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Ill II II 

3 1833 01052 2214 

















As local history is more interesting and profitable than general, 
and as the time has arrived when the publication of county histories 
can be made self-supporting, the publishers of this volume selected 
Jackson county as a good field; and they have indeed found it a 
pleasant one, for the county has had an interesting history, having 
always been one of the chief counties of the great Peninsular State. 
In matters of general public interest and progress, Jackson county 
has ever taken a leading and prominent position. Here have lived 
men who have taken an important part in the affairs of State and 
in molding the political sentiments and destiny of the country. 
This county has been the scene of conflict between some of the most 
gigantic intellects of the nation, as well as the birthplace of many 
business, philanthropic and party enterprises. 

This history appears none too soon. The pioneers have nearly 
all passed away. Here and there we see the bended form and 
whitened head of some of these veterans, but they constitute not 
more than one in twenty of the early pilgrims. We have faithfully 
interviewed them, and obtained what facts we could. Accurate 
history is most difficult to write; many things are differently told 
by different persons, and if nineteen-twentieths of the five hundred 
thousand data in this volume are correct, there may still be twenty- 
five thousand errors. 

To obtain a glance at the scope and merits of a volume, it is nec- 
essary to study critically the title-page and table of contents. By 
looking carefully at the latter, one will learn how to use the work, 
— where to look for any given class of items. In this volume, 
notice particularly that the townships are arranged alphabetically, 
and the biographies also alphabetically, in their respective town- 
ships. A number of personal sketches will be found under head 
of Jackson city, as many of the parties reside in or near that 

As one of the most interesting features of this work, we present 
the portraits of numerous representative citizens. Many others. 

just as deserving, of course,' we did not select; but those we have 
given constitute a good representation, and they are all men of high 
standing in the community. 

The task of compiling this history, which has assumed propor- 
tions much larger than we had expected, has been a pleasant one, 
although laborious and expensive; and we desire here to express 
our hearty thanks to those who have so freely aided us in collecting 
material. To the county officials, pastors of Churches, officers of 
societies, pioneers, members of the Pineer Society and es- 
pecially the editors of the press, we are particularly grateful for 
the many kindnesses and courtesies shown us while laboring in the 
county. But most of all we wish to thank those who have so liber- 
ally and materially aided the work by becoming subscribers. 

Intek-State Publishing Company. 
Chicago, May, 1881. 



Mi in nil- Builders 

Large lilies 


Maimers ami customs 

European Possession 

Lift nut 

National rolleies 

Ordinance of 17s7 

French and Indian War 

Massacre at Michllimaeklnac 

Siege of Detroit 

Alii"rii an Hi ■volution 



Hull- surrender 

IVrrv's victory 

Close of the War 


Administration of Gen. Cass 

'■ '• Geo. B. Porter 

The " Ti iledo War." 

Administration nf Gov. Horner 

Michigan as a state 

Adinlnlstratiiuis nf the sine Governors. 

War n( the Rebellion 

Public Si li. ml .system 

State University 

stab- Normal School 

Agricultural College 

Cuher Colleges 

Charitable institutions 

state Public School 

state Reform School 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumh, and 

the Blind 

Asylum for the Insane, at Kalamazoo 

'■ " " •' " Pontlac 

Penal Institutions 

State Agricultural society 

State Firemen's Association 

State Board or Public Health 

State Land Office 

State Library : 

Banks I 




state Officers 

Topography 1 

A Retrospect 




Boundaries, Area and Population 117 

Lakes and Streams 117 

Pre-eminence lis 

Geology 119 

Sanitary 128 

October In this County 129 

Archaeology 129 



Ante-Pioneer History 133 

Baptlste. the trader 134 

The story of the Flood 134 

The council Fire 135 

An Indian Killed by a stag 136 

The Indian Babes 136 

The American Pioneers 13a 

Necrology 154 



Poetry In Prose 166 

The pioneers' First Survey 168 

The Fourth of July 168 

Horace Blackmail's story 169 

Making a Location 169 

Off to Monroe 170 

Legislative Watchfulness 170 

Arrival at Grand River 172 

Reporting the Name 172 

First conventional Body 174 

New Settlers Seeking Privileges 174 

The White Captive 175 

Personal Interest and Enterprise.. ., 176 

The village Blacksmith 

The Mlll-iiuil.lers 

Brevities .' 

First Postmaster 

change ol Name or the Village 

Mavoasa Mall-Carrier 

Hon. George P.. Cooper 

The Republic Forever 

Early Manufactures 

First Merchants 

organization of tin- county 

The First comitv Road 

A Year's Labors 

The First Purchasers of Land 

\Va-hlturon Irving 

Jaeksoiiians Dealing with the 18th Cen- 

Other Patentees 



Jackson County In 1330 

Hon David Adams 

John L. Moore 


By Rev. Asahel A. King 

Bv Mrs. Ranney 

By Marvin Darrlll 

Bv Mrs. M. W. Clapp 

Bv W. W. Wolcott 

By Col. M. Shoemaker 209, 217, 

Bv Jacob Cornell 

The Indian Friends 

Wolves and Whisky 

By Hon. Jonathan shearer 

By Hon. Fiilus Llyrmore 

Various Dates 

A Little Story 



second and Thin] Meeting. 
Fourth Sleeting 

Fifth " 257 

Judge Johnson's Welcome ... "58 

Col. Shoemaker's Address 261 

"The Brave Pioneer,'' by Mrs. N. H. 

Pierce o 63 

Earned Honors 266 

Sixth Meeting . 267 

Seventh " " 26S 

Address of President Bingham 269 


SORS 273 

The Legislature Organizing the Coun- 
ties 073 

Township Meeting, 1831 " ' 275 

Jackson county organized «75 

" " In 1832 276 

Transactions 1S.'B-'51 278-299 

" 1852-'80 !. '299-302 

court-House 30,, 

Jail 301 

Poor-House 301 



Seat of Justice Established 303 

Pioneer courts 303 

First Session, lsxi " ■](„] 

Second " " 3(l7 

Sessions 1 sit; to 1»1 310 

County Officers 311 

Justices of the Peace '.[ 315 



Our Whig Citizens 319 

Log-Cabin liaising 31 ,, 

Political Foes.. 3 ,, 

" Poetry, 18M '.'.'.'.'. 320 

Off to Fort Meigs 3-0 

A Defeated candidate ! '■'■'„ 

The Last Friend. .. fn 

Inquiries and Answers 3 3i 

Complimentary 3 .vi 

A Conclave studying i oiintv Interests' j-<2 

I ation or the Capital 

Under the Oaks wa 

AD Inquiry 324 

Jackson, its Progenitor 3 a 5 

The Free Democratic Convention "at " 

Jackson 3°6 

First Republican Convention '" ' '■'■'■', 

Results of a Prohibition Convention " " 330 
Honest Monev League 331 

TheJacksonttes.. „! 

Election Returns. ...'.". ! '.'.'.'. '.'. '. !!!!!!!!! 330 



Number of Volunteers 341 

Ladles' Aid Society ■ V, 

Jackson Milltan Talent i,~. 

Regimental Histories 344-3<in 

J F^ n c 8 a° P ?u e re S ASSlSt ^"^^ ^ " 

Col Shoemaker and the 13th : «l 

Battle of south Mountain ^,0 

Poem on Same.... 3,3 

Soldiers Buried in Jackson County!"'.!; 391 

Present Military Organization 392 

Conclusion 594 

Memorial Day, isso '.'.'.'.'! 395 



Our Ancestors in the Revolution 397 

Soldiersof isl2 39a 

The Sac War 390 

TheToledo War '. ...."..'. 40! 

Jackson Light Infantry 401-2 

The Barry Horse Guards 402 

.Mexican War '493 

The Old Jackson Grays .'!.'! 403 

Jackson Silver Grays '403 

Jackson Grays at Bull Run ... ' 4o4 

Death of Pomeroy "" 406 

Col. Shoemaker's Reminiscences of Lib- 

by Prison 4ll s 

Picket Duty as it should be 413 

W. W. Van Antwerp 414 

surprise of the Rebels 415 

The 6th Infantry .....!!!!!'.!!! 416 


The Press 420 

Jackson citizen 401 

Weekly Patriot .. 422 

Liberator 4.";; 

Saturday Evenlng.Star . 4 n< 

other Papers ....'... 4.« 

Schools 424 

Railroads l„ 

Banks 43A 

Agricultural society '.'.'.'.' '. .'.'.'.'.'.'."' 432 

Jackson Horse-Breeiling Association...!! 443 



The Treacherous Corporation 446 

A Letter Home 450 

Death of Abel Fitch LSI 

The Victim ot the conspirators ... 452 

The Strike of 1877 4V > 

A Terrible I!. K. Drama. 4 i» 

A Romance m i;eal Life 41:1 

The Indians Captive ' W l 

Murder 4f , t 

Drowned 4,17 

Run Over by the Cars !."!.'.' 4cs 

Deal lis by oi her Casualties 470 

Fires 473 

SKirms and Lightning 474 

Miscellaneous 475 

A strange suit ""479 

A Retrospect. ... 4S1 

The Present ........V."!!! 482 



Fifty-two Years Ago 4 ss 

The Leading Highways 484 

Seeking Privileges jaa 

Early Officials.. 4g5 

Vote of the city from is,; to isso .... ' 493 
old-time Description oi the \ Hinge 495 

The Modern Builders .... "495 

I'aisincss Blocks, Public Buildings, etc. 496 

Postoffice 417 

Fire Department 499 

Public Schools .... 500 

The Churches 512 

Freemasonry m the county. . 523 

Offl-FellowSnip 533 

Good Templars 536 

Reform club 537 

other societies s3iU5sl 

Manufactories, etc 551 


Farmers' Milt. las. Co 566 

Water- Works 566 

Gas- Works 568 

statistics 56S 

Early Bar of the County 569 

State Prison 571 

First Events 577 

Biographical Sketches 579 


Blackman 762 

Columbia 776 

Concord 825 

Grass Lake 843 

Hanover 878 

Henrietta 896 

Leonl 908 

Liberty 937 

Napoleon 959 

NorveU aai 

Parma 1007 

Pulaski 1023 

Rives 1032 

Sandstone 1050 

Spring Arbor 1059 

Sprlngport 1078 

Summit 1098 

Tompkins m>i 

Waterloo 1132 


Map of Jackson County 14 & 15 

Hieroglyphics of the Mound-Builders ... 19 

La Salle Landing at the Mouth of St. S43 

Joseph River 25 

Indians Attacking Frontiersmen 31 

Gen. George Rogers Clark 37 

Gen. Arthur St. Clair 43 

Trapping 49 

Tecumseh 55 

Pontlac 61 

Hunting Prairie Wolves In an Early Day 67 
Eastern Asylum for the Insane at Pontlac 73 

State Public School, at Coldwater 81 

The CapltoL at Lansing 91 

University of Michigan 102-3 

State Prison 114 

Spring ArborSemlnary... .. 1059 


Adams, Cyril 911 

Anderson, R. H 731 

Austln,A. K 1003 

Belden, Eugene H 875 

Belden, John 839 

Blair, ex-Gov. Austin 245 

Calvert, Dr. Wm. J 279 

Carmer, J. V 267 

Clapp, William 893 

Cradlt, E. S 417 

Dean, Horace 435 

De Lamater, A . H 7h5 

Eggleston, B. F 489 

Eldred, H. B 453 

Gibson, W. A..M.D 643 

Gorton, Aaron T 1075 

Gould. James 609 

Humphrey, Gen Wm 313 

Hyndman, Dr. D 471 

Jones, Dr. L. M 803 

Kennedy, W. E 948 

Kennedy, Mrs. Clara 949 

M arsh. Samuel T 929 

Mattlce, Charles 985 

Morrison, Patton 677 

North, Dr. Jno. D 347 

Perry, L. G 857 

Reed, Wlllard 1039 

Richardson. J. L 675 

l, D. J 541 

lOS 523 

Alfred 767 

Shoemaker, Col. Michael 131 

Tunniciltr, Dr. J 505 

Vaughn. S . S 713 

Waldo, Leonard S 1021 

Wood, Charles 381 

Wood, Jonathan 399 

Wood, Lincoln 749 



Michigan! If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look around you, in 
Michigan. Every visitor at St. Paul's church, London, is over- 
awed with the magnificence of that structure, the work of Sir Chris- 
topher Wren. He wants to know where the remains of Wren are 
now; in the crypt of the church they lie, where the following is 
engraved upon the headstone: Si monumentum requiris, circum- 
spice, — If you seek a monument [of Wren], look around [and behold 
the work of his brain in this mighty building]. The State of Mich- 
igan has appropriately adopted for her motto this expression, with 
a slight alteration, thns: Si quceris peninmlam amcenam, cir- 
cumspice, — If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look around you. And 
indeed Michigan may as justly feel proud of its resources as Great 
Britain, of St. Paul's church, — yea, and infinitely more. What 
with her substantial foundation in agriculture throughout the 
southern counties, in horticulture throughout the lower peninsula, 
and especially the fruit belt along her western boundary, in piner- 
ies in the central portion of the State, and with her crown of iron 
and copper in the upper peninsula, tipped with silver, she stands 
the real queen of the utilitarian world. 

It is a pleasure to write the history of such a State. Contrast 
this pleasant task with writing and studying the histories of States 
and empires which we have been taught to ponder and revere from 
our youth up, histories of European countries cobwebbed with 
intrigue, blackened with iniquity and saturated with blood. What 
a standing, practical reproof Michigan is to all Europe! and what 
a happy future she has before her, even as compared with all her 
sister States! 

Now let's to our chosen task, and say first a few words concern- 
ing the prehistoric races, observing, by the way, that the name 
" Michigan " is said to be derived from the Indian Mitchi-sawg- 
yegcm, a great lake. 


The numerous and well-authenticated accounts of antiquities 
found in various parts of our country clearly demonstrate that a 
people civilized, and even highly cultivated, occupied the broad sur- 
face of our continent before its possession by the present Indians; 


but the date of their rule of the Western World is so remote that 
all traces of their history, their progress and decay, lie buried in 
deepest obscurity. Nature, at the time the first Europeans came, 
had asserted her original dominion over the earth; the forests were 
all in their full luxuriance, the growth of many centuries; and 
naught existed to point out who and what they were who formerly 
lived, and loved, and labored, and died, on the continent of America. 
This pre-historic race is known as the Mound-Builders, from the 
numerous large mounds of earth- works left by them. The remains 
of the works of this people form the most interesting class of 
antiquities discovered in the United States. Their character can 
be but partially gleaned from the internal evidences and the 
peculiarities of the only remains left,- the mounds. They consist 
of remains of what were apparently villages, altars, temples, idols, 
cemeteries, monuments, camps, fortifications, pleasure grounds, etc., 
etc. Their habitations must have been tents, structures of wood, 
or other perishable material; otherwise their remains would be 
numerous. If the Mound-Builders were not the ancestors of the 
Indians, who were they? The oblivion which has closed over them 
is so complete that only conjecture can be given in answer to the 
question. Those who do not believe in the common parentage of 
mankind contend that they were an indigenous race of -the West- 
ern hemisphere; others, with more plausibility, think they came 
from the East, and imagine they can see coincidences in the religion 
of the Hindoos and Southern Tartars and the supposed theology of 
the Mound-Builders. They were, no doubt, idolators, and it has 
been conjectured that the sun was the object of their adoration. The 
mounds were generally built in a situation affording a view of the 
rising sun; when enclosed in walls their gateways were toward the 
east; the caves in which their dead were occasionally buried always 
opened in the same direction; whenever a mound was partially 
enclosed by a semi-circular pavement, it was on the east side; when 
bodies were buried in graves, as was frequently the case, they were 
laid in a direction east and west; and, finally, medals have been 
found representing the sun and his rays of light. 

At what period' they came to this country is likewise a matter of 
speculation. From the comparatively rude state of the arts among 
them, it has been inferred that the time was very remote. Their 
axes were of stone. Their raiment, judging from fragments which 
have been discovered, consisted of the bark of trees, interwoven 
with feathers; and their military works were such as a people 
would erect who had just passed to the pastoral state of society 
from that dependent alone upon hunting and fishing. 

The mounds and other ancient earth-works constructed by this 
people are far more abundant than generally supposed, from the fact 
that while some are quite large, the greater part of them are small 
and inconspicuous. Along nearly all our water courses that are 
large enough to be navigated with a canoe, the mounds are almost 
invariably found, covering the base points and headlands of the 


bluffs which border the narrower valleys; so that when one finds 
himself in such positions as to command the grandest views for river 
scenery, he may almost always discover that he is standing upon, 
or in close proximity to, some one or more of these traces of the 
labors of an ancient people. 

The Mound-Builder was an early pioneer in Michigan. He was 
the first miner in the upper peninsula. How he worked we do not 
know, but he went deep down into the copper ore and dug and 
raised vast quantities, and probably transported it, but just how or 
where, we cannot say. The ancient mining at Isle Royale, in Lake 
Superior, has excited amazement. The pits are from 10 to 20 feet 
in diameter, from 20 to 60 feet in depth, and are scattered through- 
out the island. They follow the richest veins of ore. Quantities 
of stone hammers and mauls weighing from 10 to 30 pounds have 


been found, some broken from use and some in good condition. 
Copper chisels, knives and arrowheads have been discovered. The 
copper tools have been hardened by fire. Working out the ore was 
doubtless done by heating and pouring on water, — a very tedious 
process; and yet it is said that, although 200 men in their rude way 
could not accomplish any more work than two skilled miners at the 
present day, yet at one point alone on Isle Royale the labor per- 
formed exceeds that of one of the oldest mines on the south shore, 
operated by a large force for more than 30 years. Since these 
ancient pits were opened, forests have grown up and fallen, and 
trees 400 years old stand around them to-day. 

Mounds have been discovered on the Detroit river, at the head 
of the St. Ciair. the Black, the Rouge, on the Grand, at the foot of 


Lake Huron, and in many other portions of the State. Those at 
the head of the St. Clair were discovered by Mr. Gilinan, in 1872, 
and are said to he very remarkable. 


Mr. Breckenridge, who examined the antiquities of the Western 
country in 1817, speaking of the mounds in the American Bottom, 
says: "The great number and extremely large size of some of them 
may be regarded as furnishing, with other circumstances, evidences 
of their antiquity. I have sometimes been induced to think that at 
the period when they were constructed there was a population here 
as numerous as that which once animated the borders of the Nile 
or Euphrates, or of Mexico. The most numerous, as well as con- 
siderable, of these remains are found in precisely those parts of the 
country where the traces of a numerous population might be looked 
for, namely, from the mouth of the Ohio on the east side of the 
Mississippi to the Illinois river, and on the west from the St. 
Francis to the Missouri. I am perfectly satisfied that cities similar 
to those of ancient Mexico, of several hundred thousand souls, have 
existed in this country." 

It must be admitted that whatever the uses of these mounds — 
whether as dwellings or burial places — these silent monuments were 
built, and the race who built them vanished from the face of the 
earth, ages before the Indians occupied the land, but their date 
must probably forever baffle human skill and ingenuity. 

It is sometimes difficult to distinguish the places of sepulture 
raised by the Mound-Builders from the more modern graves of the 
Indians. The tombs of the former were in general larger than 
those of the latter, and were used as receptacles for a greater number 
of bodies, and contained relics of art, evincing a higher degree of 
civilization than that attained by the Indians. The ancient earth- 
works of the Mound-Builders have occasionally been appropriated 
as burial places by the Indians, but the skeletons of the latter may 
be distinguished from the osteological remains of the former by 
their greater stature. 

"What finally became of the Mound-Builders is another query 
which has been extensively discussed. The fact that their works 
extend into Mexico and Peru has induced the belief that it was their 
posterity that dwelt in these countries when they were first visited 
by the Spaniards. The Mexican and Peruvian works, with the 
exception of their greater magnitude, are similar. Belies common 
to all of them have been occasionally found, and it is believed that 
the religious uses which they subserved were the same. If, indeed, 
the Mexicans and Peruvians were the progeny of the more ancient 
Mound-Builders, Spanish rapacity for gold was the cause of their 
overthrow and final extermination. 

A thousand other queries naturally arise respecting these nations 
which now repose under the ground, but the most searching investi- 


gation can give us only vague speculations for answers. No histo- 
rian has preserved the names of their mighty chieftains, or given 
an account of their exploits, and even tradition is silent respecting 

Following the Mound-Builders as inhabitants of North America, 
were, as it is supposed, the people who reared the magnificent cities, 
the ruins of which are found in Central America. This people was 
far more civilized and advanced in the arts than were the Mound- 
Builders. The cities built by them, judging from the ruins of 
broken columns, fallen arches and crumbling walls of temples, 
palaces and pyramids, which in some places for miles bestrew the 
ground, must have been of great extent, magnificent and very pop- 
ulous. When we consider the vast period of time necessary to erect 
such colossal structures, and, again, the time required to reduce 
them to their present ruined state, we can conceive something of 
their antiquity. These cities must have been old when many of 
the ancient cities of the Orient were being built. 

The third race inhabiting North America, distinct from the 
former two in every particular, is the present Indians. They were, 
when visited by the early discoverers, without cultivation, refine- 
ment or literature, and far behind the Monnd-Builders in the knowl- 
edge of the arts. The question of their origin has long interested 
archaeologists, and is the most difficult they have been called upon 
to answer. Of their predecessors the Indian tribes knew nothing; 
they even had no traditions respecting them. It is quite certain 
that they were the successors of a race which had entirely passed 
away ages befnre the discovery of the New AVorld. One hypothesis 
is that the American Indians are an original race indigenous to the 
Western hemisphere. Those who entertain this view think their 
peculiarities of physical structure preclude the possibility of a com- 
mon parentage with the rest of mankind. Prominent among those 
distinctive traits is the hair, which in the red man is round, in the 
white man oval, and in the black man flat. 

A more common supposition, however, is that they are a deriva- 
tive race, and sprang from one or more of the ancient peoples of 
Asia. In the absence of all authentic history, and when even 
tradition is wanting, any attempt to point out the particular location 
of their origin must prove unsatisfactory. Though the exact place 
of origin may never be known, j T et the striking coincidents of 
physical organization between the Oriental type of mankind and 
the Indians point unmistakably to some part of Asia as the place 
whence they emigrated, which was originally peopled to a great 
extent by the children of Shem. In this connection it has been 
claimed that the meeting of the Europeans, Indians and Africans 
on the continent of America, is the fulfillment of a prophecy as 
recorded in Genesis ix. 27: "God shall enlarge Japheth, and he 
shall dwell in the tents of Shem ; and Canaan shall be his servant." 


Assuming the theory to be true that the Indian tribes are of 
Shemitic origin, they were met on this continent in the fifteenth 
century by the Japhetic race, after the two stocks had passed around 
the globe by directly different routes. A few years afterward the 
Hamitic branch of the human family was brought from the coast 
of Africa. During the occupancy of the continent by the three 
distinct races, the children of Japheth have grown and prospered, 
while the called and not voluntary sons of Ham have endured a 
servitude in the wider stretching valleys of the tents of Shem. 

When Christopher Columbus had finally succeeded in demon- 
strating the truth of his theory, that by sailing westward from 
Europe land would be discovered, landing on the Island of Ber- 
muda he supposed he bad reached the East Indies. This was an 
error, but it led to the adoption of the name of " Indians" for the 
inhabitants of the island and the main land of America, by which 
name the red men of America have ever since been known. 

Of the several great branches of North American Indians the 
only ones entitled to consideration in Michigan history are the 
Algonquins and Iroquois. At the time of the discovery of America 
the former occupied the Atlantic seaboard, while the home of the 
Iroquois was as an island in this vast area of Algonquin popula- 
tion. The latter great nation spread over a vast territory, and 
various tribes of Algonquin lineage sprung up over the country, 
adopting, in time, distinct tribal customs and laws. An almost 
continuous warfare was carried on between tribes; but later, on the 
entrance of the white man into their beloved homes, every foot of 
territory was fiercely disputed by the confederacy of many neigh- 
boring tribes. The Algonquins formed the most extensive alliance 
to resist the encroachment of the whites, especially the English. 
Such was the nature of King Philip's war. This king, with his 
Algonquin braves, spread terror and desolation throughout New 
England. With the Algonquins as the controlling spirit, a con- 
federacy of continental proportions was the result, embracing in its 
alliance the tribes of every name and lineage from the Northern 
lakes to the gulf. Pontiac, having breathed into them his impla- 
cable hate of the English intruders, ordered the conflict to com- 
mence, and all the British colonies trembled before the desolating 
fury of Indian vengeance. 

The " Saghinan " (spelled variously) or Saginaw country com- 
prised most of the eastern portion of the southern peninsula indef- 
initely. The village of the " Hurons" was probably near Detroit. 
The term " Huron " is derived from the French hure, a wild boar, 
and was applied to this tribe of Indians on account of the bristly 
appearance of their hair. These Indians called themselves " Ouen- 
dats," as the French spelled the name, or "Wyandots," as is the 
modern orthography. 


The art of hunting not only supplied the Indian with food, but, 
like that of war, was a means of gratifying his love of distinction. 


The male children, as soon as they acquired sufficient age and 
strength, were furnished with a bow and arrow and taught to shoot 
birds and other small game. Success in killing large quadrupeds 
required years of careful study and practice, and the art was as 
sedulously inculcated in the minds of the rising generation as are 
the elements of reading, writing and arithmetic in the common 
schools of civilized communities. The mazes of the forest and the 
dense, tall grass of the prairies were the best fields for the exercise 
of the hunter's skill. No feet could be impressed in the yielding 
soil but that the tracks were the objects of the most searching 
scrutiny, and revealed at a glance the animal that made them, the 
direction it was pursuing, and the time that had elapsed since it 
had passed. In a forest country he selected the valleys, because 
they were most frequently the resort of game. The most easily 
taken, perhaps, of all the animals of the chase was the deer. It is 
endowed with a curiosity which prompts it to stop in its flight and 
look back at the approaching hunter, who always avails himself of 
this opportunity to let fly the fatal arrow. 

Their general councils were composed of the chiefs and old men. 
When in council, they usually sat in concentric circles around the 
speaker, and eacli individual, notwithstanding the fiery passions 
that rankled within, preserved an exterior as immovable as if cast 
in bronze. Before commencing business a person appeared with 
the sacred pipe, and another with fire to kindle it. After being 
lighted, it was first presented to heaven, secondly to the earth, 
thirdly to the presiding spirit, and lastly to the several councilors, 
each of whom took a whiff. These formalities were observed with 
as close exactness as State etiquette in civilized courts. 

The dwellings of the Indians were of the simplest and rudest 
character. On some pleasant spot by the bank of a river, or near 
an ever-running spring, they raised their groups of wigwams, con- 
structed of the bark of trees, and easily taken down and removed 
to another spot. The dwelling-places of the chiefs were sometimes 
more spacious, and constructed with greater care, but of the same 
materials. Skins taken in the chase served them for repose. 
Though principally dependent upon hunting and fishing, the un- 
certain supply from those sources led them to cultivate small 
patches of corn. Every family did everything necessary within 
itself, commerce, or an interchange of articles, being almost unknown 
to them. In cases of dispute and dissension, each Indian relied 
upon himself for retaliation. Blood for blood was the rule, and 
the relatives of the slain man were bound to obtain bloody revenge 
for his death. This principle gave rise, as a matter of course, to in- 
numerable and bitter feuds, and wars of extermination where such 
were possible. "War, indeed, rather than peace, was the Indian's 
glory and delight, — war, not conducted as in civilization, but war 
where individual skill, endurance, gallantry and cruelty were prime 
requisites. For such a purpose as revenge the Indian would make 
great sacrifices, and display a patience and perseverance truly heroic; 


but when the excitement was over, he sank back into a listless, un- 
occupied, well-nigh useless savage. During the intervals of his 
more exciting pursuits, the Indian employed his time in decorating 
his person with all the refinement of paint and feathers, and in the 
manufacture of his arms and of canoes. These were constructed of 
bark, and so light that they could easily be carried on the shoulder 
from stream to stream. His amusements were the war dance, ath- 
letic games, the narration of his exploits, and listening to the ora- 
tory of the chiefs; but during long periods of sucli existence he 
remained in a state of torpor, gazing listlessly upon the trees of the 
forests and the clouds that sailed above them; and this vacancy 
imprinted a habitual gravity, and even melancholy, upon his gen- 
eral deportment. 

The main labor and drudgery of Indian communities fell upon 
the women. The planting, tending and gathering of the crops, 
making mats and baskets, carrying burdens, — in fact, all things of 
the kind were performed by them, thus making their condition but 
little better than that of slaves. Marriage was merely a matter of 
bargain and sale, the husband giving presents to the father of the 
bride. In general they had but t'ew children. They were subjected 
to many and severe attacks of sickness, and at times famine and 
pestilence swept away whole tribes. 

The Indians had not only their good " manitous," but also their 
evil spirits; and the wild features of the lake scenery appears to 
have impressed their savage minds with superstition. They believed 
that ail the prominent points of this wide region were created and 
guarded by monsters; and the images of these they sculptured on 
stone, painted upon the rocks, or carved upon the trees. Those who 
"obeyed " these supernatural beings , they thought, would after death 
range among flowery fields filled with the choicest game, while 
those who neglected their counsels would wander amid dreary soli- 
tudes, stung by gnats as large as pigeons. 


It is not necessary to dwell on the details of history from the 
discovery of America in 1492 to the settlement of Michigan in 
166S, as some historians do under the head of " the history of 
Michigan;" for the transaction of men and councils at Quebec, 
New York, Boston, or London, or Paris, concerning the European 
possessions in America prior to 166S did not in the least affect 
either man, beast or inanimate object within the present limits of 
the State of Michigan. Nor do we see the necessity of going back 
to the foundations of American institutions, simply because they 
are the origin of the present features of Michigan institutions and 
society, any more than to Greek, Latin, Christian or mediaeval civ- 
ilization, although all the latter also affect Michigan society. 

Jacques Marquette was the first white man, according to history, 
to set foot upon ground within what is now the State of Michigan. 


He was born of an honorable family at Laon, in the north of 
France, in 1637, the month not known. He was educated for the 
Catholic priesthood; in 165-t he joined the Jesuits, and in 1666 he 
was sent as a missionary to Canada; after the river St. Lawrence 
and the Great Lakes had been mapped out, the all-absorbing object 
of interest with Gov. Frontenac Talch, the "intendent," and Mar- 
quette himself was to discover and trace from the north the won- 
derful Mississippi that De Soto, the Spaniard, had first seen at the 
South in 1641. In 166S, according to Bancroft, he repaired to the 
Chippewa, at the Sault, to establish the mission of the St. Mary, 
the oldest settlement begun by Europeans within the present limits 
of Michigan. This was under Louis XIV., of France. 

In 1669 Father Marquette established a mission at Mackinaw, 
then called "Michilimackinac," from an Indian word signifying 
" a great turtle," or from the Chippewa " inichine-maukinonk," 
" a place of giant fairies." Here Marquette built a chapel in 1671, 
and continued to teach the Indians until his death. 

In 1673, in company with Louis Joliet, Father Marquette received 
orders from Gov. Frontenac to proceed west and explore the Mis- 
sissippi, which they did, as far south as the Arkansas river. 

Marquette was a scholar and a polite Christian, enthusiastic, 
shrewd and persevering. He won the affections of all parties, 
French, English and Indian. He was even a man of science, with 
a strong element of romance and love of natural beauty iii his 
character. Parkman speaks of him, in characteristic epithet, as 
" the humble Marquette who, with clasped hands and upturned 
eyes, seems a figure evoked from some dim legend of mediaeval 
saintship." In life he seems to have been looked up to with rever- 
ence by the wildest savage, by the rude frontiersman, and by the 
polished officer of government. Most of all the States, his 
name and his fame should be dear to Michigan. He died in June, 
1675, and was buried with great solemnity and deep sorrow near 
the mouth of Pere Marquette river. The remains were afterward 
deposited in a vault in the middle of the chapel of St. Ignace near 
by; but on the breaking up of the mission at this place the Jesuits 
burned the chapel, and the exact site was forgotten until Sept. 3, 
1877, when the vault, consisting of birch bark, was found; but the 
remains of the great missionary were probably stolen away by his 
Indian admirers soon after the abandonment of the mission. 

The next settlement in point of time was made in 1679, by 
Robert Cavalier de La Salle, at the mouth of the St. Joseph river. 
He had constructed a vessel, the " Griffin," just above Niagara falls, 
and sailed around by the lakes to Green Bay, Wis., whence he 
traversed " Lac des Illinois," now Lake Michigan, by canoe to the 
mouth of the St. Joseph river. The " Griffin " was the first sailing 
vessel that ever came west of Niagara falls. La Salle erected a fort 
at the mouth of the St. Joseph river, which afterward was moved 
about 60 miles up the river, where it was still seen in Charlevoix's 


time, 1721. La Salle also built a fort on the Illinois river just 
below Peoria, and explored the region of the Illinois and Missis- 
sippi rivers. 

The next, and third, Michigan post erected by authority was a 
second fort on the St. Joseph river, established by Du Luth, near 
the present Fort Gratiot, in 1686. The object of this was to inter- 
cept emissariesof the English, who were anxious to open traffic with 
the Mackinaw and Lake Superior nations. 

The French posts in Michigan and westward left very little to be 
gathered by the New York traders, and they determined, as there 
was peace between France and England, to push forward their 
agencies and endeavor to deal with the western and northern 
Indians in their own country. The French governors not only 
plainly asserted the title of France, but as plainly threatened to 
use all requisite force to expel intruders. Anticipating correctly 
that the English would attempt to reach Lake Huron from the 
East without passing up Detroit river, Du Luth built a fort at the 
outlet of the lake into the St. Clair. About the same time an 
expedition was planned against the Senecas, and the Chevalier 
Tonti, commanding La Salle's forts, of St. Louis and St. Joseph of 
Lake Michigan, and La Durantaj'e, the veteran commander of 
Mackinaw, were employed to bring down the French and Indian 
auxiliaries to take part in the war. These men intercepted 
English expeditions into the interior to establish trade with the 
Northern Indians, and succeeded in cutting them off for many years. 

Religious zeal for the Catholic Church and the national aggrand- 
izement were almost or quite equally the primary and all-ruling 
motive of western explorations. For these two purposes expedi- 
tions were sent out and missions and military posts were established. 
In these enterprises Marquette, Joliet, La Salle, St. Lusson and 
others did all that we find credited to them in history. 

In 1669 or 1670, Talon, then " Intendant of New France," sent 
out two parties to discover a passage to the South Sea, St. Lusson 
to Hudson's Bay and La Salle southwestward. On his retnrn in 
1671, St. Lusson held a council of all the northern tribes at the 
Sault Ste. Marie, where they formed an alliance with the French. 

" It is a curious fact," says Campbell, " that the public docu- 
ments are usually made to exhibit the local authorities as originat- 
ing everything, when the facts brought to light from other sources 
show that they were compelled to permit what they ostensibly 
directed." The expeditions sent out by Talon were at least sug- 
gested from France. The local authorities were sometimes made 
to do things which were not, in their judgment, the wisest. 

July 19, 1701, the Iroquois conveyed to King William III all 
their claims to land, describing their territory as "that vast tract 
of land or colony called Canagariarchio, beginning on the north- 


west side of Cadarachqui lake [Ontario], and includes all that vast 
tract of land lying between the great lake of Ottawawa '[Huron], 
and the lake called by the natives Sahiquage, and by the Christians 
the Lake of Sweege [Oswego, for Lake Erie], and runs till it 
butts upon the Twichtwichs, and ie bounded on the westward by 
the Twichtwichs by a place called Quadoge, containing in length 
about 800 miles and breadth 400 miles, including the country where 
beavers and all sorts of wild game keeps, and the place 
called Tjeughsaghrondie alias Fort De Tret or Wawyachtenock 
[Detroit], and so runs round the lake of Sweege till you come to a 
place called Oniadarundaquat," etc. 

It was chiefly to prevent any further mischief, and to secure 
more effectually the French supremacy that La Motte Cadillac, who 
had great influence over the savages, succeeded, in 1701, after 
various plans urged by him had been shelved by hostile colonial 
intrigues, in getting permission from Count Pontchartraiu to begin 
a settlement in Detroit. His purpose was from the beginning to 
make not only a military post, but also a civil establishment, for 
trade and agriculture. He was more or less threatened and opposed 
by the monopolists and by the Mackinaw missionaries, and was 
subjected to severe persecutions. He finally triumphed and 
obtained valuable privileges and the right of seigneury. Crafts- 
men of all kinds were induced to settle in the town, and trade 
flourished. He succeeded in getting the Hurons and many of the 
Ottawas to leave Mackinaw and settle about " Fort Pontchartraiu." 
This fort stood on what was formerly called the first terrace, being 
on the ground lying between Lamed street and the river, and 
between Griswold and Wayne streets. Cadillac's success was so 
great, in spite of all opposition, that he was appointed governor of 
the new province of Louisiana, which had been granted to Crozat 
and his associates. This appointment removed him from Detroit, 
and immediately afterward the place was exposed to an Indian 
siege, instigated by English emissaries and conducted by the Mas- 
coutins and Ontagamies, the same people who made the last war on 
the whites in the territory of Michigan under Black Hawk a cen- 
tury and a quarter later. " The tribes allied to the French came in 
with alacrity and defeated and almost annihilated the assailants, of 
whom a thousand were put to death. 

Unfortunately for the country, the commanders who succeeded 
Cadillac for many years were narrow-minded and selfish and not 
disposed to advance any interests beyond the lucrative traffic with 
the' Indians in peltries. It was not until 1734 that any new grants 
were made to farmers. This was done by Governor-General Beau- 
harnois, who made the grants on the very easiest terms. Skilled 
artisans became numerous in Detroit, and prosperity set in all 
around. The buildings were not of the rudest kind, but built of 
oak or cedar, and of smooth finish. The cedar was brought from 
a great distance. Before 1742 the pineries were known, and at a 
very early day a saw-mill was erected on St. Clair river, near Lake 


Huron. Before 1749 quarries were worked, especially at Stony 
Island. In 1763 there were several lime kilns within the present 
limits of Detroit, and not only stone foundations but also stone 
buildings, existed in the settlement. Several grist-mills existed 
along the river near Detroit. Agriculture was carried on profitably, 
and supplies were exported quite early, consisting chiefly of corn 
and wheat, and possibly beans and peas. Cattle, horses and swine 
were raised in considerable numbers; but as salt was very expens- 
ive, but little meat, if any, was packed for exportation. The salt 
springs near Lake St. Clair, it is trtie, were known, and utilized to 
some extent, but not to an appreciable extent. Gardening and fruit- 
raising were carried on more thoroughly than general farming. 
Apples and pears were good and abundant. 

During the French and English war Detroit was the principal 
source of supplies to the French troops west of Lake Ontario, and 
it also furnished a large number of fighting men. The upper posts 
were not much involved in this war. 

" Teuchsa Grondie," one of the many ways of spelling an old 
Indian name of Detroit, is rendered famous by a large and splen- 
did poem of Levi Bishop, Esq., of that city. 

During the whole of the 18th century the history of Michigan 
was little else than the history of Detroit, as the genius of French 
government was to centralize power instead of building up locali- 
ties for self-government. 

About 1704, or three years after the founding of Detroit, this 
place was attacked by the Ottawa Indians, but unsuccessfully; and 
again, in 1712, the Ottagamies, or Fox Indians, who were in secret 
alliance with the old enemies of the French, the Iroquois, attacked 
the village and laid siege to it. They were severely repulsed, and 
their chief offered a capitulation, which was refused. Considering 
this an insult, they became enraged and endeavored to burn up the 
town. Their method of firing the place was to shoot large arrows, 
mounted with combustible material in flame, in a track through 
the sky rainbow-form. The bows and arrows being very large and 
stout, the Indians lay with their backs on the ground, put both feet 
against the central portion of the inner side of the bow and pulled 
the strings with all the might of their hands. A ball of blazing 
material would thus be sent arching over nearly a quarter of a 
mile, which would come down perpendicularly upon the dry shingle 
roofs of the houses and set them on fire. But this scheme was 
soon checkmated by the French, who covered the remaining houses 
with wet skins. The Foxes were considerably disappointed at this 
and discouraged, but they made one more desperate attempt, failed, 
and retreated toward Lake St. Clair, where they again entrenched 
themselves. From this place, however, they were soon dislodged. 
After this period these Indians occupied Wisconsin for a time and 
made it dangerous for travelers passing through from the lakes to 
the Mississippi. They were the Ishmaelites of the wilderness. 


In 1749 there was afresh accession of immigrants to all the points 
upon the lakes, but the history of this part of the world during 
the most of this century is rather monotonous, business and gov- 
ernment remaining about the same, without much improvement. 
The records nearly all concern Canada east of the lake region. It 
is true, there was almost a constant change of commandants at the 
posts, and there were many slight changes of administrative policy; 
but as no great enterprises were successfully put in operation, the 
events of the period have but little prominence. The northwest- 
ern territory during French rnie was simply a vast ranging ground 
for the numerous Indian tribes, who had no ambition higher than 
obtaining an immediate subsistence of the crudest kind, buying 
arms, whisky, tobacco, blankets and jewelry by bartering for them 
the peltries of the chase. Like a drop in the ocean was the mis- 
sionary work of the few Jesuits at the half dozen posts on the 
great waters. The forests were full of otter, beaver, bear, deer, 
grouse, quails, etc., and on the few prairies the grouse, or " prairie 
chickens," were abundant. Not much work was required to obtain 
a bare subsistence, and human nature generally is not disposed to 
lay up much for the future. The present material prosperity of 
America is really an exception to the general law of the world. 

In the latter part of 1796 Winthrop Sargent went to Detroit and 
organized the county of "Wayne, forming a part of the Indiana Ter- 
ritory until its division in 1805, when the Territory of Michigan 
was organized. 


Soon after the discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi by 
La Salle in 1682, the government of France began to encourage the 
policy of establishing a line of trading posts and missionary stations 
extending through the West from Canada to Louisiana, and this 
policy was maintained, with partial success, for about 75 years. 

The river St. Joseph of Lake Michigan was called " the river 
Miamis " in 1679, in which year La Salle built a small fort on its 
bank, near the lake shore. The principal station of the mission for 
the instruction of the Miamis was established on the borders of this 
river. The first French post within the territory of the Miamis 
was at the mouth of the river Miamis, on an eminence naturally 
fortified on two sides by the river, and on one side by a deep ditch 
made by a fall of water. It was of triangular form. The mission- 
ary Hennepin gives a good description of it, as he was one of the 
company who built it, in 1679. Says he: " We felled the trees that 
were on the top of the hill; and having cleared the same from 
bushes for about two musket shot, we began to build a redoubt of 
80 feet long and 40 feet broad, with great square pieces of timber 
laid one upon another, and prepared a great number of stakes of 
about 25 feet long to drive into the ground, to make our fort more 



inaccessible on the river side. "We employed the whole month of 
November about that work, which was very hard, though we had 
no other food but the bears' flesh our savage killed. These beasts 
are very common in that place because of the great quantity of 
grapes they hud there; but their flesh being too fat and luscious, 
our men began to be weary of it and desired leave to go a hunting 
to kill some wild goats. M. La Salle denied them that liberty, which 
caused some murmurs among them; and it was but unwillingly 
that the}' continued their work. This, together with the approach 
of winter and the apprehension that M. La Salle had that his vessel 
(the Griffin) was lost, made him very melancholy, though he con- 
cealed it as much as he could. We made a cabin wherein we per- 
formed divine service every Sunda}', and Father Gabriel and I, who 
preached alternately, took care to take such texts as were suitable 
to our present circumstances and fit to inspire us with courage, 
concord and brotherly love. * * * The fort was at last per- 
fected, and called Fort Miatnis." 

