Skip to main content

Full text of "History of Huntingdon County, in the state of Pennsylvania : from the earliest times to the centennial anniversary of American independence, July 4, 1876"

See other formats


<i'' %, 

■^ ■' » >. 


"^^ V^' 


-\!-- 0*'. '' . .. ^ r\- 



,^- ;, 


■"oo^ :^^ 

.^' .^'^- 





c< -n^. 





o- . 


'-^A v^ 

^ -f^ 

.0 - ° ° 



'=^. » »" , » '• ' Cv^' _ ^ "O^ " * " ..' „ ->" <^ 


■^^ r. ^^■i^ 

''o^.s'" .A 

^-'^-''' %^ %^ 







JULY 4, 1876. 

BY y 


^A^ILLIAM H. ROY, Publisher. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1876, by 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington. 



The tirst suggestion of the preparation of local histories at the close 
of the first century of our national existence that came to the atten- 
tion of the author of this work was made some four or five months 
before the opening of the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia. 
The purport of that suggestion was that such histories be sketches 
of the progress of towns and villages, to be delivered before assem- 
blages of their citizens, respectively, on the then approaching anni- 
versary. "With a view to enlarging upon this idea, the author wrote 
a communication to the Philadelphia Press, which was also published 
m a number of other newspapers, recommending the preparation 
of histories of counties, and that they embrace sketches of sub- 
divisions and minor localities. Shortly afterwards, action upon the 
subject was taken by Congress, and the following joint resolution 
was adopted by the Senate and House of Representatives, and ap- 
proved by the President on the 13th of March last : , 1 

" Be it resolved, etc., That it be and is hereby recommended by the 
Senate and House of Representatives to the people of the several 
States, that they assemble in their several counties or towns on the 
approaching Centennial anniversary of our national independence, 
and that they cause to have delivered on such day an historical 
sketch of such county or town from its formation, and that a copy of 
said sketch be filed in print or manuscript in the clerk's office of said 
county and an additional copy in print or manuscript be filed in the 


office of the Librarian of Congress, to the intent that a complete 
record may be thus obtained of the progress of our institutions dur- 
ing the first centennial of their existence." 

This resolution was promulgated in proclamations of the Governor 
of Pennsylvania and the President of the United States, by the 
former on the 21st day of April, and by the latter on the 25th day of 
May, following its adoption. After reciting the resolution, the pro- 
clamations were as follows : 


" Now, therefore, I, John F. Hartranft, Governor as aforesaid, do 
hereby favorably commend this resolution to the people and authori- 
ties of the various cities, counties and towns of this Commonwealth, 
with the request that wherever the observance of the incoming anni- 
versary of our National Independence will permit, provision may be 
made to comply with the recommendation contained therein, so that 
these historical sketches may be made to embrace all information and 
statistics that can be obtained in relation to the first century of our 
existence as a Commonwealth.'- 


" And whereas, It is deemed proper that such recommendation be 
brought to the notice and knowledge of the people of the United 
States ; now, therefore, I, Ulysses S. Grant, President of the United 
States, do hereby declare and make known the same in hope that 
the object of such resolution may meet the approval of the people of 
the United States, and that proper steps may be taken to carry the 
same into effect. " 

Although the histories of counties were thus in contemplation, the 
plan proposed was not a large one. The material of a historical 
character that could be condensed into a fourth of July address or 


oration would necessarily be brief and unsatisfactory. It could in- 
clude but a few of the most important outlines, and only such facts 
as in all probability had already been put into a shape to insure their 
preservation. That these histories could be made complete only by 
the adoption of a much more extensive plan, is apparent from the fact 
that this work has grown into a volume more pretentious in size than 
the author designed it to be in any other respect. In fact, to prevent 
its proportions from becoming too great, he was compelled to omit 
much that he originally intended it should contain. The annals of 
townships and boroughs, which he at first thought of giving in full, 
he has been obliged to shape according to the space that could be 
allowed to them. When it is remembered that there are in the 
county twenty-five townships and twelve boroughs, it will be seen 
that a sketch of each to the extent of eight or ten pages, would have 
filled this book, to the exclusion of the general history of the county, 
which, in the opinion of the author, at least, is of more importance. 
The sketches of a few of the townships may be regarded as sufficiently 
thorough. These were prepared before it was discovered that equal 
space could not be given to all of them. 

As the author desired to act upon the suggestion he has mentioned, 
especially after it was given an official shape by the action of Con- 
gress and the proclamations of the Governor and President, and as 
he was unwilling to confine himself to the meagre limits proposed 
by them, he has reconciled his own ideas as nearly as possible with 
theirs, and has produced this volume, which he hopes will reach a 
larger public than could any history prepared and delivered in strict 
accordance with the plan contemplated by the resolution. 

It is impossible for the author to specify the many persons to whom 
he is under obligations for courtesies and assistance in his researches 


for the material for this work. There are some, however, from 
whom he has received favors that deserve to be especially acknowl- 
edged. Several of these have been mentioned in the chapters for 
which they contributed information, while to the others he must here 
express his thanks. To Mr. B. F. Eipple he is indebted for a sketch 
of Cromwell township, to Hon. David Clarkson for a sketch of Trough 
Creek valley, to J. L. Mcllvaine, esq., for a sketch of Jackson town- 
ship, to Dr. J. H. Wintrodefor a sketch of Penn, to Robert McDivitt, 
esq., for a sketch of Oneida, to Dr. J. A. Shade for a sketch of 
Dublin, and to Samuel McVitty, esq., for a sketch of Shirley. 

He is also largely indebted to all the editors and publishers of 
newspapers in the county. Their uniform courtesy and readiness 
to aid him whenever required, led him to believe that they appreci- 
ated the work in which he was engaged and encouraged him to per- 
severe in its completion. The editorial profession, to be successfully 
pursued, requires, perhaps, a higher intelligence than any other, and 
the approval of the gentlemen connected with it has a peculiar signi- 
ficance. Those who have assisted him most are Messrs. J. R. Dur- 
borrow and J. A. Nash, of the Journal, Prof. A. L. Guss, of the 
Globe, S. E. Fleming, esq., of the Monitor, Messrs. Hugh Lindsay 
and Frank Willoughby, of the Local News, and Col. J. M. Bowman, 
of the Mount Union Times. 

Having endeavored to keep in view three of the purposes 
for Avhich history should be written : first, to interest the general 
reader, second, to present facts and statistics for information and 
reference, and third, to preserve a record of the past, so that the 
scenes and the actors may not be forgotten, the author presents this 
work, hoping that he has not failed in any of these objects ; that it 
will be received by the public in the same generous spirit manifested 


toward liim during its preparation, that it will grow in value as time 

recedes, and that the few copies that may outlive the second century 

of American independence may be sought after by our descendants,, 

and may form the basis of a new and enlarged history of that portion 

of this free and enlightened people for whom Huntingdon county is. 

to be a home and an abiding place. 

M. S. L. 
HUNTINGDOK, Pa., Oct. 19th, 1876. 




Aborigines of Huntingdon County— Doubts Concerning Them— First White Vis- 
itors— Indian Traders— Their Character — The Old Indian War-Path. 

CHAPTER II • . 20 

Conrad Weiser — His Joumey to the Ohio — William Franklin — George Croghan — 
Andrew Montour — Black Log — The Standing Stone — John Harris's State- 
ment — Its Location — Meaning of Inscriptions upon it — Second stone erected 
by the Whites. 


A Popular Error— The story of Captain Jack — lis Unreliability— Jack's Nar- 
rows — Origin of the Name — Murder of Armstrong, Smith and Arnold — Shick- 
alamy's Statement — The search for and finding of the Bodies — Monument to 
Jack Armstrong. 


Aggressions upon Unpurchased Lands— First Settlers in Huntingdon County — 
Measures taken to Expel Them — Burning of their Dwelhngs — Aughwick — 
Burnt Cabins — Discontent of the Indians— Ineffectual Work. 


Treaty and purchase at Albany in 1754 — Description of Lands Conveyed by the 
Six Nations — Consequences which Followed — A Turning Point — The Six 
Nations— Their Sovereignty — History — Residence — Character — The Dela wares 
— Their Subjection to the Six Nations — The Shawnees — Imperious Assertion 
of Authority — An Acknowledgment by the Delawares — Fatal Kevenge. 


Aughwick— Croghan — Kis Reasons for Settling There— Surrender of Fort Neces- 
sity — Indians Come to Aughwick— Are Furnished with Supplies by Croghan — 
Drunkenness — Temperance Measures — Weiser's Conference with the Indians 
— Charges Against Croghan and the Answers to Them — Braddock's Com- 
plaints — Death of the Half King — Consolation from Croghan — Indian Desire 
for Presents — Monacatootha. 


Fortification of Aughwick — Croghan's Views — Postponement of the Project — 
Movement against the French — Braddock's Expedition— Appeal to the 
Indians — Croghan in Command of those from Aughwick — Deserters — Thanks 
of Council — Speech of Scarroyady — Indians leave Aughwick— Change in 
Cr jghau's Belations to the Government — No Longer in Charge of Indian 




Revival of the Project of Fortifying Anghwick— Condition of the Frontier Settle- 
ments— Reasons why they were Uuprotecte(i"-Conflict between the Governor 
and the Assembly— Croghau Comniissioned as a Captain and Ordered to Erect 
Stockades -Where they were to be Built — Fort Shirley— Captain Croghan 
Eecruits men to Garrison the Forts — Difficulties Concerning His Accounts 
— KesigQB his Commission and Leaves Fort Shirley. 


Commissary General of Musters Visits and Pays Troops at Fort Shirley— Letter 
from Captain Mercer— Recruiting at Carlisle—Strength of Garrison at Fort 
Shirley— Condition of his Company — Arms, Accoutrements, Provisions and 
Pay — Cajjiure and Burning of Fort Granville — Preparations for an Attack 
eu Fort Shirley--Colonel Armstrong's Expedition Against Kittanniug— Ren- 
dezvous at Fort Shirley- -Surprise and Rout Of the Indians— Killing of Captain 
Jacobs, the Indian Chief— Captain Mercer Wounded and Missing— He Rejoins 
His Company — Evacuation of Fort Shirley. 


Situation on the Frontiers after 1754— Warrants Granted in 1755— In 1762— Hugh 
Crawford's Improvement— Revival of Purchases — Dangers From and Depre- 
dations by the Indians — The Town of Huntingdon— Its Founder, Dr. William 
Smith — Selina, Countess of Huntingdon. 


Huntingdon at the Beginning of the Revolutionary War — The McMurtries- 
Fort Standing Stone— Tories — Colonel Piper Exceeds his Authority — General 
Roberdeau at Huntingdon -His Letter — ^Tory Expedition to Kittanning— Its 
Result — Death of Weston and Dispersion of his Men. 


1778 to 1782 — Cumberland County Militia sent to the Frontier — Difficulty of 
Obtaining Arms — Colonel Broadhead's Regiment Ordered tc Standing Stone — 
Captain Thomas Clugage's Company — At Fort Roberdeau — Charges Against 
Captain Clugage— His Reply to Them— Militia of Lancaster and York Called 
out for Service in Bedford and Westmoreland— Their Failure to Respond — 
Colonel Martin's Letter to Council — Assistance from Cumberland County — 
Huntingdon a Depot for Supplies— Division of County into Military Districts 
— Colonel George Ashman — His Report to President Reed — His Anxiety For 
the Safety of the Country — Surrender of Lord CornwaUis — General Carlton 
Supersedes Sir Henry Clinton— Peace. 


Division of Pennsylvania into Counties — Philadelphia, Bucks and Chester — 
Lancaster — Cumberland — Bedford — Huutingdou — County Seat — Townships 
then within the County — Election Districts — First Incumbents of County 
Offices — Court Houses — Jails — Running and Ascertaining County Lines — 
Difficulties withMitlliu County — Erection of new Counties — Centre — Cambria 


A Temiiest in Politics — Adoption of the Constitution of the United States — 
Opposition to it in Huntingdon County — General M'illiam McAlevy — His 
Political Influence — Armed Interference with the Public Officers in the Per- 
formance of their Duties — Turbulent Interrui^tion of the Courts — Arrests and 
Rescues — Muster of Col. Cannon's Battalion — Assault and Battery upon 
Benjamin Elliott— The Military retires from the Field— More Arrests— De- 
Btruotiou of Warrants and Indictment — Obliteration of the Records of the 
Court of Quarter Sessions — Secretion of Smith and Flight of Henderson — 
Action of Supreme Executive Council — Further Violence — McAlevy and the 
Mob — The Storm Subsides. 




Close of the Eighteeuth Century — Peace and Pleuty — Prosperity and Itaprove- 
rnent — Navigation of the Juniata and Raystown Branch— Of the Little Juniata 
and Standing Stone Creek — First Iron Works — Bedford Furnace — Barree 
Forge — Huntingdon Furnace —First Ark on the Susquehanna and Janiata — 
First Newsijaper — Establishment of the Post Office at Huntingdon. 


Newspapers of the Past — Huntingdon Gazette — Literary Museum — Republican 
Advocate — Huntingdon Courier — Huntingdon Messenger — Standing Stone 
Banner — Shirleysburg Herald — The Union — Broad Top Miner— Workingmen's 
Advocate — Young America — Th$ American and the Republican. 


Newspapers of the Present — The Journal— A. W. Benedict — Theo. H. Cremer — 
James Clark — J. Sewell Stewart — J. R. Durborrow — The Globe — William 
Lewis — A. L. Guss — The Monitor — Destruction of the Office by the Soldiers — 
S. E. Fleming — M. M. McNeil — The Local News — Hugh Lindsay — Mount 
Union Times — The Herald — The Leader — The Pilgrim — The Young Disciple. 


Enterprises of the Past — Post-Eiders- Arks — Pack-Horses — Juniata Mail Stage 
— Weekly — Daily — Time From Philadelphia to Huntingdon and Pittsburg — 
Mail Route to Chambersburg — Turnpikes — Incorporation of the Huntingdon, 
Cambi'ia aiid Indiana — Huntingdon and Lewistowu — Pennsylvania Canal — 
Legislation Under which it was Constructed — Preliminary Surveys — Opened 
for Navigation— Public Enthusiasm — Rale to the Pennsylvania Railroad Com- 
pany — Abandoned West of Huntingdon. 


Railroads — Philipsburg and Juniata — Huntingdon and Chambersburg — Hun- 
tingdon and Hollidiiysburg — Pennsylvania — Huntingdon and Broad Top 
Mountain — Drake's Ferry and East Broad Top — East Broad Top Railroad and 
Coal Company — Lewisburg, Centre and Si^ruce Creek— Telegraphs. 


Organization of First Agricultiiral Society — Its Objects and Manner of Advancing 
Them — Present Agricultural Society — Organization— First Officers — Incorpo- 
ration — Dates Upon which Fairs have been Held — Premiums and Expenses — 
Present Officers— Statistics of Agriculture and Manufactures. 


Coal and Iron — Early Knowledge of the Existence of Coal on Broad Top — 
Attempt to Create a Market for It— Beginning of the Goal Trade — Annual 
Production — Detailed Statement of the Business for 18T5 — Coke — Juniata 
Charcoal Iron — Furnaces and Forges by which it was Made. 


Education — Number of Schools in the County — Average Number of Months 
Taught — Number of Children in Attendance — Teachers — Classification — 
Branches Taught — School Buildings — Primitive School House — Recent Archi- 
tecture — Heating of School Rooms — Furniture and Apparatus — Teacher's 
Institutes — County Superintendency — Salary — List of Persons who have Held 
the Office — Receipts and Expenditures for School Purposes — Illiteracy — 
Number of Persons who cannot Read or Write. 




Private Schools — Shirleysbnrg Academy and Seminary — Milowood Academy — 
CaBSvillc Semiuary — Soldiers' Orphan School— Huntingdon Academy — Moun- 
tain Seminary — Churches. 


Population and Wealth — Steady and Gratifying Increase — Proffiess from 1790 to 
1870 — Whites, Free Colored and Slaves — Foreigners — Countries from which 
they Came and number from Each — Distribution of Population— SVhite and 
Colored, Native and Foreign — Value of Ileal and Personal Property — Compar- 
ison with Other Counties — Area and Taxation. 


The Great Kebellion — Resolutions Adopted before its Commencement — Series of 
Meetings at Huntingdon in April, 1861, and Proceedings Tiiereat — Departure 
of the First Comf any for Harrisburg — Enthusiasm of the People — Diajilay of 
the National Colors in all Parts of the County — Supplying Soldiers with Re. 
freshments — Suldiers' Aid Societies — Number of Man Furnished by the 
County duiing the War — Commissioned Officers, with their Rank Commands, 
Etc. — Militia — Emergency Men — Decoration of Soldiers' Graves — Memorial 


Supreme Executive Council — Members from Huntingdon County — Col. John 
Cauuou — Benjamin Elliott — Numerous Public Positions Filled by the Latter 
— His Descendants. 


David Uittenhouse Porter— Leading Events in his Life before becoming a Citi- 
zen of Huntingdon County— Clerk and Manager at Barree Forge— Engaged 
in the Manufac.ure of Iron on Spruce Crosk— His I'ailure— Elected County 
Auditor— Member of Legislature— Appointed Prothonotary— Register of 
Wills and Recorder of Deeds — Elected State Senator— Governor in 1S3S and 
1S41 — Vote in Huntingdon County — Retires to Private Life — Death. 


Hon. John Scott — His Education — .Vdmission to the Bar — Appointed Deputy 
Attorney-General— Elected a Representative in the Legislature— Supports 
the Government in the Suppression of the Rebellion, and Advocates the 
Ee-election of Lincoln in 1S64— Elected United States Senator— His Public 
Services— Committees of which he was a Member— Pj,rt taken by Him iu 
Legislation — Appointed General Counsel for Pennsylvania Company and 
removes to Pittsburg. 


Representatives in Congress- First Election— Apportionments— Districts to 
which Huntingdon County has Belonged— Names of Representatives and 
Years of their Election— Hon. R. Milton Speer— Sketch of His Life. 


President Judges— Appointments Previous to 1S51— Elections in that Year and 
Subsequently— Hon. George Taylor— His Death— Proceedings at Meetings of 
Members of the Bar— Sketch of His Life— Associate Judges— Prosecuting At- 
torneys and District Attorneys. 


Senatorial Districts Fixed by Constitution of 1790 — Septennial Apportionments 
and the Districts to which Huntingdon County has Belonged — Senators 
Elected Since 1790 — Representatives iu Legislature — Members Elected Since 
the Erection of the County. 




Constitntional Conventions— 1776 — Benjamin Elliott — 1790 — Andrew Henderson 
— 1838— Delegates Fronf. tlie County and Senatorial District — 1873— Dr. John 
M'Culloch and John M. Bailey. 


County Officers — Sheriffs — Prothonotaries, Clerks of Courts of Common Pleas, 
etc. — Registers, Recorders, and Clerks of the Orphans' Cnurt — County 
Treasurers — County Commissioners — Directors of the Poor — County Surveyors 
— Jury Commissioners. 


Huntingdon — Old Deed of Conveyance — Incorporation as a Borough — 'Extensions 
of Borough Limits — AiiditiouB to the Plan of the Town — J. Edgar Thomson's 
Survej — Miller, Wharton and Anderson's Addition — Manufacturing Estab- 
lishments—Planing Mill and Furniture Factory — Shoe Factory and Tannery 
— Car Woiks and Machine Shops— Broom and Brush Factory — Pilgrim Publi- 
cation Building— Number of Buildings Erected — Census — Opening and Ex- 
tension of Streets — Change in Street Nomenclature — Numbering of Buildings 
and Lots — Division of the Borough into Wards — Fire Department — Engine 
House — Gras — School Buildings and Schools — Churches and Pastors. 


Townships — Divisions and Sub-Div'sions — Erected from Tyrone — From Hun- 
tingdon — From Barree — From Hopewell— From Shirley— Fiom Dublin — 
Towushii s formed Since the Erection of the County, in the Order of Their 
Ages — Barree — Hopewell. 


Dublin Township — The Shadow of Death — Early Settlers — Alexander Blair — 
Manufactories — Development of Mineral Wealth — Shade Gap — Incorporation 
as a Borough — Churches, etc. 


Shirley Township — Earlj Settlers — Mills— Stores — Drake's Ferrj — Clintonville 
Santa Fe — Mount Union — Iron Ores of the Southern Part of the County — 
Improvements in Mount Union and Vicinity — Jet d'Eau and Hotel des 
1 n valides — Shirley sburg. 


Franklin Township — Agricultural and Mineral Wealth — Iron Works- Post 
Offices — Springfield Tjwiship — First Settlers — Their Character — Early 
Schools and Churches — Public Improvements — Causes that have Retarded 
the Development of the Resources of the Township. 


Union Township — Trough Creek, Smith's and Hare's Valleys— The Streams 
— The Tory Ilare— Mapleton — Morris Township — Water Street — Spruce 
Creek or Graysj ort — Union Furnace. 


West Township — Shaver's Creek Valley— Anderson's Fort — Escape of Jane 
Magnire — Petersburg — Warrior's Mark Township — Origin of the Name — 
Birmingham — Its Foundation, Growth and Decline. 


Tell — Henderson — Porter — Walker, 




Cromwell Township — Indian Remains — George Irvin — Early Settlements — 
Furnaces — Bedford — Rockhill — Winchester — Bockhill Iron and Coal Com- 
pany — Their Improvements — Starting of the New Furnace— The Clugage 
Family — Black Log — Orbisonia. 


Tod Township — Union — Trough Creek Valley — Cass — Salisbury, or Chilcoats- 
town — Cassville — Hon. David Clarkson. 


Jackson Township — Joseph Jackson — General William McAlevy — His Method 
of Immigration — McAlevy's Fort — Schools and Churches — Greenwood Fur- 
nace — Mitchell's Furnace — Stone Creek and McAlevy's Fort Eailroad— Clay 
Township — Brady — Mill Creek — Sand Quarries. 


Penn Township — Soil — Ores — Early Settlers — Villages — Marklesburg — Grant- 
ville — Grafton — Religious Denominations — Reformed— Lutheran — Methodist 
Episcopal— German Baptist — Mennonite — Churches — Mills — Soldiers of the 
Union Army. 

CHAPTER XLVI . . . , 333 

Oneida Township — Nathan Gorsuch — Jacob White — Other Early Settlers — Im- 
provements and Productions— William Foster — Boat Building — Juniata Town- 
ship — Soil— Timber — Carbon Township — Its Chief Industry — Lincoln Town- 
ship — James Entriken — Coffee Run. 


Centennial Anniversary of American Independence — Observance of the Day — At 
Warrior's Mark — Birmingham — Dudley — Orbisonia — Mount Union — Hunting- 
don — Display of Flags and Decoration of Buildings — Procession — Oration by 
Dr. J. H. Wintrode — Balloon Ascension — Close of the Century. 


The Juniata, Frontispiece. 

Jack's Narrows, Facing page 28 

Cassville Seminary, " " 178 

Hon. John Scott, " "206 

Spruce Creek Tunnel, " "286 

Below Mill Creek, " "321 

Explanation. Some copies of this work will be found not to contain the 
portrait of Hon. John Scott, which appears in the above list of illustrations. 
It is deemed necessary to explain this omission. The engravings were arranged 
for early in the last summer and were to be furnished early in the month of 
July. At that time a portion of them was received. The balance have since 
been repeatedly promised by the owner of the plate, but after waiting for them 
until the latest possible moment, we are obliged to publish tthe work without 


Page 19, for Governeur Morris read Governor Morris. 
" 21, at beginning of last paragrapli, for 1758 read 1748. 
" 112, for 1780 read 1785. 

" 130, line 16th from the bottom, for 1871 read 1873. 
" IGO, for Peter Stryder read Peter Strylcer. 
" " for David Auxandt read David ^lMj-fmf7i. 
" " for Hon. James Given read Hon. James Gwin. 
" 190, for Couser read Conser. 
" 201, for Henry Miller read Jacob Miller. 
" 227, for members of Assembly from 1817 to 1830, inclu- 
sive, see next page. 

History of Huntingdon County. 



But little is known concerning the Aborigines of Hunt- 
ingdon county previous to the settlement of the whites among 
them. Of course, such knowledge could be gathered only 
from the traditions of the Indians themselves, few of which 
have been retained by us, the scenes upon the savage stage 
having vanished with the actors. Even the names of the 
various tribes that may have lived here have passed into 
oblivion. It is true that some facts in relation to the native 
inhabitants of Standing Stone have been preserved, but of 
so meagre a character that it is uncertain to what nation they 
belonged. Writers on this subject state that they are sup- 
posed to have been Oneidas, but after giving the matter as 
thorough an examination as the limited data at hand aftbrds, 
I am inclined to the contrary opinion, if, indeed, it is suf&- 
cientlyfree from obscurity and doubt to admit of an opinion 
at all. The supposition to which I refer is founded upon a 
theory, that the name Oneida signifies, in our language, 
"Standing Stone," and that the Oneida Indians of New York 
were of Southern origin. But some authorities, in contra- 
diction to this theory, have given the name a different inter- 
pretation; and as to their emigration it must have taken 
place, if at all, many years before white visitors came to the 
ancient village on the Juniata. On the capture of New 
York from the Butch in 166i, the Five Nations, of which 
the Oneidas were one, were living in that State and entered 
into an alliance with the English. If the entire Oneida 



nation had regarded the stone, as they are said to have done, 
with " superstitious veneration," and had believed that if it 
should be taken away from them they would be dispersed, 
they certainly would not have gone to a distant country 
leaving it behind them. By surmising that only a portion 
of them went to New York, one or more of their tribes re- 
maining here, we but add to the uncertainty and by no means 
reconcile the conjectures on the one hand with the well-at- 
tested facts on the other. 

Of the white men who first came within the limits of the 
county, we know almost as little as we do of the Indians, 
They were probably traders whose avocation led them to 
make journeys between the East and the Ohio river. That 
persons engaged in that business did make such journe3'^s 
before the earliest record we have of them, is evinced by 
many circumstances. In a letter written by George Croghan, 
who resided on the Susquehanna river, about five miles west 
of Harris' Ferry, now Harrisburg, he mentions a trader who 
had just arrived from the Ohio, and gives other intelligence 
from which it may be inferred that the making of such trips 
was not then an uncommon occurrence. In fact, Croghan 
himself is mentioned as "a considerable trader," as early as 
June, 1747. He was well acquainted with the Indian coun- 
try, and with the best roads to the Ohio, and was selected to 
convoy the expedition which we shall presently describe as 
of especial interest in the history of the county. 

The traders did not belong to that class of persons who 
reduce to writing the events of their daily lives. It does 
not appear that anything transpired with them which they 
deemed worthy of remembrance. They did not penetrate 
the new country in the spirit of explorers, seeking discove- 
ries of value to the world and benefit to themselves. Even 
a passage of hundreds of miles through an unbroken forest 
made no impression on their unappreciatiye senses. Intent 
upon traffic, they transported their wares on pack-horses 
from one end of the province to the other, with a view to 
profitable commerce with the Indians, whose innocence of 
mercantile transactions, at that early day, rendered them an 


easy prey to cupidity and avarice. In later years, when, 
with the utmost vigilance, it was impossible to prevent the 
French on the Ohio from obtaining information which the 
interests of the English required they should not possess, it 
was said of these traders by Governeur Morris, that they were 
"mostly a low sort of people, generally too ignorant to be 
employed as spies, but not at all too virtuous." He was 
speaking of George Croghan when he made this remark, but 
rather excepted him from the sweeping assertion. As we 
become more familiar with the life and character of the lat- 
ter, as developed in his connection with the affairs of this 
county, from the time of which we write until 1756, we will 
be better able to judge wherein he differed from his fellow- 
traders. It is not strange that men of the qualities ascribed 
to them by Governeur Morris, should have perpetuated so 
little concerning themselves and should be so soon for- 

The route taken by these commercial travelers of the 
olden time, was along the old Indian war-path, coming from 
the eastward through the Tuscarora Valley, Shade Gap, 
Black Log, Aughwick, Woodcock Valley, Hartslog Valley, 
"Water Street, Frankstown, Hollidaysburg, and crossing the 
Allegheny mountains at or near Kittanning Point. It was 
this trail that gave Huntingdon county its early importance. 
It was the great highway between the east and the west, 
and continued to be so for many years. The traders, the 
agents of the government, and the pioneers, as they moved 
westward, followed it. In 1754, when there was a pressing 
necessity for military operations against the French on the 
Ohio, and the ways and means of moving troops and con- 
veying supplies were under consideration, there was no 
other road to the Ohio than this path, which,Governeur Mor- 
ris described as " only a horseway through the woods and 
over mountains, not passable with any carriage." Travel 
was not diverted from this route until 1755, when the road 
was made to enable Braddock and his army to march 
against Fort DuQuesne. 


conrad weiser — his journey to the ohio — william franklin — george 
croghan — andrew montour — black log — the standing stone — john 
Harris's statement — its location — meaning op inscriptions upon it 

— second stone ERECTED BY THE WHITES. 

Conrad Weiser, the first white visitor to the soil of Hun- 
tingdon county from whom any account has come down to us, 
was, during the last thirty years of his life, associated with 
many of the leading events in the history of the province. 
He was born in Germany in 1696, and came to America in 
1710. At the age of fourteen he went among the Mohawk 
Indians, one of the Six Nations, for the purpose of learning 
their language, and was afterwards engaged as an interpre- 
ter between the Germans and Indians in the neighborhood 
of his home in New York. In 1729 he came to Pennsyl- 
vania. His profound knowledge of the Indian character 
and intimate acquaintance with their language secured for 
him the appointment of Indian interpreter, ia which capa- 
city he entered the service of the government, making his 
residence at Heidelberg, in Lancaster, now Berks, county. 
He seems to have spent but little of his time at home, his 
public duties requiring him almost constantly elsewhere. 
They called him frequently to the most distant parts of the 
province and sometimes out ot it, to the frontiers on the 
Susquehanna and Juniata, to conferences with the Six Na- 
tions at Onondaga, in New York, and wherever business was 
to be transacted between the provincial authorities and the 
natives. "He was highly esteemed by both English and 
Indians as a person of integrity, skill and ability in divers 
important trusts which had been committed to him by both 
parties for a long series of years." 

Weiser's journey to the Ohio was projected in March, 
1748. The instructions by which he was to be governed in 
the mission upon which he was sent, were drawn up in that 
month, but when on the point of departure he was sum- 


moned before the Provincial Council at Philadelphia on busi- 
ness connected with Indian affairs, and the delivery of his 
instructions was delayed until the following July. George 
Croghan had been in readiness in the former mouth to ac- 
company him with about twenty horses, and carry goods to 
the Indians. On learning of Weiser's detention, he set out 
himself, made the trip, and returned in time to join the lat- 
ter and his party in their journey later in the summer. 

After various other delays, occuring from March until 
July, Weiser started from Heidelberg on the lltli of Au- 
gust, 1748. He regarded the expedition as perilous, and un- 
dertook it with reluctance ; and had not the business with 
which he was entrusted been highly important, he would 
have declined going. His fears were expressed in a letter 
to Eichard Peters, dated at " Tuscarora Path, August 15th, 
1748," in which he says, "I may be obliged to pay the debt 
of human nature before I get home." But he escaped the 
dangers of the wilderness and the savage, both in going and 
returning, and lived afterwards, in honor and usefulness, 
until 1760. 

In 1758, the rivalry which for years had existed between 
the English and the French to secure the friendship and al- 
liance ol the Indians, was becoming more intense. It con- 
tinued to increase until its ultimate and inevitable result 
was reached — a war, in which a conspicuous part was played 
in Huntingdon county. Weiser was directed to proceed to 
the Ohio for the purpose of distributing valuable presents 
to the Indians, and to remind them of the liberality of the 
government in providing for their necessities on many for- 
mer occasions. He was to ascertain their number, situation, 
disposition, strength and influence, and to obtain from them 
intelligence as to the designs and operations of the French. 
The English were in constant dread of incurring the enmity 
of Vte Indians, and yet it could be avoided only by frequent 
and expensive presents, amounting to little less than pur- 
chases of their friendship. They accepted bribes without any 
hesitancy, being proud to receive them and regarding them 
as concessions to their own importance. 


As to the number and names of the persons who were with 
him, he gives us no information, excepting that contained 
in his letter to Secretary Peters, to which there was a post- 
script, saying that "Mr. Franklin's son is very well, as is all 
the rest of my companions." This was Benjamin Franklin's 
son William. He had delivered to Weiser his instructions 
from the government and also a proclamation, the nature of 
which will soon be explained. At a subsequent period he 
made himself useful in assisting to obtain transportation for 
Braddock's army. Had he possessed the qualities which 
rendered his father so distinguished, he would have left a full 
account of his trip through the wilds of Pennsylvania, more 
in detail than Weiser's, and would thus have perpetuated 
his name among the people of Huntingdon county, at least. 

But we are not without the means of ascertaining some of 
the other persons composing the party. George Croghan, a 
man of somewhat erratic temperament and varied fortunes, 
of whom we have already heard, was one of them. As his 
life and character will occupy a considerable part of suc- 
ceeding chapters, I desire now to more fully introduce him 
to the reader. He was an Irishman by birth, and came to 
Pennsylvania about the year 1742. Assuming the occupa- 
tion of a trader and learning the language of the Shawnees 
and Dela wares, if not of other Indian nations, he manifested 
a willingness, in addition to his business pursuits, to perform 
services for and to make himself useful to the government. 
In 17-i9 he was licensed as an Indian trader, but he had pro- 
bably been previously engaged in that vocation without a 
license, or under a former one. 

Another of the party was Andrew Montour, an interpreter, 
who had resided " between the branches of the Ohio and 
Lake Erie," He was recommended to the Council by Weiser 
as " faithful, knowing and prudent," and was financially re- 
warded for bringing information concerning the Indians in 
the Northwest. 

There were also white men in charge of the train of pack 
horses, but of them we hear only incidentally. That there 
were Indians along is highly probable. The journey was 


not new to them. They had a well-worn path over which 
the dusky warriors, for centuries, perhaps, had traveled to 
and fro, before civilization began its encroachments. And 
a few days before Weiser started, there were Indians from 
the Ohio, at Lancaster, who, we have reason to believe, re- 
turned with him. 

From Weiser's journal, in which he noted briefly the 
places between which they traveled each day, and the dis- 
tances, we find that on the 15th and 16th they remained at 
Tuscarora Path, on " account of the men coming back sick^ 
and some other affairs hindering" them. There seems to be 
a contradiction in the statements of his letter and journal in 
regard to the health of those wLo were with him, but this is 
easily explained by the fact that the entry in the latter was 
not made until the 16th, and the former was written on the 
15th, before the men came back. 

After leaving Tuscarora Path, we are entirely dependent 
upon Weiser's journal for their movements. On the 17th 
they "crossed the Tuscarora Hill and came to the sleeping 
place called Black Log, twenty miles," This was their en- 
trance into Huntingdon county. But white men had been 
here before. That inference is irresistible. They were not 
traveling through an entirely unknown country. The places 
where they stopped at night had names, and names, too, 
that had been given them by the Anglo-Saxon race. No 
one will ever tell how long Black Log had been a "sleeping 

On the 18th they deviated from the Indian war-path and 
"came within two miles of the Standing Stone, twenty-four 
miles." Whether they came to it the next day does not ap- 
pear, but there is published in the Pennsylvania Archives 
an extract from Weiser's journal, in which the distance from 
Black Log to Standing Stone is stated to be twenty-six miles, 
and from this entry we may conclude that they traveled be- 
tween the two places. 

The distance traveled on the 19th was twelve miles. 
They were obliged to dry their clothing that afternoon on 
account of a great rain the previous day. We cannot tell 


where this occurred, but it was in the direction of Franks- 
town, where they arrived on the 20th. As thej were then 
beyond the present limits of the county, I will pursue them 
no further. 

Evidently Conrad "Weiser did not write for posterity. He 
had no anticipation that his records would outlive the tem- 
porary purpose for which he made them, nor did he 
foresee that they would be of any interest to others than 
himself and those to whom it was his duty, on his return, 
to render a report of the manner in which he had obeyed 
their commands. His life was spent among savages, among 
men whose knowledge of the past was entirely traditionary, 
who looked forward to no condition for their descendants 
different from their own, and who, when they passed from 
earth, left scarcely a trace of their existence. He did not 
realize that as a race they were rapidly approaching disso- 
lution, that they were to disappear before intelligence and 
civilization, that their forests were to be felled, their hunt- 
ing grounds turned into smiling pastures and fields of waving 
grain, and that populous towns were to occupy the sites of 
their villages of wigwams. On that summer day in 1748, as 
he stood at the confluence of Standing Stone creek and the 
Juniata river, could he have scanned with the eye of prophecy 
the one hundred and twenty-eight years that have since 
elapsed, he would have attached more importance to things 
as they were then, not because they were worth preserving, 
or because that which was to take their place was not supe- 
rior, but for the reason that even he, we may believe, would 
not have been willing that the affairs of tribes and nations 
should perish from the earth. 

He did not tell us who were the inhabitants of Standing 
Stone, nor, indeed, whether there were any inhabitants here 
at all. He gave no explanation of the name or description 
of the stone. That was reserved for subsequent visitors, but 
none of them have done so as fully as we could desire. We 
find a statement of the dimensions of the stone in an "ac- 
count of the rx)ad to Log's Town, on the Allegheny river, 
taken by John Harris in 1754." As he mentions other 


places in the county, lying principally along the old Indian 
path, I will extract a portion of his account, beginning at 
" Tuscaroraw :" 

" To the Cove Spring," 10 miles. 

" To the Shadow of Death," 8 miles. 

" To the Black Log," 3 miles. 

At the last named place the road forked towards Rays- 
town and Frankstown, and continuing on the road to the 
former, he gives first the distances to "Allegheny" and 
Logstown by that route. 

"Now beginning at the Black Log, Franks Town Road, 
to Aughwhick, 6 miles. 

" To Jack Armstrong's Narrows, so called from his being 
there murdered, 8 miles. 

'' To the Standing Stone (about 14 ft. high 6 inches square,) 
10 miles. 

" At each of these places we cross the Juniata. 

" To the next and last crossing of the Juniata, 8 miles. 

" To Water Street (branch of Juniata,) 10 miles. 

" To the Big Lick, 10 miles. 

" To Frank's (Stephen's) Town, 5 miles." 

John Harris barely saved the existence of the stone from 
being doubted ; but that it stood here, fourteen feet in height 
and six inches square being established, we may accept the 
statements of others as to its exact location. There is a dif- 
ference in these statements, however, some placing it on the 
right bank of Stone Creek, near its mouth, and others fur- 
ther west, on the banks of the Juniata, near the foot of 
Second street in the borough of Huntingdon. The 
most reliable information now available, in regard to 
its position, was obtained by J. Simpson Africa, esq., 
from some of the earliest residents of the place, who have 
since passed away. Jacob Miller, who came here in 1791, 
James Simpson, who had a personal knowledge of nearly 
all of the old citizens of the county, and who came in 1793, 
and Daniel Africa, who was born here in 179-1, all located 
it west of Second street, near the river. Since it stood there 
the surroundings have been completely changed, buildings 


having been erected, and a macadamized road, a canal, and 
a railroad, made upon the ground, or in its immediate vicin- 
ity, giving it entirely new features. 

The Indians had engraved on this stone, in hieroglyphics, 
some records or ideas they desired to preserve. We do not 
know the shapes of these characters, whether they were fig- 
ures of men, of animals, or of inanimate things, and perhaps 
their meaning was never known to the whites. There is no 
foundation for the belief that they were cabalistic, as they 
were no doubt well understood by the Indians themselves. 
They may have been the chronicles of the tribe, " of its 
mighty deeds, its prowess in battle, and its skill in the 
chase ; " or a code of laws, of morals, or of religion ; or re- 
presen-tations of natural phenomena, of the movements of the 
sun, moon and stars ; or the creations of their superstitions 
and fears. The Indians fancied the stone to possess great 
virtues, that if taken away from them they would be dis- 
persed, and that while it remained among them their pros- 
perity was secure. When they fled before the aggressive 
white man in 1754 or '55, it was destroyed or taken away 
with them. The dwellings of the intruders were erected near 
the deserted Indian village, a fort was built, and the settle- 
ment took the name of Standing Stone. 

The whites, after the departure of the Indians, placed 
another stone on the site of the old one. This was done, 
we would suppose, more through a spirit of imitation than 
for any useful purpose. How nearly the second stone, at 
the time of its erection, was similar to the original, cannot 
now be ascertained. In 1776 it was about eight feet high, 
and had upon it the names of Surveyor General John Lu- 
kens, with the date of 1768, of Charles Lukens, assistant to 
the surveyor general, and of Thomas Smith, brother of the 
founder of the town of Huntingdon, and afterwads deputy 
surveyor general and supreme judge. It was removed from 
its former position and placed in front of the old court 
house, in the centre of Third street, at the South line of 
Penn. After standing there many years it was wantonly 
destroyed, but several pieces of it have been preserved, one 


of them having been built into the foundation of the dwel- 
ling house at the northeast corner of Third and Penn streets, 
and another being in the possession of one of the citizens of 
the town. 



John Harris, from whom I have quoted the distances from 
place to place through Huntingdon county, deserves to be 
inscribed on the list of those who have written history with- 
out knowing it. In addition to his statement concerning 
the Standing Stone, he has given us another fact of perhaps 
not less importance, and one which has been almost ob- 
scured by the traditions of more than a century. It is not 
always a pleasant task to dispel the illusions that underlie 
the romances of a people, and which, to them, have passed 
beyond the confines of uncertainty and entered into their 
most sanguine and unquestioned beliefs. But the simple 
truth recorded by John Harris will not permit us to rear 
any other historical structure than that which rests upon 
it as a corner stone. 

There has long been a popular error in regard to the ori- 
gin of the name of those narrows through which the Juniata 
passes immediately below Mapleton. What is the story 
that has been repeated at many firesides during the last two 
or three generations, of the redoubtable, or, rather, doubt- 
able, hero ot that place, the very picturesqueness of which 
is sufficient to invest with an air of probability any fable 
that may be told the credulous ? It is said that about one 
hundred and twenty-five years ago, and subsequently, there 
flourished in that neighborhood a mysterious individual of 
swarthy complexion and herculean proportions, whose name 
and history were known to none but himself; that he was 
supposed by some to be a half-breed and by others a quad- 
roon, but that he was probably a white man ; that he built 
a cabin near a spring, and sought there a solitude and a re- 
pose, unbroken except by the society of his family ; that he 


was a harmless man, raising his hand against none but the 
beasts and fishes over which dominion had been given him, 
and engaging in no other pursuit than hunting and fishing. 

But, if we are to beUeve the story, the place he had se- 
lected was an unsafe retreat for one of his peaceful disposi- 
tion and habits. After a short absence from his cabin, on a 
certain occasion, he returned to find it burned and his fam- 
ily murdered. At once he became a changed man, taking a 
solemn vow to devote the rest of his life to the destruction 
of the savages. So relentlessly did he carry out his pur- 
pose, that he made himself a terror to the race that had in- 
curred his enmity, and gained the expressive names of 
"Black Rifle," "Black Hunter," "Wild Ilunter of the Juni- 
ata," and others, which might have served as the titles of 
the most improbable tales of adventure. But he is best 
known in the traditions of the locality as Captain Jack. 

His bitter and unceasing warfare against the Indians, we 
are told, was beneficial to the white settlers in affording 
them protection. The latter formed a company of scouts 
or rangers, and placed themselves under his command, styl- 
ing themselves "Captain Jack's Hunters," and fighting the 
Indians in their own way and with their own weapons. 
Their commander's exploits, if they could be correctly de- 
scribed, would perhaps be a proper subject for history, but 
so much has been written concerning them that is purely 
fictitious, that it is impossible to separate the false from the 

The error to which I have alluded as existing in the pub- 
lic mind, that Captain Jack impressed his name upon the 
narrows I have mentioned, and the. surrounding works of 
nature, has found expression in the writings of an author 
from whom I will quote : "The present generation, how- 
ever, knows little about the wild hunter. Still, though he 
sleeps the sleep that knows no waking, and no human being 
who ever saw him is above the sod now, the towering 
mountain, a hundred miles in length, hearing his name^ will 
stand as an indestructible monument to his memory until 
time shall be no more." It is because so little is known 


about him, because his name and color are matters of doubt, 
that we must receive everything'that has been said of him 
as unreliable. 

And there is still better evidence to throw doubt around 
him. According to John Harris, who was cotemporary 
with Captain Jack, the narrows took their name from an en- 
tirely different person. He mentions them as "Jack Arm- 
strong's narrows, so called from his being there murdered." 
As Armstrong was oftener called Jack than anything else, 
it is not strange that the name of the place where he met 
his death should also be abbreviated, and that it should 
afterwards be extended to the mountain through which the 
river has forced its passage, and to the spring which bursts 
from the mountain side. Harris's memorandum serves, too, 
to locate the scene of the massacre of Armstrong and his 
party. He fixes it at eight miles from Aughwick and ten 
miles from Standing Stone. 

It was one of the earliest events that occurred within 
what is now Huntingdon county. Besides Armstrong, his 
two servant-men, James Smith and Woodward Arnold were 
murdered. An account of the occurrence was given by 
Shickalamy, a converted chief and a steadfast friend of the 
whites, from which I make the following extract : 

" That Musemeelin owing some skins to John Armstrong' 
the said Armstrong seized a horse of the said Musemeelin 
and a rifle-gun ; the gun was taken by James Smith, de- 
ceased. Sometime last winter Musemeelin met Armstrong 
on the river Juniata, and paid all but twenty shillings, for 
which he offered a neck-belt in pawn to Armstrong, and de- 
manded his horse, and Armstrong refused it, and would not 
deliver up the horse, but enlarged the debt, as his usual 
custom was ; and after some quarrel the Indian went away 
in great anger, without his horse, to his hunting cabin. 
Sometime after this, Armstrong, with his two companions, 
on their way to Ohio, passed by the said Musemeelin's hunt- 
ing cabin, his wife only being at home. She demanded the 
horse of Armstrong, because he was her proper goods, but 
did not get him. Armstrong had by this time sold or lent 


the horse to James Berry. After Musemeelin came from 
hunting, his wife told him that Armstrong was gone by, and 
that she demanded the horse from him, but did not get him; 
and, as is thought, pressed him to pursue and take revenge 
of Armstrong. The third day, in the morning, after Arm- 
strong was gone by, Musemeelin said to the two young men 
that hunted with him, ' come, let us go toward the Great 
Hills to hunt bears ;' accordingly they went all three in com- 
pany. After they had gone a good way, Musemeelin, who 
was foremost, was told by the two young men that they 
were out of their course. ' Come you along,' said Musemee- 
lin ; and they accordingly followed him till they came to 
the path that leads to Ohio. Then Musemeelin told them 
he had a good mind to go and fetch his horse back from 
Armstrong, and desired the two young men to come along. 
Accordingly they went. It was then almost night, and they 
traveled till next morning. Musemeelin said, ' Now they 
are not far off". We will make ourselves black ; then they 
will be frightened, and will deliver up the horse immedi- 
ately ; and I will tell Jack that if he don't give me the horse, 
I will kill him ;' and when he said so, he laughed. The 
young men thought he joked, as he used to do. They did 
not blacken themselves, but he did. When the sun was 
above the trees, or about an hour high, they all came to the 
fire, where they found James Smith sitting; and they also 
sat down. Musemeelin asked where Jack was. Smith told 
him that he was gone to clear the road a little. Musemeelin 
said he wanted to speak with him, and went that way, and 
after he had gone a little distance from the fire, he said 
something, and looked back laughing, but, he having a 
thick throat, and his speech being very bad, and their talk- 
ing with Smith hindering them from understanding what 
he said, they did not mind him. They being hungry, Smith 
told them to kill some turtles, of which there were plenty, 
and they would make some bread byand-bye, and would all 
eat together. While they were talking, they heard a gun go 
oft' not far off, at which Woodward Arnold was killed, as 
they learned afterwards. Soon after, Musemeelin came back 


and said, ' Why did you not kill that white man, according 
as I bid you ? I have laid the other two down,' At this 
they were surprised, and one of the young men, commonly 
called Jimmy, ran away to the river-side. Musemeelin said 
to the other, ' How will you do to kill Catawbas, if you can- 
not kill white men ? You cowards! I'll show you how you 
must do;' and then taking up the English axe that lay there, 
he struck it three times into Smith's head before he died. 
Smith never stirred. Then he told the young Indian to call 
the other, but he was so terrified he could not call. Mu- 
semeelin then went and fetched him, and said that two of the 
white men were killed, he must now go and kill the third; 
then each of them would have killed one. But neither of 
them dared venture to talk anything about it. Then he 
pressed them to go along with him ; he went foremost. 
Then one of the young men told the other as they went 
along, ' My friend, don't you kill any of the white people, 
let him do what he will; I have not killed Smith ; he has 
done it himself; we have no need to do such a barbarous 
thing.' Musemeelin being then a good way before them, in 
a hurry, they soon saw John Armstrong sitting on a log. 
Musemeelin spoke to him and said, 'Where is my horse?' 
Armstrong made answer and said, ' He will come by-and-by; 
you shall have him.' 'I want him now,' said Musemeelin. 
Armstrong answered, ' You shall have him. Come, let us 
go to the fire,' (which was at some distance from the place 
where Armstrong sat), and let us talk and smoke together.' 
'Go along, then,' said Musemeelin. 'I am coming,' said 
Armstrong, ' do you go before, Musemeelin ; do you go fore- 
most.' Armstrong looked then like a dead man, and went 
toward the fire, and was immediately shot in the back by 
Musemeelin, and fell. Musemeelin then took his hatchet 
and struck it into Armstrong's head and said, ' Give me my 
horse, I tell you.' By this time one of the young men had 
fled again that had gone away before, but he returned in a 
short time. Musemeelin then told the young men they must 
not offer to discover or tell a word about what had been 


done for their lives, but thej must help to bury Jack, and 
the other two were to be thrown into the river." 

Shickalamy also relates, with great minuteness, the dispo- 
sition that was made by Musemeelin, of Armstrong's goods, 
the latter having been a trader, on his way to the Ohio, the 
discovery that the murder had been committed, the efforts 
taken to arrest the guilty parties, and their delivery to the 
whites. There is no statement as to whether Musemeelin 
was tried, convicted or punished. 

As soon as it was suspected that Armstrong, Smith and 
Arnold had been murdered, a party, consisting of Alexan- 
der Armstrong, Thomas McKee, Francis Ellis, John Flors- 
ter, William Baskins, James Berry, John Watt, James 
Armstrong, David Denny, and eight Indians, went in search 
of the traders. Before they had proceeded very far, three 
of the Indians deserted. The white men and the remaining 
five Indians went to the last supposed sleeping-place of 
Armstrong and his men, and there dispersed themselves to 
find the corpses. At a short distance from the sleeping place, 
was found a white-oak tree with three notches on it, and 
near it a shoulder bone, which was supposed to be Arm-. 
strong's. The white men of the party say in their desposi- 
tion, that this bone was handed around to the five Indians, 
and that when it was placed in the hands of the one who 
was suspected of having comAiitted the murder, ' his nose 
gushed out with blood, and he directly handed it to an- 
other.'" But they were mistaken in the supposition that the 
bone was part of the remains of Armstrong, for it was mot 
found at the place where Armstrong had been killed, and 
besides, according to Schickalamy's statement, he had been 
buried by Musemeelin and the two other Indians. From 
thence they followed the course of the creek toward the 
"Narrows of the Juniata," but before reaching the river the 
five Indians had also disappeared. The first corpse found, 
that of James Smith, had been attacked by bald eagles and 
other fowls, and it was the presence of these birds that at- 
tracted attention to it. About a quarter of a mile from Smith, 
they found the body of Woodward Arnold lying on a rock, 


The next morning, they say in their report, they went back to 
the corpses, which were "barbarously and inhumanly mur- 
dered by very gashed, deep cuts on their heads, with a toma- 
hawk, or such like weapon, which had sunk into their skulls 
and brains, and in one of the corpses there appeared a hole 
in his skull near the cut, which was supposed to be with a 
tomahawk, which hole these deponents do believe to be a 
bullet hole." 

In the light of these facts, much of the grandiloquence 
concerning Captain Jack sinks into insignificance. It is Jack 
Armstrong who, at the base of the towering mountain, 
"sleeps the sleep that knows no waking." It is to his name 
and memory that the everlasting pile, thrown up by nature, is 
an indestructible monument. Let the oft-repeated and gen- 
erally accepted fable be forgotten. 



The presence of traders and interpreters on the frontier 
was but temporary. Their visits were transient. From the 
Tuscarora to the Tussey mountains was but a two days' 
journey, and previous to 1749 there could have been noth- 
ing in the nature of private or public business to detain the 
traveler between them. Xo white men were to be met with, 
excepting those who were hurrying across these hills and 
valleys to and from the Ohio. All the lands north and west 
of the Kittatinny or Blue Ridge, belonged to the Indians, 
and had not been invaded west of the Tuscarora. But sturdy 
adventurers soon followed with the intention of remaining 
permanently. We cannot ascertain whether it was in 17-18 
or '49 that they crossed that mountain. If it was not in the 
former year, it was quite early in the latter. They had 
reached Tuscarora Path before Conrad Weiser was there, 
for part of his mission was in connection with these intru- 
sions on the Indian lands. lie was the bearer of a procla- 
mation from the government warning the "squatters" to re- 
move, and was accompanied to that place by the sheriff and 
magistrates of the county, who had come with him for the 
purpose of ejecting the settlers. In bis letter to Secretary 
Peters, he reported the situation of affairs there and the 
partial execution of his instructions by having the procla- 
mation read. Scarroyady, the chief who subseqaently suc- 
ceeded the Half King at Aughwick, had been assured that 
the "people would be turned off'." When Weiser informed 
the Indians at Tuscarora of the measures that were to be 
taken, they requested that two certain families might be 
permitted to stay, claiming the right to give such liberty to 
those whom they desired should remain. The settlers, al- 


though not ready to comply with the requirements of the 
government at that time, expressed a willingness to go off 
the next spring, and Weiser consented to postpone their com- 
pulsory removal until his return from Ohio. They were suf- 
fered to remain, however, without interference, much longer 
than that, and in all probability would never have been dis- 
turbed by the authorities had not the complaints and pressure 
of the Indians become so great that they could not go unheed- 
ed. But the proclamation of the government and the oppo- 
sition of the Indians did not deter these trespassers. Instead 
of leaving in 174:8, they advanced still further westward upon 
the unpurchased lands. Weiser, who was looking after them 
again the next year, found them within the present limits 
of Huntingdon county. In the spring of 1749, as early as 
the month of April, more than thirty families had settled 
west of the Kittatinny, and more were coming daily, some 
of them to the head waters of the Juniata, along the path 
that led to Ohio In February, 1750, according to the state- 
ment of Governor Hamilton, they had reached the foot of 
the Allegheny mountains. 

The Six Nations and the Delawares joined in complaints 
against these aggressions. The representatives of the 
former said that the council at Onondaga had the matter 
exceedingly at heart, demanded the expulsion of the people 
from their settlements, and suggested that two or three 
faithful persons be placed west of the Blue Hills, with com- 
missions from the Governor, empowering them to imme- 
diately remove ever/ one who might presume to settle in 
that region, until the Six Nations should consent to sell 
the lands. 

To prevent a breach between the province and the In- 
dians, it became necessary to take decisive action. The 
power of the government had to be exerted to dispossess the 
intruding occupants. Richard Peters and Conrad Weiser 
were ordered to give information against them to the proper 
magistrates, and in the month of May, 1750, the under- 
sheriff and justices of the newly established county of Cum- 
berland went to enforce the commands of the proclamation 


wliich had been disobeyed. Their operations were fully re- 
ported by Secretary Peters to the Governor in the following 
July. Destruction and conflagration were spread from the 
Juniata, within twenty miles of its mouth and ten miles of 
the Blue Hills, through the valley of Sherman's Creek, Tus- 
carora Valley, Aughwickand the Coves. The reasoning by 
which they justified the burning of dwellings was as follows : 

*' The Cabbin being quite empty, I took Possession 
thereof for the Proprietaries, and then a conference was held 
what should be done with the empty Cabbius, and, after a 
great Deliberation, all agreed that if some cabins were not 
destroyed they would tempt the Trespassers to return again, 
or encourage others to come there should these Trespassers 
go away, and so what was doing would signify nothing, 
since the Possession of them at such a Distance from the In- 
habitants could not be kept for the Proprietaries; and 
Mr. Weiser also giving it as his firm Opinion, that if all the 
Cabbins were left standing the Indians would conceive such 
a contemptible Opinion of the Government that they would 
come themselves in the Winter, murder the People, and set 
the Houses on fire. On these conditions the Cabbin, by my 
Order, was burnt by the Under-Sheriff and Company."* 

At Aughwick, (now Shirleysburg) Peter Falconer, Nicho- 
las DeLong, Samuel Perry and John Charleton were con- 
victed on the view of the magistrates, entered into recogni- 
zances for their appearance at the next county court at Ship- 
pensburg, and gave bonds to remove with their families, 
servants, cattle and effects. Charleton's cabin was burned, 
and another in the course of erection, consisting of only a 
few logs piled and fastened together, was set on fire. 

One of the places where this destruction occurred, near 
the line between Huntingdon and Fulton counties, is called 
Burnt Cabins, a name it will probably retain until the his- 
tory of these events becomes as obscure as the history of 
the savage race. 

The protection of all lands from encroachment that had 

*Secretary Peters' Eeport. 


not been bought by the proprietaries from the Indians, was 
a part of the policy instituted at the founding of the prov- 
ince, a policy which secured harmony and good feeling be- 
tween the whites and natives as long as it was not interfered 
with by extraneous influences, but the success of which was 
coming to an end. The driving back of the daring and 
courageous men who had established their households in 
the forests of central Pennsylvania, did not restore satisfac- 
tion aud contentment to the Indian. He began to think 
that his interests lay in another direction than in an alliance 
with the English. For years he had had intercourse with 
the French, who had fortified themselves on the Ohio, and 
was gradually yielding to their persuasions, allurements and 
blandishments. He pretended for a time to waver between 
the French and the English, accepting from the latter the 
presen' s given him for the purpose of drawing him back to 
their side, and when he had almost exhausted the provincial 
resources, went over completely to the enemy. Five years 
after the white men's habitations had been burned, at his so- 
licitation, he went over the same ground, with fire, and 
tomahawk, and scalping-knife, filled the heavens with flame 
and smoke, and mingled the blood of his victims with the 
ashes of their dwellings. 

The government of the province is, perhaps, not to be 
blamed for the work done by the Cumberland county magis- 
trates. They were but keeping the public fliith. They 
might have perceived, however, that an estrangement had 
already taken place on the part of the Indians, that was be- 
yond their power to remove. 

In another respect the work was ineffectual. The lands 
were open to new intrusions. In fact, some of the first set- 
tlers were not molested during Richard Peters' incursion, 
and many who had been ejected returned, accompanied or 
followed by others. The country was inviting, there was a 
desire for new homes, and the spirit of adventure was 
abroad. But underlying all of these, there may have been 
a scheme to acquire the land and dispossess the Indians, a 
design to bring about a change of ownership, and to precipi- 


tate a struggle for that purpose. The proprietaries, also, 
must have had an anxietj to extinguish the Indian title. 
They could not call the province their own till that was 
done, and, besides, their obligations to protect the rights of 
the Indians imposed upon them greater burdens, and in- 
volved them in more difficulties than they would have to 
bear should the title become vested in them, The time for 
a new purchase had arrived. 



Huntingdon county is within the purchase made from the 
Six Nations, at Albany, N. Y., on the sixth day of July, 1754. 
The deed bearing that date, executed by sachems or chiefs of 
each of the nations belonging to that confederacy, conveyed 
to Thomas and Richard Penn, ''all the lands lying within 
the said province of Pennsylvania, bounded and limited as 
follows, namely, beginning at the Kittochtinny or Blue 
Hills, on the west branch of the Susquehanna river, and 
thence by the said, a mile above the mouth of a certain 
creek called Kayarondinhagh ; thence northwest and by 
west as far as the said province of Pennsylvania extends, to 
its western lines and boundaries; thence along the said 
western line to the south line or boundary of said province; 
thence by the said south line or boundary to the south side 
of said Kittochtinny hills ; thence by the south side of said 
hills to the place of beginning." 

I have explained the troubles that preceded this purchase, 
and the circumstances that rendered the transaction neces- 
sary in order to avert an impending storm, and will now re- 
late the fearful consequences, the resentment evinced by the 
savages towards the whites by which it was followed. 

The spirit of amity manifested by the founders of the 
province in their intercourse with the Indians, established a 
peace and friendship that were uninterrupted for a period of 
seventy years. It is true that for a short time before the 
treaty of Albany, the fidelity of the latter could be retained 
only by the utmost exertions on the part of the govern- 
ment. That treaty was the turning point in the relations be- 
tween the province and the natives, and why it was so will 


appear more intelligibly by detailing a portion of Indian 
bistory, and giving some illustrations of Indian character 
and diplomacy. There arose from these, complications and 
embarrassments which it was impossible for the government 
to avoid, and which led to eventful times within our borders. 
Indian policy and statesmanship were in some respects sim- 
ilar to those of civilized people. 

The Six Nations, although not the occupants of the soil of 
Pennsylvania, claimed to be the owners of it, and out of this 
fact grew the importance of their connection with our early 
annals. They excerised jurisdiction over a very great ex- 
tent of territory, their sovereignty extending from the nor- 
thern limits of the State of New York to the borders of Car- 
olina. They had been warriors and conquerors, but at what 
period of time they reduced so many of the inhabitants of 
North America to subjugation is shrouded in impenetrable 
obscurity. This, as well as all the rest of their history be- 
fore their acquaintance with Europeans, is involved in the 
darkness of antiquity. It is said that their first residence 
was in the region about Montreal, and that the superior 
strength of the Adirondacks, or Algonquins, as they were 
called by the French, drove them to the south side of the 
Mohawk river and Lake Ontario, where they were found 
when the country was taken possession of by the whites. 
Toward the close of these disputes, which continued for a 
great number of years, the confederates gained advantages 
over the Adirondacks, and struck terror into all the Indians. 

Their residence was in the State of New York, between 
the forty-second and forty-third degrees of north latitude, 
occupying the country from the New England States to Lake 
Erie, and from Lake Ontario to the headwaters of the Alle- 
gheny, Susquehanna and Delawate. They were at first known 
as the Five Nations, and then consisted of the Mohawks, 
Onondagas, Cayugas, Oneidas andSenecas. The sixth was 
added in 1712, by the union with them of the Tuscaroras, a 
nation that had been expelled from North Carolina and Vir- 
ginia. They were called Confederates, by the English, Min- 
goes, by the Delawares, and Iroquois, by the French. 


They thouglit themselves superior to the rest of mankind, 
and carefully inculcated this belief into the minds of their 
children, and impressed it upon the neighboring savages. 
Their courage made them terrible to, and compelled the most 
submissive obedience from, all other nations. They were a 
powerful combination, realizing, as did their white succes- 
sors in the ownership of the soil, that in union there is 

The Indians dwelling in Pennsylvania, and who were 
known as the Delawares among the whites, called them- 
selves the Lenni Lenapes, or the original people. It seems 
that they were justly entitled to this appellation, as it was 
conceded by surrounding tribes, not belonging to this nation, 
that they were the oldest residents of the region. There 
were three principal divisions of them, each occupying a par- 
ticular part of the province, and many tribes, the names 
of some of which, but probably of a comparatively small 
number, have been preserved. We have very full and sat- 
isfactory descriptions prepared by early writers, from per- 
sonal observation, of their persons, habits and dress, their 
amusements and employments, their dwellings, domestic cus- 
toms and modes of life, their marriages, births and burials, 
their virtues and vices, their language, government and relig- 
ion, their methods of making and conducting war and conclud- 
ing peace, but no historical fact has come from the general 
gloom that surrounds the time when they were the sole in- 
habitants of the country, except that they were in subjec- 
tion to the Six Nations. 

The Shawnese also dwelt in considerable numbers in 
Huntingdon county, but were not natives of the province. 
They had formerly resided jjear the Spanish possessions in 
the South, and were almost constantly at war with their 
neighbors. To avoid extermination, they asked the privi- 
lege of placing themselves under the protection of the Eng- 
lish and Five Nations, which request was granted them by 
treaty in 1701. They settled on the Susquehanna, and spread 
themselves along its tributaries and over the adjoining coun- 
try. A new residence was afterwards assigned to them on 


the Ohio, but many of them remained in the central part 
of the province, or traveled backwards and forwards be- 
tween the two rivers. 

The sway of the Six Nations over the other Indians was so 
absolute, that the latter occupied the lands by sufferance. An 
idea of the imperious manner in which they sometimes asserted 
their authority may be obtained from Canassetego's speech 
to the Delawares, from which the following are extracts : 

" We conquered you ; we made women of you ; you 
know you are women, and can no more sell lands than 
women ; nor is it fit you should have the power of selling 
lands, since you would abuse it. The land that you claim 
is gone through your guts ; you have been furnished with 
clothes, meat and drink, by the goods paid you for it, and 
now you want it again, like children as you are." " But we 
find you none of our blood ; you act a dishonest part, not 
only in this, but in other matters ; your ears are ever open 
to slanderous reports about your brethren. For all these 
reasons, we charge you to remove instantly ; we dorUt give you 
liberty to think about it^ " DonH deliberate, but remove aivay, 
and take this belt of wampum." 

It displeased the Delawares very much to be called 
women, and they usually gave some other explanation for 
it than their subjugation to the Six Nations. On one occa- 
sion, however, they acknowledged the real origin of the 
title. At a conference held at Aughwick, in September, 
1754, before they had heard of the purchase at Albany, one 
of their speakers addressed the Six Nations : 

"I still remember the time when you first conquered us 
and made women of us, and told us that you took us under 
your protection, and that we must not meddle with wars, 
but stay in the house and mind council affairs. We have 
hitherto followed your directions, and lived very easy under 
your protection, and no high wind did blow to make us un- 
easy ; but now things seem to take another turn, and a high 
wind is rising. We desire you, therefore, to have your eyes 
open and be watchful over us, your cousins, as you have 
always been heretofore." 


This abject condition of the Delawares prevented them 
from questioning the validity of the sale of 1754. But they 
complained that the lauds had been sold from under their 
feet. They had sufficient reason to be dissatisfied. In 1750 the 
white settlers had been driven from these same lands at the 
instance of the Six Nations, who then said that they had 
given the river Juniata to their cousins, the Delawares, and 
their brethren, the Shawnese, as a hunting ground. Their 
generosity to their cousins and brethren could not withstand 
the temptation of the paltry sum of four hundred pounds, 
the price received for the land. 

The Delawares sought a bloody and fatal revenge. They 
joined the French, laid waste the settlements on the frontiers, 
and marked their path with fire and desolation. 



During the French and Indian war which followed, the 
centre of events in connection therewith, so far as they 
transpired in Huntingdon county, was at Aughwick. We 
have found it one of the principal points in the previous 
history of the county. It was on the path to Ohio, and was 
visited by the first white man who traveled to that remote 
region, and was the place from which the settlers were 
driven in 1750. 

George Croghan had been there at a very early day, 
probably in 1747, certainly in 1748, with Conrad Weiser, 
and again, in 1750, with Richard Peters. To him it had 
become familiar, and, for reasons which will soon appear, he 
established himself there and became its master spirit. The 
history of Aughwick and of Croghan are identical during 
the years 1754, ^55, and part of ^56. 

Aughwick was not originally an Indian town, as is gen- 
erally supposed, but was a settlement of whites to which the 
Indians came after Croghan had made it his residence, the 
time of their coming being clearly shown by official records. 
It is, therefore, difficult, if not impossible, to give any reli- 
able information concerning the origin of the name. There 
is no certainty that it belongs to any of the Indian lan- 
guages; the probability is just as gteat that it is derived 
from one of the European lougues. The firsL settlers there, 
as in nearly all other parts of Huntingdon county, were 
Scotch-Irish, and many of the traders, among whom was 
Croghan, were of Irish birth. They could furnish a name 
or the town which they may have proposed founding, with- 


out resort to any other vocabulary than their own. Augh- 
wick is said to resemble in sound two Irish words, which 
mean literally " swift-running steed." But whoever gave it 
the name, has not handed down to us his reasons for doing 
so, and we will not enter further into the field of conjecture, 
which is so fertile and yet so fruitless. 

In early times the orthography of the name was almost 
as various as were the hands by which it was written. The 
earliest mention ot it is in Richard Peters' report, where it 
is spelled "Aucquick." Croghan at first wrote it "Au- 
ghick ;" afterwards, " Aughick Old Town," and finally 
"Aucquick Old Town." There seems to have been no uni- 
formity about it until more modern times. Custom has set- 
tled the spelling and pronunciation. 

It is doubtful whether all the cabins were burned at Augh- 
wick by the sheriff and magistrates of Cumberland county. 
From Peters' report we learn that four families were requir- 
ed to remove from there, yet only two cabins were destroy- 
ed, and one of these was not completed. It may be that 
Croghan came back to occupy one of the houses that had 
been allowed to remain. However that may be, he was re- 
siding there in January, 1754. 

He had not been successful in his business as a trader. 
The risks incident to it had gone against him. His goods 
had been seized by the French. He had sold to the In- 
dians, and had failed to collect the debts due from them. 
The same spirit of liberality which led him to trust them, 
also made him profuse in his gifts, so that he gained great 
influence with them and brought himself to bankruptcy. 
He preferred Aughwick to a debtor's prison. 

Soon after his settlement there, he put himself into com- 
munication with the provincial authorities, giving them infor- 
mation of the movements and operations of the French and 
the disposition and inclination of the Indians, continuing his 
visits to the Ohio in the interests of the province. While 
making the best of his opportunities, he lamented the disad- 
vantages he labored under from being an absconding debtor. 
The following is one of his many expressions of regret : 


"From ye Misfortunes I have had in Tread, which obliges 
me to keep at a Greatt distance, I have itt nott in mj power 
to forward Intelegance so soon as I could wish, however, if 
itt be thought worth Notice, I will acquaint the Govern- 
ment with anything I can find outt that will tend to ye hurt 
of my King & Country, for certainly ye Indians are only 
amussing ye Government, while they are privey, if not as- 
sisting to ye Murders done." 

The well-taught school-boys of to-day may be amused at 
Croghan's orthography, but we can find many similar spe- 
cimens among the writings of governors and others high in 
authority at that time. 

It was not long until Aughwick acquired other impor- 
tance than that attached to it as the residence of Croghan. 
On the 3d of July, 175-i, Washington, who was then a col- 
onel in command of Virginia troops, surrendered Fort Ne- 
cessity to the French. There had been with him a number 
of Indians who were not satisfied with his manner of con- 
ducting the campaign. They removed their families to a 
place of safety before the engagement began, because Wash- 
ington would not listen to their counsel, but compelled them 
to fight according to his plan, and after his defeat they went 
with their wives and families to Aughwick. Among them 
was Tanacharrisson, or the Half King, a Seneca chief, Scar- 
royady, an Oneida chief, and others belonging to the Six 
Nations. In the beginning of August some Delaware and 
Shawnese Indians also came, and there were soon after- 
wards other arrivals, swelling the number to more than 
two hundred men, women and children. 

Croghan furnished them with subsistence, purchasing meat 
and flour for that purpose, and applied to the government 
for reimbursement. As there seemed to havo been some 
suspicions in regard to his integrity, and a reluctance about 
placing public money in his hands, Conrad Weiser was sent 
there, under instructions from Governor Hamilton, to confer 
with him and the Indians, and to disburse three hundred 
pounds for their support. He repaid the expenses that Cro- 
ghan had incurred, left a sufficient sum with him to pur- 


cbase five hundred bushels of wheat, and laid up supplies 
for future use. The country at that time must have been 
considerably developed, as there was no difficulty in obtain- 
ing the necessaries for the maintenance of this large number 
of people. There were about twenty cabins in the vicinity 
of Croghan's house, in which the Indians lived, and more 
further off, some at a distance of three miles. Croghan had 
land under cultivation producing good crops. He had between 
twenty-five and thirty acres of corn, from which his servants 
brought every day, while Weiser was there, four or five bags 
of roasting ears. The Indians had not much regard for the 
rights of their benefactor, for there was "not an hour in the 
day" but that some of them stole and destroyed not only his 
corn, but his butter, milk, squashes and pumpkins. Weiser 
advised Croghan to make reasonable charges for the pro- 
duce taken, to have its value certified by three credible men, 
that he might be paid for it. He also recommended that Cro- 
ghan be trusted to buy and distribute provisions, or that 
some other person be kept there to make the distribution. 
But no change was made in the administration of affairs, 
Croghan remaining there and proving himself worthy of 

The traders were in the habit of furnishing liquor to the 
Indians, and those at Aughwick were supplied with it soon 
after the arrival, by Lewis Montour, a brother of Andrew's 
He sold it to them at very high prices, and pretended that 
his wife, "an ugly squaw," did it. The liquor was kept in the 
woods, about a mile from Croghan's house, where the In- 
dians would exchange any articles they had, even their cloth- 
ing, for it, and come back drunk and naked. An ettort was 
made to prevent this traffic, but that was very difficult, as 
they would buy and drink whenever they could obtain it. 
The Half King and Scarroyady were as much addicted to the 
vice as the members of the tribes over which they ruled, 
both of them being intoxicated while Weiser was there. 
Governor Hamilton had directed that persons taking liquor 
to Aughwick should be punished, and that the casks should 
be staved in. Croghan became a temperance reformer, ban- 


ished it entirely from his house, and endeavored to restrain 
the excesses of the Indians. The means he adopted to ac- 
complish the latter purpose may afford a suggestion to mod- 
ern "crusaders." His method is expressed in the following 

"Dec'r ye 23d, 1754. 
May itt Plese your Honour. 

I am Oblig'd to advertise the Inhabitance of Cumberland 
County in yr honour's Name, nott to barter or Sell Spiretus 
Liquors to the Indians or to any person to bring amongst 
them, to prevent ye Indians from Spending thire Cloase, 
tho' I am oblig'd to give them a Cag Now k then my self 
for a frolick, but that is Atended with no Expence to ye 
Government nor no bad Consequences to ye Indians as I Do 
itt butt onst a month, I hope your honour will approve this 
Proceeding, as I have Don it to prevent ill consequences 
atending ye Indians if they should be kept always inlieam'd 
with Liquors. 

I am yr honour's most 

Humble and Obedient 

Geo. Croghan. 

P. S. This Dos nott go by Express. 

The sale was not confined to the traders. Some of the 
magistrates of the county, forgetting their official dutj'-, en- 
gaged in the business. Mr. Smith, one of the justices, was. 
at Aughwick during Weiser's visit, to collect money for li- 
quor sent by him. " He is an old hypocrite," says Weiser ;. 
" he told me that the Governor ought not to suffer any strong 
liquor to come to Aughwick. I asked him if he would have 
the Governor to come up with his Sword and Pistol to pre- 
vent it. No, said he. Well, then, says I, there is no other 
way for the Governor than to break You all and put othera 
in Commission that are no Whiskey Traders, and will exer- 
cise their authority." 

Weiser was at Aughwick from the 3d until the 8th of 
September, holding daily conferences with the Indians. 
Speeches were made by Wabadikisy, alias " Little Johnny," 



a Shawnese, and by Dishickamy and the Beaver, Dela- 
wares, to whom Weiser replied. The whites present at the 
several meetings, besides Weiser and his son, were Andrew 
Montour, George Croghan, Peter Sheffer, Hugh Crawford, 
Thomas Simpson and John Owen. 

After many exchanges of compliments and wampum, 
Weiser informed the Dela wares and the Shawnese of the 
purchase of the land at Albany. They were not well pleased 
at first, because of the great extent of the tract released to 
the Penns. But such explanations were offered them as re- 
stored satisfaction. These Indians, living on the gratuities 
of the Government, were under the influence of the whites, 
and remained faithful to the English interests. This was 
the peculiarity of their situation. They separated themselves 
from their own people, from the tribes and nations to which 
they belonged, and some of them fought against their blood 
and kindred. 

For this course on their part, much credit is due to Cro- 
ghan, and it refutes some of the aspersions to which he was 
subjected. Charges of a serious character were made 
against him by Governor Sharpe, of Maryland. It was as- 
serted that he was a i-iomau Catholic, and was suspected of 
being in sympathy with the French ; that a person by the 
name of Campbell, a Catholic, resided at his house, and had 
visited the French fort and communicated with the enemy ; 
that Croghan had opened a letter, of great importance, from 
Captain Stobo to Col. Innes, and had taken a copy of it ; 
and that he had kept the money sent him for the payment 
of the Indian who carried the letter, and gave instead a small 
quantity of goods of inferior value. 

Governor Hamilton, in answer to these charges, did not 
express entire confidence in Croghan's integrity and fidelity, 
but said that, while it might be necessary to keep a watch- 
ful eye on him, he hoped the facts would not turn out to be 
material, and that they would not affect his faithfulness to 
the trust reposed in him, which at that time was very con. 
siderable and important. He said further that he had no 
one to inquire of as to the truth of the allegations of Gov- 


ernor Sharpe but Mr. Peters, who gave the assurance that 
Croghan had never been deemed a Roman Catholic, although 
his education had been in Dublin and his religious profes- 
sion was not known to him. The letter had been opened 
because the Indians insisted upon it, desiring to know its 
contents, and Croghan consented to satisfy their curiosity. 
It was an indiscretion for which he afterwards blamed him- 
self exceedingly, but it was neither perfidious nor criminal. 
His subsequent conduct furnishes a complete refutation of 
any suspicion against his loyalty. 

