LI 5 R.ARY
1.1 li F. :
civr^iTY nr ii.
ORGANIZATION OF THE FIRST REGIMENT,
IN SEPTEMBER, 1874,
ENACTMENT OF THE MILITARY CODE,
IN MAY, 1879.
HOLDRIDGE O. COLLINS,
Late Lieutenant Colonel and Assistant Adjutant-Genera!.
Et quorum pars parva fui."
PRESS OF BLACK & BEACH, 170 S. CLARK ST.
iflos'tra Cucbtmur Epsi.
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
" Little shall I grace my cause
In speaking for myself. Yet, by your gracious patience,
1 will a round un varnish 'd tale deliver."
HE Organization of the Illinois National
Guard, in 1875, was tne result of a long-
growing conviction that the State must have
a Militia, well trained and equipped, which
could be relied upon with confidence in emer-
The necessity for such a force was more
apparent in the large cities and populous
communities, where the civil authorities needed a power-
ful aid to check lawlessness and disorder.
The reaction in regard to Military matters after the
war, had caused an almost total neglect of the Militia in
Illinois; but the occasional rumblings of a disturbing
element had been heard in various localities, more espe-
cially in Chicago, and the citizens of this city were
finally aroused to a realization of the fact that it was
4 HISTORY OF THE
entirely without any safeguards, other than the police
force, and that a general riot would throw the entire
community into the hands of the lawless.
In 1874, by the aid of individual subscriptions, six
companies of volunteers were enlisted, uniformed, armed
and commissioned as the First Regiment. This was the
nucleus of the large force organized into a Brigade in 1875
and 1876, that gave the State, almost at a bound, a
Military Service which compared favorably with the
Militia of the Sister States.
An attempt has been made in the following pages to
give an account of this movement, and the legislation
growing out of it.
Perhaps the story of the First Regiment has been
dwelt upon longer than necessary, but the great influ-
ence exercised by its officers and men in hastening the
consolidation of Regiments and Battalions throughout the
State, and the pride of the writer, as one of the earliest
members of that body, in its present standing, the First
in discipline and drill as well as in name, may excuse
what otherwise might have been an uninteresting state-
ment of trivial particulars.
The author may be pardoned in speaking of himself
sufficiently to show the sources of his information in the
compilation of the following pages.
He was a member of the National Guard, with the
exception of three months in the Spring of 1875, from
the formation of the First Regiment, in September, 1874,
until June, 1879, the period covered by this book. Dur-
ing that time, he held all the ranks, from private to
Lieutenant-Colonel, in the First Regiment, and on the
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 5
Brigade and Division Staff. As Assistant Adjutant-Gen-
eral of the Brigade and Division, the entire official
correspondence passed through his hands, and the orig-
inal of all letters received, and copies of all orders
and communications transmitted, were carefully pre-
served. The statements made herein are from the
records, and, it is confidently believed, in accordance
with the facts.
It was the intention originally to refer but very briefly to
the enactment of the peculiar law of 1879, but smce these
pages were commenced, gentlemen, prominent in the
Militia, have thought that the interests of the service, as
well as justice to all who were defeated in their attempts
to secure a good law by the Thirty-first General Assem-
bly, required the story. The writer has made no alle-
gations for which he is not responsible. He has over-
drawn nothing, " nor set down aught in malice." On
the contrary, should the accuracy of that narrative be
questioned, records, documents and letters can be pro-
duced show ing that the half has not been told.
Bearing in mind Solomon's statement, " of making-
many books there is no end," and Job's warning, " Oh !
that mine adversary had written a book," the author
hopes that this history may prove of some interest to the
many gentlemen with whom he enjoyed four years of
pleasant Militarv association.
HOLDRIDGE O. COLLINS.
CHICAGO, February 22, 1884.
HISTORY OF THE
Tl?,e Organization, of tl?,e First Regiment.
SHE First meeting to effect the organiza-
tion of a Regiment of Militia was held in
Chicago, at the Grand Pacific Hotel on Au-
gust 28, 1874. Subsequent meetings were
had in the early part of September, at the
Sherman House and the Tremont House,
and there being an unanimous feeling for
immediate action, a general outline of the mode of pro-
cedure was speedily agreed upon, the minordetails being
left for future consideration.
Guerdon S. Hubbard, Jr., very generously offered his
building, Nos. 79 and 81 State street, without compen-
sation, for the use of the Regiment, until definite arrange-
ments could be made for an Armory, and the next
meeting was held at that place, on September 8, where
Companies A, B and C were enrolled.
The following was their respective membership:
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 7
Captain, Graeme Stewart.
First Lieutenant, - Julius G. Goodrich.
Second Lieutenant, - Charles S. Diehl.
First Sergeant, R. W. Rathborne.
Second Sergeant, N. N. Goodrich.
Third Sergeant, - George Miles.
Fourth Sergeant, - John McArthur, Jr.
A. W. Merriam, J. C. King, E. R. Richards, John M.
Dandy, Charles H. Smith, Chas. Jernegan, Chas. Rand, A.
Bushey, E. R. Chumasero, H. F. Boynton, Saml. Brown, W. S.
Carpenter, C. M. Bickford, Geo. M. Hough, J. W. Street, C.
Barry, E. W. Westfall, E. Mead, G. P. Bartalott, Geo. Cane,
L. F. Wade, F. Dodge, C. H. Besley, C. S. Wells, E. S. Magill,
W. G. Sherer, John Vaughn, C. Pettet, John S. Clark, D.
Smith, M. A. Farr, W. W. Powell, O. Huyck, G. H. Corn el es,
A. L. Chatterton, H. Brainerd, A. J. Hugeman, O. H. Secrest,
F. Larger, C. McArthur, P. R. Woodford, Will. Chambers.
Captain, Edwin B. Knox.
First Lieutenant, - W. W. Bishop.
Second Lieutenant, - Arthur J. Howe.
John Brine, \V. H. Brine, W. H. Lrne, W. D. Gregory, S
C. Goodyear, W. H. Baldwin, C. N. Bishop, F. E. Fenderson,
C. W. Butler, F. K. Morrell, E. Archibald, Miles Burnam, E.
E. Russell, Frank Reed, Saml. Sheahan, Henry S. Howler,
Charles W. Cutting, F. C. Lovejoy, Will. Rathbone, E. Durand,
W. L. Prettyman, Charles E. Case, E W Thomas, 1). J. Foley,
8 HISTORY OF THE
Rodney Granger, C. W. Parker, S. W. Stryker, J. E. Much-
more, Jr., S. P. Anderson, G. H. Stevens, J. Dermott, W.
Booth, S. Smith, C. W. Hornick, J. T. Hoyne, F. Guth, George
Dickson, George Coombs, F. H. Sharp, O. H. Beedy, D. J.
Kennedy, C. D. Thompson, C. S. Dunk.
Captain, Mason B. Carpenter.
First Lieutenant, - Irving R. Fisher.
Second Lieutenant, - Noble B. Judah.
First Sergeant, John D. Bangs.
Second Sergeant, Holdridge (). Collins.
J. Y. Oliver, J. W. Johnson, George A. Gibbs, C. H. Hub-
bard, Henry J. Peet, Henry W. Seman, A. W. Brickwood, B.
M. Saunders, W. P. Conger, W. D. McCool, C. F. Hamilton,
J. C. Clark, Francis O. Lyman, Azel F. Hatch, Harry C. Gorin,
Saml. F. McConnell, Leonard Boyce, Edwin O. Brown, W. L.
Johnson, B. W. Dodson, N. B. Brant, D. W. Graves, E. Hanecy,
W. E. Mason, W. E. Cooke, J. H. Shields, Warren L. Ayers,
George Hough, H. R. Vanderwont, Josiah Johnson, Frank G.
Hoyne, H. S. Freeman, J. H. Starkweather, Fred. S. Wheaton,
G. E. Pomeroy, A. O. Lindsley, C. H. Hill, E. W. Jamar, F.
W. Sanger, Wm. Schatz, W. H. Peek, J. W. Montgomery, Fred.
Mills, J. W. Hawley, P. Cook, George Cook, O. O. Hall, C. V.
These three Companies reporting at the same meet-
ing, the rank of their Captains was decided by lot. Cap-
tain Stewart winning the right of the line, Captain Knox
the left and Captain Carpenter the colors.
On September I4th, Company D was received into
the Regiment. It was composed of the following gen-
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 9
Captain, John W. Hawley.
First Lieutenant, Wm. Dickinson.
Second Lieutenant, C. H. Spellman.
Parsons Cooke, C. C. Chase, Frank Ray, J. W. Dickinson,
Charles Mathas, W. Garnet, John Woodb ridge, Jr., J. H. Elliott,
Charles D. Blaney, George Corwith, Philip Larrabee, E. J.
Webster, Wm. Burrell, J. Richards, H. Carter H. Spellman,
Richard Holmes, John Wilson, R. Hobson, W. G. Tucker,
Herbert Dennington, F. Marshall, Charles Stewart, L. Williams,
E. Tehle, J. R. Blaney.
The necessity for a Field officer being apparent, by
the unanimous voice of the entire command, Gen. Frank
T. Sherman was elected Major of the Battalion.
The enthusiasm with which these four companies had
been enlisted, and the material assistance promised by
the Governor of the State and many liberal citizens of
Chicago, indicated the permanent success of this move-
ment, and several independent Militia companies in Chi-
cago made application to be received into the Regiment.
As their tenders of service were accompanied, how-
ever, with the demands that they be accepted with their
individual uniform, and take rank in the Regiment ac-
cording to the date of their Captains' commissions, etc.,
etc., it was not thought expedient to receive any old
commissioned company, and the following preamble and
resolutions were adopted.
" WHEREAS, It is desirous that the Regiment be filled with
ten acceptable Companies ; Therefore, be it
" Resolved, ist, That no company of men shall be admitted
to this Regimental organization, unless the company or body of
men shall be recruited by recruiting officers regularly appointed
io HISTORY OF THE
by the Battalion Commander; 2d, That recruiting officers be
appointed by the Battalion Commander, to recruit the remain-
ing companies to complete the Regiment."
In accordance with the foregoing, Messrs. C. A.
Bishop, A. W. Merriam and Holdridge O. Collins were
appointed recruiting officers.
The uncertainty and confusion arising from the
attempt to arrange the minute affairs of the organization
in " committee of the whole," showed the necessity for
standing and special Committees, and the following were
Order of Business Capt. M. B. Carpenter, Lieut. I. R"
Fisher, Fred. K. Morrill, S. P. Anderson, F. B. Reed.
Ways and Means Capt. Graeme Stewart, Capt. E. B. Knox,
H. J. Goodrich, U. J. Kennedy, Capt. M. B. Carpenter.
Rides of Order J. H. Haynie, Capt. John W. Hawley, W.
I). Gregory, W. H. Lane, Sergeant Holdridge O. Collins.
At a business meeting, held Monday evening, Octo-
ber 5th, and presided over by Major Sherman, two new
companies, E, with 43 men, and F, with 41 men, were
presented by regularly appointed recruiting officers, and
received into the Regiment.
Their officers were as follows:
Captain, Holdridge O. Collins.
First Lieutenant, Samuel Appleton.
Second " Gilbert M. Holmes.
Captain, William Black.
First Lieutenant, Wm. P. Gunthorp.
Second H. F. Boynton.
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. n
By the organization of the last two companies, the
Battalion became entitled to a Lieutenant Colonel, and
Major Sherman was promoted to that office without a
dissenting voice; Guerdon S. Hubbard, Jr., was elected
to the vacant Majority. Lieut. Chas. S. Diehl was
detailed as Adjutant, and he rilled this position to the satis-
faction of the entire command until the Staff was com-
pleted by regular appointments. No member of the
Regiment worked harder for its success than Lieut.
Diehl. Identified with it from its inception, he enlisted
as a private, and was elected from the ranks Second
Lieutenant, upon the organization of Company A. He
devoted much time and severe labor in the early days,
and by his personal exertions he raised many hundreds
of dollars to equip the Regiment and place it on an inde-
pendent basis. He remained with the command up to
1883, when he resigned as Lieutenant Colonel, having
been promoted to that rank through all the lower
The first Staff of the Regiment appointed by Col.
Sherman was composed of the following gentlemen:
Adjutant, First Lieutenant James H. Haynie.
Quartermaster, First Lieutenant Charles H. Gillespie.
Surgeon, - Major Ben, C. Miller, M. D.
First Assistant Surgeon, - Captain Henry Hooper, M. D.
Second " First Lieutenant E. W. Sawyer, M. D.
Chaplain, Captain David Swing.
The six companies immediately commenced drilling,
and the large attendance and prompt obedience to their
instructors soon brought about a more Military aspect of
affairs and a regular system of discipline.
12 HISTORY OF THE
It was not contemplated in the beginning of this
movement that members should pay the cost of their
uniform and equipments. In the absence of any law by
which funds could be drawn from the State Treasury,
assurances had been given that a sufficient amount of
money could be raised from the citizens of Chicago, by
voluntary subscription, to uniform the Regiment and pav
a portion of its current expenses. It now became neces-
sary to call upon the City to do its share of the work.
The officers of the Citizens' Association of Chicago were
requested to inspect the Battalion and present its neces-
sities to the public in an authorized form.
On October 26th, Gen. A. L. Chetlain, Gen. A. C.
McClurg and Mr. J. C. Ambler, a committee from the
Citizens' Association, reviewed the Regiment and en-
quired into its wants. Their report to the Association
was voluminous and highly laudatory and concluded as
" From our observation and inspection, and from what we
can gather in reply to our enquiries, we do not hesitate to
report that the material composing the First Regiment Illinois
State Guard, is excellent, both physically and morally, in the
military acceptation of that word, and that there is an evidence
of quiet, determined ambition to excel as citizen soldiers, of
willingness to undergo the ordeals of drill and discipline, that
cannot fail, if proper encouragement be given them, to make them
into a good and serviceable Regiment, worthy of the sympathy
and support of our citizens, and we cordially recommend them
to your favorable consideration and that of the Community at
Upon the request of the Regiment, the Citizens' Asso-
ciation appointed an Auditing Committee or Board, for
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD.
Xhe " equipment fund " of the Regiment, composed of
Gen. A. L. Chetlain, Walter Kimball, C. B. Nelson, Gen.
A. C. McClurg and R. P. Derrickson, gentlemen well
known by the community, and whose names were a
guaranty that the money of the Regiment would be prop-
The Regiment thereupon appointed a committee of
eighteen to solicit subscriptions. Said committee was
composed of the officers of the six companies, viz:
J. G. Goodrich, -
has. S. Diehl,
Edwin B. Knox, -
W. W. Bishop,
Arthur J. Howe,
Mason B. Carpenter, -
Irving R. Fisher, -
John D. Bangs,
John W. Hawley, -
J. W. Dickinson,
Walter G. Goodrich,
Holdridge O. Collins,
Samuel Appleton, -
W. P. Gunthorp,
H. F. Boynton,
Captain Company A.
First Lieutenant Company A.
Second Lieutenant Company A,
Captain Company B.
First Lieutenant Company B.
Second Lieutenant Company B.
Captain Company C.
First Lieutenant Company C.
Second Lieutenant Company C,
Captain Company D.
First Lieutenant Company D.
Second Lieutenant Company D>
Captain Company E.
First Lieutenant Company E.
Second Lieutenant Company E,
Captain Company F.
First Lieutenant Company F.
Second Lieutenant Company F.
Under the direction and supervision of this committee
of officers, the entire Regiment was divided into squads
of zealous canvassers, and armed witk the recommenda-
tion of the Citizens' Association and their blank subscrip-
tion list, they commenced their labors.
t4 HISTORY OF THE
These proceedings had fully prepared the public for
the attack upon its purse, and all classes of citizens
responded liberally to the call, from Geo. M. Pullman
who started the list with $500, followed by twenty-two
gentlemen, each of whom subscribed $100, down to the
" Connecticut pie man " with his no less generous dona-
tion of five dollars. The labor of canvassing so large a
city and visiting all of the more prominent citizens was
great, and consumed much time, and taxed to the utmost
the energies and patience of those who had the matter in
charge. It would perhaps be invidious to make any
comparisons where all did so well, but the success accom-
panying the unusual exertions of Captain Stewart and
Lieut. Diehl of Company A, Captain Knox of Company
B, Captain Carpenter and Lieut. Bangs of Company C,
Captain Black of Company F, and Color Sergeant Bell
of Company E, deserves especial recognition. A suffi-
cient fund was raised by this personal solicitation of mem-
bers of the Regiment to warrant the renting of a perma-
nent Armory and to purchase the uniform.
