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By Noxon Toomey 

St. Louis, Mo. 
July, 1917 


By Noxon Toomey 


St. Louis, Mo. 
July, 1917 





By Noxon Toomey 

Before the years of the Revolutionary War the British colonies in America sup- 
ported royal militia companies modeled on the plan of the Militia of England. By a 
Soyal order of 1764 these companies were poorly instructed in the infantry drill of 
the British regulars (l) which was adapted from the regulations of the Prussian in- 
fantry. The Prussian drill was devised by by Leopold I.j Frincc of Anhalt-Dessau, 
who taught it to the regiments of Frederick the Great and made of them a well drill- 
ed army. The militias of the provinces of Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut and Rhode 
Island were instructed in the taotios of the Norfolk militia of 1759.(2) The Norfolk 
tactics was the drill of the old train bands and in them one finds for the last time 
the manual cf the halberd and and pike. (3) 

Such training -the Continental armies had was in the British drill and not until 
the spring of 1773, at Valley Forge, were they drilled by Baron von Steuben.** The 
practical work of Steuben resulted in his publishing his Regulations (4) in 1779. 
These Regulations were no"; a translation of the Prussian tactics, as frequently stat- 
ed, but were an adaptation based on the Prussian drill. They were made official by 
the Continental Ceivjress on March 29, 1779. in 1732, after Congress had authorized 
the Army of the United States, it made Steuben's Regulations the official drill sys- 
tem for it, but militia regiments were permitted to use any drill system. Steuben's 
plan of drill remained official for the regular army until March 30, 1812 when they 
were superceeded by Smyth's tactics, However, Steuben's Regiilations were followed by 
the larger part of the regular army until 1815 and by part of the militia until 1820, 
Steuben's Regulations were out of print by 1808 and from that date until the close of 
the second war with England there was no uniformity in infantry drill, as several dif- 
ferent systems were in use. The characteristics of Stcuben : s plan of drill nas the 
omission of all that was not practical arid useful, and the providing for a greater 
openness of movements and formations during combat. He found that the Continental 
soldiers had discarded their bayonets as of no value. Due to riis teaching of the use 
and value, of the bayonet, Stcney Point was later taken by a bayonet charge, not a 
shot being fired. He stopped the men from taking home their muskets as keepsakes and 
insisted upon the proper c?.re of accoutrement. 

The first of the unofficial systems to be introduced was the French system of 
1791 *** as modified by Napoleon in 1805. The Napoleonic system was introduced by 
ic I«iald who published in 1807 a quite poor translation of the Ercnch tactics(5). 
This translation- was republished in 1809 by Lieut, "Col. William Duanc, of the Rifles, 
in his America* Military Library. (6) A somewhat corrected edition was published in 
Boston by Colonel Dc Lacroix in 1810.(7) A >-ork published in Boston in 1811 by Gen. 

* Only two articles have been published on the history of the United States In- 
fantry drill: 

1- The History of our Tactics. An unsigned editorial in the Army and Navy 
Journal, February 11, 1888. 

2- History of the Drill Regulations. A brief note appended to the Army and 
Navy Journal edition of the drill regulations of 1891. 

See also: Lloyd, E.i^. A Review of the History of Infantry. 

L»ndsri, Longmans, Grown and C»,, 1908. Pp. xi,303, bibliography. 
** Kapp, Fricdrich Leben des a.vicrikanischcn Generals Fricdrich ".'ilhclm von 
Steuben. Philadelphia, Schacfcr und Ksradi, (e 185C), xxxvii, 667, 8-vo. 
*** P.ogicmcnt eoncernant 1 'exercise ct ]•?> .-.anccuvrcs Ac l'infanteriej du lier. 
o o ., 1791, 






Isaac Maltby mot with some favor in Massachussetts.(8) Smirk's "Review of a Battal- 
ion" was also used in this country(9). At the outbreak of the War of 1812 Colonel 
Alexander Smyth, Inspector-General of the Army, published a set of drill regulations 
(10) at the request of the Secretary of V/ar. Smyth's work was a good improvement and 
abridgement of Mac Donald's translation of the French tactics. On March 30, 1812 the- 
were ordered to superceed Steuben's tactics in the regular army. In the Same year wa' 
published a second edition of the work to \7hich Smyth put his name. This system was 
probably used somewhat up to 1815 although Duane's Handbook was made regulation on V . 
March 19, 1813. 

In the "Hand-book for Infantry" (11) of William Duane, a former editor, we have 
the work of an enthusiast who undertook to diffuse military knowledge in America.**** 
His system of drill was largely original and at first incomplete. Tho first part was 
finished in 1808 but not published until 1812, after it had been voted on favorably 
by the House of Representatives, while his system was under consideration by the Sen- 
ate Colonel Duane promised its completion. It was then made the regulation drill for 
the army by a General Order of the "war Department on March 19, 1813. The system was 
completed in 1814 but the War Department order had done little to spread its employ- 
ment, as only four regiments of regulars and some of the Virginia, New York, Jersey, 
and Pennsylvania militia used it. A small book based on Duane's first publication 
was printed in South Carolina. Duane's plan of drill met with much opposition due to 
politics, and because it was impractical, it resembling a fancy exhibition drill. 

In 1813 Congress, either uninformed of the official status of Duane's tactics 
or considering them unsuitable, passed a resolution requesting the President "to 
cause to be prepared and laid before Congress, as soon as practicable, a military 
system of discipline for tho infantry of tho army and militia of the United States". 
Owing to the occupation of all tho principal officers with the war, no action was 
token on this resolution, and every tactical officer continued to use tho system he 
preferred. The real step towards training the army was made in 1814 when Major Gen- 
eral Scott instructed in person the two brigades of Brown's division in camp at Buf- 
falo. He used an edition of Mac Dodald's translation of the French tactics, probab- 
ly Smyth' e abridgement, and a copy of the original French with which to correct them. 
It was to that instruction that the victories which followed are ascribed. This was 
our first extensive use of the French drill. In December 1814, Congress, by resol- 
ution, asked for their revision, to adapt them to the requirements of our army. A 
board was appointed for this purpose, consisting of General Scott; General Swift, 
Chief of Engineers; Lieut-Col. J.R. Fenwick, of the Artillery; Col. William dimming, 
Adjutant General; and Col. William Drayton of the 18th Infantry. The French tastics 
as modified by this board and ordered as regulation by the War Department on Feb. 28, 
1815, are known as the "system of 1815"(12). Several states passod laws adopting 
the system for their militias. 

