our fathers 
in the dust. Arouse, freemen! If patriotism ever was needed 
that time is now. Let there be no influence against the enlisting 
of your son in the cause. Ask God's blessing on him and let 
him go. We heard a day or two since a man offered to furnish 
the family of a volunteer all the flour needed until he should return. 
'But," said another, 'if he never returns?' 'Wdiile I live the con- 
tract shall be kept inviolate,' was the answer. That is the true 
spirit. May the people be imbued with the spirit of true patriotism, 
and may those who remain at home do their whole duty. Those 
who go away, we know, will do theirs," 

When the company arrived at Indianapolis it took quarters at 
Camp Morton and immediately organized. It was found that there 
were nearly enough men for two companies, and so the boys organ- 
ized a new company, and Dr. Corydon Richmond, who, it seems, 
was a most zealous worker in the cause, hurried home and procured 


a sufficient number of men to complete the second company. So 
energetic were our boys that in one week from the day the first 
meeting- was called in Kokomo the first company was mustered 
into the seiwice and succeeded in obtaining a place in the Sixth 
(three months) Regiment. 

This was the first regiment mustered in the state for the war 
of the Rebellion. The five previous regiments had been raised for 
the war with Mexico. 

THE 0.\TH. 

The following is the oath which each man was required to take 
and which all volunteers and regulars mustered into the service of 
the United States are required to take before final enrollment : "I 
do solemnly swear that I will bear true allegiance to the United 
States of America; that I will serve them honestly and faithfully 
against all enemies or opposers whatsoever ; that I will obey the 
orders of the President of the United States and of the other offi- 
cers appointed over me. According to the rules of the armies of 
the United States, so help me God." 

This company designated themselves the Howard Rifles and 
was known as Company D in the regiment. 

The Indianapolis Journal paid them the following tribute on 
the day they were mustered in: "Captain Harrison, who was a 
member of the Legislature in 1858, arrived yesterday with his com- 
pany, the Howard Rifles, and took quarters at Camp Morton. His 
men are of those who can pick squirrels out of the tops of the tallest 
trees and rebels from the secession ranks as far as a Sharp's rifle 
vvill carry." Thomas M. Kirkpatrick and Barnabas Busby, both 
being farmers, did not get their affairs arranged in time to join 
the first company, but hastened to Indianapolis and joined the sec- 
ond company. Mr. Kirkpatrick was chosen captain, Mr. Busby 

156 morrow's history 

first lieutenant and N. P. Richmond second lieutenant of this com- 

Captain Kirkpatrick's company was made Company C in the 
Twelfth Regiment, and after failing to get in the three months' 
service was transferred to the Thirteenth Regiment as Company E 
and was stationed at Camp Sullivan. 

Thus, while Captain Harrison's company had the honor of 
being in the first three months' regiment organized in the state. 
Captain Kirkpatrick's company was in the first three years' regi- 

During the stay in camp in Indianapolis the men were in active 
preparation for war, drilling almost constantly. Many little inci- 
dents occurred to break the monotony of camp life, and when, on 
the 30th of May, the Sixth Regiment was ordered to the front, 
they were in high spirits. They left for western Virginia by way 
of Cincinnati and Parkersburg\ They had been fully equipped, 
armed and clothed and presented a gay appearance. Their passage 
through Indiana and Ohio was a grand ovation. The Cincinnati 
Enquirer of May 31st said of them: "The attendance at the 
depot yesterday when Colonel Crittenden's command arrived was 
very large and all along the entire length of the march through 
the city the throngs on the sidewalks and the street corners were 
immense, and. as the brave Indianians marched along, the cheers 
that greeted them were vociferous. The gallant troops made a 
fine appearance and were applauded by ever\^body for their sol- 
dierly demeanor. The regiment was brought to a halt and a front- 
face when opposite the residence of Larz Anderson, Esq. Colonel 
Anderson advanced to the curbstone and was greeted by a present- 
arms and a salute from the officers, with a remark from Colonel 
Crittenden that the salute was a compliment from the Sixth Regi- 
ment of Indiana Volunteers. Colonel Anderson replied, T thank 


you, gentlemen; God bless and protect you.' The column then 
wheeled into line, and as the troops marched by the hero of Sum- 
ter, they rent the air with enthusiastic cheering." 

On the 2nd of June, the regiment arrived at Webster, Virginia, 
and was marched, with other troops, the same night through a 
drenching rain a distance of fourteen miles, and on the morning of 
the 3d of June took part in the first battle of the war at Philippi. 

It participated in the march to Laurel Hill and the engagement 
with Gamett's rebel command at Carrick's Ford on the 12th of 
July. It returned to Indianapolis on the 25th of July and was 
finally discharged August 2, 1861. 


The Thirteenth Regiment, in which was Captain Kirkpatrick's 
company, left Indianapolis on the 4th of July, 1861, and on the 
morning of the loth joined McQellan's forces at the foot of Rich 
mountain, in western Virginia, where, on the following da3^ it 
participated in battle. In this battle William Riffle was killed — 
Howard county's first martyr for the preservation of the Union. 

From this time on the Thirteenth was in active campaign work 
for the entire three years. It took part in the numerous skirmishes 
at Cheat mountain pass, and on the 12th and 13th of September, 
1861, in the engagements on Cheat mountain summit and Elkwater 
supported Howe's Battery, Fourth United States Artillery. At 
Greenbrier, on the 3d of October, and during the remainder of 
October, it was engaged in scouting expeditions along the Holly 
and Kanawha rivers. After this it marched to Alleghany under 
General Milroy and participated in the battle there on the 13th of 
December. It wintered at Green Spring Run. General Shields 
took command of the division in the spring and under him the regi- 

158 morrow's history 

ment moved to Winchester and then scouted up the valley to Stras- 
burg-, returning to Winchester. It participated in the battle of 
Winchester Heights, March 22, 1862. Two or three months were 
now employed in marching up and down the valley, giving chase 
to the rebels, and in the latter part of June the regiment embarked 
at Alexandria for Harrison's Landing, on the James river, where 
it arrived July 2d. In August it marched to Fortress Monroe and 
thence to the Nansemond river, where it remained nine months, 
engaging in numerous operations in that region of countn'. making 
three reconnoissances to Black river, fighting the battle of the 
Deserted Farm on the 30th of January, 1863, defeating Longstreet 
in his attempt to seize Suffolk from April loth to May 3, 1863, and 
in tearing up and bringing off about forty miles of track from two 
railroads from the 13th to the 19th of May. In these operations 
the regiment marched over 400 miles. On the 27th of June the 
regiment left Suffolk. It participated in the operations on Morris 
Island during the siege of Forts Wagner and Gregg, and was the 
first regiment to enter Wagner in the assault on the 7th of Sep- 

The Thirteenth participated in nearly all the operations of 
General Butler's army south of Richmond and was conspicuous in 
the engagement at Wathal Junction, Chester Station, and the 
charge on the rifle pits near Foster's farm, in all of which the loss 
Avas about two hundred. It joined the Anny of the Potomac in 
June, 1864, marching with the army to Cold Harbor, where, there 
being no field officers present for duty. Captain Kirkpatrick assumed 
command. The regiment was actively engaged in the battle at that 
place and in all the operations in the vicinty of the Chickahominy 
until June 12th, when it returned to Bermuda Hundred. On the 
15th it crossed the Appomattox river and was engaged in the 
assaults on the rebel works in front of Petersburg. 


On the 1 8th Captain Kirkpatrick's company, having served 
the full time of its enlistment, was ordered from the skirmish 
line, and on the 19th left for Indianapolis, arriving on the 24th of 
June. They were mustered out of the service July i, 1864. 

About one-half of the company afterwards veteranized. 


In May, 1861, the boys of Kokomo from twelve to eighteen 
years of age, catching the military spirit that pervaded the country, 
organized a company under the name of the Wild Cat Rangers. 
The Tribune said : "We learn that the officers have reported their 
company to the governor, have purchased a part of their musical 
instruments, made arrangements for caps, etc., and will begin to 
drill regularly at an early day." 

The names of many of these boys appear on the regular muster 
rolls of regiments that were formed in later years. 

In the latter part of June, 1861, the first company of the 
Howard county regiment of the Indiana Legion was formed at 

The following letter from the adjutant-general shows how the 
company was organized : 

"Indianapolis, Indiana, June 13, 1861. 
"The Union Tigers, a volunteer militia company, organized at 
Kokomo, in Howard county, Indiana, under the military laws of 
said state, having complied with the requirements of said laws, are 
hereby authorized and ordered to elect officers at their armory in 
Kokomo, on Tuesday evening, the i8th day of June, 1861 ; and 
John Bohan, Thomas Jay and J. F. Henderson are hereby appointed 
to recei\-e and count ballots cast at said election (in presence of 

i6o morrow's history 

whomsoever may be deputized to preside at sflch election) and to 
make returns of such election to this office without delay. 

"Laz. Noble, Adj. -Gen. Vol. Militia." 


Mr. T. C. Philips was delegated authority by the adjutant- 
general to preside at the meeting of the Union Tigers, and the elec- 
tion resulted as follows : James Bailey, captain ; James A. Wild- 
man, first lieutenant; William S. Snow, second lieutenant. 

At various times after this other companies were formed in 
all or nearly all the townships, and were known as Union Wild Cat 
Rifles, The Union Legion, Harrison Guards, Howard Guards, 
Fairfield Guards, Wild Cat Rangers, Cassville Guards, Honey Creek 
Legion, Liberty Guards, Noble Guards, Ervin Guards and Wild 
Cat Rifles. The field officers and staff of this legion were: John 
M. Garrett, colonel (afterwards entered U. S. service) : N. P. Rich- 
mond, colonel : James A. Wildman, lieutenant-colonel ; Charles E. 
Disbro, major; Samuel W. Thornton, adjutant; Morgan A. Chest- 
nut, quartermaster; Reuben King, surgeon; John W. Cooper, judge- 
advocate; Thomas Lythe, paymaster. 


In the latter part of August, 1861, Dr. Jacob S. White, who 
had succeeded in raising a company in this county, left for Ander- 
son, where a regiment for this Congressional district was forming 
under Colonel Asbury Steele. 

The Tribune said of the departure of this company : "A very 
large multitude assembled at the C. & C. depot last Wednesday to 
see the boys of Dr. White's company off to camp at Anderson. 



Some of the partings brought tears to the eyes of many. The 
grief of some was manifested in loud cries, but the deepest feeling" 
was quieter. Husbands left their wives and babes with emotions 
that cannot be described. One gentleman, Mr. Clarke, of Ervin, 
got married on Sunday evening, on Monday volunteered and left 
on Wednesday. One wagon with six horses came in from western 
Howard loaded with young ladies and other decorations. Ban- 
ners floated and music of the best kind was furnished. The little 
cannon was out and after fifty or sixty thundering- discharges it 
burst. Squire Norman was touched on the leg, but was not hurt. 
No injury was received by any one, but how the people escaped we 
cannot tell." 

In the organization of the regiment, Dr. White was appointed 
surgeon and Thomas S. Ferrell was elected captain. 


This, the Thirty-fourth Regiment, participated in the siege of 
Vicksburg, the battle of Port Gibson, Champion Hills, the siege of 
Jackson and many encounters. As in the Sixth Regiment, Howard 
county boys had the honor of participating in the first battle of the 
war, so Howard county boys in the Thirty-fourth, more than two 
thousand miles from Philippi, engaged in the last battle at Palmetto 
Ranche, on the 13th of May, 1865. 

This battle was fought partly on the old Palo Alto battle- 
ground, where General Taylor first encountered the Mexicans on the 
8th of May, 1846. It is quite a coincidence that the first battle of 
the Mexican war and the last battle of the great rebellion were 
fought on the same ground, and that the respective anniversary 
da}s were but five days apart. 

1 62 morrow's history 

thirty-ninth regiment. 

The work of organizing a company of one hundred and one 
men for an independent regiment of sharpshooters, authorized by 
the War Department, began about tlie time of the departure of Dr. 
\Miite's cumpany. 

This company filled up rapidly and in a few da}"s se\-enty 
names were down for still another company. Prior to leaving, the 
company organized by electing the same officers that had served in 
the first company organized here, to-wit; T. J. Harrison, captain; 
Thomas Herring, first lieutenant, and W. R. Philips, second lieu- 
tenant. The company left on August 28, 1861, for Indianapolis. 
In the regimental organization. Captain Harrison was made colonel, 
John Bohan, quartermaster, and Dr. L. D. ^^'aterman, surgeon. 
After Captain Harrison's promotion. Herring and Philips were 
promoted by the unanimous consent of the compan}-. Stephen D. 
Butler was elected second lieutenant. 

This regiment left for Kentuck}- earh- in September. It 
marched with Buell to Nashville, then to the Tennessee river, and 
was in the battle of Shiloh on the 7th nf .\pril, 1862, where Lieu- 
tenant W. R. Philips, who had been associated with his brother, 
T. C. Philips, in editing the Tribune, was killed. 

The regiment took part in the battles of Stone River, Decem- 
ber 31, 1862. and January i and 2, 1863. Through the remainder 
of the campaign of 1863 it seiwed as mounted infantry. On June 
6, 1863, it had a sharp fight with Wheeler's cavalry near Alurfrees- 
boro, took part in the skirmishes at Middleton and Liberty Gap, 
and during the movement upon Chattanooga engaged the enemy 
at ^^'inchester. 

On the loth and 20th of September it partici])ated in the battle 
of Chickamauga, and on the 15th of October, 1863, was reorganized 
as the Eighth Cavalry. 


The regiment re-enlisted as a veteran organization on the 22d 
of Februar}-, 1864. It participated in the McCook raid around 
Atlanta and the Kilpatrick raid in Georgia, and at the battle of 
Lovejoy Station led the charge of the left wing, riding over Ross" 
division of rebel cavalry, capturing his artillery and four battle 
flags. It was in the battle of Jonesboro and Flint river and in the 
campaign through Georgia was in the following battles and skir- 
mishes: Waynesboro, Buckhead Church, Brown's Cross Roads, 
Reynold's Farm, Aiken, Bentonville, Averasboro and Raleigh. It 
whipped Hampton's entire force at ;\Iorris\-ille and thus had the 
honor of fighting the last battle in North Carolina. 

The regiment was nuistered out of ser\'ice on the 20th of July. 
[865, reached Indianapolis the last week of July and was finally dis- 
charged early in August. 

This regiment had in all two thousand i\ve hundred men on its 
rolls, and had nine officers killed in battle. It lost about three 
hundred in prisoners, and captured frc)m the enemy over fifteen 
hundred men, one thousand stand of arms, three i-ailroad trains, 
fourteen hundred horses and mules, many wagons, fourteen pieces 
of artillery, four battle flags, besides destroying many miles of 

It was also engaged in many raids and skirmishes of which 
no mention is here made. 


In 1 861 the county commissioners appropriated se\'en Inmdred 
fifty dollars out of the county funds for the relief of the families 
of those who had volunteered. 

On the evening of October 31st, the Ladies' Union Aid Asso- 
ciation was organized for the purpose of making underclothing for 

164 morrow's history 

the boys \vho were far away in open tents and who would soon 
be exposed to the rude blasts of winter. :\Iany a "God bless the 
noble women of Howard" went up to Iieaven that winter and each 
succeeding winter till the war was over from Howard county boys 
in every Southern state. 


The company that was forming at the time Captain Harrison's 
company departed organized by electing Willis Blanch, captain; 
Timothy H. Leeds, first lieutenant, and John L. Hall, second lieu- 
tenant. Another company was also partly organized in this county, 
with William K. Hoback, captain ; Joel H. Hoback, first lieutenant, 
and Lewis S. Horn, second lieutenant. These companies proceeded 
to Richmond in November, 1861, where they were organized as 
Companies G and H respectively of the Fifty-seventh Regiment. 

On the loth of December the regiment moved to Indianapolis, 
where it remained to December 23d, when it took its departure for 
Kentucky, where it spent the winter without engaging in battle. 
The regiment marched to Nashville, Tennessee, arriving there early 
in March. It started for Pittsburg Landing on the 21st of March, 
and was in hearing of the battle of Shiloh on the 6th of April, but 
did not arrive till the afternoon of the 7th, when it immediately 
engaged in battle. During the siege of Corinth the regiment was 
actively employed. 

After this it marched into northern Alabama and in July, 1862, 
to middle Tennessee, where it remained till September, making 
many arduous marches and undergoing great hardships. It took 
an active part in the campaign against Bragg, engaging in the bat- 
tle of Pern-ville, Kentucky, with only slight loss. After this it 
went to Nashville, December i, 1862. " 



At the battle of Stone river tlie Fift}--seventh suffered severely, 
losing seventy-tive men out of three hundred and fifty engaged. 
Here the regiment greatly distinguished itself. During the remain- 
der of the winter and spring of 1863 it remained in camp near 
Murfreesboro, drilling constantly and doing severe picket duty. 
It took part in the eleven days' scout of JNIajor-General Reynolds, 
and in the battle of ^lissionary Ridge it bore a conspicuous- part. 


The campaign in east Tennessee during the winter of 1863 
and 1864 was probably unequaled during the whole war for hard- 
ship and privation. Of these the Fifty-seventh suffered a full share. 

On the 1st of January, 1864, the regiment almost unanimously 
re-enlisted as a veteran organization. It took part in the initial 
operations of the campaign against Atlanta, and during the summer 
was almost constantly engaged in battle or in skirmishing. It was 
in the assault on Rocky Face Ridge, near Dalton, Georgia, Maj' 
9th; at Resaca, and in the action near Adairsville it took an active 
part. On iNIay 27th it lost severely in the battle near New Hope 
Cluu-ch, on the Altoona mountains. It was under fire every day 
from this time until June 3d, losing many men. 

In the terrible struggles and skirmishes around Kenesaw it 
bore a full part. On the 27th of June the regiment, then com- 
manded by Colonel \\'illis Blanch, formed the skirmish line in front 
of the assaulting column of the Fourth Corps. Its loss was heavy. 
It participated in the battle of Peach Tree Creek. July 20th, and 
from this time until the 25tb of August lay in the trenches in front 
of Atlanta. The regiment was slightly engaged in the battle of 
Jone-sboro, August 31st. After the occupation of Atlanta the Fifty- 
se\-enth was sent to Chattanooga. It helped to drive Hood into 

i66 morrow's history 

Alabama, and afterward fonned a part of the army of General 
Thomas, which resisted the invasion of Tennessee. It was engaged 
at FrankHn, November 30, 1864, where it sustained severe loss. 
On the 15th and i6th of December it participated in the battle (jt 
Xashville. where Colonel Blanche was wounded. 

After the pursuit of Hood's army, the regiment lay in camp 
at Huntsville, Alabama, some months, moving into east Tennessee 
as far as Bull's Gap in April, 1865. It then went to Nashville and 
was transferred to Texas, where it remained until mustered out 
of the service. The Fifty-seventh saw much arduous service, its 
losses in battle were heavy, and its marches severe, but it behaved 
with great gallantly on every occasion and achieved an en\"iable 
record and an honorable fame. In its commanding officers it was 
particularly fortunate, one of whom. Colonel Blanche, of this 
county, being a soldier of distinguished merit. 


\\"hen the news reached our citizens of the great battle of 
Shiloh, a meeting was hastily called and a surgeon was immediately 
sent to the sufterers, together with money, lint and bandages and 
whatever was thought would aid in their relief. This movement 
was connected with an authorized organization at Indianapolis, 
and it was a noble wijrk at the right time. 


In July, 1862, another company was organized here, which 
elected Francis 'SI. Bryant, captain : James C. Metsker. first lieu- 
tenant, and Iiwin Poison, second lieutenant. It was mustered into 
service as Company C of the Seventy-fifth Regiment, at \\"abash. 


on the 19th of August, 1862. This regiment proceeded to Ken- 
tucky, where it took an active part in the campaign, marching to 
Scottsville and Gallatin and then back to Cave City in pursuit of 
Morgan's forces. The winter was passed mostly in camp at Gal- 
latin, and in January tliQ regiment moved to Murfreesboro, where 
it remained till June 24, 1863, when it started toward Tullahoma, 
and on the march engaged in the battle at Hoover's Gap. It was 
the first regiment to enter the rebel works at Tullahoma, about the 
1st of July. It participated in the battle of Chickamauga on the 
19th and 20th of September. 

It then returned to Chattanooga, engaging in the battle of 
^lissionary Ridge on the 25th of November. The Seventy-fifth 
passed the winter. of 18^13-64 in the \-icinity of Chattanooga, and in 
the spring of 1864 mo\-ed to Ring-gold, Georgia. Dttring the Atlan- 
ta campaign it was actively engaged, participating in the battles of 
Dalton, Resaca. Adairsville, Dallas, Kenesaw mountain, Ptach 
Tree creek and Jonesboro. In October it marched in the campaign 
against Hood and returned to Atlanta in time to start with Sher- 
man's army on the i6th of November in its famous march to the 
sea, reaching Savannah in December. In Jaiuiary, 1865, it marched 
through the Carolinas to Gcldsborci. in Xorth Carolina, and partici- 
pated in the battles of Bentonville and Fa\etteville. .\tter the ^ur- 
render of Johnston's army, it marched to Richmond. \'irginia, and 
thence to Washington, D. C, where, on the 8tb of June, 1865, it 
was mustered out of service. 


In the month of August, 1862, three more companies were 
raised in this county. 

The first was officered as follows: William Burns, captain; 


B. F. Haven, first lieutenant, and John T. Stewart, second lieu- 
tenant. The second : John E. Williams, captain ; G. Markland, 
first lieutenant; William Styer, second lieutenant. The third: B. 
W. Gifford, captain; William A. Hunt, first lieutenant; William T. 
Hutchinson, second lieutenant. 

These companies were rendezvoused at Wabash and were or- 
ganized, with other companies, into the Eighty-ninth Regiment, at 
Indianapolis, August 28, 1862. The companies were called F, D 
and G, respectively. 

In the organization of the regiment, Charles D. ]\Iurray was 
made colonel and J. F. Henderson surgeon, both of Kokomo. In 
the October following, Harless Ashley, also of Kokomo. was ap- 
pointed quartermaster. 

Proceeding to Kentucky the regiment reinforced the garrison 
at Munfordsville. After a long fight and stubborn resistance it 
was compelled to surrender to superior numbers on the i6th of 

The officers and men were paroled, and, after a furlough to their 
homes, the regiment reassembled at Indianapolis on the 27th of 
October. The order for their exchange being received, the regi- 
ment, on the 5th of December, proceeded to Memphis, and on the 
2 1st of December was placed on duty at Fort Pickering, where it 
remained until the 18th of October, 1863. It was then transferred 
to the city of Memphis, where it was engaged on picket duty until 
the 26th of January, 1864, when it left on transports for Vicks- 
burg, reaching there on the 31st of January. From this point it 
moved on to the Meridian raid, skirmishing with the enemy at 
Queen's Hill and at IMeridian. where it arrived on the 14th of 

After tearing up the Mobile & Ohio Railroad track it pro- 
ceeded to [Marion, camped a few days and returned by way of 
Canton tn A'icksburg, reaching there on the 4th of March. 

Second Resident Attorney of Howard County. 


The Eighty-nintli left Vicksburg on the loth of Alarch for the 
mouth of the Red river, reaching- Semmesport on the 12th, and on 
the next day assisted in assauUing the fort, which was captured on 
the 14th. It moved from there to Alexandria, thence to Hender- 
son's Hill, and there captured two hundred and seventy rebels and 
four pieces of artillery. The Eighty-ninth bore a conspicuous part 
in the battle of Pleasant Hill on the 9th of April, 1864. 

On the 7th of May the regiment met the enemy at Bayou La 
]Moiu"ie, and after a sharp engagement charged and repulsed him. 
Resuming march toward the Mississippi, the regiment repulsed the 
enemy near Marksville, in a slight engagement, and on the i8th, a1 
Smith and Nonvood's plantation, had a severe contest and repulsed 
the enemy with great slaughter. 

On the 19th the reg'iment embarked for "V^icksburg, arriving 
nn the 24th of May. It remained here until June 4th, when it 
embarked for Memphis, leaving this point for Colliersville. . It now 
escorted a wagon train to Moscow and then moved to Lagrange, 
Tennessee. Here it remained till the 5th of July and marched to 
Pontock, Mississippi, arriving there on the nth. ]\Ioving from 
here it engaged in the battle of Tupelo on the 14th of Jul}-. The 
regiment then returned to Memphis, where it remained till Septem- 
ber, except a short expedition into Northern Mississippi in pursuit 
of Forest, made in August. On the 19th of September the regi- 
ment landed at Jefiferson Barracks, Missouri, and on the 2d day 
of October started in pursuit of the rebel General Price. 

In this expedition the regiment marclied seven hundred and 
fifty miles and was in no engagement, but had the misfortune to 
lose Quartermaster A.shley, who, with two other officers, stopped 
to take dinner at a country house. Falling behind the column a 
short distance, they were captured by guerillas and murdered almost 
immediately after near the village of Greenton, Missouri. 


Tliis long march ended at St. Louis, where the regiment re- 
mained till the latter part of No\-ember and then took steamer to 
Nashville, where it arrived on the 30th, and on the 15th and i6th 
of the following month took part in the battle near that place. On 
the 17th. starting in pursuit of Hood's army, it marched to the 
Tennessee river, and on January i, 1865, was transported to East- 
port, Mississippi. Here it remained till February 9th, when it pro- 
ceeded by steamer to Vicksburg and thence to New Orleans, arriv- 
ing there on the 21st of February. From there it moved on trans- 
ports to Dauphin Island, near Mobile, on the 8th of [March, and on 
the 19th up Mobile bay by steamer to the mouth of Fish river, and 
thence to Doris Mills, where it remained till March 25th. 

It then marched to a point between Spanish Fort and Blakely 
and participated in the siege until the f<jrtitications were taken. 

The regiment now went to ]\Iontgomer}-. Alabama, thence to 
Prin-idence and then tiiok transports to ]\Iobile, where it was mus- 
tered out of service on the 19th of July, 1865. During its' term 
of service the Eighty-ninth marched two thousand, three hundred 
and sixty-three miles on foot, traveled l)y steamer seven thousand, 
one hundred and twelve miles and by rail one thousand, two hun- 
dred and thirty-two miles, making total distance traveled ten thou- 
sand, se\-en hundred and seven miles. 


I^ite in the fall of 1863 a company was recruited in this count}-, 
under the call of September 14th of that year. 

The officers were: John M. Garrett, captain: William H. 
Sumption, first lieutenant, and Jesse .\. Gate, second lieutenant. 
This compau}' became Gompany E of the Elexenth Gavalry, One 
Hundred and Twenty-sixth Regiment, which perfected its organi- 


zation at Indianapolis. [March i, 1864, the command heing given 
to Robert T. Stewart. 

On the first day of May tlie regiment left Indianapolis and 
nii.ved liy rail to Xash\-ille, Tennessee. It arrived cm the 7th of May 
and remained until the ist of June, when it marched to Larkins- 
ville, Alabama, and was placed on duty along the line of the Mem- 
phis and Charleston Railroad. The regiment was kept on this duty 
until the 16th of October, when it marched back to Nashville, where 
it was mounted and sent to the front. It was actively engaged in 
the campaign in front of Nashville in November and December, and 
after the defeat of Hood's forces pursued him as far as Gravelly 
Springs. Alabama. It was then dismounted and placed on duty 
until I-'ebruary 7, 1865, when it crossed the Tennessee ri\'er to East- 
port. Mississippi, and remained there until the 12th of May. In 
obedience' Im orders the regiment embarked on a steamer for St. 
Louis, arii\ing M;i_\' 17th. After being' remounted it marched to 
Rolla, Missouri, and from there to Fort Riley. Kansas, where it 
was engaged in guarding the Santa Fe route across the plains with 
headc|uarters at Cottonwood Crossing. From this place it marched 
to Fort Leavenworth, arriving September nth. 

On the 19th of September the regiment was mustered out of 
ser\ice in compliance with telegraphic orders received from the 
general commanding the Department of Missouri. It arrived at 
Indianapolis on the 26th of September, partook of a sumptuous din- 
ner and was publicly welcomed at the State House. The regiment 
was then marched to Camp Carrington, paid off and discharged. 


During the winter of 1863-4 the One Hundred and Thirtieth 
Regiment was recruited from the Eleventh district with headquar- 

ters at Camp Stilwell. This camp was located on the beautiful 
grounds just east of the C. and C. railroad and south of the resi- 
dence of Milton Garrigus. T. X. Stilwell, of Anderson, was ap- 
pointed commander of the post. Company A of this regiment was 
composed wholly of Howard county volunteers, who elected Elijah 
^^'. Penny captain. John B. Littler, first lieutenant, and William S. 
Birt second lieutenant. 

This regiment left its camp in Kokomo on the i6th of March 
for Xasln-ille. Tennessee. On the 5th of April it marched from 
this place to Charleston. Tennessee, where it arrived on the 24th. 
On the 3d of May it broke camp and on the 9th first came into the 
presence of the enemy at Rocky Face Ridge. From this time until 
the 15th of ;Ma}- the regiment was engaged in a continual series of 
skirmishes, terminating in the decisive battle of Resaca, during which 
the regiment repelled a charge of the enemy. After the battle it 
joined in the pursuit; skirmishing was constant as day followed 
day. The rain fell in torrents and the men were destitute of shel- 
ter, and for a long time short of rations. On the 17th of June the 
regiment was engaged with the enemy at Lost Mountain and on the 
22d at Pine iMountain. On the 27th it drove the rebels into their 
works at Kenesaw ^Mountain. It next encountered the enemy near 
Decatur, drove him beyond its limits and destroyed the railroad. 
It took a full share in the siege of Atlanta and on the 29th of Au- 
gust was engaged in the battle of Jonesboro. From the 4th of 
October the regiment was in pursuit of Hood until the 15th of De- 
cember, when the battle took place in front of Xashville, lasting two 
days anfl resulting in the extinction of Hood's army. Joining in 
the pursuit, the regiment pushed rapidly on until the 27th, when it 
went into camp at Columbia. On the 5th of January. 1865. the 
regiment marched to Clifton and embarked for Cincinnati. Ohio, 
and thence to A\'ashington City by rail. Emljarking on steamer at 


Alexandria, the regiment sailed to Fort Fisher. North Carolina, and 

From Fort Fisher the regiment embarked for Morehead City 
and thence went by rail to Xewbern, North Carolina. On the 8th 
of March the enemy was encountered at W'ise's Forks, and aban- 
doned the field in great confusion. 

The One Hundred and Thirtieth Regiment took a prominent 
part in this engagement and moved immediately after its close to 
Kingston, and on the 20th of March moved to Goldsboro. Leaving 
this place, it went to Smithfield, and thence to Raleigh, where it ar- 
ri\'ed April 14th. From Raleigh the regiment moved to Greens- 
boni, thence to Charlotte, where it went into camp. During the 
summer and fall of 1865 the regiment was employed in guard duty 
at Charlotte. On the 2(\ of December, 1865, the regiment was 
mustered out of service at this place and arrived at home on the 
I3t]i. Upon its arrival it was greeted with a public reception. Its 
members on receiving final payment and discharge, left for their 


On the 28th of April, 1864, Mr. T. C. Phillips received the fol- 
lowing- telegram : 

"Twenty thousand volunteers to sen-e one hundred days in the 
arni_\- of the United States are called for from Indiana, ^^'ill you 
please consult with patriotic citizens of your county and take such 
steps as will insure the raising of the men as speedily as possible? 
Plan of organization by mail today. By order of the Governor. 
"W'n.Li.vM H. ScHL.\TER, Colonel and Military Secretary." 


Harrison Stewart, who had been one of the first to volun- 


teer in the three months" service, immediateh- began to recruit a 
company under this call. 

Failing to raise a full company, the men from this county were 
consolidated with a part of a company from Montgomen- county, 
and became Company I of the One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Regi- 
ment. :Mr. Stewart was commissioned first lieutenant. This I'egi- 
ment departed for Tennessee in the latter part of May, 1 864. In a 
few days after the organization of the above company another full 
company reported ready for service with B. Busby captain ; Milton 
Garrigus,' first lieutenant, and Daniel G. \\'i!kins, second lieutenant. 
This company proceeded at once to Indianapolis and became Com- 
pany C of the One Hundred and Thirty-seventh Regiment. In the 
organization of the regiment Mr. Garrigus was promoted adjutant. 
This regiment also proceeded to Tennessee. Both regiments on ar- 
riving at Nashville were assigned to duty along the lines of the rail- 
road used by General Sherman for the transportation of supplies to 
his army, then advancing on Atlanta. Both these regiments served 
beyond the period of one hundred days, and returned to Indianapo- 
lis, where they were finalh' discharged from ser\ice. 


At the expiration of his term i>f service in the One Hundred and 
Thirty-seventh Regiment Alilton Garrigus at once set about organ- 
izing another company with headquarters at Indianapolis. • A few 
men from this county joined this company, which, when organized, 
became Company I of the One Hundred and Forty-second Regi- 
ment, which enlisted for one }ear under the call of Jul\', 1864. ]\Ir. 
Garrigus was coir.missior.ed captain and Timothy Scott second lieu- 


Harrison Stewart recruited the last company raised in the 


county. This was Company H ni tlie One Hundred and Fifty- 
third Regiment. The officers were : Harrison Stewart, captain ; 
Aquilla Myers, first heutenant, and Henry B. Stewart, second heu- 
tenant. This regiment was organized at Indianapolis on the ist 
of March, 1865, and left on the 5th for Nashville, but was stopped 
at Louisville by order of General Palmer and sent to Russellville, 
where it was sent out in detachments to Hopkinsville, Bowling 
Green and other points in that sectiim of cnuntry. 

Company H was at different times engaged in fighting guer- 
rillas, but sustained no losses. On the i6th of June the regiment 
returned to Louisville and was assigned to duty at Taylor Barracks, 
where it remained until September 4, 1865, when it was mustered 
out of sen'ice. 

It was publicly welcomed liunK' at Indianaijolis on the '')th in 
the Capitol grounds. Speeches were made by General ]\Iansfield, 
Hon. John H. Farquar and Colonel Nelson Trusler, 

M0RG.\n's R.MD IX INDI.\N.\ .\ND OHIO. 

Early in July, 1863, General John Morgan with his guerrilla 
bands of soldiers crossed the Ohio river from Kentucky into south- 
ern Indiana, creating intense excitement througliout Indiana, many 
being apprehensive he would come as far north as Indianapolis, 
liurning and destroying property as the}' went. 

He had a small force and the rapid gathering of the citizen 
soldiery of the state made it exceedingly unsafe for him, and turn- 
ing to the east, he went into Ohio and sweeping arotmd Cincinnati, 
attempted to recross the Ohio above Cincinnati. 

On Jtdy 10, 1863, the following telegram was received here 
from the Governor : 
"T. C. Phillips, Kokomo, Ind. : 

"I want all the awailaljle force from vour county brought to 


this cit}' at the eariiest possible moment. Come organized if pos- 
sible. Organization, however, can be completed here and arms fur- 
nished. Please send runners over the country and inform all the 
people. Answer what you can do. Bring blankets. 

■'Oliver "P. Morton." 

This telegram was received at 10 o'clock a. m. on Friday and at 
I p. m. over one hundred men got aboard the train for Indianapo- 
lis and about three hundred followed on Saturday. After an or- 
ganization was completed at Indianapolis it was learned that Mor- 
gan had crossed into Ohio. Wlien the Indiana troops were asked 
if they were willing to follow the rebels into another state every 
man from Howard responded in the affirmative. 

Had the troops been hastened forward immediately the How- 
ard county boys might ha\-e had the honor of helping capture the 
guerilla chieftain at Hamilton, Ohio, but when they arrived at that 
place they learned that Morgan had crossed the railroad at Glen- 
dale only an hour before. They proceeded to Cincinnati and ar- 
rived at home Friday evening. 

As the war progressed calls for more men for the service had 
been issued ; in addition losses by battle, sickness and exposure had 
to be made good by recruiting new men for the old regiments until 
the number of men of military age in Howard county had been so 
depleted that it was no longer possible to secure the number of men 
wanted by asking for patriot volunteers. Other counties had the 
same conditions and experience and were hiring men to enlist by 
paying bounties. 

It therefore became necessarv for Howard countv to do the 


same else she would lose her own men, who would go elsewheix to 
enlist, attracted by the bounties being paid. 

At a special session in July, 1862, the county commissioners 
had appropriated five thousand dollars as a bounty to volunteers, 
and at their regular meeting in September following five thousand 
dollars more were appropriated. 

To raise this fund a tax of twenty cents on each one hundred 
dollars of taxable property was levied. This action was strongly 
criticised by soldiers in the field, who had gone at the first calls with- 
out bounty, and were thus taxed for a fund that was to increase the 
pay of those who had enlisted more than a year afterward, and 
which, to the amount of their taxes, at least, diminished the pay of 
the earlier volunteers. 

About the same time, for the purpose of determining the quota 
or ecjuitable share of soldiers to be furnished by each county under 
the calls for more troops, a census or militia enrollment of the men 
of military age (between eighteen and forty-five) was made. The 
first week in September the enrollment of the militia was completed. 
The enrolling commissioner, Rawson Vaile, with Corydon Rich- 
mond, examining surgeon; J. W. Cooper, provost marshal, and the 
eleven deputy commissioners for the townships of the county, met 
at the clerk's office to decide on applications for exemptions from the 

The attendance was large and the examination lasted several 
days. Seventeen months of war had worked a great change. In 
the beginning men had been eager to enlist and many young men 
under eighteen j^ears of age had evaded this requirement and gone 
into the service: now men were anxiously seeking to be excused for 
some disability. 

The following table shows the number enrolled in each town- 

178 morrow's history 

ship, the number exempt, the number now in service, and also those 
conscientiously opposed to bearing arms ; 

Enrolled Number Number of conscientiously 

Townships, militia. exempt. volunteers. opposed. 

Center 2,^2, 7° 205 

Jackson 74 10 42 i 

Harrison .... 158 15 76 9 

Clay 108 19 44 

Taylor 181 31 150 6 

Ervin 331 71 73 

Monroe 171 48 57 56 

Union 200 31 81 

Honey Creek. 123 59 50 

Howard .... 182 28 70 18 

Liberty 200 46 54 35 

Totals. . .2,051 428 902 125 

This tabular statement shows that at least one-third of How- 
ard county's militarj^ strength was already in the field in September, 

In October, 1864, Center, Harrison and Ervin townships raised 
enough money by voluntary subscriptions to raise a sufficient sum to 
hire volunteers to fill their quota and thus escape the draft of that 

The amount raised by each township was about ten thousand 


A meeting was held at James Hall, in Kokomo, on Saturday 
afternoon, January 7. 1865, and organized by calling ^lichael 


Thompson, of Jackson township, to the chair and appointing A. B. 
Walker, of Center, secretary. 

At this meeting the foUowing- resokitions were adopted with 
shght opposition : 

Whereas, The President of the United States has called for 
three hundred thousand more men and has limited the time of rais- 
ing them by volunteering to the 1 5th of Februaiy next, and 

Whereas, The governor of Indiana has permission to raise 
eleven new regiments in this state, and the time for raising the same 
has been limited to the 7th of February next, and 

Whereas, The citizens of other counties are moving actively in 
the matter by paying liberal bounties, by appropriations from their 
county commissioners, thus securing for themselves the available 
men who are in their own midst as well as in other localities, thereby 
rendering it entirely out of the question and impossible for those 
counties not paying a local bounty to secure any credits whatever, 
thus leaving all such counties one way only to fill their quotas, and 
that by draft, and 

Whereas, It is the opinion and sense of this meeting- that it is 
the surest, most reliable, equitable and expeditious way of raising 
a fund to pay a local bounty to have our county commissioners make 
an appropriation. Thus making the burden of this work in which 
all should be interested fall equally upon all in proportion to the abil- 
ity of each individual to pay. Therefore, be it 

Resolved, By this meeting, that we hereby request our county 
commissioners to make an appropriation of a sufficient sum of 
money to pay a local bounty of three hundred dollars to each and 
every volunteer necessary to fill the quota of this county. 

In a few days after this meeting the county commissioners were 
called together by the auditor, but after a consultation adjourned 
without taking any action whatever excepting to adjourn until Feb- 


ruarv 6tli. In the meantime the Governor had extaided the time 
for raising- the requii-ed number of troops a few days. Large boun- 
ties were being paid in adjoining counties and our boys were leaving 
and volunteering elsewhere. The people were becoming thoroughly 
aroused and alarmed, and on Monday morning. February 6th, the 
day appointed by the commissioners to meet again in special ses- 
sion, at a very early hour the people began to flock into Kokomo in 
great numbers, highly excited over the prospect of a draft. They 
saw that Howard county would be depopulated and preferred taxa- 
tion rather than that their farms should lie uncultivated for want of 
help. A meeting of the people convened at an early hour in James 
Hall, the largest in the city, and it was crowded to its utmost ca- 
pacity. Upon a vote being taken only four persons voted against 
paying a county bounty. The commissioners were present at this 
meeting and seeing that the people were almost of one mind, at once 
held a meeting and placed upon record the following order : 

It is this day ordered by the commissioners of Howard county, 
Indiana, that an appropriation of ninety-eight thousand dollars be 
and the same is hereby made and ordered for the purpose of raising 
a local bounty of four hundred dollars to each and every volunteer 
who may enlist in the military service of the United States under 
the call of the President of the United States for three hundred 
thousand men, bearing date December 19, 1864. 

This appropriation shall be made in county orders, signed and 
issued by the auditor of said county, and in sums ranging from ten 
dollars to one hundred dollars each. Said orders to be paid within 
one year or as soon thereafter as the money to pay the same can be 
collected for that purpose by taxation. This appropriation to be 
paid to the several townships in proportion to the number of men 
required from each township to fill said call. And if the entire 
quota of said county shall not be filled bv \-olunteers tiien the num- 


ber that have \-ohinteere(l to appnrtii med to the several townships 
in proportion to the number of men required from each. 

It is further ordered that the cdunt}- auchtor aforesaid shall issue 
said orders to regular appointed agents of each and every township 
of the county, when they shall deposit with the auditor a certificate 
or receipt that money enoug'h has been collected to cover the amount 
of the order or orders called for by said township, provided, how- 
ever, that if \-oIunteers wish to take orders in lieu of money they 
ha\-e that privilege. 

It is further ordered that all volunteers obtained from other 
than Howard county are to be credited to the se\-eral townships in 
proportion to the quotas required. It is further ordered that Ithamer 
Russell be appointed to receive said fund and disburse the same 
whenever certificates are presented showing that volunteers have 
been received and mustered into service and credited to Howard 
county under this call. 

Signed: David Greason, Jerome Br(jwn, John Moulder, 
County Commissioners. 

The following tabular statement shows the amounts expended 
for local bounties, for relief of soldiers' families and for miscel- 
laneous military by the county of Howard and the several town- 
ships : 

Bounty. Relief. 

Howard county $108,000 $15,000 

Center township '. 1 1,000 10,000 

Clay township 2.870 1.500 

Er\in township 24,550 2,065 

Harrison township 12,500 I-550 

Howard township 550 

Honey Creek township 7,000 S30 

Jackson township 3,000 450 


Liberty township 17-030 700 

Monroe township 10,500 1.250 

Taylor township 850 

Union township 4-915 1-375 

Totals $201,365 $36,120 

On [Monday, October 6, 1862. the first draft took place in this 
county, under the supervision of Rawson Vaile, commissioner, as 
follows: Ervin township, 18 men; Liberty township, 5 men; Clay 
township, I man ; total, 24 men. 

Those who were conscientiously opposed to bearing- amis, hav- 
ing been excused, though able-bodied, from actual military sei'vice, 
were regarded, so far as the draft was concerned, as separate com- 
munities, and were required to furnish the same per cent, of the 
whole number of able-bodied men as had been furnished by other 
citizens of the government. The average number of volunteers and 
men drafted for actual service was about forty per cent, of the whole 
number of those not exempt from actual military sen-ice. 

Consequently the government saw fit to draft forty per cent, of 
the conscientious ones, and assessed the commutation fee of two 
hundred dollars each. Their names were placed in a separate box 
and drawn as follows: Ervin township, 17: Monroe township, 23 
Harrison township, 4; Taylor township, 3; Howard township, 8 
Liberty township, 14; Union township, 6; Jackson township, i 
Honey Creek township, 9; total, 75. 

On the 26th and 27th of October, 1864. a second draft took 
place at Kokomo for six townships. The following was the result 
by townships, being double the number of men necessary to fill the 


quota of each: Clay, i8 men; Honey Creek, 28 men; Jackson, 22 
men; Liberty, 66 men; iMonroe, 68 men; Union, 78 men. Howard 
and Taylor were exempt from this draft because they already had 
more than their quota of men in the field. And Center, Harrison 
and En'in, as stated under bounties, raised enough monc}' by sub- 
scription to hire their quotas filled. 


On the 9th of April, 1865, overtaken and seeing- no hope of 
escape. General Lee agreed to surrender. On the morning- of the 
1 0th the story of Appomattox reached Howard county and fairly 
set the people wild with joy. The Tribune of April 13, 1865, 
said ; 

"Last ]\Ionday was that 'happy day' that the people have been 
singing about for several years. It was the happiest day that the 
people of this generation ever experienced. The enthusiasm ex- 
tended over the entire countr}- and the people everywhere rejoiced. 

"Our town was all ablaze on ^Monday night. Bonfires lighted 
up the streets ; thousands of burning candles were in the windows. 
Old and young were on the streets; gentlemen congratulated each 
other. Old enemies met and buried the past. Ladies sang patriotic 
songs, and Rev. Mr. Jenkins, Elder Hobbs and others made brief 
speeches. Everj-body felt good, glorious and festive. At a late 
" hour the greater number of those on the streets began to move home- 
ward, feeling just as happy as they well could feel, while many went 
in out of the cold and kept up their rejoicing until the early hours 
of the morning. It was indeed a glorious day and evening, made 
glorious by the brilliant achievements of our gallant army on Sun- 
day, the 9th of April. Hurrah for the Fourth of July, the 9th of 
April ! Yankee Doodle and Yankee army," 


Before the week ended this greatest rejoicing was turned into 
the deepest mourning the country ever knew. On tlie evening of 
April 14th President Lincohi was assassinated. On the 19th of 
Aprih 1865, tlie day set apart by the government for the funeral 
ceremonies of this great and good man, the Rev. C. ^Nlartindale was 
selected by the people of this community to preach a befitting and 
appropriate sermon, which he did in the Methodist Episcopal church 
in Kokomo, choosing the text: "Clouds and darkness are round 
about Him, righteousness and judgments are the habitation of His 

In his closing remarks he said : "On this memorable occasion 
we should resolve to live for God and humanity. Let the memory 
of Lincoln and Washington arouse us to action ; let the blood of the 
heroes of '76 and '61-64 cry in our ears; let the dangers and strug- 
gles of the past teach us lessons of wisdom. Especially let the mur- 
der of our beloved Chief Magistrate, Abraham Lincoln, arouse us 
to crush treason and slaveiy, and to teach us to trust the living God 
as the Ruler of our great nation. Four years ago ^Ir. Lincoln left 
his quiet home in the ^^'est to assume the great duties recjuired at 
his hands, appealing to Heaven for help and asking the prayers of 
the pious. Assassins sought his life then, but God protected him 
till his work was done. Now he returns to his boyhood home 
again ; though fallen, he goes a conqueror. He has freed four mil- 
lion bondmen and saved a nation, and now, amid sorrows such as 
were not felt at the death of Washington, he goes to his long, last 
repose, where the boom of the cannon, the tramp of the armed host. 
the groan of the bondman or the hand of the assassin shall not dis- 
turb his repose. Peaceful be his rest, quiet his repose. Softly 
whis]ier the winds of the West around the grave of Abraham Lin- 
coln, the second Washington of America, and the world's great 



It seemed especially fitting that July 4. 1865, should be cele- 
brated in a more than ordinarily impressive manner: the war was 
over, the countr}- was reunited and many of the veterans had re- 
turned to their homes. It was therefore determined t(.) combine the 
old-fashioned Fuurth of July celebration with a formal welcome 
home of the brave men who had given it an added meaning. 

Great preparations were made to make this a happy day to citi- 
zen and soldier. At 5 o'clock in the morning a loud report from the 
cr.nn(in on the public square reminded the people that the glnrious 
day had dawned. Soon the cit_\' was astir: some villain had spiked 
th.e gun in the night or the exercises would have begun an hour 
sooner. By 9 o'clock the streets were crowded with people: at 10 
o'clock a large procession under command of Colonel Willis Blanche 
marched to the grove on the east of the city followed by the artil- 
lery squad and a large concourse of citizens. C(3lonel Richmond, 
the chief marshal, called the assemblage to order and introduced the 
Rev. Martindale, who announced the old familiar hymn. "Am I a 
Soldier of the Cross?" which was sung with much spirit. ]\Ir. Mar- 
tindale then led in prayer and was followed by a national air by the 
band: and then the gallant ]\Ietsker, of the old Seventy-fifth, stepped 
forward and in a loud ^•oice read the Declaration of Independence. 
Elder Hobbs was then introduced to the audience and delix'ered an 
eloquent oration. The Tribune of Jul}- 6 ci mplimented the ora- 
tion as being one of the finest ever delivered in the city. Elder 
Hobbs paid a glowing tribute to the memory of those who had fallen 
in defense of our liberties: and to those who had been spared to re- 
turn he gave cheery welcome and said : "For all the grand results 
of the past four years, under God, we are indebted to the armies and 
navies under the Stars and Stripes. Tb.e soldiers have suffered 


much ill battle, in loathsome prisons and dreadful marches, but God 
gave them \-ictory at last." The speaker concluded his address by 
repeating these lines of welcome, composed by himself: 

"Thrice welcome, ye brave boys in blue, 
AA'ith your banners all torn yet true; 
Welcome, ye sons of patriot sires — 
Now rekindle the sacred fires — 
From year to year renew the flame, 
Until fair Columbia's name 
Shall be in every land revered. 
And shall on ev'ry sea be feared. 
AA'elcome, thrice welcome, all ye braves. 
This the land of our fathers' graves, 
A goodh' land by them blood bought, 
Came to us, unearned, unsought ; 
But now, bravely thro' freedom's war. 
You've borne their flag, nor lost a star." 

After the address dinner was annoiuiced. Baskets of luxuries 
had been prepared in nearly every home in Howard county, and the 
committee had tastefully and conveniently arranged the tables, so 
that all could be accommodated. The soldiers and their families 
were first given places, and afterwards the citizens. This was a 
sumptuous repast, and all partook freely, and though hundreds were 
served, there was enough left for as many more. After dinner the 
crowd reassembled at the grounds and speeches were made by Judge 
Linsday and Capt. Milton Garrigus. In the evening there was 
quite a display of fireworks and the cannon sent its echoes far into 
the night. All in all, it was a very patriotic and happy celebration. 



Tlie former ol^sen-ations upon the citizen soldiers of the W'nr 
of 1812 and tlie Mexican war holds good for the citizens who were 
the soldiers of the Civil war. Our citizens delight to honor their 
memory; and the honorar)' service so auspiciously begun on this 
first Fourth of July after the war has been continued in the Me- 
morial Day services — a day set apart to decorating the graves of 
those who have gone out of this life, and recounting again the brave 
deeds of all who served their country. 

In die laying out of Crown Point Cemetery a beautiful circular 
mound was dedicated to the fallen heroes of our Civil war. In the 
Kokomo Dispatch the following notice is made: "At a special 
meeting of the common council on Tuesday evening, June 12, 1883, 
G. D. Tate introduced a resolution ceding to the county the round 
plat in Crown Point Cemetery, known as the Cenotaph ground, on 
condition that a suitable memorial monument be erected thereon 
which shall record the names of all soldiers who died in the Union 
service in the Civil war. The county commissioners voted on yes- 
terday five thousand dollars in equal installments to apply to the 
purchase of the proposed cenotaph. The proposed cenotaph is to be 
erected at a cost of not less than ten thousand dollars. It is pro- 
posed to raise the additional five thousand dollars by private contri- 
butions. The monument will be an honor to the county, as well as 
a grateful tribute to the dead who died for the flag. Let the good 
work go bravely on." 

On Februaiy 4, 1885, the county commissioners let a contract 
to Whitehead & Wright, of Indianapolis, to construct a soldiers' 
monument according to plans submitted by R. F. Carter, of South 
Rye Gate, Vermont, for $7,450, the work to be completed on or 
before May 25, 1886. The beautiful monument in the northwest 

i88 morrow's history 

corner of Crown Point is tiie mute evidence (if tliat work. The con- 
tract included ail the required Jettering and yet the conditiim that 
the names of all Union soldiers who died in the service should be 
recorded thereon was not complied with. 

Below is such a list, as nearly as can lie ascertained, imperfect 
though it be : 

Howard county soldiers were represented in the following 
regiments: Sixth, Eighth, Twelfth. Thirteenth. Fifteenth, Twen- 
tieth. Twenty-first (First Heavy Artillery). Twenty-sixth. Thirty- 
fourth. Thirty-sixth. Thirty-ninth ( Eighth Cavalry). Forty-sixth, 
Forty-seventh, Fifty-first. Fifty-seventh. Sixtieth. Sixty-third. Sev- 
enty-third. Seventy-fifth. Seventy-seventh ( Fourth Cavalry). Sev- 
enty-ninth. Eighty-sixth, Eighty-seventh. Eighty-ninth. Ninetieth 
(Fifth Cavalry), Ninety-ninth, One Hundred and Twenty-sixth 
( Eleventh Cavalry), One Hundred and Thirtieth. One Hundred and 
Thirt\--first ( Thirteenth Cavalry). One Hundred and Thirty-fifth. 
One Hundred and Thirty-seventh, One Hundred and Fortieth. One 
Hundred and Forty-second, One Hundred aufl Fifty-third, One 
Hundred and Fifty-fifth. Twenty-eighth (Cnlored), Eighth ( United 
States Colored), and Seventeenth Batt:er}-. 


Howard county's "roll of honor" is as follows: Thirteenth 
Infantry — William H. Bates, died at Indianapolis, July 14, 1861 : 
Thomas Bogue, killed at .Vllegheny, December 13. i86i ; John 
Btums, died June 6, 1862. of wounds received at Allegheny: Fran- 
cis M. FTardesty. died at Cheat Mountain Pass. September 3. 1861 : 
Daniel Helms, died at Suffolk. Virginia. November 3. 1862; Mark 
Helms, killed at Winchester, ^farch 27,. 1862: Jonathan Hocksted- 
ler, killetl at ^^'inchester. March 2;. 1862: William Honner, died 


at Folly Island, January 26, 1864; Eleazor Jones, died at Cheat 
Mountain Pass, September 19. 1861 ; William Rader, killed at Win- 
chester, March 23, 1862; William Riffle, killed at Rich Mountain, 
July 1 1, 1861 ; George L. J. Ring, died at Beaufort, South Carolina, 
October 4, 1863; Benjamin Seward, killed at Foster's Farm, 
May 20, 1864; William Shirley, died Februar}' 19, 1862, of wounds 
received at Allegheny; John M. Simpson, died June 7, 1864. of 
wounds received at Cold Harbor. 

Thirty-Fourth Infantry — John Brown, died at Xelson Bar- 
racks, Kentucky, February 22, 1862: Henry Brown, died at Buffalo, 
Kentucky, February 11, 1866; Adam Ferrell, died at Vicksburg, July 
26, 1863 ; William Albertson, died at St. Louis. Jul}' 22, 1863 ; 
George Burns, died at Louisville, Kentucky. March 20, 1862; Theo- 
dore P. Butcher, died while on furlough. May 16, 1862; John Hale, 
died at Buffalo, Kentucky, February 11, 1862: Silas A. Hoover, 
died at Louisville, Kentucky, February 26, 1862; William J. John- 
son, died at St. Louis, Missouri, February 12, 1863 ; William Linvill,. 
killed at Champion Hill, May 16, 1863: Tobias M. Overholser. 
killed at Champion Hill, May 16. 1863; David Proud, died at Nel- 
son Barracks, Kentucky, February 15, 1862; Thomas S. Terrell. 
died July 26, 1863, at Memphis, Tennessee; Hiram Van Horn, died 
at St. Louis, Missouri, October 13, 1862: Thomas P. ^^'interode. 
died at New Orleans, September 30, 1864. 

Thirty-Ninth Regiment (Eighth Cavalry)— ^^Mlliam R, Phil- 
lips, killed at Shiloh, April 7, 1862; Stephen D. Butler, killed at 
Chickamauga, September 20, 1863 ; Jacob Brown, died in prison at 
Florence, South Carolina, January 20, 1865; Elijah F. Colter, killed 
at Fairburn, Georgia, August 19, 1862; Henry B. Colter, killed at 
Cannelton, Georgia, September 10, 1864; Benjamin C. Da\-is. died 
September 5, 1864, of wounds; James P. Davis, died at Louisville. 
Kentucky. December 31, 1861 ; Herrick Hoback, died of wounds. 


April 14, 1862; Milton Jones, died of wounds, September 9, 1863, 
at Stone River; Fauzy Julien, died January 23, 1863, of wounds 
received at Stone River; Thomas F. Julien, died at Nashville, Ten- 
nessee, September 14, 1862 ; William H. Linder, died April 27, 1862, 
of wounds received at Shiloh : George McKinsey, died at Nashville, 
July II, 1864; Nicholas Mulvaney died at Savanna, Ga., March 
16, 1865; Erwin W. Richardson, killed at Pulaski, September 27, 
1864; Richard J. Ricks died at Louisville, Dec. 4, 1864; 
Charles Robertson, died at Nashville. September 5, 1863; John W. 
Shilling, died of wounds received at Stone River ; William Stanley, 
died January 9, 1863, of wounds received at Stone River; Uriah 
Snyder, died at home. May 5. 1864; Ausborn E. Thompson, died at 
Louisville. February 28. 1862; Henry H. Thomburg, died at Hub- 
bard's Cove. August 31, 1862; William F. Tyler, died at Nashville, 
September 22, 1864; Jeremiah Washburne, killed by bushwhackers, 
September 14, 1863 ; Nathaniel F. Whitaker, died at Murfreesboro, 
June 16. 1863 ; Samuel P. Witherow, died at Louisville. Kentucky, 
January 19, 1862. 

Fortieth Infantry — John M. Baly. died at Jeffersonville. Indi- 
ana, January 7, 1865; William Burt, died at Camp Inang, Texas, 
August 14, 1865; Levi Ellis, died at Huntsville, Alabama, February 
21, 1865; Louis W. Jones, died at Nashville, December 16, 1864; 
Joel Law, died January 23, 1865 ; Henry A. Pickering, died at Nash- 
ville, March 24. 1865; Samuel Scales, died at Louisville, February 
18. 1865 : William Smith, died of wounds at Nashville, December 
I. 1864. 

Fifty-Seventh Infantry — John Adamson. killed in battle at 
Stone River. December 31. 1862: John W. Adamson, veteran, killed 
in battle at Kenesaw Mountain, June 23, 1864; Joseph Arnold, died 
at Kokomo, Indiana, May 18, 1862; Isaac Browning, died at Padu- 
cah. Kentucky, May 26, 1862 ; George Campbell, veteran, died at Big 


Shanty, Georgia. July 29, 1864; John L. Colvin, died at Camp 
Irwin, Texas, October 14, 1865 ; WilHam Dimitt, veteran, died at 
Chattanooga, July 24, 1864; David H. Douglas, veteran, died at 
Memphis, April 28. 1865 ; Melvin C. Endicott, died at Corinth, Mis- 
sissippi ; Robert A. Gordon, killed at Resaca, Georgia, May 15, 
1864 ; Andrew J. Harding, died November 16, 1862 ; John Hawkins, 
died at Quincy, Illinois. March 12, 1863; Joseph Higgins, killed at 
Pine Mountain, Georgia, June 15. 1864; Willis Hilton, died at Nash- 
ville. March 29, 1862; Andrew J. Langley, died at Chattanooga, 
Tennessee, March 10, 1864; Samuel ^Slathers, veteran, killed in 
battle at Kenesaw Mountain, June 18, 1864; Peter W. McRey- 
nolds, veteran, died at Louisville, Kentucky, August 24, 1864; Ste- 
phen A. Miller, veteran, died at Chattanooga, July 5, 1864, of 
wounds; Lewis Pike, veteran, lost on steamer Sultana, April 27, 
1865; George T. Pike, veteran, killed near Nashville, December 
16, 1864; Henry Ravel, died at Bardstown, Kentucky, March 30, 
1862 ; Andrew Rhoads, killed in battle at Stone River, December 31, 
1862; Lewis Snoddery, died of wounds in 1864; James Weaver, 
died at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, April 13. 1863; George D. 
Winders, died at Nashville, January 13, 1863; James Yount, died 
June 4, 1863. 

Seventy-Third Infantry — Henry H. Thornton, killed at Stone 
River, December 31, 1862. 

Seventy-Fifth Infantry — Emisley Bright, died at Nashville, 
Tennessee, October 15, 1863; Francis M. Bryant died December 2, 
1863 ; Eli Burris died at Gallatin, Tennessee, February 20, 
1863 ; John G. Coate died at Richmond, Virginia, Feb- 
ruary 16, 1864; James Ellet, died at home, February 
20, 1863, John Fay, died at Louisville Kentucky, Decem- 
ber 7, 1863; George \X. Henderson, died at Murfreesboro, Tennes- 
see, March 26. 1863 ; Jacob Hinkle. died at Gallatin, Tennessee. 
January' 20, 1863; John M. Hodson, died at Nashville. Tennessee; 
Benjamin Huff, died at Nashville, Tennessee, November 21, 1863; 


Henry Jones, died at Scottsville, Kentucky. January 5, 1863; Sam- 
uel McClure, died at Bowling Green, Kentucky, December 11, 
1862; Henry Myers, died at Lebanon, Kentucky, September 5, 
1862; Allen M. Paff, died at Louisville, Kentucky, October 11, 
1862; John Smiley, died at New Albany, Indiana, October 30, 1862; 
Hiram Stephens, died at (Gallatin, Tennessee, February 23, 1863; 
Thomas J. Stringer, died at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, March 6, 
1863; Richard Templin, died at home, February 28, 1864; James 
Tliorington, died at Richmond, Virginia, February 21, 1864; Reu- 
ben Waldron, died at Gallatin, Tennessee, February 17, 1863 ; James 
B. \Vhisler, died at Atlanta, Georgia, November i, 1863. 