Commodious quarters at No. 112 Lake street were
selected and the Regiment entered into possession and com-
menced an earnest and severe course of drill and instruc-
tion. The gray uniform of the First Regiment Infantry
of the Connecticut National Guard was adopted, and
Messrs. Stryker & Co. of New York City, contracted to
deliver the entire outfit by May, 1875.
Article IV of the Code of " Rules and Regulations
of the First Regiment Illinois State Guard," adopted
September 21, 1874, provided as follows:
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD.
" All elections for field and line officers shall be by ballot,
and shall take place annually, on the first Tuesday in Decem-
Pursuant to the foregoing, on December i, 1874, * ne
regular annual meeting was held, and officers for the en-
suing year were elected. Gen. Sherman declined a re-
election, as he was unable to devote the attention to the
Regiment necessarily required by its Commander.
The following gentlemen were chosen:
Alexander C. McClurg.
Guerdon S. Hubbard, Jr.
A. M. Ferris.
Chas. S. Diehl.
Edwin B. Knox.
W. W. Bishop.
Henry S. Bowler.
Mason B. Carpenter.
Frank B. Davis.
John D. Bangs.
John VV. Hawley.
F. P. Dix.
1 6 HISTORY OP THE
Captain, Holdridge O. CoHins-.-
First Lieutenant,. - Samuel Appleton .
Second Gilbert M , Holmes ,
Captain , William Black.
First Lieutenant, - . Robert B. Lewis.
Second Wm. P. Gunthorp.
At this meeting 1 a new Company, formerly known as
the Ellsworth Zouaves, was added to the Regiment, and
given the letter G. Its officers were :
Captain, Edward S. Whitehead.
First Lieutenant/ Henry B. Maxwell,
Second John H. Johnson..
By direction of Governor Beveridge, the Adjutant
General of the State, CoL A. L. Higgins, made a requi-
sition upon the General Government for arms, and on
January 14, 1875, the first invoice arrived from the United
States Armory, at Springfield, Mass., and was turned
over to Quartermaster Gillespie.
Regimental order No. 10, in February, 1875, an-
nounced CoL McClurg's Staff, as follows:
Adjutant, - First Lieutenant Benjamin W. Underwood.
Quartermaster, Charles H. Gillespie.
Surgeon, Major Charles G. Smith, M. D.
Assistant Surgeon, - Capt. Henry Hooper, M. D.
Chaplain, Capt. David Swing.
On March 13, 1875, a new Company, commanded by
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 17
Captain, E. T. Sawyer.
First Lieutenant, E. Norton.
Second Geo. H. Bohner.
was enrolled and given the letter H.
The Regiment, now having eight Companies; be-
came entitled to the full complement of Field and Staff,
and the following gentlemen were elected and commis-
sioned as the Field Officers:
Colonel, Alexander C. McClurg.
Lieutenant Colonel, - Guerdon S. Hubbard, Jr.
Major, Edwin B. Knox.
In February, 1875, riotous demonstrations in Chicago
were made, directed more especially against the treasury
and building of the Relief and Aid Society. The
prompt assembling of the First Regiment, and the
knowledge that its six Companies were bivouacked in
its Armory, ready to sally forth at a moment's notice,
fully armed and equipped, probably had a greater effect
than any other cause in preventing an outbreak of the com-
munistic element at that time. The Chicago papers
were prompt in recognizing the Regiment as one of the
most material aids in saving the city from the threatened
violence. And there was generally manifested by the
public a feeling of satisfaction over the formation of so
finely a disciplined force of Militia.
In March, steps were taken to secure the passage of
a new Militia law by the Legislature, but the lateness of
the Session, and above all the differences of opinion as to
the most desirable provisions of a new military code,
prevented any concerted action, and the Legislature ad-
journed without amending the old, unsatisfactory Militia
1 8 HISTORY OF THE
law, much to the regret of those who had taken an in-
terest in a Militia reorganization throughout the State.
At a business meeting of the Regiment, held May 29,
1875, th e Committee on Ways and Means reported that
Amount subscribed by citizens towards the equip-
ment fund was $13,468 50
Paid by members of the Regiment 2 >349 5
Total $15,818 oo
All of which was being properly expended for uni-
forms and equipments, under the direction of the Auditing
A new company of 35 men was admitted. It was
given the letter I, and its officers were:
Captain, J. Scoville.
First Lieutenant, John H. Burns.
Second W. E. Hall.
Subsequently Company K was admitted, completing
the ten companies of the Regiment. The first officers of
Company K were:
Captain, Charles W. Daniels.
First Lieutenant, T. L. Clarke.
Second " Charles W. Drane.
In the spring of 1875, Mrs. Jesse ;Whitehead pressed
into the military service a band of young ladies, and their
generosity, taste and skill had provided a beautiful stand
of colors, which Gen. J. D. Webster, on their behalf, pre-
sented to the Regiment, on the morning of May 13, at the
The Regiment appeared on the streets of Chicago,
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 19
in uniform, for the first time, the same day (May 13,
1875), when it acted as escort to the Grand Army of the
Republic, at its annual meeting. The first public parade,
however, for the purpose of being formally received by
the Executive of the State, took place on July 28, 1875,
at South Park. Companies A, B, C, D, E and F, only,
were represented in line. The Command was reviewed
by Gov. Beveridge, Lieut. Gen. P. H . Sheridan, of the
Army, and Brig. Gen. A. C. Ducat, commanding Illinois
So great interest had been manifested, and curiosity
had been so highly raised, that a large number of spec-
tators was present to see in what manner the promises
made by the Regiment had been fulfilled. That the pub-
lic expectations were not disappointed appears from the
Chicago papers in their notices of this review, and Har-
per's Weekly of August 21, 1875, containing an illustra-
tion of the parade, used the following language:
"This Regiment shows a perfection in drill, marching and
military carnage that is truly surprising, and gives evidence
that very many of the line officers as well as the field have seen
service. It is to-day as great a favorite in Chicago as the
" Seventh " is in New York, for, like the last-named Regiment,
it is composed of men of high standing, whose great aim is to
excel. At its first parade, it was enthusiastically received by
the citizens and distinguished visitors from abroad, and from
Gen. Sheridan and other military men received high commen-
At the annual meeting, Tuesday, December 7, 1875,
Col. McClurg declined a reelection, and Lieut. Col. Hub-
bard refused to accept a well-earned promotion. Capt.
George R. Davis, of Company A, was elected Colonel,
20 HISTORY OF THE
Lieut Col. Hubbard and Maj. Knox being severally
reflected. In the spring of 1876, Maj. Knox resigned
his commission, and on May 24th, Samuel B. Sherer was
elected to the vacant office. Lieut. Col. Hubbard also
resigned in the summer, and Col. Davis, having been
elected in November a member of the House of Repre-
sentatives in Congress, from the Second District, was
likewise compelled to sever his connection with the
At the next annual meeting, held December 5, 1876,
Maj. Sherer, the only field officer of the Regiment, was
unanimously elected Lieutenant Colonel, which office he
held until his resignation, in August, 1877, when Maj.
Swain assumed command, Col. McClurg being at this
time in Europe. Lieut. Col. Sherer commanded the
Regiment during the riots of July, 1877, and his services
were prompt and efficient. Gov. Cullom realized that
the State could illy afford at this time to lose so valuable
an officer, and he was immediately commissioned Colonel
of the First Regiment of Cavalry. His exertions soon
gave that body an efficient organization, and he was
thereupon promoted to the rank of Brigadier General
and Chief of Cavalry of the State, upon the Staff of the
The First Regiment owes its present existence to the
three gentlemen, Col. McClurg, Lieut. Col. Hubbard and
Major Knox. In the dark days of 1874 anc * 1875 when
so many despaired of success, and officers and men dropped
out so rapidly that the complexion of entire companies was
changed in a few months, and it seemed as if the move-
ment must be abandoned, these gentlemen by their
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 21
"fortitcr in re "
represented by Col. McClurg and Major Knox. and
" Suaritcr in inodo"
of which Col. Hubbard was the exponent, kept the Regi-
ment together. Their courage and cheerfulness, and
their labors in procuring money by voluntary donation
from the public, at a time of almost unexampled pecuniary
distress in the history of the Country, are deserving of all
praise. Major Knox was and is now an officer of the
regular Army upon the retired list, with rank of First
Lieutenant, and he is the best tactician the Regiment has
had. On October 15, 1877, he was elected Captain of
Company F, and was induced to renew r his connection
with the Regiment. He was again elected Major, July 30,
1878, upon the resignation of Major A. L. Goldsmith ; Lieu-
tenant Colonel, March 19, 1879, to ^ tne vacancy caused
by the resignation of Lieut. Col. Williams, and upon the
promotion of Colonel Fitz-Simons as Brigadier General of
the First Brigade, Lieut. Col. Knox was unanimously
elected Colonel, October 31, 1882, which office he now
Colonel McClurg and Lieut. Col. Hubbard both served
with high rank in the late war of the Rebellion, and their
ripe expereince and high social position fitted them to be
the organizers and leaders of this movement, and carry
it on to success. Lieut. Col. Hubbard was the first man
in Chicago to come forward with something besides advice
for the help of the Regiment. The definite materializa-
tion of the command took place in the building which Col.
Hubbard had gratuitously presented for its use, as has
been heretofore intimated. He accepted the Majority very
22 HISTORY OF THE
reluctantly, and only from a sense of duty. He was very
popular in the Regiment, and nothing but his decided re-
fusal to accept the office, prevented his election as Colonel,
in December, 1875.
That Col. McClurg' s efforts were fully appreciated is
shown from the circumstance of his having been speedily
called upon to resume the command. He was suffered to
remain in retirement but a short time, and notwithstand-
ing his reluctance, on March 12, 1877, he was again placed
at the head of the Regiment, which position he held until
his resignation, in November, 1877.
On March 12, 1877, Edgar D. Swain was elected
Major, and at this date the field officers were:
Colonel, Alexander C. McClurg.
Lieutenant Colonel, - Samuel B. Sherer.
Major, Edgar D. Swain
Lieut. Col. Sherer resigned August 28, 1877, and
Major Swain was elected his successor, Alfred L. Gold-
smith, Captain of Company D, being promoted to the
Majority. Major Goldsmith resigned July i, 1878, and on
July 30, Edwin B. Knox, Captain of Company F, was
elected to this vacancy, as above stated.
Upon the resignation of Col. McClurg in 1877, Lieut.
Col. Swain became Colonel, and Rudolph Williams, Cap-
tain of Company G, was elected Lieutenant Colonel. In
January, 1878 the field officers were :
Colonel, Edgar D. Swain.
Lieutenant Colonel, Rudolph Williams.
Major, - - Alfred L. Goldsmith.
Immediately after assuming command as Major,
Col. Swain realized that the Regiment could have
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 23
no independent and assured existence for the future,
unless it secured a building of its own, properly planned
and erected for military uses, and he turned his atten-
tion to this object. The Regiment had been particularly
fortunate in having for its Commanding Officers gen-
tlemen of ability and determination, but the erection of
an Armory had heretofore appeared to them all, too
great an undertaking, without aid from the State. In
March, 1876, an unsuccessful effort had been made to
to secure an appropriation from the City Council, for the
renting of an Armory. Col. Swain vowed that the
Regiment should have its own Armory - - and the
Armory was erected. Ground was broken on the site of
old Trinity Church, April 18, 1878, and on May 18,
1878, as the Commander of the Regiment, in the pres-
ence of the Civic officers of Chicago, the entire military
force of Cook County, commanded by its Brigadier
General, and acting as escort to the Major General,
with the assistance of the Grand Lodge A. F. & A. M. of
Illinois, Col. Swain had the proud satisfaction of laying
the Corner Stone of the very commodious and pictur-
esque building on Jackson street, which his patience,
energy and determination had secured. The Armory
was formally dedicated October 29, 1878, by appropriate
ceremonies, and the Regiment has had a local habitation,
as well as a name, since that time. Col. Swain resigned
in October, 1881, greatly to the regret of his comrades,
and he is now one of the most popular officers of the
Col. Swain was succeeded by Col. Charles Fitz-
Simons, who was promoted, in October, 1882, as Briga-
dier General of the First Brigade.
24 HISTORY OF THE
Upon the promotion of Major Knox as Lieutenant
Colonel, in March, 1879, J* Henry Truman was elected
Major, and upon his resignation in the following Decem-
ber, John D. Bangs was rewarded for his long and
faithful services as Quartermaster by being elected to the
vacant Majority. After the resignation of Major Bangs,
Capt. Diehl was promoted to the Majority, and when Lieut.
Col. Knox became Colonel, upon the promotion of Col.
Fitz-Simons, Major Diehl was the choice of the Regi-
ment for the vacant Lieutenant Colonelcy, and Henry S.
Bowler, Captain of Company B, became Major. He
succeeded as Lieutenant Colonel upon the resignation of
Lieut. Col. Diehl, in 1883, Wm. L. Lindsay, Captain
of Company G, becoming Major. The present Field
Officers of the Regiment are:
Edwin B. Knox, Colonel.
Henry S. Bowler, Lieutenant Colonel.
Wm. L. Lindsay, Major.
The changes in the Field and Line officers have been
very rapid, owing to the cosmopolitan character of
Chicago. Col. Knox is now the only one of the original
officers who has an active connection with the Regiment,
and even his service has not been continuous.
For the benefit of the curious and those having a per-
sonal interest in the history of the Regiment, a table is
subjoined, showing the names of the first officers of the
ten companies who were commissioned, and of all of the
field officers, down to the present time:
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD.
A. M. Ferris,
Chas. S. Diehl,
Edwin B. Knox,
W. W. Bishop,
Henry S. Bowler,
Mason B. Carpenter,
Frank B. Davis,
John D. Bangs,
John W. Hawley,
Frank A. Dix,
Holdridge O. Collins,
Gilbert M. Holmes,
Robert B. Lewis,
Wm. P. Gunthorp,
Edward S. Whitehead,
Henry B. Maxwell,
John H. Johnson,
E. T. Sawyer,
Geo. H. Bohner,
Date of Commission.
December i, 1874.
September 8, 1874.
September 8, 1874.
September 8, 1874.
December i, 1874.
September 8, 1874.
September 15, 1874.
December i, 1874.
September 16, 1874.
September 28, 1874.
December i, 1874.
December i, 1874.
March 13, 1875.
April 20, 1875.
HISTORY OF THE
C. R. E. Koch,
Chas. A. Starkweather,
Garrett M. Vanzwoll,
Charles W. Daniels,
T. L. Clarke,
Charles W. Dean,
September 15, 1875.
Frank T. Sherman
Guerdon S. Hubbard, Jr.
September 14, 1874
October 5, 1874
April 10, 18715
October 5, 1874
April 3, 1875
Feb 14 1876
May 24, 1876
March 12, 1877
Alfred L. Goldsmith...
August 28, 1877
July i. 187*.
J. Henry Truman
April 17, 1879
January 5) 1880
Dec. i, 1879.
Jan i 1882
Charles S. Diehl
Henry S. Bowler
March 26, 1882
October 31, 1882
August 8, 1883
October 31, 1882
August S, 1883
Lieutenant Colonels .'
Frank T. Sherman
Alexander C. McClurg.
Guerdon S. Hubbard . Jr
Samuel B. Sherer
October 5, 1874
December i, 1874
April 3, 187=;
December 5, 1876
March 13, 1875
Dec. i, iS;|.
Sept. i, 1876.