Previous to 1816 companies were known by the names of their captains, which 
were constantly changing, and so creating confusion. At the suggestion of Col. C.K. 
Gardiner, the present plan of designating the companies by tho letters of the alpha- 
bet was introduced. Another important improvement was ordered May 12, 1820 whwn 
Congress passed an act requiring the militia to conform to the drill regulations of 
the United States Army. 

The edition of the system of 1815 becoming exhausted another board was order© 
ed in 1824. This board consisted of General Scott, Col, Hugh Brady, Col. John R, 
Fenwick, Capt. Wm. J. Worth, and Sylvanus Thayer. The drill regulations these offi- 
cers drew up differed from the regulations of 1815 in only minor matters such as 
slight changes in some commands, the posting of officers and noncommissioned officers, 
the placing of one of the light companies on tho left flank a6 a rifle company, con- 
verting the right flank company into grenadiers, and a few other changos. The board, 
however, annotatod tho work with so many "remarks" that tho manual was expanded into 
two large volumes. Those tactics wore transmitted to the War Department on Dec. 15, 
1824, and was ordered the regulation drill on Jan, 5, 1825.(13) As the drill manual 

**** Besides his Handbook he published the American Military Library (1809), and a 
a large Military Dictionary (1810), without prospects of profit. 



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had been mde too voluminous for tho uso of militia officors another board was or- 
dorcd Cct. 5, 1826. This board finished an abstract of the larger trotfe on Dec. 5, 
1826. Their abridgement ms later published for tho use of tho militia. (14) 

Although the French tactics that our amy had used, with several modifications, 
since 1812 were accepted as satisfactory, tho Fronch in 1827 resolved upon a modi- 
fication of their tactics and they established a camp for experimentation at St. Omar. 
Guibort's track resulted from the experiments, and its publication in France in 1831 
was followed by an Act of Congress (April 8, 1834) authorizing another revision of 
our infantry drill. Again General Scott was called upon and on Feb. 3, 1835 ho gave 
to tho war Department the drill tactics that were made regulation on April 10, 1835, 
(15) and were known by his name until largely suporceoded by Hardee's tactics in 1855. 
Scott's drill required a very stiff set up; its slow and formal movements wore digni- 
fied but wearisome. Besides making a few minor changes in posts and commands, Scott 
sized the company from rijht to left in placo of tho previous custom of putting the 
tallost men in the rear rank and sizing equally from both flanks. Scott's drill re- 
quired frequent countermarching by column closed in mass, \7hich ho had substituted 
for tho moving of altcrnato columns by flank outside of the column, and then making 
the countermarch. This frequent counter marching did not afford that openness and 
celerity of movement which the French later f ound necessary from their experiences 
in Algiers. Scott revised hiff-tactics in 1839 but the improvements in firearms fi- 
nally compelled a change from tho near -oosc-step of hie drill. As the result it 
-.-as ordored that Brevet Lieut. -Col. '-.'illiam J. Hardee, major, 2d Cavalry, vttuldrirea 
pare a modification of tho tactics for the French chasscurs-a-picd (ordinance of 1845). 

From the peculiarity of its double quick step Hardee *s TactiCG wore known as 
the "shanghai drill". They tended to a greater individualization of the soldier and 
introduced a greater freedom of movement, but adhered to Scott's tactics in the prin- 
ciples of formation. The old method of obliquing, adapted only to mon with one leg 
shorter than the other, wa3 changed to the more rational half -face method. The right- 
about while marching, firing by ranks, and the comrades in battle principle woro also 
introduced, Harch 29, 1855, Hardee's Tactics were ordered to replace Scott's but 
only as far as to include the school of tho battalion. (17) At the outbreak of the 
Civil TTar nardoo joined the Confederacy and his tactics were used by the Confederate 
armies throughout the war. During the first year and a half of the war the Federal 
troops, under an order of Hay 1, 1861, used an exact reprint of Hardco's work, which 
did not however mention his name. (18) 

The methods for manoouvcring rogiments and brigades in combat as provided for 
by Scott were no longer used as they had become obsolete. Since the reprint of Har- 
dee's Tactics did not provide for regimental or brigade movements, two works on the 
evolutions of the line were published unofficially, one by Duf field and one byyCoppee. 
(20) This lack of satisfactory methods for brigade movements caused the war Depart- 
ment to order, on Aug. 11, 1862, the adoption of the Infantry Tactics of Brig. -Gen. 
Silas Casey. (21) Gen. Casey had been the president of the board that approved Har- 
dee's Tactics in 1854, and in his .new work ho retained Hardee's schools of the sol- 
dier and of the company. Ho effocted only a few changes in the school of the battal- 
ion, as the War Department would not authorize his plan of skirmish or covering corn- 
pa nies. In his movements for larger forces ho made the brigade the tactical unit 
and introduced the deploying on heads of columns as the means of forming line of 
batt le . 

Casey's drill regulations wore suporceoded by General Upton's system on August 
1, 1867.(22) Upton modeled his tactics upon the foot drill of the artillery prepared 
by Barry and Hunt . In this drill inversions woro dispensed with and tho squad of 
four files was introduced. The all important movements in Upton's plan were the 
double ^..'heelings or turnings by fours, Upton's plan of drill contained sevoral in- 
ncvations of value such as the introduction of bayonet exorcises, platoon movements 
and the deploying as skirmishers fron column. In it we find many of the esscncials 
•:" »ur present drill. Unfortunately the descriptions of movements as given in the 
first edition of Upton's text were not lucidly i.-rittcn. The ambiguities necessitated 
many •fficial interpretations, and most of his text undorwent minute dissection and 




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criticism. Following the work of the Bocrd convened in 1869 at Fort Leavenworth, to 
standardize the drill of the three line services, Upton published in 1873 a revision 
of his drill regulations. This revision chiefly effected a simplification in the tur- 
nings "by squads, end his close order drill continued to draw-forth many suggestions 
for its improvement. At the time of his doath in 1881 Upton had nearly finished a 
second revision. T v is revision, completed by General Alexander, was laid board, con- 
vened in Washington, D.C. in February, 1888, to revise the drill of the light artil- 
lery, infantry and cavalry. Probably from Upton's last revision war adopted the 
twelve company- three battalion regiment, movements by sections of two squads ,and mess 
formations in battalion movements. After working for three years this Board composed 
a system o f infantry drill that was ordered by the Secretary of War to supercced 
Upton's tactics on Oct. 3, 1891. 