In 1765 the Miami nation, or confederacy, was composed of four 
tribes, whose total number of warriors was estimated at only 1,050 
men. Of these about 250 were Twightwees, or Miamis proper, 300 
Weas, or Ouiatenons, 300 Piankeshaws and 200 Shockeys; and at 
this time the principal villages of the Twightwees were situated 
about the head of the Maumee river at and near the place where 
Fort Wayne now is. The larger Wea villages were near the banks 
of the Wabash river, in the vicinity of the Post Ouiatenon; and 
the Shockeys and Piankeshaws dwelt on the banks of the Vermillion, 
and on the borders of the Wabash between Vincennes and Ouiate- 
non. Branches of the Pottawatomie, Shawnee, Delaware and Kicka- 
poo tribes were permitted at different times to enter within the 
boundaries of the Miamis and reside for a while. 

The wars in which France and England were engaged, from 1688 
to 1697, retarded the growth of the colonies of those nations in 
North America, and the efforts made by France to connect Canada 
and the Gulf of Mexico by a chain of trading posts and colonies 
naturally excited the jealousy of England and gradually laid the 
foundation for a struggle at arms. After several stations were estab- 
lished elsewhere in the West, trading posts were started at the 
Miami villages, which stood at the head of theMaumee, at the Wea 
villages about Ouiatenon on the Wabash, and at the Piankeshaw vil- 
lages about the present sight of Vincennes. It is probable that before 
the close of the year 1719 temporary trading posts were erected at 
the sites of Fort Wayne, Ouiatenon and Vincennes. These points 
were probably often visited by French fur traders prior to 1700. 
In the meanwhile the English people in this country commenced 
also to establish military posts west of the Alleghanies, and thus 
matters went on until they naturally culminated in a general war, 
which, being waged by the French and Indians combined on one 
6ide, was called " the French and Indian war." This war was ter- 
minated in 1763 by a treaty at Paris, by which France ceded to 


Great Britain all of North America east of the Mississippi except 
New Orleans and the island on which it is situated; and indeed, 
France had the preceding autumn, by a secret convention, ceded to 
Spain all the country west of that river. 

In 1762, after Canada and its dependencies had been surrendered 
to the English, Pontiac and his partisans secretly organized a pow- 
erful confederacy in order to crush at one blow all English power 
in the West. This great scheme was skillfully projected and cau- 
tiously matured. 

The principal act in the programme was to gain admittance into 
the fort at Detroit, on pretense of a friendly visit, with shortened 
muskets concealed under their blankets, and on a given signal sud- 
denly break forth upon the garrison; but an inadvertent remark of 
an Indian woman led to a discovery of the plot, which was conse- 
quently averted. Pontiac and his warriors afterward made many 
attacks upon the English, some of which were successful, but the 
Indians were finally defeated in the general war. 


In 1765 the total number of French families within the limits of 
the Northwestern Territory did not probably exceed 600. These 
were in settlements about Detroit, along the river Wabash and the 
neighborhood of Fort Chartres on the Mississippi. Of these fami- 
lies, about 80 or 90 resided at Post Vincennes, 14 at Fort Ouiate- 
non, on the Wabash, and nine or ten at the confluence of the St. 
Mary and St. Joseph rivers. 

The colonial policy of the British government opposed any meas- 
ures which might strengthen settlements in the interior of this 
country, lest they become self-supporting and independent of the 
mother country; hence the early and rapid settlement of the North- 
western Territory was still further retarded by the short-sighted 
selfishness of England. That fatal policy consisted mainly in hold- 
ing the land in the hands of the government and not allowing it to 
be subdivided and sold to settlers. But in spite of all her efforts 
in this direction, she constantly made just such efforts as provoked 
the American people to rebel, and to rebel successfully, which was 
within 15 years after the perfect close of the French and Indian 


Thomas Jefferson, the shrewd statesman and wise Governor of 
Virginia, saw from the first that actual occupation of Western lands 
was the only way to keep them out of the hands of foreigners and 
Indians. Therefore, directly after the conquest of Vincennes by 
Clark, he engaged a scientific corps to proceed under an escort to 


the Mississippi, and ascertain by celestial observations the point on 
that river intersected by latitude 36* 30', the southern limit of the 
State, and to measure its distance to the Ohio. To Gen. Clark was 
entrusted the conduct of the military operations in that quarter. 
He was instructed to select a strong position near that point and 
establish there a fort and garrison; thence to extend his conquest 
northward to the lakes, erecting forts at different points, which 
might serve as monuments of actual possession, besides affording 
protection to that portion of the country. Fort " Jefferson " was 
erected and garrisoned on the Mississippi a few miles above the 
southern limit. 

The result of these operations was the addition, to the chartered 
limits of Virginia, of that immense region known as the " North- 
western Territory." The simple fact that such and such forts were 
established by the Americans in this vast region convinced the Brit- 
ish Commissioners that we had entitled ourselves to the land. But 
where are those " monuments " of our power now? 


This ordinance has a marvelous and interesting history. Con- 
siderable controversy has been indulged in as to who is entitled to 
the credit for framing it. This belongs, undoubtedly, to "Nathan 
Dane; and to Rufus King and Timothy Pickering belong the credit 
for suggesting the proviso contained in it against slavery, and also 
for aids to religion and knowledge, and for assuring forever the 
common use, without charge, of the great national highways of the 
Mississippi, the St. Lawrence and their tributaries to all the citi- 
zens of the United States. To Thomas Jefferson is also due much 
credit, as some features of this ordinance were embraced in his or- 
dinance of nSi. But the part taken by each in the long, laborious 
and eventful struggle which had so glorious a consummation in 
the ordinance, consecrating forever, by one imprescriptible and un- 
changeable monument, the very heart of our country to freedom, 
knowledge and union, will forever honor the names of those illustri- 
ous statesmen. 

Mr. Jefferson had vainly tried to secure a system of government 
for the Northwestern Territory. He was an emancipationist and 
favored the exclusion of slavery from the Territory, but the South 
voted him down every time he proposed a measure of this nature. 
In 1787, as late as July 10, an organizing act without the anti- 
slavery clause was pending. This concession to the South was 
expected to carry it. Congress was in session in New York. On 
July 5, Rev. Manasseh Cutler, of Massachusetts, came into New 
York to lobby on the Northwestern Territory. Everything seemed 
to fall into his hands. Events were ripe. The state of the public 
credit, the growing of Southern prejudice, the basis of his mission, 
his personal character, all combined to complete one of those sudden 



and marvelous revolutions of public sentiment that once in five or 
ten centuries are seen to sweep over a country like the breath of the 

Cutler was a graduate of Tale. He had studied and taken de- 
grees in the three learned professions, medicine, law, and divinity. 
He had published a scientific examination of the plants of New 
England. As a scientist in America his name stood second only to 
that of Franklin. He was a courtly gentleman of the old style, a 
man of commanding presence and of inviting face. The Southern 
members said they had never seen such a gentleman in the North. 
He came representing a Massachusetts company that desired to 
purchase a tract of land, now included in Ohio, for the purpose of 
planting a colony. It was a speculation. Government money was 
worth eighteen cents on the dollar. This company had collected 
enough to purchase 1,500,000 acres of land. Other speculators in 
New York made Dr. Cutler their agent, which enabled him to 
represent a demand for 5,500,000 acres. As this would reduce the 
national debt, and Jefferson's policy was to provide for the public 
credit, it presented a good opportunity to do something. 

Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, which she was 
crowding on the market. She was opposed to opening the North- 
western region. This fired the zeal of Virginia. The South caught 
the inspiration, and all exalted Dr. Cutler. The entire South ral. 
lied around him. Massachusetts could not vote against him, be- 
cause many of the constuitents of her members were interested 
personally in the Western speculation. Thus Cutler, making 
friends in the Soutb, and doubtless using all the arts of the lobby, 
was enabled to command the situation. True to deeper convic- 
tions, he dictated one of the most compact and finished documents 
of wise statesmanship that has ever adorned any human law book. 
He borrowed from Jefferson the term "Articles of Compact," which, 
preceding the federal constitution, rose into the most sacred char- 
acter. He then followed very closely the constitution of Massa- 
chusetts, adopted three years before. Its most prominent points 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

2. Provision for public schools, giving one township for a semi- 
nary and every section numbered 16 in each township; that is, one 
thirty-sixth of all the land for public schools. 

3. A provision prohibiting the adoption of any constitution or 
the enactment of any law that should nullify pre-existing contracts. 


Be it forever remembered that this compact declared that " re- 
ligion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good govern- 
ment and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of edu- 
cation shall always be encouraged." Dr. Cutler planted himself 
on this platform and would not yield. Giving his unqualified dec- 
laration that it was that or nothing, — that unless they could make 
the land desirable they did not want it, — he took his horse and buggy 
and started for the constitutional convention at Philadelphia. On 
July 13, 17S7, the bill was put upon its passage, and was unani- 
mously adopted. Thus the great States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and Wisconsin, a vast empire, were consecrated to free 
dom, intelligence, and morality. Thus the great heart of the nation 
was prepared to save the union of States, for it was this act that was 
the salvation of the republic and the destruction of slavery. Soon 
the South saw their great blunder and tried to have the compact 
repealed. In 1S03 Congress referred it to a committee, of which 
John Randolph was chairman. He reported that this ordinance 
was a compact and opposed repeal. Thus it stood, a rock in the 
way of the on-rushing sea of slavery. 

The " Northwestern Territory " included of course what is now 
the State of Indiana; and Oct 5, ITS", Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair 
was elected by Congress Governor of this territory. Upon 
commencing the duties of his office he was instructed to ascertain 
the real temper of the Indians and do all in his power to remove 
the causes for controversy between them and the United States, 
and to effect the extinguishment of Indian titles to all the land 
possible. The Governor took up quarters in the new settlement of 
Marietta, Ohio, where he immediately began the organization of 
the government of the territory. The first session of the General 
Court of the new territory was held at that place in 1TSS, the 
Judges being Samuel H. Parsons, James M. Varnuni and John C. 
Symmes, but under the ordinance Gov. St. Clair was President of 
the Court. After the first session, and after the necessary laws for 
government were adopted, Gov. St. Clair, accompanied by the 
Judges, visited Kaskaskia for the purpose of organizing a civil gov- 
ernment there. Full instructions had been sent to Maj. Hamtramck, 
commandant at Vincennes, to ascertain the exact feeling and temper 
of tLj Indian tribes of the Wabash. These instructions were ac- 
companied by speeches to each of the tribes. A Frenchman named 
Antoine Gamelin was dispatched with these messages April 5, 1790, 
who visited nearly all the tribes on the Wabash. St. Joseph and St. 



Mary's rivers, but was coldly received; most of the chiefs being 
dissatisfied with the policy of the Americans toward them, and 
prejudiced through English misrepresentation. Full accounts of 
his adventures among the tribes reached Gov. St. Clair at Kaskas- 
kia in June, 1790. Being satisfied that there was no prospect of 
effecting a general peace with the Indians of Indiana, he resolved 
to visit Gen. Harmar at his headquarters at Fort Washington and 
consult with him on the means of carrying an expedition against 
the hostile Indians; but before leaving he intrusted "Winthrop 
Sargent, the Secretary of the Territory, with the execution of the 
resolutions of Congress regarding the lands and settlers on the 
"Wabash. He directed that officer to proceed to Vincennes, lay 
out a county there, establish the militia and appoint the necessary 
civil and military officers. Accordingly Mr. Sargent went to Vin- 
cennes and organized Camp Knox, appointed the officers, and noti- 
fied the inhabitants to present their claims to lands. In establish- 
ing these claims the settlers found great difficulty, and concerning 
this matter the Secretary in his report to the President wrote as 
follows : 

" Although the lands and lots which were awarded to the inhabi- 
tants appeared from very good oral testimony to belong to those 
persons to whom they were awarded, either by original grants, pur- 
chase or inheritance, yet there was scarcely one case in twenty 
where the title was complete, owing to the desultory manner in 
which public business had been transacted and some other unfor- 
tunate causes. The original concessions by the French and British 
commandants were generally made upon a small scrap of paper, 
which it has been customary to lodge in the notary's office, who 
has seldom kept any book of record, but committed the most im- 
portant land concerns to loose sheets, which in process of time 
have come into possession of persons that have fraudulently de- 
stroyed them; or, unacquainted with their consequence, innocently 
lost or trifled them away. By French usage they are considered 
family inheritances, and often descend to women and children. In 
one instance, and during the government of St. Auge here, a royal 
notary ran off with all the public papers in his possession, as by a 
certificate produced to me. And I am very sorry further to observe 
that in the office of Mr. Le Grand, which continued from 1777 to 
1787, and where should have been the vouchers for important land 
transactions, the records have been so falsified, and there is such 
gross fraud and forgery, as to invalidate all evidence and informa- 
tion which I might have otherwise acquired from his papers." 


Mr. Sargent says there were about 150 French families at Vin- 
cennes in 1790. The heads of all these families had been at one time 
vested with certain titles to a portion of the soil; and while the 
Secretary was busy in straightening out these claims, he received 
a petition signed by 80 Americans, asking for the confirmation of 
grants of land ceded by the Court organized by Col. John Todd 
under the authority of Virginia. "With reference to this cause, 
Congress, March 3,1791, empowered the Territorial Governor, in 
cases where land had been actually improved and cultivated under 
a supposed grant for the same, to confirm to the persons who made 
such improvements the lands supposed to have been granted, not, 
however, exceeding the quantity of 400 acres to any one person. 


Soon after the discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi in 1682, 
the government of France began to encourage the policy of estab- 
lishing a line of trading posts and missionary stations extending 
through the West from Canada and the great lakes to Louisiana; 
and this policy was maintained, with partial success, for about 75 
years. British power was the rival upon which the French con- 
tinually kept their eye. Of course a collision of arms would re- 
sult in a short time, and this commenced about 1755. In 1760 
Canada, including the lake region, fell into the hands of the British. 
During the war occurred Braddock's defeat, the battles of N iagara, 
Crown Point and Lake George, and the death of brave Wolfe and 
Montcalm. Sept. 12, this year, Major Robert Rogers, a native of 
New Hampshire, a provincial officer and then at the height of his 
reputation, received orders from Sir Jeffrey Amherst to ascend the 
lakes with a detachment of rangers, and take possession, in the 
name of his Britannic Majesty, of Detroit, Michilimackinac, and 
other Western posts included in the capitulation of Montreal. He left 
the latter place on the following day with 200 rangers in 15 whale 
boats. Nov. 7 they reached the mouth of a river ('" Chogage ") on 
the southern coast of lake Erie, where they were met by Pontiac, 
the Indian chief, who now appears for the first time upon the pages 
of Michigan history. He haughtily demanded of Rogers why he 
should appear in his realm with his forces without his permission. 
The Major informed him that the English had obtained permission 
of Canada, and that he was on his way to Detroit to publish the 
fact and to restore a general peace to white men and Indians alike. 
The next day Pontiac signified his willingness to live at peace with 
the English, allowing them to remain in his country, provided they 
paid him due respect. He knew that French power was on the 
wane, and that it was to the interest of his tribes to establish an 
early peace with the new power. The Indians, who had collected 
at the mouth of Detroit, reported 400 strong, to resist the coming 
of the British forces, were easily influenced by Pontiac to yield the 
situation to Rogers. Even the French commandant at Detroit, 


Capt. Beletre, was in a situation similar to that of the Indians, 
and received the news of the defeat of the French from Major 
Rogers. He was indignant and incredulous, and tried to rouse the 
fury of his old-time friends, the Indians, but found them "faith- 
less " in this hour of his need. He surrendered with an ill grace, 
amid the yells of several hundred Indian warriors. It was a source 
of great amazement to the Indians to see so many men surrender 
to so few. Nothing is more effective in gaining the respect of In- 
dians than a display of power, and the above proceedings led them 
to be overawed by English prowess. They were astonished also at 
the forbearance of the conquerors in not killing their vanquished 
enemies on the spot. 

This surrender of Detroit was on the 29th of November, 1760. 
The posts elsewhere in the lake region north and west were not 
reached until some time afterward. The English now thought they 
had the country perfectly in their own hands and that there was 
but little trouble ahead; but in this respect they were mistaken. 
The French renewed their efforts to circulate reports among the 
Indians that the English intended to take all their land from them, 
etc. The slaughter of the Monongahela, the massacre at Fort 
William Henry and the horrible devastation of the Western fron- 
tier, all bore witness to the fact that the French were successful in 
prejudicing the Indians against the British, and the latter began to 
have trouble at various points. The French had always been in 
the habit of making presents to the Indians, keeping them supplied 
with arms, ammunition, etc., and it was not their policy to settle 
upon their lands. The British, on the other hand, now supplied 
them with nothing, frequently insulting them when they appeared 
around the forts. Everything conspired to fix the Indian popula- 
tion in their prejudices against the British Government. Even the 
seeds of the American Revolution were scattered into the West and 
heijaii to grow. 

The first Indian chief to raise the war-whoop was probably Kia- 
shuta, of the Senecas, but Pontiac, of the Ottawas, was the great 
George Washington of all the tribes to systemize and render effect- 
ual the initial movements of the approaching storm. His home 
was about eight miles above Detroit, on Pechee Island, which looks 
out upon the waters of Lake St. Clair. He was a well-formed man, 
with a countenance indicating a high degree of intelligence. In 
1746 he had successfully defended Detroit against the northern 
tribes, and it is probablehe was present and assisted in the defeat 
of Braddock. 

About the close of 1762 he called a general council of the tribes, 
sending out embassadors in all directions, who witli the war-belt of 
wampum and the tomahawk went from village to village and camp 
to camp, informing the sachems everywhere that war was impend- 
ing, and delivering to them the message of Pontiac. They all 
approved the message, and April 27, 1763, a grand council was held 
near Detroit, when Pontiac stood forth in warpaint and delivered 


" the great speech of the campaign." The English were slow to 
perceive any dangerous conspiracy in progress, and when the blow 
was struck, nine out of twelve of the British posts were surprised 
and destroyed ! Three of these were within the bounds of this 

The first prominent event of the war was the 


on the northernmost point of the southern peninsula, the site of the 
present city of Mackinaw. This Indian outrage was one of the most 
ingeniously devised and resolutely executed schemes in American 
history. The Chippewas (or Ojibways) appointed one of their big 
ball plays in the vicinity of the post, and invited and inveigled as 
many of the occupants as they could to the scene of play, then fell 
upon the unsuspecting and unguarded English in the most brutal 
manner. For the details of this horrible scene we are indebted to 
Alexander Henry, a trader at that point, who experienced several 
most blood-curdling escapes from death and scalping at the hands of 
the savages. The result of the massacre was the death of about 70 
out of 90 persons. The Ottawa Indians, who occupied mainly the 
eastern portion of the lower peninsula, were not consulted by the 
Chippewas with reference to attacking Michilimackinac, and" were 
consequently so enraged that they espoused the cause of the English, 
through spite; and it was through their instrumentality that Mr. 
Henry and some of his comrades were saved from death and con- 
veyed east to the regions of civilization. 

Of Mr. Henry's narrow escapes we give the following succinct 
account. Instead of attending the ball play of the Indians he spent 
the day writing letters to his friends, as a canoe was to leave for the 
East the following day. While thus engaged, he heard an Indian 
war cry and a noise of general confusion. Looking out of the win- 
dow, he saw a crowd of Indians withid^the fort, that is, within the 
village palisade, who were cutting down and scalping every English- 
man they found. He seized a fowling-piece which he had at hand, 
and waited a moment for the signal, the drum beat to arms. In 
that dreadful interval he saw several of his countrymen fall under 
the tomahawk and struggle between the knees of an Indian who 
held him in this manner to scalp him while still alive. Mr. Henry 
heard no signal to arms; and seeing that it was useless to under- 
take to resist 400 Indians, he thought only of shelter for himself. 
He saw many of the Canadian inhabitants of the fort calmly look- 
ing on, neither opposing the Indians nor suffering injury, and he 
therefore concluded he might find safety in some of their houses. 
He stealthily ran to one occupied by Mr. Langlade and family, who 
were at their windows beholding the bloody scene. Mr. L. scarcely 
dared to harbor him, but a Pawnee slave of the former concealed 
him in the garret, locked the stairway door and took away the key. 
In this situation Mr. Henry obtained through an aperture a view 


of what was going on without. He saw the dead scalped and man- 
gled, the dying in writhing agony under the insatiate knife and 
tomahawk, and the savages drinking human blood from the hollow 
of their joined hands! Mr. Henry almost felt as if he were a vic- 
tim himself, so intense were his sufferings. Soon the Indian fiends 
began to halloo, " All is finished!" At this instant Henry heard 
some of the Indians enter the house in which he had taken shelter. 
The garret was separated from the room below by only a layer of 
single boards, and Mr. Henry heard all that was said. As soon as 
the'lndians entered they inquired whether there were any English- 
men in the house. Mr. Langlade replied that he could not say; 
they might examine for themselves. He then conducted them to 
the garret door. As the door was locked, a moment of time was 
snatched by Mr. Henry to crawl into a heap of birch-bark vessels 
in a dark corner; and although several Indians searched around the 
garret, one of them coming within arm's length of the sweating 
prisoner, they went out satisfied that no Englishman was there. 

As Mr. Henry was passing the succeeding night in this room he 
could think of no possible chance of escape from the country. He 
was out of provisions, the nearest post was Detroit, 400 miles away, 
and the route thither lay through the enemy's country. The next 
morning he heard Indian voices below informing Mr. Langlade that 
they had not found an Englishman named Henry among the dead, 
and that they believed him to he somewhere concealed. Mrs. L., 
believing that the safety of the household depended on giving up 
the refugee to his pursuers, prevailed on her husband to lead the 
Indians up stairs, to the room of Mr. H. The latter was saved from 
instant death by one of the savages adopting him as a " brother," 
in the place of one lost. The Indians were all mad with liquor, 
however, and Mr. II. again very narrowly escaped death. An hour 
afterward he was taken out of the fort by an Indian indebted to him 
for goods, and was under the uplifted knife of the savage when he 
suddenly broke away from Aim and made back to Mr. Langlade's 
house, barely escaping the knife of the Indian the whole distance. 
The next daj r he, with three other prisoners, were taken in a canoe 
toward Lake Michigan, and at Fox Point, 18 miles distant, the 
Ottawas rescued the whites, through spite at the Chippewas, say- 
ing that the latter contemplated killing and eating them; but the 
next day they were returned to the Chippewas, as the result of some 
kind of agreement about the conduct of the war. He was rescued 
again by an old friendly Indian claiming him as a brother. The 
next morning he saw the dead bodies of seven whites dragged forth 
from the prison lodge he had just occupied. The fattest of these 
dead bodies was actually served up and feasted on, directly before 
the eyes of Mr. Henry. 

Through the partiality of the Ottawas and complications of mili- 
tary affairs among the Indians, Mr. Henry, after severe exposures 
and many more thrilling escapes, was finally landed within terri- 
tory occupied by whites. 



For more than a year after the massacre, Michiliinackinac was 
occupied only by wood rangers and Indians; then, after the treaty, 
Capt. Howard was sent with troops to take possession. 


In the spring of 1763 Pontiac determined to take Detroit by an 
ingenious assault. He had his men tile off their guns so that they 
would be short enough to conceal under their blanket clothing as 
they entered the fortification. A Canadian woman who went over 
to their village on the east side of the river to obtain some venison, 
saw them thus at work on their guns, and suspected they were pre- 
paring for an attack on the whites. She told her neighbors what 
she had seen, and one of them informed the commandant, Major 
Gladwyn, who at first slighted the advice, but before another day 
passed he had full knowledge of the plot. There is a legend that a 
beautiful Chippewa girl, well known to Gladwjm, divulged to him 
the scheme which the Indians had in view, namely, that the next 
day Pontiac would come to the fort with 60 of his chiefs,, each 
armed with a gun cut short and hidden under his blanket; that 
Pontiac would demand a council, deliver a speech, offer a peace-belt 
of wampum, holding it in a reversed position as the signal for 
attack; that the chiefs, sitting upon the ground, would then spring 
up and fire upon the officers, and the Indians out in the streets 
would next fall upon the garrison, and kill every Englishman, but 
sparing all the French. 

Gladwyn accordingly put the place in a state of defense as well as 
he could, and arranged for a quiet reception of the Indians and a 
sudden attack upon them when he should give a signal. At 10 
o'clock, May 7, according to the girl's prediction, the Indians came, 
entered the fort and proceeded with the programme, but with some 
hesitation, as they saw their plot had been discovered. Pontiac 
made his speech, professing friendship for the English, etc., and 
without giving his signal for attack, sat down, and heard Major 
Gladwyn's reply, who suffered him and his men to retire unmo- 
lested. He probably feared to take them as prisoners, as war was 
not actually commenced. The next day Pontiac determined to try 
again, but was refused entrance at the gate unless he should come 
in alone. He turned away in a rage, and in a few minutes some of 
his men commenced the peculiarly Indian work of attacking an 
innocent household and murdering them, just beyond the range of 
British guns. Another squad murdered an Englishman on an 
island at a little distance. Pontiac did not authorize these pro- 
ceedings, but retired across the river and ordered preparations to 
be made for taking the fort by direct assault, the headquarters of 
the camp to be on li Bloody run" west of the river. Meanwhile 
the garrison was kept in readiness for any outbreak. The very next 
day Pontiac, having received reinforcements from the Chippewas 
of Saginaw Bay, commenced the attack, but was repulsed; no deaths 


upon either side. Gladwyn sent embassadors to arrange for peace, 
but Pontiac, although professing to be willing in a general way to 
conclude peace, would not agree to any particular proposition. A 
number of Canadians visited the fort and warned the commandant 
to evacuate, as 1,500 or more Indians would storm the place in an 
hour; and soon afterward a Canadian came with a summons from 
Pontiac, demanding Gladwyn to surrender the post at once, and 
promising that, in case of compliance, he and his men would be 
allowed to go on board their vessels unmolested, leaving their arms 
and effects behind. To both these advices Major Gladwyn gave a 
flat refusal. 

Only three weeks' provisions were within the fort, and the garri- 
son was in a deplorable condition. A few Canadians, however, 
from across the river, sent some provisions occasionally, by night. 
Had it not been for this timely assistance, the garrison would 
doubtless have had to abandon the fort. The Indians themselves 
soon began to suffer from hunger, as they had not prepared for a 
long siege; but Pontiac, after some maraudings upon the French 
settlers had been made, issued " promises to pay" on birch bark, 
with which he pacified the residents. He subsequently redeemed 
all these notes. About the end of July Capt. Dalzell arrived from 
Niagara with re-enforcements and provisions, and persuaded Glad- 
wyn to undertake an aggressive movement against Pontiac. Dalzell 
was detailed for the purpose of attacking the camp at Parent's 
creek, a mile and a half away, but being delayed a day, Pontiac 
learned of his movements and prepared his men to contest his 
march. On the next morning, July 31, before day-break, Dalzell 
went out with 250 men, but was repulsed with a loss of 59 killed 
and wounded, while the Indians lost less than half that number. 
Parent's creek was afterward known as " Bloody run." 

Shortly afterward, the schooner " Gladwyn," on its return from 
Niagara with ammunition and provisions,anchored about nine miles 
below Detroit for the night, when in the darkness about 300 Indians 
in canoes came quietly upon the vessel and very nearly succeeded 
in taking it. Slaughter proceeded vigorously until the mate gave 
orders to his men to blow up the schooner, when the Indians, under- 
standing the design, fled precipitately, plunging into the water and 
swimming ashore. This desperate command saved the crew, and 
the schooner succeeded in reaching the post with the much needed 
supply of provisions. 

By this time, September, most of the tribes around Detroit were 
disposed to sue for peace. A truce being obtained, Gladwyn laid in 
provisions for the winter, while Pontiac retired with his chiefs to 
the Maumee country, only to prepare for a resumption of war the 
next spring. He or his allies the next season carried on a petty 
warfare until in August, when the garrison, now worn out and 
reduced, were relieved by fresh troops, Major Bradstreet com- 
manding. Pontiac retired to the Maumee again, still to stir up 
hate against the British. Meanwhile the Indians near Detroit, 


scarcely comprehending what they were doing, were induced by 
Bradstreet to declare themselves subjects of Great Britain. An 
embassy sent to Pontiac induced him also to cease belligerent 
operations against the British. 

In 1769 the great chief and warrior, Pontiac, was killed in Illi- 
nois by a Kaskaskia Indian, for a barrel of whisky offered by an 
Englishman named Williamson. 

The British at Detroit now changed their policy somewhat, and 
endeavored to conciliate the Indians, paying them for land and 
encouraging French settlements in the vicinity. This encourage- 
ment was exhibited, in part, in showing some partiality to French 

At this time the fur trade was considerably revived, the princi- 
pal point of shipment being the Grand Portage of Lake Superior. 
The charter boundaries of the two companies, the Hudson's Bay 
and the Northwest, not having been very well defined, the employes 
of the respective companies often came into conflict. Lord Selkirk, 
the head of the former company, ended the difficulty by uniting 
the stock of both companies. An attempt was also made to mine 
and ship copper, but the project was found too expensive. 


By this important struggle the territory of the present State of 
Michigan was but little affected, the posts of Detroit and Mackinaw 
being the principal points whence the British operated among the 
Indians to prejudice them against the ''Americans," going so far 
as to pay a reward for scalps, which the savages of course hesitated 
not to take from defenseless inhabitants. The expeditions made by 
the Indians for this purpose were even supported sometimes by the 
regular troops and local militia. One of these joint expeditions, 
commanded by Capt. Byrd, set out from Detroit to attack Louis- 
ville, Ey. It proceeded in boats as far as it could ascend the 
Maumee, and thence crossed to the Ohio river, on which stream 
Ruddle's Station was situated, which surrendered at once, without 
fighting, under the promise of being protected from the Indians; 
but this promise was broken and all the prisoners massacred. 

Another expedition, under Gov. Hamilton, the commandant at 
Detroit, started out in 1778, and appeared at Vincennes, Ind., with 
a force of 30 regulars, 50 French volunteers and about 400 Indians. 
At this fort the garrison consisted only of Capt. Helm and one 
soldier, named Henry. Seeing the troops at a distance, they loaded 
a cannon, which they placed in the open gateway; and Capt. Helm 
stood by the cannon with a lighted match. When Hamilton with 
his army approached within hailing distance, Helm called out with a 
loud voice, "Halt!" This show of resistance made Hamilton stop 
and demand a surrender of the garrison. " No man," exclaimed 
Helm, with an oath, " enters here until I know the terms." Ham- 
ilton replied, " You shall have the honors of war." Helm thereupon 


surrendered the fort, and the whole garrison, consisting of the two 
already named (!), inarched out and received the customary marks 
of respect for their brave defense. Hamilton was soon afterward 
made to surrender this place to Gen. George Rogers Clark, the 
ablest American defender in the West. The British soldiers were 
allowed to return to Detroit; but their commander, who was known 
to have been active in instigating Indian barbarities, was put in 
irons and sent to Virginia as a prisoner of war. 

The English at Detroit suspected that a certain settlement of 
pious Moravian missionaries on the Muskingum river were aiding 
the American cause, and they called a conference at Niagara and 
urged the Iroquois to break up the Indian congregation which had 
collected under these missionaries; but the Iroquois declined to 
concern themselves so deeply in white men's quarrels, and sent 
a message to theChippewasand Ottawas, requesting them to" make 
soup " of the Indian congregation on the Muskingum. 

These Moravian missionaries came to Detroit in 1781, before De 
Peyster, the commandant. A war council was held, and the council- 
house completely filled with Indians. Capt. Pike, an Indian chief, 
addressed the assembly and told the commandant that the English 
might fight the Americans if they chose; it was their cause, not his; 
that they had raised a quarrel among themselves, and it was their 
business to fight it out. They had set him on the Americans as the 
hunter sets his dog upon the game. By the side of the British 
commander stood another war chief, with a stick in his hand four 
feet in length, strung with American scalps. This warrior fol- 
lowed Capt. Pike, saying: " Now, father, here is what has been done 
with the hatchet you gave me. I have made the use of it you 
ordered me to do, and found it sharp." 

The events just related are specimens of what occurred at and in 
connection with Detroit from the close of Pontiac's war until a 
number of years after the establishment of American independence. 
When the treaty of peace was signed at Versailles in 1783, the British 
on the frontier reduced their aggressive policy somewhat, but they 
continued to occupy the lake posts until 1796, on the claim that 
tlie lake region was not designed to be included in the treaty by the 
commissioners, probably on account of their ignorance of the geog- 
raphy of the region. Meanwhile the Indians extensively organized 
for depredation upon the Americans, and continued to harass them 
at every point. 

During this period Alex. McKenzie, an agent of the British gov- 
ernment, visited Detroit, painted like an Indian, and 6aid that he 
was just from the upper lakes, and that the tribes in that region 
were all in arms against any further immigration of Americans, 
and were ready to attack the infant settlements in Ohio. His state- 
ments had the desired effect; and, encouraged also by an agent from 
the Spanish settlements on the Mississippi, the Indians organized a 
<rreat confederacy against the United States. To put this down, 
Gen. Harmar was first sent ouU)y the Government, with 1,400 men; 


but he imprudently divided his army, and he was taken by surprise 
and defeated by a body of Indians under " Little Turtle." Gen. 
Arthur St. Clair was next sent out, with 2,000 men, and he suf- 
fered a like fate. Then Gen. Anthony Wayne was sent West with 
a still larger army, and on the Maumee he gained an easy victory 
over the Indians, within a few miles of a British post. He 
finally concluded a treaty with the Indians at Greenville, which 
broke up the whole confederacy. The British soon afterward gave 
up Detroit and Mackinaw. 

" It was a considerable time before the Territory of Michigan, 
now in the possession of the United States, was improved or altered 
by the increase of settlements. The Canadian French continued to 
form the principal part of its population. The interior of the coun- 
try was but little known, except by the Indians and the fur traders. 
The Indian title not being fully extinguished, no lands were 
brought into market, and consequently the settlements increased 
but slowly. The State of Michigan at this time constituted simply 
the county of Wayne in Northwest Territory. It sent one Repre- 
sentative to the Legislature of that Territory, which was held at 
Chillicothe. A court of common pleas was organized for the 
county, and the General Court of the whole Territory sometimes 
met at Detroit. No roads had as yet been constructed through the 
interior, nor were there any settlements except on the frontiers. 
The habits of the people were essentially military, and but little 
attention was paid to agriculture except by the French peasantry. 
A representation was sent to the General Assembly of the North- 
west Territory at Chillicothe until 1800, when Indiana was erected 
into a separate Territory. Two years later Michigan was annexed 
to Indiana Territory; but in 1S05 Michigan separated, and William 
Hull appointed its first Governor." — TuttWs Hist. Mich. 

The British revived the old prejudices that the Americans intended 
to drive the Indians out of the country, and the latter, under 
the lead of Tecumseh and his brother Elkswatawa, " the prophet," 
organized again on an extensive scale to make war upon the Amer- 
icans. The great idea of Tecumseh's life was a universal confed- 
eracy of all the Indian tribes north and south to resist the invasion 
of the whites; and his plan was to surprise them at all their posts 
throughout the country and capture them by the first assault. At 
this time the entire white population of Michigan was about 4,800, 
four-fifths of whom were French and the remainder Americans. 
The settlements were situated on the rivers Miami and Raisin, on the 
Huron of Lake Erie, on the Ecorse, Rouge and Detroit rivers, on 
the Huron of St. Clair, on the St. Clair river and Mackinaw island. 
Resides, there were here and there a group of huts belonging to the 
French fur traders. The villages on the Maumee, the Raisin and 
the Huron of Lake Erie contained a population of about 1,300; 
the settlements at Detroit and northward had about 2,200 ; Mack- 
inaw about 1,000. Detroit was garrisoned by D4 men and Mack- 
inaw by 79. 



If one should inquire who has been the greatest Indian, the most 
noted, the " principal Indian " in North America since its discov- 
ery by Columbus, we would be obliged to answer, Tecumseh. For 
all those qualities which elevate a man far above his race; for talent, 
tact, skill and bravery as a warrior; for high-minded, honorable and 
chivalrous bearing as a man; in a word, for all those elements of 
greatness which place him a long way above his fellows in savage 
life, the name and fame of Tecnmseh will go down to posterity in 
the West as one of the most celebrated of the aborigines of this 
continent, — as one who had no equal among the tribes that dwelt 
in the country drained by the Mississippi. Born to command him- 
self, he used all the appliances that would stimulate the courage 
and nerve the valor of his followers. Always in the front rank of 
battle, his followers blindly followed his lead, and as his war-cry 
rang clear above the din and noise of the battle-field, the Shawnee 
warriors, as they rushed on to victory or the grave, rallied around 
him, foemen worthy of the steel of the most gallant commander 
that ever entered the lists in defense of his altar or his home. 

The tribe to which Tecumseh, or Tecumtha, as some write it, be- 
longed, was the Shawnee, or Shawanee. The tradition of the nation 
held that they originally came from the Gulf of Mexico; that they 
wended their way up the Mississippi and the Ohio, and settled at 
or near the present site of Shawneetown, 111., whence they removed 
to the upper Wabash. In the latter place, at any rate, they were 
found early in the 18th century, and were known as the " bravest 
of the brave." This tribe has uniformly been the bitter enemy of 
the white man, and in every contest with our people has exhibited 
a degree of skill and strategy that should characterize the most 
dangerous foe. 

Tecumseh's notoriety and that of his brother, the Prophet, mutu- 
ally served to establish and strengthen each other. While the 
Prophet had unlimited power, spiritual and temporal, he distributed 
his greatness in all the departments of Indian life with a kind of 
fanaticism that magnetically aroused the religious and superstitious 
passions, not only of his own followers, but also of all the tribes in 



this part of the country; but Tecumseh concentrated his greatness 
upon the more practical and business affairs of military conquest. 
It is doubted whether he was really a sincere believer in the preten- 
sions of his fanatic brother; if he did not believe in the pretentious 
feature of them he had the shrewdness to keep his unbelief to him- 
self, knowing that religious fanaticism was ODe of the strongest im- 
pulses to reckless bravery. 

During his sojourn in the Northwestern Territory, it was Tecum- 
seh's uppermost desire of life to confederate all the Indian tribes of 
the country together against the whites, to maintain their choice 
hunting-grounds. All his public policy converged toward this sin- 
gle end. In his vast scheme he comprised even all the Indians in 
the Gulf country, — all in America west of the Alleghany moun- 
tains. He held, as a subordinate principle, that the Great Spirit 
had given the Indian race all these hunting-grounds to keep in 
common, and that no Indian or tribe could cede any portion of the 
land to the whites without the consent of all the tribes. Hence, in 
all his councils with the whites he ever maintained that the treaties 
were null and void. 

When he met Harrison at Vincennes in council the last time, 
and, as he was invited by that General to take a seat with him on 
the platform, he hesitated; Harrison insisted, saying that it was the 
"wish of their Great Father, the President of the United States, 
that he should do so." The chief paused a moment, raised his tall 
and commanding form to its greatest height, surveyed the troops 
and crowd around him, fixed his keen eyes upon Gov. Harrison, 
and then turning them to the sky above, and pointing toward 
heaven with his sinewy arm in a manner indicative of supreme 
contempt for the paternity assigned him, said in clarion tones: " My 
father? The sun is my father, the earth is my mother, and on her 
bosom I will recline." He then stretched himself, with his war- 
riors, on the green sward. The effect was electrical, and for some 
moments there was perfect silence. , 

The Governor, then, through an interpreter, told him that he un- 
derstood he had some complaints to make and redress to ask, etc., 
and that he wished to investigate the matter and make restitution 
wherever it might be decided it should be done. As soon as the 
Governor was through with this introductory speech, the stately 
warrior arose, tall, athletic, manly, dignified and graceful, and with 
a voice at first low, but distinct and musical, commenced a reply. 
As he warmed up with his subject his clear tones might be heard, 


as if " trumpet-tongued," to the utmost limits of the assembly. 
The most perfect silence prevailed, except when his warriors gave 
their guttural assent to some eloquent recital of the red man's 
wrong and the white man's injustice. Tecumseh recited the wrongs 
which his race had suffered from the time of the massacre of the 
Moravian Indians to the present; said he did not know how he 
could ever again be the friend of the white man; that the Great 
Spirit had given to the Indian all the land from the Miami to the 
Mississippi, and from the lakes to the Ohio, as a common property 
to all the tribes in these borders, and that the land could not and 
should not be sold without the consent of all; that all the tribes on 
the continent formed but one nation; that if the United States 
would not give up the lands they had bought of the Miamis and 
the other tribes, those united with him were determined to annihi- 
late those tribes; that they were determined to have no more chiefs, 
but in future to be governed by their warriors; that unless the 
whites ceased their encroachments upon Indian lands, the fate of 
the Indians was sealed ; they had been driven from the banks of 
the Delaware across the Alleghanies, and their possessions on the 
Wabash and the Illinois were now to be taken from them; that in 
a few years they would not have ground enough to bury their war- 
riors on this side of the "Father of Waters;" that all would perish, 
all their possessions taken from them by fraud or force, unless they 
stopped the progress of the white man westward; that it must be 
a war of races in which one or the other must perish; that their 
tribes had been driven toward the setting sun like a galloping 
horse (ne-kat a-kush-e ka-top-o-lin-to). 

The Shawnee language, in which this most eminent Indian states- 
man spoke, excelled all other aboriginal tongues in its musical ar- 
ticulation; and the effect of Tecumseh's oratory on this occasion 
can be more easily imagined than described. Gov. Harrison, 
although as brave a soldier and General as any American, was over- 
come by this speech. He well knew Tecumseh's power and influ- 
ence among all the tribes, knew his bravery, courage and determi- 
nation, and knew that he meant what he said. When Tecumseh 
was done speaking there was a stillness throughout the assembly 
which was really painful; not a whisper was heard, and all eyes were 
turned from the speaker toward Gov. Harrison, who after a few 
moments came to himself, and recollecting many of the absurd 
statements of the great Indian orator, began a reply which was 
more logical, if not so eloquent. The Shawnees were attentive un- 


til Harrison's interpreter began to translate his speech to the Mia- 
mis and Pottawatomies, when Tecumseh and his warriors sprang 
to their feet, brandishing their war-clubs and tomahawks. "Tell 
him," said Tecumseh, addressing the interpreter in Shawnee, " he 
lies." The interpreter undertook to convey this message to the 
Governor in smoother language, but Tecumseh noticed the effort 
and remonstrated, " No, no; tell him he lies." The warriors began 
to grow more excited, when Secretary Gibson ordered the Ameri- 
can troops in arms to advance. This allayed the rising storm, and 
as soon as Tecumseh's "He lies " was literally interpreted to the 
Governor, the latter told Tecumseh through the interpreter to tell 
Tecumseh he would hold no further council with him. 

Thus the assembly was broken up, and one can hardly imagine a 
more exciting scene. It would constitute the finest subject for a 
historical painting to adorn the rotunda of the capitol. The next 
day Tecumseh requested another interview with the Governor, 
which was granted on condition that he should make an apology to 
the Governor for his language the day before. This he made 
through the interpreter. Measures for defense and protection were 
taken, however, lest there should be another outbreak. Two com- 
panies of militia were ordered from the country, and the one in 
town added to them, while the Governor and his friends went into 
council fully armed and prepared for any contingency. On this oc- 
casion the conduct of Tecumseh was entirely different from that of 
the day before. Firm and intrepid, showing not the slightest fear 
or alarm, surrounded with a military force four times his own, he 
preserved the utmost composure and equanimity. No one would 
have supposed that he could have been the principal actor in the 
thrilling scene of the previous day. He claimed that half the 
Americans were in sympathy with him. He also said that whites 
had informed him that Gov. Harrison had purchased land from the 
Indians without any authority from the Government; that he, 
Harrison, had but two years more to remain in office, and that if 
he, Tecumseh, could prevail upon the Indians who sold the lands 
not to receive their annuities for that time, and the present Gover- 
nor displaced by a good man as his successor, the latter would re- 
store to the Indians all the lands purchased from them. 

The Wyandots, Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, Ottawasand theWin- 
nebagoes, through their respective spokesmen, declared their 
adherence to the great Shawnee warrior and statesman. Gov. Harri- 
son then told them that he would send Tecumseh's speech to thePresi- 


dent of the United States and return the answer to the Indians as soon 
as it was received. Tecumseh then declared that he and his allies were 
determined that the old boundary line should continue; and that 
if the whites crossed it, it would be at their peril. Gov. Harrison re- 
plied that he would be equally plain with him and state that the 
President would never allow that the lands on the Wabash were the 
property of any other tribes than those who had occupied them 
since the white people first came to America; and as the title to 
the lands lately purchased was derived from those tribes by a fair 
purchase, he might rest assured that the right of the United States 
would be supported by the sword. " So be it," was the stern and 
haughty reply of the Shawnee chieftan, as he and his braves took 
leave of the Governor and wended their way in Indian file to their 
camping ground. 