Eighty-Ninth Infantry — James L. Amiantrout, died February 
17, 1863: Francis M. Beard, died in Howard county, October 27, 
1862; William H. Bishop, killed at Yellow Bayou, May 7, 1864; 
William R. Brener, died at Jefferson Barracks, ^Missouri, October 
20, 1863; Jeremiah P. Brown, died June 3, 1864, from wounds; 
John Carpenter, died March i, 1863: ^^'illiam J. Carter, died near 
Canton, Mississippi, March i, 1864; \\'esley Defenbaugh, died at 
Fort Pickering, Tennessee, June 22, 1863 ; Nathan M. Elmore, died 
of wounds received at Yellow Bayou, Louisiana, May 18, 1864; 
Harvey Earley, died April 10, 1863; Tilghman A. Farlow, died at_ 
Memphis, Tennessee, June 20, 1864; Alexander Fleming, died June 
25, 1863; William H. Fritz, died July 29, 1863; Bedford W. Gif- 
ford, killed May 18, 1864, at Yellow Baj-ou, Louisiana; Thomas 
Gordon, died at Fort Pickering, Tennessee, February 23, 1863; 
Hugh Heathcoat, killed at Munfordsville, Kentucky, September 14, 
1862; Nicholas Hughes, died at Fort Pickering, Tennessee. July 
8, 1863; Richard M. Hughes, died at home January 10, 1863; Wil- 
liam Hughes, died at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, December 17, 
1864; William R. Hulse, died at Memphis, Tennessee, July 10, 
1864: ^^"illiam A. Hunt, killed June 23, 1864, by guerillas: Henry 


T. Jennings, killed at Yellow Bayou, Louisiana, May i8, 1864; 
Reuben E. Johnson, died at Nashville, Tennessee, December 8, 
1864; John M. Kane, died at New Albany, Indiana, September 
28, 1863 ; Ulysses P. King, died at Fort Pickering, Tennessee, 
August 10, 1862; George E. Knoble, died January 19, 1863; Lewis 
Long, died at Memphis. Tennessee, December 16, 1862; Allen ■\Ic- 
Daniel, died August 15, 1864; Robert McReynolds, died at Mem- 
phis, Tennessee, January 18, 1864; John F. Martin died at ]\Iem- 
phis, Tennessee, March 16, 1864; David Morris, died at Fort Pick- 
ering, Tennessee, August 30, 1863 ; LaFayette Morris, died at Wood- 
sonville, Kentucky, October 24, 1862; Francis M. O'Dowd, died at 
Andersonville prison, August 9, 1864; Benjamin F. Oiler, died at 
Fort Pickering, Tennessee, May 26, 1863; Simon Peters, died at 
home, December 28, 1862 ; James W. Ploughe, died at Anderson- 
ville, Georgia, September 2, 1864; William H. Poff, died near 
Memphis, Tennessee, December 12, 1862; Allen Ramsey, died at 
Memphis, Tennessee, August 3, 1863 ; Erastus Ross, died at New 
Orleans, June 22, 1864, of wounds; Jesse Sanders, died at Mem- 
phis, Tennessee, September 23, 1864; Daniel Sheets, died July — , 
1864; Adam Shepard, died November 15, 1862; John S. Springer, 
died at Memphis, Tennessee, June 5, 1864; Daniel W. Straughn, 
died September 18, 1863; William R. Low, August 9, 1864; Elijah 
E. Thrailkill, killed at Fort Pickering, Tennessee, April 27, 1863; 
Charles N. Tyler, died at New Orleans, March 11, 1865; Nathan 
Wickersham, died at home. August 7, 1863 : Hugh Willits, died 
February 17, 1865, of wounds, in hospital at Nashville, Tennessee; 
William T. ^^Mlson, died at home. October 18. 1862: ^^'illiam 
Yates, died May 18, 1863. 


The following were lost from the ranks of the Ninetieth Regi- 
ment : John V. Champion, killed in East Tennessee by bushwhack- 


ers in 1864; John S. Holler, died in Andersonville prison in 1864; 
Augustus Q. Myers, killed at Rheatown, Tennessee, October, 1863; 
Jeremiah A. Starr, killed at Rheatown, Tennessee, October. 1863. 

Ninety-Ninth Infantrj- — Noah Cate, died of wounds received 
August 15, 1864., 

One Hundred and First Regiment — ^^'iley Bagwell, died at 
Bacon Creek, Kentucky, November 20, 1862 ; Tidell Rush, died at 
Danville, Kentucky, October 25, 1862; Barrett Spray, died at Mun- 
fordsville, Kentucky, December 16, 1862; George Sumption, died at 
Marietta, Georgia, October 6, 1862. 

One Hundred and Eighteenth Infantry — Richard Bodle, died 
at Camp Nelson, Kentucky, January 5, 1864: Jefferson W. Carr, 
died at Camp Nelson, Kentucky, December 7, 1863 ; James L. Gold- 
ing, died at Tazewell, Tennessee, December 14, 1863; Ezeriah Hut- 
son, died at Knoxville, Tennessee, December 10, 1863; William J. 
Purois, died at Tazewell, Tennessee, January 12, 1864, of starva- 
tion ; Emory Russell, died at Cumberland Gap, Tennessee, December 
14, 1863; Milton E. Reiley, died at Powell River, Tennessee, Janu- 
ary 26, 1864; Ovid Youngs, died at Indianapolis, Indiana, Septem- 
ber 6, 1863. 

One Hundred and Twenty-Sixth Regiment ( Eleventh Caval- 
ry) — Dawson M. Brown, died at Nashville, Tennessee, November 6, 
1864; George W. Crewtherd, died at Indianapolis, Indiana, March 
31, 1864; Isaac Carpenter, died at Louisville, Kentucky, February 12, 
1865 ; John W. Cochran, died at Indianapolis, Indiana. March 5, 
1864; Enoch Dale, died at Nashville, Tennessee. December 26, 1864; 
James Hutto, died at Louisville. Kentucky. May 2. 1865; Moses 
Hinkle, died at Nashville, Tennessee, December 26, 1864; James 
Hodson, died May 14, 1865 : William King, died at Bellefonte Sta- 
tion, Alabama, July 7, 1864; William Lindley, died at Kokomo. Indi- 
ana. May 3, 1864; Henry M. Long, lost on Sultana, April 2j, 1865 ; 


Albert N. McCoy, died at Larkinsville, Alabama, June 20, 1864; 
Lloyd Pennington, died at Jeffersonville, Indiana, January 12, 1865 ; 
George B. Pennington, died at Nashville, Tennessee, March 13, 
1865: Andrew J. Pierce, died at Nashville, Tennessee, November 
6, 1864; Israel P. Pool, died at Nashville, Tennessee, October 22, 
1864; Jacob Pool, died at New Albany, Indiana, March 4, 1865; 
Charles L. Summers, died at Nashville, Tennessee, December 22, 
1864. of wounds: Robert Steward, died at Louisville. Kentucky. 
February 6, 1865. 

One Hundred and Thirtieth Infantry — Thomas N. Armstrong, 
died November 28, 1864, of wounds; Thomas H. Endicott. killed 
near Atlanta, Georgia, August 5, 1864; William Elliot, died at 
Atlanta, Georgia, October 18, 1864: George Boffman, died at Louis- 
ville, Kentucky, April 17, 1865; John H. Denman, died at Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, December 15, 1864: Joseph Godfrey, died at King- 
ston, Georgia, August 15, 1864: William F. Havens, died at home 
February 29, 1864; Albert \V. Hoke, killed by accident April 3, 
1864; Nathan Maudlin, died at Chattanooga, Tennessee, June 4, 
1864: Thomas O'Neil, died at Kno.xville, Tennessee, September 16, 
1864; William T. Rolston, died at Chattanooga, Tennessee, Novem- 
ber 8, 1864; John T. Shepherd, died at Kingston, Georgia, June 5, 
1864; Reuben J. Smith, killed at Nashville, Tennessee, December 
15, 1864; Jesse Swinger, died at Marietta, Georgia, September i, 
1864; William White, Jr., died at Marietta, Georgia, August 20, 

One Hundred and Thirty-first Regiment (Thirteenth Cavalry) 
— George M. Bums, died at Cahaba Prison, Alabama, January 5, 
1865; Nicholas Tow, died at Mobile. Alabama, October 5, 1865. 

One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Infantry — Baker Bofifman 
(Baughman), died at Bowling Green. Kentucky, June 20. 1864. 

One Hundred and Fortieth Infanti-y — Jonathan Berry, died at 
New Albany, Indiana. December 3, 1864. 



One Hundred and Forty-second Infantry — John H. Golding, 
died at Nashville, Tennessee, April 17, 1865. 

One Hundred and Fifty-third Infantiy — ^^'illiam I\l. Floyd, 
died at Russellville, Kentucky, August i. 1865; Levi Seward, died 
in Tipton county, August 18, 1865. 


Howard county sent into the field more than fifteen hundred 
men for sen-ice. Hundreds of these perished on the battlefields of 
the South or by the slower means of wounds or wasting diseases 
incident to the privation and exposures of the march and camp. 
The remnant wIki returned had sacrificed much of the vigor of their 
manhood for their country, but they had accomplished that for 
which they gave their service — a reunited country, built on solider 
foundations more than ever before. The right to secede was com- 
pletely overthrown. The idea of the old confederation of states was 
gone, and instead we had an indivisible Union. 

( See page 468 for addenda. ) 


Howard county is an agricultural county of the first class. 
Corn, wheat, oats, rye, potatoes and hay are produced in abundance. 

Corn is the banner crop. The deep, black soil and the abun- 
dant rainfall and a growing season of just the right length combine 
to make this a good corn county. The various grasses — clover, 
timothy and blue grass — find a natural home here and produce sure 
and abundant crops of hay and afford excellent grazing, thus mak- 
ing this a good live stock countrv. As has heretofore been indi- 


cated, in the beginning the possibihties only of our present high 
agricultral condition were liere. These fertile soils were covered 
with heavy forests and, for much of the year, with water, too. 

With much hard labor and great expense all these lands have 
been tile underdrained so that the land is not only drained of water 
but air is introduced into the soil, adding to its fertility. The for- 
ests have been cleared away until now a timber famine is almost in 


^^"hile the clearing has been going on the lumber business has 
been an important industry. For many years all the log and frame 
buildings were built in their entirety out of native timber and lum- 
ber — roofs were of oak clapboards or shaved walnut or poplar 
shingles, the frames and siding of yellow popular lumber, the floors 
of ash lumber and the finish of black walnut lumber. This has con- 
tinued until recent years, when the growing scarcity of native tim- 
ber and the high prices of native lumber compelled the use of pine 
and cheaper materials. The use of the native lumber for so many 
years has saved the people of this county a veiy large sum of money. 

For many years the shipping of lumber from the county, cut 
by local sawmills, was an important industry. Vast sums were 
realized from the sale of the walnut, poplar and ash lumber while 
that timber was being cut away ; then another very large sum was 
received for the oak timber, as heading and lumber, and later still 
a considerable sum was received for the beech and sugar, and later 
still the despised water or soft elms are being exchanged for cash, 
omitting any mention of handle and hoop-pole timber. 

The gross sum received from the sale of Howard county tim- 
ber and saved by the people in using this timber for various domes- 
tic uses — buildings, fences, fuel, etc. — if accurately computed would 


be a vast sum. This source of revenue is practically past, but is 
compensated for by well-cleared fields, fitted for the modern meth- 
ods of cultivation, and the woodlands, thinned out and cleared of 
underbrush and affording excellent blue grass pasturag'e. There is 
little or no waste lands on the farms now, where some years since 
much of it was unused. Denser population and high-priced lands 
have tended toward more intensive and better farming. 


Perhaps there is no vocation in life in which there has been so 
much advancement all along the line as in the farm life in Howard 
county in the past sixty years. Then he sowed his wheat broadcast 
and plowed it in the cornfield with a single-shovel plow, or har- 
rowed it in with an "A" harrow, if in a plowed field. He harvested 
it with a reap hook, threshed it with a flail or tramped it out with 
horses and blew out the chaff with a fanning mill : later he cut the 
grain with a cradle and threshed it with a "groundhog thresher" and 
cleaned it with a fanning mill, and a little later threshed it with a 
horse power separator. Several years later, when the fields were 
partly cleared of the stumps and roots, he began tn use the modern 
method of sowing his grain with a drill and to cut it with machines 
but yet binding by hand and threshing with steam power separators, 
but diiing all the work about the machine by hand — cutting the 
bands and feeding the grain into the machine by hand : measuring 
the grain into bags by hand, loading the grain into wagons by hand 
and stacking straw by hand — all hard, dusty work. Now he sows 
all his small grain with drills in fields cleared of stumps and roots. 
He pulverizes the soil with modern harrows and field rollers, all 
provided with spring seats. He harvests the grain with self-binders 
and puts ofif the sheaves in bunches for shocking, and threshes with 


Steam power machines that cut tlie bands and feed with self-feeders 
tliat ele\-ate and weigh the threshed grain and dump it into wagons, 
ready to be hauled to market, and stacks the straw with an auto- 
matic wind stacker. 


The present-day farmer would not know a jumping shovel 
plow should he meet one. Very few of them could cross off a field ■ 
in straight furrows the proper width for corn rows, and to drop the 
corn into the crosses with three to four grains to the hill would be 
bevond his or her skill, and then to cover the corn with an old- 
fashioned hoe, among stumps and roots, would be the limit ; and 
then to cultivate it with the single-shovel walking plow among roots, 
that too often would spring back and hit him on the shins, would 
precipitate a labor strike indeed. The modern fanner does none of 
these things. In the bright springtime, when the conditions are all 
right, he hitches three good horses to a modern breaking plow, 
drives out to a field where the memory of stumps and roots has 
almost faded away, and turns over the mellow soil and has nothing 
to suggest evil thoughts. And when the field is ready for planting 
he d(ies not go out and cross it of¥ with his single-shovel plow, but 
alone and unattended he hitches to his two-horse check row planter 
and plants twice as much in a day as did that force of five people 
in the elder day and does a lietter job : and when the green shoots 
are visible and can be seen across the field in the row, he drives out 
to the field with a riding cultivator and plows without fear of bodily 

When the clover blooms are more than half brown and the 
bloom has fallen from the heads of the timothy stalks, this farmer 
does not get down his rusty mowing scythe and, after grinding to a 
keen edge, with a long sandstone whetrock in his pocket go out to 


the field and in tlie burning sunshine swing his scythe back and 
forth, cutting the heavy growth of grass and throwing it into 
swaths to be afterwards scattered for drying, occasionally stopping 
to whet his scythe with the whetrock. After the hay is cured he 
does not throw it into windrows with a fork and then pitch it on a 
wagon and afterwards pitch it into the mow. 


No. The modern farmer hitches to an up-to-date mower, mows 
a field quickly, hitches to a tedder, kicks it up so as to pennit the air 
to pass through and dn,' it out quickly, and then backs his hay 
wagon up to a hay loader, hitches them together and drives around 
the field, while the loader gathers up the hay and delivers it on the 
wagon. After the wagon is loaded he drives to the bam and there 
a hayfork, drawn by horse power, picks up the hay from the wagon 
and deposits it in the mow. 

\M-ien the summer is past and the wintry storms have come, 
this farmer does not wrap himself up as best he can, go out and 
harness up a team, restless with cold, and drive to the field, and, 
brushing the snow off of his shocks of fodder, load and haul them 
to a wood lot or the straw pile and scatter the fodder on the ground 
for the stock to pick over and make a meal of. No. Last fall, 
while the weather was pleasant, he canned many acres of green 
corn in his silo and now, while the cold and snow are without, he 
feeds his well-housed stock in their separate stalls with a feed which 
they thoroughly relish ; and then, too, before the snow had fallen 
he had the shredder to tear his fodder into bits and blow it into 
mows in his bams convenient for feeding and where, under shelter 
and in the dry, he does his farm chores. He appreciates the value 
of warm, dry quarters for his stock and he largely has barnS for all 


his stock and thus feeds more economically and profitably. Not 
only has he made these wonderful advances in his industrial meth- 
ods but in his social life as well. Once he was shut in at his fann 
house for months at a time, because of impassable roads : now a 
good, free gravel road passes the front gate of nearly every home. 
Once he often passed more than a week without receiving any mail 
and then only by going a long distance in bad weather; now the 
rural mail carrier brings it to his home every day except Sunday. 
Once he often passed more than a week without receiving any mail 
to or from neighbors ; now any member of the family can, by stepping 
to an instrument on the wall, call up almost any one wanted, far or 
near. In the matter of schools, too, the countryside has been favored. 
Where a generation ago the scholars were compelled to dress for 
exposure and walked a mile, a mile and a half or two miles to 
school, in paths across field and through woods, returning in the 
evening- over the same path and often through storm, now the well- 
equipped school wagon carries the scholars from the home to the 
school and from the school to the home again. 


As wonderful as has been the industrial advance of the past, the 
end is not yet. Our rich soils and high-priced lands suggest changes 
in the industrial methods of farming — changes that are already tak- 
ing place : the canning factories and the city markets are making 
places for the small farmer and his intensive farming; the dairy- 
ing industr}' is being rapidly developed and the farmer of today 
is giving attention to the problem of preventing soil exhaustion. 

It is well that the conditions of the farming class are as favor- 
able as they are, for because of natural resources the leading indus- 
tr\' of Howard countv must continue to he agriculture. 

Befiire ever factories came into her midst, tlie farming com- 
munity was engaged in the liercnlean task of making the present 
well-improved farms. Their present and prospective high state of 
culture forecast a condition of continued prosperity, where homes 
abound in comfort and contentment. 


Contemporaneous and almost inseparably connected with these 
industrial activities of the farm have been the mercantile enterprises 
of the comity. These have kept pace with the demands of the time. 
The first stores or trading places were in keeping with the country, 
primitive establishment. The wants of the people were few and 
simple and their ability to buy quite limited. The purpose of the 
early merchants and manufacturers was to meet these simple wants. 
The first mill erected in the county was built in 1840. This was 
built just east of Xew London, on Little Honey creek. The Stone- 
braker mill was built in 1848. In various parts of the county grist- 
mill? and sawmills and combination mills — grist and saw in one — 
were built from time to time as the demand seemed to justify. 
Nearly all of the early mills were water mills. 

These mills have nearly all passed out of existence. David 
Foster was the first Kokomo merchant. Before coming to Kokonio 
he had a trading house at the boundary line, about twenty rods 
north of the crossing- of that line by the ^^'ild Cat pike. This house 
was a log house, stoutlv built, with portholes in the walls, and con- 
tained two rooms, the storeroom being on the Seven-mile Strip side 
of the line and the counter over which he dispensed goods on the 
Reserve side. It is said this peculiar constniction was to evade the 
law in selling whisky to Indians on government territon.-. John 
Bolian was the second merchant, coming here in 1844 from Ander- 


Still and commencing" on the southeast comer of the square where 
the Kokomo Bank is now located. Other early merchants were 
Austin North, J. D. Sharp and Samuel Rosenthal. 

At or near New London, Joshua Barnett was the first mer- 
chant, coming there in 1839. His stock of goods consisted of a 
few groceries, liquors and small notions that he could sell to the 
Indians. Soon after John Harrison came with a meager stock of 
goods, and, locating at Harrison's place, becoming the second trader 
in Monroe township. Charles Allison clerked for him in the spring 
of 1840, and tlius began his business career in Howard county. 

Burlington, in Carroll county, was the nearest village and 
trading point in the early history of the western part of the county. 
Because of the inconvenience of going so far to trade, Henry Stuart 
opened up a general store at or near Russiaville in 1842. His stock 
consisted of almost everything saleable — di"y goods, groceries, hard- 
ware, etc. Mr. Stuart purchased his goods at Lafayette, Cincin- 
nati and Chicago and transported them in wagons. The people had 
little money and made their purchases, for the most part, with 
"trade," exchanging ginseng, which grew abundantly in the wild 
state, wild meats, fur skins and honey. There appears to have been 
an abundance of wild honey in those early times. It is related of 
Joseph Taylor, who was afterwards sheriff of Howard county, that, 
when a young man, he had often carried a keg of wild honey, weigh- 
ing sixty pounds, on horseback to Burlington. 

Deer were also \-ery plentiful, as Mr. Stuart had at one time 
piled up in his cabin one hundred "saddles" or pairs of deer h(inis. 
Once he purchased a barrel of strained honey of Vincent Garner, a 
pioneer settler of that community. Mr. Stuart in turn tnok his 
trade to Lafayette and exchanged or traded it for goods. At one 
time a botanical doctor engaged Mr. Stuart to procure him five 
hundred pounds of yellow root and nerve vine. This afforded the 


women an opportunity to earn some money. ]\Ir. Stuart traded 
witii tlie Indians, and the first wagon ever seen at Kokomo carried 
Mr. Stuart's goods, which he traded to the Indians. It required 
two days for Mr. Stuart and liis man to make the trip, and they spent 
only two hours in the Indian town. Mr. Stuart's store was not 
reahy in Russiaville. being just outside on the northwest. !\Iartin 
Burton was the first merchant really within the limits of Russia- 


Alto was the earliest trading place in Harrison township. R. 
Cobb was the first merchant there ; Milos Judkins was the first shoe- 
maker, and William P. Judkins was the first cabinetmaker. This 
was in 1848, or early in 1849; ^"c^ i" ^ short time there were three 
stores there stocked with well-selected goods, and three cabinet 
shops were operating prosperously. It is also said that there was 
as much business done there as in Kokomo at that time. Greentown 
was the first trading point in Liberty township, and its beginning 
was largely due to the demand of the neighborhood for a conveni- 
ent trading point. It was laid out in 1848 on the site of an old In- 
dian town known as Green Village, named thus, it is said, because 
the Indians having cut off the timber on the site of the village, grass 
had grown up. making a green landscape in contrast with the dark 
forest all around, and the name Greentown was adopted for the 
white man's town. The first merchants were L. ^^'. Bacon and his 
father in a double hewed log house l)uilt by them on the northeast 
corner of the intersection of Main and Meridian streets. They 
stocked their store room with a miscellaneous assortment of mer- 
chandise to the amount of about one thousand dollars and sold goods 
for two years. A little later C. O. Fry erected another store room 
on the southwest corner of the same street intersection. Dr. Barrett 


1); ught an interest in Fry's store and together they continned in 
business for several years. These were soon followed by others 
and Greentown soon became an important trading point. 

Jerome had its origin in much the same way. It is said of the 
earlv settlers in the \-icinity of Jerome that the greater amount of 
trading during the early days was done at Marion, Jonesboro, Peru, 
Logansport and Noblesville, some of the first settlers going as far 
as Indianapolis for their merchandise. 

Flour and meal were obtained from those places in the summer 
time: but during the winter seasons when the condition of the early 
roads precluded the possibility of travel, many families manufac- 
tured their own breadstuffs by hand, crushing the grain in a rude 
mortar made by hollowing out the top of a stump. One of those 
pioneers has said, "We were compelled to go to Jonesboro and Som- 
erset on the Mississinnewa and to points on the White river and the 
Wabash for grinding. It was a long, winding bush road through 
the woods, across the sloughs. We took mostly corn, as scarcely 
any wheat was raised in the county. The writer remembers riding 
on horseback to Somerset purposely to get flour for a house-raising, 
which he bought there and returned with before he slept after leav- 
ing town." 


From a description of pioneer life in Honey Creek township 
we are told, "Corn must be carried fourteen miles on horseback to 
ha\-e it converted into meal. Two miles below Burlington was the 
nearest mill — the old 'Crummel mill.' Often did the pioneer go six 
miles farther down Big Wildcat to the 'Adams mill." It required 
all of one day and the most part of the following night to make the 
trip. Doubtless a modern Honey Creek youth of twelve years would 
feel some timidity in undertaking such an errand through a wolf- 

2o6 morrow's history 

infested wilderness." The founding of the early towns and the 
building of the first mills were prompted more by necessity than the 
desire of industrial gain, and so it is said of Jerome that the chief 
cause which led to its founding was a general desire on the part of 
the community for a trading point, there being no town nearer than 
Jonesboro on the east and Russiaville and New London on the west. 
The immediate outgrowth of this demand was the establishment of a 
small store and a blacksmith shop in 1847, which formed the nucleus 
around which several families located. Soon after Hampton Brown 
laid out the village and named it Jerome in compliment to his son 
Jerome. Thomas Banks bought a lot and built a store house and 
became the first merchant. He stocked his room with a miscel- 
laneous assortment of merchandise to the value of about fi\e hun- 
dred dollars and sold goods for three years, selling out to Joel and 
C. Murphy. 

Gofif & Allen erected a hewed log store building in 1853 and en- 
gaged in merchandising for four years, carrying a large stock valued 
at three thousand five hundred dollars. They sold out to Harvey 

West Liberty had its origin in the erection of a large water mill 
near its northeastern limits; this and a blacksmith shop led Moses 
Jones to plat a town site in the latter part of 1849. 


Moses Rich erected the first business house in 1850. This was 
a log building sixteen by twenty feet. Rich carried a stock valued 
at one thousand dollars, and did a good business. He carried on 
the business for twelve years. David Macy erected the second store 
building and was a prominent merchant and operated an extensive 
store for five years, when he closed out and left the place. Syca- 


mere Corners had its origin in the building of what is now the 
"Cfover Leaf raih^oad" and was laid out in 1881 by O. P. Hollings- 
worth. Allen Quick and Frank Houn were the first merchants-, who 
fitted up the old frame school house for a store room soon after the 
building of the railroad. This is a good shipping and trading point. 
\'ermont was laid oct in 1849 by Milton Hadley, who had 
obtained a part of float section No. 7. He appears to have been a 
man of considerable enterprise and ambition and in platting Ver- 
mont he laid out a very pretentious town, with a public square and a 
large number of town lots clustered around the square. A white 
oak tree standing on the blufif of Wild Cat was the starting point 
for the survey of this future metropolis of Howard county. The 
town plat suggests that he considered his town site so superior to 
any other that possibly others would appreciate it and thus would 
be influenced to change to the town he had planned. This hope, 
if hope it was, was disappointed, and after a brief and feeble exist- 
tence the town ceased to be and its site is now cultivated fields and 
the white oak doubtless, ere this, like the town whose sentinel it 
\vas, has disappeared. Charles Ellison was the first merchant of 
this town, carrying on a grocery store and a dramshop. His dram- 
shop was the resort of the tough characters of the surrounding 
country and gained for the place a bad reputation. Benjamin Jack- 
son and John Colescott were other early merchants. After the 
building of the Clover Leaf railroad, to the north of the old town, a 
station and trading point was established on the railroad a short dis- 
tance northwest of it. 


New London was laid out in 1845 by John Lamb and Reuben 
Edgerton. At that time there were three houses, or cabins, in the 

2o8 morrow's history 

town. Jonathan Hawarth was at that time engaged in the sale of 
dry goods and groceries. He was succeeded by Isaac Ramsey. 
Soon after the organization Richard Nixon came to the town and 
engaged in the mercantile business. He remained there many years. 

Fairfield was laid out in 1849 by John J. Stephens in anticipa- 
tion of the building of the I. & P. Railroad, which had been sur- 
veyed through that point some time previously. On the completion 
of the railroad the place became a prominent shipping point and had 
a reputation of being one of the best shipping points and markets 
on the line between Peru and Indianapolis for a number of years; 
but because of the building of the Pan Handle railroad on the east, 
and the improvement of the highways leading into Kokomo, much 
of the trade has been diverted to other points. 

Bundy & Johnson were the first merchants in a little house 
west of the railroad. They did a fair business on a stock valued 
at $500. Overman & Stout started the second store. They erected a 
small storeroom just northeast of the railroad. After two years their 
stock was closed out. Thompson & E\-ans did the largest mercan- 
tile business of any finn in Fairfeld. Their storeroom was on the 
west side of the railroad and on the south side of the street. They 
also operated the large warehouse and elevator erected by Evans 
& Fortner. 


The first warehouse was built by Bundy & Robinson and was 
in the south part of town and on the west side of the railroad tracks. 
Tampico was laid out in 1852 by Ephraim Trabue. Spencer Latty 
was the first merchant. Terre Hall was also laid out in 1852 by 
Asa Parker. Cable & Osborne were the first merchants, dealing in 
a miscellaneous assortment of articles. Both towns were the out- 
growth of the location and building of the P., C. & St. L. Rail- 


road and both had, in course of time, the accessories — blacksmith 
shops and sawmills. 

Cassville was laid out in 1848 by William and Xathan Stanley. 
Its origin was the survey for the construction of the I. & P. Rail- 
road, and after the building of the railroad for a time had quite a 
reputation as a trading point. The first stock of goods was brought 
to the place by John and David Evans, who erected a good frame 
sturehouse near the railroad and did a good business for four years 
and then sold out to Samuel Martindale. 

Poplar Grove was first settled in 1847 by Caleb Coate and the 
merchants were Coate & Morris, who conducted a dry goods and 
grocery store. 

These various trading points have been continued to the pres- 
ent time, with two or three exceptions, and outside of Russiaville 
and Greentown have just about held their own. A few points have 
been added as Plevna and Phlox and Guy in the east, and Kappa, 
Ridgeway and West Middleton in the west end. 

Russiaville and Greentown, in the opposite ends of the county, 
are flourishing and growing towns. 


Reference has already been made to the lumber industry of the 
county. In the years- that are past the great sawdust piles in fre- 
quently recurring intervals bore silent witness to the fact that here 
had been a sawmill. Since the exhaustion of the timber these mills 
are few in number and are found at the towns. It is therefore con- 
sidered not worth while to make further reference to them. 

The other class of mills, for grinding flour and meal, instead 
of going out of use have much increased their usefulness. Many 
of those early mills, with their simple and meager beginnings, have 


gone on from one improvement to anutlier until they are now up-to- 
date and prosperous mills; while the decaying and falling frame- 
work and the abandoned millraces mark the places where others 
were busy in a former generation, and it is deemed worth while 
to note these beginnings and to rehearse a history of that which is 
past but remains to the present. 

The Stonebraker mill, after sixty years, still does business at 
the old stand and is one of the best-known objects in the county. 
The mills and the various milling industries in the vicinity of New 
London, which were dependent upon the water power of Honey 
creek, have long since ceased to exist. The past sixty years have 
witnessed a wonderful shrinkage in the water supplies of the county. 


At Russiaville the first gristmill was built out of logs on Squir- 
rel creek, near the present site of the cemetery, and was a mere 
corn cracker and was operated by water power. 

In 1852 Martin Burton built the first flouring mill in Russiaville. 
At first it was a water power mill, but in a few years was changed 
to a steam mill. In 1870 it was destroyed by fire, but was rebuilt 
and has been improved until it is up-to-date and a good industry. 

The first gristmill in Harrison township was built by James 
Brooks just south of Alto in 1848. It was a small corn-cracker 
and wheat mill. A part of the old frame is still standing and a por- 
tion of the millrace is yet in existence. In 1850 Samuel Stratton 
erected a gristmill in connection with his sawmill on Little Wild 
Cat northwest of the site of West Middleton. 


Earlv in 1882 Samuel and Joseph Stratton and Amos C. and 
John Ratclift' formed a company and began the erection of a steam 


flouring mill at \\'est ^Middleton. It is a brick building, built upon 
a heavy stone foundation. The bod)- of the building is thirty-six 
by forty-eight feet and is four stories high. It is provided with 
a very complete outfit for handling and cleaning wheat and making 
flour and cornmeal. The original cost was ten thousand dollars, 
and it had a capacity for seveny-five barrels per day. 

The first mill in Taylor township was a handmill for grinding 
corn and was buih and owned by Nathan C. Beals, who lived about 
one mile northeast of the site of Fairfield. This mill he made out 
of two boulders taken from his farm in Section 20. The lower stone 
was fixed, and the upper stone was revolved on a pivot inserted in 
the lower stone. There was a woi.iden pin or post inserted in the 
outer edge of the upper stnne, by which it was turned. The meal- 
hoop was made of the inside bark of a shell-bark hickory tree and 
sewed together with leather wood bark. The mill was fed by a 
boy, who threw in a few kernels at a time. It is said the grinding 
on this mill was rather tedious, and }'et it served the milling pur- 
pose of the neighborhood. 

The Fairfield Steam Flouring Mill was built in the year 1858 
by Joseph Haskett. The building is a frame and is two and a half 
stories high. New machinery has been added from time to time. 
keeping it fully up-to-date in milling processes. It has a good repu- 
tation and does good work. It has a capacity of one hundred bar- 
rels of flour per day of twenty-four hours. 

Reuben Hawkins, of Union township, built the first mill in the 
eastern part of the county. He settled on Lilly creek, about a mile 
northeast of Jerome, in 1844, and soon after built his mill. He 
manufactured the buhrs for the mill out of two large boulders near 
the mill site. The mill was operated by water power and ground 
very slowly, but made a A'ery fair article of meal. Hawkins 
attached a turning lathe and, being an expert workman in wood. 

soon had all the work he could do. making tables, stands, chairs and 
various other articles of furniture, which he sold to the settlers of 
the adjacent country. 

James Lancaster also had a small mill on Lilly creek just north- 
west of Jerome, which was a rude affair, operated by hand with 
some help from -the water of the creek. The proprietor took half 
of the grain for toll. 

In 1847 the Brown brothers erected a water mill on Big Wild 
Cat. just south of Jerome. It was a combination mill ; that is, it did 
both grinding and sawing and was thus operated until i860, when 
it was torn down and the machineiy used in the construction of a 
new mill on the same location. It has a grinding capacity of one 
hundred bushels of grain a day. 

Moses Jones, of West Liberty, erected a large water mill just 
northeast of the village in 1849. This was a large three-stor}' 
building with two runs of buhrs and a saw attached. It was an 
excellent water mill and was operated until 1862. when it was com- 
pletely destroyed by fire. 

In the year 1875 \\'illiam Jessup moved a steam flouring mill 
from Kokomo to West Liberty. It has since been remodeled and 
improved so that it is a modern, well-equipped mill and regarded 
as a good acquisition for that community. 


The first mill in Liberty township was erected by Luther 
Segraves and stood about one mile south of Greentown on Big 
Wild Cat. This was a combination mill, sawing lumber and grind- 
ing grain, as the customer desired. This mill did a good business 
and was in operation until about the year 1863. 

William Lindley erected a sawmill in the southern part of the 
township, on Big Wild Cat, and. in 1850, sold it to a man by the 


name of Dorman. Five years later Dorman built an addition to 
the original building, put in two runs of buhrs and added steam 
power and did a very good business. This was known as the Dor- 
man :\Iill. 

The Greentown roller flouring mills were built and began busi- 
ness in 1889. They are thirty-two by forty-two feet in dimension, 
with all needed outbuildings, and are built of brick. They have a 
daily capacity of seventy barrels of flour. The proprietors of the 
mill deal in flour, meal, feed, and grain of all kinds. 

In 1842 Joshua Barnett commenced a milklam across Wild Cat, 
in the southeast corner of Ervin township. He finished this dam 
in 1843 and built a sawmill with corn-cracker attachment in 1846. 
This mill was conve}-ed to Moses Cromwell, who converted it into 
a gristmill, and it became known as the Cromwell mill. 

In 1847 Robert Coate built a combined saw and gristmill at 
Poplar Grove. So great was the demand for lumber from this mill 
he ran it day and night, weekday and Sunday. 


William Grant built a gristmill on Big Wild Cat, near the pres- 
ent location of the Critchlow Brothers' slaughter pens, in 1847, and 
a little later he built a sawmill near the gristmill. These events 
were the cause of great rejoicing among the inhabitants of the 
young county seat, who were thus afforded opportunity of getting 
both breadstuff and building material almost right at home. 

This mill was transferred to Cromwell, who, leaving the 
mill at the boundary line, came and operated it by water power very 
successfully for several years. 

Those water-power mills ground rather slowly, and as the mill- 
ers did not do an exchange business, but tolled each man's grist 


and ground it for him, often compelling him to wait quite awhile 
for his "grinding," especially if there were others in ahead of him. 
The writer remembers as a boy taking grain to the mill to be ground, 
going as early in the day as he could, taking a lunch and fishing 
outfit and spending the day fishing in the millrace while the grist 
was being ground. It was an experience not altogether bad. 

The good housewives of the elder day thought at least that the 
flour ground at the old-time water-power mills was better than the 
flour made at the steam mills. 

The first steam flouring mill at Kokomo was the Leas mill, built 
nearly fifty years ago across the railroad and opposite the Lake Erie 
Elevator. W'orley Leas was, for many years, the proprietor. In 
later years it was known as the Howard Flouring Mills. The last 
proprietors were Darnall & Dawson. Lately it has been discon- 

The second mill was the Spring ]\Iills, built at tlie southeast 
corner of Jefferson street and Indiana avenue, by George W. Hocker 
more than forty years since. 

Its present proprietor is C. M. Barlow, who has had charge of 
it for fifteen or twenty years. 

Mr. Barlow also does an extensive feed and grain business 
through the L. E. & \\'. and P., C. & St. L. elevators. 

The third mill was erected in the fall of 1896 and is known as 
the Clover Leaf 'SUlh. and is a twenty-five barrel daily mill. It is 
a modern roller merchant and gristmill. L. AA". Smith is the pro- 


The milling business has undergone a great change in the past 
sixty years. 

Formerly the mills ground each man"s grist separately and for 
the owner taking toll before grinding. That necessitated every cus- 


tomer waiting at the mill for his grinding or else returning home 
and going back another time for the flour and bran. Later they 
began an exchange business, weighing the grain and giving a given 
number of pounds of flour and bran for each bushel of wheat. At 
this time most men sell their grain and buy flour and feed as needed ; 
and the miller buys the grain, manufactures it into flour, meal and 
feed and sells it to the trade. 

In the early history of the county there were numerous tan- 
neries. All the towns and villages and many country communities 
had its shoemaker or shoemakers. Almost every family did its 
shoe repairing. 

Of the several tanneries it may be mentioned that just east of 
Xew London there was a good tannery : that the Judkin limthers, 
of Alto, had a small tannery on tlie north bank of Little AA'ild Cat 
just north ni :\It. Z'um church, which they later on 
moved nearer their places uf Inisiness at Alto, one 
of them being a shoemaker and the other a cabinet- 
maker. Barnhart Learner was then a resident of the 
township and a shoemaker also. It is said that Francis Galway 
was the first tanner at Jerome, starting a tannery in 1847. The 
enterprise proved very remunerative to the proprietor, who operated 
it successfully for twelve years. In 1859 it was purchased by John 
W'illitts, who ran it for four years and was then allowed to go 
down. Joshua Galway started a tanyard at Vermont in the year 
1850 and kept it up five or six years. It proved a paying venture. 

Early residents of Kokomo remember that in very early times 
a tannery was commenced just west of the log jail. The exact date 
of the beginning and by whom started are forgotten. This much 

2i6 morrow's history 

is authentic history, tliat the Cains came into possession of it in 
1867. forty-one years ago. and that of all the tanyards of the county 
it is the sole survivor. The Cains have operated it in connec- 
tion with their harness making business during all these inter- 
vening years. 

tr.weling shoem.\kers. 

These early residents further say that in the early times there 
were traveling shoemakers, who went from house to house and 
made shoes and boots for the families, boarding and living with the 
family while making the family stock of toots and shoes. That was 
the protective principle in active operation : home-grown hides, home 
tanneries and home-made boots and shoes. 

Those whose memory goes back half a century will recall that 
there were then many good-bearing apple orchards; that the fruit 
was of superior excellence; that the Vandever Pippin, Yellow Bell- 
flower, ^laiden Blush, Golden Russet and Early Harvest varieties 
were the leading kinds ; and as they recall these facts will wonder 
where those early orchards in a country so new came from, and will 
be interested in these notes. Charles Harmon and J. ^^^ Heaton 
planted apple orchards at an early date. Harmon went to ^^'illiams' 
nursery, at Indianapolis, taking several days for the trip, and bought 
one hundred trees. Heaton bought forty trees of a tree peddler 
from Clinton county and set them out in a deadening from which 
the logs had not yet been removed. John Heaton planted the first 
nursery in Liberty township about two miles southwest of Green- 
town, near the site of Richville church, and many of the early 
orchards were started from this nurseiy. 


It is said that Joseph Brown, of Union township, had the first 
nursery in the county, starting it from stock brought from Rich- 


mond in 1850. The first orchards in Union township were set out 
in 1846 by Jesse Lancaster and Charles P. Baldwin, on the Far- 
rington and Galway farms joining Jerome on the east. The trees 
were carried from Fairmount. in Grant county, on horsel^ack. Lan- 
caster carried fifty-five trees and Baldwin thirty-five. They were 
tied in bundles, each having two bundles fastened together, a bun- 
dle on each side of the horse and the tops reaching backwards. In 
this way they threaded their way thnnigh the forest along a wagon 
trace, and there was along that way a distance of ten miles with- 
out a house. 

The pioneers of the county seemed to have been impressed that 
this was a good fruit country and they began early to plant orchards, 
and these citations are but a few examples of how the early settlers 
secured orchards. A\'ithiii a few >ears there were nurseries in 
various parts of the county, enabling the farmers to secure nursery 
stock conveniently and at little cost. Howard county has never 
grown apples in such quantities as tn ha\-e large quantities for 
export, but usually has had plenty for home consumption. 

The county could become a good apple-growing district if 
enough interest and care should be given the industry. Her other 
products are sufficiently profitable to call attention from this busi- 


Trapping and hunting ma}' rot be said to lia\'e been a regular 
industry of the county, but yet there have been a few trappers and 
hunters who were cpiite successful in this business in the early years 
of its settlement, and the great majority of the early settlers supple- 
mented their efforts to feed and clothe themselves and families by 
hunting. Of the early pioneers who engaged in trapping. "Uncle 
Jim" Brooks, of Harrison township, was probably chief. James, at 

2i8 morrow's history 

the age of twenty-seven, and his father left Hamilton county in the 
fall of 1838 and followed an Indian trail through to the reserve and 
camped with a party of land hunters south of the present site of New 
London. In a few days they built some bark wigwams on Little 
Honey creek and trapped during the winter. The products of their 
toil were the skins of seventy otter. During the summer of 1839 
the_\- caught one hundred and forty coons on Shaw's prairie. In 
the fall of 1840 they built some bark huts on the land afterwards 
owned my Foster, near Kokomo, and trapped above the town exten- 
sively. They caught a great many coons and wildcats. It being 
ver}- cold, they frequently found coons frozen in the snow. One 
evening the father, returning from up the creek, found a frozen tur- 
key, but before he bi:)t hi)me dropped it near a button bush pond 
near where the courthouse now stands. 

James, going out to look for it, found it in the clutches of a 
wildcat, so he set two otter traps and the next morning went out 
and found that he liad caught the wildcat. The next spring they 
found five bee-trees in an Indian sugar camp. These they cut down 
and by the use of moss strained out seventeen gallons of fine honey. 

In that day wolf hides sold for seventy-five cents and scalps 
for one dollar and fifty cents. \\'ildcat hides sold for eight dol- 
lars, otter hides from six to nine dollars, and deer hides from fifty 
cents to one dollar each. In a history of Honey Creek township is 
found: "The early pioneers had very little to sell, and what they 
had could not be sold for money. A\Mld game and wild honey seem 
to have been the principal articles offered in exchange for the neces- 
.sary commodities of life." 


Of one of the pioneer hunters and trappers of L'nion township 
it was said : "James Husted was an odd character, who achieved 


quite a reputation among the early settlers as a successful bee 
hunter and trapper. He was an unmarried man and lived entirely 
alone in a little rail pen, which he built about two and a half miles 
east of Jerome. He made no improvements but spent all his time in 
the woods, trapping during the fall and winter season and hunting 
wild honey in the summer. From the sale of the furs and wild 
honey he realized considerable money, which he hoarded away with 
miserly care. He remained in this part of the country until the 
game became scarce, when he packed his few household goods and, 
with them on his back, departed for more congenial quarters fur- 
ther west." 

Of the pioneers of Liberty township it is said: "The forest 
supplied the meat from the bountiful store of game, in quantity and 
Cjuality according to demand. Deer were everywhere abundant and 
afforded the chief means of subsistence to many families during 
the first two or three years' sojourn in the woods. Jonathan Fisher 
states that in one year he killed one hundred and twenty-five within 
a few miles of his home. A man by the name of Ray was a hunter 
of considerable note and frequently killed four or five deer a day, 
of which he kept nothing but the hams and hides. The other parts 
of the carcass were given to anyone who desired them, or left in 
the woods to be de\-oured by the wolves. Wild turkeys were so 
plentiful as to be no rarity and were considered game not worth the 
ammunition required to kill them. An occasional bear was seen, 
but the majority of these animals had disappeared several years 
prior to the first settlement by the whites. A large one was killed a 
short distance east of Greentown in 1846, which weighed over four 
hundred pounds. This was the only one ever killed in the township 
so far as now can be learned." 

Wolves roamed the woods in great numbers and proved very 


tlestructive to stock. Farmers were obliged to build tight pens for 
their hogs and sheep ; yet despite all their precautions an occasional 
lamb or porker would fall a prey to these gaunt scourges of the 
forest. In time, these animals disappeared, many of them being 
killed by the early settlers for the reward offered by the state for 
their scalps. 


Money in those early days was a scarce article and many fami- 
lies were compelled to deny themselves the luxuries which today 
are classed as necessities. Deer skins, ginseng and maple sugar, 
of which large quantities were made e\-ery spring, were articles of 
commercial importance, by means of which many families kept 
themselves supplied with groceries, dry goods, etc. 

In Howard township a man named Dix is recalled, who settled 
on the John Barnes farm and made a few improvements. He is 
remembered as a noted backwoodsman, whose greatest delight was 
hunting and trapping, which he followed very successfully. By the 
sale of ileer skins, venison hams and wild honey, he managed to 
supply his family with what groceries and few articles of wearing 
apparel they needed, while he went clad in the conventional buck- 
skin garb common among the pioneer hunters sixty years ago. After 
game became scarce he sold out and went West. 


Reference has already been made to the fact that the making 
and sale of maple sugar was a not inconsiderable industry in pioneer 
times. Milton Garrigus states he and his father made eight hun- 
dred pounds of sugar and a barrel of molasses in the spring of 


1847 '^'" their claim in Lilierty township. He further states that 
the Indians delighted to make sugar and molasses in their immense 
sugar orchards and that on the tract where he "squatted," in 1847, 
there was an abundance nf Ijark troughs and spiles, rude stables 
for ponies, big troughs for storing sugar water, where they had 
been used by the Indians for sugar making. 

The only recorded instance of trouble between the Indians and 
the early white settlers grew out of Charles O. Fry, in Union town- 
ship, settling too near an Indian sugar camp a short distance south- 
west of Jeroine. He erected his first cabin near an Indian sugar 
camp, which so exasperated the red men, who were in no wise 
friendly toward the settler, that serious results very nearly fol- 
lowed. The savages looked upon Fry's action as an encroachment, 
and gathering a number of their braves together, they rode througli 
the country, tore down a number of newly-erected huts and unoccu- 
pied cabins, burned fences and seized the stock belonging to several 
settlers. Fry and Joseph Brown visited the Indian camp to make 
reparation for the offense committed, which was rather more easily 
efifected than they expected. The chief said all would be well and 
no further depredations be committed, providing the white man 
(meaning Fry) would procure for them a load of hay for their 

Brown and Fry were compelled to go to Marion for the hay, 
an undertaking- attended with many difficulties, as thev were com- 
pelled to cut their road through the woods for almost half of the 

The hay was unloaded at the Indian village in due time and 
thereafter all was peace l^etween the red skins and settlers. 

There were countless numbers of thrifty sugar trees all over 
the county, and if the county had had waste lands for their growth 


and preservation, the maple sugar industry of Howard county would 
now outrival Vermont. 

The truth of the matter is the lands of Howard county are too 
fertile to permit their use for industries that are leaders in other 


Of the commercial industries of Howard county, the hard- 
ware firm now known as the Armstrong-Landon Company is easily 
at the head, both in point of continuous existence and in the volume 
of business transacted, having had a continuous existence of more 
than fifty years. Very few of the residents of Howard county now 
hving can recall that small hardware establishment on the east side 
of the square just opened by the firm of Dr. J- A. James, Dr. Horace 
A. Armstrong and x\ddison F. Armstrong. That was in the spring 
of 1856. Two members of this new firm were prominent physicians 
of the growing town and the third was a young man just embark- 
ing in a business career- that was to prove eminently honorable and 
successful and whose business enterprise was to be of uncalculable 
benefit to the future city of Kokomo in many ways. The senior 
member. Dr. J. A. James, combined in a marked degree the intelli- 
gent physician and the public-spirited citizen. These two men con- 
tributed largely to the development of Kokomo on a broad and 
enduring basis. Two years after the beginning of their business 
it had outgrown its room and they were compelled to seek more 
roomy quarters. Accordingly they moved to the Bohan and Ashley 
corner, where the K., M. & ^^^ traction station now is, into a 
room sixteen by eighty feet, at that time the second largest business 
room in the village. 

They continued to occupy this for four years, or until 1862, 


and their business had increased so that they must have more room. 
They, therefore bought a lot on the east side of the square ne.\t to 
the southeast coi'ner and began the erection of a three-story buihl- 
ing. When nearly completed this building was blown down by a 
tornado and in the downfall carried with it the storeroom occupied 
by the firm and also the Tribune office. 

Undaunted by this double misfortune the firm immediately 
began to prepare to rebuild, and completed the new building the 
same year. They were, however, not through with misfortune, for 
in 1867 the block in which they were was destroyed by fire. They 
rebuilt the same year, but this time only a two-story building. 

During 1867 the senior member, J. A. James, retired from 
business and was succeeded by Josiah Beeson, the firm name being 
Armstrong, Beeson & Company., Before another year had passed 
Dr. Horace A. Armstrong died and his interest was purchased by 
Dr.. Edward A. Armstrong. For two years the firm remained under 
the old name, when ^Nlr. Beeson sold his interest to Messrs. Zimri, 
Xixon and Isaac Ellis, and the name of the firm was changed to 
Armstrong, Nixon & Company. This firm cuntinued until 1874, 
when the death of Mr. Nixon caused annther change. The mem- 
bers composing the new firm were A. F. Armstrong, Dr. E. A. 
Armstrong, J. C. Pickett and George W. Landon, under the firm 
name of Armstrong, Pickett & Company. In the spring of 1875, the 
firm, finding their business increased to such an e-xtent as demanded 
still further enlargement of their facilities, decided to erect a build- 
ing capable of accommodating it and began the constructinn i)f a 
storeroom opposite the southeast corner of the public square. It is 
sixty-six feet front on Sycamore street and one hundred and thirty- 
two feet long, and is four stories and a basement high, with heavy 
brick walls and stone foundation. 


It is conveniently arranged and a building hard to surpass for 
the purposes for which it was erected. 


A large stock of the latest and best makes of farm machinery, 
builders" supplies. sto\es and ranges, a stock of buggies and harness 
and a complete stock of general hardware is carried by the firm. 
In addition they have a tin shop and a full line of tin and galvanized 
iron supplies. Xear by is a lumber yard, well stocked. They are 
thus enabled to supply the varied wants of a wide range of cus- 
tomers. They have a large, first-floor salesroom, thus providing 
their friends and customers with a comfortable waiting and rest- 
ing room. 

January i. 1883, Air. Pickett retired from the firm and E. S. 
Hunt entered, and the name of the firm was changed to Armstrong, 
Landon &: Company. In 1888 tlie firm name was changed to Arm- 
strong, Landon & Hunt Company. On the death of 'Sh. Hunt, 
some years later, the firm name was again changed to Armstrong, 
Landon & Company, which remains to the present time. A. F. 
Armstrong continued as president until his death about five years 
since. The present officers are: George W. Landon, president; 
Thomas C. Howe, vice-president: H. Xeck Landon, secretary, ^^^ 
A. Easter, treasurer. 

\\'hen E. S. Hunt entered the firm in January, 1883, the Hunt 
lumber yard was taken over into the property and management of 
the company. This property consisted of an extensive lumber yard 
at the intersection of the P. C. & St. L. Railroad and ^^lonroe street. 
Later the planing mill was added. The planing mill part of this 
industry seems to have had its beginning with the Hunt brothers. 


Henry and Ezra, at New London, while the water power was abun- 
dant and the industrial future of New London was radiant with 
hope. Later, with the coming of the F. & K. Railroad, Russiaville 
gave promise of more substantial business returns and the planing 
mill was moved to that place. A few years later the Hunt brothers 
transferred the business to the location referred to in Kokomo. A 
little while prior to 1883 Ezra had come into the sole management 
of the lumber business by the retirement of Henry. Since taking 
control of this branch of their work they have developed and 
expanded it until it is one of the important parts of the county's 
industries. They are engaged in the manufacture of doors and 
sash, the dealing in all kinds of lumber, the manufacture of all kinds 
of building material for the interior finish of private residences, 
consisting of stairways, offices and bank work, and the contracting 
for the construction and erection of all kinds of buildings. The 
company has engaged extensively in the manufacture of interior 
work for churches, church seats and pulpits, having done work of 
this kind in various parts of the Union. Although this firm began 
business here in the infancy of the county, much earlier than any 
other firm, and has continuously engaged in the same business, and 
has at all times put push and vigorous business methods into it, 
they have not monopolized their lines of business. 


S. C. Moore built the S. C. Moore planing mill at the north- 
west intersection of the L. E. & W. Railroad and Jefiferson street 
in 1S74 and operated it until his death in 1905, a period of thirty 
years. During the last ten years his son, Edward S., was associ- 
ated with him, and the finn Avas S. C. Moore & Son. At the death 


226 morrow's history 

of the elder 2^Ioore, Elmer Danner became associated with Edward 
S. Moore and the firm is Moore & Banner, and do a general con- 
tracting; business in connection with their mill business. 

Since the organization of the first hardware firm there has been 
quite a number of others organized, and, after doing a good busi- 
ness for a number of years, for one reason or another have discon- 
tinued — George Hocker in the sixties, and later Bruner & Coate : 
Hutchings : Owen & Company, and others whose names are not 
remembered now. And so of the lumber business. 


Prior to the discovery of natural gas in 1886, Lawrence Snider 
was probably the leading manufacturer of Kokomo, being in the 
heading and stave business. He purchased oak timber throughout 
Howard and adjoining counties and brought it to his factory at 
the north end of Kokomo and manufactured it into staves and head- 
ing, which he shipped to New York and Philadelphia. He began 
the business in 1878 and did ten tlKiusand dollars' worth of work 
the first year and four }'ears later increased it to seventy-five thou- 
sand dollars. 

Of those engaging in manufacturing enterprises were A\". H. 
Sumption and later \\'. H. Sumption & Son, who were engaged in 
the manufacture of buggies, carriages and spring wagons from 1S70 
to many years later. They employed a number of men and did 
good work and a g"Ood business. 


Walter Hooper came to Kokomo in 1865 and erected a small 
blacksmith shop and began the manufacture of I^uggies. During 
his first year's business he sold one thousand, six hundred and sixtv- 


five dollars' worth of new work, and eight years later sold fourteen 
thousand five hundred and sixteen dollars' worth. He also made 
carriages, spring wagons and road wagons. 

The oldest continuous dry goods store in Kokomo is the Bee 
Hi\e. This store was commenced in 1872 by Samuel Davis. The 
firm name was S. Davis & Sons and was one of the leading business 
firms of the city. By the withdrawal of Walter and the death of 
Samuel, Henry C. was left as sole proprietor. In the year 1901 
Mr. Davis sold to William H. Turner, who has continued the busi- 
ness since. 

Nearly thirty years ago Bl(.)ck & Thalman came to Kokomo 
and began merchandising on a diminutive scale, with a limited stock 
of notions and low-priced goods. By fair dealing- and catering to 
the wants of the masses they rapidly built up a trade, and with the 
increasing trade they increased their stock in ^•ariety, quantity and 
C[uality until now they have probably the fullest stock and greatest 
variety of goods in the city. 

The White House was built some eighteen years ago and has 
been extended across the alley since. The Kokomo Dry Goods 
Store is of considerably more recent date and does a fine business. 


Those whose memory goes back to the times immediately after 
the Ci\il war will recall the sign in front of the clothing store on 
the north side of the square and west of the alley which read, "D. 
Friday." Eveiybody then knew D. Friday and his obliging young 
clerk. King Kennedy. D. Friday's clothing store is the oldest in 
Kokomo today. D. Friday is no longer here to welcome his cus- 
tomers with a bland smile, and when he had put on a customer a 
coat two or three sizes too large for him. would take up the slack on 

228 morrow's history 

the back with his hand and declare that the coat was ''shust a feat." 
King Kennedy has remained with the store and since the death of 
Mr. Friday has Ijeen the proprietor through the generosity of his 

The Finch-Pennington Company rank second as successors to 
Strickland & Company. Walter H. Davis ranks third in point 
of time. 

In the fall of i860 the industrial interest of Kokomo received 
a large accession in the coming of T. Jay and family, Rufus Dol- 
man and family, and Ithamer Russell and family. Soon after com- 
ing to Kokomo they entered into parnership and began several lines 
of business. 

They established a packing plant on the east side of town next 
to the P., C. & St. L. Railroad, buying hogs and slaughtering them 
and curing and shipping the meat and lard. They continued this 
business for perhaps ten years. They also established and carried 
on an extensive grocery store establishment. They also bought 
grain at the Lake Erie elevators, known then as the Jay & Dolman 
warehouse. They also established a private bank, known as the 
T. Jay & Company banking house, which was continued until after 
the First National Bank was established in 1865. 

Mr. Jay was prominent in the industrial life of Kokomo until 
his death. After his death the business was continued under the 
firm name of Russell, Dolman & Company. Some of their earlier 
lines of business were discontinued. Buying and shipping of grain 
was their chief business. Mr. D. P. Davis was their gentlemanly 
foreman at the elex'ator and was a very expert grain inspector. 

^Members of the firm held considerable stock in the First 
National Bank and were connected with the bank as officers. 



The brick industry has been of more or less importance from 
very early times in the county. There has been an abundance of 
good clay in all parts of the county and in the earlier times cheap 
fuel everywhere — wood. 

Captain Harry Stewart is the authority that his father, Heniy 
C. Stewart, was the pioneer brick manufacturer of Kokomo. About 
the year 1847 he had a brickyard at the northeast corner of the 
intersection of High (Superior) and Buckeye streets. He obtained 
the clay for the bricks from Buckeye and Washington streets at the 
bluff of Wild Cat, the road supervisor allowing him to take the 
clay in making the cut for a roadway to the creek. The next year 
his brickyard was changed to the southwest comer of a six-acre tract 
of land lying just north of Walnut street, and whose western boun- 
dary was near Webster street. Wood was used for fuel. Mr. 
Stewart relates that instead of using the old-fashioned — as now 
known — mixing or tempering wheel, that oxen were used. They 
were driven round and round in the mud, tramping it until thor- 
oughly mixed. The oxen would step in the steps made in former 
rounds and thus would work the mud into ridges and ruts. To 
overcome this the driver would reverse the direction of the oxen. 
The first brick masons in Kokomo were John Albright and Harles 
Ashley, and the first brick buildings were built in 1848; one a store 
building on the corner where the Darby block now stands, and the 
other a blacksmith shop. 

The limestone industry has also been of considerable importance 
from very early times. John and Charles Morrow, brothers, began 
the quarrying of building stone nearh^ sixty years ago on Pete's 
branch, near the present Defenbaugh stone quarry, on a somewhat 
limited scale, but sufficient to supply the demand for several miles 


around. A little later they also began burning lime to supply a 
demand for that article in plastering and stone and brick building. 
The first lime was burned on log heaps. Logs twelve to sixteen feet 
in length were cut and piled in heaps four or five feet high and to a 
length of fifteen or twenty feet, and upon the top of this heap sev- 
eral wagon loads of limestone were heaped and then the log heap 
was fired. \\'hen the heap was well fired and the mass of stone 
became hot the popping and exploding of the unbroken stone was 
like diminutive artillery. This was allowed to bum down and cool 
and made a fair article of lime. Somewhat later two kilns were 
erected for burning lime, and a far better quality of lime was burned 
with less fuel. In later years the demand for the stone for various 
building purposes consumed practically all the stone quarried, and, 
being more profitable than the lime business, the burning of lime 
was discontinued. 

The Morrow brothers sold to George \\\ Defenbaugh in the 
early sixties and he operated and developetl the quarries until his 
death in 1906, doing an extensive business in building and crushed 


\\'hen Kokomo began building macadam streets the demand 
for broken stone increased amazingly and a stone quarry 
was opened on the east side of the L. E. & ^^^ 
Railroad. ab(iut forty rods snuth of Wild Cat creek. 
A vast quantity of stone was taken out and hauled 
upon the streets and there broken by hand. After this was aban- 
doned another quarry was opened on the west side of the railroad 
opposite the abandoned Cjuarry. A power stone crusher was intro- 
duced and the manufacture of crushed stone was commenced. This 
plant has been operated on an e.xtensive scale for several years by 


J. "SI. Leach & Company. The demand has heen lieavy the present 
season for crushed stone for shipping and home use in building 
macadam roads. 

In recent years the K., M. & \\'. traction Hne opened a stone 
quarry on West Markland avenue, just west of Courtland avenue, 
for crushed stone for their raih'oad tracks. 

During the past year L. B. Hodgin and others have operated 
and expanded the business of the plant until they have been com- 
pelled to operate it day and night and are now arranging to expend 
ten thousand dollars for new machinery and improvements. 

Kokomo crushed stone is not only exclusively used at home, but 
is also shipped in large quantities to various parts of the state. 

Following Henry C. Stewart in the making of brick have been 
many. Chief of these have l^een ^^'illiam B. Morgan, on the north 
side, and John AI. Leach, on the suuth side. Mr. Morgan died 
several years since and his business has been discontinued. 

Soon after Kokomo began her rapid growth, because of the 
discovery of natural gas in her midst, John M. Leach & Company. 
foreseeing the demand and perhaps already realizing it for a far 
greater supply of brick, erected a brick plant on the L. E. & W. Rail- 
road just south of the city and began the manufacture of brick on 
a large scale, and found a ready market for his entire output. 
Several years since he had used all the clay within the immediate 
neighborhood of the plant and the company was compelled to go 
back from thq plant to buy clay and to ship it to the plant. For 
shipping purposes they operate a dummy railroad, having a small 
locomotive and a number of small railroad dump cars. For sev- 
eral vears they used natural gas for fuel in burning bricks : a few 
years since they changed to coal. 

The firm of J. M. Leach & Company do an ice business also. 
Thev began with the cutting of natural ice, first building an ice- 


house above the city near the Ohio street bridge, and another at 
the north end of the stone quarry on the west side of the railroad. 
About fifteen years since they began the manufacture of artificial 
ice, using the natural ice to supplement the artificial in supplying the 
trade. Soon they were able to supply the demand with the artificial 
ice and they discontinued the storing of natural ice. Their original 
factory was on the south side of Wild Cat creek, near the east side 
of the Lake Erie Railroad. Their business had so increased that in 
the year 1903 they built a large, substantial brick building fronting 
on Main street and east of the original one for their ice factorv-. 
This is a modern, up-to-date ice factory. 

In the manufacture of ice they use distilled water taken from 
a well drilled eighty-five feet into the limestone. The stratum of 
water at this level seems to be inexhaustible. A test, made in 1901, 
near the ice plant well, of two eight-inch wells in this water stratum, 
showed that, pumping at the rate of two million gallons of water 
every twenty-four hours, the water could not be lowered below a 
given level. This test was made to determine the location of a mu- 
nicipal waterworks plant. 


Prior to the fall of 1886, Howard county was solely an agri- 
cultural community and Kokomo and the other towns of the county 
were trading points. Kokomo was a thrifty town of about four 
thousand people and was located wholly upon the north side of 
Wild Cat creek. There were no factories as Kokomo of today 
knows them. There were several small factories supplying local 
demands. The citizens were wideawake and progressive and doing 
well in a moderate way. About this time natural gas, which had 
been known in Pennsylvania and Canada for a number of years. 


was being developed in Ohio in and about Findlay. No effort had 
as yet been made to learn if it underlaid Indiana territor_v. Some 
enterprising Howard count}- citizens determined to make a test. 
Accordingly a paper, which can hardly be called a subscription paper 
but rather a memorandum of an agreement, was drafted as follows : 
"KoKOMO, Indiana, March 22. 1886. 