The tactics introduced in 1891 proved to be quite satisfactory and constituted 
the main part of the drill regulations that were in force during the Spanish- American 
war and the Fhilippine insurrection. The board that prepared these tactics was com- 
posed of Lieut. -Cols. J.C.Bates anfl G.B.Sanford, Majors H.C.Hasbrouck and John C. 
Gilraore, Capts. J.T.Haskell, 3. S.Godfrey and J. I.:. Lancaster, and Lieuts. G.Andrew and 
J. T.French, Jr. as recorders. The new drill system did not depart frc-i the general 
character of Upton's tactics but introduced the following improvements: a lengthening 
of the step from 28 to 30 inches and a quickening of the cadence from 110 to 120 per 
minute with abolition of tho old common time (cadence of SO per minute). In the man- 
ual of arms the method for inspection of arms and for the stacking of arms was chang- 
ed, and "rest on arms" and "reverse arms" were omitted, and "sling arms" was intro- 
duced. The number of setting-up exercises was increased. The hand salute was made 
the same for officers and men except that officers were to habituclly salute with the 
right hand (unless engaged) instead of the far hand. The salute was ales made short* 
er and simpler. As "target practice" had been made the subject of a special manual 
it was dropped from the drill book. In oxtended order drill, signals were introdu- 
ced and the principles of minor tactics were discussed more fully. Skirmish move- 
ments were simplified, particularly deployment and rallying, and the section two 
squads was introduced as a unit. In the evolution of larger commands the old "close 
column" was expanded into mass formations. Divisional and almost all formal brigade 
movements were omittod. 

Up to 1895 the interpretation of the new regulations had given rise to no real 
difficulties and theyhad required no changes. However, when the Old Springfield ri- 
fle vras replaced by the Krag-Jorgenscn riflo in 1895, a new manual of arms became 
necessary, so a suitable manual was made official on June 17, 1895. In. this new 
manual "carry arms" was omitted, "right shoulder arms" was made to correspond with 
the old "left shoulder arms", bayonets were fixed and unfixed in a different manner, 
the riflo salute at the oarry was replaced by the old "sergeant's salute" with the 
piece at the shoulder. Thero were minute changes in the other positions of the 
piece, particularly "securo arms". Owing to the rifle having a magazine, the move- 
ments of "open chamber" and "close chamber" wcro introduced for the purpose of in- 
spection. Due partly to the bolt mechanism of the rifle the commands for loadings 
and firings were greatly changed, With the advent of modern field artillery and the 
necessity of employing United States troops against forces armed with the Mauser ri- 
fle it was found that the regulations for extended order formations should be revised. 
As a result an improved set of skirmish formations was published officially by Gen. 
Thomas H. Ruger in 1898.(24) 

Shortly after the beginning of the Twcntioth Century, the introduction of the 
Springfield rifle, model 1903, the changes in equiptment, tcntagc, etc., and the 
changes in minor tactics and tactical organization necessitated a new system that 
would incorporate previous changes and the newer requirements. Accordingly in 1902 
the Chief of Staff directed a special section of the General Staff to prcparo a re- 
vision of the infantry drill. This revision vras thorough and practical and it was 
not accepted and made official until Juno 23, 1904. This manual differed greatly in 
appearance from the drill book of 1891, but it vras made up largely of the former 
drill modified by the manual of 1895 and Ruger' s extended order drill. The note- 
worthy changes that it introduced were due to tho new rifle, and to the new method 


for effecting turnings and wheelings by the men of an element obliquing as separate 
echelons into line instead of the element swinging as a whole, like a barn door. 
Bayonet exercises were dropped and the setting up exercises v. r ere reduced from seven- 
teen to six, due to the introduction of Butt's physical drill. For purposes of in- 
struction there were introduced "in place halt", "as you -..-ere" ," resume march" and 
''to the rear march 1 ', while the methods for marking time , kneeling, lying dorm and 
rising were slightly improved; but "right forward, fours right 1 ' was discontinued. 
Just prior to 1904 the notion that the bayonet was no longer an efficient weapon 
gained official credence. For this reason, and the desire to lighten the soldier's 
equiptment, the knife bayonet was replaced by a -worthless rod to be pulled out of 
the barrel casing for use as a bayonet. This mistake was corrected in April, 1907 
when the manual of 1904 was changed to provide for a new knife bayonet. 

By 1911 the studies of the General Staff had effected marked improvements in 
organization, equipment, and in troop control under fire. These changes required a 
revision of the infantry manual to provide for the new pack, etc., the new organiza- 
tion in close and extended order and the fuller and more rational discussion of mi- 
nor tactics. In t he regulations for infantry drill made official on August 19,1911 
we have the present drill regulations as modified a little during the past few years. 
In these latest regulations we find thai the formal movements, ceremonies, etc. are 
improved but that they are almost overshadowed by the prominence given to combat 

Following modern tactics, the regulations of 1911 do not prescribe movements 
for brigades, and regimental drill is reduced to a few formations for ceremonies and 
close order movements. The close order drill of 1904 has been improved by the rcin- 
troduction of "right forward, fours right" (right by squads), by the full step be- 
ing taken up automatically as soon as a unit has completed a turn or a wheel, and by 
file closers being posted close in to that flank towards which a line of squads has 
formed column. Right by twos or files and their reverse have been improved; and o- 
pening and closing ranks are no longor required oxcept for inspection of equiptment. 
Commands have been somewhat simplified, and more emphasis has been placed on signals. 
The company has been enlarged and provision has been made for four platoons, with a 
consequent rcposting of platoon leaders and guides. In the manual of arms "sling" 
and "secure" arms have been omitted and "inspection arms", "left shoulder arms" from 
right shoulder, "fix bayonets" and "charge bayonets" have been changed. The position 
of the soldier has been made moro natural, and the about face for officers was exten- 
ded to enlisted men. In e:rtended order, deployment has been changed and new methods 
for advancing — by thin lines, and column of files — have been introduced. The in- 
terval in extended order has been reduced from two paces to a half pace, and the rally 
has been omitted. The normal squad may have a number of additional man. Fire con- 
trol has been changed somevrhat. A sleeping bag made of the new poncho was described, 
and a new shelter tent with poles roplaccd b y riflos was prescribed (modified Sept. 
1>,14). Due toothc introduction of the new pack, model 1910, inspection of equipment 
was changed (amended Aug. 1916). Provision was made for a mounted detachment and a 
machine gun company. A modernized manual of the bayonet was proscribed February 20, 
1913* In 1913 the salute was restricted to the right hand and when covered, but C. 
I.D.R. No. 18, Jan. ,1917 has reintroduced some of the previous methods of saluting. 
Uany bugle signals have been replaced by arm signals (supplemented llay,1916); and 
sinco 1914 the whistle and codo signals havo been changed several timos and the arm 
semaphore introduced. 