Thus ended the last conference on earth between the chivalrous 
Tecumseh and the hero of the battle of Tippecanoe. The bones of 
the first lie bleaching on the battle-field of the Thames, and those 
of the last in a mausoleum on the banks of the Ohio; each strug- 
gled for the mastery of his race, and each no doubt was equally 
honest and patriotic in his purposes. The weak yielded to the 
strong, the defenseless to the powerful, and the hunting-ground of 
the Shawnee is all occupied by his enemy. 

Tecumseh, with four of his braves, immediately embarked in a 
birch canoe, descended the Wabash, and went on to the South to 
unite the tribes of that country in a general system of self-defense 
against the encroachment of the whites. His emblem was a dis- 
jointed snake, with the motto, "Join or die!" In union alone was 

Before Tecumseh left the Prophet's town at the mouth of the 
Tippecauoe river, on his excursion to the South, he had a definite 
understanding with his brother and the chieftains of the other tribes 
in the Wabash country, that they should preserve perfect peace 
with the whites until his arrangements were completed for a con- 
federacy of the tribes on both sides of the Ohio and on the Missis- 
sippi river; but it seems that while he was in the South engaged 
in his work of uniting the tribes of that country some of the North- 
ern tribes showed signs of fight and precipitated Harrison into that 
campaign which ended in the battle of Tippecanoe and the total 
route of the Indians. Tecumseh, on his return from the South, 
learning what had happened, was overcome with chagrin, disappoint- 
ment and anger, and accused his brother of duplicity and coward- 



ice; indeed, it is said that lie never forgave him to the day of his 
death. A short time afterward, on the breaking out of the war of 
Great Britain, he joined Proctor, at Maiden, with a party of his 
warriors, and was killed at the battle of the Thames, Oct. 5, 1813, 
by a Mr. Wheatty, as we are positively informed by Mr. A. J. James, 
now a resident of La Harpe township, Hancock county, 111., whose 
father-in-law, John Pigman, of Coshocton county, Ohio, was an 
eye witness. Gen. Johnson has generally had the credit of killing 

" Old " Okemos, a nephew of Pontiac and once the chief of the 
Chippewas, was born at or near Knagg's Station, on the Shiawassee 
river, where the Chicago and Grand Trunk Eailroad crosses that 
stream. The date is shrouded in mystery. At the time of his 
death he was said to be a centenarian. The earliest account we have 
of him is that he took the war-path in 1796. Judge Littlejohn, in 
his " Legends of the Northwest," introduces him to the reader in 
1803. The battle of Sandusky, in which Okemos took an active 
part, was the great event of his life, and this it was that gave him 
his chieftainship and caused him to be revered by his tribe. Con- 
cerning that event he himself used to say: 

" Myself and cousin, Man-a-to-corb-way, with 16 other braves 
enlisted under the British flag, formed a scouting or war party, left 
the upper Raisin, and made our rendezvous at Sandusky. One 
morning while lying in ambush near a road lately cut for the pas- 
sage of the American army and supply wagons, we saw 20 cavalry- 
men approaching us. Our ambush was located on a slight ridge, 
with brush directly in our front. We immediately decided to 
attack the Americans, although they outnumbered us. Our plan 
was first to fire and cripple them, and then make a dash with the 
tomahawk. We waited until they approached so near that we 
could count the buttons on their coats, when firing commenced. 
Tbe cavalry-men with drawn sabers immediately charged upon the 
Indians. The plumes upon the hats of the cavalry-men looked like 
a flock of a thousand pigeons just hovering for a lighting." 

Okemos and his cousin fought side by side, loading and firing 
while dodging from one cover to another. In less than ten minutes 
after the firing began the sound of a bugle was heard, and casting 
their eyes in the direction of the sound, they saw the road and 
woods "filled with cavalry. The small party of Indians were 
immediately surrounded and every man cut down. All were left 
for dead on the field. Okemos and his cousin both had their skulls 
cloven and their bodies gashed in a fearful manner. The cavalry- 
men, before leaving the field, in order to be sure life was extinct, 
would lean forward from their horses and pierce the chests of the 
Indians, even into their lungs. The last that Okemos remembered 
was that after emptying one saddle, and springing toward another 


soldier with clubbed rifle raised to strike, his head felt as if it were 
pierced with red-hot iron, and he went down from a heavy saber-cut. 
All knowledge ceased from this time until many moons afterward, 
when he found himself being nursed by the squaws of his friends, 
who had found him on the battle-field two or three days afterward. 
The squaws thought all were dead, but upon moving the bodies of 
Okemos and his cousin, signs of life appeared, and they were taken 
to a place of safety and finally restored to partial health. Okemos 
never afterward took part in war, this battle having satisfied him 
that " white man was a heap powerful." 

Shortly after his recovery he solicited Col. Godfroy to intercede 
with Gen. Cass, and he and other chiefs made a treaty with the 
Americans, which was faithfully kept. 

The next we hear of the old chieftain, he had settled with his 
tribe on the banks of the Shiawassee, near the place of his birth, 
where for many years, up to 1837-'8, he was engaged in the peace- 
ful vocation of hunting, fishing and trading with the white man. 
About this time the small-pox broke out in his tribe, which, 
together with the influx of white settlers who destroyed their hunt- 
ing-grounds, scattered their bands. The plaintive, soft notes of the 
wooing young hunter's flute, made of red alder, and the sound of 
the tom-tom at council fires and village feasts were heard no more 
along the banks of our inland streams. Okemos became a mendi- 
cant, and many a hearty meal has the old Indian received from his 
friends among the whites. He was five feet four inches high, lithe, 
wiry, active, intelligent and possessed undoubted bravery ; but in con- 
versation he hesitated and mumbled his words. Previous to the 
breaking up of his band in lS37-'8, his usual dress consisted of a 
blanket coat with belt, steel pipe, hatchet, tomahawk and a heavy, 
long, English hunting-knife stuck in his belt in front, with a large 
bone handle prominent outside the sheath. He painted his cheeks 
and forehead with vermilion, wore a shawl around his head turban 
fashion, and leggins. He died at his wigwam a few miles from 
Lansing, and was buried Dec. 5, 1858, at Shimnicon, an Indian 
settlement in Ionia county. His coffin was extremely rude, and in 
it were placed a pipe, tobacco, hunting-knife, bird's wings, pro- 
visions, etc. An ambrotype picture was taken of this eminent 
Indian in 1857, and has ever since been in the possession of O. A. 
Jenisou at Lansing, from whom we obtain the above account. 

hull's surrender. 

Now we have to record an unexplained mystery, which no his- 
torian of Michigan can omit, namely, the surrender of Detroit to 
the British by Gen. Hull, when his forces were not in action and 
were far more powerful than the enemy. He was either a coward 
or a traitor, or both. The commander of the British forces, Gen. 
Brock, triumphantly took possession of the fort, left a small garri- 
son under Col. Proctor, and returned to the seat of his government. 


In 12 days he had moved with a small army 250 miles against the 
enemy, effected the surrender of a strong fort and well equipped 
army of 2,300 effective men, and one of the Territories of the 
United States. Hull and the regular troops were taken to Mon- 
treal, and the militia were sent to their homes. 

In the capitulation Gen. Hnll also surrendered Fort Dearborn at 
Chicago, commanding Capt. Heald of that place to evacuate and 
retreat to Fort Wayne. In obedience to this order the Captain 
started from the fort with his forces; but no sooner were they out- 
side the walls than they were attacked by a large force of Indians, 
who took them prisoners and then proceeded to massacre them, 
killing 38 out of the 6tf soldiers, even some of the women and 
children, two of the former and 12 of the latter. Capt. Wells, a 
white man who had been brought up among the Indians, but 
espoused the white man's cause, was killed in the massacre. 

Jan. 3, 1814, Gen. Hull appeared before a court-martial at Albany, 
N. Y., where Gen. Dearborn was president. The accused made no 
objection to the constitution and jurisdiction of this court; its ses- 
sions were protracted and every facility was given the accused to 
make his defense. The three charges against him were treason, 
cowardice and neglect of duty. Hull was finally acquitted of the 
high crime of treason, but he was found guilty of the other charges 
and sentenced to be shot; but by reason of his services in the 
Revolution and his advanced age the court recommended him to 
the mercy of the President, who approved the finding of the court 
but remitted the execution of the sentence and dismissed Hull 
from the service. The accused wrote a long defense, in which he 
enumerates many things too tedious to relate here. Even before 
he was sent to Detroit he was rather opposed to the policy of the 
Government toward the British of Canada; and, besides, he had 
been kindly treated by British officers, who helped him across the 
frontier. Again, the general Government was unreasonably slow 
to inform the General of the declaration of war which had been 
made against Great Britain, and very slow to forward troops and 
supplies. Many things can be said on both sides; but historians 
generally approve the judgment of the court in his case, as well 
as of the executive clemency of the President. 

The lake communication of Michigan with the East, having 
been in the hands of the British since Hull's surrender, was cut off 
by Com. Perry, who obtained a signal naval victory over the British 
on Lake Erie Sept. 10, 1813. The Commodore built his fleet at 
Erie, Pa., under great disadvantages. The bar at the mouth of the 
harbor would not permit the vessels to pass out with their arma- 
ment on board. For eome time after the fleet was ready to sail, 
the British commodore continued to hover off the harbor, well know- 
ing it must either remain there inactive or venture out with almost 


a certainty of defeat. During this blockade, Com. Perry bad no 
alternative but to ride at anchor at Erie; but early in September 
the enemy relaxed his vigilance and withdrew to the upper end of 
the lake. Terry then slipped out beyond the bar and fitted his ves- 
sels for action. The British fleet opposed to Com. Perry consisted 
of the ships " Detroit," carrying 19 guns; the "Queen Charlotte," 
17 guns; the schooner " Lady Prevost," 13 guns; the brig "Hun- 
ter," ten guns; the sloop "Little Belt," three guns; and the 
schooner " Chippewa," one gun and two swivels; and this fleet was 
commanded by a veteran officer of tried skill and valor. 

At sunrise. Sept. 10, while at anchor at Ptit-in-Bay, the Commo- 
dore espied the enemy toward the head of the lake, and he imme- 
diately sailed up and commenced action. His flag vessel, the 
Lawrence, was engaged with the whole force of the enemy for 
nearly two hours before the wind permitted the other vessels to 
come in proper position to help. The crew of this vessel continued 
the fight until every one of them was either killed or wounded, all 
the rigging torn to pieces and every gun dismantled. Now comes 
the daring feat of the engagement which makes Perry a hero. He 
caused his boat to be lowered, in which he rowed to the Niagara 
amid the storm of shot and shell raging around him. This vessel 
he sailed through the enemy's fleet with a swelling breeze, pouring 
in her broadsides upon their ships and forcing them to surrender m 
rapid succession, until all were taken. The smaller vessels of his 
fleet helped in this action, among which was one commanded by 
the brave and faithful Capt. Elliott. This victory was one of the 
most decisive in all the annals of American history. It opened 
the lake to Gen. Wm. H. Harrison, who had been operating in 
Indiana and Ohio, and who now crossed with his army to Canada, 
where he had a short campaign, terminated by the battle of the 
Moravian towns, by which the enemy were driven from the north- 
western frontier. A detachment of his army occupied Detroit 
Sept. 29, 1813, and Oct. 18 an armistice was concluded with the 
Indians, thus restoring tranquillity to the Territory of Michigan. 
Soon afterward Gen. Harrison left Gen. Cass in command at 
Detroit and moved with the main body of his army down to the 
Niagara frontier. 

Perry's brilliant success gave to the Americans the uncontrolled 
command of the lake, and Sept. 23 their fleet landed 1,200 
men near Maiden. Col. Proctor, however, had previously evac- 
uated that post, after setting fire to the fort and public store- 
houses. Com. Perry in the meantime passed up to Detroit with 
the "Ariel" to assist in the occupation of that town, while Capt. 
Elliott, with the "Lady Prevost," the "Scorpion," and the 
" Tigress," advanced into Lake St. Glair to intercept the enemy's 
stores. Thus Gen. Harrison, on his arrival at Detroit and Maiden, 
found both places abandoned by the enemy, and was met by the 
Canadians asking for his protection. Tecumseh proposed to the 
British commander that they should hazard an engagement at Mai- 


den; but the latter foresaw that he should be exposed to the fire of 
the American fleet in that position, and therefore resolved to march 
to the Moravian towns upon the Thames, near St. Clair lake, 
above Detroit, and there try the chance of a battle. His force at 
this time consisted of about 900 regular troops, and 1,500 Indians 
commanded by Tecuraseh. The American army amounted to 
about 2,700 men, of whom 120 were regulars, a considerable number 
of militia, about 30 Indians, and the remainder Kentucky riflemen, 
well mounted, and mainly young men, full of ardor, and burning 
with a desire to revenge the massacre of their friends and relatives 
at the River Raisin. 

During the following winter there were no military movements, 
except an incursion into the interior of the upper province by 
Maj. Holmes, who was attacked near Stony creek, and maintained 
his ground with bravery. 

The war with Great Britain was now (November, 1813) practi- 
cally closed, so far as the Northwest was concerned, but the post at 
Mackinaw yet remained in the hands of the enemy, and active steps 
were taken to dispossess the English of this point and drive them 
wholly from the domain of the United States. The first effort to 
start an expedition failed; but in the summer of 1814 a well- 
equipped force of two sloops of war, several schooners and 750 
land militia, under the command of Com. Sinclair and Lieut.-Col. 
Croghan, started for the north. Contrary, however, to the advice 
of experienced men, the commanders concluded to visit St. Joseph 
first, and the British at Mackinaw heard of their coming and pre- 
pared themselves. The consequence was a failure to take the place. 
Major Holmes was killed, and the Winnebago Indians, from Green 
Bay, allies of the British, actually cut out the heart and livers 
from the American slain and cooked and ate them! Com. Sin- 
clair afterward made some arrangements to starve out the post, but 
his vessels were captured and the British then remained secure in 
the possession of the place until the treaty of peace the following 

The war with England formally closed on Dec. 24, 1S14, when a 
treaty of peace was signed at Ghent. The 9th article of the treaty 
required the United States to put an end to hostilities with ail 
tribes or nations of Indians with whom they had been at war; to 
restore to such tribes or nations respectively all the rights and pos- 
sessions to which they were entitled in 1811, before the war, on 
condition that such Indians should agree to desist from all hostili- 
ties against the United States.* But in February, just before the 
treaty was sanctioned by our Government, there were signs of 
Indians accumulating arms and ammunition, and a cautionary 
order was therefore issued to have all the white forces in readiness 
for an attack by the Indians; but the attack was not made. During 


the ensuing summer and fall the United States Government ac- 
quainted the Indians with the provisions of the treaty, and 
entered into subordinate treaties of peace with the principal tribes. 
Just before the treaty of Spring Wells (near Detroit) was signed, 
the Shawanee Prophet retired to Canada, declaring his resolu- 
tion to abide by any treaty which the chiefs might sign. Some 
time afterward he returned to the Shawanee settlement in Ohio, 
and lastly to the west of the Mississippi, where he died, in 1834. 
The British Government allowed him a pension from 1813 until 
his death. 

Previous to the formation of the Northwestern Territory, the 
country within its bounds was claimed by several of the Eastern 
States, on the ground that it was included within the limits indicated 
by their charters from the English crown. In answer to the wishes of 
the Government and people, these States in a patriotic spirit 
surrendered their claims to this extensive territory, that it might 
constitute a common fund to aid in the payment of the national 
debt. To prepare the way for this cession, a law had been passed 
in October, 1780, that the territory so to be ceded should be dis- 
posed of for the common benefit of the whole Union; that the 
States erected therein should be of suitable extent, not less than 100 
nor more than 150 miles square; and that any expenses that might 
be incurred in recovering the posts then in the hands of the 
British should be reimbursed. New York released her claims to 
Congress March 1, 17S1; Virginia, March 1, 1784; Massachusetts, 
April 19, 1785, and Connecticut, Sept. 4, 1786. 

Under the Erench and British dominion the points occupied on 
the eastern boundary of what is now the State of Michigan were 
considered a part of New France, or Canada. Detroit was known 
to the French as Fort Pontchartrain. The military commandant, 
under both governments, exercised a civil jurisdiction over the 
settlements surrounding their posts. In 179(5, when the British 
garrisons at Detroit and Mackinaw were replaced by detachments 
by Gen. Wayne, Michigan became a part of the Northwestern Ter- 
ritory and was organized as the county of Wayne, entitled to one 
Representative in the General Assembly, held at Chillicothe. 

In 1800, Indiana was made a separate Territory, embracing all 
the country west of the present State of Ohio and of an extension 
of the western line of that State due north to the territorial limits 
of the United States; in 1S02, the peninsula was annexed to the 
Territory of Indiana, and in 1S0.3 Michigan began a separate exist- 
ence. That part of the Territory that lies east of a north and south 
line through the middle of Lake Michigan was formed into a dis- 
tinct government, and the provisions of the ordinance of 1787 con- 
tinued to regulate it. Under this constitution the executive power 
was invested in a governor, the judicial in three judges, and the 


legislative in both united; the officers were appointed by the gen- 
eral Government, and their legislative authority was restricted to 
the adoption of laws from codes of the several States. This form of 
government was to continue until the Territory should contain 5,000 
free white males of full age. It then became optional with the peo- 
ple to choose a legislative body, to be supported by them; but sub- 
sequent legislation by Congress more liberally provided a Legislature 
at the expense of the general Government and also added to privi- 
leges in the elective franchise and eligibility to office; as, for exam- 
ple, under the ordinance a freehold qualification was required, both 
on the part of the elector and of the elected. 

The first officers of the Territory of Michigan were: Win. Hull, 
Governor; Augustus B. Woodward, Chief Judge; Frederick Bates, 
Sr., Assistant Judge and Treasurer; John Griffin, Assistant Judge; 
Col. James May, Marshal; Abijah Hull, Surveyor; Peter Audrain, 
Clerk of the Legislative Board. May 5, 1S07, Joseph Watson was 
appointed Legislative secretary; in November, 1806, Elijah Brush 
was appointed treasurer, to succeed Mr. Bates, and the books of the 
office were delivered over on the 26th of that month, and William 
McDowell Scott was appointed marshal in November, 1806, to suc- 
ceed Col. May. The latter never held the office of judge of the 
Territory, but about 1800-'3 he was chief justice of the court of 
common pleas. 

Augustus Brevoort Woodward was a native of Virginia; was 
appointed a judge of the Territory in 1805, his term of office expir- 
ing Feb. 1, 1824. He was soon after appointed judge of the Terri- 
tory of Florida, and three years after that he died. The grand 
scheme of " Catholepistemiad," or State University of Michigan, 
with its numerous details described under sesquipedalian names 
from the Greek, owed its origin to Judge Woodward. 

Jolm Griffin was appointed assistant judge in 1807, his term of 
office expiring Feb. 1, 1824. He was a native of Virginia, and died 
in Philadelphia about 1840. 

James Witherell was a native of Massachusetts; was appointed a 
judge of the Territory April 23, 1808, his term of office expiring 
Feb. 1, 1824, when he was re-appointed for four years, and Feb. 1, 
1828, he was appointed Territorial secretary. 

When in 181S Illinois was admitted into the Union, all the terri- 
tory lying north of that State and of Indiana was annexed to Mich- 
igan. In 1819, the Territory was authorized to elect a delegate to 
Congress, according to the present usage with reference to Terri- 
tories; previous to this time, according to the ordinance 1787, a 
Territory was not entitled to a delegate until it entered upon the 
" second grade of Government," and the delegate was then to be 
chosen by the General Assembly. 

In 1823 Congress abolished the legislative power of the governor 
and judges, and granted more enlarged ones to a council, to be 
composed of nine persons selected by the President of the United 


States from eighteen chosen by the electors of the Territory; and by 
this law, also, eligibility to office was made co-extensive with the 
right of suffrage as established by the act of 1819; also the judicial 
term of office was limited to four years. In 1825 all county officers, 
except those of a judicial nature, were made elective, and the 
appointments which remained in the hands of the executive were 
made subject to the approval of the legislative council. In 1827 
the electors were authorized to choose a number of persons for the 
legislative council, which was empowered to enact all laws not incon- 
sistent with the ordinance of 1787. Their acts, however, were sub- 
ject to abolishment by Congress and to veto by the territorial 

When Gen. Wm. Hull arrived at Detroit to assume his official 
duties as Governor, he found the town in ruins, it having been 
destroyed by tire. Whether it had been burned by design or acci- 
dent was not known. The inhabitants were without food and shel- 
ter, camping in the open fields; still they were not discouraged, and 
soon commenced rebuilding their houses on the same site; Congress 
also kindly granted the sufferers the site of the old town of Detroit 
and 10,000 acres of land adjoining. A territorial militia was organ- 
ized, and a code of laws was adopted similar to those of the original 
States. This code was signed by Gov. Hull, Augustus B. Wood- 
ward and Frederick Bates, judges of the Territory, and was called 
the " Woodward code." 

At this time the bounds of the Territory embraced all the coun- 
try on the American side of the Detroit river, east of the north and 
south line through the center of Lake Michigan. The Indian land 
claims had been partially extinguished previous to this period. By 
the treaty of Fort Mcintosh in 1785, and that of Fort Harmar in 
1787, extensive cessions had been either made or confirmed, and in 
1807 the Indian titles to several tracts became entirely extinct. 
Settlements having been made under the French and English gov- 
ernments, with irregularity or absence of definite surveys and 
records, some confusion sprang up in regard to the titles to valuable 
tracts. Accordingly Congress established a Board of Commission- 
ers to examine and settle these conflicting claims, and in 1S07 
another act was passed, confirming, to a certain extent, the titles 
of all such as had been in possession of the lands then occupied by 
them from the year 1796, the year of the final evacuation by the 
British garrisons. Other acts were subsequently passed, extending 
the same conditions to the settlements on the upper lakes. 

As chief among the fathers of this State we may mention Gen. 
Lewis Cass, Stevens T. Mason, Augustus B. Woodward, John 
Norveli, Wm. Woodbridge, John Biddle, Wm. A. Fletcher, Elon 
Farnsworth, Solomon Sibley, Benj. B. Kircheval, John B. Wil- 
liams, George Morrell. Daniel Goodwin, Augustus S. Porter, Benj. 
F. H. Witherell, Jonathan Shearer and Charles C. Trowbridge, all 
of Wayne county; Edmund Munday, James Kingsley and Alpheus 
Felch, of Washtenaw; Boss Wilkins and John J. Adam, of Lena- 


wee; Warner "Wing, Charles Xoble and Austin E. Wing, of Monroe 
county; Randolph Manning, O. D. Richardson and James B. Hunt, 
of Oakland; Henry R. Schoolcraft, of Chippewa; Albert Miller, of 
the Saginaw Valley; John Stockton and Robert P. Eldridge, of 
Macomb; Lucius Lyon, Charles E. Stuart, Edwin H. Lothrop, 
Epaphroditus Ransom and Hezekiah G. Wells, of Kalamazoo; Isaac 
E. Crary, John D. Pierce and Oliver C. Comstock, of Calhoun; 
Kinsley S. Bingham, of Livingston; John S. Barry, of St. Joseph; 
Charles W. Whipple, Calvin Britain and Thomas Fitzgerald, of 
Berrien; and George Redfield, of Cass. These men and their com- 
peers shaped the policy of the State, and decided what should be 
its future. They originated all and established most of the great 
institutions which are the evidences of our advanced civilization, 
and of which we are so justly proud. 


At the close of the war with Great Britain in 1814, an era of 
prosperity dawned upon the infant territory. Gen. Lewis Cass, who 
had served the Government with great distinction during the war, 
was appointed Governor. The condition of the people was very 
much reduced, the country was wild, and the British flag still waved 
over the fort at Mackinaw. There was nothing inviting to immi- 
grants except the mere facts of the close of the war and the exist- 
ence of a fertile soil and a good climate. The Indians were still 
dangerous, and the country was still comparatively remote from 
the centers of civilization and government. Such a set of circum- 
stances was just the proper environment for the development of 
all those elements of the " sturdy pioneer " which we so often 
admire in writing up Western history. Here was the field for 
stout and brave men; here was the place for the birth and educa- 
tion of real Spartan men, — men of strength, moral courage and 
indomitable perseverance. 

At first. Gen. Cass had also the care of a small portion of Canada 
opposite Detroit, and he had only 27 soldiers for defending Detroit 
against the hostile Indians and carrying on the whole government 
Believing that a civil governor should not be encumbered also with 
military duty, he resigned his brigadier-generalship in the army. 
But as Governor he soon had occasion to exercise his military 
power, even to act on the field as commander, in chasing away 
marauding bands of Indians. The latter seemed to be particularly 
threatening at this time, endeavoring to make up in yelling and 
petty depredations what they lacked in sweeping victory over all 
the pale-faces. 

In times of peace Gov. Cass had high notions of civilizing the 
Indians, encouraging the purchase of their lands, limiting their 
hunting grounds to a narrow compass, teaching them agriculture 
and mechanics and providing the means for their instruction and 
religious training. The policy of the French and English had been 



to pacify them with presents and gewgaws, merely to obtain a tem- 
porary foothold for the purpose of carrying on the fur trade. Those 
benefited by the trade lived thousands of miles away and had no 
interest in the permanent development of the country. The United 
States Government, on the other hand, indorsed Gov. Cass' policy, 
which was to result in the development of the wealth of the country 
and the establishment of all the arts of peace. Gens. Cass and 
Harrison were accordingly empowered to treat with the Indians 
on the Miami and Wabash; and July 20 a treaty was signed with 
the Wyandots, Senecas, Shawnees, Miamis and Delawares, which 
restored comparative tranquillity. During the summer, however, 
there was Indian war enough to call out all of Gov. Cass' men, in 
aid of Gen. Brown on the Niagara. Indians can never remain long 
at peace, whatever may be the obligations they assume in treaty- 
making. Gov. Cass often headed his forces in person and drove the 
hostile tribes from place to place until they finally retreated to 

An attempt was made to recover Mackinaw from the English in 
July of this year (1814), but the British works were too strong; how- 
ever, the establishments at St. Joseph and at Sault Ste. Marie were 
destroyed. In the following winter the final treaty of peace was 
ratified between England and the United States. The population 
of the territory at this time was not over 5,000 or 6,000, scattered 
over a vast extent, and in a state of great destitution on account of 
the calamities of war. Scarcely a family, on resuming the duties 
of home, found more than the remnants of former wealth and com- 
fort. Families had been broken up and dispersed; parents had 
been torn from their children, and children from each other; some 
had been slain on the battle-field, and others had been massacred 
by the ruthless savages. Laws had become a dead letter, and 
morals had suffered in the general wreck. Agriculture had been 
almost abandoned and commerce paralyzed; food and all necessa- 
ries of life were scarce, and luxuries unknown. Money was difficult 
to get, and the bank paper of Ohio, which was almost the sole cir- 
culating medium, was 25 per cent below par. 

Such was the gloomy state of domestic affairs when Gen. Cass 
assumed the office of governor. Besides, he had the delicate task 
of aiding in legislation and of being at the same time the sole exec- 
utive of the law. In 1817 he made an important treaty with the 
Indians, by which their title was extinguished to nearly all the land 
in Ohio, and a great portion in Indiana and Michigan. This treaty 
attached the isolated population of Michigan to the State of Ohio, 
made theTerritorial government in a fuller sense an integral mem- 
ber of the federal Union, and removed all apprehension of a hostile 
confederacy among the Indian tribes along the lake and river 

Hitherto there had not been a road in Michigan, except the mili- 
tary road along the Detroit river; but as the Indian settlements and 
lands could not now be interposed as a barrier, Gen. Cass called the 


attention of Congress to the necessity of a military road from 
Detroit to Sandusky, through a trackless morass called the black 

In the summer of this year, the first newspaper published in 
Michigan was started at Detroit. It was called the Detroit Gazette, 
and was published by Messrs. Sheldon & Eeed, two enterprising 
young men, the former of whom published an interesting and val- 
uable early history of Michigan. 

The " Western Sun " was the first newspaper published in the 
Indiana Territory, now comprising the four great States of Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, and the second in all that country 
once known as the " Northwestern Territory." It was commenced 
at Vincennes in 1803, by Elihu Stout, of Kentucky, and first called 
the Indiana Gazette, and July 4, 1S04, was changed to the West- 
em Sun. Mr. Stout continued the paper until 1S45, amid many 
discouragements, when he was appointed postmaster at the place, 
and he sold out the office. 

May 6, 1812, Congress passed an act requiring that 2,000,000 
acres of land should be surveyed in the Territory of Louisiana, the 
same amount in the Territory of Illinois, and the same amount in 
the Territory of Michigan, in all 6,000,000 acres, to be set apart for 
the soldiers in the war with Great Britain. Each soldier was to 
have 160 acres of land, fit for cultivation. The surveyors under this 
law reported that there were no lands in Michigan fit for cultiva- 
tion! This unconscionable report deterred immigration for many 
years, and the Government took the whole 6,000,000 acres from 
Illinois and Missouri. The language of that report is so remark- 
able that we must quote it: 

" The country on the Indian boundary line, from the mouth of 
the Great Auglaize river and running thence for about 50 miles, is 
(with some few exceptions) low, wet land, with a very thick growth 
of underbrush, intermixed with very bad marshes, but generally 
very heavily timbered with beech, cottonwood, oak, etc.; thence 
continuing north and extending from the Indian boundary east- 
ward, the number and extent of the swamps increase, with the 
addition of numbers of lakes, from 20 chains to two and three miles 
across. Many of the lakes have extensive marshes adjoining their 
margins, sometimes thickly covered with a species of pine called 
' tamarack,' and other places covered with a coarse, high grass, 
and uniformly covered from six inches to three feet (and more at 
times) with water. The margins of these lakes are not the only 
places where swamps are found, for they are interspersed through- 
out the whole country and tilled with water, as above stated, and 
varying in extent. The intermediate space between these swamps 
and lakes, which is probably near one-half of the country, is, with a 
very few exceptions, a poor, barren, sandy land on which scarcely 
any vegetation grows except very small, scrubby oaks. In many 
places that part which may be called dry land is composed of little, 
short sand-hills, forming a kind of deep basins, the bottoms of many 


of which are composed of a marsh similar to the above described. 
The streams are generally narrow, and very deep compared with 
their width, the shores and bottoms of which are. with a very few 
exceptions, swampy beyond description; and it is' with the utmost 
difficulty that a place can be found over which horses can be con- 
veyed with safety. 

"A circumstance peculiar to that country is exhibited in many 
of the marshes by their being thinly covered with a sward of grass, 
by walking on which evinced the existence of water or a very thin 
mud immediately under their covering, which sinks from six to 
eighteen inches from the pressure of the foot at every step, and at 
the same time rising before and behind the person'passiug over. 
The margins of many of the lakes and streams are in a similar 
situation, and in many places are literally afloat. On approaching 
the eastern part of the military lands, toward the private claims on 
the straights and lake, the country does not contain so many swamps 
and lakes, but the extreme sterility and barrenness of the soil con- 
tinues the same. Taking the country altogether, so far as has been 
explored, and to all appearances, together with the information 
received concerning the balance, it is so bad there would not be 
more than one acre out of a hundred, if there would be one out 
of a thousand, that would in any case admit of cultivation." 

It is probable that those Government surveyors made a lazy job 
of their duty and depended almost entirely upon the fur traders, 
who were interested in keeping settlers out of the country. But we 
must make allowance, too, for the universal ignorance existing at 
that time of the methods of developing the Western country which 
modern invention has brought to bear since the days of our fore- 
fathers. We must remember that our Western prairies were counted 
worth nothing, even by all the early settlers. 

By the year ISIS some immigrants crowded in and further 
explored and tested the land; and in March, this year, Gov. Cass 
called for the views of the inhabitants upon the question of chang- 
ing the civil authority by entering upon the second grade of Terri- 
torial government. A vote was taken and a majority were found 
to he against it; but for the purpose of facilitating immigration and 
settlement. Gov. Cass recommended to the Secretary of the Treasury 
that the lands in the district of Detroit be at once brouo-ht into 
market. The department immediately complied, and the lands 
were offered for sale the following autumn. Immigration was now 
increased more than ever before, and the permanent growth of the 
country became fully established. 

In 1819 the people were allowed to elect a delegate to Congress. 
The population was now 8,806 in the whole Territory, distributed as 
follows: Detroit, 1,450, not including the garrison; the Island of 
Mackinaw, still the entrepot of the fur trade, a stationary popu- 
lation of about 450, sometimes increased to 2,000 or over; Sault 
Ste. Marie, 15 or 20 houses, occupied by French and English 


The year 1819 was also rendered memorable by the appearance 
of the first steamboat on the lakes, the " Walk-in-the-water," which 
came up Lake Erie and went on to Mackinaw. 

Up to this time no executive measures had been taken by the 
people to avail themselves of the school lands appropriated by the 
ordinance of 1787, except the curious act passed by the Governor 
and judges establishing the ''Catholepistemiad," or University of 
Michigan, with 13 " didaxia," or professorships. The scheme for 
this institution was a grand one, described by quaint, sesquipe- 
dalian technicalities coined from the Greek language, and the whole 
devised by that unique man, Judge Woodward. The act is given 
in full in theTerritorial laws of Michigan, compiled and printed a 
few years ago. It was Judge Woodward, also, who laid out the 
plan of Detroit, in the form of a cobweb, with a ''campus Martius" 
and a grand circus, and avenues radiating in every direction, grand 
public parks and squares, etc. Centuries would be required to ful- 
fill his vast design. Like authors and artists of ancient Greece and 
Rome, he laid the foundations of grand work for posterity more 
than for the passing generation. 

Settlements now began to form at the points where now are the 
cities of Ann Arbor, Ypsilanti, Jackson, Tecumseh and Pontiac. 
There were still some annoyances by the Indians. The Sacs and 
Foxes annually made their appearance to receive presents from the 
British agents at Maiden, and as they passed along they would 
commit many depredations. This practice of the British Govern- 
ment had a tendency to prejudice the Indians against the Ameri- 
cans, and it thus became necessary to take some measures for 
removing the Indians beyond British influence or otherwise putting 
a stop to this dangerous custom. Accordingly, in the fall of 1819, 
Gov. Cass desired the Government at Washington to cause a more 
thorough exploration to be made of the lake region, estimating the 
number and influence of the Indians, their relations, prejudices, 
etc., with a view to the further extinguishment of Indian title to 
land, etc.; but the Government deemed it advisable at this time 
only to take 10 miles square at Sanlt Ste. Marie for military pur- 
poses, and some islands near Mackinaw, where beds of plaster had 
been found to exist. However, the general Government soon 
ordered an expedition to be fitted out for such an exploration as 
Gov. Cass desired, to travel witli birch canoes. The men composing 
the expedition were Gen. Cass and Robert A. Forsyth, his private 
secretary; Capt. D. B. Douglass, topographer and astronomer; Dr. 
Alex. Wolcot, physician; James D. Doty, official secretary; and 
Charles C. Trowbridge, assistant topographer. Lieut. Evans Mac- 
key was commander of the escort, which consisted of 10 U. S. 
soldiers. Besides these there were 10 Canadian voyageurs, to 
manage the canoes, and 10 Indians to act as hunters. The latter 
were under the direction of James Riley and Joseph Parks, who 
were also to act as interpreters. 


This party left Detroit March 24, 1820, and readied Michili- 
mackinac, June 6. On leaving this place June 14, 22 soldiers, 
under the command of Lieut. John S. Pierce, were added to the party, 
and the expedition now numbered 64 persons. They reached the 
Sault Ste. Marie the 16th, where Gen. Cass called the Indians (Chip- 
pewas) together, in order to have a definite understanding with 
them concerning the boundary lines of the land grants, and thereby 
renew also their sanction of former treaties. At first the Indians 
protested against the Americans having any garrison at the place, 
and some of them grew violent and almost precipitated a general 
fight, which would have been disastrous to Gen. Cass' party, as the 
Indians were far more numerous; but Cass exhibited a great degree 
of coolness and courage, and caused more deliberate counsels to 
prevail among the savages. Thus the threatened storm blew over. 

The next day the expedition resumed their journey, on Lake 
Superior, passing the " pictured rocks," and landing at one place 
where there was a band of friendly Chippewas. June 25 they left 
Lake Superior, ascended Portage river and returned home by way 
of Lake Michigan, after having traveled over 4,000 miles. 

The results of the expedition were: a more thorough knowledge 
of a vast region and of the numbers and disposition of the various 
tribes of Indians; several important Indian treaties, by which val- 
uable lands were ceded to the United States; a knowledge of the 
operations of the Northwest Fur Company; and the selection of 
sites for a line of military posts. 

As the greatest want of the people seemed to be roads, Congress 
was appealed to for assistance, and not in vain; for that body 
immediately provided for the opening of roads between Detroit 
and the Miami river, from Detroit to Chicago, and from Detroit to 
Fort Gratiot, and for the improvement of La Plaisance Bay. 
Government surveys were carried into the Territory. Two straight 
lines were drawn through the center of the Territory, — east and 
west, and north and south, the latter being denominated the 
principal meridian and the former the base line. The Territory was 
also divided into townships of six miles square. 

In 1821 there was still a tract of land lying south of Grand 
river which had not yet been added to the United States, and Gov. 
Cass deemed it necessary to negotiate with the Indians for it. To 
accomplish this work he had to visit Chicago; and as a matter of 
curiosity we will inform the reader of his most feasible route to 
that place, which he can contrast with that of the present day. 
Leaving Detroit, he descended to the mouth of the Maumee river; 
lie ascended that river and crossed the intervening country to the 
Wabash; descended that stream to the Ohio; down the latter to 
the Mississippi, and up this and the Illinois rivers to Chicago! 

At this council the American commissioners were Gen. Cass 
and Judge Sibley, of Detroit. They were successful in their 
undertaking, and obtained a cession of the land in question. On 
this occasion the Indians exhibited in a remarkable manner their 


appetite for whisky. As a preliminary step to the negotiations, 
the commissioners ordered that no spirits should be given to the 
Indians. The chief of the latter was a man about a hundred years 
old, but still of a good constitution. The commissioners urged 
every consideration to convince him and the other Indians of the 
propriety of the course they had adopted, but in vain. " Father," 
said the old chieftain, " we do not care for the land, nor the money, 
nor the goods: what we want is whisky; give us whisky." But 
the commissioners were inexorable, and the Indians were forced to 
content themselves. 

This year (1821) also two Indians were hung for murder. There 
was some fear that the event would be made by the British an 
occasion of arousing Indian atrocities' in the vicinity, and the peti- 
tion for the pardon of the wretches was considered by Gov. Cass 
with a great deal of embarrassment. He finally concluded to let 
the law take its course, and accordingly, Dec. 25, the murderers 
were hung. 

In 1S22 six new counties were created, namely, Lapeer, Sanilac, 
Saginaw, Shiawassee, Washtenaw and Lenawee; and they contained 
much more territory then they do at the present day. This year 
the first stage line was established in the Territory, connecting the 
county seat of Macomb county with the steamer " Walk-in-the- 
Water" at Detroit. 

In 1823 Congress changed the form of Territorial government, 
abrogating the legislative power of the governor and judges and 
establishing a "Legislative Council," to consist of nine members, 
appointed by the President of the United States out of 18 candi- 
dates elected by the people. By the same act the term of judicial 
office was limited to four years, and eligibility to office was made to 
require the same qualifications as the right to suffrage. The peo- 
ple now took new interest in their government, and felt encouraged 
to lay deeper the foundations of future prosperity. The first 
legislative council under the new regime met at Detroit June 7, 
1824, when Gov. Cass delivered his message, reviewing the progress 
of the Territory, calling attention to the needs of popular education 
and recommending a policy of governmental administration. Dur- 
ing this year he also called the attention of the general Government 
to the mineral resources of the Superior region, and asked for gov- 
ernmental explorations therein. At its second session after this, 
Congress authorized a commission to treat with the Indians of the 
upper peninsula for permission to explore that country. 

In 1825 the Erie canal was completed from the Hudson river to 
Buffalo, X. Y., and the effect was to increase materially the flow of 
people and wealth into the young Territory of Michigan. The citi- 
zens of the East began to learn the truth concerning the agricult- 
ural value of this peninsula, and those in search of good and 
permanent homes came to see for themselves, and afterward came 
with their friends or families to remain as industrious residents, to 
develop a powerful State. The number in the Territorial council 



was increased to 13, to be chosen by the President from 26 persons 
elected by the people. In 1S27 an act was passed authorizing the 
electors to choose their electors directly, without the further sanc- 
tion of either the President or Congress. The power of enacting 
laws was given to the council, subject, however, to the approval of 
Congress and the veto of the Governor. This form of Territorial 
government remained in force until Michigan was organized as a 
State in 1837. William Woodbridge was Secretary of the Territory 
during the administration of Gov. Cass, and deserves great credit 
for the ability with which he performed the duties of his office. In 
the absence of the chief executive he was acting governor, and a 
portion of the time he represented the Territory as a delegate to 
Congress. In 1828 he was succeeded by James Witherell, and in 
two years by Gen. John T. Mason. 

In 1831 Gen. Cass was appointed Secretary of War in the cabi- 
net of President Jackson, after having served Michigan as its chief 
executive for 18 years. He had been appointed six times, running 
through the presidency of Madison, Monroe and John Q. Adams, 
without any opposing candidate or a single vote against him in the 
senate. He faithfully discharged his duties as Indian commissioner 
and concluded 19 treaties with the Indians, acquiring large cessions 
of territory in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan. 
He was a practical patriot of whom the people of the peninsular 
State justly feel proud. Probably more than any other man, Gen. 
Cass was the father of Michigan. 


On the promotion of Gen. Cass to a seat in the cabinet of Presi- 
dent Jackson and his consequent resignation as Governor of Michi- 
gan, Gen. Geo. B. Porter was appointed Governor in July, 1831, 
and Sept. 22 following he entered upon the duties of the office. 
The population of the Territory at this time was about 35,000, pros- 
perity was reigning all around and peace everywhere prevailed, 
except that in 1832 the Black Hawk war took place in Illinois, but 
did not affect this peninsula. In this war, however, Gov. Porter 
co-operated with other States in furnishing militia. 

While Gov. Porter was the chief executive, Wisconsin was de- 
tached from Michigan and erected into a separate Territory; many 
new townships were organized and wagon roads opened and im- 
proved; land began to rise rapidly in value, and speculators 
multiplied. The council provided for the establishment and regu- 
lation of common schools, incorporated "The Lake Michigan Steam- 
boat Company," with a capital of $40,000; and incorporated the 
first railroad company in Michigan, the " Detroit & St. Joseph 
Railroad Company," since called the " Michigan Central." The 
original corporators were, John Biddle, John It. Williams, Charles 
Larned, E. P. Hastings, Oliver Newberry, De Garmo James, James 
Abbott, John Gilbert, Abel Millington, Job Gorton, John Allen, 


Anson Brown, Samuel W. Dexter. "W. E. Perrine, Win. A. Thomp- 
son, Isaac Crary. O. W. Colden, Caleb Eldred, Cyrus Lovell, Calvin 
Brittain and Talman AVheeler. The act of incorporation required 
that the road should be completed within 30 years; this condition 
was complied with in less than one-third of that time. The same 
council also incorporated the "Bank of the Kiver Kaisin," with a 
branch at Pontiac. Previous to this two other banks had been 
chartered, namely: the " Bank of Michigan," in 1S17, with a branch 
at Bronson, and the " Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of Michigan," 
with a branch at St. Joseph. 

The Legislative Council of 1834 also authorized a vote of the 
residents to be takeu on the question of organizing as a State and 
becoming a member of the Union; but the vote was so light and 
the majority so small that Congress neglected to consider the matter 
seriously until two years afterward. 