Croghan was likely to be held responsible for any disaf- 
fection that might be discovered among the residents of, or 
that might occur at Aughwick. This was so in the case of 
Campbell, who was " one of the lowest sort of Indian trad- 
ers," but with whom Croghan had no connection. He was 
not the only one there who was justly regarded with dis- 
trust. General Braddock, while at Winchester, Virginia, on 
his march to Pennsylvania, complained that an open trade 
was carried on with the French from Raystown and Augh- 
wick, by the Indians in alliance with them; that they re- 
ceived ammunition and other supplies by these means, and 
all the intelligence they desired. There was no doubt a 
great deal of truth in this. Much of the news received by 
the English from the Ohio was brought by the Indians, who, 
when they returned to the French, would just as readily 
impart all they had heard at Aughwick and further east. 
Yet Croghan was as powerless to prevent this as he was to 
prevent their drunkenness. 

He was highly sensitive to these reflections against his 
character. They interfered with the proper discharge of his 
duties. It was an instance, of which there have been many 
in human experience, of hesitation to claim all that he was 
entitled to, through fear that his motives would be impugned 
or his honesty questioned. How often have men who have 
been financially unfortunate, sacrificed their rights in an 
effort, and often a vain one, to regain a lost reputation! The 
money left with him by Weiser was soon exhausted, and he 
was relying, from what had been told him, upon the receipt 


of further advances. But the winter came, and with it a 
disappointment of his expectations. He was not furnished 
with the means of providing subsistence for the people who 
were depending upon him. Bad as his credit was, he was 
obliged to buy to the amount of forty-two pounds, giving 
his note therefor, and trusting to the Government to lift his 
paper when due. These purchases were made for some 
Indians who were about leaving Aughwick. He was not 
willing that they should go away dissatisfied. He says: "I 
Chose Rather to venter, Supose I Shuld pay itt My Self, 
then send ye heads of that Nation home Displeas'd att this 
time. I hope his honour will Excuse my forwardness in 
this as I Realy Don itt for ye good of ye Government." 
There seems to have been no other motive for incurring 
this debt than the one he assigns. It was an act of disin- 
terested patriotism. If he had not been true to his " King 
and country," he could have taken all those Indians over to 
the French with less trouble than he was at in preventing 
them from going, and his recompense, pecuniarily, would 
have been liberal. 

Even when in pressing need of supplies, he did not insist 
on the Government sending him money. He represented to 
them the wants of the Indians, but evidently for the interests 
of the province and not of himself. " I thought my Press, 
ing things," said he, " wold Lock as if I wanted to make a 
hand for ray Self out of the publick money, which I a Sure 
you wold be ye Last thing*I wold Do for a Livlihood, Lett 
me be Ever so much Distres " To avoid the great respon- 
sibility thrust upon him, he several times determined to 
leave the place, or at least to assign the care of the Indians 
to some other person. He proposed that, if his services 
should be thought of any value to the public, he would 
remain there all winter and assist any person that might be 
appointed to take his place, but he did not desire to have 
the handling of any of the money for fear of reflections. 

It must have been gratifying to him to find that there 
were some who entertained a favorable opinion of him. In 
October, 1754, Governor Hamilton retired from office and 


Eobert Hunter Morris succeeded him. Soon after tlie acces- 
sion of the latter, he wrote to Croghan that he was glad the 
province had a man among the Indians at that critical time 
whom they could so much depend upon. It was from 
Richard Peters that Governor Morris obtained his good 
opinion of him. Peters had known him long and intimately, 
and gave him a well-merited endorsement. 

About the time he was so fortunate as to be given the 
confidence of the chief executive officer of the province, an 
event occurred which made some change of affairs at Augh- 
wick. The Half King died on the 6th day of October, 
1754. The most complete account we have of this event is 
contained in a letter from John Harris to Richard Peters, 
dated October 29, 1754, as follows: 

" On the first of this Instant, Monacatootha and Several 
Others, the Chiefs of the Six Nations, came to my house 
and brought the Half King and his Family along with them, 
who were in general in very low Condition, particularly 
himself, who died in a few days, after which I asked Mona- 
catootha and others where they chussed to bury him and in 
what Manner, or if they wanted anything Necessary for his 
funeral; their Answer was that they looked upon him to be 
like one of our Selves, and as he died among us we might 
bury him as we thought proper ; that if he was buried well 
it would be very good, which I did much to their satisfac- 
tion. Immediately after Monacatootha and the Chiefs Set of 
for Aughwick, leaving the Half King's family and Relations . 
under my care, saying that in some short time there should 
some horses and Indians come down for them, w'ch they 
have not yet done. I shall continue to give his Family 
necessary Provisions till they remove, & I should be satis- 
fied how soon that might be." 

The loss of the Half King was much lamented by the 
Indians. Croghan ofiered them some consolation, as appears 
from a reference to the event in a letter to Governor Morris : 

" Yesterday I was favored with yr honour's Leter and 
Instructions to ye Indians hear, all of which I deliver'd this 
Morning in ye Presents of yr honour's Messenger, and Like- 


wise Deliver'd a Small present in yr honour's name to Con- 
dole with them on ye death of the Half King, and to Wipe 
ye Tears from there Eyes to ye a mount of ^20.10." 

Facetious as this announcement may seem, I do not think 
that Croghan intended to speak lightly of the Half King's 
death. The Indians had acquired such an inordinate desire 
for presents, and had become so accustomed to receiving 
them upon all occasions, that they looked for them even in 
their griefs and bereavements ; and in stating that the pres- 
ents had been given, Croghan but adopted the figurative 
language of the Indians themselves. In their speeches at 
treaties and conferences, and in their most serious moments, 
they frequently used similar expressions, and to "wipe off 
the tears," or to "wipe the dust out of the eyes," was not to 
be literally understood. 

Monacatootha, who is mentioned by John Harris as hav- 
ing arrived at his house with the Half King, is the same 
chief whom I have heretofore spoken of under the name of 
Scarroyady. It was not unusual for an Indian to have so 
many names that it was difficult to preserve his identity. 
Scarroyady succeeded the Half King in the control of the 
Indians at Aughwick. 



In the Autumn of 1754 the attitude of the French to- 
wards the frontiers was threatening. It was doubtful 
whether the place to which the fortunes of war had brought 
the Indians would afford them security. They could not 
defend themselves against the allied French and Indians, and 
could only look to the government for protection. They 
desired that a stockade fort be built at Aughwick ; while the 
Assembly at Philadelphia were considering the propriety of 
removing them to the mouth of the Juniata. At this junc- 
ture, Croghan was asked his opinion. Richard Peters, who 
seems to have anticipated what his views would be, insisted 
that he should express them freely, and suggested to him 
some arguments in favor of the fortification of Aughwick, 
and put to him the direct inquiry whether it was not abso- 
lutely necessary for the settlers in Cumberland county to 
have a place of security west of the Blue Hills and on this 
side of the Allegheny, and whether there could be a more 
proper place than Aughwick. 

Croghan wrote to Governor Morris and to Peters on the 
same day, December 23d. He opposed the removal of the 
Indians and favored the building of a fort. He had con- 
sulted the Indians, and said they would be well pleased to 
remove, but Scarroyady, who had gone to Onondaga, had 
directed that not one of them should go away during his 
absence. "As to removing the Indians to the Mouth of 
Juniata," he said, . " I think it a very improper place, for 
this reason: it is settled with a set of White Men that make 
their Living by trading with the Indians that is settled on 


the River Susquehanna and sells them little else but Spirits, 
so that it would be impossible to keep these Indians from 
spending all their Clothing and then they would be forever 
teasing your Plonor for Goods. Indeed it is my Opinion 
that were they to live in any part of the Inhabitance it 
would be attended with bad Consequences, as there is no 
keeping them from being inflamed with Liquor if they can 
get at it, cost what it will, besides it is dangerous for fear 
of their getting Sickness, then they would say the White 
People killed them, and while they stay here they are a 
Defense to the Back Inhabitants, which I think lays very 
open to the Enemy, and I think if the Government intends 
to build any Fortification for the Security of the back In- 
habitants, that this place or somewhere hereabouts is the 
properest place." 

But as no conclusion could be arrived at until the return 
of Scarroyady, the matter seems to have been postponed, 
and perhaps indefinitely, for we hear nothing more of it for 
nearly a year. 

The attention of Croghan was soon called from the de- 
fense of Aughwick to the aggressive movements then on 
foot against the French stronghold. General Braddock 
arrived from England in February, 1755, to take cammand 
of the British forces in America. A council of war was 
held at his camp at Alexandria, Virginia, on the l-ith of 
April, in that year, at which Governor Morris and the Gov- 
ernors of Massachusetts, New York, Maryland and Virginia 
were present. Braddock there delivered a letter to Gover- 
nor Morris desiring him to inform the Indians in Pennsyl- 
vania of his arrival, and that he was then on his march with 
a body of the King's troops to remove the French from the 
Ohio. This letter was laid before the Provincial Council, 
by whom it was determined that large quantities of wam- 
pum made into strings and belts, should be sent to Croghan, 
and that he should be pressed to notify the Shawnees, Del- 
awares, Twightwees, Wyandottes, and all the Indians on the 
Lakes, of Braddock's march, and invite them to join the 
General, and that Scarroyady, then at Aughwick, and the 


Indian called the Belt of Wampum, should be consulted in 
regard to the co-operation of the Indians with the army. 

Governor Morris sent the wampum and a copy of Brad- 
dock's letter to Croghan, and directed him to convene at 
Aughwick as many Indians of the Six Nations, Delawares, 
Shawnees, Twightwees, and Wyandottes, as possible, and to 
deliver to them the belts and strings, and to entreat them 
immediately to join the General on his march. He was also 
to send belts and strings to the Indians that were more re- 
mote, and to request them to place themselves under Brad- 
dock's orders. 

The receipt of the Governor's message was acknowledged 
by Croghan on the first of May. He had laid it before the 
Indians at Aughwick that morning, upon whom, he said, it 
had the desired efl'ect ; that on the following morning all of 
them, excepting the women and children, would go with him 
to the camp ; that he had dispatched messengers to all the 
tribes that could be found this side of the French fort, to 
meet him there, and had also sent for the Indians at the 
Susquehanna. He expressed a desire that the women and 
children too, should leave Aughwick, as he had no expecta- 
tion that the Assembly would make him any further allow- 
ances for their support ; and that, as he would be with the 
army all summer, some provision ought to be made for 
those that remained. He was ready to perform any duty 
that might be required of him, and had not nearly all of the 
Indians proved recreant, he might have rendered great ser- 
vices, but could not have changed the result of that dis- 
astrous campaign. 

The appeal to the Indians to take part in the expedition 
was not very successful. The number who joined it was 
small. None came from the Lakes, the Ohio or the Susque* 
hanna. Croghan went with those he had at Aughwick, includ* 
ing the women and children, whom he had intended should 
remain behind. Braddock wrote to Governor Morris that 
he had between forty and fifty Indians from the frontiers 
of the province, and that he had taken Croghan and Montour 
into service. Eichard Peters, who had been at the camp, 


reported to the Council tliat lie found Scarroyady, Andrew 
Montour, and about forty Indians from Aughwick there, 
with their wives and families; that they were extremely 
dissatisfied at not being consulted with by the General, and 
frequently got into high quarrels ; that the General had 
issued orders that the Indian women should not be admitted 
into camp, and insisted that they should be sent home. On 
the 20th of May, Croghan reported to the Governor, from 
Fort Cumberland, that he had about fifty men with him, and 
that he expected twenty more in a few days ; that on the 
next day the women and children would start on their return 
to Aughwick; that after their arrival, there would be about 
one hundred and twenty there, and made some suggestions 
concerning their maintenance during the war. 

But the pride of the sanguine Croghan, as well as that of 
the arrogant Braddock, was destined to be laid low. When 
the army reached the Little Meadow, there were but seven 
Indians with it. All the rest had gone from Fort Cumber- 
land to Aughwick with the women and children. Croghan, 
still hopeful, was expecting their return, and that he would 
be reinforced by forty or fifty more. But while so nearly 
deserted, his connection with the expedition was not entirely 
fruitless. We are told "that Sir John St. Clair had discov- 
ered, by the help of Mr. Croghan and his seven Indians, a 
party of between two and three hundred French Indians, 
and pursued them and drove them quite off; then they pro- 
ceeded in cutting the road toward the Ohio." 

I am convinced by several coincidences, that these seven 
Indians were engaged in the battle at Braddock's defeat. In 
the following August, some of the Six Nations and Wyan- 
dottes, met the Provincial Council at Philadelphia, and 
among other speeches made was the following: 

'■'■Brethren of the Six Nations: You that are now here, to 
wit, Scarroyady, Cashuwayon, Froson, Kahuktodon, Atsche- 
chokatha, Kashwughdaniunto Dyaquario: You fought 
under General Braddock and behaved with spirit and valor 
during the engagement ; we should be wanting to ourselves 
not to make you our hearty acknowledgments for your 


fidelity and assistance. We see you consider yourselves as 
our flesli and blood, and fight for us as if we were your own 
kindred. By this belt we return you our hearty thanks." 

It has been said that the part taken by Croghan in the 
battle could not be ascertained ; but that he was in com- 
mand of the Indiana to whom the thanks of the Council 
were afterwards given, is altogether plausible. And if such a 
conclusion be correct, then the only men furnished to Brad- 
dock's army from Pennsylvania went from Huntingdon 

However much we may censure, for their want of valor, 
those Indians who deserted, we must certainly accord them 
praise for their discretion. They possessed more of the 
latter than Braddock himself. There may have been some 
reason in their disaffection. Scarroyady assigned a cause 
for it. In an address to the Provincial Council he said : "It is 
now well known to you how unhappily we have been defeated 
by the French near Minongelo (Monongahela). We must 
let you know that it was the pride and ignorance of that 
great General that came from England. He is now dead ; 
but he was a bad man when he was alive ; he looked upon 
us as dogs, and would never hear anything what was said to 
him. We often endeavored to advise him and to tell him 
the danger he was in with his soldiers ; but he never ap- 
peared pleased with us, and that was the reason that a great 
many of our warriors would not be under his command." 

The Indians who had returned to Aughwick did not long 
remain there. Twenty-five of them arrived at John Harris', 
at Paxton, early in the summer, and at that time more were 
on the road to the same place. Scarroyady never resided 
at Aughwick after Braddock's defeat. In August we find 
him in Philadelphia, and before the 9th of September, 
within two months after the battle, he had gone up the 
Susquehanna river to settle at Shamokin. Of course the 
departure of the Indians changed Croghan's relations to the 
Government. His communications to the governor ceased- 
He no longer asked timidly for supplies, for compensation for 
his services, or for reimbursement for necessary expenditures. 


In October, 1755, he wrote: "glad am I that I have no hand 
in Indian affairs at this critical time, where no fault can be 
thrown on my shoulders." 



Croghan now revived the project of fortifying Aughwick, 
■which had been under consideration during the latter part 
of the previous year, but being out of the service of the 
Government, he looked for no assistance from that source. 
A regard for the safety of himself and other residents of 
that exposed region, led him to undertake the work with 
such help as he could obtain in the neighborhood. On the 
9th of October, 1755, he wrote to a friend in Shippensburg, 
that he hoped to finish his stockade by the middle of the 
next week, and requested the loan of six guns, with powder, 
and twenty pounds of lead, promising to return them in 
about fifteen days, when he would get arms and ammuni- 
tion from the mouth of the " Conegochege." 

At that time the frontier settlements were exposed to ex- 
treme danger. Consternation and alarm had spread through- 
out the entire country west of the Susquehanna, and those 
settlers who could escape the fury of the savages were flee- 
ing precipitately from their homes. The towns of Carlisle, 
York and Lancaster were daily filled with the refugees. 
But few remained, except those who paid with their lives 
and scalps for their temerity. At Aughwick, however 
Croghan had made his position sufficiently strong to prevent 
an attack. In the east there was great anxiety for his 
safety, and many rumors as to his fate. Scarroyady came 
down from Shamokin to Harris' Ferry, inquired after him> 
'and on being informed that he was fortified at Aughwick, 
sent him advice to remove, or he would be killed. Gov- 


ernor Morris wrote to the Governor of Virginia, on the 2d 
of November, that "By letters of ye 29th and 30th of last 
month I am informed that the People of Aughwick & 
Juniata are cut off, and among others George Croghan." 
From intelligence then in the possession of the Governor, it 
is certain that no inhabitants remained on the Juniata. 
Croghan's situation is stated in a letter written by himself 
on the 12th of November: "I have butt a Stockade fortt at 
Aughwick, and have about forty men with me there, butt 
how long I shall be able to keep itt, I really can't tell." 

The reasons for this unprotected and defenceless condition 
of the frontiers affords one of the most interesting chapters 
in the history of Pennsylvania. It was on account of a 
conflict between the legislative and executive branches of 
the government, a conflict which was the direct result of 
causes operating from the foundation of the province. The 
successors of William Penn in the proprietaryship were not 
Quakers, and their appointments to ofl&ce and administration 
of the government were without regard, or rather in antago- 
nism, to the peaceful principles of tleir ancestor. But the 
Quakers still had sufficient political power to retain their 
ascendency in the Assembly. They tied the mouth of the 
public purse with more than a gordian knot. They voted 
neither supplies nor money, nor would they grant any au- 
thority whatever, for many years, for the enlistment of men 
and the forming of a militia. The complamts of Governor 
Morris were constant against the Assembly for adhering to 
a policy that prevented them from saving the lives of their 
citizens, and were made to the British government, to the 
Penns, to the Governors of the neighboring provinces, and 
to the Assembly itself So completely was he deprived of 
military power, that not a man was furnished to Braddock 
from Pennsylvania, except Croghan and his few Indians. 
The teams for the transportation of baggage and supplies for 
the army were hired in York and Cumberland counties by 
Benjamin Franklin, on his own responsibility, and the Gov- 
ernor gathered a store of provisions at Shippensburg without 
legislative aid. The people were divided into parties upon 


this issue. Petitions from them were numerous, asking pro- 
tection on the one hand and opposing any warlike measures 
on the other. When, at length, the Assembly passed a mili- 
tia law, they did so without abandoning any of their religious 
scruples. Its character may be inferred from its title: "An 
Act for the better ordering and regulating such as are willing 
and desirous to be United for Military Purposes within this 
Province." It provided for the organization of a military 
force, but did not compel any body to join it. The whole 
spirit of the law is expressed in its opening sentence: 
"Whereas, this Province was settled by (and a majority of 
the Assemblies have ever since been) of the people called 
Quakers, who, tho' they do not as the World is now circum- 
stanced, condemn the Use of Arms in others, yet are prin- 
cipled against bearing Arms themselves." The complaints 
against the act were as loud and frequent as those that were 
made before its passage, particularly on the part of Governor 
Morris, but he was compelled to make the best out of the 
only legislation he could obtain. 

Immediately after its enactment a plan was devised for the 
defence of the frontiers. Five hundred men were to be taken 
into service, half of whom were to be stationed on the east 
and the other half on the west side of the Susquehanna- 
George Croghan was given a captain's commission, three or 
four of which were issued, under the new law, previous to 
December 18th, 1755, and his may have been the first. He 
was directed to superintend the erection of fortifications west 
of that river. The places for three stockades were to be 
selected by him, "one back of Patterson's, one upon Kisha- 
coquillas, and one near Sideling Hill," each to be fifty feet 
square, with blockhouses on two corners and barracks within 
capable of accommodating fifty men. He was also to employ 
an overseer at each place, who was to receive not exceeding 
one dollar per day, and workmen, who were to be allowed 
at the rate of six dollars per month "and provisions." All 
the circumstances seemed to point to Aughwick as the place 
for one of these forts. Its defense had occupied the attention 
of the government a year before, and the necessity for its pro" 


tection had greatly increased. Croghan had built a stockade 
at his own expense and labor, and the selection of the sites 
for the new ones was to a great extent under his control. 
It was natural that he should prefer the strengthening of the 
one he had built. And probably nothing more was required. 
He had been secure during the most dangerous times, and 
with a garrison, under military discipline, was ready to defy 
any force that could be brought against him. 

The original idea of erecting three stockades of the same 
size and construction was not strictly adhered to. There 
were four built, one twelve miles from the Susquehanna, 
called Pomfret Castle, one at the mouth of the Kisacoquillas, 
called Fort Granville, one at Aughwick, called Fort Shirley, 
and one at the Sugar Cabins, called Fort Lyttleton. Gov- 
ernor Morris was upon the frontiers in the months of Decem- 
ber, 1755, and January, 1756, visiting this line of fortifica- 
tions. On his return, he arrived in Philadelphia on the 28th 
of the latter month, all the forts west of the Susquehanna 
having been completed, named and garrisoned before he left 
them. He placed at each seventy-five men and ordered them 
to range the woods in both directions towards the other forts. 

He was highly gratified with these defences, writing to 
Governor Sharpe, of Maryland, Governor Dinwiddie, of 
Virginia, Colonel Washington and General Shirley, concern- 
ing them. In his letter to the latter, he described them at 
some length, and says in reference to Fort Shirley: 

" About twenty miles northward of Fort Lytellton, at a 
place called Aughwick, another fort is Erected, somewhat 
larger than Port Lytellton, which I have taken the Liberty 
to Honour with the name of Fort Shirley. This stands near 
the great Path used by the Indians and Indian Traders to and 
from the Ohio, and consequently the easiest way of access 
for the Indians into the settlements of this Province." 

The author of this work is indebted to Samuel McVitty, 
Esq., formerly of Shirleysburg, now of Clay township, this 
county, for information in relation to the position of Fort 
Shirley, with reference to the natural surroundings in its 
immediate vicinity. The site of the fort has been frequently 


pointed out to him by those who had seen it, and by Isaac 
Morgan, who claims to have forted in it in his boyhood days. 
It was a log fort of considerable strength and size, standing 
on the edge of the plateau, south of the Fort Eun and west 
of the road entering Shirleysburg from Mount Union 
Aughwick was situated about half-way between the fort and 
Aughwick creek, where the depot of the East Broad Top 
railroad now stands. Mr. McVitty spent many of his youth- 
ful hours in gathering arrow-heads, stone tomahawks, beads 
and musket balls from this historic ground. 

Captain Croghan, in addition to his duties as superintend- 
ent of the erection of these works, was entrusted with the 
recruiting of men to garrison them. This he did very ex- 
peditiously. No sooner were the barracks completed than, 
the companies were ready to enter them. The province had 
obtained an officer who at once acquired a reputation for 
promptness. But these speedy enlistments were attended 
with a want of economy that was not gratifying to those 
•who had the disposal of the public funds. Disputes arose 
between him and the Commissioners concerning his accounts^ 
and he became dissatisfied with the manner in which they 
were adjusted. In fact, he had always thought himself illy 
recompensed for his services and expenditures at Aughwick. 

He continued in command of Fort Shirley, and of one of 
the companies raised by him, until the latter part of March, 
1756, three months after the fort was built. There were 
issued to him during that time, two hundred tomahawks, one 
swivel, twenty-nine small arms, and two hundred and forty 
blankets. He had also some arms belonging to himself^ 
which were retained and receipted for by his successor in 
command, Captain Hugh Mercer. 

Croghan may have had other reasons for leaving Fort 
Shirley than the difficulties about his accounts. The causes 
which had brought him there and which had probably in- 
duced him to remain, were removed. The Assembly passed 
an act exempting him from arrest for ten years. As he could 
then face his creditors without fear, he resigned his commis- 
sion and went to New York. 


commissary general of musters visits and pays troops at fort shirley 
— letter from captain mercer — recruiting at carlisle — strength 
of garrison at fort shirley — condition of his company — arms, ac- 
coutrements, provisions and pay — capture and burning of fort 
granville — preparations for an attack on fort shirley — colonel 
Armstrong's expedition against kittanning — rendezvous at fort 


About the time Captain Mercer assumed command of Port 
Shirley, Captain Elisha Salter was appointed Commissary 
General of Musters, and ordered to ia^pect and pay all the 
companies in Cumberland count3\ He performed this duty, 
visiting the forts on the frontiers. His presence at Fort Shir- 
ley is referred to by Captain Mercer in a letter to Governor 
Morris, written from Carlisle, on the 18th day of April, 
1756. Captain Mercer had gone to that place to recruit men 
for his company. It is gratifying to have from him a de- 
scription of the situation of affairs at the fort, of the difficul- 
ties connected with the provincial service, and of the defi- 
ciencies in pay, arms, equipments and rations. The following 
is his letter in full: 

'■^Honoured Sir: The Commissary General of the Musters, 
with your Honour's Instructions to review and Pay off" the 
Garrison att Fort Shirley, arrived in a very lucky time, when 
the greater part of our Men were about to abandon the Fort 
for want of Pay. It was with great difficulty I could prevent 
their doing so for three weeks before, that is ever since the time 
of enlistment had been expired. I am sorry to observe that 
numbers of our best men have declined the Service, and re- 
duced me to the necessity of recruiting anew, thro' diffidence 
with regard to their pay, and I have been obliged to engage 
that even such as left us when paid off", should have the same 
allowance as formerly for their Overplus time, depending 
upon my being reimbursed, as without such ingagement it 


was impossible to prevent the fort from falling into the 
Enemy's hands. I am now about filling up my Company to 
Sisty Men, agreeable to your Orders, and have drawn upon 
the Commissionaries for £30 for this purpose. A Garrison 
of thirty Men are now att Fort Shirley, engaged to remain 
there till the first of May, by which time I am in hopes of 
compleating the Company, and shall immediately thereupon 
repair thither. It is to be feared that Our Communication 
with the Settlement will soon be cut off, unless a greater 
force is Ordered for the Garrison. As Your Honour is sen- 
sible that I can send no detachment to escort provisions, 
equal in force to parties of the enemy, who have lately made 
attempts upon our frontiers, and considering how short of 
Provisions we have hitherto been kept, the Loss of One 
Party upon this duty must reduce us to the last necessity. 

" Mr. Hugh Crawford is upon the Return of Leutenant, 
and Mr. Thos. Smallman, who acted before as Commissary 
in the Fort, as Ensign to my Company. It will be a particu- 
lar obligation laid upon me to have an exchange of Mr. 
James Hays for Leutenant and Mr. Smallman continued. 
And Perhaps Mr. Crawford would be satisfied to fill Mr. 
Hays' place, with Captain Paterson, as members of that 
Company are of his Acquaintance. I have given Mr. Croghan 
a Receipt for what Arms and other necessary Articles be- 
longing to him are att Fort Shirley, a copy of which, together 
with my Journall and General Return, shall be sent by Cap- 
tain Salter, and find it impossible to Arm my Men or com- 
pleat what yet remains of our Outworks without them. The 
Guns are preferable to those belonging to the Government, 
and I hope will be purchased for our Use. 

"Captain Salter will inform your Honour how unfitt the 
Arms in General are for Use, even after being righted by a 
Gunsmith, whose Account is very Considerable; besides, we 
have no Cartridge Boxes, nor any convenient pouches for 
Powder and Lead, so that in complying with Your Instructions 
Off giving a Detail of what is wanting for the Company, I may 
mention in General, Arms and Accoutrements, besides 
Orders to the Commissary for a large Supply of Provisions 


att Once, And regular pay Once a Month; it will put me to 
extream difficulty if the Commissionaries do not think proper 
to remit m'e Money to pay my Men by the first of May. I 
have wrote them to this purpose, and beg Your Honour 
will enable me to fulfill my engagements with the Company, 
without which I can hope for very little Satisfaction in serv- 
ing the publick. 

"The trust your Honour has been pleased to repose in me 
in giving me the Command of Fort Shirley, calls for my 
warm Acknowledgements, and cannot fail of engaging my 
utmost attention and zeal in the execution of your Orders." 

In July, 1756, the Indians from Kittanning, under their 
chiefs, Shingas and Jacobs, captured and burned Fort Gran- 
ville, killing and making prisoners of the garrison. Later 
in the season they prepared for new incursions against the 
frontiers and an attack on Fort Shirley. Governor Morris 
determined that they should not have the opportunity of 
striking the first blow. He concerted an expedition against 
them to be commanded by Col. John Armstrong, who was 
to have under him the companies of Captain Hamilton, Cap- 
tain Mercer, Captain Ward and Captain Patterson. These 
were the forces that garrisoned the fortifications west of the 
Susquehanna. They were to rendezvous at Fort Shirley, which 
they accordingly did, and marched from there on the 30th 
of August, in that year. Col. Armstrong was successful in 
surprising the Indians at Kittanning at daybreak on the 
moi-ning of the 8th of September, in completely routing them, 
destroying their town of thirty houses, and in killing Captain 
Jacobs, the chief, who had declared that he could take any fort 
that would burn, and that he would make peace with the Eng- 
lish when they would learn him to make gunpowder. Captain 
Mercer was wounded in the arm early in the engagement and 
became separated from the main body of the troops. When 
the latter arrived at Fort Littleton, on their return from Kit- 
tanning, he had not rejoined them. The losses in his com- 
pany were seven killed, one wounded and nine missing. 
Among the latter was himself. 

Captain Jacobs, at the time of his disaster, was upon the 


eve of setting out to take Fort Shirley. On that day two 
bateaux of Frenchmen and a party of Delawares and other 
Indians were to have joined him at Kittanning, and to have 
started with him the next morning. 

Captain Mercer had not been captured by the Indians. In 
the following November he assumed command of his com- 
pany at Shippensburg, although his wound had not healed. 

Before the starting of the expedition to Kittanning, Col. 
Armstrong had recommended the evacuation of Fort Shirley. 
He considered it not easily defensible and that there was 
danger of the supply of water being cut off from it, as the 
stream ran at the foot of a high bank, eastward of the fort. 
" I am of opinion," said he, "from its remote situation, that 
it can't serve the Country in the present circumstances, and 
if attacked, I doubt will be taken if not strongly Garrisoned, 
but (extremities excepted) I cannot evacuate this without 
your Honour's Orders. Lyttelton, Shippensburg and Car- 
lisle (the two last not finished) are the only Forts now built 
that will, in my Opinion, be Serviceable to the Publick." 

On the 15th day of October, 1756, the Governor announced 
to the Council at Philadelphia, that Fort Shirley had been 
evacuated by his order. This was not done because the 
dangers against which it was intended to guard had passed 
away, but because they had increased to such an extent that 
it could no longer be relied upon as a protection. The 
enemy had become more powerful. 



IN 1762 — HUGH Crawford's improvement — revival of purchases — 


The complications which had arisen in Indian affairs had 
a direct tendency to retard, or, in fact, to prevent for a long 
time, the consummation of the purposes for which the pur- 
chase at Albany had been made. In 1750 the settlers re- 
ceived no violence from the Indians themselves, the latter 
making their complaints and efforts to regain possession of 
their lands through the provincial government. After 175J: 
it was at the risk of life that a white man presumed to take 
up his residence within the purchased territory, unless he 
was also within such a distance of the fortifications that he 
could take refuge in them at the approach of danger. The 
evacuation of Fort Shirley, in 1756, removed the only pro- 
tection that had existed within our present county. Even 
previous to that event, but few warrants had been taken out 
for lands, and there were fewer actual settlers. 

The "Land Lien Docket "for Huntingdon county, con- 
tains the record of but two office rights granted before 1762. 
They are both dated in 1755, the first on the 3d of February 
to Barnabas Barnes, for a tract in Tell township, and the other 
on the 25th of June, to Anthony Thompson, tor a tract on 
Little Aughwick J. Simpson Africa, esq.. Deputy Sec- 
retary of Internal Affairs, at Harrisburg, a citizen of the 
county,who is more familiar with our land titles than any other 
person, knows of but four tracts warranted during the time 
I have mentioned. They are: I. One including the upper 
end of Smithfield, the whole of Bryan's farm, and some ad- 
jacent land in Walker township. II. The farm on the north- 
east side of the Juniata river, above Warrior's Ridge station. 
III. That upon which Alexandria now stands ; and TV. One 


on the Juniata below Alexandria. These were all warranted 
in 1755. They are probably patented, and therefore do 
not appear on the Land Lien Docket. • 

It was in this same year that Hugh Crawford made an 
improvement, as he claimed, where Huntingdon now stands. 
He conveyed to George Croghan, by deed, dated at Fort Pitt, 
June 1st, 1760, "a tract of 400 acres, on the north side of the 
Eaystown Branch of the Juniata, known by the name of the 
Standing Stone, including my improvement thereon, from 
the mouth of the Standing Stone Creek to the crossing up 
the Creek, and to the upward point of a small island." The 
grantee in this conveyance is the same George Croghan who 
was such a conspicuous figure at Aughwick. At the date 
of the deed he was a resident at Fort Pitt. 
' For a period of seven years after 1755, the region west of 
the Tuscarora mountain remained in almost primitive seren- 
ity. During all that time there seems to have been no de- 
mand whatever for the lands. The Indians had succeeded, 
for the time being, in making them valueless to the proprie- 
taries, by increasing the dangers of frontier life to such an 
extent that no man was willing to encounter them. This 
state of affairs continued until 1762, when there was a re- 
vival of the desire to acquire titles. In that and the follow- 
in year, many warrants were issued from and returns of 
surveys made to the Land Of&ce. These were principally 
located along the streams and in the valleys, the earliest 
purchasers, of course, selecting the most fertile lands. But 
these were not all taken up for actual settlement. A large pro- 
portion of the warrantees were eastern men, many of them 
residents of the cities, whose only object was speculation. 

This era was also brought to an end. Dangers from the 
Indians again increased. Early in the summer of 1763 
depredations were committed on the frontiers, some of them 
near Bedford, the alarm from which extended throughout 
the country, and occasioned the removal of the settlers from 
the Juniata and its tributaries. Col. Armstrong, who was 
then in command of the militia west of the Blue Hills, wrote 
to Governor Penn, in December, of that year: 


"The People drove off by the Enemy from the North side 
of the Mountains, forms the Frontier, as they are mix'd with 
the settlers on the south side, where of consequence the 
motions of the ranging party are required; at the same time 
those who were driven from their habitations have some part 
of their effects yet behind, and their crops stack'd in the 
field thro' the different valleys, at a considerable distance 
beyond the mountains. To these distressed people we must 
afford Covering partys as often as they request them, or will 
Convene in small Bodys in order to thrash Out and Carry 
over Grain wherewith to Supply their Familys; this last men- 
tioned Service, necessary as it is, greatly obstructs the uni- 
form course of patroling behind the Inhabitants, that other- 
wise might be performed." 

Col. Armstrong does not designate the localities in which 
the danger and alarm were the greatest, but the same situa- 
tion seems to have existed throughout the entire region 
known as the frontiers. 

This check to the rush of speculation and the progress of 
settlement and improvement, continued until 1766. In that 
year and the one succeeding it, a great many applications 
were made, warrants issued and surveys returned. By the 
close of 1767, all the good lands in the valleys and river bot- 
toms had been taken up. 

It was in the latter year that the town of Huntingdon was 
laid out. Its founder was William Smith, D.D., an Episcopal 
clergyman, and a gentleman of learning and ability. While 
Provost of the University of Pennsylvania, to which position 
he was elected in 1755, he made a trip to England for the 
purpose of soliciting funds in aid of that institution, and re- 
ceived a liberal donation from the Countess of Huntingdon, 
in honor of whom he named the town. It is proper that we 
should know something of the life and character of this es- 
timable lady. 

Selina Shirley was born August 24:th, 1707. She and her 
two sisters, one of whom was older and the other younger 
than herself, were the daughters and heiresses of Washington 
Shirley, second Earl of Ferrars. At the age of twenty-one 


she married Theophilus Hastings, ninth Earl of Huntingdon, 
a nobleman distinguished for his piety, from whom she took 
the title by which she is known in history. The deaths of 
four of her children at early ages, and of her husband in 
1746, made a deep impression upon her mind and intensified 
her religious predilections. She adopted the doctrines of 
and attached herself to the Calvinistic Methodists, of whom 
George Whitefield, who, with Wesley, was effecting a great 
revival, was the founder and leader. She was so zealous in 
advancing the principles she had espoused, and her wealth 
enabled her to exert such a vast influence, that a branch of 
Whitefield's followers became known as " The Countess of 
Huntingdon's Connection." She made that eminent preacher 
one of her chaplains, and he, in return, appointed her by 
will, sole proprietrix of his possessions in the province of 
Georgia, America, where she organized a mission. In her 
own country she built chapels, maintained ministers, and, 
for the education of the latter, and with the assistance of 
other persons of opulence, many of whom were members of 
her own family, established a college at Trevacca, in South 
Wales. For the support of this institution she made liberal 
contributions during her lifetime, and at her death created a 
trust. She provided in like manner for her chapels. The 
college was removed after her demise, to Cheshunt, in Herts, 
where it still exists. She also donated large sums to young 
itinerant preachers, and to private charity. Her death oc- 
curred June 17, 1791. The number of her chapels was then 
sixty-four. She bequeathed them to four persons, in trust 
for their care and management. They have increased in 
number until there are now nearly twice as many as when 
she died. 



At the beginning of the revolutionary war, Huntingdon 
contained four or five bouses. The inhabitants of whom we 
have any information, were Benjamin Elliott, Ludwig Sells, 
Abraham Haynes, and one of the Clugages. The names of 
several of these became prominent in connection with the 
formation of the county, eleven years later, and with subse- 
quent events. 

In 1776 or '77 there came from Philadelphia two brothers 
by the name of McMurtrie. They were sons of a prudent 
Scotchman, who had sent them away from the temptation of 
entering the "rebel" army. One of these young men, David, 
attained some prominence in public affairs. He married a 
daughter of Benjamin Elliott, and his descendants are among 
the most prosperous people of the county. The other 
brother, James, resided a while in Huntingdon and then re- 
moved to a farm on Shaver's creek. 

During the war, the town was more frequently called 
Standing Stone than Huntingdon. It is mentioned by the 
former name in many of the letters and records of that 
period, relating to the movements of troops, tories and In- 
dians. When called Huntingdon, its other name was some- 
times added to designate what place was meant. 

A fort was built there in the early part of the war. It 
stood in the southeastern part of the town, on the bluff 
overlooking the creek and the lowlands between it and the 
fort, and covering about ten acres of ground. It was never 
permanently garrisoned, but when troops were in Hunting- 
don, as was the case on several occasions of which we have 
authentic information, it is to be supposed that their quar- 
ters were in this fortification. 


"When not garrisoned, its defence, in cases of necessity, de- 
volved upon the citizens of the town and surrounding coun- 
try, many coming for miles to seek its protection. In times 
of alarm and in the absence of troops, the people sometimes 
resorted to ruses and stratagems to drive away the Indians. 
Once an attack was threatened by a party of savages who 
made their appearance on the ridge across the river from 
Huntingdon. They greatly outnumbered the force that 
could be gathered to oppose them, and to have awaited their 
nearer approach with the hope of making a successful resist- 
ance would have been futile. Instead of this, an eftbrt was 
made to deceive them into the belief that the little squad 
was really an army. The latter was drawn into line in such 
a position that the ends of the column could not be seen by 
the savages, and so that by marching round and round, men 
would be continually in view and present the appearance of 
battalions moving steadily forward. At the same time the 
drums, and other iDstruments not so musical — some of them 
in the hands of women and children — were beaten so vigor- 
ously as to impress the savages that great preparations were 
being made for battle. The enemy were overawed, and re- 
treated without testing the strength of the fort and its de- 

As to the sufficiency of the causes which were regarded 
as impelling the colonies to a separation from the mother 
country, there was not a unanimity of opinion among the 
people of the upper Juniata. There were many royalists or 
tories, who were very bold and open in their opposition to 
the revolutionary cause and in their sympathy for and ex- 
tension of aid to the British, whose emissaries and Indian 
allies were operating against the western frontiers. But the 
patriots outnumbered them many fold. 

That part of Bedford which now constitutes Huntingdon 
county was the centre of tory strength and activity. The 
disaffected element was scattered over all parts of it, but ex- 
isted principally at Huntingdon, on Stone Creek, Shaver's 
Creek, the Eaystown Branch, and the Aughwick, and in 
Canoe, Woodcock and Hare's valleys. Deep and dark as 


were the designs of the tories, they were frustrated by the 
fatal mistake of those who were to have cooperated in the 
execution of them. 

From the Indians there was more real danger, and it con- 
tinued a much greater length of time. The alarms caused 
by them were well founded. They placed the frontiersmen 
on the defensive at a time when the means of protection 
were insufficient, and when all the population capable of 
bearing arms was urgently needed in front of the British 
army. Troops could not be sent to the frontiers, nor, on 
the other hand, could men be withdrawn from thence for 
duty elsewhere. The settlers were thrown entirely upon 
their 5e^-reliance, too often literally so, as they were fre- 
quently without arms or amunition. 

This chapter will not enter very fully into the details of 
Indian depredations and massacres. Many of them will be 
described in the histories of the different townships, which 
form a part of this work, each in treating of the locality in 
which it occurred. The measures taken for the defense of 
a large extent of territory, in which Huntingdon county was 
included, will give an insight into the manner in which hos- 
tilities were waged against it by the savages. 

In January, 1788, Col. John Piper, realizing the exigen- 
cies of the situation, and after consultation with his sub- 
lieutenants, proposed the raising of a force of one hundred 
and sixty men, to be stationed at five different points in 
Bedford county, thirty of them to " guard the inhabitants of 
Hart's Log Settlement and Shaver's Creek." In informing 
the Supreme Executive Council of his action, Col. Piper says : 

" The urgent Call for these men, and the Exhorbitant 
Prices of all articles, Lay'd us under the necessity of aug- 
menting their Pay to five Pounds Pr month, the men to Be 
engag'd for the space of nine months, unless sooner dis- 
charg'd. These People Have Repeatedly apply'd to me, 
praying their Situation to Be Lay'd Before Councill, and 
Assureing Councill of their determinations to make a Stand 
— if they meet with this necessary Assistance. They Like- 
wise Pray that a Suitable person may be Appointed to Lay 


a Small Store of Provisions at each Post to Supply Scouting 
Party, or other troops who may be Employ'd as Guards. If 
these measures are aproven by Oouncill the People will 
Stand, and if Rejected, I have the Greatest Eeasons to Be- 
lieve, that upon the first alarm from Indians A great Part of 
our County will Be Left desolate." 

But Col. Piper had exceeded his authority. The Council 
replied that they were surprised that he was enlisting men 
for nine months ; they had intended that he should call out 
the militia as a temporary measure ; it was expected that the 
people of the county would more cheerfull / exert ihemselves 
in their own defence than enter a service more distant, and 
therefore they were not called upon to meet and oppose the 
King's army, out were permittted to remain at home. The 
enlisting of men for so long a term was improper and unne- 
cessary ; there was no fund for the payment of them, and the 
proposed increase of pay was a sufficient reason against it, as 
the militia of other counties would claim the same rates. 
There were legal objections to Col. Piper's action, which it 
was not within the power of the Council to remove, and 
therefore they had no other discretion than to disapprove of 
it. This failure to provide a military force was followed by 
others. In fact, there cannot be said to have been any very 
efficient protection of the kind during the war. There was no 
intentional neglect of duty, no want of earnestness, courage 
and patriotism, but as the unorganized, predatory warfare of 
the Indians could have but little eft'ect on the ultimate results 
of the contest, it was but wisdom on the part of the State and 
Federal governments not to divide their strength, but to re- 
serve it for the greater foe that was to be met on other fields 

Many of the events of those times cannot be better illus- 
trated than in the letters of the principal actors in them. I 
will insert, in their proper places, several that were written 
from Huntingdon, during the most active period of the 
operations in the public defence. 

On the 23d of April, 1778, Robert Smith sent the follow- 
ing note to Robert Clugage, a citizen of the county and an 
officer in the continental service : 


" Sir: Be pleased to send Expresses to Lt. Carotliers by 
first opportunity, to give him some account of insurrections 
on the South mountain, and Likewise to enspect very closely 
into who is abroad at this time, and upon what occasion, as 
there is a suspision, by information, of other insurections 
Rising in other parts of the county of Camberland, and in 
so Doing you will oblidge your friend, to serve, 

Robert Smith." 

On that day General Daniel Roberdeau was in Hunting- 
don, on bis way to Sinking Valley to superintend the mining 
of lead for the revolutionary army. He forwarded the above 
note to Lieat. Oarothers, commanding in Cumberland coun- 
ty, in the following letter : 

"Standing Stone, April 23, 1778. 

" Sir : The enclosed was put into my hands to be for- 
warded to you by express. The intelligence it contains is 
abundantly confirmed by several persons. I have examined 
both fugitives from the frontiers and some volunteers who 
have returned for an imediate supply of ammunition and 
provisions, to be sent forward to Sinking Spring Valley, as 
the Troops will be obliged to quit the service without they 
are supplied without Delay. Want of arms prevents those 
who would turn out. I shall furnish what I brought from 
Carlisle as soon as they come forward, but it is very unfor- 
tunate that these arms and the amunition which is coming 
by waiter have been retarded by some contrary wind, and 
probably the Lowness of the Watter. To remedy this I 
have Dispatched two canoes this morning to meet them on 
the way. I am giving Mr. Brown, who is here, every as- 
sistanee in my power, but your aid is greatly wanted to 
stimulate the militia and furnish arms, Amunition, pack- 
horses, and everything necessary in your Line of Duty. The 
insurgents from this Neighborhood, I am informed, are 
about thirty; one of them (Hess) has been taken and con- 
fession extorted, from which it appears that his Banditti ex- 
pect to be joined by 300 men from the other side of the 
Aleganey ; reports more vague mention 1,000 Whites and 
Savages. The supply of provisions for so great a number 


renders it improbable, but in answer to this I have been in- 
formed by the most credable in this neighborhood, that 
strangers, supposed to be from Detroit, have been this 
winter among the Disafiected Inhabitants, and have removed 
with them. If you have authority to call out the militia, in 
proportion to the exigence of the times, I think it of great 
importance that a considerable number of men should be 
immediately embodied and sent forward to meet the enemy, 
for it cannot be expected that the Volunteers will long con- 
tinue in Service, and I find that the recruiting the three 
companies goes on too slow to expect a seasonable supply 
from them of any considerable number ; if you have not 
authority to call the necessary aid of militia, you no doubt 
will apply to the Hons. the Council, and may furnish them 
with my sentiments, and to the board of war with arms and 
Amunition. With ten men here under the command of 
Lieut. Clugage, in Continental service, until the 1st Dec. 
next, I intend to move forward as soon as the arms, ammu- 
nition and other things comes forward, to afford an escort to 
Sinking Spring Valley, where I shall be glad to meet as 
great a number of militia as you will station there, to en- 
able me to erect a Stockade, to secure the works so neces- 
sary to the public service, and give confidence to frontier 
Inhabitants, by affording an Assylum for their women and 
children. These objects, I doubt not, you will think worthy 
your immediate attention and utmost exertion, which I can 
assure you, making the fullest allowance for the timidity of 
some and credulity of others, is a very serious matter, for 
without immediate aid the frontiers will be evacuated, for 
all that I have been able to say has been of no avail with 
the fugitives I have met on the roads, a most Distressing 
sight of men, women and children, flying through fear of a 
cruel enemy." 

Although the tories were threatening vengeance against all 
who had taken the oath of allegiance to the new government, 
their power was entirely incommensurate with the dread 
they inspired. Their strength and numbers were greatly 
exaggerated by the wild and unfounded rumors that prevailed, 


causing genuine fears to grow out of imaginary dangers. 
General Eoberdeau, while speaking of " the timidity of some 
and credulity of others," gave full credence to many of these 
rumors and did not express a disbelief in any of them. 
Other officers were as much inclined as he to regard them as 
true, and repeated them in communications to the Council, 
as intelligence to be taken into consideration and acted upon 
in providing measures for the public safety. On the 24th 
of April, 1778, Lieut. Carothers reported to the President of 
the Council, that he had received, through Col, McAlevy, an 
account that a body of nearly three hundred and twenty 
tories had collected in and above Standing Stone, and had 
driven a number of the inhabitants from the town, that 
Colonels Buchanan and Brown had marched with a few men 
to the defence of the place, and that he was impatiently 
awaiting the issue. But our soil did not become a battle- 
ground, as there was no enemy to be found. 

Troops, arms and amuuition were sent by Lieut. Carothers, 
about the same time, to General Roberdeau, in Sinking Val- 
ley. This force consisted of seventy privates and eighteen 
muskets. The latter^ added to the arms which the General 
had taken with him, were considered sufficient for that 

The tories at this time were concocting schemes in secret, 
their meetings being frequently held at the house of their 
leader, John Weston, in Canoe Valley, west of Water Street. 
When they were ready to attempt the consummation of their 
plans, he was chosen their commander, a most fortunate 
selection, in view of its consequences, for the almost defence- 
less people, whose lives and property would have paid the 
forfeit, had not disaster overtaken their enemy before he had 
an opportunity of striking a blow. The only cotemporary 
account of their movements and fate, is given in a letter from 
Col. John I'iper, written at Bedtord, May 4th, 1778. It is 
as follows: 

" An affair of the most alarming nature (and as I believe 
altogether unprecedented) has happened lately in a Corner 
of this County, and w'ch I could not think myself justifiable 


in not communicating to the Honorable tlie Supreme Execu- 
tive Council of this State: a Number of evil minded Persons, 
to the amount of thirty-five, (I think) having actually asso- 
ciated together, marched away toward the Indian Country in 
order to join the Indians, and to conduct them into the In- 
habitance, and thus united, kill burn and destroy Men, 
Women and Children. 

" They came up with a body of Indians near or at the 
Kittanings, and in conferring with them, they, the Indians, 
suspecting some design in the white People, on w'ch one of 
their Chiefs shot one Weston, who was the Ring-leader of 
the Tories, and scalp'd him before the Rest, and immediately 
(as if Divine Providence, ever attentive to BafQe and defeat 
the Schemes and Measures of wicked Men) the rest fled and 

"A very considerable number of the well-affected Inhab- 
itants having, as soon as their combination and march was 
known, pursued them and met five of them, and yesterday 
brought them under a strong guard to the County Goal. 

"They confess their Crime and Intention of destroying 
both Men and Property ; as these people, thus in open rebel- 
lion, are so numerous, there is great reason to believe them 
as a part of a greater whole, in some dangerous confederacy 
with the Common Enemy, either in Phila. or Detroit." 

Those of Weston's men who escaped capture never re- 
turned to the Juniata Valley. It is said that most of them 
went west to Fort Pitt, and from thence to the south, and 
that their families ultimately followed them. The fear of 
the tories,soon passed away from the public mind. There 
was a vague dread for a time after the tragedy at Kittanning 
that a tory force would make its appearance at some un- 
guarded point or moment, but the people soon learned that 
such apprehensions were groundless, much to their relief, 
we may feel assured, after two years of trepidation and alarm. 
The only enemy that remained was the Indian, against 
whom protection was necessary four years longer. 



In June, 1778, Lieut. Carothers, wlio seems to have been 
a very energetic and eflScient oflEicer, sent sixty of the Cum- 
berland county militia to Kishacoquillas and Standing Stone 
valleys. The men had not responded very freely to his call 
and he could not send a larger force. It was with still greater 
difficulty that they were armed. The people of those 
valleys, and doubtless of all other localities exposed to at- 
tack, on getting arms into their hands, whether public or 
private, would refuse to surrender them, as they did not 
know the hour when they might have use for them. Every 
man felt the necessity of being prepared to defend himself 
and his household when threatened by danger, especially 
when the only military protection consisted of a few undis- 
ciplined men, scattered over an extensive frontier. In the 
want of confidence and security which prevailed, it is not 
strange that the pioneer preferred to retain the weapons in 
his own possession rather than to give them up to others, 
who might not be within reach to give him assistance when 
it was needed. On the 19th of May, 1779, General James 
Potter wrote from Penn's Valley, that " that small company 
of 30 men has encurredged the people of standing stoan 
Valley to stand as yet, altho' it is too few for that place." 
If these thirty were part of the men sent by Lieut. Caro- 
thers, then the other thirty had probably remained at Kiah- 


In a circular to the County Lieutenants, issued by the 
Council at Philadelphia, July 16, 1778, it is stated "that 
Col. Broadhead's regiment, now on a march to Pittsburg, is 
ordered by the Board of War to the Standing Stone, and we 
have ordered three hundred militia from Cumberland 
and two hundred from York county to join them." It is 
not likely that the Board of War had any intention of 
changing the destination of Col. Broadhead's command, or that 
its remain at Huntingdon was to be more than temporary. 
There is some evidence that the regiment was there on the 
8th of August. On that day Council wrote to Dr. Shippen, 
that "beside the militia at Sunbury, there are two other 
bodies in Continental service which will also require a sup- 
ply of medicine — one body of five hundred men at Standing 
Stone, on Juniata, in Bedford county ; the other, consisting 
of four hundred and fifty men, at or near Easton. You will 
therefore please to pay attention to these two bodies at the 
same time that those at Sunbury are supplied." These 
troops had left Huntingdon before the next spring, as Gen- 
eral Potter, in his letter heretofore referred to, said: "I 
can't help being surprised that there has been no militia 
sent to that part of Bedford county that Joynes us ; neither 
to Frankstown or Standing Stone, except that small com- 
pany of Buchanan's Batallion that would not go to Fort 

In the early part of 1779 Congress adopted resolutions 
authorizing the raising of five companies of rangers for ser- 
vice on the frontiers for a term of nine months. One of 
these was to be raised in Bedford county, and Capt. Thomas 
Clugage, brother of Major Robert Clugage, who was subse- 
quently in command at Huntingdon, was appointed to the 
command of it. As Capt. Clugage resided within the pres- 
ent limits of Huntingdon county, he recruited his company 
principally within the territory of which it was afterwards 
formed, now constituting Huntingdon and Blair counties. 

We are at a loss for information in regard to his success 
in recruiting, as he either failed to report his progress to the 
proper authorities as promptly as required, or his returns, 


as he alleged, were miscarried and failed to reacli their des- 
tination. On the 26th of June, Joseph Reed, President of 
the Council, inquired of him by letter, "the exact state of 
the company." To this there was no reply, probably for the 
reason that he could not make a creditable report. He 
wrote from Fort Roberdeau, the fort at the lead mines, 
named after General Roberdeau, on the 6th of August, that 
he had arrived at that post that morning, bringing with him 
what men he could collect on the way. He meant, no doubt, 
that he had obtained some additional recruits between Hunt- 
ingdon and the fort, and not that he had no other men than 
those whom he had collected. His statement, however, was 
so indefinite and unsatisfactory that President Reed wrote to 
him in a very peremptory manner on the 20th of August. It 
was with great concern that the Council had found that he 
had not yet made any return of his transactions in recruiting 
his company ; they had been informed that he had indulged 
his men by permitting them to go to their homes ; such con- 
duct was very disagreeable to the Council and disreputable 
to him, more especially as gentlemen of note in the county 
were complaining that their protection wa? neglected ; there 
was certainly something wrong which he was required to 
rectify without delay ; he was directed to take such station 
as Col. Piper should think most for the interests of the coun- 
ty and the frontier generally, and was recommended to exert 
himself to satisfy the just expectations of the public and ren- 
der the services for which the company was raised. 

Having given the purport of the charges against him, it 
is but proper that I should give his reply in vindication of 

. Fort Roberdeau, Oct. 10th, 1779. 

" Sir : I received your Letter some time agoe, Daited 
Aug't 20th, which Surprised me very much that you have 
not Received my Returns of my Progress in Recruiting at 
Different times before the Date of your Letter, as I have 
sent Expresses with Different Letters as far down as Carlisle, 
allowing them to be forwarded by the first opportunity from 
thare. But it's likely they ware miscarried by some means, 


therefore would be glad to know bj wbat means I am to 
send you returns — whether by Express or no; if by Express 
how they are to be furnished with money to pay Expenses. 

" You say you have been informed I have Indulged my men 
with letting them go to their homes, I acknowledge I have 
Indulged a few of them, such as had Grain to Eeep, (and 
save it) as it appeared to me to be a loss to the" State to let 
grain be destroyed for want of reaping whare it is so very 
scarce as it is on the frontier, rendered so from the different 
Incursions of the enemy. I am very much Surprised to 
hear that Gentlemen of Note in the County have had reasons 
to Complain of me, as I am conscious I have done every 
thing that could be expected from me towards Protecting 
the Suffering Frontiers of this County. But, Sir, I must in- 
form you that there are Gentlemen in this County that 
would not be satisfied with my Conduct, Except I would 
furnish them and their familyes with a guard at their own 
houses, so that they might follow their Labour without 
Dangour ; however, that is out of my power ; for it would 
take at least a regament to afford that Protection to every 
family in the Quarter I am stationed in, and have grate 
reason to think it must be some of these Gentlemen that 
Layed the Complaint ; therefore, in order to Justify my 
Caracter, would take it as a favour if you would let me know 
the Gentlemen's names by first opportunity. 

" My Company has been Eevewed, and Past muster — 3 
Officers & 43 Eank and file, one of the Latter Killed or 
taken. I have made application to Mr. Carson for the neces- 
saries promised — have received some of them. But no Blan- 
kets except four ; they are very necessary at this Season of the 
year, and Can't be done without ; therefore would be glad 
Mr. Carson Could be furnished with them by some means, 
as I have promised them to the men. Would be glad to 
know who I must apply to pay the Doctor's Bills, as I have 
been under the necessity of applying to one for some of my 
company, and paid him out of my own pocket." 

While Capt. Clugage's company was being recruited, it 
was not the intention to rely on it for the protection of the 


whole section of country in which it was to be stationed, but 
efforts were made to organize and send militia from other 
counties. In February, 1779, President Reed went to con- 
sult with General Washington on this subject, and, as the re- 
sult of their conference, orders were issued in March, imme- 
diately after his return, for the calling out of two hundred 
and fifty men from Lancaster and York counties for service 
in Bedford and Westmoreland, one hundred and twenty-five 
for each of the latter. These orders were almost wholly 
disregarded ; at least, they were never complied with. Lan- 
caster showed some disposition to obey, but York failed en- 
tirely, and Lancaster, influenced by her example, did like- 
wise. In the following July, President Eeed wrote to Col. 
Piper that the failure of those counties was a proper subject 
for inquiry by the Assembly. 

In the autumn of that year the danger of an evacuation of 
the country had greatly increased. The protection afforded 
the people was so insufficient that it seemed for a time that 
there would soon be no people to protect. In this emergency 
Col. Martin, one of the sub-lieutenants, thought it his duty 
to call out more of the militia of Bedford county, but it was 
found that there was not a grain of powder with which to 
supply them. In a letter to Council, dated September 15th, 
1779, the situation of the country was represented as deplor- 
able : "It has been our misfortune not to have had a single 
man (during that summer) either for our own defense or es- 
corting stores to Fort Pitt, except a few of our own tired out 
militia and a few of Capt. Clugage's company, who don't seem 
to be extended wide enough and only afford protection to 
one corner." From the disposition that was made of troops, 
when any were available, it seems that the northern part of 
Bedford county, or that now embraced within Huntingdon, 
was as well, if not better, guarded than any other. 

Cumberland county was the most ready to give assistance 
when called upon to do so. It was a matter of self-interest 
to her to confine hostilities to the territory of her western 
neighbor, and to keep the enemy as far from her own bor- 
ders as possible. But the presence of her citizens, armed 


and equipped to repel the savages, was hailed with no less 
gratification on that account by the dwellers upon the fron- 
tiers. In the spring of 1780 a party from that county 
" marched out to waylay the gaps of the Allegheny moun- 
tains." They found no Indians, but manifested a spirit 
which was highly commended by Major Robert Clugage, in 
command at Huntingdon. He said that they were "willing 
to keep out a scout constantly, and run their chance for pay, 
if they could be kept in provisions." As to the latter, 
'Squire Brown had proposed to find flour, salt and whiskey, 
and there was nothing but meat wanting. 

Huntingdon was at that time a depot for supplies. How 
long it had been so we do not know. In May, 1780, the 
removal of the stores was under consideration, and, perhaps, 
fully decided upon, at which the people were very much 
dissatisfied, and protested against it. They had no doubt 
greater objections to the troops being taken away, a guard 
being necessary at the place while the public property was 
there. Major Clugage had detailed sixteen men for the pur- 
pose, who, he says, were "to do proper duty as enlisted 
troops, and in case of misbehaving, to be punished as the 

In the meantime the term of enlistment of Capt. Clugage's 
company had expired. This occured in the winter or spring 
of 1780. His men were discharged and their arms left in 
the county. Capt. Clugage was afterwards in the service. 
One company, if not more, was raised in Bedford county, 
towards the latter part of the war, some of the members of 
which were from the present limits of Huntingdon county, 
and sent to the front in the eastern part of the State. Col. 
John Fee, who resided opposite the mouth of the Raystown 
branch, was one of the soldiers who went from this vicinity. 
He was not an oflSicer during the war, but took great interest 
in military affairs after its close. 

Nothing occurred to change the situation during the fol- 
lowing year. The next important event was the division of 
the county into military districts or battalions. One of 
these was composed of the townships of Dublin, Shirley, 


Barree, Hopewell, Frankstown and Huntingdon, names 
which, with the exception of Frankstown, are still familiar 
in Huntingdon county. 

In connection with this division first appears the name of 
Col. George Ashman. He had come from Maryland, and 
had settled where Orbisonia now stands, and where he after- 
wards built Bedford Furnace. On the day following the 
promulgation of the order dividing the county into districts 
— May 19th, 1781 — Col. Ashman wrote to President Reed : 
" I have just received the returns of all the male white in- 
habitants residing in this (Bedford) county that come under 
the militia law, in the whole fourteen hundred and fifty-six, 
and am now forming them. I hope your Excellency will 
order one hundred of the militia of Cumberland county to 
be ready to take post in this county when those that are now 
here are discharged, which will be the fourteenth day of 
June, or send me such orders as will enable me to call out 
the militia of this county from the interior parts of it by that 
time. If this is omitted, I can assure your Excellency that 
a principal part of the inhabitants of this county will move 
off, as many families have already moved when the late dam- 
age was done." 

On the 3d of June, Col. Ashman, in consequence of the 
reported massacre of thirty soldiers between Bedford and 
Frankstown, called upon Col. Buchanan, at Kishacoquillas, 
to exert himself " in getting men to go up to the Stone." 
On the next day Col. Brown and his command marched to 
Huntingdon in response to this call. 

Later in the same month, Col. Ashman exhibited the 
greatest anxiety concerning the situation of the county and 
the furnishing of assistance to the people to prevent 
them from fleeing. Within two days of the time when 
the Cumberland county militia were to be discharged, 
he was informed that no orders had been issued for others 
to take their places. He became alarmed for the safety of 
his own family, and determined to remove them to Mary- 
land, as he was convinced that the settlements could not 
make a stand against the enemy. Whether he carried out 


this intention, Eichard Ashman, esq., his descendant, could 
not inform the writer. 

The war was then approaching a close. Lord Cornwallis 
surrendered on the 19th day of October, 1781. But peace 
with the Indians was longer delayed. In May, 1782, the 
Cumberland county militia were still moving forward to the 
posts near the gaps in the Allegheny mountains. On the 
13th of that month, Bernard Dougherty, Treasurer of Bed- 
ford county, and a member of the Assembly, wrote from 
"Huntingdon, or the Standing Stone town," that "a company 
of Cumberland militia, consisting of thirty-five men, arrived 
here yesterday on their way to Frankstown garrrison, where 
they are to be joined by Capt. Boyd's ranging company. 
The people in the frontiers of this county are mostly fled 
from their habitations. As yet nothing has happened in this 
county, but we are afraid a stroke will be made next moon- 

In that month General Carlton arrived from England, suc- 
ceeded Sir Henry Clinton in command of the British forces, 
and entered into negotiations for peace. From a period not 
long after his arrival no parties of Indians were sent out, 
and messengers were dispatched to recall those who had 
gone before that time. This was the end not only of Indian 
hostilities under British influence and in the British 
interests, but the end of them forever. Beginning in 1754) 
when the French and Indian alliance was formed, the war- 
fare of the savages against the frontier settlers had con- 
tinued without intermission, except that at some periods it 
was more active than at others, for twenty-eight years. 

The trials, the perils and the sufferings of those times will 
never be fully known. Cotemporary records of what then 
occurred are meagre and imperfect. We find among them 
references to murders and depredations by the Indians. 
Many of these can be traced to unfounded rumors, which 
were likely to originate in widely scattered communities, 
where the people were in constant fear and danger. Au- 
thentic accounts of savage atrocities are so few as to scarcely 
afford us an idea of the times or enable us to correctly write 


their history. The more recent attempts to gather the nar- 
ratives of these events, and to present them in connected 
form, have not led to satisfactory results. The sources of 
reliable information were so limited, that it was necessary 
te draw the data or alleged facts from sources that were un- 
worthy of confidence. Traditionary statements, after they 
have passed from one generation to another, are not entitled 
to credence, because of the weakness of memory, on the one 
hand, and the disposition of many persons to add to a story, 
on the other. An author receiving a highly colored account 
of an occurrence, may, if his own imagination be vivid, and 
if he be disposed to romance rather than truth, write a vol- 
ume which will be pronounced interesting, but which ought 
to be presented to the world under some other title than 
that of history. In the present work, I have endeavored to 
state nothing positively that is not corroborated by in- 
dubitable evidence. 



The division of Pennsylvania into counties was made dur- 
ing William Penn's first visit to the province. He was 
here at that time nearly two years, arriving in 1682, and re- 
turning to England in 168-i, The counties formed by him 
were Philadelphia, Buclis and Chester, the lines of separa- 
tion between which were confirmed by the Provincial Coun- 
cil on the 2d of April, 1685. The only boundaries desig- 
nated were those where these counties adjoined each other- 
Their limits in other directions were undefined. They were 
co-extensive with the province itself. Chester embraced 
the greatest extent of territory, and from it many other 
counties have since been erected. The present county of 
Huntingdon was originally a part of Chester. I will follow 
the several successive steps by which it became included in 
other counties, until it was given a distinct and separate 

Lancaster county was established by Act of Assembly of 
May 10th, 1729. It was separated from Chester and Phila- 
delphia counties by a line running from Octoraro creek in a 
northeastward direction to the Schuylkill, and included all 
of the province lying west of that line. 

By an Act of Assembly passed the 27th day of January, 
1750, the lands lying "to the westward of Susquehanna, and 
northward and westward of the county of York," were cre- 
ated into a county to be called Cumberland. It was but a 
short time previous to that year that events of a historical 
character began to occur within the present territory of 
Huntingdon county. 


Bedford was formed by an Act passed March 9tli, 1771, 
"for erecting part of the county of Caraberland into a sepa- 
rate county." 

From it Huntingdon county was erected, on the 20th day 
of September, 1787. The following are the preamble of the 
Act and the section defining the boundaries of the county : 

"Whereas, it hath been represented to the General Assem- 
bly of this State, by the inhabitants of that part of Bedford 
county which lies on the waters of the Frankstown branch 
of the Juniata, the lower part of the Raystown branch of 
the same, the Standing Stone Yalley, part of Woodcock 
Valley, the waters of Aughwick Creek, and other north- 
easterly parts of the said county of Bedford, that they labor 
under great hardships from their great distance from the 
present seat of justice, and the public offices for the said 
county, now in the town of Bedford : For remedy whereof, 

" Be it enacted, etc. That all and singular the lands lying 
within the bounds and limits herein after described and 
following, shall be, and are hereby, erected into a separate 
county by the name of Huntingdon county ; namely, begin- 
ning in the line of Bedford and Franklin counties, where the 
new state road, (by some called Skinner's road,) leading 
from Shippensburg to Littleton, crosses the Tuscarora 
mountain ; thence in a straight course or line, to the Gap in 
the Shade mountain, where the road formerly called Potts' 
road crosses the same, about two miles north of Littleton ; 
thence by a straight line to the Old Gap, in Sideling Hill, 
where Sideling Hill creek crosses the mountain ; thence 
in a straight line by the northerly side of Sebastian Shoub's 
mill, on the Raystown Branch of Juniata; thence on a straight 
line to the Elk Gap, in Tussey's mountain ; computed to be 
about nineteen miles above or southwesterly of the town of 
Huntingdon,(formerly called the Standing Stone) and from the 
said Elk Gap, in a straight line, to the Gap at Jacob Steven's 
mill, a little below where Woolery's mill formerly stood, in 
Morrison's cove ; thence in a straight line by the southerly 
side of Blair's mill, at the foot of the Allegheny mountain ; 
thence across the said mountain, in a straight line, to and 


along the ridges dividing the waters of Conemaugh from the 
waters of Clearfield and Chest creeks, to the line of West- 
moreland county ; thence by the same to the old purchase 
line, which was run from Kittanning to the West branch of 
Susquehanna river ; and along the said line to the said west 
branch, and down the same to the mouth of Moshannon 
creek, and along the remaining lines or boundaries which 
now divide the county of Bedford from the counties of North- 
umberland, Cumberland and Franklin, to the place of be- 

Although, as recited in the preamble, there was a general 
movement in favor of the erection of the new county in all 
parts of the territory proposed to be included within it, yet 
the measure received the most strenuous opposition, and it 
was only after a determined struggle that its passage was 

It contained the usual provisions for the holding of courts 
of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace and of Common 
Pleas, fixing the first Tuesday in the months of December, 
March, June and September, as the time for their sessions, 
and that they should be held at the house of Ludwig Sell, in 
the town of Huntingdon, until a court-house should be 

In reference to the location of the county seat and the 
erection of county buildings, the act provided as follows : 

"And whereas the petitioners for erecting the said county, 
have unanimously represented to this house, that the 
town of Huntingdon, on the river Juniata, is a proper 
and central place for the seat of justice in the said county ; 
and the proprietor of said town, at the desire and with the 
approbation of the inhabitants and owners of lots and build- 
ings in the same, hath laid off and set apart a proper and 
sufficient quantity of grounds, for the site of a court house, 
county goal and prison, and hath engaged to give, assure and 
convey the same to the commonwealth, in trust and for the 
use and benefit of the said county ; provided the said town 
of Huntingdon shall be fixed upon by law as a proper place 
for the seat of justice in the said county : Therefore, 


^'■Be it further enacted, etc., That Benjamin Elliott, Thomas 
Duncan Smith, Ludwig Sell, George Ashman and William 
McBlevj, be, and they are hereby appointed trustees for the 
said county of Huntingdon, and they, or any three of them, 
shall take assurance of and for the lands and grounds pro- 
posed to be appropriated as aforesaid, in the said town of 
Huntingdon, for the site of a court house and county goal 
or prison, and shall take care that the quantity of ground so 
to be appropriated be sufficient and convenient for the pub- 
lic purposes aforesaid, and as little detrimental as possible 
to the proprietors and owners of contiguous lots and build- 
ings ; which assurance and conveyance of the grounds, as 
aforesaid, the said trustees, or any three of them, shall take 
in the name of the commonwealth, in trust, and for the use 
and benefit of the said county of Huntingdon, and thereupon 
erect a court house and prison, suflBcient to accommodate 
the public service of said county." 

The townships then within the county were Huntingdon, 
Barree, Tyrone, Frankstown, Hopewell, Woodberry, Shirley 
and Dublin, in addition to which the town of Huntingdon 
formed a separate district. These had formed the whole or 
parts of the third, fifth and sixth election districts in Bed- 
ford county. No changes were made in the extent or boun- 
daries of these districts by the act erecting the county, ex- 
cept that twd of them — the third and sixth — were divided 
by the line separating Huntingdoa and Bedford counties, 
part of them remaining in the latter. The places of holding 
elections in the former were fixed or removed ; that for the 
third district to the house of George Clugage, in Hunting- 
don ; for the fifth district, to Shirley township ; and for the 
sixth district, to the house of David Lowrey, in Tyrone 
township. In calculating the distances that voters were re- 
quired to travel in those days for the privilege of depositing 
their ballots, we must remember that the area of the county 
was then almost twice as great as at present, part of it 
having since been taken in the formation of Centre, Cam- 
bria and Blair counties. These three voting places may 
seem to have been a small number for so large a territory, 


but they were probably sufficient when compared with the 
population, as the county contained, at the enumeration in 
1790, but 7,565 inhabitants, of whom probably not more than 
two-thirds were within its present limits. In 1793 it con- 
tained 1,717 taxables. But before the year 1798 three new 
districts had been formed, and afterwards others were cre- 
ated almost annually. It was not many years until the 
Legislature commenced the making of districts out of single 

Immediately after the erection of the county, offices were 
established for the transaction of the public business and 
appointaients made to fill them. 

Lazarus B. McClain was appointed Clerk of the Court of 
Quarter Sessions, Orphans' Court, Justice of the County 
Court, and Prothonotary, and was commissioned September 
25th, 1787. 

Andrew Henderson was appointed Recorder of Deeds, 
Register of Wills, etc., and Justice of the County Court, to 
which offices he was commissioned September 29th, 1787, 
and Prothonotary, to which he was commissioned Decem- 
ber 18th, 1787. 

Benjamin Elliott was appointed Sheriff and commissioned 
October 22nd, 1787, and Lieutenant of the county, commis- 
sioned November 30th, 1787. 

Robert Galbraith was appointed President of the County 
Court of Common Pleas, Orphans' Court, and Court of Gen- 
eral Quarter Sessions of the Peace and Jail Delivery, and 
commissioned November 23rd, 1787. 

Thomas Duncan Smith, of the town of Huntingdon, John 
Williams, of Huntingdon township, Thomas McCune, of 
Tyrone township, and William Phillips, of Woodberry 
township, were commissioned Justices of the county, No- 
vember 23rd, 1787. 

Samuel Thompson was appointed Coroner, and commis- 
sioned November 30th, 1787. 

David McMurtrie was appointed Treasurer and filed his 
bond, with Samuel Anderson and Alexander Dean as sure- 
ties, December 5th, 1787. He resigned the office soon after, 


however, the renunciation of the Commissioners releasing 
him and his sureties from further liability on the bond being 
dated June 28th, 1787. 

The house of Ludwig Sell, in which the act of Assembly 
erecting the county provided that the courts should be held, 
was situated on the southern end of lot number 7, in the 
plan of the town, fronting on Allegheny street, between St. 
Clair and Smith, now Second and Third streets. It was a 
double two-story log building, kept as a tavern by Sell, 
and was the first public house in the place. The room in 
which the courts sat, the largest in it, was at the lower or 
eastern end. It afterwards passed into the possession of 

Haines, who also kept a tavern. The lot is now owned 

by Mr. Thomas Fisher, by whom the old building has been 
torn away and a spacious brick dwelling erected, fronting on 
Penn street. 

The first court house built by the county stood in Third 
street, between Penn and Allegheny, about fifteen feet from 
and fronting towards the former. It was a substantial 
three-story brick edifice. One of the stories was a basement, 
having an entrance from the southern side, in which were 
the offices of the Prothonotary, Eegister, Recorder and 
Clerks of the Courts. Some time after its erection, a bell 
was placed upon it for the purpose of calling the courts, but 
previously it had been customary to escort the justices to 
the court house with the fife and drum, and suitors, jurors 
and witnesses were summoned to their duties by the same 

The bell was a large one, weighing two hundred and fifty 
four pounds, and had inscribed upon it: " Cast by Samuel 
Parker, Philadelphia, 1798. William Smith, D. D. to the 
Borongh of Huntingdon, Juniata." After the demolition 
of the building, in May, 1848, the bell was placed upon the 
public school-house and was used until December 12th, 
1861. That being a frosty morning, on ringing for school, it 
was broken. 

The present court house stands upon the northern side of 
Penn street, between Second and Third, occupying the lots 


from 31 to S-i, inclusive. These lots, before becoming the 
property of Huntingdon county, were owned by Stephen 
Drury and John Cadwallader, the former owning lot No. 31 
and the latter owning Nos. 32, 33 and 34. On the 6th of 
August, 1793, Cadwallader executed a mortgage to the com- 
missioners of the county, for the use of the Commonwealth, 
on his lots, for $300, and on the 31st of the same month, 
Drury executed a similar mortgage for $100. In 1839, the 
Legislature passed a resolution, which was approved by 
Governor Porter on the 25th day of June, in that year, 
transferring, the "lien, right, title and claim of the Common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania of, in and to" the lots, under the mort- 
gages, to the "county of Huntingdon, for the use and purpose 
of building by said county of a court house and other necessary 
buildings for the said county, therewith and thereon, and for 
such other uses as the commissioners of said county shall 
hereafter determine." A writ of scire facias had been issued 
on the Cadwallader mortgage in 1810, and judgment obtained, 
which had been revived at various times before the transfer 
to the county. It was again revived in 1839, when the debt 
amounted to $1,943.25. The lots were then sold at Sheriff's 
sale, and bought by the county commissioners for $1,000. A 
scire facias was issued on the Drury mortgages in the same 
year, and judgment obtained for $325.50, on which the lot 
was sold and bought by the commissioners. 

The building was commenced soon afterwards, and was 
completed in 1842. Its location, although not central, as 
the town has developed itself during the last ten years, is 
convenient for those whose business requires them most 
frequently to be there. Some improvements are needed 
and have been in contemplation, and after they shall have 
been made, it will probably be many years before a re- 
moval will be seriously urged. 

The surroundings of the court house are pleasant, and, in 
the summer, beautiful. In front of it, on Penn street, are 
two parallel rows of white maples, which cast a deep shade 
when in their verdure. Within the enclosure are a number 
of trees of the same species. 


The necessity for a jail began quite as early as that for a 
court house. A building that had been erected before the 
formation of the county was first used for the purpose. Its 
location is now unknown. In a letter written at that time, it 
is mentioned as a " block-house." It may have been the re- 
mains of the old fort built during the Revolutionary war. 