Summary: The changes in drill during the past contury and a half center about 
the increasing effectiveness of arms and the resulting growth of skirmish formations. 
This extended order began with the old riflo companies but was not developed until 
after the Civil war; it reached its maximum tenuity following experiences in the 
close country of Cuba and the Philippines, but it now consists in a more compact 
linc(s) whose firo and discipline can bo bettor controlled. The regimental units 
woro frequently increasod in size causing an increasing difficulty of control in 
skirmish formation, henco the tactical unit passed from the brigade to the regiment — 
then to the battalion. There necessarily developed a system of signals, first by 
trumpet, later by arm, flag and whistle. Close order drill slowly progressed from 




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thb cumberous "evolutions" of the old French school, through the stiff and stately- 
battle parades of Scott to the quicker and more direct movements of Hardee, and fi- 
nally to Upton's method of wheeling and its later improvements. Ceremonies and for- 
mations in rank have not changed essentially, but a more rational set up has gradu- 
ally prevailed, and the later drill books record the development of the shelter tent, 
improved packs and other material conveniences. In the manual of arms can be traced 
the changes from the smooth bore muzzle loader, through the Minnie rifle and the 
breech loader to the small bore magazine rifle. The bayonet, which was almost dis- 
carded fifteen years- ago, has again found its place in our drill, and the old gren- 
ade companies may again live in the yet unofficial drill for bombing squads. The 
d£ill regulations have broadened out to include the elements of minor tactics. 


In some instances I have boon unable to list all editions of each work. Copies 
of all of the publications arc in my library but for permission to see some editions 
I am indebted to Mcssors. J.W. Cheney and J. Edwin Young of tho Library of the War 
College, Washington,D.C,,and to the Public Libraries of St. Louis, Now York, Boston, 
Philadelphia, New Orleans and San Francisco. 

l.-A new manual exercise for the foot. Very useful for tho army and militia* 
New- York: Printed by Hugh Gainc, 1759. 

Tho Manual Exercise, as ordered by His Majesty in 1764. Together with plans and 
explanations of the method generally practiced at reviews and field days, &c«, 
by much the best and complctcst book of tho sort over published in this provin- 
ce, being the same used by all the militia of this, and all the other countios 
(but the northern district) in this colony. By Edward Harvey. 
New-York: Printed and sold by W.Wcynan, in Broad^Street, 1766. 

The New Manual and Platoon Exercise as ordered by His Majcstjr in 1764: with on 
exercise. By Edward Harvey. New -York, 1769, 8-vo. 

The Manual Exorcise.. ..district) in this colony. By Edward Harvey. 
Mew York, Printed by Hugh Gainc, 1773. 

The Manual... .Field Days By Ed... Boston: Printed by T. and J. Fleet at the 
Heart and Crown in Cornhill. (1774) Pp.(39),(l), 2 folding pi., 4-to. 

Sane. Massachussctts-Bay: Boston: Printed and sold by Isaiah Thomas at his 
Printing Office near the mill bridge (1774). Pp. (31), 8-vo. 

Sano. Ncwburry Port: Printod and sold by E.Lunt and K.W.Tingos. 1774. 4-to. 

Sane. Baltimore: Printed and sold by M. K. Goddard, 1775. 

Same. Philadelphia: Sold by J.Hunphrcys,R.Bcll and R.Aitkon.MDCCLXXVI»Pp.35,8-vo. 

Sane. New York: Printed by H. Gaine. 1777. Samo: 1780. Pp. 35, 4-to. 
2,-A/Plan of Exorcisos,/for tho militia of /Massachus setts -Bay; /Extractod/fron tho 
Plan of Discipline, /of the/Norfolk Militia. (By TTilliam Windham, and George 
1-st Marquis Townshcnd.) Boston: Printed and sold by Richard Drapor,1768. 8-vo. 

Sane. 3-Ed., 1771. Pp. 92, 8-vo. 

A/Plan of Exercise, /Tor the/Hilitia/of the Province of thc/Massachusots-Bay:/ 
Extractod/From the Plan of Discipline, /for the/Norfolk Militia/ Boston: New 
England -./Printed by Richard Draper, Printer to His Excellency/the Governor and 
the Honorable His Majesty's Council./ M,DCC,LXXII./ Sold at his Printing- 
office in Newbury Street. 

A plan of exercise for the militia of the colony of Connecticut, extracted from 
tho plan of discipline for the Norfolk militia. 
New Haven: Printed by T. and S. Green. 1772. Pp. 60, 12-mo. 

Sane. New London: Printed and sold by Timothy Green, 1772. Pp. (72), 12-mo. 

A/Plan of Exercise,/ Massachuscts-Bay:/ Fifth Edition. New England:/ 

Draper's Printing Office, 1774. Pp. 107. 8-vo. 

The manual exercise as ordered by nib Majesty in 1764, and now generally 
adopted in Connecticut, Rhode-Island and Massachusetts -Bay. ITSw Haven: 
Printed and sold by Thomas and Samuel Green. (1774). 12-mo. 
3. 7 A plan of discipline for the Norfolk militia, London, 1759. 
4 . -Regulations/for the /Order and Discipline /of the /Troops/of the/United States/ 



Part l/Philadelphia:/Printed by Styner and Cist, in Second-Street ./tocCLXXIX. 
Pp. 154,(9), 8 folding ;pl., 12-mo. A Part IFwas never published. 

For the/fcse of the Militia/of Pennsylvania. An/Abstract /Of a System of>4.{iHtary 
Discipline :/Framed by/The Hon. the Baron Steuben, /Major General and Instructor 
General of the/Armies of the United States ./Approved by/His Excellency General 
Washington. /Confirmed by the Hon. the Congress./ Philadelphia: /Printed by 
Francis Bailey, in Market-Street.Al.DCC .LXXIX./ Small 8-vo., Pp. 38. 

Regulations ....Printed by Charles Cist, Fourth and Aroh Streets. 1782. 
Pp. 77 (7) iv, 8 plates, 12-mo. 

Same. Hartford -./Printed by Hudson and Goodwin/ 1782. Pp. 136(6), 8 fold. pi. ,17 cm. 

Same. Hartford: Printed by Nathaniel Patten. (1783) . Pp. 107, 8 fold, plates, 12-mo. 

Some. Boston: Printed and sold by T. and J. Fleet, at the Bible and Heart in 
Cornhill, 1784. 

Regulations for the order and discipline of the troops of Now Hampshire ....Ports- 
mouth: New Hampshire, printed by Melcher and Osborne, M,DCC,LXXXV.Pp.(37), 8-vo. 