Aug. 28, 1877.
December i, 1877
Feb. i, 1879.
Charles S. Diehl
October 31, 1882
August 8 1883
Alexander C. McClurg.
George R. Davis
Alexander C. McClurg.
Edgar D. Swain
Charles Filz-Simons.. . .
Edwin B. Knox. . .
March 13, 1875
December 7, 1875
Ma;ch 12, 1877
December i, 1877
February 20, 1882
October 11. 1882
October 20, 1882
Dec. 7, /S 7 i.
Xov. 21, 1876.
Nov. 13, 1877.
Oct. 31. iSSi.
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD.
The Formation of Regiments and Battalions
throtigho-ut the State.
HE Favorable reception of a Regiment of Militia
in Chicago was an incentive for the organiza-
tion of other similar bodies in the more populous
Counties of the State, and very soon, enrolments
of many independent Companies were reported
to the Adjutant General, with requisitions for arms and
requests for assignment.
The following Companies were commissioned in rapid
October 8, 1874.
Robert B. Horrie
Livingston County Guards.
John Hudson (Lieut.),. .
January 13, 1875.
M. J. Flynn
L. S. Rasmussen
Mathew II. Peters
John I lough
William C Gilbreath
February 10, 1^7^.
March 23, 187:;.
April 20, 1875.
May 19, 1875.
June 4, 1875.
July 3, 1875.
R. A. Smith
John II. Ilogan
C W Keller
July 21, 1875.
August 9, 1875.
August n, 1875.
August 14, 1875.
John R. Handlv
Atlanta Light- Guards
Pana .. .
James V. Grider
W. W. Wharry
September 20, 1875.
C. E Hennick
October 27, 1875.
October 30, 1875.
HISTORY OF THE
December 6, 1875.
December 30, 1875.
December 7, 1875.
December 7, 1875.
February i, 1876.
December 7, 1875.
December 7, 1875.
March 13, 1876.
January 18, 1876.
March i, 1876.
January 17, 1876.
January 17, 1876.
January 25, 1876.
January 27, 1876.
January 28, 1876.
January 29, 1876.
January 31, 1876.
February 6, 1876.
February 9, 1876.
February 12, 1876.
February 16, 1876.
February 22, 1876.
March 6, 1876.
March 16, 1876.
March 17, 1876.
March 21, 1876.
March 30, 1876.
April 13, 1876.
May i, 1876.
May 12, 1876.
May 15, 1876.
May 20, 1876.
May 23, 1876.
May 27, 1876.
June i, 1876.
June 7, 1876.
June 14, 1876.
June 19, 1876.
June 20, 1876.
June 27, 1876.
July i, 1876.
luly 22, 1876.
July 25, 1876.
July 28, 1876.
August i, 1876.
August 4, 1876.
August 14, 1876.
August 26, 1876.
September i, 1876.
September, 30, 1876,
E. J. Cunniff
Company B, 2cl Regiment. .
Company C, 2d Regiment. .
Company D, 2d Regiment. .
Company E, 2d Regiment. .
Company F, 2d Regiment. .
Company G, 2d Regiment. .
P. J. O'Connor
Joe A. Eagle
I. H. Donlon
Win. G. Marsh
A E McNeal
Orrin P. Cooley
Chas. A. Gilchrist
H. B. Reed
Creston ll. C. Snrip'p-
La Salle Light-Guards .
Piper City Guards
Chicago Light Car airy
H. C. Baughman
Geo. M. Miller
Gill J. Burr
C. C. Morse
Elisha B. Hamilton
Benjamin F. Spangler..
Daniel C. Haves ,....
Wyoming Light- Guards. ..
Mt. Sterling. . . .
H. J. Cosgrove
Joseph "W. Vance
N. S. Westbrook
Francis Aid (Lieut.)
C. M. Bru/.ee
St. Clair Guards
East St. Louis..
Willis E. Finch
Homer Lie^ht- Guards. . .
Homer . . .
James E. Hill (Lieut.)...
S. H. Kenney
Geo. W. Caines...
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 29
The eight new Companies of Infantry in Chicago,
consolidated into the Second Regiment, were composed
of Irish-American citizens, and their organization was
modeled after the famous Sixty-Ninth Regiment of New
York. They labored under considerable discouragement
at first, but owing to the indefatigable exertions of
Brig. Gen. Ducat, James Quirk, its first Commander,
William J. Onahan, John J. Healy, Thomas Brennan,
Thomas Hoyne and other zealous gentlemen, who had
at heart the formation of an Irish Regiment in Chicago,
all obstacles were surmounted; uniforms were purchased,
an armory was obtained, and the State supplied the arms
and equipments. The following gentlemen composed
the origiaal Field and Staff:
James Quirk, Lieutenant Colonel.
John Murphy, Major.
Wm. P. Dunne, Major and Surgeon.
John Lanigan, First Lieutenant and Adjutant,
Wm. J. Onahan, First Lieutenant and Quartermaster.
During the Railroad riots of 1877 in Chicago, the
Second Regiment was stationed in the most dangerous
portion of the city, and its prompt suppression of disor-
der, and steady obedience to its superior officers, gained for
it the good wishes and thanks of the citizens, as well as
a national reputation. The following telegram was read
to the Regiment when drawn up in line at the Halsted
street viaduct, on the morning of July 28, 1877:
" HEADQUARTERS 69x11 REGIMENT, N. Y. S. M.
NEW YORK CITY, July 27, 1877.
Lieut. Col. James Quirk :
" In the name of the 691!! and other Irish-American Regi-
30 HISTORY OF THE
ments, I congratulate the Second Regiment of Illinois Militia
on doing their duty by the Country in this eventful crisis.
" JAMES CAVANAGH,
" Colonel Commanding."
Gov. John L. Beveridge devoted much personal at-
tention to the reorganization of the State Militia. An
old campaigner himself, he was well qualified by his ex-
perience to assume the duties, as well as the rank of
Commander-in-Chief of the State forces. In the early part
of 1875, rie realized that he was working at great disadvan-
tage by reason of the numerous reports, requisitions and re-
quests made to him directly from the numerous unas-
signed Companies, and that the proper expedition of
these matters demanded the appointment of an interme-
diate commanding officer, who would relieve him of the
tedious detail of the organization by condensing reports
and accounts, and making general and special recom-
Section 3 of the Militia Law then in force, entited
" An Act to revise the law in relation to the State
Militia," approved March 23, 1874, practically gave him
the right to appoint as many Major and Brigadier Gen-
erals as he thought proper, but he determined to com-
mence by placing the entire force under the command of
one Brigadier General.
Illinois embraced among her citizens many gentle-
men who had been greatly distinguished in the late war
for their executive ability and military skill and acumen
in the command of the Brigade, Division and Corps, and
the Governor was not at a loss to find material suitable
for his purpose.
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 31
His choice fell upon Gen. Arthur C. Ducat, of Chi-
'cago, a gentleman whose military experience, rank and
services in the War of the Rebellion, eminently fitted him
for the arduous duties of such a command.
Gen. Ducat enlisted as a private in the Twelfth Illinois
Infantry, in May, 1861. He was rapidly promoted, and in
April, 1 862, he became Lieutenant Colonel of the same regi-
ment. He served as Chief of Staff of Maj. Gen. E. O. C.
Ord and Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans, and in Novem-
ber, 1862, he was assigned by the President as Inspector
General of the Army of the Cumberland, under Maj. Gen.
George H. Thomas. In consequence of physical dis-
abilities acquired in the service, he resigned from the
army in 1864, with the rank of Brevet Brigadier General.
His discharge bears the following autograph endorse-
ment, an unusual honor:
" HEADQUARTERS MIL. Div. OF THE Miss.,
" NASHVILLE, Term., Feb. 19, 1864.
" Lieut. Col. Ducat leaves the service in consequence of
ill health alone. His services have been valuable, and fully
appreciated by all those under whom he has served, as is shown
by the fact that he rose from the position of a private, then First
Lieutenant and Adjutant of his Regiment, to the Lieutenant
Colonel of it, and finally Assistant Inspector General of the De-
partment of the Cumberland.
" U. S. GRANT, Maj. Gen"
Gen. Ducat accepted the command of the Illinois
National Guard with great reluctance, knowing well the
difficulties of the undertaking. The term " military dis-
cipline " was not at that time very clearly defined in the
minds of the Militia, and some of the first measures of the
32 HISTORY OF THE
General, which were of a radical and positive character,
caused so many protests and objections, that on August
10, 1875, ne tendered his resignation. Gov. Beveridge,
however, wisely refused to accept it, and calling his atten-
tion to paragraph 4 of General Order No. i, under date
of August i, 1875, viz., " The General commanding will
take such measures, under the law, as in his judgment he
deems proper, for the discipline, inspection and efficiency
of the troops under his command," gave him the emphatic
promise that his course should receive the hearty support
of the Executive.
With such an. assurance of confidence, Gen. Ducat felt
himself under obligations to proceed, and he entered
upon the work, determined to carry through his measures
of reform, discipline and organization, regardless of the
consequences to individuals or commands. How well
that work was done, and how firmly he was sustained by
Gov. Beveridge during the remainder of his administra-
tion, this record will show.
In July, 1875, a change was made in the office of
Adjutant General of the State, by the appointment of
Col. H. Hilliard. Col. Hilliard was an old soldier, hav-
ing seen service on many battlefields. He had executive
abilities of high order, and he was entirely competent to
assume the duties of Adjutant and Quartermaster General
of the State. Soon after his appointment, at a personal
interview in Chicago, Gen. Ducat gave him a general
outline of his plan of organization, and he did afford very
material assistance to the Governor and Gen. Ducat in
their efforts to consolidate and discipline the rapidly
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 33
Pursuant to the plan of Gen. Ducat, immediate steps
were taken to assign the Companies to Regiments or
Battalions, and by December, 1876, the following con-
solidations had been effected:
Organized at Chicago; Col. George R. Davis, com-
Organized at Chicago; Lieut. Col. James Quirk, com-
Sycamore Union Guards.
Chicago Bohemian Rifles.
The first election of Field Officers was held on
January 15, 1876, at La Salle, and resulted in the choice
of the following gentlemen:
Colonel, J. W. R. Stambaugh, Captain of Sterling
Lieutenant Colonel, John B. Day, of La Salle.
Major, L. C. Mills, of Streator.
The first Adjutant was Lieut. S. S. Auchmoedy, of
34 HISTORY OF THE
Peoria National Blues.
Peoria Veteran Guards.
Peoria Emmet Guards.
Wataga Hilliard Guards.
The first Field Officers were elected at Peoria, on
February 2, 1876, viz:
Colonel, John Hough, Captain Peoria National Blues.
Lieutenant Colonel, Wm. Whiting, Captain Altona
Major, A. T. Johnson, Captain Kewanee Guards.
Lieut. James Welsh, of Peoria, was appointed the
Petersburg Harris Guards.
Williamsville Cullom Guards.
Cowden Shelby County Guards.
Springfield Sherman Guards.
Springfield Governor's Guards.
Taylor ville Guards.
Jacksonville Morgan County Guards.
Jacksonville Morgan Cadets.
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 35
The original Field Officers were:
Colonel, John A. Howard, of Pana.
Lieutenant Colonel, Ira A. Church, Captain Atlanta
Major, Louis H. Williams, of Cowden.
The first Adjutant was Lieut. W. Jordon, of Pana.
Students of the State Industrial School at Champaign,
forming Companies A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H, Colonel
Edward Snyder comanding.
Benton Franklin Guards.
Capt. J. W. Landrum of the Crainville Guards, being
the Senior Officer, was directed to assume command of
the Battalion. This consolidation was but temporary,
and soon after th^ Governor made a different assignment
of the Companies.
Keokuk Junction Guards.
Quincy Lincoln Guards.
Quincy National Guards.
Quincy Veteran Guards.
36 HISTORY OF THE
Bushnell Westfall Zouaves.
Mt. Sterling Glen Rifles.
This Regiment was organized at Peoria, on Feb-
ruary 2, 1876, by the election of the following gentlemen
as Field Officers:
Colonel, Wm. Hanna, Captain Keokuk Junction
Lieutenant Colonel, E. K. Westfall, Captain Bushnell
Major, R. R. McMullen, Captain Quincy Veterans.
Lieut. C. Hennick, of Keokuk Junction, was appointed
the first Adjutant.
Piper City Guards.
The first Commander was W. H. Chandler, elected
Major on April 6, 1876, at Danville.
Lieut. J. E. Field, of Danville, was the first Adju-
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 37
Juliet Citizens' Corps.
The first election of Field Officers, held at Dwight on
August 16, 1876, placed the following gentlemen in
Lieutenant Colonel, J. B. Parsons, Captain Dwight
Major, L. C. Mills, Captain Streator Guards.
Lieut. John B. Fithian, of Joliet, was appointed the
In his Biennial report for the years 1875 and 1876,
Adjutant General Hilliard, showed clearly the rapid
progress made, and demonstrated an unmistakable desire
throughout the State for a thorougly equipped and dis-
ciplined Militia. His recommendations were based
upon a perfect knowledge of the requirements of the
service and zeal for its improvement. He refers to Gen.
Ducat and the Field and Staff, as follows ( Vide pp.
" I desire here to say that great praise is due to Brig. Gen.
Arthur C. Ducat, and his staff officers, for the able and efficient
manner in which they have performed their duties. This de-
partment is largely indebted to these gentlemen for their able
assistance and generous advice. As a body composed largely
of veterans who have seen service, they will rank with a like
number of military officials of our sister States. The Field and
Staff officers, also, of the Battalions as organized, have evinced,
in the main, a desire to bring their commands up to a high state
of discipline, and great praise is due to them for the great per-
sonal sacrifices they have made to advance the interests of the
38 HISTORY OF THE
The term of Gov. Beveridge expired Monday, Janu-
ary 8, 1877, when he was succeeded by Gov. Shelby M.
Cullom. In his message to the Thirtieth General
Assembly, Gov. Beveridge used the following language,
in referring to the Militia :
" An unusual interest in military affairs, for a time of peace,
has of late been manifested throughout the State. The Ad-
jutant General has been very active and effective in organizing
and arming the Militia. July i, 1875, the total organized mili-
tary force in the State was 895 men and officers, consisting of
one Regiment of eight companies and twelve detached com-
panies. September 30, 1876, the total force was 5,146, consti-
tuting a Brigade of seven Regiments, three Battalions and eight
detached companies, aggregating eighty-five companies.
" All thjise_cugaiiizajtioj!LS_^
and can. disband at pleasure. The members give their time
and, with such aid as can be obtained from citizens, furnish
their own uniform and armories. The State supplies the arms.
There is no term of enljsiniejit. The men merely sign a mus-
ter roll ; they take no oath ; they assume^n^obligation, except
what a sense of military pride may impose, and there is no
power to enforce~obedTence: TtrejPfficers^ fleeted are
sip ned by -keJS^^npj^aivd__jjay refusal of officer or men to
obey the orders of the Commander-in-Chief can only be reme-
died by revoking the commission, disbanding the company and
calling in the arms.
" Such a military system is valueless in war, and its only
value in peace is in the pride of the men and the honor of the
citizens who voluntarily form these independent organizations.
" The Militia Law of the State is very crude and imperfect,
and needs revision. In my opinion, the state should provide
for the organization and discipline of a limited number of Regi-
ments, and for the encouragement of such organization and the
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 39
preservation of its own property, should provide, at least, suit-
able armories. A well-organized Militia, composed of our own
citizens, will not endanger the liberties of" the people, but on
the contrary, give greater security to life, property and liberty."
The foregoing statement demonstrated the very de-
fective condition of the State Militia Law, and the great
obstacles which had been surmounted to achieve so grat-
ifying a success.
Gov. Beveridge refers in very flattering terms to his
Adjutant General, and too modestly refrains from any
statement of his own labors; but the great interest he
took in the Militia, almost from the day of his inaugura-
tion; the encouragement and promise of aid given by
him both as an official and private citizen; his many jour-
neys to different parts of the State, for the purpose of
personally superintending the enrolment of Companies
and consolidation of Regiments and Battalions, and his
prompt and effective requisitions upon the General Gov-
ernment for arms and equipments, are too generally
known to need comment.