On the 25th of August, 1791, in pursuance of the agree- 
ment under which Huntingdon had been made the county 
seat, Dr. Smith conveyed lot No. 41 to Benjamin Elliott, 
Ludwig Sell, George Ashman, William McAlevy, Richard 
Smith and Andrew Henderson, trustees, as a site for a 
county prison. A log jail was erected thereon, which, after 
standing some years, was destroyed by fire. There was a 
prisoner in it at the time, whom it was impossible to rescue, 
and he was burned with the building. This lot was on the 
east side of St. Clair (now Second) street, directly opposite 
the end of Hill, now Penn, the latter, according to the plan 
of the town, extending only to the former street. The 
turnpike, when made through Huntingdon, was passed over 
this lot, and it has become a continuation of the street to- 
wards Stone creek. 

The next jail was erected in Smith (now Third) street, 
north of Mifflin. It was a small stone structure, standing 
back against the hill, with a yard in front of it, running 
down towards the street. 

In 1829, it gave place to the present prison, which stands 
south of the old site, on the line of Mifflin street, the yard 
extending back to Church street. It is doubtful whether 
this building is a fair specimen of the architecture of the day 
in which it was built. It certainly compares very unfavor- 
ably with the prisons of later times, and the health and safety 
of prisoners can only be secured by the erection of a new 

Having undertaken to give the history of only the 
territory now embraced within Huntingdon county, we will 
follow the various steps by which its boundaries have been 
ascertained and defined, and its area reduced to its present 


On the 3d day of April, 1789, the Supreme Executive 
Council appointed Benjamin Elliott, of Huntingdon, Mat- 
thew Taylor, of Bedford, and James Harris, of Cumberland 
county, to run and ascertain the boundaries of Huntingdon 

The county of Mifflin was erected on the 19th day of Sep- 
tember, 1789. When an attempt was made to run the boundary 
line between that county and Huntingdon, a dispute arose con- 
cerning a small strip of territory that was claimed by both. 
The sherifl'ofthe latter, on going upon the disputed ground 
to serve writs that had been placed in his hands, was con- 
fronted by a party that had assembled for the purpose of re- 
sisting him in the execution of his official duties, taken into 
custody and incarcerated in the Lewistown jail. He was re- 
leased from imprisonment on a writ habeas corpus, and sub- 
sequently returned to the place with the posse comitatus^ 
The people again assembled to make a resistance, but they 
and the sheriff's -posse failed to meet, and further violence 
was avoided. 

These difficulties were settled by legislative action. On 
the jfirst of April, 1791, an act was passed reciting that some 
dissatisfaction hath arisen respecting the boundary line be- 
tween the counties of Huntingdon and Mifflin, on the south 
side ot the river Juniata, which was run in the year one thou- 
sand seven hundred and eigthy-nine, "designating where the 
line should be, and appointing commissioners to run it." 

By another act, passed March 29th, 1792, a new designa- 
tion was given to the line, as follows : "A straight line, be- 
ginning in the middle of the Water Gap in the Tuscarora 
mountain, and from thence to the river Juniata, in such 
direction as to include Joseph Galloway's farm within Hun- 
tingdon county, at the mouth of Galloway's run, shall be the 
line between Huntingdon and Mifflin counties." This was 
the end of the controversy. 

The original territory of Huntingdon county has been 
much reduced in extent by the formation of new counties. 
A part of it was taken in the erection of Centre, February 
13th, 1800. The line between the two counties was fixed, 


by Act of January 7tli, 1801, as beginning " at a point on 
the Tussey's mountain, three miles south-west of the line 
which divided Mifflin and Huntingdon counties, thence by a 
direct line to the head of the southwest branch of Bald Eagle 
creek, and thence a direct line to the head waters of the 
Moshannon." Further reductions were made by the erec- 
tion of Cambria county, March 26, 1804, and of Blair, Feb- 
ruary 26th, 1846. 



The adoption of tlie Constitution of tlie United States was 
almost cotemporary with the formation of Huntingdon 
county. A convention of delegates from all the States met 
at Philadelphia, in May, 1787, to revise the articles of confed- 
eration. The result of their labors was the framing of an en- 
tirely new constitution, which was signed on the 17th of Sep- 
tember. It was presented to Congress by the convention 
and submitted by that body to the several States for ratifica- 
tion. The convention of Pennsylvania to take action in re- 
gard to its acceptance or rejection met in the same year. 
Benjamin Elliott, of Huntingdon, was one of the delegates. 

The new Constitution was scarcely satisfactory to any 
party, and very objectionable to some. It was a document 
of concessions and compromises, rendered necessary by con- 
flicting views and interests, and was bitterly opposed by many 
of the people of the country. 

In Huntingdon county, this opposition became violent and 
riotous. The leader in it was General William McAlevy, 
who had acquired a military title during the Revolutionary 
war, being mentioned as Colonel McAlevy in the records of 
that struggle and in connection with the alarms caused by 
the Tories and Indians.* He then acted the part of a patriot, 

* On Thursday, July 13th, 1876, after this chapter was written, as 
workmen were tearing down the old house at the northwest corner of 
Second and Penn streets, in Huntingdon, they discovered under a 


all of his efforts being directed towards the advancement of 
the cause of independence. His residence was at McAlevy's 
Fort, in Standing Stone valley, a place that still bears his 
name. At or previous to the adoption of the constitution, 
he became a Democrat, and had numerous followers, over 
whom he exercised almost supreme control. As illustrating 
his political influence among the people of that valley, it is 
said that one of his Democratic neighbors, on being asked 
what he was going to do in reference to a pending election, 

window sill a letter which proves to be quite a relic of General 
McAlevy. At the time of its date McAlevy's fort was in Barree town- 
ship, and McAlevy was a captain in command of a company. 

Barree Township, 9th July 1776. 
Colonel Piper 

Sir: I have the pleasure to acquaint you that on the Eighth of 
this Instant at a full meeting of my company that I mead the resolve 
of the Congress of the fifteenth of May fully known to them — and 
they unanimously Gave me their opinions that all Power and Authority 
Derived from the Crown of Great Britain should be totally Dissolved 
And are fully Resolved to Risk all that is Dear and valuable. I am 
Sir your Most Humble Servant Wm. McAlevy. 

Sir. I would Be Glad how soon you could send Drum and Cullers. 

This letter was folded and had been sealed with a wafer, and on 
the outside was directed as follows : 


of the Battallion in Bedford County. 

The following interesting speculations, concerning this letter and 
the house in which it was found, are from the Huntingdon Globe: 

"The question arises, how did this letter get into this old house? 
The house is on the northwest corner of 2d and Penn Streets just 
angling across the way from the Benedict property. It has been in 
the possession of John Simpson and his heirs since May 31st, 1793, 
when it was purchased from one Haines who had built the house, 
but left it unfurnished. Haines had bought the land in 1773, and the 
house may have been partially built when the letter was written. Did 
it get tliere while Haines yet owned it ? Or did it get there after the 
war when Simpson owned it, and if so, how did Col. Piper's letters 
get to this place where he never lived? These questions will never 
be answered satisfactorily. Simpson was a military man, and his 
father-in-law, Col. James Murray, was with Piper in the army, and it 
may be the letter was carried there by one of these men. At all 
events it is a most singalar coincidence that it should turn up just 
one hundred years and four days after it was written — jjrobably ex- 


replied that lie didn't know, as he hadn't seen the Oin- 
eral yet. 

The excitement of the times led to attempts by large bod- 
ies of armed men to obstruct the performance of public duty 
by the officials of the county, and to the offering of the 
grossest of indignities to them personally. Col. John Can- 
non, member of the Supreme Executive Council from Hun- 
tingdon county, was the first against whom there was any 
manifestation of enmity. On the first day of the court in 
March, 1788, a number of men bearing bludgeons and car- 

actly one hundred years after Piper opened it, it was opened again. 
Though there are some orthographical errors, yet the penmanship is 
excellent, though the paper is brown as roasted coffee. The letter is 
now in the possession of George T. Warfel, coal merchant in this 
town. It, as well as many other relics of the past which might yet 
be collected, ought to be carefully preserved in a county museum." 

The " resolve of Congress," to which General McAlevy referred, was 
as follows : 

In Congress, May 15, 1776. 

Whereas, his Brittanic majesty, in conjunction with the lords and 
cemmons of Great Britain, has, by a late act of parliament, excluded 
the inhabitants of these United Colonies from the protection of his 
crown: And whereas, no answer whatever, to the humble petitions 
of the colonies for redress of grievances and reconciliation with Great 
Britain, has been, or is likely to be given, but the whole force of that 
kingdom, aided by foreign mercenaries, is to be exerted for the de- 
struction of the good people of these colonies. And whereas, it ap- 
pears absolutely irreconcilable to reason and good conscience, for the 
people of these colonies, now to take the oaths and affirmations 
necessary for the support of any government under the crown of 
Great Britain; and it is necessary that the exercise of every kind of 
authority under the said crown should be suppressed, and all the 
powers of government exerted, under the authority of the people of 
the colonies, for the preservation of internal peace, virtue and good 
order, as well as for the defence of their lives, liberties and proper- 
ties, against the hostile invasions and cruel depredations of their 
enemies. Therefore, 

Resolved, That it be recommended to the respective assemblies 
and conventions of the United Colonies, where no government suf- 
ficient to the exigencies of their affairs has been hitherto established, 
to adopt such government as shall in the opinion of the representa- 
tives of the people, best conduce to the happiness and safety of their 
constituents in particular, and America in general. 

By order of the congress. John Hancock, President. 


rying an effigy of Colonel Cannon, entered the town. Justices 
Phillips and Henderson left the bench, the courts being then 
in session, and met the mob at the Upper end of Allegheny 
street and endeavored to dissuade them from a disturbance 
of the peace, which they seemed to have in contemplation. 
This effort, however, was unsuccessful. They marched down 
street to the house in which the courts were sitting. There 
they made so much noise that it was impossible to proceed 
with business, and after they had been several times warned 
to desist from this outrage, the sheriff was directed to arrest 
the one who seemed the most turbulent and commit him to 
prison. When he had been taken into custody, a riot ensued, 
and he was rescued by those who were acting with him in 
this violation of the law. An indictment was immediately 
drawn against the principals, presented to the grand juryj 
returned a true bill, and entered upon the records of the 
Court of Quarter Sessions ; but as preparations could not 
then be made for trial, the case was continued until the next 

In the following May, a battalion of militia, which had 
been organized by Benjamin Elliott, Lieutenant of the 
county, was ordered to assemble in Hartslog valley. Some 
of the riotous element was present, and after falling into 
ranks made an objection to mustering under Colonel Can- 
non and Major Spencer, two field officers who had been 
commissioned when the battalion belonged to Bedford 
county, and who, it was alleged, had not been fairly elected ; 
Col. Woods, then Lieutenant of that county, having ob- 
tained the return of such men as pleased himself. An as- 
sault was made upon Colonel Elliott, and he received many 
severe blows from several persons. A friend of his who 
undertook to protect him and restore order, was treated in 
the same violent manner. Elliott, in an account of this 
affair, says that " they met, some for the purpose of doing 
their duty, and others for the purpose of making a riot, 
which they effected, about the Federal Government, in 
which riot I was very ill-used by a senseless banditti, who 
were inflamed by a number of false publications privately 


circulated by people wlio were enemies of the Federal Gov- 

A commander was then selected for the battalion, who, 
according to previous arrangement, ordered that all who 
were unwilling to serve under the field officers heretofore 
named should withdraw from the ranks. More than one- 
third of those in line marched out and formed a new line in 
front of the rest. Col. Elliott and the field officers, finding 
that the roll could not be called, and that to remain longer 
would be unavailing, retired from the field, accompanied by 
that part of the battalion which had shown a disposition to 
render obedience to those who had a right to command 

A few days afterwards warrants were issued by Thomas 
Duncan Smith, one of the Justices, for the arrest of three of 
the leaders in this demonstration. The prisoners were 
taken by the constable before Thomas McCune, another Jus- 
tice, who merely required them to enter into their own re- 
cognizances for their appearance in five days before Justice 
Smith. In the meantime, they gathered a large force of 
men, and when they came before the Justice on the day ap- 
pointed, his office was instantly filled by the crowd. They 
refused to give bail, and insisted that they should be com- 
mitted. As he was aware of their designs, and as he was 
unwilling to give them a pretext for the commission of fur- 
ther outrages, he declined to comply with their request. 
There was, besides, no safe prison in the county, none hav- 
ing been yet erected. He reminded them of this, that the 
jail was but a " block-house," and told them that, as two of 
them were owners of real estate, and that as it was but eight 
days until the June sessions of the court, he would release 
them without security. Finding that he was unalterable in 
his determination, one of them, who was subsequently dis- 
covered to have a cutlass concealed under his coat, grossly 
insulted him, and threatened him with violence. 

The accused and the crowd left the office and the town, 
and in the afternoon, about one o'clock, returned, more than 
ninety in number, sixty of them armed with rifles and mus- 


kets and tlie remainder with clubs, scalping-knives and 
tomahawks. They marched down Allegheny street to Sec- 
ond, up Second to Penn, up Penn to Diamond, where they 
formed into a circle. Justice Smith was then called into 
the centre, and it was demanded that he would tear up the 
warrants upon which the arrests had been made. He re- 
fused to do so ; but having them in his pocket, he delivered 
them to one of the leaders. They were then passed into the 
hands of a man who must have been the greatest desperado 
of the party, as he had previously presented a rifle three 
times to Justice Smith's breast, and was only prevented by 
the interference of others from taking the Justice's life. He 
stepped from the ranks, and tearing the warrants, threw 
some of the pieces at the Justice, saying, "see now what it 
is to be a magistrate." 

The Clerk of the Court of Quarter Sessions was next re- 
quired to deliver to them the indictment that had been 
found at the March sessions. It was also destroyed. 

Justices Smith and Henderson having gone to the house 
on Allegheny street in which the courts were held, were 
followed by a number of armed men, who demanded pos- 
session of the Quarter Sessions docket. On obtaining it, 
they obliterated the record of the proceedings against the 
rioters, the part which was obnoxious to them. 

The compliance of the ofScers with these demands was 
compelled by intimidation and threats. The order-loving 
portion of the community was completely overawed. 

Information was then brought to Smith and Henderson 
that personal injury was intended them. Both sought 
safety, the former by secreting himself and the latter by 
flight. Their own houses and several others were searched 
for them. The Sheriff" and David McMurtrie, the latter of 
whom had incurred their enmity at the review, had gone 
from town the day before, and avoided unpleasant conse- 
quences to themselves. Two constables were obliged to 
leave their homes to save their lives. The Sheriff could not 
with safety go into the country to serve writs, and all kinds 
of business was affected by this unhappy state of affairs. 


Another visit was feared, and on the 5th of June, 1788, a 
full statement of these occurrences was sent to the Council, 
with the assurance that without the interposition of the gov- 
ernment, order could not be preserved. 

The Council took action in reicard to the matter on the 
25th of June. The Chief Justice and one of the Judges at- 
tended, and a conference was held relative to these disturb- 
ances. The following were the proceedings, as found in the 
minutes : 

"A letter from two of the magistrates in Huntingdon 
county, stating that the daring and violent outrages were 
committed by a lawless sett of men, that the officers of the 
Government have been insulted and their lives endangered, 
and that part of the records of the Court have been de- 
stroyed and erased, was read, praying the support of the 
Government, &g. Thereupon, 

'•'■Resolved, That the most proper and effectual measures 
be immediately taken to quell the disturbances in Hunting- 
don county, and to restore order and good government, and 
that the Honorable the Judges of the Supreme Court be in- 
formed that the Supreme Executive will give them aid and 
assistance, which the laws of the State will warrant, and 
shall be found necessary to accomplish this end." 

The language of this resolution was more vigorous than 
the action which followed it. Nothing further was then 
done to suppress these high-handed acts, approaching so 
nearly to a revolt that they can scarcely be called by any 
other name. 

After the Council had been informed of them and before 
the passage of the resolution, other violence had been com- 
mitted. Samuel Clinton, who had made himself notorious 
as a rioter, Abraham Smith and William McCune, came into 
town at the head of about twenty men, and beat Alexander 
Irwin, a citizen. The same party, joined perhaps by others, 
assaulted the houses of the county officers at night, with 
showers of stones. The persons against whom there seemed 
to be the greatest hatred, were Robert Galbraith, Thomas 
Duncan Smith, Andrew Henderson and Benjamin Elliott. 


Threats were sent from all parts of the county that death, 
cropping, tarring and feathering, should be inflicted upon 
these or any other officers who should attempt to enforce 
the laws. 

And these threats were not made without an intention of 
carrying them into execution. About the middle of August, 
one hundred and sixty men, collected from all parts of the 
county, some of them from Huntingdon, led by General 
McAlevy, Abraham Smith, John Smith and John Little, 
paraded the streets, not armed as before, but with muskets 
secreted, as was supposed by those who had reason to fear 
them. The officers and a few others who gave their 
support to the Government under the constitution, took 
refuge in the house of Benjamin Elliott, and there, with 
arms, were determined to defend themselves and to repel 
force with force. 

Thus protected, no attack was made upon them. The 
enemy was content with marching through the streets, under 
flying colors and to the music of the fife. They met at 
William Kerr's house and elected delegates to a convention 
to be held at Lewisburg. At this election all were permitted 
to vote who had marched in the ranks that day, and all 
others were excluded. 

This political animosity continued for more than a year. 
The subject was again before the Council in June, 1789. 
On the 12th day of that month, a committee to whom the 
matter had been referred, made a report, which, if it had 
been published or preserved, would have thrown greater 
light upon these transactions than can now be obtained 
from any source. By order of Council, the next day was 
assigned for further action upon the report. On the 13th 
the following resolution was adopted : 

" Resolved^ That the consideration of the report of the 
committee to whom was referred the representation from 
the justices and others of Huntingdon county, relative to 
some late disturbances in that county be postponed." 

As the Council had delayed so long, and as the excite- 
ment had subsided, perhaps no wiser course could had been 


pursued at that time. This daring opposition to the execu- 
tion of the laws, formidable as it seemed, was not sufficiently 
powerful to accomplish its purposes, and its interference 
with the functions of government in Huntingdon county 
could not retard their progress elsewhere. Unassisted by 
similar combinations in other parts of the state or nation, 
its ultimate failure and discontinuance were necessary con- 
sequences, and while it was the duty of the Executive to 
protect the incumbents of places of trust in their official 
capacities and the lives and liberty of the people, yet it was 
good policy to refrain from the employment of military 
power until it became absolutely unavoidable. That the 
fury of this political tempest would soon exhaust itself must 
have been apparent. It ended without loss of life or limb 
and with but slight personal injury to any. We cannot ex- 
cuse those who instigated and encouraged this unlawful con- 
duct, but the civil authorities were competent to bring them 
to punishment. We have not ascertained whether this was 
done. One of them was under bonds in February, 1790, 
for his appearance at the next Supreme Court in this 
county, but whether he was brought to trial, and, if so, 
whether it resulted in conviction, we are not informed. 

It has generally been stated and believed by those who 
have had nothing but traditionary accounts of these occur- 
rences, that the records of the court were burned by 
McAlevy and his men, but there is no official evidence that 
such was the case. There are in existence authentic and re- 
liable documents which seem to prove conclusively that 
some of the records were torn and others obliterated by 
erasures. It has been said that a copy of the Constitution 
of the United States was burned, and this may be correct, 
and may have given rise to the statement that other papers 
were destroyed in the same way. 



Towards the close of the eighteenth century, we arrive at 
a transition, a change of scene, in the drama that has been 
enacted in Huntingdon county. If it can be called a play 
at all, it had theretofore been a most serious and real one 
upon the actual stage of human life. From the beginning, 
it had been a conflict of antipathies and antagonisms, a 
struggle of irreconcilable elements. In the contest between 
the English and the French for supremacy on the western 
continent, the county, occupying an intermediate position, 
necessarily became a part of the field of action. When that 
contest ended, there remained in the aboriginal denizens of 
the forest a foe more cruel and unrelenting and more diffi- 
cult to subdue than were the soldiers of a civilized nation. 
But, greatest mutation of all, the arms of Britain and of the 
colonists, which had been directed towards a common enemy, 
were turned against each other, and were not withdrawn 
from the deadly strife until British power in America had 
shared the fate of that of France. But there was another 
struggle of longer duration and not less arduous, the stuggle 
with the wilderness, the great obstacle to progress, and with 
the soil for the means of subsistence. At the close of the 
Revolutionary war the former was perceptibly disappear- 
ing, and the latter had commenced to yield bountifully to 
the hand of man. Entering upon a period of peace and 
plenty, we also enter an era of material growth and pros- 
perity, of improvement in the means of internal commerce, 
of travel, of communication between distant points, and of 
the dissemination of intelligence. 

That this history may fully illustrate the measures that 


have been taken to increase tlie facilities for trade within 
the county and with the country and world at large, we will 
revert to the legislation of provincial times on this subject. 
We will find their beginning in a scheme for making a num- 
ber of the streams of Pennsylvania, among which were the 
Juniata and some of its tributaries, navigable. An Act of 
Assembly for this purpose was passed March 9, 1771. It 
was very thorough and comprehensive in most of its provi- 
sions, and had they been carried out we would have had 
water craft floating upon our rivers long before the con- 
struction of canals along them was thought of. The Juni- 
ata to Frankstown and the Raystown Branch to Bedford 
were declared public highways for purpose of navigation, 
and all obstructions and impediments to passage up and 
down them were to be deemed nuisances. Commission- 
ers were appointed to receive any money that might 
be contributed by residents on or near those streams, and 
to expend it in the improvements contemplated by the 
act. They were to enlarge, straighten and deepen the chan- 
nels, to remove trees, rocks, sand and all other obstructions, 
whether natural or artificial, and to make tow-paths for the 
drawing of boats, vessels and rafts, which paths were to be 
open and free to all persons who might have occasion to 
use them. 

This was a magnificent plan for that day, more magnifi- 
cent in the inception than in the execution of it. The de- 
fect in it was that it did not sufficiently provide for the 
raising of the funds that were necessary for its success. To 
depend upon voluntary contributions for efiecting a work 
of such magnitude and involving an expense which at that 
time would have been enormous, was futile. The province 
itself would scarcely have been able to have accom[)lished it. 

After a lapse of twenty -three years, the Little Juniata, 
from its mouth to the head of Logan's Narrows, and Stand- 
ing Stone creek, from its mouth to Laurel Bun, near the 
house of William McAlevy, were declared public highways. 
The act was passed February 5, 1794 It merely authorized 
the inhabitants who were desirous of availing themselves ot 


the navigation of those streams, to remove obstructions and 
erect such slopes and locks as might be necessary for the 
passage of boats and rafts. 

To those who are acquainted with the rivers and creeks 
of this county which were thus to have been rendered navi- 
gable, it need not be said that the people have never taken 
practical advantage of the privileges conferred by these acts 
of Assembly. At the time of their passage, the Juniata 
proper was less obstructed than at present, dams having 
since been placed in it for the purpose of supplying water to 
the canal, and effectually closing it even to the passage of 
rafts down the stream. The Raystown branch, the Little 
Juniata and Standing Stone creek are of no more utility 
now as public highways than they were when the Indian 
furrowed them with his light canoe, and the day has passed 
when there is any requirement for such improvements as 
were of the highest importance before inventive genius and 
engineering skill had devised the wonderfully rapid means 
of transportation of recent times. 

The manufacture of iron, which has remained one of the 
leading industries in the county, had its origin in 1780. In 
that year a furnace, the first west of the Susquehanna river, 
was erected within the site of the present borough of Or- 
bisonia. It was called " Bedford Furnace," after the name 
of the county in which it was then located. It had a ca- 
pacity of about thirteen tons per week. The ores used were 
of the fossil variety, from which the metal was the most 
■easily extracted, and were smelted with charcoal. The firm 
by which this furnace was built consisted of Edward Ridg- 
ley, Thomas Cromwell and George Ashman. They were 
known as the " Bedford Company," and were the owners of 
many thousands of acres of land. Other firms have suc- 
ceeded them and other furnaces have been erected upon the 
same property and in its vicinity. The latter have been six 
in number, including the new mammoth works of the Rock- 
hill Coal and Iron Company. The history of all of them 
will be given in the sketch of Cromwell township. 

The next establishment, in order of date, was for the con- 


version of pig-metal into wrought-iron. It was built on the 
Little Juniata, nine miles west of Huntingdon, by Edward 
Bartholomew and Greenberry Dorsey, in 1794, and was 
called " Barree Forge." This property also embraced ex- 
tensive tracts of land, through which the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road now passes. A furnace has been built near the forge. 

In 1795 or '96, George Anshutz and John Gloninger 
erected Huntingdon Furnace, in Franklin township, three 
miles from the mouth of Spruce creek. Yielding large 
profits, the owners invested them in other iron works in ad- 
joining counties and in several forges on Spruce creek. The 
furnace is now owned by G. & J. H. Shoenberger, but has 
not been in blast for some years. 

Notwithstanding the failure to make the Juniata more 
navigable than it was in its natural condition, its waters 
were used for the conveyance of the surplus products of 
the country to market as early as 1796. la that year, the 
first ark appeared in the Susquehanna. It had been taken 

there from the Juniata by Cryder, an enterprising 

German, and was laden with flour manufactured at his mill 
above Huntingdon. The mouth of the Swatara, at Middle- 
town, was then considered the termination of navigation on. 
the Susquehanna, being believed to be impracticable below 
that point. Bat Cryder surmounted the difficulties by 
which others had been deterred, passed the falls and cata- 
racts and other obstacles which had been regarded as so 
dangerous, descended safely to Baltimore, and reaped a rich 
reward from the profits of his meritorious undertaking. 
The success of this enterprise becoming known throughout 
the region from which the Susquehanna and its tributaries 
flow, numerous arks were built in the following year, and 
reached tide-water with their cargoes. From the Juniata 
and its branches, they floated down the current whenever 
those streams were at a stage to permit, carrying principally 
flour, grain and whisky, three of the staple productions of 
the times. This mode of transportation continued until after 
the Pennsylvania canal was made. For several years sub- 
sequently arks went down from the Eaystown branch, but 


the facilities afiforded by the artificial water-course so far 
surpassed those of the natural channel that the latter was 
soon abandoned for the other. 

Not only have we the first furnace and the first ark previous 
to the year 1800, but also the first newspaper. It was 
called " The Huntingdon Courier and Weekly Advertiser," 
the first number of which appeared July 4th, 1797. It was 
published by Michael Duffey, at No. 305 Allegheny street. 
Of the method of obtaining the material with which the 
columns of his paper were filled, we find the following remi- 
niscence in the Huntingdon Gazette, of February 11th, 1829 : 

" Thirty -two years ago, no mail, public or private, entered 
the confines of this county. A newspaper, about that time, 
was established in Huntingdon, the editor of which depended 
entirely on the accommodating disposition of a few hardy 
mercantile gentlemen, who after a three months' preparation, 
making their wills, etc., ventured to the city of Philadelphia 
for goods, and on their return brought as many of the city 
newspapers as kept him in ' blast ' until they were ready to 
return for a supply of goods," etc. 

Although the intelligence which Mr. Duffey furnished to 
his readers was inexpensive to him, his paper was unremu- 
nerative. It could scarcely have been otherwise at a time 
when the county was so sparsely populated and when there 
were no mails to carry it to the few persons whose literary 
tastes or desire for news might have inclined them to be- 
come subscribers. As a consequence, he and his enterprise 
failed. Whether he continued to publish it until after a 
mail route and a post office were established in the county, 
is uncertain. He went, or perhaps returned, to Baltimore, 
previous to 1799. While at Huntingdon, he had in his em- 
ploy as a "journeyman" printer, John McCahan, who, a few 
years later, founded the "Huntingdon Gazette," which he 
conducted successfully for more than a quarter of a century. 
The information as to the merchants carrying newspapers to 
Dufi'ey from Philadelphia was furnished by McCahan, and 
appeared in the Gazette within a year after he transferred 
it to his son, J. Kinney McCahan. 


The precise date of the establishment of the post office at 
Huntingdon, which was the first in the county, cannot be 
ascertained, as it is not known to the Department at Wash- 
ington, " owing to the fire which consumed the post office 
building in December, 1836, and which burnt those of the 
earliest record books of this office. But, by the Auditor's 
* Ledger Book,' it is ascertained that the post office at Hunt- 
ingdon began to render quarterly accounts on the first day 
of January, 1798, and John Cadwallader was the first post- 
master. As the postmaster must have transacted some 
business prior to this date, it is believed that the office was 
established during the month of October or November, 
1797. This comprises all the information that the records 
furnish on this point." 

The above extract is from a letter of James H. Marr, 
Acting First Asst. P. M. General, to J. Hall Musser, esq , 
present Postmaster at Huntingdon, who kindly communi- 
cated with the Post Office Department on the subject. 



The first number of ^'■The Huntingdon Gazette and Weekly 
Advertiser'''' appeared February 12tli, 1801. The writer has 
in his possession the fourth number of the first volume, 
dated March 5th, of that year, not having been able to ob- 
tain a copy of either of the three preceding issues. It was 
then a folio, each page being about ten and a half by six- 
teen inches in size, and containing four columns. At its 
head it bore the motto, " ' Give me the liberty to know, 
TO utter, and argue freely according to conscience.' 
— iiiVtow," under which appeared the following notice of 
the place of publication: "Huntingdon, [Pennsylvania): 
Printed by John McCahan, Washington Street ; opposite 
to Guinn's Alley." 

As Mr. McCahan was a practical printer, he exercised a 
personal supervision of the mechanical execution of his 
paper, to which may be accredited the clearness and correct- 
ness with which it was done. On the 28th of April. 1809, 
he enlarged the sheet and added about two inches to the 
length of the columns. He remained the editor and pro- 
prietor until the 9th of July, 18:28, when the establishment 
passed into the hands of his son, J. Kinney McCahan, who, 
to a great extent, had had the management of it for several 
years previous to that time. 

John McCahan, the originator and founder of the Gazette, 
was born in November, 1780, at Drumnahaigh, a small 
village in the north of Ireland. lie landed in the United 
States in August, 1792, and in 1795, was bound to Steel k 
McClain, of Carlisle, Pa., to learn the art of printing. The 
failure of that firm in the following year ended his appren- 


ticeship. In 1797, lie worked with Michael Duffey, publish- 
er of the Courier, at Huntingdon. His latter employer, like 
the first, failed, and went to Baltimore. McCahan followed 
him, and in 1799, worked for William Peckin, on a Digest 
of the Laws of the United States. In 1801 at the age of 
but little more than twenty years, he established the Gazette 
and continued its publication for twenty-seven years. These 
facts are obtained from memoranda written by Mr. McCahan 
in September, 1853. 

His successor, J. Kinney McCahan, improved the paper 
immediately after taking charge of it. He added a column 
to .each page, without, however, enlarging the sheet. The 
margin had been very wide, and by a rearrangement of the 
style, admitted of the change. 

A comparison of one of the earlier copies of the Gazette 
with a daily or weekly publication of the present time, is a 
m.ost correct illustration of the changes that have taken place 
between the two periods, and enables us to pass at a single 
step from the one to the other. Then the distinctively local 
newspaper was unknown. The more remote the locality 
from which it emanated, the greater was the necessity that 
it should be devoted to general intelligence, to the news 
from the whole world. The reader who was so fortunate 
as to receive his journal once a week, expected it to present 
all that he could desire to know of occurrences in his own 
and foreign countries at a date about three months previous 
to that of the paper. And if the weekly mail, upon which 
the editor depended for the material with which he supplied 
his columns, should be delayed, as frequently happened, 
beyond the day for "going to press," it was a disappointment 
for which he felt obliged to apologize to his readers. 

Now the great dailies furnish us each morning with dis- 
patches from every civilized quarter, detailing the events of 
theprecedingtwenty-four hours. The editor no longer receives 
his news by mail, but it comes to him on the electric wire, 
and within a few minutes after leaving the pen of his corres- 
pondent, may be in the hands of the public. The mails 
have almost lost their utility in connection with newspaper 


enterprise, except to carry the printed sheet to all parts of 
the globe. 

The weekly publication must confine itself to a narrower 
field. If it undertakes to give the general news of the day, 
it does so after they have been read and re-read at almost 
every fireside. It is compelled, in order to maintain its own 
existence, to leave the broader domain entirely to those 
whose rivalry therein it cannot oppose. This is the contrast 
presented by the Gazette and its recent successors. 

On the 23d of April, 1834, after having been under his con- 
trol nearly six years, and under the control of himself and 
father more than thirty-three years, the Gazette was sold by J. 
Kinney McCahan to Alexander Gwin, Esq. Its publication 
was continued by the latter until after the political campaign 
of 1838, which resulted in the election of David R. Porter 
to the office of Governor of this commonwealth. 

Mr. Gwin, who was the last editor of the Gazette, was the 
son of Patrick Gwin, for several terms sheriff of the county. 
He was born in Huntingdon, and was educated at Dickinson 
College, Carlisle, where he graduated with marked distinc- 
tion. He then returned to his native town and studied law, 
sustaining, in that pursuit, the high reputation he had ac- 
quired at college, and afterwards, in the practice of his pro- 
fession, he attained a position of which his early career had 
given promise. The vigor of his intellect was acknowledged 
by his political opponents. Having advocated with ability, 
through the Gazette, the election of David R. Porter, he was 
appointed by the latter, after his inauguration as Governor, 
Prosecuting Attorney for Huntingdon county. In 1815 he 
was elected a Representative to the Legislature. During 
the session in which he was a member of that body, he la- 
bored with great industry in the committee room, and by 
his integrity and talents secured the confidence of, and great 
influence with, his colleagues. As a politician he was fair, 
constant and undeviating. "In principles, radical; in prac- 
tice, consistent." He died March 28, 1818. 

A more ambitious literary project was originated in 1809. 
Its character will be apparent from the following : 



For Publishing by Subscription a New Work to be Entitled, 

"17^6 Huntingdon Literary Museum and Monthly Miscellany ^ 

Exclusively devoted to amusement and Instruction, by 



1. This Work will be published in Monthly numbers, on 
a fine white paper and with a good Type. 

2. Each Number will appear on the first Monday of every 
Month, and shall contain not less than 48 Octavo Pages, so 
as to form a handsome Yolume at the end of each year — 
when will be given a General Title Page and Index. 

3. The Price, to Subscribers, will be $3 per year ; One 
Dollar of which to be paid on the delivery of the first Num- 
ber ; one other on the delivery of the sixth, and the third, 
at the expiration of the year. 

4. No subscription to be discontinued, except at the end 
of a Volume, and on payment of what may then be due. 

5. The first Number shall appear on the first Monday of 
November next, or sooner if a sufficient number of Sub- 
scribers can be obtained. 

Huntingdon, Pa., 1st August, 1809. 

This advertisement appeared in the Gazette and was fol- 
lowed by an *' Address," occupying nearly a column in that 
paper, setting forth more explicitly the objects and nature 
of the proposed publication The first number was not 
ready at the time announced for its appearance and it was 
consequently postponed until January, 1810. The twelve 
numbers were issued regularly during that year, making 
a volume of 576 pages. A bound copy is on the shelves of 
the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, and two copies, com- 
plete with the exception of the first number, are in the 
library of the late General A. P. Wilson, of Huntingdon. 

William R. Smith, one of the editors, was a gentleman of 
superior literary attainments. He was a lawyer by profes- 
sion and a scholar from taste, speaking several languages, 
and being especially fluent and eloquent in his mother 


tongue. In person lie was dignified and noble, and in man- 
ners polished and affable. The magazine, nearly every 
month during its existence, contained poetical productions 
from his pen. The titles of some of his poems are, " Lines 
Addressed to a Young Lady on her Birthday," "Poor Mary," 
"The Maid of the Vale," "Sonnet," "National Song," 
" Sonnet to Hope," and '' Ode to Friendship." From these 
pieces, I select the one first named, not because it is better 
than the rest, but for the reason that it is the briefest exam- 
ple of his style among them. 


Time's swiftly running glass ut length has sped, 
And blushing eighteen lights upon thy head; 
Thy youthful charms evince in early hour 
The budding beauty of a future flower, 
When thrice thy present years time will have told, 
And e'en thy friends pr vuounce thee growing old, 
Then though the roses of thy cheeks be flown, 
And all the graces of thy youth be gone. 
Thou still shalt please ; thy tender loving heart 
Shall shine alone when fleeting charms depart. 
As when the sun his drooping splendor laves 
At time of eve beneath the western waves. 
And though his glory sinks conceal'd from view, 
His mid-day beams absorpt in twilight dew, 
Yet still the welkin streak'd with gold remains. 
And every cloud his brilliant tinge retains ; 
So thy affection shall in life's last stage 
Charm, when thy sun of beauty sets in age. 

Mr. Smith erected the stone building at the northeast 
corner of Third and Allegheny streets, now known as the 
" Morrison House," and lived in it during his residence in 

There were other contributors of original articles to the 
Literary Museum, the most frequent of whom were J. N. 
Barker and Charles J. Cox. Their contributions were all 

The name of Moses Canan, Smith's co-editor, does not ap- 
pear to any of the articles ; but he also was a man of literary 


talents, and may have written some of the prose which is 
published anonymously. 

The selections for the Museum were of a high order, and 
many periodicals of less merit have been more successful. 
We will not enter into a statement of the circumstances 
under which it existed, some of which were so favorable as 
to induce the undertaking, and others so contrary as to lead 
to its early abandonment. At the expiration of the first 
year, the editors closed their magazine with an address " to 
the public," giving their reasons for its discontinuance. 
They say that, " with the exception of some pieces of poetry, 
from several gentlemen in Philadelphia, and an essay on the 
early poetic writers, the editors have received no original 
matter, and they are compelled thus publicly to state, that 
a work of the nature of the Literary Museum cannot suc- 
ceed at this tiine^ as there certainly appears no disposition to 
assist by original communication^ The first volume was 
therefore the last one. It was printed by John McCahan, of 
the Gazette. 

The " Eepublican Advocate " was established in 1829 — the 
first number being dated February 24th, of that year — by 
Eobert Wallace. This gentleman was an Irishman by 
birth, and had studied law with Elias W. Hale, of Lewis- 
town. He came to Huntingdon about the time of starting 
his paper. While residing there, his son, William A. Wal- 
lace, at present a United States Senator from Pennsylvania 
was born. After conducting the paper three or four years, 
Mr. Wallace disposed of it, and removed with his family to 
the town of Clearfield. 

He was succeeded in the editorship of the Advocate by 
Thomas P. Campbell and George Taylor, who were then law 
students in the office of General A. P. Wilson. They were 
Democrats and admirers of David R. Porter, whom they 
supported as a candidate for Governor. Taylor, however, 
changed his sentiments towards the latter after his election, 
and left the Democratic party. 

Campbell had previously been editor of the "Aurora," at 
Hollidaysburg. In 1850 he was the Democratic competitor 


of his former editorial colleague, George Taylor, for the 
President Judgeship, He remained prominent in his party 
until the beginning of the Eebellion, when he became a Re- 
publican, and was afterwards appointed Assessor of Internal 
Revenue, which office he held for several years. He is now 
a resident of Davenport, Iowa. 

William R. McCay followed Campbell and Taylor. Dur- 
ing or previous to his management of the paper, its name 
was changed to the " Advocate and Sentinel." In April, 
1841, there was another change of proprietors and name, or, 
rather, the Advocate passed away and a new paper took its 
place. The " Watchman" was established by E. Y. Ever- 

The first number of the " Huntingdon Courier and Anti- 
Masonic Republican " was issued May 29th, 1830, by Henry 
L. McConnell. Its avowed object was the extermination of 
Free Masonry. In 1832, McConnell and McCrea — the latter 
having become associated in its publication — disposed of 
their interest to J. Melville Beckwith & Co., and from that 
time it bore the title of the " Huntingdon Courier and 
National Republican Monitor." It was the first paper es- 
tablished in opposition to the Democratic party, to which 
the Gazette and Advocate belonged, and advocated Henry 
Clay for the Presidency. 

Like the paper of which it was the namesake — the Courier 
of 1797 — its existence was one of struggles, and ended by 
sinking beneath them. The materials with which it was 
printed passed into the hands of William Orbison, esq., the 
owner of the building from which it was published, who re- 
tained them for arrears of rent. 

The following are other papers that were published at 
various times, and that have gone out of existence : 

The Huntingdon Messenger, by George W. Whittaker 
and George Raymond, in 1817 and '48. 

The Standing Stone Banner, at Huntingdon, by J. Simp- 
son Africa and Samuel G. Whittaker; first number issued 
June 14th, 1853 ; name changed to The Standing Stone, at 
nd of first year, and discontinued at end of second. 


The Shirleysburg Herald, at Shirlejsburg, by Jobn Lutz; 
published several times, suspended and resumed. 

The Union, at Huntingdon, by R. Milton Speer ; Demo- 
cratic in politics ; first issued in August, 1859 ; discontinued 
in January, 1861. ,/ 

The Broad Top Miner, at Coalmont, by A. Tyhurst, be- 
ginning in February, 1861. 

The Workingmen's Advocate, at Huntingdon, by W. F. 
Shaw and B. F. Miller ; first issued in March, 1861 ; was to 
be the organ of a party which an effort was then being made 
to organize, but the party always being weak, the paper was 
published but a few months. 

Young America, at Huntingdon, by 0. 0. Leabhart, from 
August 18th, 1875, to May 5th, 1876. On the 1st of June, 
of the latter year, Mr. Leabhart commenced the publication 
of the Business Journal, which rendered necessary the dis- 
continuance of his former enterprise. 

The American and the Republican, both of which were 
published at Huntingdon, the former by J. A. Nash and the 
latter by Theo. H. Cremer, are mentioned in the succeeding 
chapter in connection with their consolidation with the 



The oldest of the newspapers now existing in Huntingdon 
county is the Journal, first issued by A. W, Benedict & Co., 
September 23d, 1835 — John Boyle being a partner. They 
bought from William Orbison, esq., the press and materials 
of the Courier, which had come into his hands, as stated in 
the preceding chapter. From the beginning, the entire edi- 
torial management had devolved upon Mr. Benedict, and in 
April, 1836, he became the sole proprietor by the retirement 
of Mr. Boyle from the firm. 

The Journal was started in the midst of an exciting 
political campaign, and was the second effort to establish a 
paper in opposition to the party then in power. It was du- 
ring the administrations of President Jackson and Governor 
Wolfe. The latter was a candidate for reelection, and was 
supported by the Advocate, while the other Democratic 
paper — the Gazette — favored the election of Henry A. 
Muhlenberg, the candidate of another wing of the party. 

The advent of Mr. Benedict to Huntingdon, and to the 
editorial profession, was not announced by his brethren of 
the press in the polite manner that is customary among 
journalists of the present time. The Advocate introduced 
him thus : 

" Important. — A Strolling Yanhee patriot has arrived in 
this town, we understand, for the purpose of putting in 
operation the old ' Courier ' establishment until after the 
election. The public may expect to see an issue in a week 
or two. The people of Huntingdon county are highly 
honored by foreign dictators, when they have a renegade 
unknown, sent to tell them how to act and vote." 


In his reply to the Advocate, Mr, Benedict did not deny 
his Yankee origin. He said, "we do claim that honor." In 
fact he referred to it during his whole life with pride. He 
was not, however, a native of the New England States, as 
we usually understand here by the term that was applied to 
him. His father was a Presbyterian clergyman, belonging 
to a family of some distinction, who removed from Norwalk, 
Connecticut, to the State of New York, where his son Adin 
W was born. The latter learned the art of printing with 
Harper & Brothers, in New York city. In 1830 he married 
and went to Philadelphia, where he was engaged as compos- 
itor, publisher and editor, until 1835, the year in which he 
came to Huntingdon. After relinquishing the editorial 
charge and publication of the Journal, he read law, was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and practiced in the courts of this county 
until the time of his death, which occurred April 28, 1867. 
He was chosen to fill several positions of trust, both by 
election and appointment. In 1836, and for a year or two 
afterwards, he was collector of tolls on the Pennsylvania 
canal at Huntingdon; in 1843 was appointed County Com- 
missioner by the Court, to fill a vacancy ; was Deputy Sec- 
retary of the Commonwealth during the administration of 
Governor Johnston ; was elected a Representative in the 
Legislature in 1862, and was subsequently elected and re- 
elected Clerk of the House of Kepresentatives at Harris- 
burg, and held that office when he died. 

Whilst residing in Philadelphia, Mr. Benedict took an 
active part in the politics of that city and county, and 
brought with him to Huntingdon considerable expe- 
rience in political warfare. " The Journal at once took a 
high rank among the papers of its party in the interior of 
the State. With a little experience in editorial life he soon 
became a vigorous and adroit writer, and the files of the 
Journal show that he had many a sharp passage with his 
editorial cotemporaries of the Advocate and Gazette, in which 
he utterly vanquished his adversaries. In 1838, David R. 
Porter, ' our own Davy R.,' as the Huntingdon Democrats 
delighted to call him, became the Democratic candidate for 


Governor against Gov. Ritner. The bitter contest whicli 
ensued brought the Journal to the front still more promi- 
nently, and its circulation during the campaign extended to 
all parts of the State, and its editorials were copied into 
other papers very extensively. In that contest Huntingdon 
county gave Ritner a majority of 926. Mr. B. continued to 
publish the Journal till January, 1842, six years and about 
four months, when the paper may be said to have been fully 

It was then purchased by Theodore H. Cremer, a young 
gentleman of about twenty-five years of age, who had come 
to Huntingdon with Mr. Benedict in 1835. He had assisted 
in getting out the first number of the Journal. In 18S6 he 
commenced reading law with Maj. James Steel, but before 
completing his studies went to Williamsport and published 
the West Branch Republican, a campaign paper, during the 
Porter-Ritner contest of 1838. There he continued the 
study of the law, with James Armstrong. In December, 
1839, he returned to Huntingdon, and Major Steel having 
in the meantime been elected Prothonotary, entered that 
office as clerk. The following year he went to Carlisle and 
attended the law school of which John Reed was principal. 
He was admitted to the bar at York, his native place, then 
came again to Huntingdon, and was admitted there in 
August, 1842. He served two terms as Prothonotary, be- 
ing elected in 1848, and reelected in 1851, and one term as 
District Attorney, to which office he was elected in 1856. 

Mr. Cremer conducted the Journal three years and seven 
months, retiring from it on the 13th of August, 1845. Under 
his charge the mechanical appearance of the paper was im- 
proved and its circulation and reputation maintained. 

James Clark was the purchaser from and successor of Mr. 
Cremer. Some of the events of his life, the facts relating to 
his connection* with the Journal, and the cause by which it 
was severed, are stated in the following extract : 

" Mr. Clark \vas born in Dauphin county. Pa., on the 9th 
day of February, 1818, and was, on the day of his death, aged 
33 years, 1 month and 14 days. He learned the art and 


mystery of printing in Harrisburg, under tlie instruction of 
his elder brother, Samuel H. Clark, esq. In August, 1845, 
he removed to this place and became the editor of the 
Journal, and continued such until the time of his death. As 
a mark of confidence and esteem, he was, on the 11th of 
January, 1849, appointed Aid-de-Camp to Governor John- 
ston, with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. As conductor of 
a political paper, Mr. Clark had few equals in the State, and 
the readers will bear witness that justice was done to all 
their interests, so far as it is in the power of a newspaper to 
do so." 

The death of Mr. Clark occurred on the 23d day of March, 
1851. His successor was W. H. Peigbtal, who continued 
the editorial duties but a short time, however, as the paper 
passed into the hands of J. Sewall Stewart, esq., about the 
first of August of the same year. In May, 1862, J. A. Hall 
purchased an interest from and became associated with Mr. 
Stewart in the proprietorship, and subsequently became the 
owner of the entire establishment. 

The retiring editor, Mr. Stewart, was born in West town- 
ship, this county, on the 1st day of May, 1819. He was 
educated at and graduated with distinction from the college 
at Meadville, after which he came to Huntingdon, read law 
with Major James Steel, and was admitted to the bar in 
April, 1843. From that time he was actively engaged in 
the practice of his profession. In 1848 he was appointed 
District Attorney, and was twice elected, continuing in tnat 
office until 1856. He was appointed Assessor of Internal 
Revenue for the 17th District of Pennsylvania in 1865, and 
acted in that capacity until his death, February 6, 1871. His 
character is so well described in an obituary notice which 
appeared in the Journal, that it may very appropriately 
find a place here : 

"As a member of the bar, he established a reputation for 
scrupulous honesty and fidelity in watching the interests of 
his clients. Having strong self-control, he was rarely thrown 
off his guard in the trial of causes, and in his demeanor to- 
wards the Court, witnesses and opposing counsel, was 


always respectful and gentlemanly. Mr. Stewart was a stu- 
dent by nature, and in addition to a well-stored legal mind, 
he had traversed the fields of literature and science so suc- 
cessfully that his opinion was generally sought after by our 
citizens on all questions of a scientific nature. He gave 
much time to literary pursuits, and some of his writings, es- 
pecially his poems, have had a wide circulation. With the 
kindliest feelings towards mankind, he was an earnest ad- 
vocate of every scheme calculated to elevate and advance 
the interests of his fellow-creatures of every race and tongue 
and color, and the principles of his life appeared to be to 
confer the greatest good upon the greatest number." 

Mr. Hall disposed of the Journal to Samuel L. Glasgow 
in 1852 or 53. The latter occupied the editorial chair about 
two years, being succeeded by Dr. William Brewster, in 
April, 185-i. Messrs. Glasgow and Brewster are yet living, 
all of their predecessor?, except Mr. Cremer, being num- 
bered among the dead. 

In December, 1859, the Journal, which then passed into 
the hands of Samuel G. Whitaker, and the American, pub- 
lished by John A. Nash, were consolidated, and appeared 
under the combined names of the two former papers — the 
Journal and American. On the 13th day of December, 1865, 
Mr. Nash and Robert McDivitt, the latter having purchased 
the interest of Mr. Whitaker, entered into partnership under 
the firm name of J. A. Nash & Co., and published the paper 
until the first day of May, 1867. The firm was then dis- 
solved, and Mr. Nash became sole proprietor. On the first 
of January, 1871, the Republican, the materials of which 
had been purchased from Mr. Cremer by Joseph R. Durbor- 
row, was consolidated with the Journal and American, and 
on the 4th day of that month the Huntingdon Journal 
appeared, and is still published by that name. 

Joseph R. Durborrow, the present editor of the Journal, 
was born at Chambersburg, Penna., October 23d, 1835. On 
the 1st of January, 1850, he went to learn the trade of a 
printer with David Over, editor and publisher of the Bed- 
ford Inquirer. In 1852 he became a compositor on the 


Mountain Sentinel at Ebensburg. While so engaged he 
commenced the study of the law with Col. Michael Hasson, 
of that place. In August, 1853, he undertook the pablica- 
tion of the Alleghenian, of which Charles Albright and A. 
C. Mullen were editors. The following June he purchased 
that paper, and in a short time afterwards failed financially, 
there being but little support in a region such as Cambria 
county then was for any other than a Democratic newspaper. 
After a trip to the West, during which he worked at Cleve- 
land, Detroit and Pittsburg, he returned to Bedford county, 
and resumed the occupation of a school teacher, at which he 
had been employed at intervals before taking charge of the 
Alleghenian. On the first of April, 1862, he became editor 
of the Bedford Inquirer. In the meantime he had been 
reading law with King & Jordan, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1863. On the 28th of April, 1865, he and John Lutz 
purchased the Inquirer, which they edited and published 
until the 18th day of July, 1868, when Mr. Durborrow 
retired from it. He continued to practice his profession at 
Bedford during the succeeding eighteen months, and came 
to Huntingdon at the time of assuming the editorship of the 

The Huntingdon Globe has not had so varied a history as 
the Journal, because it has not passed through so many 
vicissitudes. It has existed during a period of nearly thirty- 
three years, the first number bearing the date of November 
22d, 1843, and in that time has had but few changes of own- 
ership and management. L. G. Mytinger and G. L. Gentzell 
were the original proprietors. For several years before the 
establishment of the Globe, the Journal had been the only 
paper published in Huntingdon. There had been a com- 
plete revolution, and Mr. Cremer had obtained sole posses- 
sion of the field. At first all the papers were Democratic. 
The attempt to found the Courier, in opposition to that 
party, in 1830, was unsuccessful. The Journal followed, and 
not only proved permanent, but outlived all of its prede- 
cessors. The Democrats were therefore without a paper in 
the county to support their cause, a party organ being a 


necessity that has always been recognized by political 
parties. The prospects were encouraging when Mytinger 
and Gentzell became the occupants of the editorial chair. 
The latter, however, soon retired from it, A notice of the 
dissolution of the partnership appeared in the Globe of July 
l7th, 1844. Mytinger continued its publication. 

In May, 1846, Lyons Mussina commenced a " new series," 
and with Vol. I. No. 41 thereof, dated March 11th, 1846, tlie 
paper passed into the hands of William Lewis, where it re- 
mained but a few months less than twenty-five years. 

Mr. Lewis was born at Pottstown, Montgomery county, 
Pa., September 10th, 1814, He learned the art of printing at 
Norristown, in the Free Press ofiice, Robert Iredell, pub- 
lisher. From that place he went to Harrisburg and worked 
at his trade ten years. His removal to Huntingdon took 
place at the time he became proprietor of the Globe. He 
remained a Democrat until the secession of the Southern 
states, after which he vigorously supported the Government 
in its efforts to suppress the rebellion. His paper then be- 
came Republican, which character it has since maintained. 

The present editor of the Globe is Prof. A. L. Guss, who 
purchased it from Mr. Lewis, and took charge of it January 
1st, 1871. It is published in a new building erected for the 
purpose, at No. 411 Allegheny street. 

Prof. Guss was born in Juniata county, Pa., August 21st, 
1834. At the age of seventeen he entered Pennsylvania 
College at Gettysburg, and remained there until he had 
passed through the Preparatory Department and all the 
classes up to and including the Junior, a period of five 
years. Having then married, he removed to Johnstown 
and taught school, the first year in the '' Johnstown Gym- 
nasium," and the second in the public schools. He then re- 
turned to Gettysburg, entered the Senior class in College, 
and graduated in 1859. With the design of becoming a 
Lutheran minister, he attended for one year the Theological 
Seminary at Gettysburg, and was licensed to preach by the 
Central Synod of the Lutheran Church, which met at Dun- 
cannon, in 1860. The following year he resided and preached 


at Centreville, Dickinson Post-office, Cumberland county. 
In July, 1862, he bought the Juniata Sentinel, of Mifflin- 
town, the only Republican paper in Juniata county, of 
which he continued to be the editor and publisher for three 
years and three months. He relinquished it on being se- 
lected as Principal of the Soldiers' Orphan School, which 
he opened at Cassville, this county, on the 6th day of 
November, 1865. 

The revolt of 1861 caused many minor revolutions. It 
changed the political views and course of a large number of 
those who had acted with the Democratic party, the party 
that had been defeated in the Presidential election of the 
preceding year, and to which belonged the mass of those 
who, making the success of the Republican party a pretext, 
sought to dissolve the Union. Among the changes thus 
brought about, as heretofore stated, was that of the Hunt- 
ingdon Globe, leaving the Democrats again without a paper 
in the county. To supply the want thus created, the Moni- 
tor was started in 1S62, the first number appearing Septem- 
ber 3d of that year. The editor was Albert Owen. 

This paper, during the first year of its existence, suffered 
much from the animosities of the times. "We do not mean 
to say that the intensely bitter feeling which, led to its de- 
struction was entirely on the part of those at whose hands it 
became a victim. The paper itself entertained and expressed 
the most ultra views of its party. 

On the evening of the 19th and the morning of the 20th 
of May, 1863, the 125th regiment of Pennsylvania volun- 
teers, four companies of which, numbering about four hun- 
dred men at the time of their enlistment, were from Hunt- 
ingdon county, returned home on account of the expiration 
of their term of service. While in camp, some three months 
previously, they had passed resolutions, " declaring their in- 
tention, should they live to reach home, of demolishing the 
Monitor newspaper establishment," alleging as their reasons 
therefor, "its hostility to the government," and its publica- 
tion of " denunciatory articles concerning themselves." At 
10 o'clock on the latter day, a committee of members of 


the 125tli called upon the editor of the Monitor in regard to 
the grievances charged against him, and their interview not 
being satisfactory, a soldier cried out, "Roll in, I25th !" This 
was the signal for a rush upon the office, and, as described 
in the only account of the affair prepared at the time we 
have been enabled to obtain, " soon cases, stands, tables, type, 
rollers, &c., were flying through the air thicker than shot 
and shell at Antietam." The printing press was taken from 
the building at the front door, thrown upon the pavement 
below, broken to pieces with axes and hammers, and thrown 
into the canal near the Jackson House. The types were scat- 
tered through the streets, and after the material and furni- 
ture had been completely destroyed, the office was swept with 
a broom. Nothing remained upon which further damage 
could be done, the editor having disappeared. As to the lime, 
place and manner of his exit, there are conflicting reports. 

On the 4th day of July of the same year, the Monitor re- 
appeared under the editorial auspices of J. Irvin Steele, pre- 
viously of the Blairsville Record. He enlarged the paper 
and improved it in other respects, but could not retrieve its 
reputation, and labored under great disadvantages on ac- 
count of the odium attacted to it in the minds of a portion 
of the community and the soldiers, an odium for which he 
was not responsible and which it would not have acquired 
under his management. It was, however, twice attacked 
within a month after his first issue. 

About 4 o'clock on the morning of the 25th of July, a 
small party of soldiers, not more than four or five in num- 
ber, from the camp near Huntingdon, forced open the doors 
of the building in which the Monitor was published, began 
to " pie " the type, break the cases, &c. Before they had 
proceeded very far with this destruction, the patrol guard 
appeared and endeavored to stop it, but being too weak, 
hastily retreated to their quarters for reinforcement. During 
their absence, the work progressed rapidly inside the build- 
ing, and the by time they returned considerable damage bad 
been done, but the perpetrators thereof had fled. Seventy- 
five pounds of type had been thrown into the street. 


The next and last attack was on the 3rd of August. It 
was made by upwards of forty men of the company then 
doing guard duty at Huntingdon, They went on the "double- 
quick" from their quarters in the court-house to the Monitor 
ofl&ce, and rushing into the building, crowded it to such an 
extent that a number of them could not get inside. The 
workmen left the office, and before any damage could be 
done, the officers of the company appeard upon the scene and 
marched the men back to their quarters. 

Mr. Steele remained editor of the Monitor until the 4th 
day of October, 1865. He went subsequently to Ashland, 
Schuylkill county, and became the editor of the Ashland 
Advocate. Since removing to that place he has served two 
terms in the Legislature. 

After an interval of about two months, during which S. 
A. McKenzie had charge of it, the Monitor passed into the 
hands of J, S. Cornman, a practical printer, who had been 
publisher of the Carlisle Democrat. The first number of 
the Monitor issued by him bears the date of December 13th, 
1865. He retained the ownership until September, 187'!, 
when he sold to S. E. *!Fleming and M. M. McNeil. The 
names of both of these gentlemen are at the head of the 
paper as editors. Mr. Fleming, however, has charge of the 
editorial department, and is assisted by 0. E. McNeil, esq., 
in the general management. The members of the firm of 
Fleming & McNeil are both lawyers, and were admitted to 
the bar at the same time, August, 1868. The former was 
born in Barree township, this county, and the latter in Clay 
township, and are aged respectively thirty-one and thirty 

The Journal, Globe and Monitor are printed upon sheets 
of uniform size, viz : twenty-eight by forty-two inches. 
Their editions are weekly. 

On the 10th day of March, 1874, Hugh Lindsay issued 
the first number of the Local News, and on the 14th day of 
September following converted it into a semi-weekly, the 

*Mr. ]McNeil has since retired from 'his editorial connection with 
the paper. 


publication days being Mondays and Thursdays. It is neu- 
tral in politics, its character being indicated by its name. 
Mr. Frank Willoughby became a partner in the establish- 
ment, February 10th, 1875. Mr. Lindsay came to Hunting- 
don November -Ith, 1860, from Girard College, Philadelphia. 
He entered the Globe office as an apprentice with Mr. Lewis, 
and learned the art of printing. Afterwards he became one 
of the editors of the Globe, remaining in that capacity until 
it was purchased by Prof. Guss. 

The newspapers published at other points in the county 
than Huntingdon, are the Times, by John M. Bowman, at 
Mount Union; the Leader, at Orbisonia, by R. J. Coons & 
Co.; the Weekly Herald, at Shirleysburg, by Webster T. 
Bair, and the Mountain Voice, at Broad Top City, by B. F. 

The Pilgrim prospectus was sent out in December, 1869, 
and the new enterprise commenced its career with the be- 
ginning of the year 1870. It was issued from James Creek, 
Huntingdon county, (Marklesburg,) but the first ten num- 
bers were printed in Huntingdon, by Theo. H. Cremer, then 
proprietor of " The Republican." During the first three 
months it was published semi-monthly, on a sheet 16x22 
inches, as an 8-page paper. At No. 32 it was enlarged to 
a sheet 22x32 inches, and the form changed to 16 pages. At 
the beginning of the year 1872 it was enlarged to a sheet 
23x83 inches, and again changed to 8 pages. At the be- 
ginning of the year 1871, it was enlarged to a sheet 211x31: 
inches, and the form again changed to 16 pages, in which 
size and form it continues to be issued. 

On the 1st of April, 1870, the publication office was estab- 
lished at Marklesburg, and the Pilgrim was then printed on 
an old Smith Hoe Press, in a small office 12x16 feet; later, as 
the business increased, a more commodious location was 
selected, where there were two rooms, one for editorial and 
business purposes, the other for a composing and press 
room. Then the old press was set aside and a new Fair- 
haven Power Press was procured. The business continuing 
to increase, the location was not suited to conduct it success- 


fully, on account of the limited railroad and postal facilities; 
a lot was purchased in West Huntingdon, on the corner of 
14th and Washington streets, where a large, commodious 
brick building, 38x46 feet, three stories high, with press- 
room in the basement, was erected, specially adapted to the 
wants of the increasing business; which was occupied at the 
beginning of 1874, and has since been known as the "Pilgrim 

The paper was started as a private enterprise by the two 
brothers, H. B. and J. B. Brumbaugh, under the firm name 
of H. B. Brumbaugh & Bro., J. B. Brumbaugh, the younger, 
being the publisher, and H. B. Brumbaugh, the elder, and 
also a minister of the Gospel, being the editor, with George 
Brumbaugh, their elder brother, associate editor, and Elders 
T). P. Saylor, of Double Pipe Creek, Md., and Leonard Farry, 
of New Enterprise, Pa., as corresponding editors, and after 
the year 1872, Dr. A. B. Brumbaugh, of Huntingdon, as 
Literary Editor. It was established as, and continues to be, 
a Christian Periodical, devoted to religion and moral reform, 
and advocating in the spirit of love and liberty the princi- 
ples of true Christianity, as held and practiced by the people 
or church known as the German Baptist Brethren. 

The circulation of the Pilgrim extends over the whole 
United States and a limited number of foreign countries. 
It commenced with about 700 subscribers, but the circula- 
tion has steadily increased at the rate of from 600 to 700 
each year, with the very brightest prospects for a greatly 
increased circulation and extended usefulness in the future. 
It is now printed by steam power, the office being furnish- 
ed with a Baxter steam engine. The price was at first $1 a 
year, but has been increased to $1.60, postage paid. 

The Young- Disciple was started with January, 1876, 
published by H. B. Brumbaugh & Bro., and edited by Miss 
W. A. Clark. It is a weekly juvenile, or Sunday-school 
paper, issued in monthly parts, illustrated, and printed on 
the Pilgrim press. It is so arranged that there is a paper, 
complete, 12|xl7 inches, for each week. The circulation at 
this, the fifth issue, has run up to over 2,000 copies, and it is 


rapidly increasing in favor with the Sunday-schools of the 
church, and all others desiring a pure paper for the children. 
The prospects for future usefulness seem to be very fair. No 
advertisements are admitted. The price has been put at 
75 cents a year. 



The subject which, if disconnected from all others, would 
most fully illustrate the history and growth of our county, 
or of any locality, large or small, is that relating to the 
transportation of mails, freight and passengers, upon which 
we now enter. The progress of a country begets the neces- 
sity for increased facilities for travel and commerce, and for 
the transmission of news and intelligence, and these, in their 
turn, add materially to that progress by inciting to other 
improvements having no connection with each other, except 
that they result from the same cause. 

In the previous parts of this work we have made some 
references to these general topics, so that the reader may al- 
ready have obtained an idea of their " small beginnings." 
We have passed the periods of the pack-horses of provincial 
times, of the ark of 1796, and of the establishing of a mail 
route in 1797, but we have passed them only in point of time 
and not in the substitution of more useful and efficient 
means for the same purposes. Let us now go forward under 
the lead and guidance of the spirit of enterprise and invention. 

The mails, when first brought into the county, had stated 
times for their arrival, once in two weeks. They were carried 
by post-riders, and came from Harrisburg to Huntingdon 
in four days. As they were liable to many detentions and 
delays, irregularity in their delivery at the post offices be- 
came the rule rather than the exception. Storms and 
freshets, the freezing of the ice in winter and its melting 
in the spring, and the "indisposition" of the carrier, were 


among the causes of their failure to arrive at the specified 
times. In addition to the these, there were many others, 
incident to a new and undeveloped country, without roads 
and without protection from the danger that lurked at every 
step. It was a long time until these obstacles were overcome. 

The waters were carrying upon their bosoms, in the di- 
rection in which they flowed, the products of the soil, of the 
mill, and of the distillery. Those articles which found a 
market in the east were taken thither without great diffi- 
culty. The rains and the swelling of the streams but in- 
creased the power and usefulness of the latter as a means of 

But nature had furnished no such facilities for trade to the 
westward. The iron which ran from our first furnaces, and 
for which there was a demand at the manufactories of Pitts- 
burg, found its way there in the same manner that Weiser, 
Croghan and other traders had taken goods to the Indians, 
on the backs of horses and mules. It was hammered at the 
forge into bars of about six or eight feet in length, bent 
into the shape of the letter U, and inverted over the ani- 
mal. The paths over the Allegheny mountains were not of 
sufficient width to permit two horses or mules to walk side 
by side, but they followed each other in tandem style, four 
or five of them being driven or led by one man. 

This slow and laborious method did not, however, long 
answer the growing requirements of the region west of the 
Alleghenies. Other commodities than iron were needed, 
and had to be obtained from the source of supply in the 
eastern cities. The making of roads became a necessity, 
and with their construction commenced the era of wagons 
and stage coaches. 

The first effort to run a line of stages into the county 
was made in 1808. It was announced to the public in the 
following advertisement : 


The subscribers beg leave to inform the public, that on 
the 3d day of May next, their Stage will commence running 
from Harrisburg by the way of Clark's Ferry, Millerstown, 


Thompsontown, Mifflintown, Lewistown, Waynesburg and 
Huutingdon, to Alexandria, once a week. Leave the House 
of Mr. Berrjhill, Harrisburg, every Tuesday, at 1 o'clock 
P. M., and arrive at Alexandria on the Friday following ; 
returning, leave Alexandria every Saturday morning and 
arrive at Harrisburg on Tuesday morning. 

As the company have procured elegant and convenient 
Carriages, good Horses, and careful drivers, they flatter 
themselves that the passage of those who may please to 
favor them with their custom, will be rendered safe, easy 
and agreeable. 

Fare for travelers, 6 cents per mile, each entitled to 14 
pounds baggage, gratis. 150 pounds baggage, equal to a 

John Walker, George Mulhollan, 
John M'Connell, John M. Davidson, 
George Galbraith, Thomas Cochran, 
EoBERT Clark. 
April 14, 1808. 

N. B. — Horses and Chairs will be procured at the differ- 
ent towns, for those passengers who wish to go off the road 
or proceed further than Alexandria. 

On the evening of the 5th of May, the third day after its 
departure from Harrisburg, including the one upon which it 
started, the stage, "Experiment," arrived at Huntingdon. It 
was the beginning of an enterprise which was to be continued 
during many years. The route was afterwards extended to 
Pittsburgh, and connected at Harrisburg with another from 
Philadelphia. It will be interesting to trace briefly the 
efforts and success of this company in affording the greatest 
conveniences for travel and in reducing the trip to the 
mininum length of time. 

In April, 1828, after a lapse of twenty years from the 
making of the first trip, this line of stages commenced running 
daily between Harrisburg and Pittsburg. The mails were 
then carried by it three times a week, passing through Hun- 
tingdon on Sundays, Wednesdays and Fridays. In 1829, 
the proprietors made arrangements with the Government to 


carry a daily mail, whicli went into operation in February 
of that year. About one year later, the route was divided 
into two sections, each terminating at Huntingdon, where 
the mails were exchanged. The eastern section passed into 
the hands of Calder, Wilson & Co. Passengers were then 
conveyed from Philadelphia to Huntingdon in two days, 
and to Pittsburg in three days and a half. But even this 
rapidity was not sufficient, and the greatest exertions were 
made to increase it. In March, 1832, the daily line arrived 
at Huntingdon at 4 o'clock of the second day from Phila- 
delphia, and at Pittsburg on the evening of the third day. 
This was the acme of stage-coach perfection, and was at- 
tained by running as the cars do now, day and night. The 
latter, however, in the same number of hours would travel 
about twenty-five hundred miles. 

There was also an accommodation line between Harris- 
burg and Pittsburg, making three trips per week, and going 
through in three days and a half. 

Before 1809, a mail route was established from Cham- 
bersburg to Huntingdon. In 1832 the mail was carried 
from the former to the latter place three times a week, once 
by way of Fort Littleton, Three Springs and Coffee Run, 
and twice by Shade Gap and Shirleysburg. 

The -"Juniata Mail Stage," during the whole of its exist- 
ence, had many of the difficulties to contend with that had met 
the post-riders who preceded it. The impediments which 
nature throws in our way were the same in 1832 as in 1800. 
The elements were not less treacherous nor floods less fre- 
quent. Against these human strength and energy could not 
always prevail, and as a consequence the mails were often 
behind time, sometimes several days. This line was not 
without competition, and that was no doubt one of the facts 
that led to the utmost efforts to attain the highest rate of 
speed. The improvements made in the roads, especially 
after the beginning of turnpike construction, facilitated the 
exertions of the proprietors to render their conveyances 
more desirable as a means of travel. 

The turnpike, like every other great enterprise, had its 


era of agitation, before it became a practical reality. We 
cannot say when a road of that kind was first proposed 
through Huntingdon county. From the earliest move- 
ment in the matter of which we have any knowledge, until 
the completion of a road, there intervened a period of 
twelve years, a length of time too great to follow through it 
the various stages of the undertaking. 

In November, 1806, petitions were in circulation in the 
county favoring a turnpike up the Juniata. On the 27th 
day of that month a notice was published in the Gazette, 
requesting persons who had possession of such petitions to send 
them to Andrew Henderson, that they might be forwarded 
to the Legislature. Similar petitions were probably signed 
and returned from the other counties in the Juniata valley. 
The desired legislation was enacted at the following session, 
March 4th, 1807. The Governor was authorized to in- 
corporate a company for making an artificial road from 
Harrisburg, through Lewistown and Huntingdon, to Pitts- 
burgh. Other acts of Assembly were passed subsequently 
relating to the same subject. On the 15th day of February, 
1815, a charter of incorporation was granted by Governor 
Snyder to the Huntingdon, Cambria and Indiana Turnpike 
Company. An organization was effected on the 8th day of 
May, 1815, by the election of a President, Managers and 
Treasurer. Books were at once opened to receive subscrip- 
tions to the stock, and preparations for the construction of 
the road were pushed energetically. The progress, how- 
ever, was slow. In September, 1818, nearly four years after 
it had been chartered, there remained forty miles uncom- 
pleted. These were between Huntingdon and the crossing 
ot the Big Conemaugh. The work seems to have been 
stopped then for want of funds, and the ofl&cers of the com- 
pany appealed to the public for pecuniary aid. They ob- 
tained it the following year, and soon afterwards the road 
was opened throughout its entire length. The portion be- 
tween Huntingdon and Alexandria was the last made. 

On the 14th of May, 1821,, books were opened for sub- 
scriptions to the stock of the Hun.ingdon and Lewistown 


turnpike, and tlie making of that road completed tlie line of 
turnpike throughlluntingdon county from east to west. 

But when these artificial highways had enabled the stage- 
coach to achieve its greatest success, a rival to the latter ap- 
peared, which was destined to divide its usefulness and rob it 
of a considerable part of the patronage of the traveling com- 
munity. In 1831, the first canal boat arrived at Hunting- 
don, and in 1832 the first " packet " floated down Standing 
Stone creek, upon which it had been built, and took its 
place upon the then newly constructed canal, for the carriage 
of passengers. 

Although Pennsylvania did not embark upon the con- 
struction of her public works until 1826, there was some 
legislation leading to that object at an earlier day. An act 
was passed on the 27th of March, 1824, "providing for the 
appointment of a board of commissioners for the purpose of 
promoting the internal improvement of the State." These 
comm.ssioners, among other duties were "to view and 
explore a route for a canal from Harrisburg to Pittsburg, 
by the waters of the Juniata and Conemaugh rivers." This 
act was repealed and supplied by that of April 11, 1825, but 
is nevertheless historically important as being the com- 
mencement of that great system of improvement inaugura- 
ted by the Commonwealth. Commissioners were appointed, 
as provided for, who took the levels and made surveys of the 
proposed canal, and reported to the Legislalureat its next 

The act of 1825 also provided for the appointment of a 
board of canal commissioners who were to examine 
various routes through the state, one of which was 
from "Philadelphia, by the Juniata to Pittsburg, and 
from thence to Lake Erie." On the 25th day of Febru- 
ary, 1826, an act was passed authorizing and empowering 
this board " to locate and contract for making a canal and 
locks, and other works necessary thereto, from the river 
Swatara, at or near Middletovvn, to or near a point on the 
east side of the river Susquehanna, opposite the mouth of 
the river Juniata, and from Pittsburg to the mouth of the 


Kiskiminetas," etc. This was to be styled the Pennsylvania 
Canal. A great gap was thus left between the Susquehanna 
and Allegheny rivers, for which no connecting link was pro- 
vided, with the design, as it appears, of making the Juniata 
and Kiskiminetas navigable by slack water. But the latter 
idea was abandoned within the succeeding two years. The 
plan of improvement was greatly enlarged and extended, and 
embraced the making of railroads as well as canals. 

The next enactment in this series is that of March 24:th, 
1828, providing for the location and construction of a 
canal from Lewistown to the highest point expedient and 
practicable on the Juniata, and requiring the commissioners 
to have examinations and surveys made of a route from 
Huntingdon to Johnstown, ''with a view of connecting those 
streams (the Juniata and Conemaugh) either by a canal or 
railroad." It was finally determined to make this last con- 
nection by canal to Hollidaysburg and by railroad over the 
mountains. Thus was partially supplied by several links 
the gap that had been left by the act of 1826. 

The preliminary surveys for the works authorized by 
the legislation of which we have given a slight review, 
were commenced in the spring of 1828. In the month of 
May, of that year, Col. Clinton was engaged in taking levels 
and locating the canal near Huntingdon. In July a party 
of engineers was exploring the Alleghenies for the purpose 
of ascertaining the most eligible route for the railway. The 
Canal Commissioners met at Harrisburg in September, and 
decided, from the reports of the engineers, the location of 
the different lines, and the portions that were to be placed 
under contract for construction. Among the latter were 
the forty-five miles between Lewistown and Huntingdon. 
They were divided into ninety-five sections, a sale or letting 
of which took place on the 15th day of October. In two 
years thereafter, or in October, 1830, all of those sections 
had been completed. The only part that remained unfinished 
was two aqueducts, one of which was at Mount Union, 
twelve miles below Huntingdon. 

The water was let into the first level at Huntingdon on 


the 2nd of November, 1830. The Gazette of the 10th of 
that month says: "On Thursday evening a number of 
houses were handsomely illuminated, and a large assem- 
blage of ladies and gentlemen ' trip'd the nimble toe ' to 
their heart's content, at the house of William Jackson, in 
honor of the occasion." 
,K The canal was opened for navigation in the spring of 
1831, the first boat arriving at Huntingdon on the 13th day 
of May. That event was announced by the Gazette in the 
following manner: 




On Thursday evening last a heel boat, the property of Mr. 
Jonathan Leslie, having on board i^Zas^e?* and^js/i, arrived at 
this place. This is the first arrival, by the canal, from 

Another Arrival. — On Friday evening, the Boat Margaret^ 
Capt. McCoy, of Waynesburgh, arrived; freight, 15 tons, 

The letting of the sections between Huntingdon and Hol- 
lidaysburg occurred on the 1st of June, 1831. 

The completion of the canal was greeted by the people 
with the greatest enthusiasm. There had been illuminations 
at other places besides Huntingdon, at Lewistown and 
Waynesburg, showing the general appreciation of the im- 
portance of the work. As we look at it now and reflect 
upon the decay of its utility, we are apt to get the impres- 
sion that those who saw it in its infancy were unduly elated ; 
but we must remember the difference in their position and 
ours. They compared it with the past, with the pack- 
horses, which were still within the recollection of many of 
them, with the arks, which carried their freight to market 
and brought none in return, with the teams, which made 
their trips from Baltimore or Philadelphia to Pittsburg in 
the space of two or three weeks, requiring four or six horses 
to convey a few tons of merchandise, and with the stage- 


coaclies, which, the more rapidly they traveled the more un- 
comfortable they became. In such a comparison there was 
reason for exultation and joy. They had made one of the 
great strides in progress, and their self- congratulation was 
as well justified as is ours in those that we have since taken. 
Who knows how soon we may be robbed of our glory, the 
railroad be converted into a highway where impecunious 
pedestrians may travel without danger from the locomotive, 
and the latter be niade a subject for ridicule by some uu- 
philosophistical boaster of the future ! 