Regulations ...Printod by Charles Cist, Fourth and Arch Streets. 1785. 8-vo. 

Baron Steuben's Regulations for the order and discipline of the troops of the Uni- 
ted States: which have not only been adopted by Congress, but the Several Legis- 
latures throughout the continent for the discipline of the militia: containing, 
besides the manual exercise, and evolutions, instructions for the commandant of 
a regiment down to a private soldier. Embelished with eight elegant copper 
plates. Hartford: Printed and sold by Hudson and Goodwin. 1787. 

Baron Steuben's ....United States. New York: Printed and sold by Thomas 
Greenleaf, No. 25 Water -Street . 1787. (An edition with modifications.) 

Regulations for the order and discipline of the troops of the State of Vermont. 
Established by the order of his excellency Thomas Chittenden, Esq. 
Bennington: Printed by Haswall and Russell, 1787. 

Regulations ....Compiled by Frederick William Steuben, Inspector General of the 
Armies of the United States. State of Rhode-Island, etc . Printed at Providence, 
by Bennett Wheeler, 1791. Pp. 115, plate 1, 12-mo. 

Regulations ....United States. By Baron de Steuben. Hartford: Printed and sold 
by Nathaniel Patten. MDCCXCII Pp.95, (l), 8 plates, 8-vo. 

Regulations ....United States/ The First Winsor Edition/ Winsor/ Printed by 
Alden Spooner/ M,DCC,XCII. Pp. 91, 12-mo. 

Regulations ..../by Baron de Steuben/Late Majorgeneral and Inspector general in 
the/ Army of the United States/ The First Worcester Edition/ Printed at 
Worcester Massachussetts,/By Isaiah Thomas, MDCCLXXXVIII. Pp.96, 2 plates, 12-mo . 

Regulations ..../Part i/ Philadelphia:/ Printed by Charles Cist, No. 104,/ 
North Second -Street,/ M,DCC,XCIV. 

Same. Philadelphia/ Printed by E. Oswald, No. 156, Market-Street,/ South, 
between Fourth and Fifth-Streets ./ M,DCC,XCr. T . 

Regulations/ for the/ Order and Discipline/ of the/ Trocps of the United States/ 
By Baron de Steuben/ Late Major General and Inspector -General in tho/ American 
Army/ Part 1/ The Tenth Edition/ To which is added/ The/ Manual Exercise, and 
Evolutions/ of the/ Cavalry:/ As practiced in the late American Army/ New- 
York _ Printed at Greenleaf's Press./ 1794. 

Regulations ..../evolutions of the cavalry/ (Bennington) Vermont, Printed by/ 
A. Haswell, 1794/ 1 plate, pp. 7-94,(4), 8 plates, 1$$ cm. 

Regulations . . . ./ To which is addled,/ An Appendix/ containing the/ United States 
Militia Act,/ Passed by Congress, May 1792./ A new edition/ By Baron de Steuben 
/Printed at Bo.iton;/by I. Thomas and E. T. Andrews,/ Faust's Statue, no. 45, 
Newbury-Strc-l,/ 1794 

Regulations .. ../ Part i/ by, Baron de Steuben/ To which are Prefixed the/ Laws and 
Regulations/ for/ Government and Disciplining/ The Militia of the United States/ 
and the/ Laws for Forming and Regulating/ The/ Militia of the State of New Hamp- 
shire/ Published by the order of the Hon. General-Court/ of the State of New- 
Hamprihire/ Portsmouth/ Printed by J. Melcher printer to the state of/ 
New -Hampshire , 17S4 . 



Regulations ..../ Part 1/ To -which is addod:/ Rules and Articles for the better 
Govern/nent of the Troopc, raised, or to be raised and kept in pay by and at the 
Expense of the United States/of Ai;ierica/(Newbcrn)/ Printed and published agree- 
able to an Act of Assembly/ of the State of North-Carolina./ By Hodge & 'Tills, 
printers to the State, 179-i. 

Regulations ..../ Containing the/ United States' Militia Act,/ Passed in Ctnrress, 
May, 1792/ A new Edition, illustrated by eight Copperplates,/ accurately engra- 
ved./ By Baron de Steuben/ Late Major General and Inspector General of the Arir.y 
of the/ United States / Printed at Exeter,/ By Henry Ranlet, for Thomas & An- 
drews/Faust's Statue, No. 46, Newbury-Street, Boston./ MDCCXC IV. Pp. 91, 12-mo. 

Regulations ....Philadelphia/ Printed by Charles Cist, No. 104./ North Second- 
Street/ M,DCC,XCV. 

Regulations ....Steuben,? Boston/ W.Norman,/ 1802/ Pp. 73,1 If .,9 fold pi., 16% cm. 

Regulations . . . ./ containing the/ United States Militia Act;/ together with the/ 
Law/ Organizing the Militia of the State/ of New-York, «.s now amended./ an im- 
proved Edition, illustrated by Nine new/ and accurate Copper Plate Engravings/ 
By Baron de Steuben,/ Late Major -General and Inspector -General of the Army/ of 
the United States ./ Albany:/ Printed for Daniel & Samuel Whiting/ 1803. 

Regulations . . . ./ Embelished with nine copperplates includ/ing a place exhibiting 
the various motions/ of the Manual exercise./ By Frederick William Steuben/ 
Late .../ Boston:/ Printed for William Norman,/ Book and chart seller./ 1805 

Steuben's Regulations ..../ Illustrated /By a Frontispiece exhibiting the manual/ 
exercise,/ and eight other copperplates, Explanatory of/ the Movements of a 
company,/ Regiment or Battalion./ Boston:/ Printed for William Pelham/ 1807 

Regulations ..../By Baron de Steuben/ Late .../An improved edition, illustrated 
by new and/ accurate copper -plate engravings./ Albany:/ Printed and sold by 
Backus & Whiting/ No. 45, State-Street/ 1807 

There was an edition in Pennsylvania German printed in Germantown about 1807. 

The/ Military Companion:/ Being a System of Company Discipline,/ Founded on the/ 
Regulations of Baron Steuben/ Late .../ Containing/ The Manual Exercise,/ Fa- 
cings, Steps, Turnings,/ Wheelings,/ Miscellaneous Evolutions,/ and Firings/ 
Together with/ Duty of Officers and Privates/ Designed for the use of the Mil- 
itia/ Second Edition, with Additions and Improvements/ Newburyport:/ Published 
by W. and J. Gilman,/ Printers and Stationers, and Proprietors of the Copy 
Right/ Sold by them, wholesale and retail, at their Book-Store and Printing 
Office, West end of Middle -St./ 1808. Pp. 4, 47, 2 pi., 12-mo. 