During Porter's administration a change was made in the 
method of disposing of the public lands, greatly to the benefit of 
the actual settlers. Prior to 1820 the Government price of land 
was $2 an acre, one-fourth to be paid down and the remainder in 
three annual installments; and the land was subject to forfeiture if 
these payments were not promptly made. This system having 
been found productive of many serious evils, the price of land was 
put at $1.25 an acre, all to be paid at the time of purchase. This 
change saved a deal of trouble. 

During the administration of Gov. Porter occurred the "Black 
Hawk" war, mainly in Illinois, in 1832, which did not affect 
Michigan to any appreciable extent, except to raise sundry fears by 
the usual alarms accompanying war gossip. A few volunteers 
probably went to the scene of action from this Territory, but if any 
systematic account was ever kept of this service, we fail to find it. 

In October, 1S31, Edwin Jerome left Detroit with a surveying 
party composed of John Mullet, surveyor, and Utter, Brink and 
Peck, for that portion of Michigan Territory lying west of Lake 
Michigan, now "Wisconsin. Their outfit consisted of a French 
pony team and a buffalo wagon to carry tent, camp equipage, 
blankets, etc. Most of the way to the southeast corner of Lake 
Michigan they followed a wagon track or an Indian trail, and a 
cabin or an Indian hut to lodge in at night; but west of the point 
mentioned they found neither road nor inhabitant. They arrived 
at Chicago in a terrible rain and " put-up" at the fort. This far- 
famed city at that time had but five or six houses, and they were 
built of logs. Within a distance of three or four miles of the fort 
the land was valued by its owners at 50 cents an acre. 

After 23 days' weary travel through an uninhabited country, 
fording and swimming streams and exposed to much rainy weather, 
they arrived at Galena, where they commenced their survey, but in 
two days the ground froze so deep that further work was abandoned 
until the next spring. The day after the memorable Stillman bat- 
tle with Black Hawk, while the Mullet party were crossing the 


Blue mounds, they met an Indian half-chief, who had just arrived 
from the Menominee camps with the details of the battle. He 
stated the slain to be three Indians and 11 whites. The long shak- 
ing of hands and the extreme cordiality of this Indian alarmed 
Mullet for the safety of his party, but he locked the secret in his 
own heart until the next day. They had just completed a town 
corner when Mullet, raising himself to his full height, said, "Boys, 
I'm going in; I'll not risk my scalp for a few paltry shillings." This 
laconic speech was an electric shock to the whole company. Mr. 
Jerome, in describing his own sensations, said that the hair of his 
head then became as porcupine quills, raising his hat in the air and 
himself from the ground; and the top of his head became as sore 
as a boil. 

July 6, 1834, Gov. Porter died, and the administration devolved 
upon the secretary of the Territory, Stevens T. Mason, during 
whose time occurred 


This difficulty was inaugurated by a conflict of the acts of Con- 
gress from time to time, made either carelessly or in ignorance of 
the geography of the West and of the language of former public acts. 
Michigan claimed as her southern boundary a line running from 
the extreme southern point of Lake Michigan directly east to Lake 
Erie, which would include Toledo, an important point, as it was 
the principal terminus of the proposed Wabash & Erie canal. This 
claim was made by virtue of clauses in the ordinance of 1787. Ohio, 
on the other hand, claimed that the ordinance had been superseded 
by the Constitution of the United States, and that Congress had 
the right to regulate the boundary; also, that the constitution of 
that State, which had been accepted by Congress, described a line 
different from that claimed by Michigan. Mr. Woodbridge, the 
delegate from Michigan, ably opposed in Congress the claim of 
Ohio, and the committee on public lands decided unanimously in 
favor of this State; but in the hurry of business no action was 
taken by Congress and the question remained open. 

The claim of Michigan was based principally upon the follow- 
ing points: The ordinance of 1787 declares the acts therein con- 
tained " articles of compact between the original States and the 
people and States in said Territory (northwest of the river Ohio), 
and forever to remain unalterable, unless by common consent." 
This ordinance defines the Territory to include all that region lying 
north and northwest of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi rivers. 
In the fifth article it is provided that there shall be formed not less 
than three nor more than five States within its limits. The bound- 
aries of the three States are defined so as to include the whole Ter- 
ritory; conditioned, however, that if it should be found expedient 
by Congress to form the one or two more States mentioned, Con- 
gress is authorized to alter boundaries of the three States " so as 


to form one or two States in that part of the said Territory which 
lies north of the east and west line drawn through the southerly 
bend or extreme of Lake Michigan." 

In 1802 Congress enabled the people of Ohio to form a constitu- 
tion, and in that act the boundary of that State is declared to be 
" on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly 
extreme of Lake Michigan, running east, after intersecting the due 
north line aforesaid from the mouth of the Great Miami, until it 
shall intersect Lake Erie, or theTerritorial line, and thence with 
the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line." The con- 
stitution of Ohio adopted the same line, with this condition: 
" Provided always, and it is hereby fully understood and declared 
by this convention, that if the southerly bend or extreme of Lake 
Michigan should extend so far south that a line drawn due east 
from it should not intersect Lake Erie; or, if it should intersect 
Lake Erie east of the mouth of the Miami river, then in that case, 
with the assent of Congress, the northern boundary of this State 
shall be established by and extend to a direct line running from the 
southern extremity of Lake Michigan to the most northerly cape 
of the Miami bay, after intersecting the due north line from the 
mouth of the Great Miami, as aforesaid, thence northeast of the 
Territorial line, and by said Territorial line to the Pennsylvania 

Congress did not act upon this proviso until 1S05, and during 
this interval it seems that Ohio herself did not regard it as a part 
of her accepted constitution. 

Again, this section of the act of 1802 provides that all that 
part of the Territory lying north of this east and west line " shall 
be attached to and make a part of the Indiana Territory." Still 
again, the act of 1805, entitled " an act to divide the Indiana Ter- 
ritory into separate governments," erects Michigan to a separate 
Territory, and defines the southern boundary to be "a line drawn 
east from the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan until it 
intersects Lake Erie." 

The strip of territory in dispute is about five miles wide at the 
west end and eight miles at the east end. The line claimed by Mich- 
igan was known as the " Fulton line," and that claimed by Ohio 
was known as the " Harris line," from the names of the surveyors. 
This territory was valuable for its rich farming land, but its chief 
value was deemed to consist at that time in its harbor on the Mau- 
mee river, where now stands the city of Toledo, and which was the 
eastern terminus of the proposed Wabash & Erie canal. This 
place was originally called Swan creek, afterward Port Lawrence, 
then Vistula and finally Toledo. The early settlers generally 
acknowledged their allegiance to Michigan; but when the canal 
became a possibility, and its termination at Toledo being dependent 
upon the contingency whether or not it was in Ohio, many of the 
inhabitants became desirous of being included within the latter 
State. Then disputes grew more violent and the Legislatures of the 


respective commonwealths led off in the fight. In February, 1835, 
the Legislature of Ohio passed an act extending the jurisdiction of the 
State over the territory in question, directed local elections to be 
.held and a re-survey to be made of the Harris line. Per contra, 
Gov. Mason urged the Legislative Council of Michigan to take active 
measures to counteract the proceedings of the Ohio Legislature ; and 
accordingly that body passed an act making it a criminal offense 
for any one to attempt to exercise any official functions within the 
jurisdiction of Michigan without authority from the Territory or the 
general Government. March 9, 1835, Gov. Mason ordered Gen. 
Brown to hold the Michigan militia in readiness to meet the enemy 
in the field in case an attempt was made by the agents of Ohio to 
carry out the provisions of the Legislature of that State. On the 
31st Gov. Lucas, of Ohio, arrived at Perrysburg with his commis- 
sioners, on his way to re-survey the Harris line. He was accom- 
panied by a militia of about 600 men. In the meantime Gov. Mason 
mustered about 1,200 men, with Gen. Brown commanding, and 
was in possession of Toledo. In a few days two commissioners 
arrived from Washington on a mission of peace, and remonstrated 
with Gov. Lucas. After several conferences with the two Gover- 
nors they submitted propositions of a temporary nature, virtually 
giving the disputed territory to Ohio until the following session of 
Congress, to which Gov. Lucas assented, but Gov. Mason did not. 
President Jackson asked the opinion of the attorney general, Mr. 
Butler, who replied in favor of Michigan; notwithstanding, Gov. 
Lucas proceeded to order his men to commence the survey, but as 
they were passing through Lenawee county the under-sheriff there 
arrested a portion of the party, while the rest ran away like Indi- 
ans, and spread an exaggerated report of actual war. This being 
corrected by an amusing official report of the under-sheriff, Gov. 
Lucas called an extra session of the Ohio Legislature, which passed 
an act " to prevent the forcible abduction of the citizens of Ohio!" 
It also adopted measures to organize the county of " Lucas," with 
Toledo as the county-seat, and to carry into effect the laws of the 
State over the disputed territory. 

In the meantime the Michigan people in and about Toledo busied 
themselves in arresting Ohio emissaries who undertook to force the 
laws of their State upon Michigan Territory, while Ohio partisans 
feebly attempted to retaliate. An amusing instance is related of 
the arrest of one Major Stickney. He and his whole family fought 
valiantly, but were at length overcome by numbers. The Major 
had to be tied on a horse before he would ride with the Michigan 
posse to jail. An attempt was then made to arrest a son of the 
Major called " Two Stickney," when a serious struggle followed and 
the officer was stabbed with a knife. The blood flowed pretty freely, 
but the wound did not prove dangerous. This was probably the 
only blood shed during the " war." The officer let go his hold and 
Stickney fled to Ohio. He was indicted by the grand jury of Mon- 
roe county, and a requisition was made on the Governor of Ohio 


for his rendition, but the Governor refused to give him up. An 
account of this affair reaching the ears of the President, he recom- 
mended that Gov. Mason interpose no obstacle to the re-survey of 
the Harris line; but the Governor refusing to abide by the " recom- 
mendation," the President superseded him by the appointment of 
Charles Shaler, of Pennsylvania, as his successor. He also advised 
Gov. Lucas to refrain from exercising any jurisdiction over the dis- 
puted territory until Congress should convene and act upon the 
matter. This was humiliating to that Governor, and he resolved 
to assert the dignity of his State in Toledo in some manner. He 
hit upon the plan of ordering a session of court to be held there, 
with a regiment of militia for the protection of the judges. Accord- 
ingly the judges met on Sunday afternoon, Sept. 6, at Maumee, a 
few miles from Toledo. Some time during the evening a scout 
sent out by the colonel returned from Toledo and reported that 
1,200 men, under command of Gen. Brown, were in Toledo ready 
to demolish court, soldiers and all; but this report turned out to be 
false. During the scare, however, the judges hesitated to proceed 
to Toledo, and the colonel of the regiment upbraided them for their 
cowardice, and proposed to escort them with his militia during the 
dead of night to a certain school-house in Toledo, where they might 
go through the form of holding court a few minutes in safety. 
About three o'clock Monday morning they arrived at the desig- 
nated place and " held court " about two minutes and then fled for 
dear life back to Maumee! Thus was the "honor and dignity " of 
the great State of Ohio " vindicated over all her enemies!" 


It appears that Mr. Shaler did not accept the governorship of 
Michigan, and John S. Horner, of Virginia, was soon afterward 
appointed secretary and Acting Governor. He proved to be rather 
unpopular with the people of Michigan, and the following May he 
was appointed secretary of Wisconsin Territory. He carried on a 
lengthy correspondence with Gov. Lucas, which resulted in a dis- 
continuance of all the suits that had grown out of the Toledo war 
except the demand for Two Stickney. Gov. Lucas persisted in refus- 
ing to deliver him up; but it seems that flually no serious trouble 
came of the affair. 

The first Monday in October, 1835, the people of Michigan 
ratified the constitution and by the same vote elected a full set of 
State officers. Stevens T. Mason was elected Governor, Edward 
Mundy, Lieutenant-Governor, and Isaac E. Crary, Represenative in 
Congress. The first Legislature under the constitution was held at 
Detroit, the capital, on the first Monday in November, and John 
Norvell and Lucius Lyon were elected IT. S. Senators. A regular 
election was also held underthe Territorial law for delegate to Con- 
gress, and Geo. W. Jones, ot Wisconsin, received the certificate of 
election, although it is said that Win. Woodbridge received the high- 


est number of votes. John S. Horner, the Territorial Governor, 
was still in office here, and this singular mixture of Territorial and 
State government continued until the following June, when Con- 
gress formally admitted Michigan into the Union as a State and 
Horner was sent to Wisconsin, as before noted. This act of 
Congress conditioned that the celebrated strip of territory over 
which the quarrel had been so violent and protracted, should be given 
to Ohio, and that Michigan might have as a compensation the 
upper peninsula. That section of country was then known only as 
a barren waste, containing some copper, no one knew how much. 
Of course this decision by Congress was unsatisfactory to the peo- 
ple of this State. This was the third excision of territory from 
Michigan, other clippings having been made in 1802 and 1816. 
In the former year more than a thousand square miles was given to 
Ohio, and in the latter year nearly 1,200 square miles was given to 
Indiana. Accordingly, Gov. Mason convened the Legislature July 
11, 1836, to act on the proposition of Congress. The vote stood 21 
for acceptance and 28 for rejection. Three delegates were appointed 
to repair to Washington, to co-operate with the representatives 
there for the general interest of the State: but before Congress was 
brought to final action on the matter, other conventions were held 
in the State to hasten a decision. An informal one held at Ann 
Arbor Dec. 14 unanimously decided to accept the proposition of 
Congress and let the disputed strip of territory go to Ohio, and 
thereupon Jan. 26, 1837, Michigan was admitted" into the Union 
on an equal footing with the original States. 


A State! This word contains avast amount of meaning. Before a 
community becomes a State, there is comparatively a dead level of 
homogeneity, the history of which consists simply of a record of 
independent or disconnected events, as Indian wars, migration, etc.; 
but when a people so far advance in civilization that thej 7 must 
organize, like the plant and animal kingdoms, they must assume 
"organs," having functions; and the more civilized and dense the 
population, the more numerous and complicated these organs must 
become, — to use the language of modern biology, the more the 
organism must "differentiate." 

Correspondingly, the history of Michigan, up to its organization 
as a State, like that of all our Territories, is almost a disconnected 
series of events; but on assuming the character of a State, its organs 
and functions multiply, becoming all the while more and more 
dependent upon one another. To follow up the history of the 
State, therefore, with the same proportional fullness as we do its 
Territorial epoch, would swell the work to scores or hundreds of 
volumes; for the compiler would be obliged to devote at first a 
volume to one feature, say the educational, and then soon divide 
his subject into the various departments of the educational work of 

: l:% 


the State, devoting a volume to each, and then subdivide, taking 
each local institution by itself, and subdivide still farther, and so on 
ad infinitum,, devoting a volume to each movement in the career 
of every institution. 

As it is therefore impracticable to preserve the proportion of 
history to the end, the writer is obliged to generalize more and 
more as he approaches the termination of any selected epoch in the 
progress of a growing organism. Accordingly, from this point 
onward in the history of Michigan, we will treat the subject mat- 
ter mainly by topics, commencing with an outline of the several 
gubernatorial administrations. 


Stevens T. Mason was the first Governor of this State, having 
been elected (Governor of the State prospectively) in 1835, as before 
noted, and he held the office until January, 1840. This State, at 
the time of its admission into the Union, had a population of about 
200,000; its area was about 40,000 square miles, which was di- 
vided into 36 counties. 

Nearly the first act passed by the Legislature was one for the 
organization and support of common schools. Congress had already 
set apart one section of land in every township for this purpose, 
and the new State properly appreciated the boon. In March of 
the same year (1837) another act was passed establishing the 
University of Michigan, of which institution we speak more fully on 
subsequent pages. This Legislature also appropriated $20,000 for 
a geological survey, and appointed Dr. Douglass Houghton State 
geologist. For the encouragement of internal improvements, a 
board of seven commissioners was appointed, of which the Gov- 
ernor was made president. This board authorized several surveys 
for railroads. Three routes were surveyed through the State, which 
eventually became, respectively, the Michigan Central, the Mich- 
igan Southern, and the Detroit & Milwaukee. The latter road, 
however, was originally intended to have Port Huron for its east- 
ern terminus. The next year appropriations were made for the 
survey of the St. Joseph, Kalamazoo and Grand rivers, for the 
purpose of improving the navigation. 

In 1839 the militia of the State was organized, and eight divisions, 
with two brigades of two regiments each, were provided for. This 
year, also, the State prison at Jackson was completed. Nearly 
30,000 pupils attended the common schools this year, and for school 
purposes over $18, 000 was appropriated. Agriculturally, the State 
yielded that year 21,944 bushels of rye, 1,116,910 of oats. 6,422 of 
buckwheat, 43,826 pounds of flax, 524 of hemp, 89,610 head of cat- 
tle,14,059 head of horses, 22,684 head of sheep and 109,096 of swine. 

Gov. William Woodbridge was the chief executive from January, 
1840, to February, 1841, when he resigned to accept a seat in the 


U. S. Senate. J. "Wright Gordon was Lieut-Governor, and became 
Acting Governor on the resignation ofGov.Woodbridge. 

During the administration of these men, therailroad from Detroit 
to Ann Arbor, a distance of 40 miles, was completed; branches of 
the University were established at Detroit, Pontiac, Monroe, Niles, 
Kalamazoo, Grand Rapids, Jackson, White Pigeon and Tecumseh. 
The material growth of the State continued to increase, propor- 
tionally more rapidly than even the population, which now amounted 
to about 212,000. 

John S. Barry succeeded Gov. Gordon in the executive chair, 
serving from 1841 to 1S45. Iu 1842 the university was opened 
for the reception of students, and the number of pupils attending 
the common schools was officially reported to be nearly 58,000. In 
1S43 a land office was established at Marshall, for the whole State. 
In 1844 the taxable property of the State was found to be in value 
$28,554,282, the tax being at the rate of two mills on the dollar. 
The expenses of the State were only $70,000, while the income 
from the two railroads was nearly $300,000. In 1845 the number 
of inhabitants in the State had increased to more than 300,000. 

Alpheus Felch served as Governor from 1845 to 1847. During 
his time the two railroads belonging to the State were sold to pri- 
vate corporations, — the Central for $2,000,000, and the Southern 
for $500,000. The exports of the State amounted in 1846 to $4,647,- 
608. The total capacity of vessels enrolled in the collection dis- 
trict at Detroit wa3 26.928 tons, the steam vessels having 8,400 and 
the sailing vessels 18,528 tons, the whole giving employment to 
18,000 seamen. In 1847 there were 39 counties in the State, con- 
taining 435 townships; and 275 of these townships were supplied 
with good libraries, containing in the aggregate 37,000 volumes. 

In the spring of 1846, on the account of northern and eastern 
immigration into Texas, with tastes and habits different from the 
native Mexicans, a war was precipitated between the United States 
and Mexico; and for the prosecution of this war Michigan fur- 
nished a regiment of volunteers, commanded by Thomas W. Stock- 
ton, and one independent company, incurring a total expense of 
about $10,500. March 3, 1847, Gov. Felch resigned to accept a 
seat in the U. S. Senate, when the duties of his office devolved upon 
"Win. L. Greenly, under whose administration the Mexican war 
was closed. 

There are few records extant of the action of Michigan troops in 
the Mexican war. That many went there and fought well are 
points conceded; but their names and country of nativity are hid- 
den away in U. S. archives where it is almost impossible to find 

The soldiers of this State deserve much of the credit of the 
memorable achievements of Co. K, 3d Dragoons, and Cos. A, E, 
and G of the U. S. Inf. The two former of these companies, re- 


cruited in this State, were reduced to one-third their original num- 

In May, 1846, our Governor was notified by the War Department 
of the United States to enroll a regiment of volunteers, to be held 
in readiness for service whenever demanded. At his summons 13 
independent volunteer companies, 11 of infantry and two of cav- 
alry, at once fell into line. Of the infantry four companies were 
from Detroit, bearing the honored names of Montgomery, Lafay- 
ette, Scott and Brady upon their banners. Of the remainder 
Monroe tendered two, Lenawee county three, St. Clair, Berrien and 
Hillsdale each one, and Wayne county an additional company. 
Of these alone the veteran Bradys were accepted and ordered 
into service. In addition to thein 10 companies, making the First 
Eegiment of Michigan Volunteers, springing from various parts of 
the State, but embodying to a great degree the material of which 
the first volunteers was formed, were not called for until October 
following. This regiment was soon in readiness and proceeded to 
the seat of war. 

Epaphroditus Ransom was Governor from 1S47 to November, 
1849. During his administration the Asylum for the Insane was 
established at Kalamazoo, and also the Institute for the Blind, and 
the Deaf and Dumb, at Flint. Both these institutions were liber- 
ally endowed with lands, and each entrusted to a board of five 
trustees. March 31, 1848, the first telegraph line was completed 
from New York to Detroit. 

John S. Barry, elected Governor of Michigan for the third time, 
succeeded Gov. Ransom, and his term expired in November, 1851. 
While he was serving this term a Normal school was established at 
Ypsilanti, which was endowed with lands, placed in charge of a 
Board of Education, consisting of six persons; a new State con- 
stitution was adopted, and the great " railroad conspiracy " case 
was tried. This originated in a number of lawless depredations 
upon the property of the Michigan Central Railroad Company, ter- 
minating with the burning of their depot at Detroit in 1S50. The 
next year 37 men were brought to trial, and 12 of them were con- 
victed. The prosecution was conducted by Alex. D. Fraser, of 
Detroit, and the conspirators were defended by Win. H. Seward, of 
New York. Judge Warner Wins; presided. 

Robert McClelland followed Barry as Governor, serving until 
March, 1853, when he resigned to accept the position of Secretary 
of the Interior, in the cabinet of President Pierce. Lieut.-Gov. 
Andrew Parsons consequently became Acting Governor, his term 
expiring in November, 1854. 

In the soring of 1854, during the administration of Acting Gov. 
Parsons, the " Republican party," at least as a State organization, 
was first formed in the United States " under the oaks " at Jackson, 
by an ti -slavery men of both the old parties. Great excitement 
prevailed at this time, occasioned by the settling of Kansas and 
the issue thereby brought up whether slavery should exist there. 


For the purpose of permitting slavery there, the "Missouri com- 
promise" (which limited slavery to the south of 36° 30') was re- 
pealed, under the lead of Stephen A. Douglas. This was repealed 
by a bill admitting Kansas and Nebraska into the Union as Terri- 
tories, and those who were opposed to this repeal measure were 
in short called "anti-Nebraska " men. The epithets " Nebraska" 
and "anti-Nebraska" were temporarily employed to designate the 
slavery and anti-slavery parties, pending the dissolution of the old 
Democratic and Whig parties and the organization of the new 
Democratic and Republican parties. At the next State election 
Kinsley S. Bingham was elected by the Republicans Governor of 
Michigan, and this State has ever since then been under Republi- 
can control, the State officers of that party being elected by major- 
ities ranging from 5,000 to 55,000. And the people of this State 
generally, and the Republicans in particular, claim that this com- 
monwealth has been as well taken care of since 1S55 as any State 
in the union, if not better, while preceding 1S55 the Democrats 
administered the government as well as any other State, if not 

As a single though signal proof of the high standard of Michi- 
gan among her sister States, we may mention that while the taxes 
in the New England States, New York, New Jersey and Pennsyl- 
vania average $10.09 per capita, while in Massachusetts the average 
is $17.10 per inhabitant, and while in the West the average is 
§6.50, in Michigan it is only $4.57. At the same time it is gen- 
erally believed even by the citizens of sister States, that Michigan 
is the best governed commonwealth in the Union. 

Kinsley S. Bingham was Governor from 1854 to 1858. The 
most notable event during his administration was the completion of 
the ship canal at the falls' of St. Mary, May 26, 1855. An act of 
Congress was approved, granting to the State of Michigan 750,000 
acres of land for the purpose of constructing this canal. The 
" sault," or rapids, of the St. Mary, have a fall of 17 feet in one 
mile. The canal is one mile long, 100 feet wide and about 12 feet 
deep. It has two locks of solid masonry. The work was commenced 
in 1853 and finished in May, 1855, at a cost of $999,802. This is 
one of the most important internal improvements ever made in the 

Moses Wisner was the next Governor of Michigan, serving from 
1858 to November, 1S60, at which time Abraham Lincoln was 
elected President of the United States. National themes began to 
grow exciting, and Michigan affairs were almost lost in the warring 
elements of strife that convulsed the nation from center to circum- 
ference with a life-and-death struggle. 

Austin Blair was the 13th Governor of Michigan, serving during 
the perilous times of rebellion from 1861 to 1865, and by his patri- 
otic and faithful execution of law and prompt aid of the general 
Government, earning the well deserved titte of " the War Gov- 


ernor." The particulars of the history of this State in connection 
with that war we will reserve for the next section. 

Henry H. Crapo succeeded Gov. Blair, serving one term. He 
was elected during the dark hours just before the close of the war, 
when he found the political sky overcast with the most ominous 
clouds of death and debt. The bonded debt of the State was $3,- 
541,149.80, witli a balance in the treasury of $440,047.29. In the 
single year just closed the State had expended $823,216.75, and by 
the close of the first year of his term this indebtedness had increased 
more than $400,000 more. But the wise administration of this 
Governor began materially to reduce the debt and at the same time 
till the treasury. The great war closed during the April after his 
election, and he faithfully carried out the line of policy inaugurated 
by his predecessor. The other prominent events during his time 
of office are systematically interwoven with the history of the vari- 
ous institutions of the State, and they will be found under heads in 
their rt6pective places. 

Henry P. Baldwin was Governor two terms, namely, from January, 
1868, to the close of 1872. The period of his administration was a 
prosperous one for the State. In 1869 the taxable valuation of real 
and personal property in the State amounted to $400,000,000, and 
in 1871 it exceeded $630,000,000. 

During Gov. Baldwin's time a step was taken to alter the State 
constitution so as to enable counties, townships, cities and incorpo- 
rated villages, in their corporate capacity, to aid in the construction 
of railroads. Bonds had been issued all over the State by these mu- 
nicipalities in aid of railroads, under laws which had been enacted 
by the Legislature at five different sessions, but a case coming before 
the Supreme Court involving the constitutionality of these laws, 
the Ben:h decided that the laws were unconstitutional, and thus the 
railroads were left to the mercy of "soul-less" corporations. Gov. 
Baldwin, in this emergency, called an extra session of the Legisla- 
ture, which submitted the desired constitutional amendment to the 
people; but it was by them defeated in November, 1870. 

The ninth census having been officially published, it became the 
duty of the States in 1872 to make a re-apportionment of districts 
for the purpose of representation in Congress. Since 1863 Michi- 
gan had had six representatives, but the census of 1870 entitled it 
to nine. 

During the last two years of Gov. Baldwin's administration the 
preliminary measures for building a new State capitol engrossed 
much of his attention. His wise counsels concerning this much- 
needed new building were generally adopted by the Legislature, 
which was convened in extra session in March, 1872. 

Ample provision having been made for the payment of the funded 
debt of the State by setting apart some of tha trust-fund receipts, 
and such portion of the specific taxes as were not required for the 
payment of interest on She public debt, the one-eighth mill tax for 
the sinking fund was abolished in 1870. 


The fall of 1S71 is noted for the many destructive conflagrations 
in the Northwest, including the great Chicago fire. Several villages 
in this State were either wholly or partially consumed, and much 
property was burned up nearly all over the country. This was due 
to the excessive dryness of the season. In this State alone nearly 
3,000 families, or about 18,000 persons, were rendered houseless 
and deprived of the necessaries of life. Eelief committees were 
organized at Detroit, Grand Rapids and elsewhere, and in a short 
time $462,106 in money and about 8250,000 worth of clothing were 
forwarded to the sufferers. Indeed, so generous were the people 
that the}' would have given more than was necessary had they not 
been informed by the Governor in a proclamation that a sufficiency 
had been raised. 

The dedication of the soldiers' and sailors' monument at Detroit, 
April 9, 1872, was a notable event in Gov. Baldwin's time. This 
grand structure was designed by Randolph Rogers, formerly of Michi- 
gan, and one of the most eminent of American sculptors now living. 
The money to defray the expenses of this undertaking was raised by 
subscription, and persons in all parts of the State were most liberal 
in their contributions. The business was managed by an associa- 
tion incorporated in 186S. The monument is 46 feet high, and is 
surmounted by a colossal statue of Michigan in bronze, 10 feet in 
height. She is represented as a semi-civilized Indian queen, with 
a sword in her right hand and a shield in her left. The dedicatory 
lines in front are: "Erected by the people of Michigan, in honor 
of the martyrs who fell and the heroes who fought in defense of 
liberty and union." On the monument are many beautiful designs. 
At the unveiling there was a large concourse of people from all 
parts of the State, and the address was delivered by ex-Governor 

John J. Bagley succeeded to the governorship Jan. 1, 1873, and 
served two terms. During his administration the new capital was 
principally built, which is a larger and better structure for the 
money than perhaps any other public building in the United States. 
Under Gov. Bagley's counsel and administration the State pros- 
pered in all its departments. The Legislature of 1873 made it the 
duty of the Governor to appoint a commission to revise the State 
constitution, which duty he performed to the satisfaction of all 
parties, and the commission made thorough work in revising the 
fundamental laws of this commonwealth. 

Charles M. Croswell was next the chief executive of this State, 
exercising the functions of the office for two successive terms, 
1S77-'81. During his administration the public debt was greatly 
reduced, a policy adopted requiring State institutions to keep 
within the limit of appropriations, laws enacted to provide more 
effectually for the punishment of corruption and bribery in elec- 
tions, the State House of Correction at Ionia and the Eastern 
Asylum for the Insane at Pontiac were opened, and the now capi- 
tol at Lansing was completed and occupied. The first act of his 


second term was to preside at the dedication of this building. The 
great riot of 1877 centered at Jackson. During those two or 
three fearful days Gov. Croswell was in his office at Lansing, in 
correspondence with members of the military department in differ- 
ent parts of the State, and within 48 hours from the moment when 
the danger became imminent the rioters found themselves sur- 
rounded by a military force ready with ball and cartridge for their 
annihilation. Were it not for this promptness of the Governor 
there would probably have been a great destruction of property, if 
not also of life. 

At this date (February, 1881), Hon. David II. Jerome has just 
assumed the duties of the executive chair, while all the machinery 
of the Government is in good running order and the people gener- 
ally are prosperous. 


As soon as the President called for troops to suppress the Rebel- 
lion in April, 1861, the loyal people of the Peninsular State 
promptly responded and furnished the quota assigned. Austin 
Blair, a man peculiarly fitted for the place during the emergency, 
was Governor, aud John Robertson, Adjutant General. The people 
of Michigan have ever since been proud of the record of these two 
men during the war, but thfs does not exclude the honor due all the 
humble soldiery who obediently exposed their lives in defense of 
the common country. Michigan has her full share of the buried 
dead in obscure and forgotten places all over the South as well as 
in decent cemeteries throughout the North. It was Michigan men 
that captured Jeff. Davis, namely: the 4th Cavalry, under Col. 13. 
F. Pritchard; and it was Michigan men that materially aided in the 
successful capture of Wilkes Booth, the assassin of the martyred 

The census of this State for 1860 showed a population of 751,- 
110. The number of able-bodied men capable of military service 
was estimated in official documents of that date at 110,000. At the 
same time the financial embarrassment of the State was somewhat 
serious, and the annual tax of §226,250 was deemed a grievous bur- 
den. But such was the patriotism of the people that by Dec. 23, 
1862, an aggregate of 45,569 had gone to battle, besides 1,400 who 
had gone into other States and recruited. By the end of the war 
Michigan had sent to the front 90,747, or more than four-fifths the 
estimated number of able-bodied men at the beginning! 


Michigan has as good a public-school system as can be found 
anywhere in the Union. Ever since 1785 the acts of Congress, as 
well as the acts of this State since its organization, have encouraged 
popular education by land grants and liberal appropriations of 


money. The 16th. section of each township was early placed in the 
custody of the State for common-school purposes, and all the pro- 
ceeds of the sale of school lands go into the perpetual fund. In 
184:3 the superintendent of public instruction reported a dis- 
crepancy of over $22,000 in the funds, owing to imperfect records, 
probably, rather than dishonesty of officials. Sept. 30, 1878, the 
primary-school fund amounted to §2,890,090.73, and the swamp- 
land school fund to $30 1.237.20. 

The qualification of teachers and the supervision of schools were 
for many years in the hands of a board of three inspectors, then 
the county superintendency system was adopted for many years, 
and since 1875 the township system has been in vogue. The 
township Board of School Inspectors now consists of the township 
clerk, one elected inspector and a township superintendent of 
schools. The latter officer licenses the teachers and visits the 

In 1877 the school children (5 to 20 years of age) numbered 
469,504; the average number of months of school, 7.4; number of 
graded schools, 295; number of school-houses, 6,078, valued at 
$9,190,175; amount of two-mill tax, $492,646.94; district taxes, 
$2,217,961; total resources for the year, $3,792,129.59; total 
expenditures, $3,179,976.06. 


By an act of Congress in 1804, a township of land was to be 
reserved in the territory now constituting the lower peninsula " for 
the use of seminaries of learning;" but the mostof this reservation 
in 1841 went to a Catholic institution at Detroit. In 1824, through 
the exertions of Austin E. Wing, delegate to Congress, Gov. Wood- 
bridge and others, a second township was granted, witii permission 
to select the sections in detached localities, and about this time 
Judge Woodward devised that novel and extensive scheme for 
the "catholepistemiad." elsewhere referred to in this volume. In 
1837 the Legislature established the University at Ann Arbor, and 
appropriated the 72 sections to its benefit; 916 acres of this land 
were located in what is now the richest part of Toledo, O., from 
which the University finally realized less than $18,000! 

But the State in subsequent years made many liberal appropria- 
tions to this favorite institution, until it has become the greatest seat 
of learning west of New England, if not in all America. It is a 
part of the public-school system of the State, as tuition is free, and 
pupils graduating at the high schools are permitted to enter the 
freshman class of the collegiate department. It now has an average 
attendance of 1,200 to 1,400 students, 450 of whom are in the college 
proper. In 1879 there were 406 in the law department, 329 in the 
medical, 71 in pharmacy, 62 in dental surgery and 63 in the homeo- 
pathic department. There are over 50 professors and teachers. 
The University is under the control of eight regents, elected by the 

people, two every second year. Kev. Henry B. Tappan, D. D., 
was president from 1852 to 1863, then Erastus O. Haven, D. D., 
LL. D., to 1S69, then Prof. H. S. Frieze (acting) until 1871, since 
which time the reins have been held by Hon. James B. Angell, 
LL. D. 

The value of the buildings and grounds was estimated in 1879 
at $319,000, and the personal property at $250,000. 


John D. Pierce, the first superintendent of public instruction, in 
his first report to the Legislature, urged the importance of a normal 
school. In this enterprise he was followed by his successors in office 
until 1849, when Ira Mayhew was State Superintendent, and the 
Legislature appropriated 72 sections of land for the purpose; and 
among the points competing for the location of the school, Ypsi- 
lanti won, and in that place the institution was permanently located. 
The building was completed and dedicated with appropriate cere- 
monies Oct. 5, ] 852 ; next year the Legislature appropriated $7,000 
in money, for expenses. Prof. A. S. Welch, now President of Iowa 
Agricultural College, was elected the first principal. In October, 
1859, the building with contents was burned, and a new building 
was immediately erected. In 1878 the main building was enlarged 
at an expense of $43,347. This enlargement was 88x90 feet, and 
has a hall capable of seating 1,200 persons. The value of buildings 
and other property at the present time is estimated at $111,100. 
Number of students, 016, including 144 in the primary depart- 

Each member of the Legislature is authorized by the Board of 
Education to appoint two students from his district who may attend 
one year free of tuition ; other students pay $10 per annum. Grad- 
uates of this school are entitled to teach in this State without re-ex- 
amination by any school officer. 


The Michigan Agricultural College owes its establishment to a 
provision of the State constitution of 1850. Article 13 says, '-The 
Legislature shall, as soon as practicable, provide for the establish- 
ment of an agricultural school." For the purpose of carrying into 
practice this provision, legislation was commenced in 1855, and the 
act required that the school should be within 10 miles of Lansing, 
and that not more than $15 an acre should be paid for the farm and 
college grounds. The college was opened to students in May, 1S57, 
the first of existing agricultural colleges in the United States. 
Until the spring of 1861 it was under the control of the State Board 
of Education; since that time it has been under the management 
of the State Board of Agriculture, created for the purpose. 



In its essential features of combining study and labor, and of 
uniting general and professional studies in its course, tbe college 
has remained virtually unchanged from the first. It has had a 
steady growth in number of students, in means of illustration and 
efficiency of instruction. 

An act of Congress, approved July 2, 1S62, donated to each State 
public lands to the amount of 30,000 acres for each of its Senators 
and Representatives in Congress, according to the census of 1860, 
for the endowment, support and maintenance of at least one college 
where the leading object should be, without excluding other scien- 
tific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach 
such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the 
mechanic arts. The Legislature accepted this grant and bestowed 
it upon the Agricultural College. By its provisions the college has 
received 235,673.37 acres of land. These lands have been placed in 
market, and about 74,000 acres sold, yielding a fund of $237,174, 
the interest of which at seven per cent, is applied to the support of 
the college. The sale is under the direction of the Agricultural 
Land Grant Board, consisting of the Governor, Auditor General, 
Secretary of State, State Treasurer, Attorney General and Commis- 
sioner of the State Land Office. 

The Agricultural College is three miles east of Lansing, com- 
prising several fine buildings; and there are also very beautiful, 
substantial residences for the professors. There are also an exten- 
sive, well-filled green-house, a very large and well-equipped chemi- 
cal laboratory, one of the most scientific apiaries in the United 
States, a general museum, a museum of mechanical inventions, 
another of vegetable products, extensive barns, piggeries, etc., etc., 
in fine trim for the purposes designed. The farm consists of 676 
acres, of which about 300 are under cultivation in a systematic 
rotation of crops. 


At Albion is a flourishing college under the control of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. The grounds comprise about 15 
acres. There are three college buildings, each three-stories high, 
having severally the dimensions of 46 by 80, 40 by 100, and 47 by 
80 feet. The attendance in 1878 was 205. Tuition in the prepara- 
tory and collegiate studies is free. The faculty comprises nine 
members. The value of property about $S5.000. 

Adrian College was established by the "Wesleyan Methodists in 
1859, now under the control of the " Methodist Church." The 
grounds contain about 20 acres. There are four buildings, capable 
of accommodating about 225 students. Attendance in 1S75 was 
179; total number of graduates for previous years, 121; 10 profes- 
sors and teachers are employed. Exclusive of the endowment fund 
(§80,000), the assets of the institution, including grounds, build- 
ings, furniture, apparatus, musical instruments, outlying lands, 
etc., amount to more than $137,000. 


Hope College, at Holland, is under the patronage of the Dutch 
Reformed Church. It was begun in 1851,and in connection with the 
ordinary branches of learning, it has a theological department. In 
1877 it had 10 professors and teachers and 110 pupils. Up to 1S75 
there had graduated, in the preparatory department, begun in 1863, 
95; in the academic, beginning in 1866, 53; and in the theological, 
beginning in 1869, 24. Value of real estate, $25,000; of other prop- 
erty, above incumbrance, about $10,000; the amount of endow- 
ment paid in is about $56,000. 

Kalamazoo College, headed by Baptists, is situated on a five-acre 
lot of ground, and the property is valued at $35,000; investments, 
$88,000. There are six members of the faculty, and in 1878 there 
■were 169 pupils. 

Hillsdale College was established in 1855 by the Free Baptists. 
The " Michigan Central College," at Spring Arbor, was incorpo- 
rated in 1845. It was kept in operation until it was merged into 
the present Hillsdale College. The site comprises 25 acres, beauti- 
fully situated on an eminence in the western part of the city of 
Hillsdale. The large and imposing building first erected was 
nearly destroyed by fire in 1874, and in its place five buildings of 
a more modern style have been erected. They are of brick, 
three stories with basement, arranged on three sides of a quad- 
rangle. Their size is, respectively, 80 by 80, 48 by 72, 48 by 72, 
80 by 60, 52 by 72, and they contain one-half more room than the 
original building. Ex-Lieut. -Gov. E. B. Fairfield was the first 
president. The present president is Rev. D. W. C. Durgin, D. D. 
Whole number of graduates up to 1878, 375; number of students 
in all departments, 506; number of professors and instructors, 15; 
productive endowment, about $100,000; buildings and grounds, 
$80,000; library, 6,200 volumes. 

Olivet College, in Eaton county, is a lively and thorough literary 
and fine-art institution, under the joint auspices of the Presbyterian 
and Congregational denominations. Value of buildings and 
grounds, about $S5,000. Fourteen professors and teachers are em- 
ployed, and the attendance in 1878 was 190, the sexes in about 
equal proportion. There are five departments, namely: the colle- 
giate, preparatory, normal, music and art. 

Battle Creek College, conducted by the Seventh-Day Adventists, 
was established in 1874, with four departments, 11 professors and 
teachers, and an attendance of 2S9. It is practically connected 
with a large health institution, where meat and medicines are 
eschewed. In 1878 there were 15 instructors and 478 students. 
Special attention is paid to hygiene and hygienic medication. 

Grand Traverse College was opened at Benzonia in 1S63, as the 
result of the efforts of Rev. Dr. J. B. Walker, a prominent divine 
of the Congregational Church. The friends of this institution 
have met with serious discouragements: their lands have not risen 
in value as anticipated and they have suffered a heavy loss from 
fire; but the college has been kept open to the present time, with 


an average of 70 pupils. The curriculum, however, has so far been 
only "preparatory." The land is valued at $25,000, and the build- 
ings, etc., $6,000. The school has done a good work in qualifying 
teachers for the public schools. 

Besides the foregoing colleges, there are the German- American 
Seminary in Detroit, a Catholic seminary at Monroe, the Michigan 
Female Seminary at Kalamazoo, the Military Academy at Orchard 
Lake, near Pontiac, and others. 


No State in the union takes better care of her poor than does 
Michigan. For a number of years past, especially under the 
administrations of Govs. Bagley and Croswell, extraordinary efforts 
have been made to improve and bring to perfection the appoint- 
ments for the poor and dependent. 

According to the report of the Board of State Commissioners 
for the general supervision of charitable, penal, pauper and reform- 
atory institutions for 1876, the total number in poor-houses of the 
State was 5,282. For the five years preceding, the annual rate of 
increase was four times greater than the increase of population 
during that period; but that was an exceptionally "hard" time. 
The capacity of the public heart, however, was equal to the occa- 
sion, 'and took such measures as were effectual and almost beyond 
criticism for the care of the indigent. 

At the head of the charity department of the State stands 


In the year 1870 a commission appointed by the Governor for 
that purpose, visited many of the poor-houses in the State, and 
found a large number of children in them under 16 years of age, 
indiscriminately associated with idiots, maniacs, prostitutes and 
vagrants. Their report recommended the classification of paupers) 
and especially, that children in the county houses, under 16 years, 
should be placed in a State school. The act establishing the school 
was passed in 1871, in conformity with the recommendation. As 
amended in 1873, it provides, in substance, that there shall be received 
as pupils in such school all neglected and dependent children that 
are over four and under 16 years of age, and that are in suitable 
condition of body or mind to receive instruction, especially those 
maintained in the county poor-houses, those who have been deserted 
by their parents, or are orphans, or whose parents have been con- 
victed of crime. It is declared to be the object of the act to pro- 
vide for such children temporary homes only, until homes can be 
procured for them in families. The plans comprehend the ulti- 
mate care of all children of the class described, and it is made 
unlawful to retain such children in poor-houses when there is room 
for them in the State Public School. Dependent orphans and half 


orphans of deceased soldiers and sailors have the preference of 
admission should there be more applications than room. Provi- 
sion is made for perserving a record of the parentage and history 
of each child. 

The general supervision of the school is delegated to a Board of 
Control, consisting of three members, who are appointed by the 
Governor, with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Board 
appoints the superintendent, officers and teachers of the school. 
One officer is appointed to look up homes for the children, to 
apprentice them, and to keep a general oversight of them by visita- 
tion or correspondence. To complete the work of this institution, 
an agent is appointed in each county. 