Governor Cullom fully appreciated the necessity for
a reliable, armed citizen soldiery, and in his Inaugural
Message to the Thirtieth General Assembly, he referred
to the subject in the following concise and emphatic
" I desire to add one suggestion in reference to the affairs
of our own State, by calling your attention to the Militia Law.
I believe a more perfect law should be enacted, which will se-
cure a more thorough organization of the State Militia.
"The spirit of our institutions, and the temper of our peo-
ple, are hostile to a standing army ; and I am opposed to any
40 HISTORY OF THE
policy, State or National, looking to governing the people by
the bayonet. Yet, in the most highly-civilized communities, a
trained Militia, recruited from the intelligent and industrious
classes, is an almost indispensable auxiliary to the civil power,
in the interests of peace and good order."
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD.
The Brigade and toe Militia I,aw of 1877.
RTHUR C. DUCAT was appointed Brig-
adier General, June 8, 1875, and General
Order No. i, directing him to assume com-
mand of all the Military forces of the State
of Illinois, and appoint a Staff, was issued
from Springfield, dated August i, 1875.
General Order No. 3, bearing date, Spring-
field, December 21, 1875, consolidating the
forces into Regiments and Battalions, as shown in the
preceding chapter, was issued simultaneously with Gen.
Ducat's first order, under the same date, from Brigade
Headquarters at Chicago, assuming the command.
The following gentlemen were announced as the
42 HISTORY OF THE
E. A. Otis, Colonel and Chief of Staff, Chicago.
Geo. I. Waterman, Lt. Col. and Asst. Adjt. Gen., Chicago.
Wm. E. Strong, Lt. Col. and Inspector Gen. Chicago.
Francis Morgan, Lt. Col. and Chf . of Artillery, Chicago.
Albert L. Coe, Major and Quartermaster, Chicago.
G. S. Dana, Major and Commissary, Springfield.
Ben. C. Miller, Major and Surgeon, Chicago.
Isaac Poole, Captain and Assistant Surgeon, Evanston.
P. W. Plank, Capt. and Asst. Inspector, Champaign.
J. M. Hosford, Capt. and Asst. Inspector, Genesseo.
Noble B. Wiggins, Capt. and Asst. Insp., Springfield.
A. L. Whitehall, Capt. and Asst. Inspector, Watseka.
H. E. Selby, Capt. and Asst. Insp., Keokuk Junction.
J. K. Howard, Capt. and Assistant Inspector, Odell.
Henry B. Ayers, Capt. and Asst. Inspector, Peoria.
Henry B. Maxwell, Capt. and Asst. Insp., Chicago.
John Hawley, First Lieut, and Aide-de-Camp, Chicago.
Henry B. Whitehouse, First Lt. and Aide-de-Camp,
Holdridge O. Collins, First Lieut, and Aide-de-Camp,
Nearly all of these officers had been distinguished for
services in the late war, and their intelligent cooperation
soon placed their several departments in a very creditable
condition of efficiency. Gen. Strong entered the United
States service in May, 1861, as Captain of Company F,
Second Wisconsin Infantry, and in November, 1864, he
became Lieutenant Colonel of the Twelfth Wisconsin
Infantry. He served during the war as Inspector General
Right Wing, Army of the Tennessee, under Major Gen.
James B. McPherson ; as Inspector General of the Seven-
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 43
teenth Army Corps, and as Inspector General of the
Department and Army of the Tennessee, retaining this
latter position till after the close of the war. He was
Inspector General of the " Freedman's Bureau," from
May, 1865, to September, 1866, when he was mustered
out, with the rank of Brevet Brigadier General.
The sudden and exacting demands upon the Quar-
termaster's Department during the riots of July, 1877,
found Major Coe fully prepared for all emergencies, and
the very full and complete inspection records of Gen.
Strong, pointed out almost to a man the forces which
could be relied upon for effective duty.
The several commands were so widely scattered that
a large number of Assistant Inspecting Officers were
required, and these were appointed as they became nec-
essary throughout the State.
On August 25, 1876, Gen. Strong issued, in the form
of General Order No. 2, from the Brigade Headquarters,
full instructions for a thorough inspection of the entire
Militia, and his orders were, in the main, carried out by
the Assistant Inspectors. His consolidated report was
the first document of the kind filed in the Adjutant Gen-
eral's office since the close of the war, and was consid-
ered of so much interest and importance that it was set
out at large in the Biennial Report of the Adjutant Gen-
eral for 1875 and 1876. ( Vide pp. 23-43.)
During the summer and autumn of 1876, Gen. Ducat
made many visits throughout the State, for the purpose of
inspecting and reviewing the different local commands,
and he was everywhere received with enthusiasm, and
encouraged to persevere in a course of thorough disci-
44 HISTORY OF THE
pline. He met with an universal desire for a Militia lu\v
which would afford a revenue sufficient to pay for the
actual necessities of the service, and a sanction for the
enforcement of discipline, and he was urged to pre-
pare a Bill for the next Legislature.
Acceding to these wishes, Commanding officers of
Regiments and Battalions were requested to send him
memoranda of their wants and suggestions in regard to
the proposed new law; and a copy of the following was
sent to all commands in the State.
" CHICAGO. Nov. 25, 1876.
" CIRCULAR No. i.
" The following officers are appointed a Commission to
frame a Military Code for the State of Illinois, to be submitted
to the consideration of the next Legislature, to wit :
Col. E. A. Otis, Chief of Staff, Chicago.
Col. John Hough, 4th Regt. Inf., Peoria, Ills.
Col. J. W. R. Stambaugh, 3 Regt. Inf., Sterling, Ills.
Col. W. D. Richardson, 5th "
Col. J. T. Torrence, 2d " " Chicago.
Lt. Col. W. E. Strong, Inspector General, Chicago.
Lt. Col. Geo. I. Waterman, Asst. Adjt. Genl., Chicago.
Lt. Col. Francis Morgan, Chief of Artillery, Chicago.
Lt. Col. James Quirk, 2d Regt. Inf., Chicago.
Capt. Geo. M. Miller, ist Regt. Light Cav., Chicago.
Capt. Jas. M. DeWitt, ist " Infty.,
Capt. F. B. Davis, ist Regt. Infty.,
Capt. Chas. Jernegan, ist Regt. Infty.,
Lieut. H. O. Collins, A. De Camp,
Lieut. John Lanigan, 2d Regt. Inf.,
Lieut. W. J. Onahan, Q. M. 2d Regt. Inf.,
The Commission will assemble at Parlor No. i, Grand Pa-
cific Hotel, on Friday evening, the ist of December, at eight
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 45
o'clock, to receive suggestions from the General Commanding,
and others who are interested in the passage of appropriate laws.
The Commission will report the result of their deliberations, on
or before the 25th of December next.
" By command of ARTHUR C. DUCAT, Brig. Gcnl. Coindg.
GEO. I. WATERMAN,
Lieut. Col. and Ass/. Adjt. Gcnl. "
"" Official Copy : HOLDRIDGE O. COLLINS,
Lieut, and A. D. C."
A personal invitation was also sent to Gen. Hilliard
requesting his presence and cooperation.
There was, however, no general response to this cir-
cular, the attendance being limited entirely to the mem-
bers of the Staff. In fact, there seemed to be an unani-
mous disposition among all subordinate Commanders to
avoid any responsibility, and the matter was left entirely
with the General, not a single officer replying to his re-
quest for advice until the Bill for a law had been drawn,
printed and introduced into the Legislature.
The provisions of the Code were agreed upon by
Gen. Ducat, Col. Waterman, Gen. Strong, Major Coe
and Lieut. Collins of his Staff, after many and anxious
deliberations, and Lieut. Collins was requested to draft
a Bill for an act revising the Military Code, embodying
the suggestions of these gentlemen.
Copies of the Military Codes of all the States noted for
their Militia were secured, the different features carefully
compared, and liberal extracts were made from such as
seemed proper for the status in Illinois.*
*The author is under obligations to the Adjutant General* of Massachusetts.
Connecticut, Xc\v York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan and Iowa, for
the promptness with which they furnished copies of the Military laws and regulation*
of their respective States, while he was engaged in drawing- this Bill for a new law in
46 HISTORY OF THE
Incidental to the preparation of this Bill was the
accumulation of a large mass of statistics in relation to
the Militia of other States, which was used with great
effect before a joint meeting of the Military Committees
of the Senate and House, in February, 1877.
The following circular had been prepared and sent to
all Military organizations in the State.
"CHICAGO, ILL., Oct. 15, 1876.
To the members of all organized Companies and Battalions of
" GENTLEMEN, In view of the approaching State election, it
has been thought advisable to present for your consideration a
few suggestions and facts in regard to our State forces.
" It cannot but be known to all of you, that the Militia Law
of Illinois is entirely inadequate to secure an effective organi-
zation, and that those disciplined troops now existing, which
can be relied upon in an emergency, are kept up entirely by
private liberality and the personal exertions of individuals.
" The only aid which you have received from the State
consists of your arms and equipments. No provisions whatso-
ever are made in the Statute for rent of Armory, yearly musters,
camp equipage and compensation for time when called out by
" At the last session of our Legislature, a Bill was intro-
duced in which was embodied a few of the features of the
Military Codes of other States, but owing to a want of suf-
ficient attention or. the part of its friends, and for other reasons,
upon which it is not necessary to dwell, the Bill failed to
" At our next Legislature a new Militia Bill will be intro-
duced, of which the principle features will be a yearly appro-
priation to meet the expenses for rent of armories, ordnance
stores, camp equipage and transportation of all Battalions for
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 47
at least one yearly muster, and for ammunition and a Rifle Range
for practice, with an allowance per diem for every man who
shall turn out upon order, and with such provisions for the
perfection of discipline as may secure an effective and credit-
" The States of Massachusetts, New York, Connecticut and
Pennsylvania, each of which can have a fairly organized army
in the field on twenty-four hours notice, owe the excellence of
their Militia to the large appropriations and the fostering care of
" I need not dwell upon the necessity of a better Militia
organization in Illinois, for it is plain to you all. In case of
any disturbance or riot, especially in our large cities, the com-
munity would be comparatively helpless and at the mercy of
mob violence, but for the individual efforts already put forth,
which cannot much longer be sustained without support.
" This circular is sent to all Commanders of Companies
and Battalions throughout the State, in the earnest hope that
this movement will have the hearty co-operation of all. If
every Company throughout Illinois, as a body, will take such
action, so that it may be known that its influence will be given
to that candidate only for the Legislature who will pledge
himself to support a new Militia Bill, it will be carried by an
overwhelming majority, and we shall enter upon an entirely
new phase of Military experience.
" The General commanding, hopes to be able to announce
before long that all infantry troops, without exception, will be
armed with the Government breech-loader, and that a general
muster will be had as early as the summer of 1877.
" Relying upon you thoroughly, I have the honor to be,
Your obedient Servant,
ARTHUR C. DUCAT,
4 8 HISTORY OF THE
Many encouraging replies were received, and a large
proportion of the gentlemen returned as members of the
Legislature in the November election, was pledged to
vote for a new law.
The Thirtieth General Assembly of Illinois was con-
vened at Springfield on Monday January 8, 1877, a d upon
final organization the Committees on Military Affairs were
House Henry H. Evans, of Kane, Chairman ; E.
K. Westfall and Charles H. Whitaker, of McDonough ;
George H. Hollister, of Winnebago; Peter Philips, of
Franklin; Wm. H. Woodard, of Jackson; Cornelius
Rourke, of Menard; Wm. T. McCreery, of Schuyler, and
Wm. H. Thompson, George C. Klehm and Arno Voss,
Senate Martin A. DeLaney, of Cook, Chairman ;
George W. Herdman, of Jersey; O. V. Smith, of Law-
rence; John S. Lee, of Peoria; Bernard Arntzen, of
Adams; Luther Dearborn, of Mason; Charles E. Mc-
Dowell, of White; John T. Morgan of Warren; Henry
D. Dement, of Lee; Albert O. Marshall, of Will; Ben-
jamin C. Talliferro, of Mercer, and Miles Kehoe and
Daniel N. Bash, of Cook.
The Bill for a new Militia Code having received the
approval of many gentlemen of thorough military experi-
ence to whom it had been submitted, was carefully trans-
cribed and transmitted to the Adjutant General in the
"CHICAGO, Dec. 21, 1876.
" CiENL. H. MILLIARD, Adjutant General :
" Dear General, Herewith please find copy of proposed
' Military Code ' for the State, just finished. We are poor.
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 49
Can't you have this printed as a Bill ready to submit copies
enough for each member of House and Senate and 200 to
spare, and very much oblige us ?
"This wants to be done just as soon as possible. Please let
me hear from you. I have a note from the Governor that he
will meet me to-morrow. I am doing all I can.*
Yours as ever,
ARTHUR C. DUCAT,
Brig. Genl. Comg."
Gen. Hilliard delivered the Bill to Mr. Joseph J.
Kearney, of Cook, who presented it to the House on Jan-
uary 16, 1877, when it was referred to the Committee on
The Adjutant General was dissatisfied with many of
the provisions of the proposed law. He desired to have
his rank raised to Major General, and to remain Quarter-
master General and Inspector General, as under the old
law. In his letters of January 26th, 3oth and 3ist, 1877, he
made several suggestions' for amendments and changes,
and he seemed disposed to make no efforts in its behalf
unless his wishes were carried out. In fact, no one seemed
to take any further interest in the matter. The Committee
failed to report and it appeared as if the Bill would be
" buried in the Committee."
The following letter was written by Gen. Ducat :
" CHICAGO, Feb. i, 1877.
" GEN. H. MILLIARD, Adjt. Gen. Illinois:
"Dear Sir, Your communications of Jan. 26, Jan. 30
and Jan. 31, were duly received, and as it appears that we
* The author has now in his possession the letter-press copy of the original Bill
forwarded in the above letter.
50 HISTORY OF THE
are beginning to get into deep water in regard to our Militia
Bill, I wish to make a few suggestions, so that you may under-
stand the position I take in this matter, and that we may not,
while desiring the same end, use our exertions so as to defeat
the end sought, by a lack of unity.
" Before this bill was drawn, a circular, dated Chicago,
Nov. 25, 1876, was issued by me, appointing a Commission,
consisting of officers ist, from my Staff; 2d, from the ist Regi-
ment ; 3d, from the 2d Regiment ; 4th, from the 3d Regimen ;
5th, from the 4th Regiment; 6th, from the 5th Regiment; and
yth, from the Company of Cavalry in Chicago to meet and
draw such a Bill, or furnish suggestions for a Bill that would
be satisfactory, and, as near as possible, meet the wishes of
these organized Regiments. A letter was sent to you, inviting
your aid and counsel.
" Although repeatedly invited and urged by me to attend to
this matter, I regret to say that, outside of my personal staff,
not one of the gentlemen appointed paid any attention to the
" There was nothing left for me to do but to get up a Bill
myself, or let the matter entirely go by default. The result
was that, by giving my personal attention to the matter, and
being seconded by the suggestions of my staff, I fixed upon the
present bill, now in your hands.
" We none of us think it perfect. On the contrary, we all
recognize that it is far from what we need, and what the great
State of Illinois should enact ; but the point is to get something
passed as an entering wedge, which can be amended and im-
proved in the future.
" I very much regret to learn that letters have been sent to
members of the Senate and House, finding fault with the Bill
and insisting upon amendments ; in one particular, by a gen-
tleman who was appointed on that Commission, and who failed
to give me any suggestions whatsoever.