"The object of this paper is to ascertain if there are a sufficient 
number of persons in this city willing to subscribe one hundred dol- 
lars each for the purpose of boring for gas a distance of not less 
than two thousand (2,000) feet. The names of those willing to 
subscribe the above amount ($100), pro\'ided the scheme is prop- 
erly and satisfactorily organized, are as follows : A. G. Com- 
stock. D. C. Spraker, J. C. Blacklidge, J. ]\I. Leach, S. Davis & 
Sons, Amistrong-Landon Company, R. O. \\'ilson, J. C. Dolman, 
John W. Slider, E. Quaintance, Russell Dolman & Company, J. O. 
Henderson. J. McLean Moulder, W. H. Sellers, J. A\\ Cooper, J. B. 
Michener, Henry Hunt, Dixon & Company, Bell & Purdum, \A^ A. 
Stuart, G. W. Defenbaugh, George Stidger." 

This paper, with the signatures, has recently been presented to 
the Carnegie Library for public preservation. 

A. Y. Comstock and D. C. Spraker did most ai the work of 
circulating the paper and securing subscribers. Although the citi- 
zenship of Kokomo and vicinity were liberal and progressive, they 
did not fall over each other in their eager haste to sign this agree- 
ment to pay one hundred dollars for boring a deep hole into the 
ground. Probably none of them had ever seen a real for-sure gas 
well. Some of them remembered the attempt to make a hole near 
the old Cromwell mill, and that, after going down several hundred 
feet, the tools became fast and the project had to be abandoned. 

i\Ir. Comstock had been instrumental in promoting other enter- 
prises, notably the F. & K. Railroad, and so was a man of experience 


in such matters, but found he was up against the real thing in secur- 
ing the necessary signatures. The work of promoting this venture 
was commenced in March and it was mid-September before the 
necessary twenty-two subscribers were obtained and the prepara- 
tions for boring the two-thousand-foot hole were completed and the 
actual drilling commenced. 

After the work of circulating this paper had commenced, Init 
during the long wait while the necessary twenty-two men were 
being hunted, the first producing natural gas well in Indiana was 
drilled in near Eaton, in Delaware county. 


The contract for drilling the well was let and the first "rig"' 
ever seen by citizens of Kokomo was put up on the south side of 
Wild Cat, in a cornfield belonging to A. F. Armstn^ng, near the 
southwest intersection of Armstrong avenue and ^^'ater street. 

All that section of country lying south of Wild Cat creek and 
west of the Lake Erie Railroad was then farm land and few and 
far between were the farm houses. 

On the 6th of October the drill penetrated Trenton rock and 
natural gas burst from its confinement and gas well Xo. i was a 
reality. The gas was cased in and a pipe elbowed off about twenty- 
fi\-e feet from the well and ignited. Thousands of people came 
{ram far and near to see the wonder. It was not a large pro- 
ducer; the flames did not shoot high in the air; neither did it roar 
s(i tremendously as did some of the mammoth wells drilled in later ; 
but the well, such as it was, was easily worth going miles to see. 
It was not necessary to "bore two thousand feet." Gas was found 
in the Trenton rock at a depth of a little more than nine hundred 
feet. All the subsequent drillings discovered the gas deposits at 


practically the same depth. Arrangements were soon made for 
drilling well Xo. 2 at a distance of about eighty rods southwest of 
Xo. I. Xo arrangements had as yet been made for utilizing the 
find. The news, however, went out over the country like wild fire 
that gas had been found at Kokomo and people of various classes 
began fiocking to Kokomo. 

The earlier ones were men who were interested in exploiting- 
gas wells, either in drilling gas wells or in leasing lands for gas 
wells and forming companies for piping and selling the gas. 
Another class of men were those who foresaw a rise in real estate 
because of the "find" and who rushed in to buy for the rise — the 
land speculator — and another class were the manufacturers, who 
were looking for a bonus and cheap fuel, ^\'ell X'o. 2, when drilled 
in. was a producing well and the belief was confirmed that Kokomo 
was in natural gas territory. 


In the spring of 1887 real estate was on a boom. Several syn- 
dicates from abroad had come in and invested in Kokomo and adja- 
cent Howard county real estate. The John Sherman or Mansfield 
syndicate was the leader in the amount and character of its invest- 
ment. The John M. Hamlin or Hamlin-Patterson syndicate was a 
close second. Several Kokomo people awoke to the fact that 
Kokomo real estate was a good thing to possess and the active 
competition rapidly ad\-anced real estate. There was no less activity 
among natural gas men : lands were leased for gas, the lessor agree- 
ing to pay so much per well annually so long as it producetl gas 
in merchantable quantities, generally agreeing to drill a gas well 
for each forty acres of land within stated times, agreeing also to 
pay an animal rental of a certain price per acre until the wells 

236 morrow's history 

were drilled. Companies were organized to pipe the gas to points 
where it could be used and to sell it when so piped. The Kokomo 
Natural Gas & Oil Company was organized to furnish Kokomo 
with gas. 

The first years of these natural gas companies they were very 
liberal in their terms of sale, giving all a flat rate of one dollar per 
month for cook stoves, and one dollar and fifty cents for first heater, 
one dollar for second heater and seventy-five cents for each addi- 
tional heater per month for seven months each }'ear; and the supply 
was not sparing, either. 

About the same time factory men began to appear, seeking 
locations in the gas belt and free fuel and a bonus in cash or its 
equivalent as an incentive to come. Meanwhile several rigs were 
busy drilling wells, and practically all wells drilled east of a line 
extending southwest through the west line of Kokomo were pro- 
ducing wells, some of them being of mammoth proportions, notably 
one, known as the Shrader well, located on the Fred Schrader farm 
one and one-half miles southeast of Kokomo. This was probably 
the strongest producer in this gas field. W'hen turned open and 
the gas ignited it sent up a great circular flame sixty to seventy- 
five feet in height, with a great roar that could be heard for miles. 
It lighted up the country for miles around and the farmers har- 
vested wheat after nightfall by its light. 

The Hon. Daniel W. Voorheis, who was at Kokomo engaged 
in a cause in court, soon after this well was drilled in was taken 
out one evening to see it. After witnessing the wonderful dis- 
play of the burning well he declared it to be a sight worth a trip 
half across the continent to see. People were very wasteful of the 
gas in the first years after the discovery. They acted as if there 
was an inexhaustible quantity. Strong wells were opened and fired 
and permitted to burn for weeks, sen'ing no good purpose except 


to light up the country. The writer recalls that the B)-ron Reed 
well south of town burned for several weeks, lighting up the coun- 
try for miles around and rendering the roads fairly light for a dis- 
tance of three or four miles out from town. In addition the farmers 
had large flambeaus burning throughout the night. Thus an im- 
mense quantity of this, the best of all fuels, was wasted. Prac- 
tically all the factories were operated by this fuel for se\-eral years. 
In addition two large pipe lines were put in to convey the gas to 
Chicago. Another line carried it to Logansport, another to Frank- 
fort and Lafayette and another to Peru. It appeared that everyone 
was making a heroic effort to exhaust the supply in the shortest 
possible time. And yet the suggestion at that time that the supply 
would be exhausted was scoffed at. 


The pipe lines that carried Howard county gas from home 
were: The Lafayette, which passed through Tipton county and 
into southeastern Howard. Murdock was at the head of this com- 
pany ; the Logansport line, which, passing to the west of Kokomo, 
entered the gas field on the Colonel Blanche farm and extended east 
on the south line of Center township and thence eastwardly almost 
to the east line of the county, with branches to the south reaching 
into Tipton count^^ Hon. S. P. Sheerin was at the head of this 
company and it drew away the gas for about eight years. Their 
leases provided that the landowner should have a well drilled within 
one year from the making of the lease ; it provided for a well for 
each forty acres of land, the deferred wells to be drilled at intervals 
of one year each; that the company was to furnish the owner or 
his tenant free gas for domestic use and to pay two hundred dol- 
lars annually for each well so long as it produced gas in merchant- 


able quantities and to pay a rental for the land not drilled on. 
This company leased nearly all lands on the south side. The Indi- 
ana Natural Gas Company had their pipe lines laid diagonally 
thniugh Howard township to the pumping station west of Green- 
town, thence east into Grant county, and had the central and east- 
ern parts of the county leased for. The Peru pipe line extended 
into the northeastern part of the county ; the Kokomo Natural Gas 
Company covered the country adjacent to the city: the Plate Glass 
Company had a large pipe line reaching east from 
their factor}- sexxral miles: the J. ]\I. Leach Com- 
pany went east from the brick plant intu Grant coun- 
ty: and the manufacturers' line extended east fmm Xorth 
street to Jackson township. These several pipe lines were busily 
engaged in draining away the gas supply. Fur several years the 
pressure has been diminishing and the supjjly is mnv largely ex- 

The Indiana Natural Gas Company, to comply with a pro- 
vision of the statute that the business of the natural gas compan.ies 
should be to supply Indiana cities with gas before shipping to for- 
eign points, laid a system of gas mains in Kokomo soon after going 
into the gas field, established an office here and sold gas in competi- 
tion with the other company. Later, when the wells of the Kokomo 
company were exhausted, they supplied the Kokomo company's 
mains with gas and have been the chief source of the supply of gas 
for citizens of Kokomo since. For several years both companies 
furnished gas for the flat rate, but for the past six or seven years 
there has been a meter rate service of twenty-five cents per thousand 
feet. Not only has the rate been higher, but the ser\-ice has been 
inadequate at times and the citizens of Kokomo are largely turning 
to coal for heating purposes. 

The J. M. Leach Compan\- has practically abandoned supply- 


ing natural gas to factories and is now quite extensively engaged 
in furnishing gas for domestic use at a flat rate of three dollars 
for cook stoves and four dollars and fifty cents for heaters per 


Tu transport the gas in pipe lines to Chicago and other dis- 
tant points required additional pressure and thus pumping sta- 
tions along the pipe line was necessary. The main pumping station 
on the Indiana Natural Gas Company's line (Chicago) was located 
on the north side of the Kokomo and Greentown gravel road, on 
the west side of Wild Cat creek, one and one-half miles west of 
Greentown. A large, well-huilt pumping plant was constructed 
and a town plat was laid off atljoining, and quite a number of neat 
homes were built for their employes. Pipe lines from the various 
parts of their gas field converged to this plant. Recently, because 
of the failing pressure in the gas field, pumps have been put in the 
wells and the wells are now sooner exhausted by the jnimping- 

Xow, after twenty-two years' use, the natural gas supply is 
largely exhausted. The reckless waste of the early years, the 
wholesale use of it in the factories and shipping it a\\a\- in many 
pipe lines have done a perfect work and the people nf Howard 
county are now almost deprived of the liest fuel for domestic use 
Nature ever furnished. 

The first factory to locate at Kokomo because of the finding 
of natural gas was the Kokomo \\'indow Glass Compan}-. Richard 
Heagany, president. This company was subsidized by tine donation 
of a site at the northeast intersectoin of North street and the L. E. 
& \V.. Railroad, and a cash bonus paid by individual subscription. 
Tliey used natural gas in the making of the glass and did a good 

240 :.,ORR0\V S HISTORY 

business for a few years, when a tire cumpletely destro3ed the build- 
ings. The company did not rebuild but removed to Hartford City 
and established a window glass factory at that point. 

Those who had contributed to the cash bonus for locating the 
factory at Kokomo were very much disappointed at this action and 
discussed the advisability of taking legal steps to compel the return 
of the money thus paid out, as the company had acted in bad faith 
in taking the money and then moving- away, presumably to get 
another cash bonus. The plant was built in 1887. 


Another plant located and built in 1887 was the Kokomo Straw- 
board plant. This plant was built by Seiberling & Williams, on a 
ten-acre tract of land on the New London gravel road about one 
mile southwest of the city. 

This plant was subsidized by two thousand dollars by the 
Kokomo Improvement Company and was expended in the purchase 
of the ten acres of land from A. F. Armstrong. The plant con- 
sisted of several large brick buildings with all the necessary ma- 
chineiy for converting straw into paper board and apparently was a 
very permanent improvement. 

This factor}' used natural gas for fuel and for several years 
did a good business and used a vast quantity of straw, making a 
market for all of the straw for many miles around. For several 
years Mr. Thomas Bauer was a familiar figure among the farmers 
of the county in buying their straw. The old Cromwell millrace 
was utilized in filtering the water with the waste from the straw- 
board mill. 

Soon the farmers along Wild Cat below the mill began to 
complain of stream pollution, asserting that the poisonous chemicals 


used in bleaching the straw and board and escaping in tlie refuse 
from the mill poisoned the waters of ^^'ild Cat, rendering the water 
unfit and dangerous for stock to drink, and that the refuse killed 
the fish in the stream. Finally suit was brought to prevent the 
allowing of the refuse to go into the stream. Damage suits were 
threatened. This uprising extended almost to the west limits of 
the C(iunt}-. Meanwhile the American Strawboard Company had 
been fomied for taking over into one great corporation all the 
strawboard plants, and the Kokomo plant had thus been absorbed. 
Because of this opposition the Kokomo plant was closed and has 
since remained closed, except for a short time it was operated as a 
boxboard factory. It is not at all likely that the factory will ever 
again be operated. The silent walls only remain of this once active 

In the succeeding year two other paper mills were located south 
of the strawboard mill, on Kokomo creek. The first to locate was 
the woodpulp mill, with G. P. Wood as president. This mill con- 
verts quaking asp, second growth cottonwood and buckeye timber 
into wood pulp for the manufacture of paper. For several years 
after the location of this factory large quantities of buckeye and 
cottonwood timbers were purchased of the farmers of the county. 

Very little quaking asp timber is grown in the county. The 
spruce timber used in the mill was shipped from northern ]Michi- 
gan, two large shiploads or cargoes being used each year. 

The Newman Paper Company building was built adjoining 
the woodpulp mill and after a short time Mr. Newman sold out to 
Wood & Miller and the combined factory became known as the 
Kokomo Paper Company and the Kokomo Woodpulp Company, 
with I. N. Miller, president; G. P. Wood, secretar\': and C. L. 
Wood, treasurer. The two plants, including buildings and grounds 
occupied bAr the btisiness. covers three acres. They manufacture 

16 ' 


wood fibre, board, barrel and box layers and have a market all over 
the country. 

In the year 1888 William C. Smith, from Rockford, Illinois, 
came to Kokomo seeking a location for a bit factory in the gas belt. 
He was then engaged in operating a factory of this kind at Rock- 
ford. Upon arriving at Kokomo he fell in with J. R. Hall, Wick 
Russell and Garah Markland, innocent-appearing men but hustlers, 
who, providing a good conveyance, took him out past and beyond 
the extensive fami lands of A. F. Armstrong, on the south side, 
through Markland and Russell's farm lanes "beyond Pete's branch 
and almost to the blufifs of Kokomo creek, so far out that all that 
was visible of Kokomo was the top of the court house tower, and 
here in a beautiful woods pasture these gentlemen assured Mr. Smith 
would be an ideal location for a bit factory. It was at a point 
where the three farms owned by these gentlemen touched each other. 
Mr. Hall told Mr. Smith that if he would locate on his side he 
would donate six acres, including a part of a clover field : ]\Iessrs. 
Russell and Markland said they would each give three acres more, 
and actually talked this shrewd business man into locating there. 
Be it remembered that this location was awa}- out in the countr}- 
and in the interior of three farms, more than a quarter of a mile 
from any street or highway. When the writer of this expostulated 
with Hall, while sur\-eying the site, and asked him how he could do 
such an act, he replied: "I intend to make this one of the most 
beautiful parts of Kokomo." 


The Rockford Bit ^^'orks was built that same year and com- 
menced a prosperous career that has continued to the present. The 
plant is a large, permanent brick structure. \\'. C. Smith was presi- 


dent for many years, and Millard F. Brand was superintendent till 
1894, and George J. Costello succeeded him. 

In 1892 Henry C. Davis and his son, Henry C, Jr., bought an 
interest in the factory. In 1893 <^hey and H. A. Bruner bought in 
all outstanding stock. They manufacture augurs, augur bits and 
carpenter chisels. The present floor space is about 25,000 square 
feet. In 1892 the number of men employed was from thirty to 
forty. In 1908 the number is one hundred and tifty to one hundred 
and sixty, and the pay-roll is eighty thousand to one hundred thou- 
sand dollars per year." The cpital stock is seventy-five thousand dol- 
lars. The officers are: H. C. Davis, president; H. A. Bruner, 
viice-president ; H. C. Davis, Jr., treasurer; George L. Davis, secre- 
tary: George J. Costello, superintendent. 


The Indiana Tumbler and Goblet Company came to Kokomo 
from Greentown in 1900 and became known as the Kokomo Glass 
Manufacturing Company, after having burned out at Greentown. 
This plant was organized at Greentown in 1894 by D. C. Jenkins, 
who had many years' experience in the glass manufacturing busi- 
ness, and knows the business from all sides. The Kokomo Glass 
Manufacturing Company's plant was burned out in June, 1905. The 
plant was not rebuilt at once, as the company debated the rebuilding 
proposition at great length. Many of the skilled operatives moved 
away to other towns having similar factories. At last, by the citi- 
zens of Kokomo offering them a liberal bonus, they resolved to 
rebuild under a reorganization known as the D. C. Jenkins Glass 
Company. They accordingly rebuilt in 1906. 

The factory employs one hundred and fifty men and has a 
monthly pay-roll of eight thousand dollars. 


Tlie output is a full line of glass table ware, milk bottles, fish 
globes and a general line of machine-made goods. They have two 
to three men on the road selling to jobbers. Seventy-five per cent, 
of their output is sold in carload lots. The officers are : D. C. 
Jenkins, president ; Addison Jenkins, secretaty and treasurer. 

The Kokomo Wood Enameling Company was organized and 
the building erected about the year 1890. Thomas Bauer, the hus- 
tling straw buyer of the Kokomo Strawboard Company, was the 
leading spirit in this enterprise. This industry was located on the 
southernmost of the factory sites platted in Hamlin's Highland ad- 
dition. Its output was the various kinds of enameled wooden ware 
made from hardwood lumber, as knobs, handles, etc. It was claimed 
bv the managers of this concern that they used five hundred thou- 
sand feet of hardwood lumber annually. They bought great num- 
bers of beech and sugar tree logs and thus made a considerable mar- 
ket for a class of timber that had not heretofore sold for lumber. 
^^■hile the plant was operated as an enameling industry, the kilns 
were \-isited with two or three disastrous fires. It was capitalized 
at fifty thousand dollars and employed one hundred men. 

^^■ith the exhaustion of hardwood lumber it was changed to the 
Kokomo Xail and Brad Company. 


The Kokomo Rubber Company was organized and incorpo- 
rated in 1895 and put up the first building forty by one hun- 
dred feet, two stories and basement, and began the manufacture of 
bicycle tires January i, 1896. Each year afterward an equal floor 
space was added for seven years. Now the floor space is one hun- 
dred thousand square feet and employs two hundred and twenty- 
five men. It is incorporated for two hundred thousand dollars. 


The pay-roll is one hundred thousand dollars annually. D. C. 
Spraker is president and manager, Milton Krouse is vice-president, 
George W. Loudon is secretary, D. L. Spraker is treasurer. The 
manufactures are bicycle tires, automobile tires and a specialty is 
made of solid vehicle tires for buggies. The product is known as 
Kokomo tires the world over. Shipments are made not only to all 
parts of the United States, but to foreign countries as well. This 
plant is located on the Lake Erie & Western railroad, just south of 
Markland avenue and fronts on Main street. 

The Great Western Pottery Company was established in 1893 
on West Morgan street by the present owners, the two Conrad 
brothers and Coxon, who is superintendent. The original size was 
four kilns. It now operates ten places. The buildings cover ninety 
thousand square feet of floor surface. When the factory was first 
built it was the only one west of Pittsburg. Nine years ago this 
company secured the same kind of a factory at Tifhn, Ohio, which 
has seven kilns, and has practically the same output. 

The Kokomo plant employs one hundred and fifty men, ninety 
per cent, of whom are skilled workmen. The pay-roll is about ten 
thousand dollars per month. Their output is sanitary pottery ware 
and their shipments are in carload lots. 

The Globe Stove and Range Works was organized in 1898. 
The plant is located on the P., C. & St. L. railroad and their 
grounds extend from the railroad to Market street and south from 
Broadway. The company began in a modest way, but have con- 
tinuously grown and expanded until the plant now consists_of six 
large and substantial fireproof brick buildings. The buildings are 
all practically new, steam heated, electrically lighted and well venti- 
lated. The growth of this industry has been constant and is a 
credit to the management and the citv and ccmntv as well. 

246 morrow's history 

tojiato growing. 

Twent_v years ago the Charles Brothers came to Kokomo 
preaching the gospel of tomato growing. ]\Ir. A. A. Charles was 
especially enthusiastic in telling Howard county farmers what possi- 
bilities were in store for them in growing tomatoes on their fertile 
acres and recounted what had been done in Jersey and incidentally 
stated that he stood ready to help them by starting a canning fac- 

The promoters of the Brookside addition proffered these gen- 
tlemen a site for a factory and as a further encouragement made a 
donation of some choice lots. A considerable number of farmers 
agreed to grow acres of tomatoes at so much per ton, where they 
had heretofore been content with a single plant, and the canning 
industry had a beginning in Howard county. During these twenty 
years it has been a profitable business both for the grower and the 
packer. The Charles Bros, operated the Brookside Canning Fac- 
tory for several years with eminent success, canning sweet corn and 
peas as well as tomatoes. 


W. A. Bowlin and others operated a canning factory on the 
New London pike at the north end of Courtland avenue for several 
years, canning peas, corn and tomatoes. John Gennebeck and oth- 
ers started a third plant near the strawboard mill, which later passed 
into the possession of parties who have organized the Kokomo Can- 
ning Company and has been enlarged and improved until it is one 
of the best plants in the State. 

The Kokomo Canning Company was incorporated in 1904. 
having been started by Josiah Kelly, who operated it until his death 


two years later. Upon the death of j\Ir. Kelly ^^^ A. Bowlin took 
charge of the property for a season and subsequently it was operated 
under the trusteeship of the Kokomo National Bank until the pres- 
ent company was formed in February, 1904, with a capital stock of 
twenty-five thousand diillars. the members nf which were ; T. C. 
McReynolds. L. J. Kirkpatrick, W. \\'. Barnes, J. W. Barnes. J. W. 
Learner, E. L. Danner, F. C. Falk and C. \\\ McReynolds. The 
plant was then located at the corner of Water street and Courtland 
avenue. In March, 1906, the company doubled its capital stock and 
bought out Grafton Johnson, owner of the Brookside and Howard 
County canning factories, the Kelly plant for the most part being 
removed to the grounds of the Howard County plant, which had in 
the start been the property of John Gennebeck. In the end Mr. 
Gennebeck had ceased the active ownership of this industry and G. 
W. Landon, W. F. Ruddell and Grafton Johnson took it in charge. 
It was during this period that the Howard County and the old 
Charles, or Brookside, canning industries were consolidated. Graf- 
ton Johnson operated the two consolidated properties, which he soon 
acquired, for some time, when the three plants were consolidated, as 
stated, in 1906. The grounds include six and one-half acres, about 
three acres of which is covered with buildings. The plant repre- 
sents an investment of one hundred thousand dollars, and has never 
paid less than ten per cent., and sometimes double, on the capital 
stock. The active manager, who began the operation under com- 
bined discouragements, is C. W. McReynolds, recently elected presi- 
dent of the State Canners' Association. 

It has facilities for packing a hundred thousand cans of vege- 
tables in a day without touching the ingredients with the hands. All 
is done by machinery. 

The machinery and equipment are the most improved. The 
company packed more than three million cans the present season. 


Tlie company is capitalized at fifty thousand dollars and was incor- 
porated in 1904. C. W. McReynolds is secretary and manager. 

Homer Sailors and W. J. Dixon began a fourth packing plant 
in 1907 on the L. E. & W. railroad in the Park View addition. The 
canning industry in Howard county has proven to be as good as its 
most sanguine promoters promised. 

In 1888 the Opalescent Glass Factory was located upon one of 
the factory sites platted by Mr. R. E. Patterson in the Hamlin High- 
land addition. A Mr. Henry, with a Frenchman skilled in the art. 
secured this site in donation and proceeded to erect buildings and 
began the manufacture of this glass. After a short time he sold out 
to local men, who secured 'the skilled services of Mr. Francois. This 
is not a large concern, but is a good business and very profitable. 
The capital stock is twenty thousand dollars and employs twenty 
men and has a monthly pay-roll of eight hundred dollars. 


Of the various manufacturing industries that have located in 
Koknmo probably none have obtained so wide celebrity as the auto- 
mobiles. Kokomo is widely known as the Automobile City. This 
fame has resulted from the two automobile factories located here. 

The first was located here ten years ago. in 1898, just south 
of the rubber works. Like the rubber works, it had a modest be- 
ginning, but grew rapidly and is now a leading industry. It is said 
to be the oldest automobile factory in the United States. It is also 
said that Mr. Edwood Haynes is the pioneer automobile inventor of 
this country. In the beginning the Apperson Bros, were manbers 
of this automobile firm and it was known as the Haynes-Apperson 
Company. Somewhat later the Appersons withdrew and began the 
manufacture of automobiles independently. The Haynes cars have 


been entered in many races in competition with machines made in 
the best factories of this and foreign countries and have always 
given a good account of themseh^es, especially along endurance 

The Apperson Automobile Company is located on South Main 
street on the south side of ^^'ildcat, where the Riverside Machine 
\\'orks were located. The Apperson Bros, were the proprietors of 
this machine shop and when they decided to embark in the automo- 
bile business independently they converted the works into an auto- 
mobile industry and erected a large three-story brick building and 
began the manufacture of automobiles on a large scale. Their ma- 
chines are noted for power and speed. Their business is increasing 
rapidly and steps have been taken recently to greatly enlarge the 


Probably the most important of Kokomo's industrial con- 
cerns has been the Pittsburg Plate Glass Company plant because of 
its size, the long time it has been here and the amount of business 
done. This company was organized in 1888 and located on the 
east side of the P., C. & St. L. railroad and south of Vaile avenue. 

The founders and promoters of this enterprise were individual 
capitalists, of whom Monroe Seiberling was chief. Conger and oth- 
ers helped, but Seiberling came here and made this city his home for 
years and did much in various ways for the material uplift of the 
city. He also associated some of the business men of this city with 
the company in building this plant. It has at all times been a large 
employer of labor, employing about five hundred and fifty men. and 
having a monthly pay-roll of thirty thousand dollars. This factory 
was an earlv and heavv user of natural gas and had its own natural 


gas plant, pipe lines and wells, reaching far out into the gas terri- 

Several years after the founding of this company the Pittsburg 
Plate Glass Company, a corporation formed for the purpose of com- 
bining all plate glass companies under one management, bought the 
stock of this company and made it a part of the Pittsburg Plate 
Glass system. Kokomo has been fortunate in that the plant has 
b-een operated almost continuously since its absorption in this sys- 
tem. The plant is now being rebuilt and otherwise improved, bring- 
ing it up to date and giving assurance to Kokomo that it will still 
continue to be a live plant and furnish employment for the men of 
the plate glass district. 


About fifteen years since some young men came to Kokomo 
from Ridgeville looking for a good business location for the manu- 
facture an,d sale of the Whitney woveu wire fence machine and of 
the wire for weaving the fence in place. They also planned to 
weave the fence in their facti^ry and sell it in rolls to fence builders. 
They located their factory at North and Union streets and soon 
were doing a fine business in the sale of machines and in building 
and selling different styles of fence, including many beautiful de- 
signs of ornamental fence. 

A few years since a number of the business men and manufac- 
turers of the city decided that it would be a profitable and wise thing 
to greatly enlarge this business by building a plant to make the wire 
used in the fence business and to greatly enlarge the fence building 
department, and thus the Kokomo Steel and ^^"ire Company was 
formed. The stock is very largely held by Kokomo and former 
Kokomo citizens. It is an independent company and is handicapped 




by being compelled to bu}- billets from the steel trust. The ciim- 
pany has two plants, the fence plant on North street and the mill 
proper on West Markland avenue. They manufacture plain and 
galvanized fencing wire, wire rods, barljed wire, market wire, wire 
nails, staples, wire fencing, etc. They ship their goods to all parts 
of the L'nited States, Canada and Mexico. Both plants give em- 
ployment to a large number of men. A. A. Charles is president: 
A. V. Conradt, vice-president : George \\'. Charles, treasurer, and 
J. E. Fredrick, secretary. 

J. B. i\[ichener established the Star Machine ^¥orks on North 
Main street in 1874 and did a general repair business for various 
kinds of machinery, employing twelve men and doing a business of 
twenty-fi\-e thousand dollars per annum. After his death the busi- 
ness and plant passed into the control of the Standard Motor Com- 
pany. This company continued the repair business and manufac- 
tured small gasoline engines and saw swedges. In 1904 the K., 
'M. & ^^'. Traction Company purchased the plant for a repair shop 
and car laarns. In 1906 the Superior Machine Tool Company occu- 
pied the building used for the repair of machinery, being a building 
thirty by three hundred feet. The company is engaged in the manu- 
facture of upright drills. They are in position to do all kinds of 
repair work and the building of special machinery. 

Ford & Donnelly, at the corner of North and Buckeye streets, 
have been operating a machine and repair shop for many years. 
These machine and repair shops are very useful industries to the 
people of Howard county. 

The Knerr Board and Paper Company's plant is located north 
of North street on the L. E. & W. Railroad, and is one of two like 
mills owned and operated by Cincinnati parties. The manufactures 
of the company are folding paper box boards, binders and trunk 
boards and double board used for bookbinders' and shipping cases. 
The plant employs seventy-five hands. 



The Kokonio Bale Tie Company, formerly known as the Schild 
Fence Company, is located on North sti-eet hetween the L. E. & W. 
and the P., C, C. & St. L. railroads and manufactures the Schild 
fence, bale ties for baling hay and straw and fami gates, and is pre- 
pared to furnish standard makes of telephone and telegraph wires 
and wires for cement posts. The company handles plain and gal- 
vanized fence wire, barbed wire, nails and staples and high carbon 
coil spring wire. Fifteen men are employed. 

Of the many industries not already mentioned and contributing 
to the industrial life and growth of Kokomo and to the prosperity 
of Howard county may be mentioned the Columbia Pottery and 
Manufacturing Company, north of Morgan street, on the L. E. & 
\y. Railroad : the Kokomo Brass Works, on North Smith street, the 
Kokomo Box Company, located on North Smith street, occupying 
the Petroleum Hoop Company's former plant; the Kokomo Hoop 
and Lumber Company, at west end of Mulberry street ; the National 
?vlitten Works, East High street; the Ulrich Manufacturing Com- 
pany, \\'all street; the Colonial Brick Company, East High street; 
the Kokomo Cash Lumber Company, West Elm, adjoining the L. E. 
« \\' Railroad ; the Pinnell-Stroup Lumber Company, Buckeye 
street between Elm and Broadway streets. 

It is claimed that the manufacture of the Hoosier Standard 
grain measures is the oldest manufacturing business of the county. 
This was commenced at Greentown in 1853 by Joseph M. Loop and 
removed to Kokomo in 1877 and continued by John N. Loop, the 


In recent years there has sprung up a new industry in our 
midst. In 1891 W. \\'. Coles came to Kokomo from the \icinity 


of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and engag'ed in floriculture on Enst 
Jefferson street in a modest \\a_\-. His business met a popular de- 
mand and grew rapidly until now he has seventy thousand square 
feet under glass, all fragrant with blooms of all kinds. ]\Ir. Coles 
does a large and profitable business. Mr. Coles is an active com- 
petitor at the state fairs for premiums in his department and wins a 
large share of the first premiums. Coles, the rose man of Kokomo, 
is giving the city a good name abroad. His place is known as the 
Maple Hill Rose Farm. Since Mr. Coles introduced the business 
into this community three other greenhouse plants have sprung up. 
Fred Kelly, on East Sycamore street ; Tom L. Knipe, on East Mark- 
land avenue, and W. A. Bitler, South Buckeye street. 

That this business is doing a good work among the people of 
the city and surrounding country is evidenced by the many homes 
that are rendered beautiful and attractive througlmut the growing 
season by the many cultivated blooming plants surrounding the home 
and in the winter season by indoor blooming plants. 


The Kokomo, Marion & Western Traction Company is the suc- 
cessor of the Kokomo Railway and Light Company and was organ- 
ized in 1902 and besides furnishing interurban trafific operates the 
city street car system, lights the streets of Kokomo and provides 
electric lights for the homes of her citizens. The street car track 
mileage of Kokomo is ten miles and six street cars are run upon 
these lines for the regular service. There are fifty miles of electric 
light wires in the city and fourteen hundred consumers of electricity 
for light and power, where five years ago there were but three hun- 
dred and fifty. The power house is a large brick structure along 
the E. E. & W. Railroad, rendering- it easily accessible with fuel. 


The whole system, including the interurban service, uses one hun- 
dred and ten men. 

The artificial gas plant was constructed for a city of four thou- 
sand people and is wholly inadequate for the present city of Kokomo. 

The city is amply provided with a water works system taking 
water from a series of deep Avells in a seemingly inexhaustible sup- 
ply of good water. 

Kokomo and Howard county possess more of the material ad- 
vantages of life and fewer of its disadvantages than almost any 
other like community. As has already been noted, its lands and im- 
provements are of the very best : the city of Kokomo has a ver}' 
large number of very busy factories of the verj- best kinds, affording 
steady employment to thousands of workmen. While the greater 
number of her factories were built for the consumption of natural 
gas for fuel when the gas began to fail they were changed to bum 
coal and practically all are now fitted for burning coal. 

Some eighteen years ago a belt railroad was built from the P., 
C. & St. L. Railroad around the south side of the city, reaching 
nearly all of the factories on the south side and providing them with 
convenient railroad facilities. The other factories of the city have 
been provided with railroad switches, spurs and side tracks until 
nearly all Kokomo factories are reached by railroad cars and can 
have coal direct from the cars. Rates have been made at the coal 
mines and \\ith the railroads until the factories are able to have 
cheap fuel. 

The facilities for shipping coal to the factories here are good 
now, but promise to be better in the near future. The city in a little 
more than twenty years has quadrupled in population. All that 
country south of Wild Cat , which was farm land when the bit fac- 
tory was located, is now improved city properties, with paved streets, 
city water and city lights and the bit factor,- itself, which was then 



far out in the country, is now well within the city. The future is 
bright with promise. 

Howard county and Kokomo in their prosperous career liave 
experienced very few disappointments. Two or three will here be 
referrd to. 


A matter over which there seems tn have been considerable dis- 
satisfaction at the time, grew out of the building of the Indianapolis 
& Peru Railroad. It appears that the company lacked fifty thou- 
sand dollars of having money enough to finish the road to Peru and 
were unable to sell their bonds. The company therefore decided to 
ask the counties through which the road was being built to aid by 
loaning the credit ©f the counties, that is, while the railroad bonds 
could not be sold, the bonds of the counties could be sold. The com- 
pany therefore proposed that if the counties would issue bonds and 
loan the money thus raised the company would reimburse the coun- 
ties as soon as possible for the loan. In accordance with this plan, 
nn the 2 1st of August, 1851, C. D. Murray and William J. Holman. 
representing the company, came before the commissioners and asked 
them, for the county, to issue bonds to the amount of ten thousand 
dollars and take railroad stock to that amount on condition that the 
other counties raise the balance. The board took the matter under 
consideration until the next day. when they agreed to do so, pro- 
vided the county could be indemnified against loss by any failure of 
the company. 

To meet this condition the following persons entered into a 
written obligation to indemnify the county against loss in the ratio 
of the respective amounts subscribed by each, nn condition tliat if 
they had to pay the losses the stock should be theirs : 

William J. Holman, $4,000: C. Richmond, $500: John Eohan, 


$; Austin Xorth, $500: William Brown. $500: George Deffen- 
baugh, $500; John Dale, $500: J. D. Sharp, $1,000: F. S. Price, 
$1,000; J. M. Skein, $500. 

^^'hereupon the board ordered the auditor to subscribe for four 
hundred shares of stock at twenty-five dollars each, and that county 
bonds bearing ten per cent, interest and to run for ten years be issued 
to the amount of ten thousand dollars. The bonds were subse- 
Cjuently issued and were signed by Tence Lindley, Richard Nixon 
and John Knight. Certificates of stock were issued on delivery of 
the bonds. 

At the December term. 1853. C. D. Murray, agent of the Peru 
& Indianapolis Railroad Company, came before the board and rep- 
resented that the Peru & Indianapolis Railroad and the Indianapolis 
& Madison Railroad companies had consolidated their interests, that 
this consolidation was a sufficient guarantee for the payment of the 
bonds and interests due the county and therefore moved that the 
certificates of stock be canceled and the guarantors be released. The 
commissioners made an order in accordance with the motion; the 
certificates were surrendered as collateral and the giiarantors were 
released as securities. 

The company for a time continued to pay the interest and par- 
tial payments on the principal. But the road was being operated in 
a new and sparsely settled region, which at best could furnish but a 
limited amount of business. Their business was not sufficient to pay 
a large operating expense and to pay ten per cent, interest on a large 
debt besides. The company therefore was forced into bankruptcy 
and the road was sold. The failure of the railroad company caused 
the county to lose the balance unpaid of the ten thousand dollars 
originally advanced to the company, which was about six thou- 
sand dollars, principal and interest. There was considerable criti- 
cism of the board for releasing the guarantors. 


This criticism by those pioneers throws a strong side hght upon 
tliem. They have appeared heretofore as men of great generosity 
and broad sympathy for each other, that the privations of the new 
country had developed a spirit of broad friendship and unselfishness 
that rendered them incapable of taking advantage of another's gen- 
erosity. It has been repeatedly asserted that they freely left their 
own work to help another without any thought of pay or help in re- 
turn ; but here we have an instance of certain public-spirited citizens 
of the community, pledging large amounts for an entei-prise that will 
help the entire community all alike, and which will be worth many 
times its cost, being held responsible for this debt by their fellow 
citizens and the commissioners, who released them criticized for do- 
ing so. 

It manifestly would have been unfair to have held these few 
men responsible, who were no more benefitted than others, for this 
debt when it was of vast general benefit to the whole county. 

This instead of being reckoned a misfortune to the county, was 
probably the best investment ever made. It was the pioneer rail- 
road and gave the county an early direct line to the business center 
of the state. 


Another matter over which there was much dissatisfaction was 
the Doxey factory matter. In the spring of 1874 C. T. Doxey, of 
Anderson, came before the city council and represented that he was 
looking for a location for a large factoi-y and that if Kokomo wanted 
it she could have it by offering proper inducement. After returning 
home he sent the following letter which more fully explains his 
sclieme : 

258 morrow's history 

"Anderson, Indiana. 
"To the Mayor and Honorable Council of the City of Kokomo, In- 
diana : 

"Gentlemen — Enclosed please find a plan of heading, sta\e and 
bent factory, which I have now arranged to put up at this place. 
The building will be brick, iron roof. Will be the largest and best 
arranged of any in the state and perhaps the best in the United 
States. Propose to make circled heading from beech and red oak ; 
lead keg staves and heading and oil barrel staves and heading. The 
above machinery will all be placed on first floor. The second story 
propose to use for bent work. My engine is from eighty to one 
hundred horse power ; will use two large boilers. The machinery 
to be all new or good as new. The factory will employ from forty 
to eighty hands besides those who may be engaged in cutting and 
hauling timber. It makes a market for your elm, red oak and beech 
timber ; and as have built three factories of this kind and have had 
four years' experience, and have had perhaps the largest trade in 
cooper business of any one in the state, think it would be safe in say- 
ing, 'It will be a success." 

"Have a good location here and in locating at your city will be 
a loss in many ways. Would respectfully make the following prop- 
osition : If your city will donate five thousand dollars, one-half to 
be paid when building is completed and one-half when it is in opera- 
tion, will locate at Kokomo. It may require from forty to sixty 
thousand dollars to carry on the business. Will bind myself to have 
said factory in operation by the ist of September this year. Would 
come at once. What action on the above proposition you choose to 
take, please do so tonight, as I have part of the machinery pur- 
chased and want to commence the building at once. Very respect- 
fully yours. C. T. Doxlev." 

This was read to the council May 15, 1874, and a committee 


was appointed to look after the matter. It is supposed to have 
acted favorably on the proposition, as we find this record, Septem- 
ber 4, 1874: 

committee's report on doxey factory. 

"Gentlemen — Your committee which was appointed to exam- 
ine the stave and heading factory of C. T. Doxey would respect- 
fully report that said factoi-y is now in operation according to the 
terms of Mr. Doxey's contract. Signed by committee. 

"Mr. Davis moved the report be concurred in and that an order 
for five thousand dollars be drawn in favor of C. T. Doxey. 

"This motion prevailed with one dissenting vote." 

There was not a little opposition to making this donation by 
some of the most substantial citizens, who asserted that it was illegal 
and bad policy to hire factories to locate here with money from the 
city treasury. The other party contended that property would be 
benefited by locating factories here and that the only real fair way 
to subsidize them was by taxation. As there was an overwhelm- 
ing sentiment for locating factories at Kokomo, and thus to increase 
industrial activity, the donation prevailed and Doxey's factory got 
the five thousand dollars. 

The factory operated for a few years and then from some 
cause stopped. The machinery was moved away and for several 
years the silent buildings bore mute testimony to where Doxey's fac- 
tory had been. The proprietors of Kirkpatrick & Scott's addition to 
Kokomo had made a liberal land donation to the factoiy expecting 
the operation of the factory would cause that part of Kokomo to 
build up. The closing of the factory stopped business in that part 
of town and there was no more market for lots. The closing of this 
factnrv was the sorest disappointment Knknmo has experienced. 

26o morrow's history 

In the abundant i^rosperity of the past twenty years and in the 
location of many much more important factories than Doxey's ever 
was she had well-nigh forgotten this experience. The historian now 
consigns it to a place with the window glass company and the straw- 
board company and is glad that these are all. 



Like all other states of equal age, Indiana has tinkered with 
many kinds of currency and learned by bitter experience. An inter- 
esting and intelligent review seems to require starting with colonial 
times and tracing theories, trade, banking laws and panics in nation 
and state to 1861. 

Great Britain required its American Colonies to trade exclu- 
sively with the mother country and to import manufactured articles 
in English ships, levied duties and required them to be paid in specie, 
forbade them to start banks, coin money, manufacture clothing, hats, 
iron or paper; to sell lands to any but British subjects, and to export 
only in English vessels. But the enterprising inhabitants built ves- 
sels and carried on a circuitous trade with the West Indies, thus ob- 
taining Spanish gold and silver for use, and bartering exports for 
necessary supplies. This was the chief dependence of the colonies 
for turning their industries to account. England, in 1764, to- raise 
revenue, laid a lieavy tax on this West India trade. This led to a 
clandestine trade and. with other impositions, finally to the Revolu- 
tionary war. 

It was a very unequal struggle. Thirteen colonies with no 


ships or navy. A coast more than a thousand miles long to defend ; 
not a fort or fortification ; not a bank ; no money or treasury ; no 
army or mihtary supphes, and without credit, pitted against the 
wealth and prestige of England, the greatest naval power of the 
world. And we were also handicapped by a wilderness in the rear 
of our scattered settlements filled with murderous savages, ever 
ready to burn and massacre the settlers. We had no strong central 
government, only a loose confederation of independent governments. 
Congress was nearly powerless, a sort of advisory board rather than 
a legislature. The states were jealous of Congress and of each 
other. The most necessary and excellent measures could not be en- 
forced. In war money is indispensable. Congress issued paper 
money, treasury notes, continental currency, as it had no constitu- 
tional power to raise money by taxation, and had no commerce. Dur- 
ing the first year of the war six million dollars of paper were put 
in circulation; in 1776, nineteen million dollars more; in 1777, thir- 
teen million dollars more; in 1778, sixty-three million, five hundred 
thousand dollars; in 1779, one hundred and forty million dollars; 
making a total of two hundred and forty-one million dollars. 

To this volume was added the notes issued by the states. An 
inevitable increase in prices followed, with a depreciation of the 
value of paper money. In 1779 a dollar in paper currency was 
worth only twelve cents in specie, and a year later only three cents. 
All specie disappeared from circulation. Congress had pledged the 
faith of the nation to redeem this flood of paper. It repudiated its 
pledge and passed a resolution to redeem all bills of credit at one- 
fortieth of their face value. 

The first parties were Whigs, who favored our independence, 
and the Tories, or Loyahsts, who stood for British rule. 

In 1 78 1 Robert Morris was by Congress made Superintendent 
of Finance and placed at the head of the Continental treasury. He 

262 morrow's history 

was an opponent of paper money. He estalilished the Bank of 
Xorth America at Philadelphia with a capital of four hnndred thou- 
sand dollars, which was of great service to Congress. The army 
was on the verge of starvation and nearly naked for lack vi shoes 
and clothes. 

Nearly eight million dollars were borrowed in specie in Europe. 
Of this $6,352,000 was from France : $1,304,000 in Holland ; $174,- 
000 in Spain, and nearly $12,000,000 at home. Nearly $6,000,000 
were collected by states, and nearly $3,000,000 miscellaneously. Al- 
together the war cost about $100,000,000. 


The Confederation, without general authority and witli the 
conflicting interests and theories of independent states, was seen to 
be a failure. So a convention of delegates was called to re\ise the 
Articles of Confederation. It assembled at Philadelphia, with 
Washington as its President. It was found to be utterly impracti- 
cable to amend them, and the delegates fc^rmed a constitution, to be 
in force when ratified by nine states. At once two political parties 
were formed. Those who favored ratification were called Federal- 
ists, those opposed, Anti-Federalists. The leaders of the Fed- 
eralists were Washington, Hamilton, Madison, Franklin, Harry 
Lee, Randolph. John ^Marshall and Jay. The Anti-Federalists were 
led by Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, Samuel Adams. Jeffer- 
son. Elbridge Gerry. George Clinton. James ^Monroe and George 

Dissensions and irreconcilable theories of government existed 
between these parties. Hamilton advocated a strong go\-ernment. 
a national bank, a protective tarifif — in short, a nation with one su- 
preme head. Jeflferson contended for state's rights, or state sover- 


eignty, a tariff for revenue only, and local sovereignty, including 
monetary affairs. 

Hamilt(.in was made Secretary of the Treasury in President 
\\'asiiington's Cabinet. 

Hamilton at once proposed that the government should assume 
the war debts of the states, and proceed to fund the same, and to 
establish the national credit. He advocated a national bank nf the 
United States. Congress adopted his views, including a protective 
tariff. Daniel Webster said of Hamilton: "He smote the rock of 
the national resources and abundant streams of revenue burst forth. 
The fabled birth of Minerva from the brain of Jupiter was hardly 
more sudden than the financial system of the United States as it 
burst from the conception of Alexander Hamilton." He declared 
we should legislate for American interests, and so raised funds for 
the treasury by customs duties on imports. The national bank was 
established by Congress in 1791 with a capital of ten million dollars, 
the charter to run twenty years, and the government to own one- 
fifth ()f the stock. The cimflict between the two schools, or parties, 
made a theoretical and practical \\-ar, which exists with some modi- 
fications to the present time. The Separatists, or State's Rights 
party, larought the Union to the verge of destruction by civil war. 
The national school which ^^'ashington and Hamilton founded has 
triumphed and the national principle is now supreme. 


A nati<jnal mint was established in 1792 at Philadelphia for the 
creation of a uniform metallic currency, which had not theretofore 
existed, and the lack of which had caused great inconvenience. The 
metallic currency in common use in the United States consisted of 
a variety of English, French and Spanish coins — shillings, crowns. 

264 morrow's history 

dollars, moidores, joes, half joes, pistareens, picayunes and small 
Spanish coins of six and one-fourth, twelve and one-half, eighteen 
and three-fourths and twenty-five cents, respectively, which came 
handy for odd change. The paper currency consisted of thirteen 
kinds of notes, issued by as many different states. The system of 
coinage by the mint was the first monetarj' system of the United 
States. It was decimal, with the dollar as the unit. Both gold and 
silver were legal tender. The standard was double. The gold dol- 
lar contained 24.75 grains of pure gold, stamped in pieces of ten 
dollars, five dollars and two and one-half dollars, denominated, re- 
spectively, eagles, half-eagles and quarter-eagles. The silver dollar 
contained 371.25 grains of pure silver. The ratio was 15 to i, 
that is, the weight of the silver coins was fifteen times that of the 
corresponding gold coins of the same denominations that being the 
then market price, the mint price was made to correspond with it. 
Since that time the ratio has changed often, as the market price of 
the two metals shifted until the last few years. 

When the charter of the national bank expired, in 181 1, the 
Virginia school of politicians prevented its renewal. The bank had 
been a great success, but they contended that it was unconstitutional. 
The want of such an institution was severely felt during the War of 
18 1 2. The excellent currency which it had supplied to the country 
was withdrawn and its place taken by a currency issued by state 
banks, which quickly sprang into existence in large numbers. From 
iSii to 1 81 6 state banks increased from eighty-eight to two hun- 
dred and forty. The flood of paper which they issued could not be 
redeemed in specie. There was no penalty for refusal to redeem, 
nor any real check to prevent the issue of bills far beyond the legal 
limit, and most of the banks were compelled to suspend specie pay- 

In April, 1816, the United States Bank was rechartered with a 


capital of thirty-five millions, instead of ten millions, and the gov- 
ernment was to hold seven millions of the stock and to appoint one- 
fifth of the twenty-five directors thereof. 

The government funds were to be deposited in this bank, as 
they were before. 

The Federalists opposed rechartering the bank, while the 
"Anti's," then called the Republicans, heartily supported it — the two 
political parties having thus completely changed sides on this propo- 
sition. The bank was chartered for twenty years. The public 
moneys deposited in its vaults averaged six or seven millions, its 
circulation twelve millions and its discounts more than forty mil- 
lions a year. Its annual profits were more than three millions an- 

The parent bank was at Philadelphia. It had twenty-five 
branches and more than five hundred employes, and they disbursed 
the entire revenues of the nation. Its stock often sold at forty per 
cent, premium. In every county of the Union and in every country 
on the globe were its stockholders. One-fifth of the stock was 
owned by foreigners, and one-fourth was held by women, orphans 
and by trustees of charity funds. So high and unquestioned was 
its credit, its bank notes were good as gold in every part of the 
country. A man could travel and pass these notes in London, 
Paris and in every place in the world without discount, and could 
sell them at a premium at the remotest commercial points. 

The state banks were forced to resume specie payments in Feb- 
ruary, 18 1 7. 

The state of Marjdand attempted to ta.x the circulation of the 
national bank, but the Supreme Court of the United States, in the 
case of McCullough vs. Maryland, in an opinion written by Chief 
Justice Marshall, denied the authority of a state to pass such tax 
laws, and upheld the cnnstitutinnality of the bank and its charter. 

266 morrow's historv 

and thus limited the authority of the states and exalted the power 
of the general government, greatly to the disgust of the State's 
Rights Republicans, who had rechartered the bank, and to the satis- 
faction cf the Federalists, who had originally chartered a United 
States bank. 


Indiana had no distinctive currency of its own. But in 1814 the 
territorial legislature chartered two banking institutions, one at Vin- 
cennes, which was to have a capital stock of five hundred thousand dol- 
lars, and one at Madison, with a capital of seven hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars. Their bills were soon put in circulation and added 
to the flood of currency that had been coming into the territory 
from the general government. When the war with Great Britain 
ended, the large disbursements by the govemment ceased, and finan- 
cial distress followed. During the war specie payments had been 
suspended by the banks, which had issued far more paper currency 
than they could redeem. The general government had disbursed 
in this territor\- a large amount, most of it in bills of Ohio banks. 

The constitutional convention in Indiana met and inserted a 
provision in the organic law for a state bank with branches, includ- 
ing the banks heretofore established at Vincennes and Madison, 
and making the bank of Vincennes the State Bank on January i. 
1817, which was by act of the state legislature, with an additional 
capital of one million dollars, with enlarged powers. Of the ten 
thousand shares of new stock, three thousand seven hundred and 
fifty were reserved for the state. Branches were established at 
Vevay, Brookville and Corydon. The bank was badly managed 
and for its reckless proceedings the legislature, in 1821, by suit, 
canceled its charter, for the reasons that it contracted debts double 
the amoimt of its deposits and issued, with a fraudulent purpose. 


more paper" than it liad the means of redeeming, and that it declared 
and paid large dividends to the stockholders while it was refusing 
to pay specie for its notes. This crash came while the state was 
still suffering from the great depressit.n following the end of the 
war with Great Britain. E\-ery kind of husiness was prostrated. 
It was estimated that during the years 1821, '22 and '2}, at least 
one-fourth uf the population died or removed from the state. Prior 
to that time the price of government land had been two dollars per 
acre, and Congress, thinking to stay the tide of disaster, reduced 
the price to cine dollar and a cpiarter per acre, which only added to 
the ruin, for it reduced, in the same proportion, all the land in the 
state held by individuals. In 1832 the state began its system of 
internal improvement. It borrowed several million dollars in the 
East, employed large numbers of men, started another artificial era 
of prosperity, and speculation ran rife again. Michigan had a very 
liberal banking law, and her banks issued bills in large numbers, 
while most of those banks had nothing to redeem the notes they 


The contractors on the canals and other public works in this 
state secured this cheap Michigan money and used it nearly alto- 
gether in paying their laborers. Thousands of dollars of this cur- 
rency were paid out weekly by the contractors, and soon nodiing 
else was afloat in Indiana. The merchants were compelled to take 
it. but did so at a heavy discount, the laborers who earned it 
always getting the worst of the bargain. The merchants had to 
have it to pay their debts. Then merchants, millers and others 
issued bills, or "shin-plasters," only redeemable in merchandise at 
the store or mill of the issuer. These were of no value only in the 
neighborhood. Most of the millers and merchants became bank- 

268 morrow's history 

rupt, leaving thousands of dollars of their currency unredeemed. 

In 1834 the legislature chartered the State Bank of Indiana 
to run twenty-five years. It was modeled somewhat after the 
United States National Bank. It was a complete monopoly, for 
during its existence no other bank could operate in the state. It 
was to have a capital of one million six hundred thousand dollars 
in shares of fifty dollars each, and the state agreed to take one-half 
of the entire capital stock. 

The state was to borrow the sum of one million three hundred 
thousand dollars. Of that amount eight hundred thousand dollars 
were to be used to pay the state's share of the capital stock, and 
the remaining five hundred thousand dollars were to be loaned out 
at six per cent, interest to individual subscribers to the stock, to 
assist them in paying for the same. The bank was required to 
hold the dividends on this stock and pay the same to the state in 
discharge of the interest accruing, and to reimburse the state for 
the loan. The bank was not at any time to suspend specie pay- 
ment. The branches were to be mutually responsible for the re- 
demption of all bills issued, but each branch was to have its own 
profits. No notes of a less denomination than five dollars were to 
be issued. The state was to elect the president and one-half of the 
directors, the stockholders to elect the remaining directors. The 
only tax that could be levied on the bank or its stock was pro- 
vided for in its charter. This tax amounted to twenty-five cents 
annually on each one hundred dollars of the stock, and was to be 
deducted from the dividends and retained in the bank. If the bank 
failed to make money no tax was paid ! The panic of 1837 struck 
the country soon after the bank got into operation, and it was 
compelled to suspend specie payments, but its credit remained good 
and its bills were taken everywhere at their face value. The panic 
was a bad one. and business in all parts of the country was wrecked. 


One who swung the cradle in wheat harvest received thirty-seven 
and one-half cents a day, or a bushel of wheat, at his option. In 
1842 the legislature ordered the bank to resume specie payment, 
and from that date it was ready to meet all demands for the redemp- 
tion of its notes. 


In President Monroe's administration Congress passed a bill 
appropriating the means necessarj^ for the construction of a National 
Road across the Alleghanies from Cumberland to Wheeling, and 
the state of New York took the lead in internal improvements by 
constructing a splendid canal from Buffalo to Albany, a distance 
of three hundred and sixty-three miles, at a cost of seven and a half 
million dollars, taking eight years to complete it. There was a 
great financial crisis in 1819, which disturbed and distressed the 

In his first annual message President Jackson took strong 
grounds against rechartering the Bank of the United States. He 
thought it inexpedient and unconstitutional, and recommended that 
the old charter should be allowed to expire by its own limitation 
in 1836. The partisan elements of the country, which for some 
years had been whirling about in a chaotic condition, was resolved 
into two great factions of Whig and Democratic. The old Feder- 
alist party, under whose auspices the government was organized, had 
lost control of national affairs when John Adams retired from the 
Presidency, but it lingered along for some years. On the other 
side, the line of political descent had begun with the anti-Federal- 
ists, who, after opposing the national constitution and the adminis- 
trative policy of Washington and Adams, became, under the lead 
of Jefiferson, the "Republican" party, but soon exchanged that name 
for Democrats. The arbitrary' measures of President Jackson 


alarmed tlie country and consolidated all opposition elements into a 
compact phalanx, known as \\'higs, under the leadership of Clay and 


The national debt having- been paid, in October. 1833. Presi- 
dent Jackson ordered the surplus accumulated fund of the United 
States Bank, amounting to about ten million dollars, to be distrib- 
uted among thirty-five pet state banks, to be so distributed in four 
quarterly installments, reserving about five millions for government 
use; and it was so distributed between the states, i. e., the first three 
installments. The fourth was never distributed, as the government 
ran short of funds and had to issue and sell bonds to raise money 
to pay the expenses of the government. 

The new state depositories were instructed by the secretary of 
the treasury to loan the money freely, and having millions to dis- 
pose of, which was easily borrowed, speculation spread with a furore : 
and with a hope of getting deposits of government funds, many 
banks were established in the various states. In 1830 there were 
only three hundred and thirty state banks in the country. By 1837 
they had increased to six hundred and thirty-four, and the capital 
had expanded from sixty-one million dollars in 1830 to nearly two 
hundred and ninety-one million dollars in 1837. These were all 
banks of issue of paper currency which, in 1837, amounted to one 
hundred and fort}--nine million dollars. Behind this vast amount 
of paper money there was, in 1837, only thirty-eight million dollars 
of specie. The banks had loaned in proportion to their issue of 
paper. In 1830 their loans were two hundred million dollars, and 
in 1837 five hundred and twenty-five million dollars. The deposits 
of funds had been made among the states in proportion to their 
representation in Congress by President Jackson. The general idea 


seemed to be that the way to get rich and prosperous was for the 
country to establish banks, issue currency and loan money. The 
inflation of the currency, prices and debt-making went liand in 
hand. Everybody bouglit government land as the most promising 
investment, and paid for the land with bank notes. Again and 
again these bank notes went from the land office to the deposit banks 
as go\'ernment funds, and were loaned out again to the speculatoi's 
to buy more land. It was a perpetual circle. In 1832 the receipts 
from the sale of lands were two million six hundred and twenty- 
three thousand dollars: in 1834 they were four million eight hun- 
dred and fifty-seven thousand dollars: in 1835, fourteen million 
seven hundred and fifty-seven thousand dollars : and in 1836, twenty- 
four million eight hundred and seventy-seven thousand dollars. 
Importation of foreign merchandise increased in the same enor- 
mous proportions. It was a universal carnival. In this way, on 
January i, 1837, the surplus for distribution to the states was thirty- 
seven million four hundred and sixty-eight thousand eight hundred 
and fifty-nine dollars. Xominally it was in the banks, but really 
it was in the hands of borrowers. The government took this sur- 
plus from the deposit banks to distribute it to the several states. 
The banks had to collect it. and a general collapse followed. For- 
tunes disappeared over night. The whole South was bankrupt. 
Tens of thousands of workmen lost their employment. Everybody 
was in debt. 


The President sought to stop the exchange of public lands into 
"inconvertible paper." He ordered that nothing but specie should 
be received for public lands. This order created an extraordinary 
demand for specie, drew it from the great centers of commerce, 
where it was needed to uphold the credit of the banks, and this 


Specie circular was the last straw on the back of the banks and 
commerce, and under it they went down. Indiana and all the 
other states suffered. The bills of the State Bank were the only 
good paper money. The state had borrowed large sums of money 
in the East to cari-y on its schemes of internal improvement. Spe- 
cie was scarce and the state full of depreciated currency. Neither 
the people nor the state could get money. As a measure of tem- 
porary relief the legislature, in 1839, authorized the issue of state 
scrip to the amount of a million and a half dollars, to bear six per 
cent, interest and to be receivable for taxes. 

This "scrip" was issued in bills of five and fifty dollars, had 
a dog's head engraved thereon and w-as printed on red paper, and 
was known as "Red Dog" currency. 

At first this scrip was well received, but as it had no redeemer 
in prospect it soon was worth only forty or fifty cents on the dol- 
lar. The issue of scrip by the state led to further inflation of the 
currency. Merchants, millers, contractors on public works and 
plank road companies all went into the business of making paper 
money. The scrip was issued in bills as low as twenty-five cents, 
the highest being for three dollars. It was mostly printed on blue 
paper and was styled "Blue Pup" to distinguish it from the "Red 
Dog" of the state. Business men went down in the crash, and as 
most of the merchants were large purchasers of farm products, and 
owed large sums to farmers, their failures pulled down the farmers 
and the court calendars were mainly taken up with mortgage fore- 
closures. The most active men were the sheriffs, endeavoring to 
find buyers for property under foreclosures. 

The United States constructed the National Road from Balti- 
more to Wheeling and a similar turnpike from Washington to 
\Mieeling. via Cumberland: thence through Zanesville, Ohio, and 
Indianapolis to St. Louis. It had been agreed by the federal gov- 


eminent that two per cent, of the proceeds of sales of land should 
be applied to the making of roads in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Mis- 
souri, Alabama and Mississippi. The Michigan road was surveyed 
in 1828 from New Albany to Michigan City. One mile wide along 
the same, of the public lands, was set aside by the government to 
pay the cost of making this road, and the sale was held in October, 

183 1. The construction was begun, under the authority of the 
state, in 1830, and it was cut out two hundred feet wide. Ten 
alternate sections of land were granted by the general government 
along its route for the construction of the Wabash and Erie Canal, 
March 20, 1827, and its construction was begun in 1832. The sale 
of land was held at Logansport in October, 1830. The terms of 
sale were one-fourth cash, the balance on seventeen years' time, 
with six per cent, interest. The long time granted prevented the 
canal commissioners from realizing much with which to then go on 
with the work. The Indiana legislature passed a bill February 9, 

1832, pledging the faith and credit of the state to raise funds to 
complete the canal. 

A further grant of public lands was made by the government, 
seven miles in width, off of the west side of the Miami Reserve, 
to aid in the completion of the canal. This grant was made to the 
state. The state issued scrip, or wildcat money, on white paper, 
called "White Dog," from the figure and color of the paper. The 
state agreed to receive such paper in payment for said land, which 
was sold to individuals to be paid for in installments, with interest. 
This land was rapidly settled up. 

The contractors on the canal used this "White Dog" currency 
to pay the laborers and it was treated as legal tender all around. 