The internal government of this school is that known as the 
" family " and " congregate " combined, the families consisting of 
about 30 members each, and being under the care of " cottage 
managers," ladies whom the children call " aunties," and who are 
supposed to care for the children as mothers. Each child of suffi- 
cient years is expected to work three hours every day; some work 
ou the farm, some in the dining-room and kitchen, while others 
make shoes, braid straw hats, make their own clothing, work in the 
bakery, engine room, laundry, etc. They are required to attend 
school three to five hours a day, according to their ages, and the 
school hours are divided into sessions to accommodate the work. 

The buildings, 10 in number, comprise a main building, eight 
cottages and a hospital, all of brick. The buildings are steam 
heated, lighted with gas and have good bathing facilities. There 
are 41 acres of land in connection with the school, and the total 
value of all the property is about $150,000, furnishing accommoda- 
tions for 240 children. 


This was established at Lansing in 1855, in the northeastern por- 
tion of the city, as the " House of_ Correction for Juvenile Offend- 
ers," having about it many of the features of a prison. In 1859 
the name was changed to " The State Reform School." The gov- 
ernment and discipline have undergone many and radical changes 
until all the prison features have been removed except those that 
remain in the walls of the original structure, and which remain 
only as monuments of instructive history. No bolts, bars or guards 
are employed. The inmates are necessarily kept under the surveil- 
lance of officers, but the attempts at escape are much fewer than 
under the more rigid regime of former days. This school is for the 
detention, education and reformation of boys between the ages of 
eight and 16 years, who are convicted of light offenses. 

The principal building is four-stories high, including basement, 
and has an extreme length of 246 feet, the center a depth of 48 
feet, and the wings a depth of 33 feet each. Besides, there are two 
" family houses," where the more tractable and less vicious boys 


form a kind of family, as distinguished from the congregate life of 
the institution proper. The boys are required to work a half a day 
and attend school a half a day. A farm of 328 acres belonging to 
the school furnishes work for many of the boys during the working 
season. Some are employed in making clothing and shoes for the 
inmates. The only shop-work now carried on is the cane-seating 
of chairs; formerly, cigars were manufactured here somewhat exten- 
sively. There is no contract labor, but all the work is done by the 
institution itself. 

The number of inmates now averages about 200, and are taken 
care of by a superintendent and assistant, matron and assistant, two 
overseers and six teachers. 


This is located at Flint, 60 miles nearly northwest of Detroit. 
The act establishing it was passed in 184S, and the school was first 
opened in 1854, in a leased building, it is a school in common for 
deaf mutes and the blind, rather from motives of economy than 
from any relation which the two classes bear to one another. 
The buildings were commenced in 1853. The principal ones now 
are: front building, 43 by 72 feet, with east and west wings, each 
28 by 60 feet; center building, 40 by 60, and east and west wings, 
each 50 by 70 feet; main school building, 52 by 54, with two 
wings, each 25 by 60 teet. All of these buildings are four stories 
high ; center of the front building is five stories, including base- 
ment. There are also a boiler and engine house, barns, etc., etc. 
The total value of the buildings is estimated at $358,045, and of 
the 88 acres of land occupied, $17,570. 

The number of inmates has increased from 94 in 1865 to 225 
in 1875. Including the principal, there are 10 teachers employed 
in the deaf and dumb department, and four in the blind, besides 
the matron and her assistants. Tuition and board are free to all 
resident subjects of the State, and the trustees are authorized to 
assist indigent subjects in the way of clothing, etc., to the amount 
of $40 a year. An annual census of all deaf mutes and blind per- 
sons in the State is officially taken and reported to the overseers 
of the poor, who are to see that these unfortunate members of the 
human family are properly cared for. 


This institution was established in 1S48, and now consists of two 
departments, one for males and the other for females. The capacity 
of the former is 2S0and of the latter 300 patients. In their general 
construction both buildings are arranged in accordance with the 
principles laid down by the Association of Medical Superintendents 
of American Institutions i'or the Insane. The buildings are of 
brick, with stone trimmings, and are very substantial, as well as 


beautiful. The entire cost of both buildings, with all the auxiliary 
structures, and 195 acres of land, is about $727,173.90. The 
buildings were constructed during the war and immediately after- 
ward. The asylum was opened in 1859 for the care of patients, 
and up to Oct. 1, 1875, there had been expended for the care and 
maintenance of patients, exclnsive of the cost of construction, 
$994,711.32. Indigent patients are received and treated at the 
asylum at the expense of the counties to which they belong, on the 
certification of the county authorities, the average cost of main- 
tenance being about $4.12^ per week. Pay patients are received 
when there is room for them, the minimum price of board being 
$5 per week. 


These large, beautiful and verv modern structures are located 
upon a farm of upward of 300 acres, and were erected in 1873- ? 6at 
a cost of about $400,000. The general plans are similar to those 
at Kalamazoo. They are built of brick, with stone window caps, 
belt-conrses, etc. There are accommodations for not less than 300 

Michigan pursues a very enlightened policy toward the chronic 
insane. Provisions have been made for the treatment even of 
the incurable, so that as much good as possible may be done even 
to the most unfortunate. The design is to cure whenever the 
nature of the mental malady will permit; but failing this, to cease 
no effort which could minister to the comfort and welfare of the 


The Detroit House of Correction, although a local institution, is 
used to a considerable extent as an intermediate prison, to which 
persons are sentenced by the courts throughout the State for minor 
offenses. Women convicted of felonies are also sentenced to this 
place. The whole number in confinement at this prison for the past 
decade has averaged a little over 400 at any one time, more males 
than females. The average term of confinement is but alittlemore 
than two months, and the institution is very faithfully conducted. 

The State Prison at Jackson is one of the best conducted in the 
Union. The total value of the property is valued at $552,113. The 
earnings of the prison in 1S78 were $92,378; number of prisoners; 
800. Their work is let to contractors, who employ 450 men at 
different trades. A coal mine has been recently discovered on the 
prison property, which proves a saving of several thousand dollars 
per annum to the State. The earnings of this prison since Gen. 
Wm. Humphrey has been warden (1875) has exceeded its current 



The State Prison at Ionia was established a few years ago for the 
reception of convicts whose crimes are not of the worst type, and 
those who are young, but too old for the Reform School. The 
ground comprises 53 acres of land, 13£ of which is enclosed by a 
brick wall 18 feet high. Estimated value of property, $277,490; 
current expenses for 1S7S, $45,744; earnings for 187S, $5,892; num- 
ber of prisoners Dec. 31, 1878, 250; number received during the 
year, 346. 


is distinct from the State Agricultural Board, the latter being sim- 
ply an executive over the Agricultural College under the laws of 
the State. The former was organized at Lansing March 23, 1849, 
and was specially incorpqrated by act of April 2 following, since 
which time it has numbered among its officers and executive mem- 
bers some of the foremost men of the State. It has held annual 
fairs in various places, and the number of entries for premiums has 
risen from 623 to several thousand, and its receipts from $S08.50 to 
$58,780. The premiums offered and awarded have increased pro- 


At an informal meeting of several gentlemen in Grand Rapids 
Feb. 11, 1S70, it was resolved to organize a State pomological 
society, and at an adjourned meeting on the 26th of the same month, 
the organization was perfected, and the first officers elected were: H. 
G. Saunders, President; S. L. Fuller, Treasurer; and A. T. Linder- 
man, Secretary. The society was incorporated April 15, 1871, " for 
the purpose of promoting the interest of pomology, horticulture, 
agriculture, and kindred sciences and arts." During the first two 
years monthly meetings were required, but in 1S72 quarterly meet- 
ings were substituted. It now has a room in the basement of the 
new capitol. T. T. Lyon, of South Haven, is President, and Charles 
W. Garfield, of Grand Rapids, Secretary. Under the supervision of 
this society, Michigan led the world in the centennial exposition at 
Philadelphia in the exhibition of winter apples. The contributions 
of this society to pomological literature are also richer than can be 
found elsewhere in the United States. 


Very naturally, tbe denser population of the white race, as it 
took possession of this wild country, consumed what they found 
already abundant long before they commenced to renew the stock. 
It was so with the forests; it was so with the fish. An abundance 
of a good variety offish was found in all our rivers and little lakes 
by the early settlers, but that abundance was gradually reduced 
until these waters were entirely robbed of their useful inhabitants. 


Scarcely a thought of re-stocking the inland waters of this State 
was entertained until the spring of 1873, when a board of fish 
commissioners was authorized by law; and while the people gen- 
erally still shook their heads in skepticism, the board went on with 
its duty until these same people are made glad with the results. 

Under the efficient superintendency of Geo. H. Jerome, of Niles, 
nearly all the lakes and streams within the lower peninsula have 
been more or less stocked witli shad, white-fish, salmon or lake 
trout, land-locked or native salmon, eel, etc., and special efforts are 
also made to propagate that beautiful and useful fish, the grayling, 
whose home is in the Manistee and Muskegon rivers. Much more 
is hoped for, however, than is yet realized. Like every other great 
innovation, many failures must be suffered before the brilliant crown 
of final success is won. 

The value of all the property employed in fish propagation in 
the State is but a little over $4,000, and the total expenses of con- 
ducting the business from Dec. 1, 1876, to July 1, 1877, were 

The principal hatcheries are at Detroit and Pokagon. 


was organized April 13, 1S75, at Battle Creek, for " the protection 
and promotion of the best interests of the firemen of Michigan, the 
compilation of fire statistics, the collection of information concern- 
ing the practical working of different systems of organization; the 
examination of the merits of the different kinds of fire apparatus 
in use, and the improvement in the same; and the cultivation of a 
fraternal fellowship between the different companies in the State." 
The association holds it meetings annually, at various places in the 
State, and as often publish their proceedings, in pamphlet form. 


This Board was established in 1873, and consists of seven mem- 
bers, appointed by the Governor, the secretary ex officio a member 
and principal executive officer. It is the duty of this Board to 
make sanitary investigations and inquiries respecting the causes of 
disease, especially of epidemics; the causes of mortality, and the 
effects of localities, emplo} T raents, conditions, ingesta, habits and 
circumstances on the health of the people; to advise other officers 
in regard to the location, drainage, water supply, disposal of ex- 
creta, heating and ventilation of any public building; and also to 
advise all local health officers concerning their duties; and to 
recommend standard works from time to time on hygiene for the 
nse of public schools. The secretary is required to collect informa- 
tion concerning vital statistics, knowledge respecting diseases and 
all useful information on the subject of hygiene, and through an 
annual report, and otherwise, as the Board may direct, to dissemi- 


nate such information among the people. These interesting duties 
have been performed by Dr. Henry B. Baker from the organization 
of the Board to the present time. The Board meets quarterly at 


of this State has a great deal of business to transact, as it has within 
its jurisdiction an immense amount of new land in market, and 
much more to come in. During the fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 
1877, the total number of acres sold was 50,835.72, for $87,968.05, 
of which $69,800.54 was paid in hand. At that time the amount of 
land still owned by the State was 3,049,905.46, of which 2,430,050.- 
47 acres were swamp land, 447,270.89 primary school, 164,402.55 
Agricultural College, 310.26 University, 160 Normal School, 2,- 
115.63 Salt Spring, 1,840 Asylum, 32.40 State building, 3,342.75 
asset, and 3S0.31 internal improvement. But of the foregoing, 
1,817,084.25 acres, or more than half, are not in market. 


Territorial Library , 1828-1 835.— The first knowledge that we 
have of this library, is derived from the records found in the printed 
copies of the journals and documents of the Legislative Councils of 
the Territory, and in the manuscript copies of the executive jour- 

The library was established by an act of the Legislative Council, 
approved June 16, 1S28, authorizing the appointment of a librarian 
by the Governor, with the advice and consent of the Council. 

The librarian so appointed was required to take an oath of office 
and give bond to the treasurer of the Territory in the sum of $1,- 
000, for the faithful performance of his duties; his time of service 
was for two years or until another be appointed. 

The librarian was also required to take charge of the halls and 
committee room, and other property appertaining to the Legislative 
Council. lie was also required to make an annual report to the 
Council, upon the state of the library, and upon all such branches 
of duty as might from time to time be committed to his charge. 
For his services he was to receive annually the sum of $100. 

The library seemed to have been kept open only during the actual 
sittings of the Legislative Council. 

The executive journal by its records shows that under the pro- 
visions of this act, William B. Hunt was appointed librarian July 
3, 1828, by Gov. Lewis Cass, for the term of two years. Mr. Hunt 
continued to act as librarian until March 7, 1834, when Gersham 
Mott Williams was appointed by Gov. Porter. Mr. Williams seems 
to have acted as librarian until the organization of the institution 
as a State library. 

The honored names of Henry B. Schoolcraft, Charles Moran, 
Daniel S. Bacon, Calvin Brittain, Elon Farnsworth, Charles C. Has- 


call and others are found in the list of the members of the Library 

March, 1S36, the State library was placed in charge of the Secre- 
tary of State; in February, 1S37. it was given to thecareof the pri- 
vate secretary of the Governor; Dec. 28 following its custody was 
given to the Governor and Secretary of State, with power to appoint 
a librarian and make rules and regulations for its government. C. 
C. Jackson acted as the first librarian for the State. Lewis Bond 
also had the care of the books for a time. Oren Marsh was appointed 
librarian in 1S37, and had the office several years. In March, 1S40, 
the law was again changed, and the library was placed in the care 
of the Secretary of State, and the members of the Legislature and 
executive officers of the State were to have free access to it at all 

State Library. — The library was of course increased from time 
to time by Legislative appropriations. In 18-14, as the result of the 
efforts of Alexandre Vattemare, from Paris, a system of interna- 
tional exchanges was adopted. 

April 2, 1850, an act was passed requiring the Governor to 
appoint a State librarian with the consent of the Senate, and it was 
made the duty of the librarian to have the sole charge of the library. 
This act, with some amendments, still remains in force. It requires 
the librarian to make biennial reports and catalogues. The libra- 
rians under this act have been: Henry Tisdale, April 2, 1850, to 
Jan. 27, 1851; Charles J. Fox, to July 1, 1853; Charles P. Bush, 
to Dec. 5.1854; John James Bush, to Jan. 6. 1S55; DeWitt C. 
Leach, to Feb. 2, 1857; George W. Swift, to Jan. 27, 1859; J. 
Eugene Tenney, to April 5, 1869; and Mrs. Harriet A. Tenney to 
the present time. This lady has proved to be one of the best libra- 
rians in the United States. She has now in her charge about 60,- 
000 volumes, besides thousands of articles in the new and rapidly 
growing museum department. She is also Secretary of the " Pio- 
neer Society of the State of Michigan," and has charge of the books, 
papers and relics collected by that society. The library and these 
museums are now kept in the new State capitol at Lansing, in a 
series of rooms constructed for the purpose, and are all arranged in 
the most convenient order and with the neatest taste. 

The earliest effort for the establishment of a bank within the pres- 
ent limits of the State of Michigan was in 1805. The act of Con- 
gress establishing the Territory of Michigan conferred legislative 
Sowers on the Governor and judges; and at their first session as a 
oard, a petition for an act incorporating a bank was presented to 
them. This was at a time when the local business could scarcely 
have demanded a banking institution, or have afforded much prom- 
ise of its success. The small town of Detroit had just been laid in 
ashes, and the population of the entire Territory was inconsidera- 



Mill .u. UCi.KlInI'.l . 



ble, being reckoned five years previously at only 551; in 1810, it 
was less than 5,000; the country was possessed mainly by the 
Indians, and the few French in the State were neither enterprising 
nor prosperous. No road pierced the forests of the interior; no 
manufactories existed; agriculture yielded nothing for market, and 
navigation had scarcely begun to plow our rivers and lakes. In 
general commerce the fur trade was almost the only element. 

The petition tor a bank charter was presented, not by citizens of 
Detroit, but by capitalists of Boston, Kussell Sturges and others, 
who were engaged in the fur trade. This petition was granted Sept. 
15, 1806, incorporating the " Bank of Detroit," with a capital of 
$■100,000. The great distance of this locality from New England 
gave those capitalists the advantage of circulating inland bills of 
credit against their Western banks for a long time before their 
redemption. Judge Woodward, one of the judges who granted the 
act of incorporation, was appointed its president, and the bank went 
into immediate operation; but imputations unfavorable to Judge 
Woodward in regard to this and other matters led to a Congres- 
sional investigation of the act incorporating the bank, and the act 
was disapproved by that body. The bank, however, continued to do 
business; but in September, 1808, the Governor and judges, in the 
absence of Woodward, passed an act making it punishable as a crime 
to carr}' on an unauthorized banking business, and this put an end 
to the brief existence of the institution. Its bills were quietly with- 
drawn from circulation the following year. 

The next bank established in the Territory was the " Bank of 
Michigan," incorporated by the Board of Governor and Judges, 
Dec. 19, 1817, with a capital of $100,000. The validity of this act 
was fully established by the courts in 1830. By the terms of its 
charter, the corporation was to expire on the first Monday in June, 
1839; but the Legislative Council, Feb. 25, 1831, extended its life 
twenty-five years longer, and subsequently it was allowed to increase 
its capital stock and establish a branch at Bronson, now Kalamazoo. 

The two above named are all the banks which derived their cor- 
porate existence from the Governor and judges. 

The first bank charter granted by the " Legislative Council "was 
to the Merchants' and Mechanics' Bank of Michigan," approved 
April 2, 1827. The bank was to be established at Detroit, with a 
capital of $200,000, with liberty to increase it to $500,000. This 
corporation was also made an insurance company; but it does not 
appear a company was ever organized under this charter. March 
29, 1827, the " Bank of Monroe " was incorporated, its capital stock 
to be $100,000 to $500,000, and to continue in existence 20 years. 
The " Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of Michigan " was chartered 
Nov. 5, 1829, and March 7, 1S34, it was allowed to increase its 
capital stock, and establish a branch at St. Joseph. The " Bank of 
Kiver Raisin " was chartered June 29, 1S32, and allowed to have a 
branch at Pontiac. The " Bank of Wisconsin " was chartered Jan. 
23, 1835, and was to be located in the Green Bay country, but on 


the organization of the State of Michigan it was thrown outside of 
its jurisdiction. 

March 26, 1835, there were incorporated four banks, namely: 
" Michigan State Bank" at Detroit, " Bank of Washtenaw" at Ann 
Arbor, " Bank of Pontiac," and the " Erie and Kalamazoo Railroad 
Bank" at Adrian. The ''Bank of Pontiac" was also a railroad 
bank, its establishment being an amendment to the charter of the 
" Detroit and Pontiac Railroad Company/' 

The nine banks last above named are all that were created by the 
"Legislative Council." 

Next, the State Legislature in 1836 chartered the Bank of Man- 
hattan, Calhoun County Bank. Bank of St. Clair, Bank of Clinton, 
Bank of Ypsilanti, Bank of Macomb, Bank of Tecumseh and Bank 
of Conetantine. The same Legislature passed "an act to create a 
fund for the benefit of the creditors of certain moneyed corpora- 
tions," which was in fact the famous safety-fund system of the State 
of New York. It required each bank to deposit with the State 
Treasurer, at the beginning of each year, a sum equal to one-half of 
one per cent, on the capital stock paid in; and the fund so created 
was to be held and used for the benefit of the creditors whenever 
any bank subject to its provisions should become insolvent; but this 
statute was destined to have but little practical effect. The system 
in New York proved inadequate for the security of the public 
interests, and it was practically abandoned here. 

By this time, the financial affairs of the whole country had 
become sadly deranged, consequent upon a wild and reckless spirit 
of speculation. The currency became greatly inflated, fabulous 
prices given to property, and the masses of the people subjected to 
the cruel mercies of shrewd financiers. The session of 1837 was 
flooded with petitions for the creation of banks, and the Legislature 
met the emergency by adopting a system of free banking, under 
which were organized a great number of those institutions since 
known as " wild-cat banks." The statute authorized any 12 free- 
holders of any county who desired to do banking, to apply to the 
treasurer and clerk of the county for that purpose, and books were 
to be opened for subscriptions to the capital stock, $50,000 to $300,- 
000. Ten per cent, on each share was required to be paid in specie 
at the time of subscribing, and 30 per cent, of the entire capital 
stock in like funds before the association should commence opera- 
tions. The president and directors were also required to furnish 
securities for the payment of all debts and redemption of all notes 
issned by the association. 

This new law was popularly received with great enthusiasm. 
On its final passage in the House, only four members were bold 
enough to vote against it, namely: Almy, of Kent; Monfore, of 
Macomb; Purdy, of Washtenaw, and Felch of Monroe. This 
Legislature closed its session March 22, 1837, by adjournment to 
Nov. 9, following; but the financial embarrassments of the country 
increased so rapidly that the Governor called an extra session of 


the Legislature for June 12, arid in bis message he attributed these 
embarrassments, in a great measure, to the error of over-banking, 
over-trading, and a want of providence and economy. The banks 
east and south had already suspended specie payments, and Mich- 
igan was of necessity drawn into the vortex. The report, to this 
Legislature, by a special commissioner appointed by the Governor, 
held forth, however, that the banks of Michigan were solvent, but 
that a little time may be granted them as a defense against the 
results of suspensions in New York and elsewhere. The number 
of banks doing business in this State at that time was 13 in num- 
ber, previously mentioned. The Legislature granted them time 
until May 16, 1838. The session of the winter following under- 
took to secure the public by appointing three bank commissioners 
to visit all the banks in the State at least once in every three 
months, to examine the specie held by them, inspect their books, 
and inform themselves generally of their affairs and transactions; 
monthly statements of the condition of the banks were required to 
be made and published, and no bills were to be issued without 
bearing the endorsement of a bank commissioner, etc. Under the 
general banking law, as already stated, every subscriber to the stock 
was to pay in 10 per cent, in specie on each share at the time of 
subscribing, and 10 every six months thereafter, and 30 per cent, 
of the whole capital stock was required to be paid in like manner 
before the bank should commence operations. The specie thus 
paid in was to be the capital of the bank and the basis of its busi- 
ness operations. The requirement of it involved the priuciple 
that banking could not be carried on without hona-fide capital, and 
without it no bank could be permitted to flood the country with its 
bills; but the investigations of the commissioners showed a very 
general violation of the law in this respect. In many cases, instead 
of specie, a kind of paper denominated " specie certificates " was 
used; in some cases, specie borrowed for the occasion was used and 
immediately returned to the owner; sometimes, even, a nail-keg 
filled with old iron, or gravel, or sand and covered over the top 
with specie, was employed to deceive the commissioners; and 
sometimes the notes of individual subscribers or others, usually 
denominated "stock notes," were received and counted as specie. 
The books of the banks were also kept in so imperfect a manner, 
sometimes through incompetency, sometimes with fraudulent de- 
sign, as frequently to give little indication of the transactions of 
the bank or of the true condition of its affairs. By proprietorship of 
several banks in one company of men, by frequent sale and trans- 
fer of the stock, and by many other tricks and turns, a little specie 
was made to go a great way in flooding the country with worthless 

It is manifest that this conditon of things could not have existed 
without a fearful amount of fraud and perjury. In the excitement 
and recklessness of the times, amid ruined fortunes and blighted 
hopes, the moral sense had become callous. The general banking 


law was not without some good features, but it came into existence 
at a most unfortunate time, and the keenness and unscrupulous- 
ness of desperate men, taking advantage of its weak points and 
corruptly violating its salutary provisions, used it to the public 

Under this law about 40 banks went into operation, many of 
them in remote and obscure places, and before the commissioners 
could perfect their work of reform the crisis came and the catas- 
trophe could not be averted. Failure rapidly succeeded failure, 
and legitimately chartered banks were drawn into the same vortex 
with the "wild-cat" institutions. Only seven banks escaped the 
whirlpool, and the worthless paper afloat represented more than a 
million dollars. .As ex-Gov. Alpheus Felch well says: 

"Thus ends the history of that memorable financial epoch. 
Forty years have passed since these events, and few remain who can 
remember the excitement and distrust, the fear and despondency, 
the hopes and disappointments which agitated the community, 
in those days of inflation and speculation, of bankruptcy and 
financial distress; and fewer still remain who bore part in the 
transactions connected with them. We look back upon them to 
read the lessons which their history teaches. The notion that 
banks without real capital, or a currency which can never be 
redeemed, can relieve from debts or insolvency, is tried and 
exploded. We are led to the true principle, that prosperity, both 
public and individual, awaits upon industry and economy, judicious 
enterprise and honest productive labor, free from wild speculation 
and unprofitable investments, and a wise and prudent use of our 
abundant resources." 

In 1875 there were 77 national banks in this State, doing an 
annual business of about $20,000,000; 15 State banks, with a busi- 
ness of nearly $4,000,000, and 12 savings banks, with a business of 


The lower peninsula occupies the central part of a great synclinal 
basin, toward which the strata dip from all directions, and which 
are bounded on all sides by anticlinal swells and ridges. The 
limits of this basin exceed those of the peninsula, extending to 
London, Out, Madison, Wis., Marquette and Sault Ste. Marie. 
The whole series of strata may therefore be compared to a nest of 
dishes, the lower and exterior ones representing the older strata. 

The upper peninsula is divided by the Marquette-Wisconsin 
anticlinal into two geological areas, the eastern belonging to the 
great basin above alluded to, and the western being lacustrine in 
its character, and largely covered by Lake Superior. The southern 
rim of the latter is seen uplifted along Keweenaw Point and the 
south shore of the lake, and these strata re-appear at Isle Royale. 


Between the Michigan and lacustrine basins the metalliferous Mar- 
quette- Wisconsin axis interposes a separating belt of about 50 

The palfeozoic great system of this State measures about 2,680 
feet in thickness, of which the Silurian division is 920 feet, the 
Devonian 1,040 feet, and the carboniferous 720 feet. 

The coal-bearing group occupies the central portion of the 
peninsula, extending from Jackson to township 20 north, and from 
range 8 east to 10 west. 

Of iron, hematite and magnetite, in immense lenticular masses 
of unsurpassed purity, abound in the Huronian rocks of the upper 
peninsula. The former of these, under the action of water, 
becomes soft, and is called Limonite, and is abundant throughout 
the State as an earthy ore or ochre, bog ore, shot ore, yellow ochre, 
etc. Sometimes it is deposited in stalactitic. mammillary, 
botryoidal and velvety forms of great beauty. Kidney ore abounds 
in the Huron clays, and " black-band" in the coal measures. 

Of copper, native, in the " trap " of Lake Superior, abounds in 
the form of sheets, strings and masses. Gold, silver and lead are 
also found in unimportant quantities in the Lake Superior region. 

Salt abounds in the Saginaw region, gypsum, or " land plaster " 
in the vicinity of Grand Rapids, building stone throughout the 
State, manganese in many places, and many other valuable earths, 
ores and varieties of stone in many places. 


There are about 275 newspapers and periodical publications in 
Michigan, of all classes. Of these 224 are published weekly, 17 
daily and weekly, two daily, seven semi-weekly, onetri-weekly, four 
semi-monthly, 19 monthly, one quarterly, and one yearly; 112 are 
Republican, 46 Democratic, 73 independent and neutral, 14 relig- 
ious, and 15 miscellaneous. Among the latter are two Methodist, 
seven Adventist (two Dutch or Hollandisch), one Episcopal, one 
Catholic and one Baptist; four mining, five educational, one 
Masonic, one Odd-Fellow, one Grange, three medical and one agri- 
cultural. Five are printed in the German language, six in the 
Dutch, one in the Swedish and one in the Danish. 

The present population of Michigan, according to the census of 
1880, is as follows: Male, 862.278; females, 774,057; native born, 
1,247,989; foreign, 3S8,346; white, 1,614,087; colored, 22,248; 
total, 1,636,335. ' 



Govs. During French Rule. Ap'd. 

Sieur de Mesey 1663 

Sieur de Courcelles 16(55 

Sieur de Frontenac 1672 

Sieur de LaBarre 1682 

Marquis de Deuonville 1685 

Sieur de Frontenac 1689 

Chevalier de Callieres 1699 

Marquis de Vaudreuil 1703 

Marquis de Beauharnois 1726 

Compt de la Galissoniere 1747 

Sieur de la Jonquiere 1749 

Marquis du Quesne de Menneville.1752 

Sieur de Vaudreuil de Cavagnal 1755 

Govs. During British Rule- 

James Murray 1765 

Paulus E. Irving 1766 

Guy Carleton 1766 

Hector T. Cramahe 1770 

Guy Carleton 1774 

Frederick Haldiuiand 1778 

Henry Hamilton 1784 

Henry Hope 1785 

Lord Dorchester 1786 

Alured Clarke 1791 

Lord Dorchester 1798 

Governors of Michigan Territory. 

William Hull 1805 

Lewis Cass 1813 

George B. Porter 1831 

Stevens T. Mason, ex officio 1834 

John T. Horner, ex officio 1835 

State Governors. Elected. 

Stevens T. Mason 1835 

William Woodbridge 1840 

J. Wright Gordon, acting 1841 

John S Barry 1842 

Alpheus Felch 1846 

Win. L. Greenly, acting 1847 

Epaphroditus Hansom 1848 

John S. Barrv 1850 

Robert McClelland 1852 

Andrew Parsons, acting 1853 

Kinsley S. Bingham 1855 

Moses Wisner 1859 

Austin Blair 1861 

Henry H. Crapo 1865 

Henry P. Baldwin 1869 

John J. Bagley 1873 

Charles M. Croswell 1877 

David H . Jerome 1881 

Lieut-Governors of Michigan. 

Edward Mundy 1835 

J. Wright Gordon 1840 

Origen D. Richardson 1842 

Wm. L. Greenly 1846 

Wm. M. Fenton 1848 

Wm. L. Greenly. .... 1849 

Calvin Britain X852 

Andrew Parsons !l853 

George A. Coe !l855 

Edmund B Fairfield 1359 

James Biruey iggj 

Joseph R. Williams, acting .1861 

Henry T. Backus, acting 1862 

Charles S. May 1863 

E. (J. Grosvenor 1865 

Dwight May '. .'i867 

Morgan Bates 1869 

Henry H. Holt ..1873 

Alonzo Sessions 1877 

Moreau S. Crosby !l88l 

Secretaries of State. 

Kintzing Pritchette 1835 

Randolph Manning 1838 

Thomas Rowland 1840 

Robert P Eldridge 1842 

G. O. Wnittemore 1846 

George W. Peck 1848 

George Redfield 1850 

Charles II . Taylor 1850 

William Graves 1853 

John McKinney 1855 

Nelson G. Isbell 1859 

James B. Porter 1861 

O. L. Spaulding 1867 

Daniel Striker 1871 

E. G. D. Holden 1875 

William Jenney 1879 

State Treasurers. 

Henry Howard 1836 

Peter Desnoyers 1839 

Robert Stuart 1840 

George W. Germain 1841 

John J. Adam 1842 

George Redfield 1845 

George B. Cooper 1846 

Barnard C. Whi ttemore 1850 

Silas M. Holmes 1855 

John McKinney 1859 

John Owen 1861 

E. O. Grosvenor 1867 

Victory P. Collier 1871 

Wm. B. McCreery 1875 

Benj. D. Pritchard 1879 


Daniel Le Roy 1836 

Peter Morev 1837 

Zephaniah Piatt 1841 

Elon Farnsworth 1843 

Henry N. Walker 1845 

Edward Mundy 1847 

Geo. V. N. Lothrop 1848 

William Hale 1851 


Jacob M. Howard 1855 

Charles Upson 1861 

Albert Williams 1863 

Wm. L. Stoughtou 1867 

Dwight May 1869 

Byron D. Ball 1873 

Isaac Marston 1874 

Andrew J. Smith 1875 

OttoKirchner 1877 


Robert Abbott 1836 

Henry Howard 1839 

Eurotas P. Hastings 1840 

Alpheus Felch 1843 

Henry L. Whipple 1842 

Charles G. Hammond 1845 

John J. Adam 1845 

Digby V . Bell 1846 

John J. Adam 1848 

John Swegles, Jr 1851 

Whitney Jones ,1855 

Daniel L. Case 1859 

Langford G . Berry 1861 

Emil Anneke 1863 

William Humphrey 1867 

Ralph Ely 1875 

W. Irving Latimer 1879 

Supts. Pub. Inst. 

John D. Pierce 1838 

Franklin Sawyer, Jr 1841 

Oliver C. Comstock 1843 

Ira Mayhew 1845 

Francis W. Shearman 1849 

Ira Mayhew 1855 

John M. Gregory 1859 

Oramel Hosford 1865 

Daniel B. Briggs 1873 

Horace S. Tarbell 1877 

Cornelius A. Gower .1878 

Judges of the Supreme Court. 

Augustus B. Woodward 1805-24 

Frederick Bates 1805-8 

John Griffin 1806-24 

James Witherell 1808-28 

Solomon Sibley 1824-36 

Henry Chipman 1827-32 

Wm. Woodbridge 1828-32 

Ross Wilkins 1832-6 

Wm. A. Fletcher 1836-42 

Epaphroditus Ransom 1836-47 

George Morell 1836-42 

Charles W. Whipple 1843-52 

Alpheus Felch 1842-5 

David Goodwin 1843 6 

Warner Wing 1845 56 

George Miles.' 1846-50 

Edward Mundy 1848-51 

Sanford M. Green 1848-57 

George Martin 1851-2 

Joseph T. Copeland 1862-1 

Samuel T. Douglas 1852-7 

David Johnson 1852-7 

Abner Pratt 1851-7 

Charles W. Whipple 1852-5 

Nathaniel Bacon 1855-8 

Sandford M. Green 1856-8 

E. H. C. Wilson 1856-8 

Benj. F. H. Witherell, Benj. F. 

Graves, Josiah Turner and Ed- 
win Lawrence, to fill vacancies 

in the latter part of 1857 

George Martin 1858-68 

Randolph Manning 1858-64 

Isaac P. Christiancy 1858-77 

James V. Campbell 1858 

Thomas M. Cooley 1864 

Benj. F. Graves 1868 

Isaac Marston 1875 

U. 8. Senators- 

John Norvell 1835-41 

Lucius Lyon 1836^0 

Augustus S. Porter 1840-5 

Wm. Woodbridge 1841-7 

Lewis Cass 1845-57 

Thos. H. Fitzgerald 1848-9 

Alpheus Felch 1847-53 

Charles E. Stuart 1853-9 

Zachariah Chandler 1857-77 

Kinsley S. Bingham 1859-61 

Jacob M. Howard 1862-71 

Thomas W. Ferry 1871 

Henry P Baldwin 1880 

Z. Chandler 1878-9 

OmarD. Conger 1881 

Representatives in Congress. 

Isaac E. Crary 1835^1 

Jacob M. Howard 1841-3 

Lucius Lyon 1843-5 

Robert McClelland 1843-9 

James B. Hunt 1843-7 

John S. Chipman 1845-7 

Charles E. Stuart 1847-9 

Kinsley S. Bingham 1849-51 

Alex. W. Buel 1849 51 

William Sprague 1849-50 

Charles E. Stuart 1851-3 

James L . Conger 1851-3 

Ebenezer J. Penniman 1851-3 

Samuel Clark 1853-5 

David A. Noble 1853-5 

Hester L. Stevens 1853-5 

David Stuart 1853-5 

George W. Peck 1855-7 

Wm. A. Howard 1855-61 

Henry Waldron 1855-61 

David S. Walbridge 1855-9 

D. C. Leach 1857-61 

Francis W. Kellogg 1859-65 

B. F. Granger 1861-3 

F. C Beaman 1861-71 

R. E. Trowbridge 1861-3 

Charles Upson 1863-9 


John W.Long^ear 1863-7 Josiah W. Begole 1873-5 

John F. Driggs 1863-9 Nathan B. Bradley 1873-7 

R. E. Trowbridge 1865-9 Jay A. Hubbell 1873 

Thomas W. Ferry 1869-71 W. B. Williams 1875-7 

Austin Blair 1867-73 Alpheus S.Williams 1875-9 

Wm. L. Stoughton 1869-73 Mark S. Brewer 1877 

Omar D. Conger 1869-81 Charles C. Ellsworth 1877-9 

Randolph Strickland 1869-71 Edwin W. Keightley 1877-9 

Henry Waldron 1871-5 Jonas H. McGowan 1S77 

Wilder D. Foster 187 1-3 John W. Stone 1877 

JabezG Sutherland 1871-3 Edwin Willits 1877 

Moses W. Field 1873-5 Roswell G. Horr 1879 

George Willard 1875-7 John S. Newberry 1879 

Julius 0. Burrows 1873-5, 1879 

The State printing is done by contract, the contractors for the 
last 13 years being W. S. George & Co. (Geo. Jerome), the former 
the active partner, who also publishes and edits the Lansing Re- 
publican, a paper noted for originality, condensation and careful 
" make-up." 


Michigan is a little southeast of the center of the continent of 
North America, and with reference to all the resources of wealth 
and civilization is most favorably situated. It is embraced between 
the parallels of 41°.692 and 47°.478 north latitude, and the merid- 
ians of 82°.407 and 90°.536 west of Greenwich. The upper 
peninsula has its greatest extent east aud west, and the lower, north 
and south. The extreme length of the upper peninsula is 318 
miles, and its extreme breadth, 164J miles; its area, 22,5S0 square 
miles. The length of the lower peninsula is 277 miles, its width, 
259 miles, and its area, 33,871 square miles. The upper peninsula 
is rugged and rocky, affording scarcely anything but minerals as a 
source of wealth; the lower is level, covered with forests of valuable 
timber, and is excellent for all the products of Northern States. 

The total length of the lake shore is 1,620 miles, and there are 
over 5,000 smaller lakes in the States, having a total area of 1,114 
square miles. 


And now, how natural to turn our eyes and thoughts back to the 
log-cabin days of less than 50 years ago, and contrast it with the 
elegant mansion of modern times. Before us stands the old log 
cabin. Let us enter. Instinctively the head is uncovered in token 
of reverence to this relic of ancestral beginnings and early struggles. 
To the left is the deep, wide tire-place, in whose commodious space 
a group of children may sit by the tire and up through the chimney 
may count the stars, while ghostly stories of witches and giants, 
and still more thrilling stories of Indians and wild beasts, are 
whisperingly told and shudderingly heard. On the great crane 
hang the old tea-kettle and the great iron pot. The huge shovel 
and ton^s stand sentinel in either corner, while the »reat andirons 


patiently wait for the huge back log. Over the fire-place hangs the 
trusty rifle. On the right side of the fire-place stands the spin- 
ning-wheel, while in the further end of the room the loom looms 
up with a dignity peculiarly its own. Strings of drying apples and 
poles of drying pumpkin are overhead. Opposite the door by 
which you enter stands a huge deal table; by its side the dresser 
whose " pewter plates" and " shining delf" catch and reflect "the 
fire-place flame as shields of armies do the sunshine." From the 
corner of its shelves coyly peep out the relics of former china. In 
a curtained corner and hid from casual sight we find the mother's 
bed, and under it the trundle-bed, while near them a ladder indi- 
cates the loft where the older children sleep. To the left of the fire- 
place and in the corner opposite the spinning-wheel is the mother's 
work-stand. Upon it lies the Holy Bible, evidently much used, its 
family record telling of parents and friends a long way off, and 
telling, too, of children 

Scattered like roses In bloom, 

Some at the bridal, and some at the tomb. 

Her spectacles, as if but just used, are inserted between the leaves 
of her Bible, and tell of her purpose to return to its comforts 
when cares permit and duty is done. A stool, a bench, well notched 
and whittled and carved, and a few chairs complete the furniture of 
the room, and all stand on a coarse but well-scoured floor. Let us 
for a moment watch the city visitors to this humble cabin. The 
city bride, innocent but thoughtless, and ignorant of labor and care, 
asks her city-bred husband, "Pray what savages set this up?" 
Honestly confessing his ignorance, he replies, '• I do not know." 
.But see the pair on whom age sits "frosty but kindly." First, as 
they enter they give a rapid glance about the cabin home, and then 
a mutual glance of eye to eye. Why do tears start and fill their 
eyes? Why do lips quiver? There are many who know why, but 
who that has not learned in the school of experience the full mean- 
ing of all these symbols of trials and privation, of loneliness and 
danger, can comprehend the story that they tell to the pioneer? 
Within this chinked and mud-daubed cabin, we read the first pages 
of our history, and as we retire through its low doorway, and note 
the heavy battened door, its wooden hinges, and its welcoming 
latch-string, is it strange that the scenes without should seem to be 
but a dream? But the cabin and the palace, standing side by side 
in vivid contrast, tell the story of this people's progress. They are 
a history and prophecy in one. 




.'■• ■ 

Historiography is one of the most important arts, even as his- 
tory itself ranks with the primary sciences. Whether the writer is 
rough or polished in his style, is a matter to be coasidfered apart 
from his art or science. Provided an account of Qe origin 
and the rise or fall of the people with whom his chronicle connects 
itself is given impartially and correctly, the excesses of refinement or 
roughness may be overlooked and the subject sjaidied with pleasure. 
Experience teaches that history is one of the most effective 
elements in the promotion of good, and one of the most neces- 
sary in building up man to acquire a knowledge of what human 
power and wisdom really are; and since it is impossible for any- 
one man to walk in all the paths of life, or receive a true con- 
ception of past events from what is legendary or fabulous, the 
science of history comes forward to his aid, telling him how cities 
were built up, fortunes made, and battles won. Through this 
means the past lives in the present, and a careful study of its story 
cannot fail to endow the mind of the student with a knowledge 
of men and events. 

Chronology and geography are the two eyes of history. Events 
must be observed through the locality in which they happened, and 
the time when they occurred, if men would judge justly. The massa- 
cres of Glencoe, Island Magee and St. Barthlomew were justifiable in 
the minds of the ruffian actors, with whom Christianity had as little to 
do as the fallen Lucifer has now with heaven. The rude policy of 
the time directed those human sacrifices. If the massacre of Wy- 
oming were to be repeated to-day by a troop of disguised 
Britishers, what a howl of scorn would arise from the centers of 
civilization ! Yet, during the Revolution, the enemy seemed to be 
convinced of their justification, and the royal and loyal (? ) citi- 
zens gloried in the success of military strategy. 

Now history brings forth all such events; it inquires into them, 
criticises, paints the barbarity of the agents in such transac- 
tions, holds them up to obloquy, and thus leads on the mind 
to holier deeds, worthy of our civilization. History contributed 
its share in making a soldier such as Washington, or a philosopher 


such as Franklin. Its work is silent and slow, but sure and 
perfect. Nothing on this broad earth is so solemnly interesting 
as an impartial historical work. It admonishes as well as directs. 
It relates the fate of brilliant enterprises, and shows where 
the cause of failure existed. It directs other actions of great mo- 
ment, approves of them, and points out where the capital may 
be placed on success. It places examples before statesmen which, 
if examined closely, may have a tendency to lead them away from 
a vicious policy, and so benefit the people whose destinies are 
in their hands. History, pure and simple, enters the paths 
of peace, and snatches a hidden name from its hiding place. The 
American people of to-day are, and generations to come will 
be, more concerned about the war of the Revolution than were the 
colonists of that period. So is it in other cases; the inheritors of 
these beautiful farms and dwellings which decorate the county 
will search for an account of their forefathers, and find it only in 
history. The science is the Alpha and Omega of all valuable 
information regarding men and events, and should always take a 

[irominent place in the book-case or on the table of every man who 
lolds not his manhood cheap. 

In this history of Jackson county much space is devoted to 
the philosophical and descriptive papers prepared by Jackson citi- 
zens. This was made incumbent on the writer, since many 
of these articles are of rare excellence, while others possess a com- 
mendable peculiarity. Each contribution is intimately connected 
with the county, and is on that account, also, of great value 
and interest. Combined, they will form for the historian of the fut- 
ure a great subject, and one that will remind him of men who 
did their duty to themselves, to posterity and to their Republic. 