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 51
" A point is made that a per diem of one dollar, at least, should
be made for each man while in encampment. This subject was
thoroughly discussed at the time we settled upon the provis-
ions of the Bill, and this is the conclusion at which we arrived,
viz.: Suppose that at the next encampment we have 10,000
men in our active Militia. It will cost at least $20,000 to
transport to and from encampment, and properly feed such
a number for six days. Suppose you pay each man one dollar
per cfey; it would make a total cost for feeding, transportation
and pay, of $80,000, of which $60,000 will be for pay. Now,
while six dollars will not amount to much to anyone man, if we
take $60,000 out of our Military fund, we probably will have noth-
ing left to carry on the other necessary portions of the yearly
duties. I cite the above case only to show how apt some per-
sons are to rush forward with amendments, without consid-
ering the matter.
" I have no doubt many letters suggesting amendments
have been written. I wish to say, emphatically, that it is now
too late. These suggestions should have been made before ;
and just as sure as members commence loading down our Bill
with amendments from different Regiments, just so sure they
will sink it so deep that it will never rise to the surface again.
" The greatest pressure should be brought to bear upon the
House and Senate to pass it quietly, without stirring up any-
feeling from the Country delegations, and to get it through as
soon as possible.
" When we have it enacted as a law, then come forward
with amendments. This we hope and expect will be done.
We can get a good Bill only by successive and repeated
amendments. Where the Bill is found deficient in its practical
operations, there amend; but now, in the present financial con-
dition of the country, any wrangle over the Bill, in either House
or Senate, will kill the appropriation.
" I have a further suggestion to make. I wish you would
52 HISTORY OF THE
get the Committees of the Senate and House to fix upon a day
for a joint meeting any time will suit me, except Feb. 7,
8 and 9 at which time I will come to Springfield with docu-
ments and statistics, and see if we cannot make them under-
stand the necessities of this Bill.
" Mr. Collins is now engaged upon a report of what has been
done in New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania
and Iowa; and I think the figures which he will show will have
a good effect before the Committees. I shall bring down with
me other gentlemen ; and if -we can persuade these Commit-
tees to recommend our Bill, then we will follow out your sug-
gestions, and assemble at Springfield a large delegation of offi-
cers from all parts of the State, and lobby our Bill through.
" I earnestly beg of you to make this appointment for me,
and also not to take any steps without letting me know of your
purpose. I think your suggestion of a meeting of officers an
excellent one, and it certainly would have a very great effect.
But the work must be done before the Committees.
" I have the honor to be,
Yours very respectfully.
ARTHUR C. DUCAT,
" HOLDRIDGE O. COLLINS, A. A. G."
Mr. De Laney, Chairman of the Senate Committee
on Militia, wrote the following letter:
"SPRINGFIELD, Feb. 22, 1877.
H. O. Collins, Esq.:
" Dear Sir, Who is attending to your Military Bill in the
House? It should be pushed if not it will fail for want of
time. There should be some one to take the thing in charge. .
I intend to do all I can for the Militia Bill
when it reaches my Committee.
M. A. DE LANKY."
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 53
Gen. Ducat immediately wrote the following letter to
"CHICAGO, Feb. 24, 1877.
" General: [Quoting Mr. De Laney's letter.] It seems hard
after all our labor that this Bill should fail.
"You are on the ground; will you explain the present
situation? What can we do here? We have written a Bill; we
have communicated with every officer in the State and used our
personal influence with Committees, but there seems to be no
one in particular to have charge of this Bill.
ARTHUR C. DUCAT,
Brig. Geul. "
GEN. H. MILLIARD, A. G.,
As no assurance of any progress could be obtained,
Gen. Ducat determined to take the matter in charge
himself and see what could be done by a personal appeal
to the Committees, through gentlemen immediately repre-
In the meanwhile, changes had been made upon his
In January, Col. Otis resigned, and Lieut. Col. George
I. Waterman was promoted to be Colonel and Chief of
Staff. Lieut. Holdridge O. Collins was promoted to be
Lieutenant Colonel and Assistant Adjutant-General, rice
Waterman promoted, and Samuel Appleton, late Captain,
First Regiment, was appointed First Lieutenant, and
Aide-de-Camp, vice Collins promoted.
Gen. Hilliard finally arranged a joint meeting of the
Committees of the Senate and House, and Colonels
54 HISTORY OF THE
Waterman and Collins proceeded to Springfield, where
they were given a patient hearing February 28th.
Their representations were carefully considered, and
the Bill was subsequently reported back to the House,
with the favorable recommendation of the Committee.
On March 28, it was ordered to its second reading, after
some lively skirmishing and opposition on the part of its
enemies, in which Mr. Watkins, of Pulaski, particularly
distinguished himself by a facetious speech in support of
his amendment, that each Company be provided with 250
The Bill was amended and changed materially in
some of its features, but was finally passed on April i2th,
owing to the watchfulness and efficiency of Mr. Evans,
Mr. Westfall and Mr. Crocker, and it went to the Senate,
where Mr. De Laney took the matter in charge, and his
Committee reported back the Bill on April 2oth, " with
the recommendation that it do pass."
Great anxiety about the fate of the Bill had been felt
throughout the State, more particularly in Chicago, and
the following letter from Gen. Hilliard was received with
great satisfaction :
"ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE,
SPRINGFIELD, April 2ist, 1877.
Col. GEO. I. WATERMAN,
86 La Salle St., Chicago:
" Colonel, The " Bill " has passed ist reading in the Senate*
was considered in Committee yesterday and ordered printed for
a 2d reading early next week. I am inclined to think that
if the Cook County Senators, and especially Mr. De Laney,
will pull together and urge it strongly, and bring it up early
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 55
next week, it will pass. Have them urged to keep off all amend-
ments, but to pass it as it comes from the House. If it goes
back there, it may catch a defeat. It is all cut up now so that
"Collins " would not know his Bill, but the tax is fixed at 1-20
of a mill, and if it passes we can build upon it hereafter.
The friendly exertions of Senators Lee and Bash, and
the rulings of Senator William E. Shutt (whose name is
indicative of the summary and effectual manner with
which he strangled all dilatory motions), carried the Bill
through the dangers of the second reading on May 8,
and on May 14, the Bill was finally passed, receiving
Governor Cullom's approval, May 18, and it went into
effect the following July i, 1877.
The enactment of the Statute was announced in the
following order :
" STATE OF ILLINOIS, ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE.
SPRINGFIELD, ILL., May 25, 1877.
" The Commander-in-Chief congratulates the members of
the Illinois National Guard, on the passage of a State Military
Code by the Thirtieth General Assembly, which has received
the Executive sanction and is therefore a law. It now becomes
your duty to show by your zeal and devotion to duty, your
disposition to satisfy the people and their representatives that
this favor has not been undeserved.
Relying on your fidelity, the Commander-in-Chief is confi-
dent that the expectations of the people of Illinois will not be
disappointed, and that the near future will find the State troops
of Illinois in a position of proud prominence among the vol-
unteer forces of the Nation.
By order of the Commander-in-Chief.
H. HILLIARD, Adjutant General."
56 HISTORY OF THE
One of the principal features of the new law was the
assignment of the entire Militia into Three Brigades,
forming one Division, the command of which was given to
Gen Ducat, as a matter of course.
He received official notice of his promotion in the
following communications :
" GENERAL HEADQUARTERS, STATE OF ILLINOIS.
Adjutant General's Office.
SPRINGFIELD, July yth, 1877.
MAJOR GEN. A. C. DUCAT,
Comdg. Division, I. AT. G.:
" GENERAL, I have the honor to say that you have this day
been appointed by his Excellency, the Governor and Com-
mander-in-Chief, Major General commanding the Division of
Illinois National Guards. I sincerely congratulate you, and
more I congratulate the National Guard of this State, on the
certainty that the policy which has prevailed heretofore in the
management of Military affairs in this State, is to be carried out
in the future. As the law gives you the selection of your Staff
very properly, you are requested to recommend the gentlemen
whom you prefer to fill the positions, when I shall be most
happy to issue the necessary Commissions. Your own Com-
mission will be forwarded on Monday.
Very Respy. your Obt. Servt.
" STATE OF ILLINOIS,
SPRINGFIELD, July 9, 1877.
GENL. ARTHUR C. DUCAT,
Chicago. Ills. :
" DEAR SIR, I have the honor and pleasure of handing
you herewith your Commission as Major General Commanding
Division Illinois National Guard.
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 57
"Trusting in your fidelity to the interest of the State Militia,
and your devotion to the State and Nation, I am,
With Great respect,
S. M. CULLOM."
HISTORY OF THE
Tl?,e IMYision, and the Railroad Riots of July,
New Military Code, in Section i of Ar-
ticle IV, provided that the Staff of the Com-
mander-in-Chief should consist of an Adjutant
General, ranking as a Major General, who
should also be ex-officio Chief of Staff, Com-
missary General and Quartermaster General,
and such other officers as he might think
proper to appoint.
With a liberal interpretation of this provision, Gov.
Cullom selected a generous staff, which would have been
a credit to the Commander-in-Chief of the combined
forces of all the Russias. The following gentlemen we re-
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD.
Maj. Gen. Hiram Milliard, Adjt. Gen., Springfield.
Brig. Gen. Wm. E. Strong, Inspector Gen., Chicago.
Saml. B. Sherer, Chief of Cavalry, Chicago.
Elisha B. Hamilton, Chief of Ordnance, Chicago.
Benson Wood, Judge Advocate Gen., Effingham.
Rufus S. Lord, Surgeon Gen., Springfield.
Louis Schaffner, Paymaster Gen., Chicago.
Colonel Huntington W. Jackson, Aide-de-Camp, Chicago.
" Wm. H. Thompson,
" Ernst F. C. Klokke
" Henry H. Evans, Aurora.
Benjamin F. Sheets, Oregon.
David O. Reid, Moline.
" Sylvester W. Munn, Joliet.
" Edward P. Durell, " Vermont.
" Wm. A. Larimer, Aledo.
Wm. H. Edgar, Jersey ville.
Noble B. Wiggins, " Springfield.
" Wm. J. Pollock. Ottawa.
George Scroggs, Champaign.
" John J. Brenhalt, Alton.
Thomas J. Golden, Marshall.
" Geo. W. Johns, Fairfield.
" Willis E. Finch, E. St. Louis
Lieut. Col. Geo. R. Cannon, Chicago.
Major H. Sherman Vail. "
" Wm. T. Vandeveer, Taylorville.
Captain James M. Rice, Peoria.
A. M. Trimble, Ottawa.
Geo. W. Akins, Nashville.
Reed Jones, Joliet.
Harry F. White, Nokomis.
" Edward F. Gale, Chicago.
First Lieut. Jerry J. Crowley,
Second Lieut. Wm. T. Hall,
60 HISTORY OF THE
The Adjutant General and Inspector General \vere
the only officers of the above Staff to whom particular
allusion was made in the Statute, these positions being
$ni generis, and requiring special provisions.
Under the old law, the Adjutant General was also the
Inspector General, but now the Inspector General's de-
partment was created upon an independent basis, and
turned over to the exclusive control of Brig. Gen. Strong.
The Major General was given an Assistant Inspector,
with rank of Lieutenant Colonel, but as Gen. Strong, by
General Order No. 2, under date July n, 1877, was
assigned for duty on the Division Staff, Gen. Ducat
regarded the office of Assistant Inspector as superfluous,
and he never filled the vacancy.
Gov. Cullom commissioned the following gentlemen
as the general officers commanding the Militia:
ARTHUR C DUCAT, Chicago.
Joseph T. Torrence, First Brigade, Chicago. ' , .
Erastus N. Bates, Second Brigade, Springfield
Charles W. Pavey, Third Brigade, Mount Vernon.
The first Staff of the Division was composed of:
Colonel Geo. I. Waterman, Chief of Staff.
Brig. Gen. Wm. E. Strong, by assignment, Inspector Gen
Lieut. Col. Holdridge O. Collins, Asst. Adjt. Gen.
" Jerome F. Weeks, Surgeon.
Major Albert L. Coe, Quartermaster.
" Henry B. Maxwell, Commissary.
" Henry B. Whitehouse, Paymaster.
Captain Samuel Appleton, Aide-de-Camp.
" David H. Gile,
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 61
The position of Judge Advocate was left temporarily
vacant. Subsequently changes were made, and at the
time of the resignation of Gen. Ducat, in June, 1879, his
Staff was composed as follows:
Colonel Percy P. Oldershaw, Chief of Staff.
Brig. Gen. Wm. E. Strong, Inspector General.
Lieut. Col. Samuel Appleton, Asst. Adjt. Gen.
" Jerome F. Weeks, Surgeon.
Major Albert L. Coe, Quartermaster.
" Henry B. Maxwell, Commissary.
" Henry B. Whitehouse, Paymaster.
" Holdridge O. Collins, Judge Advocate.
The positions of Aides-de-Camp being also vacant.
In the original draft of the new Military Code, the
rank' of all the Staff officers of the Division and Brigades
was generally modelled after the New York Code, and
was in almost every case higher than the corresponding
office in the Regular Army. The Legislature became
weaned of cutting down, trimming and amending the
Bill when progress had been made through about half of
its'- provisions, and the remainder was passed without
change and without consideration as to any inconsist-
encies that might exist. The rank of the Division Judge
Advocate in the Bill as introduced, was Colonel. This was
reduced to Major, and the result was, that the rank of
the Brigade Judge Advocate was left higher bv one
grade than the Division Judge Advocate, and the
anomaly was created of a Major passing upon the acts of
62 HISTORY OF THE
The following officers composed the Staffs of the
Lieut. Col. Henry A. Huntington, Asst. Adjt. Gen., who was
succeeded by Geo. R. Cannon
Lieut. Col- Elijah B. Sherman, Judge Advocate.
Major John Lanigan, Inspector.
Major Fernand Henrotin, Surgeon.
Captain Joseph Kirkland, Quartermaster, who was succeeded
by William C. Lyon.
Captain Charles H. Taylor, Commissary.
First Lieut. W. S. Scribner, Aide-de-Camp.
First Lieut. Edward T. Sawyer, Aide-de-Camp.
All of Chicago.
Lieut. Col. Jas. F. McNeil 1, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Springfield, suc-
ceeded by Jasper N. Reece.
Lieut. Col. Orin P. Cooley, Judge Advocate, Oneida.
Major Gustavus S. Dana, Inspector, Springfield.
Major Thomas G. Black, Surgeon, Clayton.
Captain Charles F. Mills, Quartermaster, Springfield.
Captain Wm. F. Smith, Commissary,
First Lieut. William L. Distin, Aide-de-Camp, Quincy.
In November, 1877, Gen. Bates resigned, and Jasper
N. Reece was commissioned Brigadier General of the
Second Brigade. He made but few changes upon his
Staff, retaining the same gentlemen, and making the fol-
lowing new appointments:
Lieut. Col. Chas. F. Mills, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Springfield.
Captain George C. Cole, Quartermaster, Springfield.
First Lieut. Christopher Wolf, Aide-de-Camp, Springfield.
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 63
Lieut. Col. Albion F. Taylor, Asst. Adj. Gen. Mt. Yernon.
Lieut. Col. Columbus A. Keller, Judge Advocate.
Major Robert B. Stinson, Inspector, Anna.
Major Augustus De Foe, Surgeon, McLeansboro.
Captain Wm. Swanwick, Quartermaster, Chester.
Captain Daniel Berry, Commissary, Carmi.
First Lieut. John B. Crowder, Aide-de-Camp, Mt. Yernon.
First Lieut. Wm. Hendrickson, Aide-de-Camp, Marion.
The Biennial Report of the Adjutant General, in
January, 1877, showed that when Gen. Ducat was ap-
pointed Brigadier General, the State Militia consisted of
895 men only. The First Regiment, at Chicago, \vas
the only Battalion organization, being composed of eight
Companies, the rest of the force being members of inde-
pendent, detached and unassigned Companies.
In September, 1876, Gen. Ducat had organized a
Brigade, composed of 5,145 men and officers, assigned
to Seven Regiments, three Battalions and eight de-
tached Companies, among which were one Company of
Cavalry, at Chicago, and one Battery of two pieces, at
Danville. After the enactment of the new Code, which
imposed a tax for the payment of the most necessary ex-
penses, the existing Regiments were rapidly recruited to
a maximum, and the organization of other Regiments
and Battalions was commenced.