In 1847 the state of Indiana was practically bankrupt. She 
had burdened herself with a large debt for the purpose of carrying 


out a great scheme of internal impro\'ements, and for several years 
had defaulted the interest upon her bonds. By this course her 
credit had been destroyed and the prosperity of the state seriously 
checked. Most of the bonds were held in Europe and the holders 
were clamorous for the payment of the interest, and the state was 
out of funds. The legislature passed an act for the settlement of 
the bonds on a new basis. J. F. D. Lanier, a noted banker, was 
selected to proceed to Europe and lay the proposition before the 
bondholders. His mission was successful and the load of debt was 

In 1837, when the government called for the transfer (if a 
large per cent, of the government funds, then held by the banks, to 
Washington. Mr. Lanier was the selected agent of the State Bank 
to take eighty thousand dollars in gold to \Vashington. He went 
by steamer to Wheeling, and from there across the mountains alone 
in a stage-coach chartered for the purpose. 

Under the authority of the constitution of 1852 the legislature, 
in 1853. passed a free bank law, and, in 1855, a charter was given 
to the Bank of the State of Indiana. Governor Wright vetoed 
both of these bills, but they were passed over his veto. The panic 
of 1857 occurred throughout the country. \\'ithin a very few years 
after this new bank law passed many banks were started in Indiana, 
one of which, "The Indian Reserve Bank." was located in Kokomo, 
at the southeast corner of the public square. David Foster was 
president and Harles Ashley was cashier. It was supposed to have 
been robbed one night, and it ceased to exist. Banks sprung up 
everywhere, and the state was fairly deluged with a flood of prac- 
tically worthless currency issued under this general banking law. 
Many of them had no banking house or actual place of business. 
They made no pretense to being banks of deposit, their only mis- 
sion being to issue and float bills. A few men would get together. 


pnrcliase a few thousand dollars' worth of the depreciated bonds 
of some far-away municipality, deposit them with the auditor of 
state and receive authority to manufacture paper money. They 
would issue bills to an amount two or three times greater than the 
value of the securities deposited, put them in circulation, and these 
bank officers and directors would disappear, leaving the holder of 
the notes to mourn their disappearance. The discount of the 
notes changed almost daily, so that the bill worth eighty cents today 
might bring only sixty cents tomorrow. This money was called 
"Wildcat." This flood of money caused reckless speculation. Every 
merchant or business man had to keep for ready reference a periodi- 
cal known as a "Detector and Bank Note Reporter," in which the 
rates of discount on the bills on the various banks were daily given. 

Many thousands of dollars were lost by the people who had 
accepted these "shin-plasters" as money. Merchants, millers and 
other traders issued them. The banks failed one after another, and 
as their notes and other worthless currency had driven all the good 
currency out of the state the result was very disastrous. Business 
was checked at once, all building stopped, new enterprises were 
smothered and old ones crippled. Nobody would take the "free 
bank" money, and as there was no other in circulation in the state, 
nobody could pay debts. 

Thus it was until the Civil war broke out and the government 
had to issue "greenbacks" and small paper currency for change. 

The people of the United States are, or should be, so happy 
and thankful that the country has finally escaped from the ocean 
of troubled finance and stands today on the solid ground — the "gold 
standard" — and all our currency as good as gold the world over. 

We are a Nation, not a Confederacy of sovereign states. The 
school of experience has been a costly one, and all our people should 
profit by it. 

2/6 morrow's history 


As stated in Mr. Garrigus' article, the Indian Reserve Bank 
was the first bank organized in Howard county. The exact date 
of its organization and the date of its closing are not known, but 
appear to have been in the years just previous to the breaking out of 
the Civil war. Rumor says that one night while one of the bank 
officials was asleep in the bank building, some one stole in and took 
fifteen thousand dollars' bank funds ; that Howard county had funds 
on deposit there and lost. 

From this bank failure until the organization of the private 
bank of T. Jay & Company there was no bank in the county. 


The bank of Thomas Jay & Company was organized early in 
the year 1861, and was the direct outgrowth of the coming to 
Kokomo of Thomas Jay, Rufus Dolman and Ithamer Russell, busi- 
ness men who associated themselves together as a firm for carrying 
on several lines of business. The town was without banking facili- 
ties and to meet this urgent need they began a private bank and 
continued it for several years, until after the organization of the 
First National Bank of Kokomo. These men contributed very 
largely toward the industrial development of Kokomo for many 
years. Thomas Jay was perhaps the leading man of the finn, and 
was not only active in promoting the several business lines in which 
the firm was engaged but actively assisted in public affairs, con- 
tributing liberally of money and assisting in various ways to help 
Howard county do her full share in the war of the Rebellion, and 
later as a member of the common council of the city of Kokomo 
worked for her interests. Ithamer Russell was pre-eminently the 


banking man of the firm; a quiet, unostentatious man, always at 
his post, kindly and accommodating. 

Rufus Dolman, not so pronounced a hustler as Mr. Jay, nor 
so familiar a figiu-e in the banking houses of Kokomo, was a man 
in whose word and judgment the citizens of Kokomo and Howard 
county had great confidence. Rufe Dolman commanded the respect 
of the community to a marked degree. The several qualities of 
these men have been transmitted to their sons in marked degree. 

The First National Bank of Kokomo was organized in 1865. 
This was the first bank organized in Kokomo under the government 
banking laws, with which a later generation has become so familiar 
as to consider the system a necessity and to regard it a matter of 
wonder how the people had a banking system without it. The 
charter was for twenty years, and at the expiration of the charter 
the stockholders, not wishing to continue the business, it went into 
voluntary liquidation and closed out a successful business career. 
This bank was located much, if not all of its time, in the south- 
west corner room of now the St. Francis Hotel. Mr. Russell, with 
his long, flowing beard, was a familiar figure at the cashier's desk. 

The Howard National Bank was organized in 1879 with a 
capital stock of one hundred thousand dollars. The most active 
and influential men in organizing this bank were Richard Nixon, 
Samuel Davis, Nathan Pickett and A. F. Armstrong. 

Nathan Pickett, except for a few months, in which Richard 
Nixon served as president, has been president since its organization. 
Richard Nixon, who took an active interest in its organization, 
except for the few months referred to above, held no other official 
position than that of one of its directors. Mr. Nixon was one of 
the county's earliest and most influential pioneers and was promi- 
nently connected with the county's commercial life, first engaging 
in business at New London and later in Kokomo. He also took an 


active interest in the churches and schools of the city antl was in 
ever)- way a worthy citizen, ^^'illiam P. Vaile was the earliest 
cashier. He resigned and went West and was succeeded by John 
A. Jay, who served in that position many years. After Air. Jay's 
promotion to the vice-presidency Ernest George was chosen as 

The bank was located for many years in the Armstrong block, 
on the south side of the square. It was removed to a home of its 
own when the building at the northeast corner of the scjuare was 
completed. The first charter expired in 1899 and was renewed, 
the capital stock remaining the same. In the first }-ears of its his- 
tory much of the capital stock was held abroad. This stock has 
since been bought by local parties and the stock is now held at 
home. In 1907 the surplus having increased to one hundred and 
fifty thousand dollars, one hundred thousand dollars of it was used 
in increasing the capital stock to two hundred thousand dollars. 
This bank is also a United States depository. 

citizens' national bank. 

The Citizens' National Bank of Kokomo was organized October 
8, 1889, with a capital stock of one hundred thousand dollars, and 
in December, 1907, was increased to two hundred thousand dol- 
lars. This bank is a United States depository. 

The organizers were Jacob R. Bruner, Richard Ruddell, 
George W. Landon, J. C. Blacklidge, and others. 

The stock is owned entirely by Kokomo parties. Handsome 
dividends have been paid regularly. In eighteen years the surplus 
had grown to one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and on the 
1st of June, 1908, after increasing the capital stock one hundred 
thousand dollars, there remained fifty-four thousand dollars surplus. 


'I'heir bank building- is at the southwest corner of Alain and [Mul- 
berry streets. Richard Ruddell has been president of this bank 
since its organization. Mr. Ruddell had been a citizen of Kokomo 
and an active business man several years before becoming president 
of this bank. Formerly he had been a member of the Ruddell 
Brothers' Dry Goods Store Company at the northeast corner of the 
public scpiare. 

The officers now are : Richard Ruddell, president ; George W. 
Landon, vice-president; Frank McCarty, cashier; R. F. Scherer, 
assistant cashier. 

The Ivokomo National Bank was organized July 15, 1902, with 
a capital stock of one hundred thousand dollars, divided in the 
beginning among about five hundi'ed stockholders widely scattered 
over the city and county. This bank was promoted by George E. 
Bruner and John W. Barnes. George E. Bruner was the first 
president; John \V. Barnes, cashier; and Lex J. Kirkpatrick, vice- 
president. January i, 1904, E. E. Springer succeeded Bmner as 
president. The year before Barnes had retired as cashier and E. E. 
Sanders chosen as his successor. W. A. Marsh was elected cashier 
and became Sanders" successor March 14, 1905. The stock has 
l)een considerably consolidated but is still largely held by residents 
of the county. One block only is held outside of the county and 
but three stockholders live outside of the county. Tlie bank is in a 
prosperous condition, is excellently located and is finely equipped. 
E. E. Springer and W. A. Marsh are president and cashier respect- 
ively. W. A. Marsh is a recent acquisition to the citizenship of 
the county, coming from Bluffton in 1905. E. E. Springer has been 
a resident of the county since childhood. He moved to Kokomo 
in 1884 and engaged in the real estate business and was very suc- 
cessful. He has been recognized as one of the most upright and 
solid business men of Kokomo for years. 

28o morrow's history 


In 1873 the private bank of ^^'aIker, Welsh & Company was 
organized with a capital of thirty thousand dollars. A. B. Walker 
was a well-known and highly respected citizen of the county. Mr. 
I. N. Welsh was a business man of good reputation of Eaton, 
Ohio. They did a good deposit and loaning business. They were 
not permitted by law to issue notes. During the panic of 1873 
and following years, the bank's funds became tied up in real estate 
in such a manner that they could not be realized upon to meet the 
demands of depositors and the bank made an assignment, naming 
J. F. Elliott as assignee in the year 1878, who settled its affairs 
and closed out its business. 

The Kokomo Ti'ust Company was organized December 3, 1902, 
with a capital stock of thirty-five thousand dollars, and on April i, 
1906, was increased to fifty thousand dollars. It has a surplus 
fund of thirty-eight thousand four hundred and forty-two dollars 
after paying dividends. The departments of this company are the 
savings bank department, where money is received on deposit in 
three different ways : on certificates of deposit, on savings account 
and on checking account, on which interest is paid, but no com- 
mercial or active business account \yill be taken; second, the loan 
department, where money is lent on first mortgage security or good 
collateral, and where bonds, mortgages, and so forth, are bought 
and sold ; third, the insurance department, where fire, accident, plate 
glass, employers' liability, surety bond, and so forth, are written 
carefully and in the best companies; fourth, the real estate depart- 
ment, where they buy and sell real estate on commission and where 
their officers may be consulted freely as to values; fifth, the trust 
department, which manages all kinds of business of a trust nature. 
such as administrator or executor of estates, guardian, trustee. 


receiver, commissioner, agent, and so forth, the services of which 
will be found much more desirable and the cost of service much 
more reasonable than that of an individual in this capacity; sixth, 
the renting department, where the company will take entire care 
of the renting of property, paying taxes, making repairs, and so 
forth, for nominal charges. The company is located on the west 
side of the square, opposite the courthouse. J'lmes D. Johnson 
is president ; W. E. Blacklidge, vice-president ; Fred. L. Trees, sec- 
retary-treasurer. The directors are William C. Purdum, C. A. 
Dolman, William H. Turner and Ed. S. Moore. 

The First National Bank of Russiaville was opened as a pri- 
vate bank in 1898 by John H. Cox, R. C. Kincaid, T. L. Harris, 
Sheridan, Indiana, and John H. Collett, Indianapolis, with capital 
of seventeen thousand dollars. It was organized as a national bank 
in 1900, vvrith capital of twenty-five thousand dollars, and had lately 
fourteen thousand dollars surplus and undivided profits, with one 
hundred and two thousand dollars deposits. It owns and built its 
own banking house in 1900. The stock is now practically held by 
Russiaville citizens. R. C. Kincaid is president and H. M. Bru- 
baker is cashier. 


Kokomo and Howard county are certainly fortunate in having 
in their midst such carefully managed and safe financial institutions, 
where their citizens can deposit money and be sure that it is safe 
and can be had again for the asking ; places where they can go when 
in need of money and upon giving reasonable security can be 
accommodated. These banks all receive deposits subject to check 
or certificates of deposit and issue letters of credit on foreign banks 
and do a general banking business, such as making loans and dis- 

282 morrow's history 

counting- gilt-edged paper, etc. They have passed through the 
periods of panic without Inss to anyone. While the stress of the 
money famine of October, 1907, was on, the banks and trust com- 
pany organized a clearing house association and issued certificates 
guaranteed by all. The association was protected by the deposit of 
gilt-edg'ed securities from the several members of the association. 
The certificates, while not currency in the fullest sense, were local 
currency ; that is, the local business concerns accepted them in pay- 
ment of bills and factories used them in payment of wages and 
redeemed them as soon as their money was released from the large 
banks in Indianapolis, Chicago and New York. 

During this period, while many depositors were nervous to 
the extreme lest they should lose their earnings, the Kokomo Trust 
Company called three disinterested citizens of Howard county to 
carefully audit their books and report to the depositors the actual 
financial condition of the company. They did so and found, and so 
reported, that the surplus was as large and all the securities were 
gilt-edged and that the affairs of the company were such that noth- 
ing short of a calamitous shrinkage of values would endanger the 
deposits of anj^one. A like examination of any one of the banks 
would doubtless have shown a like state of affairs. It is but sim- 
ple justice to say that the financial houses of Kokomo and Howard 
countv are first class. 



Peter Cornstalk, a prominent Indian chieftain, died in 1838, 
just north of Burlington, and the lx)dy was hauled lay \\'illiam Smith 
to Pete's run, Ervin township, where it was buried. It was con- 


vexed in a wagon, and the men had to cut their wa)- through tlie 
forest. Cornstalk's son, Pete, following the trail to this city — 
"Cocomo" — and to the place of burial, discovered "Doc Bill," 
"Captain Bill" and Sam Loon disinterring the remains to rob the 
grave of the ornaments with which the corpse had been buried. The 
Indian killed "Captain Bill" on the spot, and the other men escaped. 
March, 1840, Pete treated Loon from his bottle, got him drunk at 
Joshua Bamett's grocery, and then conducted him to his brother, 
"Doc Bill," who was sick under a tree. The next morning he jerked 
Loon from the side of his brother, "Doc Bill," jumped upon his 
breast and sank a dagger in his heart. "Doc Bill" was not molested 
and died of his sickness. Pleasant Walker was given five dollars 
to bury Loon's brother. 

Jacob F. Myers, a hunter, was frozen to death, February 14, 
1843, "1 Ervin township. He had left the grocery of John Harri- 
son for his home in Cass county. \\'hile he had been drinking, was 
not drunk. When his dog came home half staiwed, a searching 
party was formed. The body was found lying flat upon the back, 
the handkerchief that had covered the face having blown away. 
Myers's gun was leaning against a bush. From the tracks in the 
snow, which crossed and recrossed, it looked as if he had become 
lost and traveled about forty miles. Although he carried steel, flint 
and punk, Lidian fashion, to start a fire, he evidently had not at- 
tempted to make one. The searching party, which had a horse, 
harness, ax, and an augur, made a "jumper" and hauled the body 

The New London Pioneer of the date of December 13, 1848, 
says: "One day last week, a man by the name of Kelly, living at 
Kokomo, in attempting to swim his horse across Wildcat creek, the 
stream being very high from the efifects of the recent rains, was 
thrown from his horse and drowned. It is said that he was in a 

28-1 morrow's history 

drunken frolic and was forcing the poor horse through the raging 
flood for the third time. After disappearing he raised to the sur- 
face and exclaimed, 'Hurrah for old Tan,' his horse, and sank to 
rise no more." 

Februaiy 14, 1849, the Pioneer also records: "A man by the 
name of Love, in the neighborhood of Kokomo, one of the coldest 
days of the present week, in a drunken frolic drove his family from 
his cabin, setting fire to it, entirely consuming the house and 

The only authentic account extant of the killing of Jonas 
Brewer was that related by Daniel Rarey, one of the most reputable 
of Howard county's pioneers, a short time before his death. Mr. 
Rarey's only connection with the case was being arrested as a sus- 
pect. But he was released without trial, as it was clear that in the 
deed itself he had no participation. Although many persons of 
prominence and substantial means were concerned in the affair, 
every one left the countrj^, and few living, if any are yet alive, have 
never since been heard from. The disappearance and supposed 
death of Brewer was in 1849. "Brewer was a handsome, finely 
built man, who came to Howard county, some said from Kentucky, 
others, from Logansport, Indiana. He was popular and fascinating. 
He kept company with a IVIiss Garinger, although her father made 
strenuous opposition to Brewer's attentions. Mr. Brewer had a 
rival, Elijah Tyre, the latter a man of pronounced personality, and 
of Scotch extraction, and seen generally wearing a shawl. 

"Brewer left his pretty sweetheart one day and promised soon 
to return to her. A few months elapsed and he did not appear, nor 
had a word been received from him. Tyre had been very devoted 
in Brewer's absence and pressed his claims constantly. His suit was 
wamily urged by the girl's father. If the girl felt the sting of 
Brewer's neglect she never mentioned the fact to any one, and final- 


ly she yielded her consent of marriage, if not her heart, to Tyre, 
and was married to him, to her father's great joy. Bnt the newly 
founded home was darkened by a shadow that pained the young 
wife's heart and brought the blush to her cheeks. The tiny stranger 
was not a welcome guest. 


"One day the word went round that Brewer had returned. The 
husband was morose and went about his work sullenly. One e\en- 
ing he went to his home and found it deserted. There was an 
abandoned cabin that stood on the bank of AYildcat creek, near 
Hopewell church. It was here that a mob gathered and formed its 
plans. When Brewer was found he was torn away from the young 
woman's embrace. She pleaded for his life, but to no avail. He 
was dragged to the church site and tied to a small beech tree. His 
back was stripped and the man was whipped as hard as lust)" arms 
could apply the lash. The mob had blackened their faces and looked 
like a gang of negroes. Brewer recognized his assailants, despite 
their disgxiise, however, and hurled curses at them, and vowed to 
kill any and all of them, if his life was spared. 

"Men in the mob said that the injured husband, wrought to 
a frenzy of excitement, rage and fear, whipped out a knife, to the 
horror of all the mob, who had not intended his death, and plunged 
it into Brewer's heart. Brewer strained against his bonds and died 
with an unuttered curse upon his lips. Tyre always denied the guilt 
of the fatal blow, even on his deathbed, altliough those nf the mnb 
laid the crime to him. 

"Next morning broken and bloddy switches were found, hut 
not the body of Brewer. A woman was seen running across a 
field one afternoon, and by farmers working nearby was heard to 

286 morrow's history 

shout to her brothers, wlio were working in the woods. 'They ha\-e 
found the body under the bridge." The men cut tlie harness off tlieir 
horses in a second, and leaping astride dashed away, never to return. 
Near the bridge was a bog. Here searcli had been made and ap- 
parently traces of a body found. If ever there, it had e\-idently 
been removed shortly after this alarm. Where it was removed has 
never been known. Some said it was secreted in a gully on the 
James Miller farm, others said that the skeleton tumed up by ditch- 
ers several years later in the old Purdum farm, just east of the city, 
Avas that of the murdered man. 

"The next night after the killing warrants were sworn out by 
Oliver Tyre before Justice Jonathan Fisher and Constables Howell 
and Tence Lindley beg^an seiwing them. Mr. Rarey was awakened 
from his sleep by the barking of dogs and a babel of voices. Going 
outside of the house in the dark night, he saw lanterns swaying and 
supposed that hunters had lost their way. He soon learned his mis- 
take, and to his astonishment was placed under arrest. As Mr. 
Rarey was able to show that he was several miles away in the hay 
harvest at the time of the killing- he was nex'er tried. The circum- 
stance that led to his arrest was that parties suspected of belong- 
ing to the mob had called at his home the afternoon before the 
tragedy to solicit him to help in the enterprise." 

"On the day of our August election," says the Pioneer, How- 
ard county's first newspaper, in its issue of Wednesday, August 7, 
1850, in "Harrison township, the most horrible and heart-rending 
afifray took place, that we have ever been called upon to witness. 
There appears to ha\e been an old grudge and dispute between the 
parties for some length of time, and the encounter was designed 
and premeditated. The assailants, Brohard and Lane, retired at 
an early hour, selected their ground, and after some parleying, a 
ring was formed, into which the parties stepped, and commenced a 


fearful onset, encouraged by their friends, respectively. After deal- 
ing- each other some half dozen or more blows with the fist, the 
brother of Lane interfered by violently pushing Brohard aside from 
his opponent. Lane instantly tottered and fell dead upon the ground. 
His friends soon removed him to a neighboring brook, and two 
physicians were promptly called, and all means used that could l^e 
to resuscitate the dead man, but to no effect." Dr. Lewis Kern, a 
pioneer of Harrison township, who was at the election when the dif- 
ficulty between John Brohard and Jesse Lane occurred, described 
it picturesquely : 

"Lane approached Brohard, who, by the way, was a large, 
raw-boned man. and apparently much stronger than Lane. But 
the Lanes boasted of being of fighting stock. After applying vari- 
ous vile epithets to Brohard, Lane dared him to fight, and BnMiarcl 
said, 'Jesse, I do not want to have any fight with you here. I am 
willing to acknowedge that you are a better man than I am and let 
us make friends.' 

"\\'hen Aaron Lane, Jesse's brother, drew a ring on the ground 
and remarked that 'If he was not a d — tl coward he would enter 
the ring, and his brother would whip him.' Brohard replied, "To 
show you that I am no coward, I will enter the ring,' which he did 
in a perfect]}- cool manner, while Lane had his coat oft" and a belt 
fastened around his waist, foaming with rage. He sprang at Bro- 
hard. The first lick Brohard knocked off and dealt Lane a blow 
in the region of the heart. Lane fell o\-er muttering a curse and 

Brohard was arrested for the aft'ray and first taken before 
James T. McCraiw, justice of the peace, and his bond fixed at two 
hundred dollars. His sureties were James and Barnett Bmhard. 
J. F. Fanchier filed the affidavit August 5, 1850. September 14, 
i8so, Brohard's bond was raised before Henry B. Havens, justice 


of the peace, to eight hundred dollars, and the charge raised to 
manslaughter. In November, the same year, Brohard was tried by 
jury in the circuit court and fined three dollars for the affray. 

In 1856 the law authorized* a jur\- in coroner cases. That 
year "Scott" Mitchell committed suicide. Thomas A. Armstrong 
was coroner, and the jury empaneled comprised Hiram Kewlin, Len 
Mills, John W. Travis, J. K. Will, C. Stafford, R. H. Porter, Sam- 
uel T. Mills, Daniel M. Centine, R. H. Birt, O. B. Todd, H. B. 
Havens and Henry Ulrich. Mitchell was found dead one morning 
at eleven o'clock, at his home, which stood upon what is now the 
Congregational church corner. Mr. Mills broke through a window 
and opened the front door for the entrance of the citizens. Mitchell 
was stretched upon the floor. He had securely shut up the house, 
and dressing himself in his best clothes, he had laid down upon the 
iloor, holding a shotgun against his body. He pulled the trigger 
with his foot. His family were all away from home. The reason 
of his act was never known. Strange as it may seem, he had begged 
earnestly of his friend Mills to go hunting with him early that morn- 
ing. It was supposed that he had purposed killing ]\Iills and shoot- 
ing himself. 

In i860, a six-year-old daughter of Levi Sizelove, living in 
the eastern part of the county, was killed by a tree the father 
chopped down, he not knowing that she was there. The same year 
Joseph W. Davis, of Fairfeld, killed his father by striking him over 
the head with a stick of wood, as the sequel of a quarrel. Davis 
received a sentence of two j'ears. 


John Thrall, on May 27, 1863, shot to death Nelson J. Cooper 
and fatally wounded the Rev. John W. Lowe, who died the next 
day. Thrall was a horse thief and while attempting to resist arrest 


perpetrated the crimes, for which he was hanged by a mob. Captain 
H. H. Stewart was deputy sheriff under N. B. Brown, and had re- 
ceived word to be on the lookout for horses stolen at Anderson. 
When Thrall and his companion, whose name has not been officially 
preserved, arrived at the Nelson Cooper barn on the north side of 
the court house scjuare with the horses word was sent to Captain 
Stewart, who. with a party of friends, was dancing a cjuadrille, a 
few squares removed from the livery stable. Stewart at once left 
for the liver>^ stable, where he found the men mounted upon the 
stolen horses. He examined the animals and was soon satisfied that 
they were the horses described in a letter received by the sheriff. 
The men started to ride away, whereupon Stewart ordered ^Ir. 
Cooper to assist in their arrest. As Mr. Cooper reached toward 
the bridle. Thrall whipped out his revolver and sent a bullet into 
his brain, which bullet entered at the side of Cooper's nose, and 
he was instantly dead. Then Thrall opened fire upon Stewart, who 
was shot in the hand. The missile peeled the flesh back, and this 
same bullet sped toward the Rev. Lowe, whom it struck in the 
side wounding him fatally. To escape the next shot Stewart threw 
himself beneath the horse. Fearing his further safety Thrall started 
from the stable on a gallop, his companion having already fled, 
proffering Thrall no assistance. Proceeding west on Walnut street, 
Thrall was about to reach the railroad tracks, when confronted by 
Justice of the Peace Thomas Auter, a doughty character, who, in- 
spired by the excitement of the moment, without knowing its cause. 
but hearing the cries to stop Thrall, picked up a brickbat, which he 
hurled with a lusty aiTn at Thrall's head. The horse thief, to es- 
cape the missile, swung to one side, whereupon the saddle turned 
with him. Henry B. Steward, a son of Coroner John Steward, and 
an expert shot, just returned from the army on a furlough, was 
standing upon the Dennison comer and brought Thrall down by 


a shot which shattered his leg. He had said upDii tlie instant that 
he wduld not kill Thrall, but he would wound and disal)le him. as 
he did. Thrall lay wounded in the street when Coroner John 
Steward advanced upon him to demand his arrest. Thrall yet held in 
his hand the weapon which had caused Cooper's death and mortally 
wounded the Rev. Lowe, but he made no attempt to use it on 
the coroner. He submitted to arrest peacefully and for safet}- was 
taken to the third story of the old Henderson hotel. The (jwner, 
— n(.t the man after whom th.e hotel was named — appeared in a 
frenzy of excitement, brandishing an ax, exclaiming that he didn't 
propose to have any murderer in his house, and declaring that he 
would kill Thrall. Coroner Steward, with Thrall's weapon, com- 
manded the landlord to immediately go below, which he lost no 
time in doing. Coroner Steward then conducted his prisoner to jail. 
IMeantime a searching party pursued Thrall's companion, 
who was followed to a swamp northeast of the city, but who man- 
aged to escape detection by hiding under a log over which his pur- 
suers passed. At night he escaped, and while it has been reported 
that he was subsequently apprehended and sent to the penitentiary, 
this appears a mistake, as Captain Stewart says that he made a 
thoroug'h investig-ation, even at the penitentiaries, and that Thrall's 
companion was never apprehended and convicted. Thrall was ver}- 
bitter toward his companion. He said that as they had approached 
Kokomo they had stopped at the ^Vashington street ford of \\'ild- 
cat creek and pledged themselves to escape ov die together, as they 
"swigged a slug of whiskey." Instead the companion deserted 
Thrall the moment trouble introduced itself. Thrall was happy in 
the death of Mr. Cooper, but regretted that of Mr. Lowe, and was 
Sony that he had not hit Captain Stewart. Public excitement 
reached its height on the night following the Rev. Lowe's death 
and a mob formed to execute summary justice to Thrall. He had 



expected something of the kind. His need of being in fear of the 
event had been shouted to him through the bars of his ceU, from 
outside of the windows. He noted these warnings mentally, but 
did not condescend to answer concerning them. But that he was 
impressed with the fate before him was evident in his sending for 
Coroner Steward. To that official he made a remarkable confes- 
sion. He said his name was not Thrall at all. He revealed to the 
coroner his real name, under pledge that it ne\er be revealed. Forty 
years Coroner Steward kept that secret in his breast and he carried 
it with him, as he had promised, to his grave. Tlirall — for that 
must be the name by which he is to be known — confided the infor- 
mation that he was from the southland, and that he was a member 
of a prominent family, and that his situation had once been an 
honorable and prosperous one. To save his aged mother and family 
from the shame of a knowledge of the true circumstances of his 
death he w.mld keep t(n-e\erer his identity a secret. He said that he 
had been a merchant, but a Union man in a southern state. Every 
attempt had been made to induce him to recant his sentiments and 
to impress him into the Confederate service, but without avail. His 
business was wrecked, he said, by a mob of southern sympathizers, 
and his property destroyed. Thrall saved five hundred dollars out 
of the wreck, bid his family "good bye," promising to return if all 
went well, and fled to the North. He landed in Indianapolis, Indi- 
ana, and worked a while in a tannery, but soon fell into dissipation 
and bad habits. Losing his situation as the result of a jealous quar- 
rel with his foreman, he become a peddler of fruits upon the streets 
of Indianapolis, but finally, attracted by the high prices horses were 
bringing, if sold for the use of the Union Army, he entered upon 
horse stealing upon a wholesale plan. He gave his watch to Sherifif 
Brown and his ring to Coroner Steward. That night the blows upon 
the iron doors of the jail resounded throughout the city, Init no man 


was calmer through all the excitement than Thrall. Xo man ever 
faced a mob more bra\ely. Roughly handled, despite his wound, he 
hobbled to the court house yard Avithout a murmur. He stood upon 
a box and faced the seekers of his life defiant!}-. Examining- the 
noose which hung above his head, he found that it was too long-, 
and with his own hand adjusted it to his neck. He whipped out a 
handkerchief and tied it around his body to symbolize his innocence 
over the guilt of the mob. which he defied to do its worst. While 
he was }-et speaking- he was swung off. Those popularly supposed 
to be connected with the mob never prospered afterward and suf- 
fered a great deal in consequence of it, leaving the locality ultimately 
and ever afterward expressing regret at the part they had taken in 
Thrall's death. His body was cut down, bttt refused burial in the 
old cemeten-. He was buried beneath a tree upon the east, just 
outside. It was even ditificult to secure burial of the remains, feel- 
ing ran so high. While Thrall was buried it was always the claim 
that his body had not a long- repose, and it was the general belief 
that the skeleton beneath the stairway of a prominent drug store 
of Kokomo, which rested there for years, was that of Thrall. The 
body of his victim, Xelson Cooper, was removed from the old cei-iie- 
ten- to Crown Point cemetery, forty years after the burial, and was 
laid not far from the Rev. John Lowe, the seconil of Thrall's victin-is. 


Infiamed with jealousy. Dr. Heniy C. Cole shot dead, October, 
1866, Chambers Allen, as Allen was leaving the jiostofiice, then on 
Buckeye street, near Walnut street. Dr. Cole and his first wife. 
Nellie Cole, a beautiful woman, had many domestic disagreenients. 
Upon one occasion, returning to Kokomo after an extended absence. 
Dr. Cole found a sale of his household goods in progress, which he 



declared unauthorized, and to which procedure he put an abnipt 
end. Despite their disagreements, he was greatly in love with her. 
He did even'thing- in his power to maintain the hannony of their 
domestic relations and did not divorce her until after he had shot 
Allen. Dr. Cole, in the shooting, acted upon the belief that Allen had 
invaded his home. He had warned Allen to keep away ivom Knko- 
mo; it is said he even wrote Allen a letter, warning him to remain 
away from Kokomo, plainly infomiing him that he would meet 
death if he ventured a retum. It was generally known in Kokomn, 
in that day, that Cole had threatened Allen's life. The first sight 
of Allen was enough to inspire Cole with a frenzy, and he fired 
three shots into Allen. Cole was arrested and at first denied bail, 
being confined within the Washington street jail, but later was re- 
leased upon ten thousand dollars bond. He took a change of venue 
December, 1866, to Tipton county, where he was tried for murder 
and acquitted upon a plea of emotional insanitw his defense in 
chief being conducted by Senator D. \\'. Voorhees. Dr. Cole was 
one of Kokomo's most picturesque personalities, and himself was 
the victim of a violent death. Dr. Cole was of a tall and graceful 
build, with lustrous eyes, and had a magnificent beard, which was 
w ith him a matter of great pride. He always dressed faultlessly in 
his da}-, the best tailor-made clothes gracing his figure. He wore 
an appropriate ornamentation of jewelry, and had delicate, small 
hands and feet, and was a man of fascination among women. His 
father, Jesse Cole, a Kentuckian, mo^•ing to Ripley count}-, where 
Dr. Cole was born, was noted through life as impulsive, self-willed, 
and a thoroughly determined man, and such was his son. Dr. Cole, 
who was a determined and admittedly desperate man. He would 
shoot, if he so decided, and this trait known, he was greatly feared. 
He inspired the most devoted, loyal and undying friendships, and 
enmities as bitter as could be imagined. He had been an armv 


surgeon and had gained a wide reputation in liis day as a ph}sician 
of great si<ill and a surgeon of rare ability. Fcjr a friend, especially 
a poor man, he would dri\-e any distance, and upon the most inclem- 
ent night, with the certain knowledge that he would not receix'e a 
cent's pay. He has been known to threaten to throw downstairs a 
poor patient offering to pa}- him a bill, remarking that he "would 
charge the amount up to some rich patient." He insjjired the love 
of children. But an enemy he hated with all the hatred of his soul. 
Dr. Cole's name has been connected with many daring and elaborate 
schemes of revenge, and with unlawful things, but no proof against 
him ever appeared. Guilty or innocent, no man's name was ever 
more freely used in connection with transactions, proof of his di- 
rect connection with which would have landed liim behind the bars, 
if not sentenced him to the gallows. Yet proof of such connections 
were never even attempted. He vehemently denounced his enemies 
as the authors of "these vile slanders" one and all. He hail enemies, 
and .scores of them, and the}- hated him as cordially as he hated 
them. Yet in private life he was as kind and mild-mannered as 
a man could be. A candidate for mayor. Dr. Cole's enmities grew 
to white heat. He gave no compnimise and expected nmie. It was 
while holding- this office that he met death, breathing- his last upon 
the same night that Garfeld dieil. The roar of shot guns was 
plainly heard throughout the city before midnight. The peo])le 
rushed toward the spring mills, hearing- the rejxirt that Dr. Cole 
had been shot, and his body lay upon the comm(ins to the west of 
the mill, cold in death. The explanation was that Dr. Cole had 
planned the burning of the mill, and that he had purposed its robbery 
with the intention of secreting the flour upon the premises of an 
enemy, but, anticipated by a sheriff's posse.- was shot to death while 
attempting to flee the place. He was said to have been betrayed 
by an accomplice in his purposed act. A post n-iorteni of the body 


was held. His nose was broken, which was said to have been caused 
by his running against a wood pile in the attempt to escape. He was 
also shot in the knee, the claim being that this was the first wound, 
received as he ventured up to the mill window to enter, to join his 
confederate in carrying out flour. In his heart was found a small 
bird shot, pronounced the cause of death, and received, it was said, 
while in flight, and refusing to submit to arrest. A coroner's in- 
vestigation before Dr. J. C. Wright, of Russiaville, was held. The 
state of facts presented were testified to by those participating in 
the capture and death of Cole. His friends refused to believe that 
he had attempted a theft and claimed that his death was consum- 
mated elsewhere, but no such proof was ever adduced and the ex- 
planations of the posse stands unimpeached until this day. In the 
remo\al of Dr. Cole, Kokomo lost a picturesque and forceful per- 
sonality, of whom friends speak in kindness and of whom those who 
disliked him speak in harshest terms, economizing- no word to his 

The prosecution of Jonathan Binns for the murder of his wife, 
Rachel Binns. January 31, 1870, was (me <)f the most notable in the 
criminal annals of Howard county. .\t the time the killing took 
place there was a suit pending in the Cass circuit court by ^Irs. 
Binns against her husband for a divorce, in which she charged Binns 
with various things, among them consorting with bad women. Mrs. 
Binns was shot while at her home at Russiaville, at night, between 
8 anel 10 o'clock, through a window. \Mien dying she stated that 
her husband had shot her. She stated tliat he had said that he 
could and would shoot her if she did not sign certain papers con- 
cerning some money. Binns attempted to prove that he was at Ko- 
komo, ten or tweh'e miles distant, at the time the crime was com- 
mitted. Twice C(jnvicted, Binns securetl a re\'ersal of the case in 
the supreme court, first upnn the ground that he had been wrung- 


fully deprived of a continuance of his case, for which he had asked, 
and to which he was entitled under the law. He succeeded in his 
second appeal upon the gn:)und that his wife's declarations of his 
guilt of her death were Avrongfully admitted in evidence, in that she 
had not seen him hefore receiving the fatal shot, but had merely ex- 
pressed the opinion that it was he because of their past differences 
and his threats against her. The state was able to show the presence 
of Binns near the residence of his wife a short time before her death. 
In August, 1877, Michael Gillooley killed Thomas W. Lannon 
at the junction and was prosecuted for murder in the first degree. 
Lannon was a policeman and had once arrested Gillooley for fre- 
quenting a house of ill fame. The state showed that Gillooley had 
threatened to kill Lannon in consequence. Gillooley W3S con\-icte;l 
of murder in the first degree. The leading witness against him was 
Rev. Father Francis Lordeman, who had admonished Gillooley 
against carrying out his threats. Gillooley took an appeal to the su- 
preme court, claiming that the testimimy of Father Lunleman was 
^■iolating• the confidence of the church, but this plea was overruled 
and the conviction affirmed in November, 1877, by the suprenvi 
court. As tlie death penalty had been imposed, the gallows were 
building- when a public agitation for the prisoner was started. The 
matter was carried to "Blue Jeans" Williams, then go\-ernor, who 
commuted the sentence to imprisonment for life. Gillooley was par- 
doned a .sh(;rt time before his death. He had threatened the death 
of the trial judge, Init ended his days (|uietly. 


Richard Long was hanged by a mob upon the ]\Iain street 
bridge IMonday night, April 3, 1882. The iron structure then stand- 
ing had a support above. Long was accused of having outraged 


the little daughter of Ed Pritchard. He was arrested and placed 
in the ^^'ashington street jail. The Sunday preceding his execution 
an excited throng faced the jail, throwing a rope over the fence at 
frequent intervals and breatliing threats. But this was not the 
agency of Long's death. The unorganized throng was merely the 
froth of public feeling. Later a mob was deliberately org'anized 
in the Haskett grove, and it chose a leader, who was such in name 
and in fact. Monday night the mob tore Long from the jail. He 
was conducted along High street in his stocking feet, pale with ex- 
citement, but not yet seriously impressed witli the Ijelief tliat he was 
actual!}- to be hanged. He made no appeals, but walked liraxel}- for- 
ward. Arri\-ed at the bridge. Long was lifted upon a box and the 
mpe put around his neck. It was foimd too short to reach over the 
girtler abo\'e and one of the mob climbed to the height and fastened 
it to a beam above the box. At this juncture the Rev. Robert INIc- 
Cune, past<')r of the First Cougreg'atir.nal church, and Hon. J. Fred 
Vaile, later of western and national fame as a lawyer, arrived and 
pleaded in \-ain with the mob for tlie life nf Finig. Vaile even 
called upnn the men tn aid him in rescuing- the c ir.demned man, 
but to no purpose. Xo liue responded. I-i>ng was asked if he had 
anything- to say. He requested the i^rivilege of singing "See That 
My Grave Is Kept Green," and the strain was interrupted with the 
exclamation, "Shove a hot jxitato in his mouth." When the last 
words faded from Long's lips the box was kicked from beneath him 
and he swuiig- to his death. The Imdy was cut down next morning 
and exhibited in the nin-th corridor of the court house. His body 
was supposed to have l)een buried in the old cemetery, and for a 
season his grave was covered with a bunch of flowers, planted by 
unknown hands, which attention ceased finally altog'ether. Some 
said his body was never buried, but be that as it may, a coffin was 
at least. Long denied to the last bis guilt of outrage, and it seems 

298 morrow's history 

tliat the proof of that point has never been clearly established and 
remains to this day a matter of grave doubt. Long confessed to 
horse stealing, and admitted that he had sen-ed in the Michigan 
City penitentiary, but denied the rape, evidences of which it was 
asserted were established by the condition of his clothing. 

During the administration of J. F. Elliott, prosecutor of 
Howard and Tipton counties, occurred one of the celebrated trials 
of this locality. William Dougherty was tried for homicide in the 
alleged felonious killing of Joseph VanHorn. in the saloon of the 
Howard House. The shooting grew out of alleged oflfensive re- 
marks made by VanHorn imputed against the chastity of Dough- 
erty's sister. Dougherty was tried at Tipton and acquitted. 

During the administration of A. B. Kirkpatrick as prosecutor 
William ]\Ialosh received a sentence of nine years in the peniten- 
tiary for burning the Union block. The trial was hatl in 1887. 

In the same year OUie Hawkins was convicted of the killing 
of Richard Hacse through jealousy and was defendetl by Senator 
D. W. Voorhees. Hawkins received a seven-year sentence, but was 

December. 1888, John E. Fleming, an escape from the Marion, 
Indiana, jail, shot Robert L. Jones, sheritT of Grant county, in a 
house in Jerome, Indiana, where the sheriff was tr}-ing to effect 
Fleming's arrest. Fleming was captured and convicted, but es- 
caped even from the penitentiary, but was apprehended. His sen- 
tence was for life. 

In 1891 George Tykle received a sentence of two years in the 
penitentiary for criminal negligence in boiling- a man named Clark 
to death. Tykle conducted a bathing establishment ami it was 
shown that Clark was a helpless paralytic and. placed in a bath tub. 
was left alone, and while in this situation the natural gas in the 
burner either came up or was turned up liy third parties, with the 


result that Clark was literally boiled alive, the flesh from his bones 
floating about the tub when his body was discovered and removed. 
The fact is that Tykle, who was a well-read and well-educated man, 
but had his own theories about things, was grieved to death over 
the misfortune, as Clark was his best friend and a sincere believer 
in the water cure theories of Tykle. 


During the seventies the Molihan gang flourished in the Junc- 
tion district. All manner of crimes were laid at the doors of this 
reputed gang, but if g-uilty its members were never ascertained, ap- 
prehended and brought to justice. It was claimed that its ramifi- 
cations extended so far that justice was nullified and detection ren- 
dered out of the case, and tliat it perpetrated crime with impunity 
and after a studied plan. A wholesale robbeiy of farm houses and 
city residences of silverware was one plan supposed tO' be backed by 
the gang, and several bodies cut to pieces upon the railroad tracks 
at the junction were said to have been men murdered and then 
placed there by this gang, the booty of which, it was claimed, was 
sold in Chicago by those whose names, if revealed, would have 
caused surprise. At any rate the terror of the gang- caused deep 
apprehension in the minds and heaiis of the Kokomo public, and 
when the ]\Iolihan saloon passed away and the reputed gang melted 
away the public breathed a sigh of relief. 

September 4, igoi, Jacob Dotterer was killed at his home in 
Howard township, near A'ermont. The aged man was attacked 
by four men, two of whom were masked, this fact leading the au- 
thorities to believe that they were Howard county men, while the 
unmasked men were strangers. The report seems to ha\'e got 
abroad that Mr. Dotterer was to receive, on the night that he was 


fatally shot, the purchase price <~.t his farm, and his assailants 
planned to rob him of his money. Two of the men were seen to 
cross the fields from Vemiont station and lie in wait for the appear- 
ance of the purchaser of the farm, who, later, came to the Dotterer 
home, where he remained about half an hour. Soon a knock was 
heard at the front door of Mr. Dotterer's home, which summons 
he answered in person, lamp in hand. He was confronted by the 
two masked men. who commanded him to surrender. He hastily 
set the lamp upon a stand and gave battle to the strang-ers. knock- 
ing both down and worsting the rest of the party as they advanced 
upon him. Although a man of sixty-five years of age, he proved 
a "genuine surprise party" for his assailants. He was worsting 
them all, when one cried out, "Well, I guess we will have to kill the 
old man." With that a shot rang out and a bullet pli.iwed through 
the old man"s stomach, entering from the side. Dotterer fell and 
with a d}-ing strength reached into his pixket, and drawing out two 
hundred and forty-two dollars he had there, hurled it up a stair- 
way, where it fell unnoticed into a recess in which it was not dis- 
covered by the robbers. The old man being shot, the robbers com- 
pelled Mrs. Dotterer to open the safe, after she had fought one of 
the number and torn his shirt off, while they held Mrs. Roll Dot- 
terer at bay. In the safe was found sixty-five cents. A search of 
the house discovered fifteen dollars more, \\\vxh the robbers took 
away, but this was all they secured. For while the deeds to the 
farm had been made the money was not turned over on the tragic 
night. The amount would have been several thousand dollars, and 
the robbers expected a large haul. When they left the Dotterer 
heme they told the women that if they gave the alarm to the neigh- 
bors they would shoot them upon sight. It was some time therefore 
before the alarm was given. The authorities had parties under sus- 
picion, but as they were about to get evidence to warrant arrests tiie 
suspects left the city. 



What is commonly sp )ken of as tlie Suttmi- Yager mystery is 
one which lias ne\-er been solved, it mystery it was, in tact. While 
the death of Francis Sutton. April 27. 1903, and that of Lewis 
Yager, jNIay 11, 1903, ai-e both claimed to have been suicides, these 
deaths, succeeding each other so closely, happening in the same lo- 
cality, and bearing so many evidences of similarity, roused the en- 
tire county to the belief that the young men had been murdered. 
■J1ie best detective skill of the country was employed to no avail, 
working upon the theor}- cjf murder and with the intent of bringing 
the guilty parties — if any — to justice. All the great metropolitan 
dailies sent representatives to the locality to seek to clear up the 
myster\% but all these efforts came to naught. Francis Sutton was 
found lying near his horse and buggy, close to the gate at the Pe- 
ter's home, not far from Hemlock. Sutton had called the night Ije- 
fore (Sunday night) upon Miss Stella I'eters. and left lier home. 
He never got farther than the gate at the end of the lane, which 
opened into the public road. Here he is supposed to have taken his 
own life, or to have been killed. A large hole had been pawed into 
the ground Ijy the horse, indicating that it had stood at the gate a 
long time impatiently. A short distance to one side was found the 
body of Sutton, which had evidently lieen spilled <xit of the Inigg')' 
when the horse left the gate, proceeding towartl a woods on that 
side. In the buggy was found a revolver, that of Sutton, with one 
chamber empty, and his body disclosed that death had come from 
a single shot. 

Two weeks later the body of Lewis Yager was fcmnd sitting- 
bolt upright in his buggy, which the horse had drawn to the lane 
gate at the D. S. Yager home, near Oakford. Yager, too, had 
called upon a young lady the evening before, but had left her home 


early and proceeded elsewliere. There was some evidence that he 
had been at Sharps\'ille. The buggy wheel was stained with blood, 
and his toes were jammed under the front rod of the buggy bed. 
The blood had oozed from a wound in Yager's temple. \\'hile sui- 
cide was claimed, the position of Yager's feet led to the suspicion 
and belief that he had been shot and his body wedged into the buggy 
so it would not fall out, and the horse started homeward. Other 
circumstances alleged were that the horse he was driving was a 
high-spirited one and would not stand fire, in the case Yager fired 
a bullet into his own brain, but would ha\e run away, perhaps wreck- 
ing the buggy and leaving the body anywhere along the road. The 
theory was that Yager had been with se\^eral parties, and there was 
evidence that he had been drinking, as the laprobe smelled of the 
fumes of liquor, yet it was recognized that this might have been 
poured on the robe as a misleading circumstance. The elaborate 
theory was btiilded that both Sutton and Yager had been victims 
of a feud of the neighborhood and that both had been murdered. 
The finding (_)f a revolver in the road near the supposed scene of Ya- 
ger's death later heightened the belief of foul play, and it was argued 
that perhaps Sutton had been shot with a revolver not his own, but 
that his revolver had been discharged once and thrown into the buggy 
bed to establish the appearance of a premeditated death. It was sur- 
mised tliat both young men had been halted antl shot to death while 
in their buggies. A bogus detecti\-e ran ofi^ with the re\'olver and 
no practical results e\-er came of the investigations upon the murder 
theoiy, but nevertheless it ma\' have been the true one, and time 
may vindicate it, but the conclusion was accepted by the public that 
both young men had committeil suicide and that the most striking 
coincident was that they should take their lives within so sliort a 
time, one after the other. 

Amos Jacksr)n, whose bo<h' was rescued from \\'ildcat creek, 


March 28, 1906, was supposed to have been pushed off the Carter 
street levee by design, but if so the fact was ne\er estabhshed. 

Attorney I. C. Hoopes, prominent at the Howard county b:u . 
in a fit of mental aberration stole into the parlor of his West Taylor 
street home, December 28, 1907, sending a bullet through his brain, 
death resulting instantly. 

Fairy McClain was shot tn ileath at the home of her aunt, Mrs. 
Mattie Xay, North Lafontaine street. April 7, 1908. Knocking at 
her bed room door, which opened oft" a hall through which he easily 
enteretl, the street door being unlocked, Jesse W'orley Osl)orn, her 
jealous and maddened lover, forced himself intu her bed room, as 
soon as Miss McClain opened the door to see who was there. She 
being in her night clothes, fled to her bed, and the aunt and her lit- 
tle son fled to the home of a neighbor t(_i summ.m the police. Os- 
born demanded that Miss iVIcClain arise and talk with him and that 
she kiss liini. She declined U> comply with any (if his requests, and 
defied his threats, which. pre\iously made ag'ainst her. he renewed 
ujjon this occasion. Osli;irn, who had been drinking, whipped out 
his re\i)l\-er with the exclamation. "Fairy, you provoke me." and 
shot her twice in the head. She fell out of bed in a heap. Osljorn 
fled the .scene, although the night was stormy and the rain was fall- 
ing heavily. .\ search was instituted for him. Iiut without avail, for 
some* days. He had gone as far as Canada, but homesick, he ven- 
tured to return as far as Logansport. Here he was appreliended 
in the Fan Handle railroad yards by the cnmpan}-'s detecti\-es. while 
riding the bumpers of a freight train. Osborn made no resistance 
against arrest and was brought to Kokomo, his captors obtaining a 
reward of five hundred dollars offered by the countv commissioners. 
Osborn entered a plea of guilty and was sentencetl to the ]>eniten- 
tiary for life. He had, it developed, kept company with Miss Mc- 
Clain fir several vears, and she finallv decided to eet rid of him. A 


few weeks before the killing they had quarreled and he had struck 
the }'oung woman, for which offense he was given a jail sentence. 
While the young woman chose to bear her maiden name and did 
so. she was the wife of Levi ]\Iiller, but with whom she did not live. 
Charles Thresher and William Lindley lost their lives as the 
result of drink. September 28, 1908. On that date their bodies, stiff 
in death, were found in the gravel pit near Greentown. Sunday pre- 
ceding the}' were seen to leave Greentown, jug in hand, which ves- 
sel contained whisk}-, and they remarked to one they passed that they 
were "going out to celebrate the county local option law." which had 
just been passed by the special session of the legislature. The}- re- 
mained at the gravel pit throughout Sunday, drinking and eating 
paw-paws. The jug was replenished at least twice. Finally Charles 
Lindley, who was with them, staggered away from the place and 
ti-ied to get his companions to follow him. without success. Whe 1 
he returned ne.xt day he found them cold in death, one body sub- 
merged in the water and the other staring- with g-lassy eyes towards 
the starry heavens. The bodies were taken to the Fulwider under- 
taking establishment at Greentown. where, under the direction of 
the Rev. Hall, they were viewed by school children who passed by, 
single file, as an object lesson in temperance. 



The (uitfit of the Pioneer office (the Pioneer was the first paper 
jjublished in the history of the county! was brought from New Lon- 
don to Kokomo early in the fifties. The equipment was installed in 


the west side of a double frame building, ou the north side of High 
street, just east of Main street. l"he name of the paper was changed 
to that of The Howard Tribune, witli C. D. Murray as editor. On 
the east side of the building- occupied by the Tribune office lived the 
parents of Daniel G. Wilkins. "Uncle" Dan, as Mr. Wilkins has been 
known for }-ears, became a printer by natural associations. He fre- 
quented the Tribune office just across the hallway from his home, and 
soon picked up a knowledge of the business. James Beard, the real 
owner of the printing ec[uipment, and who had come with it from 
Xew London, pulled the press — a ^^'ash^ng•ton hand press — and 
"Uncle" Dan ran the roller. Mr. ^^'ilkins was also given the emplov- 
ment of passing the papers, the circulation of the Tribune being at 
that time about three hundred. "Uncle" Dan, who, as a boy, had 
carried the mail from Delphi to Marion, relinquished this employ- 
ment. Such trips made upon horseback consumed four days in going 
and coming-. "Uncle" Dan settled down in earnest to learn the 
printer's trade, and soon had mastered the boxes. 

In those days type was set by hand instead of by machinery, 
and each type was picked from a box and placed in a composing 
stick. "Uncle" Dan soon learned all the technicalities of the ofifice 
and was not long in mastering the names of the type used, as the 
office was possessed of but few fonts of type at best. Mr. Beard was 
a very agreeable man under whom to work and took a great fancy 
to Mr. Wilkins, who acquired from him the thorough mastery of 
the printer's art, which distinguished him throughout life, Mr. ^^'il- 
kins became an expert and passed almost half a century in the prac- 
tice (if his craft, a certain testimonial to his efiicienc}', the entire 
time being with the office with which he had started, he remaining 
in its serx'ice throughout successive ownerships. The Tribune of- 
fice was finally moved from High street to the north side of the pub- 
lic square, occupying the second story of the building in which was 

3o6 morrow's history 

situated below the Robert Birt tin shop, later owned by G. W. 
Hocker. Mr. Murray retired as editor of the paper, which was pur- 
chased by Clinton Boliver Hensley, of Logansport. Mr. Hensley 
was an unique newspaper men, but preferred the pleasure of hunt- 
ing to the drudger)' of the offica much of the time. But the inter- 
ests of the paper did not suffer. An unknown but brainy contrib- 
utor was Dr. L. D. Waterman, who later moved to Indianapolis. 
T. C. Phillips purchased the paper of Mr. Hensley and changed the 
name to The Kokomo Tribune, dropping the word Howard. ]\[r. 
Phillips was a notable editor of Indiana, and his fame extended even 
into other states. He was an able, trenchant editorial writer, abso- 
lutely fearless and aggressive. He was equally devoid of physical 
fear, and the indignant man who came around to settle scores for 
an article to which he objected usually decided to abandon the at- 
tack. Mr. Phillips was a strictly party man, being an uncompro- 
mising Republican, the only tangent upon which he ever left his 
strictly orthodox Republicanism being- when he, with Judge Linsday 
and a number of other leading Republicans, "swung around the 
circle" with President Andrew Johnson. But it was not long until 
he had returned to his party fold and his paper and personality were 
a tower of strength for the political cause which he espoused. His 
editorials were widely Cjuoted and he expended his best energies in 
making his paper the leading one' of Indiana. 

The office was graduallv improved and finally moved to the east 
side of the court house square, occup}-ing tw<i different locations in 
that district. It was while the office was in this part of the city that 
a cyclone blew down the building in which the office was situated. 
Mr. Philips declined to accept contriljutions to make good his losses, 
but consented to re-establish his paper upon condition that a cer- 
tain number of citizens would take his paper for a year. Whh these 
subscriptions, and with borrowed money, he erected the Trilnine 


building, at the corner of Buckeye and Alulbeny streets, and 
ec]uipped the office with a cyhnder press and a first-class typograph- 
ical equipment, including a job office. A tireless worker, he soon 
made the paper a distinctive one in surrounding states. All this 
time he clung by "Uncle" Dan \\'ilkins. in whose untiring labors 
for the success of the paper and excellent judgment he had implicit 
reliance and faith. Mr. Wilkins's service was interrupted long enough 
for a sen'ice in the Civil war, and a few months" application to house 
painting, but when he returned to the office at the earnest solicita- 
tion of Mr. Philips it was to remain through' the ownership of Mr. 
Philips's sons, and that of strangers as well, and terminating from 
the disabilities of old age in 1904. 

At the death of T. C. Philips, The Tribune was taken in charge 
by his sons, Charles Philips and A. F. Philips. Charles Philips was 
possessed of fine literary ability and is spoken of by those who knew 
him best to have been the real one of the family gifted as a writer. 
The paper was now converted into a literary publication, all but los- 
ing its character as a newspaper. It invited and paid well for con- 
tributions from the noted writers of the day, containing- contribu- 
tions from Riley, Nye, Brady and others of great note. But as a 
financial undertaking this publication did not pay, the proprietors 
being unable to secure a wide enough circulation. Upon the death 
of Charles Philips, and under the management of A. F. Philips, The 
Tribune resumed its individuality as a newspaper and dropped much 
of its foreign contributions. Seymour T. Montgomery was promi- 
nently .connected with The Tribune, and for the time that I^hilips 
was a "political heretic" essayed the editorial management and re- 
sponsibility. IMontgomery finally ran off, leaving the city myste- 
riously and suddenly. 


Dan H. Bennett established in 1869 the Kokomo Independent. 
It was a paper which reflected the brilliancy of his intellect and power 


of brain. It was nut, however, long lived. During the period of its 
establishment and for sexeral }-ears succeeding ]\Ir. Bennett engaged 
in the active practice of the law, and with success. It was not until 
1872 that Air. Bennett engaged in newspaper work on an elaborate 
scale. In that year a joint stock company was formed and a print- 
ing outfit purchased. The Howard County Republican was 
launched. While The Independent, Mr. Bennett's first paper, was 
printed from The Tribune office. The Republican had an equipment 
of its own, and asked favors of no one. Air. Bennett was a tower 
of intellectual strength, and his paper reflected his personality. He 
was the only man feared by T. C. Philips, and he gave blow for blow 
in a manner which counted. Bennett had both the ability and the 
courage, and he feared neither man nor devil. The publisher of the 
paper was Will Siddall. When Mr. Bennett left Kokomo it was to 
go to Logansport, where he took charge of The Logansport Sun. 
This paper attracted wide attention, as did any paper of which Dan 
Bennett was the head. But' while at Logansport Mr. Bennett fell 
a victim of an apoplectic stroke and died afterwards from its ef- 
fects. The Kokomo Democrat once said of Mr. Bennett: "\\'e 
have met no cleverer gentleman than D. H. Bennett. He has figured 
largely in the politics of the county and the district. When he said 
that he would speak out his sentiments, boldly and unflinchingly, in 
matters of politics, we did not say it unwisely, as we have since 
learned. In the congressional canvass he was the friend of Dr. Hen- 
derson. Dr. Henderson has run up between five hundred and a 
thousand in advance of his ticket in the district, and it is due to the 
brave, lx)ld, outspoken words of such men as Bennett that he has 
done so." The Republican, while in the hands of Mr. Siddall, sus- 
tained a misfortune from which it never recovered. A fire started 
in the ofifice and was sttbdued with difficulty. The flames suppressed, 
it was found that material damage had been done. Mr. Siddall was. 


not enamored of Kokomo newspaper work and left soon after for 
Indianapolis, making the best disposition possible of the printing- 
outfit of The Republican. 

The Kokomo Journal — first of that name in Kokomo — expired 
in 1871, while under the ownership of L. J. Templin. In the conduct 
of this paper M. W. Pershing and S. T. Montgomery had been iden- 
tified. Air. Templin met e\-ery obligation, making arrangements with 
the Kokomo Democrat to care for subscriptions he had received 
since the Journal had been revived. He said that in doing this he 
did not endorse the policies of the Democratic party, but desired 
merely to funiish his patrons with a good country newspaper. ]\Ir. 
Templin returned to the conduct of a nurser}- which he had owned 
upon assuming the direction of The Journal. The Journal started in 
1S70, ended its existence in February. 1871. 


The first issue of The Radical Democrat, of K(jkomo, appeared 
Wednesday, oMay 18, 1870. The editor was W. J. Turpin, "Jap." 
Air. Turpin was known as the "Tipton Slasher." and was a man of 
exceptional newspaper ability. After his work in Kokomo he did 
\-aluable feature work for the Indianapolis newspapers. "Jap" Tur- 
pin is a familiar name in Kokomo newspaperdom, and he created an 
impression not soon to l)e forgotten by the older residents. His of- 
fice was situated in the upstairs of the Dennison building, corner of 
^^'alnut and Bucke}-e streets. The furniture C(5nsisted of two chairs, 
and tw(T tables. A board reached fmm the head of a flour barrel 
to the top of a bottomless chair, and upon this board C. H. Havens 
folded the first issues of the paper. He was the newsboy. ha\ing 
what was known as the public square route. The Radical Democrat 

was published from the Tribune office. It was but a short time until 
the word "Radical"' was dropped from the title page of the publica- 
tion. \N'hile ]\Ir. Turpin was yet in control of the paper Jcjhn W. 
Kern was a contributor to its columns. J. M. Goar succeeded Mr. 
Turpin as editor of the Democrat. In October, 1870, Dr. Jcihn F. 
Henderson was a candidate for congress, and in this aspiration the 
Democrat supported him loyally. The fierceness with which the oppo- 
sition of newspapers was conducted in that day is illustrated in an 
editorial appearing in the Democrat of the issue of Thursday, Octo- 
ber 20. 1870. For instance, the Journal says : "Philips is a malicious 
liar and an unmitigated scoundrel, and a bald-headed old gambler." 
Whereupon Philips reminds them that the Journal is a "bastard 
sheet, with neither paternity nor maternit}-, and that the editors 
thereof are thieves, murderers and scoundrels." R. G. Smith, a 
prominent contributor to the Democrat, said in the issue of that 
paper November 10, 1870 : "Mr. Turpin started a Democratic paper 
in Kokomo, having neither press nor type, and I know it was often 
said, by both Democrats and Republicans, that the paper would, soon 
play out, but Mr. Turpin kept the paper a running, and finally sold 
his interest to IMr. John M. Goar, whom our citizens soon knew as 
a sharp writer, and who made the Democrat as sharp as lightning." 
The Democrat in its issue of November 17, 1870. says: "Dr. Hen- 
derson, the founder of two hotels at Kokomo, and whose native 
modesty would not permit him to name one after himself, has as- 
sumed the heavy responsibility of the editor of the Kokomo Demo- 
crat. The doctor is a robustly constructed, smug and compact chap 
of possible inclinations. Dan Bennet has been engaged and 
will sling ink in his best style and do up the fashion dispatches. Ed 
Freeman will contribute half a neck of items a week if necessary, 
and Walker will attend to the heavy market and banking conditions, 
and occasionally give his views upon hog cholera." John ^^^ Kern 


(lid work on The Democrat. In the issue of March 2, 1871, the an- 
nouncement appears: "Dr. Henderson went to Bahimore and Phila- 
delphia this week, leaving The Democrat to my care. Inexperience 
and greenness in the business will account for the many inaccuracies 
and blunders." 