The boundaries of Jackson county, as denned in the introduc- 
tion to the chapter on the "Transaction of the Supervisors," and 
remaining since unchanged, are Ingham and Eaton on the north, 
Hillsdale and Lenawee on the south, Washtenaw on the east and 
Calhoun on the west. Its area is set down at about 720 square 
miles, containing a population, according to the census of 1881 >, i >f 
42,031 souls, by townships and wards as follows: 





2d ward, 
3d " 
4th •' 
5th " 
6th " 
7th " 
8th " 


Jackson city 1,65!) 
" 1,006 




Spring Arbor . . . 

. .1.468 


" 2,557 




" 2,107 




1st ward, Jackson 

. . . 1,270 
city 1,537 




Of these, 21,831 are males, 20,200 females; 36,429 natives, 
5,602 foreigners; 41,513 white, 518 colored, 3 Chinese and 3 

The principal villages are: Springport, Tompkins, Berry ville, 
Rives Junction, Henrietta, Waterloo, Devereaux Station, Parma, 
Sandstone, Van Horn's Crossing, Puddle Ford, Woodville, Leoni, 
Michigan Center, Grass Lake, Franciscoville, Concord, Spring 
Arbor, Spring Arbor Station, Napoleon, Norvell, Jefferson, Brook- 
lyn, Baldwin, Hanover, Stony Point, Pulaski. 


The lakes and ponds of the county are Montague, Garley and 
Cooper's lakes in Springport; an expansion of Sandstone creek 
in Tompkins; Berry, Trumbull, Mud, and Allen lakes in Rives; 
Pleasant, Twin, White's, Mud, Baptiste, and Portage lakes 
in Henrietta; Big Portage, Little Portage, Clear, Merkle, Pond 
Lily, in Waterloo; Chase's pond in Parma; Heart's lake in Sand- 
stone; Gillett's, Brill's, Goose, Eagle, Mud, and Grove lakes, and 
Mill pond in Leoni; Grass, Tims, Rielly's and Little Pleasant 
lakes in Grass Lake; expansion of Kalamazoo river in Concord; 
expansions of Sandstone creek in Spring Arbor; Sharp's, Vander- 


cook's. Brown's and Com- lakes in Summit; Ackerman's, Cran- 
berry, Stony, Wolf, in Napoleon; Sweeney, South, Wampler's, 
Mud, Vineyard, Tamarack, and Bessy lakes, with expansion and 
Mill pond on Goose creek in Xorvell; Clarke's, Vineyard (ex- 
tension of | and Mill pond in Columbia; Skiff, Grand, Round, Mud, 
and Crisped lakes in Liberty; Farewell, Mud, Bibbins and other 
ponds in Hanover; Swain's, Wilbur, Long, and Goose lakes in 

Jackson county forms the basin from which springs a large 
number of important rivers, and several creeks or streams. Grand 
river may be said to have its source in the extreme southern 
portion of Liberty township, in a marsh and pond southwest of 
Grand lake. Its course is northeast, toward Clarke lake, in 
Columbia; thence north by west through a series of windings, 
until it enters Jackson city at the southeast angle. Flowing 
north it meets the waters 01 the An Foin, or Portage branch, at 
Puddle Ford, in Blackmail township, and flowing northwest forms 
a junction with Sandstone creek in Tompkins, north of the village. 
It flows north from sec. 4, R. 2 W., in Tompkins, and pursuing 
a northwesterly course, enters the lake at Grand Haven. 

The Kalamazoo takes its rise a little south of Lake Farewell, in 
Hanover. Flowing through this township it enters Spring Arbor, 
courses northwest through Concord, and leaves the county at the 
southwest angle of Parma, entering the lake near the village of 

The Raisin river may be said to have its origin in Nbrvell 
township, where its main feeder flows from the mill-pond, and 
thus is it made a continuation of Goose creek, the source of which 
is found in Columbia, the adjoining township. The second 
feeder rises in Grass lake, and flowing south, forms a junction 
with the main branch, south of Sweeney lake, follows a south- 
easterly course, and enters Lake Erie at Monroe. 

The creeks are numerous, comprising among others Wilbur, 
Swain, Stony. Goose, Marsh brook, Wolf, Rielly's, Baptiste, Or- 
chard, Stowed. White's, Spring brook, Portage creek, Mackay 
brook, Sandstone and Raisin creeks. 

Artesian water bursts forth at intervals, and courses down its 
bed to mingle with that of the creeks, lakes or rivers. 


The "height of land" occurs in the township of Summit, immedi- 
ately south of Jackson city. Here may be seen the effect of such 
an eminence on the waters of the locality, the waters of the Kala- 
mazoo and Grand rivers flowing to the great Western lake, and 
those of the Raisin into Lake Erie, at Monroe. Summit has proba- 
bly never been visited by the hydrographer. In all the reports at 
hand there is no mention made of it; yet that it exercises a very 
important influence on the streams originating in the immediate 
\ icinity, cannot be questioned. Let the altitudes of a few principal 


eminences in the State be taken. The computed elevation of Fran- 
ciscoville is 446 feet above Lake Huron and 1,024 feet above the 
sea; that of Grass Lake readies within 35 feet of the foregoing 
figures, and Leoni is Id feet lower than Grass Lake. Jackson is 
only 400 feet above the lake, or ( .»7>> feet above the sea; Michigan 
Center, 363 feet; Barry, .'!<;■_>; Sandstone creek, 347 feet; Gillett's 
lake, :!.')4 feet, and Grass lake, : J >77. This measurement would 
entitle Franciscoville to the name of &«»A The fact that it is 
the highest point arrived at by one man does not constitute it the 
highest eminence of the Lower Penisula or even of the county; 
nor do the people generally believe it to be; for they named the 
Summit under the conviction that it was fully 1,098 feet above the 
sea, or 520 feet above the level of Lake Huron. 

The marsh Lands of the county extend over 4, 881 acres. Those 
stretching along the eastern branch of Grand river, and forming 
one of its feeders, are very extensive. All this land, if drained, 
is capable of the highest cultivation; and the wonder is that such 
an intelligent people have permitted it to lie waste so Long. The 
surface of this county is generally undulating, and a very small 
portion may be said to be hilly. The soil is that known under the ap- 
pellation of plains and openings. The west and southwest portion, 
constituting, perhaps, one-fourth of the county, is burr-oak plains; 
the greater portion of the rest of the county is oak openings and 
timbered land. There is no dry prairie. Small tracts of wet 
prairie are interspersed throughout the county, which are easily 
drained. This county is generally well timbered and watered, and 
has a large portion of superior farming land. The soil is mostly of 
a rich, sandy loam. The plains, much resembling orchards, are 
covered with a sparse growth of burr-oak, white and red oak and 
hickory trees, generally free from underbrush, and in the summer 
months with a succession of wild flowers. Wheat, oats, corn, 
barley and potatoes succeed admirably, and the magnificent 
orchards generally yield a rich harvest. 

The report of State Geologist Alex. Winchell, printed in 1861, 
deals briefly with the subject so far as it is connected with this 
county. From it, however, an idea of the formation of the dis- 
trict may be gleaned. He docs not assert that outcrops of rock 
are unknown here, but rather is he inclined to think that from the 
arenaceous character of the Drift materials throughout the coun- 
ties of Oakland and Lapeer, an arenaceous stratum may be found 
underlying the district known as Jackson county. Good exposures 
of the formation may be seen in the quarries at Jonesville and Hills- 
dale, and at many other points. In Jackson county the formation 
extends up into Liberty and Hanover, and has been pierced nearly 
through at the depth of 105 feet in the well of S. Jacobs, Jr., in the 
township of Pulaski. 


Napoleon Group. — The report, in a direct reference to the county, 
says: "The ne"xt outcrop of these rocks is found at Napoleon, near 
Jackson, where they are quarried over an area of 88 acres, and 
expose a section of about 75 feet. The rock is for the most part 
of a grayish color, inclining to buff. The beds are generally of 
sufficient thickness and perfection to answer either for flagging or 
building. The following is the stratification : 

4. Sandstone, buff and bluish-gray, composed of transparent and colored 

grains of quartz, thick bedded 40 feet. 

3. 8 indstone, yellowish, thick bedded 4 " 

2. Sandstone, pale greenish, thick bedded 20 " 

1. Sandstone, greenish-buff, composed of minute rounded grains of colored 
quartz, pretty firmly cemented with a very perceptible quantity of 
white calcareous matter 11 " 

The higher beds are worked on the grounds into excellent win- 
dow-sills and water tables. The compiler of the report saw some 
fine floated and molded stone steps and door-sills. The quarries 
at this place furnished the cut stone for the Union school buildings, 
and the city hall at Monroe, the Union school-house at Tecum- 
seh, and for several public, private and commercial buildings in 
the vicinity. Some beds of this stone are sufficiently clean and 
sharp to answer the requisites of a coarse grindstone, and some 
years ago this manufacture attained here a considerable degree of 

The Napoleon sandstone outcrops at other places in the south 
part of Jackson county and further northwest. Being entirely 
free from fossils, it is not easily distinguished from the sandstones 
above and the unfossiliferous portions of the rock below. The 
sandstone of Napoleon bears a considerable resemblance to the 
conglommerate of Ohio, asseenatthe gorge of the Cuyahoga at the 
falls; but it contains no pebbles, and occupies a position, more- 
over, below the carboniferous limestone. As a distinct formation, 
therefore, it has no satisfactory equivalent in the surrounding 
States, and there is no reason, except its negative paleontologies 1 
characters, for separating it from the Marshall group. 

Suit Group. — The Salt group thins out toward the southern 
portion of the State, and nearly disappears through Lapeer, Oak- 
land. Washtenaw, Jackson and Eaton counties, thus forming an- 
other illustration of the thickening of our formations toward the 
north. The salt springs at Saline, in Washtenaw county, and at 
several points in Jackson, may possibly issue from the attenuated 
representative of the group ; but I am more inclined to think that 
these waters, like similar ones in Branch, Oakland and the north- 
ern part of Huron counties, are supplied by the various formations 
outcropping at these localities. Borings for salt have shown the 
Napoleon and Marshall sandstones to be saliferous, while at Sagi- 
naw, water from the Coal Measures stood at one degree of the salome- 
ter in the upper part, and increased to 14 degrees before reaching the 
Parma sandstone. It is important to bear in mind that the occur- 


rence of a brine spring proves nothing more than that there is salt 
somewhere in the State. 

Parma Surnistone. — In the townships of Parma, Springport and 
(Sandstone is found a white or yellowish quartzose glistening sand- 
stone containing occasional traces of terrestrial vegetation. On 
the line between sections 18 and 1!», in Sandstone township, 
this rock is seen succeeding upward to the ferruginous bed of the 
carboniferous limestone. On the N. W. JofN. W. J of section 29 
tlic rock presents a characteristic exposure. It is light colored, thick 
bedded, firmly cemented, and furnishes an excellent stone for 
building purposes. It presents the remarkable dip of 45 z S. S.W., 
with vertical divisional planes running parallel with the strike. 
The rock is occasionally stained with iron, is of medium firm- 
ness, and glistens in the sun. owing to the glassy appearance of its 
(piartzose grains. For caps and sills it is apparently superior 
to the Napoleon sandstone. This quarry occurs upon a ridge, ele- 
vated about :>."> feet above the limestone. It has every appearance 
of a violent uplift, but the undisturbed position of the under- 
lying limestone seems incompatible with this supposition, and we 
are forced to conclude that the apparent dip of the formation 
is nothing more than a very illusory example of oblique lamina- 
tion. In the same township, near where the highway crosses Pice 
creek, this sandstone affords a calamite. The rock is nearly white. 
sometimes varying to a light straw color, and in some places 
is qitite full of small, white quartzose pebbles. A portion of the 
Albion flouring mill was built of stone from this section. AtBoyn- 
ton's quarry, half a mile northwest of the Barry coal mines, is 
a tine exposure of massive sandstone, which, though occupying 
a higher geographical position than the coal, is believed to belong 
geologically below it. It is found above the limestone, in the vi- 
cinity of Chester Wall's quarry, and seems to lie the highest rock 
in the interval between the Barry and Woodville coal mines. 
Smith of Woodville it may be recognized by its glistening charac- 
ter, to the vicinity of Hayden's coal mine, and thence to the 
region south of Jackson. It is separated in this part of the State 
by so short an interval from the Napoleon sandstone below and 
the Woodville sandstone above, that the geographical distribution 
of this formation lias not been very accurately determined. This 
sandstone was pierced in the boring for salt at East Saginaw, and 
its thickness was found to he 105 feet. It cannot be one-third 
of this on the southern border of the basin. Xo fossils, except im- 
perfect calamites and vegetable traces, have been detected in 
the Parma rock, but accompanying its outcrop are found angular 
fragments of flinty or cherty sandstone, abounding in impressions of 
sigillariae. Unlike the Ohio conglomerate, it is separated from 
the Upper Devonian rocks by a considerable thickness of calcareous 
and arenaceous stratum. 

Tin "Times" Building.— W. V. Storey, when meditating the 
building of the magnificent office in which his journal is 
printed and published, at Chicago, could not see where the 


Joliet and Lemont quarries equaled those of Stony Point or 
Sandstone. He dispatched a Mr. Wilder hither to examine 
and report on the stone. The report was necessarily favor- 
able. Subsequently the rock, of which the Chicago Time* 
block is built, was transported from Sandstone to Chicago, where 
it met the approval of all building contractors not concerned in the 
Lemont. ring. This stone, though impregnable to the effects of 
the most biting frosts, is not entirely impervious to water. Now 
the rain fall at Chicago is so very limited that no fears may be en- 
tertained for the building, while the piercing frosts, the only cause 
for anxiety there, cannot affect the huge pile of Jackson rock, 
worked into the beautiful building at the northwest corner of Wash- 

Cwrboniferow LiTnestone. — From Grand Rapids the formation 
has been traced north through Ada, in Kent county, to the rapids 
of the Muskegon. South of Grand Rapids it is followed through 
Walker, Paris and Gaines, in Kent county, to Bellevue, in Eaton 
comity, and thence by numerous outcrops to Parma, Sandstone, 
Spring Arbor, Summit, and Leoni. The S. W. | ofS. E. \ of 
section 1.",, Summit, is believed to be the most southern well 
characterized exposure of this formation. It occurs in a quarry 
belonging to Michael Shoemaker. The section exposed here is 
about 14 feet, and resembles the rock at Spring Ai'bor. It is as 

I). Sandstone, red, calcareous, highly shattered 5feet 

('. Limestone, highly ferruginous 4 " 

B. Limestone, quite arenaceous, shattered .2 " 

A. Limestone, coin pact, crystalline 3 " 

The characters of this bed are exceedingly uniform at all the out- 
crops on the south and west sides of the geological basin. 

Coal Measures.- The coal measures, with the overlying Wood- 
ville sandstone, occupy the whole central area of the Lower Pen- 
insula. The territory covered embraces the counties of Jackson, 
Saginaw. Shiawassee, Clinton, Ionia. Montcalm, Gratiot, Isabella, 
Midland, Tuscola, Genesee, Ingham. Eaton and Ray. The whole 
area underlaid is about ti.7<>o square miles, embracing 1*7 town- 
ships. Coal was discovered at Spring Arbor in 1835, while digging 
the foundations for the mill of the village. The opening occurs on 
Sandstone creek, where it is crossed by the highway, on the ^-sec- 
tion line running south through the S. E. \. The outlier seems to 
he embraced in a gentle elevation, covering, perhaps, 40 acres to 
thewest of the opening. Some distance up the hill-slope, a boring 
was made with the following results: 

E. Drift materials 8feet 

I). Shale 22 " 

('. Coal 4 " 

B. Under clay 14 " 

A. Parma sandstone 


In the Drift, which has been carried into the hill, the coal found 
is only three feet thick, and contains a seam of iron pyrites one foot 
from the top. Fragments of black band iron ore are brought out 
whicli contain impressions ot fishes. The sandstone comes to the 
surface a few rods to the north, and a boring for coal was executed 
in it, of course without success. The boring, however, became an 
artesian well. One mile north of Hayden's mine, in Spring Arbor 
township, occurs the Woodville mine. The section passed in the 
shaft of this mine is as follows: 

E. Superficial materials 12 feet 

D. Woodville sandstone 30 " 

C. Shales, dark, bituminous 43 " 

B. Bituminous coal 4 " 

A. Under clays 3 " 

The coal is bituminous, solid, generally free from foreign matters, 
but is intersected by a thin belt of iron pyrites. It furnishes a 
glistening coke. The coal found in the Jackson City Coal Com- 
pany's mine, near the village of Barry, possesses similar qualities 
to that of the Woodville mine, and appeared to equal any in the 
State. An outcrop of coal is said to occur about half a mile west 
of the village of Barry. Another outcrop occurs at the mill-dam 
in the city of Jackson, and indications ofits approach to the surface. 
are seen in the neighborhood. In the shaft which was sunk by the 
coal company above mentioned, the following section was passed, 
according to the statement of Wm. Walker: — 

<i Superficial materials 8 feet 

F Sandstone, white 26 " 

E. Black, bituminous shale with Lingula 14 " 

D. Black-band iron ore " " 3 " 

C. Cannel coal 2 " 

B Bituminous coal 2 " 

A. Arenaceous fire clay 7 " 

In the boring close by, the section continues downward through 
30 feet of arenaceous materials, probably representing the Parma 
sandstone. Numerous explorations have been made in the vicinity 
of the city of Jackson, but it would occupy too much space to detail 
the results. 

Depression over ('mil Fields.— The settling of the earth, and 
with it an occasional dwelling in the vicinity of the coal mines 
north of the prison, not only presents no very alarming phases, 
but is nothing new, recent or particularly consequential. The coal 
veins of that locality vary from two to three feet in thickness, and 
after the mineral is removed and the supports taken but it is nat- 
ural that the ground above should settle into the unoccupied space. 
But the coal is 65 feet below, and many times the earth sinks so 
gradually and so little that tin- change is hardly observable mi the 
surface. Throughout this entire distance, as a result of the sub- 
terranean excavations, the face of the land is undulating in places. 


but it is not marked by abrupt depressions, or sharply defined cav- 
ities or hollows. 

In several instances buildings standing on places which have 
thus settled of course settled with their foundations, but were car- 
ried down so gradually and gently that little notice was taken of it. 
And in no case has a building sunk independent of a contiguous 
area more or less extensive, so that as a general thing the appear- 
ance of the premises underwent little observable change. Wear 
the Emerson mine, some time ago, a small orchard sank a couple 
of feet, but its relation to the adjacent territory is such that it 
would hardly be suspected that any such event had befallen it. 
Over a year since the house of Howell T. Iiowells, 18 Cooper 
street, sank a little, and three months ago a barn in that, neighbor- 
hood belonging to John Tremellings settled, but nothing was 
thoughtof it. Recently, just north of the Emerson mine, near David 
Price's dwelling, the earth was found to be sinking and it is 
not improbable that the dwelling will be iuvolved, as coal of 
the thickness of two or three feet has been taken from beneath it. 
Allusion has been made to the sinking of the small brick house of 
Louis lieinholdt, florist, 37 Cooper street, but aside from two or 
three small fissures in the cellar walls the building seems to be in- 
tact and in no danger of additional injury or of collapse. As arule, 
however, the buildings in this district are frame, and there is little 
or no danger of their falling in case the ground beneath them set- 
tles as already explained. 

Other Minerals. — Ochre beds are found in Jackson county, em- 
braced in the Woodville sandstone. In several localities ochreous 
deposits from springs exist in such quantities as to justify attempts 
at establishing a business. 

Oxyd of Mitiujtniixi lias been found at a depth of two feet be- 
neath a bed of peat, forming a stratum 14 inches thick and ex- 
tensive in its area. Over 20 years ago this mineral was used as 
carriage paint by L. D. Gale, of Grass Lake. 

FvrrtHjimxix Shales. — Ferruginous and chocolate-colored shales 
occur in the Coal Measures. A paint made up of these shales was 
used for outside work at Lansing in 1858, and promised to give 
every satisfaction. 

Fire Clay. — A vast deposit of fire clay is found a short distance 
north of the city limits, which is used in the manufacture of sewer 
pipe and fire brick, while the whiter portions, together witli a finer 
quality of potter's clay from the beds of Spring Arbor, are used in 
the manufacture of the better class of pottery work. 

Iron Ore is found, but not. in sufficient quantities to suggest 
mining operations. What does exist is of excellent quality, and 
may lead the geologist to such exploration as may result in the dis- 
covery of illimitable deposits within this county. 

County Peat Fields. — The peat, lignite and other bituminous 
deposits to be found in the county are of incalculable value. In 
this connection Mr. Winchell gives a synopsis of the varied 


uses in which the much despised peat would take a very promi- 
nent part : 

1. Crude peat as a fertilizer for the soi.. 

2. Prepared peat and peat coke as fuel. 
(/*) For domestic heating purposes. 
(h) For the generation of steam. 

(r.) For the manufacture and working of metals. 
3 Peat for the manufacture of gunpowder. 

4. Peat, or bitumen from peat, for paving purposes. 

5. Crude oil, for lubrication, illumination and gas-making. 
0. Petroleum for burning in lamps. 

7. Paraffine for the manufacture of candles. 

s Light, inflammable gas for heating. 

9. Illuminating gas of superior quality 

10. Lampblack . 

These views of the State Geologist are in accordance with those 
of early and even modern writers. They are not impracticable where 
peat fields exist, and should be minutely inquired into by the 
enterprising capitalists of the county. 

Description of a Jackson Muskeg. — Near Michigan Center 
is a muskeg, or covered lake. This was over 100 feet in depth, 
bearing upon its surface the accumulated houghs, trees, leaves and 
sands of ages. — the refuse of the forest and the neighboring sand 
hills. — all hidden beneath a stratum of black, marshy Loam, and 
this again covered with luxuriant grass and herbage. It is, un- 
doubtedly, hundreds of years since the once extensive and clear 
waters of this lake began to receive the contributions of vege- 
table matter and sands which have since converted the neighbor- 
hood of its present limits into rich and fertile lands, and gave 
promise to complete their labors as field-makers. In the distant 
northwest the water is undergoing the same process. Everywhere 
the treacherous muskeg presents itself, but in a far more primitive 
condition than the muskegs of Michigan, of which that at Center 
village is a specimen. 

Mr. Winchell, when dealing with this subject, says numer- 
ous evidences exist of the movement of heavy bodies over the un- 
derlying rocks, previously to their burial by the Drift. Wherever 
considerable surfaces are found exposed they are seen smoothed 
and striated in the manner usually attributed to Drift agency. The 
inequalities left in the surfaces of'the assorted Drift, upon the with- 
drawal of the submerging ocean, remained tilled with water, which, 
by constant drainage to the sea in connection with accessions of fresh 
water only, have become our numerous inland lakes. These for many 
ages have been constantly tilling up from several sources. Around 
the margin of these lakes is always a belt abounding in every 
.form of aquatic vegetation, which, decaying, forms a deposit of veg- 
etable matter, resting upon the marl from the water's edge to the 
inner Hunt of vegetable growth. The filling of the interior with 
transported matter, calcareous sediments, and shells of fresh water 
mollusks, causes the shallow belt to extend toward the center, and 
the vegetable deposit to encroach continually upon the lacustrine 


area, until the whole lake becomes a peaty marsh with a bed 
of marl at the bottom. Subsequent accessions till the interstices 
of the porous soil, exclude the standing water, and convert the 
reeking marsh into dry and arable land. The beaver and the 
muskrat may exert some agency in the inundation and drainage of 
lands; but a few observations on the borders of our lakes will suf- 
fice to show that they are by no means the principal agents. The 
beds of marl and peat thus accumulated constitute almost exhaust- 
less repositories of nutritive matter for the recuperation of the hill- 
side soils, that have been exhausted of their soluble ingredients by 
the leaching rains and an improvident system of farming. 

Pre-Columbian, if not Anted/ilv/oicm. — Imbedded in these ac- 
cumulations are found the remains of the elephant, mastodon, and 
elk. A fragment of a mastodon's molar was found by Dr. Miles, 
at Green Oak, Livingston Co. A perfect molar of an elephant 
was exhumed by some farmers in the northern portion of Jackson 
county. And so on, throughout the counties, these relics of the 
dim past are brought forth from their primitive hiding places to of- 
fer new subjects for inquiry. During the progress of the first geo- 
logical survey. Prof. Sager, then State Geologist, exhumed in the 
western part of the State the caudal vertebrae of a whale. 

Artesian Welfo. — The late successful boring of several artesian 
wells in the southern part of the State has created a very general 
desire to know to what extent artesian borings would prove suc- 
cessful in other parts. Several unsuccessful borings have been 
made rather by experiment than by any adequate knowledge of 
the existence of such a geological structure as could furnish rea- 
sonable grounds for the expectation of success. From what has 
been stated of the general conformation of the strata underlying 
the Lower Peninsula, the accumulation and retention of vast reser- 
voirs of water will appear obvious and necessary. Rains falling 
on the surface percolate down until the water reaches an impervious 
stratum, along which it flows until it reaches the lowest depression 
of such stratum, somewhere beneath the center of the State, and 
some hundreds of feet from the surface. The water-bearing strata 
are, therefore, porous sandstone, immediately underlaid and over- 
laid by impervious strata of an argillaceous or calcareous character. 
Each porous sandstone stratum becomes in this manner surcharged 
with water, admitted at its outcrop. It is obvious that by boring 
down at any point within the. circuit of the outcrop of water-bear- 
ing stratum, until the stratum is pierced, the water will rise to a 
level with the rim of the basin which holds it. If the place of 
boring is lower than that point, the water will rise to the surface 
and overflow ; if higher, it will not. In the southern part of Jack- 
son and the northern part of Hillsdale counties the sandstones of 
the Napoleon and Marshall groups outcrop at levels considerably 
higher than the general elevations of the Peninsula, and it is likely 
that the impediments to a free circulation of the water in these 
strata prevent them from sinking to the level of the lowest portions 
of the basin in remote parts of the State. 


As a consequence artesian borings might prove successful through- 
out the southern half of Jackson county. It must not be supp ised. 
however, that the artesian wells of Jackson are supplied from this 
source. If I have succeeded in the identification of the rocks in 
that vicinity, these wells are supplied from the Parma sandstone. 
Albion is outside the rim of this formation, and the wells there 
have to be continued down to the bottom of the Napoleon sand- 
stone. Marshall is outside this rim. and rests just upon that of 
the outcropping Marshall group; and hence I should not expect 
that the contained waters would rise to the surface. The artesian 
(salt) wells of Grand Rapids are supplied from the Napoleon 
group, the water being salted from the group immediately above. 
The wells of Saginaw issue from the same sandstones and are 
salted in the same way. 

In the southern part of Jackson, where the streams have cut 
their way through these rocks, the contained waters rush forth in 
extended chains of most beautiful and' copious springs. The indi- 
cations seem to justify the conclusion that the wells at Jackson are 
supplied from a'local' basin. It appears, therefore, that a reliable 
opinion on the prospect of success at any particular point involves 
not only a knowledge of the general conformation of rocks, but also 
an acquaintance with the special geology of the region in question. 
The purity and salubrity of well and spring water in the Lower 
Peninsula are generally very great. An analysis made by T. C. 
McNeil, A. B., of the Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, resulted 
as follows: 

Depth of well, north of University Campus, 70 ft. 8 in . 

Temperature of water 50° Fah. 

Free carbonic acid in 100 parts 15593 

Solid constituents. 

Carbonate of lime. 01780(1 

" magnesia 006053 

'• iron 000290 

Chloride of sodium 000448 

Sulphate of soda 000507 

Carbonate of soda 000152 

Sulphate of potash 000678 

Silicic acid 000730 

Organic matter 002300 


The solid constituents of some wells in Jackson and neighboring 
counties sum up a total equal to .037936, with free and partially 
combined carbonic acid equaling .028500 in 100 parts. This 
is the quality of the water which is supplied to the citizens of 
Jackson, and in it they possess something even superior to that 
produced by the celebrated wells of Europe, and almost equal 
to the finest artesian water on this continent. Many of the facts in 
the foregoing pages, dealing specially with the geological forma- 
tions of this county, were collected from a geological report 
published in 1861, under the direction of A. Winched, State 


Geologist. A great amount of attention has been evidently be- 
stowed upon the subject by him, so that now, 20 years after his 
geological survey, it may be said with truth that he was precise in 
his professional dealings, and almost exact in his locations and 
descriptions. The enterprise of the citizens has tended to eclipse 
the brightest day-dreams of the geologist; but there is yet work to 
be done before all the magnificent mineral resources of the county 
yield up their riches. 


Noxious exhalations which arise from moist, rich, and productive 
lands are generally termed miasma. The greater the amount of 
vegetable productions the greater the amount of these exhala- 
tions, so dangerous to the health of the animal system. Moist- 
ure, heat and natural decadence of substances are the primary 
causes of its generation. Heat alone will not be able to produce 
it; because, under the intense warmth of the Sahara desert, 
miasmatical vapor does not exist, nor does it show itself under the 
intense cold of Northern latitudes. Therefore it is evident that 
it requires heat, moisture, and decaying vegetable substances to 
produce it. These are to be easily found in this county. The 
rich alluvial soil, over which, in the past, the commerce of nations 
might have been put afloat, together with the gradual and ever 
progressive growth and decay of its rich vegetation, to which may 
be added the heat of the summer months and the dampness that 
waits upon the approach of spring, render the locality peculiarly 
adapted to the generation of vapors, charged with poisonous 
particles of matter which are undoubtedly very detrimental to 
health. From the opinions expressed by a few of the leading 
medical practitioners, it is evident that Jackson is not subjected 
to the evils which miasma is calculated to foster. How is this? 
It is because the county is partially drained, and therefore com- 
paratively free from miasmatical producers. It is said with some 
degree of accuracy that the drainage of marshes expels it; while 
the process of absorption and evaporation, which results after 
an inundation, reproduces it where it had previously existed. 
Now Jackson's marshy days are almost passed, and the chances of 
an inundation are of a most limited character, so that on both these 
points our citizens can rest secure in the certainty that disease 
will not be fostered by the generation of miasma. However there 
are other causes at work which may form melancholy substitutes 
for the ordinary marsh. Cess-pools, badly-kept sleeping rooms, 
and other such hot-beds of disease are sadly prevalent. This 
is a matter which should reach the home of every householder 
in the county, and be studiously inquired into by him; because 
neglect of sanitary precaution is always certain to lead to most 
deplorable results. It is a matter affecting the interests of the 
public that all these cess-pools be cleaned out and kept clean, 
otherwise the pernicious odors arising from them will become 


concentrated in the air, and ultimately roll along the surface with 
a fatal laziness which may carry disease, if not death, into the 
mansions of the wealthy as well as the hovels of the wretched. 
The elevated position of the county insures health to the in- 
habitants, always provided they do not stay the progress of nature 
by their own negligence or artifice. 


Nature has done much for this district, and seems to vie 
with man's art in making the land beautiful. The fall, more 
particularly, renders life most enjoyable, and tills the weary heart 
with peculiar delight. The beauties of the October days in this 
section of the State have often been sung, and periodically spoken 
of as being the most glorious part of the year. While praising the 
mildness of the weather and the many tints of the foliage, yet we 
hardly recognize how infinitely superior they are. The coldness 
and moisture and simple browns of many lands ought to send their 
travelers to this, if only to enjoy these fine days and bright 
colors of middle autumn. There is no more enjoyable time for 
journeying; the intense heats of summer are moderated; a suf- 
ficiently cool air is gently blowing from the south; the occasional 
morning fogs are dissipated in a few hours; a soft haze fills the 
whole air, and by noon there is a quietness and softness pervading 
all nature that soothes the mind, giving a sense of most exquisite 
contentment. It is quite common to say that the foliage is brighter 
or less bright this year than in some previous ones; but after all 
it is doubtful if there is as much difference as is supposed. Cer- 
tain localities may be differently affected at different times; but one 
who looks over an extensive range of country will find the brilliant, 
glowing colors showing themselves everywhere. The natural ripen- 
ing of the leaf produces the various changes which we see, 
though perhaps these are sometimes expedited or hindered by an 
early frost. A people as genial as the climate render a stay 
in this portion of Michigan something to be remembered. It 
brings with it true and untold pleasures, pleasant associations, 
scenes that may hold a place in memory, peace and health. 


The archaeological discoveries made in this county are confined 
to souvenirs of its Indian occupancy. The burying grounds of the 
red man were numerous before the white settler passed over 
them with the plowshare. The Indian corn-fields, doubtless, held 
a position hitherto occupied by the gardens of a prehistoric 
race, and these, in turn, disappeared before the march of the civil- 
izer; so all that remains of Asiatic or Indian origin are the scalp- 
ing-knife, stone-pipe and rusted peltry, a stone hammer, bone 
knife, and some polished work in limestone. The bones of masto- 
don, mammoth and elephant have been unearthed in the district, 



and round the city of Jackson are spots which it is said bore a re- 
semblance to the" garden beds of the ancients, when the early set- 
tlers first beheld the great ford of the Washtenong, or Grand river. 
Mr. S. O. Knapp, of Jackson, whose archaeological labors are well 
known, did not prosecute a search throughout this county for rel- 
ics of the past, This is to be regretted, since it is not at all 
improbable that the ancient wanderers made this county a place of 
meeting, and doubtless left many evidences of their stay. 




In chronicling the history of* Jackson county and its early 
settlers, a task usually difficult has been made comparatively easy, 
owing to the courtesies extended to the writer by the officers of the 
Pioneer Society and many member 8 of that organization, who placed 
the records at the disposal of the writer, or prepared special papers 
for this work. It may be impossible to collate all the fragmentary 
scraps of history for the past half century; but enough will re- 
main recorded in this chapter to enkindle in the memory of 
the surviving pilgrims recollections of kindred facts, not given us. 
which would otherwise lie wrapped in oblivion. Records of such 
items should be made as they are brought to light, that the histo- 
rian of the future may have abundance of material from which 
to compile. Studious care will be taken to leave uncertain infor- 
mation unrequisitioned. and to observe accuracy and truth. 


That the Indians of many tribes met within the present confines 
of Jackson county in their travels between Chicago and Port De- 
troit has been conceded; nor is it questioned by many that at a 
very early period, perhaps prior to the Revolution, the Potta- 
watomies, Kickapoos, Shawnees, Foxes, Sacs, and some wandering 
Otchipwas, met near the present capital of the county, then the 
Washtenong country, and ensanguined the wilds east of the meeting 
of the trails with their blood. The bones which had been so exten- 
sively scattered over the wilderness in 1830, and found even at pres- 
ent, point to this as having been the terrible battle-ground of the 
barbarians. The legends of the Northern Crees and Assinniboines 
speak of Central Michigan as the scene of the " great battle, " and 
even the war songs of the Pottawatomies did not fail to notice it. 

In 1673 the holy Marquette, with the gallant Joliet, appeared 
among the tribes of the Northwest, and prepared the barbarian 
mind to conceive an idea of the white invader who was destined to 
occupy the Indian hunting-grounds within a century and a half. 
The first white men who are known to have arrived at the meeting 
of the trails were involuntary visitors. Their names were 
McDonagh and Limp, — two soldiers of Harrison's army corps, — 
reported missing while en route to Detroit in 1812. But from what 
little can be learned from the British blue books, it may be pre- 
sumed that the Pottawatomies seized upon many more American 
troops, and wreaked their vengeance on them close by or within 

9 (133) 


the limits of Jackson city. Those soldiers were the first white 
settlers; their ashes rest here, and over their graves rises a beauti- 
ful city, while the barbarians who put them to death are vanished, 
banished or slain. 


The French-Canadian voyageur came next, and he was followed 
by the French trader. The presence of the Frenchman among the 
wigwams of the wild hunters rather detracted from the morals 
of the former than added to the intelligence of the latter. He 
introduced his peltries first, and followed up his commercial suc- 
cesses by the sale of fire-water. He ultimately acquired the proprie- 
torship of a squaw, and for years shared in the sympathies and 
manners of the savages among whom he dwelt. As a rule, the ear- 
lier traders, after many years' intercourse with the red men, de- 
camped from their wigwams, separated forever from their Indian 
wives, and sought the civilized life of olden days; but the last 
French trader known in Jackson county was faithful to his savage 
spouse for a long time and continued to dwell on the old camp- 
ground long years after the last of the Pottawatomies disappeared 
from the county. This trader was generally known by the name 
of Baptiste Boreaux, and claimed to have traded with his dusky 
customers from the year 1815 to the period of the great influx 
of immigration. The little lake in Henrietta which bears his name 
is the only monument of his early visit and his stay; but there are 
many living who remember him well, and bear testimony to 
his rude excellence. Generation after generation of savages ap- 
peared upon the scenes of Indian life, roamed through the forest, or 
paddled their canoes down the streams of the county, while yet be- 
yond them and around swarmed the civilizers, the immigrants 
from the Fast. The white man at length appeared. The Indian 
did not flee from his approach, but lived among the deer and wolf 
and bear which abounded in the district and ottered them pleasure 
and food. Sometimes a group of redskins would assemble in the 
rude cabin of the backwoodsman, light the pipe of peace, and tell 
such stories as the following: 


"Wap-ka-zeek, a chief of one of the bands of Indians inhabiting 
.Jackson county, related the following legend of the deluge to 
Barnard, an Indian trader: 

"One morning water for washing was brought to Manu, and 
when he had washed himself a fish remained in his hands. And 
it addressed these words to him: 'Protect me and I will save 
thee.' ' From what wilt thou save me V ' A deluge will sweep all 
creatures away; it is from that I will save thee.' 'How shall I 
protect thee V The fish replied: 'While we are small we run 
great dangers, for fish swallow fish. Keep me at first in a vase; 


when I become too large for it dig a basin and put me into it. 
When I shall have grown still more, throw me into the ocean; then 
I shall be preserved from destruction.' Soon it grew a large fish. 
It said to Manu: ' The very year I shall have reached my full 
growth the deluge shall happen. Then build a vessel and worship 
me. When the w T aters rise, enter the vessel and I will save thee.' 
After keeping him thus Manu carried the fish to the sea. In the 
year indicated Manu built a vessel and worshiped the fish. And 
when the deluge came he entered the vessel. Then the fish came 
swimming up to him, and Manu fastened the cable of the ship to 
the horn of the fish, by which means the latter made it pass over 
the Mountain of the North. The fish said: - f have saved thee; 
fasten the vessel to a tree that the water may not sweep it away 
while thou art on the mountain; and in proportion as the waters 
decrease thou shalt descend.' Manu descended with the waters, 
and this is what is called the descent of Manu on the Mountain of 
the North. The deluge had carried away all creatures, and Manu 
remained alone." 

The Sac war excitement reached the ears of the Jackson Indi- 
ans, so that their councils were turned from peace to war. They 
assembled at intervals round 


The legislative hall of the Indian had the starry skies for a dome. 
The waif of night girdled it; the council fire aftorded the dusky 
chiefs and "bucks" sufficient illumination, and brands with which 
to light the circling pipe. Among the gnarled trees which formed 
the background the shape of the teepees was defined in the gloom. 
Wolves were yelping all around. A pack in the immediate vicinity 
was answered by hundreds of voices from the surrounding darkness. 

The old chiefs had been to a council with the white brother. 
Two suns had passed since their return, laden with presents, which 
had made the old chiefs' hearts glad, and every young buck in the 
village envious. One by one the old men rose, their story was 
told, and each had the same good word to say. The white brother 
was strong; his number exceeded that of the buffalo (heavy grunts 
from all sides); he had pony soldiers without number, and walk-a- 
heaps (infantry) till no Indian could count them! — this all by way of 
indicating how strong the white brother was, also the white 
brother's heart was very good; he was anxious for peace, and will 
give the red brother blankets, sugar, spotted buffalo (cattle) and 
divers other good things. This and much more was gone over by 
the old chiefs; and when at last they had finished, an unbroken 
silence prevailed while the pipes passed round the circle many 
times. Then a young buck arose slowly, and moved swiftly toward 
the fire. He had but little to say. The old chiefs were very wise. 
They had the frosts of many winters on their heads. Their teepees 
were large, and filled with many things which make the heart of 
an Indian glad. Their ponies were many and fat. They were 


known and respected by many great chiefs. Should they be called 
to journey to the happy hunting-ground, the trail would be an open 
one, for they would be known from afar. Tins and much more 
complimentary talk was gone through. Then comes the gist ol 
the talk. Who knows the Young Elk? No one (grunts all 
round), lie has one pony. The pony is very thin. He has no 
hope of recognition from the gate-keeper of the happy hunting- 
ground. Hi- has nothing in his teepee with which to give welcome 
to a friend. Then follows an exhibit of poverty which extorts a 
chorus of grunts from the circle of squatters. The speaker con- 
tinued. He is not a squaw; his eves are hurt now by the smoke of 
the squaws' tires. He is not alone; there are many more young 
men who arc no better off than he. The white brother is a woman: 
his arm is weak, and his heart is as pale as his face. A man 
can take from him all that he has, and the big-gun men in the dig- 
heap (tort) will give much more. He is done: lie will talk no more, 
but will go and prove that his words are true. 

Such is a brief description of the councils held by the Indians in 
the days of the first settlers, when old Te-cum-qua-see and Wap- 
ka-zeek governed the bands then claiming the county as their 


Early in 1825 an Indian from some distant village was wending 
his way northward along an unfrequented trail, passing through 
the present location of Westren's Corners. At sun-down he spread 
his robe beside his blazing fire, and settled down to that repose to 
which his long march entitled him. Presently he saw a sta^ ap- 
proaching, and rose to grasp his rifle, but he was too late; the 
maddened animal rushed at him with a stunning force, and did not 
cease to belabor the red man with antlers and hoofs until in- 
stinct informed him of his victim's death. Indians passed that 
way when the night was advanced, took in the situation, buried 
their friend next day, and parted from the solitary grave. The 
road of the white man was subsequently made, and the bones of 
that Indian exhumed. 


Nothing excited the curiosity of the wives and daughters of the 
early settlers more than the Indian pappoose. When the women of 
the present time read of the manner in which the youthful savage is 
raised, they will not wonder at the surprise exhibited by the pio- 
neers at the tenderness shown by the Indian mother toward her 
child, or at the rude cradle in which the aborigines were nursed. 
It is also well to convey an idea of how the wild woman of the wil- 
derness treated her offspring, because a pleasant and envious notion 
is entertained here and in other civilized precincts that young In - 


dians grow — -just grow, as Topsy thought she did. But it is not so; 
they have sure eyes and had tempers; they wake up in the night 
with lusty yells and the colic; they have tits; they raise riots when 
cutting their teeth; and they are just a^ much petted and just as 
mischievous as our own. 

The mothers of Pocahontas and lied .Jacket worried over them 
with just as much earnestness as, perhaps, did the maternal pro- 
genitor of George Washington, while quite as much paternal 
supervision was given, doubtless, to one as to the other. When the 
question of love and tenderness alone is mooted, then should it be 
said without hesitation that the baby born to-day in the shadow and 
smoke of savage life is as carefully ' cherished as the little stranger 
that may appear here simultaneously with it, amid all the sur- 
roundings of civilized wealth; and the difference between them 
does not commence to show itself until they have reached that age 
where the mind begins to feedand reason upon what it sees, hears, 
feels and tastes; then the gulf yawns between our baby and the In- 
dian's; the latter stands still, while the former is ever moving on- 
ward and upward. 

The love of an Indian mother for her child is made plain to us 
by the care and labor which she often expends upon the cradle. 

The choicest production of her skill in grass and \\ len weaving, 

the neatest needlework and the richest head embroidery that she 
can devise and bestow, are lavished upon the quaint-looking cribs 
which savage mothers nurse and carry their little ones around in. 
This cradle, though varying in minor details, is essentially the 
same thing, no matter where it is found, between the Indians of 
Alaska and those far to the south, in Mexico. The Esquimaux are 
the exception, however, for they use no cradle whatever, carrying 
their infants snugly ensconced in the hoods to their parkies and 
otto-fur jumpers. The governing principle of a pappoose cradle is 
an unyielding hoard, upon which the baby can he firmly lashed at, 
full length on its back. 