General Order No. 3 was issued from the Adjutant
General's Office, under date July n, 1877, assigning the
forces to Brigades as follows :
First, Second, Third, Ninth and Tenth Regiments Infantry,
Company A, Light Cavalry, Chicago, and Battery A, Danville
64 HISTORY OF THE
Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Regiments In-
All Companies then organized and in process of or-
ganization south of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad.
These preliminary steps for carrying out the provis-
ions of the Code had scarcely been taken, when the news
of the terrible reign of lawlessness at Pittsburg and Bal-
timore, on July 2ist and 22d, was flashed through the
State, and the attention of the entire Country became
directed to Chicago, as the great center of the vast Rail-
road system of the Northwest. There was a very gen-
eral feeling that the Railroads had acted with oppression
towards their employes, and the public almost universally
sympathized with these laborers and mechanics.
It was evident that unless the troubles were checked
at this point, the Country would be thrown into a revolu-
tion. The time had come for the Militia to show
whether it were capable of the stern duty and exacting
dicripline of the soldier.
Sunday and Monday, July 22d and 23d, were days of
feverish uncertainty and repressed excitement at Chicago,
Peoria, Galesburg and East St. Louis. The forces
throughout the State were ordered under arms. By
prompt action, the National Blues, Emmet Guards and
Veteran Guards, undjsr the command of their respective
officers, quelled an outbreak at Peoria in short order,
and the Emmet Guards proceeded to Galesburg, where
an incipient riot, directed against the Railroad works,
was summarily surpressed.
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 65
Gen. Bates took personal command of the National
Blues and Veteran Guards of Peoria, the Taylorville
Guards, Morgan Cadets of Jacksonville, and the Veteran
and National Guards of Quincy, and proceeded to East
St. Louis, where he was joined, July 28th, by Gen.
Puvey, in command of the Belleville Guards and Mt.Ver-
non Guards. Governor Cullom was present at this
place and under his personal direction, by the exercise
of mild firmness, order was restored in a very dangerous
community, without the loss of life or property.
Other points of railroad interests La Salle, Mat-
toon, Pana, Decatur, Bloomington, Streator and Altona
- were fully protected by the local Militia Commands,
and Chicago was the only place in the State where the
situation at any time became alarming.
On Monday, July 23d, the entire forces in Chicago,
consisting of the First and Second Regiments of Infantry
and one Company of Cavalry, were ordered to hold
themselves ready for instant service. The Bohemian
Guards were disarmed and ultimately disbanded, some
of their officers being found active leaders of the mob.
The following despatch was received:
" SPRINGFIELD, ILL., July 23, 1877.
('KN. A. C. DUCAT :
"Under the charter of cities and towns, the Mayor, subject
to the Governor, has the power to call out the Militia. Please
confer with him.
S. M. Cullom, Governor"
Gen. Ducat called upon Mayor Monroe Heath and
tendered to him the aid of the entire local command.
Mr. Heath, however, declined to avail himself of this
66 HISTORY OF THE
assistance, stating that he did not wish the troops to be
seen on the streets, as he believed the disastrous results
of the riots at Pittsburgh, were owing principally to the
unwarranted interference of the Militia, and he felt con-
fident of being able to suppress all disturbances in Chi-
cago with the Police force. The same evening, a meet-
ing of workingmen was held at the corner of Madison
and Market streets, at which the Communistic element
predominated, but no overt act of violence was com-
mitted. On Tuesday morning, however, mobs began
to assemble in the West Division on Halsted, Canal and
Kinzie streets, compelling workingmen in the lumber
and manufacturing districts to quit work. These labor-
ers helped to swell the mobs, and nearly the entire Police
force of the City was ordered to this district.
The following message was sent in the morning:
"CHICAGO, July 24th, 1877.
MAJ. GEN. H. HILLIARD,
Adjutant General, Springfield :
" I don't think the authorities here fully appreciate the gravity
of the situation. Although the City was quiet last night and this
morning, I believe trouble will occur here about to-morrow. I
recommend the immediate concentration of State troops here
that can be spared from other points, including the Danville
Battery. The Railroads may fail us, and it will be much easier
to send troops out, than to get them in. Think of this. I be-
lieve, with the example of other cities before us, this action is
nothing more than our clear duty. Answer.
DUCAT, Major General Commanding.
Mayor Heath, upon being informed by Gen. Ducat of
the proposed movement, stated emphatically that he did
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 67
not think it necessary, and he requested that no more
troops be brought to the city. Whereupon the following
message was sent:
'' CHICAGO, July 24, 1877.
To MAJ. GEN. MILLIARD, Springfield :
" Have consulted with the Mayor. He is opposed to bringing
in troops. Hold th^m ready, nevertheless.
DUCAT, Maj ' . Gen. Commanding."
The entire police force had been on active duty over
a day, fighting the mobs in the West Division. All the
Station houses were rilled with rioters who had been
arrested, and now reports came that the police were
exhausted and were being overpowered by numbers.
Up to Wednesday the 25th, the Mayor had declined to
make a formal call for the use of the troops, but, urged
by the unwise counsel of a few panic-stricken citizens,
who were large property owners, he made frequent verbal
requests that the forces should be distributed around the
city and suburbs for the protection of individual interests.
Gen. Ducat, refused to divide his forces into small
detachments, or to permit any interference with his com-
mand. He notified the Mayor that he had been pre-
pared to disperse all mobs, since the outbreak, and he
would move the instant he obtained a request or per-
mission to march upon the streets; but he was the judge
as to the manner in which the Military should act, and he
should exercise his own discretion in that respect.
Late in the evening of the 25th, it became evident at
Division Headquarters that the Civil Authorities were
powerless to restore order, and that the Mayor would be
compelled to call for help.
68 HISTORY OF THE
Gen. Ducat moved the Second Regiment from its
Armory on West Jackson street to the Rock Island
Railroad Depot, and the First Regiment was marched to
the Exposition Building, both these places being more
available for concerted action and much more desirable
for the health of the troops, suffering as they were from
heat in their armories. The troops bivouacked in these
buildings for the night, and were ready for the speedy
demand which was made for their services.
Early Thursday morning the following was received :
" MAYOR'S OFFICE,
CHICAGO, July 26, 1877.
MAJOR GENERAL ARTHUR C. DUCAT:
" You are hereby authorized to use whatever Military you
have in this city subject to your command, to suppress the
riots now in progress in different parts of the city, subject to my
M. HEATH, Mayor."
Immediately, the Second Regiment, commanded by
Lieut. Col. James Quirk, and the First Regiment, under
the command of Lieut. Col. S. B. Sherer (Col. McClurg
being at this time in Europe), were marched to the heart
of the riotous district in the West Division, and during the
day they scattered and dispersed all the mobs and riotous
assemblages. They were several times attacked, and under
less cool Commanders, the day might have had a bloodv
ending, as both commands were several times placed in
situations where a volley would have been justified.
Cols. Quirk and Sherer, however, sternly repressed all
firing, the bayonet only being used, and the sun went
down without the loss of a life caused by the Militia.
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 69
Lute in the afternoon, the Second Regiment was stationed
at the Halsted Street viaduct, and the First within sup-
porting distance, on Twelfth Street, near the river. The
two Regiments remained on duty at these posts all night.
Three old cannon belonging to the State, had been found
in the possession of the City, and Col. Bolton hastily or-
ganized a volunteer Municipal Battery, which did excellent
service. One gun was stationed with the First Regiment,
so as to command the Twelfth Street bridge, and a second
gun was annexed to Col. Quirk's command, at the Six-
teenth Street viaduct. The First Regiment was not mo-
lested after dark, but an attack was made upon the Second
during the night by a mob, which, however, was dispersed
by two volleys, the first fired at 9: 10 P.M., and the second
at 10: 30 P. M.
On Thursday, the 26th, six companies of the Ninth
Infantry and two companies of the Twenty-second Infantry
U. S. Army, arrived in Chicago. They were stationed at
several points throughout the City, and at the Stock
Yards, and their presence did much to restore confidence.
In the afternoon of Friday, the 27th, all disturbances
in the City having ceased, the two Regiments were
marched back to their temporary armories, and Chicago
resumed her wonted peaceful aspect.
On July 24th, Gov. Cullom telegraphed that there
was trouble brewing among the miners at Braidwood,
a small coal mining Station on the Chicago and Alton
The proprietors of the mine had lately imported sev-
eral hundred negroes from the South as laborers, much
to the dissatisfaction of a large foreign element which had
70 HISTORY OF THE
been theretofore employed in the mines, and they seized
upon the present opportunity to rise against the colored
people, and by July 28th, they had driven them, with their
women and children, from their homes, refusing to allow
them to return even to obtain food and clothing.
About 5 o'clock p. M., on July 27th, peremptory orders
came from Gov. Cullom, to send a strong force for
their protection, and Gen. Ducat immediately made his
arrangements to go in person, leaving Gen. Torrence
with the Second Regiment, in command of the City. At
10 o'clock P. M., telegrams were sent to Col. J. W. R.
Stambaugh, at Sterling, and the Commanding officers of
Companies of his Regiment, to report immediately at
Chicago, and at five o'clock next morning, the Rockford,
Creston, La Salle, Sycamore (2), and Aurora Companies,
with Col. Stambaugh at their head, presented themselves
at Division Headquarters in Chicago, fully armed and
equipped for service. Regular troops with transporta-
tion facilities could not have acted with greater despatch,
and Col. Stambaugh and his Third Regiment have the
credit of performing the neatest act of soldiership during
The First and Third Regiments were embarked on
the train, and leaving Chicago at i p. M., on Saturday,
the command arrived at Braidwood at 5 P. M., having
taken up at Joliet two companies of the Tenth Battalion,
under Lieut. Col. Parsons, and the Joliet Battery under
Capt. J. Q. A. King.
Short work was made with the riotous elements at
Braidwood. They were quickly disarmed and dispersed;
the colored people were restored to their homes and usual
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 7.
avocations, and furnished with rations for one day from
the Military supplies, as the}' were entirely destitute.
Order was fully established by Sunday evening, and
on Monday, July 30, leaving a small detachment of the
Tenth Battalion to preserve order at Braidwood, the
command returned to Chicago, and was dismissed from
further duty, all disturbances having ceased throughout
The following General Orders were published:
" GENERAL HEADQUARTERS, STATE OF ILLINOIS,
ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE.
SPRINGFIELD, August 4, 1877.
General Orders No. 7 .
" The Commander-in-Chief congratulates the Illinois National
Guard on the restoration of law and order throughout the
length and breadth of the State.
" To the Military of the Commonwealth is due the
thanks of the people for the alacrity with which they obeyed
the summons to duty ; and the zeal which characterized
their movements has been the subject of favorable comment
from press and people. As an important factor in the preser-
vation of the peace, you have fully justified the hope enter-
tained by your friends, and established a just right to future
recognition by the law making power of the State.
" The Commander-in-Chief trusts that the necessity may
never again arise for a similar use of the power of the State, but
should it, he relies confidently on your courage and patriotism.
" By order of the Governor and Commander-in-Chief.
Adjutant General . "
72 HISTORY OF THE
" DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD.
CHICAGO, August 6, 1877.
General Orders No. 4.
" I. Generals Commanding Brigades of the Illinois
National Guard will issue and publish an order dismissing their
troops to their respective homes.
" II. General Torrence Commanding the First Brigade
will hold the detachment of his command now at Braidwood, at
that point until further orders.
" III. The General Commanding the Division takes great
pleasure and pride in thanking the troops in the name of the
Governor and the law and order loving people of the State, and
in his own behalf, for their prompt and patriotic response to the
first call of duty which has been made apon them for active Mili-
tary service The cheerful and courageous obedience to all
the orders given, and the great patience manifested under the
most trying circumstances, have made them worthy the pride of
every good citizen of the State.
" The troops of the First Brigade came more immediately
under the observation of the General Commanding, and he
compliments Gen. Torrence, upon the steady, unwavering and
untiring conduct of the First rnd Second Regiments, and for
the alacrity with which the Third Regiment and Tenth Bat-
talion concentrated and reported their commands. They will
ARTHUR C. DUCAT,
Major General Commanding,
GEORGE I. WATERMAN,
Colonel d/i:/ Chief of
HOLDRIDGE O. COLLINS,
Lieut. Col. and Ass t. Adjt. Gen."
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 73
The public attention had been particularly attracted
toward the Militia by reason of its good service during
the riots, and large numbers of recruits were enlisted all
over the State.
The work of perfecting the organization of the new
Brigades into a Division, which had been interrupted
so soon after the law went into effect, was now resumed,
and carried out with vigor. In Chicago, three new
companies of Cavalry were raised, forming a Battalion of
four Companies, commanded by Major Dominick Wel-
ter, and all fully armed and equipped, with an ample
provision, by private subscription, for being mounted
when called upon for service, and two Battalions of In-
fantry were recruited, the Sixth, with six Companies,
commanded by Lieut. Col. Moses W. Powell; and the Six-
teenth, colored, of four Companies, under the command
of Major Theodore C. Hubbard.
They were provided with uniforms and armories by
private subscription, the State furnishing the arms and
During the Summers of 1877 and 1878, many other
Regiments and Battalions of Infantry were successfully
recruited and enrolled throughout the State. Two addi-
tional Batteries of Artillery were perfected B, at Spring-
field, under Capt. John G. Mack, and C, at Joliet, com-
manded by Capt. Mansfield Young; and Gen. Ducat
made great exertions to obtain a Battery at Chicago.
Gen. Sheridan very kindly interested himself in the
matter, and through him negotiations were commenced
with the General Government at Washington, for a com-
plete Battery, consisting of two three-inch rifled guns,
74 HISTORY OF THE
ordnance pattern; four twelve-pounder, smooth-bore
Napoleon guns, and one Gatling gun, calibre forty-five.
It was found, however, that no help could be had in this
quarter, as Illinois had already overdrawn her quota of
arms, and the authorities refused to make any further
Again the generosity and public spirit of individuals
stepped forward and furnished the necessary funds.
L. Z. Leiter, Esq., of Chicago, took the lead, and
through his means, and the influence of the Citizens'
Association, a very complete and satisfactory Battery
was purchased, consisting of four twelve-pounder Napo-
leon guns, and one Gatling gun, with equipments, of
which Maj. Edgar P. Tobey was given the command.
Gen. Ducat induced all the Commands to unite in an
effort to secure a large General Armory, with drill-sheds
of sufficient size to permit the evolutions of a Regiment;
but, although plans were made and many meetings held,
the money could not be raised, and the attempt was aban-
In the month of September, 1877, the first general
inspection of the troops, under the new law, was made ac-
cording to the directions of Gen. Sirong. His report of this
inspection, and of the inspection held September, 1878,
is to be found in the Biennial Report of the Adjutant
General for 1877 and 1878. ( Vide pp. 57-78.)
In October, 1877, arose the first occasion to make
use of the provisions as to Courts Martial.
Special order No. 10, from Division Headquarters,
under date October 8th, was issued, commanding a
Court Martial at Altona, Knox Countv, for the trial of
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 75
the First Lieutenant of Company C, Fourth Regiment,
upon charges and specifications duly presented. The
Court assembled October 23d, with Maj. William Jack-
son, Fourth Regiment, as President; and after a careful
consideration of the case, the Lieutenant was sentenced
to be cashiered, which sentence was approved by Gov.
Cullom, in General Court Martial Order, No. i, dated
Springfield, December 17, 1877.
In the perfecting of the Division, Gen. Ducat was most
materially assisted by Colonels C. M. Brazee, Third Regi-
ment; William Whitney, Fourth Regiment; William
Hanna, Eighth Regiment; M. H. Peters, Ninth Regi-
ment; J. B. Parsons, Tenth Regiment ; and John B.
Fithian, Twelfth Regiment. These officers brought
their several commands to a high condition of discipline,
which gave them rank among the first in the State.
Col. Brazee, of Rockford, by his untiring labors, has
preserved a very great cordiality of feeling between men
and officers, and his Regiment is invariably unanimous
on all questions of their general interest. It ranks first
in numbers and second in drill in the State.