To show the extent of the jubilant feeling at Huntingdon, 
we take another extract from the Gazette: 

"On Saturday last (June 11, 1831,) hundreds of our citizens 
witnessed the launching of the James Clarke^ a new and very 
handsome canal boat, into the basi-i at the west end of the 
borough, owned by Messrs. Williams & Miller. When safely 
launched into the basin, she was greeted by the hearty ac- 
clamations of these who witnessed the pleasing and inte- 
resting sight. What ! a canal boat launched in the vicinity 
of Huntingdon! Had any one predicted an event of this 
kind some years back, he, in all probability, would have 
been 'yclept a wizard^ or set down as beside himself. When 
the mail stage commenced running once a week from Phila- 
delphia to this place, our older citizens considered it a mar- 
velous affair. What will they say now? " 

Whatever of curiosity may have been mingled with this 
enthusiasm was soon satisfied. Boats were launched fre- 
quently after the first one, four of them within a month 
or two. 

Superior as was the canal for puposes of transportation, 
it had connected with it many difficulties and disadvantages. 
The greatest of these was its liability to breaches and other 
injuries from storms and freshets, the same causes that had 
so often delayed the post-rider and mail coach. The packet 
boats did not altogether take the place of the latter, as there 
was a portion of the year when the canal was not navigable. 
The mail continued to be carried in the old way until the 
cars rendered both stages and packets useless. 


Under an act of Assembly of May 16th, 1857, the Penn- 
sylvania canal was sold to the Pennsylvania Kailroad com- 
pany, and was transiisrred to the purchaser on the 1st of Au- 
gust following. Since that time it has been operated under 
the name of the Pennsylvania Canal company. 

And now a step has been taken which may seem to be 
one of retrogression, one which could never have entered 
into the contemplation of the projectors and builders of this 
canal, and at the mere suggestion of which they would have 
been deeply shocked. By authority of an act of Assembly 
of June 2nd, 1870, a part of it has been abandoned for pub- 
lic use. West of Buntingdon, locks have been removed, 
bridges torn down, and the bed of the channel left as dry as 
a road. The dam in "Warrior's Eidge narrows is still main- 
tained as a feeder for the canal below Huntingdon. The 
act did not authorize its abandonment east of the latter 
place; that must remain open until further legislation per- 
mits the closing of it, but notwithstanding this fact, we are / 
perhaps not far wrong in classing the Pennsylvania canal , 
among the enterprises of the past. / 




The decision by which the canal was continued to Holli- 
daysburg, instead of running a railroad from that place to 
Huntingdon, was the end of the first tangible proposition 
for the location of a railroad in this county. All projects 
of the kind have since been inaugurated by the passage of 
acts of Assembly incorporating companies for the purpose. 

It was designed that the main lines of canals should consti- 
tute the great arteries of trade and commerce, and that they 
should have lateral communication with every part of the 
Commonwealth. Such connection by water, however, 
was not everywhere practicable or possible, and other 
modes of conveyance were sought to and from the 
general stream. Several railroads were proposed to run 
northward and southward from points on the canal in Hun- 
tingdon county. The first one was the "Philipsburg and 
Juniata Railroad, incorporated March 16th, 1830. The 
route described in the act of Assembly, was from the 
"Pennsylvania Canal, at or near the mouth of the Little 
Juniata, below Alexandria, in Huntingdon county, thence 
up the Little Juniata and Little Bald Eagle creeks, and 
through Emigh's Gap, to the coal mines in the neghborhood 
of Philipsburg, in Centre county." The commissioners from 
this county were Robert Allison and William Orbison. 
Books were to be opened at Philadelphia, at the house of 
William Alexander in Centre county, and at the house of 
John McConnell in Huntingdon. A survey was made on 
this route in 1833. Commencing at the northern terminus, 
the engineers arrived at Union Furnace in June of that 
year, and at the junction of the Juniatas in July. The road 
was never made, but it has been supplied by the Pennsyl- 


vania to Tyrone, and by the Clearfield branch to and beyond 

The next was the " Huntingdon and Chambersburg Eail- 
road Company," incorporated June 16th, 1836. 

Even after the construction of the public works, the idea 
of a railroad from Huntingdon to Hollidaysburg was not 
abandoned. It is doubtful whether there was sufficient en- 
couragement to make such an improvement between points 
connected by the canal, but the project was not without agi- 
tators. The effort in its favor was earnest and determined, 
and resulted in the passage of an act incorporating the 
" Huntingdon and Hollidaysburg Railroad Company," July 
2nd, 1839. This road was probably always unnecessary, 
and was certainly so after the making of the Pennsylvania 
railroad. That a need for it is now growing up, and that it 
will probably take the place of the dismantled canal, is one 
of the revolutions of progress. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad Company was incorporated 
April IBth, 1846. Among the commissioners appointed by 
the act " to do and perform the several acts and things," 
therein mentioned, were John G. Miles, John Kerr, A. P. 
Wilson, Edwin F. Shoenberger, Benjamin Leas, John Mc- 
Cahen, John Long, Brice Blair, Thomas E. Orbison and John 
Porter, of Huntingdon county. 

The first surveys through the county were made in the 
summer of 18-17. By the 3rd of xVugust, the engineers 
had progressed several miles west of Huntingdon in the di- 
rection of Petersburg. At that time they passed through the 
former borough on Washington street, but later in the same 
season they made a re- survey on Allegheny street, where 
the location of the road was determined upon. Proposals 
for the grading and masonry between Lewistown and Hun- 
tingdon were advertised for in April, 1848, and received 
until the ITth of May. Contracts were entered into within 
the next twenty days, and the work was at once commenced. 
At the close of tbe year the grading was almost completed. 

The sections west of Huntingdon were in process of con- 
Btruction during the same year and the one succeeding it. 


On the tunnel near Spruce Creek, eleven hundred feet in 
length, great labor was required. An opening was effected 
through the mountain in June, 1849, eleven months after 
the first pick had been struck into it. But only three hun- 
dred and fifty feet were at that time finished. Several seri- 
ous accidents occurred at this tunnel from the premature 
explosion of blasts. In one of these, seven men were blown 
up, one of whom was killed and two others so badly injured 
that they were not expected to recover. 

In the neighborhood of Birmingham there were a num- 
ber of riots amon^ the laborers on the road in 1849. The 
Irish workmen were divided into several parties known as the 
" Far-downs," " Corkonians," etc., each determined to drive 
the others from the line. In June, of that year, the Sheriff 
of Huntingdon county, with a posse of about three hundred 
men from Petersburg, Alexandria and Spruce Creek, went 
as far as the western limits of the county, the rioters re- 
treating before them. No arrests were then made. At 
other times prisoners were taken and sent to jail in Hun- 
tingdon. For weeks the people living along the road, from 
Spruce Creek to Ironsville, were kept in a state of great 
alarm. Some of the laborers and contractors received 
severe injuries in the numerous skirmishes fought in that 
region between the opposing forces. 

The Pennsylvania railroad being a through line, and the 
of&cers of the company, the principal stockholders and others 
most deeply interested in the making of it, being in distant 
cities, it bore no very close relations to our people until 
completed and in operation. It has since become connected 
with all our interests and is the origin from which flows 
nearly every pulsation of improvement. Before the iron 
bands had been laid within any portion of our count}'', 
we could feel the throbbings of new life and vigor. While 
yet the cars came only to Lewistown, there was an increase 
of travel over our public highways and upon the canal to 
and from that point. 

The first train of cars arrived at Huntingdon on Thurs- 
day, June 6th, 1850. It consisted of five or six trucks 


drawn by the locomotive " Henry Clay." In a few days 
afterwards it proceeded westward, the road being then in 
running order to the Allegheny mountains. The excite- 
ment with which it was greeted probably exceeded that on 
the arrival of the first canal boat. Its approach had been 
heralded throughout the country for miles on both sides of 
the railroad, and as it was a trial trip, the train necessarily 
running slowly, the people had time to reach the railroad 
and witness the novel sight. In fact the engine announced 
itself by shrill whistles that even surprised the mountains 
through which they echoed. But there was disappointment. 
The idea had become general that trains never ran with less 
speed than lightning, and to see that one coming at the 
rate of three or four miles per hour was not what had been 
expected. It was not time yet for the express or the lim- 
ited mail. 

The development of the resources and interests of the 
county, and the improvements which have followed the 
building of the Pennsylvania railroad, will be described in 
the sketches of the townships and towns through which it 

On the 11th ©f January, 1847, Hon. David Blair, repre- 
sentative from Huntingdon county, presented in the Legis- 
lature a bill entitled "An Act to incorporate the Hunting- 
don and Broad Top Railroad and Coal Company." It 
passed both Houses, and was sent to Governor Shunk for 
executive action. He returned it without his approval, and 
with a message stating his reasons therefor. Not having a 
copy of the bill before us, we cannot give even the sub- 
stance of its provisions; but judging from the Governor's 
message, which was probably the strongest argument that 
could be made against it, it contained nothing improper. 
His objections to it were that it provided that the company 
should have the privilege of purchasing and holding five 
thousand acres of land, which be assumed they purposed 
farming, and that it did not make the stockholders individu- 
ally liable for the debts of the corporation. Such messages 
deserve a place among the absurdities of official literature. 


The friends of the road renewed their efforts to obtain a 
charter of incorporation. A meeting was held at Stoners- 
town, in Bedford county, on the 20th day of September, 
1847. Levi Evans was one of the secretaries, and Alexan- 
der Gwin and George W. Speer, of Huntingdon county, were 
present. Eesolutions were adopted expressive of the views 
of the citizens of the adjoining parts of Bedford and Hunt- 
ingdon counties, and a committee was appointed to prepare 
a memorial to the Legislature. The matter had then taken 
a political turn, the Democrats sustaining Governor Shunk 
in his veto of the bill and opposing Mr. Blair, who was a 
candidate for reelection. 

At the session of 1848, a bill was offered by Alexander 
King, of Bedford county, member of the Senate from this 
district, to incorporate a company under the original name. 
In the House of representatives it was amended by striking 
out the words, " and coal," leaving the title of the corpora- 
tion, " The Huntingdon and Broad Top Mountain Railroad 
Company." It was passed in this shape, and received the 
approval and signature of the Governor. This act does not 
appear among the published laws of 1848, for the reason 
that the enrolment tax was never paid. We have not, there- 
fore, a list of the commissioners named by it. 

The first public meeting to advance the purposes for 
which the act had been obtained of which we find any 
account, although there had been others previously, was held 
in the court house at Huntingdon on the 15th of August, 
1851. General John Williamson presided, and among the 
vice-presidents were John Garner, Christian Shoutz and 
Thomas Adams. The secretaries were Charles Mickley, 
William Lewis and R. Bruce Petriken. A committee, con- 
sisting of Major James Patton, J. G. Miles and David Blair, 
was appointed to ascertain what coal lands and coal rights 
could be procured for the company, upon what terms, and 
their location and accessibility, and to take conveyances 
thereof for its use. Col. S. S. Wharton, James Eutriken 
and Charles Mickley were appointed a committee to obtain 
releases of the right of way for the railroad. Addresses 


were delivered by Williamson, Miles, Blair, Petriken and 
General A. P. Wilson. There was always an abundance of 
eloquence to assist this road out of its early difficulties, but 
not sufficient to extricate it from its later struggles. 

Before any organization of the company had been made, 
or subscriptions to the stock taken, it was discovered that 
the act of 1848 was defective in not granting rights and 
privileges which were regarded as necessary in carrying on 
the operations of a mining and transporting corporation. 

Another act was therefore passed May 6th, 1852, not a 
supplement to that of 1848, but a new one, incorporating 
the Huntingdon and Broad Top Mountain Railroad and Coal 
Company, and was approved and signed by Governor Big- 
ler. The names of the corporators are given in the fol- 
lowing list, those from Huntingdon county being designat- 
ed by italics : 

John G. Miles, A. P. Wilson, Thomas Fisher, John Mc- 
Cahan, James Owin, James Entriken, David Blair, James 
Saxton, John Ker, John Scott, S. S. Wharton, John A. Doyle, 
George Jackson, John Porter, Israel Grafius, S. M. Green, 
John Mc Culloch, James Clark, J. H. Wintrode, Jacoh Cress- 
tvell, Charles Mickley, Alexander King, Job Mann, Samuel 
L. Russel, William Evans, Aiidrew J. Neff, William P. 
Schell, David McMurtrie, John B. Given, William Ayres, 
George. W. Speer, William P. Orhison, Levi Evans, James 
Patton, R. B. Petriken, Adin W. Benedict, Alexander Port^ 
James Maguire, Isaac Cook, George Gwin, James Campbell, 
Daniel Grove, Henry Zimmerman, and W. F. Dougherty. 

More than five years had elapsed since the introduction 
of Mr. Blair's bill into the Legislature, and it was only now 
that the proper authority was granted to form a company 
with power to build a road and develop the semi-bitumi- 
nous coal region of Broad Top. On the 10th of June, 1852, 
books were opened at Huntingdon for subscriptions of stock. 
• The amount subscribed that day was $15,000, and the next day 
it was increased lo $20,000. Meetings were held at Markles- 
burg, Stonerstown and McConnellstown, subscriptions taken 
and committees appointed to solicit further subscriptions. 


The company was organized January lOth, 1853, by the 
election of a President, General William Ayres, of Harris- 
burg, and a Board of Directors, consisting of Alexander 
King, William P. Schell, James Entriken, James Saxton, A. 
P. Wilson, John Scott, J. H. Wintrode and Lewis T. 

The contracts for the making of the road were entered into 
in July, 1853, the letting having been in the previous month. 
Samuel W, Mifflin had been chosen chief engineer. " His 
labors in the preliminary surveys, before the organization 
of the company, as well as his reputation as a civil engineer, 
designated him for the station and he was selected by the 
board with entire unanimity." At the meeting of stock- 
holders for the election of officers, January 11th, 1854, the 
first annual report of the directors was presented. The 
company then owned two thousand acres of land, the amount 
that they could purchase and hold under their charter, the 
conveyances for most of which had been obtaiued. The 
number of shares of stock then subscribed was 3629, or, at 
the par value of fifty dollars par share, $181,150; the receipts 
by the Treasurer had been $68,807, and payments for all 
purposes $66,801, leaving a balance of $2,006. The com- 
pany had been in existence one year, six months of which 
time had been spent in " exploration, surveys and location." 
Since the commencement of the work, it had steadily pro- 
gressed, and all expenses had been promptly paid. 

By the 13th of August, 1855, fourteen miles of track had 
been laid, and on that day cars commenced running to 
Marklesburg. At the beginning of the year 1856 the road 
was completed to Stonerstown, a distance of twenty-four 
miles, with the exception of the bridge over the Raystown 
branch, and the directors so reported to the stockholders at 
the annual meeting in January. The track to the mines 
was all laid but about a mile and a half, which the track- 
layers were then putting down. The road had been laid 
with T rail, weighing 56 pounds to the yard, on substantial 
cross-ties, ballasted with broken stone. 

It was the original intention to make Bedford the south- 


ern terminus of the road, and before its completion to the 
place of connection with the Shoup's run branch, the work 
of extending it beyond that point had been far advanced. 
Branches were also made to the coal mines on Sandy run 
and Six Mile run. In 1857 the company became embar- 
rassed financially, and labor upon the road was brought to 
an end. It had then reached Mount Dallas, a station within 
six miles of Bedford, and remained in that unfinished con- 
dition until the making of the Bedford and Bridgeport rail- 
road established a through line from Huntingdon to Cum- 
berland, Maryland. 

The present management of the Huntingdon and Broad 
Top railroad is most thorough and energetic. During the 
last two years, the road has been highly improved, the 
road-bed having been repaired and the rolling stock renewed 
and rendered safe and comfortable. The President is B. 
Andrews Knight, of Philadelphia, and the Superintendent, 
Geo. F. Gage, of Huntingdon. 

The making of a railroad from the Pennsylvania canal 
and railroad at or near the present site of Mount Union to 
the Broad Top coal region, is almost as old a project as the 
Huntingdon and Broad Top mountain railroad. Early in 
1848, meetings were held by the friends of the road at points 
on the proposed route. On the 28th of February in that 
year, one was held at Scottsville, at which John Lutz pre- 
sided. A committee of sixteen was appointed to report res- 
olutions, on which were Henry Brewster, George W. Speer, 
Kenzie L. Green, John Sharrer, John Ashman, Daniel Teague, 
and Samuel McVitty, of Huntingdon county. The follow- 
ing were a committee to present the resolutions to the Leg- 
islature : Hon. John Morrison, Brice Blair, Henry Brew- 
ster, Robert Speer, Benjamin Leas, George Hudson, Thos. 
T. Cromwell, James R. Brewster, John Ashman, Kenzie L, 
Green, John Brewster, John Stever, James Lyon, George 
Chestnut, John Sipes and John Dougherty. On the 25th of 
March following, the Legislature passed an act incorporating 
the Drake's Ferry and East Broad Top Railroad Company. 
No steps were ever taken towards the construction of this road. 


The ground is now occupied by the East Broad Top Rail- 
road and Coal Company. 

The latter corporation was organized under an act of 
Assembly of April 16th, 1856. The persons most actively 
engaged in the organization of the company were Messrs. 
Edward Roberts, A. Pardee and J. G. Fell, assisted in the 
vicinity of the road by Wm. B. Leas, Samuel McVitty, Dr. 
Louis Royer, P. P. Dewees and others. 

Work was commenced Sept. 16th, 1872, and the road opened 
for business as far as Orbisonia, a distance of 11 miles, Aug. 
80th, 1873, and to Robertsdale, the terminus of the road, on 
Nov. 4th, '74. 

The road is 30 miles long — 3 ft. gauge. The northern 
terminus is Mount Union on the Pa. R. R., then running 
in a southern direction through or near the following 
towns or villages in the order named* Shirleysburg, Orbiso- 
nia, Three Springs, Saltillo and Cooks Mills, terminating at 
the Broad Top coal fields at Robertsdale. 

The first officers of the corporation were, President, Wm. 
A. Ingham. Directors, Edward Roberts, A. Pardee, J. G. 
Fell, Percival Roberts, Randolph Wood, and C. R. Wood. 
Secretary, Percival Roberts ; engineer, John B. Wingate. 
The latter gentleman was obliged, to resign on account of 
failing health, and was succeeded by A. W. Sims, under 
whose supervision the surveys were completed and the road 

The capital stock originally authorized was $500,000. Au- 
thority has since been obtained for an increase of $150,000. 

The Lewisburg, Centre and Spruce Creek Railroad Com- 
pany was incorporated April 12th, 1853. The proposed 
southern terminus was at Spruce Creek, ou the Pennsyl- 
vania railroad. By subsequent legislation it was changed 
to Tyrone, in Blair county, and the route of the road 
through Huntingdon county diverted from Franklin town- 
ship to Warrior's Mark township. The grading through the 
latter was done in 1873. Work then ceased for want of 
funds^ and has not been resumed. An effort is now being 
made to connect this road with the Tyrone and Lock Haven 


railroad at Bellefonte, which, if successful, will make a con- 
tinuous line from Lewisburg to Tyrone without entering 
Huntingdon county. 

The first telegraph line was established through the 
county in 1850, by the Atlantic and Ohio Telegraph Com- 
pany. In April of that year, the Superintendent, J. D. 
Reid, was in Huntingdon, making arrangements for setting 
the posts and putting up the wires between Lewistown and 
Hollidaysburg. When finished to the latter point, the con- 
nection between Philadelphia and Pittsburg, by the Juniata 
route, was complete. This line was used for commercial 
and railroad business until 1856, when the Pennsylvania 
Railroad company put up a line of their own. In 1857 the 
Atlantic and Ohio line was consolidated with others, under 
the name of the National Atlantic and Ohio. In 1862 the 
Western Union Telegraph Company purchased the latter, 
and in 1864 put in new poles and ran five additional wires 
through to the east. In the same year the Pacific and At- 
lantic Telegraph Company, originating in the east, built an 
opposition line. A great deal of rivalry existed between 
the two companies until 1873, when the Western Union ob- 
tained a controling interest in the Pacific and Atlantic, and 
absorbed it. In 1875 another opposition line was con- 
structed by the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company, 
and is now in a flourishing condition. The number of wires 
running through or terminating within the county are as 
follows : Western Union, nine ; Atlantic and Pacific, one ; 
Pennsylvania Railroad, five; Huntingdon and Broad Top 
Mountain Railroad, one. 



A meeting of citizens of Huntingdon county was held in 
the court house at Huntingdon, on the 16th day of April, 
1828, for the purpose of forming an Agricultural Society. 
The following were the officers of the meeting : President, 
John Patton ; Vice President, John Blair ; Secretaries, 
Jacob Miller and Matthew D. Gregg. 

Robert Allison, Henry Miller, James Steel, M. D. Gregg, and 
William Simpson were appointed a committee to draft an ad- 
dress to the public and report the same at the next meeting. 
Edward Bell, John Blair, of Blair's Gap, George Schmucker, 
Dr. John Henderson, Thomas T. Cromwell, Conrad Bucher, 
Maxwell Kinkead, and William Speer were appointed a 
committee to draft a constitution for the government of the 

Joseph McCune, Stephen Davis, John Stewart, John 
Patton, John Blair, of Shade Gap, Adolphus Patterson, 
Jacob Miller and Matthew Wilson were appointed a com- 
mittee to receive subscriptions and the names of persons 
wishing to become members. 

The next meeting was held on the 15th of August, 1828. 
John Patton again presided, and Jacob Miller acted as secre- 
tary. A constitution reported by Matthew D. Gregg was 
adopted. The first article and section, stating the objects 
and fixing the name of the society, was adopted : 

"This society, having for its exclusive object the promo- 
tion and encouragement of agriculture and domestic manu- 
factures, shall be styled the Huntingdon County Agricultural 
and Manufacturing Society." 

The manner in which these interests were to be advanced 
is set forth in the following provisions of the constitution : 


Article 9, Sec. 1. The society at some general meeting 
thereof, shall fix and determine upon such articles of agri- 
culture, production, or improvement in domestic manufac- 
tures, as in their judgment are entitled to encouragement 
by rewards; and shall fix, ascertain, and publish, in such 
manner as shall be directed by the by-laws, such rewards, 
and the conditions, whenever the same shall become due and 
payable to the person or persons who shall by his, her, or 
their skill or industry, according to such conditions become 
entitled to the same. And the said directors, or a majority 
of them shall at the stated meetings, or at such times and 
places as shall be prescribed by the by-laws, meet for the 
purpose of hearing the parties applying for such rewards ; 
and of examining their proofs or specimen ; and shall have 
full power and authority to determine whether any or either 
of the applicants is entitled to the reward so advertised, ac- 
cording to the conditions thereto annexed; and to draw 
orders to be signed by the President and attested by the 
Secretary, on the Treasurer, for the amount of such rewards, 
in favor of the persons to whom^ the same shall have been 
adjudged, which orders he shall pay out of the moneys in 
his hands arising from taxes and subscriptions. 

Article 10. Sec, 1. The rewards shall be offered for pro- 
moting and increasing the culture of sugar from the maple 
or sugar trees, or any other substances ; the extraction of 
salts from ashes or vegtables ; the introduction of any new 
grain, grass, or roots, and raising the greatest quantity on 
any given quantity of ground ; the invention of any new and 
useful untensils in husbandry ; the raising and manufactur- 
ing of wool, hemp and flax, in greater quantities, or improv- 
ing the value thereof; the introduction of mineral or other 
manures; the improvement of the breed of horses, black 
cattle, sheep or hogs ; the making of butter, cheese, in any 
given quantities, and of the best qualities; or any improve- 
ment in all or every of the articles aforesaid, all of which 
shall be considered as among the objects contemplated by 
the society. 

Article 11. Sec. 1. In all cases where moneys shall re- 


main in the treasury after the payment of the rewards shall 
have been made, the President and Directors shall have the 
power to employ the moneys so remaining, in the purchase 
of books relating to Agriculture, Mechanics and Manufac- 
tures, or in the purchase and improvement of a piece of 
land, for the purpose of a pattern farm. 

The following officers, provided for in the constitution, 
were elected January l-ith, 1829 : President^ John Patton; 
Secretary, Joseph Adams ; Treasurer, Mathew D. Gregg ; 
Managers, William Spear, John Stewart, John Ker, Jacob 
Grove, Jacob Miller, John Neff, John Blair, of Shade Gap, 
George Ashman, Thos. T. Cromwell and Dr. John Henderson. 

Committee of Arrangements : James M. Bell, Henry Miller, 
James Coffey, Stephen Davis and Christian Garner. 

The records of proceedings after this organization of the 
society are perhaps not in existence. 

The present Agricultural Society was organized tempo- 
rarily on the 14th day of November, 1854, and permanently 
on the 9th day of January, 1855. A meeting of farmers 
and others was held in the court house on the former date, 
at which Hon. Jonathan Mc Williams presided, and Gen. J. 
C. Watson, R. Hare Powell, Jacob H. Miller, George Kudy, 
Alexander Oaks, John Tussey and Daniel Massey acted as 
vice-presidents, and George Hudson, John Hirst and Gen. 
S. Miles Green as secretaries. 

H. N. McAllister, A. W. Benedict, J. G. Miles and John 
Williamson addressed the meeting. 

The committee appointed to draft a constitution consisted 
of J. S. Barr, Col. S. S. Wharton, Gen. S. Miles Green, R. 
Hare Powell, Dr. J. H. Wintrode, Daniel Massey and Sam'l 

T. P. Campbell, esq., proposed, and the meeting by vote 
accepted, the following agreement : 

*' We, the undersigned citizens of Huntingdon county, 
impressed with the importance of forming an Agricultural 
Society for said county, do hereby agree to form ourselves 
into an association for the purpose of advancing the inter- 
ests of agriculture, science and the arts ; to pay into the 


treasury the sum of one dollar, and be governed by such 
Constitution and By-Laws as may be hereafter adopted for 
our government." 

The raising of a fund being thus provided for, E. Hare 
Powell was elected treasurer pro tern. 

It was then resolved, *' that the officers of this meeting 
continue to be the officers of the association until the adop- 
tion of a constitution." 

On the 9th day of January, 1855, at a meeting at which 
the President, Jonathan McWilliams, was in the chair, and 
Charles Mickley acted as secretary, a constitution was 
adopted and permanent officers ele -ted. The latter were 
as follows : 

President — Jonathan McWilliams. 

Vice Presidents — Joseph Reed, West township ; William 
Oaks, Barree; Peter Stryder, Porter ; Thomas B. Orbison, 
Cromwell; Wm. B. Smith, Jackson; Kenzie L. Green, 
Clay ; A. B. Sangree, Walker ; Robert Tussey, Morris ; 
John Garner, Penn ; George Wilson, Tell; Thomas Neely, 
Dublin ; Jacob Miller, Henderson ; Samuel II. Bell, Shirley; 
David Auxandt, Tod ; George W. Speer, Cass ; Jacob Baker, 
Springfield; Simeon Wright, Union; Gen. J. C. Watson, 
Brady ; David Parker, Warrior's Mark ; James Entriken, 

Recording Secretaries — J. S. Barr, J. S. Isett. 

Corresponding Secretary — Dr. John Gemmill. 

Treasurer — Hon. James Givin. 

Librarian — Theo. H. Cremer. 

At August term, 1871, of the Court of Common Pleas of 
IIuntingdoD county, the society vvas incorporated, upon the 
petition of 11. G. Fisher, David Blair, R. McDivitt, J. W. 
Mattern, George Jackson, Theo. H. Cremer, G. W. Johnston, 
Samuel T. Brown, Graffus Miller, J. S. Cornman, J. Simpson 
Africa, John S. Miller, Joshua Greenland, John M. Bailey, 
D. W. Womelsdorf, W. B. Zeigler and John Flenner, 

The society during the 21 years of its existence has held 
sixteen fairs. The dates, premiums paid and expenses in- 
curred have been as follows: 



1855, Oct. 10th and 11th. 

Premiums, $237.00 Expenses, § 472.00 

1856, " 8th to 10th, indusive 




1857, " 14th " 16th, 





1858, " 5th " 7th, 





1859, " 4th " 6th, 





1860, Sep. 26th " 28th, 





1865, Oct. 4th " 6th, 





1866, Sep. 26th " 28th, 





1867, Oct. 2nd " 4th, 




" 1029.91 

1869, " 6th " 8th, 





1870. " 4th " 7th, 





1871, " 3rd " 6th, 




" 1260.00 

1872, " 4th " 7th, 





1873, " 7th " 10th, 





1874, " 6th " 9th, 




" 1064.00 

1875, Sept. 28th " Oct. 1st. 

A p. , 1 


After the payment of the incidental expenses incurred at 
the last exhibition, 1875, there remained in the treasury 
the sum of $6-1.94:, and there was due the society for lumber 
sold the sum of $71.90. No premiums were paid. 

The ofl&cers chosen at the annual election in January 
were Alexander Port, President; Perry Moore and James 
Hutchinson, Vice Presidents ; Dr. J. R. Patton and James 
B. Carothers, Secretaries ; Theo. H. Cremer, Treasurer ; Dr. 
G. L. Kobb, Librarian, 

This society aims at the encouragement of both agricul- 
ture and manufactures. The progress of these industries in 
the county up to 1870 is exhibited by the following tables : 

Number of acres of improved land, 186,818 

Vahie of farms, 19,445,678 

Vahie of all farm productions, including betterments and 

addition to stock 1,968,703 


Value of all kinds, $1,434,648 

Number of horses, 7,098 

" '■■ milch cows, 7,120 

" " working oxen, 54 

" " sheep, 17,780 

" swine, 12,909 


Number of bushels of wheat, 388,859 

rye, 78,480 


Number of bushels of Indian corn, 503,807 

oats, 411,479 

" barley, 4,525 

buckwheat, 20,909 

potatoes, J48 679 

pounds butter, 465,027 

cheese, 690 

wool, 54,110 


Number of establishments, .324 

" " hands emj^loyed — males above 16, ... . 1,249 

females " 15, . . . . 9 

" " " " youths, .... 101 


Capital i>n vested, . . . . ! $2,087,052 

Wages paid, 353,507 

Value of materials used, 1,520,506 

" " products, 2,319,152 



Broad Top mountain, in Huntingdon, Bedford and Fulton 
counties, contains an eastern or outlying basin of coal of 
eighty square miles in extent. The mineral was known to 
exist in that region from the beginning of the present century 
and mines were worked fully seventy years ago. The opera- 
tions, however, were on an exceedingly small scale until the 
completion of the Huntingdon and Broad Top railroad in 

An effort was made to create a market for this coal in 
1807, if not earlier. It had not then found its application in 
the smelting of ores, the generation of steam, the heat- 
ing of buildings, and the many other purposes for which it 
has become so useful. The owner of the mines endeavored 
to induce farmers to experiment with it as a fertilizer, and 
advertised it to the public energetically and extensively. 
The Huntingdon Gazette of June 4th, 1807, published edi- 
torially the liberal proposition of Mr. Samuel Riddle to 
furnish it without charge, as follows : 

" Such of the Farmers as wish to make experiments with 
the Stone Coal as a substitute for Plaster in manuring their 
Indian Corn, may be supplied with the Coal gratis, upon 
application to Peter Hughes, at Mr. Riddle's Mines, on the 
Raystown Branch. Those who cannot make it convenient to 
apply at the Mines, can be supplied upon application to the 
Editor by paying the carriage. The proprietor of the 
Mines offers not only to refund the carriage but also to pay 
expense of applying the Coal, if upon a fair experiment, it is 
found to be inferior to the plaster, which now sells at two 
dollars per bushel." 


We should probably not hold the editor responsible for 
the above, for although, like the fraternity of the present 
day, he may have been willing to bring a new thing to the 
attention of the public, he no doubt inserted the notice of 
this novelty at the instance and for the accommodation of 
Mr. Riddle. 

The experiments made in that year must have been in- 
sufficient and unsatisfactory to the latter, as, at the opening 
of the next planting season, he sets forth the value and ad- 
vantages of the fertilizer more at length : 


Farmers who wish to use Stone Coal for Manuring their 
Corn, or Grass, may be supplied with any quantity of the 
Coal ready ground at Two shillings and six pence per 
Bushel, by applying to Mr. Prigmore, at Mr. Smith's Mill in 

For the purpose of encouraging the Farmers to make trial 
of the Coal upon different soils, the subscriber will supply 
them with this article, gratis, upon application to his agent 
at the Coal Mines on the Raystown Branch ; and he further 
engages that he will pay double the price of the ground 
Coal to each person who shall purchase the same from Mr. 
Prigmore, if upon a fair experiment it should not be found 
to be a manure equal to Plaster. 

The Coal should be ground or beaten into a fine powder, 
and applied at the rate of a handful to each hill of Indian 
Corn immediately after hilling, and upon grass at the rate 
of two or three Bushels to the acre. Upon cold calcareous 
soils double the quantity may be used to advantage. 

The sulphuric acid contained in the Stone Coal is said to 
destroy the Turnip fly and to banish the cut worm and 
other destructive insects from the Gardens and Fields upon 
which it has been sown. Farmers and others will confer a 
favor upon the subscriber by making trial of the coal for 
this purpose, and communicating the result of their experi- 

Huntingdon, May 8th, 1808. Samuel Riddle. 



This advertisement simply betrays an ignorance of the 
chemical composition of coal and of the elements that it is 
necessary to add to the soil in order to enrich it. A trial 
was all that was required to demonstrate its futility. The 
Broad Top coal contains but a small proportion of sulphur, 
from 1.70 to 1.85 per cent., and we need not say that that is 
not in the form of sulphuric acid or any other combination 
of sulphur and oxygen, so that the turnip fly and cut worm 
were not likely to be disturbed in their attacks upon rising 

With the exception of a few mines opened besides Mr 
Riddle's, these vast beds of coal were permitted to remain 
undisturbed in the strata of Broad Top, until about twenty 
years ago. The annual production of the region during this 
latter period, and the average price per ton obtained for it 
at Philadelphia, during the last thirteen years, have been as 
follows : 



1856 . . 

. 42.000 

1857 . . 

. 78,813 

1858 . . 

. 105,478 

1859 . . 

. 130,595 

1860 . . 

. 186,903 

1861 . . 

. 272,625 

1862 . . 

. 333,606 

1863 . . 

. 305,678 

1864 • • 

. 386,645 

1865 . . 

. 815,906 




Tons. Price. 

265,720 .... 5.75 

244,412 . . . 4.75 

280,936 .... 4.50 

360,778 .... 4.75 

313,425 ..... 4.50 

319,625 . . . '. 4.60 

297,473 .... 4.70 

350,245 .... 5.00 

226,693 .... 4.55 

268,488 .... 4.15 

The foregoing table exhibits the product of both Hun- 
tingdon and Bedford counties. The proportion produced by 
each in 1875, is shown by the following detailed statement 
of the business for that year : 


Collieries. Operators. Tons. 

Cumberland, R. Langdon & Co., 14,672 

Powelton, R H. Powell & Co 23,926^ 

Barnet, R. U. Jacob & Co., 8,421^ 

Dudley, J. M. Bacon, 2,640^ 

Blair, " 2,395| 

Howe, " 8,989 

Mooresdale, Reakert Bros & Co., 20,904 

Carried up 81,949 



Brought up 81,949 

Fisher, Fishers & Miller, 15,292^ 

Carbon, Geo. Mears, . . 

Robertsdale, Eockhill C. & I. 







Collieries. Operators. 

Mount Equity, Kemble C. & I. Co., • 

Cunard, KB. Wigton, 19,717 

Scott, William Scott, . 

Helena, E. P. Jenkins, 

Coaldale, W. H. Piper, . 




. . . • . 24,737^ 
]\Iaher & Wilson, 383J 


Total for 1875 , . . 268,487^ 

The Bast Broad Top railroad, connecting with the Penn- 
sylvania railroad at Mount Union, and penetrating this coal 
field on the East side of the mountain, in Huntingdon 
county, carried in 1875, the year in which it was completed, 
the first coal from the Robertsdale mines, operated by the 
ilockhill Coal and Iron Company, 

The Broad Top coal makes a " bright, open, tenacious and 
strong coke." The only other coals that approach it in this 
respect are the Connellsville, in Fayette county, and the 
Bennington, on the crest of the Allegheny mountains. The 
following is a comparative analysis of the three kinds: 

Broad Top, Barnet seam . 
" Kelly " . 




.2 t,' 





















82 per cent. 

78 " 

68 " 

The Rockhill Coal and Iron Company manufacture coke 
inovensat their furnaces at Orbisonia. The building of ovens 
at Saxton, in Bedford county, for the conversion of the coal 
from Shoup's run branch and other mines on the Hunting- 
don and Broad Top railroad into coke, is, we are informed, 
in contemplation. 

Charcoal as a fuel for furnaces and forges must soon go 


out of use in Huntingdon county. The forests have disap- 
peared from around the iron manufacturing establishments 
that were built half a century ago, and many of the latter 
have gone to decay, and others have ceased operations. It 
must not be inferred, however, that the iron interests of the 
county have declined. A single furnace now, that of the 
Eockhill Coal and Iron Company at Orbisonia, produces 
more metal than all the other furnaces that were ever in 
blast at one time. 

" Juniata charcoal iron" has had, since the manufacture 
of it was commenced, a great celebrity. The establish- 
ments in this country, that assisted in building up that repu- 
tation have been as follows : 

In Barree township — Rebecca and Monroe furnaces and 
Rebecca forge. 

Brady — Mill Creek furnace. 

(7ro7?2i^;eZ^— Bedford, Melinda, Winchester, Rockhill and 
Chester furnaces, and Melinda forge. 

Franhlin — Huntingdon and Pennsylvania furnaces, three 
Colerain forges, two Elizabeth forges, and Millington, 
Franklin and Stockdale forges. 

Hopewell — Rough and Ready furnace and Clinton forge. 

Jackson — Mitchell's and Greenwood farnaces. 

Morris — Union furnace. 

Porter — Barree furnace and forge and Hatfield's rolling 
mill and forge. 

Shirley — Edward furnace. 

2oaf— Paradise furnaces and two forges and Mary Ann 

West — Juniata forge. 





The common school system of Pennsylvania was adopted 
in 1835, from which time an accurate history of education 
in our county can be given ; but previously educational 
affairs had been loosely conducted and the preservation of 
statistics much neglected. The principal aim of this chapter 
will be to trace the progress of the present system of public 
instruction. In doing so, we may get occasional glimpses of 
the older methods by way of comparison. 

It is difficult to ascertain the number of schools within 
the present bounds of the county before the formation of 
Blair. As nearly as can be estimated, the number in 1842 
was one hundred and thirty-six. The increase since that 
time has been as follows : In 1857, there were one hundred 
and seventy-four; in 1865, one hundred and ninety-two, 
and in 1875, two hundred and fifteen. The average number 
of months taught in those years was as follows : In 18-12, 
four and one-sixth ; in 1857, four ; in 1865, about four and 
a half, and in 1875, about five and one-fifth. In 1854, the 
mimimum length of the school term was fixed by act of 
Assembly at four months, and in 1872, at five months. 
Some districts in the county would increase their term had 
they the means of doing so. Others keep their schools 
open five months only because they cannot otherwise obtain 
a share of the State appropriation. 

At the beginning of the free school system there were no 
graded schools in the county, nor had there been any, so far 
as the records show. Now ihere are thirty of that class, all 



of which are in the boroughs and villages. The grading of 
the schools in several of the rural districts has been pro- 
posed, but the project has never been carried into effect. 

The number of children attending the schools at different 
periods, embracing more than the third of a century, the 
average attendance, and the cost of instruction per month 
for each pupil, are shown by the following table : 


Attended School. 

o o 













43 cents. 
55 " 

72 " 
87 " 

The number of teachers in the same year and the average 
salaries paid them, have been as follows : 




Females . 










From the comparison just given, it will bcperceived that 
salaries of male teachers in the county have been increased 
a little over seventy-five per cent, since 1842, and that the 
salaries of female teachers, in the same time, have been in- 
creased nearly two hundred per cent. 

Prof. R, M. McNeal, Superintendent of common schools 
for Huntingdon county, to whom we are indebted for many 
of the facts of this chapter, says : 

" That our teachers are not yet as well qualified for their 
work as they should be, is an undeniable fact. That they 
have greatly improved as a class, is equally true. The 
standard of qualifications is very much higher than it was a 
few years ago. 

" In the early history of education in our county, high 
scholastic attainments were not required of the teacher. 

" If a man had a fair knowledge of arithmetic, could write 
a legible hand, read tolerably well, and possessed ' muscle 


to wield tlie birch,' he had the necessary qualifications to 

" Teachers of fifty years ago gave no attention to profes- 
sional culture. Educational meetings were not known. 
Works on the theory and practice of teaching were not 
studied. It is true, many of the teachers were men of ex- 
perience in the school-room, but they plied their calling 
in 'tread mill' style, few of them knowing anything of the 
laws of mental growth and development, or of the science of 

"As the cause of education has grown and developed, not 
only greater scholastic attainments, but more thorough pro- 
fessional training has been demanded. 

" The teachers of Huntingdon county compare favorably 
with those of other counties in point of attainments and zeal 
in their work. 

" In the 'good old times' of subscription schools, none but 
men(?) were employed to teach. We have no record of any 
females teaching in the county previous to the adoption of 
the free school system. 

" Female teachers in Huntingdon county, as well as in 
other counties of the State, have met with violent opposi- 

" They have had to battle against the grossest ignorance 
and most unreasonable prejudices ; but, in the fight, they 
have come off victorious. 

" They have established their title to patronage by their 
worth. Results prove that they have met with more uni- 
form success than have male teachers. Some of the best 
disciplined, the most carefully trained, and the best taught 
schools in the county have been conducted by female 

" In 18-12 there were one hundred and thirty male and 
six female teachers. 

"At the present time about one-third of our teachers are 
females. During the late war about one-half were females." 

The efficiency of our schools has been greatly increased 
by the attention latterly given to classification. Formerly 


there were as many classes in each brancli of study as there 
were pupils pursuing it. Two books of the same kind could 
seldom be found in a school. At the opening of the term, 
book-cases and libraries were ransacked by pupils in their 
ambition to have a book different from any other in school. 

Teachers themselves were ignorant of the value of classi- 
fication, and did not encourage it. There were fewer 
branches taught in the schools at that time than at present, 
and the instruction was given in a very different manner. 
Arithmetic was not recited. When the pupil reached a pro- 
blem he could not solve, it was taken to the teacher, by 
whom the solution was placed upon the slate and handed, 
without explanation, to the pupil, who departed with his 
new acquisition and resumed his work. 

Previous to the adoption of the present school system, 
little else was taught in our schools than spelling, reading, 
writing and arithmetic. In addition to these branches, 
teachers are now required to pass an examination in and 
to be prepared to impart a knowledge of mental arithmetic, 
geography, grammar, history of the United States, and the 
theory of teaching. In a number of schools, vocal music, 
algebra, and drawing to a limited extent, are taught, and in 
a few of the higher grades are also taught etymology, phy- 
siology, philosophy and astronomy. 

In text-books we approach very nearly to uniformity. 
Those principally used are the New American Readers and 
Spellers, Brooks' Mathematics, Mitchell's Geography, Few- 
smith's and Bullion's Grammars, and Goodrich's History. 

Of the one hundred and ninety-five school buildings in 
the county in June, 1875, one hundred and sixty-nine were 
frame, fifteen brick or stone, and eleven log. Many of the 
sketches of townships will give the history of the erection of 
school-houses within them, and therefore we entirely omit 
such information from this part of the work. 

We are indebted to the Hon. David Clarkson, of Cass- 
ville, for the following description of the primitive school- 
houses of Trough Creek valley : 

" They were built of round logs, and were covered with 


clapboards, which were kept in their places by heavy logs 
laid on them to keep them down. The floors were made of 
logs split in halves and laid together with the flat sides up. 
Snakes could crawl through, as they often did. In the end 
of each building there was a great fire-place, with a wooden 
chimney. The light was admitted through large cracks in 
the walls, from six to ten inches in width, covered with 
grea-^ed paper for glass, and woe betide the urchin who ran 
his finger through the window, as often happened." 

School architecture has not yet reached a very high 
degree of perfection in the county, but most of the houses 
built latterly are neat, comfortable and commodious. They 
are generally about as good as the means of the district jus- 
tify, and are certainly far superior to the buildings used as 
school-houses half a century ago. 

In the report of the County Superintendent for the year 
1865, appears the following description of a room then used 
for school purposes in one of the wealthier districts : 

" The room is a basement, sixteen by twenty teet, with 
two small windows. It has been occupied alternately as a 
stable, a butcher shop — of which it is now more suggestive 
than anything else — and a school-room. The floor is com- 
posed of boards laid down loosely, and scarcely raised above 
the damp, cold earth. The back part of the room has never 
been walled, and from the yielding soil issue, continually, 
small streams of slimy, disagreeable moisture, which trickle 
down its side. There was no ventilation, and the musty 
damp and vitiated atmosphere was suggestive of disease and 

It is almost incredible that such things could have existed 
so recently as eleven years ago. This room must have been 
the representative of an anterior period. 

Twenty-five years ago, many of our school-houses were 
heated by the old-fashioned fire-places, which, while they 
had little else to recommend them to favor, furnished better 
means of ventilation than some of our more modern build- 
ings can' boast of. Those not heated in this manner were 
warmed by wood stoves. Coal as u fuel- for school-rooms 


is of late introduction. It is now very generally used. 
In a few districts, remote from the railroads, where wood 
is less expensive, the latter retains its place as a fuel. 

Perhaps the greatest improvement in connection with our 
schools has been in the furniture and apparatus with which 
they are provided. The writing desks of a former day 
consisted of boards arranged around the room, against the 
walls, supported by wooden pins, and the seats, in most 
cases, were slabs with the flat sides up, the surfaces of which 
had never come in contact with a plane, and without 
backs. Here and there a school could be found fortunate 
enough to possess a map and a globe, the property of the 
teacher, but blackboards were unknown. 

Marked progress had been witnessed in these respects, es- 
pecially during the last decade. The houses are not only 
built more substantially, but they are constructed and fur- 
nished with reference to health, comfort and convenience. 
A number of them are supplied with good patent furniture. 
Others have " home-made" desks and seats that are tolera- 
bly comfortable. Wherever the patented articles have been 
tried, they have proved to be cheaper and better than those 
manufactured in the old style, and are recommending them- 
selves to general use. A majority of our houses have out- 
line maps, a number have globes, charts and writing tablets, 
and a few have dictionaries. All but one have blackboards. 

Although but few of our school buildings can be regarded 
as first-class in every particular, they are generally as good 
as those found in country districts any where. The best 
houses are in Alexandria, Mount Union, Morris, Mapleton, 
Petersburg, Porter, Tod, Walker, Warrior's Mark, Franklin 
and Huntingdon districts. 

Teachers' institutes have done much in this county for 
the professional training of teachers, the education of public 
sentiment, and the improvement of the schools. The first 
institute was organized at Huntingdon, February 23rd, 1853. 
A preliminary meeting was held at the public house of Mrs. 
Hampsou, where the following ag^reement was drawn up 
and signed by forty-five teachers : 


" We the undersigned teachers of Huntingdon county, 
hereby agree to meet in Convention this day to promote 
the cause of general education and improvement of our pro- 
fession ; and we agree to be governed by a Constitution and 
By-Laws, adopted by a majority of the members in Conven- 

They then met in the Town Hall, and the Convention 
was opened with prayer, by Rev. James Campbell, who, on 
motion, was elected president. Miss C. T. Benedict, S. 
T. Brown and R. McDivitt were elected secretaries. 

A committee was appointed to prepare business for the 
Convention. They reported a number of resolutions, 
among which were the following : 

One resolving the Convention into an association to be 
called the " Teachers' Institute of Huntingdon county;" one 
providing for the appointment of a committee to draft a 
constitution and by-laws ; one recommending to the Legisla- 
ture to provide for the appointment or the election of a 
County Superintendent; and one recommending the Pennsyl- 
vania School Journal to teachers and friends of education. 
The institute then adjourned to meet in Huntingdon, April 
21st, 1853. 

The first annual session was held as per adjournment, 
continuing two days. In the absence of the President, Rev. 
Campbell, J. S. Barr was made president pro tem. 

The constitution and by-laws were read and adopted. 
They provided that the necessary expenses of each session 
should be defrayed by equal assessments on all the male 
members present, and any member refusing to pay his quota 
was to be suspended for one year. 

The sessions of the institute were taken up in discussions 
on the methods of teaching the alphabet, spelling, reading, 
and arithmetic. Lectures were given on Teachers' Insti- 
tutes by Rev. R. Pierce ; on General Education by S. T. 
Brown; on School Discipline by D. Baker, and on Phonetics 
by R. McDivitt. An essay on the Influence of the Teacher 
was read by Miss C. T. Benedict. The subject of Uniform- 
ity of Text Books was also discussed. 

'history of HUNTINGDON COUNTY. 175 

The second annual meeting or the institute was held in 
Huntingdon, December 22nd, 1853. J. A. Hall was presi- 
dent and S. T. Brown and R. McDivitt, secretaries. The 
principal subjects of lectures and discussions were the 
Common School System, Duties of Parents, Language, His- 
tory, Music, The School Law, and Education. 

Sessions were held thereafter, commencing as follows ; 
December 21st, 1854, December 24:th, 1855, December 22nd, 
1856, February 22nd, 1858, December 27th, 1860, and De- 
cember 26th, 1861. The institute was subject to the call of 
the Board of Managers previous to the passage of the act 
of Assembly in 1867, making it obligatory upon the Super- 
intendent to convene the teachers of the county once in each 
year. Under this act, the institute met December 17th, 
1867, and has since assembled annually. 

Before the adoption of the com men school system,no exami- 
nation was required of those who were applicants for posi- 
tions as teachers. From that time until the establishment 
of the Superintendency, the examinations were made by the 
directors, or by persons selected by them. Improvement 
in the qualifications of teachers only became perceptible 
after more thorough methods were put into operation by 
the Superintendents. Their supervision has been more di- 
rect than any that had previously been exercised, and the 
less the area over which it has been distributed, the mor e 
efiective it has been in producing good results. The use- 
fulness of the Superintendency has therefore been much 
more apparent in the small counties than in the large ones. 

The office met with considerable opposition in this county 
after its establishment, citizens of the county joining with 
others in petitioning the Legislature to abolish it. The Super- 
intendents were poorly paid, and failed to receive the co- 
operation of school officers and patron. During the con- 
tinuance of this opposition, they did more to improve the 
schools of the county than any other agency employed. 
Their efficiency was soon recognized, opposition ceased, and 
they were given the support of directors and friends of 



At the first election of Saperintendent, in June, 1854, the 
act establishing the office having been passed at the previous 
session of the Legislature, the salary was fixed at $600. 
Many of the members of that convention, who voted for a 
low salary, have since become warm advocates of the office 
and in favor of liberal compensation. John Gr, Stewart, 
now of Mount Union, was the only director who voted for 
$800, and was regarded as somewhat fanatical in his views. 

The following is a list of the persons who have held the 

office, with the year of their election or appointment, and 

their salaries : 

Resigned April, 1856. 
Appointed, " " 

Increased to $1,000. 

1854, J. S. Barr, 



1856, A. Owen, 






1860, R. McPivitt, 






1866, D. F. Tussey, 






1872, R. M. McNeal, 






The receipts and expenditures for school purposes in the 
county are shown by the following table, the figures exhib- 
iting the increase from a time but a few years subsequent 
to the commencement of our free schools : 





State Appropriation, 
Taxes & other sources. 

§ 4 779 00 

7 299 57 

12 078 57 

§ 2 020 90 
21 469 30 
23 490 20 

$ 2 603 76 
25 371 25 
27 975 01 

§ 5 570 22 
62 349 32 
67 919 54 

School Houses, build- 
ings, etc,, 
Fuel, Contingencies, 
and Collection of taxes, 
Teachers' Salaries, 

$ 1 786 42 

589 83 

8 069 03 

10 645 28 

§ 2 558 15 

1 653 76 
19 319 50 
23 531 41 

$ 2 496 96 

4 237 02 
22 839 72 
29 573 70 

$ 13 573 66 

12 569 11 
39 756 10 
65 898 87 

There is a considerable number of persons in the county 
who have not been reached by the benefits of our educa- 
tional system. Illiteracy does not, however, exist to as 
great an extent as in some of the other counties of the State. 
In 1870, there were in the county nine hundred and fifteen 
persons, ten years of age and over, who could not read, 



and eigliteen hundred and seventy who could not write. 
The age, color and sex of the latter were as follows : 

10 to 15 . . 
15 to 21 . . 
21 and over 
Total . 
























Progress in education, as in all moral reforms, is necesarily 
slow. " As we perceive the shadow to have moved, but did 
not perceive it moving, so our advances in education, con- 
sisting of such minute steps, are perceivable only by the 
distance." Slowly as it may seem, we are steadily advanc- 
ing. Every department of our system is more perfect than 
when it was established, the grade of scholarship is higher, 
teachers are better qualified, and popular intelligence is 
more general. 




Shirleysburg at one time supported a Boys' Academy and 
a Female Seminary, each of which had a liberal patronage. 
At that time a spirit of hostility to the public schools was 
rife in Shirley township, it being the last district in the county 
to accept the common school system. After the latter was ac- 
cepted and began to receive a generous support, these private 
schools grew weaker and finally expired. They have not 
been in existence for a number of years. 

In 184:9, Milnwood Academy, at Shade Gap, was founded 
through the energy and zeal of Rev. J. Y. McGinnes, Pres- 
byterian pastor at that place. Under his wise and efficient 
management, the institution sprang at once into popularity 
and success, but he did not long survive to continue his 
useful labors. His successors were Wilson McGinnes, 
nephew of the founder of the Academy, W. H. Woods, W. Mc- 
Knight Williamson, Rev. Yan Artsdalen, W. A. Hunter, 
L. M. Beers and R. S. Kuhn. It was under the 
control of trustees until taken charge of by the latter gentle- 
man, when he purchased it. In its early days it was a 
flourishing school, and sent from its halls of learning, many 
who have become distinguished in the various walks of life, 
and who are scattered far and wide over the United States. 
It has not been in operation for four or five years. The 
buildings remain in good condition. 

Cassville Seminary had its origin in the fall of 1851. The 
Bev. Zane Bland, in a conversation with Geo. W. Speer and 
David Clarkson, who is at present one of the Associate 
Judges of the county, suggested the place as admirably 
adapted for the location of a seminary. The enterprise was 
taken hold of by those gentlemen, stock subscribed, an asso- 
ciation formed and officers elected. On the 26th of May, 





I r 
I r 

I n 


I" w 



1852, the Board of Trustees entered into an article of 
agreement with Robert Madden for the erection of the build- 
ing, who at once entered upon the work, and completed it 
the next fall or winter. While this was being done, the first 
session of the school was held in the M. E. Church, Rev. 
Ralph Pierce, Principal, and his wife, an adopted daughter of 
Bishop Peck, Preceptress. In 1854 and '55 another build- 
ing, for the accommodation of boarders, was erected by 
Robert Madden. The school was under the supervision of 
the Methodist Church, and continued in operation until the, 
beginning of the late war. It gained considerable popu- 
larity and patronage, having at various times as high as a 
hundred and twenty-five students. 

This property was purchased in September, 1865, by Prof» 
A. L. Guss, for a Soldiers' Orphan School. It included four 
acres of land, and was bought for $2,250. The erection of 
additional buildings and other improvements cost $5,000' 
more. The farm cost $3,000, and lots and adjoining grounds 

The school was opened November 6th, 1865. During the 
time it was in operation, pupils were admitted by orders from 
the State Superintendent, and by transfers from other schools^ 
as follows : 

Males. Females, Total. 

Admitted on orders, 174 149 323 

" by transfers, 99 62 161 

Total, 273 211 484 

They were discharged as follows : 

Males. Females. Total. 

Discharged on age, (at 16 years, . . . 116 99 215 

" " order 48 29 77 

" by transfer, 18 12 30 

Died while in school, 2 5 7 

Discharged at close of the school, . . 89 66 135 

Total, 273 211 484 

The school closed April 10th, 1874, after having been open 
nearly eight and a half years. " The testimony of the out- 
side world and the records of the Department " show that it 
had been well managed. 


The only private schools now in existence in the county 
are the Huntingdon Academy and the Mountain Seminary 
at Birmin2;ham. 

The former was incorporated by Act of Assembly of 
March 19th, 1816, which also granted a donation of $2,000 
to the institution. It continued to receive State aid for a 
number of years. The buildings, then situated at the south- 
eastern corner of Second and Allegheny streets, known as 
Dean's Hotel, were purchased, and used for the school for 
many years. The brick building at the corner of Fourth 
and Moore streets was erected in 184:4, and the school re- 
moved there. In 1874 a more commodious structure was 
placed at the northeastern corner of Fourth and Church 
streets. Professor J. A. Stephens was then the principal, 
and it was his efforts and energy that secured its erection. 
His health failing, he was able to teach but a short time in 
the new building. He died in April, 1876, much lamented 
by all who knew him. Prof. W. W.Campbell is the present 

The Mountain Seminary was incorporated in 1851, and 
the buildings erected by a stock company. Rev. Israel 
Ward, A.M., was the first principal. The school had only a 
moderate patronage and was far from being profitable. It 
was burdened with debt and the management was inefficient. 
In 1855, the property was sold at sheriff's sale and was un- 
occupied for sometime afterwards. In October, 1857, it was 
purchased by Prof. L. G. Grier, under whose auspices, with 
the assistance of Miss N. J. Davis, graduate of Mount Holyoke 
Seminary — than whom there is not a more thorough teacher 
in the State — and a full corps of teachers in music and other 
branches, the institution has achieved a marked success. The 
building has been greatly enlarged, and additional grounds 
purchased, until they now consist of about fifty acres. The 
latter have been greatly improved and adorned with shrub- 
bery. An extensive green-house adds greatly to the beauty 
and attractiveness of the premises. The laundry is in a sepa- 
rate building erected for the purpose. Ample washing and 
bathing facilities are afforded the pupils. The building has 


been in a measure remodeled during the last year. It is now 
lighted with gas, manufactured on the premises, and heated 
by steam, both of which improvements contribute materially 
to the comfort and safety of the occupants. About fifty 
boarding and thirty -five day scholars are in attendance. 

"We can give no other general church history of the county 
than that contained in the census returns for 1870. The 
details of the organization of churches and the building 
of edifices in many of the townships will be found in the 
local sketches which, form many of the succeeding chapters. 
In 1870, there were in the county eighty-three church 
structures, and the value of all church property was 
$284,-400. The number of organizations and sitting accom- 
modations was as follows : 

Organizatious. Sittings.! Organizations Sittings. 

Baptist, 12 4,900 Presbyterian, 12 -±,300 

Episcopal, 1 300 Reformed, 11 2,650 

Lutheran, 10 3,350|Catholic, 2 2,000 

Methodist, 29 12,800iAll Denominations, 86 36,000 

Thus the number of seats m the churches exceeds the 
population by nearly five thousand. And when we consider 
the large proportion of the people that stays away from 
church, regularly and irregularly, we will perceive how 
many of those seats must be empty. It is likely that the 
Methodist churches alone would accommodate all who can 
be found in attendance at all the churches on any single 

Nearly all the denominations have improved their edi- 
fices since the above statistics were taken, and many of them 
have increased the number. Perhaps the only decrease has 
been with the Catholics, who lost their church at Dudley, 
by fire during the present year. 



The progress that results from the skill, the industry and 
the energy of man is valuable only as it contributes to his 
welfare and happiness. The reclaiming of a country from 
the wilderness, the improvement of its agricultural re- 
sources, the development of its mines, the building of manu- 
factories, the conversion of its raw material into articles of 
commerce, and the increase of facilities for carrying its pro- 
ducts, natural and artificial, to market, and for bringing 
other commodities in return, are worthy of our exertions, 
because they improve and develop the people, build up a 
better social system, beget a higher civilization and provide 
the means of support for a larger population. We will 
present some statistics of the growth of our county in the 
number and wealth of its inhabitants. 

In these respects there has been a steady and gratifying 
increase. Had the county been left at its original propor- 
tions, it would now contain from sixty thousand to seventy 
thousand people, but its population and territory have been 
cut down together. Between 1800 and 1810, the increase 
was small on account of the formation of Cambria county, 
and between 18-10 and 1850 there was a loss of some thou- 
sands, caused by the erection of Blair. The following table 
shows our progress at each decade : 




1800. 1810. 


1830. 1840. 



1860. 1870. 

Whites . . . 
Free Colored. 
Slaves .... 

12,875 19,6(i8 
100 110 

13,008 14,778 











27,810 30,952 
290j 299 

Total . . . 



28,100 31,251 

The population of 1870 consisted of 29,658 natives and 



1,593 foreigners. The countries from whicli tlie latter prin- 
cipally came and tlie number from eacb. are as follows : 

British America, 






Sweden and Norway, 






England and Wales, 






The distribution of population, white and colored, native 
and foreign, over the county in 1870, and the distribution 
of white and colored people in 1850 and 1860, are shown 
by the following table : 




Carbon* . . . . 



Cromwellf . . . 


Franklin • . . . 
Henderson . . . 
Hopewell . . . 
Jackson . . . . 
Juniata . . . . 







Springfield . . . 





Warrior's Mark 


Alexandria . . 
Birmingham . 
Cassville . . . 
Huntingdon . 
Mapleton . . . 
Mount Union . 
Petersburg . . 
Shirleysburg . 
Three Springs 


























1 ,108 


















































































* Including Broad Top City and Coalmont. t Including Orbisonla. 



Altliougli Huntingdon county stands on the list as thirty- 
eightli in population, she occupies a much higher position, 
being thirtieth, in point of wealth. She compares very favor- 
ably with the other counties of the State containing about 
the same or even a larger number of inhabitants. The fol- 
lowing statement embraces all the counties that have popu- 
lations varying from 25,000 to 87,000, from which it will be 
seen that but two of them exceed Huntingdon in the value 
of their real and personal property and that these are more 
populous : 



































. 34,096 


























The area of the county is eight hundred and ninety-nine 
square miles, or five hundred and seventy-five thousand 
three hundred and sixty acres. The number of taxable in- 
habitants in 1870 was seven thousand three hundred and 
ninety -five. In the same year the amount of taxes assessed 
was as follows : 

Borough and Township, $64,886 

County ' 32,508 

State 3,317 





On tlie 17tli day of January, 1861, nearly three months 
before the first overt act of rebellion in the South, and 
while hopes were yet entertained of a peaceable adjustment 
of the difficulties which had been made the pretext for se- 
cession, the people of Huntingdon county, irrespective of 
party, assembled in the court-house and expressed their sen- 
timents as contained in the following preamble and resolu- 
tions : 

" Several of the States, bound by the Constitution of the 
United States, the supreme law of the land, acceded to and 
adopted by themselves, having, by the action of separate 
state conventions, undertaken to absolve their people from 
the allegiance due to the General Government, and placed 
themselves in an attitude of hostility to the Union ; and 
other States of the Confederacy being agitated by those of 
their citizens who favor co-operation with the seceding States, 
thus rendering probable not only a dissolution of the Union, 
but the formation of two or many governments, which, from 
the causes leading to their existence, will act towards each 
other with that malignant hate which follows when ' brother's 
blood is turned to gall;' and the citizens of Huntingdon 
county, strongly impressed with a sense of their duty to the 
Constitution and the Union, with the importance of pre- 
serving and maintaining both ; desirous to avert the calam- 
ities that must follow a permanent dismemberment of the 
Union, do, in county meeting assembled, declare : 


" 1st. That the undivided feeling of the people of this 
county, without respect to party, is an unyielding fidelity 
to the Constitution, the Union, and all laws passed in con- 
formity with the one or for the protection and perpetuity of 

the other. 

" 2nd. That we declare, not our willingness to concede, 

but our readiness, by all lawful means, to demand and en- 
force for our brethren of the South, every right and privilege 
granted and secured to them by the Constitution and laws of 
the United States; that while we declare the intention that 
their rights and ours shall be thus equally secured by the 
Government, we also declare that their wrongs and ours 
should be, and can be, equally redressed by resort to the 
same power. 

" 3rd. It is our ardent desire that the differences now ex- 
isting shall be adjusted without leading to unnatural and 
disastrous strife ; that they should be made the subject of 
dispassionate discussion among brethren, with a mutual de- 
sire to settle them justly to all parties ; not the occasion of 
bloody contest, which will embitter but never remove them ; 
and feeling thus, we request our Senators and Representa- 
tives in Congress and the State Legislature to give expres- 
sion to this sentiment, believed to be that not of the county 
alone but of the masses of this State, by advocating and 
voting for any measure calculated to bring about a peaceable 
and honorable adjustment of pending dif&culties ; avoiding 
here the presentation of any particular project about which 
individuals would differ, but declaring that in this crisis 
mere party feeling should be buried by both constituents 
and representatives, and every patriotic effort made that 
can with honor be made, to preserve the Union in peace, 
and to call back those whom we still claim as citizens of a 
common country, from rebellion to allegiance, and then, if 
the olive branch of peace be rejected, and war proffered in 
its stead, we will stand around the flag of our whole country 
as firmly as our rocks and mountains stand around us. 

"4th. While everything consistent with honor should be 
done to avert the calamity of civil war and restore fra- 


ternal relations between the States, duty to tlie Constitu- 
tion and the laws, which we have declared our readiness to 
support and submit to, requires that the people of every 
State should support and submit to them. We cannot, 
therefore, characterize the recent attacks upon the property 
and flag of the United States as anything else than armed 
treason, and while and whenever it continues to manifest 
itself, we cordially approve and will support the action of 
the President, his Cabinet and Lieut. Gen. Scott, in continu- 
ing to make every preparation necessary either to prevent 
or meet it. 

" 5th. That Major Robert Anderson is entitled to the 
thanks of his country for his prudent and patriotic conduct 
in occupying Fort Sumpter. 

" 6. That we extend our cordial greeting to all friends of 
the Union, and of peaceable settlement in the Southern 
States; that we assure them of the prevalence of the feeling 
in the North that the rights and equality secured by the 
Constitution and the laws shall be observed and enforced 
by all the powers of the Government, sustained in good 
faith by the people ; that we ask them to stand with us, and 
pledge ourselves to stand by them in every honorable effort 
to preserve that Government under which both the North 
and the South have grown and prospered." 

Although the day for argument and entreaty, as it then 
seemed, had not passed, yet the time for the expression of a 
firm determination to preserve the Union had come. It 
was not long until the latter was the only sentiment which 
the crisis demanded. A series of meetings of the people of 
the county was held in Huntingdon on the 17th, 18th, 19th, 
20th and 22nd of April, 1861, at which the resolutions were 
briefer, and if possible, more expressive : 

^^ Resolved, that we pledge our all in men and means to sus- 
tain our National Administration in every effort to maintain 
the integritj'- of the Union and defend its flag. 

" Resolved, that it is no longer necessary to appeal to every 
patriot to forget every thought and every word calculated 
to excite partisan feeling or to wound party affections. The 


past is forgotten — common dangers unite us. "We are one 
people — let no feeling of madness divide us. 

"JResolved, that our sympathies and our prayers shall go 
with and be offered for those of our fellow citizens who take 
up arms to defend our country's honor ; and those dependent 
upon them whom they leave amongst us shall have our 
faithful care. 

^^Resolved^ that the County Commissioners be requested 
to raise the American flag from the cupola of our court 

The war had then commenced ; Fort Sumpter had been 
fired upon ; the President had issued his proclamation 
calling out the militia of the several states to the aggregate 
number of seventy-five thousand men, and the military 
companies were tendering their services and being accepted. 

The appeal of the President "to all loyal citizens to favor, 
facilitate and aid this effort to maintain the honor, the integ- 
rity, and the existence of our national Union, and the per- 
petuity of popular government, and to redress the wrongs 
long enough endured," nowhere met with a more ready and 
hearty response than in Huntingdon county. In fact, he 
had had the assurance of the support of the people of the 
county in the resolutions of January I7th, 1861, in which 
they promised to stand around the flag of their whole 
country as firmly as their rocks and mountains stood around 
them, and cordially approved of every measure taken to 
meet and prevent armed treason. How faithfully they stood 
by these promises, and how well they gave to the President 
and the nation their support, would be attested by the death 
roll of those who fell in the fearlul struggle which was 
then commencing, could it be here given. 

Among the first companies to offer themselves were those 
from Huntingdon county. But no notification of the accep- 
tance of any of them was received until Friday, April, 19th, 
1861. The next day, Saturday, the 20th, the " Standing Stone 
Guards," of Huntingdon, took their departure for Harris- 
burg. They were placed in the Fifth Pennsylvania regi- 
ment, of which R. Bruce Petriken was appointed Major, and 



A. Kinney Buoy, 
Edwin W. Thomas, 
Barrick, Jacob 
Blacii, George A. 
Bradley, John W. 
Cannon, John 
Coder, WilUam B. 
Chirk, Jacob S. 
Couch, W. A. B. 
Chirk, Alfred 
Cullison, John 
Cunningham, J. D. 
Deft'enbaugh, S. S. 
DeArmitt, John 
Donahoe, John 
Deetor, John A. 
Dean, George W. 
Estep, William 
Fink, John 
Fleck, Augustus 
Forshy, Henry 
Gibb, John 
Glazier, AVm. H. " 
Gilhland, J. W. 
Gilliland, Wm. D. 
Harvey, Geo. W. 
Hoflman, Theo. 


Heffner, D. J. 
Keegan, Thomas 
Hoti'man, John 
Lytle, John W." 
Long, Wm. H. 
Montgomery, G. W. 
McFarland, Theo. 
Miller, W. A. 
McC'abe, Edward 
McMurtrie, S. M. 
McMurtrie,' James 
McGee, Chas. W. 
Mangle, Adam 
McCall, Jacob 
McKean, James 
McAllister, Alfred "" 
Miller, Adam P. 
Nash, E. K. 
Prim, William H. 
Rinard, Samuel 
Roulett, James 
Staubs, Nathaniel 
Shaw, William H. 
Stamm, John 
Stevens, William 
Sturtsman, William 
Steel, Jacob ■ — ' 
Shafier, Peter 
Sneath, George 
Souder, John 
Sneath, Richard 
Thompson, Joseph H. 
Thompson, R. E. 
Tobias, Calvin 
Vandevander, M. M. 
Williams, B F. 
Wagoner, Wm. H. 
White, Anthony 
Wise, WilUam H. 


immediately sent to Washington. The following is the roll 
of the officers and men of the company : 

Benjamin F. Miller, Captain 

George F. McCabe, First Lieut. 
James D. Campbell, Second " 
J. Addison Moore, First Sergt. 

Johns. Campbell, Second " 
Wm. H. Flenner, Third " 

Geo. W. Simpson, Fourth " 
James McCahan. First Corporal 
Robert B. Smith, Second " 
Wm, S. W^estbrook, Third " 
Geo. W. Cypher, Fourth " 

The company contained over ninety men, but the max- 
imum number then allowed to a company being but seventy 
men, that number was mustered into service, and the balance 
returned home. 

The departure of the Guards was the occasion of the most 
unbounded enthusiasm among the people of Huntingdon. 
At an early hour in the day, the sound of martial music 
was heard on the streets, the citizens turned out en masse, 
and the most intense excitement prevailed. The company 
paraded at noon, and, headed by the Excelsior Band, marched 


to the Diamond, where a beautiful flag was presented to 
them on behalf of the band, bj J. Sewell Stewart, Esq. 
It was received by J. D. Campbell, Lieutenant of the com- 
pany. After these ceremonies, the company participated in 
the raising of a number of flags in different parts of the 
town, and then marched to the court house. 

In the evening the people met to take leave of the soldiers. 
For a description of the scenes that then occurred, we are 
indebted to the Journal and American of April 24th, 1861 : 

" The crowd (at the court house) was immense — men, 
women and children, almost our entire population, crowded 
the room, the yard, the pavement and the street. The first 
speaker was the Rev. S. H. Eeid, of the German Reformed 
Church, who addressed the volunteers in a glorious speech, 
full of patriotic, soul-stirring sentiment, and well-worthy the 
heart that gave utterance to them. He was followed by 
Eev. G. W. Zahnizer, of the Presbyterian Chuch. Mr. 
Zahnizer spoke as a man whose heart beats in unison with 
the music of the Union, and when he pointed to the American 
flag, and appealed to the noble band of bold hearts around 
him, to return only when the dishonor heaped upon it shall 
be wiped out, and it again floats in triumph in every section 
of our country, the deep response which followed attested 
that " Victory or Death " is the watchword of every patriot 
in Huntingdon county. Rev. S. L. M. Couser,of the Metho- 
dist Church, next spoke. His remarks caused a thrill of 
patriotic feeling to agitate every heart, which found vent in 
such terrific cheers that made the very rafters crack. And 
when he seized the stars and stripes, and waving them over 
his head, declared his readiness to shoulder his musket in 
defense of that glorious emblem of liberty, the shouts that 
went up were deafening. Rev, Mr. Bueglass, of the Baptist 
Church, next addressed the meeting. We cannot do* justice 
to his or his predecessors' remarks. His address was patri- 
otic, deep and heartfelt, and stirred the blood in every heart. 
He concluded by stating that he had offered his services to 
his country, and would shortly leave for the scene of con- 
flict. At the close of his remarks, each soldier was furnished 


with a pocket testament, the gift of the ladies of the boroagh. 
The line was then formed, and the soldiers, after taking fare- 
well of their friends and relatives, marched to the depot, 
followed by the entire populace. The scene there baffles 
description. Mothers, wives and sisters weeping over their 
friends who thus willingly offer to lay down their lives in 
defense of their flag. At eleven o'clock the train started 
and our gallant boys were on their way to the seat of war." 

On the 23d of the same month the "Union Guards" of 
Petersburg, commanded by Capt. Joseph Johnson, went to 
Harrisburg, and were assigned to the Fifteenth regiment. 
This and the Standing Stone Guards were the only compa- 
nies from Huntingdon county that could be accepted under 
the President's first call, the quota of the State having been 
filled. Their term of enlistment was three months. Six 
other companies had been organized in the county, and 
were awaiting orders to march. They were accepted upon 
the second and succeeding requisitions. 

The scenes attending the departure of the first company 
from Huntingdon were not an isolated instance of the en- 
thusiasm of the people, but were repeated during the war 
in spirit, if not in exact form, in every locality of the coun- 
ty. There is not a township that did not send its company, 
or parts of one or more; not a community that did not 
send the best of its citizens ; scarcely a household that did 
not send a member, and many of them all or nearly all, 
that were capable of bearing arms. The cause that thus 
aroused the courage and patriotism of those whose duty it 
became to engage in the conflict, and to whom its defense 
was a work of personal sacrifice and danger, also received 
the support and encouragement of that portion of the popu- 
lation whose place was not upon the field of battle. Men 
went without reluctance ; women aided them in going. 
There were outpourings of the people to see them leaving. 
At the railroad stations greater crowds assembled than had 
ever been there before. They came from distant parts of 
the county to have a last look and to say a last inspiring word 
to the soldier who left his friends to face his country's foes. 


The popular feeling was exhibited also by the display of 
the national colors in every portion of the county. As soon 
as a flag of proper dimensions could be obtained it was 
placed upon the cupola of the court-house. Six other large ban- 
ners floated over Penn street, in Huntingdon, between that 
building and Fifth street. The stars and stripes were un- 
furled from all public places, the Methodist church, the Cath- 
olic church, the public school-house and elsewhere. It is 
impossible to designate all the points from which they 
waved. Not only in Huntingdon was this the case, but 
from one end of the county to the other, they were equally 
conspicuous and numerous. So universally were they dis- 
played from private dwellings that the house without one 
seemed to deserve some suspicion. But there were few to 
be suspected. 

In the welfare and comfort of the troops, whether in the 
field or in their journeys through the county, the people 
always manifested an active interest. At the beginning of 
the war, when troops were hurried to Washington city, for 
its defense, they left their homes unprovided with the food 
necessary during their trip by railroad, and were dependent 
upon the inhabitants along the route. On 'the arrival of 
trains at the towns and villages in Huntingdon county the 
entire population turned out, with baskets containing the 
substantial refreshments. A thousand soldiers were fur- 
nished with food at Huntingdon at one time. 

Soldiers' aid societies were organized in every township, 
the officers of nearly all of which were ladies, and the con- 
tributions to which were generally made by the same sex. 
They sent to the front vegtables, fruits, berries, and nearly 
every production of the earth, prepared for use in every 
style ; lint, towels, bandages, sheets, clothing, and every 
article that could add to the comfort and alleviate %jie suf- 
ferings of the sick and wounded. We cannot estimate the 
influence of these efforts and of the moral sentiment mani- 
fested by the people, upon the final result. 

The exact number of soldiers furnished during the war 
by Huntingdon county, will probably never be ascertained. 


It might be supposed that such information could be furnish- 
ed by the Adjutant General's office, at Harrisburg, but on 
application there, it is stated that the records of that office 
"are filed in the order of companies and regiments and not 
in localities from which the men enlisted or were drafted." 
The data ought to exist somewhere, as it was no doubt made 
use of in determining the quotas of the county under th^ 
different calls for troops. 