This hoard is usually covered by softly dressed buckskin, with 
flaps and pouches in which to envelop the baby; other tribes, not 
ricli or fortunate enough to procure this material, have recourse to 
a neat combination of shrub-wood poles, reed splints, grass mat- 
ting, and the soft and fragrant ribbons of the bass or linden tree 
bark. Sweet grass is used here as a bed for the youngster's ten- 
der back, or else clean, dry moss plucked from the bended limbs of 
the swamp firs; then, with buckskin thongs or cords of plaited 
grass, the baby is hound down tight and secure, for any and every 
disposition that its mother may see tit to make of it for the next 
day or two. 

Indian babies, as a rule, are not kept in their cradles more than 
twenty to twenty-four consecutive hours at any one time; they are 
usually unlimbered for an hour or two every day, and allowed to 
roll and tumble at will on the blanket, or in the <>'rass or sand if 
the sun shines warm and bright. But this liberty is always con- 
ditional upon their good behavior when free, for the moment the 


baby begins to fret or whimper, the mother claps it back into the 
cradle, where it rests with emphasis, for it can there move nothing 
save its head; but so far from disliking these rigid couches, the 
babies actually sleep better in them than when free, and positively 
cry to be returned to them when neglected and left longer than 
usual at liberty. This fact is certainly an amusing instance of the 
force of habit. 

When the pappoose is put away in its cradle, the mother has 
little or no more concern with it, other than to keep within sight 
or hearing. If si a- is engaged about the wigwam or in the village, 
she stands it up in the lodge corner or hangs it to some convenient 
tree, taking it down at irregular intervals to nurse. When she re- 
tires at nighty the baby is brought and suspended at some point 
within easy reaching; if the baby is ill, it is kept at her side, or 
she sits up all night in the most orthodox fashion. When the 
women leave the village on any errand, such as going to the 
mountains for berries or to the Eiiver canyon for fish, the cradles 
with the babies therein are slung upon the mothers' backs, and 
carried, no matter how far. how rough the road, or how dismal 
the weather. 

Indian babies are born subject to all the ills that baby flesh is 
heir to. but with this great difference between them and ours — 
when sick they are either killed or cured without delay. This 
does not happen, however, from sinister motives: it i> not done to 
avoid the irksome care of a sickly, puny child; it is not the result 
of lack of natural love for offspring — not any or all of these; it is 
due to their wonderful " medicine," their fearful system of incan- 

A pappoose becomes ill; it refuses to eat or be comforted; and 
after several days and nights of anxious, tender endeavor to re- 
lieve her child, the mother begins to fear the worst, and growing 
thoroughly alarmed, she at last sends for the "shaman." or a doc- 
tress of the tribe, and surrenders her babe to his or her merciless 
hands. This shaman at once sets up over the wretched youngster 
a steady howling, and then anon a whispering conjuration, 
shaking a hideous rattle or burning wisps of grass around the cra- 
dle. This is kept up night and day until the baby rallies or dies. 
one doctor relieving the other until the end is attained, and that 
result is death nine times out often. 

Nature had now ordained that the time had come for the hunter 
to give his place here to the agriculturist. She had been too lav- 
ish in the distribution of natural advantages to leave it longer in 
the possession of barbarians, who had. throughout their genera- 
tions, refused to cultivate its rich soil, or develop its mineral re- 
sources. She directed the immigrant to the spot which his labor 
was to convert into another Eden, gave him a fertile soil, sparkling 
streams, and beautiful forests for his courage, and ordained that 
he who labored should dwell there and prosper. 



G. P. Adams, W. E. Aldrich and R. II. Anderson were among 
the early settlers, but the dates of their arrivals are not given. 

Norman Allen, born at Whiting, Vt., Dee. 4, 1804; moved 
to Leoni in May, 1833, where lie kept a hostelry equi-distant from 
Leoni and Jackson. His nearest neighbors were' two and one-half 
miles distant, and so desolate was the location that in 1837 he re- 
solved to remove to the village of Jackson. Mr. Allen entered 
commercial life in the village, and had a share in' building up its 

Hiram Archer arrived in the State when only eight years old. 
He was bom at Carlton. X. Y., Oct. 2, 1829, and "settled at 
Henrietta March 4, 1837. 

Aaron K. Austin, born Aug. 1. 1807, at Skaneateles, X. Y. ; ar- 
rived at Ann Arbor Sept. 20, 1828, and now of Norvell, states 
that "by the change in the name of townships I have lived in 
five, although I have not removed, except moving from a 'log- 
house' into a "frame house."' 

Z. M. Barber was born at Royajton, Niagara Co., N. V., Sept. 
18, 1816, and 15 years later, or in September, 1831, moved to 


Daniel O. Barnard, born at Stamford, N. Y., Nov. 1, 1816;moved 
to -lacks, ,n ( >ct. 25, 1837. 

Lucien B. Beardsley was born at Brighton, X. Y.. July 31, 1817, 

and moved to Jackson in September, 1838. The city of Rochester 
now covers the site of his birth-place. 

Mary Ann Beardsley was born at Greece, X. Y.. April 19, 1819, 
and arrived at Jackson in 1856. 

Aionzo Bennett, born at Exeter, X. V.. Aug. 17, 1817, and set- 
tled in Jackson Oct. 7, 1836. 

Abram V. Berry was born in Oneida county, N. Y., Aug. 20, 
1804. Moving westward, he arrived at Jackson Nov. 8, 1841; en- 
gaged in mercantile pursuits; was President of the Jackson Iron 
Company; explored the northern shore of Lake Superior, and 
made a location at Marquette for the reduction of iron ore. Dur- 
ing l845-'46, lie made several copper locations. Previous to his 
coming West in 1841, he held a high position in the 157th X". Y. 
Infantry, and in this State was promoted from the captaincy of the 
first regular militia company of Jackson county to a major-general- 

James T. Berry, born at Frankfort. X. Y. Oct. 31, 1840; moved 
to Jackson Nov.' 8. 1841. Though only 40 years old. this man 
may be considered an old settler in the truest sense of the word. 
During the war forthe Union he served in 7<> battles and was twice 

E. P. Biding. Ze.ra Boynton and George Hunker are all old set- 
tlers and members of the Pioneer Society. 

Lewis Brown and W. N. Buck arrived in the county in 1835 and 
1838 respectivelv. 


Joab Bigelow, born at Guilford, Vt., Oct. 23, 1795; moved to 
Concord in October, 1836. 

Josiali Bigelow was born May 22, 1825, at Batavia, N. Y.. and 
moved to Hanover, this county, April 24, 1836. 

Henry H. Bingham was born Jan. 7, 1814, at Camillas, N. Y., 
and at the age of 24 years settled in Leoni township, May 8, 1838. 
His grandfathers served in many battles of the Revolution. 

Giles Bloomfield, born April 17, 1808, at Warren, N. Y.; moved 
to Sandstone, this county, June 2, 1836. 

C. V. Bockoven was born at Lyons, N. Y., Jan. 30, 1818, and 
moved to Jackson Nov. 1, 1838. 

Mrs. Bolton, widow of Gen. A. F. Bolton, came to reside in 
Napoleon as early as L832. 

Richmond Briggs settled in this county in February^ L833. 

Benjamin Bullock, horn March 18,' 1804, at Otsego, N. Y.; 
moved to Unadilla, Livingston Co., Oct. 12, 1840, and thence 
to Jackson in September, 1861. 

B. L. Carlton, an honorary member of the Pioneer Society, and 
editor of the Jackson Patriot, was born at Wyoming, N. Y., June 
3, 1839; came to Berrien county in September. 1855, and two years 
later changed to Jackson. 

Jacob V. Oarmer was horn Oct. 5, 1802, at Orange, X. J., 
and in September, 1845, migrated West, when he settled in Na- 

F. W. Can', born Jan. 30, 1818, at Lubec, Maims settled in 
Jackson village Nov. 19, 1843. 

Elihu Cooley became a resident of Jackson in 1852. 

Mrs. Betsy WE. Case was born Aug. 21, 1810, and immigrated to 
Michigan with her husband, next mentioned. 

Morgan Case was horn at Hartford, N. J., March If!, L807, and 
settled at Napoleon Oct. 13, 1832. 

Wilson Chaffee, Josiah Cole, A. D. Clark, Benjamin Ohamp- 
lin and Jonathan Cady came at an early period in the history of 
the county. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Chamberlain, born at Bristol. N. Y.. December, 
1816; moved with her husband, R. W. Chamberlain, to this county 
in April, 1836. 

K. W. Chamberlain, of Livonia, N. Y., was born Jan. 2, 1813, 
and removed to Jackson April 1, 1836. 

Erastus Champlin, born at Lyme, Conn., March 30, 1803; moved 
west to Jackson village in May, 1836, and ultimately settled in 
Columbia township. 

Lorenzo M. Chanter was born on the island of Malta, Mediter- 
ranean sea, Sept. 8, L811, and by gradual advances found himself 
in Blackman township June 1, 1836. 

David Chapel, horn at Salem, Conn., March 4, 1804; moved 
to Spring Arbor Dec. 1, L832, and ultimately took up his resi- 
dence in Parma village. 

L. I). Chapel was born in Canada Nov. 4, 1811; settled at 
Sandstone in May, Is.".*;, ami subsequently took up his residence at 


Sarah Ann Chapman was born in Jackson, Mich., Nov. 3, 
1830. She was the first white child born in Jackson county; mar- 
ried Albert T. Putnam at an early age, and died in the village 
of her nativity April 5, L880, having lived through almost half a 

William Clapp, born in Dutchess Co., N. V., June 4, 1805; 
moved to Hanover, Jackson Co., in August. 1837, and has been a 
resident of 4:! years' standing. 

Ossian 11. 'Cobb, born at Charlotte. Vt., Oct. 12, I8ltf; 
arrived in Jackson village in October, 1837. 

George Cogswell, burn Dec. 30, 1822, at Caldwell, N". V.; 
migrated West with his brother John, and settled at Spring Arbor 
in 1837. 

John Cogswell, born June 17, 1833, in Ticonderoga, N. Y. ; came 
to Bedford, Wayne Co., in < >ctober, 1834; the same year changed to 
Concord, this county, and subsequently settled at Spring Arbor, in 

Mrs. Huldah Colby, born at Royalton, N. Y., May 8, 1818.; 
moved with her relatives to Jackson June 20, 1S32. 

E. W. Comstock, bom Nov. 7, 1*07, at Montville, Conn.;moved 
to Springport < >ct. 1!', L838, and with few intermissions has 
resided in his adopted village. 

Addison P. Cook was born at Berne, N. Y., July L6, 1817, and 
at the age of 21 migrated West, settling at Brooklyn, tins county, 
Aug. 16, 1838. 

Charlotte A. Cook was born at New Baltimore, N. Y., Dec. 12, 
1819, and came to Brooklyn Sept. lti, 1846. 

Samuel W. Cooper, born at Rutland, N. Y., Feb. 2ti, 1816; 
migrated to Sylvan. Washtenaw Co., May 3, 1838, and two years 
later adopted Grass Lake as his home. 

I. C. Corwin, born at Ithaca, N. Y., March 10, 1818; moved 
West in l.s?>(i. and settled in Leoni, changing his residence sub- 
sequently to Parma village. 

Henry J. Crego was born at Mustead, N. Y., and moving West 
settled at Columbia July, 1835, subsequently changing to Lib- 

William S. Crego. born at Mustead, N. Y., April 26, 1810; 
moved to Columbia June 21, 1835, and to Liberty subsequently. 

John Curtiss, born Aug. lit, L800, at Onondaga,' X. Y.. and ar- 
rived in Napoleon May 3, 1837. His reminiscences of those times 
are not without interest. He states: •• I first lived in a log bouse, 
owned by Traper, in the town of Columbia; built a fire by the 
side of a stump for the purpose of cooking; bought in town of Na- 
poleon, now Norvell, and moved there in August, 1837. I built a 
log house and used loose boards for the floor. The wolves howled 
round during the nights. Some Indians came in the door-yard 
one night, and my dog attacked them; — they bad a battle. It was 
the last I saw of my dog in any shape. It was very dark and I 
could not see them." 


Philo J. Curtis6, born at Oswego, N. Y., May 2, 1828; emigrated 
with his relatives to Jackson May 26, 1837. 

Henry Daniels wa# born Feb. 26, 1816, at Bethany, Genesee 
Co., N. Y., and at the age of 15 came West with his relatives, set- 
ling at Jackson village June 20, 1831, and subsequently moving 
to Blackman. 

M. R. Davis, born at Cattaraugus, N. Y., Aug. 8, 1824; came 
West in 1831 and settled at Jackson June 14, that year. 

Kosevelt Davis, born at Pembroke, N. Y., Dec. 16, 1830; be- 
came a citizen of Jackson county in May, 1831. 

Jones Day, born at Port Ann, N. Y., came West in 1834 and 
settled at Brooklyn, this county. 

Horace Dean, born at Windsor, Vt, May 11, 1809; settled 
at Napoleon Oct. 16, 1832. 

Anson II. De Lamater was born April 13, 1811. at Pompey, 
N. Y., and May 15, 1834, reached Columbia. 

Edward De Lamater was born at Pompey, N. Y., in 1812, and 
settled in Columbia township May, 1834, subsequently changing 
to Brooklyn. 

W. De Lamater, born April 7, 1817, at Manlius, N. Y. ; arrived 
in Manchester, Washtenaw Co., June 10, 1832, and moved to Lib- 
erty, this county, in 1S49. 

Mrs. Lydia De Lamater was born at Cohocton, N. Y., Dec. 11, 
1820, and coming West settled with her relatives in Columbia 
May, 1843. 

Charles V. De Land was born at North Bloomfield, Mass., July 
25, 1828; settled at Jackson May 21, 1830. and now resides at 
East Saginaw. 

JamesS. De Land, born at Jackson, Michigan, Nov. 10, 1835; 
has since made it his home. 

Mrs. Mary.G. De Land, born at Caroline, N. J., in 1802; came 
to Jackson May 27, 1830. 

Wm. B. DeLand, born in Massachusetts July 20, 1795, and ar- 
rived in Jackson May 27, 1830. 

James Depuy, born at Pompey, N. Y., Oct. 20, 1815; settled at 
Spring Arbor July 29, 1832. 

Charles C. Dewy was born at Boonville, N. Y., Nov. 16, 1816, 
and settled at Napoleon May 1, 1855. 

F. A. Dewey, President of the Lenawee Pioneer Association, 
and an honorary member of the Jackson County Society, was born 
at Trois Rivieres, Quebec, Feb. 25, 1811; settled in Tecumseh 
in September, 1829, and has become almost as Jacksonian and 
American as the people of this county. 

Marvin Don-ill, born on the German Flats, N. Y., April 17. 
1804; came West in 1837. and settled at Rives in May of that year. 

S. J. Drake was born at New Hampton, N. II., March 15, 
1804. and came to reside in Hanover township 36 years later, 
in September, 1840. 

James A. Dyer, born at Royalton, Vt., June 29, 1812; 
moved West in 1835, and settled at Jackson May 19, same 


H. M. Eddy and M. B. Elliot became citizens of this county at 
an early date, but the place of nativity or the time of their settle- 
ment is unknown. 

Robert J. "Edgar, born at Washington, N. Y., Feb. 1, 1813; mi- 
grated at the age of 26 years, and settled at Grass Lake in May. 
1839, subsequently adopting Parma as his home. 

B. F. Eggleston, the present Secretary of the Jackson Pioneer 
Society, was born at Victor, N. Y., Feb" 1. 1814, and on coming 
West settled at Adrian July 7, 1836, subsequently making Jack- 
son village his home. 

Owen Ellison, born at Newburg, N. Y., Feb. 17, 1809; moved 
to Freedom, Washtenaw Co., in October, 1835, and subsequently 
made Napoleon his home. 

Wm. A. Ernst, born at Cooperstown, N. Y., Nov. 18, L820; 
removed to Jackson 29 years later, in November, 1849. 

Wm. B. K. Errimaii, born at Elbridge, N. Y., May 15. 1830; 
settled at Jackson May 14, 1846. 

Charles Evans, born at Easton, N. Y., in July, 1808; arrived in 
the county when 28 years of age, and in September. 1836, settled 
in Rives township. 

George Facey arrived at Summit in April, 1848, and lias since 
made his home there. 

John A. Fellows, born at Sand Hill, N. Y.. Jan. 7. 1810; moved 
to Sandstone 29 years later, in October, 1839. 

ITomer D. Fisher is purely Jacksonian by nativity; born in the 
village Nov. 5, 1839, he continued to make it his home. 

Darwin Fitzgerald, born Oct. 6, 1827. at Jordan, N. Y. ; arrived 
at Spring Arbor Feb. 23, 1836, and is now a resident of Spring- 

Albert Foster, born at Bridgeport. Vt., Dec. 8, 1809; moved 
westward 28 years later, and settled at Jackson village July 
3, 1837. 

Frederick M. Foster was born at Bridgeport July 27, 1813, and 
settled at Jackson May 2, 1842. Harriet M. Foster, his wife, was 
born at Madison, Ohio, Aug. 12, 1817, and came to reside in Jack- 
son September, 1849. 

Hiram Gardner, born at Geneva. N. Y.. March 12, I803;settled 
at Grass Lake June 20, 1835, and subsequently moved to Leoni. 
Mrs. Sarah Gardner was born at Seneca Falls May 27, 1807, and 
came hither with her husband. Mr. Gardner, to the Pioneer Soci- 
ety, Oct. 23, 1874, says: "I am almost 72 years of age, hale and 
hearty. I am truly glad to meet with you on this occasion. 
and hope we may all live to meet again. " 

David Garling'house was born in New Jersey in 1805; 31 years 
later settled in Lenawee county, and finally made his home in Jack- 

Almond M. Garriard, of Bolton, N. Y., born Sept. 25, 1S24; 
settled in Concord township Oct. 17, 1836. 

Mrs. Elvina C. McGee Garriard was born at Bolton Aug. 4, 
1830, and two years later arrived in Concord. 


Horace Giflord, born at Port Hope, Canada, June 13, 1817; set- 
tled at Spring Arbor April 17. 1838. 

Myron Gillette came into the State Nov. 1. 1837, and subse- 
qently made bis borne at Springport. 

Aaron T. Gorton, born at Painted Post village, X. Y., Dec. 3, 
1811 ; settled at Dexter. Washtenaw Co.. June 14, 1833, and sub- 
sequently moved to Waterloo, in this county. 

X. B. Graham came in 1842, and settled at Parma. .James 
Graham arrived subsequently, a> also did W. K. Gibson. 

Allen Green, born at Warrick, R. I., Oct. 11, 1789; came 
west in 1835, and settled at Napoleon in December of that 
year. Mrs. Mary Xieols Green was born May 10, 1801, at War- 
rick, and was married May 2o. 1820. 

Chauncey Green was bom at Ruport, Yt.. Feb. 21, 1820; 
settled at Onondaga, Ingham Co., July 4. 184:-!. and finally 
adopted Jackson city as his future home. 

Levi P. Gregg settled in Jackson village in 1888, and took a 
prominent part in building up its present greatness. 

G. T. Gridley, born at Vernon, N. Y., July 1, 1816; settled at 
Ypsilanti June 1, 1837, and adopted Jackson as his home in Feb- 
ruary. 1844. 

J.C. Griffin was born at Kingsbury, N. Y., March 1, 1817; 
settled at Napoleon July •">. l*:!t>. and occupied the location of his 
present residence in 1838. 

Lorenzo D. Griswold. born at Galen. X. Y., Feb. 24, 1816; set- 
tled at Jackson, Mich.. Xov. 1, 1838. ' 

Charles L. Eawley was born at Leyden. X. Y., May 1, 1811, 
and at the age of 2.") years settled at Napoleon, Jan. 18, 1836. 

Chauncey Hawley, born at Granby, Conn., Sept. 26, 1797; set- 
tled at Napoleon Oct. 8, 1832. 

Henry Hawley, born in Leyden township, X. Y., March 2t>, 
1813; settled at Napoleon < >ct. 2:., 1834. 

James P. Hawley was born in Hartford township. N. Y., Sept. 
25, 1828, and arrived at Napoleon Oct. 13, 1832. 

Lyman Hawley, born at Granby, Conn., Dec. 8, 17*7; settled at 
Napoleon, in this county. Oct. 25. 1834. 

Henry A. Havden, horn at Springfield, Otsego Co., N. V., 
March 28, 1817; settled at Jackson in June, 1838, one year after 
the preliminary survey of the M. C. P. P. between Detroit and 
Lake Michigan. 

Jonathan II. Hendee was born at Sudbury, \'t., Nov. lt>, 
1815; settletl at Jackson in ( )ctober, 1836, ami subsequently moved to 

Daniel P. Eibbard, born at Phelps. N. Y.. Aug. 13, 1818; set- 
tled at Jackson May 9, 1836. Mr. Hibbard's career has been a 
most useful one. if not actually distinguished. He has from the 
beginning taken a leading part in building up a prosperous city. 

Mrs. Almira Higgins, born at East Hartford, Conn., in June, 
1818; came West with her husband. 


Samuel Higby, born at New Hartford, N. Y., March 26, 1813; 
nettled at Jackson in 1838. 

Jirah A. Higgins was born at P]ast Haddam, Conn., Dec. 8, 
1809, and settled at Jackson in May, 1844. 

Gordon Hilt was born at Colchester, X. V.. Sept. 14. 1832, and 
came to Columbia, Jackson Co.. Oct. 15, 1835. 

Hiram ('. Hodge, born at Stamford, Yt.. Feb. 22. 1821; 
settled at Pulaski in September, 1837. 

James M. Holland, born at Pittsfield, N. Y.. Feb. 22, 1832; 
settled at Columbia May 25. 1837. 

Simon Holland, bom at Pittsfield, N. V.. < >ct. 14. 1802; settled 
in Jackson county, in the town of Columbia. May 20, 1837. Mr. 
Holland has been engaged in agriculture for aperiod of 14 years, 
and also in commercial pursuits for 17 years. 

It. 0. Hollister. born at Milford, N. Y., April 17. 181f; settled 
at Jackson in April, 1836. 

Mrs. Eunice R. O. Hollister was born at Shoctes, Mass.. Dec. 
6, 1807. 

James L. Holmes, born in New York city Aug. 3o. 1825; set- 
tled in Lenawee county in 1837. and the following year moved to 

N. S. Houghtalin, born at Livingston, N. Y., April 28, 1828; 
settled in Somerset. Hillsdale Co., Sept. 20, 1846. and subse- 
quently, in 1853, established his home at Liberty. 

A. N. Howe, born at Newstead. N. Y.. Oct. ' 15, 1841: settled 
at Summit April 28, 1854. 

E. B. Howe, born March 2, 1814, at Oneida, N. Y. : settled at 
Summit in April. 1854. 

Alvinzie Hunt, born at Marcellus, N. Y.. Nov. 14. 1809; set- 
tled at Napoleon in May. 1836. 

Mrs. Converse Phebe Hunt was born at Onondaga. N. Y., Jan. 
23, 1812; came West with her husband in 183(3. 

Daniel Hubbard. Jacob Hirsch, and R. H. Hubbard were 
among the early settlers, but the dates of their arrivals have not 
been given. 

Atwater Hurd came West in 1838. 

John S. Hurd, born at Gorham, N. Y., June 2, 1816; settled at 
Lima, Washtenaw Co., November, 1836, and subsequently made 
his home at Jackson. 

Wm. Hutchins, born at Shelby, N. Y., Aug. 13, 1825; came 
West in October. 1831. and settled at York, Washtenaw Co. 

James E. Jamison and Sherman Jacobs, who settled in Pu- 
laski at an early period, are members of the Pioneer Society, but 
dates of birth and immigration are wanting. 

David Johnson, born at Sangerfield, N. Y.. Oct. 20, 1809; ar- 
ived in Jackson village in March, 1838. 

John P. Kay wood, born at Ulysses, N. Y., May 27, 1822; set- 
tled at Leoni, Jackson Co., Oct. 1, 1835; married a Miss Henry in 
1840; retired from agriculture in 1859, and has since taken an in- 
terest in mechanics. 


Noah Keeler, born at Butternut, N. Y., Feb. 16, 1812; moved 
to Libert}-, Jackson Co., Sept. 6, 1837, and in 1839 settled on a 
farm purchased by him in 1835. 

Mrs. Ann E. Kennedy, born at Arcadia, N. Y., April 24, 1827; 
came to Summerfield, Mich., May 22, 1831; married G. W. Ken- 
nedy April 24, 1849; settled in Hanover township April 28, same 
year, and moved to Jackson with her husband Nov. 15, 1864. 

Frederick A. Kennedy, born at Brighton, England, Feb. 18, 
1811; settled at Tecumseh, Lenawee Co., in May, 1831, and subse- 
quently moved to Jackson. 

George W. Kennedy, born at Silver Lake, Penn., Feb. 22, 1820 
arrived at Ridgeway, Lenawee Co., June 1, 1831, and removing to 
Jackson later, has continued to make it his home. 

Frederick W. Kirtland, Durham, N. Y.,born July 16, 1806; 
came West in 1843, and settled at Jackson April 22, that year. 

Hamden A. Knight, born in Niagara county, N. Y., Nov. 23, 
1815; moved West in 1829; settled in Washtenaw June 26, that 
year, and subsequently adopted Summit as his home. 

Mrs. Adelia M. Knight, born in Onondaga county, N. Y., July 
29, 1819; came to Washtenaw Jan. 21, 1836, and subsequently set- 
tled at Summit with her husband. 

John Kyes, born at Homer, N. Y., Dec. 17, 1800; settled at 
Grass Lake, Jackson Co., April 25, 1829, and thus claims to be 
among the first settlers, as he was the first blacksmith who en- 
gaged in that business within the county. 

George Landon came to this county at an early date. He is a 
member of the Pioneer Society, and now resides at Springport. 

A. H. Latimer, New London, Conn., born March 1, 1806; set- 
tied at Sandstone June 5, 1837, and subsequently made his home 
in Summit township. 

Mrs. E. Laverty, born Dec. 30, 1805, at Woodstock, Vt.; settled 
at Jackson June 20, 1832. 

Willard C. Lewis, born at Fair Haven, Vt., June 28, 1833; set- 
tled at Concord, Jackson Co., in 1835, and subsequently removed 
to Jackson city. 

Fidus Livermore, born at Sangerfield, N. Y., July 21, 1811; 
settled at Jackson May 10, 1839. 

David H. Lockwood, born at Cayuga, N. Y., March 3, 1824; 
settled at Leoni Sept. 14, 1836. 

P. B. Loomis, born at Amsterdam, N. Y., April 14, 1820; ar- 
rived in Michigan in 1S42, and located his home at Jackson in the 
spring of 1843. 

L. H. Ludlow, Ludlowville, N. Y., born July 10, 1814, and 
moving West in 1839, settled at Springport April 19, same year. 

Stephen H. Ludlow, born at Lansing, N. Y., March 16, 1809; 
settled at Springport Oct. 15, 1837. 

David Markam, born June 2, 1804, at Avon, N. Y. ; settled at 
Jackson June 10, 1836. 

A. W. Marsh settled in the township of Columbia in 1839. 


Samuel T. Marsh, born at Pompey, N. Y., April 5, 1812; settled 
at Columbia, this county, May 15, 1834. 

John R. Martin, born at Cayuga, N. Y., March 15, 1814; settled 
at Troy, Oakland Co., Sept. 25, 1828, and moved to Jackson in 

Thomas Mayett, born March 12, 1790; settled at Ann Arbor in 
1834, and subsequently at Blackmail, this county. 

William Mayo, born in Buckinghamshire, England, Aug. 17, 
1810; settled at Lodi July 17, 1833, and in January, 1835, moved 
to Blackman. 

Ocar H. McConnell, born at Jackson, Mich., June 1, 1833, and 
has since resided there. He is the son of Deacon John McCon- 
nell, who located one and one-half miles north of the present city 
in May, 1830. 

Am'asa McCosson, born at Mexico, N. Y., June 29, 1818; settled 
at Tecumseh, Lenawee Co., June 18, 1836, and subsequently lo- 
cated in Jackson in 1839. 

Mellville McGee, born at Bolton, N. Y., Jan. 24, 1828; settled 
at Spring Arbor in the present town of Concord June 10, 1832, 
and afterward moved to the city of Jackson. 

James McKee, born Oct. 10, 1808, at Argyle, N. Y. ; settled at 
Jackson in May, 1832. 

Moses A. McNaughton, born at Argyle, N. Y., Jan. 4, 1813; 
settled at Jackson in April, 1841. 

Ortha A. Merwin was born at Summit, Jackson Co., April 18, 
1843, and on her marriage with V. V. B. Merwin came to reside 
at Jackson. 

Volney V. B. Merwin, born at Portage, N. Y., June 18, 1833; 
settled at Moscow, Hillsdale Co., May 5, 1837, and subsequently 
moved to Jackson city. 

Tobias Miller was elected an honorary member of the society. 

Nathaniel Morrill, born at Sanbornton, N. H., Dec. 13, 1807; 
settled at Blackman June 14, 1832. 

Patton Morrison, born at Newburg, N. Y., Jan. 7, 1816; settled 
at Jackson in October, 1838 or 1839. 

Benjamin Gr. Mosher, born at Amsterdam, N. Y., May 16, 1809; 
settled at Jackson Sept. 13, 1839. 

George H. Mosher was born at Jackson July 5, 1837. 

John O'Dell, born at Amherst, N. H, April 25, 1792; settled mi 
the present site of the city of Rochester, N. Y., in 1815, and was 
the first land-owner there ; came to Grass Lake in June, 1835, and 
subsequently moved to Leoni. 

James O'Donnell, an honorary member of the Pioneer Society, 
and editor of the Daily Citizen, was born in Norwalk, Conn., March 
25, 1839; came to Jackson in 1849, and has been intimately asso- 
ciated with the press and progress of the city from that period to 
the present. 

Adam Orr, born at Batavia, N. Y., April 1, 1812; settled at 
Pulaski, June 9, 1844. Mr. Orris a descendant of that patriot Irish 

148 HISTOKY <'F JACKMiN (ill'NTV. 

family who sacrificed everything for country, and afterward ap- 
peared on many fields where the Onion was threatened. 

Stephen N. Palmer, horn in Madison county, X. Y., Feh. 7. 
1816; settled at Napoleon Sept. 20, 1845. Mr. Palmer married 
Mies Rebecca Farley March 18, 1838, who was born in the same 
county Aug. 28, 1818; came West with her husband in 1S45, and 
though living throughout the years on the same location, have, on 
account of change of names, found themselves citizens of the town- 
ships of Napoleon, Brooklyn and Columbia. 

Amasa M. Pardee, born at Niagara, X. Y.. Dec. .".. L827; settled 
at Spring Arbor in July, 1832. 

G. W. Parker, Scipio, N. Y., was born Feb. 20, 1822; settled 
at Jonesville, Hillsdale county, in October, 1*44, and the \mv 
after removed to Hanover township. 

Jesse L. Parmeter, born at Allen. X. V.. Oct. L3, 1*26; settled 
at Concord, in October, 1835. 

Oscar F. Pease, Jacob Pixley and F. Pherdon claim a residence 
in the State since 1837, and have been connected with Jackson 
county the greater part of the 43 years which have elapsed. 

Charles W. Penny, born in Putnam county. X. Y., Jan. 4, 1812; 
settled at Detroit in October, 1831, and subsequently moved to 

Charles L. Pierce, born at Naples. N. Y., Feb. 27, 1831; set- 
tled at Liberty, Jackson Co.. Oct. 25, 1836, and afterward took 
up his residence at Jackson. 

Mrs. P. E. Pierce, born at Eoyalton, X. Y.. July 20, 1826; 
settled at Jackson June 2<». 1832. Mrs. Pierce, in recitinga few 
reminiscences of those early days, says: "My uncle, 0. C. Dar- 
ling, built the first frame house in the county, outside of the city, 
on what is now known as Murphy's addition. He located Kid 
acres there in L831. The old house is still there, which the wo- 
men helped to raise (not a mill as the poet had it). Two of the 
women are still living in the city. One of the first white women 
who ever came to Jackson is still living; she was Miss Sally 
Laverty, now Mrs. Benjamin Steward, of Eaton." 

Benoni Pixley arrived in the State in 183>t, and became a resi- 
dent of Jackson county at an early date. 

Samuel Prescott. born at Sandbornter. X. Y.. Aug. 31, 1800; 
moved to Henrietta, Jackson Co.. June. 2. 1831, and continued 
to reside there for half a century. 

John Preston, born at Springfield, Otsego Co.,K Y..May 3,1700: 
immigrated to Crass Lake Sept. 20. 1834, and continued to reside 
on his original location in the village of Franciscoville from the 
date of his first settlement. 

Joseph W. Price was born at Smithtield, Penn., April 13, L805; 
settled at Grass Lake July 10, 1835, and subsequently moved t<. 

Eugene Pringle, an honorary member of the Pioneer Society, was 
born lit Richfield, N. Y., Dec. 1. 1826; and settled at Jackson 24 
vears later, in 1850. 


Joseph Powell, Fort Edward, N Y., born Jan. 29, 1802; settled 
at Grass Lake March 22, 1839, and subsequently moved to 
Franciscoville, Jackson Co. 

Albert T. Putnam, born at Worcester, Mass.. Dec. 25, 1*21; 
settled at Erie, Monroe Co., Oct. 4, 1841, and married Miss 
Sarah Ann Chapman June 20, 1852. 

A, A. Quigley. born at Olysses, Tompkins Co., N. V.. June. 
4, 1825; settled' at Napoleon May lit. 1832, and now resides at 

Henry Reed, bora at Genesee, N. Y., Oct. 7, 1838; settled at 
Henrietta. Jackson Co., October, 1842. 

Mrs. Madeline Reynolds, born at Leoni village, Jackson Co., 
Sept. 29, 1842; lias continued a resident during 38 years. 

W. "R. Reynolds and Henry Richards were among the early 
settlers, but the dates of birth and settlement have not been 

Jacob Rhines, born at Sharon, Schoharie Co., N. Y., Feb. 2, 
1804; settled at Sandstone, Jacks.m Co., in June, 1833. 

I. L. Richardson, bom April 13, 1813, in LeKoy, N. Y.; 
settled at Sandstone, Jackson Co., May 1. 1834. 

David Riley was horn at Fleming, Cavuga Co.. N. Y., Dec. 28, 
1817, and settled at Napoleon Oct. 20, 1835. 

Sylvester Riley, horn at Fleming, Cayuga Co.. X. Y.. .Ian. 11, 
1823; settled at Napoleon Oct. 15, 1S33.' 

Benjamin W. Rockwell, born in New York city Jan. 31, 1812; 
came to Jackson Nov. 3, 1837. 

D. H. Rogers; bom at Montville, Conn., Dec. 4, 1807; settled 
at Sandstone Nov. 12, 1834. 

Amos Root, burn at Fort Ann. N. Y.. April 8, 1816; settled at 
Michigan Center in November, 1838, and subsequently moved to 

Wm. Root, born at Ludlow. Mass.. Sept. 19, 1816; came to 
Wheeland, Hillsdale Co., Sept. 27, 1836, and settled in Liberty, 
Jackson Co., the subsequent year. 

Albert D. Puss was born in Jackson village Dec. 1, 1835, and 
during the past 45 years has made it his home. 

Thomas Sacrider, horn in Canada March 28, 1822; settled at 
Grass Lake Aug. 20, 1840, and subsequently moved to Jackson. 

Cornelius Sammons, born at Shawangunk, Ulster Co., N. Y., 
•Dec. 13, 1801; settled at Ann Arbor Nov. 4, 1832, and moved to 
Jackson in 1836. 

Joseph F. Sammons, born at Orwell, Rutland Co., Vermont, 
March 9. 1830; settled at Ann Arbor Nov. 4, 1832, and came to 
Jackson in 1836. 

William L. Seaton, born at. New Hartford, N. Y., Aug. 19, 
1823; settled at Pontiac, Oakland Co., August, 1848, and came to 
Jackson in January, 1855. 

George W. M. Shearer, born at Arcadia, N. Y., Dec. 20, 1S26; 
settled at Plymouth. Wayne Co., in June, 1826, and subsequently 
at Jackson. 


Jacob Sherman, bom at Wayne, N. Y., Aug. 21, 1821; settled 
at Concord July, 4, 1832, and afterward moved to Pulaski. 

Col. Michael Shoemaker, born at German Flats, N. Y., April 6, 
1818; traveled west in October, 1835, and for seven years traversed 
Michigan and Illinois; settled at Leoni in 1842, and ultimately 
made Jackson his residence. 

Mrs. Sarah Wisner Shoemaker, born at Penn Yan, N. Y., 
March 30, 182!»; came to Jackson in 1854. 

Anson H. Silsbee, born at Wayne, N. Y., Nov. 16, 1814; 
settled at Hanover, Jackson Co., Feb. 22, 1854, and subsequently 
at Summit. 

Sarah Ann Silsbee was born at Cohocton, N. Y., March 20, 
1814, and came to Hanover with her husband in 1854. 

Henry Sisson, Chautauqua county, N. Y., was born June 10, 
1840, and came to Tompkins two years later. 

George S. Smaller, born at Hampton, Washington Co., N. Y., 
Oct. 27, 1821; settled at Concord, Jackson Co., July 17, 1834, 
and subsequently removed to Chicago. 

Edwin Smead, born at Windsor, Vt., May 4, 1816; settled at 
Jackson in October, 1844. 

II. II. Smith, born at Malone, N. Y., Dec. 9, 1809; settled at 
Summit, Jackson Co., Aug. 10, 1837, and subsequently moved to 

Horatio S. Smith, born at Grass Lake, Jackson Co., Feb. 
20, L839; married Lavinia Dwelle Smith, of Rushville, N. Y., who 
was horn July 20, 1848, and came to reside at Grass Lake April 
1, 1866. 

Mrs. Nancy (Darling) Smith, born at Petersburg, N. Y., March 
18, 1806; came to Jackson June 20, 1832. 

John C. South worth, born at German village, Chenango Co., 
N. Y., Nov. 18, 1812; settled at Tompkins July 1, 1839. 

R. W. Squires, born in Ontario, N. Y., Dec'. 24, 1806; settled at 
Napoleon in October, 1832. 

Frank Standish, born at Attica, N. Y., Jan. 25, 1834; settled at 
Jackson April, 1835. 

Mrs. Jane Snyder Standish was born in Sullivan county, N. 
Y., February, 1840, and came to reside at Jackson in April, 1850. 

Zenas Stillson came to Henrietta township in March, 1837. 
Charles S. Stone, in 1833. S. S. Smith, A. F. Smith, James H. 
Snyder, D. Shumway, Cornelius Statt, Wm. Spratt, Lewis Sny- 
der, Joel Swain, Jacob Showerman and T. M. Sandford were also 
among the first settlers. 

Sampson Stodard, born at Vernon, Oneida Co., N. Y., Feb. 
7, 1S06; settled at Jackson in September, 1830. 

S. W. Stowell, born at Littleton, Mass., July 2, 1802; settled 
at Detroit in April, 1834, and with his wife, Mrs. Margaret 
Stowell, moved to Jackson in 1836. 

George Stranahan, born at Clarence, Erie Co., N. Y., Aug. 24, 
1816; settled at Columbia, Jackson Co., 17 years later,or in Au- 
gust, 1833. 


David B. Stuart, born at Northampton, Montgomery Co., N. Y.; 
settled at Summit in 1836. 

Rev. Win. M. Sullivan was born in Salem, Botetourt Co., 
Va., Jan. 11, 1811. He removed to Ohio when a boy with his par- 
ents, on account of his father's opposition to human slavery. 
He entered the ministry in the M. E. Church when 17 years of age; 
came to Michigan in 1832 and labored on the Ann Arbor circuit 
that year, and was assigned to the Mt. Clemens circuit in 1833, 
to the Sandusky circuit, in 1834, to the Dexter circuit in 1835 and 
to the Clinton circuit in 183G. He was married in 1834 to Miss 
Harriet Bennett, of Lima, Washtenaw Co., Mich. He removed to 
Jackson in L837 and assisted his brother, Nicholas Sullivan, in 
publishing the Jackson Sentinel, the first paper published in Jack- 
son county. He attempted to lecture in Jackson in 1838 on 
American slavery, but public sentiment was such at that time that 
he was unable to finish his lecture on account of a Jackson 
mob. He commenced the publication of the American Freeman 
in 1839, the first anti-slavery paper published in Jackson county, 
and probably in the State. He was a member of the Utica Con- 
vention in 1840, which was the initial movement in the secession 
from the M. E. Church, and the formation of the Wesleyan Meth- 
odist Church, on account of the radical difference of opinion in the 
M. E. Church in regard t<> American slavery. He labored in the 
W. M. Church in Waterloo, Jackson Co., North Adams, Hillsdale 
Co., and Wolf Creek, Lenawee Co., until 1845, when he removed 
to Leoni and was appointed an agent to assist in organizing the 
Michigan Union College. This was a flourishing educational insti- 
tution in Leoni (under the auspices of the W. M. Church), until its 
removal to Adrian. He resided in Leoni, engaged in the mercan- 
tile business, and subsequently in farming, until his death in 1871, 
at the age of 60. 

C. S. Swain, born at Kingsbury, N. Y., March 23, 1805, and 
was the first settler in Brooklyn township, October, 1832. 

Joel Swain, born at Royalton, N. Y., Jan. 18, 1821; settled at 
Lodi, Washtenaw Co., in October, 1828, and six years later moved 
to Tompkins, Jackson Co. 

Samuel Sweet, born at Otsego, N. Y., in May, 1804; settled at 
Dexter, Washtenaw Co., in October, 1833, and removed to Water- 
loo in 1837. 

Horace Tanner, born at Stafford, N. Y., Aug. 12, 1816; settled 
at Henrietta, Jackson Co., Oct. 7, 1836. 

Thomas Tanner, born at Stafford, N. Y., Sept. 14, 1814; settled 
at Henrietta in October, 1835. 

James PI. Tanner, born at Stafford, N. Y., Nov. 19, 1823; 
settled at Henrietta in October, 1837, and subsequently moved to 

Ebenezer and J. W. Taylor were early settlers. 

John R. Taylor, born at Greece,N. Y., Jan. 14, 1830; settled at 
Grass Lake August, 1836, and subsequently removed to Napoleon. 


Wra. B. Taylor, born in New York city July 24. 1807; settled 
at Grass Lake' July 4, 1S34. 

James S. Thorn, born at Middlebury, Schoharie Co., N. Y.. 
Nov. 15, 1815; settled at Yankee Springs, Barry Co., May 1. 
1838, and subsequently settled in Hanover township. 

Mrs. Samson Thorn was born at Falmouth, Barnstable Co., 
Mass.. Aug. 6, 1813, and arrived at Yankee Springs 12 days after 
the arrival of her husband. Miss Thorn, her oldest daughter, was 
the first white child born at Yankee Springs. 

Reuben R. Tingley, born at Bloomiield, Oakland Co., Mich.. 
Sept. 18, 1828; came to Jackson city in 1841, located in Hanover 
township; served in the Mexican war in 1848. in Col. Stockton's 
regiment, under Capt. Miles, Co. H., and for a time in Gen. James 
Shield's division. 

Mrs. Maryette French Todd was born at Hopewell. N. Y., July 
13, 1817, and moved West with her husband. 

Robert T. Todd was born at Verona, N. Y., June 5, 1824; 
settled at Tompkins in this county in November, 1849. 

William Todd, born at Rodman, N. Y., Dec. 9, 1807; settled at 
Ann Arbor Sept. 30, 1832, and removed to Spring Arbor, Jackson 
Co., in May, 1836. 

Joseph B. Tomlinson, born at Genesee, N. Y., Oct. <>, 1820, and 
settled at Jackson April 30. 1841. 

Obediah Tompkins, born at Mexico. N. Y., Sept. 12. 1S36; set- 
tled at Columbia July 4, 18—. 

Anson Townley was born at Ludlowville, N. Y., Sept. 24, 1815; 
settled at Tompkins June 19, 1835, and moved into Jackson city at 
a later day. 

Edward Townley, born at Ludlowville, N. Y., June 23, 1817; 
settled at Tompkins. Jackson Co., Sept. 10, 1834. Mr. Townley 
and his father were the first residents in Tompkins township, and 
were among the first house-builders. He cut the first tree, and 
plowed the first furrow in the township. 