Colonels Parsons and Fithian carried their commands
successfully through the troubles of 1877-1878, caused
by the lack of money for expenses, and the repeated
changes in the Companies forming their Regiments.
In reorganizing the Division, one of the principal ob-
jects aimed at, was the assignment of neighboring Com-
panies to the same Regiment, and, as a consequence, the
complexion of many commands was almost entirely
changed. But this eventually resulted in great benefit,
and brought about a more united feeling in the respective
Regiments and Battalions.
76 HIS'TORY OF THE*
The weak points of the new Code soon became ap-
It contained some inconsistences and the annual tax
of one-twentieth of a mill was entirely too small to satisfy
the demands of the service. It was the intention to fol-
low the example of New York, and obtain a better law
by gradual amendments for larger appropriations. The
tax of one mill asked in the Bill, as introduced, had been
reduced, as it was difficult to induce " the Country mem-
bers" of the Legislature to vote any money for Militia
In the latter part of 1877, it was thought best to call a
general meeting of officers to discuss the matter, and a cir-
cular, dated December 8, 1877, was issued from Spring-
field by a committee of officers, headed by Adjt. Gen.
Milliard, and Brig. Gen. Reece of the Second Brigade,
suggesting that a Convention be called at Springfield the
The idea met with universal approval, and on January
15, 1878, probably the largest assembly of Militia officers
ever held in Illinois, was called to order by Gen. Hilliard
in the Chamber of the House of Representatives.
Governor Cullom welcomed them in a very graceful
speech of congratulations upon their successful work, and
thanks for their services during the riots.
Gen. Ducat was elected President, with Brig. Gens.
Torrence, Pavey and Reece as Vice-Presidents.
All matters pertaining to the general welfare and ad-
vancement of the service were freely discussed, and it was
decided that a committee should be selected to draw a
new Bill for a Militia law, embracing the points deter-
mined upon by the Convention.
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 77
The President appointed Gen. Hilliard chairman of this
Committee, with power to nominate the other members,
and the remainder of the Committee as appointed, con-
sisted of Brig. Gen. William E. Strong, .of Chicago,
Inspector General ; Brig, Gen. E. B. Hamilton, of Quincy,
Chief of Ordnance; Brig. Gen. Benson Wood, of Effing-
ham, Judge Advocate General; Major R. F. Stinson, of
Anna, Inspector of Second Brigade ; Lieut. Col. Jerome
F. Weeks, Division Surgeon, and Lieut. Col. E. B. Sher-
man, Judge Advocate First Brigade, both of Chicago.
In the Spring of 1878, Chicago was troubled by a
threatened outbreak of the Communistic element. Infor-
mation was sent to Gen. Ducat, that a plan had been
formed to seize the arms of the First and Second Regi-
ments, and burn the Exposition Building and the Railroad
property on the Lake Shore. Governor Cullom became
satisfied that these fears were not groundless, and by his
direction, a guard was kept up during the months of April
and May. The Second Regiment abandoned its Armory
on West Jackson Street, and for several months had its
home at the North End of the Exposition Building.
Later it secured another Armory on Randolph Street.
During the Summer of 1878, the Third Regiment was
encamped at Sycamore, the Tenth Battalion at Pontiac
and the Twelfth Battalion at Morris, and generally, in-
specting, reviewing, drilling and instruction in rifle practice
were the order of the day all over the State.
The Biennial Report of the Adjutant General, in
January 1879, showed that during 1877 and 1878, the
Division had been organized into Three Brigades com-
posed of Eight Regiments of Infantry, Eight Battalions
7 S HISTORY OF THE
of Infantry, One Battalion of Cavalry and Three Batteries
o Artillery, with 497 f^ield, Staff and Line Officers and
6,361 enlisted men, making a total force of 6,858, including
the Comma/ider-in-Chief and Staff.
The Brigade assignments were as follow:
Brig. Gen., Joseph T. Torrence, Chicago.
Colonel, Edgar D. Swain, Chicago.
Lieutenant Colonel, Rudolph Williams, Chicago.
Major, Edwin B. Knox, Chicago.
Companies A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K.
Forty officers and 488 enlisted men.
Colonel, James Quirk, Chicago.
Lieut. Colonel, Wm. P. Rend, Chicago.
Major, Peter J. Hennessey, Chicago.
Companies A, B, C, D, E, F, G.
Twenty-three officers and 358 enlisted men.
Colonel, C. M. Brazee, Rockford.
Lieut: Colonel, T. B. Coulter, Aurora.
Major, Oscar W. Phelps, Sycamore.
Companies A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K.
Thirty-three officers and 527 enlisted men.
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 79
Lieut. Col., Moses W. Powell, Chicago.
Major, Benjamin R. De Young, Chicago.
Companies A, B, C, D, E, F.
Nineteen officers and 233 enlisted men.
Lieut. Col., M. H. Peters, Watseka.
Major, Amos S. Cowan, Danville.
Companies A, B, C, D, E, F.
Twenty-one officers and 256 enlisted men.
Lieut. Col., J. B. Parsons, Dwight.
Major, John K. Howard, Odell.
Companies A, B, C, D, E, F.
Twenty-one officers and 309 enlisted men.
Lieut. Col., John B. Fithian, Joliet.
Major, Win. G. Coulter, La Salle.
Companies A, B, C, D, E, F.
Twenty-one officers arid 259 enlisted men.
SIXTEENTH (COLORED) BATTALION.
Major, Theodore C. Hubbard, Chicago.
Companies A and B, of Chicago, Clark County
Guards, of Marshall, and Cumberland County Guards,
Eleven officers and 106 enlisted men.
So HISTORY OF THE
FIRST BATTALION CAVALRY,
Major, Dominick Welter, Chicago.
Companies A, B, C, D.
Twelve officers and 209 enlisted men,
Captain, Edwin Winter, Danville.
Three officers and 48 enlisted men,
Captain, Mansfield Young, Joliet.
Three officers and 61 enlisted men.
Making the total strength of the Brigade, 203 officers;
and 2,854 enlisted men.
Brig, Gen., Jasper N. Reece, Springfield.
Colonel, Wm. Whiting, Altona.
Lieut. Colonel, Wm. Jackson, Toulon.
Major, O. L. Higgins, Oneida.
Companies A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I.
Twenty-eight officers and 378 enlisted men.
Colonel, James H. Barkley, Springfield.
Lieut. Colonel, Cornelius Rourke, Petersburg.
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 81
Major, Jas. F. McNeil, Springfield.
Companies A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K.
Forty officers and 629 enlisted men.
Decatur Grenadiers, Capt., C. M. Durfee.
Virginia Lippincott Guards, Capt., Wm. Murray.
Three officers and 59 enlisted men.
Colonel, Isaac Taylor, Peoria.
Lieut. Colonel, John S. Kirk, Havana.
Major, K. S. Conklin, Pekin.
Companies A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K.
Thirty-seven officers and 539 enlisted men.
Colonel, Wm. Hanna, Keokuk Junction.
Lieut. Colonel, C. S. Hickman, Quincy.
Major, C. Y. Long, Carthage.
Companies A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K.
Forty officers and 627 enlisted men.
Pittsfield Guards, Capt., Wm. N. Shibley.
Lieut. Col., Wm . P. Butler, Rock Island.
Major, J. B. Magill, Moline.
Companies A, B, C, D, E.
Fifteen officers and 178 enlisted men.
82 HISTORY OF THE
Lieut. Col., James T. Cooper, Alton.
Major, Walter E. Carlin, Jerseyville.
Companies A, B, C, D, E, F.
Twenty-two officers and 374 enlisted men.
Captain, John G. Mack, Springfield.
Total force of Brigade, 185 officers and 2,784 enlisted
Brig. Gen., Charles W. Pavey, Mt. Vernon.
Col., Cassimer Andel, Belleville.
Lieut. Col., Louis Krughoff, Nashville.
Major, James Hitchcock, Mt. Vernon.
Companies A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K.
Twenty-seven officers and 464 enlisted men.
Lieut. Col., Archibald Spring, Olney.
Major, C. C. Wickersham, Fairfield.
Companies A, B, C, D, E.
Fifteen officers and 259 enlisted men.
Total strength, 42 officers and 723 enlisted men.
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 83
Gen. Hilliard pays the following tribute to Generals
Strong and Ducat:
" To Brig. Gen. Wm. E. Strong, Inspector General,
I feel myself highly indebted, and while the effect of his
labors, which are more fully described in his appended report,
may not at present be apparent, in the fullness of time, the
National Guard of this State will exhibit, by their proficiency,
the greatness of the work which he has performed."
'' I take pleasure in acknowledging the eminent services
rendered by Maj. Gen. A. C. Ducat, Commanding the Division,
as also the services of his various Staff officers. With him and
them my intercourse has been pleasant. Their assistance and
advice has been constantly at my disposal, and it is due to
them for me to say that they have rendered your Excellency,
most cheerfully, their hearty aid and concurrence in the work
of organization, and in aiding in the preservation of public
tranquility." ( Vide, p. 12.)
In his Biennial message to the Thirty-first General
Assembly, Governor Cullom spoke of the Militia in these
"After the era of prosperity which followed the war, there
naturally came a period of depression. Hard times set in, and
many laboring men connected with Railroads, and manufacturing
and mining establishments were thrown out of work, and the
wages of those employed were, from time to time, reduced. As
a result of this condition of things, they became restless and
dissatisfied; disagreements occurred, and frequent strikes fol-
lowed. Finally in July, 1877, the quiet of the people was sud-
denly broken, and the business of almost the whole country
was stopped by assemblages of men, who, in violation and de-
fiance of law and of the civil authorities, took possession of
84 HISTORY OF THE
Railroads, manufacturing establishments and mines, and forced
the owners, and those willing and eager to work, to stop work
and submit to the dictation of the rioters.
" So unlocked for were these occurrences, that few of the
States had any preparation for them. At some places there was
great loss of life and property ; but in our own State, with the ex-
ception of the sad occurrences of one day in the Streets of Chicago,
the whole record of suffering and loss is told when the state-
ment is made that for a week, many of the Railroads, mines
and manufacturing establishments were under the rule of law-
less men, and the commerce of the State was at a stand still.
"The act passed by the last General Assembly, in 1877,
providing for the organization of the Militia, had been in force
but a few.days, and nothing had been done under it to organize
the Military force of the State. There was no adequate pre-
paration for the troubles which so suddenly came upon us.
Every military company in the State, however, whether mustered
into service or not, and whether armed and equipped or not
none of them being fully equipped for active duty responded
to the call upon them, and held themselves in readiness to go
wherever ordered, and to perform any duty, as soldiers, which
the exigencies of the time demanded.
" Ammunition was procured with all possible dispatch, and
as soon as the National Guard could reach the different points
in the State where the rioters were interfering with labor, and
in possession of Railroad trains, and manufacturing and mining
establishments, all unlawful assemblages were dispersed and
business resumed. While the strike and riotous lawlessness
resulted in no destruction of property in this State, it cost the
State a considerable sum of money, besides the loss sustained
by citizens, in the interference with their business.
" The officers and men of the Illinois National Guard are
entitled to the heartiest thanks of the people of the State for
their prompt and efficient service. As already stated, every
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 85
Military organization in the State was called to duty, and
either in active service, or at its Armory waiting orders, for
about fifteen days.
" The Railway trains and machine shops and factories, in
Chicago, Peoria, Galesburg, Decatur and East St. Louis, were
in the hands of the mob, as well as the mines at Braidwood,
LaSalle, and some other places ; and all these places were
urgently demanding a Military force to aid the civil authorities
in their efforts to preserve the peace and enforce the law.
"A Military force was placed on duty at all the places
named above, with strict orders to act subordinate to and in
assistance of the civil authorities.
" Their behaviour throughout was unexceptionable .....
The occurrences of July, 1877, gave a great impetus to the
organization of the Militia, under the existing law ......
" The suggestions and recommendations of the Adjutant
General, in relation to the equipment of the National Guard,
so that they may at all times be ready for active duty, the build-
ing of a new State Arsenal and the sale of the present one, I
most cordially endorse ...... The experience of the last
two years confirms my views expressed to the Thirtieth Gen-
86 HISTORY OF THE
The Militia law of
IS Has been intimated, measures were adopted
in the winter of 1878, looking toward the se-
curing of amendments to the Code at the next
Session of the Legislature.
The Thirty-first General Assembly was
convened at Springfield, on Wednesday, Jan-
uary 8, 1879, and the several Military Com-
mittees of the House and Senate were appointed, as
Senate-Sylvester W. Munn, of Joliet, Chairman ; Ben-
jamin C. Taliaferro, of Keithsburg; Joseph H. Mayborne,
of Geneva; Henry D. Dement, of Dixon; Daniel N. Bash,
and Sylvester Artley, of Chicago; John R. Marshall, of
Yorkville; Milton M. Ford, of Galva; George W. Herd-
man, of Jersey ville; William H. Neece, of Macomb;
Thomas E. Merritt, of Salem; Samuel L. Cheaney, of
Harrisburg, and William R. Archer, of Pittsfield.
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 87
House Anthony R. Mock, of Cambridge, Chair-
man; William H. Thompson and Elijah B. Sherman, of
Chicago; David H. Harts, of Lincoln; Matthew H.
Peters, of Watseka; Henry A. Ewing, of Bloomington;
William L. Gross, of Springfield; John R. McFieofCoul-
terville; Jacob Wheeler, of Havana; Francis Bovven, of
Sheridan; Samuel Mileham, of Camp Point; T. Duane
Hinckley, of Hoyleton; Henry M. Lewis, of Berwick;
Bernhart F. Weber, of Havelock and William T. Mc-
Creery, of Birmingham.
Several of the gentlemen of the House Committee
held Commissions in the National Guard, and many of
the Senators had promised to give the heartiest support
to such Bill as should be brought forward with the recom-
mendation of the Militia.
Upon the election of Governor Cullom, Gen. Hilliard
became desirous of being re-appointed Adjutant General,
and he asked Gen. Ducat's favorable services in his be-
half. They were cheerfully rendered, as Gen. Hilliard
had been industrious and faithful in his labors. Gen.
Ducat made a personal visit to the Governor elect in
November, when he presented the claims of Gen. Hil-
liard, and in the following month he wrote this letter:
"CHICAGO, Dec. 2gth, 1876.
" HON. SHELBY M. CULLOM, Springfield, Ills.:
''''Dear Sir, Referring to our meeting at the Grand Pacific:
Hotel last November, I take the liberty of reminding you of my
opinion, expressed on that occasion, of the services of Adjutant
Genl. Hilliard. He has been most faithful and efficient ir
doing all he could, in the absence of any good military code, to
organize, with the slender means at his disposal, our State
8S HISTORY OF THE
Militia, and infusing into it the proper military spirit becoming
an orderly and peace-loving people.
" Though of the same politics as yourself, and a consistent,
though very undemonstrative supporter of, and worker for, the
Republican party, I cannot make any party claim, and would
not if I could.
" I desire to simply say to you that I think the continuation
of Genl. Hilliard in the office of Adjutant Genl. would be for
the good of the Militia service of the State, in which I am very
deeply interested, with other gentlemen of my Staff, and old
military friends and officers of the State Militia.
" I shall do myself the honor and pleasure of attending upon
you with my Staff on the 8th prox.
" I have the honor to be, sir,
" Very respectfully, your obt. servt.,
" ARTHUR C. DUCAT, Brig. Genl.''
There were many candidates for this office, and these
representations of Gen. Ducat had great weight with
Governor Cullom, in the selection of his Adjutant General.
Gen. Hilliard was reappointed, and he remained
Adjutant General of Illinois, until the Summer of 1881,
when he was succeeded bv Gen. Elliott.
The Committee appointed by the Convention of
officers had held three meetings only, of which the mem-
bers from the First Brigade and the Division Staff had
had notice; one at Chicago during the Summer, and two
at Springfield, one on October 14, and the other Novem-
ber 20, 1878.