The men did not all go with organized companies, but 
towards the latter part of the war, when recruiting became 
more difficult, were sent forward in squads and distributed 
to such commands as the interests of the service required. 
There were also many citizens of the county in companies 
from other counties, who were credited to the latter, and 
some of the Huntingdon county companies, especially after 
the first draft in September, 1863, had men in them who 
resided elsewhere. We might learn approximately, by a 
great deal of labor, the total number of enlistments in the 
county, and such a work should be undertaken while the offi- 
cers and men are yet living, as much of the information would 
have to be obtained by personal inquiry of them. A thorough 
history of our volunteers would make a volume of itself. 

Before the draft of September, 1863, there had been 
eighteen companies organized in the county, of the strength 
of which we can- form a very close estimate : 

Three Months' Men. 
Two companies — 77 men each 154 

Three Years' Men. 

Twelve companies — average 75 men each 900 

In comjDanies from other counties 125 

In Easton's and Campbell's batteries 30 

In the regular army 20 

Nine Months' Men. 
Four companies — 101 men each 404 

Total 1633 

The drafted men and the enlistments during the eighteen 
months of the war after the first draft, would increase the 
number to over two thousand. 



The following list of commissioned officers from the 
county, showing their rank, commands, etc., shows also the 
companies and regiments to which the enlisted men from the 
county principally belonged : 






Rank From 



K. B. Petrikeu 



April 21, '61 

3 months 

Mustered out July 24, '61 

B. F. Miller 






" " " " 

G. r. MeCabe 

1st L't 





" '* " " 

J. D. Campbell 





It ii (1 11 

Jas. Johuson 




April 23, '61 

" " Aug. 8, '61 

M. McNally 

Ist L't 





" " *' " 

W..H. Simpson.... 






tl It li u 

G. r. McCabe 



Aug. 17, '61 

3 yea 


Transferred to 14Tth Pa. 

J. A. Moore 

1st L't 




" " 

A. A. Creigh 

2nd " 




1. li 

W^m. Ambrose 

" " 


2nd Res 

May 1, '63 


Discharged Atigust, 1864 

George Dare 

L't Col. 

5th Res 

July 1, '62 


Prom'd from Maj., killed 
in battle May 6. '(W. 

Frank Zeutmyer... 


5th Res 

July 1, '62 

3 years 

Prom'd from Gap't Co. I, 
killed at Fredricksburg 
Dec. 13, 1862. 

JaB. A. McPherran. 


5th Res 

May 7, '64 

3 years 

Brvt. Lt, Col., must'd out 
with reg't June 11, '64. 

J. A. Willoughby. . 


5th Res 

May 7, '64 

3 years 

Must'd out as Ist L't of 
Co. G, June 11, "64. 

A. S. Harrison 



Stb Res 

Mav 16, '61 

3 years 

Hon disch'd Oct. 24, '61. 

C. M. Hildebrand.. 



April 11, '63 

Brvt. Maj., prom'd from 
1st Lieut., must'd out 
June n, '64. 

Geo. Thomas 

Ist L't 


5th Res 

May 15, '61 

3 years 

Hon. disch'd Oct. 24, '61. 

T. M. Cornpropst . . 




Oct. 31, '61 


Resigned May 6, 1862. 

W. F. Thomas 

2d L't 



May 15, '61 


Hon. disch'd Oct. 24, '61. 

Joel Tompkins 




Dec. 4, '61 


Resigned July 31, '62. 

R. M. Alexander. . . 




April 11, '63 


Brvt. Ist Lieut., must'd 
out June 11, '64. 

Jas. Porter 


5th Res 

Oct. 1, '62 

3 years 

Mustered out June 11, '64 

Eob't Fraser 

Ist L't 


June 1, '61 


Discharged Sept. 25, '62. 

D. Zentmyer 



Oct. 1, '62 

Killed at Fredericksburg 
Dec. 13, 1862. 

G. P. Swope 

1st L't 

5th Res 

Mar. 5, '63 

3 years 

Mustered out June 11, '64 

I. K. Kiuch 

2nd L't 


Oct. 1, '62 


Killed at Fredericksburg 
Dec. 13, 1862. 

T. L. Giiyor 

2nd L't 

5th Res 

Mar. 5, '63 

3 years 

Mustered out June 11, '62 

H. K. Neff 


8th Res 
12th Res 

Mar. 25, '62 
Feb. 6, '62 


Discharged May 17, '62. 

J. C. Bilker 

Died July 6, 1862. 

Perry Etchison 

lat L't 


Mar. 24, '62 


Resigned July 18, 1862. 

Sam'l J. Cloyd 

2ud L't 


Ap'l 14, '62 


Hon. disch'd Jan. 7, '63. 

Frank Stephens.. . . 



July 18, '62 


Trausl erred to Co. D, 

190th P. V. 
Discharged Dec. 31, '64. 


1st L't 


14th Res 

May 26, '63 

3 years 

J. A. Onborn 

2nd " 



June 15, '63 


Resigned July 25, '64. 

J. B. Miles 

L't Col 


Oct. 25, '63 


Commissioned Capt. Co. 

C, Aug. 5, '61 ; prom'd 

to Major Oct. 16, '62; 

killed at Spottsylvania 

May 10, 18(>4. 

Eob't Davison 



Mar. 1, '65 

3 years 

Mustered out July 15, '65 

— B. H. Irviu 

Ist L't 



July 28, '64 


" " " " 

J. J. Hitrht 

2ud " 



Aug. 10, '61 


(( n a n 

J. D. Camjibell 

Resigned Jan. IS, 1S63. 

J. H. Westbrook. . . 

Ist L't 



Aug. 30, '61 


Hon. disch'd Nov. 19, '63 

F. Y. McDonald... 

■2ud " 





" " 

Wm. M, Irviu 




June 29, '65 


Must'd out as Ist Lieut., 
July 15, 1S65. 

H. T. Johnston.,,. 

Ist L't 



June 29, '66^ 8 years 

Must'd out as 2d Lieut., 
July 15, 1865. 

0. S. Kumborger. . . 




Mar. 13, '65 3 years 

Promoted from 1st Lieut. 

and from 2ud Lieut., 

Nov. 1, '04, mustered 

out June 14, '65. 





1st L't 



Rank From 



^ D. H. Lytle... 


Jan. 1, '64 

3 years 

Wounded May 3, '64, and 

May 10, '64; died in the 

hands of the enemy. 

June 28, 1864. 

J. H. Wiutrode.... 




Sept. 16, '61 

3 years 

Resigned Dec. 3, 1862. 

Jno. McLauglilin . . 

Ist L't 



Oct. 8, '64 


Promoted from 2d Lieut., 
Hon. dis. Mar. 14, '65. 

A. G. Fleck 

Ist L't 



Mar. 15, '65 

3 years 

Mustered out June 30, '65 

J. r. Hutchinson .. 




Nov. T, '63 


Hon. disch'd Sept. 21, '64 

S. T. Davis 



Oct. 26. '64 


To Captain Co. G. 

S. S. Gillman 




May 22, '64 


Absent with leave at date 
of muster out of Co. 

G. W. Thompson . . 



July 31, '62 

3 years 

Resigned Aug. 31, '62. 

John M. Porter 


9th Cav 

Sept. 26, '64 

Commissioned as Adj't, 
Oct. 14, '61, and Ist L't 
Co. C, Oct 15, '62 ; re- 
signed May 30, '65. 

I.e. Temple 

1st L't 


9th Cav 

Oct. 15, '62 

3 years 

Resigned May 29, '63, as 
2d Lieu't Co. M. 

D. R. P. Barry 

2nd L't 


9th Cav 

Nov. 18, '62 

3 years 

Resigned Julj 14, '64. 

G. W. Patterson 



" " 

Aug. 24, '61 


Resigned on account of 
disability, Dec, 31, '61. 

T. S.McCahan 



9th Cav 

Mar. 23, '68 

3 years 

Promotea from 1st L't ; 
Hon. discharged on ac- 
count of wounds, Aug. 
1, 1864. 

Geo. W. Kuhn 

2nd L't 


9th Cav 

June 16, '65 

3 years 

Mustered out as 1st S'gt, 
July 18, '65. 

Isaac Rogers 



Ap'l 23, '64 '3 years 

From Capt, Co. B to Maj. 
Dec. 21, '62 ; died May 
28, '64, of wounds re- 
ceived May 12, '64. 

W. F. Cunningham 



June 3, '63 3 years 

Hon. discli'd Sept. 26, '64 

L. G. Stewart 



Oct. 1, '64 


Mar. 13, '65 

Set]i Beuuer 




Aug. 30, '61 


Resigned Nov. 28, 1862. 

J. M. Skelly 




Dec. 1, '63 


Hon. discli'd Mar. 1, '65. 

E. W. Edwards 

Ist L't 



Mar. 1, .65 


Mustered out as Ist S'gt, 
June 28, 1S65. 

B. F. Bare 

2ud L't 



Sep. 11. '<W 

3 years 

Resigned Feb. 22, '62. 

. A. J. Miller 




Jan. 17, '64 


Hon. disch'd Nov. 28, '64. 

J. M. WmUs 




Mar. 1, '65 


Mustered out as Sergt., 
June 28, 1865. 

S. L. Hiiyett 




Aug. 28, '61 3 years 

Resigned Dec. 10, 1862. 

E. Burkett 




June 16, '62 " 

Resigned as 2nd Lieut., 

Nov, 28, 1862, 

H. C. Weaver 

2nd L't 



Aug. 31, '62 3 years 

Resigned June 16, 1862. 

G. F. McCabe 


13th Cav 

Oct. 15, '63 


Mustered out July 14, '65 

H. H. Gregg 



Nov. 15, '64 


Brvt. L't Col., hou. dis- 
charged April 5, '65. 

C. W. Moore 


13th Cav 

Mar. 19, '63 

3 years 

Resigned Sept. 14. '64. 

Jos. A. Green 

1st L't 



Nov. 15, '64 


Hou. disch'd as 2d Lieut. 
Nov. 21, 1864. 

F, W. Kenyou 

Ist L't 


13th Cav 

Nov. 15, '64 

3 years 

Mustered out July 14, '65, 

F. y. McDonald.... 




April 6, '64 


Discharged at expiration 
of term Dec. 8, 1864. 

J. J. Lawrence 



Aug. 16, '62 

9 months 

Mustered out May. 18, '63. 

W. W. Wallace 




Aug. 12, '62 


" " " 

Wm. B. Zeigler 

1st L't 





Resigned Feb. 25, '63. 

L. F. Wattsou 




Feb. 26, '63 


Mustered out May 18, '63. 

W. F. 5IcPherran.. 

2nd L't 



Aug 12, '62 


Died Feb. 6, 1863. 

T. L. Floud 





Feb. 7, '63 
Aug. 13. '62 


Mustered out May 18, '63. 

W. H, Simpson.... 

W. C. Wagoner ... 

let L't 





Wounded at Antietam ; 
resigned Feb, 9, '63. 

F. H. Lane 

1st L't 



Feb. 9, '63 

9 months 

From '/d Lieut., mustered 

out May IS, 1863. 

J. F.N. Householder 

2nd L't 



Ffb. 9, '63 

Mustered out May 18, '63 





Aug. 13, '62 

9 months 

" " " 

John rieuner 

Ist L't 





S. F. Stewart 

2nd L't 




Resigned Jan. 24, '63, 

J. T. Foster 




Jan. 24. '63 

Mustered out May 18, '63., 

"Wm. F.Thomas.... 




Aug. 13, '62 

" " " 

George Thomas . . 

1st L't 




II >i II 

John D. Fee 

2nd L't 




li II II 

J. A, Moore ,, 




Feb. 21, '62 

Resigned Got. 24, '64. 



I Term 





Rank From of 




A. H. W. Creigh... 



Oct. 26, '64 

3 years 

From Ist Lieut., must'd 

out July 15, 1S6.5. 

R. E. Thompson. .. 

1st L't 



Oct. 26, '64 

3 years 

Mustered out July 15, '65 

W. M. Willttt 

2nd L't 



Feb. 21, '63 


Resigned April 7, '65. 

David Heffuer 




July 8, '65 


Mustered out as let Ser- 
geant July 15, '65. 

Geo. W. Speer 



Aug. 29, '62 

3 years 

Hon. dis. Mar. 25, '63, on 
account of disability. 

B. X. Blair 




Aug. 30, '62 

3 years 

Wounded at Gettysburg ; 
honorably disch'd May 
3, 1864. 

S. Diffenderfer.... 




Feb. 6, '64 

3 years 

Hon. disch'd May 3, '64. 

D. R. P. Neely 



May 24, '64 


Mustered out June '24, '65 

H. C. Weaver 

1st L't 


Aug. 29, '62 


Hon. disch'd Mch. 25, '68 

A. A. Thompson. . . 




Mar. 25, '63 


From 2d Lieut,, hon. dis- 
charged Oct. 22, '63. 

0. C. Zimmerman.. 

Ist L't 



Feb. 6, '64 

3 years 

From 2d Lieut., killed at 
North Anna, M:iy 23,'64 

Jos. E. Shaver 

Ist L't 



May 24. '64 3 years 

Mustered out June 24, '05 

D. C. M. Applebj . . 

2nd L't 



" " 

U 14 >< 

E.H. Miles 




Feb. 13, '65 

From 1st Lieut., hon. 
disch'd May 30, 1S65. 

John W. Blake 

1st L't 



Sept, 1. '65 3 years 

Mustered out as Corp'l, 
Nov. 9, 1865. 

S. L. Huyett 



19th Cav 

Oct. 19. '63 3 years 

Mustered out May 14, '65, 

W. L. Spauogle.... 

Ist L't 


20th Cav 

April 1, '65| " 

" July 13, '65. 

S. Moutgomery.... 




Feb. 16, '64 1 " 

" " " " 

S. F. Stewart 

let L't 



SJept. 23, '64, " 

Hon. disch'd Feb. 28, '65 

B. M. Morrow 


22nd Cav 

June 16. '63 6 months 

Mustered out Feb. 5, '64. 

J, D. Fee 



Aug. 5, '63 " 

" " " " 

J. H. Boring 

1st L't 


" •' 

" " " " 

Eugene Dougherty. 

■2nd L't 


" " 

" " " " 

Wm. Gaytou 

1st L't 


June 16, '631 " 

" " " " 

J. H. Boring 



Feb. 26, '64 3 years 

" Oct. 31, '65. 

W. r. 

Ist L't 


June 13, '65 " 

" " " " 

D. P. Kiukead 

2ud L't 


" " 

Frank D. Stevens.. 

Ist L't 



June 6, '64 " 

Hon. disch'd Mar. 16, '65, 

Wm. ¥. Johnston . . 



April 13, '65 1 year 

From Capt. Co. B, mus- 
tered out Aug. 24, '65. 

Thos. S.Johnston.. 




April 13. '65 1 year 

Mustered out Aug, 24, "65 

Alfred Tyhurst.... 

l8t L't 


'• " 

" " " " 

H. A. Hoffman...,, 

2ud L't 



" " 

" " " " 

J. A. Willoughby.. 



July 20, '64 100 days 

" " Nov. 4, '64. 

S. I. McPherran. .. 

1st L't 



July 21, '64 " 

Transferred to Co. A, 1- 
yoar men. 

J. A. Willoughby.. 



Feb. 25, '65 1 year 

Mustered out Jan. 31, '66 

S.I. McPherran.... 





'• " June 21, '65 

A. W. Decker 




Sept. S, '64 

" " Aug. 3, "65 

J. S. Morrison 

l8t L't 




" " '• " 

Peter Shaver 

2nd L't 




" " " " 

T. B. Reed 




Sept. 2, '64 

Inspector Gen. 2d Brig., 

3d Div.. 9th A. C. 

J. B. Shontz 

let L't 



Sept. 2, '64 

Mustered out June 2, '65. 

D. H. Gelssinger... 

2nd L't 




Hon. disch'd July 25, '65. 

Huntingdon county also furnished her full proportion of 
men to the militia of 1862, and in the emergency of 1863, 
the threatened invasion of the Northern States by the rebel 
army, which was prevented at Antietam, and the actual in- 
vasion, repelled at Gettysburg, calling from their homes nearly 
all of those capable of bearing arms who had not previously 
enlisted for some specified term. Many who then went were 
incapacitated by age or otherwise for the service of the gen- 
eral government and were mustered into the^ state service. 



Of militia, the county had two companies in the Third regi- 
ment, and two in the Twelfth; and of emergency men, 
one in the Twenty-seventh, and five in the Forty-sixth. 

The officers of these regiments and companies were as 
follows : 


Third Regiment. 

Colonel, William Dorris, 

Co. ¥., 

Captain, Geo. W. Garrettson, 

First Lient., William Lewis, 

Second Lieut., Abraham A. Jacobs. 

Co. G. 
Captain, Joseph Johnson, 
First Lieut., James Lony, 
Second Lieut., B. M. Elliott, 
Major, Henry S. Wharton. 
Co. D. 
Captain, Edward A. Green, 
First Lieut., Albert Owen, 
Second Lieut., Benjamin Jacobs. 

Co. I. 
Captain, George C. Bncher. 
First Lieut., Henry Grafius, 
Second Lieut., John Dysart. 
Twenty-Seventh Regiment. 
CO. F. 
Captain, Jesse March, 

First Lieut., S. W. Myton, 
Second Lieut., John Morrison. 

Colonel, John J. Lawrence, 
Adjutant, Thomas C. Fisher. 

Co. B. 
Captain, David R. Miller, 
First Lieut., Robert W. Davis, 
Second Lieut., James Morrison. 

Co. E. 
Captain, Charles Merryman, 
First Lieut., Levi Clabaugh, 
Second Lieut., William Funk. 

Co. F. 
Captain, James C. Dysart, 
First Lieut., Geo. B. Dumire, 
Second Lieut., Edward B. Purcell. 

Co. G. 
Captain, Samuel L. Huyett, 
First Lieut., Henry Cook, 
Second Lieut., Victor Dougherty. 
I Co. I. 

jCaptain, George Thomas, 
iFirst Lieut., Rudolph McMurtrie, 
Second Lieut., Thomas Shreiner. 

The ceremony of decorating with flowers the graves of 
our patriot dead was inaugurated at Huntingdon, by the 
post of the Grand Army of the Republic then in existence 
there, on the 30th day of May, 1868, in compliance with the 
recommendation of General John A. Logan, commander-in- 
chief. The following is from the account of the Journal 
of the proceedings on that day : 

" The patriotic and highly meritorious duty of procuring 
and arranging in suitable wreaths and garlands the floral 
offerings suited to the occasion, was confided to our fair 
towns-women, and we need not add that it was performed 
with that alacrity, taste and skill which has ever character- 
ized the loyal ladies of Huntingdon in the discharge of every 
duty, not only to the dead, but to the living defenders of 
our nation's flag. Wreaths and garlands of laurel and ever- 
greens, intertwined with wild flowers of every variety, and bou- 


quets culled with exquisite taste and tender care from nature's 
first offering of spring flowers, the product of their own fair 
hands, were in abundant readiness, as the voluntary 
offering of love and affection and tribute of gratitude to the 
memory of the brave and true. 

" The procession was organized at the court house, where 
all things were in readiness. It was preceded by the Hun- 
tingdon Silver Cornet Band, followed by the officers of the 
post and others, with appropriate badges of mourning, the 
clergymen of the place and a large portion of our citizens, 
and to the music of the muffled drum, the band playing the 
dead march, and the mournful tolling of the bells from 
every church tower, the solemn and impressive march was 
taken towards the city of the dead." 

Arriving at the cemetery, a prayer and an address were 
delivered, after which the procession was re-formed, every 
soldier's grave visited and garlanded with a wreath of laurei" 
and bouquet of flowers. 

These ceremonies have been continued annually, with 
some variations, since that time. They have usually been 
participated in by the people of Huntingdon, and many from 
other parts of the county. Places of business in the borough 
are closed on that day, and veteran soldiers, military com- 
panies, the fire department, children of the public schools 
and Sunday-schools, join in the procession and listen to the 
exercises. The speakers who have delivered addresses on 
these occasions have been as follows : 

1868, Hon. John Scott. 

1869, Milton S. Lytle. 

1870, Rev. B.B. Hamlin. 

1871, Kev. J. W. Phmnett. 

1872, Rev. M. K. Foster. 

1873, Rev. J. S. IMcMurray. 

1874, Milton S. Lytle iind 
A. M. K. Storrie. 

1875, Geo. B. Orhuiv . 

1876, Rev. M. P. Doyle. 

On the 30th of May, 1875, after the decoration ceremonies, 
a meeting of the citizens of Huntingdon was held in the court 
house, at which the following resolutions were adopted : 

^^ Resolved, That we hereby constitute ourselves a Memorial 
Association, the purpose of which shall be the proper ob- 
servance of Decoration Day and the making of the necessary 
arrangements therefor." 


"Resolved, That we proceed to elect a President, Vice 
President, Secretary and Executive Committee. 

" Resolved, That these officers shall be elected for the term 
of one year, and that the annual election shall be held on 
each thirtieth of May, immediately after the decoration cere- 

" Resolved, That during the first week in May of each 
year, the President shall call a meeting of the ofl&cers of the 
association, who shall determine what preparations are ne- 
cessary for the next succeeding decoration day, and shall 
hold such other meetings of the ofl&cers of the association as 
shall be deemed proper. 

" Resolved, That said officers shall also appoint such 
committees of arrangements and sub -committees as may be 
required to perform the work, these appointments to be 
made at least three weeks before decoration day." 

The following officers were then elected : President^ H. C. 
Weaver ; Vice President^ Milton S. Lytle ; Secretary^ B. F. 
Isenberg ; Executive Committee^ Geo. B. Orlady, chairman ; 
T. W. Myton, E. M. Speer, John J. Eight, J. H. Boring, 
J. R. Simpson, B. X. Blair, W. K. Crites and John Flenuer. 

The officers elected in 1876 are as follows; President^ 
T. W. Myton ; Vice President, J. G. Isenberg ; A.S'ec- 
retary, Geo. B. Orlady ; Treasurer, J. H. Isett ; Executive 
Committee, Milton S. Lytle, chairman ; B. F. Isenberg, W. 
F.. Bathurst, G. W. Gray, W. F. Cunningham, W. K. Crites, 
Samuel Coder, B. X. Blair, John Flenner, H. C. "Weaver, J. 
H. Westbrook, Dr. D. P. Miller and Geo. W. Fleck. 



The executive department of the State government, from 
the adoption of the Constitution of 1776 to the adoption of 
the Constitution of 1790, was vested in the Supreme Execu- 
tive Council. That body, as provided by the former instru- 
ment, consisted of twelve members, elected by the people. 
Huntingdon county had a representative in the Council 
from its erection until the inauguration of the first Governor, 
in 1790. In the minutes of the Council for the 21st day o^ 
November, 1787, we find the following entry : 

" John Cannon took his seat at this Eoard agreeably to 
the return of the general election for the county of Hun- 
tingdon, having previously taken the necessary oaths." 

Col. Cannon's name appears frequently in the proceed- 
ings as being present at the meetings of Council during the 
two years after he became a member. The last meeting at 
which he was present was on the 8rd of October, 1789. 

He was a prominent man in the early history of the 
county, figuring conspicuously at the time of " McAlevy's 
Rebellion." He had represented Bedford county in the 
Assembly before the formation of Huntingdon county. In 
1791 he was appointed Associate Judge, and was after- 
wards elected three times to the lower house of the State 
Legislature and once to the State Senate. 

The successor of Col. Cannon in the Supreme Executive 
Council was Benjamin Elliott. The minutes for December 
30th, 1789, contain the record of his admission as a member: 

"Benjamin Elliott, Esquire, Councillor elect for the county 
of Huntingdon, appeared, and being qualified as the Con- 
stitution of this State and the act of Congress of the first of 
June last directs, was admitted to his seat at this Board." 

We can trace Mr. Elliot's services in the Council from 
the minutes, as they show minutely the attendance of all the 


members. On the 13th day of February, 1790, it is re- 
corded that : 

" An order was drawn upon the Treasurer in favor of 
the Honorable Benjamin Elliott, for forty-four pounds, ten 
shillings, in full of his account for attendance in Council 
from the thirtieth of December, 1789, to the thirteenth of 
February, 1790, inclusively, and his mileage coming to 
Philadelphia and returning home." 

He was then absent from Council until the 3rd day of 
August, 1790. On that day he returned and was appointed 
a member of the Board of Property. He attended the ses- 
sions of Council until the 1st of October, 1790. An order 
was drawn in his favor on the previous day "for the sum of 
fifty-four pounds, ten shillings in full of his account for at- 
tendance in Council from the third of August until the thir- 
tieth of September, inclusively, and for mileage coming to 
Philadelpnia in August and going home at this time." 

On the 30th of November, 1790, he resumed his seat and 
continued in attendance at the meetings until December 
20th, when, under the Constitution of that year, the Supreme 
Executive Council expired. Thomas Mifflin became Gov- 
ernor the next day. 

Mr. Elliott filled many public positions during his life- 
time. Before his election to Council he had been a member 
of the Convention of 1776 to frame a Constitution for the 
State ; Sheriff of Bedford county ; Sheriff of Huntingdon 
county ; Lieutenant of the county ; County Treasurer, and 
a member of the State convention to ratify the Constitution 
of the United States. He was subsequently County Treas- 
urer, County Commissioner and Associate Judge. 

None of the other early residents of Huntingdon left so 
many descendants as Mr. Elliott. He had a large family of 
children. One of his daughters, as stated in a preceding 
chapter, was married to David McMurtrie, and three others 
were married to William Orbison, Eobert Allison and Henry 
Miller, all of whom have passed away, but many of whose 
children and grand-children are yet living in the place. Mr. 
Elliott died March 15th, 1835, at the age of 83 years. 



David Rittenhouse Porter, who was for six years Governor 
of Pennsylvania, became a citizen of Huntingdon county 
while yet a young man, and for more than twenty years 
previous to his election as Governor, filled public positions 
to which he was appointed or elected by the people. He 
held such a conspicuous place, during the greater part of 
his lifetime, in the affairs of the county and State, that his 
biography is a necessary part of the history of the county. 

David R. Porter was the son of General Andrew Porter, 
an officer of the Revolutionary army, in honor of whom 
Porter township, in this county, has its name, and was born 
near Norristown, Montgomery county, Pennsylvania, on the 
31st day of October, 1788. The leading events of his life 
before his removal to Huntingdon county are thus stated in 
Armor's Lives of the Governors of Pennsylvania : 

He "received his early training at an academy in Norris- 
town, where the branches of a good English education, math- 
ematics, and the elementary classical studies were success- 
fully taught. With his brothers, George and James, he was 
here pursuing a course preparatory to entering Princeton 
College, when the buildings of that institution were destroyed 
by fire, and the purpose of a collegiate course was abandoned. 
When the father was appointed Surveyor General (in 1809,) 
he took his son David with him to the seat of government 
as his assistant. He was accompanied by a young man 
from the same neighborhood, who likewise became Governor 
of the State, Francis R, Shunk. While thus employed, the 
son also studied law, with the intention of entering upon its 


practice at Harrisburg ; but the labor and confinement of 
these double duties were too severe, and his health was so 
much impaired, as was thought, to preclude the possibility 
of his pursuing any sedentary employment. He decided, 
therefore, to seek more active occupation, and removed to 
the county of Huntingdon, where he engaged in the manu- 
facture of iron." 

Mr. Porter did not embark in the business on his own 
account for several years after coming to the county. He 
was at first employed by the Messrs. Dorsey, at Barree 
Forge, for a year as a clerk, and during the following year 
was made manager of their works. Thus acquiring some 
experience, he entered into partnership with Edward Patton, 
and commenced the making of iron at the forges on Spruce 
Creek. The enterprise, however, was not successful, the 
firm failed, and on the 10th of February, 1819, Porter made 
an assignment for the benefit of his creditors. The reason 
given for this failure was the depression into which all 
branches of manufactures fell for some years succeeding the 
war of 1812. Some of the alleged circumstances connected 
with Porter's assignment were strongly urged against him 
when he was a candidate for Governor in 1838. 

The first ofl&ce held by Mr. Porter was that of county 
Auditor, to which he was elected in October, 1815. Two 
other Auditors were elected in that year, one of whom was 
John Scott, father of the late United States Senator of the 
same name. 

In 1819 Mr. Porter was elected a representative to the 
General Assembly from Huntingdon county, and was re- 
elected in 1820 and 1822. In the two former years he had 
as his colleague the same John Scott with whom he had 
been elected Auditor. 

At the expiration of his last term in the Legislature, Dec. 
23rd, 1823, he was appointed by Governor Schultz, Prothon- 
otary and Clerk of the several courts of the county, and on 
February 16th, 1827, was appointed by the same Governor, 
Register of Wills and Recorder of Deeds. He filled these 
of&ces until January 2nd, 1836. 


" He had in 1820 married Josephine, daughter of William 
McDermott, who had emigrated from Scotland for the pur- 
pose of manufacturing steel by a new process, and who was 
one of the pioneers in that art, Mrs. Porter for a few years 
acted as her husband's clerk, recording deeds and wills at 
home, while he transacted the business in public, and large 
volumes in her hand-writing continue to be shown to 
strangers and visitors to the town, written so clearly and 
beautifully, and with such perfect accuracy, as to excite ad- 

Retiring from the offices of Prothonotary, Register and 
Recorder, and Clerk of the Courts, Mr. Porter was, in the 
same year, elected State Senator for the district composed 
of the counties of Huntingdon, Mifflin, Juniata, Perry and 
Union. His characteristics as a legislator have been described 
as follows : "The soundness of his judgment and the readiness 
of his understanding made him an acknowledged leader. 
Few subjects were broached upon which he did not either 
report or speak. Legislation upon the subject of the public 
works bore largely the impress of his views. As a writer 
he was concise, forcible, and even elegant, and as a speaker 
he was clear, pointed, and eminently practical. His speeches 
were usually very brief, and in defense of this habit he was 
accustomed to plead the practice of Jefferson and Franklin. 
His advice to young lawyers and debaters was especially to 
study brevity. In this respect he differed widely from his 
brothers, Governor Porter, of Michigan, and Judge Porter, 
of Easton, both of whom were more diffuse, and, it must be 
added, acquired higher reputations for foreosic ability." 

Mr, Porter's term as State Senator had but half ex- 
pired when he was elected Governor, in October, 1888. He 
was inaugurated January 15th, 1839, and in his inaugural 
address, thus referred to the Constitution which had then just 
gone into effect, and to the fact that he was the first Gov- 
ernor under it : 

" A new era has arrived in our Commonwealth. Our 
first Constitution, formed amidst the storms and troubles of 
the revolutionary conflict, was found in practice not to 


answer the expectations under which it was framed. In 
fourteen years thereafter it was entirely new modeled by 
the Constitution of 1790, an instrumeat framed by men of 
great talents and eminent worth ; but the plan of govern- 
ment was always considered by no small portion of the 
people as not sufficiently democratic in its details. After 
repeated attempts to procure revision, a majority of our 
citizens who voted on the question, in 1885, decided that a 
convention should be called to revise, alter and amend the 
Constitution of the Commonwealth. In pursuance of this 
determination of the people, a convention assembled, and 
after a long and arduous session, closed their labors on the 
22nd of February last, and the amendments agreed upon by 
that body have been ratified and adopted by the people. It 
is under this amended Constitution that it has been my lot 
to be called upon to administer the duties of the Executive 
This instrument gives to popular suffrage the decision of 
many appointments heretofore vested in the Executive, and 
changes the duration of the judicial tenure, from that of 
good behavior to a term of years. It shortens the period 
of eligibility to the Executive chair, and reduces the sena- 
torial term ; enlarges the right of suffrage, and changes other 
provisions, all of which are important in the conduct of the 
government of the State. Approving as I did of the amend- 
ments in the aggregate, and having sanctioned them by my 
vote at the late election, it will afford me great pleasure to 
assist in carrying them out in practice by a strict adherence 
to their principles." 

The subjects of greatest interest and importance which 
attracted the attention of the people of the State during 
Governor Porter's first term, were the construction of the 
public work and our system of common schools. Both of 
these he advocated and advanced, and their success were to 
a great extent due to his efforts. 

Governor Porter was reelected in 1841, by a majority 
almost four times as great as that given him at his first 
election. The vote in Huntingdon county in 1888 and 184:1 
was as follows : 



Ritner 3687 

Porter 2761 

Ritner's majority .... 926 


Banks 3258 

Porter 2551 

Banks' majority 707 

Completing his second term as Governor in 184:5, he re- 
tired from public life, making his residence at Harrisburg. 
He again turned his attention to the manufacture of iron, 
and erected at Harrisburg the first anthracite furnace built 
in that portion of the State. 

Mr. Porter died on the 6th of August, 1868, in the seventy- 
ninth year of his age. 



The most prominent citizen of Huntingdon county has 
probably been the Hon. John Scott. David R. Porter may 
have received an equal share of public attention in his day 
but his reputation was more local in its character, being 
confined to a great extent to Pennsylvania, there being 
nothing but his position as Governor to extend it beyond 
the limits of the State. Mr. Scott became eminent in national 
affairs, his abilities and disposition leading him to perform 
an important and conspicuous part as a United States Sena- 
tor, and making an impress upon the legislation of the 
country. Identified as he has been with the county, the 
events of his life must possess a greater interest and be of 
greater value as an example than the lives of many whose 
biographies occupy more space than we can give to his 
here. As a portion of the chapter to which we must confine 
this sketch, we give in full his life, as published in Barnes 
History of Congress : 

" John Scott was born in Alexandria, Huntingdon county, 
Penna., July 14th, 1824. His ancestry on both sides was 
Scotch-Irish. His father was a Major of volunteers in the 
war of 1812, and a member of the Twenty-first Congress, 
from Pennsylvania. To his son he gave the common 
school education afforded by his native town, the advantages 
of private teachers in Greek and Latin, and an early intro- 
duction to practical business life. He soon evinced a talent 
for public speaking, acquiring before his eighteenth year 
quite a local reputation among the advocates of the Wash- 


ingtonian temperance movement. Choosing the legal pro- 
fession, he entered, in 1842, the office of Hon. Alex. Thomson, 
of Chambersburg, Penna., and in January 1846, he was ad- 
mitted to the bar. He immediately commenced to prac- 
tice in Hantingdon — was appointed Deputy Attorney- 
General for that county, and held that position for several 
years. He rose rapidly in his profession, and soon ranked 
with the ablest lawyers in the district. In 1851 Mr. Scott 
was appointed a member of the Board of Eevenue Com- 
missioners, and although the youngest member, took an 
active part in its proceedings, serving on its most important 
committees. As a member of the Democratic State Con- 
vention in 1852, he led the opposition to Mr, Buchanan's 
nomination for the Presidency, and was the author of a vig- 
orous protest against the manner of electing delegates favor- 
able to him. Threatened with failing health, he visited 
Europe in 1853, and returned much benefited by his trav- 
els. In 1854 he was nominated by the Citizens' Conven. 
tion for the State Legislature, and refusing adherence to the 
'Know-Nothings,' who organized after his nomination, was 
by them defeated. As soon as Mr. Buchanan announced 
his Kansas policy, Mr. Scott took decided ground against 
him. In 1860 he was nominated as a Douglass Democrat 
for the State Senate, the district being overwhelmingly Re- 
publican. In the following year, both parties requested him 
to serve in the House of Representatives, and consenting, 
he was elected without opposition, although his party was 
largely in the minority in the county. He made an attempt 
to organize the House without distinction of party, pledging 
Pennsylvania to the cordial support of the General Gov- 
ernment in the suppression of the Rebellion. This the 
Democratic caucus declined, and he and other war Demo- 
crats acted with the Republicans in the organization. He 
served as Chairman of the Judiciary Committee during the 
session, and declined a re-election. Although not a politi- 
cian, in the usual sense of the term, he participated actively 
in political campaigns, advocating the election of Governor 
Curtin in 1863, and supporting Mr. Lincoln for President in 


1864. He was elected a delegate to the Republican Na- 
tional Convention in 1868, but had his place filled by his 
alternate, being detained in the Supreme Court to argue a 
case involving the constitutionality of a law of the State 
disfranchising deserters — a question in which political par- 
ties took a deep interest. 

" Taking an active part in the canvass of that year, public 
attention was directed to him as a candidate for the U. S. 
Senate. When the Legislature met, he was elected to suc- 
ceed Mr. Buckalew, and took his seat March 4th, 1869. He 
was assigned to the Committee on Claims, Pacific Eailroads 
and Naval Affairs. His senatorial record shows him to 
have been an attentive, industrious and. able member of 
that body. In the last session of this Congress, he was 
appointed Chairman of the Select Committee, to investigate 
the alleged outrages in the Southern States. He first spoke 
in the Senate upon the bill to repeal the ' Tenure of-Ofl&ce 
Act.' He has since spoken in review of Commissioner 
Wells' Report ; upon the admission of Virginia to representa- 
tion ; upon the eligibility of Mr. Revels and General Ames 
to seats in the Senate ; upon the Funding Bill ; in advocacy 
of the repeal of the Income Tax, and upon other subjects. 
His speeches are generally brief, sensible and without 
attempt at ornament. 

" Mr. Scott opposed the repeal of the Civil Tenure Act. 
* We have,' said he, ' this principle given to us now, a most 
valuable principle in the administration of this Govern- 
ment, which prevents the President from exerting a power 
which, in the hands of a bad man, with the immense patron- 
age at his command, would be the absolute control of all 
the office?. Shall we surrender it ? I say no. Incorporate 
it in whatever legislation you may have, and that principle 
is of more importance to us for the future of this country 
than any mere question of temporary convenience about 
men getting into office or getting out of office.' 

" One of Mr. Scott's best speeches on the floor of the Sen- 
ate was his Memorial Address on the life and character of 
his friend, Hon. John Covode, (Representative from the' 


Twelfth Congressional District of Pennsylvania), delivered 
Feb. 10, 1871. Keferring to the traits of character, public 
and private, which distinguished the deceased, he said : 

' He was not a man of learning ; he was a man of intellect. 
It was not that cultivated intellect which often leads men to be 
mere thinkers, whose thoughts end in dreams and sometimes 
afterwards are caught up and made practical by the earnest 
workers of the world. His was that busy, practical brain, 
which made him a man of action, a type of the untiring 
working men who are making their mark upon this active 
century, who study their fellow-men more than books, and 
who are indispensable to the earnest thinkers of the age. 
Earnest thinkers and earnest workers need each other. 
Earnest thought is earnest work in one sense, but not in all 
senses. The earnest thought of a commander who plans a 
campaign or maps out a battle-field may be earnest work for 
him ; but it is not that kind of earnest work which carries 
forts and routs opposing armies. The men who do this 
kind of work should live in history, as well as those who 
plan and direct it to be done. 

' I saw recently a large painting of the battle of Gettys- 
burg, ordered by the State of Pennsylvania. It represents 
the pinch of the fight — the repulse of Pickett's charge. Its 
central figure is a private Union soldier, tall, muscular, with 
all the energy of determined action apparent in every 
feature and in every limb — with a musket clenched franti- 
cally in his hands' and drawn to strike an assailant. He 
seems to be the real leader of all who are behind him. The 
commanding generals are in the dim distance. I thought, 
as I looked upon it, that men of action, in our day, are 
coming to the front. * * * If a man's life has not im- 
pressed his fellow-men, his funeral will not. But his funeral 
may tell how his life has impressed them ; and standing 
there, no one could doubt the sincerity of the sorrow which 
his death had occasioned among those who knew him best. 
A bad man could not be so mourned.' 

"Having introduced aq. amendment putting coffee and tea 
on the free list, Mr. Scott, in advocating this measure, on 


the 15tli of March, 1872, made an able and exhaustive 
speech on the Tariff. He presented the argument in favor 
of protection to home manufactures with an elaborate array 
of facts and figures. Having been placed in a position 
where the operations of the disqualifications of the Four- 
teenth Amendment were forced upon his attention, he gave 
it as his opinion in a speech before the Senate, Dec. 20i 
1871, that it would be the part of wisdom to remove these 

"One of Mr. Scott's most distinguishing labors in the 
Senate was his voluminous report — the result of much 
labor — on the alleged outrages in the South. On the 17th 
of May, 1872, he delivered an able and extended speech^ 
based on this report, advocating the extension of the Ku- 
Klux Act. 'Others,' said he in closing, 'may hesitate' 
upon this subject. I cannot. Government was instituted 
to protect the citizens, and we shall be derelict to our duty 
if we permit the more than four millions of citizens in the- 
South against whom this conspiracy has been formed, to be- 
subject for a day to these great calamities, and subject to 
them at a time, too, when the strongest motives will be ope- 
rating for the infliction of just such outrages as those I have 

" In the Senate, Mr. Scott has fully filled the prediction 
of the Pittsburgh "Gazette" at the time of his election : 'Be- 
ing a lawyer of great depth and acute discernment, it may 
naturally be supposed that he will soon take a front rank 
with the foremost in Congress, peculiarly in questions in- 
volving international law, and the interest and protection of 
home manufactures, a subject on which he is well informed, 
and entertains broad and favorable views.' 

"In private life he has been an active and leading: spirit 
in all the prominent enterprises of his neighborhood. He 
was an original member of the Huntingdon and Broad Top 
E.R.Co., gave freely of his means and labored assiduously for 
the success of the enterprise, and has lived to see his labors 
crowned with success." 

The foregoing sketch was prepared during Mr. Scott's 


term in the Senate. A few facts may be added whicli might 
properly have been included in it, and others that are nec3S- 
sary to complete it to the present time. 

The committees upon which Mr. Scott served in the Forty- 
First Congress, were Claims, Pacific Railroads and Naval 
Affairs, and upon the special Senate committee as to the 
condition of the late insurrectionary States, of which latter 
committee he was chairman. 

In the Forty-Second and Forty-Third Congresses, he was 
upon the Committee of Claims, of which he was chairman 
in the latter Congress, Pacific Railroads and Finance, and 
"vyas also chairman of the joint select committee as to the late 
insurrectionary States. 

One of the principal subjects of general public interest in 
which he took part during the remainder of his term, was the in- 
come tax, the bill to repeal which he introduced into the 
Senate. After passing that body, and upon going to the 
House, a constitutional question was raised as to whether 
the Senate had power to originate such a bill. On this 
question a conference committee was appointed, consisting 
of Messrs. Hooper, of Massachusetts, Allison, of Iowa, and 
Yoorhees, of Indiana, on the part of the House, and Messrs. 
Scott, Conkling, and Casserly, on the part of the Senate. 
This conference resulted in a disagreement, and reports 
were made accordingly to both houses, Mr. Scott as chair- 
man, preparing the report to the Senate sustaining the power 
of the latter. He participated in the discussion of the bills 
relative to the Texas Pacific Railroad, and, in all their 
stages, of the bills relative to the Centennial Commission 
and the Centennial Board of Finance ; the tax and tariff 
bills ; the bill regulating bridges across the Ohio river ; the 
Caldwell, Kansas, Senatorial case ; the bills in relation to 
currency and banking ; the Louisville and Portland canal ; 
and the bill relative to the repeal of moieties, of the 
committee of conference on which he was a member. 

A few months after retiring from the Senate, Mr. Scott 
was tendered and accepted the position of General Counsel 
for the Pennsylvania Company. The ofl&ces of the Company 


being located at Pittsburg, and bis presence being required 
there, be removed to that place with bis family in 1875, and 
severed tbe relation of citizensbip wbicb bad existed with 
Huntingdon county during bis wbole lifetime. 



The first election for members to Congress participated in 
by the people of Huntingdon county was held in 1788, under 
the Constitution of the United States, which had been adopted 
the previous year. It provided that until an enumeration 
of the inhabitants, which was to be made within three years 
after the first meeting of Congress, and an apportionment 
thereunder, Pennsylvania was to have eight members. At 
the election in 1788, no districts having been formed, they 
were elected by the State at large. That may have continued 
to be the method for some years, but how long we have not 
been able to ascertain. No act of Assembly can be found 
districting the State prior to 1802. It is only from that 
year, therefore, that we can give the names of those who 
represented the county, or the districts to which it belonged, 
in Congress. The following are the districts, the counties 
composing them, the members, and the year of their 
election : 



1802, David Bard. 
1804, David Bard. 
" Robert Whitehill. 

1806, David Bard. 

" Robert Wliitehill. 
1808, David Bard. 
" Robert Whitehill. 
1810, David Bard, 

Robert Whitehill. 



1812, David Bard. 
1814, Thomas Burnside. 

1810, Wm. P. INIaclay. 
1818, Wm. P. Maclay. 

1820, John Brown. 

1822, John Brown. 
1824, John Mitchell. 




1826, John Mitchell. 
1828, John Scott. 

1830, Robert Allison. 

(Clinton added in 1839.) 

1832, Joseph Henderson. 
1834, Joseph Henderson. 
1836, W. W. Potter. 

*1838, W. W. Potter. 

1839, Geo. McCuUoch. 

1840, James Irvin. 

1842, James Irvin. 


1844, John Blanchard. 
1846, John Blanchard. 

1848, Samuel Calvin. 
1850, Andrew Parker. 



1856, John R. Edie. 
1858, S. 8. Blair. 

1852, John McCulloch. 
1854, John R. Edie. 

1860, S. S. Blair. 


1862, Archibald McAllister. I 1868, Daniel J. Morrell. 

1864, Abraham A, Barker. 1870, R. Milton Speer. 

1866, Daniel J. Morrell. | 1872, R. Milton Speer. 



1874, W. S. Stenger. 

Eon. R, Milton Speer, Eepresentative in the Forty-Second 
and Forty-Third Congresses from the Seventeenth Congres- 
sional District of Pennsylvania, was born in the village of 
Cassville, Huntingdon county, on the 8th day of September, 
1838. He is of Irish descent, both of his parents having 
emigrated to this county from near Belfast, Ireland. 

Upon the death of his father, in the fall of 1852, Mr. 
Speer entered the Seminary at his native village and remained 

*W. W. Potter died October 28th, 1839. and at a special election held on the 20th of 
November, of the Bame year, Geo. McCulloch was elected for the unexpired term. 


there until the fall of 1856. During the succeeding winter, 
he taught school, an avocation at which he was engaged 
several years subsequently, while a law-student. In May, 
1857, he commenced reading law with Wilson and Petriken, 
and was admitted to the bar at Huntingdon, in November, 
1859. He entered upon the practice of his profession in the 
following April, and has continued at it without interruption, 
except such as was rendered unavoidable by the several 
offices he has filled. In 1863 he was Assistant Clerk in the 
House of Representatives at Harrisburg. He was editor of 
The Union^ the organ of the Democratic party of Huntingdon 
county, from August, 1859, to January, 1861. 

In the Congressional contest of 1870, Mr. Speer's majority 
in the district^ composed of the counties of Huntingdon, 
Mifflin, Blair and Cambria, was eleven votes. The opposing 
candidate was the Hon. Daniel J. Morrell, who had been 
twice elected to Congress, and who was an able and popular 
representative. The defeat of the latter was not regarded 
as possible during the campaign, and was a complete sur- 
prise to his party and friends. It was effected by changes 
principally in Huntingdon county. In the borough of Hun- 
tingdon, Mr. Morrell had in 1868, a majority of sixty-two ; 
in 1870 Mr. Speer had a majority of two hundred and ten. 

In 1872 Mr. Speer was re-elected over Hon. A. A. 
Barker, who had also been previously a member of Congress. 



Until 1851 the President Judges, as well as the Judges of 
the Supreme Court and the Associate Judges, were appointed 
bj the Governor, and held their offices during life or good 
behavior. In 1850 an amendment was made to the Consti- 
tution of the State providing for an elective judiciary, and 
on the 15th of April, 1851, the necessary legislation was en- 
acted for carrying out the amendment. The following have 
been the President Judges appointed for the judicial dis- 
tricts embracing Huntingdon county ; 

Robert Galbraith, Commissioned Nov. 23rd, 1787. 
Thomas Smith, " Aug. 20th, 1791. 

James Riddle, First Presided Aug. Sess., 1794. 
Thomas Cooper, " " Nov, " 1804. 

Jonathan Walker, Commissioned Mar. 1st, 1806. 
Charles Huston, First Presided Aug. Sess., 1818. 
Thomas Burnside, " " " " 1826. 

Geo. W. Woodward, Commissioned Apr. 9th, 1841. 
A. S. Wilson, " Mar. 30th, 1842. 

- George Taylor, " Apr. 6th. 1849. — 

The amendment of 1850 made the term of office of Presi- 
dent Judges ten years. The following have been elected : 

1851, George Taylor. | 1861, George Taylor. 

1871, John Dean. 

The Judges who have presided in the courts of Hunting- 
don county have been men who were eminent for their legal 
learning, abilities and integrity. The most distinguished 
were Walker, Huston, Burnside, Woodward and Taylor. 
The latter, having been upon the bench much longer than 
any of the others, and having died within a few weeks of 
the expiration of his second term by election, was perhaps 
the most sincerely and profoundly regretted. While charg- 


ing a jury, at the regular term of the Blair county court, on 
the 24th day of October, 1871, he became so ill that he was 
obliged to leave the court-room. Towards the evening of 
the same day, he was stricken with paralysis in both of his 
lower limbs, causing entire helplessness of the body, but 
not impairing the vigor of his mind. On the 30th of ^October 
he was brought to his home in Huntingdon. His condition 
did not improve, but gradually became worse until the 
morning of November l-ith, when, without a struggle, he 
gently passed away. 

The proceedings at the meetings of the members of the bar 
of Huntingdon county and the Twenty-Fourth Judicial Dis- 
trict, after his death, were more than formal. Eloquent and 
feeling speeches were made by Hon. J. G. Miles, Hon. 
E. M. Speer, Hon. S. T. Brown, Hon. John Williamson, 
Wra. P. Orbison, Esq., Hon. David Blair, Hon. Samuel 
Calvin, Hon. John Scott, Augustus S. Landis, Esq., and P. 
M. Lytle, Esq. 

The resolutions adopted by the bar of Huntingdon county, 
were reported by a committee consisting of R. M. Speer, 
John Williamson, William P. Orbison, Thos. W. Myton and 
T. H. Cremer, and were as follows: 

Having heard with profound sorrow of the death of Hon. Geo. Tay- 
lor, President Judge of the Courts of this District, which occurred at 
Ijis residence this morning, and recognizing in this sad event a com- 
mon loss and a public bereavement, and expressing the unanimous 
voice of the Bar of this county, we do resolve : 

1st. That Judge Taylor, by his modest manner, his eminent ability, 
his spotless integrity and his unquestioned fairness, has discharged 
the duties of President Judge of this Distrtct for more than twenty- 
two years, in such a manner as to make honorable his high office, to 
deserve and receive the unshaken confidence of the people, and to 
surround his name when living, and his memory now, when dead 
with the higlxest reward of honest labor — the grateful acknowledg- 
ment of duty well and faithfuU)'^ done. 

2nd. That, in the presence of his opening grave, we declare him to 
have been an honest man and a fearless, able and incorruptible 
Judge, the clearness and strength of whose mind were equaled only 
by the warmth and kindness of his heart. 

3d. That having begun the struggle of life, unaided and alone, his 
steady march to deserved distinction was alike the reward of his great 
ability and his conscientious discharge of public duty. 


4th. That eminent as he was in ofBcial Iffe, and much as he will be 
missed and mourned in the Courts over which he has so long and so 
acceptably presided, the tenderness and affection of his heart, and 
the kindness of his nature, doubly endeared him to his family and 
his friends, to whom, in this hour of their grief, we tender the poor 
consolation of our unmixed sympathy. 

6th. That as our last tribute to the memory of the honored dead, 
we will attend his funeral in * body, and wear the usual badge of 
mourning for thirty days ; and we hereby direct these resolutions to 
be presented to the Court, to be entered upon its records, a copy fur- 
nished to his family, and that they be published in all the papers of 
this District. 

The Bar of the Twenty-Fourth Judicial District adopted 
the following resolutions, reported by a committee consist- 
ing of Hon. Joseph Irwin, Hon Samuel Calvin and Col. E. 
A. McMurtrie, of Blair county ; Hon. Geo. W. Early, Robert 
L. Johnson, and George M. Reade, Esqs., of Cambria county; 
and Hon. D. Clarkson, Hon. John Scott and P. M. Lytle, 
Esq., of Huntingdon county : 

The members of the Bench and Bar of the 24th Judicial District 
of Pennsylvania, assembled to express their feelings upon the death 
of Hon. George Taylor, late its President Judge, feel that they are 
called to pay a tribute to the memory of no ordinary man. We come 
not only to bear testimony to the purity and ability of his judicial ad- 
ministration, but also to drop the tear which is due to the esteemed 
and beloved friend ; for of him it may in truth be said that he had in 
as high a degree as any Judge upon the Bench the warm personal re- 
gard of his judicial associates, and of the gentlemen of the Bar among 
whom he discharged his duties. Added to^ strong, clear, discrimi- 
nating mind, thoroughly disciplined by early study and imbued with 
the elementary principles of legal science, were a reverence for 
Supreme authority, a recognition of his responsibility to that authori- 
ty, a love of justice and a high moral courage. Strong as were his 
feelings and convictions upon any subject which might incidentally 
mingle in the contest of the Courts, his sense of right was stronger, 
and of no man who ever sat upon the Bench was there less complaint 
of personal bias or partiality to suitors. If proper to apply to any 
man the first ideal of a Judge, "an able man, a man of truth, who 
fears God and hates covetousness" it might Vje applied to him. Feel- 
ing that he has died at the close of an honorable service of almost a 
quarter of a century, we who have had every opportunity of observing 
and learning the traits of his character, bear testimony to its worth iu 
these brief words, and do resolve : 

1st. That we will now proceed in a body to attend his funeral, and 
will wear the usual badge of mourning for thirty days. 


2nd. That the members of the Bar of the several counties of the 
District will take measures to have the proceedings of this meeting 
placed upon the records of their respective counties. 

The events in the life of such a man as Judge Taylor are 
not numerous. All the distinction he achieved was in the 
line of his profession as a lawyer. He was admitted to the 
bar, became distinguished as an advocate, was appointed, 
elected and re-elected a Judge, and spent more than twenty- 
two years in the performance of his judicial duties. The 
details of his life have been clearly and succinctly told by 
his friend Col. William Dorris, of the Huntingdon bar : 

" George Taylor was born at Oxford, Chester county, Pa., 
on the 24th of November, 1812. He was the fourth child 
of Matthew Taylor and Rebecca his wife, whose maiden 
name was Anderson. His father was an humble but honest 
blacksmith, with a large family and limited means ; and he 
was consequently afforded few facilities for acquiring even 
the rudiments of an education. He did not so much as learn 
the grammar of his own language in a school, nor was he in 
a school or any other institution of learning as a student, 
after he was thirteen years of age. He was, therefore, truly 
and emphatically a self-taught and self-made man. Several 
years of his early youth were profitably occupied in teaching 
a country school, in Dublin township and in Trough Creek 
Valley, in this county. During this period he diligently 
availed himself of all the means of improvement within his 
reach ; greatly increased his scanty stock of knowledge, and 
in the quiet seclusion of his rural home, unnoticed by those 
around him, laid the foundation of his future success. He 
was between thirteen and fourteen years of age when he came 
with his father and family to Dublin township, Huntingdon 
county. Subsequently he found employment in the office 
of the Prothonotary of Huntingdon county, and in 183-i 
commenced reading law in the office of Gen. Andrew P. 
"Wilson. He was admitted to the bar of this county on the 
12th of April, 1836, and soon after gave promise of success 
in his profession, and by his masterly efforts, in a number 
of important cases, acquired an early and distinguished repu- 


tation as a lawyer and an advocate. In 1840 he assisted in the 
prosecution of Robert McConaghy, who was tried, in this 
county, for the murder of six of his relatives. The case 
was one entirely of circumstantial evidence, and in a speech 
of matchless eloquence, in a clear, logical analysis of the 
facts, he so traced the murderer through all his windings, 
and so fastened the evidence of his guilt upon him, that there 
was no escape. The writer has frequently conversed with 
the very able counsel of the prisoner as to the electrical effect 
of the argument, and they said it was perfectly overwhelming; 
that the jury, the judges and the audience were so complete- 
ly carried away that any attempt at a defense seemed to be 
useless, and conviction followed inevitably. This was the 
greatest effort of his professional life. At this time, and for 
several years after, he was practicing, in partnership with 
John G. Miles, Esq., under the firm name of Miles & Taylor. 
Afterwards he acted as Treasurer of the county, and during 
the year he held that ofl&ce he made such progress in study- 
ing Greek that he could read the New Testament in the 
original tongue. 

" When the Legislature, in 1849, passed an act changing 
the Judicial Districts of the State, and increasing their num- 
ber, he was recommended, almost unanimously, by the Bar 
of Huntingdon and Blair counties, for the President Judge- 
ship of the 24th District, composed of the counties of Hunt- 
ingdon, Blair and Cambria. In April, 1849, Gov. Johnston 
conferred upon him the appointment, which was unanimously 
confirmed by the Senate. After the amendment to the con- 
stitution, making the Judiciary elective, was adopted, and by 
which the commissions of all the Judges in the State were 
terminated in December, 1851, Judge Taylor was unanimously 
nominated as a candidate and elected in October, 1851. After 
serving his term of ten years he had so won the hearts of 
the members of the Bar of the District, that, without dis- 
tinction of party, they asked him to be a candidate for re- 
election and he was again triumphantly elected. During the 
twenty two years of his Judgeship he faithfully discharged 
his duties, and never, from sickness or any other cause, failed 
to hold the regular terms of Court in the District. 


" In central Pennsylvania it is hardly necessary to speak of 
his success as a jurist; certainly no Judge in the State stood 
higher. As a man of sound judgment, a close, logical and 
profound thinker and a clear and forcible writer, he had no 
superior, and perhaps few equals, in the Judiciary of the 
Commonwealth. His charges and opinions have been pro- 
nounced, by competent judges, not inferior to the best similar 
judicial productions that have been carried before the Su- 
preme Court of the State during the last quarter of a cen- 
tury. After hearing cases argued by able counsel — and the 
24th District abounds in such — we have often been amazed 
at the manner in which Judge Taylor handled the questions 
involved, in charging the jury, taking a higher and bolder 
range of thought, and developing elements which had en- 
tirely escaped the notice of counsel on either side. He had 
an intense love of justice, and the nerve fearlessly to admin- 
ister it, in face of all opposition. A lawyer with a good case, 
could go before him with perfect confidence of success, but 
if he had a bad one, the sooner he got it out of court the 
better. He had no taste for the refinements of special plead- 
ing, but, stripping a case of all superfluity, he sought with 
strong common sense, to decide it according to its merits. 
To all his other high qualifications as a Judge, he added 
unquestioned and unyielding integrity and stern and severe 
impartiality. It is rare to find a Judge who could so entirely 
divest himself of feeling or partiality towards litigant par- 

" He had a heart which, in the language of the speech 
referred to, could not witness the endurance of suffering, 
deserved or undeserved, by any fellow being, without emo- 
tions of pity, and in discharging the many painful duties of 
his office he always tempered judgment with mercy, 

" The district over which he presided is an important one. 
It includes within its borders a vast iron and bituminous 
coal region and is traversed by the Pennsylvania R. E. and 
Canal. It contains two cities and many and large manufac- 
turing establishments. A number of important cases, of 
diversified character and some of them involving new prin- 


ciples of law, were constantly before him for decision. They 
were always tried with patient care, involving sleepless nights 
and weary days, yet when once tried the conclusion arrived 
at was rarely reversed by a higher Court. 

" Since 1841 Judge Taylor has been a member of the 
Presbyterian church. He was a close, diligent, thoughtful 
reader of the Scriptures, and his mind was thoroughly 
imbued with its doctrines and precepts. His sole reliance, 
during his illness, was on the atonement of Jesus Christ, 
and he most submissively bowed to the will of his Creator, 
not expressing the least desire to live. He leaves a widow 
and five children to mourn his loss. 

" After life's fitful fever he sleeps well." 

The first appointment of Associate Judges for Hunting- 
don county was made in 1791. Before that year courts 
were held by the President and Justices of the county, or, 
in the absence of the President, by the Justices alone. The 
records show that as many as six of the latter were upon 
the bench together. The following were the Associate 
Judges appointed, with the dates of their commissions : 

David Stewart, . Aug. 17, 1791. 
Robert Galbraith, . Aug. 17, 1791. 
John Cannon, . Aug. 17th, 1791. 
Benj. Elliott, . Aug. 17, 1791. 
Hugh Davison, . Nov. 4, 1791. 
WilUam Steel, . April 2, 1804. 

Joseph McCune. . Dec. 1,1810. 
Joseph Adams, . July 10, 1826. 
John Ker, . Dec. 25, 1838. 
James Gwin, . Feb. 25, 1843. 
John Stewart, . March 23, 1846. 
Jou. Mc Williams . April 4,1851. 

The amendment of 1850, making the office elective, fixed 
the term at five years. The following have been elected : 

1851, Jon. Mc Williams. 
1851, Thos. F. Stewart. 
1856, B. F. Patton. 
1856, John Brewster. 

1860, Wm. B. Leas. 

1861, B. F. Patton. 

1865, A. J. Beaver. 

1866, David Clarkson. 

1870, A. J. Beaver. 

1871, David Clarkson. 
1875, Adam Heeter. 


District Attorneys were first elected in 1850. The duties 
now devolving upon them were previously performed by 
officers appointed by the Governor. We have been unable 
to obtain detailed and definite information in regard to the 


latter for this county. An inquiry addressed to the Attor- 
ney General, at Harrisburg concerning the names of the 
various Prosecuting Attorneys, and the dates of their ap- 
pointment, was answered as follows : 

" We have no record of the appointment of the deputies 
of the attorney general in the different counties prior to the 
election of district attorneys. These officers, who were 
called prosecuting attorneys, were appointed in an informal 
manner, and the attorney generals made no record of the 
fact which remains here." 

The only source from which we could learn the names of any 
of the persons who filled the position of Prosecuting Attorney 
for this county, is the indictments on file among the records 
of the court of quarter sessions, and even the data there 
obtained is very incomplete. During the earliest years, the 
indictments were signed with only the name of the Attorney 
General, but about fifty years ago, the Prosecuting Attorneys, 
after signing for the Attorney General, began to add their 
own names. This custom was continued, with slight intermis- 
sion, as long as the power of making the appointment was 
in the hands of the Governor. The officers whose names 
we have thus ascertained, were J. M. Bell, A. P. Wilson, 
Eobt. Wallace, S. S. Wharton, Samuel Calvin, Alexander 
Gwin, E. V. Everhart, John Cresswell, John Scott and J, 
Sewell Stewart. 

The District Attorneys and the year of their election have 
been as follows: 

1850, J. Sewell Stewart. 
1853, J. Sewell Stewart. 
185G, Theo. H. Cremer. 
1859, Samuel T.Brown. 
1862, J. H. O. Corbin. 

1864, James D. Campbell. 
1866, K. Allen Lovell. 
1869, Milton S. Lytle. 
1872, H. C. Madden. 
1875, J. C.Jackson. 



The Constitution of 1790 provided that the General As- 
sembly of this Commonwealth, which had previously con- 
sisted of but one House,should consist of a Senate and House 
of Representatives. It fixed Senatorial Districts, whioh 
were to remain until the first enumeration of taxable in- 
habitants and an apportionment thereunder, and made the 
term of ofl&ce four years. Districts were first formed by act 
of Assembly in 1794, and an act has been passed making a 
new apportionment every seventh year since that time. The 
different districts to which Huntingdon county has belonged 
and the Senators elected to represent them have been as- 
follows : 



1790, Wm. Montgomery (elected to Congress.) 

1793, Wm. Hepburn (elected to fill vacancy.) 


(Somerset added on its erection in 1T95.) 

1794, John Cannon. | 1797, Richard Smith. 

1801. . 

(Cambria added on its erection in 1S04.) 

1801 John Piper, i 1805, Henry Wertz, jr. 

1807, Jacob Blocher. 



1808, Ezra Doty. I 1812, William Beale. 



1816, Alexander Dysart. | 1820, Michael Wallace. 




1822, William R. Smith. | 1824, Christian Garber. 

1828, Thomas Jackson. 


(Juniata added in 1831.) 

1832, George McCullouch. 



1836, David R. Porter. 
*1838, Robert P. Maclay, 4 years ; James M. Bell, 2 years. 
1840, James Mathers, 1842, Henry C. Eyer. 



1844, John Morrison. | 1847, Alexander King. 



1850, R. A. McMurtrie. | 1853, John Cresswell, jr. 

1856, John Creswell, jr. 



1857, Wm. p. Schell. | 18G0, S. S. Wharton. 

1863, Geo. W. Householder. 


(Two Senators.) 

1864, L. W. Hall. I 1867, J. K. Robinson. 

Kirk Haines. ' C. J. T. Mclntire. 

1870, R. Bruce Petriken. 
D. M. Crawford. 



1873, Joseph S. Waream. 


(*XJnder Constitution of 1873 ; term four years. 
1874, Chambers McKibben. 

"The Constitution of 1338 changed the length of the term to three years. 




The General Assembly, under the Constitution of 1776, 
convened in October, and under the Constitution of 1790, in 
December, and usually did not adjourn finally until the 
spring of the following year. At the time of the erection 
of Huntingdon county, Col. John Cannon was one of the 
representatives from Bedford county. The members since 
elected by the former have been as follows : 

, John Porter, 
Henry Beaver. 

, Samuel Rover, 
James Clark. 
James Clark, 
Thomas T. Cromwell. 

, James Clark, 
Thomas T. Cromwell. 
H. L. McConnell, 
George Hudson. 
J. Cunningham, 
James Crawford. 
J. Cunningham, 
John Morrison. 

, J. Cunningham, 
John ^Morrison. 
John Morrisoji, 
Joseph Higgins. 
John G. Miles, 
Joseph Higgins, 

, Jesse Moore, 
Thomas Weston. 
Jonathan Me Williams, 
Brice Blair. 
Jonathan McWilliams, 
Brice Blair. 
Henry Brewster, 
R. A. McMurtrie. 
H. L. Patterson, 
Alexander Gwin. 
David Blair. 
David Blair. 
A. K. CJornyn. 
A. K. Cornvn. 
Wm. B. Smith, 
Seth R. McCune. 
Wm. B. Smith, 
Seth. R. McCune. 
S. S. Wharton, 
James L. Gwin. 

, James L. Gwin, 
James Maguire. 
George Leas, 
Geo. W. Smith. 
J. M. Gibbony, 
J. H. Wii'trode. 


Hugh Davison. 



Hugh Davison. 


David Stewart. 



David Stewart. 


John Cannon. 



John Cannon. 


John Cannon. 



David M(.'Murtrie. 


David Mc-Murtrie. 



Samuel Marshall. 


Samuel Marshall. 



John Blair. 


John Blair. 



James Kerr. 


James Iverr, 
John Blair. 



William Steel, 
John Blair. 



Richard Smith, 
Lewis Mytinger. 



Arthur Moore, 


James 3Ic('une. 


Arthur Moore, 
James McCune. 



Arthur JMoore, 
James McC'une. 



Arthur Moore, 
Alexander Dysart. 



Arthur Moore, 
Alexander Dysart. 



Alexander Dvsart, 


William MuAlevy. 



A iexander Dvsart, 


William McAlevy. 



Alexander Dysart, 
William McAlevy. 



Alexander Dysart, 
R. James Law. 



R. James Law, 
John Crum. 



R. James Law, 
John Crum. 



Alexander Dysart, 
Conrad B'ucher. 



Conrad Bucher, 
Christian Garber. 




1817, Conrad Bucher, 
Christian Garber. 

1818, Eobert Young, 
J. D. Aurandt. 

1819, John Scott, 
David K. Porter. 

1820, John Scott, 
David R. Porter. 

1821, John Scott, 
John Royer. 

1822, John Ashman, 
David R. Porter. 

1823, Henry Shippen, 
Peter Cassidy. 

1824, Plenry Shippen, 
John Ashman. 

1825, Matthew Wilson, 
Joseph Adams. 

1826, Matthew Wilson, 
John Bhiir. 

1827, Matthew Wilson, 
John Blair, 

1828, John Blair, 
John Owens. 

1829, John Blair, 
Henry Beaver. 

1830, John Blair, 
John Williamson. 

1856, J. M. Gibbony, 
J. H. Wintrode. 

1857, Daniel Houtz. 

1858, R. B. Wigton. 

1859, J. S. Africa. 

1860, Brice X. Blair. 

1861, John Scott. 

1862, A. W. Benedict. 

1863, David Etnier. 

1864, John N. Swoope, 
John Balsbach. 

1865, Ephraim Baker, 
James M. Brown. 

1866, H. S. Wharton, 
James M. Brown. 

1867, H. S. Wharton, 
H. H. Wilson. 

1868, John S. Miller, 
Amos H. Martin. 

1869, H. J. McAteer, 
Abraham Rohrer. 

1870, H. J. McAteer, 
Abraham Rohrer. 

1871, F. H. Lane. 

1872, F. H. Lane. 

1873, W. K. Burchinell. 

1874, H. H. Mateer, 
W. P. McNite. 

After the erection of Blair county, in 1846, Huntingdon 
county had but one representative until 1850, when, with 
Blair, in that and the following year, she elected two. In 
1864, the representative district consisting of Huntingdon, 
Mifflin and Juniata counties was formed, and continued until 
1870, electing two members. At all other times Hunting- 
don has formed a separate district. By the Constitution of 
1873, the Legislative term was changed from one to two 
years. There was consequently no election in 1875. 


constitutional conventions — 1776 — benjamin elliott — 1790 — andrew 
hendp:rson — 1838 — delegates from the county and senatorial 


Four conventions have been lield in Pennsylvania for the 
purpose of framing or revising and amending the Constitu- 
tion of the Commonwealth. The first met in pursuance of 
the call of the Provincial Conference, the members of which 
were "deputed by the committees of several of the counties 
of this province," and who assembled in Carpenters' Hall, 
Philadelphia, June 18th, 1776, sixteen days before the 
Declaration of Independence, and continued their sessions 
daily until June 25th. 

The delegates to the Convention were elected July 8th, 
1776, met July 15th, and passed and confirmed the Consti- 
tution, and signed it September 28th, of the same year. 
There were eight delegates from Bedford county, seven of 
whom appended their signatures to the instrument in the 
following order : Benjamin Elliott, Thomas Coulter, Joseph 
Powell, John Burd, John Cessna, John Wilkins and Thomas 
Smith. The only member of the Convention from the 
present territory of Huntingdon county was Benjamin 

The second Constitutional Convention of Pennsylvania 
convened in Philadelphia, November 21th, 1789, and framed 
a new Constitution. Having completed it and provided for 
its publication, they adjourned on the 26th day of February, 
1790, to meet on the 9th day of August following. After 
re-assembling they continued in session twenty-four days, 
carefully revising, amending and altering the Constitution. 

General Andrew Henderson was a member of this Con- 
vention, and the only one from Huntingdon county. He 
was at the same time Prothonotary and Register and 
Recorder. On the erection of Henderson township, in 
November, 181i, it was ordered by the Court that it be 


given that name "in consideration of the distinguished up- 
rightness of the late General Andrew Henderson as a public 
officer, and his services during the Revolutionary war." 

The third Convention met at Harrisburg, May 2nd, 1837. 
After several adjournments, they re-assembled in Philadel- 
phia, November 28th, 1837, and adjourned finally, February 
22nd, 1838. The Constitution as amended was submitted 
to a vote of the people at the October election in 1838, and 
was adopted by a majority of twelve hundred and thirteen 

The Convention was composed of Senatorial and Repre- 
sentative delegates, the district consisting of Huntingdon, 
Mifflin, Juniata, Perry and Union counties, being represent- 
ed by James Merrill and Wm. P. Maclay, and Huntingdon 
county by Samuel Royer and Cornelius Crum. 

The fourth and last Constitutional Convention met in the 
hall of the House of Representatives at Harrisburg, Novem- 
ber 12th, 1872. On the 27th of the same month, they ad- 
journed to meet in Philadelphia on the 7th of January, 1873. 
Their labors completed, the new organic law was submitted 
to the voters of the Commonwealth at a special election on 
the 16th of December, 1873, and was adopted by an over- 
whelming majority. 

There were in this Convention one hundred and thirty- 
three delegates, twenty-eight from the State at large, and 
one hundred and five from the Senatorial districts. The 
twenty-second district, composed of the counties of Hunting- 
don, Centre, Mifilin and Juniata, was represented by Dr. 
John McCulloch, John M. Bailey and Andrew Reed. The 
first two were from Huntingdon county and the last from 

John McCulloch was born in Juniata county, Pennsylvania, 
November 15th, 1806; graduated at Washington College, 
Washington, Pa., in 1825, and at the Medical Department of 
the University of Pennsylvania, in 1829 ; has since been a 
practicing physician, residing first at Petersburg, in this 
county, and for a number of years past in Huntingdon; was 
elected to Congress in 1852, and served during the term 


ending March 4tli, 1855. As a member of the Constitutional 
Convention, he was upon the committees on "State Institu- 
tions and Buildings" and "Railroads and Canals." 

John M. Bailey was born at Dillsburg, York county, 
Pennsylvania, July 11th, 1839 ; came to Huntingdon county 
in 1857, and was for several years engaged as a teacher in 
the common schools ; read law with Messrs. Scott & Brown, 
in Huntingdon ; was admitted to the bar in August, 1862, 
and entered into partnership with his preceptors, which 
business relation continued until the election of Mr. Scott 
as United States Senator. The committees upon which he 
held positions as a member of the Convention were "Com- 
missions," "Ofl&ces, Oaths of Office and Incompatibility of 
Office," " Revenues, Taxation and Finance." 




1787, Benjamin Elliott. 

1788, John Patton. 
1792, John Galbraith. 
1795, John Patton. 
1798, James McMurtrie. 
1801, John Patton. 
1804, John Miller. 
180(5, John Patton. 
1809, Patrick Gwin. 
1812, John Patton. 
1815, Patrick Gwin. 
1818, John Patton. 
1821, Patrick Gwin. 

] 824, William Speer. 
1827, AVilliani Simpson. 
18o0, Thomas Johnston. 
18o3, James Henderson. 

1836, *Thomas Lloyd . 

1837, Joseph Higgins. 

1838, Joseph Shannon. 

1839, John Brotherline. 
1841, John Shaver. 
1844, John Armitage. 
1847, Matthew Crownover. 
1850, Wm. B. Zeigler. 
1853, Joshua Greenland. 
1856, Graffus Miller. 

1859, John C. Watson. 
1862, G. W. Johnston. 
1865, Jas. F. Bathurst. 
1868, D. R. P. Neely. 
1871, Amon Houck. 
1874, T. K. Henderson. 


The Prothonotaries, Clerks of Courts of Common Pleas, 
Quarter Sessions and Oyer and Terminer, were appointed by 
the Governor previous to the annual election in 1839. By the 
Constitution of 1838 these offices were made elective. The 
following were the appointees with the dates of their com- 
missions : 

Lazarus B. McClain, 
Andrew Henderson, 
AVilliam Steel, 
J. A. Henderson, 
David R. Porter, 
Robert Cam2)bell, 
James Steel, 


Sept. 25th, 1787. 

Dec. 13th, 1788. 

Feb. 28th, 1809. 

Feb. 9th, 1821. 

Dec. 19th, 1823. 

Jan. 2nd, 1836. 

Jan. 7th, 1839. 

•It will be observed that there was a change in the office of Sheriff annually from 1S36 
to 1839. Thomas Lloyd died during his term, October 30th, 1S3T ; Joseph Higgius was 
apjiointed until the next election, and Joseph Shannon was elected for the balance of the 


The officers elected under the Constitution of 1838 have 
been as follows : 

1839, James Steel. 
1842, James Steel. 
1845, James Steel. 
1848, T. H. Cremer. 
1851, T. H. Cremer. 
1854, M. F. Campbell. 
1857, D. Caldwell. 

1860, W.C. Wa£?oner. 
1863, W. C. Wagoner. 
1866, J. R. Simpson. 
1869, M. M. McNeil. 
1872, T. W. Myton. 
1875, L. M. Stewart. 


These offices were also filled by appointment previous to 

Andrew Henderson, Commissioned Sept. 29th, 1787. 

William Steel, *' Feb. 28th, 1809. 

Richard Smith, " Feb. 9th, 1821. 

William Kerr, « Jan. 1st, 1824. 

David R. Porter, " Feb. 16th, 1827. 

John Reed, " Jan. 2nd, 1836. 

The following officers have been elected : 

1839, John Reed. 
1842, John Reed. 
1845, Jacob Miller. 
1848, M. F. Campbell. 
1851, M. F. Campbell. 
1854, Henry Glazier. 
1857, Henry Glazier. 

1860, D. W. Womelsdorf. 
1863, D. W. Womelsdorf. 
1866, J. E. Smncker. 
1869, J. E. Smucicer. 
1872, W. E. Lio-htner. 
1875, W. E. Lightner. 


Previous to 1841, the County Treasurers were appointed 
annually by the County Commissioners. The incumbents 
of this office before it was made elective, can be ascertained 
only by reference to the bonds on file in the Commissioners' 
office. No bonds can be found for any of the years between 
1789 and 1799, but as Benjamin Elliott was Treasurer in 
both of those years, the supposition arises that he served 
during all of the intermediate time. There are also no 
bonds for the years 1802, 1804, 1805 and 1828. The fol- 



lowing are the Treasurers appointed, with the exceptions 
above stated : 


David McMurtrie. 
Benjamin Elliott. 
Benjamin Elliott. 
Benjamin FJlliott. 
John Johnston. 
John Johnston. 
John Johnston. 
Robert Allison. 
Robert Allison. 
Robert Allison. 
Thomas Ker. 
Thomas Ker. 
Thomas Ker. 
John Hnyett. 
Samuel Steel. 
Samuel Steel. 
Thomas Ker. 
Thomas Ker. 
Thomas Ker. 
Samuel Steel. 
Samuel Steel. 
Samuel Steel. 