Dr. Henderson was an able and couragenus writer, and he made 
a formidable competitor of The Tribune in the Democrat. In time 
he was assisted by his sons, J. O. and H. E. Henderson, and later 
turned the property over to them absolutely upon their return from 
c<illege. They are today the proprietors of the paper. C. H. Hav- 
ens, who occupies the editorial desk of the Kokomo Daily Dispatch, 
by which the paper became known years ago, is the dean of the Ko- 
komo newspaper circles. He worked for a time with Dan Bennett 
as roller boy, and then entered into the employment of Dr. Hender- 
son. Mr. Ha\'ens left Kokomo in 1874, returning in 1882 and tak- 
ing a place at the t}-pographical case. Here he revealed the peculiar 
ability of which he is possessed. His contributions to the columns 
of the paper under a nom de plume excited a state reading, being 
quoted throughout the exchanges of the commonwealth, and were 
notable for a philosophy and a pathos that created a deep impression 
in the mind of the reading public. Mr. Havens used no manuscript, 
"setting the matter out of his head as well as his case." His ability 
demonstrated, he took editorial charge upon Mr. J. O. Henderson 
being appointed to fill the office of revenue collect(ir in this district in 
1884, and has been in charge since that time. His forceful person- 
ality, aggressiveness and brilliancy as a special writer and sound 
appreciation of news values have given the paper an individual 
standing among its contemporaries. Yet in the harness, "Sir. Havens 
is desirous of no eulog}', and that will be a topic for the future writer 
after Mr. Havens shall have closed his newspaper days, but when 
that time comes his relation to Kokomo new.spapenlom will be found 
to have been one of unusual importance. 



Tlie Kukomo Gazette was founded by E. E. Russell and Wil- 
liam Gause. the office being located upon the \\'est side of the court 
house sqtiare. The office was little more than a job outfit, although 
provided with an army proof press, upon which the publication was 
printed. The partnership did not long continue and in a compara- 
tively short space of time the paper became the property of Onier 
]\Iaris, then of Russiaville, a brilliant writer, who afterwards 
achieved fame as a contributor to the Chicago Record, while pros- 
pecting in the Klondike. Mr. Maris eventually entered into a part- 
nership with Ed Pritchard, subsequently retiring, Mr. L. C. Hoss 
taking an interest in the paper, and being for a time a partner of 
]Mr. Pritchard. Upon the latter disposing of his partnership hold- 
ing- to John M. Runk, the firm continued as Hoss & Runk, the 
former finally securing- entire control and ownership of the paper. 
Mr. Hoss engaged A. E. Kirkpatrick as editorial writer, and they 
conducted an aggressive, bold, independent Republican paper, its 
circulation soon assuming formidable and somewhat amazing pro- 
portions. Mr, Hoss utilized a steam press and greatly added to 
the typographical equipment of the office. In September, 1883, he 
established the Daily Gazette. While the Kokomo Herald was the 
first daily appearing on the streets of Kokomo, many years preced- 
ing the Gazette, the later paper was the first daily to stick, and ne\er 
missed an issue from the first day it was offered to the public. In 
the spring of 1884 the Gazette and the Kokomo Tribune affected a 
consolidation, under the name of the Kokomo Gazette-Tribune. L. 
C. Hoss and A. F. Philips being the editors and proprietors. The 
name Gazette was carried several years and finally dropped. The 
daily issue continued under the new ownership and is known today 
as the Kokomo Daily Tribune. F. M. Gideon was in an early day 
editor and part owner of the Gazette. 


At the time of the consohdation of the Gazette and Tribune 
\Vilham H. Turpin entered upon the scene of newspaper activity in 
Kokomo, he being one of the most picturesc[ue and striking person- 
ahties known in the circles of Kokomo newspaperdom. A cor- 
respondent at New London, his humor and quaint style attracted a 
wide reading and favorable attention. He was oftered a position 
as reporter upon the new daily, and as he once said himself, was ap- 
palled with the weight of the new responsibility and was doubtful 
if he could give satisfaction. But as a news gatherer he had few 
equals. He had a mysteri(jus way of "getting next" to the most 
carefully guarded secrets which he gave to the public which made 
him dreaded. He was skillful and shrewd in building up a large 
circle of loyal friends, who aided him in many directions. It be- 
came a maxim that "Turpin is always next." At an advanced age 
he was active, alert and divining, so much so that nn new men in the 
field constituted formidable competition. The\- came and went, but 
he remained at his post without fear of displacement. His style was 
not of classical cast, but bubbled over with good humor, and he de- 
lighted to "touch them up," as he put it. No man in the Kokomo 
field could produce the number (^f personals that he did. They 
seemed to pour in a stream from his pencil point, and few were able 
to escape his observation, if desirous of slipping quietly out of the 
city. With those he knew liked a special mention he gave a special 
treatment and made many friends among those fond of newspaper 
mention. ^Vhen George Gibbs and a party of friends made a trip 
from the city Turpin wrote: "The special mission of George Gibbs 
will be to eat two-thirds of the dumplings and all the chicken giz- 
zards, together with the gobble of the rooster, if it is jxissible to get at 
it. The proverbial part that gets through the fence last is also a choice 
morsel that Georg'e sets g-reat store upon. It is his purpose to 
beat a livelv tattoo with the drum sticks, and also to trv his fortune 


by yanking the pulley bune." Turpin was an indefatigable worker, 
arising at five o'clock in the morning', and was soon thereafter at 
his desk. He worked through the day, and then long after the sup- 
per hour. He wrote all his matter with a pencil, and the enonnous 
amount of copy he produced was a marvel to his younger associates. 
Had he had an early education he would ha\e made his mark in the 
higher fields of journalism. 

One of the humorous personals he published in The Tribune 
was copied in The New York Sun because of its rich fla\-(ir of 
humor. Turpin's early life had beai that of an orphan, he finally 
being cared for by the Shakers, of Ohio, and learned the trade of 
a broom maker. He naturally held many of the beliefs of the people 
by whom he was raised, but never gave expression of his heartfelt 
sentiments save to intimate friends. While with this people he 
learned much about herbs and flowers and their medicinal \-alues. 
This knowledge helped him greatly in his newspaper work. Turpin 
was an optimist of the first order. The financial side of his life was 
filled with discouragements and trials, but he educated his family 
and lived well. Regardless if half an hour before he had met with 
a serious reverse his whistle resounded through the corridors of the 
court house as he went in quest of news and in the streets as lie 
passed along them. Asked once bow he could be so jolly in the 
midst of what would depress other men he said: "Well, it can't 
be helped, and what is the use to be thinking about it all the timei^ 
There will be another day dawn." An enthusiastic baseball fan. and 
a polo enthusiast, his enjoyment of a game coming his way was a 
sight worth while to see, but his disgust w'as savage if the home 
team played "rotten." His reports* of sporting events were charac- 
teristic of his unique personality. His friends were legion, he was 
"foxy," and few men ha\'e been more keenly missed than he from 
his paper and his old haunts, where his friends saved him choice tips 


and good jokes. Turpin, aftei" having worked twenty-two years as 
a broom maker in all the principal cities of the west, settled in New 
London, Howard county, in 1868, where he married. He was cor- 
oner of Howard county six years, street commissioner of Kokomo 
nine years, and engrossing- clerk of the lower house of the Legisla- 
ture in 1887. His seiwice with The Gazette began in 1883, and ter- 
minated with the consolidation in 1884, when he went to Richmond 
to become writer on The Richmond Palladium. He was well known 
over the state as a local writer, and was connected with the Chicago 
Tribune and Liter-Ocean and other city newspapers as correspond- 
ent. Turpin was also engaged in newspaper work at Tipton and 
Elwood, and returning- to Kokomo worked on the Kokomo News- 
Dispatch, and lastly Tribune, in which later ser\-ice he was em- 
ployed when his death occurred in 1907. 

Mr. L. C. Hoss was finally associated with his father, P. E. 
Hoss, in the ownership and control of The Tribune, the elder Hoss 
purchasing the interest of A. F. Philips, who left the city to engage 
in newspaper labors in foreign fields. In the departure of Mr. Phil- 
ips, the last of the noted pioneer family departed, and the name was 
henceforth known histdrically only. The Hosses sold the paper to 
Mr. B. B. Jiihnson, once county treasurer, and later of the Richmond 
Item. He operated the paper for several months, selling to J. A. 
Kautz and H. E. McMonigal, of Wabash. Mr. McMonigal retired 
and the Tribune has become one of the most valuable plants of its 
size in the state under the management of Mr. Kautz, and has 
reached a wide influence. 


In 1893 S. E. Nicholson, who had been editor and owner of 
the Russiaville Obser\er, came to Kokomo and established The Ko- 

3i6 morrow's history 

komo Morning- Times, a daily paper. The outfit of the Industrial 
Union was purchased and installed in the Sharp room, south side of 
the court house square. In a few months the paper reached a high 
water mark in subscriptions, and, encouraged by this properity, the 
owner moved the plant into the old Tribune corner. The paper as- 
sumed an important place in the municipal election, and its. influence 
did a great deal for the election of A. B. Kirkpatrick as mayor and 
Harry Bennett for marshal, upon a strict law enforcement platform. 
Mr. Nicholson was an ardent temperance man and the town was 
soon "tight," as the word is used in liberal circles. The ambition 
to become a member of the general assembly of Indiana soon seized 
Mr. Nicholson, and this ambition was realized, he working for the 
temperance enactment bearing his name. The actual life of his 
paper was little short of a year. He struggled bravely against the 
panic of 1893 '^"d '^'^'^s reduced to pathetic and sore straits in the 
hope of weathering the storm, but was finally forced to give up the 


The Russia\'ille Obsen-er was founded a number of years ago, 
and is a permanent addition to the county newspapers, to all appear- 
ances. The Greentown Gem is a bright and prosperous publication 
representing the interests of eastern Howard county, being pub- 
lished at Greentown. 


One of the earliest of magazine publications devoted to special 
interests was The Water Cure Era, published at New London in 
the forties. It was a monthly paper of sixteen pages, devoted to an 
explanation of the doctrines of the water cure, being edited by Drs. 


T. P, Albertsi)!! and A. \'. Talbert, and was issued from tlie Pioneer 
office. A similar publication was, for several years, published in 
Kokomo at the Invalids" Home b_\- Dr. T. V. Gifforcl. Aaron Walk- 
er published the Christian Foundation, devoted to the doctrines of 
the Disciples' church. 


A newspaper intentionally short li\-ed was that pulilished by 
W. S. Annstrong-, called The Volapuck. appealing to the Kokomo 
public against the Indiana Natural Gas and Oil Companw and for 
the municipal ownership (^f a water w(_irks plant. During the Roose- 
velt campaign Mr. Armstrong- published The Protest, in which he 
urg'ed the defeat of Judge Parker for the presidency. 


The Kokomo News, a daily publication, was established in 
1896, occupying the old Tribune corner, at the intersection of Mul- 
berry and Buckeye streets. The proprietors and editors of this 
paper were \\\ H. Staley and son. E. T. Staley, who came here 
from Frankfort. The property finally fell in to the hands of W. J. 
Spruce, and later into the ownership of a syndicate of which R. L. 
Williamson was the responsible head. The Kokomo News com- 
pany was finally fonned, an organization composed chiefly of Koko- 
UKT capital, and the property was taken over by the new organiza- 
tion. L. R. Naftzger was placed in editorial charge, and The News 
took on an extensive growth and a wide importance. W. L. Austell 
was business manager. In time the company passed into a receiver- 
ship, the management falling to W. B. Westlake, of Marion, Ind. 
When the paper was legally sold it came into the management of 
Trn\vbridg-e & Harris, Mr. Trowbridge finallv succeeding to sole 

3i8 . morrow's history 

direction and ostensible ownership. He ran the paper for several 
months, finally disposing of it to The Kokomo Dispatch. In the 
death of The News, 1908, perished the last of the third paper enter- 
prises of Kokomo. Man}- ha\'e floated upon the sea of newspaper- 
dom and all failed in turn. 

Freeman Cooper, who had published a paper at Russiaville, 
founded The Kokomo Journal, and, after he relinquished that pub- 
lication, Milton Garrigus took charge of it. The plant was well 
equipped typographically, but the actual printing was done at The 
Dispatch ofifice. Mr. Garrigus sold the plant to a company interested 
in propagating the Populist doctrines. The paper was called the 
Industrial Union. In the end the paper ceased publication and the 
outfit was bought by S. E. Nicholsan, who had conducted the 
Russiaville Observer, and who decided to establish a daily paper in 

Bv Otis C. Poll.\rd. 

"The present site of Kokomo," says an authority," was covered 
with immense trees and a thicket of underbrush, through which a 
bird could scarcely fly. There was no improvement here then, but 
Foster's log house, log barn and a small patch of clearing around 
them. Where the Frances hotel stands, upon the site of the old Clin- 
ton hotel, was once a swamp and fish were caught a few yards north 
of it. Justice Henry L. Ahireland saw a team drawing a load of 
wood stall upon ]Main street." 

Choice lots in an early day were along High street. They sold 
for five dollars and seven dollars each. The Howard National Bank 
and Frances hotel corners could have been bought for a few skins. 
The Nord}-ke for R. G. Smith) quarter section, near the city, was 
wortli three hundred and twentv dollars. 


\\'hen the original sur\'ey of tiie Foster donation was made, a 
mistake of one chain was made, and as a result Mr. Foster's yard 
was encroached upon. On this account the commissioners refused 
to accept Mr. Foster's deed. The discrepancy was rectified, one of 
the chief witnesses being John Moulder, one of the locating commis- 
sioners of the county seat. Several lot owners were awarded 

The original survey of Foster's donation was bounded by Tay- 
lor, Union, High and Washington streets. The tier of lots on the 
north side of Taylor street, on the west side of \A'ashington street 
and on the south side of High street were afterwards laid off. The 
cost of the sui-vey has been preserved by the county records. To 
Austin C. Sheets, county surveyor, was made the following allow- 
ances at the December term, 1844: Surveying- donation, $1.30; 
plat of same, 50 cents: survey of public square, $1 ; plat of town, 
50 cents; thirty-two lots at 25 cents each, $8.50: total, $11.50. 

George Gay and Silas Fawcett. ch?inmen, for cutting- off the 
public square, were allowed $6.i2j-4 each. Christopher Cromer, 
marker, was allowed $4.37>^. March, 1845, the record contains an 
allowance as follows: Suiweying donation, $1.50: plat of same, 50 
cents: sixty-eight lots at 25 cents each, $17: plat of town. Si: 
total, $20. 

David Foster was one of the most conspicuous characters in the 
life of Kokomo for many years. He generally wore a fur cap, a lilue 
army coat and carried a basket. When he spoke he had a peculiar 
way of lifting his right hand to the level of his head and whistling, 
and then uttering whatever he had to say. His financial acumen 
was ever uppei-most. 

Having one afternoon bartered with S. C. ^loore, a pinneer 
lumber dealer and sawmill man of Kokomo, for the saje of a cow, 
he returned bv ^Moore's lumlier vard, at the foot of what is now 


South Union street, at tlie nortli creek bank, after his evening- meal, 
and was informed that "Fnrt Sumpter had been fired upon and civil 
war was imminent." h'uster tlirew up his hand and whistled. ".\h! 
Ah! Trying- to get my cnw cheaper?" He disljelieved the truth of 
the report. Learning- that a friend had sold his farm, and was pur- 
chasing many things for his children, Foster obseiwed : "Going! 
Going! A gold watch! A set of furs! This and that! Going! 

The g-rowth of the town he had seen develop from his log 
cabin finally drove his family from the double frame house he had 
occupied for years and which stood originally in what is now Main 
street. The notable stn.icture was moved to the west of the newly 
laid-out street and finally given over to other occupancy until torn 

In his day Foster was a heavy landowner, being proprietor of 
five hundred and fifty-two acres in the reserve section in 1846, on 
which he had improvements assessed at one thousand five hundred 
and fifteen dollars. The land was returned for taxation at two 
thousand seven hundred and sixty dollars. He owned sixty-seven 
lots, most of which were returned at ten dollars each, but which 
aggregated one thousand and three dollars. He had seven hundred 
and eighty-six dollars' worth of personal property. His total as- 
sessment was six thousand and sixty-fi^ur dollars. His total tax 
was fifty-three dollars and twenty cents, which he was not able to 
pay at (-ince, handing o\-er to the treasurer twenty one dollars and 
twenty cents as the first payment. 


There was not much to mark the difference between the city 
and farm life surrounding Kokomo in that pioneer day. The snow 

Founder of Kokomo. 



was knee deep when Dr. Lewis Keni reached the home of George 
Sni.idgrass, on the banks of Little \\'ildcat creek, Harrison town- 
sliip, April 18, 1846, in compan}^ with his brother. Jacob Kern. The 
doctor was then fottrteen years of age. Here and there a patch of 
grotmd had been cleared. The country was one wild sweep of 
woods. The next morning he was awakened by ~Siv. Snodgrass 
caUing his son : "Newton! Have you fed the cattle yet. Xewton?" 
"No," answered Newton. "You had better feed them," came the 
response. The son shouldered his ax and advanced into the dejiths 
of the forest. He fed the cattle by cutting off the limbs <if trees 
and the cattle ate of the tender part of the branches, "browsed" or 
"buddeil." The inhabitants of the county in the winter time lived 
mainly upon cornbread. ^■enison, wild turkey and various game. 
The cabin of Judge N. R. Linsday, the first resident lawyer of 
the county, and the cabin of Dr. Corydon Richmond, then a prac- 
ticing physician, in 1845, faced each other on Union street, between 
Sycamore and High streets. In clearing the woods for gardens the 
men threw the brush in front of the cabins, and for the families to 
be neighborly the women had to travel a long- way around to reach 
either home. • Wildcat creek, a short distance south, was theii a 
clear, clean stream, with a swift current. In the deed of the ]\Iiami 
reserve the "rapids of Wildcat creek" were mentioned. Alas! what 


Malaria was the bane of the city and county. To stay its rav- 
ages a tea was made of roots of rhubarb, as bitter a decoction as 
ever passed human lips. After Judge Linsday moved onto the W. 
B. Smith farm on West Sycamore street, his oldest son, James Lins- 
day, and daughter, Mrs. L. E. Harrison, were critically ill with 
malarial fever, the son dying. In that day they had strange ideas 


about medical treatment. In cases of measles the cabin was to be 
shut up as nearly airtight as possible, and it is now to be seen that 
the construction of the cabins, which was so that the air was not 
entirely excluded, is what saved man}- a sick person's life. In fevers 
the patients were denied water to drink. When Airs. Harrison was 
so sick with the malaria, she piteously begged the hired woman to 
get her some water, and employed every expedient to secure it, but 
without success. Watching a favorable opportunity when not her- 
self obsei-yed, she left her bed and staggered to the spring on the 
side of the hill, where she drank all the water she desired. There 
chanced to be a tub of warm rinse water near the house, and 
prompted by an impulse she enjoyed a bath. Finally seen by the 
hired woman, the seiwant's piercing screams set the whole household 
into a state of perfect terror. Mrs. Harrison was hustled to bed 
and it was a solemn and agitated family that tearfully gathered 
about her bedside. The sick young lady's death was expected at 
any moment, but her experience was her life salvation. She per- 
spired as never since her illness and recoveiw at once began. 

Moscjuitoes were very bad in an early day in Kokomo, as they 
were in the year 1908 — history repeating itself — but the pioneers 
triumphed. A Swiss dress was often serviceable at night to en- 
able people to sleep. They had no mosquito bars, and even if they 
had these might have proved as unsuccessful as those of 1908. 


Upon social occasions, which consisted for the most part of 
husking bees, the pioneers gathered in to help a farmer husk his 
com. Cabin and bam raisings were stellar events, as were log- 
rollings, when city and town folk mingled to perform the necessary 
labors of the forest. Oxen were used in preference to horses by the 


pioneers. They were more patient to plow through the deep mud 
and horses were easily snag-ged by the fallen timber. Going to 
church'was a social treat and the arrival of Methodist circuit riders 
always welcomed. 

At the pioneer parties in Kokomo partners were selected in a 
peculiar manner. Some person was seated on a chair with a girl 
and the guests approached singing : 

"Here we come, three frogs are we, 
Courting your daughter, so rare so fair. 
Can we have lodging here, oh ! here ? 
Can we have lodging here, oh! here?" 

"This is my daughter, sitting upon my knee; 
Neither of you there, can have lodging here, oh ! here. 
Neither of you there, can have lodging here, oh ! here." 

The seekers then sang a retort : 

"We will go farther, and find fairer than you. 
We will go farther, and find fairer than you." 

On the next round the daughter was given to one of the three 
named by the donor, and so on until the entire company was given 
. partners. 

The women did not have the conveniences of gas and electricity 
with which to cook. The pioneer women cooked in the fireplace, 
which was equipped with a crane, and had skillets with legs and 
covers, the hot coals being placed upon top of the covers to assist 
the fire below in cooking. Preparing the meals in this manner meant 
red faces in winter and physical suffering in August, although' out- 


side (i\-ens and fires were often used with more convenience and com- 
fort. Judge Linsday was the aristocrat of the place. Before com- 
ing to Kokomo he drove with a load of wheat from Pendleton, 
where he lived, to Cincinnati, sold it. and bought not only a law 
library, but his wife a cooking stove, tlie first in Kokomo. and the 
envy of all the town. 


The first load of apples ever brought to Kokomo — in fact. How- 
ard county — was hauled here by Colonel T. J. Harrison, son-in- 
law of Judge X. R. Linsday, the first being brought from the home 
of Colonel Harrison's father in southern Indiana. Fruit was scarce 
and none gTown in this locality, in the first settlement of the coun- 
tiy. in the nature of the case. Colonel Harrison was studying law 
with Judge Linsday and desiring to pay his old home a visit. )ie 
agreed to with Judge Linsday to bring him a load of apples if the 
Judge would lend him a team and wagon in which to haul the load. 
Had Colonel Harrison driven with a wagon bed of gold into the 
yard of Judge Linsday, he would not have been half as welcome as 
he was when* he crossed the premises with the luscious and mellow 
fruit. The wagon bed was loaded to the very top, first with a layer 
of straw and then a depth of apples in turn, so it was difficult to see 
how Colonel Harrison had any seat upon whicli to make the return 
trip. Aaron Linsday clambered upon the wagon wheels antl passed 
around the treasures to mouths which fairly watered. With his 
pockets filled and munching- a golden specimen of orchard fruit, he 
started with rapid strides to invite the Bohans and the Fosters to 
take all they wanted. The news of the arrival of the apples spread, 
and they were divided among farmers in all parts of the county. 



The first literar}- and deljatino- society in the history of the 
county and in which Kokoniu citizens were the leading- spirits, was 
known as the Richardviile County Lyceum. Its initiatii.m fee was 
twelve cents, and two-thirds of those present, at any meeting, could 
admit a new member. The same vote was rec^uired to le\y a tax. 
Every member was to be heard in his defense before fined by the 
president, and an appeal from the chair to the house was allowed. 
Any one could retire from membership by paying all the "pecuniary 
arrears." Leading members were John Bohan, afterwards county 
auditor and for years a justice of the peace in Kokomo: H. C. 
Stewart, Dr. Con-don, Richmond, who tiled at an advanced age at 
his home in Kokomo: A. North, J. M. Harlin, W. C. Johns, G. W. 
Poisal, X. R. Linsday, N. Harding, Thomas Lamborn, J. S. Thomp- 
son. D. Foster, J. L. Jones, A. C. Sheets, J. T. McClintock, C. J. 
Allison and D. Bates. The jolly and joking crew of Kokomo were 
Dr. Richmond, David Foster, Charles D. Murray, Harles Ashley 
and John Bohan. In getting ofl:' jokes, telling side-splitting stories, 
and in provoking his listeners with laughter, lawyer Murray was an 
expert with few equals, and no superiors. A notice appearing in the 
New London Pioneer, July 1 1, 1849, for a camp meeting to be held 
at Kokomo, August 17, 1849, discloses the extent of Kokomo's 
growth, in a large measure. The notice read : "The ground is se- 
lected within a quarter of a mile of this town, Kokomo. We ha\-e 
two taverns and one g-rocery, hence no huckstering-." 

The early day roads leading- to and from Kokomo, with few 
exceptions, had no direction in particular. In many months of the 
year their condition was uniformly bad. The president judges, ac- 
companied generally by several lawyers, journeyed from county to 
countv to attend court. As late as the sixties wild flags grew upon 

326 morrow's history 

the public square two feet high. In the earhest days of the town 
the inhabitable portion was almost entirely included within the 
public square. The houses were constructed of rough hewn logs. 
Stores were few in number. Merchants were compelled to secure 
licenses to sell their commodities. The license to sell clocks was 
fixed by the board of commissioners, 1849, at twenty dollars. David 
Foster obtained the first merchant's license by the payment of five 
dollars, and was to sell his wares in Kokomo. Charles \\'arren and 
Phillip Ramsayer, in March, 1845, obtained licenses as merchants 
in the city, while pennission was granted Jonathan Haworth to sell 
in [Monroe township. ]\Ir. Foster's license was granted at tlie De- 
cember term of the commissioners, 1844. The county abounded in 
deer about Kokomo. A dense forest surrounded the whole of Ko- 
komo. The first two-story frame building in the coimty was hewn out 
of the logs of the surrounding forest, and occupied l)y Justice Bohan, 
in this city, with a store. It was here that pioneer lawyers and 
others assembled to exchange experiences and discuss various topics. 

In December, 185 1, a meeting- of the qualified voters was held 
at the court house for the purpose of incorporating the town, with 
Levi Birt as chaimian and H. B. Havens as secretary. These two 
persons afterwards divided Kokomo into five districts. An election 
was subsequently held and the following persons selected trustees: 

First district, C. D. [Murray; .'second district, L. [\I. Harland; 
third district, Levi Birt; fourth district, C. Richmond; fifth district, 
Adkins James. 


At the June term of the board of count)- commissioners, 1855, 
Henry A. Brouse presented a petition for the incorporation of the 
town of Kokomo. He showed that a proper suiwey had been made 
and that the map, as required by law, had been filed with the treas- 


urer, for the inspection of the pubHc. An election was ordered and 
held at the office of the city clerk of Kokomo on the twenty-second 
day of the same month. Perhaps the notice was too short. But 
be that as it may, the election was not held, a showing to that effect 
being made to the commissioners subsequently by Attorney J. W. 
Robinson, who pleaded for another chance. This was afforded. 
The election was held October i, 1855, as ordered. There were 
sixty-two votes for incorporation and three opposed. Thereupon 
the incorporation was duly and legally ordered. 

A writer says : "The infant city grew very slowly for several 
years. The heavy timber and underbrush, and the swampy condi- 
tion of the soil, combined to retard the growth and prosperity of 
the town. When the timber was cut down, so that the sunlight 
could penetrate to the earth, vegetation became very profuse and 
luxuriant. This decaying vegetable matter created chills and fever, 
ague and incidental diseases. For many years quinine was an 
article as staple as flour. It was no uncommon thing for all the mem- 
bers of a family to be confined to bed at the same time. Many 
moved awav because of sickness, and other feared to come for the 
same cause. In 1852, the number of inhabitants of the town was 
only one hundred and fifty-two, after eight years of existence." 
The ague was terrible, and Drs. C. Richmond and his brother, Orse- 
mus Richmond, were truly hemes, compelled to travel about on foot, 
of nights, being unable oft times to travel even horse back. The 
shakings and chills of ague were a positive terror to the pioneer 
residents of the town and countrv. 

Kokomo's first bank — the Indian Resen-e Bank — was organ- 
ized April I, 1854. and the articles of incorporation were acknowl- 

328 morrow's history 

edged before C. D. Murray, March ly. 1854. Its existence was to 
continue until April i, 1874, but. after a few years, it ceased busi- 
ness. The institution was located on the Darby comer. A robbery 
was perpetrated and the bank never recovered from the shock. The 
capital stock was for three hundred thousand dollars, and there 
were three stockholders, David Foster, John Bohan and Harles Ash- 
ley. Foster's private fortune was impaired by the break. 

Late in the forties, and early in the fifties, the constant cry of 
public agitation was the fact that the city had voted to take ten thou- 
sand dollars stock in the Indianapolis & Peru railroad company, 
and that nothing in return was obtained, and so far as known noth- 
ing has ever to this late date been received directly upon, the stock, 
lost under foreclosure proceedings. But the early residents of Ko- 
komo took an imperfect view of the situation. The gift was more 
than repaid in the inestimable benefits derived to the city from the 
building of the road, which forged the new county seat to the fore- 
most rank. In later years the policy was entered'upon of giving do- 
nations to factories by the citizens to secure the location of industries, 
and the method was the means of making the city what it has be- 
come. But in the location of the railroad a peculiar \-iew was taken 
b}' the business men. The turned heaven and earth to ha\-e it lo- 
cated along Bucke}'e street, thinking it would be a peculiar benefit 
to the property in front of which it passed, and that freig'ht bills and 
drayage bills could be saved b}' having the tracks pass along in front 
of the business establishments. These hopes proved erroneous, and 
no mistake was greater than locating the road where it is, and for 
its removal the city and the public would be thankful beyond meas- 
ure. Finally the Kokonio public entered upon the aid of railroad 
building with less legal cjuestion and with a more prodigal hand. A 
subsidy was voted for the construction of a railroad line from Frank- 
fort to Kc konio, and from Marion to Kokomo, but in this dual fomi 


the donation was set aside by the supreme court. The sequel was 
the donation of twenty-four thousand dollars to the Kokomo-Frank- 
fort line. These two roads were builded separately and as stand- 
ard guage lines, but eventually were consolidated and C(in\-erted into 
a narrow gauge system, reaching to Toledo on the east and St. 
Louis on the west. The road was destined to another change, and 
became a part of the Cloverleaf system, being returned to a standard 
guage system. 

January 9, 1864, the Jay & Dolman grain elevators, situated 
just above the depot of the Peru & Indianapolis depot, burned. This 
was an exciting time in the histoi-y of the town of Kokomo. The 
intense heat of the burning structure was minimized when the wheat, 
released from the bins in which it was confined, snKithered the 
flames. The problem was to save the S. Rosenthal storage rooms 
and the Howard flouring mills, removed but a sin irt tlistance from 
the elevator, but this object was accomplished. However, cm the 
Monday following, an explosion destro)'ed the plant of the fli^uring 
mill. The boiler gave way. Two men were killed as the result of 
the explosicin. William Leas, a nephew of the proprietor, W'orley 
Leas and M. W'eddle. the miller. So violent was the explosion that 
a thousand-pound piece landed in the yard of the residence of Dr. 
Corydon, Richmond, cutting ufif a fence post, close to the ground. 
Mr. Lease was injured, but not seriously. The loss (if Mr. Leas 
approached ten thousand dollars, as did that of Jay & Dolman. The 
milling, as well as the elevator properties, were subsequently rebuilt 
and constituted the chief commercial distinctions of the city for a 
number of years. 


Kokomo, in tlie latter part nf the sixties, might have realized 
the glories that she diil, resulting from the discuverv of nntural 


g"as, in the eighties. A company was organized to explore for oil 
in 1869, and, as subsequent events proved, the drill, in quest of oil, 
was within a short distance of gas when the project was abandoned 
from the fact that the drill became fast, and the well thus started, 
and so near success, was abandoned. 

An election was held March 31. 1865, to determine whether 
the town of Kokomo should ha\-e a cit}- organization, which propo- 
sition carried. The ballots voted were not printed, nor of the elabo- 
rate description known in late years, under the Australian ballot 
system, but were merely slips of common fool'scap paper, upon 
which "Xo" was written by those opposed to incorporation, and 
"Yes" by those favoring the step. The affirmative vote carried by 
a material majority. The official records of the election were re- 
corded with the names of the voters upon common writing paper. 
The first city government was organized with the following officers : 
]\Ia}-or. Nelson Purdimi : clerk. J. A. Coffin ; treasurer, P. B. Ken- 
nedy: city attorney, Clark X. Pollard. In that day the city at- 
torney was elected by the people, whereas, in 1908. that officer is 
chosen by a majority of the common council, as the law has di- 
rected for several years past. 


In the year 1862 there was a tragic event in the history of 
Kokomo town. A stiff and furious blowing northeasterner was re- 
sponsible for it all. Philip Kemp and companions felt a jar. They 
were alarmed, but could not tell why. Instinctively they swung 
themselves from the second story of a low building, on the Darby 
comer. Then came a crash, a volume of dust, and a mountain of 
debris arose. T. C. Philip's Tribune was an undistinguishable 
wreck and a hardware store had passed out of existence. The 
James-Armstrong firm was erecting a three-story building. It was 


to be tlie building of the town. It was just ready for the roof 
when a miniature cyclone carried it down upon its humble neighbor. 
A public calamity had been sustained and a town meeting was 
called. Despair was written upon every countenance. Volunteers 
were called for. ]Mr. John W. Cooper, attorney, among many citi- 
zens, pushed a wheelbarrow and loaded brick for three days. At 
the end of that time the citizens had the ground cleared for the 
builders. A second structure, in the course of time, mounted sky- 
ward, and another building replaced that driven into the earth at 
the Darby corner. 

In the spring of 1870 the entire west side of the court house 
square was destroyed by fire. The structures were of frame and 
burned like tinder, and the wind was high, carrying the sparks and 
burning fragments throughout the village, to its eminent peril. The 
citizens wore anxious faces and fought to save their homes. For- 
tunately the fire was confined to the district in which it started 
through mysterious origin. Mrs. Xicholas Trobaugli was carried 
out of a burning building and her life saved. The destruction of 
so much business property was a blow to the town's pnisperity, but 
it rallied in due time, and on the site of the burned district arose 
the old opera house, started in 1872, which was a big structure for 
its day and upon the stage of which appeared in succeeding years 
the foremost play folks of the country and the most eminent lec- 
turers. The fire of the burning structures, exclusively frame, were 
carried over the town, and it was the fight of eveiy man to save his 
home and family. J. M. Mader worked like a hero for others, for- 
getting two fat hogs, which burned to a crisp, and a spring wagon, 
on his own premises. The bucket brigade was a corps 'if honor. 


Important epochs in the commercial development of the city 
were the periods when an artificial gas plant was installed. The 


city was lighted by tlie street corner gas lamps, turned out at full 
moon, even though that did not in fact exist, predicted, however, 
by the almanac, which go\-erned. Succeeding natural gas as a 
city illuminant was electricity. Another important municipal auxil- 
iary was the water works plant. Its installation was conscientious- 
ly opposed upon the ground that the city was too small to demand 
so important an improvement at the time and too poor to bear the 
financial burden of its installation, but no one anticipated the growth 
of the city, due to natural gas. What might have proven a calamity, 
according to the honest predictions of its opponents, proved a bless- 
ing, when the city grew to proportions surpassing the wildest dreams. 
In time the volunteer fire department, which included the leading 
citizens of the city, gave way to a paid fire department. But the 
old volunteer department, of which D. L. Duke and H. M. Cooper 
were conspicuous members, with a score of other devoted citizens, 
deserves a prominent place in the memory of posterity. A letter 
written by M. M.' Pomeroy. of La Crosse. Wis.. ]\Iay 2/. 1871, and 
appearing in the Kokomo Democrat June 29, gives a good idea of 
Kokomo in that period. His letter is abbreviated : 

"There is but one saloon, or place where intoxicating 

liquors are sold. * * * But little demand for officers, jails and poor 
houses. * * * The county jail is not much of an affair, nor is it well 
patronized. * * * Prominent among her educational institutions 
stands Howard College, whose able and popular president, M. B. 
Hopkins, has e\-er lieen a bright example, and earnest worker, in the 
thankless field of education and imparting knowledge. Besides the 
college named, are several fine schools, with four new school houses 
soon to be built. 

"The finest church in the place is the edifice belonging to the 
Methodist Episcopal Society, which society is the largest and most 
prosperous in Kokomo. Xext in order comes the Christian Society, 


the Presbyterian, Congregational, the Friends, or Quakers, and the 
CathoHcs — six societies in all. 'Die spirituaHsts have a society here 
and hold Sunday picnic meetings in the grove, near the fair grcnmds, 
just out of the city, where their religious exercises are noted for 
social enjoyment and liberality of belief and expression. 

"The Howard county fair grounds are better than the average, 
and enclose a veiy fine half-mile trotting track, whereon fast horses 
compete with each other, for agricultural premiums. 

"The principal water course here is Wildcat creek, a reckless, 
meandering stream, almost large enough to be called a river. It 
is too shallow for navigation and too even tenored to be dammed 
much, so it is not used for manufacturing to any extent. The 
stream is good for fishing. 

"The streets of Kokomo are being rapidly macadamized. Some 
years ag'o T. C. Philips and friends hired laborers, and, searching 
tor stone, finally discovered a quarry near the cit}'. The great staple 
is black walnut timber. The wealth from this commodity exceeds 
that derived from the sale of all the grain. The lumber is sent to- 
eastern cities, bringing from forty to fifty dollars a thousand feet. 

"Land sells from fifty dollars up. 

"There are six large dry goods stores, twenty-one grocery 
stores, six boot and shoe stores, five drug stores, three stnve and tin 
stores, three good hardware stores, five millinery establisliments 
and numerous smaller stores. There is a good foundry and four 
wood planing establishments. 

"The ladies here dress in good taste and with more display than 
is usually found in places the size of Kokomo." 


In Jul}-, 1871, the city was thunderstruck b}- the arrest of Jam;s 
Lang, Frank Lang- and Isaac Lang-, citizens of this place, with Har- 


r}' Homer. Sam Rivers and Ed Wilson, citizens wherever their hats 
were off, by an United States secret service officer, upon the charge 
of counterfeiting. The Lang homestead was about two miles south- 
east of the city and had been a regular headquarters for these con- 
genial spirits. A detective giving the name of Baker arrived 
in Kokomo a few months before the arrest of the Lang gang 
was consummated. He entered into the confidence of the Kokomo. 
city officials, and then hired out to the Langs, ostensibly as a farm 
hand. His real identity was never suspicioned and he entered into 
various night enterprises with them, and soon gained their com- 
plete confidence. His assistant, in an important sense, was Charles 
Bechtel, town marshal of Kokomo, who was shrewd in his man- 
euvres. Baker finally decoyed Frank Lang tcy Cleveland. Ohio, 
where they were to undertake a safe blowing expedition. Baker rep- 
resenting that he knew an expert safe blower in that city. Both 
Lang and the detective were placed under arrest, but of course. 
Baker was soon released. About eight thousand dollars, all bogus 
money, was secured from the gang. Some three hundred or four 
hundred dollars counterfeit money was found secreted about the 
premises. In a tin can was two hundred dollars of the "queer" and 
thirty rings dug up on Sunday from the garden of the Lang home 
by Mr. Bechtel. The detective discovered one hundred and twenty 
dollars of bogus money hidden beneath the shingles of the roof of 
the house. One hundred dollars of counterfeit money of denomina- 
tion of ten dollars was found on the person of Frank Lang when ar- 
rested. James Lang, father of the Lang boys, sickened and died 
soon after his arrest, and was never brought to trial, but the Lang 
brothers served penitentiaiy sentences. The exposure of the gang 
brought forth from the Democrat an editorial which reflects the 
excited state of mind of the Kokomo public at that time: "Since 


the arrests many foolish remarks have been made, and much fooHsh 
gossip has been indulged in. Reports to the effect that quite a num- 
ber more are to be arrested ; that thirty, or forty were implicated in 
this city and county ; that this prominent professional man and that 
prominent business man was implicated, etc., is all wrong, all foolish, 
all incorrect, and we fear much of its wicked and malicious insinua- 
tions, mean hints and dirty intimations, are too frequent on and 
against the fair fame and good name of some of our 
most prominent citizens. The end of all this will be the 
putting on of a head or two. We know of what we write, 
and now advise those interested to take due notice of the same. If 
the detectives suspicioned any one else the}- are certainly too smart 
to g'ive intimation of it to any one. And the retail gossipers of 
this city will do well to look to their own cases, and cease to cast 
vile suspicions on their neighbors. Even' good citizen desires to 
see all evil doers brought to justice, but no good and much evil will 
result from the vile aspersions cast against prominent men and 
ladies in this city. A hint to the wise, etc." 

The Mohlan gang-, the Lang gang, are but memories. Kokomo 
is now a leading commercial center of Indiana, characterized by a 
policy of law and order, a sound moral order and commercial 



The history of New London is the history in chief of Howard 
county during the forties. The county was then known as Rich- 
ardville, being named after a prominent member of the Miami tribe 
of Indians. 

Sid) morrow's history 

Xew London was the chief seat of commercial importance, 
and of intellectual progress to be found within the confines of what 
later became known as Howard county. It was the center of the 
free soil movement, supported the first newspaper printed in Howard 
county, and its people were fully abreast of the times. As a com- 
mercial point it was promising. It had varied industries, operated 
with profit, and as a trading center was in the first class. The orig- 
inal plat of the town was laid oft" by John Lamb, March 13, 1845, 
the survey being made by Austin C. Sheets, surveyor of Richard- 
ville county, consisting of twelve lots, sixty-six by one hundred and 
thirty-two feet, bounded by Main street upon the west. High street 
upon the North, Market street on the east, and below Mill street. 
Mr. Lamb also had lots. 

His example in town building was emulated by others, and on 
June 25, 1845, Reuben Edgerton submitted a plat of lots, west of 
the original plat of Mr. Lamb. These lots started west of Main 
street, were bounded on the west by Peru street, and the north and 
south boundaries followed on the same general boundaries as the 
original plat, an intersecting street being Church street. The third 
and fourth additions to the town were by Mr. Edgerton. who laid 
ofif his second addition. May 13, 1846, and Isaac W. Johnson, who 
added thirty lots to the town, December 22, 1848. 

The most pretentious addition to Xew London was that made 
by Dr. Moses R. Wickersham, Februan- 8, 1849. The most of it 
lay east of Main street, which is today the dividing line of the town. 
Dr. Wickersham was one of those who had implicit faith in New 
London becoming the county seat of Howard coimty. an e.xpecta- 
tion destined to be disappointed. Dr. ^^'ickersham laid oft' a public 
sc|uare. one hundred and thirty-two by one hundred and thirty-two 
feet, occupied today by an Adventist church, and a seminary square 
one hundred and two bv one hundred and four feet. In announc- 


ing the opening of his addition in tlie Pioneer Dr. ^Vickersham 
said: "There is located in the center of the plat a public square, 
or park, on a delightful and elevated eminence, entirely surrounded 
by streets and avenues. Also a large area of ground situated in a 
beautiful grove, adjoining said lots, enclosed by an avenue of forty 
feet intersected by streets, from the four quarters of the compass, 
upon which there is to be built the coming season, a public semi- 
nary, the building to be forty feet by thirtj'-six feet, two stories 
high-, completely finished off, for the accomodation of a high school. 
There will be commenced in the spring, a large four-story merchant 
mill, adjoining the town. The water power in and adjoining the 
village is inexhaustible, the second to none in the state. No section 
of the West offers stronger inducements to mechanics of all trades 
than New London." 

On November 29, 1848, the Pioneer said editoriahy: "Three 
years and a half ago, the plat upon which the village of New Lon- 
don now stands was an unbroken forest. Now there are four large 
dry goods stores, blacksmiths, cabinet joiners, shoemakers, two 
tanneries, tailors, etc., seven or eight saw and grist mills in the 
immediate neighborhood of the town. There are woolen factories, 
turning lathes, all propelled by water power and a fair prospect of 
a larger amount of improvement next season than of any previous 
one. We counted nearly fifty good houses now commenced." 


New London was a chief center in the Miami reserve rapidly 
being settled. The Indiana State Sentinel said on November 29, 
1848, of the reserve: "Mostly in consequences of the location of 
the Indianapolis & Peru Railroad, now under contract from Indian- 
apolis to Noblesville, which passes directly through the center of the 


53^ morrow's history 

reserve, both Tipton and Kokomo being points, and also the near 
approach of the Indianapohs «& Bellefotmtaine Railroad to the east- 
ern part of the resene, a part of which road, commencing at In- 
dianapolis, is also under contract. lands are being sold rapidly in the 
Miami resen-e. The Miami Indians for many years held on to 
these lands as with a dying grasp, and until the balance of the 
country had been sold out, and settled all around them. The\- are 
now sold at two dollars per acre. But veiy little of the reserve has 
been sold upon speculation, and the pre-emption law under which 
a large portion of the reserve was sold to actual settlers makes a 
large part of it already a thickly settled country. The largest bod- 
ies of vacant lands are nearest to the two railroad routes above 
mentioned. The receiver of public monies at Indianapolis said that 
for the present month the sale a\-eraged nearly two thousand dol- 
lars a day." 

Xew London was incorporated by an act of the legislature ap- 
proved February 12, 1848. By the provisions of this act the north 
boundary line was to be one-fourth of a mile north, and parallel to 
Mill street, the south line to be one-fourth of a mile south and 
parallel to the same street, the east line the same distance east and 
the west line the same distance west, both likewise parallel to Main 
street. It was stipulated that the election for trustees should be 
held within one month after the ist Monday in March, 1848, and it 
was made lawful for the voters of Monroe township to elect a jus- 
tice of the peace and a constable, in addition to those already au- 
thorized by law. the election being set for the ist Monday in April, 

In its issue of January 31, 1849, the Pioneer said: "The 
county commissioners at their December tenn authorized the in- 
corporation of New London, under the statute empowering the 
electors to hold an election, December 30. 1848. Trustees were 


selected as follows : First ward, M. R. Wickersham ; second ward, 
David Rees; third ward, Richard Nixon; fourth ward, Isam Hunt; 
fifth ward, Jehu Wickersham. These tnistees held an election Janu- 
ary 1 8, 1849, electing- the following officers: president, Isam Hunt; 
clerk, T. P. Albertson ; assessor, James Harbert; collector, William 

The newly incorporated village had laws very interesting, con- 
trasted with the legal regulations of the present day. The owner 
of any hog, shoat or chicken, suffering any one of the descriptions 
enumerated, to run at large, was liable to a fine of five to twenty- 
five cents a day. A fine of seventy-five cents a day was imposed 
upon any person for allowing a wagon, cart, sled or buggy, or a 
rick of wood, to obstruct the side walks, as long as twenty-four 
hours. In that period of time wood was plentiful and was ricked 
in long and high piles for use during the winter. 

The by-laws of the new town specified a fine of twenty dollars 
upon any one guilty of assault and battery. There was a fine of 
three doUai-s for each offense of employing vulgar language, for 
each unlawful sale of liquor, for running a horse, or any other ani- 
mal across any public thoroughfare; a fine not to be less than one 
dollar under any circumstances. 

For all exhibitions of wax figures, circus exhibitions, painting 
■exhibits, displays of rope, or wire dancing, theatrical exhibitions, 
sleight of hand performances, ventriloquist entertainments, or other 
shows, there was levied a license fee of two dollars to ten dollars a 

It was specified in law that every male citizen over the age of 
twenty-one years living within the corporation should pay fifty 
cents upon each one hundred dollars which he might own in the 
form of real estate, and sixteen cents upon each one hundred dollars 
of which he might be the owner in personal property. 


The assessor of the town was to receive for his labors seventy- 
five cents a day. the clerk twelve and one-half cents for each license 
he issued, and also two cents for each hundred words he recorded. 
The collector was allowed two per cent, on all monies collected. 
Licjuor licenses were one hundred and fifty dollars per annum, al- 
most a prohibitory fee in that day. 

In truth the wood pile question was an obtrusive one in the 
village of New London, as it was also at Kokomo at a later date. 
On November 4, 1848, the Pioneer said: "The idea has been sug- 
gested to us by a stranger passing over our streets the other day. 
that our village would lose nothing in the way of taste, neatness 
and beauty, if the walkways were unimcumbered by some large 
wood piles that have established themselves in various parts of 
town, also buggies, etc., that have placed themselves (doubtless 
without the consent of their owners) on the sidewalks, so that 
pedestrians have to pass almost to the middle of the streets to get 
by them." 

A better description of the town of New London, its com- 
mercial activity, and its village life, is not be found than that con- 
tained in a letter written by a visitor in the village and published 
in the Pioneer, August 18, 1848. 

"Near the northwestern boundar\-, the two branches of Honey 
creek come together, previous to which they wind gracefully around 
the town, forming, wnth the exception of one side, an island. But 
unlike most islands, the town is located upon an eminence, about 
one hundred feet above the creeks. On the west side is a saw mill, 
having a water fall of some twenty feet, which, from the piles of 
lumber around it, gave evidence of doing good execution. Above 
this, within a distance of two miles, are three other mills and fac- 
tories. Below the saw mill a few hundred yards, and a short dis- 
tance above where the two streams come together, is a fine flour- 


ing mill, so arranged as to use the water of both streams, and af- 
fording an abundance of water, with an excellent fall. Below this 
mill a short distance is another mill, and water privilege where a 
merchant mill is being erected. The commencement of a tannery 
at the bottom of the hill, on the north side of the town, has been 
started, which is a good situation, the water being led down a 
ravine a short distance but with little trouble from a splendid spring 
near the Friends' meeting house, on the top of the hill, and afford- 
ing a great abundance of water. Passing up the creek a short dis- 
tance there is a turning lathe and other machinery propelled by 
water, with a fall of thirty feet. A short distance above this, and 
immediately adjoining the town on the road, is another flouring 
mill with an overshot fall of some eighteen or twenty feet. Above 
this mill a short distance are two other water powers occupied by 
mills and machinery. These branches of water fed by springs af- 
ford an abundance of water throughout the year. These water 
privileges have all been improved at a comparatively trifling expense. 
Near the last mill I mentioned, a bathing establishment is being 
erected, on the water cure principle, there being a monthly publica- 
tion devoted to that object printed in this place. This is a town on 
the late Miami reserve, about seven miles east of the Michigan road, 
situated in the midst of a fertile and rolling country that would do 
good to the eyes of a New England Yankee to look upon after toil- 
ing over the Michigan road, which, from one end to the other, with 
few exceptions, affords a poor specimen of Indiana. I need not tell 
you that New London, which has been in existence a short time, 
and already numbering some two or three hundred inhabitants, will 
be a great manufacturing town. There are other villages in the 
reserve, which I am told, are springing up like magic. I spent yes- 
terday, it being the Sabbath, in this place, and attended public wor- 
ship at the Friends' meeting house. There was a full congregation 


and after a silence for a time so impressive, after the spirituality of 
their worship is considered, one of their speakers arose and made a 
short and impressive address. The ceremony of shaking hands 
took place and the assemblage dispersed. A majority of the citi- 
zens of this town will support Mr. Van Buren for President, and I 
was greatly amused during my visit to see Whigs and Democrats 
making common cause in argument against the supporters of Mr. 
Van Buren. I, being a Cass Democrat, and the union being so much 
unlike anything" I had ever seen before, I took very little part in 
politics during my visit. I was pleased to learn that the Cass men 
would stand firm, ]Mr. Van Buren's nomination to the contrary, 
notwithstanding. In this place there is already a division of the 
Sons of Temperance, and a Masonic lodge." 


Burlington, on the west, was a trading point sustaining large 
commercial relations with Xew London, and thus H(jward countv. 
Logansport, Lafayette and Cincinnati were trading centers for the 
population of the county also. Xew London became an important 
live stock market. 

In December, 1848, the Pioneer admonishes merchants of Cin- 
cinnati, Madison. Indianapolis, Lafayette, Delphi, Logansport and 
Peru that it was to their interest to advertise in the columns of the 
Pioneer to extend their trade. E. M. ^^"eaver, of Lafayette, be- 
came a continuous and heavy advertiser. 

Richard and Zimri Nixon were pioneer merchants in Xew 
London. Hubbard & Moss operated a cabinet ware room. Thomas 
Lightfoot and Clinton Gray conducted a gun and blacksmith shop. 
William Gifford devoted his efforts to blacksmithing. J. Lamb & 
Thompson having completed their large and spacious store room. 


advertised a large stock of summer goods, expressly for the mar- 
ket, and stated that they desired to buy one hundred head of year- 
lings and two 3'ear old cattle, for which part goods and part cash 
would be paid. At the "Old Stand," the Nixons advertised that 
they had every article to be found in a country store, all of which 
they were selling low for cash and country produce. A. C. Black 
& Company, conducting a boot and shoe shop, informed the public : 
"We will try to accomodate, both in working our own leather, or 
working the leather of our customers, ^^'e expect to keep a small 
lot of shoes and boots on hand the coming- fall, which we intend to 
sell cheap for cash." T. J. Faulkner, a leading- citizen, became the 
successor of Barritt & Company, a firm which comprised J. J. 
Barritt, C. O. Fiw and Patrick Costlow. Merchant & Blackburn 
were merchant tailors, but later. J. B. ^Merchant bought out his 
partner, T. Blackburn. Peak & Schooley did cabinet work. The 
Cincinnati stdre at E. Whitson's old stand entered the market for 
four hundred deer skins, and one thousanil fur skins, one thousand 
bushels of wheat, four hundred pounds of butter, four hundred 
pounds of flax seed and two hundred dozen of eggs. This establish- 
ment was conducted by H. G. Robertson & Company. Rees & Com- 
pany were owners of the Philadelphia store opposite the Black 
Horse tavem. A. S. Ellis was also a merchant tailor. J- ^^'• 
Jefferies owned the Farmers' store. L. Brackney opened a black- 
smith shop after the death of William Gifford. There was quite a 
commercial stir in New London when a market was opened in the 
town and advertisement made for five thousand bushels of ashes, 
field or house ashes, at five cents a pound, which were to be utilized 
in an ashery. Lindley & Whin sold stoves, tin ware and stone ware. 
In 1849 Rees & Company paid seventy-five cents a bushel fur wheat. 
Moses Cromwell afifected a competition by starting a store at 
his grist and saw mill, established upon the Wild Cat creek, midway 


between Kokomo and New London. Cromwell was a character- 
istic Kentuckian, and figures intei-estingly in the pioneer history of 
New London and the early courts of the county. Li the milling- 
entei-prise he had associated with him his brother, James Cromwell. 
Finally Adam Harvey, a pioneer blacksmith of the county, estab- 
lished a shop at the Cromwell mill. Har^^ey had driven through 
from Ohio with an ox team, which he later traded to a resident of 
Eastern Howard for his blacksmith tools. 

In June, 1849, the London hotel was opened in New London 
at the comer of Mill and Church streets by E. Whitson, a landlord 
described as possessing suavity of manner, courtesy, hospitality, 
being jolly and also good-looking. His stables were large and well 
filled with hay, oats and com, while his house was ain- and well 
furnished with everything to make the traveler feel at home, and 
his table furnished forth with everything necessary to make glad 
the heart of man. ^^^lat was known as the Black Horse tavem in 
the early days of New London was conducted by James Harbett. 

The Friends in New London in the early history of the village 
exerted a leading influence in religious, educational and intellectual 
aftairs. The "meeting house" was the chief center of public life. 
This structure in its day was one of the most notable buildings in 
the county. It was large and commodious, and constructed with 
special reference to the demands of the worshipers of that religion. 
The edifice was provided with a curtain partition by means of which 
the men and women could hold their separate meetings in absolute 
secrecy. When religious services were in progress the men sat 
upon one side of the church, wearing their hats, and the women 
occupied the other side of the church, wearing their bonnets. \Mien 
prayer was offered the congregation arose, but remained covered 
and turned their backs upon the preacher. The latter never re- 
ceived a salary, but if he needed aught, was always cared for by his 


parishioners. The Friends of New London in an early day dressed 
in the Wilham Penn style, the men conspicuous with their broad 
brimmed hats and collarless coats. Upon the occasion of the mid- 
week meeting, invariably held at 1 1 o'clock each Wednesday morn- 
ing, the housewife laid aside the dish pan and the man quit the 
harvest field to go to devotions, which lasted an hour. 

Consequent upon its religious life, and its advanced stand upon 
moral and intellectual matters, New London was a storm center of 
the slavei-y question. The Pioneer, an able paper, published in this 
promising village, stood square-toed for the free soil principles. It 
was edited by an able, courageous and well educated man, who 
made the influence of his paper widely felt. 

With the Friend the fugitive slave law was an "ungodly law." 
He felt that he was under no moral obligation to enforce it, or as- 
sist in its execution. In fact, he felt that his religious duty was to 
oppose it, might and main, so long as he did not fall within its toils. 


A case typical of the feelings of the Friends of New London 
is presented in the experience of Thomas Rich, father of Levi P. 
Rich, former councilman of Kokomo. Mr. Rich, the older, lived 
east of New London, and on his way to church one Sunday morn- 
ing in October, 1856, passed the home of Thomas Roberts, a 
well known colored man of New London, and received certain 
mysterious signs which he well understood. He directed his family 
and hired man to proceed to church, and himself remained behind 
to learn of the negro what he wanted. He explained that he had 
seven run-away slaves upon his hands and he was at a loss to know 
what to do with them. Mr. Rich tnld him to care for them care- 
fully, and to discreetly let it be known that he purposed to con- 
duct them to the Deer creek settlement, presumably in Ervin town- 

346 morrow's history 

ship. Tlie negro settlement in that locahty was known Ijy that 
name at that time. However, it was secretly arranged that while 
Roberts was upon his way to the Howard county settlement, he 
should switch. oi¥ from the usual route and approach the residence 
of Mr. Rich with his fugitives, which he did. 

Mr. Rich had informed his son, Levi, and hired man, to have 
his team hitched up by 8 o'clock, with everything in good condition, 
the curtain covering of the wagon tightly drawn and the sideboards 
on, as well as the wagon bed well filled with straw. All this was 
accomplished, the seven men secreted in the straw, and, by night, 
]\Ir. Rich, the elder, dro\-e the fugitives through to Deer creek. 
Grant county. Later sla\-e owners in hunt of the escaped negroes, 
made their appearance in Xew London and were guided to the Deer 
creek settlement in Howard county and everybody there was hon- 
estly in ignorance of the slaves they were seeking, and finally the 
slave hunters gave up the contest, little suspecting the actual truth. 
\\'ith the history of Central Indiana there was not a more active 
and intelligently conducted under ground railroad station than that 
which was to be found at New London. 

It was in 1871 that Mr. Rich, walking upon the streets of Ft. 
Wayne as a stranger, was approached by a negro, with a grin 
spreading from ear to ear. Mr. Rich was always abru]n and to 
the point and in respon^'e to repeated inquiries from the colored man 
it develciped that the negro talking to him was one of the se\-en 
"darkies" that Rich had hauled into Grant county. The negro told 
him that all seven had made their way to Canada, where they re- 
mained until the outbreak of the Civil war, when five of their num- 
ber shouldered arms against their old masters. 


One of the most exciting times in the political history of Xew 
London was when Kentucky sla\-e owners attempted the arrest of a 


colored woman and her two children. A few years before the 
woman had been a slave in Kentnck}', but, coming to New London, 
children had been born to her. By the law, the children were 
slaves, as well as herself. After several years' absence from slavei-y 
in Kentucky the owners of the woman came after her, claiming her 
children. The demand presented in Xew Londijn awakened the 
wildest excitement, and roused to a pitch of fury the abolitionist 
sentiment which was then in the ascendency. 

The negro woman and her children were arrested and brought 
before a civil magistrate. The underground railway clans were in 
readiness for aught which consummated their undertakings. One 
of the children escaped by changing clothes with another colored 
child, and while the mother was attempting to cross the creek upon 
a foot log she was seized upon by INIoses Cromwell, a radical Ken- 
tuckian and pro-slavery man, and a well known pioneer of the 
county. While he pulled upon one side of the slave, Richard 
Nixon, the typical Friend of the village, tugged away at the i>ther 
arm. Cromwell was raw-boned, athletic and noted as a scrapper, 
but the eyes of the "Quaker" flashed and he dared Cromwell to walk 
over to his side of the log. Finally Cromwell desisted and gave 
up the negro woman to Nixon's grasp, and went away. The jus- 
tice of the peace, before whom was the case for the recover}' of the 
woman and children, said that under the law, although an opponent 
of slaveiy himself and a hater of it, he was powerless. He set the 
trial for a future date, and in the meantime the entire colored 
family was spirited away to Canada. 

It was natural that the Free Soil principles should have an as- 
cendancy in New London, but it was some time before they tri- 
umphed completely. 

The columns of the Pioneer, the free soil paper of the county, 
abounded in the campaign designations of the time. Loco Foco, 

348 morrow's history 

and Barn Burners were repeatedly used as terms designating the 
political peculiarities of the day. 

In November, 1848, the result of the elections in Howard 
county were announced in the columns of the Pioneer. They were 
as follows: Cass, 355, Taylor, 275, Van Buren, 152. 

In 1849 the campaign in the county waxed hot. For the 
legislature Thomas. S. Shepard, a notable pioneer, was the nominee 
of the Democrats, while C. D. Murray, espoused the cause of the 
Whigs. Each candidate was at great pains to explain precisely to 
the electorate his position upon the "burning issue of the hour," 
the slave question. 

Joseph E. ]MeDonald was a candidate for congress the next 
year and spoke in New London in July, 1849. -"^ state election 
was held in that year upon the first Monday in August. 

New London at that time was operating under an apprentice 
law of the state, which bore not a few analogies to bondage. A 
curious advertisement is presen'ed in the columns of the Pioneer of 
July 4, 1849: 

"one cent reward." 

"Ran away — from the subscriber, living about two miles east 
of Burlington, in Howard county, Indiana, a bound girl, by the 
name of Margaret Blaney. Said Margaret left my residence on the 
9th of June, without any due cause or provocation; she is about 
fourteen years of age, of rather dark complexion, and dark colored 
hair. I hereby offer the above reward — with no thanks — to any 
person returning her to me; and also forewarn all persons from 
trusting, or harboring" her, or incurring any expense whatever by 
her, on my account, for I will not be accountable to any. 
June 13, 1849. Absolom Hollingsworth." 


The first paper printed in Howard county was "The Pioneer", 
pubHshed at New London, A\'ednesday of each week. Dr. Moses 
R. W'ickersham was editor and founder of the pubhcation, which 
had its office in the Ha^xorth buildings. The name of Pioneer was 
an appropriate one. 

The Pioneer, first in the newspaper field, consisted of four 
pages, five columns to the page, witli a very attractive and tasteful 
dress, the type being of a size suitable for readers of all ages. The 
paper was well printed, and copies in existence sixty years after 
the date of the establishment of the Pioneer look as bright and fresh 
as if just from the press. 

With the sixteenth issue R. A. Mills and A. ^^'ickersham be- 
came the printers of the paper which maintained the excellence 
of its typographical appearance. The subscription of the Pioneer 
was one dollar and fifty cents a year in advance. Its ad\-ertising 
rate was seventy-five cents a scjuare, twelve lines to the square, f(.)r 
a single insertion, a discount being given for three insertions, the 
rate for which was one dollar, twenty cents being added for each 
subsequent insertion. No advertisement less than a square was con- 

The Pioneer had now become ambitious for foreign subscribers 
and in Januaiy, 1849, announces V. B. Palmer as the authorized 
agent of the publication for the cities of New York, Philadelphia 
and Boston. 

So far as known the first issue of the Pioneer is not now in 
existence. The third paper printed was July 26, 1848. In this 
number Dr. ^^'ickersham issues his prospectus, which no donlit, in 
the hurry of issuing the preceeding numbers of the paper, he had not 
had leisure to prepare. Editor Wickersham announced to his readers 
that, "The publication of the Pioneer was commenced without a 
single subscriber, confidently believing that a liberal and discern- 


ing public would sustain us in the enterprise. We now have posi- 
ti\'e assurances that we were not mistaken. Already our list has 
run up into the hundreds and daily increasing. All parties have 
taken a lively interest in sustaining a paper published in their own 
county, for which they have our hearty thanks. Our only ambition 
is to furnish a good, moral, family newspaper, such as all may re- 
ceive into their families without a fear of finding anything in its 
columns that will have the slighest tendency to inculcate into the 
minds of the young sentiments of immoral tendency. All the selec- 
tions will be made from exchanges occupying a high moral posi- 
tion in society, having for their object the improvement of the 
mind, together with a summary of all the news of the day." 