The military assistant: being a collection of company discipline, principally 
selected from the writings of Frederick W. Steuben Emery Russell. 
Springfield, Mass., T.Dickman, (1812). pp. 48, 18 cm. 
5. -The/ System of Discipline/ and/ manoeuvres/ of Infantry,/ Forming the Basis of 
Modern Tactics :/ Established for the National Guards and/ Armies of France/ 
Translated for the American Military, from the edition published by authority 
in 1805/ Philadelphia/ Printed by B. Graves, No. 40, North 4-th. St./ For 
William Duane/ 1807 
6. -The American Military Library; or, compendium of the Modern Tactics embracing -. 

..By William Duane. Philadelphia, 1809. 2 vols., 8-vo. 
7. -Rules and Regulations/ for/ The Field exercise,/ and/ Manoeuvres/ of the/ French 
Infantry,/ Issued August 1,1791./ And the manoeuvres added, which have been 
since adopted by the/ Emperor Napoleon./ also,/ The Manoeuvres of the Field 
Artillery with Infantry./ By Col. Irenee Amelot de Lacroix/ Late Chief of 
Brigade in the French service/ In Three Volumes/ The third consisting of plates. 
A r ol. 1/ Boston/ Published by T.B.Wait and Co./ Court -Streejt./ 1810. 8-vo. 
3. -The Elements of War/ By Isaac Maltby/ Brigadier General in the Fourth Ma3rsachus- 
setts Division./ Boston/ Printed by Thomas B. Wait and Co./ 1811. 12-mo., 
pp. xxiv(l),208. 
9.-Smirke, Robert Review of a Battalion of Infantry, including the Eighteen Man- 
oeuvres, illustrated ....New York, M. and W. Ward, 1810. Pp. 3,56,8. 8-vo. 
10. -Regulations/ for the/ field exercise, manoeuvres, and conduct/ of the/ infantry 
/ of the United States;/ drawn upaond adapted to the organization of the/ mil- 








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itia/ and/ regular troops./ By an officer of the amy./ By order of the Sec- 
retary of War./ With explanatory' plates./ Philadelphia:/ Printed by Fry and 
Kannerer:/ 1812. Pp. xv,(l),225. 34 folding plates, 0-vo. 
Regulations ..../ By Col. Alexander Snyth./ By order .../ With 3(4).../ Phila- 
delphia,/ Published by Anthony Finlay,/ and Whiting and Watson, New-York./ 
T. & G. Palmer, printers/ 1012. Pp. xiv,225. 34 folding plates, 0-vo. 
11. -A/ Hand-Book for Infantry:/ containing The First Principles of/ Military Trai- 
ning for Light Infantry . . -By Willian Duane/Philadelphia/1812 . Pp.v,112,20.0-vo 

A/ Hand Book for Infantry:/ containing The First Principles/ of/ Military Dis- 
cipline,/ founded on rational method:/ intended/ To explain in a familiar and 
practical manner,/ for the use of the Military force of the United States,/ 
the/ Modern Improvement/ in the/ Discipline and Movement of Armies./ The 
Third Edition/ By William Duane, Adjutant General in the Army of the United 
States/ Philadelphia/ Printed for the author/ 1813. 

Explanation of the Plates/ of the/ System of Infantry Discipline/ for the/ Uni- 
ted States Army:/ According to the Regulations of 19-th March, 1813. 
Pp. 18,32. 8-vo. 
12. -Rules and Regulations/ For the/ Field Exercise and Manoeuvres/ of/ Infantry,/ 

Compiled and adapted/ to the/ Organization of the Army of the United States,/ 
Agreeably to/ A resolve of Congress,/ Dated December 1814./ Published by order 
of the War Department/ New York/ Printed by T. and W. Mercein, 93 Gold St./ 
1815./ 2 vols. ,22 cm. Pp. (5), 360, 40 plates. Vol. 2 has no title page. 

The/ Infantry Exercise/ of the/ United States Army,/ abridged/ for the use/ of 
the/ militia/ of the United States./ Poughkeepsie:/ Printed and published by 
P. Potter,/ for himself, and for S.Potter & Co./ No. 5 5, Chesnut-Street,/ 
Philadelphia./ 1817. Pp. (4 leaves), 10-156. 9 plates. 12-mo. 

Same. / Third Edition,/ Corrected and improved/ Poughkeepsie:/ ..../ 1019. 
13, -By Authority/ Infantry Tactics;/ or,/ Rules/ for the/ Exercise and Manoeuvres/ 
of the/ Infantry of the U.S. Army/ Washington/ Printed by Davis & Force,/ 
(Franklin Head )/Pennsylvania Ave./l825. 2 v., 8-vo. Vol. I, pp. 416. Vol.11 has: 
Infantry Tactics: /Explanation/of /the Plates/Vol.Il/Wash. ..22 cm. ,91 p., 39 pi. 

Reprinted as: Rules for the Exercise and manoeuvres af the army of the 
Republic of Texas. Austin, Texas, 1836. 

Infantry drill, being an abridgement of the system of tactics for the infantry 
of the United Stated, lately revised by order of the War Department, and 
sanctioned by the president of the United Statos. With explanatory plates. 
Baltimore, F. Lucas, jun'r., 1825. Pp. xii, 9-196, 12-mo. 

Abridged/ Tactics,/ for the/ School of the Soldier,/ and of/ the Company;/ with 
some few/ Battalion Manoeuvres/ Taken from the Systom now in use in the 
United/States Armies/ New York/ Printed and published by John W. Palmer and 
(o./ Corner of Pine and Nassau St./ 1826. Pp. xi, 115, 12-mo. . 
14. -Abstract/ of/ infantry tactics;/ including/ exercises and manoeuvres/ of/ light- 
infantry and riflemen;/ for/ the use of the militia/ of/ the/United States./ 
Published by the Department of War, under the Authority of an Act of Congross 
of the 2-d of March, 1829./ Boston:/ Hillard, Gray, Little and Wilkins./ 
1830. Pp. 138, 30 pi., 18§ cm. 
15. -By Authority/ Infantry Tactics;/ or,/ Rules for the exercise and manoeuvres/ of 
the/ United States' Infantry./ By Major-General Scott,/ U.S. Army/ New York/ 
G. Dearborn/ 183^. 3 vols., 64 plates, 14 cm. 

Same. Philadelphia: Thomas, Coperthwait and Co., 1835 (?). 