1821 , Isaac Borland. 

1822, Isaac Borland. 

1823, Isaac Borland. 

1824, John Miller. 

1825, John Miller. 

1826, Walter Clarke. 

1827, Walter Clarke. 

1829, Isaac Borland. 

1830, Isaac Borland. 

1831, Isaac Borland. 

1832, Jacob Miller. 

1833, Jacob Miller. 

1834, Jacob Miller. 

1835, Thomas Fisher. 
1830, Thomas Fislier. 

1837, Thomas Fisher. 

1838, Bavid Snare, 
" Bavid Blair. 

1839, David Blair. 

1840, Bavid Blair. 

1841, Andrew B. Hirst. 

The act of Assembly making the office of County Treas- 
urer elective, was passed May 27th, 1841, and the first elec- 
tion under it was held in the following October. The oflcers 
elected have been as follows : 


Andrew B. Hirst. 
George Taylor, 
Joseph Law. 
Isaac Neff. 
John A. Bojde. 
John Marks. 
Joseph Stevens. 
A. B. Crewitt. 
F. H. Lane. 

1859, H. T. White. 
1861, J. A. Nash. 
1863, Bavid Black. 
1865, Thos. W. Myton. 
1867, M. M. Lofian. 
1869, Samuel J. Cloyd. 
1871, A. W. Kenvon. 
1873, T. W. Montgomery. 
1875, G. Ashman Miller. 

F. H. Lane had been appointed Treasurer, April 14th, 
1857, previous to his election, to fill a vacancy caused by 
the death of A. B. Crewitt. The term of office, which had 
been two years, was extended by the present State Consti- 
tution, to three years, for which length of time the present 
incumbent, G. Ashman Miller, was elected. 


1787, Bavid Stewart, 
John Bean, 
James Sommerville. 

1833, Robert Lytle. 

1834, John Stewart. 

1835, Peter Hewitt. 



1788, Patrick Cassidy. 

1789, Robert Riddle. 

1790, Jolm Cadwallader. 

1791, John Blair. 

1792, Patrick Galbraith. 

1793, John Shaver. 

1794, James Kerr. 

1795, Thomas Morrow. 

1796, William Steel. 

1797, Hnch Morrison. 

1798, John Steel. 

1799, John Cadwallader. 

1800, Benjamin Elliott. 

1801, Joseph Patton. 

1802, Thomas Wilson. 

1803, William Wilson. 

1804, John Crawford. 

1805, Joseph Patton. 

1806, John Robison. 

1807, John Huyett. 

1808, David Lloyd. 

1809, R. James Law, 

1810, Robert Provines. 

1811, John Sharrer. 

1812, Wm. Simpson. 
J813, Maxwell Kinkead. 

1814, John Morrison. 

1815, Matthew Wilson. 

1816, Philip Roller. 

1817, Peter Cassidy. 

1818, Samnel Gooshorn. 

1819, James Simpson. 

1820, William Reed. 

1821, John Stewart. 

1822, John Cress well. 

1823, John McMullen. 

1824, William Simpson. 

1825, Conrad Bucher. 

1826, Henry Beaver. 

1827, James Steel. 

1828, George Ashman. 

1829, John Stewart. 

1830, Jacob Hofl'man. 

1831, Samuel Smith. 

1832, John Lutz. 

18.36, John Stever. 

1837, Peter Swoope. 

1838, James Moore. 

1839, Joshua Roller. 

1840, Keuzie L. Green. 

1841, Robert iNIoore. 
1^42, Alexander Knox. 

1843, John F. Miller, 1 year. 
]Mordecai Chilcote. 

1844, John F. Miller. 

1845, William Bell. 

1846, Daniel Tea.iiue, 2 years, 
Robt. Cummins, 3 years. 

1847, Joshua Greenland. 

1849, Isaac Peightal. 

1850, Benjamin Leas. 

1851, Robert Still, 2 years, 
Eliel Smith, 3 years. 

1852, Samuel Wigton. 

1853, Thomas Hamer. 

1854, Benj. K. NefF. 

1855, Jacob Baker. 

1856, H. L. INIcCarthy. 

1857, Geo. W. Mattern. 

1858, John Flenner. 

1859, M. F. Campbell. 

1860, John Cummins. 

1861, John S. Isett. 

1862, P. M. Bare. 

1863, John Householder. 

1864, Jacob Miller. 

1865, Adam Warlel. 

1866, Adam Fouse. 

1867, Samuel Cummins. 

1868, Simeon Wright. 

1869, Geo. Jackson. 

1870, A. B. Miller. 

1871, Jonathan Evans. 

1872, David Hare. 

1873, N. K. Covert. 

1874, W. J. Ammerman. 

1875, A. G. Neff, 
D. B. Weaver. 
A. W. Wright. 

The Act providing "for the erection of a house for the 
employment and support of the poor in the county of Hun- 
tingdon," was approved on the 6th day of May, 1850. 
Thomas Fisher, Kenzie L. Green, Benjamin Leas, James 
Gillam, John McCulloch, John Porter, Isaac Taylor, A. P. 
Wilson, John Watson, Caleb Greenland and S. Miles Green, 
were appointed commissioners t0 purchase a site for the 
building, and the people of the county were authorized to 



vote at the next annual election, upon the expediency of its 
erection. The result of the vote was as follows ; 

For a poor house 1299 

Against" " 952 

After it was built, its sale was advocated, and a vote was 
taken upon that question, under authority of an Act of As- 
sembly, with the following result : 

For the sale 892 

Against " 2802 

The act of 1850, provided for the election of three Direc- 
tors of the Foor in that year and of one annually there- 
after. The following officers have been elected : 

1851, James Clarke. 
James Saxton. 
George Hudson. 

1852, John Brewster. 

1853, Samuel Mattern. 

1854, J. A. Shade. 
18-55, Kenzie L. Green. 
185(5, Joseph Gibbony. 

1857, James Murphy. 

1858, David Clarkson. 
185!), William Moore. 
1860, Samuel Peightal. 
1801, James Henderson. 
1862, Samuel Heckadorn. 

1863, John Logan. 
1864:, Henry Davis, 3 years. 
Henry A. Mark, 1 year. 

1865, John Flenner. 

1866, Jackson Harman. 

1867, Adam Heeter. 

1868, John ]\Iiller. 

1869, James Smith. 

1870, Jobn P. Stewart. 

1871, Harris Ricliardson. 

1872, Michael Kyper. 

1873, Gilbert Horning. 

1874, Aaron W. Evans. 

1875, John Griffith. 


1850, William Christy. 
1853, J. Simi)Son Africa. 
1859, J. F. Ramev. 
1862, John A. Pollock. 

1865, James E. Glasgow. 
1808, James E. Glasgow. 
1871, Henry Wilson. 
1874, Henry Wilson. 

In 1856, there was no election to the of&ce of County Sur- 
veyor, the result that year being a tie vote between J. Simp- 
son Africa and J. F. Ramey. The latter was appointed by 
the Court and served during the term. 

In 1864 an election was held to fill a vacancy caused by 
the resignation of John A. Pollock, at which Henry Wilson 
received a majority of the votes cast, but the election was 
illegal, as the act of Assembly creating the ofiice provides 
that vacancies shall be filled by the appointment of the 
Court of Quarter Sessions. Mr. Wilson was subsequently 
appointed and served until the qualification of his successor, 
James E. Glasgow. 



1873, John G. Stewart. 
Samuel Brooks. 

1867, Geo. W. Shontz, 

N. K. Covert. 
1870, S. B. Chaney, 

John Vandevander. 

John G. Stewart resigned and George W. Johnston was 
appointed to fill the vacancy, January 22nd, 1874. 







This work has already given much of the history of the 
town of Huntingdon. One of the points first visited by 
white men, and the earliest permanent settlement in the 
county, and located upon the old Indian war-path, or a 
branch of it, and the Juniata river, it possessed at the be- 
ginning, and has since maintained, a greater importance than 
any other place within our presents limits. An account of 
Standing Stone, of the founding of the town by Dr. William 
Smith, in 1767, and the naming of it after the Countess of 
Huntingdon, of its condition at the beginning of the Revolu- 
tioBary war, and of many events occurring there during 
that struggle, of its selection as the seat of justice on the 
erection of the county in 1787, and of its newspapers and 
public improvements, was unavoidable in our effort to ob- 
serve as nearly as possible a chronological arrangement in 
the statement of facts, liut it has much additional history 
connected with its own development rather than with that 
of the county at large. 

The oldest deed of conveyance, of the existence of which 
we have been able to learn, made by Dr. Smith to a pur- 
chaser of a lot in Huntingdon, is dated " the seventh day of 
September, in the eighth Year of the Reign of our Sovereign 
Lord George 3d, by the Grace of God King of Great Britain, 
&c., Anno'iue Domini One Thousand Seven Hundred and, 
Sixty-Eight," and is " between William Smith, of the City 


o^ Philadelphia, and Province oi Pennsylvania, Clerk, D.D,, 
of the one part, and Samuel Anderson of Cumberland county, 
of the other part." It recites that " the said William Smith 

hath laid out a certain Town called , at Standing 

Stone, on Juniata, in the County of Gumherland, and divided 
the same into streets and lots, regularly named and numbered, 
as by the plan of the said town entered on record, in the Re- 
corder's Ofl&ce at Carlisle, in the said county, may appear." 
The lot conveyed was number 12, situated on Allegheny, 
between Third and Fourth streets, and extending to Penn. 
It is now owned by John W. Mattern, Esq. 

This deed was a printed form, prepared expressly for Dr. 
Smith, having no blanks except for names and numbers. 
It evidently, therefore, embodies the terms upon which he 
had determined to make sales. As the name of the town 
does not appear in the deed, and as the space left for it was 
not filled in writing, we may reasonably suppose that he 
had not given it a name at that date. 

The consideration expressed in the deed was as follows : 
" Yielding and paying therefor and thereout unto the said 
William Smith, his Heirs and Assigns, on the first Monday 
in September, in every year, the yearly Rent of One Spanish 
Milled Piece of Eight of fine Silver, weighing Seventeen 
Penny Weight and Six Grains at least, or Value thereof in 
Coin current ; the first payment to be made on the first 
Monday of September, which shall be in the Year of our 
Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Sixty-Nine, and 
so on the first Monday of September yearly, and every year 
thereafter, forever. And further the said Samuel Anderson 
doth covenant, promise and agree to and with the said Wil- 
liam Smith, his Heirs and Assigns, by these Presents, that 
he the said Samuel Anderson, his Heirs and Assigns, shall 
and will, at bis or their own proper Cost and Charges, make, 
erect, build and finish on the said Lot of Ground, one sub- 
stantial Dwelling House of Dimensions of Eighteen Feet by 
Twenty Feet at least, with a good Stone or Brick Chimney, 
within the Space of Ten Months from the First Day of Oc- 
tober," (year illegible.) 


On the failure of Anderson to pay the rental for the space 
of ninety days after it became due, Dr. Smith was to have 
the right to recover the arrearages by distress, and if no 
property could be found upon the premises upon which to 
distrain, or if the dwelling house was not erected within the 
time and in the manner agreed upon, he was to have the 
right to re-enter and to hold and possess the lot, and if the 
arrearages of rent were not paid within two years after such 
re-entry, the lot was to revert to him absolutely. 

Huntingdon was incorporated as a borough by act of 
Assembly of March 29th, 1796. The boundaries, as therein 
specified were as follows : " Beginning at a large stone 
corner placed on the bank of the river Juniata, at or near 
the entrance of a fording place, and at the distance of two 
hundred feet, on a course south sixty-six degrees east, from 
the east side of St. Clair (now Second) street ; thence north 
twenty-four degrees east, one hundred and nine perches and 
seven-tenths of a perch, to a stone ; thence north sixty-six 
degrees west, one hundred and fifty-seven perches to a stone ; 
thence south twenty-four degrees west, including Charles 
(now Seventh) street, one hundred and ten perches, or 
thereabouts, to the river Juniata ; thence down the same on 
the northerly bank or side, to the place of beginning ; being 
the boundary of the said town of Huntingdon on record in 
the office for recording of deeds in and for the said county of 
Huntingdon." The plan referred to was recorded on the 1-ith 
day of November, 1795. There is no plan on record at 
Carlisle, as stated in the deed from Dr. Smith to Samuel 

By a supplement to the act of incorporation, approved 
March 27th, 1855, the borough limits were extended so as 
to include what is now known as West Huntingdon and 
some territory east of the borough on both sides of Standing 
Stone creek. The boundaries fixed thereby were as follows : 
" Beginning at the Juniata river, where the Hickory corner, 
between George Croghan's and William Logan's survey 
stood, thence by the line between said surveys to William 
McMurtrie's corner; thence by this line to Standing 


Stone Creek; thence up the eastern side thereof, at low 
water mark, to a point opposite the north-eastern corner 
of William Orbison's out-lot ; thence by John Simpson's 
line across said creek by William Orbison's out-lot, the 
Standing Stone creek road and Hartley and Kautz's lot, to 
said Simpson's corner, on the western line of the Smith 
survey ; thence by the line between John McCahan's land 
and lots of said Hartley and Kautz, George Jackson and 
Daniel Africa, to Armstrong Willoughby's corner, in Annie 
Figart's hollow ; thence up said hollow, including said Wil- 
loughby's land, to the extended eastern line of Bath (now 
Fifth) street, of said borough ; thence down said line to the 
old boundary line of said borough and along the same to 
the centre of the Warm Springs road ; thence up the centre 
of said road to the northern line of the Asher Claytoa 
survey ; thence by the same to where a hickory corner 
stood ; thence by the line between the Renner farm and 
land of Hon. George Taylor to the Juniata river ; thence 
down the same at low water mark, to the place of begin- 

The second extension of the borough limits was made by 
ordinance of the Burgesses and Town Council, on the 14th 
of August, 1871. It added a portion of Oneida township 
lying north and northwest of the borough. The first section 
of the ordinance is as follows : "That all those parts of the 
township of Oneida included within the following bounda- 
ries, to wit: Beginning at the corner between said borough 
and township, at the northern angle of a lot formerly occu- 
pied by Hartly and Kautz, now owned by John II. Glazier, 
thence in a direct line, passing the south eastern corner of a 
lot on which Robert Drennan resides, to a point on land 
of William P. Orbison, esq., where the north-western bound- 
ary line of said borough, if extended, would intersect said 
line; and thence westwurdly along the last mentioned line 
to the corner between land of Hon. George Taylor, 
deceased, and James Cozzens ; and thence by the line 
between said Taylor and Cozzens and by an extension 
thereof to the Juniata river ; thence down the said river to 


the present line between said borougli and township, and 
thence along the same to place of beginning." 

The growth of the town has kept pace with these addi- 
tions of territory, and, in fact, rendered them necessary. 
Previous to 1855 the borough limits extended only to 
Seventh street ; but in 1854, J. Edgar Thomson, then Chief 
Engineer of the Pennsylvania Railroad, purchased the 
Cypress Cottage farm, lying west of the borough, for $29,- 
000, and in May and June of the latter year, had the part of 
the farm north of the railroad surveyed by J. Simpson Africa, 
Esq., county surveyor, and laid off into 852 lots. About 
the time the plan of West Huntingdon was completed, Mr, 
Thomson sold the grist and saw mill, with five acres of 
laud, to Messrs. David McMurtrie and Thomas Fisher, 
for $15,000, thus reducing the amount of his investment to 

Col. William Dorris, who was the attorney and agent for 
Mr. Thomson in all his transactions with reference to this 
real estate, has furnished us the following information : 

" From the time of the making of the plan in May, 
1854, until 1865 — eleven years — the West Huntingdon 
addition had an existence only on paper. During that 
time but one house was erected, the one now owned 
and occupied by Alexander Elliott, and it was built 
by the proprietor. It was a standing joke, not only to 
the neighboring towns, but to the ancient borough, and was 
often pointed to as an evidence of the folly of the owner. 
On the 27th of May, 1865, the first three lots were sold to 
Hannah Artley and Mary Long. They were numbered 40, 
43 and 51. Dwelling houses were built upon them by 1). 
W. Artley and Christian Long. During the year 1865 the 
island, the orchard, and 67 town lots were sold, and buildings 
were erected with great rapidity. Sales of lots continued 
without interruption until on the 30th of May, 1871, the 
last lot in West Huntingdon was sold, the purchaser being 
Curtis Larkins, and the lot being number 148. The aggre- 
gate amount received up to April 1st, 1876, by Mr. Thomson, 
in his lifetime, and by his trustees, since his death, from 


the sale of this farm, was $83,697.09, and there is to be col- 
lected enough to reach almost $100,000." 

The improvements upon the lota sold by Mr. Thomson 
soon carried the town northwestward to Fifteenth street, 
and it became evident that it woald be extended still fur- 
ther in that direction, if that portion of the borough were 
laid off into lots and offered for sale. On the first of May, 1868, 
Dr. E. Allison Miller, H. S. Wharton and Mrs. M. H. Ander- 
son bought from Hon. John Scott, executor and trustee 
under the will of Major J. P. Anderson, deceased, the Kenuer 
farm, containing about one hundred and twenty acres, and 
had about one hundred acres divided into lots, by J. Simp- 
son Africa, Esq. This part of the town is known as Milller, 
"VVharton and Anderson's addition to West Huntingdon. The 
proprietors have sold 425 lots, 110 buildings have been 
erected, and it has now a population of about 500. Its 
northern limit was Hon. George Taylor's farm, beyond 
Nineteenth street. 

Upon this addition the most important manufacturing 
establishments in the borough have been erected. 

In 1868 the Huntingdon Manufacturing company built 
a planing mill and furniture factory at the north-west corner 
of Sixteenth and Penn streets. It is a substantial brick 
building, two stories high, and is supplied with first-class 
machinery, which is run by steam. The property has 
changed hands a number of times since its erection, and is 
now owned by Stewart, March & Co. 

In 1870 H. S. Wharton built a shoe factory at the north- 
west corner of Sixteenth and Penn streets, and in 1872 added a 
tannery. This establishment, known as the Keystone Boot, 
Shoe and Leather Manufacturing Company's works, consists 
of large and imposing brick buildings, three stories high, 
heated by steam. The machinery is all of the latest and 
most approved kind. 

The car works and machine shops west of Penn, and 
between Seventeenth and Eighteenth streets, were built by 
Messrs. Orbison k Co., in 1872 and '73. The buildings are 
a woodwork department 160 by 70 feet, an erecting shop 


165 feet by 60 feet, a machine and blacksmith shop 173 feet 
by 46 feet, and an engine-house 26 by 32 feet. The stack is 
60 feet high, and the machinery is driven by a sixty-five 
horse-power engine. These, with the necessary yard room 
occupy about five acres of ground. 

R. X. Miller & Son built their broom and brush works, a 
a three story brick building, at the northeast corner of 
Fourteenth and Washington streets, in 1873, and in the 
same year the Pilgrim building, on the north-west corner of 
the same streets, was erected by II. B. Brumbaugh, and is 
partly occupied for the publication of the " Pilgrim" and 
" Youug Disciple." 

Of the 777 lots sold in West Huntingdon since 1865, a 
large proportion was purchased for actual improvement. 
Those in the Thomson survey are nearly all built upon, and 
more than one fourth of those in the Miller, Wharton and 
Anderson addition. 

The old part of Huntingdon improved during the same 
time almost as rapidly as West Huntingdon, its progress, 
however,not being quite so conspicuous, as new buildings, in a 
town already built up, do not make as much display as the 
same number on ground that previously had none. 

This era of improvement continued for more than eight 
years, or until after the financial crisis of 1873. It gave us 
a better class of buildings than had before existed, many of 
them being models of architecture and elegance. The num- 
ber erected could not now be ascertained without great 
difficulty, but we have obtained a statement of those built 
in 1871 and 1872, which will serve as a criterion for other 
years. * 

1S71. 18T2. 

Dwellings, 70 44 

Business houses, lU 

Muiiufuctories, 4 

Other buildiufis, 4 4 

Remodeled and improved, 9 7 

83 ()!) 

Many of those put down as dwellings had business rooms 
ou the first floor. 


As miglit be expected, the tables of populations sbow 
that the greatest increase was during the years when lots 
were selling and buildings were being erected the most 
rapidly. The increase between 1860 and 1870 took place 
principally after the war, in the last half of the decade. 

1792, Population, 85 faniilies. 

1810, " G76 

1820, •' 848 Increase, 172 

1830, " 1,222 " 374 

1840, '* 1,145 Decrease, 77 

1850, " 1,470 Increase, 325 

1860, " 1,890 " ■ 420 

1870, " 3,034 " 1,144 

1876, " 4,054 " in 6 years, 1,020 

The population in 1876 was ascertained by the canvass- 
ers for " Africa's Centennial Directory of Huntingdon 
County," recently published. 

Not only was the opening of new streets and the extension 
of old ones rendered necessary by this growth of the town, 
but it led to a change in street nomenclature and to the 
adoption of the decimal system of numbering buildings and 
lots. By an ordinance of July 3rd, 1863, Washington 
street, from the western line of Charles street to the Warm 
Springs road at the line of the Renner farm, and Mifflin 
street, from the western line of Charles street to Fulton 
(now Eighth,) and from Fulton to Locust (now Thirteenth,) 
were declared public streets or highways. The same streets, 
by ordinance of June 3rd, 1870, were extended still further 
northward to Grant (now Sixteenth) street. The former 
Ordinance also declared Chestnut, Walnut, Spruce and Pine, 
crossing Washington and MiflQin at right angles, public 
highways. Other streets were extended or opened as cir- 
cumstances required. 

The ordinance changing the names of streets running 
north and south in the old town and east and west in the 
new, was passed March 3rd, 1871. By it St. Clair street 
was changed to Second, Smith to Third, Montgomery to 
Fourth, Bath to Fifth, Franklin to Sixth, Charles to Seventh, 
Fulton to Eighth, Chestnut to Ninth, Walnut to Tenth, 


Spruce to Eleventh, Piue to Twelfth, Locust to Thirteenth, 
Cypress to Fourteenth, Anderson to Fifteenth, Grant to 
Sixteenth, Scott to Seventeenth, Lincoln to Eighteenth, 
and Jackson to Nineteenth. It also provided that the 
Standing Stone ridge road should be known as First street, 
the Standin;? Stone creek road as Standing Stone avenue, 
the Warm Springs road as Warm Springs avenue, and the 
towing-path of the Pennsylvania canal as Canal avenue. 

The same ordinance divided each square into spaces of 
twenty-five feet, each space to constitute a number. On 
streets running parallel with the river, the odd numbers are 
on the north side and the even numbers on the south side, 
each cross street beginning another hundred, corresponding 
with its number. On streets running from the river at right 
angles, the odd numbers are on the west side, and even 
numbers on the east, a new hundred beginning with each 
square. The owners or occupants of buildings fronting on 
public streets are required to have erected or painted on 
some conspicuous parts of the fronts or entrances, the num- 
ber of the space upon which each building stands. The 
penalty for neglect of this requirement is a fine of five 

In 1873, the borough, which had previously con- 
sisted of but two wards, was divided into four, by act of 
Assembly approved April 10th. The territory embraced 
in each was designated as follows : 

First Ward, all that territory lying northeastward of a 
line beginning at the Juniata river, and running thence in a 
direct line along the centre of Fourth street, to the line of 
Oneida township. 

Second Ward, all that territory lying west of the First 
ward and east of the centre of Seventh street. 

Third Ward^oW that territory lying north and west of the 
Second ward, and south of a line beginning at said (Juniata) 
river, and running thence eastward in a direct line along 
the centre of Eleventh street, to the line of Oneida township. 

Fourth Ward, all the territory lying north of the Third 


On the extension of the borough limits in 1874, so as to 
include a part of Oneida township, the added territory was 
distributed among the four wards, principally to the second 
and third. 

The fire department of Huntingdon consists of three en- 
gines and hook and ladder apparatus, each in charge of an 
orga''ized company. The "Juniata" engine was built in 
Philadelphia, 1804, and brought ther-e early in 1805. It was 
committed, by an ordinance of 1806, to the Active Fire 
Company. The newspapers of that and subsequent years 
had frequent notices to the people to turn out with their 
buckets, to exercise the engine. It was worked by hand 
and the water supplied from the most convenient pump or 
other source. The "Active" Company went out of existence, 
and was succeeded by the Juniata Fire Engine Company. 
The latter was organized in June, 1852, and disbanded just 
two years later. The present Juniata Fire Company was 
organized September 1st, 1873. 

The " Phoenix " engine, constructed on a somewhat larger 
scale than its predecessor, was brought to Huntingdon in 
1840. A company then organized to manage it, had an ex- 
istence of but a few years. A reorganization took place in 
May, 1874, the engine being then removed to West Hunt- 
ingdon. The members of the company are residents of that 
part of the borough, and are fully uniformed and equipped. 

The steam fire engine " Huntingdon" was purchased from 
the Silsby Manufacturing Company in 1873, the " Hunting- 
don Fire Company, jSTo. 1," having been organized October 
21st, 1872, in anticipation of its arrival. 

The Independent Hook and Ladder Company, No. 1, was 
organized October 20th, 1873. 

On the 4th of December, 1868, an ordinance was passed 
" authorizing a loan to the borough of Huntingdon for the 
purpose of purchasing a lot of ground and erecting an engine 
house thereon." It provided for the borrowing by the bor- 
ough of the sum of four thousand dollars, for which certifi- 
cates were to be issued for amounts not less than one hun- 
dred dollars each, redeemable on the 1st day of January, 


1875, bearing six per cent, interest, payable semi annually, 
on the first days of January and July in each year. A sup- 
plement to this ordinance was passed February 17th, 1869, 
increasing the rate of interest to eight per cent. 

I'art of lot number 97, fronting on Washington street west 
of Fifth street, was conveyed by Zacharias Yenter and wife, 
April 21st, 1869. The contract for the erection of the build- 
ing had been allotted to John Carman on the 2d of that 
month, and it was put up during the summer. After the 
organization of the hook and ladder company it was enlarged, 
and now accommodates not only the apparatus of that com- 
pany, but the Huntingdon and Juniata engines, and has 
rooms for the meetings of the companies, and a council 

In the chapter relating to private schools will be found a 
history of the Huntingdon Academy. The other educational 
institutions are three public school buildings. The first is 
situated at the northwest corner of Fifth and Moore streets, 
on a plot containing two acres of ground donated by the 
proprietor of the town for a " Grammar and Free School." 
It was erected in 1843, was subsequently enlarged, and now 
accommodates eight schools. The second is a small brick 
building, near Cherry alley and Dorland street, one story in 
height and containing one room for a school for cohered 
children, and the third is a spacious and convenient house, 
erected in 1874, at the northwest corner of Fourteenth and 
Moore streets, accommodating four schools. 

llie number of public schools in the borough is thirteen, 
as follows : One high school, four grammar, four intermedi- 
ate, three primary, and one colored. There are also two 
schools in the Academy building. 

Gas, for purposes of illumination, was introduced into the 
borough on the 29th day of August, 1857. The company 
by which it is manufactured was incorporated March 4th of 
that year, and their works, located east of Second street, be- 
tween Penn and Allegheny, were built that summer, the con- 
tract for their erection having been executed on the 13th 
day of May. 


The religious denominations worshiping in Huntingdon, 
tlieir pastors, and the location of their churches, are as fol- 
lows : African Methodist Episcopal Zion, southeast corner 
Sixth and Moore streets, Rev. Solomon T. Whiten ; African 
Methodist Episcopal, 719 Moore street, Rev. William P. 
Ross; Baptist, northwest corner Seventh and Washington 
streets, Rev. D. W. Hunter; German Baptist, northwest 
corner Fourteenth and Washington streets, Rev. H. B. 
Brumbaugh ; Reformed, northwest corner Sixth and Church 
streets. Rev. A. Dole ; Roman Catholic, (Holy Trinity) north- 
west corner Sixth and Washington streets. Rev. Martin Mur- 
phy ; Protestant Episcopal, (St. John's) 212 Penn street. Rev. 
Charles H. Mead; United Brethren, northwest corner 
Twelfth and Mifflin streets, Rev. Martin P. Doyle; First 
Methodist Episcopal, northwest corner Fifih and Church 
streets, and Second Methodist Episcopal, Fifteenth street, 
between Mifflin and Moore, Rev. Finley B. Riddle and Rev. 
Jesse R. Akers; Presbyterian, southwest corner Fifth and 
Mifflin streets, Rev. A. Nelson Hollifield ; and Lutheran, 
northeast corner Sixth and Mifflin streets, Rev. Joseph R. 

The Baptists are erecting a new church edifice at the 
southwest corner of Sixth and Mifflin streets. 

The Lutherans, having also determined to build a new 
church upon the site of the old one, held a ^' farewell meet- 
ing " in the latter on the evening of May 1st, 1876, at which 
Prof. A. L. Guss delivered a lecture, entitled " Remember 
the Days of Old." It was historical in its character, and 
from it we make such extracts as give the history of that 
denomination at Huntingdon : 

" From the best information we can obtain a Lutheran 
congregation was organized in this place in the year ISO-l by 
Rev. Frederick Haas, a licentiate of the Pennsylvania Synod. 
He preached in the old Court House, and in 1807 married 
Miss Elizabeth Miller of this place. In connection with this 
congregation he preached at Water Street, Williamsburg and 
Clover Creek, as a supply, and Marklesburg (then known as 
Garner's School House), Trough Creek (now known as Cass- 


ville), and in Big Valley (now Kishacoquillas). He labored 
here some twelve years. During the latter part of his 
labors a little brick church was built by the congregation, 
which was located where the Xew Academy now stands. A 
small debt was left upon this church, which Haas could have 
easily liquidated had he remained ; but he removed to Me- 
chanicsburg about 1810, and afterwards to Ohio. The church 
seems then to have been vacant for some time, and of course 

" In the year 1819, Rev. Rebenack reports at Huntingdon, 
with 4 congregations, 14 confirmations, and 144 communi- 
cants He must have remained but a short time, as he re- 
ports the next year at Somerset. Hence he accomplished 
little while here. 

" In the year 1820 Rev. Henry Heinan took charge of the 
congregation, but paid more attention to the practice of med- 
icine than to preaching. Moreover he is said to have been 
tinctured with rationalism. Hence the church was worse 
than vacant ; and, the members being neglected, were dis- 
heartened and scattered. After 18 months or two years 
Heinan moved to Union county. 

"For the next 15 years, we know not who, if any one, 
preached for the little flock at Huntingdon. In 1831 it is 
named as still vacant. In 1838 or 1839 Rev. Mr. Osterloh 
moved to this place, and preached in the Court House, as 
the old brick, church was then claimed by other parties, and 
was occuj)ied as a school-house, and was not in a proper con- 
dition for holding services. He endeavored to re-organize 
the congregation, confining himself, of course, to the Ger- 
man element of society. He failed in this effort and re- 
moved from the town. The older stock of Lutherans, who 
had become anglicised, gradually were absorbed by other 
churches, while others stood aloof from all church connec- 
tion. After this period the whole organization ceased. 

" Pastor Haas seems to have been the only minister worthy 
of the name that Huntingdon ever had in the olden days. 
At that time the prospects of the church here were better 
perhaps than in any ot the towns of the surrounding coun- 


ties, where now large and wealthy congregations exist. 
We have no doubt that many of the best members of other 
churches in this town would have followed the footsteps of 
their ancestors, and be to-day pillars in the Lutheran church 
if there had been the proper shepherds to lead them by the 
still waters and into the rich pastures of the love of Christ. 

"But from the days of Haas, in 1816, to 1853, the place 
was practically waste, and even worse than desolate. While 
the church prospered elsewhere, here it retrograded. The 
owl and the bat took possession of the sanctuary, and our 
shrine fell into other hands, and was converted into other 
uses, while the children of the church gradually assimilated 
into organizations to which their fathers were strangers. 
But it pleased God again to visit his plantation. 

" Rev. P. M. Eightmyer began to preach occasionally at 
Huntingdon as a mission station in the fall of 1853. He had 
succeeded Rev. J. Martin, at Williamsburg, and had resign- 
ed, and removed to Water Street, where he assisted Rev. J. 
T. Williams, and subsequently took charge at Water Street, 
Sinking Valley, on Spruce Creek and at this place. At that 
time Water Street, Spruce Creek, Marklesburg and Cassville 
seem to have been the only Lutheran organizations in the 
county. Rightmyer says he ' found only two or three fam- 
ilies here holding to the church, among whom were Snyders 
and a Mrs. Couts, a hotel keeper's wife, and had he not 
offered me a place to stay, free of charge, there .would have 
been no Lutheran church in Huntingdon. I visited a num- 
ber of influential men who had gone into the Presbyterian 
churcb, asking them if we could not revive and resurrect 
the old church — they said: ' Too late ! too late I ' 

" Rightmyer first preached in the Court House, then in 
the Baptist church. At length he proposed to build a small 
church "as a monument to Luther." Some parties who 
were more envious than Sanballat and Tobiah hereupon de- 
clared "the Lutherans are not able to build a pig- 
pen." This stirred up Rightmyer's German blood. He was 
young, vigorous, ready for anything. P'uU of faith, he went 
to work, interested the Hawns and others in the vicinity. 


published proposals. $1,900 was tbe lowest bid, made a close 
calculation, found that it could be built for $1,409, got 
David ITawn to buy a lot, and ordered the work to go on. 

"Before the brick were on the ground, there was an in- 
junction on the house. He then gave personal obligations, 
and the work went on. Some $300 were raised in the 
Marklesburg charge, and some at Ilawns, but little in Hun- 
tingdon. Wherever he went he beg2;ed, held meetings and 
lectured, and gave the proceeds. Finally it was up and 
dedicated, and then the town was canvassed ; some gave 
freely ; more, moderately ; some got angry, while one man, 
he said, * looked pitifully on me and gave me $5, adding, ' I 
think you are too easy to put this enterprise through." 
Nevertheless, he did put it through, for which many since 
then have been thankful. Rev. Rightmyer now preaches at 
Cohensy, New Jersey. 

" The church was built in the summer of 1854. The cor- 
ner-stone was laid on the first of July. Services prepara- 
tory were held in the Baptist church. 

"At the dedication, the Water Street choir and congrega- 
tion attended, and there was a pleasant season. Kev. P. M. 
Rightmyer, in connection with his brother Cyrus, who had 
just completed his studies, and taken charge at Cas^ville, 
supplied Huntingdon with preaching until the fall of 1855. 
At this time Rev. R. H. Fletcher, who had just entered the 
ministry, took charge at Huntingdon anc^ Lick Ridges, and 
continued until March, 1858, when he removed to Bine 
Grove. During this period Rev. W. B. Bechtel lived at 
Marklesburg, and served that church and Cassville. At the 
Synodical meeting, held in Bedford in October, 1858, Hun- 
tingdon, Lick Ridges and Marklesburg were made one 
charge, and in 1859 Rev. J. K. Bricker took charge and re- 
sided at Marklesburg. He served these churches until 
January, 1861, when he removed to York county. 

"In 1864 Rev. J. H. Bratten succeeded Rev. Bricker. He 
served Marklesburg, Huntingdon and the Ridi,'e, and in 1865 
reported 50 communicants at Huntingdon. He preached 
until 1856, when his health failed and he resigned, and after- 
wards died at Chambersburg. 


"In June 1867, Rev. J. J Kerr took up his residence at 
Huntingdon, the charge being divided, and preached in this 
place, Lick Ridges, and subsequently also at Mill Creek, 
Hawn's School House and at Petersburg, He continued in 
charge until January, 1872, when he resigned and removed 
to Maryland. He is now living in Duncannon. He says he 
found here only 18 members and increased to 100. 

"In April, 1872, Rev. S. S. McHenry moved to Hunting- 
don and served the charge until April, 1875, when he re- 
signed and subsequently removed to Newry, Blair county. 
During July, August and September, the church at Hun- 
tingdon was served by J. Zimmerman, a theological student 
from the seminary at Gettysburg. The congregations at 
Lick Ridges and Mill Creek, after McHenry's resignation, 
formed a new charge in connection with a church at Mc- 
Alevy's Fort. The congregation was then vacant until Feb- 
ruary, 1876, when a call was extended to our present pastor, 
Rev. J. R. Focht, under whose ministry quite a revival took 
place, and the membership increased from about 100 to 160. 

" I have been unable to find any church records. Usually 
lists of communicants are kept, but it seems no one knows 
of their whereabouts. This is to be regretted, as we should 
have liked to enter into a minute sketch of the membership. 
As it is, I have had to content myself with meagre data and 
sift the uncertainties of human recollections. And it is mar- 
velous how many interesting things sleep in the grave of 
forgetfulness in the course of 22 years when not reduced to 
writing. So many people live and die, who are intent only 
on the passing hour and its necessary wants ! Like the ox, 
they think neither of those who have gone before them, nor 
of those who may come after them. They remember not 
the days of old, they consider not the years of many genera- 
tions, they ask not their fathers to tell them, nor do they 
explain to their children the lessons of the past 1 The ' gen- 
eration following ' is the least of their troubles. History is 
science teaching by examples, but on many persons the in- 
struction is lost. 

" At this time, this congregation has about 160 members, 


not counting 7 families at the Branch, and embraces about 
4i male heads of families. It is in a much more flourishing 
condition than it was ever before. A good part of its mem- 
bership has been composed of a floating population. Not 
being raised together, and many of us coming here from other 
places, the social spirit of Christian society has never been 
cultivated as it should have been. Perhaps the membership 
have become better acquainted with each other during our 
recent revival ; and we hope and pray that we may all be 
led to exclaim : Behold how sweet and pleasant it is to dwell 
together in Christian love ! 

" The mission of this church is by no means ended. It 
not only has its membership and the children of its member- 
ship to look after, but there are several hundreds in this 
town yet, who are children of the church, some of whom at- 
tend our sanctuary, while others have so far forgotten duty, 
as seldom or never to be found in the house of God. It is 
the duty of this church to reclaim the fallen, confirm the 
wavering, feud the sheep, and take care of the lambs. May 
she be equal to the task I 

" Without a suitable house of worship no church can in 
this day perform her duty and flourish. Our old house has 
outlived its usefulness. We propose now to remove it and 
erect a new one suitable to our wants and commensurate to 
the taste of the times. ^ 

" The erection of a new church has been in contemplation 
for several years. By a fair, held in 1872, the sum of $500 
was realized. A lot, belonging to the congregation, is 
deemed worth about that same sum. About $8,000 have 
already been subscribed among our own membership. We 
are weak in numbers and poor in purse ; but we believe that 
if we erect a house that will fitly accommodate our congre- 
gation, and in a style that will make it an ornament to our 
town, that our neighbors and brethren of other churches in 
town will aid us a little. 

'* We have no suitable Sabbath-school room, nor place for 
prayer meetings; the roof leaks, and it is not deemed 
proper to waste money in repairs ; we propose to take it 


down and use the material again in a neat two-storj house, 
with gothic ceiling, with a central tower for a bell, and a 
spire pointing up to heaven," 

The day after the delivery of Prof. Guss' lecture, work- 
men commenced the removal of the old church. The new 
one is now in course of erection. 

In the spring of the present year, Eev, J. S. McMurray 
prepared and published a sketch of the history of the Metho- 
dist church at Huntingdon. We give it here in fall : 

"The Methodist Episcopal Church in America being or- 
ganized in 1784, in four years thereafter — 1788 — Samuel 
Breeze and Daniel Combs were appointed to Huntingdon 
circuit, with Nelson Eeed as Elder, the other two being un- 
ordained ; the then circuit embracing the territory now in- 
cluded in both the Juniata and Altoona Districts, with a 
society of fifty-nine members. 

"Up to 1793, the nearest preaching appointment to Hun- 
tingdon was at Michael Crider's mill, about 1| miles 
west of the town. In that year (according to the reminis- 
cences of Aunt Kitty Kurtz, the oldest member of the 
church now living, who was born in 1786, and whose father 
settled in Huntingdon in 1789), the fast Methodist preach- 
ing in the town was by one Lesley Matthews, reputed to 
have been a converted Eoman Catholic priest — who was as- 
sociated with John Watson and N«lson Keed as Elder. Num- 
bers then in Society on the circuit, one hundred and sixty- 
five whites and two colored. 

"The first preaching-place was in one Beckie Tanner's 
house, on what is now Penn street, and where the brick 
residence of John Read, esq , now stands. 

"The first Quarterly Meeting was held in an 'upper room', 
twelve feet square, of a small log building, still standing, 
which then belonged to James Saxton, deceased, and where 
Wm. Africa's shoe shop now is, on Penn street, south side 
of the Diamond. 

"The first Society formed in the town was in 1797, con- 
sisting of eight persons, viz : Michael Crider and wife, their 
son Daniel, Thomas Carr and wife, Isaiah Harr and wife, and 


James Saxton. This small class met in a warehouse on the 
bank of the Juniata river, near the end of what is now Fifth 
street. The numbers in Society on the circuit were two 
hundred and forty-two, with Seely Bunn and John Pnilips 
as preachers, and J. Everett, Presidini^ Elder. In this year 
occurs ihejirst designation of Presiding Elders — there being 
twenty-two of them in the whole connection, with one hun- 
dred and fifty seven ordained preachers called elders; the 
limit of a presiding elder's term on a district being four 
years, as it is now. 

"The first chapel, twenty-five by thirty, consisting of hewed 
logs, was built in 1802, where the brick M. E. church now 
stands, on the northwest corner of Fifth and Church streets. 
The preachers of the circuit were Isaac Bobbins and Jos. 
Stone, with W. Lee as Presiding Elder, and numbers in so- 
ciety four hundred and seventeen. In this year, Annual 
Conferences were organized, previous to which all the preach- 
ers in America met in one body, Huntingdon being included 
in the Baltimore District of the Baltimore Conference. 

^^Coincidents. — In the year the first class or society was 
formed in Huntingdon, the first ilesignatioyi -And appointment 
of Presiding Elders was m.ide, viz : in 1797 ; and in the year 
the first Methodist house of worship was built in Huntingdon, 
Annual Conferences were organized (180:2), 

"A curious incident occurred in 1810, as appears from the 
book of the IJecording Steward, or Quarterly Conference 
Journal. Among other items of expense incurred at a camp 
meeting is this: " Whittaker S. Vantries, for 200 segars, for 
the nse of the preachers, 50 cents." 

"The plan of Huntingdon circuit in 1814 was from Hun- 
tingdon to Williamsburg; thence up the Juniata to Franks- 
town ; thence through Sinking Valley, over the Allegheny 
to Philipsburg; thence, to what is now called the Union 
Church, six miles above Clearfield, on the Susquehanna ; 
thence back again through Piiilipsburg, by a powder mill 
which then stood beyond the town, to Warrior's Mark ; thence 
to Half Moon ; thence to Benton'.s, now Pennsylvania Fur- 
nace ; thence to Spruce Creek, taking in Huntingdon Fur- 


nace and several other appointments ; thence to Kishaco- 
quillas ; thence to Stone Valley, taking in some five appoint- 
ments, back to Huntingdon ; the preachers of the circuit 
being James Riley and Samuel Davis, with Robert Burchas 
Presiding Elder. 

"Huntingdon became a station in 1866, during the pastor- 
ate of Job A. Price, now of the Baltimore Conference, with 
158 members and 104 probationers. In a decade from that 
time (1875) the members in society have reached 715, con- 
sisting of 429 members and 286 probationers. There are 
now two churches, the one already referred to, valued at 
$15,000, and a new chapel of gothic structure in West Hun- 
tingdon, capable of seating five hundred persons, costing^ 
exclusive of the lot, $2,600, dedicated February 13th, 1876. 
There is also a good, comfortable parsonage, well furnished^ 
valued at $8,000. The ofiicial body : M. K. Foster, P. E. ;. 
J. S. McMurray, P. C. ; J. R. Akers, Jun. P. ; J. W. Ely, 
Supernumerary. Local Preachers, J. Irvin White and J. F, 
McKinley. Exhorters, John Hagey and J. Harry Geissinger, 
with a full board of Stewards, two boards of Trustees, six- 
teen Class Leaders, and two Sunday-school Superintendents.'^ 
In compliance with the request of the General Assembly 
of the Presbyterian Church of the United States, addressed 
to the pastors of all of its congregations, an historical ser- 
mon was delivered at Huntingdon, on Sunday, July 2, 1876^ 
by Rev. A. Nelson Hollifield, pastor of the Presbyterian 
church, giving an account of the church at that place from 
its organization until the present time. We have been per- 
mitted to take from it such facts and extracts as give a suc- 
cinct history of the church buildings and pastors : 

" On July 6, 1789, the Presbyterians residing in and near 
the town were organized into a church, and on the same day 
gave a call to the Rev. John Johnston for one-half of his 
ministerial services. Three days hence it will have num- 
bered the eighty-seventh year of its existence. It was or- 
ganized in the same year that gave the world the General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of America. It is 
only thirteen years the junior of our great republic, and, 



James Saxton. This small class met in a warehouse on the 
bank of the Juniata river, near the end of what is now Fifth 
street. The numbers in Society on the circuit were two 
hundred and forty-two, with Seely Bunn and John Puilips 
as preachers, and J. Everett, Presidiui^ Elder. In this year 
occurs the first designation of Presidi7ig Elders — there being 
twenty-two of them in the whole connection, with one hun- 
dred and fifty seven ordained preachers called elders; the 
limit of a presiding elder's term on a district being four 
years, as it is now. 

"The first chapel, twenty-five by thirty, consisting of hewed 
logs, was built in 1802, where the brick M. E. church now 
stands, on the northwest corner of Fifth and Church streets. 
The preachers of the circuit were Isaac Robbins and Jos. 
Stone, with VV. Lee as Presiding Elder, and numbers in so- 
ciety four hundred and seventeen. In this year, Anyiual 
Conferences were organized, previous to which all the preach- 
ers in America met in one body, Huntingdon being included 
in the Baltimore District of the Baltimore Conference. 

^^Coincidents. — In the year the first class or society was 
formed in Huntingdon, the first designation and appointment 
of Presiding!; Elders was made, viz : in 1797 ; and in the year 
the first Methodist house of worship was built in Huntingdon, 
Anyiual Conferences were organized (1802). 

"A curious incident occurred in 1810, as appears from the 
book of the i?ecording Steward, or Quarterly Conference 
Journal. Among other items of expense incurred at a camp 
meeting is this: " Whittaker S. Vantries, for 200 segars, for 
the rise of the preacliers, 50 cents." 

"The plan of Huntingdon circuit in 1814 was from Hun- 
tingdon to Williamsburg; thence up the Juniata to Franks- 
town ; thence through Sinking Valley, over the Allegheny 
to Philipsburg; thence, to what is now called the Union 
Church, six miles above Clearfield, on the Susquehanna ; 
thence back again through I'hilipsburg, by a powder mill 
which then stood beyond tlie town, to Warrior's Mark ; thence 
to Half Moon ; thence to Benton's, now Pennsylvania Fur- 
nace ; thence to Spruce Creek, taking in Huntingdon Fur- 


nace and several other appointments ; thence to Kishaco- 
quillas ; thence to Stone Vallej, taking in some five appoint- 
ments, back to Huntingdon ; the preachers of the circuit 
being James Rilej and Samuel Davis, with Robert Burch as 
Presiding Elder. 

"Huntingdon became a station in 1866, during the pastor- 
ate of Job A. Price, now of the Baltimore Conference, with 
158 members and 104 probationers. In a decade from that 
time (1875) the members in society have reached 715, con- 
sisting of 429 members and 286 probationers. There are 
now two churches, the one already referred to, valued at 
$15,000, and a new chapel of gothic structure in West Hun- 
tingdon, capable of seating five hundred persons, costing^ 
exclusive of the lot, $2,600, dedicated February 13th, 1876. 
There is also a good, comfortable parsonage, well furnished^ 
valued at $8,000. The official body : M. K. Foster, P. E. • 
J. S. McMurray, P. C. ; J. R. Akers, Jun. P. ; J. W. Ely, 
Supernumerary. Local Preachers, J. Irvin White and J. F. 
McKinley. Exhorters, John Hagey and J. Harry Geissinger, 
with a full board of Stewards, two boards of Trustees, six- 
teen Class Leaders, and two Sunday-school Superintendents."^ 

In compliance with the request of the General Assembly 
of the Presbyterian Church of the United States, addressed 
to the pastors of all of its congregations, an historical ser- 
mon was delivered at Huntingdon, on Sunday, July 2, 1876, 
by Eev. A. Nelson Hollifield, pastor of the Presbyterian 
church, giving an account of the church at that place from 
its organization until the present time. We have been per- 
mitted to take from it such facts and extracts as give a suc- 
cinct history of the church buildings and pastors : 

" On July 6, 1789, the Presbyterians residing in and near 
the town were organized into a church, and on the same day 
gave a call to the Pev. John Johnston for one-half of his 
ministerial services. Three days hence it will have num- 
bered the eighty-seventh year of its existence. It was or- 
ganized in the same year that gave the world the General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of America. It is 
only thirteen years the junior of our great republic, and, 


a preacher and pastor. In eaoh of these capacities he pos- 
sessed gifts and graces peculiar to himself, which greatly en- 
deared him to his people during his brief but brilliant pas- 
torate. His faithful labors were blessed at different periods 
by numerous accessions to the church, and under his efficient 
administration the organization grew in usefulness and 
power." ****■» 

" June 14th, 1859, the Kev. G. W. Zahnizer having re- 
ceived and accepted a call from this church, he was duly 
inducted into the office of pastor by the Presbytery, and a 
more fitting successor to Dr. McClean it would have been 
difficult to designate. Mr. Zahnizer's ministry was a success. 
Additions were annually made to the church, but it was re- 
served for the winter of '73 to place the crown of half-a-hun- 
dred conversions on his labors, and the same year witnessed 
the dedication of this magnificent temple of worship. 

" In June, J.875, notwithstanding the written and earnest 
protest of a majority of the congregation, Mr. Zahnizer, from 
a sense of duty, requested this congregation to unite with 
him in his prayer to the Presbytery, asking for a dissolu- 
tion of the pastoral relation. The congregation refused to 
acquiesce. Nevertheless the Presbytery granted the prayer 
of Mr. Zahnizer, owing to his deep conviction of duty." 

After hearing a large number of candidates, the congre- 
gation, on the 5th day of January, 1876, gave a unanimous 
call to the present incumbent, the Rev. A. Nelson Ilollifield, 
then pastor of the Fairview church, in the Presbytery of 
Chester. lie preached his first sermon after accepting the 
call on the evening of January 31st, and by a strange coin- 
cidence founded his discourse on the same text — 2 Kings: 
5-12 — from whicli his immediate predecessor preached his 
initial sermon. A protracted meeting had been in progress 
during the prec* dim; week, conducted by Kev. Samuel T. 
Wilson, D. D., and Rev. R. M. Wallace, a committee ap- 
pointed by the Presbytery for the purpose. This commit- 
tee Mr. Ilollifield reluctantly relieved. The meetings were 
continued for six weeks. During the first two weeks ser- 
vices were held day and night, and the rest of the time at 


nights only. With few exceptions, Mr. H. preached at every 
service. Astheresultof these labors, one hundred and seventy 
persons were received into the church on profession of their 
faith in Christ, and fifteen by letter from other churches. 
The present number of communicants is about four hun- 
dred and fifty, the congregations are large, and the church 
is in a thriving condition. Such is the brief history of this 
old and influential church. In poiat of numbers, intelli- 
gence, piety, wealth and liberality, it ranks among the fore- 
most of its denomination in Central Pennsylvania. 



The townships wholly or partly within the present limits 
of Huntingdon county at the time of its erection in 1787, 
were Tyrone, Barree, Huntingdon, Hopewell, Shirley and 
Dublin. Frankstown and Woodbury townships, which were 
within the coumy when formed, were parts of the territory 
of which Blair county was erected in 1846. Tyrone town- 
ship was also partly within the latter county. 

Those six original townships have been divided and sub- 
divided, until the number is now twenty-five. Four of them 
— Barree, Hopewell, Shirley and Dublin — are still in exis- 
tence, although much reduced in extent, while Tyrone and 
Huntingdon no longer exist in Huntingdon county. The 
townships erected from each of them are as follows : 

From Tyrone have been formed Franklin, Morris and 
Warrior's Mark. 

From Huntingdon have been formed Henderson, Porter, 
Walker, Brady, Juniata and part of Oneida. 

From Barree have been formed West, Jackson and part 
of Oneida. 

From Hopewell have been formed Union, Tod, Cass, Penn, 
Carbon and Lincoln. 

From Sliirley have been formed Clay and parts of Spring- 
field and Cromwell. 

From Dublin have been formed Tell and parts of Spring- 
field and Cromwell. 

The present townships at the time of their formation did 
not all belong to the original townships, some of them being 
the result of two or three subdivisions. Thus Warriors' 
Mark, although a part of the original township of Tyrone, 



was formed from Franklin. The townships erected since 
the county, in the order of their ages, are as follows : 







"Warriors' Mark, 

















March, 1789, 

December, 1790, 

June, 1791, 

August, 1794, 

April, 1796, 

January, 1798, 

April, 1810, 

November, 1814, 

November, 1814, 

April, 1827, 

January, 1836, 

April, 1838, 

January 21st, 1843, 

January 15th, 1845, 

April 15th, 1845, 

April, 1846, 

November 21, 1846, 
August 20th, 1856, 
November 19, 1856, 
April 23d, 1858, 



Dublin and Shirley. 









Shirley and Springfield. 







Henderson and West. 




August 18th, 1866, 

Barree township, in 1771, the year of the erection of Bed- 
ford county, embraced a much greater extent of territory 
than in 1787, a very large proportion of it having been 
taken off between those years in the formation of other 
townships. It then included all that part of the present 
county of Huntingdon lying northwest of Jack's mountain, 
and may be said to be the mother of townships, seventeen 
having been taken from her original limits. She has thus 
been reduced in extent to about four miles in average width, 
from West and Oneida townships to Jackson, and ten or 
twelve miles in length, from the summit of Standing Stone 
mountain and the MifSin county line on the southeast to the 
summit of Tussey's mountain and the Centre county line on 
the northwest. 

The only considerable elevation between the mountains 
which form two of its boundaries is Warrior's Eidge, cross- 
ing it south and east of its centre. On one side of this ridge 
flow the waters of Shaver's creek, and on the other side 


those of Standing Stone creek. The two branches of the 
latter unite in the township. 

It contains iron ore, yielding forty-two per cent, of metal. 
The extent of the deposits are comparatively unknown, as 
they are yet undeveloped. 

Monroe Furnace, situated in the extreme northwestern 
corner of the township, near the Jackson township line, was 
built in 1844 or '45 by General James Irvin, of Centre 
county. It now belongs to the Logan Iron and Steel Com- 
pany, and has not been in operation for many years. 

There are three post-offices in the township — Cornpropst's 
Mill, on Standing Stone creek, and Manor Hill and Sauls- 
burg, between Warrior's Eidge and Shaver's creek. At each 
of these places there are villages containing schools and 
stores, and the latter two have hotels. Manor Hill is upon 
the " Shaver's creek manor," surveyed for the proprietaries 
of the province in 1762, from which the place derives its 

Hopewell township, now reduced to one of the smallest in 
the county, is bounded on the north by Lincoln, on the 
southeast by Tod and Carbon, being separated from them 
by Terrace mountain, on the southwest by Bedford county, 
and on the northwest by Blair. The Huntingdon and 13road- 
Top Mountain Railroad runs through it from noriheast to 
southwest, and the Kaystown branch of the Juniata winds 
its serpentine course in the same general direction. The sur- 
face of the township is rugged and broken, its proximity to 
the giant Broad Top giving it many of the features of a 
mining region without the advantages of being so in reality. 
The township contains no post-office, the people being ac- 
commodated with this facility at Coalmont, in Carbon town- 
ship, and at Saxton, in Bedford county. 



Dublin townsliip is situated in the extreme southern end 
of the county, extending farther south than any other. It 
is separated from Franklin county on the east, by the Tus- 
carora mountain, from Springfield and Cromwell townships, 
on the west, by Shade mountain, and is bounded on the 
north by Tell township, and on the south by Fulton county. 

The Indian war-path, upon which the traders and other 
early adventurers traveled, traversed this township, and 
therefore we trace the presence of white men back to the 
expeditions of Conrad Weiser and George Croghan in ITiS. 
"The Shadow of Death" is mentioned by John Harris, in 
his " account of the road to Logstown," in 1754. The name 
has undergone some changes, appearing in warrants issued 
between 1762 and 1767, as the "Shades of Death." Within 
the recollection of persons still living it was known as 
" The Shades," and more recently it has been transformed 
into " Shade Gap," the name of a flourishing borough, and 
the only post-office in the township. 

In addition to the warrants dated prior to the Revolu- 
tionary war, there is other evidence attesting the presence 
of settlers before that period. There are graves scattered in 
out-of-the-way places through the township, of which no ac- 
count is given except that they are the resting places of the 
earliest white residents of the region. In a field of Mr. 
Kough's are pointed out the tombs of Samuel Paul and 
wife, who lived and died there, perhaps the very first in the 
township. Half a mile distant are buried four unknown 
persons, and other graves are to be found equally obscure. 

George Croghan, whose name appears so frequently upon 
the records of the Land Ofl&ce and in connection with early 
titles in this county that we cannot mistake his proclivities 


towards speculation and jobbing, bad surveyed upon a war- 
rant a valuable tract of land near Sbade Gap, containing 
about 876 acres. This was among the first surveys, if there 
were any preceding it, and upon it was made one of the first 

The following account of the family which has there re- 
sided for more than a hundred and ten years, is furnished 
for this work by Dr. J. A. Shade : 

" In the year 1755 a Scotch-Irishman by the name of 
Alexander Blair came to Chester county, Pa., where he 
stopped awhile, and married a woman (Rachel Carson,) who 
came with him, somewhere about 1765, to Dublin township, 
and having bought a part of the Croghan tract of land, set- 
tled thereon ; and during all the subsequent years this land 
has been and is now held by the family. 

" On this land these pioneers are buried — here they led a 
most adventurous and eventful life far from the associations 
and attractions of civilized society, occasionally visited by 
the savages, and in the beginning with a natural constant 
fear of their incursions. 

"It is related that about this time, during a hard winter, 
Alexander lilair traveled on the snow in snow-shoes to his 
neighbor Jacob Gooshorn's house in Tell township, about 
nine miles distant, with a bag of corn on his back, when the 
two made a small light sled, and on this each one put his 
little bag of corn, and with snow-shoes on their feet hauled 
it on top of the deep snow to a mill that stood on the Juni- 
ata river somewhere below McVeytown. 

" From a very early day the old Blair house, built by 
Alexander J^lair, and which was burnt last fall, was the 
centre of trade and travel. All the wagons going to and 
from Baltimore made it their stopping place; all the law- 
yers passing to and fro between Chambersburg and Ilun- 
tingdon sojourned over night there ; all the elections and 
all the militia trainings were held there. The first store 
was established there, as well as the first tavern. It was 
for a very long time the only stopping place between Shir- 
leysburg and Burnt Cabins, and from all accounts was in- 


deed a grand old hostelry of the olden times, full of good 
cheer, and belated travelers would push long into the night 
to make that their resting place. 

" John Blair, one of a number of sons and daughters born 
here to this worthy old couple, is a marked man in the his- 
tory of Dublin township. He early displayed his charac- 
teristic energy and force; he bought some two hundred 
acres more of the Croghan land adjoining his father'y prop- 
erty, and soon developed it from its native woods into a 
beautiful farm, where he lived and died at a good age in 
1841. For a good many years, from quite a young man, 
Mr. Blair was Justice of the Peace, and a ruling Elder in the 
Presbyterian church. During all the long period he held 
the office of magistrate, the records of Huntingdon will 
show that no appeal or certiorari was ever taken in any 
case decided by him, and no criminal business was passed 
from his docket to the Court of Quarter Sessions. His in- 
fluence and energy were exerted up to the very last of his 
useful life for the benefit of the neighborhood, and he died 
much regretted." 

David Cree and wife, from Philadelphia, settled on a fine 
tract of limestone land in the southern part of the township, 
owned by Nathan McDowell, of Peters township, Franklin 
county, from whom they rented, about the year 1773. They 
paid an annual rental, as appears from the original article 
of agreement, of ten pounds. The land was afterwards 
bought by Cree, and remained in the possession of his family 
until a few years ago. Ten children were born to him 
there, and they and their descendants are among the most 
respectable people of the county. One of the latter is 
Thomas K. Cree, so well known in connection with the 
Young Men's Christian Association. The farm passed into 
the hands of James Clymans, its present owner, and is now 
one of the best in the township. 

About the same year, John Walker settled on a tract ad- 
joining Cree's, and extending to the Tuscarora mountain, 
near by. This land was also held by the Walker family 
till very recently. 


James McCardle, at the time of the Cree and Walker set- 
tlements, lived on the Tuscarora mountain, about a mile 
from the latter. It is supposed that he was among the very 
earliest settlers and his house one of the first built in the 
township, dating back anterior to the advent of Cree and 

During the decade from 1780 to 1790, the number of set- 
tlements increased rapidly. Many then came to the town- 
ship whose descendants still occupy the paternal acres. It 
was in or about the former year that James McGee took up 
some land adjoining the Croghan tract. 

In 1782 George Hudson came from Carlisle and settled 
at Shade Gap, living in a cabin and purchasing some 
" squatter claims," for which there were no warrants, and 
thus secured a large and valuable scope of land immediately 
adjoining the gap, much of which remains in the possession 
of his descendants to this day. He was a man of fine quali- 
ties and of great usefulness and influence. He became a 
magistrate and established a woolen mill and a grist mill 
near the gap at an early period, improvements which were 
of vast value to the community, but which have been re- 
placed by other and better ones. " Good morning, neigh- 
bors," was the salutation of old Mr. Hudson, as he met the 
fathers at the door of the church coming up to worship. 

"William Morrow and John Appleby settled along the 
Kittanning or Indian path, in the ridges about two miles 
east of Shade Gap, and James Wilson and William More- 
land in the same neighborhood. The land there was con- 
sidered the most desirable because it was smooth and easy 
to clear in comparison with that along the mountains, but 
now the preponderance of value is largely in favor of the 
latter. About the centre of this settlement was built per- 
haps the first school house in the township. Another was 
built on Jerry's ridge shortly afterwards, if not at the same 
time. Among the earliest teachers were James McGee, 
William Woods and George Moreland. 

Settlements were made about the same period by Robert 
and Alexander McElroy and liobert and William Marshall 


on the Hunting ridge, and by James Morton and Wil- 
liam Fleming at the foot of the Tuscarora mountain. Arch- 
ibald Stitt also settled near the foot of the same mountain, 
adjoining Tell township, where he lived a long and useful 
life. He was a respected elder of the Presbyterian church 
for many years, and has left numerous descendants in the 
township and county. Peterson, Johnson, Harper, Jeffries, 
Curry, Neely, Rouse and Shearer are names of other settlers 
whose families are yet to some extent represented in the 

There was no blacksmith shop nearer than Burnt Cabins 
or Orbisonia previous to 1808, when Michael Mills estab- 
lished one near Shade Gap. It was in existence until the 
death of his son William Mills, three years ago. 

Esquire Blair and Mr. Harper each conducted tan-yards 
from an early period. Within a few years past the Blair 
yard has developed in the hands of John Minich, who 
bought it, into a large steam tannery, doing a heavy and 
successful business. The Harper yard has gone out of use. 

The only other manufacturing establishments of ancient 
or modern times worthy of being mentioned, are the distil- 
leries, which were not uncommon in the beginning of this 
century, several having existed in the township lor a long 
period, making a considerable market for rye, which was 
then largely cultivated. From all accounts intemperance 
was not then any more prevalent than at present and was 
quite as unpopular. 

The date when a wagon road was made through the 
township and through Shade Gap is uncertain. Joshua 
Morgan, of Black Log valley, who died many years ago, is 
said to have been the first man who drove a team through 
the gap. 

While there have been no startling discoveries made in 
this township, and no unexpected attractions presented to 
invite and stimulate rapid increase of population and wealth, 
there has been a healthy onward movement, which is gather- 
ing force as it progresses, and just now bids fair to culminate 
in splendid developments. It has been found that the town- 


ship contains large deposits of very valuable fossil and hema- 
tite iron ores, which have already been partially instrumental 
in originating two furnaces, among the largest in the State, 
•within six miles of Shade Gap, with an accompanying rail- 
road, which is expected soon to traverse the township and 
perhaps lead to other furnaces. The lands that were in the 
woods a hundred years ago, have been changed to fruitful 
fields. Numerous farms and homes of beauty and culture 
have taken the place of the wilderness of that day. A thou- 
sand people now dwell in comfort where it was then diillcult 
to trace a single white man, and a flourishing village, the 
centre of trade of the township, attests the march of 

Dr. J. A. Shade settled at Shade Gap, in 184:2, to practice 
medicine, and as the only buildings there were occupied by 
B. X. Blair, as store and residence, and by VV. Mills, he 
found it necessary to build himself a dwelling; and having 
erected a tasty and substantial structure, for the times, others 
"were induced to follow his example. In 1849, Milnwood 
Academy came into existence through the energy and zeal 
of the Presbyterian pastor, Rev. J. F. McGinnes. Its pros- 
perity added to the prosperity of Shade Gap, and thenceforth 
the village grew, until, on the petition of Dr. Shade, 11. R. 
Shearer, S. D. Caldwell, George Sipes, and divers other 
citizens, it was at the April Sessions, 1871, ordained a 
borough by the Court of Huntingdon county. 

The incorporation of the place was followed by a marked 
increase in building and more attention to the improvement 
of the streets. It now contains several stores, two hotels, 
the various mechanics, and two or three doctors, all doing 
well. Thirty years ago, Dr. Shade was the only physician 
in a territory now sustaining fifteen medical gentlemen. 

The Methodist church in Shade Gap was built in 18-16. 
There had previously been a log church belonging to the 
same denomination, in the southern part of the township, 
on lands of Isaac Thompson, built largely by his means. 
This has been vacated and is now gone, but a better struc- 
ture took its place at Burnt Cabins, two miles distant. 


The Presbyterian church adjacent to, but not within the 
borough, was built in 1848 or '49, under the instrumentality 
of the pastor, Bev. Mr. McGinnes. It succeeded a white 
rough cast church, which was the original structure the 
early settlers worshiped in, and which was probably built 
about 1790, though the records fail to indicate the time of 
its erection of the organization of the congregation. The 
first pastor of whom there is any account was the Eev. Mr. 
Mcllvaine. He was succeeded by Eev. George Gray, who 
for more than twenty years ministered to the spiritual 
wants of the people. The present pastor is Rev. Mr. Kuhn. 
Including the church at the foot of Tuscarora mountain, 
three miles from Shade Gap, built eight or ten years ago, 
the number of members is about one hundred and eighty. 



Shirley is one of the largest, and with its two boroughs, 
Mount Union and Shirleysburg, is the most populous town- 
ship in the county. It extends from the Juniata river on 
the north to Cromwell township on the south, and from 
Shade mountain on the southeast to Jack's mountain on the 
northwest. There are running through it, parallel with its 
two last mentioned boundaries, Black Log mountain, Owen's 
ridge. Chestnut ridge and Stony ridge, dividing it into a 
number of valleys, each of which is watered by a stream 
flowing towards the Juniata. The principal of these are 
Black Log creek, the Aughwick and Hill valley run. 

The township, as well as the town of Shirleysburg, derives 
its name from Fort Shirley, which was located within the 
limits of the latter. 

A few of the remote descendants of the early settlers of 
Shirley township may be found in the Davis, Morgan, 
Clugage aud Sharrer families. The Galbraiths, who were 
pioneers of Germany valley, the Warners, of Shirleysburg, 
and the Matthews, who lived south of the town, have not 
left their names to perpetuate their memory. The Matthews 
burying ground, oil land of Mr. A. L. Kicketts, containing 
a score or more of the old settlers' graves, cannot now be 
recognized, having long since been farmed and plowed over. 

The first grist mill of any note in the township was the 
old log mill on Fort run, above the one now owned by Mr. 
Heffner. Other old mills stood near Mount Union, in Hill 
valley near the site of the Brewster tannery, and on lands 
adjoining William Morrison's heirs. These preceded the 
Bedford Furnace mill, now Mr. Thomas E. Orbison's, at 
Orbisonia, which far exceeded in capacity anything of the 


kind in its day in that section. It has been succeeded by 
Baker's, now Bell's, mill, on the Juniata, at the lower end 
of Germany valley, built about the year 1800, by Peter and 
Abraham Baker, who came from Maryland ; by Heffner's 
mill, built by David Eby ; by the Old Log mill, built by 
Mr. Crownover ; by the Aughwick or Brick mill built by 
Eby & Madden, and by a second mill on the stream or run 
near Mount Union, built by the Shaver brothers, and now 
owned by Mr. David Etnier, who has greatly enlarged and 
improved it. 

1'here were two powder-mills in operation in the town- 
ship in the early part of the present century, one built by 
the Sharrer brothers below Shirleysburg, and the other 
by Adam and Paul Sharrer on Sugar run. 

In 1820 Shirley township, then including parts of Crom- 
well and Clay, had but two small stores. There was none 
south of it nearer than Burnt Cabins, nor north nearer than 
the Red house, above Mill Creek. Now there are within 
the same territory twenty-five or more doing a prosperous 
business. Prior to the making of the Pennsylvania canal, 
merchandise was brought into that portion of the county in 
wagons, by way of Shade Gap, and the surplus productions 
were carried away by arks, one ark each spring being suffi- 
cient and it was sometimes necessary to make out the load 
with whisky and locust posts. Immediately after the com- 
pletion of the canal, agriculture took a new impetus and 
population began to increase. Additional iron works were 
erected within the portion of the township from which Crom- 
well has since been formed. 

Drake's Ferry on the Juniata, above the present site of 
Mount Union, owned and managed by the Drake family, 
was a source of considerable revenue, as it was on the 
great thoroughfare from Huntingdon to Chambersburg, 
Hagerstown, Harper's Ferry and Baltimore, and the principal 
route of traffic during the first quarter of the present cen- 
tury. Merchandise from Baltimore came into the county 
by way of Fort Loudon, passing around the end of the Kit- 
tatinny mountain, and through Cowen's and Shade gaps, 


From Bedford furnace the road struck the end of Sandy 
ridge, below the furnace, and followed the top and bench of 
the ridge to near where the Dunkard church now stands in 
Germany valley, thence to the gap near Christian Price's resi- 
dence, and following nearly its present bed to Drake's ferry, 
"a route," in the language of John Dougherty, "first trod by 
the deer and elk, followed by the Indian, the trapper, the 
trader and the wagoner, and, on the extension of the East 
Broad Top railroad, sixteen miles, to the water-shed divid- 
ing the Juniata and the Potomac rivers, and thence by way 
of Cowen's gap to Richmond, the present terminus of the 
Southern Pennsylvania railroad, trade and travel will again 
flow through these channels from Mount Union to Baltimore 
and Washington cities, and cars laden with East Broad Top 
and Rocky ridge coal for the counties of Fulton, Franklin, 
York and Adams, and western Maryland, will bring back 
red and brown hematite iron ores from the iron mountains 
of Fulton county to mix with the fossiliferous ores mined 
from the foot-hills around Mount Union, and make it neces- 
sary to utilize the twenty-two feet fall at the bend of the 
Juniata river, where iron may be made at low cost and re- 
munerative prices." 

On the opening of the Pennsylvania canal, Thomas T. 
Cromwell, proprietor of Winchester Furnace, located a town, 
to which he gave the name of Clintonville, at Drake's ferry, 
and Dr. James G. Lightner and Colonel Pollock built a 
wharf there, from which pig metal from Matilda and Win- 
chester furnaces was shipped. 

Whilst Messrs. Cromwell, I.ightner, Pollock, Cottrell 
Caldwell and Fenn were endeavoring to build up a town at 
that point, William Wakefield and Joseph Strudo opened a 
store, wharf and warehouse at IShaver's aqueduct, at the 
lower end of the present site of Mount Union, and John 
Shaver and James Kelly occupied with their wharv. s and 
warehouses other positions along the canal west of the 
aqueduct. Kelly called bis locality i^anta Fe, the city 
of the holy faith, a name that Queen Isabella gave to a 
city built on the site of Granada, the last stronghold of the 
crescent in Spain. 


From 1830 to 1850, trade, business and travel were con- 
fined to the vicinity of the canal, and although the Penn- 
sylvania railroad was completed in the latter year, and 
churches, town hall and numerous dwellings and places of 
business have been built south of the railroad, yet a consid- 
erable portion of trade and traffic is still done along the 
canal, the owners of wharfs and warehouses awaiting the 
day when barges and packet boats shall not only rival but 
take precedence of locomotives and Pullman palace cars. 

Mount Union was laid out in 1850, by Gen. George W. 
Speer and John Dougherty, and was designed by the pro- 
prietors as a place of transfer from their contemplated 
Drake's Ferry and East Broad Top Eailroad, for which a 
charter was granted by the Legislature in 1819, to the Penn- 
sylvania canal. The name. Mount Union, concentrates the 
physical, geological, commercial, mineral and manufacturing 
features of a wild and beautiful region. 

The East Broad Top railroad intersects the Pennsylvania 
railroad at Mount Union and has added five hundred tons 
of coal and forty tons of pig-metal daily to the tonnage of 
the latter. This will be more than doubled when a branch 
railway of two and a-half miles into the Rocky ridge coal 
basin and a dozen miles to the iron mines of Fulton county, 
shall be built. 

From a letter written by John Dougherty, esq., to Prof. De- 
wees, of the State Geological Survey, on the 28th day of Janu- 
ary, 1875, giving a sketch of the history of Matilda Furnace, 
opposite Mount Union, in Mifflin county, we take the follow- 
ing extract in relation to the iron ores of the southern part of 
Huntingdon county, from the Juniata river to Fort Littleton : 

" In the vicinity of Mount Union, fossil ore yielding 40 
per cent, of iron can be mined in slopes of 500 to 700 feet 
above water level. 

" In addition to the hard fossil vein worked at Matilda 
Furnace, three veins of soft fossil ; a large mass, 25 feet in 
aggregate, known as the limestone ore vein ; the levant vein 
and two veins of hematite iron ore, run parallel with Jack's 


" Hematite and levant iron ores at the river are too low 
down to be worked to an advantage, but rise rapidly as you 
go southward, until these have attained an altitude of 500 
feet above tlie river, ten miles south from Mount Union, 
and near the line of East Broad Top Railroad, where all these 
ore veins are found in close proximity, leaning on the east 
flank of .lack's mountain. A short tunnel woukl drain and 
give access to some eight or more veins of iron ore. At 
this elevation these levant ores yield 50 per cent of neutral 
iron. Dipping under Aughwick valley, they crop out 
again along the west flank of Black Log mountain, from 
Meadow Gap to near Fort Littleton, near which they ter- 
minate in a limestone dyke, filled with hematite, levant and 
sublimated iron ores from a molten-mineral basin, the fount 
of the forces that lifted the Broad Top coal basin from its 
ocean bed ; — raised the water shed dividing the waters of 
the Juniata and Totoraac rivers; and upturned the edges of 
the No. 2 limestone (7,000 feet in thickness !) giving access 
to immense masses of red and brown hematite iron ores in 
close proximity to the East Broad Top coal measures. 

" On the extension of a branch railway of a dozen miles, 
from near Orbisonia to Fort Littleton, these older, rich and 
more abundant iron ores will, in connection with the fossil 
ores of Mount Union, give profitable employment to capital 
and labor, and throw on the Pennsylvania railway tonnage 
and travel from the counties of Fulton and Franklin to Pitts- 
burg a- d Philadelphia, and make it necessary to utilize the 
water powers of the Juniata river at Mount Union, where a 
22 feet fall may be, at small cost, made available for manu- 
facturing purposes. 

"Names," says the Koran, "come from Heaven and are 
the prophets of destiny." Mount Union derived its name 
from a union of Jack's and Stone mountains on the west, 
and Chestnut ridge and Jack's mountain on the east — 
linked north and south of Mount Union to Jack's mountain. 

" Hence Mount Union, the victim of centralization, re- 
mained in the deep ocean buried, until the day when the 
mother of liivers bade her blue-eyed daughter, Juniata, 


cleave the mountains that barred her way to the bosom from 
whence she sprang." 

Matilda Furnace, in the immediate vicinity of Mount 
Union, built in 1836-7, makes about seventy-five tons of 
pig-metal per week and gives employment to eighty men 
Two large steam tanneries, one water-power and one steam 
grist mill, about twenty workshops, a brick yard, and the 
several railroads, are a part of the wealth, the prosperity and 
the business of the place, while three capacious and beauti- 
ful churches, two weekly newspapers, a town hall and public 
school building indicate its moral, intellectual and literary 

John Dougherty, Esq., one of the proprietors, and a resi- 
dent of Mount Union, has long had a magnificent scheme 
for the utilization of the natural beauty and advantages sur- 
rounding the town. We give in his own language the out- 
line of his plan for a 

"Je^ cVEau and Hotel des Invalides P'' 

" On the double-crested summit of Jack's mountain, one 
thousand feet in height, overlooking the borough of Mount 
Union, rises a large volume of pure water, amply sufficient 
to supply a hotel and hundreds of cottages on the terraced 
sides of this mountain, and also a Jet d\au five hundred 
feet in height, and thence falling into fish-pond and bath, ' a 
thing of beauty and a joy forever.' 