Editor Wickersham was true to his promise. A finely ed- 
ucated man for his day, and a constant reader, his literan,' taste 
was discriminating" and nice. The third issue of the Pioneer con- 
tains articles relative to "Cruelty to Animals," "Children Should be 
Kind," "Power of Mother's Name," "A Boy Adopted by a Wolf," 
"Temperance," "He Has Enemies," "Speak no 111." A serial story 
is started, taken from the Connecticut Fountain, written by Mason 
Hodges, and entitled, "A Tale of Our Village." By S. C. Merri- 
gate. Chapter i — The Cotter's Saturday night. Chapter H — The 
Grog Seller's Saturday night. Each issue of the Pioneer invari- 
ably contained one or two poems. 

Before the fifties information of the leading news events of 
Europe was brought by steamers arriving from foreign ports. The 
Pioneer of July 26, 1848, contains a clipping from the Cincinnati 
Gazette. It details the arrival of the steamship Niagara. There 
had been a terrible conflict in Paris with a terrific loss of life. The 
Lombard army in Austria had been defeated. The Chartist move- 
ment had started in Spain and there were revolutionary movements 
in Ireland. The foreign sen-ice of the Pioneer was complete and 


"Three thousand nine hundred and sixty-seven emigrants ar- 
hnes. There was no pubHcation of bloody crimes and the details 
of the evil things of life, nor did the charge lie against editor Wick- 
ersham that he prompted by suggestion the consummation of the 
deeds published. His news service was careful, and even a casualty 
was dismissed with a few lines of which the following excerpt is a 
g-ood example. Sad Casualty — A young man by the name of 
Miller, near Rossville, Clinton county, Indiana, was thrown from 
his horse last Sunday and died in a few hours. 

"Pure cold water has been obtained at Charleston, South 
Carolina, at the depth of sixty feet from the surface by means of an 
artesian well. 

Three thousand nine hundred and sixty-seven emigrants ar- 
rived in New York in one day from Europe. They are of the better 
class, many of them having considerable property, which is in 

Editor Wickersham had his share of troubles. In the fourth 
issue of his paper he states that, "From the crowd of business last 
week, we were unable to get the Pioneer out. Having taken a fresh 
start we shall try to issue the paper regularly hence forward." 
Imagine an explanation of this character in a metropolitan daily. 
The readers are also told in this issue that, "The editor left home 
for the Buffalo convention on Wednesday of last week, hence the 
scarcity of editorial matter in this week's issue." 

But editor Wickersham was not justly to be held to an account 
too strict. His subscriptions were not all in cash. He had said in 
his paper, "For the accommodation of farmers we will take all 
kinds of produce that will command a market either here or abroad." 

The Pioneer was established to promulgate the Free Soil prin-- 
ciples. The fourth issue contained a lengthy report of the state con- 
vention at Indianapolis, and the fifth issue was delayed beyond its 


usual day of publication to present the proceedings of the Buffalo 
convention, spoken of as a "great movement of the people." Editor 
^^'ickersham explains that, "Its length excludes much matter that 
was designed for this paper, but knowing the anxiety of our readers 
to see the action of the convention, we thought proper to delay the 
publication of the paper until the whole could be placed before the 
public. If we find space we may publish some of the speeches 

The result of the elections throughout the state also appear in 
this issue. In the fourth number of the Pioneer, the readers had 
been told, "^\'e have not yet received the official returns of the 
election, but learn, however, that Blakemore, the Whig candidate 
for representative of Cass and Howard counties, is elected by twenty- 
nine majority. The Whig ticket is full in Cass and the Whig ticket 
in Howard, with the exception of assessor, is elected. In Chnton, 
we learn J. Hill, Democrat, is elected representative. Report says 
the Free Soil candidate received more than one hundred votes." 


The Free Soil supporters began a vigorous campaign. The Free 
Soil central committee, comprising John Thompson, I. R. Pheanas. 
John M. Henderson and Josiah Lamb, called a meeting of free 
territory friends at New London, Monday morning at lo o'clock, 
August 28, 1848, to ratify the nominations of the Buffalo conven- 
tion. Judge J. W. Wright, of Logansport, and Samuel A. Huff, 
of Lafayette, were the principal speakers. 

In the issue of August 30, 1848, editor ^^'ickersham announces 
a change in the conduct of the Pioneer, prompted by the political 
campaign, then pending. Editorially the Pioneer said : "The 
Pioneer being the only paper published in Howard county and as 


many of our Democratic and Whig friends gave us efficient aid in 
our rather hazardous entei-prise, we must cordially open the columns 
of the little sheet to them for the advocacy of the claims of their 
respective candidates for the presidency and vice-presidenc}'. For 
this purpose we will set aside a liberal portion of the paper, freely 
giving them exclusive control over their several departments, re- 
serving- the right to exclude any matter of a personal or scurrulous 
character. \A'e do not however, apprehend the least difficulty on 
that score, knowing both the gentlemen to be men who would dis- 
dain to stoop to a conflict of that kind. C. D. I\Iurray, Esq., of Ko- 
komo, will speak in behalf of the Whig party and will advocate 
the claims of General Z. Taylor and M. Fillmore. 

"Dr. J. J. Barritt, of New London, will advocate the election 
of Gen. L. Cass and W. O. Butler. Politically the Pioneer will no 
longer occupy a negative position. The editor will hereafter pre- 
sent and earnestly advocate the claims of Martin Van Buren, of 
New York, and Charles Francis Adams, of Massachusetts, for the 
offices of President and Vice-President of the United States. How- 
ever humble our efforts may be in the conflict we know our duty and 
will dare to do it." 

In separate columns of the same paper thereafter the claims 
of the three contending political parties were presented. That the 
plan did not work without friction is evident in the eighth issue of 
the Pioneer. The complaint is made that, " Colonel C. D. Murray 
has occupied a large portion or today's paper, rather more, per- 
haps, than he will claim in the future. Dr. J. J. Barritt has not oc- 
cupied full share in consequence of it." 

The Whig editor of the Pioneer added spice to the political 
contest by objecting to the speech of a colored gentleman, delivered 
at Kokomo, the week before upon slavery. The Whig editor de- 
clared that when the colored speaker departed from a legitimate 



discussion of the condition of his people in slavery- and took upon 
himself the ofifice of a Van Buren elector, and told the free, white 
people of the state how to vote, the Whig editor is in the objective. 

In the issue of Saturday, September 30, 1848, the swords of 
the opposing editors strike fire. The Pioneer during September and 
October appeared upon Saturday, instead of Wednesday. It was 
impossible that the three editors, in the same paper, should discuss 
such e.xciting issues without a clash, which was inevitable and 
which came. 

The issue of \\"ednesday, November 15, 1848, announced that 
the election was over and that from reports Brigadier General 
Tavlor had been elected President. 

From this time on editor \A'ickersham is in sole editorial con- 
trol of the paper. In December, 1848, the editor starts a "Youth's 
Department" with success, which consists of enigmas, short original 
articles, selections and scientific questions. 

In the issue of the Pioneer of the date of January 3, 1849, 
there is printed in the lead column of the first page the counting 
house almanac for the year 1849, ^'""^^ i" the second column a poem 
on the new year. 

The issue of January 17, 1849, shows that the advertising 
habit had been acquired by the public, page three of this issue being 
almost solid nonpareil advertisement. 

The issue of Wednesday, June 6, 1849, contains a detailed re- 
port of the Howard county Democratic convention, of which Dr. 
J. H. Kern, of Alto, father of Hon. John W^ Kern, now of Indian- 
apolis, was president. This issue also enumerates seven deadly sins, 
which are: Refusing to take a newspaper. Taking a newspaper 
and refusing to pay for it. Not advertising. Getting married with- 
out sending in the wedding cake. Making the printing office a 
loafing place. Reading manuscripts in the hands of the compos- 


iter. Sending an abusive and threatening letter to the editor. For 
the first and second offenses the editor declared that he extended no 
absolution. The fourth he said was unpardonable. For the balance 
dispensation could only be received by an especial bull from the ag- 
grieved party. 

Wednesday, ]May 30, 1849, the Pioneer nails to its mast head, 
"Independent in All Things, Neutral in Nothing." 

A\'ednesday, July 4, 1S49, the Pioneer opens its columns "to 
all parties in politics until after the election." 

In this month the common school cjuestion began to absorb 
the chief interest of the residents of Howard county and editor 
Wickersham devoted the larger part of his issue of July iS, 1849, 
to a publication of the provisions of the new school law. 

This law, which is now firmly established in the legislation and 
favor of the' state, was then a new and untried enactment. People 
were not sure that they wanted it, and in some counties when first 
presented to the people, was voted down upon the grounds of ex- 
pense. Dr. Wickersham, editor of the Pioneer, was certain of the 
wisdon and benefit of its provisions and through his paper argued 
its benefits and explained its provisions at length. 


The bitterness which characterized the slavery agitation was 
realized in the establishment of the Pioneer. The pioneers of the 
sturdy village of New London detemiined to publish a newspaper, 
but as most of them who were formulating the movement were 
abolitionists, the men of opposite parties were equally determined 
that it should not be done. 

Dr. Wickersham, who was foremost among the staunch ad- 
vocates of the abolition of slavery, set about devising plans to open 


up a newspaper office in the village. He had in view a very primi- 
tive outfit, which was at that time located in Westfield, Hamilton 
county, which consisted of an old hand press and a few fonts of 
type. Owing" to the bitter feeling existing in the county in those 
ante-bellum days it was hard enough to find anyone who was brave 
enough to venture upon the road on such an expedition as moving 
a newspaper plant with which to publish a newspaper whose policy 
was the abolition of slavery. Dr. Wickersham had been for some 
time tiwing to find a man and had been repeatedly refused. "Uncle" 
Dan Jones was in his prime in those times, and being a strong 
abolitionist and possessing the qualities of which heroes are made, 
very fortunately dropped into the office of Dr. Wickersham to con- 
sult him in regard to an obstinate attack of ague from which he 
had been suffering. After the doctor had prescribed for his patient 
he cautiously approached him upon the question of moving a news- 
paper plant from \Vestfield and soon got a proposition from him 
that he would undertake the dangerous enterprise for a dollar a 
day. if the doctor would cure the ague in the bargain. The 
proposition was readily accepted and Mr. Jones, as soon as he 
had partially recovered from the ague began to prepare for the jour- 
ney. He secured three yoke of cattle and a driver whose name was 
Reese White, and made the trip to Westfield without any remark- 
able incidents on the way. The doctor had supplied him with a jug 
of bitters and two long pistols to use if emergency demanded. 

The press was loaded at Westfield and the return journey be- 
gan early one morning and they met with no opposition during the 
entire forenoon, but they had not gone far through the almost im- 
penetrable forests of the Michigan road, in the afternoon, until they 
were accosted by five men who had heard of the attempt to start an 
abolition paper and determined to "nip it in the bud." The leader 
of the gang rode up to their wagon and demanded a pass, upon 


which Mr. Jones drew forth two long pistols and remarked that the 
weapons were the only passes he had with him. This seemed to 
prove a very strong argument, as the opposing men had no amis 
and did not seem to desire to go up against such a strong battery. 
This scene took place between Michigantown and Middlefork and 
after the men drew back a few hundred yards to hold a consulta- 
tion of war they rode off into the woods and gave no further trouble. 
The assailants were not masked and were easily identified. They 
were: James Creeson, Err Cox, Sampson Allen, William Allen 
and Mr. Miller. The onward march of the newspaper was unim- 
peded during the rest of the way. About dusk the men stopped at 
the cabin home of Samuel Merrick, four miles west of Russiaville, 
where themselves and their oxen were hospitably entertained over 
night. They resumed the journey early next morning and arrived 
at New London at 4 o'clock. Thus it was made possible to intro- 
duce in Howard county the first newspaper. 

The office was finally moved to Kokomo, the Pioneer being the 
predecessor of the Kokomo Tribune. 

Dr. Wickersham was a native of Wayne county, Indiana. 
Later he practiced his profession in Henry county, moving to New 
London in 1842. He finally moved to Kokomo, where he conducted 
a dry goods store, and subsequently moved to Mankato, Minnesota, 
where he died. He was a brother of Mrs. Richard Nixon. 

Dr. Wickersham made a success of his paper. In announcing 
the second year of the Pioneer's existence he said: "August i, 
1849, the Pioneer entered upon the second year of its existence with 
even- encouragement we in our most sanguine hope could have 
anticipated. The list of subscribers is rapidly increasing, with a 
liberal amount of job work and advertising custom, which has in- 
creased fully one hundred per cent, in the last few months. As soon 
as the health of Cincinnati will justify us ( the cholera raged there) 

35<^ morrow's history 

in visiting that city we expect to get a new and enlarged dress for 
our paper, add one column, and exchange our old type for new, 
which will add to the amount of i-eading matter, and at the same 
time materially improve the appearance of the paper."' 

The sentiment of the residents of Xew London was pro- 
nounced in favor of temperance. There was a Xew London branch 
of the Cadets of Temperance. This society was known as Section 
No. 44, of that organization, and on July 7, 1849, the records dis- 
close that officers were installed and an address delivered by M. D. 
Stoneman. The invitations to the public to attend this meeting bore 
the signature of J- B. Gififord, W. P. , and set forth the announce- 
ment. "Come on, parents, and see your children engaged in the 
great and glorious cause — the cause of all mankind." 

The subject was early presented in New London in an able 
and vigorovts article upon temperance appearing in an early number 
of the Pioneer, written by Dr. J. J. Barritt. 

As earh- as 184S there seems to have been an attempt to es- 
tablish a liquor dispensary against the sentiment of the community. 
The Pioneer of the date of SqDtember i6th of that year says: 
"Guess the application for a licensed grog shop in our town didn't 
meet with much favor from our county commissioners, notwith- 
standing a petition was secretly got up. and the county commis- 
sioners have the thanks of a large majority of our citizens in their 
refusal to license such a sink of inquity in their midst. Had our 
citizens known that the application would have been made, a re- 
monstrance would ha\-e gone up with ten names to every one on 
the petition." 

The pledge taken b}' the Cadets of Temperance was \-ery strict : 
"I without reserve solemnly pledge my honor as a man that T will 
neither make, buy, sell nor use, as a beverage, any spirituous or 
malt liquors, wine or cider. 


In Xovember following' the secret attempt to establish a grog 
shop, the Pioneer exultantly exclaims editorially. "The whiskey 
business is suspended in our to\\n. All who come here hereafter 
will ha\'e to bring it along' with them. We met a poor imitation of 
humanity the other day. making his way through a tremendous 
storm of rain and snow, ilrenched to the skin with wet, hunting for 
some of the "critter' and being asked what he wanted with it. sup- 
posing that some one was \'ery sick and wanted it for medical pur- 
poses, he very indignantly replied that he wanted it iov himself. 
'case he was dry." " 

The spirit of enterprise distinguished the early citizenship of 
Xew London which was eager for every step looking toward the 
development of the county. 

The contract for the superstructure of the Indianapolis & Perti 
Railroad was let January 3, 1849, ^.t one thousand four hundred and 
ninety dollars a mile, the contractors agreeing to make the tracks 
ready for the iron rails, and to take fifteen per cent, of the contract 
price in stock of the new railroad company. 

Xew London had many subscribers to this stock, and on Sep- 
tember I, 1849, they were required to pay the third requisition upon 
it. (jf eight pel" cent., amounting to four dollars a share, these pay- 
ments being made to C. D. ^lurray. collecting agent at Kokomo. 

A meeting' was called for Saturday. December i6th. at "Mr. 
Robertson's east room," Xew London, of citizens of Howard county 
friendly to a coilstniction of a railroad from Xew London to inter- 
sect the Indianapolis & Peru road at some convenient point. The 
expectation was destined to be disappointed and the branch road 
was never builded. The nearest it was realized was the construc- 
tion of the Cloverleaf Railroad through Russia\-ille, two miles 
south, to Kokomo, which crosses the old Indianapolis & Peru line 
at Madison street. 

360 morrow's history 

The citizens were rejoiced, however, to learn in January, 1849, 
that the legislature had given a grant for a state road from La- 
fayette, Tippecanoe, county, to Jonesboro, Grant county, by the 
way of New London, Alto and Jerome. The Pioneer said it was 
a thoroughfare much needed, and the citizens along the route will 
be much pleased to hear of the grant. 


The first medical society of Howard county, in which the 
physicians of New London were leading spirits, was organized in 
Kokomo, Saturday, September 15, 1849. Li that early day the phy- 
sicians of New London had no rule of ethics against advertising. 
They not only advertised, but they did it ingeniously to extend their 
practice. Two characteristic advertisements are extant. Those 
of Dr. J. S. Counts and Dr. John F. Henderson. Dr. Counts dis- 
played this appeal for patrons : "Good morning, friends, where 
does Dr. J. S. Counts reside? In New London, a little west and 
across the street from Nixon's store. Has he located permanently? 
He has purchased a house and lot. catched a cook, and continues 
to practice the various branches of medicine at all times when 
called on. Is he moderate in his charges ? His patrons, who settle 
with him once a year, say that he is. Is he successful? He has 
been during the past month or two for there has been nobody sick." 

Not to be outdone by a competitor Dr. Henderson directed 
the public attention to an advertisement quite as readable, but of a 
different description : "Pro Bono Publico — Dr. John F. Hender- 
son takes pleasure in informing his old friends and the public gener- 
ally that after a year's practice among them he is again perma- 
nently located in the town of New London, ready to ser^e them in 
the practice of medicine, obstetrics, etc. He flatters himself from 


his past experience and success in the practice and his knowledge 
of the science to be able to gWe general satisfaction to an intelli- 
gent public. He is likewise prepared with a good assortment of 
dental instiaiments, teeth foil, etc., for cleansing-, plugging and in- 
serting teeth, on the most approved style and on reasonable tenns. 
Office on Mill street at the east end of town, where he may at all 
hours be found unless professionally engaged. Bills reduced to 
suit the times." Other prominent physicians of the town were Dr. 
M. R. Wickersham, Dr. J. J. Barritt, and Dr. ]\I. D. Stoneman. 

Dr. J. J. Barritt was the first postmaster of New London and 
Thomas J. Faulkner the second in this office. Each had occasion 
to publish lists of letters uncalled for. 

A teachers' institute was organized in New London, February 
24, 1849, 

New London felt the stimulus of the land sale held by county 
auditor John Bohan. He offered to purchasers the choicest sec- 
tions in the late Miami reserve, situated about three miles southwest 
of Kokomo, being a sale of land for the benefit of the common 
schools, every sixteenth section being disposed of for the benefit of 
the state. Theophilus Bryan was school commissioner of Howard 
county at that time. The land was to be paid for one-fourth in ad- 
vance, and a twenty-five years' credit given for the unpaid portion, 
which was to bear seven per cent, interest payable in advance. 

The report of auditor Bohan of the finances of the county from 
June I, 1848, to May 31, 1849, showed the total receipts to be two 
thousand eight hundred and ninety-two dollars and three cents, 
leaving a deficit in the treasury to meet all orders drawn of one 
hundred and sixty-five dollars and six cents. 

The tax rates in Howard county, publically announceil Au- 
gust 24, 1849, were: State tax — Each one hundred dollars, thirty 
cents. Poll tax, .seventv-five cents. GmiUv tax — Each erne luin- 

362 morrow's history 

drecl dollars, se\-enty cents: p(jll tax. eighty-seven and one half 
cents : school tax. each one hundred dollars, district 3. twentv-five 
cents. Road tax — per acre, one-fourth cents: town lots, each one 
hundred dollars valuation, fifteen cents. 



The first term of what was then known as the Richard\-ille cir- 
cuit court was held November 7. 1844. at the house of John Harri- 
son, in the township now called Ervin. Nothing much was done on 
the first day of the term. N. R. Linsday. subsequently judge of 
the Howard common pleas court, was enrolled as a member of the 
bar on the second da}-. On the third day the grand jury returned 
twenty-five indictments. There being no busiriess for the petit jury 
at that term they were discharg-ed. 

The grand juries of the period believed in earning their salaries, 
if you choose to put it that way — but others chose to say that they 
loved to gratify petty spites at the expense of their neighbors. 
They would sometimes still be searching for facts when a term of 
court would come to an end. 

The grand jury of the first temi of court in the history oi the 
county indicted Jnhn Harrison, the sheriff, for retailing. This 
offense was selling small quantities of whisky in violation of the 
law. Benjamin Newhouse, a member of the petit jury, at the same 
term of court, was indicted for trespass. Betting was a common 
offense and five indictments for this law violation were returned 
against William Smith. While Sheriff Harrison was accjuitted of 


the charge of "selHng a quart of whisky to TheophoHs Bryan, to be 
drank about his house," Cliarles J. Ahison, also indicted for retail- 
ing', did not fare so well. He was found guilty and fined two dol- 
lars. Allison was frequently indicted for retailing. He kept a 
saloon, or wet-back grocer}-, the bar being in the rear, in a' double 
leg house on the east side of the public square, and, saving- his busi- 
ness, alleged to his discredit, he bore a good reputation and was 
generally spoken of by his neighbors as an honest man. He had 
good business qualifications. He ran the first saloon conducted in 
Kokomo, and was frequently before the circuit court. He came 
to the county before it was organized and died in 1863. 

Judge Biddle once observed of the pioneer grand juries: 

"The early grand juries were of curious composition often, 
being made up largely of men from other states, and even natives 
of foreign countries. I think that generally they were honest and 
devoted to the law, when they knew what it reciuired uf them." 

Summoned before a grand jury, Da\-id Foster was asked: 

"Did you observe any one fishing on Sumlay?" 

"Yes, sir." 

"Ynu may give the names of die parties you saw." 

Mr. Foster gave them. 

The foren-ian of the grand jury, in order to prove the ofifense 
within the limit of the statute of limitations, asked Mr. Foster in 
what year he saw the parties named fishing on Sunday. 

"Eighteen fifty-six." 

As the examination was several }-ears later the jury had its 
pains for nothing, the offense described by Foster being liarred to 

The list of offenses for the early-day indictn-ients were pro- 
nouncedly in contrast with those of igo8. John Lamb and Benja- 
min F. Faucett were indicted for improperly graiiting license, and 

364 morrow's history 

Mr. Lamb was also indicted upon two charges of extortion. David 
Bailey was arraigned upon two charges of the same character. 
Samuel Gamer was prosecuted for illegal voting. Attachments 
were issued against Jonas Dalgilkin and John Ryan for contempt 
of court in divulging the secrets of the grand jury. 


The first petit jury sen'ing the county was allowed seventy-five 
cents each for one day's service. 

Upon beginning its sessions in Howard county the court ordered 
a seal, which was to have a device upon the face thereof of a man 
on horseback on a chase after wolves in the distance with his hounds 
in pursuit, the horse to be represented "on the loap" and the words 
engraved on the seal, "Richardville County Seal, A. D. 1844." 

A term of court generally lasted from three to four days. Sel- 
dom longer. All the business could easily be disposed of within 
that time. A week of court would have been considered a judicial 
sitting of unusual and tedious duration. 

Had you entered the log courthouse in the forties you would 
have found upon the ground floor the tailor shop of G. ^^'. Poisal, 
the saddlen- of H. B. Havens, and the offices of Dr. Corydon Rich- 
mond and the county clerk, F. S. Price. Dr. Richmond and his 
brother, Orsemus Richmond, were eventually associated in the prac- 
tice, occupying the same office, and finally N. R. Linsday and C. D. 
Murray established a law office in the courthouse. In September, 
1850, Mr, Havens was notified that his office rent would be fifty 
cents a month. The rest were notified in June, 185 1, that they had 
better pay their office rent. 

The "courthouse rats" of that day were a jolly bunch. Some- 
one had been taking Dr. Corydon Richmond's whisky, which he had 


in a quart bottle upon a shelf in his office. Tailor Poisal told him 
that his liquor was being appropriated by a certain carpenter. One 
morning the doctor furnished a fresh supply of whisky and placed 
an emetic in it. The carpenter purloined a drink. Soon he began 
spitting, but unsuspectedly took another drink. Xo sooner had he 
lowered it until he became very sick. Whereupon he rushed to an 
oak stump, and, like Job, cursed the day upon which he was bom. 
He made a friend of nearly every stump on the way until he reached 
home. He never again molested the whisky. 

The lawyers of the early day were plain and simple in their 
habits of life, as were the other pioneers with whom they were asso- 
ciated. They relished the substantial food of the day, dressed in 
the rough garb of their neighbors, and were in all respects a part 
of the great commonality. Yet they were the leaders in public 
spirit. They were the politicians. The best offices fell to their lot, 
not because they were of "better clay than other men," but because 
they were considered better qualified by the people to discharge the 
duties incident to the various official positions with which they were 
honored. They must have been early risers, at least upon one occi- 
sion, for one evening the Richardville circuit court adjourned "to 
meet to-morrow morning at seven o'clock." A dozen books, all 
told, would comprise an average lawyer's library. But these books 
were known by them thoroughly, large portions of which they were 
able substantially to quote from memory. The standard authority 
most frequently consulted was the statutes of the state — the Koran 
of the Richardville bar. The county clerk, Franklin S. Price, who 
sensed a number of years, spread on record a list of books compris 
ing the courthouse library, April 25, 1845 ; four volumes of local 
laws, six volumes of Blackford reports, three copies of the Senate 
Journal, 1845, three copies of the journal of the house of represen- 
tatives of the same year, sixty-five copies of the school laws, eight 

366 morrow's history 

copies of tlie revised statutes of 1843. ^^'^^^ and bread were the 
principal foods of Kokomo's earliest denizens. The lawyer-politi- 
cians, in order to obtain votes, would win the popularity of the 
women by assisting them to milk and to suckle the calves. 


The law. business was not heavy during the early days of the 
Richard\-ille bar, nor such as to put the bar up in the way of leaming 
and power. Land was cheap and controversies few. The principal 
suits were for slander, bastardy, hog stealing, betting, whisky sell- 
ing, and so forth. The bar under Judges Wright and Biddle aver- 
aged well, and improved greatly as btisiness became more serious. 

In an early day the judges and lawyers from the various cir- 
cuits of the state congregated at a frame hotel near the center of 
the north side of the public square, generally after supper, to 
exchang-e experiences, divulge all kinds of news and relate anec- 

Moses Cromwell was distinguished in an early day by the fre- 
quency with which he sought the judicial decree. His name appears 
very often upon the records of the court. A drinker, "on his mus- 
cle." and quarrelsome, he naturally occupied a good deal of the 
court's attention. Scarcely a term of court passed without his being 
either a plaintifif or a defendant. \\'hen not figuring as the accused 
in some state case he was almost certain to be mixed up in some 
kind of a civil action. In a large number of prosecutions he was 
able to secure his acquittal. He figured in all kinds of prosecu- 
tions, assault and battery, retailing, affrays, and others too numerous 
to mention. One of the first slander cases in the county was that of 
Pleasant W'^alker against Cromwell. At the trial the jury was 
unable to agree. The case was afterwards compromised and dis- 


missed. This case was the first called at the ?\Iay term. 1846. He 
was still litigating as late as 1858. 

David Foster also did a considerable business in court. But his 
preferences were for civil rather than criminal cases. The records 
show him to have been interested in a great many suits. 

John B. Hopkins might, during a court term in an early day, 
be seen often standing on a stump in the courthouse }-ard. He some- 
times carried an a.x and a chicken, asserting that he was going int(_i 
the poultry business. His general features, large physique, partially 
stooped form, and long, thin hair touching his shoulders, gave him 
a commanding presence. A string of losely-tied, green mango pep- 
pers encircled his shoulders and swept his breast. He was bare- 
footed, and had a powerful voice. He was a great walker. Once 
a candidate for representative, he spoke at Greentown and Koknmo, 
addressed an audience near Pdplar (jrnxe and made two> speeches at 
Logansport within the space of twent}--four hours, hoofing the entire 
distance between the places where he delivered his addresses. He 
had a state reputation and was intimately connected with the law- 
yers of the county, frecjuently assaying the defense of "mercy cases" 
and an attendant upon court. The lawyers listened to him, con- 
versed with him and read law to him. To this community in early 
days he was a periodical visitor. His sensible utterances, by no 
means few in number, profound and practical, were treasured up in 
the minds of his hearers. However, this man was demented. Yet 
his intellect was of the highest order. He was finely educated. 
His choice of words was apt. His sentences were of such construc- 
tion that they excited the admiration of rhetoricians. In his 
younger days he had been a prodigious student. If deserted by his 
audience he would seek another spot and address new listeners. To 
hear him sing old settlers declared was to experience a genuine pleas- 
ure. He composed all his own songs, many of which were highly 

368 morrow's history 

meritorious. Hopkins walked from one end of the state to the 
other, starting generally from some leading city situated on the 
National road, which route he traveled, pulling after him a light 
buggy, which he filled with tracts. At nearly every town along the 
entire distance he would sell his buggy and bu)' a new one. 

The statute of 1843 divided the state into twelve circuits. A 
president judge was appointed by the legislature for each of these 
circuits. Two associate judges were chosen by each county to pre- 
side with the president judge. Although they made but little pre- 
tense to learning "these side judges," as they were called, often 
overruled the president judge, giving for their decisions some pre- 
posterous reasons. Not infrecjuently, too, their rulings, absurd as 
they may have sometimes been, were sustained by the supreme court. 

The terms of office for the judges were, by statute, fixed at 
seven years; the clerk was to serve for seven years and the sheriff 
and prosecuting attorney for two years. 


The associate judges for Richardville county were T. A. Long 
and Robert Ervin. Mr. Long was born in Lexington, Kentucky. 
He apprenticed himself, when a young man, to an old gunsmith, 
working six years for nothing and clothing himself. Besides being 
a gunsmith he was a farmer and nurseryman. He lived in Harri- 
son township. In politics he was a Whig and a Republican. In 
religion he was a Methodist, being a member of the M. E. church 
over forty years. Of these associate judges. Judge Biddle, with 
whom they served, once said: "Long I remember to have been a 
very quiet man. I was not as intimate with him as I was with 
En'in. Eiwin was a man of good thought and possessed of clear, 
solid, common sense. On the bench he ever strove to do his duty. 


I always regarded him as a very safe counsellor up to the extent of 
his legal intelligence." 

Judge Long, from the fact that he wore glasses, was called 
"Old Specks" by the Indians. He erected a little shop near his 
cabin in Harrison township "and for several years repaired guns for 
the Indians. Across the creek from his shop stood Foster's trading 
house, where the Indians would take their skins and buy blankets 
and 'heap good whisky,' and then would go and get Long to fix 
their guns. Foster would frequently interpret and vouch for them, 
and Long would chai-ge the bill to Foster and Foster would charge 
three or four times as much to the Indians. Long had a nice little 
horse, worth some fifty dollars, which Foster wanted: but being 
afraid of making the price too high, asked him what he would give 
Foster replying he would give sixty-five dollars, agreeably surprised 
Long at his generosity, and consequently got the horse. Foster 
kept the same for four days and sold it to an Indian for two hun- 
dred and fifty dollars. Mr. Long, being somewhat surprised, a 
second time concluded he could sell a horse which his father-in- 
law owned for a good price. As the horse would lie down and let 
its rider mount, the feat greatly pleased the Indians, and Foster sold 
it to one for four hundred dollars. The next autumn the 
Indian brought the horse back to be placed in order, and for so doing 
was charged two hundred dollars by the trader, Foster. 
yiv. Long having several cattle and needing some brass to make 
bells for them, was informed that he could get it of the old chief, 
Kokomo. He went to the chief's wigwam and was introduced to 
his dusky highness as a Kentuckian. The chief began to act 
strangely, went out and painted himself, returned and told Long's 
companion that he had scalped several Kentuckians, and would scalp 
the new-comer. But Judge Long told the Indian he had better not 
try that game, or he would shoot him upon the spot." Judge Long 
was permitted to get the brass and depart. 




During- the administration of Associate Judges Long and Ervin 
the sessions of the circuit court were held in the two-story log court- 
house within the public square. The upstairs of this structure was 
utilized as a courtroom, the lower story embracing a hall and four 
office rooms. The courtroom was reached by an inside stairway. 

The shades of evening are falling. The courtroom is deserted 
within a few moments. But in leaving the courthouse square a 
lawyer meets with a misfortune. The ground was wet and swampy. 
The mud in places was about bell_\- deep to a horse; in others half 
boot-top deep. The lawyer is attempting to walk along a slab 
placed in the mud to insure a pedestrian a safe and convenient pas- 
sage. But he slips and falls. Bitter are his words of denunciation 
as he regains his feet against those cows that tramp and those hogs 
that wallow this particular piece of ground into such a horrible con- 
dition. Uncle Tence Lindley, in his quaint way, once said : "Well, 
I'll tell you what is a fact: the courthouse yard in them days was 
skittish muddy. It were skittish muddy for a fact." 

Thomas S. Shepherd, a man of medium height, with light hair 
and blue eyes, was a striking pioneer lawyer, but really a better 
preacher. He w'as an uncompromising Democrat, and once stood 
for the legislature, but was defeated. 

Thomas J. Harrison was a son-in-law of Judge Linsday, with 
whom he was associated in the practice of the law. Harrison was 
a big-hearted, generous man, who did everything in his power for 
his friends. The duties of his profession he perfonned well, in a 
punctilious and unflinching manner. His personal bearing and influ- 
ence had weight with a jury. His record is chiefly military. 


Of the two leading pioneer lawyers of Kokomo, Judge Biddle 
once said : "Charles D. Murray was a man of fine talent, but had 


only a fair amount of learning. He was not a diligent student and 
did not attend strictly to business. To make popular speeches was 
the delight of his soul and in this line his success was extraordinary. 
But to take charge of a lawsuit of weight and character he was too 
slack. He generally came into court ill-prepared. In brain he was 
large, in physique weighing one hundred and ninety pounds and 
well-formed. In carriage he was manly, being free and easy in 
manner. His talents were such that he ought to have secured a 
much higher position than he gained. His ease and ability as a 
speaker diverted him from the severer studies. His social quali- 
ties were number one. A first-rate wit himself, his relish of an 
anecdote or practical joke was keen. He was an amiable gentleman 
and a lovable man. At one time he was seriously talked of as a 
candidate for governor of the state. The announcement of a polit- 
ical speech by Murray was always the signal to prepare for lots 
of fun." 

Speaking once of Judge N. R. Linsday, Judge Biddle said: 
"N. R. Linsday had a clear head and was a ^■ery able man. He 
drew up a remarkably clean paper and in this respect was Mur- 
ray's superior. He also made a more solid argument, but as a 
speech-maker was not nearly so popular or versatile. In integrity 
Tie was pure and upright. I remember of his undertaking to draw 
up a common law plea in abatement, a task for him most difficult. 
It was his first attempt. Its construction gave him an infinite 
amount of trouble and woriy. But he finally got through with it. 
Tiaving framed it pretty well. I looked it over and corrected sev- 
eral errors. The plea then stood unassailable. I think I never saw 
a man appear more grateful than he did for that favor. He was 
not much of a man for fun, but was a hard working man, with 
excellent brain power." Judge Biddle, when he came from Logans- 
port to this county to hold court, was frequently entertained at the 


cabin of Judge Linsclay. The dwelling was very crowded, but 
they always made room for him. There was but one door to the 
stnicture. Judge Linsday was the second county agent. By act of 
the legislature the duties of the office were finally transferred to the 
county auditor, and John Bohan was first to discharge them after 
the change in the law. As careful a lawyer as Judge Linsday was 
surprised when he went to pay his taxes, in 1846, to find that he 
was delinquent eighteen cents upon his taxes of 1844. Judge Lins- 
clay, a candidate for the legislature, was a vehement opponent of a 
clique proposing to unite Howard and Tipton counties and estab- 
lish the county seat at Sharpsville. He made telling points against 
his opponent, who fa\-ored the plan. Judge Linsday was one of 
the most influential workers in behalf of Kokomo's claims. 


Attorney Charles D. Murray was fined twenty dollars for con- 
tempt of court at the May term, 1857. He had a tilt with Henry 
S. Kelly, who was serving as judge pro tern., owing to the absence 
of Judge John M. Wallace, the regular judge, whose absence was 
caused by sickness. Mr. Murray gave security for the amount, 
which, it is probable, was never collected by the local authorities, 
as they did not desire to execute the order. They saw to it that 
Mr. Kelly did not preside the next term. Clerk Adam Clark, Sher- 
iff Samuel Lamb, and Auditor Harles Ashley, as they had a right 
to do under the law, appointed Mr. Murray to preside at this term 
of court, as a solace to his dignity, as Judge \\'allace had not ap- 
peared the first day. He did arrive the second day. however, and 
assumed the duties of the bench. Mr. Murray- presided at a part 
of the May term, 1858. 

Joe Lewis, a pioneer lawyer of the county, and once the partner 


of Judge Linsday, was a well-trained lawyer and close reasoner, 
but not so very good advocate. His legal opinions, however, had 
great weight and he was a formidable opponent. 

Lawyers from adjoining counties did a large business at the 
Howard county bar. Among the number was D. D. Pratt, of 
Logansport, afterwards United States senator, and a Daniel Web- 
ster in physique, intellect and ability. 

Franklin S. Price served the county as clerk faithfully and 
with ability from 1844 to 1854. In 1858 he was a candidate for 
the office, but while at New London followed the advice of Tim- 
othv. The unpopularity of the act caused his retirement from the 
ticket and he was replaced by Ross Gray. Gray was defeated by 
Adam Clark. Price was of very slight and fragile build and his 
hair, eyes and beard were black. He was very social in his nature 
and enjoyed great popularity. At a convention of the pioneers, 
held in Harrison township, Price and Hiram, his uncle, were can- 
didates for the same office. Each was to rise and walk from the 
other, and his supporters were to follow him, and the one having 
the most friends was to be the nominee. Hiram had the test of 
numbers. Franklin burst into tears, which so excited his uncle that 
he withdrew from the contest. 


Judge John W. Wright, the first circuit judge of this county. 
a resident of Logansport, was a very eccentric man. An important 
case was before him for disposition, invol\-ing many difficult ques- 
tions nf law. The procedure of his court was governed by the 
technical practice of the common law. The pleadings were numer- 
ous and complicated. Many were the pleas in replicatii^n. the 
rejoinders, the rebutters and surrebutters. Eminent counsel was 


engaged upon both sides of the case, tried in one of the counties of 
the circuit to which Howard belonged, and among them were Abra- 
ham Lincohi and Joseph E. McDonald, pitted against each other. 
After a lengthy discussion of the law questions raised by the issues, 
conducted by the counsel of the opposing sides. Judge ^^'right, with- 
out allowing himself any time for the consultation of authorities, 
or deliberation, staggered the attorneys by announcing that he 
would rule immediately after noon. When court convened after 
the dinner hour, true to his word. Judge ^^'rig•ht divided the plead- 
ing's into two separate piles, and, picking up a paper in his right 
hand, threw it down, saying, "Demurrer overruled," and with his 
left hand picked up another pleading, threw it down and said : "De- 
murrer sustained." This was kept up until all his rulings had been 
announced. This procedure was nothing more nor less than judicial 
ledgerdemain, haphazard, uncertain guessing. The lawyers had spent 
weeks in the careful study of the same questions of which he so 
effectually disposed within the short space of ten minutes. But 
imagine their surprise when, upon appeal, the supreme court sus- 
tained every one of his rulings. Afterwards, when Lincoln had 
been elected President and when the first rumblings of the impend- 
ing Civil war were heard throughout the length and breadth of the 
land, a large assemblage of militar}"- officials, among whom mingled 
se\-eral cabinet officers and other eminent personages, darkened one 
day the parlors of the white house, when the late Joseph E. McDon- 
ald was a caller at the Presidential mansion. Immediately upon 
his entrance he was recognized by President Lincoln, who grasped 
him heartily by the hand and exclaimed, "How are you, Joe ? How's 
old Judge Wright, anywa}^?" following the remark with a hearty 

It was during a term of court held in Tipton county by Judge 
Wright that a peculiar incident occurred. The grand jurv- reported 


that it had no indictments to return. In discharging them Judge 
\\"rig"ht said, in his usual brusque and gruff manner, "Weh, gentle- 
men, I suppose you are discharged, but I have not the least doubt 
in the world but what half of you ought to be indicted for hog 

Having been convicted of a felony, a certain prisoner once 
stood up to receive sentence from Judge Wright, who has been 
reported to have used upon that occasion the following language : 
"Sir. the first acquaintance this court ever formed with you was in 
a house of ill-fame, but you have steadily gone down in the world 
till now you must make your future home in the penitaitiary." 

In personal appearance. Judge Wright was about five feet and 
six inches in iieight, weighing from one hundred and eighty to 
two hundred pounds ; was athletic and graceful in movement, whose 
general appearance countenanced the accusation that he was vain 
and proud, which, however, was not true of him in an offensive 


It was hard to convince Judge Wright that he could make a 
mistake. This he thought to be impossible. This peculiar belief of 
Wright's originated from the dogmatic tendency of his mind, which, 
by nature, was a rugged one. The haste with which he pronounced 
his decisions was deplorable, and one of his weaknesses which cost 
his friends much pain and regret. His character was positive, his 
popularity great, his friends bound to him by the strongest ties, and 
his enemies were of the malignant type. As a lawyer it is said that 
he valued victory higher than perfect honesty ; that he was unscrupu- 
lous and employed underhand methods continually : that he "brow- 
beat" and terrorized witnesses completely, and sought to torture 
them into testimony in behalf of his clients ; that he had little feel- 

3/6 morrow's history 

ings for others and, when inchned, heaped torrents of abuse on 
parties to the suit. In argument he was powerful and in address 
strong. He would not tolerate the slightest noise or confusion in 
the courtroom and would invariably stop procedure until it ceased. 
He won the majority of his cases. 

He was a gTcat practical joker and loved to perpetrate jokes 
on others, but never liked to have them played upon himself. He 
instantly resented personal insult by word or blow. Judge Wright 
once stopped at a Virginia hotel for dinner. A colored waiter took 
his order and asked him which he would have, "Strawberries and 
cream, or fritz?" "Bring all mixed," said Wright, who did not 
know the meaning of "fritz." "Why, you isn't gwine to hab "em 
mixed, is you?" asked the astonished waiter. "Mixed," reaffirmed 
W^right, resolved not to show his ignorance. The compound was 
set before him, but was not relished. 

Wright related a good anecdote at his own expense. "I had a 
novel experience when I was traveling on a certain occasion from 
Logansport to Winamac, where I was to hold a tenn of court. I 
came near getting into serious trouble. You see, it was this way. 
I came to a very muddy lane. ^Vell, I thought that was simply 
impassable. I will lay down the rail fence to my left," I said, 'and 
go through the field.' I did so and rode almost across it unmo- 
lested. Soon I came to the edge of a woods. A man with an ax 
in his hand confronted me and asked, '\\'hy did you come across 
this field?" 'The road was impassable," I coolly explained. 'If you 
are acquainted with law, as I suppose you are, you will remember 
that private welfare must yield to public convenience. I hope I 
have a right here, sir." To which my interrogator replied, 'Who 
said that you could cross this field?' 'No one,' I replied. 'Then 
go back and lay up the fence.' said he. My anger began to rise. 
'Look here,' said I, 'do vou know who a^ou are talking to? I am 


Judge Wright.' 'Judge Wright; for once," he rephed, 'Judge 
^Vright is wrong. Now you go back and lay up that fence!" he 
exclaimed, as he clinched his ax the tighter for his indignation. 'I 
say go back and lay up that fence.' Well, gentlemen, I went." 


Judge Horace P. Biddle, of Logansport, second judge of How- 
ard county, said of Judge Wright: "It must not be overlooked 
that his mind was not steady. He was not all bad, by any means. 
He was governed by fits and starts. The mind of the man, I may 
say, was flighty in a sense, inclined to aberration — more so at cer- 
tain times than at others. For a period his decisions would be cor- 
rect and his whole bearing judicial. I have known him many a time 
to announce his decisions in perfect order and to conduct cases with 
the greatest propriety. At other times he would fly off in every 
direction and we could not tell what he would do. Becoming eccen- 
tric he would reverse in principle every one of his former decisions 
with the greatest sincerity and honesty, apparently believing that 
he was deciding the same way he had before. He would tell with- 
out any visible motive gigantic falsehoods. These seldom proved 
to be of injury to anyone, however. Seemingly he believed every- 
one of them. One winter I had seen quite a large herd of deer. 
In number there must have been at least ninety. In telling of it I 
rather had a dislike of making the number that high, for fear some 
might think I was not telling the exact truth. But 'Jack,' as Judge 
Wright was called, heard the story and endeavored tn relate it. 
The number of deer, according to him, was fifteen hundred. 

"On a certain occasion he told me a great cock-and-bull story 
about Lincoln. He said : 'Lincoln is a fool. I was in \\^ashing- 
ton, not long since, and called upon the President. He told me he 

^■/H morrow's history 

was surrounded by thieves, by robbers, by murderers, by assassins ; 
that he did not know what to do and that he was momentarily 
expecting trouble: and that if he got into trouble he wanted me 
(Wright) to come to ^^'ashington and help him.' 'Did he really tell 
you that. Jack?' I asked. . 'To be sure." answered \\'right. 'Then 
Lincoln certainly is a fool,' I answered. Judge ^^'right exagger- 
ated and falsified unconsciously. 


"He was a somnambulist. One night we were bunking together 
as travelers had to do in the early days of the state, as bed room 
was rather limited. After we had been asleep two or three hours 
he suddenly sprang upon me. seized me by the throat and began 
choking me. Though sound asleep his eyes were wide open and he 
glared upon me with the fury of a maniac. I beat him vigorously 
in the ribs, but it was some time before I awakened him. 'My 
heavens. Jack.' I said, 'what do you mean choking me this way?' 
'I am very sorry, Judg-e,' he replied; 'I did not know I was choking" 

"He was vicious at times. In him the good and the bad alter- 
nately predominated. I think he was incapable of a persistent 
fraud. He had a good heart, spoke and acted well and was by no 
means intensely selfish. I was very intimate with liim. In his con- 
fidential moods he intrusted his secrets to my keeping. \\'hen he 
was worried or in trouble, or had been abused, he always came to 
me. One day he stepped into my office. As was characteristic of 
him he puckered up the left corner of his mouth, and intently stared 
at me, his head being to one side. Alternately rubbing his hands 
together, with his right fist he would beat his breast with great 
rapidity, ^\d^ile going through this gymnastic performance he 


finally blurted out, 'Judge Biddle, what do you think of me, any- 
way?" 'Can you stand the truth?" I asked. He replied that he 
thought he could, ■^^'ell, Jack,' said I, "I'll tell you. If all the 
bad in you were absent you would make a good citizen. But if all 
the good in you had been taken away and nothing but the bad left, 
you would have been in the penitentiary long ago.' 

"Estimates of Judge Wright as a speaker differ. I never 
thought that he was possessed of genuine eloc|uence. The chief 
fault of the man as a speaker was repetition. He often spoiled his 
points. 'Jack' was a great temperance worker. Once in an address 
upon that subject he tried to imitate Patrick Henry, in a speech 
made in defense of a man who had sued the officers furnishing sup- 
plies to the revolution, in which speech Henry made use of about 
this language: 'But what note of discord do we hear? That of 
John Bull, shouting, "Beef! Beef! Beef!" ' Wright blundered along 
after this fashion : 'In this age of peace and sobriety we hear a 
shout of peace and prosperity arising. Arising from the earth. As 
high as heaven — as high as hea\en. Yes, higher than heaven — 
arising — arising — higher than heaven — arising from Maine to Geor- 
gia.' This was ever afterwards spoken of as Wright's climax. 

"Judge Wright was not for ceremony in adjourning court. 
Sometimes he even adjourned court without the knowledge of the 
bar. Once he did this. The grand jury, unable to secure accom- 
modations in the courthouse, were in session in the jail. He ad- 
journed court proper then. Judge Wright proceeded to dismiss 
them by going to the door of the jail building and exclaiming: 'Go 
home, gentlemen !' 

"Judge Wright went to Washington City, where he died. 
While there he became quite wealthy. Just how he made his money 
I never knew. The last five or six years of his life he was per- 
fectly helpless. His body was finally brought to Logansport for 

380 morrow's history 

reinterment. He was a Presbyterian in faith and believed that his 
election was sure. He was finnly convinced that he was one of the 
elect. The expressions which he used most frequently were 'dyed 
in the wool,' and 'for the love of God and the Democracy.' He 
was a very enthusiastic Democrat." 

AN ABLE jurist. 

Judge Biddle, Howard county's second judge, was an able 
jurist, a savant, and a gentleman of broad culture. At eighty years 
of age his hair was thin and gray. His forehead was broad and 
retreating. The most delicate pencil lines in a crayon portrait 
would have sufficed for his eyebrows, from beneath which peeped 
eyes, small, keen and intelligent, such as are commoitly ascribed to 
acute logicians. Deep furrows had plowed their downward way 
upon his countenance, throwing up upon either cheek swollen veins 
of flesh. The features of the man told plainly that for years he 
had been a tireless student, and upon his brow could be seen the 
evidence that the brain within for years had been busy with wast- 
ing thought. 

The language which the judge used stamped him at first blush 
as a linguist. His memory in his age was strong, clear, and accu- 
rate. Seemingly inexhaustible was the storehouse of his mind. He 
was an expert mimic, a fine musician, a writer upon the technology 
of the subject, and played a violin to perfection. 

Upon his retirement from the supreme bench of Indiana and the 
active practice of the law. Judge Biddle lived the closing years of 
his life upon Biddle's island, adjacent to Logansport. He and his 
wife had disagreed, the judge conceiving a jealousy of her, and a 
separation followed. The judge attempted to secure a divorce but 
failed. His wife also lived on the island, and while he always spoke 


til lier if he chanced to meet her. he never was reconciled again to 
her. altlioug-h she also li\-ed upon the same island. Judge Bitldle 
passed the last years of his life alone, surrounded by his books and 
living in a house that was a literary curiosity and an antique 

In the room most frequented by Judge Biddle was an old bureau 
filled with curious things and an old-fashioned bedstead, the posts 
of which were four feet from the floor, the two one way topped by 
a couple of hats. Along the north wall of the room, immediately 
behind the stove, was a row of boots and shoes, as the judge care- 
fully preserved cast-off footwear and headwear, having thus a com- 
plete museum of styles. The walls were hung with pictures and 
dotted with plaster of Paris statuary. 

Proceeding through a door of heavy box-like casing, one came 
into a hall papered with maps, and clinging to the ceiling of which 
was a birch canoe and Indian moccasins. A cabinet contained a 
collection of relics. A case was filled with geological specimens, 
upon the top of which rested the models of two large vessels. In a 
corner leaned a rifle picked up at Island Xo. lo. Near it was a 
sword and scabbard pinioned to the wall. Keeping- company with 
these two articles was a large whalebone. In a stand of canes was 
the one with which Judge Biddle struck Senator D. D. Pratt o\"er 
tlie head, a courtroom incident of state note. The Biddle home con- 
sisted of nine rooms, in which seven were occupied with collections 
of books, several thousand in number. In several, troughs of books 
hung from the ceilings. One room Judge Biddle used as a work- 
shop and employed himself in building the second musical instru- 
ment. In one room he had cords of books and a stuffed bear. In 
an outside building he had newspaper files which covered a period 
of over half a century. 

Judge Biddle, who served with Associate Judges Long- and 
Ervin, said of the system : 

382 morrow's history 

"I was rather attached to the system of associate judges. 
Those judges were first-rate jurors, upon questions of fact before 
the court. Their assistance was often very valuable, being acquainted 
with the credibility of witnesses and the solvency of proposed sure- 
ties, as well as various other matters of legal importance. Upon 
the technicality of legal procedure, I seldom consulted them. Once 
in a while they would overreach themselves by yielding to a very 
effective and plausible moral appeal and sometimes announced 
rulings formed from imperfect data. But they were most generally 
in the right and their motives uniformly pure." 

General R. H. Milroy, the third judge of Howard county, was a 
very brave man and a high-toned gentleman, incapable of a wrong 
or mean act. He often did things that he afterwards regretted, was 
a very impulsive man and was not a thoroughly trained lawyer. A 
militaiw man, pure and simple, his whole manner was military and 
his pride ran in that direction. At the bar he had had but an 
imperfect experience. \Vliile upon the bench he was upon a severe 
strain and made many mistakes. He was glad to get rid of his 
office because he felt that the law was not his forte. No one ever 
learned better than he from painful experience that law as a science 
and a system must be understood as a whole and that patch work 
is not sufficient. Very modest, he distmsted his own knowledge, 
and did not feel himself equal to his position. His administration 
did not give satisfaction. Love, respect and admiration were due 
him, but his chief trait was militai-y and his courage extended even 
to rashness. He was one of the veiy strictest of disciplinarians. 
His men loved and feared him and would follow him any^\■here. 
A glance at his portrait, with its stern, piercing eyes and firm-set 
lips, revealed his deteiTnination and inexorable will. 



The November term of 1852 was tlie first, last, and only term 
of court held by Judge Milroy in Ploward county. 

At this period the circuit court acquired a migratory charac- 
ter. The May term, 1854, was held in the Methodist church, a 
frame structure which stood upon West Mulberry street. 

At this term, Samuel \Vilson, a notable character of Kokomo, 
was tried for assault with intent to kill and accjuitted. While intoxi- 
cated, and being- a Kentuckian, he had chased a negro through a 
cornfield with a shotgim. 

At this date the old log courthouse was no more. It was 
inadecjuate and had been torn down. It was ordered, on the 2d day 
of June, 1852, by the county commissioners, that Corydon Rich- 
mond, Austin C. Sheets and Charles D. Murray be appointed to 
prepare specifications for the erection and furnishing of offices for 
the clerk, auditor, recorder and treasurer. Two buildings were to 
be erected, each to be constnicted of brick and to be eighteen feet 
by diirty-six feet in dimension. Their aggregate cost was to be not 
more than one thousand dollars, and were to be so located as to 
leave space between them for a courthouse, the present one. One of 
the buildings was erected near the northeast corner of the court- 
house yard and occupied by the auditor and treasurer; the other 
was located on the opposite corner west and was used by the 
recorder and clerk. 

For a season court was held in one of these buildings, but the 
quarters were too small, and the James & Armstrong, and later the 
Wildman halls were utilized for judicial hearings. 

March, 1853, the materials of the log courthouse were ordered 
sold, but instead they were used for a walk in the courthouse yard. 

The fourth judge of Howard county was John U. Pettit, of 

384 morrow's history 

^\'abash. He was a man of striking personal characteristics and 
eccentricities. He was a graduate of Columbia College and a class- 
mate uf Robert Toombs, of Georgia, "the great Southern fire-eater 
and slavery advocate." He was a small, spare man, of about the 
average height, active and graceful in movement, fluent in speech, 
exceedingly polite, firm and determined, a good wit, a thorough 
scholar and a highly piilished gentleman. 

The fifth judge of Howard county was John M. Wallace, of 
]\Iarion. This jurist was popularly spoken of as the "ready" judge. 
He transacted while upon the bench a large amount of business, 
with the utmost ease and rapidity. He was not noted for his pro- 
found thought, or research, but was a very ready speaker. In per- 
sonal appearance Judge Wallace was a handsome man, with coal- 
black hair and eyes, unusually large chest and head. His dress was 
very tasty for the time in which he lived. He was born in Frank- 
lin county, this state, and was a brother of Governor Wallace and 
an uncle of General Lew Wallace. His father was a tavern keeper 
in eastern Indiana. Judge Wallace died a poor man. 

Judge Brouse and Wallace were intimate friends. Wallace, 
after deciding a case against Brouse, laughingly remarked to him, 
"Well, Brouse, I don't suppose you feel quite as good as you did 
before I made that decision." 

"\"ou know well enough that you made an old ass of yourself, 
Judge Wallace," retorted Brouse with afifected anger. 

This touched Wallace deeply, who, supposing that he had really 
given oft'ense, said sympathetically, "Come now, Brouse; you are 
not going to strike down an old friend, are you?" 

"Well, I guess not by any means," responded Brouse with a 

This assurance relieved Wallace from a dread apprehension. 
He would not intentionally give ofifense, or wound another's feel- 


ings for any consideration. Yet under no circumstances would he 
permit motives of friendship to dictate his judgment. He was con- 
scientious and honest to the extreme. 


Wallace, the judge, and Wallace, the citizen, were two different 
characters. The one character was stern, harshly indififerent, rigid 
in severity and of unbending dignity. When trying a case his fea- 
tures were seemingly as inflexible as those of a Roman senator. 
The procedure of his court was conducted with the strictest dis- 
cipline. Order and monotonous regularity prevailed. No slave- 
master ever exerted a firmer control over his bondsmen than did 
Judge Wallace over his associates in the administration of justice. 
When Wallace thought an attorney had said enough to enable him 
to understand a subject he instantly told that attorney so, and shut 
off his speech. Wallace always ran court to suit himself. 

Anybody could laugh and joke with him in private social inter- 
course. Then he was good-natured, jolly and sympathetic, and 
ready for any kind of innocent fun that came along. Of nights it 
was his favorite amusement to play his violin to the loungers at the 
hotel and he would nearly shake himself to pieces with laughter as 
he saw some "greeny" trying to execute a clever imitation of any 
kind of dancing. Nothing seemed to gratify him more than to see 
some nimble fellow beat the floor into splinters with his feet, or hear 
some extra good joke. 

Henry A. Brouse, whose name, before his death, headed the 
list of Howard county practitioners as being the oldest of the num- 
ber at the bar, came to Howard county from Wayne county when 
the town of Kokomo did not contain more than fifty log cabins. 
He settled upon a farm south of the city. There were in the town 


386 morrow's history 

three resident lawyers and three stores of general merchandise ; those 
of T. J. Faulkner, John Bohan and C. J. Allison, the latter a "wet- 
back" grocer)^ Wearing high-top boots Brouse trudged to town 
three times a day. His office furniture consisted of a few rickety 
chairs, a dilapidated table, and a library worth less than three hun- 
dred dollars. In writing he made use of quill pens. 

Along in the fifties his practice was large and he had about all 
the legal business to which he could well attend. When court was 
in session, in order to get his cases at issue he would have his clients 
sleep at his office and would work all night getting the pleadings in 
shape, awakening his clients one by one for information as he finished 
one paper and went on to the next. Brouse tried his first case in 
the county before Judge Biddle. Brouse was one of the prime 
movers in the organization of the Republican party here, and mainly 
instrumental in securing the election of Nelson Purdum as the first 
mayor of the city, and subscribed largely for the construction of the 
normal school building. 


During the morning hours, or those of early afternoon. Judge 
Pettit greeted an acquaintance in a most complaisant voice and 
pleasing and courteous manner in substantially this language : "Oh, 
John," or James, as the case might be, "now I am real glad to see 
you. How are you ? I was just thinking about you a moment since. 
How is your family now, anyway?" But after four o'clock in the 
afternoon his form of salutation, expressed with a deferential bow, 
but with a slight and graceful wave of the right hand, was almost 
invariably: "Good evening! Good evening!" When at his meals 
he would eat a while, stop and converse with whoever chanced to 
be present in the room and then fall to again. Purchasing a fine 


pair of trousers, Pettit has been known to offset these with a cheap, 
shoddy hat, without any band, and he would encase the neat and 
dainty foot of which he was possessed in a stoga, heavy-sewed shoe. 
But T. C. PhiHps, one of his great admirers, once declared that 
Judge Pettit, as congressman, "was not the same Pettit that he was 
in mingling with his constituents." "\Miy," said Philips, "when I 
saw him at the National capital he was as tastefully dressed as 
Charles Sumner, which is saying a good deal, ^^'hen I saw him 
after the National legislature had adjourned he looked as seedy as a 
man without a dollar." 

Pettit hated with his whole soul and his enmity was bitter, 
intense, and uncompromising. He seemingly, when aroused, feared 
no man and would, if he lost his control, jump upon a man twice 
his size. One of the judicial campaigns in which he was successful 
was extremely personal and malignant. As he was riding along, 
one day after the election was over, in his buggy, he saw coming 
down the street his defeated opponent. Perceiving a good oppor- 
tunity to tell him in direct language what he thought of his man- 
ner of campaigning, Pettit squared his vehicle around so that his 
former rival could not pass and then proceeded to say, to the object 
of his contempt : "I am that dirty, lousy, and unscrupulous John U. 
Pettit that you told the people so much about lately ! Good day, sir !" 

A witness for whom Pettit had the most profound contempt 
testified against his client in a suit in which he was engaged as an 
attorney. Later on in the pnigress of the trial it became necessary 
to recall this witness to testify to additional matter. Pettit arose, 
made a sligh bow, and in those cutting and sarcastic tones which 
he could use with such scathing effect, remarked : "The honest and 
virtuous gentleman may again take the witness stand and proceed 
to perjure himself a little more." Pettit's repartee was like a dag- 
ger thrust. 


A witness that Pettit believed had hed in his evidence once 
pressed the judge to drink with him. "If for no other reason," 
said Pettit, "I'll not drink with j-ou, because you are an infamous 
liar. And I'll thank you, sir, I don't wish to drink with a liar." 
He was not afraid to say to a man's face what he thought of him. 

He instantly adjourned court once because the spectators rushed 
to the windows to see a passing circus procession. 


The oratorical powers of Pettit were of a high standard. In 
delivery he was rather deliberate. Many of his finest addresses were 
purely extemporaneoiis. The language of which he made use in 
the exposition and elaboration of a subject was the best that could be 
chosen. His words, selected with faultless judgment, carried home 
the idea to the mind of his auditor with a force that made a deep 

C. C. Shirley, who once heard Judge Pettit speak at a con- 
gressional convention, describes his manner of delivery as "very 
precise, smooth and oily, and apparent!}- of studied suavity ; exhibit- 
ing the fact that he had a rare command of the best and choicest 

Pettit stood high in his profession and in the trial of his cases 
he demonstrated his thoroughness, masterly skill, chained logic. 
keen analysis, correct judgment, shrewdness, and ability to fetter 
an opponent. He was naturally a diplomat. 

An appeal case in which the plaintifif sought the recover}' of 
damages for some sheep killed by several dogs was tried before him 
in the old Methodist Episcopal church. 