Same. Nevr York: Harper and Bros., 1840. 3 vols., 64 plates, 13^ cm. 

By Authority/..../ New Edition./ By ..../ New York/ Harper and Brothers, 82 Cliff 
Street./ 1346. 3 vols., 14 cm. S amo. 1854. 

Some. /Harper and Bros., Pub./ Franklin Squair/ 1855. 3 vols., 14 cm. 

Same. Boston: Mussey B. P. Co. 
16. -A/ Concise system of Instructions and/ Regulations/ for/ the Militia and Volun- 
teers/ of the United States,/ comprehending/ The exercises and movements/ of/ 
The Infantry,/ Light Infantry,/ and Riflemen;/ Cavalry and Artillery:/ together 


trith/ The manner o£ doing duty in Garrison and in Camp, and the/ forms of/ 
Parades, Reviews and inspections/ as established ty authority for the Govern- 
ment of the Regular Army./ PrepaLrcd and arranged by/ Brovot Captain S. Cooper „ 
Aid de Camp and Assistant Adjutant Goneral/ Undor the Supervision of/ Major 
General Alexander Macomb./ Commanding the Army of the United States./ Phila- 
delphia:/ Robert P, Desilver, ITo. 255 Market Street/ 1356. 
17. -Rifle/ and Light Infantry Tactics;/ for/ The' exorcise and manoeuvres/ of/ Troops 
when acting as Light Infantry/ cr Riflsmen// Prepared under the direction of the, 
TTar Department/ by/ Brevet Lieut. -Col. TT. J. Hardee, U.S.Army./ Riiladelphia:/ 
Lippincott, Grambo and Co./ 1055. 2 vols., 16-mo. 

Same. Courtenay G. S. and Co./ Charlestown, S. C. 12-mo. 

Same. Richmond, Va. , J. 17. Randolph, 1061. 

Confederate States editions: 

Rifle ....riflemen, by Brevet-Lieut. -Col. T7.J. Hardee, late of U.S.Army. Now of 
C.S.Army. Southern publishing house of Hulton and Freligh. 1061. 2 vols, in 1. 
21 cm. Has omissions. 

The only copy-right edition/ Rifle and infantry tactios, /revised and improved by 
Col. F.J.Hardee, C.S.Army./ 1-st Ed,/ Mobile, S.H.Goetzel and Co., (1061) 
2 vols., folding plates, 19 cm. 

Same. By Lieut .-Gen. IT. $ .Hardee, C.S.Army. 9-th Ed. Mobile, S.H.Goetzel, 1C63. 
10. -By authority./ U.S. Infantry Tactics,/ for the/ instruction, exercise, and man- 
oeuvres/ of the/ United States infantry,/ including/ Infantry of the Line, 
Light Infantry, and Riflemen./ Prcparod under the direction of the TTar Depart- 
ment,/ and authorized and adopted by/ The Secretary of TTar,/ May 1, 1061./ 
Volume I./ Containing/ ..../ for skirmishers./ Philadelphia:/ J. B. Lippincott & 
Co./ 1061. 2 vols., 13-| cm. Vol. II contains School of tho Battalion. 

Same. 1662. 2 vols, in 1., 14 cm. Same. 1063. 

Abstract of infantry tactics; including oxcrciscs and manoeuvres of light 
infantry and riflomon; for tho use of the militia of the United States. Pub. 
by the Dept. of TTar ... Philadelphia ,Moss, brother & Co. ,1661. 136 p., xx plates. 

United States infantry tactics •...TTith questions adapted to the text, by 

Lieut. -Col. H.B.TTilson. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Co., 1862. Pp. 548, 16 cm. 

U.S. Infantry Tactics, for the instruction, exorcise, and manoeuvres, of the sol- 
dier, a company, line of skirmishers, and battalion; for tho colored troops £f 
the United States Infantry. Prepared undor tho direction of the TTar Department. 
New York, D.Van Nostrand, 1863. Pp. 445, 63 plates, 13-| cm. 

Schuetzen/ und leichte/ Infanterio Taktik/ Enthaltcnd die/ Schlo des Soldaten und 
der Compagnie,/ Das Bajonct Excrcitium/ und Instruction fucr das Excrcitium mit 
den Dcgcn/ nach TT.J.Hardoc 1 s System. Einzigo vollstandigo Ausgabc. 
Nov York: ....Joseph TTiock ....1863. Pp. 5-192. 13.5 cm. 
19. -Duf field, TTilliam M. School of the Brigado and Evolutions of the Line; or, 

rules for the exorcise and manoouvres of Brigades and Divisions. Designed as 
a sequel to the United States Infantry Tactics. Adopted May 1, 1862. 
Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott and Co., 1662. 
20.-Coppec, Henry The Fiold Manual of Evolutions of the Lino, Arranged in a Tabular 

Form Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott and Co., 1862. Pp. 144, 24-no. 

21. -By authority./ Infantry tactics,/ for tho/ instruction, oxcrcisc, and manoeuvres/ 
of/ The soldier, a company, line of skirmishers,/ battalion, brigado,/ or/ 
corps d'armee./ by/ Brig. -Gen. Silas Casey,/ U.S.Army./ Vol. I./ Schools . . . ./ 
New York:/ D.Van Nostrand, 192 Broadway./ 1862. 3 volc.,lS-mo. Vol. II has 
School of the Battalion; Vol. Ill has Evolutions of a Brigade and Corps. 
22. -By authority./ A New System/ of/ Infantry Tactics/ Double and Singlo Rani:./ 

Adapted to/ American Toppgraphy and Improved Firc-Ams/ 3y/ Bvt, Major-Goner- 
al Enory'Upton,/ U.S.Army./ New York/ D. Apploton and C«., 443 and 445 Brtafi- 
-v/./ (el 18S6). Pp. iv,(n),lS2, 24-no., 1367. ?P» 3S2 , pi. 1*3, 14.5 -cm. Same. 1W9< Same, 1|71- 




I |T< 


)0 A ■: 

1 - 

By authority./ ..../ Reviseddedition./ New York:/ D. Appleton and Company,/ 549 
and 551 Broadway./ 1880. Pp. viii, 8-(446). 24-mo. Same. 1871. 

Upton's Infantry Tactics, abridged and revised, embracing the schools of the 
squad and company, skirmishers, inspection, etc., being part of a work on 
military science and tactics upder preparation for the cadets of the Southern 
Illinois Normal University at Carbondale, 111. By Lieut. Hugh T. Reed .... 
Baltimore, A. W. Reed and Co., 1882. Pp. 147, 13jj cm. 