" An Alpine way, via Jet, cottages, hotel and fountain- 
head, and thence through mountain vale and summit crest, 
with Kishacoquillas valley on the west, the Juniata valley, 
deep down below, on the east, hills succeeding hills, like 
waves on storm-tossed ocean, the 'Blue Juniata' wending 
its way around river bend and through valley and gorge, en- 
circling the borough of Mount Union, from whence comes 
upward the hum of industry, blended with hymns of praise, 
tolling of bells, the clang of hammers, splash of water- 
wheels, the voice of locomotives and trains of cars on Ma- 
tilda Furnace, East Broad Top and Pennsylvania railways, 
running north, south, east and west, through these four gate- 
ways of commerce into and out of this centre of art and in- 


dustrj. Pullman palace cars launched around curves like 

planets on the tangents of their orbits and freighted with 

immortal souls, conducted hither by the attraction of the 

beautiful, halting to plume the wing, and view this magic 

scene ere they soar hence to Heaven. 

"The whole wide earth to God-heart bare, 
Basks like some happy iimbrian vale, 

By Francis trodden and by Clare, 
When Greatness thirsted to be crood, 

When Faith was meek and Love was brave, 
When Hope by every cradle stood, 

And rainbows sj)anned each new-made grave ! 

"We invite the lovers of the beautiful, useful and good, 
on whom Fortune has smiled, ambitious that their names 
shall reverberate along the line of generations, to aid in 
building this fountain and palace of an industrious, commo- 
dious and civilized social life." 

The history of the present site of Shirleysburg during 
provincial times is given in preceding chapters, relating to 
Aughwick and Fort Shirley. The town as first laid out by 
Ilenry Warner, extended from the lot adjoining the Baptist 
meeting house to Hon. Wm. B. Leas' residence ; the lower 
or northern part was added by Samuel McCammon, and the 
southern part by Millikei: and Cooper. In its early days, 
Shirleysburg was the most important town southeast of 
Standing Stone or Huntingdon. At that point was gathered 
evfry spring, for review and inspection, the militia from all 
the surrounding territory, now embracing Shirley, Crom- 
well, Dublin, Tell, Springfield, Clay, Tod, Carbon, Cass and 
Union townships. It is now an important station on the 
East Broad Top Railroad. 




Franklin, the first township formed after the erection of 
the county, extends from the Little Juniata river on the 
southwest to the Centre county line on the northeast, and 
from the summit of Tussej's mountain on the southeast to 
Warriorsmark township on the northwest. The principal 
stream is Spruce creek, rising in the township and flowing 
the entire length of it, through one of the most fertile val- 
leys in the State, to the Little Juniata. The productivenesfj 
of the rich limestone land of this valley is apparent in the 
prosperity of the agricultural community. It is in this por- 
tion of the county, including West, Porter, Morris and War- 
riorsmark townships, in addition to Franklin, that the farm- 
ers are preeminently the wealthy class. Their dwellings are 
of the most substantial character, their barns too commodi- 
ous for any other than a country where the crops spring 
from the soil as they do there, and everything betokens that 
the land owner may there possess all that can contribute to 
his comfort and happiness. 

The township is also rich in iron ore, the mines having 
been worked since the latter part of the last century. Hun- 
tingdon Furnace was built in the midst of these deposits in 
1795 or '96, and two other furnaces, Pennsylvania in the 
northern part of the township, adjoining Centre county, and 
Barree in Porter township, are also supplied with ores from 
them. Five forges have been built at various times on 
Spruce creek, within five miles of its mouth. They are all 
noted elsewhere. None of them are now in operation. 

Several manufacturing establishments have been erected 
within recent years — the Stockdale Woolen Mills by W. D. 


& J. D. Isett, at the mouth of the creek, and an axe factory 
by John Q. Adams, one and-a-half miles further up. 

There are three post-offices and villages in the township, 
Colerain Forges, Franklinville and Graysville, and one on 
the opposite side of the river, Spruce Creek. 

Springfield township, situated on the southern border of 
the county, was erected in 1790, from Shirley and Dublin. 
It is bounded on the north by Cromwell, on the east by 
Dublin, on the south by Fulton county, and on the west by 
Clay township, and contains two post-offices, Meadow Gap 
and Maddensville. Traversed from north to south by the 
Black Log mountain, the land is generally elevated and 
rolling, although there are considerable tracts of rich 
alluvial bottom along the streams, of which the principal 
are the Big Aughwick, Sideling Hill and Little Aughwick 

In the early part of the present century, Springfield town- 
ship was a vast ibrest, slightly broken by occassional clear- 
ings on the bottom lands. One of the earliest clearings was 
made by John Bailey, a Revolutionary soldier, who settled 
on the banks of Aughwick. The first settlers on that 
stream besides Bailey, were William Jones, William Ward and 
John Robertson, not one of whom has a representative in the 
township at this duy. What is known as "the Big Meadow 
tract" was warranted, surveyed and patented at a very early 
day in the names of Lukens, Lennox and Woods. It is 
situated near the village of Meadow Gap, and contains four 
hundred acres. 

The early settlers were principally "from Maryland, of 
which class were the Browns, Stains, Lanes, Cutshalls, etc., 
who are still represented by numerous descendants. The 
Maddens and Ramseys are of Irish, and the Wibles of 
German descent. 

Hugh Orlton was one of the first settlers on the ridiies. 
He took up land at an early day and had it patented. This 
tract was bought from Orlton by Richard Lane, in possession 
of whose descendants it still remains. Orlton built on it a 
house, the first roofed with shingles in the township. It was 


a substantial structure and has but recently given place to 
a more modern and commodious dwelling. 

The tenenents of the settlers were generally constructed 
of unhewn logs, roofed with clapboards, and consisted of a 
lower story and a garret. The floor was either the earth 
itself or what was styled a "puncheon floor," made of staves 
or rough boards, and the chimneys were of wood. 

In this wilderness the first settlers hunted and began the 
cultivation of the soil. Their cattle and hogs roamed the 
woods and furnished milk and animal food, without much 
labor or attention on the part of their owners. The streams, 
especially the Aughwick, abounded with fish, and shad, sal- 
mon, etc., were captured in large quantities, with a primi- 
tive net of large dimensions, made of brush tied together 
with hickory withes. 

There was no saw mill in the township. Boards were split 
from the log with axes. The material for clothing was raised 
by the inhabitants. A new home-spun suit was considered 
good enough for any society or occasion. The women were 
usually attired in a linsey petticoat and short sack. Mocca- 
sins were a substitute for shoes. 

The people were for the most part a healthy, hardy, rug- 
ged race, unlettered, but generous, courageous and hospita- 
ble. A few schools, supported by subscription, were scat- 
tered at wide intervals through the township. Dilworth's 
Spelling Book was the principal authority in orthography, 
and the Testament the only reader. One of the first of these 
schools was taught in a hut near Meadow Gap ; the teacher 
was a pedagogue named Pike. 

The nearest church was at Three Springs, now Saltillo, 
the pastor being Samuel Lane, of the Baptist denomination. 
He was a man of more than ordinary energy and public 
spirit, giving several lots of land in and adjacent to the town- 
ship for church and burial purposes, some of which are still 
used in accordance with his design. From him are descended 
the Lanes, of Springfield, Clay and Shirley townships. The 
late Hugh Madden, Esq., also gave a lot for educational pur- 
poses, upon which a school house has been erected. 


The first grist mill in the township was built by Robert 
and John Madden, at Meadow Gap. The former also erected 
a mill near the junction of the Sideling Hill and Aughwick 
creeks. Much clearing of land was accomplished through 
the agency of the iron manufacturers, who used the wood 
for the making of charcoal. They denuded large tracts of 
their timber and rendered them available for the plow. The 
principal road was the old furnace road to Bedford. The 
first township road led from Orbisonia to Fort Littleton. 
Others followed in succession, and all parts of the township 
are now accessible by roads kept in as good condition as is 
usual in rural localities. 

Owing to its isolation from railroads and other public im- 
provements, this township has not afforded a promising field 
for the establishment of manufactures of any kind, and the 
development of its resources has consequently been retarded. 
Kevertheless, much has been done in improving the face of 
the country and in the advancement of agricultural indus- 
try and interests. The church and the common school 
have been at work and a corresponding increase of intelli- 
gence is manifest. The present population of the township 
exhibits as great a contrast to that of a century ago as do 
the past and present of any other township in the county. 

Mr. James Norris, who has gathered for us the facta 
presented in this sketch of Springfield township, expresses 
his obligation to Mr. Thomas Duftey, one of its oldest in- 
habtants, for much of the information. Mr. Duffy was born 
in the township and has lived in it for the space of eighty- 
three years. His memory is still clear and 
" IliH old aye i.s, like a lusty winter, 
Frosty but kindly." 





Union township, situated immediately soutli of the centre 
of the county, is bounded on the northwest by Juniata and 
Penn townships, from which it is separated by Terrace 
mountain; on the northeast by the Juniata river, separating 
it from Henderson and Brady ; on the southeast by Jack's 
mountain, on the opposite side of which is Shirley township ; 
and on the south by Cass. 

Between Terrace and Jack's mountains are Sideling hill 
and Clear ridge, dividing the township into three valleys, 
Trough Creek, Smith's and Hare's. Streams flow through 
the last two valleys in a northeastwardly direction, falling 
into the Juniata below Mapleton. Trough creek rises on 
Terrace mountain, flowing towards the southwest, and after 
passing through Cass township into Tod, turns towards the 
northwest and empties into the Raystown branch in Penn 
township. Its waters, with those of the latter stream and 
the Juniata, after making a circuit, with their various wind- 
ings of more than a hundred miles, pass along the end of 
Terrace mountain, within a few miles of their source. At 
the time of its formation. Union township included nearly 
the entire valley of Trough creek. 

Hare's valley takes its name from Jacob Hare, a tory who 
resided and owned a large tract of land in the valley during 
the Revolutionary war. Although he did not take up arms 
against the colonists, he was active in contributing aid to the 
British cause, and was suspected of being engaged in the 
murder of Loudenslager, who was on his way from his home 
in Kishacoquillas valley to join a company that was being 
raised for the continental service at Standing Stone. The 
people became so much incensed against Hare, that both of 
his ears were cut off by Captain Thomas Blair's rangers, 


who had pursued Westoa and his band of tories on their ex- 
pedition to Kittanning. Hare, and his brother Michael, 
were attainted of treason and their lands confiscated, but the 
latter were restored to them after ihe war, because they bad 
not made an armed resistance to the cause of Independence. 
It is said that Jacob Hare died on his possessions in Hare's 

The post offices in Union township are Calvin, Colfax and 

The principal part of the ground upon which the borough 
of Mapleton is situated belonged to Col. John Donaldsonj 
who caused the first lots to be laid out. It was incorpo- 
rated August 18th, 1866 The only manufactory of any 
importance is a large steam tannery, owned by the estate of 
Jeremiah Bauman, deceased. The quarrying and crushing 
of glass sand on the opposite side of the river from Maple 
ton, is an industry that gives employment to a number of 
men, and adds to the business of the place. A large public 
school building and three churches, Methodist, Presbyterian 
and Tnited Brethren, are evidences of the intelligence and 
morality of the people. 

Morris township adjoins Blair county and is separated 
from it by Canoe mountain on the northwest. Fox run on 
the southwest, and the Frankstown branch of the Juniata on 
the southijast. Its other boundaries are the Little Juniata 
river, between it and Franklin township, on the north, and 
Tusscy's mountain, separating it from Porter township, on 
the east. The latter division is a spur usually known as the 
Short mountain, about two miles in length, extending from 
one river to the other. The Pennsylvania railroad passes 
through a tunnel in the northern end of it, half a mile below 
the vilhige of Spruce Creek. 

The greater part of the township consists of an elevated 
plateau, to which has been given the name of Canoe valley, 
from the mountain enclosing it on the west. It has a fertile 
limestone soil, which yields generously to the hand of culti- 

One locality in this township, Water Street, is mentioned 


by John Harris in his "account of the road to Logstown," 
in 1754. The old Indian war-patb passed through it, and 
Conrad Weiser was there in 1748. It derived its name from 
the fact that a stream of water literally flowed through the 
street. During the Revolutionary war, General Roberdeau 
had a landing there, from whence lead ore, mined in Sinking 
valley, was shipped east to be melted, and where stores were 
received for the miners and troops at Fort Roberdeau. 

The most prosperous days of Water Street were while the 
Pennsylvania canal was in successful tide of operation. But 
since it has been closed and abandoned, the place has lost all 
importance, trade and travel having been diverted to points 
on the line of public improvements, a lew miles northward. 
The business once attracted to Water Street by the canal is 
now drawn to Spruce Creek by the Pennsylvania railroad. 

At no other place in this rugged county has the hand of 
nature been so abrupt in its works as at Spruce Creek. If 
we are to interpret the designs of the Creator from what 
seems to be the external evidences of them, we may believe 
that it was part of His plan that man should dwell there in 
the heart of the mountains and that the narrow strip of level 
land lying along the Juniata was placed there to tempt him 
to do so. Imagining that the first white man who ventured to 
it, had followed the old Indian war- path to Water Street and 
crossed from thence the plateau that divides the two branches 
of the Juniata, what was the view presented to him when he 
reached the crest of the hill overlooking the river and the 
site of the present village ? Though he may have traveled 
long through an uninhabited country, he had seen nothing 
more wild, more grand, more beautiful. The stream for 
more than a mile of its course above the bend at the base 
of the Short mountain was visible, except when hidden by 
the dense and luxuriant forest growth. Perhaps his atten- 
tion was first attracted to the long ranges of elevations sur- 
rounding him on every side and towering still higher than 
the one on which he stood, and to the peaks rising here and 
there and adding to the variety of the outline. And when 
his eye turned from that scene to one beneath it, he could 


scarcely perceive that there was anything below the hillside 
but the silver thread of water winding among the dark green 
of the pines and hemlocks. But on descending, in the course 
of his footsteps, to the river, he found a strip of ground, not 
exceeding two hundred feet in width at any part, and not a 
mile in length, terminated at each end by the river sweeping 
around and hugging closely to the foot of the hills. Small 
as it was, it must have been regarded as a prize for purposes 
of cultivation. Directly opposite was the mouth of a creek 
coming down from among the mountains and passing a short 
distance above its confluence with the river, through a nar- 
row defile, which widens into a small valley, forming a level 
space of limited extent. 

The village of Spruce Creek proper, or Graysport, as it 
was originall}" named, stands on the south side of the Little 
Juniata, but as it is so intimately connected with the other 
side of the river that the two form but one community, I 
shall treat them accordingly. 

James Gray became the owner of the land on which the 
village is situated under a purchase from John Cannon, but 
the interest of the latter being afterwards sold at Sheriff's 
sale, was bought by John McCahan, of Huntingdon. A con- 
troversy arose between Gray and McCahau concerning the 
title, which was compromised, and a deed executed by the 
latter to the former on the 15th day of April, 1820. 

Gray had a tannery, not on the part upon which he sub- 
sequently laid out the village, but at the upper or Gray's 
fordini:, on land now owned by Michael Low. Lntil recently, 
a great willow tree stood there, which had been planted by 
Matthew Gray when a boy, the stump of which remains. 

As to the origin of the place and the advantages and in- 
ducements offered to purchasers of lots therein, 1 take the 
following advertisement from the " llunliwjdon OazdLe'^ of 

April 8th, 1824; 


The Hiib.s<'ril)C'r, having lately hiid out a small vili.aci:, called 


at the Bridge over the Little Juniata ct opposite the month of Spruce 

Creek, oilers for tale the LUTS at u very reasonable price, and on 


terms which will be advantageous to purchasers. The situation of 
this place holds out many inducements to industrious mechanicka 
who are actuated by that manly spirit of independence which prompts 
man to acquire property of his own, that he may not be subject to the 
capricious will of others. It is situated in a healthy part of this 
county on a navigable stream, and is intersected by the great road 
(which is much traveled) leading, by the way of Northumberland, 
from Philadelphia to Pittsburg : is surrounded by Iron works within 
a very short distance in every direction, and within a few perches of 
a Grist and Saw-mill turned by a never-failing stream of water. Ma- 
terials for building can be obtained here at a very trifling cost, there 
being good building stone, which can be had in abundance, without 
quarrying, on the adjoining lands of the subscriber, within a few 
perches of the Lots; and these he will permit purchasers to appropri- 
ate to themselves for building purposes without charging for the 

The one half of the purchase money will be required to be paid 
in hand, the residue one year atter the purchase, without interest. 


March 1st, 1824. 

The bridge mentioned as crossing the river at that point 
had been erected about the year 1819. It stood until 1816, 
when it was removed for the erection of a new one. The 
latter remained there but a short time, being taken away by 
the great freshet of the 8th of October, 1847. After the 
flood a third one was built, which is still standing. 

Gray made some improvements and sold some lots soon 
after placing them in the market. He built a stone dwelling 
house on the northern end of the lot on which the residence 
of Dr. Sidney Thompson and the store room of Isett & 
Thompson now stand, and also two shops on the opposite side 
of the street from his dwelling, for his two sons, one of whom 
was a shoemaker and the other a blacksmith. 

The first purchasers of lots seem to have accepted Gray's 
offer of stone for building purposes without charge. The 
second dwelling was erected of that material by Jacob Keith. 
It is a small but substantial building, enduring well the 
wear of time. It is now owned and occupied by Thomas M. 

Daniel Beigle was the builder of the third house, a frame, 
on the second lot east of Gray's residence. It has since been 
considerably enlarged and improved, and is part of the prop- 
erty owned by Nathaniel Lytle. 


Beigle also built a stone house near the western limits of 
the village, as it then was, which is still in the possession of 
his descendants. His son Samuel lives in it. Edward, another 
son, lives on the lot adjoining it on the west. 

While these improvements were progressing slowly, the 
land on the other side of the river came into the hands of 
the Isett family. Several tracts, amounting to six hundred 
acres, and including the farms now belonging to Abrara 
Weight, John Eberts, E. B. Isett and J. H, Isett, were con- 
veyed to Jacob Isett by Gen. Joseph Hiester, of Reading, on 
the 24th day of April, 1827. These lands had been cleared 
many years before Mr. Isett's purchase. lie had been re- 
lieved from the labor of reclaiming them from the forest and 
could give his attention to such improvements as seemed to 
be required in a fertile agricultural region. 

It had taken time to put the lands into the condition in 
which Mr. Isett found them, and consequently they had a 
previous history. They had been purchased from the Com- 
monwealth at a very early day, the warrant, upon which the 
part of them lying west of the creek was surveyed, being 
dated on the 4th day of June, 1762. The name of the war- 
rantee was Matthias Sandham, a resident of Philadelphia, 
who died without obtaining a patent. His widow and heirs 
conveyed them to Thos. Sandham, to whom they were 
patented on the 24th day of November, 1798. In the war- 
rant and patent they are named '* Spruce Bottom," from the 
character of the timber growing upon them. 

Before the Revolutionary war, probably in 1774, two 
brothers by the name of Beebault, buLlt a tub mill on the 
east side of the creek above the end of the bridge which 
crosses the stream a short distance above its mouth. It was 
a very primitive structure, surrounded, except on the side 
next to the creek, by trees and bushes. But it probably 
answered all the requirements of the community at that 
time. It stood until after Mr. Isett put up another estab- 
lishment for the same purpose on a more extensive scale. 

John S. Isett moved upon the land purchased by jiia 
father, in October, 1827. He came at that time to build a mill, 


the erection of which was at once commenced, and completed 
in 1828. Other improvements made bj him were the brick 
dwelling house in which he now resides, in 1831, and Stock- 
dale Forge, called after the family name of his mother, in 

In the meantime, the village on the south side of the river 
had been growing, and it was soon to receive a new impetus 
from the construction of the Pennsylvania Eailroad. 

It had, however, met wi^h a serious check to its career. 
The flood of '47 had been most disastrous on both sides of 
the river. In addition to the bridge, which was then new, a 
number of dwellings and shops of mechanics were taken 
away. A house on Mr. Isett's property, some rods east of 
the creek, was entirely destroyed, and the family living in it 
barely escaped with their lives. The old Gray mansion, 
which had come into the possession of Mr. Lytle, and in 
which he then resided, was badly damaged. The western 
end, about one-third of the building, fell down. The aper- 
ture thus made was closed with weatherboarding, in which 
condition it remained until removed for other improve- 
ments. Two wagonmaker's shops, a blacksmith's shop and 
some other buildings were also swept away. 

But the place revived after the making of the railroad. 
During its construction was a period of great prosperity. A 
larger number of workmen was required there than at other 
points, on account of the tunnel within a mile of the village. 
These employees spent nearly all of their earnings, to the 
pecuniary advantage of merchants, boarding-house keepers 
and others. 

The hotel facilities were then inadequate to the import- 
ance that Spruce Creek seemed likely to attain. Col. R. F. 
Haslett had for some years been keeping a hoase for the en- 
tertainment of strangers and travelers in the stone building 
standing between the public square and the railroad, but he 
determined to erect a more commodious building adjoining 
the one he then occupied. The foundations were laid before 
the completion of the railroad and the bricks for the super- 
structure were brought by cars soon after they commenced 


runnins. This house, at the time it was built, was the lar- 
gest and finest in central Pennsylvania, and even now there 
are but few outside of the cities that surpass it in these re- 
spects. Its owner and the citizens of Spruce Creek have 
good reason to be proud of the " Keystone Hotel." 

There is a great contrast between this and the first tavern 
kept there. The latter was on the Stockdale side of the 
river and was built many years before the property was 
bought by Jacob I>ett. It was torn down during the last year 
or two and other improvements were placed on the same lot. 

It would be impossible to follow minutely the progress of 
the place during the quarter of a century that has passed 
since the railroad was made. The village has been extend- 
ed >vestward beyond the limits of Gray's survey. Lots have 
been laid out on Michael Low's land, upon many of which 
Mr. Low has himselt built houses and others have been sold 
by him. It has reached in that direction the point where 
the river and the hills come together, and its further growth 
must be up the hillside. 

John S. Isett, who had been occupying and managing the 
property of his father, bought it in 1841. The mill and 
forge rendered necessary the erection of dwellings for his 
employees, both before and after his purchase. 

In 1864, he sold it to his son, E. B. Isett. Valuable as the 
property had become, the latter has added greatly to it. He 
Las built a very fine dwelling house for himself on the west 
side of the turnpike, one on the lots where the old tavern 
stood and another on the site where his father first lived. He 
also removed the old forge and erected in its stead a foundry 
and machine shop. This in its turn has given place to the 
"Stockdale Woolen Mills," built by W. D. and J. B. Isett, in 

We may form a very correct idea of a community, morally, 
mentally, socially, and, we may say, financially, from its 
schools and churches; with regard to the latter the history 
of Spruce Creek has been somewhat peculiar. In many re- 
spects it has been advancing, while in another it may have 
been retrogressing. 


The first church was built there in 1850, on the side of the 
hill, between the railroad and the public road leading to 
Canoe valley. The place upon which it stands is difficult of 
access and is available for scarcely any other purpose. The 
structure is of frame and large enough for the congregations 
that ordinarily assemble there. It is a " Union Church," and 
is open not only for all denominations of Christians, but all 
sects and persuasions, whether their doctrines are orthodox 
or not. Its uses have taken even a wider range than this. 
Public meetings of various kinds, having no relation to re- 
ligion, have been held in it. These have usually been of a 
moral or educational character, an effort having always been 
made to exclude anything questionable or improper. 

The plan upon which this church has been conducted is 
not without its advantages. For people of different religious 
views to worship in the same house, to sit in the same seats, 
and to hear the gospel preached from the same pulpit, cer- 
tainly has an enlarging effect on the mind and begets a toler- 
tion for contrary opinions and beliefs that would otherwise 
be impossible. The general introduction and adherence to 
this plan would be the death ol' sectarianism. In departing 
from it, the people of Spruce Creek should be careful that 
they do not also depart from the benefits it secured to them. 

The building of additional churches would, in time, have 
become a necessity, and that the citizens of the village and 
vicinity have already done so, speaks well, not perhaps of 
any increased liberality on their part, but of the greater 
ability to do so. The Presbyterians have erected a substan- 
tial brick church, neatly finished, on E. B. Isett's land, front- 
ing on the east side of the turnpike, and the Methodists a 
frame one on ground contributed by E. W. Graffius, at the 
south end of the bridge. These add very materially to the 
appearance of the place, and no doubt to the satisfaction of 
the people, and must give to the stranger a higher opinion 
of both. 

The church first erected has under it a school-room suffi- 
ciently large to accommodate all the children who attend 
there. At first the two sides of the river, Spruce Creek and 


Stockdale, formed but a single district, but, as tbej are in 
dift'erent townships, the children from the latter, on account 
of a change in the school law, have since been obliged to go 
to the " Hook," a mile distant. 

The prosperity of Spruce Creek has been affected by the 
ups and downs of commercial life. James Gray thought that 
the iron works were to build up his village, and they were 
no doubt a great assistance in doing so. But that branch of 
business seems to have gone into decay. Union Furnace has 
fallen down, Huntingdon Furnace has been idle for four or 
five years, and Pennsylvania Furnace, if in blast at all, is 
working up its material preparatory to its stoppage. No 
forges are in operation on Spruce Creek. Colerain is the 
only one that is in condition to run, all the rest having been 
removed or permitted to fall. 

But other interests have arisen that are no less important 
than those that have passed away, and Spruce Creek will 
always be, as heretofore, a place where all the inhabitants 
may gain a competence and wealth. 

There are post-offices in Morris township at Spruce Creek, 
Water Street and Morrell. 

The latter is at the site of the old Union Furnace, built by 
Edward B. Dorsey and Caleb Evans, in 1810 or 1811. It 
passed into the hands of Michael Wallace on the failure of 
the firm of Dorsey & Evans, and has not been in operation 
since 1852. 



West township, lying principally in the valley of Shaver's 
creek, is bounded on the northeast by Franklin, adjoining 
that township on the summit of Tussey's mountain ; on the 
southwest by Porter township, the Juniata being partly the 
boundary line between them ; on the southeast by Oneida 
township, and on the east and northeast by Barree. 

Warrior ridge occupies a considerable part of the south- 
eastern portion of the township, spreading out into an ex- 
tensive plateau, nearly all of which is tillable, much of it 
being cleared and cultivated. 

Shaver's creek flows through one of those fertile valleys 
for which the northwestern portion of the county is so cele- 
brated, the land being equal in productiveness and value to 
any in the State. The stream takes its name from "an old 
gentleman named Shaver," who made the first settlement 
upon it, probably at the mouth of the creek. Others settled 
near to him before the Eevolutionary war. Shaver is said 
to have been murdered in the neighborhood, his body hav- 
ing been found near a pasture-field, to which he had gone 
for the purpose of patting his horse into it, with the head 
severed and carried away. The perpetrators of the crime 
were never discovered and it was suspected that the Indians 
had nothing to do with it. 

Samuel Anderson settled in the vicinity of Shaver's. A 
fort was built on the western side of the creek near its con- 
fluence with the river which took its name from him. In an 
account of some of the forts of Huntingdon county furnished 
by J. Simpson Africa, esq., to the editor of the Pennsylva- 
nia Archives, we find the following concerning Anderson's 
fort .- 

" It was erected, I believe, by the white settlers to defend 


themselves from the incursions of the Indians. ^ly grand- 
mother, an early settler about the time of the Revolution, 
sought protection there. The inhabitants of the fort, after 
defending themselves for a long time against the attacks of 
the savages, finding their supplies becoming exhausted, ffed 
to Standing Stone fort. In their flight two of the men, 
named Maguire, were killed by the Indians, and their sister, 
afterwards Mrs. Dovvling, who was driving the cows, was 
chased by them. Springing from ambush, the sudden sur- 
prise frightened the cows and they started to run. The 
foremost Indian caught her dress and imagined he had made 
sure of a victim, but she simultaneously grasped the tail of 
one of the cows, held on, her dress tore and she escaped. 
She reached Fort Standing Stone half dead with fright, still 
holding on to the tail of the cow." 

This account, although briefer than the one given in Jones' 
History of the Juniata Valley of the same occurrence, and 
differing from it considerably in details, is probably the more 
reliable of the two. The statement that Jane, for that was 
her name, twisted the cow's tail is perhaps merely a twist of 
the imagination. The heroine after becoming Mrs. Dow- 
ling, removed to the Raystown branch. One of her sons, 
William Dowling, is still living at an advanced age among 
the ridges of Juniata township. 

On the opposite side of Shaver's creek from the site of 
Anderson's fort, now stands the borough of Petersburg, 
The plan of the town was acknowledged by Dr. Peter 
Shoenberger, on the 21st day of May, 1795, and was record- 
ed on the 28th day of the same month. He had probably 
laid it out but short time before those dates. It was incor- 
porated as a borough, April 7th, 1880. Located upon the 
Pennsylvania canal, recently abandoned, however, through 
that portion of the county, and railroad, and being the near- 
est shipping point to the rich farming region of Porter, West, 
Barree, and Jackson townships, its prosperity always has 
been assured, and we can foresee no circumstance that can 
po.ssibly prevent its steady improvement and growth in the 
future. The last five or six years have seen the erection of 


several large and substantial business houses and dwellings, 
and there has been an increase of population to correspond 
with its progress in other respects. Juniata forge, owned 
by Hunter & Swoope, one of the pioneer establishments in 
the manufacture of the celebrated "Juniata charcoal iron," 
stands near the junction of Shaver's creek and the Juniata 
river, and is operated by water-power from the former. 
Near it are flouring and saw mills. These are the most im- 
portant manufactories in the place or ^ts vicinity. 

Warrior's Mark, extending farther northwest thau any 
other township in the county, is bounded on two sides, the 
northwest and southwest, by Blair county, on the northeast 
by Centre county, and on the southeast by Franklin town- 
ship. Formed in 1798, it took its name from a settlement 
of an earlier date, now a thriving village, in the central part 
of the township. As to the origin of the name tradition is 
not very definite, but it appears to be sufficiently certain 
that the Indians had made marks of some kind on the trees 
near their village or meeting place. Jones, in his History of 
the Juniata Valley, says that the name "originated from the 
fact of certain oak trees in the vicinity having a crescent or 
half-moon cut upon them with hatchets, so deep that traces 
can still be seen of them (1856,) or, at least, could be some 
years ago." From his uncertainty as to whether the marks 
were visible at the time he wrote, it is evident that he had not 
seen them himself, and it is doubtful whether he obtained 
his information from any one who knew anything about 
them from personal observation. 

The Indians lingered longer in this section of the county 
than in any other. Several who made themselves prominent 
by their friendly services to the whites are known to have 
resided in the township or in close proximity to in during 
the Revolutionary war. Of these was Captain Logan, whose 
name has been given to a spring and stream in the township 
and to a valley in Blair county. 

The route of the Lewisburg, Centre and Spruce Creek 
railroad runs through the township from northaest to south- 
west. It was graded several years ago, but work then ceased 


upon it, and its completion need not be expected for some 
years to come, if at all. 

Birmingham, a borough situated in the southwestern end 
of Warriorsmark township, and on the north bank of the 
Little Juniata river, which flows between it and the Penn- 
sylvania railroad, was laid out in December, 1797, by John 
Cad vvallader, by whom it was designated on the plot as"laid out 
for a manufacturing town at the head of navigation." The 
original plan of the town was recorded February, 26th, 
1799, and the supplemental plan, August 16th, 1833. It 
was incorporated as a borough April 14th, 1838. Including 
about three hundred acres of extremely undulating land, it 
presents, notwithstanding the lofty hills and deep ravines, 
an attractive appearance on paper. 

The principal feature which commended it as a site for a 
town was the numerous springs of calcareous and free stone 
water gushing from every hill-side, and affording, with the 
fall in the Juniata, abundant and superior water power, the 
value and importance of which had not only attracted atten- 
tion at an earlier day, but had been utilized in 1786 by the 
erection -of a grist mill and saw mill on the river, and in 
1795 by a paper mill on Laurel run. At the latter was man- 
ufactured the paper upon which the Huntingdon Gazette 
was printed in 1801, if not the Courier in 1797. 

Mr. C'adwallader, the proprietor, was generous in donaf 
ing ground in the new town for public use, having given 
several " spring lots," two " school lots," one for "Libra- 
ry Hall," four for " religious," and the same number for 
" burial places," and several large lots marked " Publick." 
On the Juniata was "the Public Landing," which he took 
care to mention as the head of navigation. 

The proprietor then proceeded eastward to lay this liberal 
scheme before peo|)le there, and succeeded in ''interesting" 
many of them in it, who bought lots and paid a portion of 
the purchase money according to stipulations on the face of 
the plot. The purchasers, finding subsequently that their 
lots were set up edge-wise, or perched on some lofty pinna- 
cle, or down in a deep raviue,*did not take possession,' but 


forfeited what they had paid. Mr. Cadwallader, being in 
earnest, however, built himself a mansion, which at that 
period was no doubt looked upon as possessing some grand- 
eur. Others purchased and built upon the more eligible lots 
and engaged in mercantile and the ordinary mechanical pur- 

In 1823 a flouring mill was built at Laurel spring, the 
paper mill enlarged, and about the same year, an oil mill, 
plaster mill and saw mill were erected on Laurel spring run, 
and blacksmith and cooper shops, tavern and store, all 
under the proprietorship of Michael Wallace. 

During the interval between 1835 and 1846, Birmingham 
attained the zenith of its prosperity and a population of 
about four hundred. It then had several stores, each having 
a trade of from five thousand to thirty thousand dollars 
annually, and was the chief mart for Bald Eagle, Logan, 
Clearfield and Sinking valleys. The staple articles of trade 
were iron, lumber, shingles, hoop-poles, hides and whisky. 
There were three distilleries in the place at an early day, 
making the last mentioned article to their fullest capacity. 
Many arks loaded with these commodities left the Public 
Landing and " Laurel Spring wharf." 

The first school house was built of logs in or about the 
year 1790, and was replaced by a second one, of stone, in a 
more central locality, in 1818. Both of these were built by 
public contributions, and James Thompson, Esq., the ''oldest 
inhabitant," says that "the stone school house cost a drink 
of whisky for every stone in it." In 1860, when this struc- 
ture was taken down, the directors were careful to have the 
old time-worn stepping-stone at the door remain in its place 
as a memento of the alma mater of many of the prominent 
business men of that community. A new school house was 
erected in that year, which is fully equal to the requirements 
of the town. 

The Baptists were the first Christian denomination to have 
a place of worship of their own, their church having been 
built in 1830. The congregation, after prospering for a 
number of years, chiefly under the administration of the 


venerable Rev. Thomas Thomas, was disbanded, and the old 
church taken down. The grave-yard remains, in which the 
numerous tombstones mark the last resting places of the 
sleeping congregation. 

The Birmingham Methodist Episcopal church was organ- 
ized about the year 1830, worshiped in the old stone 
school-house, built the first church in 1835, and a new one 
in 1874. 

The Presbyterian church, of Eirminghara, was organized 
May 16th, 1835, first chujch built in 1836 and '37, and 
second in 1863 and '69. The present pastor is Rev. S. T. 
^Vilson, D. D. 

The United Brethren church was organized in 1870 and 
the church edifice erected in 1871. The pastor is Ilev. J. C 

Birmingham Lodge T. 0. of 0. F. was organized in 1846, 
erected a hall and continued in existence until 1850. 

A division of the Sons of Temperance was organized in 
1846, built a hall in 1850, and was instrumental in building 
up a permanently abstemious population. Its "occupation 
gone," the organization was disbanded and the future well- 
being of the people given over to that most efl&cient agency, 
the Christian church. 

The Mountain Seminary at Birmingham is appropriately 
noted in the chapter relating to the private educational in- 
stitutions of the county. 

Birmingham has now a population of something more 
than two hundred, exclusive of the pupils in the Seminary. 
The building of the Pennsylvania railroad on the opposite 
side of the river, attracting trade to other points, was the 
beginning of its decadence. It has but one store and the 
shops of a few mechanics. The inhabitants are living on the 
glories of the past, and, like the Athenians in the decline of 
their metropolis, *' spend their time in nothing else but 
either to tell or to hear some new thing." 



Tell, like the neighboring township of Dublin, is bound- 
ed on two sides, the northwest and southeast, by Shade and 
Tuscarora mountains, and is divided into several small val- 
leys by parallel hills or ridges, running northeast and south- 
west. The principal of these elevations are Pine ridge, Big 
ridge and Hunting ridge. The streams are Trough Spring 
creek and Black's run, which unite near Bichard Silver- 
thorn's, and flow into Tuscarora creek on the west side of 
Hunting ridge. The township is well provided with public 
roads, four passing through the valley from Dublin town- 
ship into Juniata county, but has no other public improve- 
ments. The nearest railroad stations are Shirleysburg and 
Orbisonia, on the East Brojad Top railroad. Although 
thickly settled, it has no large towns or villages. The post 
offices are Nossville and Shade valley. 

Henderson township, as shown by the order of the court 
erecting it, was so named "in consideration of the distinguish- 
ed uprightness of the late General Andrew Henderson as 
a public officer, and his services during the Revolutionary 
war." It is bounded on the northwest by Oneida township, 
on the southwest by the Juniata river, on the northeast by 
Barree township, and on the east by Brady. Adjoining the 
borough of Huntingdon, the people find there a market for 
their produce, and are benefited in many respects by being 
in the vicinity of a town of its size and population. Many 
of them are accommodated at its post-office and others at 
Union Church, the only post-office in the township. 

Porter township, erected at the same sessions of the court 
with Henderson, November, 1814, was named in "considera- 
tion of the distinguished uprightness of the late General 
Andrew Porter, Surveyor General, as a public officer, and his 
services during the Revolutionary war." The township is of 
a very irregular shape, having the general form of an equilat- 


eral triangle. The sides are mucli indented, especially on 
the northeast, where it follows the course of the Juniata 
river. Its other boundaries are the Tussey mountains on 
the northwest, and Blair county and Walker township on 
the south. Both branches of the Juniata cross the northern 
part of the township and unite a short distance above 

The first travelers through the county, the pioneers of the 
eighteenth century, passed the present site of Alexandria, as 
it was upon the old Indian path, and the land upon which 
that town stands was taken up upon one of the warrants 
issued in 1755. Another tract, on the river below Alex- 
andria, was warranted in the same year. In August, 1793, 
Elizabeth Gemraill had lots laid out upon the former tract, 
and the town thus founded was given the name we have 
mentinned. The proprietress acknowledged the plan on 
the 7th of August, 1798, and had it recorded on the same 
day. The borough was incorporated April 11th, 1827, and 
Trimble's addition was recorded July, 18-17. 

Alexandria has Presbyterian, Kelbrmed and Methodist 
churches, the buildings being of a superior class and com- 
paring favorably with those of almost any other town of the 
same population. It has also a large brick public school 
building, erected within recent years, accommodating a 
number of schools and all the children of the borough. 

Walker township extends from Piney ridge, which sepa- 
rates it from Juniata township on the southeast, to Tussey'a 
mountain, dividing it from Blair county on the southwest. 
Its northern boundary is Porter township, and its southwest- 
ern Penn. It was named in honor of the Hon. Jonathan 
Walker, at one time Presideut Judge of the ju4icial district 
to which Huntingdon county belonged. The route of travel 
in 1748, and previously, was through this township. A 
tract of land within it, lying on the Juniata river, was war- 
ranted in 1755. 

The site upon which McCounellstown now stands is men- 
tioned in very early records as a "sleeping place." The 
town was laid out by Alexander McConnell, Esq., of Ilun- 


tingdon, after whom it was named. It is about half a mile 
from the Huntingdon and Broad Top railroad and contains 
the only post-office in the township. Additions were laid 
out by A. B. Sangree and Joseph McCoy. 

Smithfield is located upon the Juniata river opposite the 
borough of Huntingdon. 

The township contains considerable deposits of iron ore, 
some of which have been developed and mined. It is all con- 
trolled by manufacturers whose works are at a distance from 
Huntingdon county. They obtained leases of the ore rights 
some years ago, under the pretext, it is said, that furnaces 
were to be built in the vicinity. The points to which the 
ores are principally shipped are Danville and Johnstown. 



Cromwell township, on its erection in 1846, was named in 
bonor of Col. Thomas Cromwell, who was interested in the 
building of Bedford Furnace in 1795, and who is described 
by the court as " an early settler and hospitable citizen." It is 
bounded on the north by Shirley township, on the west by 
Cass, on the south by Clay and Springfield, and on the east 
by Dublin and Tell. Jack's mountain separates it from the 
adjoining township on the west and Shade mountain from 
those on the east. The Augwick flows through it from 
north to south and receives numerous smaller streams falling 
into it on both sides. 

Tradition tells us that the beautiful plat, surrounded on 
all sides by mountains and ridges, through which runs the 
Black Log creek, and on which the borough of Orbisouia 
now stands, was once a famous Indian hunting ground. 
That it must have been a camping place is evinced, in addi- 
tion to the traditionary stories, by the fact that some years 
since a cave was found on Sandy ridge, two miles north 
from the town, in which there was opened to view a cham- 
ber which is proved by its contents to have been a burial 
place of the tribes who inhabited the country. This cham- 
ber was supported by upright pillars, forming beautiful 
natural arches, and within were found many bones, pro- 
nounced to be pieces of skulls and other parts of human 
skeletons. With these were the remains of animals, a bear's 
and a wolf's teeth, and the rude instruments of savage life, 
two hatchets and other articles made of stone, all in a state of 
great decomposition. 

In later days, and indeed but little longer ago than a cen- 


tury, the Indians used the knoll back of the Joseph Grove 
barn, now the property of Thomas E. Orbison, as a burial 
ground. Numerous hatchets, tomahawks, pieces of flint, 
bows and arrows, and stone implements have been turned 
up by the plow or otherwise from the earth. 

The celebrated Captain Jack is supposed to have on one 
occasion, when narrowly pursued, secreted a leather bag con- 
taining silver and gold, on one side of Black Log mountain, 
near the narrows or gap. It is still unfound. 

Within a few years following 1760, George Irvin settled 
near where now stands Orbisonia. His business was store- 
keeping, and the old log store-room, a story high, it is said, 
stood for a number of years on the same ground on which 
now stands the Methodist Church, southeast corner of Crom- 
well and Winchester streets. 

He traded with the Indians and the early settlers, ex- 
changing wearing material and groceries, boots, shoes, guns 
and powder for grain and corn. 

The following is a literal transcript of one of his bills, 
now in possession of one of the citizens of Orbisonia : 

Philadelphia, April 16th, 1768, 
Mr. George Irwin, 

Bought of George Fullerton. 
3 pes. i wide Irish Linen, No. 234, 69 yards @ 16^ £4, 14, lOJ 
1 ps. yard wide, do " 237, 24, yards @ 2-4 2, 16, — 

1 ps. do do do " 238, 25 yards @ 2-1 2, 12, 1 

£ 10, 2, Hi 
Advance @ 85 per ct 8, 12, 6J 

£18, 15, 6 
1 ps. yd. wd. do. damag'd No. 239, 22 yds @ 2 3, 13, 4 

Payable one Month after Date, £22, 8, 10 

1 ps. Irish Sheeting, No. 149, 74 yds. 2 7, 8, — 

£29, 16, 10 

Also the following bill and letter, both of which are writ- 
ten with a quill pen on coarse, heavy, unruled paper, and 
both without letter or bill heads. The writing is very plain 
and intelligible. 


Baltimore, May 28th, 1773. 
" Mr. George Irwin 

Bot of David McLure 

1 Hlul ]Molasses 102 Gain's 23 £9, 15, 6 

1 Hlul N. E. Rum 121 " " 2-4 14, 2, 4 

Cash paid porterage 2, 6 

£24, 0, 4 
" Sir, I Rec'd your favor of the 25th inst. with £16, 6, 8 to your 
Credit, and now send you one Hhd Molasses & one Hhd Continent 
Bum which I wish safe to hand & to a good market. 

" New England Rum is getting very scarce now, but think there will 
be some here soon — when any Comes I do intend to purchase the 
Whole that I may serve my friends at a reasonable rate. I have no 
news ; flour Low and likely to fall. 

I am Dear Sir your very Humble Servt., 

David McLure. 

From the dates in above letter it will be noticed that three 
days were required to send a letter from Huntingdon county, 
(or Bedford as it then was,) to Baltimore. 

Teaming over the mountains to and from this place 
afforded quite a lucrative employment to those who were 
fortunate enough to own a good team and sound wagon. 
Pack horses were very frequently used. Mules had not 
then been introduced, and nearly all the hauling of ore, char- 
coal and limestone from the various openings around was 
done with oxen. The latter commanded almost as high 
prices then as at the present day. 

In 1784 or 1785, Edward Kidgley, George Ashman and 
Thomas Cromwell built the first furnace west of the Sus- 
quehanna. It was constructed mostly of wood, and stood 
directly in the rear of Wilt's Ilotel, on the front side of the 
" Locust Grove." It may be interesting to iron manufac- 
turers to know the size ; namely bosh 5 feet, with a stack of 
either 15 or 17 feet. 

It was run by either an over-shot or under-ahot wheel, or 
both, for there were two races, one coming from the Black 
Log, near Mr. Orbison's mill race, which would in any 
event be under-shot, and the other starting with almost the 
head of Camp-meeting run, and twisting and winding 
through twenty little hills, pas.sing in i^s travels under two 


bridges, and reaching the furnace grounds at such a point 
and in such manner as would call forth the admiration of 
even the engineers of the present day. This was an over- 
shot wheel. Of the capacity of the furnace nothing authentic 
is known. 

There was a large stove used in the Tannery School 
House up to 1872, that bore the stamp "Bedford Furnace, 
1795." Our older citizens will remember the two immense 
wood stoves, that would receive a four or five feet stick, used 
for heating the main room of the old Court House in Hun- 
tingdon. These were cast at Bedford Furnace and bore the 
appropriate "imprint," There is now on exhibition at the 
Centennial Exposition, two large stove-plates, on one of which 
can be plainly read "Colebrookdale Furnace, 1763, Thomas 
Eutter, Thue recht und,^^ and on the other "Bedford Furnace, 

It is supposed by some that the inscription on the former 
is an old form for the German, Thue recht nung, equivalent 
to recht shoflen, meaning aci righteously. 

The next furnace in order of date was Rockhill, com- 
menced in 1830, and finished in the spring of 1831. The 
land on which this furnace stood was originally owned by 
Euhannah Colhoon, who by deed dated May 9, 1821, con- 
veyed the same to Thomas T. Cromwell. This land was 
then partly in Shirley Township and partly in Springfield, 
and was once held in the name of William Chambers. 

Thomas T. Cromwell sold a part of this tract — about 
nineteen acres — to Thomas N. Diven and William Morrison, 
on the thirteenth day of May, 1831. These gentlemen com- 
menced the erection of what is now known as the " Old 
Rockhill Furnace," the size at the base being 28 feet, 29 feet 
high, bosh about 7 or 7J feet, with a square hearth about 
18x20 inches. William Davis was the contractor. The 
stack was square and built of stone. Thomas Clugage was 
the first man who ran the furnace. Soon after Mr. Diven 
died, Mr. Cromwell took his place in the firm and after run- 
ning successfully for some years, the property was sold to 
James Ford and Mr. Bell. 


In 1841 Bell leased to Andrew J. Wigton and John R. 
Hunter, who remained there till April, 1847. 

About 1833 or '34 the carding and fulling mill was torn 
down, and the erection of W inchester Furnace, a short dis- 
tance below Rockhill, commenced bj Bracken & Stitt for Mr. 
Cromwell. The land was owned by the latter gentleman. 
This furnace was a trifle larger than the other, the bosh 
being 8 feet. John M. Allen and William Pollock ran the 
furnace with comparatively little success. In 1845 Eli 
Beatty and Geo. Davis rented Winchester Furnace and ran 
it for three years with better pecuniary results. 

In 1847 John S. Isett, Samuel Isett, Samuel Wigton, 
Andrew J. Wigton and R. B. Wigton bought the property. 
These parties sold to Bernard Lorenz and Levi G. Learner, 
in 1864. 

In 1868 Dr. Lewis Royer and Percival P. Dewees became 
owners, who sold one-half their interest in 1871 to the 
Messrs. Roberts of Philadelphia. 

t^oon after, the Rockhill Iron and Coal Company, a cor- 
poration existing under the laws of Pennsylvania, became 
the sole owners of the entire tract, and commenced very ex- 
tensive improvements. 

The following article, written by B. F. Ripple, esq., for 
the Orbisonia Leader, affords a very correct idea of the ope- 
rations of this company: 

" The 1872 session of the Pennsylvania Legislature passed 
the bill incorporating the Rockhill Iron and Coal Company 
■with a capital of two million dollars, allowing the company to 
hold property and own lands in Duntingdon and four or 
five of the adjoining counties. The ne.\t autumn or winter 
a topographical survey of the lands immediately adjoining 
Orbisonia on the south, was made by Mr Paddock, a Civil 
Engineer of Philadelphia. On the northeastern part of this 
survey the town of Rockhill is located, and the iron 
works of the company. The company are the owners of 
about eight thousand acrea of land at this point, extending 
ah'ug Black Log mountain on both sides, running up Shade 
mountain to the top and scattered at various points along 


the Aughwick Valley. On their land and in close proximity 
to the furnaces, of which hereafter, is found both fossil and 
hematite ores, limestone and sand. At Rockhill Gap, with- 
in a half mile of Orbisonia, a vein of fossil ore, averaging 
twenty-four inches in thickness, and extending from water- 
level up over four hundred feet is opened. On each side of 
the gap there are two openings at different elevations, the 
longest gangway penetrating the mountain for a distance 
of one-half a mile. The underlying vein is 20 inches, and is 
separated from a smaller vein of 6 inches, overlaid by a 
parting of fire clay 6 inches. The rock beneath the vein is 
hard sand- rock, and the measures above the vein are soft 
shales. The ores on the south side are compact, coarse 
fossil ore, reddish brown color, with somewhat laminated 
structure ; the north side has a hard ore with numerous 
small crystals of calcite ; darker reddish color. They run 
about forty per cent, iron, with a trace of sulphur and about 
one tenth of one per cent, phosphorus. The vein dips at au 
angle of about 70° toward the north, which is of great ad- 
vantage over flatter veins, in respect to the convenience and 
cost of mining. The mining is done without powder, by 
picking out the soft clay parting, and wedging the benches 
of ore up and down. Hematites are found within a half 
mile of the furnaces, and on Sandy Ridge, two miles north, 
are several openings. From the main mine comes a very 
hard and compact ochreous iron ore, dark brown color, 
yielding from 45 to 51 per cent, iron, and containing little 
sulphur or phosphorus. There is also a hematite v#in in 
crevice of Medina sand stone, on Black Log mountain, 
which yields largely and seems inexhaustible. They have 
also opened the Cheet bank, lying directly under the Orisk- 
aney sand stone, Logan Bank in Hill Valley, and numer- 
ous other hematite mines. 

"The same company are the owners of about eleven thou- 
sand acres, lying on Broad Top mountain and in Trough 
Creek valley, of which about ten thousand acres may be 
classed as coal land, the rest being covered with valuable 


" These lands lie on the east side of the Broad Top coal 
fields, and are reached by the Broad Top Railroad, the ter- 
minus being Robertsdale. The measures are flat but not 
quite level; there is a general dip toward the southwest. In 
addition to this general dip it appears that Trough Creek is 
a regular basin, having its synclinal axis near the bed of 
the stream, and its outcrops on the side of Ray's Hill on the 
east and Broad Top on the west. This formation is the best 
possible for mining, as it insures drainage toward the open- 
ings on Trough Creek. At Jlobertsdale the company have 
three mines and are now shipping to market over 400 tons 
coal daily. 

" They have a coal washer, crusher, coke pits and store 
located there, and employ about 300 hands at this time. 

" To return to the furnaces. Messrs. Taws and Hartman, 
Mechanical Engineers, furnished the designs and drawings. 
On the 17th of April, 1873, the centre line of two furnaces 
was run, and the first ground broken in the afternoon of the 
same day. The construction was under the superintendence 
of Mr. C. Constable, a civil engineer of New York, who, in 
February last, after the completion of the furnaces, went to 
Tennessee, where he is now successfully engaged in running 
the Rock wood Furnaces. 

" The furnaces are wrought iron stacks 65 feet high, 17 
feet, with a stone stock house 280 feet long, and two 
large brick casting houses. Tliere are 24 boilers which 
supply steam to 2 massive engines with 4 fly wheels, 24 feet 
in tliameter, having steam cylinders 48 inches in diameter 
and 8 feet stroke. The blowing cylinders are 90 inches ; 
the engines are direct acting, low pressure, and were built at 
Southwark Foundry, Philadelphia, said to have cost sixty 
to seventy-five thousand dollars. The gases are brought 
from the top of the furnace through a large downromer to 
the boilers and the hot ovens, and there take the place of 
fuel in supplying steam for the engines. There are 4 brick 
hot ovews, each containing 40 U shaped cast-iron pipes^ 
through which the blast from the engines passes into the 
furnace, entering the furnace at 800 deg. and above (625 


being the point that lead is melted ;) there are 5 tujers and 
numerous water pipe connections. A large reservoir is 
built on the hill back of the furnaces. A patent air hoist is 
used in hoisting the stock. There are 48 coke ovens, 24 and 
28 inches, oa the Belgian plan; each having its ownflaes. 

"In the present condition of the country and the state of 
the iron trade, it is somewhat surprising that a company 
would start furnaces so large as these. But it is neverthe- 
less so. Mr. II. G. H. Tarr,' lately of the Gaylord Iron and 
Pipe Co., Cincinnati, is the present Superintendent. After 
filling 7 cords wood, 50 tons coke and other stock, reaching 
to within 11 feet of the top, the furnace was formally lighted 
on New Year's day, 1876. There were present a large con- 
course of people of town and vicinity; the casting house was 
brilliantly illuminated. Everything being in readiness, Mrs. 
Tarr, at 8:23 p. m , after lighting the torch, applied it to the 
kindling and lighted No. 1 furnace amidst clapping of hands 
and applauding. She went off nicely from the first. Several 
persons were called upon for addresses. Messrs. B. F. Ripple, 
H. G. H. Tarr and W. T. Browning made short speeches in 
the order named. 

"The blast was put on Monday, January 3d, at 1:10 p. m., 
and the first cast made Tuesday, at 4:15 p. m., producing 
about 15 tons No. 2 extra iron. Since this time she has 
been running very satisfaci orily. 

"The indications are that before long we will be a manu- 
facturing town second to none in the State. So may it be." 

The Clugage family must have moved into this neighbor- 
hood as early as 1760 or '65. 

Colonel Gavin Clugage built the first mill in the lower end 
of the county. It was erected in 1783, near the junction of 
Black Log and Shade creeks, very close to the brick house 
recently built by William B. Gilliland. This mill was pa- 
tronized by the inhabitants of both Springfield and Tusca- 
rora valleys. 

Here the militia met regularly every month for company 
drill, and on the first Monday in May of each year a grand 
battalion drill would come off at the mill. Gavin Clu;^age 


was elected Colonel. It is said that it was not an unusual 
occurrence for the different companies, say from Springfield 
or Tuscarora, to engage in a general pugilistic encounter, 
and the hero would be regarded with as much honor as the 
commander of an army at the present day. 

The Colonel was a fine hunter, and in those days of game 
would invariably "make his mark." On one occasion, so 
the story goes, he started from home in the morning and re- 
turned after an absence of only an hour, directing Thomas, 
his brother, to "hitch up" and bring in the game. 

Thomas started with a sled ; the snow being of such depth 
as to greatly impede his traveling, but enabling him to 
readily follow the track of his brother. He soon began to 
notice in the snow the trail or mark of what seemed to be an 
immense saw log. Following this he was no doubt not sur- 
prised to find his brother's game — a large rattlesnake^ fifteen 
feet long and a foot through. The season of the year, the 
S7101V, and the size of the snake, have a tendency to make the 
story very "snaky." Gavin Clugage, died in 1823. . 

The inhabitants of the valley say Black Log derived its 
name from a large log around which packers and traders 
would congregate to spend the night, and which in course of 
time became badly burned and black, hence the name. This 
stopping place was located along the creek about half the 
distance between Samuel Adams' and David Grove's. 

On the farm of the latter there was once a small tannery 
of some description. Nothing is known of it except that it 
ran four vats, and had a blacksmith shop in connection. In 
1825 the vats were partly open. Up the valley stands a 
stone house, of convenient dimensions and good repair, built 
by Esther and Nancy Logan in 1819. It is now inhabited 
by Edward Cook. 

George Werrick owned the land now the property of 
Michael l^tair, and died as late as 1852 or '53. 

North of the Bhick Log, James Clugage built the house in 
which Frederick Harmon now lives, in 1775. It had plowed 
and grooved floors, large mantel and chimney corner, and the 
shingles were all put on and, in fact, all other work done with 


wrought iron nails, made by the blacksmiths. The Pollards 
owned the valley for five miles up. 

Dr. Blanchard came from Philadelphia and settled in 
Black Log valley about 180i). In 1826, a Mr. Byrum came 
from Baltimore with, it is said, five six-horse loads of house- 
hold goods — a very large supply for that day — and at once 
commenced the erection of a dwelling house 80x60 feet. 
After getting about half the rafters up, he abandoned the 
structure, sold out and returned to Baltimore with his family, 
three sons and two daughters. 

In 1830-1, Thomas E. Orbison, from whom the place takes 
its name, located in Orbisonia, and started the town. 
It was not laid out for several years after, and indeed, 
the plan as it has since been built up was only certified oo 
the 1st of May, 1850, by William Orbison, before Associate 
Judge James Gwin. The tracing is in the hand-writing of 
Jacob Miller. In 1833, it was quite a pretentious village. 

At that time there were no streets, the houses straggling 
along either side of the road, which zigzagged at pleasure 
where Cromwell street now is; crossing the run below the 
Lutheran Church, and keeping along the sMe of the ridge 
in the direction of Shirleysburg. Along the little piece of 
this road which is still open were two dwellings, one occupied 
by Mr. Murray, and the other, which is still standing, by 
Benjamin Gorsuch ; also a blacksmith shop and a cooper 
shop, the latter of which still stands and is occupied as a 

The log house on the hill overlooking this road was then 
quite a pretentious residence, with an avenue of pines lead- 
ing down to the road. Thomas Bingham was living there 
at that time. 

Crossing the run, we find the first building on the westerly 
side of the road, a stone distillery, near the run, a little back 
of where now stands the blacksmith shop, used as a dwelling. 
Next comes the old Mansion House, as it was called, the 
oldest house in the village, then occupied by Henry Cohi- 
nour. It was a large log house, partly weatherboarded, 
with two porches in front, one above the other, and was 


surrounded by a grassy yard. The house stood directly in 
the rear of where James Chilcoat's house novv stands ; in the 
lower corner of the yard, next to the road, was a stone spring 
house, and adjoining the upper end of the yard, stood the 
*' old office," then occupied as a dwelling by two families, 
George Palmer's and William Bootersbaugh's ; this was where 
nowstands the kitchen of the house in which Mr. Sims lives. 

Next a log store room, about where Mr. Orbison's stable- 
yard is now ; there, in April, 1833, that gentleman opened 
his first stock of general merchandise, in which was included 
bonnets, ribbons, artificials, etc., for the fair sex ; for, alas, 
there was not a milliner in all the town. This building was 
afterwards rolled across the street, and is the house in which 
Simon McGarvey is now living. 

A few yards south of the store room stood an old log 
stable. These were all the buildings on that side of the 

On the other side of the road, the first was a log house 
nearly opposite the store room, in which Joseph Cohinour 
then lived. It has since been weatherboarded, and is now 
occupied by William Briggs. 

Next was the " new office," the only frame building in 
the town. This has been moved several rods down the 
street from its original position, and is now the kitchen end 
of th(^ house occupied by William li. Baker, directly oppo- 
site Mr. Orbison's present brick store room and the post 
office. Next came the log tavern, kept by Andrew Fore- 
man, promising accommodations for man and beast. 
Weatherboarded, painted, a back building added, it now 
swings its sign as the "Franklin Hotel, 11. Wilt." The ac- 
commodation for man and beast was to be found in an open 
shed where M. Starr & Co.'s storeroom now stands. 

The next house was of unhewn logs, and stood where is 
now Mrs. Noble's garden. Here lived "Johnnie Prosser," 
as he was styled, who sold cakes and beer. It is related 
of him, that one night a couple of young bloods roused 
him from his peaccl'ul slumbers, inlent on i)urchasiiig 
some of these rdfreshments. lie kindly got up, and cut from 


the large loaf of gingerbread the desired section, first, how- 
ever, carefully wiping his knife on the skirt of the only gar- 
ment that adorned his person. Next and last was a log house 
in which Lewellyn Davis lived. This, with additions and re- 
pairs, is now the house in which Mrs. Rutter lives. 

The grist mill and saw mill still occupy their then posi- 
tions, but have been much changed in appearance by repairs. 
The mill-race is the same. 



Tod, one of the Trough creek valley townships, is bound- 
ed on the northeast by Penn and Cass townships, on the 
southeast by Cass and Clay, on the southwest by Carbon, 
and on the northwest by Hopewell and Lincoln. It con- 
tains five post offices, Cook's Mill, Eagle Foundry, Paradise 
Furnace, Tod, and Trough Creek. 

Previous to the erection of Tod township. Union em- 
braced nearly the entire Trough creek valley, extending 
from the Juniata river on the north to the summit of Broad 
Top mountain on the south, and from Jack's mountain on 
the east, to Terrace on the west, and including the present 
townships of Union, Cass, Tod and part of Carbon. The 
following sketch of Cass township will contain some facts 
which relate as well to other parts of the valley. 

The boundaries of Cass are Penn and Union on the north, 
Shirley and Cromwell on the east. Clay on the south, and 
Tod on the west and southwest. 

Trough creek valley was settled chiefly by immigrants from 
the State of Maryland, at so early a day that the oldest person 
now living cannot give the year. We find that improvements 
were made in 1774, but few if any land warrants are dated 
prior to 1794. Of the inhabitants born here, Mrs. Ruth 
Wright, widow of the Rev. Dr. Jesse Wright, deceased, is 
the oldest. She is now 87 years of age. A year or two 
before her birth, her father, Richard Chilcott, moved to and 
settled upon the farm now owned by James C. Wright, in 
Union township, then and for some years- afterwards farther 
north than any other improvement in the valley. 

Among the earliest settlers were the Lilleys, Lucketts, 
Fitzsimmons, Corbins, Drennans, Brownings, Caldwells, 
Deans, Bomgartners, Curfmans, McClains, Chilcotts, Green- 
lands, Stevors and Robinsons. When these pioneers were 


endeavoring to make the country habitable, they sometimes 
exchanged farms or improvements, and in such cases it was 
customary for the parties to the transanction to exchange 
also all movable property, each leaving his household goods, 
cattle and agricultural implements upon the place from 
which he removed, and retaining none of his former posses- 
sions but his wife and children. This was done to avoid the 
expense and trouble of conveying them to the new home, 
through a region without roads, and without the vehicles 
which would have been necessary for their transportation. 

It is related of one of the Chilcoats, called " Knob Josh," 
that he once set up a great lamentation concerning the 
alleged loss of $300, so affecting his financial condition, as he 
said, as to compel him to suspend payments. On being 
asked how he had lost so much money, he replied that it was 
because he had no hogs to eat the acorns. He was a farmer, 
as were nearly all of those we have named. 

Richard Chilcott, esq., and Thomas Wright at one time 
seemed to be standing jurors, attending court at every term 
without compensation, and paying their own expenses. Eli- 
jah Corbin was commissioned a justice of the peace in 1809, 
by Governor Snyder, for the fourth district of Huntingdon 
county. Joshua Gosnell was also a justice of the peace and 
one of the first local preachers in the M. E. church. Among 
the first itinerant Methodist preachers were the Revs, Reilly, 
Hank, Sansom and Byerly. There had perhaps previously 
been *' old school Baptist" preachers, but the first itinerating 
minister of that denomination was Richart Proudfoot, who 
traveled through the valley for a number of years. His sal- 
ary for 1826 was $31, six dollars of which was not paid him. 
During the latter part of his ministry he was a " new school 
Baptist." It is to be hoped that that paid better. 

The Methodist ministers preached in George Smith's 
house, which stood within the present borough of Cassville. 
The first church in the valley was built where the new M. 
E. Church stands, at Trough Creek, Tod township. In 1823 
or '24, the Lutheran and German Reformed church was 
built in Cassville, and the first person buried in the grave- 


yard. Rev. Auraiidt, of Woodcock valley, was the first 
pastor. The valley now contains live ^lethodist Episcopal 
churches, two Methodist Protestant, two Lutheran, one 
Baptist, one Church of God, and one United Brethren. 

As to management of schools in the valley, or one of 
them at least, at an early day, or before the adoption of the 
common school system, we give a literal copy of a manu- 
script in the handwriting of Esquire Corbin, now in the 
possession of Hon. David Clarkson : 

"Whereas, there has heretofore been a school house 
erected Near the Long Bridge on Michael Mierley's land in 
Union township in the county of Huntingdon, known by the 
Name of the Union school house, which was built by the 
Neighbors, and whereas it now becomes Necessary to appoint 
trustees for said school house, the following persons have 
met this twelfth Day Oct. 1824, for appointing trustees as 
aforesaid, Namely,MichaelMierley, Jacob Miller, John Bom- 
gartner, David Bomgartner, Abraham Wright, Jesse Wright, 
George Smith, Jacob Bomgartner of ^Michael, Jacob 
Estep and Elijah Corbin and Michael Mierley, jr., at which 
time Elijah Corbin, Jesse Wright and Michael Mierley, jr., 
was Nominated and appointed trustees for said school house, 
whose Duty it shall be to attend to the Rules and Regulations 
of said school in future, that is to say where any teacher 
applies for a school at said house they are first to apply to 
said trustees who are to admit or Reject as they may think 
proper, and if admitted and a school is got then it shall be 
their Duty also to see that there is Regular and Due attention 
payed by said teacher according to his article." Signed by 
Abraham Wright, Michael Mierley, Jacob Miller, Jacob 
Estep, George Smith and two others whose names cannot be 

The principal grain market for Trough creek valley 
before tlie construction of the l*ennsylvauia canal was at 
McConnellsburg, in Fulton county, thirty to forty miles 

Salisbury, known also as Chilcoatstown, was laid out 
by Benjamin and Robeson Chilcoat previous to 17^7. 


The plan of lots was recorded on the 22nd of February of 
that year. It lay entirely south of the present public square 
and Seminary street. Lots were sold by the proprietors for 
three pounds five shillings each and ground rent, or twenty 
dollars, one-half in hand and the balance the first fall month. 
Three buildings stood upon the site of the village when 
it was laid out, only one of which, now used as a stable, 
remains. It has been removed from its former position and 
has been replaced by the residence of Rev. Jesse Wright's 
widow, which was erected in 18^1. 

The first tavern was kept there by William Lovell, and 
the second by Robert Speer, father of Hon, R, M, Speer, of 
Huntingdon. The latter became a resident of the place in 
1818 or '19. He was a man of considerable energy and 
built a large brick and frame dwelling, 102 feet in length. 
Having been the first merchant, as well as a tavern keeper, 
he kept the largest and most general assortment of dry 
goods the place has ever known, and did an extensive busi- 
ness in grain, controlling the trade from Broad Top to the 
Juniata river. He contributed more perhaps to the building 
up of the town than any other of its citizens. 

On the 24th of September, 1830, Andrew Shaw and Dr. 
Robert Baird laid out an addition to Salisbury and sold lots 
at from forty to fifty dollars each. In that and the follow- 
ing year a number of lots were purchased and buildings 
erected. Lemuel Green then moved to the town and built 
his tannery, which has never since suspended, but is still in 
operation. Within the next ten years, James Henderson, 
John S. Gehrett, Dr. Jesse Wright and David Clarkson 
became residents. 

In 18-49, a public meeting was held to consider the expe- 
diency of having the place incorporated as a borough, and a 
committee, consisting of Robert Speer, D, Stever and D. 
Clarkson, was appointed to select a name. The ma- 
jority decided upon "Cassville" as appropriate, and by that 
name it was incorporated by act of Assembly, March 3rd, 

Hon. David Clarkson, who is now serving his second term 


as Associate Judge of the county, and who has been promi- 
nent in every useful public enterprise in Cassville, was born 
near Philadelphia. He came to Trough creek valley when 
two years of age and lived about two miles west of Cass- 
ville until 1840, when he removed to the town. He was 
one of the projectors of the Cassville Seminary, a history of 
which is given in another chapter. 






Jackson township, in the northeastern portion of the 
county, joins Centre county on the north and Mifflin county 
on the east and southeast, and is bounded by Barree on the 
west and southwest. Is is watered by the two branches of 
Standing Stone creek, which rise in the mountains near the 
Centre and Mifflin coanty lines, and unite into one stream 
shortly after passing out of the township. It was named 
after Joseph Jackson, Esq., one of ihe first settlers within its 
limits. The line dividing it from Barree passes through the 
farm upon which he lived, and which still belongs to his 

Another early settler of note was General William Mc- 
Alevy, who is mentioned in the chapters relating to the 
Revolutionary war, and in connection with the political 
troubles in 1788. He was a Scotch-Irishman by birth, and 
had resided in Cumberland valley, north of Carlisle. His 
wife was a sister of John Harris, founder of Harrisburg. 
He came up to the place which afterwards took his name, about 
the year 1770, and after determining to settle there, made a 
canoe out of a pine tree, in which he descended Standing 
Stone creek and the Juniata and Susquehanna rivers to 
Harrisburg, and in which he returned, bringing his family 
up those streams to his future home. In the shallow waters 
of the creek his craft, light as it was, struck the rocks and 
bars, from whence it could be moved only by the power of 
a horse which the General kept conveniently near. 

He acquired all the lands in and around McAlevy's fort. 
The fortification which was thus known, was but a block- 
house on the bluff east of the village, built as a defense 


against the hostile incursions of the savages. He was once 
wounded in the leg by the Indians, but escaped from 
them, while his companion was overtaken and scalped. 
Brave, resolute and daring, he was just the style of man 
that would be ready to take up arms in behalf of Amer- 
ican independence. 

The old settlers were engaged principally in agricultu- 
ral pursuits, and by far the greater part of the present 
population follow the same avocation. The township con- 
tains eleven public school houses, one academy or high 
school, and five churches, two of which are Methodist Epis- 
copal, one United Presbyterian, one Presbyterian and one 

Greenwood furnaces, two stacks, are situated in the 
southeast part of the township. The old furnace was built 
in 1833, by William Patton and William Norris. It has 
been in active operation ever since its erection, with the 
exception of two or three years. The new stack was 
built in 1860. These furnaces now belong to the Logan 
Iron and Steel Company. 

In 18-il Thomas, John and James Mitchell, built a small 
furnace about a mile north of McAlevy's Fort, but the lo- 
cation being unfavorable and the management inefficient, 
it proved a failure, and now not one stone of it remains 
upon another. It was called the Little Furnace. 

About six years ago the Legislature granted a charter for 
the Stone Creek and McAlevy's Fort railroad, and $'20,000, 
the sum required from the people of the township, was 
subscribed toward its construction, but on the failure of Jay 
Cooke & Co., it shared the fate of many similar enterprises. 
The road may yet be made on the return of business pros- 

There are three post-offices in the township, McAlevy's 
Fort, Ennisville and Greenwood Furnace. 

Clay township is bounded on the northeast by Cass and 
Cromwell, on the southeast by Springfield, ou the south- 
west by Fulton county, and on the northwest by Carbon 
and Tod townships. The East Broad Top railroad crousea 




the northern portion of the township^ passing the boroughs 
of Three Springs and Saltillo. At the latter is a large 
steam tannery, owned by Leas & McVitty. 

Brady township was named in honor of Hugh Brady, 'a 
distinguished General of the United States Army, who is 
said to have been born within the walls of Standing Stone 
Fort. He entered the army at au early age and received 
various well-merited promotions until he attained the high 
rank he held at the time of his death. Other members of 
the Brady family lived in the vicinity of Huntingdon 
before the Revolutionary war. The father of the famous 
scout and spy, Capt. Samuel Brady, resided at the mouth of 
Crooked creek, on the opposite side of the river. During 
the war all of the Brady s removed to the West Branch of 
the Susquehanna. 

The township is bounded on the northeast and southeast 
by Mifflin county, on the south and southwest by Union, on 
the west by Henderson, and on the northwest by Henderson 
and Barree. It has Jack's mountain on the east, Standing 
Stone mountain in the centre and the Juniata river on the 

Its principal village is Mill Creek, on the Pennsylvania 
railroad and canal, laid out October 12ih,18-i8, for the proprie- 
tors, Messrs. Zook, Plank and King. On the stream of Mill 
creek, irom which the village takes its name, is Mill Creek 
Furnace, out of blast for a number of years. The place has 
considerable trade from KishacoquilJas valley and the ad- 
joining townships of Union and Henderson. 

At the end of Standing Stone mountain, in the southern 
part of the township, sand for the manufacture of glass is 
quarried and crushed by steam power. It is shipped to 
Pittsburg and used in ihe establishments there. As it exists 
in large quantities and is of the best quality, the erection of 
glass works in the vicinity of the mines, or at some other 
point in the county, seems to be demanded by every consid- 
eration of economy and convenience. 




In 1846 the township of Hopewell was divided into two 
nearly equal parta,and the northern or northeastern part erect- 
ed into the township of Penn. It is bounded on the north by 
the townships of Walker and Juniata, on the east by Union, 
Cass and Tod, on the south by Lincoln, and on the west by 
the county of Blair, the summits of Terrace and Tusscy's 
mountains forming, respectively, the eastern and western 
boundary lines. 

The township is about six miles from north to south, and 
eight or eight-and-a-half from east to west. It is watered 
by the Raystown branch of the Juniata, which runs along 
the base of Terrace mountain. James creek and its tribu- 
taries and some of the tributaries of Crooked creek also 
traverse the township. 

The surface is broken by numerous ridges, which at some 
points assume the proportions of mountains; the princi- 
pal ones being Mulberry, Warrior, Backbone, Piney and 
Alaquippa or " Allegrippus." 

Woodcock valley, proper, includes the territory lying be- 
tween Warrior ridge and Tussey's mountain. Although 
somewhat broken, it is naturally a very productive limestone 
soil, and most of it is in a higli state of cultivation. The 
slate soil of the ridges is less productive than that of the 
valley, but in favorable seasons, produces excellent crops. 
The soil of the valley of the Raystown branch is mainly a 
sandy alluvion, and is also highly productive. The town- 
ship is rich in iron ores. IMiere are practically inexhausti- 
ble deposits of hematite, fossil and levant fossil ores. The 
former is found in the trough formed by Mulberry and 
Warrior ridges, the soft fossil and levant along the base of 


Tussey's mountain. Unfortunately for the community, the 
owners of these lands were induced some years ago, by 
specious but delusive promises, to execute perpetual ore 
leases to parties residing in other sections of the State, there- 
by depriving this locality of the full benefit of its great 
mineral wealth. Within the last twelve years upwards of 
one hundred thousand tons of ore were shipped from 
Marklesbarg and Grafton, mainly to the Cambria Iron 
Company of Johnstown, and to Grove Brothers, of Danville, 

Lead ore has also been discovered at different points on 
Warrior ridge, but so far not in any considerable quan- 

But few, if any, of the descendants of the first white set- 
tlers of what is now Fenn township survive. The names of 
Hartsock, Kough, Fleck, Freld, Breckenridge, Bishop, 
Keith, Roberts, Hart, Owens, McMath and Grafiius are 
among those that figure in its earliest local history. Thomas 
Wilson, an Englishman, was probably one of the few 
pioneer settlers still having representatives in the township. 
He lived on what is now known as the "station farm." He 
owned and probably built the first grist mill in this section 
of the country. It is represented as having been exceed- 
ingly primitive in structure. It was known throughout the 
neighborhood as " Tub mill," and stood near the site of the 
brick mill now owned by John S. Isett and Solomon H. 

Mr. Wilson had two sons — Levi and William — and five 
daughters, married, respectively, to James Entriken, Wil- 
liam Enyeart, Samuel Glasgow, William Harvey and 
William Taylor. He died April, 1836, in the 95th year of 
his age. 

Michael Garner came to Woodcock valley from the neigh- 
borhood of Sharpsburg, Maryland, in 1789. He purchased 
the "improvement" of Thomas Whitner, and on June 20, 
1794, from "John Penn the younger and John Penn the 
older, through their attorney, Anthony Butler, two hundred 
and seventy-nine acres of land lying in Hopewell township, 


Huntingdon county, being a part of the tract known as 
Penn's Manor of Woodcock valley, paying therefor £112. 53. 
4d., current money of Pennsylvania, in specie." A part of 
this tract is at present owned and occupied by Geo. Garner, 
one of his numerous grandsons. 

Mr. Garner had five sons — John, Michael, Matthew, George 
and Philip, and two daughters — Susan and ^Eary — married, 
respectively, to Daniel Stauffer and Jacob Grubb. His de- 
scendants outnumber those of any other family in the 

Jacob Brumbaugh emigrated from Germany and first 
located near the Aulietam, in Maryland, about the year 
1780. He removed to Morrison's cove in 1788, and came 
to Woodcock valley in 1794. On the -Ith day of August, 
1800, he purchased from David McMurtrie a tract of laud 
known as " Timothy Meadows," on the south side of War- 
rior's ridge, containing 219 acres. The tract was originally 
surveyed in pursuance of an application — No. 1709 — entered 
the 2nd day of August, 1766, by John Mitchell, and the pat- 
ent subsequently confirmed to Solomon Sills. His grandson, 
Jacob Brumbaugh, senior, is the present owner and occu- 
pant of the old homestead. 