The plaintifif was represented in court by N. R. Linsday and 
C. D. IMurray, who did the bulk of the earliest legal practice in the 


county, and practically had a cinch on the practice. One of the 
principal attorneys of a somewhat later day, Henry A. Brouse, rep- 
resented the defendant. Case called for trial. Judge Pettit ready 
to hear the evidence. The testimony of the plaintiff is soon pro- 
duced and he rests. Inquiry by the court of Brouse whether he 
has any evidence. "None," replies that lawyer. "\Miat?" gasps 
Brouse's client, "hain't you goin' to put in any evidence? That's 
what I hired you for." Observation by the court. "]\Ir. Brouse, 
can't you manage to keep that boisterous client of yours still ?" Mr. 
Brouse looked daggers at his client, who blurted out : "That's all 
right, Mr. Brouse, you needn't look cross-eyed at me. If you hain't 
a-goin' to tell this here court some evidence on my side of this here 
case, I quit right away. There's more'n one lawyer in this town 
besides you." This remark finished, the court observes : "It is with 
pain that I again call attention to this matter. I repeat, will you, 
Mr. Brouse, i.blige the court by keeping that boisterous client of 
yours still? If not, I shall fine you both." "I'll try, sir," answered 
Brouse, who knew Pettit's nature too well to risk any display of 
defiance. "I'll try, sir." Brouse then hastily whispered to his cli- 
ent in husky tones to keep still, for heaven's sake; that no evidence 
was needed, and that he could beat the plaintiff without any. "The 
court finds," said Pettit, as he picked up his pen and began writing, 
"for the plaintifif and " 

"One moment, your Honor," said Brouse. as he arose to address 
the court. "I have a few points to " 

"Sit down, Mr. Brouse," said the court, sternly. Brouse 
obeyed, as he knew it was not good policy to do otherwise. 

"I have, your Honor, some " said Brouse, as he arose again. 

"Sit down," said Pettit. Brouse sat down. 

^^'iping the perspiration from his brow he at once arose. "Sit 
down," said Pettit. Brouse sat down. 


After he had written a few Hues Pettit asked of Brouse, "Have 
you any authorities to present?" 

"Yes, sir," repHed the latter, choking with eagerness. "I dis- 
closed on cross-examination that the dogs belonged " 

"That will do. Sit down, Mr. Brouse," said Pettit. Brouse 
sat down. "You refer to that elementary principle of law that a 
man is to be held responsible only for the damage done by his own 
property. The proof in this case does not disclose the amount of 
damage done by each dog. The court finds for the defendant 
and -" 

"Your Honor " said Linsda}', arising. 

"Sit down, Mr. Linsday," said Pettit. Tinsday sat down and, 
arising again, said : 

"But ■" 

"Enough," said Pettit. "The finding is for the defendant. 
Sit down." Mr. Lindsay sat down. 

The mind of Pettit was keen and incisive, as subtle as that of a 
sophist, enabling him to draw fine-spun distinctions. From the 
slightest hint he grasped a point in its remotest connections. The 
movements of his mind were swift, as straight to the mark as an 


When speaker of the house of state representatives during the 
war period he displayed great nerve and incorruptible patriotism. 
Among the offices held by him were consul to Brazil, judge of the 
eighth and twenty-seventh judicial districts and congressman for 
three tenns. 

James W. Robinson was a singular character. He read much, 
but studied little. But he had a smattering of a large number of 
subjects. Incessantlv he bluffed and blustered. With witnesses. 


the attorneys, and the court .he would wrangle by the hour. Sar- 
casms, rebuffs, or reprimands did not abash him in the least, and 
he persisted in continuing in the same course of conduct confident, 
to all appearances, in the correctness of his position. Speaking for 
a defendant accused of larceny he exclaimed : "I tell you, gentle- 
men, these are the same, identical verbatim boots that my client 
bought in Cambridge City." In a case wherein he urged an alibi 
as a defense he said : "Gentlemen, how can you, in the light of the 
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, convict my client here? It 
would be preposterous to convict him when he has already proven 
an albino." Once again: "Gentlemen of the jury, I want to tell 
you that Nat Linsday and Hen Brouse, who appear against me, are 
two of the biggest wind-bags in the United States. They don't 
know any law. Neither does the judg-e in this case. But I know 
the law perfectly well and just as it is. Listen, I will give 3'ou the 
law. It is this. Now don't pay any attention to what Linsday 
or the judge says, but follow the law as I have given it and you are 
on the right side. There can be no doubt, gentlemen, but what 
you will g'ive my client a verdict." Going into the auditor's office 
one day, Robinson said : "You have got me taxed up here with 
some land that I never owned." 

"I hope not, Mr. Robinson," was the reply. 

"But I know 3'ou have. I never owned an acre and fifty- 
hundredths in my life." 


After searching the records carefully the auditor said : "I find 
these against you, Mr. Robinson. They show you to be the owner 
of an acre and a half of land." 

"An acre and a half! WeW. that will do. But I repeat, I 
never owned an acre and fiftv-hundredths in all mv life." 


"You may state your name to the jury," said Robinson to the 
only witness by whom he hoped to prove a case of slander. 

"John Joybreaker." 

"Are you acquainted with the parties in this suit?" 

"I don't remember." 

"Don't you know the plaintiff in this action?" 

"I don't remember." 

"Do you know the defendant?" 

"I don't remember." 

"Don't you know that he called the defendant a and slan- 
dered him in this manner, by saying the following language?" 

"I don't remember." 

"Did you eat your dinner?" 

"I don't remember." 

"Didn't you run off as soon as you were subpoenaed in this 

"I don't remember." 

"\\'eren't you put in jail?" 

"I don't remember." 

Parsons on Contracts has, for years, been a standard authority 
in this country. But Robinson, on one occasion, didn't think so. 
Joe D. Johnson vs. James W. Robinson. Case in bailment. Trial 
upon an agreed state of facts. Johnson reads to the court from 
Parsons on Contracts. 

"^^'hat are you reading from?" inquired Robinson. 

"I am reading from Parsons on Contracts." 

"Great God!" exclaimed Robinson, throwing up both hands in 
linrror. "Have you come out here to pull the wool over the eyes 
of the court, by reading Parsons on Contracts? Parsons is English 
law. It was written in England over five himdred years ago! It 
is British law!" 


"On the contrary," said Johnson, "I know better. Parsons is 
the very best authority upon this subject that we are discussing. It 
is as much American law as the statutes of this state. To say that 
Parsons is not American law is to talk utter nonsense. The pass- 
ages which I have read are directly in point." Johnson continued 
his reading after the delivery of his remarks, but was again inter- 
rupted by Robinson, who inquired of the court : 

"And will you, sir, allow the gentleman to persist in reading 
British law?" 

The justice answered : "You may stop reading, Mr. Johnson. 
I do not believe that your authority has any reference to this case." 
So Johnson stopped. 

can't predicate what a jury will do. 

But ver\' few lawyers, however, have gainsaid the truth of 
what Robinson once said : "Nobody but God Almighty knows what 
a jury will do." A colored man was once defended by Robinson 
before John W. Cooper, then mayor of the city. Judicially speak- 
ing, Robinson's client, when sentence was rendered, received a "l^lack 

eye" from the court. "By " said the prisoner, as he was being 

conducted to jail, "if Robinson would have talked much more. I 
would have been sent to the penitentiary." 

J. D. Johnson was a young man of considerable brilHancy and 
had more than ordinary talent. Had he lived he would have "made 
his mark." He was a good talker, had a good voice, used good 
language, and presented ably his thought. He did not live lon^ 
enough to fully mature and develop his powers, but demonstrated 
to a certainty the fact that he possessed the requisite qualifications 
to have made a most effective practitioner. Untimely death, how- 
ever, cut off his hopes in the flower of his youth. His nature was 
ardent, ambitious, and aspiring. 


Xelsoii Purdum, an eaii}' attorney at the bar and first mayor 
of the city, was a practical lawyer. He detested buncombe, rant 
and bombast. Hating superficiality he was never guilty of soaring 
above the heads of a jury. In civil law he was most proficient 
and it was there that he was in his element. He was a man of good, 
hard sense, strong in conviction, clever-hearted, industrious and 
successful in practice. Being clear, simple and comprehensive in 
statement he generally had little difficulty in persuading the twelve 
judges of fact to adopt his view of the case. 


Joe Lewis had the reputation of being one of the best collec- 
tion law3'ers in northern Indiana. If anybody could extract blood 
from a stone or turnip he was the man. \Mien enforcing the pay- 
ments of collections he never desisted from tormenting debtors and 
stretching them upon the rack until his demands were fully satis- 
fied. It would have been him exactly to "order out an execution at 
midnight and to compel the sheriff to levy upon all property in- 
stantly. He was nen'ous in writing, in speech, in everything. He 
would study night and day. Often in his cogitations, when a 
young man. he would abstract the contents of a book which he held 
in his hand, while he leisurely walked back and forth. He was 
bitter in his dislikes and scrupulously tasty in his dress. 

Rawson A^aile, more than any other member of the bar, would 
explore and dive into the depths of old records, minutely and crit- 
ically examining every mouldy paper buried beneath the dust of the 
years. It used to be the common remarks of attorneys when they 
would see him in the county offices : "Well, there is Brother Vaile, 
again, going into antiquity to see what he can discover." Fiery 
energv was one of his characteristics. He alwavs walked as if he 


was in a desperate hurry, and had only a second of time in which 
to accompHsh a certain act. He moved forward with an impetu- 
osity that threatened his dismemberment. He was of unquestioned 
rectitude and probity. About the truth he was extremely scrupu- 
lous. He would never mislead a client, but would tell him the law 
as he thought it to be, whether for or against his client's interest. 
Vaile was tenacious in the advocacy of a proposition. There was 
no foolishness about him, and he was little inclined to a joke. His 
strongest tastes were not for the law. At one time in life he was 
actively engaged in the duties of jnurnalism. He published the 
Free Territory Sentinel and was one of the editors of the Indian- 
apolis Journal. 


In February, 1847, ^lilton Garrigus came to Howard county, 
being a native of Wayne county, Indiana. Many of the relics of 
the Indians were still strewn over the grounds, situated in the vicin- 
ity of Greentown, upon which Garrigus passed his first night, in 
company with his father and brother under a rude covering of logs 
hastily thrown together and wanned by a blazing fire burning im- 
mediately in front. Pheasant was the sole dish upon which he made 
his first meal in this, the Miami reserve. Garrigus farmed the land 
spoken of for some time, roughing it in true pioneer style, and doing 
his own cooking. Wild turkej' ranged not far from his door. Squir- 
rels by the legion scampered up and down the trees of the adjacent 
forest, which stretched away for miles unbroken, and was inhabited 
by wildcats, polecats, mink and muskrats. 

While postmaster at Greentown Captain Garrigus studied law. 
Trials were held in the postoffice. The Captain borrowed his books 
of Lindsav & Murrav. 

30 morrow's history 


David Nation, famous as tlie divorced husband of Carrie Na- 
tion, the Kansas temperance cyclone, was once a lawyer in Howard 
county, and prosecuted a case in the old Methodist church in the 
fifties. A gunsmith of Jerome was accused of setting fire to the 
barn of Harvey Brown, of that place. Wood had been piled against 
one side of the structure and the flames started. Nation was a verj^ 
vigorous and capable prosecuting attorney. He was opposed by 
Captain Garrigus and Joshua Mellett, a noted cross-examiner, who 
represented the defendant. It was during the trial that William 
Branhouse realized the full power of Mellett's ability and as he un- 
derwent the ordeal the perspiration rolled down his face in streams. 
The defendant was acquitted because he deserved to be under the 
evidence, but under Nation's prosecution he had the call of his life. 
Judge Buckles, of Muncie, was on the bench and Nation then lived 
in the same city. Kokomo and Muncie belonged to the same judi- 
cial circuit. It was the custom for the judge and the prosecutor to 
travel the circuit together, and that is how Nation came to appear in 
the trial in Kokomo that year. 

During his career at the bar Captain Garrigus had been identi- 
fied with many trials of public moment. 

The sixth judge of Howard county hailed from ^Muncie. Jo- 
seph S. Buckles lived near that city upon a stock farm of six hun- 
dred and fifty acres. He was what might be called a farmer judge. 
Judge Buckles was a fair judge, a man of good natural sense and 
disposed to be impartial. He was heavy set and imposing in per- 
sonal appearance, lending dignity to the bench. His disposition 
was jovial and he loved company. Had he devoted himself ex- 
clusively to the law he would have been a lawyer of exceptional 
capability. But he was largely interested in farming, and this in- 


terest induced him to neglect the close pursuit of the law, for which 
he was so well qualified hy nature. The lawyers whispered that he 
eminently preferred to remain at home and look after his hogs and 
sheep than hold court. There were eight counties in his judicial 
circuit, comprising Delaware, Hancock, Hamilton, Tipton, Howard, 
Grant, Blackford and Madison. Judge Buckles was elected to the 
bench as a Democrat before the Civil war, but at and after the war 
he was a Republican. \\'hile on the bench the legislature decided 
that his circuit was too large and cut it down one-half, making a 
circuit of Madison, Hamilton, Tipton and Howard counties. 


This change in the circuit removed Judge Buckles from the 
Howard countv liench, the new circuit nf which it was a part being' 
presided over by Judge Henry A. Brouse, appointed to fill the va- 
cancy in the bench until the election. 

Judge Brouse never admired technicality enough to be skillful 
in the use and constniction of it. As a lawyer he employed it from 
necessity. He had a natural antipathy and aversion to it. In tak- 
ing advantage of technicality he was much more skillful than in the 
formulation of it. Technicality he regarded as a means to an end — 
a mode of progress. He believed that cnurts were established to 
administer justice and that when technicality conspired to this end 
it ought scrupulously to be observed. That such was the purpose 
of its existence, and that when it operated to defeat justice or delay 
right, then it ought to be lightly regarded and overlooked, observed 
only sufficiently to avoid reversal in the supreme court. 

A great lover of what is often spoken of as natural equity. 
Judge Brouse ever sought to abstract from the mass of confused and 
conflicting evidence in a case the real and substantial points upon 

398 morrow's history 

which a trial hinged, and decided for the party with whom lie con- 
ceived justice to be on the face of the issues. The honors of his 
position he bore with becoming modesty and impressed the bar with 
his evident desire to make a good judicial officer, fair and impartial. 
He was exceedingly liberal in the admission of evidence. Every syl- 
lable of evidence that could throw additional light upon the subject 
under consideration by the jury was placed before them for their re- 
flection and deliberation. No jury, if he could possibly avoid it, re- 
tired to return a verdict with an incomplete, defective and unsatis- 
factory understanding of the material points in controversy. He 
never suffered the jury to remain in the dark about a matter. 

It was Brouse's idea that the court and bar were examples to 
the community. For this reason he insisted upon the strictest ob- 
sen'ance of the rules by which he governed his court room. He tol- 
erated no offensive personality, no bulldozing, no improper conduct 
of any kind, and repelled rather than invited the familiarity of attor- 
neys and others, whom he kept at a respectful distance while court 
was in session. Civilit}-, respect and courtesy were conditions prece- 
dent to the transaction of business in his court. Brouse repressed 
eveiy manifestation of interest for either side by the spectators with 
an iron hand. 

The Anderson bar had the reputation of employing dilatory 
tactics in their practice. Hearing of this, Brouse, who went there 
to hold court, was not all pleased. He resolved to inaugurate a new 
order of things. Court called Case Xo. 10185. A demurrer is filed 
to the complaint. The swiftness with which it was overruled made 
the attorney's head swim. Under penalty of the dismissal of the 
case the lawyer hustled around and files a motion to make the com- 
plaint more specific, but Brouse is of the opinion that its allegations 
are in no wise too general. A motion to file a bill of particulars is 
presented and overruled, and so on, case after case. Brouse dis- 


posed of legal matters in this summary manner and made up issues 
with frightful celerity until he accomplished his object. 


\\'hen the time came to select a successor to Judge Brouse a 
convention was held in this city. The names of the ambitious pre- 
sented iSr its consideration were: Henry A. Brouse, of Howard 
county; John Davis, of Madison county, and William Garver, of 
Hamilton county. The convention adopted the two-thirds rule. The 
respective counties from which the aspirants hailed stood by their 
men. Tipton divided her strength. The convention, unable to 
agree, adjourned to reassemble at Noblesville. 

Some weeks later, at that place, the contest was renewed with 
the same result. On one ballot Brouse came within six votes of 
being successful. But it soon became evident to the delegates that 
no one of the men being voted upon could be selected unless some 
sort of a compromise was effected between the candidates. The del- 
egates, exasperated at the turn affairs had taken, put on their war 
paint and declared that something must be done, and that quickly, 
too. The candidates retired to canvass the situation. Brouse and 
Garver agreed to throw their influence to Davis, and in accordance 
with this compact John Davis was declared the nominee and was 
elected at the polls. 

Judge John Davis, of Anderson, was elected. He was a man 
of good intellect and scholarly attainments. For a time he was in 
the employment of a railroad company, and was in corporation law 
a power, having a wide understanding of technicality in its manifold 
application. He was especially apt in perceiving the finer shades of 
distinction between elementary principles of law in respect to their 
relation to facts. The arts of his profession he exercised more as 

400 morrow's history 

a scholar than a matter of fact practitioner. He was widely read in 
history, poetry and literature in general, and was something of a 
linguist. To become a great chancery lawyer was the acme of his 
ambition, and this desire occupied his thought by day and dreams by 
night, and was his most pleasurable topic of conversation. The dis- 
cussion of but one other theme delighted him as much, that of ana- 
lyzing the subjects of equity, the origin of that grand science, to pon- 
der over the jurisdiction of its courts, and reflect upon its remedies 
and its procedure. He had little love for criminal law. 

Shortly after taking the bench his body became enfeebled by 
disease and his intellect clouded. Receiving a stroke of paralysis, 
he was rendered unable to perform the duties of his office. He re- 
fused, nevertheless, to resign. His ofifice being a constitutional one 
he could not be removed. The legislature of 1871 passed an act to 
meet the emergency, providing for the choice of a judge pro tem. 
Governor Baker appointed Judge James O'Brien to this elevation. 


O'Brien was a judge of strength, force and power and satis- 
factory to the majority of the people in eveiy respect. His under- 
standing of the law was broad and matured by research. His de- 
cisive mind, active memory of leading cases, high moral standard, 
steadfastness, unwavering iiminess and familiarity with the details 
of practice enlisted public confidence and approbation. 

Generalh^ cool and collected, when aroused and under the in- 
fluence of a heated temper, he became a person most impulsive and 
interrogated a witness savagely. So thorough and deep-rooted was 
his contempt that when he thought he was being imposed upon his 
anger arose to a sublime height. The experience gained by a serv- 
ice of four vears as countv clerk of Hamilton countv made him a 


proficient issue lawyer, and his love of investigation made him study 
his cases thoroughly. He was not, however, an advocate. His 
knowledge of men surpassed even his knowledge of books. The 
cross-examination of witnesses with him was a strong point. Posi- 
tive in his likes and dislikes, he was a man of strong opinions, friend- 
ships and enmities. His appetite for a joke was good and frequent- 
ly indulged. 


Two members of the Howard county bar have attained to na- 
tional fame, J. Fred Vaile, now of Denver, Colorado, and a leading 
lawyer of the United States, and Hon. John W. Kern, Democratic 
nomineee for the office of Vice-President of the United States in 

Signal industrA" characterized the work of Mr. Vaile. Every- 
thing with which he had to do was done as thoroughly and 
as promptly as could be expected or as was possible. Offenders, 
while he was prosecutor, were pursued with relentless persistence. 
They were not permitted to crawl through any loopholes. He had 
not the slightest sympathy with crime. Acting as state's attorney 
in a murder trial at Tipton, Vaile learned that a person living at a 
distance and in a locality not reached by railroad was in the posses- 
sion of information, the nature of which was so weighty as to make 
him an indispensable witness for the prosecution. Many attorneys, 
notwithstanding the importance of the situation, would have con- 
sulted personal ease and comfort and let the matter go by the board. 
But Vaile was a hustler and had his heart set upon winning a ver- 
dict, and was willing to go wherever duty demanded. During the 
night he drove in a vehicle several miles and had the witness in court 
upon its opening the next morning. Turning a deaf ear to his 
father's remonstrances, Vaile, when a youth, ran away to college, en- 


tering" Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio. The expenses of his first 
year's schooling he paid by choring and cutting wood. He gradu- 
ated with honor and then taught school in Kentucky. Enthusias- 
tically he sought after everything which promised mental culture 
and advancement. 

Vaile's faculty of observation was acute, critical and broad in 
its grasp of detail. His power of description was exceptional. 
Upon ever}' subject he brought to bear his scholarly attainments. 
In argument to court or jury he was strictly methodical and strictly 
logical, and in effect the manner in which he let drive a disastrous 
array of facts at the opposite party's side of the case resembled the 
steady and continuous beating of a sledge hammer, increasing in 
force at each successive blow. With his mode of interrogation he 
elicited testimony in a clean, clear-cut and exhaustive manner. When 
Vaile concluded a severe cross-examination the whole of a witness' 
knowledge was laid bare for the jury's consideration, and all his 
weaknesses exposed. He secured the only death penalty ever ob- 
tained from a Howard county jury. In a case involving technical 
chemical knowledge his argimient reflected the learning of a college 


John W. Kern, without any previous preparation, can come 
into court, read over the pleadings and become so familiar with it 
that to all appearances he can try the merits of a cause as success- 
fully as if he had studied them for weeks. His fertility of expedi- 
ent is brought to light at almost every turn of the case. A weak 
place in an opponent's case he detects in a flash. A legal controversy 
would have to be diyer than the sands of the Sahara if he did not 
get some kind of fun out of it. When Kern began his career as a 
lawyer he was not exceedingly well versed in the practice. One of 


his first cases was a suit upon a promissory note. The case was to 
be tried at Tipton and thither Kern went to look after the interests 
of his chents. He was not expecting- the defendant to make an ap- 
pearance, but contrary to Kern's expectations that personage was 
represented in court by Judge Green. 

There is an expression among the attorneys and pecuHarly in 
the courts like this : "Let a rule go against the defendant, or plain- 
tifif, as the case may be." To "take a rule" is to obtain an order of 
court that the defendant answer the plaintiff's complaint, or that the 
plaintiff reply to the defendant's answer. Of these things Kem was 
ignorant and when he learned that he must contend against Judge 
Green he became confused and greatly embarrassed. He was at 
his wits' end and floored. Judge Garver was on the bench and after 
waiting some time, said: "^\'ell, what are you going to do, Mr. 
Kern? Will you take a rule?" Kern now saw a way out of his 
difficulty. He knew that the sympathetic judge would not mislead 
him. So with his eyes flashing triumph and with an air of crushing 
learnedness, Kern remarked : "Yes, your Honor, yes. I belie\-e I 
will take a rule." 

Kern is ingenious and knows where to strike and when to let a 
witness severely alone. He never allows an opportunity to raise a 
laugh slip by. He has — call it what you will — an innate genius, an 
inherent power or peculiar talent for the defense of those charged 
with crime. 


After three years in the University of ^Michigan, at Ann Arbor, 
a tall, slender youth returned to Kokomo one day in 1869 and hung 
■out his shingle. It read : "John W. Kern, Attorney at Law." 

Because of his ability as a fluent and forceful speaker and his 
recognized shrewdness in dealing with the human personality, he at 


once had a thriving" practice. Of course, most of it was in the jus- 
tice of the peace courts of Howard county, but the experience he 
gained there was invahiable. Of Kem as a lawyer at this time C. 
C. Shirley, formerly a Kokomo attorney, but now of Indianapolis, 
recently gave this picture: 

"I first knew of him in the justice of the peace courts of Honey 
Creek township. As often as he was an attorney in a case I was 
present at the trial. I was charmed with his eloquence and drew ray 
early inspirations from him at the bar. There are no courts which 
represent the human passions, humor and pathos more potently and 
effectually than the justice of peace courts. In them John W. Kern 
was perfectly at home. He ran the gamut of human emotions and 
sympathies. He had a big heart himself and understood human na- 
ture perfectly, and consequently was a perfect master of the human 
heart and played upon the heart strings at will." 

Kern's success in the criminal practice lay not alone in his nat- 
ural eloquence. He was shrewd in legal expedient. In one trial, 
where his client was accused of stealing a pocketbook, he procured a 
money wallet as near like the one taken as possible. He pressed the 
prosecuting witness to a positive identification of the missing pocket- 
book, using, of course, the substituted article, with the result that the 
prosecution was put to rout and humiliation. 

kern's tactics. 

In another trial he all but ruined a witness. Without a sci'ap 
of evidence upon which to rely he suddenly yanked open a drawer 
of a desk of a table with which the circuit court room of Kokomo 
was provided. Looking the witness upon the stand full in the eye, 
he queried in fierce tones, as he produced a blank sheet of paper: 
"Did you not upon a certain occasion testify so and so in this mat- 


ter?" The witness wilted and admitted that his evidence had been 
different upon a previous occasion. 

One of the early trials participated in by Mr. Kern was a litiga- 
tion over a red shawl — a suit in replevin — which originated in a jus- 
tice of the peace court at Russiaville, but which controversy, before 
it was concluded, cost the defeated party several hundred dollars. 

Judge L. J. Kirkpatrick relates an amusing account of how Mr. 
Kern initiated him into the practice. A young, struggling and am- 
bitious attoi-ney, he thought well of Mr. Kern's proffer that he act 
in his stead in a case which Mr. Kem had for trial at Miami. The 
judge went to the scene of the trial and found that Mr. Kern's 
client was stark mad, a fact he learned afterward that Mr. Kern 
knew. The crazy client had terrorized the town, but Judge Kirk- 
patrick was tactful enough to get the man to understand that he was 
his friend and looking to his interests, and kept the man quiet rea- 
sonably well, but made his escape from the town as soon as possible 
to take Kern to task, who laughed with the young lawyer over his 
exciting experience. 


Earl}- in his legal experience Mr. Kern ennnnitered, at the 
Howard county bar, Rawson Vaile, an editor of the Indianapo- 
lis Ji.urnal before the Civil war and father df J. Fred Vaile, of Den- 
ver, Colorado, a schoolmate of Mr. Kern, and now one of the Ijest- 
known lawyers of the West. The elder Mr. Vaile wore a silk tile. 
Kern was making an argument to the court, but his keenness for a 
joke got the better of him for a moment. He l^rought liis law laooks 
down on Mr. Vaile's plug liat with a cra.sli, mashing it completely. 
Attorney Vaile was livid witli rage and the court threatened Mr. 
Kern with a line for contempt, ^^'ith all the wit of which he is the 

4o6 morrow's history 

possessor, he begged the pardon of the injured lawyer and implored 
the mercy of the court, pleading inadvertence during the heat of an 


It is said of Mr. Kern here that he was always "chicken-heart- 
ed" in the matter of collecting fees. He was for several years a 
law partner of Judge B. F. Harness. They tried a case in which 
they saved for a woman who was unable to talk, for the lack of a 
palate, forty acres of land. When the case ended the flient, with 
her little boy, who did the talking for her, entered the office and 
asked to know the fee expected. The lawyers talked the matter 
over and Kern suggested $75. When the sum demanded had been 
made known to the woman she proceeded to extract se^'eral green- 
backs from her stocking, counting out $75 from a roll afterward 
ascertained to contain $635. She remarked that she had brought 
this sum along to pay over as a partial payment, expecting to pay 
the rest in the fall when she sold her corn. 


Upon coming to Kokomo to engage in the practice of the law 
John W. Cooper formed a partnership with James W. Robinson. 
Robinson was to receive three-fourths of the fees and Cooper one- 
fourth. Fees ranged from two to ten dollars in each case. Twenty- 
five dollars was considered a corpulant compensation. Their first 
case netted them five dollars, of which amount Mr. Cooper received 
one dollar and twenty-five cents. Finally Cooper started a law 
office of his own. He soon did a good collection business. Collec- 
tions were not then sent to banks as now. but went to swell the 
volume of an attorney's business. At this time — about 1861 — avail- 
able case precedents were few. Indiana reports were not numerous. 


The business of lawyers mostly concerned probate and collec- 
tion matters. Rules of practice were not well defined. Injunction 
suits were rare and considered as wonderful. One of his first cases 
was John Langley vs. the Chicago and Great Eastern railroad for 
the killing of a colt. Cooper was greatly at a loss whether or not to 
allege in his complaint that the cars were run purposely, maliciously 
and willfully over, upon, and against the colt, whereby and where- 
from it, the said colt, died from the said injuries then and there in- 
flicted in the manner aforesaid. Although he proved that there 
was no fence where the colt was killed, instead of where it entered 
upon the track, he received judgment for more than his client had 
paid for the animal. 

Mr. Cooper is slow in speech, deliberate in act. careful and 
sound in thought, generally correct in his estimate of character, 
judicious in statement, conversant with law, and thoroughly posted 
on the clerical branch of the practice. 

couldn't outdo colonel RICHMOND. 

Colonel X. P. Richmond had talent as a lawyer far above the 
ordinary and when he tried was a formidable and well-nigh invinc- 
ible antagonist. He had a fine legal judgment, but was an indiffer- 
ent student. He was a man of well-balanced powers, of good phy- 
sique, popular as presiding officer of conventions, and the possessor 
of a strong, clear, voice. When he was filled with zeal and exerted 
his powers to the uttermost his opponents were driven to their wits' 
end to outdo him, break the force of his appeals to the jury, and get 
the upper hand in order to gain the ascendancy. 

Charles E. Hendry, sanguine in temperament, was easily de- 
pressed and discouraged, and when he perceived defeat certain 
would abandon his case into the hands of his associate counsel. He 

was a painstaking voluminous pleader and partial to the prolix com- 
mon law formulation. Facts he presented to the jury in the best 
order and with comprehensive system. 

Arthur Bell died early in life. He was a lawyer who was thor- 
ough in investigation and one that got at the kernal of the case. For 
the practical things of life he entertained the highest regard and 
seemed to care for little else. Considering his health, which was not 
vigorous, he applied himself to his studies too closely. Criminal 
cases seldom engaged his attention as an attorney. Apparently he 
loved best to deal with cold facts and it seemed to be his desire to 
make the law apply to them as closely as paper fits to the wall. 

Jacob H. Kroh was an attorney who entered upon the trial of 
a cause hammer and tonges style. He was a man of average speech, 
deep human sympathies and efifective. but limited in the practice of 
the law by a distrust of his own powers. He had fine clerical abili- 
ties and in the later years of his life was an unqualified success in 
the capacity of pension attorney. 


Illustrative of the characteristics of Dan H. Bennett as a lawyer 
at the Howard county bar. the story told of him by John W. Kem, 
is apt. it being as experience occurring during a trial before Justice 
Benjamin Moon, Mr. Kem being the opposing attorney. 

"One Murphy was on trial for larceny in Moon's court. Ben- 
nett, who was then editor of the Howard County Republican, had 
been subpoenaed as a witness. Failing to respond, an attachment 
was issued and placed in the hands of Isaac Dick, constable, who, 
after visiting Bennett, and serving the writ, brought back a message 
from that gentleman to the justice, requesting him to go to h — . 
The dignity of the court was all torn up, but while the trial was 


yet in progress, Bennett appeared, testified, and was leaving the 
room, when Moon with a voice pregnant with authority said : "Hold 
on, Mr. Bennett, there is an attachment here against you for dis- 
obeying the process of this court." Bennett halted only long enough 
to tell the court in language both profane and vulgar what he might 
do with his attachment and again started to the door. 

"]\Ir. constable! Seize that man!" shouted the Justice. "Take 
him. Take him." The constable taking in the mammoth propor- 
tions of the delinquent assured the court of his inability to do so. 
"Then call the posse comitatus" — by the Eternal call out the mili- 
tia," yelled the now thoroughly frantic scjuire, but Bennett had gone 
and further proceedings under the writ were never had. 

"There was a surety of peace trial by jury in Moon's court, in 
which Bennett represented the defendant, a Mrs. VanHorn. In the 
course of his argument Bennett abused my client, the prosecuting 
witness, most shamefully. The jury disagreed and the case was set 
for retrial on the following da}'. Knowing of the strained relations 
between the court and Bennett I concluded to stir up the monkeys 
and have some fun. 

"So, before going into the second trial, I had a private inter- 
view with Moon and pointed out to him the outragerms manner in 
which Bennett conducted himself in the argument, assuring him that 
it would not be tolerated in any other court, and succeeded in con- 
vincing him that Bennett carried on that way just to bring his court 
into disrepute. 

"I got Moon thoroughly aroused and he assured me tliat if 
Bennett undertook to repeat his abusive argument of the day before 
he would stop him at all hazards and maintain the dignity of the 



"Tlie old thing worked to a charm. In liis argument Bennett 
fairly outdid himself in the way of villification. I -waited until he 
was at the very summit, when I arose and asked the court to assert 
its authorit}- and not only protect my client from this frightful 
tirade, which was all outside the evidence, but at the same time main- 
tain a dignity which belonged to a court of justice. 

"The scjuire. with a great show of authority, informed Bennett 
that he had tolerated that style of argument as long as he intended 
to and he would no longer permit it. That if he proceeded it must 
be within the laAv and the evidence. 

"Talk about thundergusts and cyclones. I never heard of such 
a torrent of abuse as Bennett let drive at the squire. T have a right,' 
said he, 'to be heard upon behalf of my client. I speak under the 
authority of the constitution and the laws of my country, and I al- 
low no wooden-headed justice of the peace to dictate to me what I 
shall say, or what I shall not say. You ( turning to ^loon) under- 
take to dictate to me what I shall say. Don't you forget, sir, that I 
am fully able to make ni}- own arg-ument for myself, and don't }-ou 
think that I will let a one-horse squire dictate to me. Not another 
word out of you. sir.' 

"These words rolled out like a tornado and were emphasized 
by Bennett's violent gestures and flaring eyes. Moon was scared 
nearly to death and was the picture of helplessness as the trial pro- 
ceeded. Further along in his argument Bennett said : 'Gentlemen 
of the jury : This sorrel-topped justice of the peace may have the 
audacity to instruct you as to what the law is. If he does you will 
pay no attention to what he may say. He knows no law, never did 
know any, and is not presumed to know any. W^hy he should attempt 
to instruct mai of intelligence, like you. I don't know, but if he 


does, I repeat, it is j'our duty to disregard his instructions entirely.' " 
The jury decided in Bennett's favor. 


We are now in Judge O'Brien's court. The trial of a writ of 
habeas corpus is in progress. For the petitioner, John W. Kern. 
The defendant appears by attorney, Dan H. Bennett, who adminis- 
ters a severe excoriation upon Kern's client. Taking umbrage the 
client loses his temper, becomes hot headed, rolls up his sleeves, dis- 
plays fine muscles, as if preparing to whip Bennett. Kern and others 
grasp the aggressor and calm him down. During the exciting scene 
Bennett remains calm and unmoved, continues to address the Court 
and takes no notice of the occurrence. Upon being asked afterwards 
about the incident, Bennett said : "Did you see that chair in front 
of me? Had the whelp attacked me with a single blow, I would 
have brained him upon the spot." 

During Judge O'Brien's administration upon the bench a new 
judicial circuit was formed comprising Howard and Tipton coun- 
ties. Thomas A. Hendricks was then governor of the state, and he 
appointed to the bench Clark N. Pollard, March 12, 1873. The 
special election to choose a successor to Judge Pollard was set for 
October, the same year. 

The campaign was a hard fought one. Judge N. R. Linsday 
was the Republican party nominee, while Pollard, with the consent 
of his party, aspired to the position as an independent. T. C. Philips 
fought Pollard through the columns of the Tribune Angorously, 
while Pollard was supported ably by D. H. Bennett, then conduct- 
ing the Howard County Republican. The result of the election was 
the defeat of Judge Linsday. Pollard served until November, 1879. 


JUDGE pollard's RECORD. 

A\'liile on the bench Judge Pollard made an unusual record, 
that of reversing the Indiana supreme court, interpreting the law 
more accurately than the state tribunal. A man b}- the name of 
Heck, who was a subject of Queen Victoria, and a resident of Illi- 
nois, had bought timber on the railroad line north of Kokomo. He 
cut the timber into wood, under a contract with the P. C. C. & St. L 
Railroad Company, which company had agreed to purchase the 
wood. The wood was to be hauled and ricked along the railway line, 
then to be measured and paid for by the company. The wood was cut 
and ricked, according to contract, but the railroad company refused 
and neglected to measure and receive it, for a long period of time. 
In the fall of 1871, it being an excessively dry season, the wood 
caught on fire, and was destroyed. Althoug^h it was insured, and 
the policy paid by the insurance company. Heck sued the railroad 
company, to recover the value of the wood. Pollard held that the 
measure of damages was the contract price for the wood. The 
supreme court of the state, re\-ersed the case, holding that the 
measure of damages was the market value of the wood at the time 
and place of its delivery. After this reversal by the supreme court, 
^Ir. Heck dismissed his case in the H()ward circuit court and 
brought suit in the United States court in Chicago. He was there 
successful, that court holding, as had Pollard. Upon appeal to the 
United States supreme court by the railroad company, the prin- 
ciple of law laid down by Pollard was again sustained. 


Pollard was succeeded by Nathaniel R. Overman, of Tipton. 
He was a generous man, who worked his way up from the bottom 


round of the ladder, a man who stood by a friend to the last, and 
who was one of the people. One of the parties to a divorce case 
which he was hearing in a side room and which was thought to 
smack of collusion, was afflicted with a muscular trouble which 
caused him to contract his eye lids frequently. Chancing to glance 
at this individual, Overman thought he was winking at him for the 
purpose of influencing his decision. This made Overman "red hot". 
And he passionately exclaimed, "D — n you, st(jp that winking at 
me." Ovennan was one of Tipton's noted and public spirited citi- 
zens, whose career was closely identified with its best history. While 
on the bench he displayed an indefatigable industry, and he had a 
ceaseless desire to render justice to all clients. Although the edu- 
cational facilities of his youth were of limited aijoyment, yet the 
position which, at the time of his death, his native industry' and in- 
tellect had won for him in the domain of literature and science was 
to be pointed to with pride. His researches and contributions to 
scientific and historical literature had rendered him almost if not 
quite as honored as his judicial career and were monuments to his 
intellectual achievements. 

Judge Overman died in office and his unexpired term was filled 
by Judge O'Brien, appointed to the vacancy by the governor of the 
state. At the ensuing election Dan Waugh, of Tipton, was chosen 
judge by the people. Overman's successor in office was Dan Waugh, 
of Tipton. Following him upon the bench was L. J. Kirkpatfick. 
He in turn was followed by Judge Walter Mount and he by J. F. 
Elliott, the successor of whom was Lee Nash, of Tipton. 




^^'hen in February, 1898. the battlesliip ]\Iaine was sunk in 
Havana harbor and nearly ah on board lost their lives by Spanish 
treachery, the soldier spirit of Howard county was again aroused 
and men were not wanting to answer when the summon came that 
soldiers were needed for the Spanish-American war and Company 
L of the One Hundred and Fifty-eighth Regiment Indiana Volun- 
teers was the answer. The histoiy of Company L is herewith ap- 

This company was organized at Kokomo, February 4, 1892, 
b}' A. N. Grant, the first officers being A. N. Grant, captain ; Edward 
Kiefer, first lieutenant: Charles Hansell. second lieutenant, and was 
called the "Grant Fencibles." The company was assigned to the 
Second Regiment, "Indiana Legion," and attended its first encamp- 
ment at Frankfort, Indiana, during the summer of 1892. The com- 
pany also attended and participated in the dedication exercises of 
the Columbian Exposition in the fall of 1892. 

Upon the resignation of Captain Grant and Lieutenant Kiefer, 
new officers were elected in June, 1893, Albert Martin being elevated 
to the captaincy and Charles Hansel chosen first lieutenant. Robert 
L. Jacobs was also chosen second lieutenant. The company attended 
the encampment at Terre Haute, Indiana, during the summer, and 
in the fall of 1893 was ordered to Robey, Indiana, and with three 
companies assisted in suppressing the notorious Robey prize fights, 
being held at the Robey race tracks. Upon a reorganization of the 
state troops, which was made in 1894, the company was again 
assigned to the Second Regiment of the Indiana National Guard 
and was ordered to Hammond, Indiana, in July of 1894, to assist in 


the suppression of the Pulhnan strike and riots. Owing to tlie 
experience of Captain Martin in Indian uprisings and other mih- 
tary expeditions, while in tlie service of the regular army of the 
United States in years past, Company L was selected to head the 
column and had the distinction of being the first company to march 
into Hammond. The compau)- was on duty sixteen days at Ham- 
mond and East Chicago. 


Upon the resignation of Captain Martin in the spring of 1895, 
Will T. Meek, afterwards city clerk of Kokomo, was elected captain, 
R. L. Jacobs, first lieutenant, and Philip Owen, second lieutenant. 
This year the company attended the state camp at Indianapolis. In 
the fall of 1895 Captain Meek resigned and Captain Martin was 
i-e-elected and served until his death, in February, 1896. Robert 
L. Jacobs was then chosen captain, Philip Owen, first lieutenant, and 
Claude Scoven, second lieutenant. 

When war was declared with Spain, Company L was ordered, 
with other companies, to mobilize at Camp Mount, Indianapolis, and 
the compan}- left Kokomo, April 26, 1898. Lieutenant Scoven 
failed to pass the required medical examination and Joseph Lang 
was elected to fill the vacancy in office occasioned by his rejection 
by the medical examiners. Company L was mustered into the vol- 
unteer service as Company L, One Hundred and Fifty-eighth Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry, May 10, 1898, with eighty-six men, the officers 
being Robert L. Jacobs, captain : Philip Owen, first lieutenant, and 
Joseph Lang, second lieutenant. 

The company left Indianapolis in May, 1898, and arrived at 
Chickamauga Park the same month. In June Cnr])oral Lewis Bri- 
denstein was detailed as special recruiting ofiicer and sent home to 

4i6 morrow's history 

recruit the company to its maximum strength of one hundred and 
six men. The company was ordered to Camp Poland, Knoxville, 
Tennessee, in August of the same year, and went into camp there. 
The One Hundred and Fifty-eighth Regiment, to which Com- 
pany L belonged, was ordered to Camp Mount for mustering out. 
arriving there in September. Company L, with other companies, 
was furloughed for thirty -days from September 17th and arrived 
home in Kokomo shortly afterwards. The company reported back 
to Camp Mount on October 17th and was given final discharge 
November 4, 1898. The company did not reorganize upon the 
reconstruction of the Indiana National Guard and therefore ceased 
to exist. 



The Indianapolis & Peru Railroad was the first to be built 
through Kokomo. Its construction was started toward Kokomo 
as early as 1852. The New London Pioneer did excellent service 
in enlisting popular favor in behalf of this enterprise before the 
fifties were reached. Colonel C. D. Murray was the agent at 
Kokomo, who collected the subscriptions of stock taken in support 
of the enterprise. The line was first built out of Indianapolis as 
far north as Noblesville. The road consisted of planking, which 
was crowned with an iron strip. This was the kind of rail em- 
ployed, and which served all practical purposes for some time. 
Travel necessarily over such a line was very slow ; little better than 
a horse could jog along. The train had to move with a due regard 
to its ability to keep the track, and it was not an infrequent thing. 
say those most acquainted with the subject, that the engine jumped 


tlie track and had to be returned to its proper place with jack- 
screws, which were always carried in the baggage car, ready for 
any such emergency which might arise. Then there was the dan- 
ger of the thin iron piece which formed the top of the rail warping 
under the rays of the sun and the occasion was not rare upon 
which the train had to be stopped to perniit of the track being 
nailed down to allow of further progress. Mrs. L. E. Harrison 
was a passenger over this road in its very infanc}'. She was attend- 
ing a private school at Indianapolis and returned home with her 
father, who was serving his first term in the legislature. After the 
journey to Noblesville, a tedious one at best, had been accomplished. 
Judge Linsday was met with his farm employe, who had brought 
for his use a large, magnificent horse of the breed which he (Judge 
Linsday) always possessed, and upon the back of this faithful steed 
he rode to Kokomo. Mrs. Harrison, then a young lady, was 
placed in a large wagon, provided for the accommodation of trav- 
elers north, and entered upon the trip to Kokomo. The ground 
was covered with ice, and the wagon wheels sank into the mud up 
to the hubs. After many hours the wagon drew up to the door of a 
hostelry at Tipton, where the party rested, feeling utterly exhausted. 
It was such conditions as these which formed public opinion to 
welcome the advent of a railroad line connecting the north with 
Indianapolis and the east. It was not only the desire for speed and 
convenience in travel, but to quickly and easily reach various mar- 
kets as well. In 1852 Captain Milton Garrigus was busy in help- 
ing grade upon the line, boarding with his assistants at the old 
McClintock house in Kokomo, then the only hotel and a notable 
house in its day. 


When the road penetrated Kokomo there was a rejoicing the 
fullness of which it is hard at this late day to fully appreciate. The 


old log courthouse was the scene of a jollification at which Judge 
Linsday, Colonel C. D. ^^lurray and Dr. Corydon Richmond were 
chief speakers. The fight to get the road along its present route, 
Buckeye street, was won by the exertions of the merchants, who 
desired to save drayage bills, as they reasoned the matter in that 
dav, being afforded the privilege of having goods, as they hoped, 
unloaded at their very doors. Buckeye street was then the Wall 
street of Kokomo, and it was believed that it would remain the 
heart of the business section by reason of the location of the rail- 
road, an expectation destined to be disappointed. Be that as it may, 
it was the scene of the principal commercial activity in Kokomo in 
its day. The fai-mers' wagons drew up to its stores, and produce 
and grain found their way to the foreign market, passing over this 
street, which was a commercial triumph. Kokomo was proud in 
those days. Her leading citizens saw the opportunity of Kokomo 
becoming a second Indianapolis. At any rate, the arteries of trade 
expanded, she felt the inspiration of the new road and started upon 
a career of growth which she has not since abandoned, but has ever 
since continued. An elevator business was not long in establish- 
ment and the claims of magic change from the presence of the road 
were more than realized. For some months Kokomo was the ter- 
minus of the line. A hack carried passengers through to Peru; 
those who might desire to proceed to that destination. Samuel C. 
Mills was the first agent of the company in Kokomo. in which 
capacity he continued several years. He and Dr. Corj^don Rich- 
mond donated the present depot site. Dr. Richmond surveyed it 
and Mr. Mills carried the chain. It was a part of the Mills & Rich- 
mond addition, and they donated the railroad company a number of 
lots. This for the reason that David Foster was a formidable com- 
petitor against them for the location of the depot upon property of 
which he was the owner. Mr. Mills built a large frame structure 


tipon the site of the Howard flouring mills, which ser\'ed at first as 
a warehouse for the company's freight and as a passenger depot, 
and was so utilized until the company erected a depot upon the spot 
now occupied by its passenger and freight station. In time the 
road was extended to Peru and ultimately to Michigan City. Then 
the cup of joy in Kokomo was full. 


But the pride of the citizens in the future was further increased 
in the announcement that the Pennsylvania line was to pass through 
Kokomo. During the fifties this road was built and Kokomo enjoyed 
still a wider field of commerce than ever before, as did the county. 
For a few years the road was called "the jerk water road," due to 
the fact that the territory over which it passed between Windfall 
and this city was swampy and undrained, and in the spring of the 
year, in particular, the heavy weight of the train passing over the 
line would throw the mud and water up against the car windows in 
streams. The instances are numerous where locomotives were de- 
railed, owing to the unsafe condition of the tracks. Milton Gar- 
rigus was a passenger in the first train which passed over the new 
line going from this city to Logansport. He describes the trip as 
rough and perilous and exceedingly tedious. 


Perhaps the most important railroad acquisition of late years 
was the Cloverleaf line, which gives markets to the extreme West 
as well as to the Eastern seaboard. In the start this great road con- 
sisted of a small line between Frankfort and Kokomo, and the road 
was known as the F. & K. line. It was a standard-gauge line, with 


Frankfort and Kokomo as terminal points. The original depot in 
Kokomo stood upon Elm street for several years, a small frame 
structure. A leading spirit in the promotion of the building of this 
road was Henry Y. Morrison, of Frankfort. A. Y. Comstock was 
a lieutenant in Kokomo. The road was voted a subsidy of about four 
thousand dollars a mile, only about three thousand dollars of which 
was collected. In the end the promoters of the enterprise turned 
over the rights of way, subsidy and all assets to the contractors, 
who decided to advance further money, upon condition of completing 
the road, which was effected. The road was started in 1873 and 
finished in the spring of 1874. The road being a short line with 
no feeders, and depending alone upon local custom, had a hard pull 
for a period of several years. Finally, in 1880, negotiations were 
started for a road from east to Avest, the line being known as the 
Toledo, Bloomington & Western. The Frankfort & Kokomo line 
was in the path of the new road, but this property had been pur- 
chased by the Lake Erie & Western Railroad Company, which sold 
the line to the new corporation, but reserved the right of way 
through Frankfort, making it necessary for the new company to 
pass through that city by an independent route. The road was 
changed to a narrow-gauge. It was operated in this manner until 
it passed into a receivership, being later bought by the Toledo, St. 
Louis & Kansas City Railroad Company, which changed the line 
back to the standard-gauge. The line from the east reached Kokomo 
January i, 1881. 

Kokomo's commercial prosperity was further advanced and 
enhanced by the construction of a street railway line, which has 
developed into the Kokomo, Marion & Western Interurban Rail- 
road Company, with a line from Kokomo to Marion, a profitable 
property, while a line between Kokomo, Lafayette and Terre Haute 
iis in its incipiency, but a certain thing of the future in all prob- 


Perhaps as great a stimulus as Kokomo has experienced from 
raih'oad building was in the advent, a few years ago, of the lines of 
the Indiana Union Traction Companj' through the city. It is the 
peoples' road, and freight service is as handy as the groceryman's 
delivery wagon, while the passenger patronage is remarkable. 

Kokomo's railroad facilities are little short of remarkable, the 
size of the city considered, and by reason of them she has thrived 
as a manufacturing point after the virtual depletion, if not relative 
failure, of natural gas, which is no longer to be had as the "cheap 
fuel for factories in unlimited amounts." 

Xorth, east, south and west, Kokomo is conected by rail with 
the busy marts of trade, and thrives in consequence of excellent and 
perfect railroad facilities and reasonable rates. 



Nathan C. Beals, the first probate judge in the county, was a 
plain, good-natured, unsophisticated farmer, and a man of average 
intellect. He never had a legal education. 

Benjamin Lesoura, successor to Beals, was an honest, upright 
and industrious man of ordinary powers of mind. He was a farmer 
by occupation and not a lawyer. At one time he lived near Alto 
and was in moderate circumstances. 

N. C. Beals was elected again and followed in office by Associ- 
ate Judge Robert Ervin. 


May 14, 1852, an act of the legislature was approved by the 
governor which abolished the probate courts and established com- 
mon pleas courts. All business pending before the probate courts, 
and all business transferred from such to the circuit courts, and all 
business commenced in the circuit courts by virtue of any local law. 
was, by an act of 1853, transferred to the courts of common pleas 
in the proper counties. 

E. S. Stone was the first judge of the common pleas court. 
Stone was a quiet, modest, and intelligent lawyer of fair ability. 
He was tall, slender, and cadaverous in appearance. Stone had a 
habit of parting his coat tails and thrusting them forward. In this 
position he would hold them by ramming his hands into his pockets. 
After one Jonathan William Evans, of Hamilton county, had made 
a somewhat sophomoric argument and had sat down. Stone went 
through his customaiy performance of so arranging his coat tails, 
and then observed : "If the gentleman had only plucked a few 
feathers from the Avings of his imagination and stuck them in the 
tail of his judgment, he would have fared better." 

stone's successor. 

Nathaniel R. Linsday succeeded Stone. He was twice elected 
judge of this court, but resigned before the end of his second tenn. 
Before he was eight years of age he was left, by the death of his 
father, to orphanage and penury in a wilderness home, and without 
property, or a father's counsel, commenced the battle of life, in his 
early youth, in the midst of circumstances that seem to the present 
generation very unpromising. And he gave evidence of his ability 
and trustworthiness to be elected justice of the peace at the age of 
twenty-four years, considering the fact that at the time of his selec- 
tion to the ofifice, 1839, the position was very important. He was 


a member of the legislature, engaged in codifying the laws of the 
state after the adoption of the present constitution, and arose to be 
a leader among the people where he resided, and was best known, 
and had a reputation throughout the state as an able lawyer, a 
sound, safe and conservative legislator. In the last years of his 
life he was engaged in the advocacy of a system of a reform of the 
mode of trials by jury and to enlarge the amount of property to 
be held exempt from execution. As a lawyer he was distinguished 
for his ability as an advocate and tact in the management of a trial 
of a cause and for his fidelity to his clients and courtesy to members 
of the profession and the courts. 


Judge Green, of Tipton, was the third judge of the court. 
Extending his hand. Judge Green greeted an acquaintance with a 
cordial smile and was social with everybody. The duties of his 
ofiice he performed in a plodding but conscientious manner. Prin- 
cipally and essentially a pioneer lawyer, he tried a case in a plain 
matter-of-fact style, exactly as our rough-and-ready forefathers 
felled the trees of the forest and drained the large swamps with 
which our land was covered. He clothed his thought generally in 
unembellished and commonplace language and exemplified it with 
the most simple and homely illustration. His heart beat with mu- 
nificent impulses. Kind, benevolent and obliging, he so endeared 
himself to the younger attorneys, who practiced before him, whom 
he would aid and assist in a hundred little ways, that they, advanced 
to years of age, remembered him with deep gratitude. 

Green was a jolly man and very fond of a joke. It is told of 
him that during the prevalence of high water in Tipton — and in an 
earlv dav high water prevailed there nearly all the year — he was 


seen one day floating around his yard in a craft of rude construc- 
tion, pushing himself with a pole. 

"\Miat are you doing, Judge?" was asked of him. 

"I am tired of drinking this damned pond water and trying to 
find my well!" 


William Garver, the last common pleas judge, lived in Hamil- 
ton county, where he began the practice of the law. His preceptor 
in the law was Isaac Blackford, later judge of the supreme court of 
Indiana, and annotator of the Blackford reports. From this pains- 
taking master, who bore the reputation of being a keen criticiser of 
his students, Garver became quite thoroughly grounded in the rudi- 
ments of the law. While Garver never made anything more than 
an ordinary reputation in the law, he developed considerable strength 
when it came to taking a common-sense view of a case. He was a 
state senator and a state attorney, but as a candidate for circuit judge 
and congressman he was defeated. 

By act of March 6, 1873, courts of common pleas throughout 
the state were abolished. The thirty-sixth judicial circuit was 
formed and James O'Brien was ousted from his office as judge 
pro ton. of the seventeenth judicial district, as Judge Davis was not 
an inhabitant of any one of the counties of which it was composed 
after being separated from the two counties mentioned. In sub- 
sequent years Judge O'Brien was a resident of Howard county, 
wherein he served upon the circuit bench as appointee to succeed 
Judge Overman, of Tipton. 




Lewis Cass Bell, claiming the distinction of being tlie first 
white child born in Cass county, and also claiming that Cass county 
was named after him, was }-et alive in 1908, and related his expe- 
riences with the Indians of Howard county, over which he mamed 
as a pioneer hunter. 

Mr. Bell knew personally the Indian chiefs of this part of the 
Miami reserve and hunted with them all. Chief Kokomoko was 
head of a \'illage, extending from the corner of Sycamore and Main 
streets to Wildcat creek, and including perhaps one hundred wig- 
wams. Chief Kokomoko, Mr. Bell says, was friendly with tlie 
whites, and used the pale face well. Physically he was a large man. 
but he dearly loved his whisk}', and was not of much personal force 
or character. 

Chief Shappendocia (spelled phonetically), founder of Green- 
town, ]\Ir. Bell declares to have been one of the best Indians he e\-er 
knew. He did not drink a drop, and he and his wife were the only 
two of his villag'e who did not drink. The chief was greatly in lo\'e 
with his wife, whom he procured under unusual circumstances. Her 
first husband was a hard-drinking", worthless Indian and did not 
treat his scjuaw well, and upon meeting Shappendocia she resolved to 
leave her husband. An elopement was planned and carefully exe- 
cuted, but the deserted husband, learning of tlie situation, resolved 
to gi\-e pursuit and kill Chief Sha]5]5en(locia. The latter, learning of 
this fact, dismounted from his pony, and giving the reins to the 
squaw, with directions to proceed. Chief Shappendocia hid luhind 
a tree and awaited the arri\-al of the pursuing husband. When he 
came within shot, Chief Shappendocia picked him off the saddle 

426 morrow's history 

and rejoined his future wife, soon marrying the woman he had 
made a widow. Their married Hfe was a very happy one. 

Chief Shappendocia had many of the ways of civihzation. He 
played a \-iolin well, was a good talker, using very correct English. 
His home, a cabin of two rooms, was well kept, one side being used 
for a small store which he conducted. The chief also farmed a lit- 
tle, making a specialty of corn and beans, and raised some live stock. 
When the Indians left the resen-e. Chief Shappendocia sold out 
and went west with his people, but he told Mr. Bell that if he "did 
not like the new location he would come back," but he never re- 


Chief Squirrell's village formed the third of a link of Indian 
settlements of the pioneer days. His seat of g-overnment was lo- 
cated near Pipe creek, in Cass county, but the village bore an inti- 
mate relation to the pioneer and social life of Howard (then Rich- 
ardville) county. Chief Squirrel! was a small, quick, active man, 
a g"ood Indian, and popular with his people and the whites. 

To the north still was the powerful village of Chief Francis 
Godfrey, a man of massive size, whose belt was almost equal to the 
girth of a saddle. He had a wide and overshadowing influence over 
the Indians of Howard county, and even among the whites. 

Mr. Bell was as much identified with Howard as with Cass 
county. He was a noted hunter, making his living in that wa}'. He 
formed the acquaintance of "Indian Tom," who belonged to Chief 
Shappendocia's village, and they were boon companions in the hunt. 
Mr. Bell lost the Indian's friendship through a joke. Finding "In- 
dian Tom" asleep one day upon a log. Mr. Bell slipped up without 
making any noise and abstracted the Indian's rifle, which rested at 
his side. Then secreting himself, he cried like a wildcat. The In- 


diaii jumped to his feet and grabbed for his gun, but finding it gone, 
instantly detected the presence of Mr. Bell. The red skin was very 
angry and sullenly demanded his weapon, which was at once handed 
him. He quit the scene with angry strides and never afterwards 
spoke to Mr. Bell, being so ashamed at being outdone in this man- 
ner, which was a blow to his pride. Whenever Mr. Bell visited the 
village of Chief Shappendocia "Indian Tom" always left. 

^Ir. Bell, like the Indians, earned his chief money by shooting 
deer, wolves and game of all kinds for the furs. One year he and 
Isaac Fickle killed three hundred deer, besides other game. Bell 
was an expert shot. Early in the fall he would take rifle in hand 
and start into the deep forests which then covered a tier of coun- 
ties in the reserve. Weary with the hunt of the day, he would build 
a fire to keep away the wolves and gather brush for a bed and with- 
out bed covering of any kind lie down to peaceful dreams. Though 
the snow lay deep upon the ground, no bed covering was needed. 
Attired in wamus, buckskin breeches and moccasins, the bitterest 
cold would have no effect upon him. For supper he would bring 
down a fat squirrel and roast him by the fire, eating the toothsome 
meat with dry bread, always carried by the hunter. 

Wolves in this country were still so troublesome in Deceml^er, 
1847, that a premium of three dollars and fifty cents in addition to 
the lawful fee was offered by the county commissioners for each 
scalp presented the county, clerk. 

In the early forties the Indians were yet numerous in Howard 
county. One day several of them, while dnmk, appeared at Judge 
Linsday's cabin door. His daughter, Mrs. L. E. Harrison, was 
nearly frightened out of her senses, and as the cabin was not chinked 
— that is, the spaces between the logs were open — she began to 
climb to the loft, screaming for her father at the top of her voice. 
When he arrived she had reached the loft and was seated on a pole. 

428 morrow's history 

trembling with excitement, while the Indians roared with laughter. 
The judge commanded her to descend, and giving the Indians some- 
thing to eat sent them away. 

The Indians came near breaking up the first Fourth of July 
celebration held in Kokomo in 1847, at the Sulphur Springs, a site 
since builded over, on East Mulberry street. At this time the site 
was covered with a dense woods. People came from over the 
county, but not to exceed fifty people were present, but all were in- 
tensely patriotic, and the day was celebrated in a memorable man- 
ner. The people broug'ht their dinners and remained during the 
entire day. The speeches were made by Judge N. R. Linsday and 
Colonel C. D. Murray, pioneer lawyers. During the celebration an 
Indian, who was under the influence of drink, and perched in a 
tree, caused great confusion. David Foster, who had an unbounded 
influence over the red skins, strapped his blanket on his horse, rode 
away with the Indians following, and persuaded the feathered and 
painted visitors to leave the scene that the celebration miglit pro- 
ceed peacefully and without interruption. There was no lack of 
noise and the boom of the anvil gave all the necessary artillery and 
explosive effect. Judge Linsday and Colonel Murray stood upon a 
stump during the delivery of their speeches. It was the habit of 
using a stump as a platform in an early day in Indiana that the 
phrase orig-inated of "taking the stump," applied to political cam- 

Frequently the Indians would get drunk and run whooping 
through the village of Kokomo like madmen, or dash around upon 
their ponies. They were really dangerous, but never hurt any one. 
They always seemed in fear of the government. 

David Foster, the founder of Kokomo, was a notable trader 
with the Indians of this l(icality. Once upon a time he sold needles 
to the»red skins at one dollar apiece by claiming that the last needle 


maker was dead and that it would be a long time before the lost art 
was again learned. 

Joseph and Leodicia McCoy, well known pioneers of the county, 
rode horseback over the Indian trail from Marion to this city, being 
the only way they could travel, the roads not permitting of the use 
of a wagon. They passed the night in the Indian camp, then to the 
west of the City Park site. They were cordially treated liy the In- 
dians, being furnished with blankets for their greater cnmfort. 
When they departed the next morning the dogs barked at them fu- 
riously and the Indians were in a hub-bub, calling at the canines. 
The McCoys supposed that the Indians were sicking the dogs upon 
them, but later found that the red skins were endeavoring to call 
the clogs off from their attack. The McCoys settled in Monroe 
township. Mrs. McCoy li\'ed to the age of ninety-two years, bav- 
ins: died in Kokomo. 


Fortunately for Kokomo and Howard county the first settlers 
were men and women who believed fully in both religion and educa- 
tion, and as soon as they had provided themselves with homes, 
howexer rude and uncomfortable they may hove been, they began 
to i)lan and prepare places and means for the education of their 
children and at die same time tn hold religious sendees. Because 
of the fewness in numbers the early meetings were small congrega- 
tions. The first meetings were held in the homes and the people 
traveled miles to attend service, and usually as soon as a half dozen 
people of the same faith could be gotten together a church would be 
started. That did not mean that there would then be regular 


preaching service. Often the church was compeUed to be content 
with only an occasional sermon from a minister who made a wide 
circuit and served a large district. There were many earnest Chris- 
tians then who were strong exhorters, who made stirring appeals 
for the better life. 


\\'hile Kokomo had but thirty families in 1848, there were 
enough Baptists among them in 1847 to organize a church with 
seven members. Who were the ministers of that early Baptist 
church neither written history nor tradition tells us. History tells 
us that the last recorded meeting of that church was held August 
26, 1858, and that there were about one hundred members, and 
that of this number were Corydon Richmond, ^Matthew and INIrs. 
]\Iurden and Denton Simpson. Denton Simpson, we know, was 
then living in Taylor township. Up to that time it was accounted 
one of the flourishing churches of the little town. Coiwdon Rich- 
mond was one of the foremost citizens of the community and a lead- 
ing physician. Matthew and Mrs. Murden were highly respected 
citizens, and Denton Simpson was one of the learned men, who 
had been the village schoolmaster. It is said that they disbanded 
by mutual consent. Why they disbanded by mutual consent there 
is not a hint. 