Same. 2-d Ed., with decisions and illustrations from 1882 to 1886. Chicago, 
New York ....Brentano Bros., 1886. Pp. 176, 14 cm. 

Journal of the Military Service Institute of the United States. Vols. XI, and XIII. 

Brooks, E. C. A technical criticism of our infantry drill book. 

Journal of the Military Sex-vice Institute of the United States. Vol. XVII, No. 97. 
23. -Abridgement of the drill regulations for Infantry. Approved by the Seoretiry of 
War September 28, 1891. Prepared by the Tactical board revise the 
system of drill for the army and milifcia of the United States. Chicago, 
H. T. Reed, (1891). Pp. 216, 14 cm. 

Infantry/ Drill Regulations./ United States Army./ Adopted October 3, 1891./ 
Washington/ Government Printing Office/ 1891/ Pp. 353, (vi). 13 cm. 

Samo. New York, Army and Navy Journal; Boston, G. W. Simmons and Co., 1891. 
Pp. 324, v,vi. 13^ cm. 

Same. $Icw York/ D.Apploton and Company, 1893. 

Sane. /(Special Edition)/ Nov; York/ Army and Navy Journal/ 1893. Pp. 353, 44. 
l&jjr cm. Addonda. Interpretations of Infantry Drill Regulations, United States 
Army, published in the Amy and Navy Journal in answer to inquiries, and ro- 
visod by their author, 1st Liout. John T. French, Jr. New York, W. C. and 
F. P. Church. 1893. Samo, 1895, addonda, 62 p. 

Infantry/ Drill Regulations/ and/ The Manual of Arms/ with/ Ap pendix/ Showing 
changes to June 1,1901: /Government Printing 0fficc./l901.Pp.353,35,33. 24-mo. 

Revision/ of/ Interpretations/ of Infantry Drill Regulations,/ U. S. Army/ by 
1st Lt. J. T. French, Jr., 4th Artillery,/ New York:/ Amy and Navy Journal/ 
Washington, D. C./ Janes J. Chapman/ 1893. 
24.-(Rugor, Thomas H. ) Extcndod Order Drill. Infantry Drill Regulations. (Wash- 
ington, Government Printing Office, 1898). Pp. 76., 24-mo. 
25. -Infantry Drill Regulations, Unit ed States Amy. Revised 1904. 

Was hington, Government Printing Office, 1904. Pp. 246. 24-mo. 

Samo. By authority of the War Department. With Addonda consisting of Interpre- 
tations of tho Drill. New York, Army and Navy Journal, (1904). Pp. 245, (l), 
18. 14§ en. Addenda: Interpretations of Infantry Drill Regulations, United 
States Amy. Published in the Amy and Navy Journal, in answer to inquiries, 
and revised by tho presidont of the Board on the revision of the Drill 
Regulations, Col. Fred. A. Smith. 

Same. New Edition, with the latost interpretations approved by tho General 
Staff of the Army. New York, Amy and Navy Journal; D. Apploton and Co., 
(c. 1908). Pp. 245, 30. 14^ cm. 

Infantry Drill Regulations, United Statos Army. Rovisod to 1904 to includo 
School of the squad. Washington, Government Printing Offico, 1906. 
Pp. iii, 9-60, 243-45. 14^ en. 

Spurgin, William F. : Catechisnal Edition Infantry Drill Regulations, United 
States Army. Kansas City, Franklin Hudson Publishing Co., 1904. Pp. 269, 
16-mo. Second Edition. 

Stewart, II. B. and Davis, R.C.: Notos and Suggestions on tho Now Infantry 

Drill Regulations. Kansas City, Franklin Hudson Pub. Co., 1905. 4th Ed., 1909. 

Crane, C. J.: Our new infantry drill regulations. 

Jour. Military Service Institute of the U. S.,Vol. 36, pp. 238-42. 1905. 

Irons, Janes A.: Sane. Vol. 36, pp. 601-05. 1905 

Regan, Janes: Sane. Vol. 36, pp. 479-88, and Vol. 37, p. 52. 1905. 

Crano, C. J.: Infantry Drill; some of its essentials. 

Jour. Military Scrvico Institute of the U. S. Vol. 37, p. 245. IMS. 




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Infr.ntry/ Drill Regulations/ Uniten States Army/ Rovisod 1904. By Authority of 

the War Department/ With addenda consisting of Interpretations of tho Drill./ 

Ntr lidition with the latest Interpre tat ions approved by the General Staff of 

the Arj-.y/ 

Army and Navy Journal/ 20 Vesey Street, New York/D- Apple ton & Co./ Pp. 242, 30, (l) . 

14.5 cm., (c. 1906), 
26. -Infantry Drill Regulations United States Army 1911 

Washington, Government Printing Office, 1911. Pp. 208, 14.5 cm. 
Same. Appendix, pp. (209-2120, (l)-4. 

Same. With corrections to Nov. 1913. Wash., Gov. ptg. off., 1914. Pp. 246, 15 cm. 
Same. C.I.D.R.(to August 28, 1915) inserted at end. Appendix C: Manual of the 

bayonet, 1913. 
Same. With appendix containing interpretations, cuts illustrating the manual of 

arms and manual of the 6aber and a full index to the regulations. (Special 

Edition) New York, Army and Navy Journal, D. Appleton and Co., (c.1911). 

Pp. 203,16,15. 14.5 cm. Same, (c. 1912). 
Same. With text corrections to July 26, 1915j changes No. 11. New York, Army and 

Navy Jour., (c. 1915), pp. 246, (l), 16. 14.5 cm. Special appendix. Interpretata- 

tions of infantry drill .... W. C. and F. P. Church. 
Same. With text corrections to February 4, 1916, changes No. 13 .... New York, 

Army and Navy Jour .,D. Apple ton and Co., (c. 1916) . Pp. 5-247,16,16. 14.5 cm. 
Same. Y/ith annotations, by Lieut. F. H. Turner .... Bismarck, N. D., Bismarck 

Tribune Presses, (c. 1914). Pp. 226, 14.5 cm. 
Same. With annotations, by Lieut. F. H. Turner, including changes Nos . 1 to 10. 

Bismarck, Tribune Presses, (c. 1915). Pp. 256, 14.5 cm. 
Same. By Capt. F. H. Turner. Includes changes 1-18. U. S. Infantry Ass ., Wa6h.,D.C, 
Bjornstad, A. W« : The Infantry Drill Regulations, 1911. 

Journal of the Military Service Institute of the United States. Vol. 50, 

p. £]9-32, 395-404. 


.- K 



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