Mr. Brumbaugh was twice married. lie had fifteen chil- 
dren — nine sons and six daughters — of whom two are still 
living, viz: David I'rumbaugh senior, of Mai'klesburg, aged 
eighty-three, and Mrs. Susanna Markley, of Ohio, a few years 

Jacob Grove was from Lancaster county. He located on 
the farm now occupied by David II. Grove, in the year 
1796. He had five sons and three daughters. Of the former, 
Daniel, Jacob and Andrew still remain in the township. 

John and Peter Beightell and Adam Auman also came 
from Lancaster county, and located in Woodcock valley at 
al out the same time. 

Ludwig Hoover came from Maryland at an early day and 
settled on the Breckenridge farm — the scene of the massacre 
by the Indians detaileil in Jones' Juniata Valley. He had 
a hemp factory, an oil mill and a distillery. His granu^on, 


Ludwia: Hoover, is the present owner and occupant of this 
historic old farm. 

Isaac Bowers, from Berks, and Abramam Grubb, from 
Bucks county, came to this valley in the early part of the 
present century. The former purchased a farm from John 
Freed, and the latter purchased the Hartsock property, on 
which was located " Fort Hartsock" — famous in the history 
of Woodcock valley in Indian times. 

Andrew, Henry, Jacob and John Boyer, brothers, came 
from Montgomery county. Pa., in the year 1799, and located 
in the neighborhood of the present village of Marklesburg, 
where most of the surviving children still reside. 

Henry Summers and Joseph and John Norris came from 
the neighborhood of Hagerstown, Maryland, toward the close 
of the last century. The former located in Woodcock valley, 
where one of his sons, (the venerable and respected Jacob 
Summers, sr.,) and a number of his grandsons still reside. 
The Norris brothers settled on the Raystown branch, and 
were the progenitors of large and highly respectable families 
still resident in the township. 

The Barrick, Beaver, Prough, Fink, Speck, Geissinger and 
Snare families are among the older ones of the township. 

Marklesburg, a quiet and unpretending little village, is 
situated in the southwest part of the township, near the head 
of James Creek. It is distant half a mile from the Hunting- 
don and Broad Top railroad, at Grantville, and twelve miles 
southwest of Huntingdon, on the public road leading from 
Huntingdon to Bedford. 

David Brumbaugh, sr., and Matthew Garner, dec'd, were 
the owners of the land on which the village is located. It 
was a part of the tract which was for many years in dispute 
between the bank of North America and the heirs of Doctor 
Allison. The former of the two proprietors mentioned, put 
an end to the conflict in titles by purchasing both claims. 
The village was laid out in the summer of 1844, by Jacob 
Cresswell, Esq., surveyor, and was named in honor of Gen. 
Joseph Markle, the Whig candidate for Governor, 

The first dwelling house was erected by Jacob Skyles, in 


1844. The house was for a long time owned and occupied 
by Abraham Megahan, Esq.; Jacob Hess, sr., is the present 
owner. The second and third dwellings were also erected 
in 1844, by Frederick and Adam Garner. In the following 
year houses were erected by Anthony Beard, Adam Seigler 
and others. 

Marklesburg has now forty-five (45) dwellings, three 
churches — Reformed, Lutheran and Methodist Episcopal — 
one school house, three stores, two carriage factories, two 
blacksmith shops, one harness shop, three shoe shops, three 
cabinet and joiner shops, and one cooper shop. It has three 
clergymen and one physician. 

Its post-office, which retains its original name of James 
Creek, was established in 1840, and John B. Given, esq., was 
appointed first postmaster. Benjamin C. Lytle, Esq., dec'd, 
was the second postmaster. In 1874 the borough of Mar- 
klesburg was incorporated. It has a population of about 
three hundred (300), and can poll forty-five votes. At the 
election held Nov. 2, 1875, the vote for Governor stood : 
Pershing, 24, Ilartranft 16, Browne 1. 

It has two daily mails — one due at 9:45 a. ra., and the 
other at 7 p. m. 

Grantville is a station on the Huntingdon and Broad Top 
Railroad, eleven miles from Huntingdon. The first building 
erected at this place was a large frame Warehouse, which was 
subsequently fitted up for and occupied as a dwelling- 
house. In 1866 it was destroyed by fire. On its site, John 
G. 15oyer soon afterward erected a brick dwelling and 
store house. At about the same time Samuel B. Garner 
also erected a brick dwelling house. 

The village has at present some fifteen dwellings, a station, 
house, a store, a tin shop, a confectionery and a hotel. 

Grafton is also a station on the U. & B. T. R. R., seven 
miles from Huntingdon. Andrew F. Grove erected the first 
dwelling house in 1868. It has at this time some 17 or 18 
dwellings, a station house, a grist mill (sioam power), a saw 
mill, a tannery, two stores, a carriage factory, two black- 
smith shops, one carpenter shop and one shoe shop. 


Its post office — originally New Pleasant Grove — was es- 
tablished in 1870, and A. F. Grove, Esq., appointed first 

Rev. John Dietrich Aurandt was probably the first Re- 
formed minister who preached statedly in any part of 
Woodcock valley. He was born in Lancaster county, Penn- 
sylvania, on the 8th day of November, 1760. In 1794 he 
removed with his father to Buffalo valley, then Northum- 
berland, but now Union county ; and in October, 1804, 
came to Canoe valley, Huntingdon county. He purchased 
a farm near the Yellow Springs, where he lived lor a period 
of 27 years. A short time prior to his death, which occurred 
April 24, 1831, he removed from Morris township to Harts- 
log valley, Porter township. 

He was licensed to preach in 1806, and, after satisfactory 
examination, was ordained in 1809. He preached at Hunt- 
ingdon, Breidenbach's (at or near Petersburg), P. Roller's, 
C. Harnish's, Williamsburg, Henlin's, Martinsburg, Potter's, 
Yellow Creek, Bedford, Grove's (in Woodcock Valley), Cass- 
ville,Steever's, Snare's, Eutriken's, and at some other points. 

His " charge " extended from Huntingdon to Cumber- 
land, a distance of 90 miles, and from Frankstown to Cass- 
ville, a distance of 30 miles. He was a man of good natural 
abilities and great energy. In stature he was 6 feel 2| inches; 
was well proportioned and of preposessing appearance. 

Rev. Christian VVeinbrenuer was the successor of Rev. 
Aurandt. He was born February 7, 1789. He commenced 
preaching about 1838. His congregations at preaching 
points were as follows: Grove's in Woodcock Valley, and 
Clover Creek, Hickory Bottom and Bob's Creek in Morri- 
son's cove. It is believed that he was never regularly ad- 
mitted into the Synod of the Reformed Church, and there- 
fore never received ordination. He passed himself off as a 
Reformed minister, however, and was universally accepted 
as such. He is affectionately remembered as a sincere, 
earnest and pious man. He died at Woodbury, Bedford 
county, February 12th, 1858. 

Rev. Weinbrenner was followed by Rev. Theobalt Fouse, 


who was born on Clover Creek, then Huntingdon, but now 
Blair county, Dec. 26, 1802. At the age of forty, after a 
creditable examination, he entered the ministry, and received 
regular ordination in 1842. lie organized the congregation 
at Marklesburg, Oct. 28, 1842, and assisted materially in the 
erection of Zion's Reformed church, which was dedicated in 
1847. IHs charge, known as " Woodcock Valley Charge," 
consisted of the following congregations, viz: Marklesburg, 
Union, Jacob's, St. Paul's, Spring Valley, Clover Creek, 
Hickory Bottom and Sharpsburg — most of which he organ- 
ized, or re-organized after partial disintegration. 

He was a man of sterling integrity, devout, earnest, with- 
out hypocrisy or dissimulation, discharging the sacred du- 
ties of the Christian ministry in the fear of God and to the 
glory of his Master. He died August 23, 1878, and is bur- 
ied in the graveyard attached to Zion's church, at Markles- 

Rev. Jonathan Zeller, now of Lock Haven, organized the 
first Reformed congregation at McConnellstown, in the 
spring of 1834. His first catechetical class consisted of 
sixty-five. He baptized before confirmation thirty-five 
adults. The first communion held numbered seventy-two. 
His immediate successor was Rev. Geo. W. Williard. 

Revs. Aaron Christman, Henry Heckerman, William M* 
Deatrich, Samuel H. Reid, J. S. Kiefter and L. D. Steckle 
are among the ministers who have filled the pulpit at 
McConnellstown. Rev. A. G. Bole is the present pastor. 

The first Lutheran congregation in what is now J*enn 
township was organized as early as 1804, by Rev. Frederick 
Haas, a licentiate of Pennsylvania Synod, at Garner's school- 
house. He preached at this point, at Huntingdon, Williams- 
burg, Waterstreet, Clover Creek, Cassville and Kishaco- 
quillas valley. He labored in this field for a period of 
twelve years. 

Rev. Henry Heinen was the successor of Rev. Haas. He 
was a physician as well as clergyman, and it is said, devoted 
rather more of his time to the practice of medicine than to 
his pastoral work. 


Rev, N. G. Sbarretts succeeded Rev. Heinen in 1826, his 
charge consisting of the Woodcock Valley and Cassville 

Rev. D. Moser followed Rev. Sharretts in 1829, and was 
pastor of the charge till 1832. 

Rev. J. Martin, pastor of Williamsburg charge, preached 
for this congregation, as supply, from 1832 to 1886. 

Rev. J. G. Ellinger became pastor in 1838, the charge 
then consisting of the Woodcock valley, Cassville, Clover 
Creek and Martinsburg congregations. It was during his 
pastorate, in the year 1840, that the first Lutheran church 
edifice (at Garner's) was erected. 

Rev. Ellinger was followed by Rev. Benjamin Laubach, 
who died six months after entering upon his pastoral 

Rev. Wm. G. Laitzle was pastor from 1843 to 1847, and 
was followed by Rev. Jacob N. Burket whose charge em- 
braced Woodcock valley, Newbury and Cassville. Under 
the pastorate of Rev. Burket, the Constitution of St. Mat- 
thew's Evangelical Lutheran church of Marklesburg was 

Revs. P. M. Rightmyer, Cyrus Rightmyer, W. B. Bach- 
tell, J. K. Bricker, J. K. Bratten, M. G. Boyer and J. Fra- 
zier were successfully pastors of the charge. The new Lu- 
theran church at Marklesburg was erected during the pas- 
torate of Rev. Frazier, who is deserving of much credit for 
the unflagging zeal and energy he manifested in the enter- 

The church was dedicated July 80, 1871, the dedicatory 
sermon having been preached by Rev. Henry Baker, of 

Rev. Frazier was succeeded in 1872 by Rev. J. S. Heilig, 
who continued in charge till April, 1875, 

Rev. Matthew G, Boyer is the present pastor, having 
entered upon the labors of this field for the second time in 
May, 1875. 

Although embraced within the boundaries of Cassville 
circuit, and occasionally visited by itinerant preachers, no 


Methodist Episcopal congregation was organized in Penn 
township prior to the year l5-i7. In that year, Rev. Robert 
Beers, then preacher in charge, preached alternately at 
Marklesburg and at Summers' school-house. In the follow- 
ing year, 1848, the congregation at Marklesburg was organ- 
ized. The appointment remained in connection with Cass- 
ville circuit until 186-i, when it was attached to the circuit of 
Saxton. For the last ten years, it has constituted one of the 
appointments of McConnellstown circuit. 

The first class, in connection with the appointment, was 
organized in 1847, and consisted of six members, namely, 
J. Householder and wife, Robert Gill and wife, and Edward 
Duncan and wife. 

In 1851 the first steps were taken looking toward the 
erection of a church edifice, and in the summer of 1852, the 
!M. E, Church of Marklesburg was dedicated to the service 
of God, the dedicatory sermon having been preached by 
Rev. (now Bishop) Thomas Bowman, then principal of 
Williamsport Seminary. 

Among the ministers who have since filled the appoint- 
ment are the following : Rev. A. Beers, J. Spangler, Z. Bland, 
J. Lloyd, G. W. Bouse, G. Beikstresser, J. A. Coleman, C. 
Graham, J. Guss, J. W. Cleaver, J. W. Leckey, C. V. Wil- 
son, J. C. Clarke, J. P. Long, J. A. McKindless, C. White, 
W. E. Iloch, and J. W. Bell, present pastor. 

Among the first ministers of German Baptist or Brethren 
denomination who are known to have preached in this 
neighborhood were John Shinefelt, Christian Hoover and 
John Martin. John Hoover and Geo. Brumbaugh were also 
among the earliest laborers in this field. 

Elder Isaac Brumbaugh is remembered as a sincere, ear- 
nest and pious ministers of the denomination, for more than 
a quarter of a century. He died November -i, 1871. 

The ^fennonites are represented by a small but highly 
respectable membership. They worship at the Union (Grove) 
church. The present pastor is Rev. Jacob Snyder. 


The township has seven church edifices, as follows : 

Evangelical Lutheran, at Garner's, erected in 1840. 
do. do Marklesburg. " 1871. 

Eeformed and Mennonite, Grove's, " 1841. 

Eeformed, Ridge, " 1860. 

Methodist Episcopal, Marklesburg, " 1852. 

German Baptist, near Marklesburg, " 1860. 

do. at Raystown Branch, " 1873. 

There are three grist mills in the township — two on James 
Creek, and one on a tributary of Crooked Creek, at Grafton. 
The mill at the mouth of James Creek was built by James 
Entriken Jr., in 1851 and 1852. It is now owned by John 
S, Isett and Solomon H. Isenberg. The brick mill, also on 
James Creek, was erected by R. F. Coplin, in 1867, and is 
now also owned by Messrs. Isett and Isenberg. The mill at 
Grafton, was built by Wm. B. Zeigler, in 1873. 

Penn will compare very favorably with her sister town- 
ships in the patriotic zeal and fervor of its population during 
the late war. From 1861 to 1865 it contributed upwards of 
one hundred men to the Union army, many of whom sacri- 
ficed their lives that the nation might live. Company " C," 
53d Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Captain John H. 
Wintrode was recruited principally in Penn and in that part 
of Hopewell (now Lincoln) township, immediately adjoining. 
This company was composed of the "bravest and best " of 
her population, hardy, robust and stalwart young men. The 
company left Marklesburg, for Camp Curtin, at Harrisburg, 
on Monday, September 23, 1861. Several hundred persons, 
the relatives and friends of the soldiers, were assembled at 
the depot to bid good-bye to loved ones. It was probably 
the most memorable as well as the most sorrowful day in the 
annals of this community. 






Onedia, a small township adjourning the borough of Hun- 
tingdon, is bounded on the northeast by Barree, on the 
southeast by Henderson, on the west by Porter, from which 
it is separated by the Juniata river, and on the northwest by 
West township. The Standing Stone creek passes through 
the township from one end to the other, a distance of about 
ten miles, the principal part of the township lying on the 
northwestern side of the stream. The narrow valley through 
which it flows is enclosed by Standing Stone ridge and 
"Warrior ridge, which form the dividing line between this 
and the adjoining to \vnships. The Warm Springs, situated 
about five miles from Huntingdon, at one time enjoyed some 
celebrity for the medical properties of their waters, and were 
a place of considerable resort for invalids and pleasure 
seekers. They are owned by the heirs of the late General 
A. P. Wilson. 

One of the earliest settlers, whose descendants still live in 
the township, was Nathan Gorsuch, who emigrated from 
Baltimore county, Maryland, in the year 1786, and settled 
on the farm where he continued to reside during the rest of 
his lifetime. This was during or very shortly after the 
Indian troubles, as the family from whom he purchased, 
after erecting a cabin and clearing some land, had been 
compelled to flee for safety to one of the nearest forts, leav- 
ing their household eflfects to be pillaged and destroyed by 
the red men. He was a surveyor, and devoted considerable 
of his time to the active duties of that profession, while en- 
gaged in the clearing and cultivation of the then almost un- 
broken wilderness, assisted by some faithful negro slaves 


that he had brought with him and retained until their 
emancipation under the laws of this State. The farm is 
situated about five miles from Huntingdon, and is still 
owned and occupied by his descendants. It is supposed to 
have been the first improvement made between that place 
and McAlevy's Fort. The original warrantee was named 
Haney, from whom it was bought by Murray, the proprie- 
tor at the time Gorsuch purchased. 

Near the cabin already referred to stood a venerable 
sugar tree, cut down in 1875, a careful computation of the 
growths of which reveals the fact that it had witnessed the 
storms of more than two centuries. Tomahawk marks were 
found in it when cut down, dating back about one hundred 
and seventy years, and made when the tree was about three 
feet in circumference. When cut last year, it measured 
eleven feet eight inches. This tree, from actual knowledge, 
has yielded from one thousand to twelve hundred pounds of 
sugar, having been regularly tapped every year by white 
men f tr aboat ninety years. 

Not far from the same site stands an apple tree, supposed 
to have been planted by Haney, and now, although one 
hundred years old, is in a healthy condition and has every 
indication that it may yet bear crops of fruit. 

William Wheeler, William Carter and Joshua Kelley also 
settled th'Te about the same time, but none of their desoend- 
anis are now living in the neighborhood. John Stewart, a 
native of Ireland, and father of John P. Stewart, Esq., settled 
there at a very early day. 

Jacob White emigrated to America shortly after Brad- 
dock's defeat, and located first in Berks county. About the 
year 1770 he came to Bedford, now Huntingdon county, 
and settled between Alexandria and Petersburg. When 
the Eevolutionary war commenced, he returned to Berks 
county and remained until the close of the war. He then 
came again to this county and settled where his grandson, 
A. P. White, now resides. The house in which the latter 
lives was built by his grandfather seventy-nine years ago. 
Jacob Gruber preached in it when he called himself a boy. 


White's was a regular appointment on the circuit in those 

Elisha Green and Nicholas Decker, whose descendants are 
still living in the township, were also among the earliest 

During the construction of the Pennsylvania canal a great 
quantity of timber was furnished for it from this township. 
The waters of Standing Stone creek afforded the means of 
transportation for all kinds of water craft, from a saw-log 
raft to a canal boat, and within the last forty years it was no 
unusual sight to witness twenty or twenty -five arks and rafts, 
in a spring freshet, gliding down that turbulent stream, 
navigated and manned by the sturdy yeomanry of the 

Charles Green, late of this township, was at one time ex- 
tensively engaged in the making of arks, which, before the 
days of canals and railroads, were the principal means of 
conveying grain, lumber, and other productions to market. 

\Villiam Foster, an old resident, did a large business for 
that day in the manufacture of lumber, and built and owned 
what is now known as Foster's saw mill. He was an Irish- 
man by birth and was an enterprising and public spirited 
citizen, and was the contractor for the erection of the present 
county prison. He was one of the parties in the famous 
ejectment suit of Foster vs. McDivitt, referred to in the 
Pennsylvania Reports, which "dragged its slow length 
along" through the courts for almost a quarter of a century. 
At his aaw-mill was built the first packet-boat ever navigat- 
ed on the Pennsylvania canal, the " Lady of the Lake" by 
name, which on a balmy Sabbath morning in the Summer 
of 1831, left her dock and sped gracefully into the waters of 
Standing Stone creek, and was by them carried swiftly to- 
wards the Juniata, amid the plaudits of wondering specta- 
tors who crowded the banks. Subsequently a boat yard was 
established there and kej)t in operation several years, during 
which time quite a number of canal boats were built and in 
like manner conveyed to their destination. 

As long as the timber lasted and the lumber business re- 


mained good, but little attention was paid to agricultural 
pursuits by the inhabitants ; but of late years quite a change 
has taken place in this respect. New farms have been 
opened out and an improved system of cultivation adopted, 
which in the general march of improvement have added 
much to the material wealth of the people. 

The township contains three public school houses, two 
churches, one store and a post-office. Being so near to 
Huntingdon, all of these necessities, except schools, are 
conveniently accessible to the residents of the township, in 
that borough, 

Juniata township, also extending to Huntingdon, its 
northern corner being on the opposite side of the river, is 
bounded on the northeast by Henderson township, on the 
southeast by Union, on the southwest by Penn, and on the 
northwest by Walker. It is almost a parallelogram in 
shape, its boundaries being as nearly direct lines as is possi- 
ble when they are made to follow the summits of mountains 
.and ridges and the courses of streams. Terrace mountain 
separates it from Union township, and Piney ridge from 

The people of Juniata are almost exclusively an agricul- 
tural community. No mechanical arts are followed, nor 
have there ever been any manufactures carried on except 
the making of lumber. The reason for this is not to be 
found in a want of enterprise in the people, nor in an un- 
willingness to satisfy their wants with such articles as they 
may need. But as their only market is in Huntingdon, and 
as their business brings them frequently to that place, they 
there find the merchant and mechanic with whom they find 
it more convenient to deal than they would with the store- 
keeper or artizan on the Raystown branch or the ridges, 
were any there. 

The soil of the township, although not the most fertile, is 
in many places susceptible of being brought to a highly 
productive condition, and under skillful cultivation, repays 
the labor generously. This is the case in the bottoms along 
the Raystown branch, the sinuosities of that stream winding 


around and almost encircling large tracts of level land. 

The township was at one time covered with valuable 
timber, which afforded the landowners greater profit than 
they have since been able to realize from agriculture. 
There are still considerable quantities of tanner's bark and 
railroad ties shipped to market, the labor connected there- 
with being performed principally by the inhabitants in con- 
nection with their farming. In a few years the timber will 
be entirely exhausted. Two steam saw- mills and several 
water mills are sawing up what remains, as rapidly as the 
demands of trade require. There are five public school 
houses in the township. 

Carbon township, the distinguishing feature of which is 
indicated by its name, lies principally upon Broad Top 
mountain, and is bounded on the north by Tod, on the east by 
Clay, on the southwest by Fulton and Bedford counties, and 
on the northwest by Hopewell township. It contains a con- 
siderable portion of the Broad Top coal field, situated in 
Huntingdon, Bedford and Fulton counties, the area of which 
is eighty square miles. The aggregate thickness of the 
workable coal seams is twenty-six feet, the larger seams 
raiiuiii"; from five to ten feet in thickness, and the lesser 
from one to three. The township is the terminus of two 
railroads, the Iluntingdon and Broad Top mountain enter- 
ing it from northwest, and the East liroad Top from the 
northeast. The only industry is the mining of semi-bitumin- 
ous coal, with such mercantile and mechanical business as is 
necessary for the population thus engaged. There are two 
boroughs in the township, Broad Top City and Coalmont, 
and four villages, Dudley, Barnettstown, Bowelton and 

Lincoln, the last township erected in the county, and 
named in iionor of the martyred President, is bounded on 
the northeast by Penn, on the southeast by Tod, on tiie 
south by Hopewell, anil on the northwest by Blair county. 
The Kaystown branch of the Juniata, into which empty 
Coffee run and other small streams, flows through it, and is 
there but little, if any, less winding than in the other parts 
of its course. 


James Entriken settled at the mouth of Coffee run in or 
previous to the year 1800, and entered into the mercantile 
business ; the first load of goods taken there by him being 
hauled down the bed of the run on a half wagon. He was 
elected a Justice of the Peace in 1815, and continued in that 
office until he removed from the place in 1844. In the latter 
year he sold his property there to his nephew, the late James 
Entriken, deceased, and removed to James Creek. He was 
a man of enterprise and did much for the improvement and 
development of that section of country. 

The village of Coffee run was laid out by David Blair, of 
Huntingdon, in May, 1855. It is located on the Huntingdon 
and Broad Top Mountain Eailroad, and contains a post- 
office, the only one in the township. 




The close of the first century of American independence 
and the beginning of the second, the approach of which sug- 
gested the preparation of this work, as well as the histories 
of other counties in the various States of the Union, was 
celebrated by the people of Huntingdon county in a manner 
highly creditable to their patriotism and public spirit. 

Celebrations were held in difterent parts of the county, at 
"Warrior's Mark and Birmingham in the northwestern, at 
Dudley and Orbisonia in the southern, at Mount Union in 
the eastern, and at Huntingdon in the central, being so dis- 
tributed as to atlord to the people an opportunity of attend- 
ing at one place or another. 

Without describing at length the exercises at all of these 
celebrations, we will give such accounts of several of them 
as will preserve an idea of the manner and spirit in which 
the centennial anniversary was observed. 

At Dudley, the Union ISabbath-school celebrated the day 
by holding a basket pic-nic. The Declaration of Indepen- 
dence was read by A. S. Brooks and an address delivered by 
Rev. John Palmer. The music for the occasion was fur- 
nished by the ladies and gentlemen of the vicinity. Innocent 
games and pastimes, and other kinds of amusement were 
provided lor the pleasure of both young and old, and in- 
dulged in by all classes. The day passed profitably and 
pleasantly to all present, and the fire of patriotism seemed to 
burn in every breast. 

At Pirminghum the approach of the day was greeted by 
the firing of guns, the beating of drums and the ringing of 
bells. When morning dawned flags were unfurled and the 
entire populace entered heartily into the work connected 


with the duty to be performed. The citizens of the town 
and vicinity assembled at Laurel Springs at 10 o'clock in 
the forenoon, and John Owens, aged 87, was called to the 
chair. James Thompson, John Copley, David Cree, S. E. 
Russell, Samuel Gensemer, Jacob Cryder, Abraham Smith 
and Jesse Beigle, whose average age is 73 years, were 
chosen vice-presidents. The exercises were as follows : 
*' Glory to God in the Highest," by the Glee Club ; prayer, 
by Rev. Dr. Wilson, of the Presbyterian church ; singing, 
" Flag of our Country ;" reading of Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, by Rev. H. R. Wharton, of the M. B. church; singing, 
*' America ;" oration by Col. G. W. Owens, subject, " Our 
Country in Contrast with the Old World ;" singing, " Our 
Beautiful Flag," by the Glee Club ; address to the children, 
by Rev. Dr. Wilson, subject, " Our Flag ;" address by 
Rev. J. C. Shearer, subject, " Husbandry ;" address by Rev. 
Wharton, subject, "The Bible, the Flag;" singing, "The 
Star-Spangled Banner;" benediction, by Rev. Shearer. The 
multitude then gathered around the largest table ever seen 
in Laurel Spriag grove, substantially and luxuriantly filled 
from one end to the other with supplies to satisfy every 
physical want and taste, while many baskets remained un- 
opened. At 7 o'clock religious services were held in two of 
the churches, and after dark there was a fine display of fire- 

The Orbisonia celebration is thus described in the Leader^ 
of that place : 

"The clay dawned, one of the most beautiful of the season, 
and was ushered in in the usual noisy manner. Before seven 
o'clock delegations began to arrive from the different town- 
ships of this and other counties, and long before the hour 
set for the forming of the procession the streets were 

" At half past seven a large and beautiful flag, 20 feet in 
length, was raised to position on the large pole, in the dia- 
mond. This is the highest flag pole in the county. The 
Orbisonia drum corps played " Rally Round the Flag," 
after which three rousing cheers were given for the old flag. 


" The procession was formed in the following order : Or- 
bisonia drum corps, in new uniforms, fantastics, wagon con- 
taining little girls carrying flags with the names of the States 
printed on them, a young lady dressed as the " Goddess of 
Liberty," seated on an elevated platform, followed by a 
body guard of little boys handsomely dressed, Orbisonia 
Lodge, and citizens. Capt. H. G. Tarr, was chief marshal, 
with the usual number of aids. The procession formed in 
the diamond and marched to the depot to meet those com- 
ing by train. 

" The trains arriving at 9:03 from Mt. Union and Koberts- 
dale were crowded. The train from Robertsdale contained 
two brass bands, one from Cassville, and one from Broad 
Top City, and several lodges of Odd Fellows and other socie- 
ties. Over 300 persons got on the first train at Roberts- 
dale, and the train was unable to carry all the passengers 
from the intermediate stations, and another section had to be 
run to accommodate all. 

" On the arrival of these trains the procession re-formed 
in the following order ; Orbisonia drum corps, fantastics, 
wagon containing children, little boys, carriages containing 
ministers, speakers and committee of arrangements ; Cassville 
band, Orbisonia Odd Fellows, visiting Odd Fellows, Broad 
Top City Band, Broad Top Societies, other visiting societies 
and citizens. The procession moved from the depot at 9:30 
o'clock over the principal streets of the town and thence to 
the grove. 

" At 10 o'clock, a flag raising in front of the Market 
House, immediately after which the assemblage was called 
to order by A. W, Sims; the Cassville Band played " Hail 
Columbia," after which prayer was offered by the Kev.Wm. 
Prideaux, returning thanks to Almighty God for his watch- 
fulness over us in the past and invoking a continuance of it 
in the future. The Glee Club sang the Centennial Hymn, 
after which Mr. Tarr read the Declaration df Independence 
in an impressive manner. The audience then sang the 
" Star Spangled Banner." Mr. Sims then introduced the 
Hon. John M. Reynolds, of Bedford, the orator of the day. 


Mr. Reynolds held the immense audience almost spell-bound 
for over an hour. He spoke of the hardships endured by 
those who in the trying times of the revolution gave their 
aJl, as it were, to secure the blessings we now enjoy ; he 
spoke of the trials of civil war we have passed through 
for the perservation of the union intact ; of our now being 
at peace with the whole world. " He also pointed out the 
dangers that beset us on every side ; the danger of rnal-ad- 
ministration of oflS.cers, corruption in high places, and bri- 
bery, and stated the remedy to be with the people them- 
selves. Mr. Reynolds is a fluent speaker, and had we room 
we would have liked to publish the speech in full. He was 
followed by the Rev. B. B. Hamlin, D.D., of Chambersburg, 
in a few well-timed remarks, on the rise and progress of the 
nation and of America since its discovery by Columbus. 

" Speaking being over, dinner was served to all those who 
could get near the table ; the multitude was so great that it 
was impossible to accommodate, but the committee spared 
no pains to furnish provisions for all — and there was plenty 
for all — if the multitude could have had patience to wait 
their turn. 

" After dinner the enjoyment of the day began, as the 
crowd separated and dispersed through the grove to enjoy 
themselves in some of the different amusements provided. 
A large platform was erected for dancing, swings were put 
up in different parts of the grove, a greased pole was up for 
those desiring to climb it; arrangements for plajdng base- 
ball were provided, and other amusements. Soon every one 
was apparently enjoying themselves to their utmost. 

"At 2 o'clock the tournament came off. Six knights were 
entered for the riding. The successful knight was Dr. W. 
T. Browning, the second best was B, F. Ripple. 

"Dancing in the evening was spoiled by the rain. 

"The crowd was estimated at 4,000, and we believe that 
everyone went away satisfied that it ' was good for them to 
be here' to unite with their fellow citizens in this centennial 
jubilee of American freedom, in pledging their continued 
watchfulness over the welfare of our nation in the future, so 


that their children and children's children may celebrate with 
pride the two hundredth anniversary of this day. 

" The very best of order was maintained on the ground." 

At Huntingdon, "preparations on an ample scale were 
commenced some days beforehand, and perhaps never before 
in the history of our country, were the flowers of our gar- 
dens, and the evergreens of the forest, the hemlock, the pine 
and the laurel, called upon for so heavy a tribute to the 
cause of patriotism, civilization and humanity. These were 
rapidly and almost magically transformed into wreaths, fes- 
toons and beautiful devices, by the fair hands of the ladies, 
who with that energy and patriotic devotion characteristic 
of our townswomen, worked with the patience of ants and 
the energy of beavers, in the sweltering sun of day and dur- 
ing the sultry hours of night, in making a suitable prepara- 
tion for the coming occasion. 

" The work of decorating buildings began early on the 
morning of the third, and long before evening few buildings, 
either public or private, were left unadorned, or unfurnished 
with the most elaborate and tasteful displays of evergreens, 
flowers, emblems and patriotic mottoes, while from roof-top 
and window were to be seen the modest and graceful folds 
of the red, white and blue, as it fluttered in the breeze. Tri- 
umphal arches, with pendant festoons, and a most liberal 
and attractive display of buntina^, spanned the entrance to 
the principal streets and were flung from housetop to house- 
top along the crowded thoroughfares, contributing largely to 
the gorgeousness of the sceue, and forming an interestini^ and 
attractive feature of the occasion. 

"The celebration exercises were inaugurated early on 
Monday evening by the already elTervescing patriotism of 
young America, which manifested itself in the wildest enthu- 
siasm, the most hilarious merriment, and the utmost noise 
which the firing of crackers, shouts, confusion, and general 
deviltry could produce. 

"The ringing of the church bells at 12 o'clock was the 
signal for the ushering in of the new century, and from that 
time on till daylight the good-uatured citizens submitted to 


the deprivation of that sleep which was out of the question, 
comforting themselves with the reflection that the next cen- 
tennial occasion might perhaps be ushered in a little more 
quietly, the novelty of the affair having by that time in some 
measure subsided. 

" Early religious services were held in some of the 
churches. The Baptist church, which had inaugurated the 
exercises on the Sabbath previously by a beautiful and 
tasteful decoration of the building, and an appropriate ser- 
mon and Sabbath School concert, occupied the hour inter- 
vening between 5 and 6 o'clock in devotional exercises ap- 
propriate to the opening of the new century in our nation's 

" Immense crowds of people from the surrounding country 
were in attendance at a very early hour in the morning J 
business was generally suspended and all united in the 
general festivities. The procession formed at 10 a. m., on 
Third street, which from Penn to Mifflin was a mass of 
struggling humanity as each division assumed its appropri- 
ate place in the line of march. 
" The procession consisted of, 
Chief Marshal Bathurst, with his Assistants and 
Aids, all mounted. 
The Huntingdon Silver Cornet Band, 
Members of Council and Orators, in carriages, 
The Independent Hook and Ladder Company, 
Phoenix Fire Company, 
Huntingdon Fire Company, 
Juniata Fire Company, 
Fire Companies from Tyrone, 
Young America, with the Centennial Gun, 
The Eepresentatives of the Different Trades, 
Base Ball Clubs, 
Alexandria Band, 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
Citizens, &c., 
and presented an imposing and highly attractive appear- 
ance as it moved on its line of march through the principal 


streets and returned to the yard in the rear of the Court 
House, where a stand was erected and seats prepared for the 
guests, and where the exercises were opened with prayer by 
Rev. F. B. Riddle. 

" Whittier's Centennial Hymn was then rendered by the 
Huntingdon Centennial Glee Club. 

" The Declaration of Independence was read by J. M. 
Bailey, esq., and a Centennial Overture, composed for the 
occasion by Prof. J. A. Neflf, was rendered by the Hunting- 
don Silver Cornet Band. 

" Dr. J. H. Wintrode was then introduced by Frank W. 
Stewart, esq., of the committee of arrangements, and deliv- 
ered the oration of the day. 

" The exercises were concluded with music, ' Star Span- 
gled Banner,' by the Huntingdon Centennial Glee Club. 

" The balloon ascension was next on the tapis, and was 
expected to be the crowning feature of the occasion ; accord- 
ingly all eyes were turned towards the ' Diamond,' where 
the monster 'Republic' was being inflated as rapidly as 
possible, and which was soon filled with an eager, surging, 
expectant crowd of spectators, holding the position with the 
impatient tenacity of such assemblies, and, amid the scorch- 
ing rays of a pitiless sun, with the thermometer ranging far 
up in the ' nineties,' waiting for the skyward journey of the 
aerial voyagers to commence. 

" At a few minutes past three o'clock. Miss Ihling, the 
female asronaut, arrayed in her gorgeous costume of the 
Goddess of Liberty, the rich spaagles of which were only 
visible beneath the folds of the linen duster which enveloped 
her person, and her flowing auburn ringlets partially con- 
fined by the folds of a blue turban, made her appearance 
on the scene and seated herself for a few moments, the cyno- 
sure of all eyes, awaiting the final preparation, not however 
without casting certain ominous glances towards the western 
heavens, where a terrific storm cloud had for some time 
been gathering, and which now threatened momentarily to 
burst in all its fury. 

" The process of inflation, under the direction of Prol. 


Wise, who superintended all the arrangements, was almost 
completed ; but the storm was coming with frightful rapid- 
ity. The squadrons of the air were forming in line of battle; 
the huge air-ship, like some mighty etherial monster impa- 
tient to be gone, fretted and strained upon her cables, 
threatening to drag the sand-bag anchorage that held her to 
terra firma^ and it was manifestly apparent that unless she 
could be released speedily, all hopes of a successful ascension 
were at an end. But the denouement came. The final 
preparations were completed; the aeronaut, flag in hand, was 
preparing to take her place in the basket which was being 
secured to its moorings ; — the band awaited the signal for 
striking up the national air which was to greet her departure; 
ten minutes more and she would have been "above the 
storm's career," and beyond the reach of human vision, on 
her journey to the region of cloudland; — when, the storm 
burst, and with it, almost simultaneously, the balloon. The 
huge monster of the «,ir gave one or two convulsive starts 
towards its native element ; then with an undulating mo- 
tion, swayed to and fro, like a drunken man ; once it almost 
flattened itself on the earth, to the imminent danger of the 
attendants, then righted itself, swayed, and righted again, 
when the storm struck her. One dull heavy thud — one or 
two tremendous convulsive heavings, like the death throes 
of a mighty giant, and the mammoth air-ship, which a few 
moments before had assumed such tremendous proportions 
and such a swaggering air of defiance to the elements, now 
lay prone upon the earth, a mangled, shapeless mass of 
shreds and network ; her gaseous contents had mingled with 
thin air, and the ascension for that day was over. But no 
time was left for moralizing, for philosophizing or grumbling; 
the elemental contest was now raging in all its fury, and the 
action had become general along the entire line ; the crowd, 
so long waiting on the qui vive of expectancy, with the 
instinct of self-preservation dispersed as rapidly as possible 
to seek shelter from the torrent of rain which followed the 
bursting of the storm-cloud, and which placed an effectual 
quietus on the festivities of the day. 


"The concluding exercises of the evening consisted in a 
general and extensive illumination of private dwellings, in 
which most of our prominent and wealthy citizens availed 
themselves of the opportunity of attesting their patriotism, 
notwithstanding the inclement and threatening aspect of the 
weather, and which presented a brilliant and highly inter- 
esting sight, creditable alike to the energy and public spirit 
of our people, and in the absence of any pyrotechnic display, 
forming a most appropriate and beautiful feature of the con- 
cluding exercises of a day long to be remembered."* 

We give in full the oration of Dr. J. H. Wintrode, as an 
appropriate conclusion to this work : 

We are assembled to-day in obedience to that natural im- 
pulse which prompts a people to do honor to its past. We 
are here to celebrate with reverent and appropriate services 
the centennial anniversary of our National Independence; 
to commemorate the day that beheld three millions of peo- 
ple liberated from the bonds and chai»s of a foreign vassal- 
age, and taking their proper position among the nations of 
the earth. And, my fellow citizens, we should celebrate 
this day in a spirit and manner worthy of the event that we 
commemorate. We should meet together this day as the 
children of the same great family, having a common heritage, 
a common interest, and a common destiny. If all private, 
and local, and political disputes, and all sectarian strifes and 
jealousies cannot this day be forgotten, we are unworthy ot» 
our high birthright. John Adams very clearly predicted 
the proper observance of the day when he wrote : " I am 
apt to believe that the day will be celebrated as the day of 
deliverance, by solemn acts of devotion to Almighty God, 
and by pomp, games, shouts, guns, bells, bonfires, and illumi- 
nations from one end of the country to the other, and from 
this time forward forevermore." What heart does not dilate 
with feelings peculiar to this occasion, and what a host of in- 
teresting recollections spring up in the mind when we reflect 
upon "the times that tried men's souls." The narrative of 
the Pilgrim Fathers, in the spirit of holy zeal forsaking the 

*f rom li. McDivitt's report in the Huntingdon Journal. 


land of their birth, braving the winds of heaven, and the 
angry wrath of the mighty ocean, landing on the wild and 
rugged rock of Plymouth, and planting the seeds of a holy 
religion, as well as laying the foundation of a mighty Re- 
public, destined to be unexampled in the extent of its terri- 
tory and rapid increase of its population, its material re- 
sources and the equality and justice of its political institu- 
tions, and of those fields of fame on which the hoary locks 
of the sire ** lay clotted in the purple gore of the son," where 
the traces of the revolutionary fort and ditch remain, in 
which our fathers knelt in prayer, and battled for the cause 
of freedom; all these things beautifully and vividly revive 
in the mind on this centennial of our nation's existence. 

One hundred years have now rolled round since the 
glorious declaration of the rights of man, which has just 
been so admirably read in your hearing, was proclaimed to 
the civilized world ; and in vain do we search the page of 
history for the record of an event that adorns it with 
greater lustre, or that more eminently distinguishes the per« 
sons amongst whom it took place, for their patriotism, their 
virtue and their valor. " Wiser, far wiser than those who 
have attempted a similar work in other lands and beneath 
other skies, they sought not to destroy any vested rights ; 
they set up no false notions of equality, nor the oppression 
of the many for the tyranny of the few ; neither did they 
undertake to sever the chain which bound them to an hon- 
orable past. They sought rather to make virtue and intel- 
ligence the test of manhood ; they sought to strike down 
prerogative and privilege, and open the gates of happiness to 
all alike. And, my fellow-citizens, if there be anything 
great, if there be anything noble, if there be anything pre- 
cious and invaluable in the American Revolution, it is just 
this, it has secured for all men an equal chance ia life." 
Then, too, it has demonstrated man's capacity for self gov- 
ernment. It has shown him his just, natural and inaliena- 
ble rights, and it has taught him, too, that his greatest 
privilege, is to be free. 

Let us for a moment endeavor to go back in imagination 


to the -ith of July, 1776. Let us enter that shrine of Amer- 
can liberty, old Independence Hall. See those patriotic men 
pondering upon the magnitude of the step about to be taken ! 
There are Jefterson, and Adams, and Lee and Hancock, and 
Hopkins, and Livingston ; there, too, are our own Morris, 
and Rush, and Franklin, and Morton, and Clymer, and 
Smith, and Taylor, and Wilson, and Ross. Silence, deep, 
solemn, profound silence reigns throughout the hall ! There 
are those there that seem to waver. See that aged man arise 
— he casts a look of inexpressible interest and uncon- 
querable determination upon his fellow-patriots. Hear him 
as in slow, measured and tremulous accents he speaks : "Mr. 
President, there is a tide in the affairs of men, a nick of 
time, we perceive it now before us. That noble instrument 
upon your table, which secures immortality to its author, 
should be subscribed to this very day by every member of 
thiij house ! He who will not respond to its call — he who 
falters now is unworthy the name of freeman ! Sir, 
these gray hairs must soon descend into the tomb, but, 
I would rather they should descend thither by the hand of 
the executioner, than desert at this crisis the sacred cause of 
my country." He is^silent, but the fire of patriotism he has 
kindled is burning in every bosom in that assembly, and the 
glorous deed is done. 

What was it, fellow-citizens, that induced these noble 
men to take this bold and praise-deserving step ? Assured- 
ly they were not unconcious of the dangers of such a course. 
"The disparity between the power of Great Britain and that 
of the colonies, was more apparent to them than it can ever 
be to us. They saw the first power of the age fresh from 
the memorable battles in which she had destroyed the naval 
and colonial power of France. The air still rang with the 
cheers with which they themselves had greeted her 
successive triumphs, the honor of which they had come 
to look upon as their own. Her armies had been 
triumphant in every land ; her fleets victorious on the most 
distant seas." They knew therefore the significance of their 
act; they knew that should the experiment fail, proud Eug- 


land would rise in all her might, and vindicate the honor of 
her insulted majesty. And as was there grimly said at the 
time, they knew they must all " hang together, or all hang, 
separately." It was therefore from purely patriotic motives 
that they acted. 

History records many instances of true patriotism, and of 
self-sacrificing devotion to country. It records the acts of 
Lycurgus, the great Spartan law-giver, who furnished Sparta 
with a code of wholesome laws, exacted from his country- 
men a promise of implicit obedience to those laws till his re- 
turn, and then leaving Sparta to return no more forever ; 
thus seeking to secure the permanence of his institutions 
by a voluntary banishment from his country. And, although 
such a course would at this day be discountenanced, making 
due allowance for the age in which, and the people amongst 
whom, it took place, it can be regarded in no other light 
than that of self-sacrificing devotion to country. The de- 
fence of Thermopylse by Le.onidas,and the sacrifice of himself 
and his three hundred heroic Lacedemonians, is another em- 
inent example of self-sacrificing devotion to country, and 
well might they erect a monument to tell to posterity the 
tale, with the beautiful inscription thereon : " Tell it in 
Lacedemon, that we died here in obedience to the laws of 
our country." But neither of these incidents, or any 
other recorded in history, excels or equals in any of the 
attributes or characteristics of a true, healthy and enlight- 
ened patriotism, that decisive act in which it was declared 
that '* these united colonies are and of right ought to be free 
and independent States." 

But while our thoughts are thus directed to the worth of 
those who first unfurled to the breeze the star spangled 
banner of freedom, we must not forget the men of equal 
worth and patriotic valor who marched through blood and 
carnage beneath its flying folds, until it waved in security 
and peace over this "land of the free and home of the brave." 
Led on by their patriot chieftain, the immortal Washington, 
whose confidence rested in the arm of Omnipotence alone ; 
guided by his wisdom and directed by his sagacity, the 


American people entered on the unequal contest, fearless of 
the issue. Their battle cry was "Victory or Death," and 
they fought like men determined to be free ; and after eight 
long years of triumphs and defeats, of varied successes and 
reveises, victory perched upon their banner. The symbol 
of peace again hung in the retiring clouds, and the United 
States of America, from the very nursery of oppression, 
stood before the world the fairest, freest and the best nation 
ever gazed on by mortal man. 

The true American patriot feels that he has a name 
which demands his highest and noblest offering of patriot- 
ism, and he yields the first fruits of his genius and of his 
heart to his country. He loves her with the gushing fullness 
and unselfish devotion of the heart's first and purest love. 
And how could it be otherwise ? Her soil claims a parent's 
right to that love ; and were it as cheerless as winter, could 
he love it less than the Switzer loves his barren cliffs ? 
Were it as torrid as Arabia, could he cherish it less than the 
Bedouin his own land ? But the grandeur and beanty of 
this boon land of his birth, where lavish Nature seems to 
have gathered her wonders as for a race of free giants — the 
clustered isles of her sublime and solemn forests, the cata- 
ract voices that thunder among her hills, the rivers that 
sweep with queenly magnificence among valleys the loveli- 
est that zephyr ever visited — how could these be his own 
and be unbeloved ? And then her annals, rich in the unri- 
valed triumphs of a calm and Christian heroism, of valor 
and of virtue, and more, and far greater than all, her liberty, 
calm and crimeless, lofty and self-sustained, that lifts her 
far above all ancient and modern ci)mparis<m, the morning 
star of the nations leading in the onward march of Christian 
civilization, of progress and humanity! Why, he would be 
duller than the dullest clod of the valley did his heart not 
swell with exulting gratitude to the God, who made such a 
land and made him a child upon its bosom. It is wise, 
therefore, that he loves his native land, and loves it thus; 
not with a cold sense of filial duty merely, the trickling of 
an icy patriotism, but with a full and free passion that 


regards a single life as too poor an offering for such a coun- 
try, and would give it, not grudgingly or with reluctance, 
but freely, as the sun does its light or the heaven its dew, 
would pour out his young, warm blood in the battle and 
bless each sacrificial drop as it bubbles forth. Oh, more 
than mountains or rivers, or even wealth and splendor or 
greatness, is this spirit the true glory of our land. And 
this spirit, let me say, is no idle dream, no phantom of the 
imagination ; it is a presence and a reality. It lives, and 
moves, and has its being in every pulsation of the mighty 
heart of our country. And when the shadows darken and 
the peril comes, will it stand forth, mightier than any mere 
inanimate, physical power, to save and to achieve. 

It is held by some that we have greatly degenerated, that 
we have retrograded into a more shallow and more vulgar 
race than our forefathers ; that there are no such intellectual 
giants and no such lofty emotions in these latter days. 
Where, in our Congress, it is asked, are the white-headed 
Peyton Randolphs, the Washingtons, the Lees, and the Jays ? 
It is the sentimental habit of every age to decry, disparage, 
and underrate itself. When the patriots of 177-± met in Car- 
penters' Ilall, they bewailed the spirit of Cromwell's day, until 
the firing of the first bomb into Boston revealed and brought 
into the light the same stern courage and unyielding in- 
tegrity in themselves. So, too, the firing of the first gun 
at Sumpter, in 1861, arrayed us, in a single month, under 
one banner or another, men who whatever their mistakes of 
judgment were, surely were not influenced by any considera- 
tions of gain, but who offered their lives freely for an idea 
which seemed to them the wisest and the best. In times 
of piping peace, when money spending seems to be our only 
business, and money getting assumes with all of us the 
greatest importance, the Lincolns and Sumners, and may I 
say it, the Lees and Stonewall Jacksons, go into the back- 
ground, and the Tweeds the Credit Mobilier men and carpet 
baggers come to the front, and the hero of Fort Fisher and 
Dutch Gap, and the Winnebago chieftains, become leaders ; 
but notwithstanding all this the American people are this 


day, "we firmly and honestly believe, as brawny a race of 
men, mentally and morally, as our forefathers, quite as gen- 
uine and quite as God-fearing, although they may show it 

in a diflerent fashion. 

The true American patriot recognizes the sublime fact 
that the quality of the human race, equal rights on earth 
and an equal destiny in Heaven, was first taught by 
Christianity ; that the hopes of a Kepublic are dreams, idle, 
shadowy and futile, unless sustained by the faith of the 
Christian ; that the ambition is mean that pauses this side 
of Heaven ; that the patriotism is false which leans only on 
the earth ; that he cannot love his country who will not love 
his God, and that 

" He is a freeman whom the truth makes free, 
And all are slaves beside." 

My good friends, this anniversary is about gone by for- 
ever, and my task is done. While I have spoken, the hour 
has gone from us ; the hand has moved upon the dial, and 
the old century is dead. The United States of America 
have endured the one hundred years. And here, on the 
threshold of the future, at the opening of the new century, 
surely the voice of humanity shall not plead with us in vain. 
There shall be darkness in the days to come, danger for our 
courage, temptation for our virtue, doubt for our faith, and 
sufl'ering for our fortitude. A thousand shall fall before us, 
and tens of thousands on our right hand, the years shall pass 
beneath our feet, and century follow century in quick 
succession. The generations of men shall come and go, the 
greatness of yesterday shall soon be forgotten, the glories of 
this day shall vanish before to-morrow's sun, but America 
shall not perish, but shall endure while the spirit of the 
fathers animates their sons. 



Aborigines 17 

Academies 178 

Adams Thomas 15L 

Africa Daniel 25 

Africa J. Simpson ... 25, 70, 122, 

160, 228, 236, 243 
Aggressions upon unpurchased 

lands 35 

Agriculture ' . . . 161 

Agricultural fairs 160 

Agricultural societies 157 

Akers Rev. Jesse R. . . . 249, 257 

Albany, treaty of 40 

Alexander R. M. . . 194 

Alexander William 147 

Alexandria. ... 70, 149, 173, 183, 

Allison Robert .... 147, 157, 201, 


Ambrose William 194 

American The 123,128 

Anderson's fort 293 

Anderson Maj. J. P 243 

Anderson Mrs. M. H. . . . 243 
Anniversary, Centennial . . . 338 

Annual products 161 

Appleby D. C. M 196 

Applebv John 269 

A popular error 28 

Armstrong Col. John . . 68, 69, 71 

Armstrong Jack 30 

Area of the county 184 

Arks ' 113,138 

Assembly. Representatives in . 227 
Ashman Col. George . . 88, 94, 112 

Ashman John 154 

Associate Judges 223 

Aughwick. . . 19, 25, 37, 45, 55, 61, 


Aurandt David 160 



Aurandt Rev. J. D. . . 228, 316, 327 

Ayres Gen. William 153 

Bacon J. M 65 

Bair Webster T 134 

Bailey John M 160, 231, 344 

Baker Jacob 160 

Baker J. C 194 

Bare B. F 195 

Barnetstown 336 

BarrJ. S. ...-.., 159,174,176 

Barree Forge 112,167 

Barree Furnace 167, 279 

Barree township . . .94, 167, 183, 

262, 263 

Bathurst W. F 199 

Beckwith J. M. & Co 122 

Bedford county 92 

Bedford furnace. . .88, 112, 167 304 

Beers L. M 178 

Beigle Daniel 287 

Beigle Edward 288 

Beigle Samuel 288 

Bell Edward 157 

Bell Samuel H 160 

Benedict, A. W 124, 152, 159, 


Benedict Miss C. T 174 

Renner Seth 195 

Benner Thomas M 287 

Birmingham . . 149, 180, 183, 296, 


Black Log 19, 23, 25, 310 

Blair Alexander ....... 266 

Blair Brice 148, 154, 227 

Blair Brice X 196, 199, 228 

Blair county 100 

Blair Hon.D. . . 150, 151, 160, 227 
Blair John, of Blair's Gap . . 157, 

Blair John, of Shade Gap. . . 267 




Blake John W 196 

Bland Rev. Zane 178 

Boring James H 199 

Borinp John H 196 

Bowman J. M 184 

Braddock 19,50 

Brady Gen. Hngh 321 

Brady township . . 94,167,183,263, 

Brewster Dr. Wm 128 

Broadhead Col 83 

Broad Top City 336 

Broad Top Miner 123 

Brown Samuel T. . . 160, 174, 228 

Brumbaugh Dr. A. B 135 

Brumbaugh J. B 135 

Brumbaugh H. B 135, 249 

Bucher Conrad 157,227 

Bucher George C 197 

Bucks county 91 

Bueglass Rev 190 

Burkett E 195 

Burning of cabins 37 

Burnt Cabins 37 

Cadwallader John 115 

Caldwell S. D 270 

Calvin 284 

Cambria county 100 

Campbell James 152 

Campbell Rev. James 174 

Campbell J. D 190, 194, 224 

Campbell Thos. P. . . .121,159 

Campbell Rev. W. W ISO 

Canals 142 

Canan Moses 120 

Cannon Col. John . . 103, 200, 225 

Captain Jack 28 

Captain Jacobs GS 

Capture of Fort Granville . . 68 
Carbon township. . . .183, 263, 336 

Carlton General 89 

Carothers James B 161 

Carothers Lieut 78, 82 

Cass township . . . .183,263,314 

Cassville 183,2(>3,317 

Cassville Seminary 178 

Centennial Anniversary. . . . 33s 

Centre county 99 

Charcoal 160 


Chester county 91 

Chester furnace 167 

Chestnut George 154 

Chilcoatstown 316 

Churches 181 

Clabaugh Levi 197 

Clark James 126, 152 

Clark Miss W. A 135 

Clarkson Hon. D. .171, 178,223, 317 
Clay township .... 183, 262, 320 

Clerks of Courts 232, 233 

Clinton forge 167 

Clinton Sir Henry 89 

Clintonville 274 

Cloyd Samuel J 194 

Clugage Col. Gavin 309 

Clugage Capt. Thomas 83 

Clugage Maj. Robert 78, 83 

Coal 163 

Coalmont 336 

Coder Samuel 199 

Coffee Run 337 

Coke 166 

Cc^lcrain forges 167, 280 

Colfax 284 

Common Schools 168 

Condi (ion of Capt. Mercer's 

Company 67 

Congressional districts .... 214 
Congre.'^s, Representatives in . 214 

Conser Rev. S. L. M 190 

Constitutional Conventions . . 229 

Cook Henry 197 

Cook Isaac 152 

Cook's ^lills 155 

Coons R. J. & Co 134 

CornmanJ. S 133,160 

Cornpropst's Mills 264 

Cornpropst T. M 194 

Cornwallis Lord 89 

Countess of Huntingdon . . . 72 
County Commissioners .... 234 

CountyofTicers 232 

County Superintendents . . . 175 

County Surveyors 236 

County Treasurers 233 

Courier, Huntingdon . . . 114, 122 

(!ourt Houses 96 

Crawford Hugh 71 




Cree David 267 

Cree Thomas K 267 

Creigh A. H. W 196 

CremerT. H. . . 123, 126, 134, 160, 

Cresswell Jacob 152 

Crites W. K 199 

Croghan George . . 18, 21, 22, 45, 

49,61, 71, 265 
Cromwell Thos. T. . . . 112, 154, 

157, 274, 302, 305 
Cromwell township . . . 167, 183, 
263, 302 

Cumberland county 82, 91 

Cunningham W. F 195, 199 

Dangers from Indians .... 71 

Dare George 194 

Davis Miss N. J 180 

Davis Robert W 197 

Davis Stephen 157 

Davis S.J 195 

Davison Robert 194 

Death of Weston 80 

Decker A. W 196 

Decoration of soldiers' graves . 197 

Delawares 36, 42 

Destruction of Records .... 106 

Dewees P. P 155 

DifienderferS 196 

Difficulties with Mifflin co. . . 99 
Directors of the Poor .... 235 
Discontent of Indians .... 38 

District Attorneys 224 

Division of county into mili- 
tary districts 87 

Division of Pennsylvania into 

counties 91 

Dole Rev. A 249 

Dorris Col. William . 197, 220, 242 

Doughertj' Eugene 196 

Dougherty John . 154, 274, 275, 277 

Dougherty Victor 197 

Dowling Mrs. Jane 293 

Doyle John A 152 

Doyle Rev. M. P 198, 249 

Drake's Ferry 273 

Dublin township . 94, 183, 262, 265 

Dudley 336, 338 

Duffey Michael 114 


Durborrow Jos. R 128 

Dysart John 197 

Dysart James C 197 

Early warrants 70 

East Broad Top Railroad . . . 155 

Education 168 

Edward furnace 167 

Edwards E. W 195 

Election districts 94 

Elizabeth forges 167 

Elliott Alexander 242 

Elliott Benj. . 75, 94, 95, 104, 200, 229 

Elliott B. M 197 

Emergency men 199 

Enterprises of the past .... 137 

Entriken James 151, 160 

Erection of Huntingdon co. . . 92 

Etchison Perry 194 

Evacuation of Fort Shirley . . 69 

Evans Levi 151 

EverhartE.V 137 

Expedition to Kittanning . . 68 

Expulsion of settlers 36 

Fairs, agricultural 160 

Fee Col. John 87 

Fee John D 196 

Fell J. G 155 

First ark 113 

Fir^ county officers 95 

First iron works 112 

First Newspaper 114 

First settlers 35 

First white visitors 17 

Fisher H. G 160 

Fisher Thomas 152 

Fisher Thomas C 197 

Fishers and Miller 165 

Five Nations 17 

Fleck A. G 195 

Fleck Geo. W 199 

Fleming S. E 133 

Fleming William 269 

Flenner John . . 160, 195, 199, 236 

Flood T. L 195 

Focht Rev. Jos. R 249 

Fort, Anderson's 293 

Fort Du Quesne 19 

Fort Granville 68 

Fort, Hartsock's 325 




Fort, McAlevy's 319 

Fort Necessity 47 

Fort Robcrdeau 84 

Fort Shirley .... 64, 66, 68, 69 

Fort Standing Stone 74 

Foster J. T 195 

Foster Rev. M. K ]98 

Foster William 3;>4 

Franklin forge 107 

Franklin township . 113, 155, 167, 
173, 183, 203, 279. 

Franklin William 22 

Franklinville 280 

Frankstown 19 

Fraser Robert 194 

Frontier settlements 01 

Funk William 197 

Gage Geo. F 154 

Galbraith Robert 95 

Garrettson Geo. \V 197 

Garrison at Fort Shirley ... 07 

Gayton William 196 

Gazette,Huntingdon 110 

Gehrett Dr. B. F 134 

Geissinger D. H 190 

Gemmill John lOU 

Gentzell G. L 129 

Gillman S. S 195 

Given John B ^52 

Glasgow S. L 128 

Glass-sand 284, 321 

Globe, HunLingdon 129 

Gorsuch Nathan 332 

Grafius Henry 197 

Grafius Israel 152 

GraffiusE. W 291 

Grafton 320 

Grantville 320 

GrayG. W 199 

Gray James 280 

Gray Rev. Geo 271 2H() 

Graysville 280 

Green Edward A 107 

Green Gen. S. M 152, 159 

Green Jos. A 195 

Gteen Kenzie L. . . . 154. 100, 230 
Greeidand Joshna . . . .100. 232 
Greenwood Furnace . . . 107, '620 


Gregg H. H 195 

Gregg Mathew D 157 

Grier Prof. L. G 180 

Grove Daniel 152 

Guss Prof. A. L. . . . 130, 179, 249 

GuyerT. L 194 

Gwin Alexander ... 118, 151, 227" 

Gwin George 152 

Gwin James '..... 152, 100, 223 

Gwin Patri(;k 118, 232 

Half King 35, 47, 53 

Hall J. A 127 

Hamilton Governor 52 

Hamlin Rev. B. B 198, 341 

Hare Jacob 283 

Hare's Valley 283 

Harris John 24 

Harrison A. S • 194 

Haslett Col. R. F 289 

Hartslog Valley 19 

Hatfield's Rolling Mill . . . . 167 

Haynes Abraham 75 

Hefiner David 194 

Henderson Andrew . . 95,229,233 

Henderson Dr. John 157 

Henderson township . 183, 263, 299 

Herald 134 

HightJ.J 194,199 

Hildebrand CM 194 

Hirst John 156 

Hollman H. A 199 

Hollidaysburg 19 

Holh field Rev. A. Nelson . . 249, 

257, 200 
Plopewell township . . 94,107,183, 

262, 204 

Householder J. F. N 195 

Hud.son George . . . 154, 159, 268 

Hunter Rev. D. W 249 

Hunter W. A 178 

Huntingdon ... 72, 74, 83,87, 93, 

115, 144,149,173, 183,238,342 
Huntingilon Academy .... 180 
Huntingdon, Cambria and In- 

dianaTurn{)ikeConipany . . 141 
Huntingdon, Countess of . . . 72 
Huntingdon county, erection 

of 92 

Huntingdon Courier 114 



Huntingdon and Broad Top 

Railroad 150 

Huntingdon and Chambers- 
burg Railroad 148 

Huntingdon and Hollidaysburg 

Railroad 148 

Huntingdon Furnace . 113,167,279 

Hutcliinson James . 161 

HuyettS. L 195,196,197 

Illiteracy 176 ' 

Indians 47, 59 

Indian Traders 18 

Indian War Path 19 

Iron . . . ; 166 

Iron ores 275, 279, 301, 307 

Irvin S. H J94 

Irvin W. M 194 

Isenberg B. F 199 

Isenberg J; G 199 

Isett E. B 288, 291 

Isett Jacob 288 

Isett J. H 199, 288 

Isett John S. . . 160, 235, 288, 306 
Jack Armstrong's Narrows . 25, 30 

Jack Captain 28, 303 

Jack's Narrows 28 

Jackson George .... 152, 160, 235 

Jackson Joseph 319 

Jackson township . 167, 183, 263, 

Jacobs A. A 197 

Jacobs Benjamin 197 

Jacobs Captain 68 

Jacob R. U. & Co 165 

Jails 98 

Jet d'Eau and Hotel des In- 

valides 277 

Johnson Capt. Joseph . 190, 194, 

Johnston G. W. . . . 160, 232, 237 

Johnston H. T 194 

Jghnston Thos. S 196 

Johnston Wm. F 196 

Journal Huntingdon 124 

Juniata Charcoal Iron .... 167 

Juniata Forge 167, 295 

Juniata Mail Stage 138 

Juniata township . . . 183, 263, 335 
Jury Commissioners 236 


Keith Jacob 287 

Kerr John 148 

Keystone Hotel 295 

Killingof Capt. Jacobs . ... 68 

Kinch I. K 194 

Kinkead D. P. . ' 196 

Kinkead Maxwell 157 

Kittanning 68, 81 

Kittanning Point 19 

Knight B. Andrews 154 

Kuhn Geo W 195 

Kuhn R. S 178 

Lancaster county 91 

Land Lien Docket 70 

Lane F. H 195, 228, 234 

Langdon R. & Co 165 

Lawrence J. J 195, 197 

Leabhart 0.0 123 

Leader Orbisonia 134 

Lead ore 323 

Leas Benjamin 148, 154 

Leas Wm. B 155, 223 

Letter from Capt. Mercer ... 66 
Letter from Gen. Roberdeau . 78 
Lewis WiUiam . . . 130, 151, 197 
Lewisburg, Centre and Spruce 

Creek Railroad 155 

Lincoln township . . 183, 263, 336 

Lindsay Hugh 133 

Literary Messenger 119 

Live stock 161 

Local News 133 

Long James 197 

Long John 148 

Lukens Charles 26 

Lukens John 26 

Lutheran church 249 

Lutz John 123, 154 

Lytle Benj C 326 

Lytle D. H 195 

Lytle Nathaniel 287 

Lytle P. M 218, 219 

Maddensville 280 

Maguire James 152, 227 

Maguire Jane 293 

Mails first brought into co. . . 137 

Mail route 140 

Manor Hill 264 

Manufactures 162 



Mapletoii 173, 183, 284 

March Jesse 197 

Markle.sburg 327 

Marshall Win 2G8 

Martin Colonel 86 

Mary Ann forge 167 

Massey Daniel 159 

Matilda furnace 277 

Mattern John W 160, 329 

McAlevy Gen. AVm. . 80, 94, 101, 319 

Mc A levy's Fort 319 

McAllister H.N 159 

McCabe G. F 194, 195 

McCahan John . . . 114, 116, 148 

McCahan J. Kinney 117 

McC:ahan T. S 195 

McCardle James 268 

McCay William 122 

McClain Lazarus B 95 

McConnell Henry L 122 

McConnell John 147 

McConnellstown 3U0 

McCulloch John . . .152,215,23(1 

McCune Joseph 157, 223 

McCune Thomas 95 

McDivitt Robt. . 128, 160, 174, 176 

McDonald F. Y 194 

McElroy Alexander 268 

McGee James 268 

McGinnesKev. J. Y. . . . 178, 270 

McGinnes Wilson 178 

Mcllvaine Rev 271 

!McKenzic .S. A 13;> 

McLaughlin John 195 

McMurray Rev. J. 8. . . . 198, 255 
McMurtrie David ... 74, 95, 227 

McMurtrie Maj. D 152 

McMurtrie James 74,232 

McMurtrie Rudolph 197 

McNally M 194 

McNeal Prof. R. M. . . . 169, 176 

McNeil M. IM 133 

McNeil O. E 1:53 

McPherran Jas. A 191 

McPherran S. T 196 

McPherran W. F 195 

McVilty Samuel . . . 65, 154, 155 
McWilfiams Jon. .159, 160, 223, 227 
Mead Rev. Chas. II 249 

Meadow Gap 280 

Mears George 166 

Melinda furnace and forge . . 167 
Memorial Association . . . .198 
Mercer Ca[»t. Hugh ... 65, 66, 68 

Merryman Charles 197 

Messenger Huntingdon . . . 122 

Methodist church 255 

Mickley Charles 151, 160 

^Mifflin county 99 

MifHin Samuel W 153 

Miles J. B 194 

Miles John G. . . 148, 151, 159,227 

Miles E. H 196 

Militia 86, 196 

Miller A J 195 

Miller B. F 123, 194 

Miller David R 197 

Miller Dr D. P 199 

Miller Dr. R. Allison . . > . . 243 

Miller Grafl'us 160, 232 

Miller Jacob 25, 157, 201 

Miller Jacob H 159 

Miller Johns 160,228 

Miller Henry 157^ 

Mill Creek 321 

Mill Creek furnace 167 

Mills :Michael 269 

Mihnvood Academy . . . 178, 270 

Mitchell C. H 194 

Mitchell's furnace .... 167, 320 

Monacatootha 54 

Monitor Huntingdon 131 

I\h)nroe furnace 167, 264 

Montgomery S 196 

Montour Andrew 22 

Montour Lewis 48 

Moreland George 268 

Moreland William 268 

Morgan Joshua 269 

Morrell • • • • 292 

Morrison Hon. John . 154, 226, 227 

Morrison James 197 

Morrison John 197 

Morrison J. S 196 

Morrow B. M 196 

Morrow AVilliam 268 

Musemeelin 30 

Musser J. Hall 115 




Mussina Lyons 130 

Mytinger L. G 12!J 

Myton S. W 197 

Myton T. W i99 

Nash J. A 123, 128 

Neely D. R. P 196, 232 

Neely Thomas 160 

Neflf Andrew J 152 

NefTH. K 194 

Newspapers 114, 116, 124 

Oaks Alexander 159 

Oaks William 160 

Old deed of conveyance . . . 238 

Oneida Indians 17 

Oneida township . . 183, 263, 332 

Orbison & Co 243 

Orbison Thomas E. . 148, 160, 311 

Orbison William 147,201 

Orbison William P 152 

Oibisonia 88, 155, 311, 339 

Orlady Geo. B 198, 199 

Osborn J. A 194 

Owen Albert 131, 176, 197 

Owens Col. G. W 339 

Paradise Furnace 167 

Pardee A 155 

Parker David 160 

Patterson Adolplius 157 

Patterson G. W 195 

Patton John 156,23? 

Patton Maj. James 151 

Patton Dr. J. R 161 

Penn township .... 183, 263, 322 

Penn William 91 

Pennsylvania canal 143 

Pennsylvania Furnace . . 167, 279 
Pennsylvania Railroad .... 148 

Peters Richard 36 

Petersburtr .... 149, 173, 183, 294 
Petriken R. B . . 151, 188,194, 226 

Philadelphia county 91 

Philips William 95 

Pierce Rev. Ralph . • . . . .179 

Pilgrim • .134 

Piper Col. John 76, 8(; 

Plannett Rev. J. W 198 

Poor Directors 235 

Poor House 235 

Population 182 


Port Alexander 152, 161 

Porter David R. . . . 118, 125, 202 

Porter James 194 

Porter John 148 

Porter John M 195 

Porter township . 167,173,183,263, 

Post-office at Huntingdon . . . 115 

Post riders 137 

Potter Gen. James 82 

Powelton 336 

Powell R. Hare 159 

Powell R. H. & Co 165 

Presbyterian church 257 

President Judges 217 

Private schools 178 

Prothonotaries . . . , 232 

Purcell Edward B 197 

Railroads 147 

Raymond George 122 

Reakert Bros. & Co 165 

Rebecca furnace -167 

Rebellion 185 

Recruiting at Carlisle 66 

Reed Joseph 160 

ReedT. B 196 

Registers and Recorders . . . 233 

Reid Rev. S H 190 

Representatives in Assembly . 227 
Representatives in Congress .214 

Republican 123 

Rennblican Advocate .... 121 

Riddle Rev. Finley B 249 

Riddle Snmuel 164 

Ridgley Edward 112 

RinpleB.F 306,309,341 

Ritner Gov. Joseph 126 

RobbDr. G. L. . ". 161 

Roberdean Gen. Daniel ... 78 

Roberdeau Fort 84 

Roberts Edward 155 

Roberts Percival 155 

Roberfsdale 155, 336 

Rockhill Coal and Iron Co. 112, 166 
Bockhill furnace . . 167, 305, 308 

Rogers Isaac 195 

Ross Rev. Wm. P 249 

Rough and Ready furnace . . 167 
Royer Dr. Lewis 155 



Rudy George 159 

Rumbarger 0. S. 194 

Salisbury 216 

Salter Capt. Elisha .... 66 

Saltillo 155 

Sangree A. B 160 

Santa Fe 274 

Saulsburg 264 

Saxton James 152 

Scarroyady 35, 47, 54 

Schools 168 

School houses 171 

School teachers 169 

Scotch -Irish 45 

Scott Hon. John . 152, 198, 207 

Scottsville 154 

Second Standing Stone ... 26 

Sells Ludwig 75, 94 

Seminaries ', .178 

Senatorial districts .... 225 

Shade Dr. J. A 226, 270 

Shade Gap ... 19, 178, 265, 270 
Shadow of Death . . . .25,265 

Sharrer John 154 

Shaver Peter 196 

Shaw W. F.- 123 

Shawnees 42 

Shearer H. R 270 

Sheriffs 232 

Shingas 68 

Shirley Fort 64, 66, 69 

Shirley General 64 

Shirleysbnrg . 37, 155, 183, 272, 278 
Shirlcysburg Academy . . . 178 
Shirloysbnrg Herald . . . .123 
Shirley township . 94, 167, 183, 262 
Shoenborfrer Dr. Peter . . . 294 

Shoenbort'er E. F 148 

Shonty^ Christian 15] 

Shontz J. B 196 

Shreiner Thomas 197 

Simpson James 25 

Simpson J. R 199 

Simpson W. H . 191 

Sims A. W 155. 340 

Sipes George 170 

Sijies John 154 

Situation of frontiers 70 

Six Nations 36, 41 

Skelly J. M 195 

Smith James 30 

Smith Tliomas 26 

Smith Thomas Duncan . . .94,95 
Smith Dr. William .... 72, 238 

Smith William B 160 

Smith William R 119, 226 

Soldiers' Aid Societies .... 192 
Soldiers' graves, decoration of.. 197 
Soldiers' orphan school . . . .179 

Spanogle W. L 196 

Speech of Scarroyady 59 

Speer Geo. W. . 151, 152, 154, 160, 
178, 196 

Speer Robert 154, 317 

Speer R. Milton . 123, 199, 215, 317 

Speer William 157 

Springfield township . 183,263,208 

Spruce Creek 149, 155, 285 

I Standing Stone . . 17, 23, 25, 74, 78 
j Standin g Stone Banner .... 122 
I Standing Stone Guards . . . .185 

j State Senators 225 

I Steel James 157, 233 

Steele J. Irvin 132 

Stephens Frank 194 

Stephens Prof. J. A 180 

Stevens Frank D 196 

Stever John 154 

Stewart John G. . . . 176, 237 
Stewart J. Sewall . . . 127, 190 

Stewart John 157 

Stewart L. G 195 

Stewarts. F 195, 196 

Stockdale forge 167 

Stofkdale woolen mills .279, 290 

StorrieA.M. K 198 

Stryker Peter 160 

Sujireme Executive Council . 200 
Sur])rise of Indians .... 68 
Surrender of Lord Cornwallis . 89 

Swope G. P 194 

Tanacharisson 47 

Tarr H. G. H 309, 340 

Taylor George .... 121, 217- 

Taxation 184 

Teachers' Institutes . . . .173 

Teague Daniel 154 

Telegraphs 156 




Telltownship . .70,183,263,299 

Temple I. C 195 

Tohmas George .... 194, 197 

Thomas W. F 194 

Thompson A. A 196 

Thompson G. W 195 

Thompson E. E 196 

Thompson Samuel 95 

Thompson Dr. Sidney . . . 287 
Thomson J. Edgar . . . .242 
Times, Mount Union .... 134 
Tod twp. . 167,173,183,263,314 

Tompkins Joel 194 

Tories 75,80,283 

Townships 262 

Treasurers, county 233 

Treaty of Albany 40 

Turnpikes 141 

Tuscarora path 23 

Tuscarora valley 19 

Tussey D. F 176 

Tussey John 159 

Tussey Robert 160 

Union (newspaper) . . . .123 

Union Guards 190 

Union furnace .... 167, 292 
Union township. 183, 263, 283, 314 
Value of real and personal 

property 184 

Van Artsdalen Rev 178 

Wagoner W. C 195 

Walker township . .70,173,183, 

263, 300. 

Wallace Robert 121 

Wallace William A 121 

Wallace W. W 195 

Walls J. M 195 

Ward Rev. Israel 180 

Warrants, land 70 

Warrior's Mark township . . 155 

173, 183, 263, 295. 
Washington Colonel .... 47 

Watchman 122 

Water Street .... 19, 25, 284 

Watson Gen. J. C. . . 159, 232 
Wattson L. Frank . . . .195 

Wealth 184 

Weaver H. C. ... 195, 196, 199 
Weiser Conrad .... 20, 35, 49 
Westbrook J. H. . . . 194, 199 

Weston John 80 

West twp.. . . 167,183,263,293 
Wharton H. S. . . . 197, 228, 243 
Wharton S. S. . 151, 159, 226, 227 

White Jacob 333 

White J. Irvin 257 

Whiten Rev. S. T 249 

Whittaker Geo. W 122 

WhittakerS. G 122,128 

Wigton Samuel 1,")9 

Willett W. M 196 

Williams John 95 

Williamson Gen. Jno. 151, 159, 228 

Williamson W. M 178 

Willoughby Frank .... 134 
Willoughby J. A. ... 194, 165 

Wilson A. P 148,912- 

Wilson George 160 

Wilson James 269 

Wilson Matthew 157 

Wingate John B 155 

Wintrode Dr. J. H . . 152,159,195, 
227, 321, 346 

Woodcock valley 19 

Wood C. R .' " 155 

Woods Randolph 155 

Woods William 269 

Wood W. H [ [ 178 

Womelsdorf D. W. . . 160, 233 
Workingmen's Advocate. . . 123 

Young America 123 

Young Disciple 135 

Zahnizer Rev. G. W. . , 190, 260 
ZeiglerW. B. . . 160,195,232 

Zentmyer D 194 

Zentmyer Frank 194 

Zimmerman C. C 196 

Zimmerman Henry .... 152 








^^ -^^ ..X. v^" 



'^^.. '' 

^ ..<^ 


Ci -r;. 

- vA 



>' <> 

3 0^ ' r '*'' 

.0 ■ 



C^' . . . , %., * - ^* 

• is'' 

A"^ *y 

'"'''' \^ ., -^ 

. \- 



,0 0, 


^ ^ -^ "^^ 



^,* ,o'^ 

s9 ^b. 

<» o 



>, ^ ^,^#a': ■>bo^ 

1 ^ ■'t ^ 

-5, - 

n .1 O ■* -Nfc 

^^ * s ^ ^' 





•^ s 





^^ ^e: 

/ >!• 


^^ "<<■ 

x<^ "^^