For the next sixteen years Kokomo was without a Baptist 
church, and of the one hundred members who had disbanded and 
broken up their church home only three or four are left. Many 
of the others drifted off into other folds and some had gone into the 

In 1874 \y. A. Stuart and family moved to Kokomo. Mr. 
Stuart was a hustling real estate dealer and an earnest Baptist, as 


■were his family. He and his wife began immediately to look about 
for Baptists. They found a very small remnant. They organized 
a Baptist Sunday school and began earnestly to build up the Bap- 
tist faith where it had been permitted to go down. The school met 
at the old Third Ward school building, at the corner of Clay and 
Taylor streets, with W. A. Stuart as superintendent and R. L. 
Upton as secretary. The school prospered. Early in December, 
1874, was established what was called the Sunday school prayer 
meeting. The Rev. Joseph Brown, missionary of the Baptist state 
convention, was present and preached. 

On February 6 and 7, 1875, ^'t^' ^^ his request, a meeting was 
held on Monday following to discuss the Baptist situation. Twelve 
Baptists were present and participated and passed a resolution unani- 
mously to organize a church. A meeting was appointed for Feb- 
ruary i8th, when an organization was completed with eight mem- 
bers, as follows: James W. Fisher, Nancy P, Fisher, Minnie B. 
Fisher, Drusilla A. Rickard, Sarah C. Gray, W. A. Stuart, B. H. 
Stuart and Naomi Upton. A council was convened March 20, 1875, 
to consider the recognition of the organization, of which Rev, B. R. 
Ward was moderator and Jackson Morrow was clerk. This meet- 
ing occurred in the midst of one of the most violent snowstorms that 
ever visited this section, and while six members were sick at home, 
leaving but two to represent the church at the meeting. Every ele- 
ment of discouragement was present and it seemed to the council 
that failure was sure to follow. While discussing this phase of 
the matter Grandpa Thomas, of Galveston, said: "Brethren, let 
us give them a chance." That decided the matter. The council 
voted to give them a chance. 


With little influence in society, few in numbers with a property 
valuation of less than one thousand dollars, limited in abilitv as to 


leadership, without a house of worship, without a pastor, and all 
this under the shadow of six strong church organizations, one of 
which was built up to ninety members by a revival meeting held 
in the same house and to whom was given the use of the house 
one-half of the time from January till September following, when 
the wants of the pulpit required its entire use. In the meantime, 
and until November ist, the pulpit was supplied by neighboring 
ministers lending their services. When ministerial aid failed ser- 
mons were read or prayer and conference meetings were held. 

Ministers who gave their sen-ices were Joseph Brown, P. 
Odell, B. R. Ward, J. C. Burkholder, ^^^ N. \\'yeth, P. McDade. 
S. Cornelius, and others. 

A meeting of days followed the recognition service, mainly 
conducted by Burkholder, in which eight members were received by 
baptism. Three more were received during the summer by bap- 
tism and five by letter, making twenty-four members, when Rev. 
S. Cornelius, D. D., was settled as pastor. November i, 1875. 
twenty-seven more members were added, chiefly as a result of meet- 
ings continuing from January i to February 20, 1876. On June 
I, 1875, the Third Ward schoolhouse was purchased, with one and 
one-half lots, for two thousand dollars, five hundred dollars in 
cash and the balance in one and two years. This was promised 
without knowing where it was to come from-. John Kenower, of 
Huntington, paid the first one hundred dollars and M. H. Thomas 
fifty dollars and the remainder was raised within the church. Under 
Rev. Cornelius' pastorate the membership increased to eighty-eight. 
April 26, 1878, Norman Carr became pastor and remained till 
September 25, 1882, when he resigned to become financial agent of 
Franklin College. Rev. Carr did a grand work while pastor. Dur- 
ing his pastorate of four years and five months the membership 
increased to two hundred and twelve, the church in the meantime 
having lost one hundred by deaths and removals. 



A debt of one thousand two hundred dollars on the church had 
been paid and a parsonage costing one thousand dollars had been 
purchased. On the loth day of Januan-, 1883, N. C. Smith became 
pastor, doing a good work spiritually and causing the debt on the 
parsonage to be paid. In 1893 the church, having outgrown their 
house of worship, built their present commodious brick structure, 
moving the old house back and building on the front. They have 
now a property valued at twelve thousand dollars. This house was 
built while the Rev. J- H. Wynans was pastor of the church. The 
money to pay for the construction of the new church was collected 
largely from the membership. The largest giver outside of the 
membership was Monroe Seiberling, of the Plate Glass Company 
and one of Kokomo's first and most liberal givers. 

Other pastors have been Allen Hill, E. G. Shouse, J. C. Rhodes. 
G. B. McKee and J. W. Clevenger. The Rev. McKee was prob- 
ably the ablest preacher ever holding a pastorate in Kokomo. The 
membership in 1908 is two hundred and eighty. The church at 
present is without a pastor, and is also out of debt. 

In reviewing the history of this church the conclusion must be 
that it is the outgrowth of faith. Its members have not been of 
the rich nor those highest in social circles. The success of this 
church must be ascribed to Him who uses the weak things of the 
earth to manifest His power and glory. The Baptists hold many 
views in common with other evangelical denominations. They 
believe in a personal God of infinite perfection, in the fall of man. 
the atonement through Christ's death, the resurrection from the 
dead, the final judgment, the everlasting blessedness of the right- 
eous and the everlasting punishment of the wicked. The central 
supremely characteristic doctrine of the Baptists is their belief in a 



regenerated church membership. As baptist symbohzes regenera- 
tion ; that is, spiritual death and resurrection through faith in the 
deatli and resurrection of Christ, so nothing but the immersion of 
tlie behever represents the truth symbohzed by scriptural baptism. 
Those who have been prominent in the work of this church 
are W. A. and ]\Irs. Stuart, Re\-. B. R. Ward, Sampson Lett, ^^^ T. 
Merrill and ]\'Irs. Murden. 


i\Ianv years ago the Baptist church began a mission Sunday 
school on North Smith street, near the site of the Doxey factoiy, 
in a vacant frame house quite simply fitte.d up for this purpose. 
This met a ready response from the people of that section, which 
had no church nor Sunday school other than this. For several 
vears this work was carried on with but poor equipment in the 
way of a house and furnishings. After W. S. Armstrong had 
platted an addition to Kokomo on North street, being a part of the 
T. A. Armstrong estate, he offered the Baptists a choice lot at the 
corner of North and Morrison streets if they would build a church- 
house on it. The Baptists accepted the ofiEer and in the fall of 
1904 laid the cornerstone of a new church, and one year later, in 
the fall of 1905, dedicated a neat frame church costing two thou- 
sand dollars, free of debt. 

Before the dedication Mr. and Mrs. A^^ S. Armstrong pub- 
licly donated the lot to the Baptist people fnr church purposes and 
made a deed therefor. The lot was valued at three hundred dol- 
lars. A little while later Harry and Lizzie Linsday jointly donated 
a second lot adjoining the other. Neither of these families were 
Baptists and their actions were regarded as special favors. This 
church is located in a section of the city without other church facili- 
ties and thus presents a rare opportunity for Christian work. 


The chief workers and promoters of the work in this mission 
field are Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Smith and J. A. Rivers. 


The Christian, or Disciples', church was organized on the 21st 
day of February, 1S51, with seven members. They were Lewis 
Anderson and wife, Thomas Shepard and wife. John E. Linsday 
and wife and Edward ^^^ Shepard. Lewis Anderson, Edward 
Shepard and John Linsday were elected trustees ; Thomas Shepard 
and Lewis Anderson elders. Two of the members died a few years 
later, Lewis Anderson and Edward Shepard. In a few months 
Thomas A. Armstrong and family moved to this city and took 
membership. The membership in a short time was further aug- 
mented by the addition of Martin M. Preble, Benjamin B. Preble. 
Alfred H. Plough, and families. Fov si.x years this faithful band 
of followers of the Lord, with a few recruits from time to time, as 
the village of Kokomo increased in population, met in the homes 
of the members of the congregation, to break bread and serve their 
Master as best they could. At times they hired a hall in which to 
worship and. as often as possible, secured some one to preach. 
The preaching for several years was mostly done by the elders of 
the church without any compensation whatever, "yet they pros- 

In 1854 the congregation purchased of John Bohan, then audi- 
tor of the county, lot No. 45, in the original plat, for which thirty 
dollars was paid. Early in 1857 a building committee was ap- 
pointed, of which A. F. Armstrong was a member, and during the 
year the frame church, a building painted white and known as the 

436 morrow's history 

old Christian church, was erected on East Mulberry street and 
completed at a cost of about one thousand eight hundred dollars. 
It has a seating capacity of three hundred. In this building the 
congregation worshiped for thirt3--two years, from 1858 to Feb- 
ruary, 1880. Early in the year 1866, while in this building and 
during the pastorate of Rev. R. E. Pearee, the organ, as an instru- 
ment of worship with music, was introduced into the services of 
the congregation. It created a commotion for a time, some believ- 
ing it to be a machination of the devil. The final result of the con- 
tention over the matter was the passage of two resolutions by the 
congregation, the first of which called for the resignation of the 
pastor and gave him but fifteen days in which to resign. He re- 
signed. The second resolution permitted the church organ to remain 
in the church building, but with the strict condition that it was not 
to be played upon but was to remain quiet during the services on 
the Lord's day. It was agreed that it would be available for use 
in Sunday school and at weekday meetings. These resolutions gave 
general satisfaction and were adopted by a unanimous vote. 

In 1872, while under the pastorate of Rev. James W. Conner. 
the membership had increased to two hundred and twenty-three 
members, and the congregation was able to pay its pastor a salary 
of fifteen hundred dollars per annum and yet keep out of debt. Of 
the early church Thomas Auter and Thomas A. Ai-mstrong were 
members of decided personal characteristics. xA.uter was at one 
time an elder, and a very ardent man in his religious convicti(ins. 


He could not only preach successfully, but he served as- janitor 
with all the ardency of his nature and nothing pleased him more 
than to ring the church bell, summoning the faithful to worship. 


Ardent also in his sympathies, and hearing of the mistreatment of 
John Russell, a negro just arrived from the South, Elder Auter 
•waited upon the man whom he had been informed had threatened 
to kick Russell out of a place Russell had entered and informed the 
part}- waited upon that if there was any kicking to be done just to 
kick him, Auter. As the elder was a large and active man, the 
invitation was not an alluring one and was never accepted. A beau- 
tiful picture is that lingering in the minds of the older members of 
the congregationj who recall that nearly each Sunday,- while in the 
old church, Thomas A. Armstrong, venerable and feeble, attended 
upon divine services. He was supported upon two canes and con- 
ducted to the front by his sons, where he occupied a large arm chair, 
provided for his use, near the pulpit, in order that he might hear. 
He in\-arialjly wore a large red l^andana handkerchief aboiU liis 
head. In this instance was exemplified the truth of the scriptures, 
"Honor thy father and thy mother that thy days may be long upon 
the earth." His children each enjoyed a long- life. Martin B. 
Preble and others of the pioneer members were forceful personali- 
ties, valiant soldiers for the Lord. In 1875 lots were purchased of 
^^''orley Leas for three thousand dollars, on which was erected the 
brick church destroyed by fire, and predecessor of the present beau- 
tiful stone structure, now called the Main Street Christian church. 
In Februaiy, 1876, plans were submitted and approved by the 
congregation for a new structure. A building committee was ap- 
pointed and instructed to go forward at once, its duty being to 
secure subscriptions and erect the building. In the fall of 1876 a 
cellar was excavated and the foundation put in to the first joist. 
In 1877 the walls were constructed and the roof placed. But in 
1877 nothing further was done, the building funds having run 
short. In 1879 the floors were laid and rough plastering spread. 
Temporary doors were placed and the windows nailed up with 

438 morrow's history 

plank. In tliis condition the bnilding committee turned over to the 
officers of the church a building encumbered with an indebtedness 
of fourteen thousand dollars. The audience room was seated with 
chairs, the members each furnishing one or more chairs. On the 
first Lord's day in February, 1880, with the floor bare and the win- 
dows planked, the congregation held the first services in the new 
church building. The membership, then less than three hundred, 
was badly discouraged, yet were true and faithful to the cause which 
had been entrusted to their hands. Rev. E. L. Frazier held the 
first protracted meeting in this church in February and March, 1880. 
Rev. J. L. Parsons was the first pastor of the new church, being 
called in May following its occupancy. He tried hard to infu;e new 
life into the church, but resigned in February, 1881. 

On March 2, 1881, pursuant to public notice, the membership 
of the church met at the new church building. Elder M. M. Preble 
was in the chair, and declared the object of the meeting to be to 
settle the cpiestion, "What shall be done with the church debt?" 
Several speeches were made. A. F. Armstrong spoke of the gen- 
eral situation, and indicated that it might prove impossible to meet 
the heavy debt. He advised that the buildings and lots be sold for 
fourteen thousand dollars. Brother A. B. Walker offered the fol- 
lowing resollition : "That the new church building and lots be 
sold to the city of Kokomo for fourteen thousand dollars, secured 
by ten-year bond?, drawing six per cent interest, and that the trus- 
tees be and are hereby authorized to complete said sale." Mr. Arm- 
strong seconded the motion. It was unanimously adopted. Many 
persons objected to the city buying the property, some advising to 
hold out longer, while certain influential persons hoped that it would 
sell cheaper at sherifif's sale, expecting to buy it at their own price. 
The movers in the proposed sale had shrewdly calculated the effect 
upon the congregation intended, the fire of the church's spirit was 


rekindled and the sparks began to fly as desired. A subscription 
paper was started, headed by Dr. Edward A. Armstrong, who sub- 
scribed one thousand dollars, A. F. Ai-mstrong pledging a like sum, 
and there were many five hundred dollars, three hundred dollars 
and two hundred dollars subscriptions until a total pledge reached 
seven thousand dollars. 

The pioneer church structure was sold for two thousand two 
hundred dollars and the general indebtedness brought below five 
thousand dollars. That amcunt of debt was placed upon the church 
building in the shape of a first mortgage, bearing six per cent, 
interest. It took seven years to liquidate this encumbrance, but on 
the 31st day of December, 1888, the last dollar of it was paid. 
Under the second pastorate of Rev. E. L. Frazier, in 1885, the old 
boards were knocked out of the windows and new cathedral glass 
substituted. Individual donators were Lawrence Snyder, in honor 
of little May Snider, deceased, H. M. Sailors, Mary Jackson-Cooper 
and the Winfield heirs. The various church societies raised con- 
siderable money for the improvements started thus auspiciously. 
During the pastorate of Rev. S. M. Jefiferson, in 1890, the building 
was completed and furnished, about six thousand dollars being- 
expended. It was fourteen years from the laying" of the foundation 
to the completion of the building. The ground on which the build- 
ing stood, the building and furnishings cost more than thirty thou- 
sand dollars. 

Lawrence and Clara Snyder, at their own expense, erected the 
church tower, installing a bell as a memorial for their daughter, 

In the end the brick structure was destroyed by fire, the fur- 
nace in the basement in some way becoming overheated, presumably, 
and firing the structure, which was soon a mass of ruins. LTpon its 
site arose the present beautiful structure. 


The church has alwaj's been a missionary church and a great 
power for good in the community, and hundreds of souls have been 
persuaded through its efforts to accept the cause of the Master. 

With such pastors as the sweet-souled Father W. S. Winfield, 
the zealous and able B. M. Blount, the oratorical and enei-getic A. I. 
Hobbs, who ministered during the trying days of the Civil war; 
the true and determined agent for the right, regardless of conse- 
quences, E. L. Frazier; the scholarly M. B. Hopkins; the Socratic 
debator, Aaron Walker, and a number of others whose names are 
too numerous to mention, the church has occupied a leading position 
in the community from the earliest day and progressed steadily for- 
ward to greater and higher things. 

For years Dr. J. M. Damall was a pillar of strength to the 
church and of impressive physique and deliberate mein, and devoted 
with all the ardor of his nature he constituted an impressi\'e influ- 
ence in the church life. Though of a different type, John Nichol- 
son, who resembled a kindly, benevolent father, whose affection 
was ever dominant for the souls of all, left a wholesome influence 
upon the congregation which time has not obliterated. Dr. Darnall 
and Mr. Nicholson were, for a long period,' elders of the church, 
in which relation Dr. Damall served thirty-eight years, having been 
re-elected a short time before his death. May lo, 1902. 

The old brick church was destroyed by fire February 27, 1904. 
and the new church was erected the following summer under the 
pastorate of J. H. McNeil. While the congregation were without 
a house of worship they used the City Hall as a place of meeting. 
Up to the 1st of December, 1908, there had been paid on the new 
house thirty-one thousand nine hundred and eighteen dollars and 
ninety-eight cents, leaving a balance yet due of four thousand two 
hundred and twelve dollars. Rev. E. Richard Edwards is their 
present energetic pastor. 



In the fall of 1902, under the pastorate of Rev. J- H. AlacXeill, 
a new pipe organ was installed at a cost of twent_\--si.\; hundred dol- 
lars, the Ladies' Aid Society paying for the same. A gallery was 
constructed at a cost of about twenty-four hundred dollars, and 
other improvements made aggregating a total cost of twenty-seven 
hundred eighty-eight and twenty-three hundredths dollars. 

On February 27, 1904, about fifteen months after finishing 
such improvements, and while twenty-six hundred dollars oi the 
cost of the same was unpaid, the church took fire from an cjver- 
heated furnace and was totally destroyed, together with all of iti 
contents, the church not saving as much as one dollar's worth of 
property. The church building was insured for five thousand dol- 
lars, and the contents for three thousand dollars, all of which was 
fully paid. The building burned about two o'clock a. m. February 
27, 1904. and at nine o'clock the same morning the ot^cial board 
of the church met at the oflice of the Kokomo National Bank and 
resolved to rebuild at once. And further resolved that the loss 
should be a financial loss only, and not a loss to the cause of Christ, 
which is nearest and dearest to the hearts of the official board as 
well as the general membership of the church. 

Subscription papers were soon started and subscriptions to the 
amount nf fourteen thousand thirty dollars speedily obtained. The 
new building was commenced in INlay. 1904, and completed l)y .\u- 
gust, 1905. The building and furnishings cost thirty-nine thou- 
sand si.x hundred twenty-five and fifty-fi\-e hundredths dollars. The 
same was dedicated on August 6, 1905, F. 'M. Raines, of Cincinnati. 
General Secretary of the Foreign Missionary Society, officiating. 

Suljscriptions to the amount of eig'hteen thousand fift)-nine and 
sixtv-five hundredths dollars were taken on that dav. The struc- 


ture is of Bedford stone and is of beautiful architectural design, be- 
ing one of the best buildings of the denomination in the state. 

The following amounts were contributed upon memcjrial win- 
dows : Mrs. A. F. Armstrong and daughter. Jennie Howe, seven 
hundred fifty dollars ; Mrs. Mary A. Holmes, two hundred fifty 
dollars ; M. M. Wiley, one hundred dollars : F. F. and Walter Jack- 
son, one hundred dollars ; family of Alex. C. Hopkins, one hundred 
dollars; family of Rev. W. S. ^^'infield, fifty dollars; Mrs. Julia 
Jackson, fifty dollars ; Thomas Turle}-, fifty dollars ; Rev. J. H. 
MacNeill and family, fifty dollars ; Aaron Albaugh. fift}- dollars ; 
Mrs. Emma Moore, fifty dollars; E. E. Reynolds, twenty-five dol- 
lars ; Will S. Clore, ten dollars ; L. C. Hoss' Sunday school class, 
fifty dollars; Miss India Martz's Sunday school class, thirty-five 
dollars; Mrs. Jennie Knipe's Sunday school class, twenty-five dol- 

The pastoi^ate of Rev. MacNeill ceased in the spring of 1907. 
and the present pastor, E. Richard Edwards, entered upon the du- 
ties of his pastorate on May i. 1907. The membership of the church 
is about eight hundred. The average attendance of Sunday school 
is three hundred. Every department of the church under the lead- 
ership of its efficient and energetic pastor is making satisfactory ad- 


The Episcopal church of Howard county dates back to 1885. 
Then Bishop Knickerbocker, who was a thorough missionary, made 
his first visit to Kokomo. The Congregationalists kindly lent their 
place of worship and many who had been identified with the church 
in former years, in other and even distant lands, came to assist the 


good bishop in the sen'ice. Brother R. L. Wilcock, prominent 
among the Kokomo Methodists for many years, and who has now 
returned to old England, came down to that first service of Bishop 
Knickerbocker in Kokomo expressly to make the required responses 
for the bishop. The Episcopal service is a responsive service and 
Brother ^^'ilcock was much exercised lest the good bishop have no 
one "to talk back to him." A congregation was organized which 
worshiped in various places, sometimes in church buildings, some- 
times in lodge rooms and halls and office rooms. Clergymen came 
from a distance to hold the services. The future was rather uncer- 
tain for the little company, but they kept together and kept on. 
Accessions came. 

The discovery of natural gas brought factories and hundreds 
of new families to Kokomo. Many of these new families belonged 
to the church in old England, or in the Eastern states. Their arrival 
served as a stimulus to the little congregation and strenuous en- 
deavors were made to raise money for a lot. These efiforts were 
finally successful and, in 1891, there was a resident minister ready 
to put up a church on the lot that had been secured on the corner 
of Taylor and Lafontaine streets. A church building was erected 
two years later and all seemed flourishing. But the panic of 1893 
was at hand, and as most of the congregation got their living from 
the factories, which now utterly failed, there was not the strength 
to maintain the organization and meet the obligations due to the 
new church. 

The Rev. T. C. Woodard, now of Rochester, New York ( 1908), 
struggled most heroically under most difficult conditions, for two 
years, to keep the congregation together and bring everything to a 
successful issue. He kept the congregation together by his loving 
and most faithful ministrations and is remembered with gratitude 
to-day by many families in South Kokomo whom he aided b}- min- 


istering with his own hands to their necessities. He inspired his 
people and the to\\nsfolk to the same unrivaled self-sacrifice. The 
effort to put St. Andrews church into Kokomo seemed to fail. 
But this was only apparently so. The congregation was still very 
loyal, due largely to Rev. Mr. \\'oodard's fine leadership and pas- 
toral care. The revival of church life came through the personal 
efforts of ]\Ir. and Mrs. Fred Beacon, who are now residents of 
Kokomo. In 1897 Mr. and Mrs. Bacon invited the church people 
to meet in their own house in South Kokomo. Then the Rev. 
E. W. Averill, of Peru, came down to hold regular services during 
the week. A hall was secured above Charles Jinkerson's grocery 
on the corner of South Main street and JNIarkland avenue. The ser- 
vices were characterized by unbounded enthusiasm and zeal and ex- 
erted a wide influence, but the work was crippled by the removal of 
active workers. 


A considerable sum was collected in the East, through the 
efforts of the Rev. J- O. ^^'ard, for a permanent building. Mr. 
Ward severed his connection with St. Andrews in 1901. He had 
secured several earnest new members for the congregation and h'..d 
given an example of faithful and persistent work. The present 
rector, the Rev. H. R. Neely. came to Kokomo in 1901. and has 
been in continuous charge for o\-er seven years. He moved the 
church from Love's Hall, on Markland avenue, to the center of the 
town. He was not afraid to take up the site of the former disaster. 
Under his leadership the congregation occupied their former place 
of worship for over two years, until a more suitable location could 
be found. Meanwhile the congregation increased in strength. The 
large lot at the corner of Market and Sycamore streets was secured 
by the personal efforts of ]\Ir. Neely and held in tnist for the benefit 


of the congregation. The monthly rental of the old brick house on 
the premises, known as the Scoven house, pays for the privilege 
of church occupation. On the rear of the lot stands the well-known 
and well-ecjuipped parish house, built at an expense of over five 
thousand dollars. On this building there was a debt in July of four 
thousand seven hundred dollars, which had to be held by private 
parties because no loan company would lend the congregation so 
large a sum. This debt has been reduced to two thousand four 
hundred dollars and a mortgage to that amount has been given to 
a loan agency. This result has been accomplished by simple, steady, 
plodding work. The great advantages of the parish house have also 
helped. The expense of administration is the lowest possible. The 
parish house is really a structure of three buildings under one roof. 


The upstairs is the rectory, or parsonage, and is hardly equaled 
in any parish for comfort, convenience and pleasure. It is a roomy 
concern and built for busy workers, and no less for needed rest and 
refreshment of soul and body. The main room downstairs serves 
as church and also for all activities that go with vigorous church 
life. Social gatherings are often held there and it is a center for 
enterprises that are intended for the good of the community. It is 
the hope of the rector and the congregation that this may be even 
more true of the future than it has been of the past. When the 
church is built facing Sycamore street, the parish house will serve 
for all sorts of guild and club meetings. It is greatly to the credit 
of St. Andrews that it is conspicuous for missionary zeal. The 
best meetings it has are the missionary meetings, once each montli, 
and all contribution to church work elsewhere are made promptly 
and generously. The wise financial foresight of the Rev. Neely has 

446 morrow's history 

given the church a central location in the city and a very valuable 
property holding, which by his able management, go far towards 
being a profitable return for the church at present. 


In about the year 1S41 the first ISIethodist church was organ- 
izetl in this, now Howard county, at what was known as Spice Run, 
in a little log hut about twelve by eighteen feet, and located about 
two and one-half miles west of the place of the present court house 
on the ^^'ild Cat turnpike. About three years afterward, in the 
year 1844, that pioneer preacher for this section of Indiana, Rev. 
Jacob Colclazer. organized the first Methodist church, and. in fact, 
the first religious organization in Kokomo. The house of the late 
David Foster, near where the new jail now stands, was used as a 
preaching place until a new log church could be built. The mem- 
bers of this organization were: Adam Clark and wife. Elizabeth 
Foster. X. R. Linsda}- and wife, Thomis Lamburn and wife, Den- 
nis McCormick and wife, and Mrs. Joseph Skeen. Xo one man did 
more for the growth of Methodism in this community than Judge 
X'. R. Linsday. Dr. J. McLean Moulder, in his interesting mono- 
graph on the Methodist church in Howard county, says : 

"A log church was built on South Washington street, in the 
year 1844. It was, at the time of its erection, probably the most 
expensive building in the county. The following year a Sabbath 
school was organized with Adam Clark as superintendent. Its av- 
erage attendance was about fifteen and it was conducted only dur- 
ing the summer months. This church was used until the year 1851, 
when a frame church was built upon the site of the present church. 


X. R. Linsday, Hayden Rayburn, and Joshua Sharp were leading 
spirits in this enterprise. The church was completed in 1852 under 
the pastorate of Rev. AI. S. Morrison. The old log church and 
ground were sold for sevent3--five dollars and the money put into the 
new edifice. During the next ten years the church and town had a 
rapid growth, and the frame church became too small to accommo- 
date the congregations, and in 1864 it was decided to begin a larger 
building, and the brick structure, that was torn down for the erec- 
tion of the present church, was the result. The pastor was the Rev. 
Charles ?ilartindale, and he rendered valuable service in this vast 

"Judge X. R. Linsday, J. W. Cniwley. C. Sharp, H. Rayburn, 
Worley Lease, Eli \\'ea\er. William Styer, John Steward, John 
Jamison, David Hazzard and Dr. I'uck were among the most lib- 
eral givers for the erection uf this cliurch. During its erection two 
men lost their lives, one being (i\erci>me by heat and the other being 
instantly killed by a piece of timber falling on him.'" 

It is related that about this time, somewhere near the year 
1869, an I rgcm w as jdaced in the clmrch. and was the cause of much 
bitterness. So intense was the feeling that on one occasion, no 
less notable than the Northern Indiana conference, someone placed 
a quantity of cayenne pepper in the organ belli^ws, and the meeting 
was nearly broken up as a consequence. Times changed, and at last 
the organ was permitted to remain unmolested. Dr. ]\lnulder con- 
tinues : 

"The first choir leader was Samuel C. Moore, and Emma ^Nla- 
son was organist. In the year 1873, under the pastorate of Rev. 
Thomas Stabler, the church was remodeled, frescoed, etc., at a cost 
of four thousand five hundred dollars. The following were quite 
active in this work: D. Hazzard, N. R. Linsday, James O'Brien, J. 
\\'. Crowle}-, S. G. Lane, T. M. Kirkpatrick. George Deft'enbaugh. 

448 morrow's history 

"The Sunday school has ahvaj's been a power in this church. 
The foUowing have been the superintendents : Adam Clark, Reuben 
Woods, John Jamison, John Prebble, N. P. Richmond, Henry 
Wooten, David Hazzard, J. McLean Moulder, S. Cox, J. F. Elliott 
A. N. Grant, G. O. Roach, J. E. Hillis, G. E. Meek, H. G. Woody, 
E. E. Springer, W. E. Sollenberger. 

"During the winter and spring of 1876-7, during the pastorate 
of Rev. H. J. Meek, a great revival caused about one hundred ninety 
to unite with the church. Also great revivals have occurred under 
the pastorates of Rev. C. H. Brown, J. S. Bitler and W. D. Parr. 
The church has been noted for years in the conference as being 
spiritual and progressive. 

"February -2, 1890, under the pastorate of Rev. C. H. Brown, 
the first sei'vice was held that resulted in the building of the Mark- 
land Avenue church, which cost about four thousand dollars. Rev. 
Brown, Rev. J. W. Oborn and Judge James O'Brien were the lead- 
ing workers in this enterprise. The corner stone was laid in August 
by the Rev. C. E. Disbro, and the church was dedicated by Rev. A. 
W. 'Lamport on the 14th of December. 


"It was dvu'ing the very efficient and prosperous pastorate of 
the Rev. ^^^ D. Parr that the present commodious and handsome 
church was erected, which, as an auditorium, is said to have few, if 
any, equals in the state. This building is not only a credit to the 
Methodists of Kokomo, but the entire city and Methodism as well. 
The first meeting looking to this enterprise was held May 6, 1893, 
but owing to the financial panic that was sweeping the country, it 
was postponed until March 4, 1894, when a committee composed of 
Dr. Parr. A. A. Charles and Dr. J. L. Moulder was appointed to 


visit churches and select a plan. March 24, 1895, this committee 
made a report, and the building proposition of E. S. Hunt was 
unanimously accepted. August 5, 1895, the contract was let for 
the building to the Armstrong, Landon & Hunt company, the con- 
tract price for the building, without furnishings, being twenty-five 
thousand three hundred dollars. The entire cost of the building- 
completed was about thirty-five thousand dollars. The old brick 
building was torn away and on the 19th of August, 1895, the first 
exca\'ation was made for the new edifice. 

Onl)- two accidents occurred during the erection of the liuild- 
ing, neither of which was fatal. September 30, 1895, the name 
of the church was changed from the Mulberry Street to Grace 
Methodist Episcopal church. The new church was dedicated De- 
cember 6, 1896. Rev. Charles H. Paine, D. D., LL. D., preached 
the dedicatory sermon and had charge of the finances, assisted by 
Bishop Charles C. McCabe, D. D., LL. D. The successful accom- 
plishment of this great undertaking was almost wholly due to the 
zeal, energy, and wise management of the Rev. \\'. D. Parr, who 
gave his undivided attention to eveiy detail of the work from the 
inception of the purpose to build until the structure was completed. 
During his pastorate Beamer chapel was built, as a result of his fore- 
sight and faithfulness. In the spring of 1898 the pastorate of \V. 
D. Parr expired by limitation, and the Rev. Edward Tiniberlake 
Gregg was assigned to the church and did most acceptably dis- 
charge the duties of pastor for one year and about two months of 
his second year, when the Father called him frnm labor to reward at 
6:15 p. m.. May 30, 1899. No one ever died in Kokomo to whom 
greater respect was shown. His body lay in state in the west tower 
of the church and for three hours a constant stream of sympathiz- 
ing friends passed by and reviewed the remains. There was scarce- 
ly a dry eye in the vast concourse of people. The Knights Templar 


had charge and the church services were conducted by his presid- 
ing elder, the Rev. M. S. Marble, assisted by many ministers of the 
North Indiana conference. During the funeral every business house, 
including the saloons of Kokomo, front door and back, were closed. 
In September, 1899, Rev. Jacomiah H. Jackson was appointed to 
fill nut the remainder of the year. He did most efficient work un- 
der trying circumstances. The following April the Rev. Arthur S. 
Preston was appointed to this church and served with good results 
for one year. In the spring of 1901 the Rev. Leslie J. Naftzger was 
appointed, and did a grand work for the ■Master. On June 24, 
1901, the board of trustees purchased the property at the corner of 
Clay and Mulberry streets of Joshua C. Leach for the sum of three 
thousand dollars, to be used as a parsonage. 


^^'hile the Rev. C. H. Brown was pastor of the ^Mulberry 
Street ]\Iethodist Episcopal church in 1890 a Sunday school was 
started in South Kokomo, the school being held in the building 
owned by Dr. Lewis C. Kern, an ardent member of the church. 
From this Sunday school grew the Markland Avenue Methodist 
Episcopal church. The idea of a church in South Kokomo was con- 
ceived by the quarterly conference of what is now Grace Methodist 
Episcopal church, which had charge of it until the church 
was dedicated in December, the same year. Rev. J. W. 
Oborn was pastor a few months, being succeeded by the Rev. Ross 
Gahring, who put the church on a substantial basis. In turn were 
the Revs. Fred Stone, D. H. Guild, C. C. Cissell, Charles White, 
Dora V. Williams, G. B. McNary, and Rev. C. W. Shoemaker, the 
present efficient pastor. It was to the Rev. Williams that the good 
fortune fell of lifting the church from its load of debt, and who pre- 


sided over tlie ceremonial of Ijurning- the mortgage, \v1iicli Iiad been 
given for fourteen hundred dollars. The congregation is now erect- 
ing a splendid edifice on South Main street, which, when completed, 
will represent a cost of not less than twenty-six thousand dollars. The 
members of the present board of trustees concerned in the building of 
the new church are J. F. Morrison, president: E. J. Showalter, sec- 
retan,-; J. M. Jackson, treasurer; O. B. Albright, James Burrows. 
Dr. J. O. Greeson. J. B. Davenp;)rt, Harry Raines, and .\. M. Jack- 
son. The church is active in religious societies, which are the La- 
dies' Aid Society, the Home Missionai-y Society and the Epworth 
League. Mr. W. E. Jacks' Sunday school class is a singular agency 
for good in promoting special church work. The Markland Avenue 
Methodist Episcopal church has done an incalculable good in the lo- 
cality wherein it is situated. Its demand has been amply and faith- 
fully met, and it has touched spiritually the large element of popu- 
lation within its jurisdiction employed in the South Side factories. 
It is a growing and flourishing congregation, with its membership 
alive to the possibilities of spiritual growth in the future. It is an 
active, successful church. 


The First Church of Christ Scientists perfected a formal or- 
ganization in 1908, but services have been held by the believers for 
four years past. The congregation, which now numbers thirty-five, 
and includes representative people of the city, is enjoying an excel- 
lent growth within and enlisting public favor to its tenets. 


There had been preaching by Presbyterian ministers of neigh- 
boring churches quite frequently in Kokomo, but the first record of 


an organized Presbyterian church in Kokomo is Xovember 22. 1868. 
On this date there is an enrollment of four names. Dr. R. O. Wil- 
son, Mrs. Isabelle \Mlson, Joseph Cain, and Airs. X. A. Cain. The 
first record of a meeting of the official board is December 2. 1869. 
Rev. C. AI. Howard was acting as stated supply of the church. At 
that time there was an enrollment of sixty members. In Septem- 
ber, 1870, Rev. W. A. Hutchison became pastor. There was con- 
siderable interest and growth during this pastorate and that of Rev. 
F. M. Elliott, who preached for about one year. But in 1875 the 
church virtually ceased to exist and for fourteen years the name of 
the church was on the roll of the Presbytery with only eight names. 
The present organization dates from November 25, 1887, when 
a meeting was held at the residence of Mr. John Jay. Rev. Charles 
Little, D. D., of Wabash, and Rev. Mr. Gregg, of Noblesville, were 
present by appointment of the Presbytery to organize the church. 
At that meeting seventeen persons were enrolled as members of the 
church. This number was soon augmented until it reached forty- 
five. The organization showed great vigor and determination and 
at once began the erection of the building in which the church now 
worships. March 27, 1889, the Rev. R. G. Roscamp was called to 
the pastorate and sened until April 13, 1892, when he was called 
to Greensburg, Indiana. During his pastorate the church building 
was completed and dedicated. He was followed by the Rev. Henry 
Gardner, who acted as stated supply from June i, 1892, to June t. 
1894. During his pastorate the indebtedness of the church was con- 
siderably reduced. On September 30, 1894, the Rev. R. G. Ros- 
camp was recalled, and served until April i, 1897. The pulpit was 
then vacant until Januaiy i, 1898, when Rev. E. A. Allen became 
stated supply, serving until September i. 1901. when he accepted a 
call to the Presb)-terian church at Decatur, Indiana. During his pas- 
torate the last indebtedness upon the church building was paid and 


at an anniversary serA-ice in 1900 all of the nKirtgage papers which 
had been held against the church were burned. Rev. W. A. Hutch- 
ison, who had been pastor during the time of the first organiza- 
tion, was recalled to the pastorate and began the work December i, 

1901, but on account of ill health was not able to continue, and 
closed his work with the church here September 30, 1902. Rev. 
M. L. Pearson began his work as pastor of the church November 9, 

1902, and closed his work December 25, 1904. During his pas- 
torate the pipe organ was installed. At a congregational meeting- 
held in the church May 30, 1905, the present pastor. Rev. ^^^ T. 
McKee, was called. His first sermon was preached July 2, 1905, 
the formal installation taking place September 27, 1905. At the 
same meeting of the congregation at which the pastor was called a 
committee was appointed to secure a home for the new pastor, and 
they succeeded in purchasing the delightful home of Dr. F. H. 
Smith, adjoining the church property on the west, and is now oc- 
cupied as a manse. The elders who served the church since its 
organization were : William H. Sellers, Peter A. Sassaman, George 
S. Humphrey, W. M. Souder, W. E. Stansbury, Elwood Haynes, 
John R. Cain, T. H. Penn, A. L. Harter, ^.L C. Kitchen and John 
C. Kessler. Mr. Sellers and Mr. Sassaman were the first elders 
elected. Mr. Sassaman died July 13. 1906. 'Sh. Sellers has been 
serving faithfully and continuously in the office ever since the re- 
organization of the church. Tlie church looks forward into the fu- 
ture hopefully. A\'ith an active membership of something over two 
hundred members, with an able body of men as the elders nf the 
church, at the present day, the church is well organized in her tem- 
poral and spiritual agencies and moves forward to do her share of 
the moral and spiritual uplifting of Kokomo. 



There are two prosperous colored churches in Kokomo, with 
good memberships and active in the good cause of the Lord. Rew 
W. H. Irvin is pastor of the African Methodist Episcopal church, 
which has been in existence many years. The spiritual director of 
the Second Baptist church is Rev. Gaines. 

THE friends' church. 

The meeting of the Friends was established in Kokomo in 
1865, the first sen-ices being held at the home of Richard Nixon. 
There were but few families of Friends living here at the time, they 
being those of Richard Nixon, Robert Coate. W. S. Wooten. and 
William Moore. Additions to the society were had from time to 
time, the more prominent being Jesse Turner and wife, Robert Has- 
kett, David Cof^n, Mrs. ^^'illiam Mavity, Mrs. James \Mldman, 
Amos Hollowell, ^^'illiam Trueblood, Nathan Dixon, Jesse John- 
son, Minnie Trueblood, Francis ]\Iacy, Eli Overman and wife, Asa 
Hockett and wife, Thomas Rich and wife, and Thomas Moulder 
and family. While the first meetings were in silence, mostly after 
the fashion then of the Friends, there was usually some one selected 
for reading and prayers. In time the meeting assembled in a hall on 
the north side of the Court House square, where it worshipped for 
several years. The pioneer members were garbed as became the 
faith, and after the William Penn fashion, but. these distinctive 
characteristics of the church began to loose their hold as early as 
1865, and finally disappeared altogether. 

The church originally had no minister, but the first pastor se- 
lected by the Kokomo church, in fact, the first recognized in the 
world bv an official title, was Robert Douglas. In time William 


L. Butler. Henry Coate, Jesse Turner, Emily Ellis, and Dr. Charles 
Kirk were enrolled as ministers. Dr. Kirk finally entered upon 
missionary work among the Indians. The membership continued 
to increase until the year 1870, when an eftV>rt was made to build 
a church house, which resulted in the erection of the present church 
building, a good, substantial brick, forty by sixty-six feet, with d 
stone foundation and costing about six thousand dollars. From the 
time of the completion of this building, in 1872, until the present 
time, the meetings have been held in it. Erequently ministers from 
abroad conducted services in the years gone by. The church is in 
a healthful condition, both spiritually and financially, having 385 
members. The Rev. G. H. Moore is the minister, having been 
called to the Kokomo pulpit September, 1907. The church has four 
societies engaged in the promotion o-f spiritual progress, they be- 
ing the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, the Ladies' Aid So- 
ciety, and the Junior and Senior Christian Endeavor societies. 


The Courtland Avenue Friends' church, a branch of the Union 
street meeting, was organized November, 1898, by Dr. S. T. Kirk. 
It has a membership of 165 members and is under the pastorate of 
Rev. Calvin R. Choate, who is doing an excellent work. His as- 
sistance in the way of church societies are the well-kmiwii Bible 
class and the Loyal Legion. 


On the 8th day of September, 1863, the First Congregational 
church of Kokomo was organized under the direction of Rev. Jo- 
seph* E. Ray, D. D., of Chicago, who, at that time, was the r£pre- 
sentative of the Congregational Home Missionary Society for the 
district of Northern Illinois and Northern Indiana. Fourteen per- 
sons constituted the membership at the time of the organization. 
They were: Rev. J. L. Jenkins and wife, Mr. and Mrs. M. R. An- 

456 morrow's history 

drews, Mr. and ^Nlrs. H. Y. Kelso, ]\Ir. and ^Mrs. James 'M. Patter- 
son, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Flemming, Mrs. Elizabeth Davis, Mrs. 
Margaret ]\Iurray, >ilrs. Lucinda Hathaway, and ]\lr. James Kauf- 
man. Rev. J. L. Jenkins was the first pastor. He served the church 
for two years and was succeeded by the Rev. C. H. Richards. The 
beautiful church edifice started during the pastorate of Rev. Jen- 
kins, was completed during the ministry of Rev. Richards. The Rev. 
Jenkins terminated his ministry- in September, 1865. The church 
received new life under the pastorate of Rev. A. S. ^^'ood, who 
sen-ed from 1871 to 1877. The house was renovated, refitted, a 
fine new pipe organ added, and best of all, the membership of the 
church was increased. Eventually the Rev. ^Vood, much to the re- 
gret of the congregation, severed his connection with the church 
and removed to Michigan. Another long pastorate was that of the 
Rev. Robert McCune, a very able minister, who served the congre- 
gation from 1 88 1 to 1887. 

The present pastor. Rev. Charles W. Choate, was called to the 
pulpit in December, 1898. He has builded up the church to a high- 
degree with the assistance of the Home and Foreign Missionary so- 
cieties of the church, which have revealed a remarkable record m 
benevolence and Christian spirit, and a valuable auxiliary to the 
church life is the Ladies' Aid Society, and, in addition, the monthly 
social. The Rev. Choate celebrated the tenth anniversary of his 
pastorate Sunday. November 29, 1908. 

rev. cho.a.te's record. 

For ten years the Rev. C. \\\ Choate has been the pastor of 
the local Congregational church. The decade in which he has served 
the charge has been the most important, perhaps, in the city's his- 
tory. The Re\'. Choate has seen Kokomo double in population 
and increase in wealth threefold. He has been an interested and 
pleased observer of the city's material progress, but his mission has 


not been with the city's material welfare. His callino- has not been 
among the things concrete, but among the things spiritual. Xo man 
has had the honor of a higher mission and no man has served among 
us more faithfully and efficiently. His actix'ities have nnt been con- 
fined to his own church and congregation. He has gone modestly 
along the way, serving wheresoever he might and whomsoever he 
could, doing it always unobtrusively, gently and in a beautiful spirit 
of helpfulness. In the church circles of Kokomo, irrespecti\-e of 
denominations, he is held in kindliest regard. Among those who 
sent him congratulatory messages on this occasion were not only 
pastors and members of the other Protestant churches of the city, 
but Father Lordemann, members of the local Jewish congregation, 
and many persons who affiliate with no church. In a way, the Re\-. 
Choate has come to be known as the people's pastor, and it is hardly 
conceivable that he could wish a more agreeable position than that 
in the community. 


The church building located at the corner of Harrison and 
South Market streets was completed and dedicated December, 1,896. 
Rev. Kendall E. West laid the foundations of the sciciety in his 
gathering- together the following- as charter members : A. L. and 
Mrs. M. A. Vickery, D. H. and Mrs. D. M. Stewart, J. I. and ^Irs. 
Jennie Martindale, Rev. Taylor and ]\Irs. S. J. Jackman, James and 
Mrs. Lucinda McCool, M. M. Garritson, L. S. and Mrs. E. M. Irby, 
America Cox, L. J. Groves, D. L. Philips, David and Mrs. Etta 
Klepper, Joshua and Mrs. Rebecca Hurley, Vie Barkalow. and Liz- 
zie Chapman. The dedication of the church building occurred un- 
der the auspices of Pastor West, Rev. J. R. Costner. of Winchester, 
Indiana, preaching the sermon. In May, 1893, there had been organ- 
ized an efficient Ladies' Christian Aid Society, which did nnich to 
make possible the future formation of the church ;uul the erection 

458 morrow's history 

of their cozy temple of worship. Immediately following the instal- 
lation of the pastor and people in their new quarters there was the 
organization of a Sunday school, Christian Endeavor, and the mid- 
week prayer meeting. These societies have been in active working" 
order ever since their organization. Tangible results have been 
witnessed through their effective efforts by many having been 
brought to acknowledge Jesus as their Redeemer and becoming 
working members of the church. The polity of the Christian church 
is unique, making Christian character only the test of fellowship, 
the Bible the only rule of faith and practice, individual interpreta- 
tion of the Scriptures, the undisputed right, and duty of all. In the 
matter of Christian baptism, in, or with water, the three modes, 
"sprinkling, pouring, and immersing," are employed, leaving the se- 
lection of either to the candidate. Members are also received to 
full fellowship, if they so elect, without conforming to either of the 
three several modes of baptism. During the twelve years' history 
of the local church it has made a remarkable a remarkable impress 
as a moral force in South Kokomo. The present pastor, R. H. Gott, 
is now in his fifth year's service with this people, and aided by his 
excellent wife and a number of consecrated local workers, every de- 
partment of the church is moving grandly forward. 


Several families belonging to the Evangelical Association at 
the Zion church and elsewhere, settling in Kokomo. made the es- 
tablishment of an Evangelical church in Kokomo feasible. The In- 
diana conference of the Evangelical Association in session at South 
Bend, six years ago, 1902, authorized the establishment of an Evan- 
gelical church in Kokomo, and appointed Re\'. A. S. Fisher as pas- 
tor of the charge. The Garrigus building was leased and June i. 


1902, a Sunday school was organized with thirty-two members, J 
N. Loop serving- as superintendent. The present clnnxh site was 
purchased in the spring of 1905, and during the summer the church 
building was erected, and dedicated on the third Sunday in Novem- 
ber. The charter members of the society consisted of the follow- 
ing persons: A. S. Fisher, Minta Fisher, Elizabeth Fisher, Feme 
Fisher, A. J. Troyer, Maud Troyer, Caroline Stutesman, C. D. Ra- 
rey, Luella Rarey. The society has grown to a membership of over 
eighty and the Sunday school to an enrollment of one hundred fifty. 
There is a Young People's Society of twenty-fi\-e members, and a 
Junior Alliance numbering forty. There is also a splendid Ladies' 
Aid Society, which has done much toward helping to cancel the 
church debt, and rendered valuable service in other ways. The of- 
ficial board at present consists of J. A. Weaver, A. J. Troyer, O. L. 
Webb, J. T. Lines, Merle Toops, J. W. Thomas, Mrs. Matthew An- 
aker, and Mrs. Solomon Fisher. The first pastor, A. S. Fisher, 
sensed for four years, Jacob Wise for two years, and the present 
pastor, M. L. Scheidler, has served since April. 


The Freemont Street Christian congregation is the result of an 
association had in September, 1885, for the promulgation of the 
principles for which it stands. Literature was sent out, and there 
was a teaching of the tenets for which the church stands, which later 
bore fruit. The society was formally incorporated ten years ago, 
in 1898, and then the formal and active dissemination of its doc- 
trines began in earnest. The new church, so far as Kokomo was 
concerned, was brought into being by the diligent, self-sacrificing, 
and able efiforts of Dr. J. L. Puckett, in which he was seconded by 
his dausrhter, May Puckett-Foster, and later Ijv Mrs. Ida \\'\'gants. 


The Christian congregation is sharply distinguished from the ordi- 
nary cliurch in tliat its cardinal tenet is to make philanthropy through 
the church as efficient and wide as that of the secret, benevolent or- 
ders, but after a much different manner, in several particulars. In 
the first place a member of the Christian congregation can be a mem- 
ber of any other church at the same time he belongs to the Christian 
congregation. He may be a [Methodist, a Presbyterian, or a Catho- 
lic, that is of no consequence, so he believes the fundamentals, be- 
lieves in God, the divinity of Christ, and other essentials to the 
Christian system, but no details of these beliefs are inquired after. 

The congregation is a practically organized agency of philan- 
thropy. If a member falls sick the president of the official board at 
once sets in motion the relief agency of the society. The sick mem- 
ber is visited. If sociability alone is demanded the matter ends 
there, but if aught else is needed it is administered. Need is the 
sole criterion governing the action of the church in every particular. 
Need may mean the employment of a nurse, the securement of a doc- 
tor, the purchase of medicine, the expenses of a burial after mdical 
skill has exhausted itself. But as a guard against imposition there 
is a record kept of receipts as well as disbursements, and it is easy 
soon to discover if one is receiving more than has been contributed, 
which leads to a reason for the situation, which, if not justifiable, 
can be soon tenninated. The official board of die local congregation 
is responsible to the District association and the official linard of 
that body to the General association, so that there is a general sys- 
tem of balances and checks. The entire scheme of philanthropy is 
based upon business principles. A complete set of books is kept, 
and each member contributing is given a receipt for the sum do- 
nated. The Sisters' Home Helpers are a valuable auxiliar}^ to the 
realization of the church's ideal. They often visit the home of some 
one sick, and finding the children needy supply the wants in the 


way of clothing, and discovering that much sewing is needed hviug 
up the family sewing to the needful standard. The benevolent fund 
of the church is augmented by constant accretion and is always 
available for any emergency which may arise. The doctrines of the 
congregation have been gradually spreading until there are congre- 
gations at Jewel, Darrough's chapel, and Finch chapel. The ac- 
credited ministers are Mrs. May Puckett-Foster, pastor of the Free- 
mont Street chapel, and at Jewel, Mrs. Ida Wygants, J. S. Butler, 
and Charles Laird, of Jewel. The Freemont Street chapel has a 
membership now of about one hundred. The subdivisions of the 
church work include the Junior congregation, the Sisters' Home 
Helpers, and the Sunday school. Dr. Puckett, who organized the 
Freemont Street chapel, and was for a long time its pastor, preachesi 
as a general rule, each Sunday evening, when his practice will per- 


About eighteen years ago Mrs. Maria L. Woodsworth, a trance 
evangelist, held a series of remarkable meetings in Kokomo. She 
drew immense crowds of peiiple to hear her preachments and to 
witness the heavenlv visions, as she presented them. Her evangelism 
was impressive upon large numbers of representative people of the 
citv, who, for a lifetime, had been indifferent to the wooings of the 
Spirit. Her followers, in accordance with her example, fell into a 
trance, which enabled them, they said, to penetrate into the glories 
of the future life and approach even unto the gates of Heaven. The 
evangelization differed from an_\' experience, in a religious way, Ko- 
komo had undergone, and when she departed Mrs. Woodsworth 
left a large number of converts determined upon the Christian life, 
and who have trod the path of Christian duty steadfastly ever since. 
For several months her followers maintained a church near the Clov- 

462 morrow's history 

eiieaf Railroad station. The Re\'. Shep Shutters preached for sev- 
eral months with con\'incing gospel power. In the meantime the 
ministers of numerous religious faiths were called into the pulpit, an 
indication that the congregation was seeking a permanent Christian 
home, but undecided upon just what allegiance to assume. Among 
the leading proselyters addressing the new congregation were : The 
Rev. Fletcher Thomas and the Rev. John Farmer, of the St. Joseph 
conference of the United Brethren church. Their work was done 
well. They earned the conviction and the affection of the congre- 
gation, which decided to abandon the name of the Mission church 
and ally themselves with the organization known as the United 
Brethren. The present church, in which the excellent people of the 
faith worship, was completed about eig'ht years ago. It, with the 
parsonage, represents an investment of about twenty-two thousand 
dollars. The present pastor is the Rev. C. E. Ashcraft. The mem- 
bership of the church is two hundred twenty-five. The spiritual 
success of the church is. in no small degree, indebted to the in- 
fluence of the various societies which constitute such valuable 
auxiliaries, they being the Young People's and Junior societies, the 
Ladies' Aid Society, the ^^''omen's Missionary x\ssociation, and the 
Young Ladies' Band. 


The Beamer chapel, better known as the North Street Metho- 
dist Episcopal church, is now thriving under the pastorate of the 
Rev. Gray. 


The Adventist church, which for several j^ears has maintained 
an organization in Kokomo, has a church located upon West Tay- 
lor street. This congregation believes that Saturday is the real 


Sunday of the Scriptures and ceases all wurk upi.n that day. treating 
Sunday as a secular day. 



In December, 1844, the county commissioners ordered the coun- 
ty agent to retain ten per cent, of the money secured from the sale 
of lots in the tract donated by David Foster, for the assistance of 
the county librarjf. The directors of the library chosen by the com- 
missioners were: William H. Grant, Franklin S. Price, David Fos- 
ter, William Grant, John Vaughan, and Austin C. Sheets. Mr. 
Vaughan was selected as librarian. Vaughan being a long time ab- 
sent from the county, Austin North was finally appointed in his 
place. Harles Ashley was chosen treasurer of the library funds. 

In June, 1850, the county commissioners ordered the treasurer 
of the county library to pay all money he had in his hands to Rev. 
McDade C. Richmond and N. R. Linsday for the purchase of books. 
June, 185 1, James McCool was appointed librarian and Ailam North 
treasurer. The library was to have a catalogue, with the price of 
all books annexed, to keep account of all monies and persons taking 
and returning books. All persons keeping a book seven days over 
the limit allowed to keep a book were to be fined one cent for each 
day. The fee for using the books was fifty cents a year and fnr a 
shorter time in proportion. The time for keeping books was as fol- 
lows : Volumes less than two hundred pages, thirty days : volumes 
over two hundred and less than four hundred pages, sixty days: 
volumes over four hundred and less than six hundred pages, eighty 

464 morrow's history 

days; volumes over six hundred and less than one thousand pages, 
one hundred twenty days; volumes over one thousand pages, one 
hundred twenty days. 

With all the improved library laws of the state. Kokomo still 
clings to the old and tried law of 1883, under which the Kokomo, 
now the Carnegie, library was organized. Among the first to take 
advantage of this law was the Kokomo school board, then compris- 
ing A. F. Armstrong, Dr. I. C. Johnson, and W. E. Blacklidge. 
This board levied a tax of one cent on the hundred dollars for a 
public library. This small tax brought to the libraiy support about 
ninety dollars a year. With J. C. Leach as librarian, the library was 
thrown open to the public in December, 1885, seventy-five books 
having been purchased and placed upon the shelves. One small case 
in the chemistiy laboratoiy of the old high school building was 
ample room for library purposes, the librarian being present each 
Thursday afternoon for the distribution of books. Naturally these 
books were limited to high school teachers and their pupils. The 
recitation room Avas soon outgrown and the library was transferred 
to the office of the school superintendent in the Xormal building, 
the time of opening being changed to Saturdays in the term time 
of school. The next move was to an entire room upon the top floor 
of the old Xormal school building and the time of opening extended 
to the entire year, Saturday afternoons. 

The library having grown into an imposing one of thirty-eight 
hundred volumes, it was thought worthy of a place in the city build- 
ing, and accordingly the council donated a room for that purpose. 
The levy was now increased to three cents and was growing in use- 
fulness and popularity. At this time ]\Ir. Leach classified the li- 
brary under the Perkins system and made a printed catalogue. The 
city building was soon outgrown, and a room was rented in a down- 
town district, the Blacklidge block, and the hours changed from Sat- 


LiRla}- afterncion to each afternoon from one to live o'clock, with 
an all-day opening on Saturday. I\Ir. Leach linding cares to numer- 
ous to devote more time to library matters, and having accepted 
state oiifice, Miss Olive Moreland, who had been his faithful assist- 
ant for some time, took charge of the library until in the spring of 
1900. During this time the library had been steadily growing, un- 
der the management of the school board, the shelf list showing in 
the neighborhood of eight thousand \olumes. During 1900 the li- 
brarian, assisted by Miss Belle Hanna, of the Greencastle public 
library, commenced the reclassification of the librar}- on the Dewey 
system. In the spring of 1900 Miss Eva M. Fitzgerald, of Madison, 
Indiana, was appointed librarian and immediately took up the work 
of classification under the system begun by Miss Hanna. The li- 
brary then consisted of ten thousand volumes, all classified with 
card catalogue, according to Cutter rules. In 1901, the library hav- 
ing once more outgrown its home, was removed to the commodious 
room in the east wing of the Blacklidge block. The hours of open- 
ing were extended from afternoon openings to all afternoons and 
evenings, and including Sunday opening. A reading room was es- 
tablished, several periodicals and the daily newspapers being sub- 
scribed for. The library was in charge of Librarian Fitzgerald and 
one assistant, the assistant averaging five hours a day and the li- 
lirarian nine hours. 


From a small, poorly lighted, poorly \-entilated back room in a 
block, with a half-day service and no reading room, and one person 
to do all, to a thirty-thousand-dollar buildingr spacious reading and 
children's rooms, with a stafif of trained emplo)-es. is the record of 
the Kokomo Public library between 1900 and 1904. Possibly the 


first suggestion that Kokomo might have a puljhc library building 
of its very own was made by the librarian, Aliss Fitzgerald, during 
the winter of 1901, when Miss Fitzgerald read a paper before the 
Kokomo Equal Suffrage and Literary clul), in which she drew a 
picture of Kokomo's future public library. The discussion following 
this paper started the agitation which resulted in some action on 
the part of the library trustees, who were also the school trustees. 
i\Ir. R. A. Ogg, the superintendent of schools, was delegated to 
write a letter to Mr. Carnegie and lay before that prodigal library 
building promoter the claims the Kokomo librar}' had to a hearing. 
Nothing came from this letter and the matter was allowed to rest 
until Mr. J. A. Kautz, a member of the board, took a little trip to 
New York. Mr. Kautz, ever mindful of the various interests he had 
in hand, found time in the midst of his private business to call upon 
\lr. Carnegie and in a heart-to-heart talk to urge Kokomo's desire 
to be numbered among the "fifty-se\en varieties" of Carnegie li- 
braries in Indiana at that time. \\'hi]e ]\Ir. Kautz did not exactly 
bring back the twenty-five thousand asked for, in his pocket, he did 
bring back the promise that the matter would be looked into, and 
if Kokomo could show her ability to make good the twenty-five 
thousand would be forthcoming in due season. As the sentiment 
of the place was almost unanimous in favor of the building, there 
was no difficulty in making the necessary municipal arrangements. 
There was not even that usual bugbear of getting a popular sub- 
scription for the purchase of the lot, one of the necessary require- 
ments, as the school board decided that, under the law which the 
Kokomo Hbrars' operates, they would be justified in making the pur- 
chase from the special school fund, which they did. The Kokomo 
board, as seems to be the universal rule with Carnegie library 
boards, were not satisfied with the gift of t\vent}--five thousand but 
planned for a much more ornate and elaborate style of architecture 


than twenty-five thousand could possibly cover. In order to meet 
these plans the board was obliged to borrow some money. A tax 
was levied to meet the needs of the library which brings in a fairly 
good income. Miss Fitzgerald carried the library through its evo- 
lutionary period, when it was seeking to emerge from a mere col- 
lection of books accessible to a limited public, to a real, live factor 
in the public scheme of living. Miss Fitzgerald superintended the 
moving, arranging, and planning for the new library, doing no 
small part of the actual labor herself. In 1906 Miss Fitzgerald was 
succeeded by Miss Edith Trimble, of Vincennes. Indiana, the present 

Carnegie's gift. 

In 1903 a gift of twenty-five thousand dollars was accepted 
from Mr. Carnegie on the usual terms for a library building. The 
city added about six thousand dollars, making the total cost about 
thirty-one thousand dollars. The library is sustained by an income 
from the taxes, the rate being five cents on the hundretl dollars. 

The building is classic in architecture and made of Bedford 
stone. In the basement is a club room used by various societies, 
some of which are : Matinee Musical, Chautauqua League, and Bible 
classes, \\'omen's Christian Temperance Union. Gentlemen's Lit- 
erary Society, and Howard County Medical Association. 

In 1907 the "Story Hour" was instituted, the object of which 
is to interest the children in the best in literature. With book lists 
and bulletins the children are also guided in their reading. 

The library contains approximately twelve thousand volumes. 
These books are at the disposal of all persons living within the city 
limits. County people pay one dollar a year for tlie use of h(X)ks. 
The library hours are from 9 a. m. to 9 p. m. on week days and from 

468 morrow's history 

2 to 5 p. m. oil Sundays. Only the reading rooms are open Sun- 

The library board is as follows: \V. E. Blacklidge. president; 
W. C. Overton, secretary, and H. C. Thomas, treasurer. R. A. Ogg, 
superintendent of schools. Librarian, Edith Trimble, and assistant 
librarian, Idabelle Ford. 


It sems to be well authenticated that the ashes of two other 
soldiers of the war of the Revolution lie buried in Howard County. 
The Kokomo Tribune of December ii and 15, states that in the 
Brown graveyard one-half mile west of Poplar Grove, a now un- 
used burying place, there is a small, weather-stained headstone 
bearing this inscription : "Abner Clark, died October 15, 1847, aged 
84 years, 3 months and 8 days." Andrew J. Forgey, an octoge- 
narian of that neighborhood, states that he lived near him for a 
year prior to his death and had many conversations with him. and 
is sure that Clark was a Revolutionary soldier. 

The Tribune of December 14, 1908, states that James \V. 
.Swope, a most reliable man, says that Jackson Gullion. who was 
buried in the Twin Springs graveyard, five miles southwest of 
Kokomo, was also a soldier of the Revokition. 

The Tribune of December 16, 1908, contains a letter from 
James W. Cooper, of Russiaville, saying that two other soldiers of 
the War of 1812 were buried there : Joseph Taylor, who has been 
mentioned in the Pioneer life of Howard County, was a soldier of 
the \Yav of 1812, and was buried in the Russiaville cemetery: John 
Gregg, served under Gen. Willian H. Harrison at Fort ]\Ieigs and 
was also in the battle of the Thames, where the British, under Gen. 
Proctor, and the Indians under Tecumseh, were defeated. He also 
was buried in the Russiaville cemeterv.