On this last occasion, a new Code was written,
embracing all the features desired by the Militia through-
out the State, and when the news was received in Chicago,
that Mr. Mock, Chairman of the House Committee, had
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 89
" presented a voluminous Bill prepared by the Convention
of Militia officers to draw up a Military Code," it was
generally supposed of course that it was the Bill from the
hands of the Committee.
The friends of the Militia however, very quickly dis-
covered that the Code proposed by Chairman Mock was
entirely different from the provisions of the Bill prepared
by the Militia officers. This Code made a radical change
in the command of the troops. It abolished the office of
Major General, and virtually left the Adjutant General in
Command, as it directed the three Brigadier Generals to
report directly to him.
The office of Adjutant General is a political one. He
is appointed by the Governor, and is subject to removal
at the Governor's option. He is entitled to no command.
He is merely the Military Secretary or Clerk of the
Governor, a civil officer. His clerical duties require him
to attest all military papers of State, as does the Secretary
of State with civil papers, and Military Commissions and
orders are sent through his office in precisely the same
manner as the Commissions of Notary Public, and other
civil offices are transmitted from the office of Secretary
This Bill, as introduced, left the rank of the Adjutant
General as Major General, and was " not only in opposi-
tion to all the principles involved in correct Military
organization; but it was a dangerous accumulation of
power in the hands of a politician for such would be
the position of the Adjutant General, in case this Mon-
strosity became a law."
As soon as the nature of this Bill became known,
90 HISTORY OF THE
there was a general protest from the Militia. The papers
throughout the State exposed the measure, and the Tribune,
Times and Inter Ocean, of Chicago, were united, for once,
in a common cause. The vehement editorials of these
papers at this time, show that there prevailed a very great
indignation over the character of this proposed law, more
particularly in Chicago and the other populous sections of
Of course the matter was represented in its true light
to individual members of the Legislature. The Citizens'
Association of Chicago, which since its organization, has
been constantly on the watch for the conservation and
advancement of the public welfare, caused the following
petition to be circulated throughout all the large Cities of
the State, viz :
" To the Members of the Legislature of the State of Illinois :
" We, the undersigned, Citizens of the State of Illinois, have
seen during the past two years the friendly and successful
efforts of the Major General Commanding the Division of the
Illinois National Guard, and the Brigadier Generals Command-
ing the Brigades, to bring the Illinois National Guard to a state
of commendable efficiency.
" We understand a bill has been presented to the Legisla-
ture of the State of Illinois providing a Military Code for
the State, and purporting to be a Bill from a Committee of
the Officers of the Illinois National Guard, legislating out
of Office the Major General Commanding the Division, and in
no manner fairly representing the views of that Committee, nor
those of the officers and men composing the National Guard,
nor of the Citizens interested in its well being.
" That we hereby desire to remonstrate against any Bill
abolishing the Office of Major General Commanding the
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 91
Division of the Illinois National Guard, and placing his author-
ity in the Adjutant General, an officer appointed by the Gov-
ernor and removable at his will, as being unmilitary and
calculated to destroy the efficiency of the Illinois National
" That the introduction of any such measure looking to the
aggrandizement of the Adjutant General, will result in the
defeat of an improved Military Code, so much needed to secure
the safety and welfare of the State.
" We therefore petition your honorable body to retain the
Office of Major General Commanding the Division, and to reduce
the rank of the Adjutant General from Major General to that
of Colonel, and that the pay of said Officer be $1,500 per year,
as we are credibly informed that Officers and gentlemen of
National reputation can be found to occupy said position for
This document was signed by so large a number of
the tax-paying citizens from all parts of the State, that
it could not very well be ignored; and a joint-meeting
of the Military Committees was held Febuary nth, at
which a Sub-Committee, consisting of two from the
the Senate, Munn and Bash, and three from the House,
Mock, Sherman and Harts, was appointed, to convene at
the Grand Pacific Hotel in Chicago, on Monday after-
noon, February lyth, to hear and consider such sugges-
tions as might be offered by those interested in the new
Militia Bill, and word was sent officially to the Division,
Brigade and Regimental Headquarters of the action of
Col. Appleton, without delay, notified all of the offi-
cers of the forces in Chicago to assemble at Division
Headquarters, on February i2th; and at the time speci-
92 HISTORY OF THE
fied, all of the Chicago Commands were represented,
many interested citizens being also in attendance; and
the work of settling upon the terms of a new Bill was
taken up without delay. Meetings were held on February
I2th, i3th, i/j-th and i$th; and at length, provisions satis-
factory to all were agreed upon, and the Division Judge
Advocate was requested to draw the bill, so that it might
be ready for the Legislative Sub-Committee.
On Monday, February iyth, Messrs. Munn and Bash
of the Senate, and Mock, Sherman and Harts of the
House, received the Militia delegation in the parlor of
the Grand Pacific Hotel. There were present, Brig.
Gen. William E. Strong, Inspector General; Brig. Gen.
Samuel B. Sherer, Chief of Cavalry; Brig. Gen. Lewis
Schaffner, Paymaster General and Col. William H.
Thompson, Aide-de-Camp, of the Govenor's Staff Brig.
Gen. J. T. Torrence of First Brigade, and Lieut. Col.
George R. Cannon, Assistant Adjutant-General; Major
John Lanigan, Assistant Inspector; Major Fernand
Henrotin, Surgeon, and Lieutenant Edward T. Sawyer,
Aide-de-Camp of his Staff Col. E. D. Swain, Major E.
B. Knox, Major Truman W. Miller, Surgeon; Capt.
Chas. R. E. Koch, and Quartermaster John D. Bangs
of the First Regiment Col. James Quirk, Major Peter
J. Hennessey and Adjt. John McKeough of the Second
Regiment Major Dominick Welter and Capts. William
S. Brackett and H. H. Anderson, First Regiment of
Cavalry Lieut. Col. Moses W. Powell and Major B. R.
DeYoung of the Sixth Battalion Lieut. Col. John B.
Fithian of the Twelfth Battalion Major Gen. A. C.
Ducat, and Lieut. Col. Samuel Appleton, Assistant
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 93
Adjutant-General; Lieut. Col. Jerome F. Weeks, Sur-
geon; Major Albert L. Coe, Quartermaster and Major
Holdridge O. Collins, Division Judge Advocate, of his
A large delegation of the Citizens' Association, headed
by Col. John Mason Loomis, George M. How and C.
M. Henderson, was also on hand.
Col. Swain, on behalf of the officers present, made a
concise statement of the position of the Militia, and pre-
sented to Senator Munn the new Bill for a law, requesting
him to introduce it to the Legislature. Col. Loomis and
Mr. Henderson presented the views of the Citizens 1
Association, and urged the committee to impress upon
the Legislature the necessity of a new law, and the
danger of allowing the Militia to be controlled by political
leaders and party factions.
This Bill was printed at large in the Chicago papers
of February i8th, with comments of hearty approval.
The Sub-Committee remained three days in Chicago,
examining into the condition and wants of the Militia, and
upon their return to Springfield, they reported back to the
Joint Committee, recommending the adoption of this Bill,
received at Chicago, and on March 5th, Mr. Munn intro-
duced it into the Senate.
It was referred to the proper Committee, but nothing
was afterwards heard of it.
The Bill in the House received a sudden impetus
upon the news of a great Communistic parade in Chicago,
on Sunday, April 2oth, the anniversary of the Paris
Commune. There were several thousand men in line, of
whom twelve hundred had been uniformed, drilled and
94 HISTORY OF THE
organized into Companies and Battalions. Of these, four
hundred were armed with the latest and most improved
model of breech-loading rifles, and their discipline and
soldierly march showed that in a peaceable community, a
small army had been secretly formed, composed of the
worst elements of a large foreign population, whose
openly expressed object was the disruption of all existing
social and political institutions. They were composed
principally of Bohemians, Poles and Scandinavians of
the Socialist taint. Their banners were the red and
black flags, and the numerous mottoes were directed
more particularly against the passage of any Militia law.
" Never before, in the history of civilized communities, did
400 men, armed with breech-loading rifles and fixed bayonets,
parade the peaceful streets of a great city, in order, as they
express it, ' to show the Legislature and people of Chicago what
they can do.' The parade was a threat. It was a threat
against law, order, decency, life and property. It was a
menace to the liberty which all men love a declaration of
war against all that honest men hold sacred."
Section 5, of Article XI, of the House
iting~trie~ drill, organization or parade of any armed body,
15TrTer than the Militia, was now its principal feature.
The attention of the Legislature became centered upon
that clause, and losing sight of the other portions of the
Bill, by an extraordinary revolution in the sentiment of the
House, which was brought about by this armed Commu-
nistic demonstration in Chicago, three days afterwards,
on April 23d, the Bill was passed by a vote of 100 to 37,
and sent to the Senate, where it was finally passed, with
a few immaterial amendments, on May 22d, by a vote of
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 95
31 to 10. The House concurred in the Senate amend-
ments, and the Act was approved by Governor Cullom,
and went into effect the following first of July, 1879.
The Legislature at this session also appropriated a
liberal amount for the payment of the Militia and all ex-
penses incurred during the riots of Julv, 1877.
In June, 1879, J ust ^ our y ears from the date of his
appointment as Brigadier General by Gov. Beveridge,
Gen. Ducat resigned his commission as Major General,
and with his Staff retired from the Military service of
During the time he was in command, the greatest
cordiality prevailed between himself and the officers and
men of the different Regiments and Brigades. Many of
them had fought with him through the campaigns of t he
war, and the_\- were quick to seize upon his ideas for the or-
ganization of the Militia, and they afforded him assistance
without which his labors had been futile.
The general rules for the government of the Militia.
established by him, have been practically adopted in the
Adjutant General's department, and their influence will
be felt in the control of the troops, as long as our present
system of State Militia shall exist.
To General Strong is due the credit of having inau-
gurated as complete an Inspection service as existed in
anv State of the Union; and the establishment of a regu-
lar course of rifle practice and competition for rewards,
was owing entirely to that peculiar characteristic of his,
denominated by Tristram Shandy as " perseverance in a
good cause and obstinacy in a bad one." Although he,
also, lias retired, the regulations which he inaugurated
96 HISTORY OF THE
are now in force, modified to suit the present form of
independent Brigade Commands.
The usefulness of a well trained and reliable Militia,
was practically demonstrated to the Citizens of this
State, by the preservation of millions of dollars in Rail-
road, Mining and Manufacturing interests, and the prompt
suppression of disorder in July, 1877. And Illinois, free
from debt, with resources unlimited, can well afford to
extend a liberal hand for the maintenance of an executive
power which will always be prompt, obedient, faithful
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 97
I SHORT Statement of what has been done
for the home Military service in other States,
may be of interest.
The tax of one mill, asked from our
i Legislature in 1877, which was reduced to
<5K one-twentieth of a mill, was based upon a
comparison of the appropriations made in
Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York and Pennsylvania
in 1876, somewhat modified, in view of the well known
difficulty in obtaining an appropriation from the Repre-
sentatives of a people largely agricultural.
In Massachusetts, the number of men in active service,
including officers, was 3,762, but the maximum allowed
bylaw was 4,134. The estimates, which were approved,
for 1877, based upon the maximum force, were $157,480.
This sum was to be expended for pay of troops, trans-
portation, rifle-range, pits and targets, horses, clerical hire
and Headquarter expenses.
98 HISTORY OF THE
Connecticut has a force of 2,500, composing one
Brigade of four Regiments, commanded by a Brigadier
General. They have a regular military fund aggregating
$80,000 per year, collected from those liable to military
duty by a tax of $2.00 per year. In 1876, the State ex-
pended $40,000 for pay of men and officers, each at $2.00
per day when on regular duty; $19,000 for Armories,
rents, care of arms, etc., and $14,000 for transportation
to the Centennial Exposition, as the regular encampment
of the entire Brigade took place at Philadelphia at the
expense of the State. The usual expenses for transpor-
tation, at the Annual Brigade encampment amount to
about $5,000. The State allows twenty-five dollars every
five years to each non-commissioned officer and private
for a uniform, and in addition to that, overcoats, knap-
sacks, blankets and equipments are provided.
Pennsylvania allowed $400 per annum for each Com-
pany, to be distributed among the members, and the fur-
ther sum of $100 for payment of armory rent. In towns
having a population exceeding 15,000, each Company was
paid $200 for armory rent. In 1874, there were 158
Companies, to whom were paid $86,300; in 1875, there
were 184 Companies to whom were paid $100,000, and
in 1876, 172 Companies received $93,000.
In each of the years indicated, Companies which failed
to reach the required standard for efficiency, discipline
and drill, were not paid. The number of Companies
limited by law was 200, and the minimum number for
each Company was forty enlisted men and three Com-
In New York the appropriations have been as follow,
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 99
viz: 1876, $275,000; 1877, $300,000; 1878, $350,000:
1879, $355 oo > an d since, $300,000 annually. These
amounts have been paid out for the current expenses of the
command. All of the larger Cities have beautiful and
commodious armories, magazines and other buildings,
erected by public taxation and used by the State Militia
for military purposes only.
In Illinois, the following amounts have been levied and
collected for military purposes since the enactment of the
law of 1877:
On assessment for the year 1877, $41,850 88.
" " " i8?8, 63,69495-
" " " 1879, 70,952 54-
" " " 1880, 71,280 41.
" ' ' 1881, 72,092 51.
" " " 1882, 73,173 43.
In 1883 the General Assembly appropriated for ex-
penses of the National Guard, $75,000 per annum.
The amounts expended in Illinois have been very
small compared to the appropriations of other States,
while the necessities for a strong military force, owing
to her geographical position, her rapidly increasing Man-
ufacturing and Railroad interests, and the cosmopolitan
character of her citizens, are certainly as great as those
of any other Commonwealth of the Nation.
Illinois should have at least ten thousand men enrolled
in twenty Regiments of Infantry, of which three should
be at Chicago, with one full Regiment of Cavalry.
Each Regiment of Infantry should have a Gatling
gun, manned by a special detail, and there should be at
least four complete Batteries of three Napoleon guns
ioo HISTORY OF THE
each; one at Chicago, one at Quincy, one at Springfield,
and one at Cairo, with an additional three inch rifled
gun at Quincy and Cairo.
Spacious and convenient State Arsenals and Maga-
zines should be erected at Chicago, Quincy, Peoria,
Springfield and Cairo, with an ample provision for ade-
quate supplies of ammunition for target practice.
There should be an intermediate sole Commander
between the troops and the Adjutant General of the
State, whether it be a Brigadier General commanding
the entire force in one Brigade, similar to the Connecticut
plan, or a Major General in charge of 'a Division with
two or more Brigades, as in Pennsylvania and New
The entire reports from all the troops in the State
should be sent to one General Commanding officer, by
whom they would be duly forwarded to the Adjutant
General of the State, with proper recommendations.
The present system of independent commands in
Illinois lacks cohesion, and there is nothing in it to call
forth any unity of feeling. There is absolutely no inter-
course, officially, between the different Brigades, and the
officers and men, in their military service, are as much
strangers to each other as if they belonged to different
The most desirable form would be a Division of three
or four Brigades, with the immediate, absolute command
vested in a Major General, subject, of course, to the Con-
stitutional supreme authority of the Governor, as Com-
A regular, fixed tax, bringing a revenue sufficiently
ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD. 101
large for a liberal support of the Militia, is preferable to
a Biennial appropriation, which is always uncertain and
unsatisfactory, as there is no surety of a stable, future
The support or abolition of the State Military should
rest solely upon the necessity for its use.
No questions of political supremacy, or the personal
ambition and aggrandizement of individuals, should be
permitted to thrust themselves forward in a deliberate
consideration of this subject.
If there is no use for a Militia it should be disbanded,
as any expense, however small, will be a misappropriation
of the public money.
On the other hand, if the necessity for this force does
exist, the wealth}- and prosperous State of Illinois can
well afford a liberal expenditure for the fostering care
and generous maintenance of her Military children.
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-URBANA
HISTORY OF THE ILLINOIS NATIONAL GUARD C