Richard Townsley, born Sept. 26, 1821, in Tompkins county, 
N. Y.; settled at Tompkins, Jackson Co., April 30, 1833, and 
is the oldest resident of the township now living. 

II. B. Tripp was an early settler. 

Martin Tripp, born at Royalton, N. Y., March 31, 1831; settled 
at Hanover June 1. 1832. He was the oldest living settler of this 
township in 1875. 

Henry Turney was an early settler. 

Moses Tuttle,' or Tuthill. was born at Southold, Long Island. 
N. Y.. Oct. 26, 1808; came into the State in 1832, and located a 
tract of Government land at the bend of the Raisin (now Manches- 
ter); lived at Honey ('reek in 1S32, and in June, 1835, made his 
home at Liberty. 

Samuel Updike, born at Ulysses. N. Y., Sept. 4, 1809; settled 
at Grass Lake May 20, 1832. 

William W. Van Antwerp, an honorary member of the Pioneer 
Society, and editor of the Jackson Dally Patriot, was born at La 


Grange, Ind., Oct. 4, 1833; came to Jackson in 1841, and has 
made' it his residence since 1859. 

E. Van Horn, horn at (lien. Montgomery Co., N. Y., March 29, 
1818; settled at Rives May 24. 1836. 

James Videto, born at Oxburv. Upper Canada, July 27, 1804; 
settled in Concord October, 1830. 

Mrs. Eliza Vroman was born at Salem, Mass., April 25. 1811; 
came to Burlington, Calhoun Co., in April, 1852, and ultimately 
settled at Summit. 

Tunis Vroman, born at Middlebury, X. Y., April 2!t, 1802; lo- 
cated at Summit Nov. 18, 1835. 

Mrs. Lucy C. Wade was born at Rupert, Vt., May 20, 1825; 
came to Pittsfield May 15, 1849, ami to Jackson county, with her 
husband in 1839. 

Mrs. Abigail ('. Wade was born atEupert, Vt., March 12, 1823, 
and came to Pittsfield Oct. 2!), 1S45. 

Uriah Wade, horn at Wolcott, X. V., Dec. 20, L818; settled at 
Pittsfield, Washtenaw Co., May 24, 1834, and five years later, in 
1839, removed to Tompkins township. 

M. J. Wade, horn at Rose, Wayne Co., K Y., July 27, 1815; 
settled at Pittsfield, Washtenaw Co., Nov. 20, 1834, and removed 
to Tompkins, Jackson Co.. four vears later, in 1888. 

William II. Walker, born at Barre, Vt.. Nov. 19, 1823; settled 
at Grass Lake in October, 1830. 

Chester Wall, born at Scipio, Cayuga <',,.. N. Y., Sept. 5, 1807; 
settled at Sandstone Oct. 12, 1830. 

Mrs. Rachel Wall was horn in lister county, X. Y., May 24, 
1818, and came to Sandstone Sept. 18, 1839. 

F. C. Watkins, born in New Hampshire March 29, 1811; set- 
tied at Xorvell in September. 1833. 

Jeremiah P. Watson, born at Poultney, Steuben Co., N. Y., 
July 29, 1818; settled at Crass Lake Oct. 28, 1838. 

Peter "Weber, born at Oneida, K Y., Oct. 13, 1826; settled at 
Brooklyn, Jackson Co., May 13, 1834. 

James Welch, A. A. Welch, B. S. Wimie, Henry Woodin, 
James C. Wood, S. F. Wolcott, J. E. Wright, X. E. Wright and 
D. E. Wright arrived at an early period in the history of the 

Lewis D. Welling, horn at Stamford. X. Y., Sept. 12, 1812; 
came West in 1831, and Oct. 10 of that year settled at Tecumseh, 
Lenawee Co., removing to Jackson in June, 1837. 

S. S. Welling, born at Stamford, X. Y., Oct, 16, 1826; settled 
at Tecumseh, Lenawee Co., in October, 1831, and removing to 
Jackson county shortly afterward has since made it his home. 

John Westren, borri in Devonshire, England, Sept. 27, 1802; 
arriving in Jackson county in 18:i5-Y>, he purchased 1,800 acres of 
land where now is the village of Pleasant Lake, divided it into six 
farms, and erected a log house on each division. In 1841 he 
moved to the village of Jackson, where he continued to ileal in 
real estate for a few years. In 1845 Mr. Westren. acting on the 


advice of Achille Cadotte, went northward toward the great iron 
mount, now called Jackson mountain, and returning organized 
the Jackson Iron Company. The report of this company, issued 
in New York June 16, 1869, deals in the following terms with this 
pioneer: "Since the last annual meeting of the stockholders, the 
company has lost by death one of its Board of Directors, and one of 
the earliest pioneers, if not the originator, of the Jackson Iron 
Company. John Westren, of Jackson, Mich., died in Marquette, 
where he had gone for the benefit of his health, in August, last" — 

I. P. Wheeler was born Aug. 10, 1817. in Sudbury, Mass.; set- 
tled at Pulaski May 5, 1836. 

Henry Wickman. born at Berlin, Prussia, Aug. 17, 1812; set- 
tled at Hanover, Jackson Co., in May, 1835. 

John Wilbur, born at Adams, Mass., Oct. 12, 1797; settled at 
Pulaski, Jackson Co., Sept. 15, 1835. 

Hiram Williams, born at Middleport, 1ST. Y., Nov.' 20, 1818; 
settled at Monroe in October, 1831, and removing to Jackson 
county the following year made his home at Napoleon. 

Ira A. Willis, born' at Pottsdam, N. Y.. March 12, 1818; settled 
at Pulaski Sept. 10, ls:;s. 

Mrs. Huldah Winne, born at Tompkins, N. Y., March 24, 1822; 
came to Scio, Washtenaw Co., in May, L835, and subsequently 
settled at Leoni, Jackson Co. 

George Wood, born in Otsego county, N. Y., Feb. 14, L826; set- 
tled at Jackson in May, 1831, afterward moving to Sandstone. 
His father, Jonathan Wood, came to the State in 1830, and pur- 
chased that tract of land, now known as the " Woodville Farm.'' 

Abraham Grawman came from Pennsylvania in 1829, and set- 
\ tied in Jackson county while it was yet almost untenanted. He 
was born in 1789, and died Feb. 4, 1876. 

Lewis Darling settled in Concord township in 1834. In 1873 he 
moved to Tompkins, and died three years later, Jan. 6, 1876, 
aged 64 years. 

Amasa Hawkins was born in Otsego county, N. Y., January 
1799, and died at Parma Dec. 1, 1875. Coming West in 1835 he 
settled at Spring Arbor, and throughout his long career was a 
most exemplary citizen. 

Mrs. II. H. Bumpus, a lady of the pioneer period, died at De- 
troit Feb. 4, 1876, having been born in 1808. 

Lorenzo Dow Wheeler died at Blaekman Dec. 24, 1875, at the 
age of 55 years, 6 months and 3 days. 

Kobert Graham, born in 1810; died Nov. 26, L875. 

Owen Griffith, born in 1801; died Dec. 21, L875, in Jackson, 
where he was an old resident. 

Stephen H. Sears, born in 1810; died Nov. 26, 1875. Leaving 
the State of his nativity (Connecticut) in 1831, he settled at Spring 
Arbor in 1832, and removed to Jackson in 1868. 


Marcus Spencer settled at Jackson in 1836. He died in 1876, 
aged 68 years. 

David Williams died June 14, 1876, having reached the age of 
76 years. Born in 1800, he came to this county in 1837 with his 
family, and settled at Waterloo. 

John A. Sloat, born at Walden, Orange Co., N. Y.. April 2, 
1803; moved to Washtenaw county in 1831, where he resided un- 
til 1840, when he settled at Liberty, and subsequently at Napoleon. 
He died Feb. 25, 1S76. 

Isaac Kibbee died at Summitville in 1876, aged 82 years. He 
came West in 1826, and settled in Jackson county about 1839. 

Abram Sanford settled in this county in January, 1837. Born 
in 1796, he died in 1876, at the age of 80 years. 

Mrs. Charlotte Gibson, one of the earliest pioneers of Jackson 
county, died in 1876, at the age of 84 years. 

Mrs. Miriam R. Stephenson, who settled in the county 46 years 
ago, died in March, 1876, aged 52 years. 

Mrs. Anna Dewey, born in 1786, at Granby, Conn.; moved with 
her husband and family to Napoleon, Jackson Co., in 1835, and 
after 40 years' permanent residence, died March 2. 

Mrs. Mariette Gibson, mother of Dr. W. A. Gibson, died May 
24, aged 53 years, having been a resident of Jackson since 1836. 

Mrs. Charity Field, whose date of settlement in this county 
dates back to 1833, died July 4, 1877. 

Edgar E. Knickerbocker died March 25, 1877, aged 35 years. 

David Dyer Sandstone died Oct. 14, 1878, having reached the 
age of 77 years. 

Julia Nicolls Sandstone died Dec. 25, 1878, aged 76. 

George Martin Sandstone died Aug. 24, 1878, aged 88. 

Joseph Swift, at Grass Lake, died Feb. 12, 1878, aged 83 years. 

Almerin B. Tinker, at 65 years of age, died April 18, 1879. 

Nathan Crawford died Feb. 25, 1878. He was born in Decem- 
ber, 1799. 

Mrs. Mary B. Anthony, daughter of Dr. Ira C. Baker, died 
March 19, 1878. 

W. W. Langdon, born in 1809; died Sept, 16, 1878. Mr. Lang- 
don resided in the city 44 years, and in Napoleon for one year. 

George Ferguson died May 14, 1878, aged 69 years. 

Mrs. Nancy Knight died in 1878, at the age of 74 years. She 
was the wife of one of the pastors of the early Churches, and ar- 
rived with him in the county during the year 1835. 

Sidney T. Smith died April 25, 1878, aged 78 years. In 1840 
he came, with his family, from Sherburne, N. Y.. to Michigan and 
settled at Grass Lake. 

Sydney B. Charles died Aug. 30, 1878, at Columbia, aged 91 

Daniel McLaughlin died Nov. 23, 1878, aged 85. 

Ann Tyler died Aug. 4, 1878. Being born in 1790, she reached 
her 88th year. 


Mary Mclntvve, having attained her 82d year, died April 30, 
1878. " 

Esther Parish died Dee. 23, 1878, aged 73 years. 

John .T. Markley died at Grass Lake Sept. i4, 1878, in the 75th 
year of his age. 

Rebecca Hasbrook, an old resident of Columbia, died April 30, 
1878, aged 70 vears. 

William Selkworth died Oct. 20, 1878, at Columbia, aged 85 

Mrs. Esther Giles, of Tompkins; died .Ian. 26, 1878, at the age 
of 84 years. 

Mrs. Harriet Fellows, ofBlackman, died June 6, 1879, aged 86 

Mrs. Sophronia Boughton died July 18, 1878, at Jackson, in her 
76th year. 

John S. Updike, win > was a member of the Pioneer Society, died 
May 23, L878, at Leoni, aged 76 years. 

Albert Howe died at Jackson in 1878, at the age of 70 years. 

Mr>. Mary A. Howe died November, 1878, in her 69th year. 

Joseph Brink died at Leoni Dec. 8, 1878, aged 80 years. 

John Preston, of Leoni, died Aug. 25, 1878, aged 79 years. 

Clarissa Landon, of Springport, died Aug. 9, 1878, aged 78 

George R. F. Eewesdied at Springport June 10, 1878, at the 
age of 88. 

Anna Horton died dune 28, 1878, 82 years <>f age. 

Ann Kairhaiiks died at Springport Aug. 27, 1878, aged 79 years. 

Daniel Meeks died at Napoleon Jan. 16, 1878. He was born in 
N. V. State in I801;cameto Michigan in 1835, and settling at Na- 
poleon, made it his home during the 43 years which elapsed from 
Ins settlement to his decease. 

Reuben O. Eollister, of Columbia, died Aug. 29, 1878, in his 
HTtli year. Born at Batavia, X. V., in 1811, he came to .lackson 
county in 1835. For 4:1 years he was a resident of the county. 

Mrs. Joseph Hawley died March 24, 1878. In 1843 she came 
to Waterloo, and made it her home until her decease. 

Levi Fifield died at .lackson dune 8, 1878, in his 71st year. 

.Jacob Kaywood settled at Leoni in 1835, and after a period of 
43 years" good citizenship, died in his 86th year, Dec. 16, 1878. 

Samuel H. Burt died July 5, 1878, aged 71 years. Leaving 
Massachusetts in 1833, he traveled west, and choosing Jackson as 
his future home took an active part in raising it to its present 
eminence among the cities of the State. 

Simon Holland came to Jackson in 1837, at the age of 35 years, 
and died in 1878, in his 76th year. lie was born in Monroe county, 
N. V., in 1802; lived in Jackson county for 41 years, of which 22 
were passed in Jackson city. 

Dr. Dwight B. Nuns died April 14. 1879. He was born at 
Berkshire. Mass., in 1807. Coming to Jackson in 1865, he at once 
entered into the practice of his profession, and soon won many 


friends among his confreres and the people. Resolutions of con- 
dolence were passed at a meeting of the medical faculty of the city 
the evening of his death, and copies transmitted to the family of 
deceased. These resolutions were signed by Drs. G. Chittock, J. 
T. Main and E. Price. 

H. S. Price died Feb. 25, 1879, at Jackson, aged 74 years. 

Wm. C. Hirsha died Feb. 24, 1879, at Ann Arbor, aged 79 

Judge David Adams died at Tompkins Feb. 27, 1879, aged 80 

Mrs. Betsy Dickinson died April 1, 1879, having reached the 
age of 84 years. 

Mrs. Mary G. De Land, widow of Judge W. R. De Land, 
the third white woman who came into Jackson county, and the 
oldest resident, with the exception of John T. Durand, died Nov. 
30, 1878, at Jackson, in the 77th year of her age. Mrs. De Land 
''Mine to Jackson county in May, 1830, with her husband and two 
children, C. V. De Land and Mrs. B. W. Rockwell. James S. 
De Land, her son, was the first male white child born in the 

Peter La Rue died at the advanced age of 71 years, on June 
22, 1878. In 1843 he settled at Blackmail. The deceased, like the 
majority of the colonists, claimed New York as the State of hte 

Hon. Donnan Felt received a wound from a pistol ball, and 
within a few days expired, lie was born in New Hampshire, but 
passed the greater portion of his youth in Oswego county, N. Y., 
moving to Grass Lake in 1847. During his long life, extending 
ovcrdO years, he was honored by the people. 

Wm. Maybury came to the county in 1839, and died in 1879, at 
the age of 55 years. lie was the first drayman in the city, and so 
clear were his little dealings that his patrons, as well as the cos- 
termongers, termed him "Poor Honest Hilly." His economy and 
industry combined, left him worth $100,000 some years prior to his 

Isaac De Lamater died Feb. 8, 1878, at the advanced age of 87 
years. He was born at Oblong, N. Y., in 1791. During the 
first few years of the present century he resided in Onondaga 
county, N. Y., immediately after its organization, and remained 
thereuntil 1833, when he came to Manchester, Washtenaw Co. 
Moving in L835 to Columbia, he made that township his home. 
At his death a family of 50, including seven sons, twenty-two 
grand children, and twenty-one great-grand children were left to 
mourn his loss. 

Bela Turner, who died March 3D, 1S79, at the age of 91 years, 
moved from Hartford, Conn., to Jackson in 1846. He was the 
senior member of the First Congregational Church. 

Judge Samuel iligby. whose death caused such profound sor 
row throughout Jackson, was born at New Hartford, OneidaCo., 
N. Y., in 1813. He studied law at Utica, and was there admitted 


to the Bar. In 1838 Judge Higby came to Jackson, and, en- 
tering into a law partnership with Judge David Johnson, began a 
brilliant career. Subsequently he and Phineas Farrand became 
partners; again he became interested in Judge Johnson's office, 
and for the three years preceding his death was a member of the 
law firm of Higby & Gibson. In 1843 he was elected the first 
Recorder of the newly incorporated village of Jackson. In 1844 
he was elected Probate Judge; in 1850 he was chosen Prosecuting 
Attorney, and in 1856 was elected President of the village of Jack- 
son, being the last person holding that office, as the town of Jack- 
son was soon incorporated a city. In 1869 Judge Higby was 
elected Judge of this circuit, and resigned in 1873. 

Mrs. Mary Cockburn died June 22, 1879, at the age of 84 years 
and 6 months. She was born at Buffalo, N. Y., in March, 1795; 
settled at Jackson in 1838, with her family, and adopted the little 
village of those early days as her home. 

Mrs. Shaver, whose death occurred June 25, 1879, came to the 
countv from Columbia, N". Y., in 1835, and resided in Jackson 44 
years. Her husband, Andrew Shaver, died in 1847, 12 years after 
nis settlement. 

Mrs. Maria Van Horn, of Blackmail, died Aug. 5, 1879, at the 
age of 70 years. She was the relict of Christopher Van Horn, 
whose early settlement has been hitherto noticed. 

Mrs. Hannah Cradit died at the age of 83 years, having been a 
resident of Leoni for 4(1 years. 

Mrs. Cornelius Soper died June 30, 1879. She reached an ad- 
vanced age. and was an old settler of Grass Lake township. 

Mrs. Man McCann died at St. Louis, Gratiot Co., aged 75 
years. She was formerly a resident of the city of Jackson. 

Abram Skidmore. an old settler of Waterloo township, died 
Jan. 26, 1879, at the age of 70 years. 

Mrs. Amelia E. Gale died June 12, 1879, in her 78th year. 

Harmon Taylor, aged 74 years and 6 months, died June 20, 

Dr. John .Mid. can died .March 10, 1879, after a residence of 40 
years in Jackson. lie was born at Caledonia, N. V., in 1814, was 
a member of the faculty of Rush Medical College, Chicago, and 
for many years a leading physician of Jackson. 

Stephen Siegfried, of' Waterloo, died in 1879, at the age of 63 
years, having been a resident of the township since 1854. 

Mrs. Sarah M. Perry, born at Lockport, N. Y., in 1S17, and an 
old settler of this county, died July 15, 1879. Mrs. Perry arrived 
here in 1837, and was one of the original members of the First 
Congregational Church. 

Mrs. Warren X. Buck died Sept. 12, 1^77. 

Hon. Warren N. Buck, whose death was recorded July 6, 1879, 
was born at Bolton, Warren Co., X. Y., May 8, 1814, and re- 
moving to Jackson in 1838, entered on a course which brought 
him honors and wealth. The deceased was Mayor of the city in 
1867-'8, so that in the funeral train ex-Mayors Hayden, Bennett. 


Hibbard, Root, Loomis and Wood were pall-bearers, and ex- 
Mayors Jackson and Higby among the mourners. 

Abraham Bunker, an old settler of Henrietta township, died in 
1879. Mr. Bunker was the pioneer of Bunker Hill, Ingham (Do., 
and erected the first building at that village. In those early years 
the Indians were numerous in the district, and Louis Baptiste, or 
Bateese, a French half-breed, kept the Indian trading-post on the 
shore of Bateese lake. 

Samuel Anderson died Oct. 28, 1879, in Napoleon, aged 83 
years, 5 months and 24 days. He was a resident of the county 
for many years. 

G. D. Smith, of Blackman, died in October, 1879, at the age of 
81 years. 

Mrs. Mary Sullivan died Dec. 26, 1879, in her 64th year. She. 
with her husband, Jeremiah Sullivan, were old residents of the - 

Mrs. Martha Harris, of Tompkins, died Aug. 21. 1879, bavins; 
attained the age of 86 years. She, with her husband, William 
Harris, came from Kent, England, in 1849, and settled in Jackson 

D. A. Clelland. born in Hanover township in 1836, died in 
1879. His father, J. D. Clelland, one of the first settlers in the 
township, is over SO years old. 

Maria S. Lee died Sept. 20, 1879, 56 years of age. 

Mrs. Jane Humphrey died July 22, 1879. She settled at 
Wheatland, Hillsdale Co., 40 years ago, with her husband, John 
Humphrey, who died in 1871. 

Elihu Cooley was born at Elyria, Ohio, in June, 1826, and died 
July 22, 1879,' in his 54th year. He was one of those enterpris- 
ing nun who built up the trade of this city. 

Edwin Fifield, of Michigan Center, died August, 1879, at the age 
of 56. He was an old settler, eccentric, an old bachelor, and yet 
possessed many friends. 

Mrs. Eunice Morley (Hawley; Miller died Aug. 20, 1S79. The 
lady was born at East Windsor, Conn., Jan. 1, 1789, and conse- 
quently died in the 91st year of her age. 

Mrs. Ariel Cornwell, of Liberty township, died in August, 1879, 
in her 67th year. She was born at Preston, Conn., and married 
Ariel Cornwell in 1834 ; they migrated west, and settled at Liberty 
in 1836. 

Judge Hiram Thompson died at Osakis, Minn., July 17, 1879, 
in his 80th year. The Judge settled in Jackson in 1831, and was 
the first Town Clerk. He was afterward County Judge and 
Registrar of Deeds. Wm. R. Thompson and John Thompson, 
both old settlers, were his brothers. 

Oliver Bunce settled in Liberty township in 1846, and died 
Sept. 25, 1879, at the age of SI. 

Mrs. Louisa Gates, an old resident of Leoni, died Sept. 4, 1879, 
in her 74th vear. 


Solomon Yager, an old resident of Springport, died Sept. 4, 
1879, at the age of 66 years. 

Joab Bigelow, born in Windham county, Vt., October, 1792 ; 
settled with his parents at Onondaga, N. Y., in 1800. Eighteen 
years later he married Miss Lois Putnam, and in 1835 moved 
west to Jackson county. After a period of 44 years' residence 
in the county, Mr. Bigelow died Oct. 21, 1879, at the age of 86 

John Stephenson, a pioneer of Jackson county, died Oct. 25, 

.lames Hatt, a farmer, and comparatively an old settler, living 
three miles northeast of Franciscoville, died suddenly in Sep- 
tember, 1879, having attained the age of 67 years. 

John Ricker, an old settler as;ed 88 years, died suddenly Dec. 
42, 1879. 

Mrs. Rose McGill, an old lady whose years were so many that 
a count was impracticable, died at Jackson Sept. 6, 1879. 

John King, who settled in Rives at a very early date, died sud- 
denly Oct. 8, 1879, having attained the age of 58 years. 

Patrick Hayden, born in Ireland in 1814, and one of the oldest 
settlers of Jackson, died in 1879, aged 65 years. The funeral cor- 
tege, consisting of 80 vehicles, which extended a mile over the 
route to the cemetery, was a living testimony to the excellence of 
the deceased. 

Samuel Prescott, born in New Hampshire, Aug. 30, 1800; 
settled at Henrietta in 1836, and died Dec. 13, 1879. The biog- 
raphy of the Prescott family, and particularly that of the deceased, 
is remarkably interesting. The trials of his early settlement and 
his conquest of the forest afford matter for that portion of this 
work devoted to township history. 

Mrs. Abigail Prescott died Dec. 19, 1879, having attained the 
age of 79 years. 

James McCann died Jan. 30, 1880, aged 63 years. Born in 
Ireland in 1817, he came to Michigan in 1S40, and settled at 
Bunker Hill in 1847. In 1874 Mr. McCann removed to Rives 
township, and continued to reside there until his death. 

Mrs. Torrey died Feb. 8, 1880, at the advanced age of 80 years. 

'Die demise of Mrs. Brockwell, at Norvell, Feb. 8, 1880, aged 88 
years, was recorded with that of Mrs. Torrey. 

Mrs. Lucy Cutter died Feb. 12, 1880, in Concord township, hav- 
ing attained the ripe old age of 80 years. 

Mrs. Ann Fleming, who resided in Henrietta township for a 
period of over 30 years, died Feb. 12, 1880, in her 57th year. 

Day Jones, born at Port Ann, Washington Co., N. Y., July 15, 
L812, arrived in this county in April, 1834, and continued to reside 
at Brooklyn, with the exception of a period of two years passed in 
the iron districts of Lake Superior. 

J. II. Treadwell was born April 3, L828, and came to Jackson 
with his father, Hon. Seymour B. Treadwell, in 1839. His death 
at Lake City, Col., in 1880, caused wide-spread sorrow. 


Edward P. Grandy, of Rives, died Feb. 16, 1880, at the early 
age of 34 years. 

Wm. P.' Fifield died Feb. 12, 1880. after a residence within the 
county extending over 50 years. 

Mrs. Charlotte Upton, of Parma, died Feb. 10, 1880, aged 
92 years. The lady was one of the pioneers of Jackson county. 
She was young when Washington died, but remembered many 
of the stirring scenes immediately following the war of Inde- 

George Kanouse died Jan. 22, 1880, after many years' residence 
in Jackson. 

Chauncey Hawley died March 31, 1880, in the 83d year of 
his age. lie made a settlement at Napoleon in 1832, and to 
the time of his decease enjoyed the confidence of the people. 

Lawrence Barber, a pioneer of the war of lsli>, and an old 
settler in Jackson county, died April 9, 1880. aged 87 years. 

Mrs. Lurania Blackmore, of Rives, died April 4. L880, aged 33 

A. V. Main, of Summit, died April 2, 1880, aged 77 years. He 
settled in Jackson county in 1837. 

Miss Sarah Ann Chapman died April 5, 1880. The lady was 
born Nov. 3. 1830, being the first white child born in Jackson 
county. She was the daughter of Elizur 15. Chapman and grand- 
daughter of Lemuel Blackmail, whose names are identified with 
the history of the county. 

Ichabod Cole, deceased in 1880, came to Jackson in 1837, and 
had been a resident of the city over 29 years. He was the; first 
City Marshal. 

Albert T. Putnam died May 26, 1880, aged 59 years. He 
married Miss Chapman, who has been noticed in previous pages. 

Columbus C. Darling, whose death occurred May 20, 1880. 
settled at Jackson in 1831, subsequently at Eaton Rapids, and 
in 1847 he moved to Lansing and took a most prominent part in 
the development of the city. It is also said that he did more 
to forward the growth of Jackson during its first years than any 
other of its pioneers. 

Ami Fillcy settled at Jackson in 1830, and was a resident of the 
county until 1870, when lie emigrated to Nebraska. May 13, 1880, 
he was training a colt, when the animal grew restive, and inflicted 
such terrible injuries on the owner that he died the same day. 

Mrs. Betsy M. Davis, a lady aged 80 years, died May 19,' 1880, 
at Jackson. She and her husband, Dr. Jonathan I). Davis, 
located in Wayne county, Mich., in 1*^6; removed to Jackson in 
1842, and was a resident for 38 years. 

John W. Welch died May 11, 1880, in his Tlst year. He settled 
in Jackson county in April. 1 837, and shared in the honors at the 
disposal of the people. 

Richard B. Pixley, born at Great Harrington, Mass., Oct. 19, 
1801; died at Henrietta April 1, 1880, having attained the age of 


79 years. His settlement in this county was in 1838, when, with 
his wife, Julia S. (Sanderson) Pixley, he located at Waterloo. 

Mrs. Sarah B. Glasgow died April 21, 1880.' She was a resident 
of Jackson 25 years, and married J. H. Glasgow, the senior of the 
State-prison keepers, at an early age. 

Hon. Tidus Livermore died May 28, 1880, in the 69th year of 
his age. Born in Oneida county, N. Y., in 1811, he came to 
Jackson in 1839; studied law in the office of Johnson & Higby, 
and after admission to the Bar became one ot the most prominent 
and loyal citizens of the State. The Bar of Jackson county 
attended his funeral. 

Elder Cleveland died at Hanover Feb. 27, 1880, aged 72 years. 
He was one of the old settlers of this county. 

Oscar G. Pixley, whose father's demise is noticed in one of the 
foregoing paragraphs, was born at Havana, Schuyler Co., N. Y., 
in 1829. He came hither with his parents to this State in 1836; 
resided two years at Lima, Washtenaw Co., and in 1838 settled in 
Grass Lake, where he lived until 1848, when he moved to 

Amos Bradford, one of the first settlers, died at Spring Arbor 
April 14, 1880, aged 70 years. He located his homestead in 1835, 
and for the long period of 45 years was accorded the respect and 
esteem which his age, early settlement, and upright character 

Thomas Howe, an old settler of Waterloo township, died in 
April, 1880. 

Dr. Samson Stoddard, bom near Vienna, Oneida Co., N. Y., 
Feb. 7, 1806, settled in Jackson county in September, 1830, when 
he found the only settlers to comprise the Blackman family, Judge 
DeLand, John T. Durand, W. J. Bennett, and Win. R. Thompson. 
From 1833 to 1836 he was Clerk and Treasurer of Jackson county, 
by appointment of Gov. Porter. In 1837 he moved to his home- 
stead in Concord township, where he continued to reside until 
1873, when he moved to Albion, Calhoun Co. He died Aug. 24, 
1876, in his 71st year. 

Harry Wilcox', born in Massachusetts July 8, 1799; died at 
Jackson, Mich., Sept. 24, 1879, aged 81 years. With his parents, 
he may lay claim to the pioneership of Onondaga county, N. Y. ; 
but his settlement in Jackson was so comparatively recent that it 
does not come within its pioneer era. 

James P. Hawley, born at Hartford, Washington Co., N. Y., 
Sept. 25, 1828, and traveling West with his father, Hon. Chauncey 
Hawley, in 1832, settled in the wilderness of Napoleon during the 
fall of that year. He was a most popular citizen of the county, 
and his decease, July 3, 1876, at the age of 48 years, caused 
general sorrow. 

William H. Pease died Nov. 13, 1862. He was one of the 

Eioneers of 1830, having made his location and settlement at Grass 
ake that year. He was for many years agent of the Michigan 


Central Railroad Company at that station, and was much esteemed 
by all his compeers, together with those who knew him best. 

George II. Ilolden, born at Batavia, N. Y., May 26, IS 17; set- 
tled at Ypsilanti in 1832, and eight years later removed to Jackson, 
where he continued to reside until July 6, 1874, the date of his 

Joseph C. Ives, aged 65 years, died at his residence, on East 
Main street, Jackson, on Tuesday, .lime 2!>, lsSO. He was a native 
of Connecticut, and has resided in this county since 1844. 

Thomas Shields, born in Ireland in 1802; settled at Jackson in 
1837; took part in raising the log cabin in L840, and died a few 
days later from the effects of a cold contracted on that occasion. 

Nancy Patrick, who has resided in Henrietta since 1835, died at 
the home of her daughter, Mrs. A. N. Ripley, of that township, 
aged 68 years. Her malady was inflammation of the lungs. She 
was one of the earliest settlers of that section of the county. 

Mrs. Hannah Barber, ot Leoni, died in February, 1878. She 
came to this county with her father, Win. Burkhart, in early day, 
and reached the age of 58 years. 

John Barber was born in Belfast, Ireland, in 1806, where he was 
engaged in the linen-carrying trade. He emigrated in 1828; but 
owing to the wreck of the ocean vessel, he did not reach the shores 
of America until 1829. For five months and twenty-four days he, 
with his unfortunate fellow passengers who survived the wreck, 
was tossed about on the Atlantic, and ultimately reached Quebec. 
After a brief stay in that Canadian city, he turned his steps to New 
York State, labored on the Erie canal, and in 184-0 he, with his 
wife and two children, emigrated to Michigan, ultimately settling 
in the township of East Portage, now known as Waterloo. Mr. 
Barber died in the midst of friends Nov. 3, 1880, while Mrs. Bar- 
ber, who shared in the labors of the pioneers, died in 1874. 

Cyrus L. Parmeter, an old resident of Spring Arbor, died of 
congestive chills Dec. 27, 1880, aged 83 years, leaving a wife and 
five children, three sons and two daughters, of which Mrs. Philo 
Curtiss, of Jackson, is one. The deceased has been a resident of 
Spring Arbor 42 years. 

Lyman Draper, a pioneer of Rives township, died Jan. 5, 1880, 
aged 70 years. 

Mr. J. L. Odell, an old and respected citizen of Leoni village, 
died at his home in that place Jan. 14, 1881, at the advanced age 
of 89 years. 

The record of deaths for the year 1879 shows a total of 325, 
against 370 in 1878. These of 1880 show numbers approximating. 
The three eldest persons dying in 1879 were Bela Turner, of Jack- 
son, aged 91; Anna Dewey, of Napoleon, 90, and Polly Mahee, of 
Rives, 91. The number of births in 1879 was 724, against 844 the 
previous year. In 1880 the marriages numbered 396, against 382 
for 1879. 


Jackson is a grand county, in many respects second to none in 
the State, and in almost everything that goes to make a live, pros- 
perous community, not far behind the best. Beneath its fertile 
soil is coal enough to supply the State for generations; its harvests 
are bountiful; it enjoys a medium climate, and many other tilings 
that make the inhabitants a contented, prosperous and happy 
people; but they owe much to those who opened up these avenues 
that have led to their present conditions and happy surroundings. 
Unremitting toil and labor have driven off the sickly miasmata that 
brooded over swampy prairies. Energy and perseverance have 
peopled every section of the wild lands, and changed them from 
wastes and deserts to gardens of beauty and profit. Where but a 
few years ago the barking of wolves made the night hideous with 
their wild shrieks and howls, now is heard only the lowing and 
bleating of domestic animals. Only a half century ago the wild 
whoop of the Indian rent the air, where now are heard the engine 
and rumbling trains of cars bearing away to markets the products 
of the soil and the labor of its people. Then the savage built his 
rude huts on the spot where now rise the dwellings and school- 
houses and church spires of civilized life. How great the trans- 
formation ! This change has been brought about by the incessant 
toil and aggregated labor of thousands of tired hands and anxious 
hearts, and the noble aspirations of such men and women as make 
any country great. What will another half century accomplish? 

There are few, very few, of these old pioneers yet lingering on 
the shores of time, as connecting links of the past with the present. 
What must their thoughts be, as with their dim eyes they view 
the scenes that surround them? We often hear people talk about 
the old-fogy ideas, and fogy ways, and want of enterprise on tin- 
part of the old men who have gone through the experiences of 
pioneer life. Sometimes, perhaps, such remarks are just, but, 
considering the experiences, education, and entire life of such men, 
such remarks are better unsaid. They have had their trials, mis- 
fortunes, hardships and adventures, and shall we now, as they are 
passing far down the western declivity of life, and many of them 
gone, point to them the finger of derision, and laugh and sneer at 
the simplicity of their ways? Let us rather cheer them up, revere 
and respect them, for beneath those rough exteriors beat hearts as 
noble as ever throbbed in the human breast. These veterans have 
been compelled to live for weeks upon hominy and, if bread at. 
all, it was bread made from corn ground in hand-mills, or pounded 
up in mortars. Their children have been destitute of shoes 
during the winter; their families had no clothing except what was 
carded, spun, woven, and made into garments by their own hands. 
Schools they had none; churches they had none; afflicted with 
sickness incident to all new countries, sometimes the entire family 
at once; luxuries of life they had none; the auxiliaries, improve- 
ments, inventions, and labor-saving machinery of to-day they had 
not, and what they possessed they obtained by the hardest of labor 
and individual exertions; yet they bore these hardships and priva- 


tions without murmuring, hoping for better times to come, and 
often, too, with but little prospect of realization. 

As before mentioned, the changes written on every hand are 
most wonderful. It has been but three-score years since the white 
man began to exercise dominion over this region, erst the home of 
the red man, yet the visitor of to-day, ignorant of the past of the 
county, could scarcely be made to realize that within these years 
there has grown up a population of 40,000 people, who in all the 
accomplishments of life are as far advanced as are the inhabitants 
of counties in the old States. They possess more liberal views. 
and look at everything in the broadest light. Schools, churches, 
colleges, palatial dwellings, beautiful grounds, large, well-culti- 
vated and productive farms, as well as cities, towns and busy 
manufactories, have 'sprung up, and now occupy the hunting and 
c imp grounds of the red man, so that wherever the eye may rest, 
there are evidences of progress and intelligence. There is but 
little left of the old landmarks. Civilization has blotted out all 
traces of the aboriginal occupiers, until now the Indian name is all 
that is remembered. Never grow unmindful of the peril and ad- 
venture, fortitude, self-sacrifice and heroic devotion displayed in 
the lives of the pioneers. As time sweeps on in its ceaseless flight 
may those who inherit the result of their labors cherish their mem- 
ories and do honor to their names. 



From all that lias been written on the early history ot the 
county and townships, it might be supposed that the story ot 
settlement and progress had been well told. This should not be 
the case. If it were possible to have the reminiscences of every 
pate>- fiuniUii* now residing in the county appear in this volume, 
some new subject for history would present itself in each paper, 
and so add immensely to perfect a record of the past and pres- 
ent. It is impossible to collect every literary contribution, even to 
induce some men of average mental capabilities to write about im- 
portant events with which they are acquainted; but it will doubt- 
less be conceded that a sufficiently large amount of valuable 
subject matter has been collected or written to render this histor- 
ical volume as perfect as possible. In this chapter a series of 
most important events are recoi - ded, and if there be one 
whose vanity may lead to criticism and fault-finding, let him 
remember the difficulties which attend the writing of such a volu- 
minous work, and how little he himself has contributed to render 
the work of the historian light, or to add one single item that 
would make it more complete. 


In dealing with county history it is thought just and honora- 
ble, as well as desirable, that the writer or compiler should 
utilize that which has been written on the affairs of the county by 
one of its citizens, when the subject appears to be treated in 
an impartial manner. The following sketches were penned by an 
old settler in 18(>6, and deal with the first three years of pi- 
oneer life here. They appear to deal with the subject minutely 
and impartially, and are so subscribed: "There are but six of the 
first settlers who came here in the spring of 1830 now left, resid : 
ing in this city, namely: Mr. and Mrs. W. R. De Land, Mr. 
and Mrs. E. B. ( lhapman, Mr. and Mrs. JohnT. Durand. Theothers 
are gone to their long rest, save a few removed to parts unknown. " 

The first settler of Jackson county was Horace Blackmail, of Berk- 
shire, Tioga Co., N. Y., who came here in the summer of 1829, 
and located the southeast quarter of section 34, town 2 south, range 
1 west, on which the first ward of the city of Jackson now stands, 
and to him pertains the honor and enterprise of being the first per- 
manent settler of Jackson county. He was assisted in his under- 
taking by Lemuel Blackmail, his father, and Russell Blackman 
1 196) 


his elder brother. Michigan at this time was a Terrritory, and but 
a very small part of it settled. Its entire population was about 
30,000. The city of Detroit was at that time an old, dilapidated 
looking town, with a population of 2,220. The Chicago road had 
just been built at the expense of the United States Government, 
opening an avenue of travel through the southern part of the Ter- 
ritory, and along this route a few small settlements were begin- 
ning to emerge from the wilderness. Ann Arbor at this time was 
the extreme frontier settlement west of Detroit. It was a small 
village, containing three or four stores, two public houses and 
some 500 inhabitants. Here was the end of the road going west. 

Blackmail came on as far as this place to visit some friends 
who resided here. From these and some others, he learned what 
he could regarding the country lying west of AVashtenaw; also from 
the map of survey of the United States Government which had re- 
cently been completed. Possessed of a spirit of enterprise and 
indomitable energy, and led on by a pioneer impulse, he was deter- 
mined to strike tor the wilderness. In accordance with this deter- 
mination he made up his mind to explore the country as far as the 
valley of Grand river, which would carry him forward near the 
heart of the country. Accordingly he set out on his journey of ex- 
ploration July 2, 1829, accompanied by Capt. Alex. Laverty, an 
experienced pioneer and excellent woodsman, and an Indian 
guide named Pee-^oy-tum, who was well acquainted with the 
country and a great friend of the Gem-o-Kmncni, as he 
called the white settlers. With varying success they pursued 
their way under the scorching rays of a July sun, sometimes 
fording a river and sometimes wading a wet and quaggy marsh, 
following the great Indian trail leading through the central part 
of the Territory, from Detroit to the mouth of the St. Joseph river. 
The first day of their journey they arrived at the foot of the Short 
Hills where they encamped for tlie night. The next they pur- 
sued their journey with renewed ardor over hill and plain, and 
long vistas of oak openings covered with rich and luxurious grass 
and herbage, and interspersed with many varieties of beautiful 
flowers. When faint and weary with traveling they would sit 
down and rest their locomotive muscles. Pee-wy-tum would use 
all his powers of persuasion to cheer them on. Pointing west 
he would assure them that they would soon find better corn-fields, 
purer and brighter rivers and more sunny spots for wigwams, 
when they arrived at the great valley of the Washtenong Sepee, 
as he called the Grand river. Washtenaw, or Washtenong, means 
in the Pottawatomie language, a clear, swift stream, running over 
a bed of pebble stones, and was the Indian name for this place 
and vicinity. 

Near the close of the second day's journey our travelers began 
to approach their long-wished-for goal, and about sunset they 
arrived on the last bank of the river, with hearts gladdened at the 
prospects before them. Pee-wy-tum was frantic with joy at the 


sight ol this familiar stream, on whose waters his canoe had so 
often swiftly glided in pursuit, offish, with which it abounded. 


On the eastern bank was a heavy belt of timber extending from 
the river back to the rising ground in the rear. On the west side 
of the river the land was more elevated and open, with a large 
Indian corn-field a little to the right. Having refreshed them- 
selves with the pure water of the river, for the first time drank by 
the Anglo-Saxon, our travelers crossed the ford-way on the trail, 
where Trail street bridge now stands, and encamped fur the night 
on the ground near the intersection of Jackson and Trail streets. 
Here was an old Indian camping ground, which formed a very 
convenient resting place for their caravan, as they traveled through 
the country. Here also were fine fishing grounds on the river, 
and hunting grounds in the surrounding openings, and the spot 
where Jackson now stands was considered a point of great impor- 
tance by the aborigines. At this point was a concentration of all 
the leading trails of the Peninsula, and from tins fact the first set- 
tlers were lead to believe that it would become a central and im- 
portant place of business. 


After enjoying a quiet and refreshing repose, our travelers 
awoke next morning to behold the rising of a beautiful July sun, — 
it being the morning of the 53d anniversary of American Inde- 
pendence, — their bodies rested and invigorated with sleep, their 
minds flushed with the bright hopes of the future, — to think 
they were about to establish a new home, — to found a new city 
whose fame might outrival Rome itself in the future. Thirty-six 
years ago these pioneers of the wilderness, standing on the bank 
of this beautiful river, beheld the placid morn which ushered in 
the birthday of our nation's freedom, and although remote from 
friends and home, and isolated from the masses of populous town 
and city, they felt the spirit of liberty and patriotism burning in 
their bosoms, and resolved to celebrate the day in as solemn and 
as appropriate a manner as circumstances would admit, A dinner 
was prepared of fish and game, and with some other fixings consti- 
tuted the delicacies of their banquet-table. After a brief oration 
in Pottawatomie by Laverty, the dinner was soon dispatched, and 
with plenteous libations of wauboo from the river, several patriotic 
toasts were drank under the crack of Pee-wy-tum's rifle, which re- 
verberated long and long through the answering forest. A more 
heartfelt and joyous celebration of our nation's freedom was, per- 
haps, never enjoyed, the recital of which, by Blackmail and 
Laverty, to the early settlers was the cause of much amusement. 


horack blackman's STORY. 

Laverty had been fishing that morning, and had left, his fishing 
pole standing by a stump, the line hanging over with a piece of 
pork on the hook; Pee-wy-tum's dog had eyed tins closely for some 
time, and just as they had finished the celebration, concluded to 
seize it. Lt swung some four feet from the ground, and the dog 
making a sudden ]ea|>. seized the pork, and hung suspended in the 
air, — " a noble specimen of the dog fish," as the Captain had it. 
A few kicks, the line broke, and the dog ran away with the hook 
sticking in his jaws, keeping up a continual kl-i/i, /'/-///, rubbing 
first one paw and then the other over his jaws, which the hook 
had so cruelly lacerated. As the dog disappeared, Horace quietly 
remarked that ir was the first dug he ever saw playing the Jew's 
harp. The Captain said he believed him to be a good patriotic 
dog, and that he was probably playing Hail Columbia, or some 
other national air, set to the peculiar measure of canine music. 


The festivities of the day being ended, our explorers began to 
look about to ascertain their position and examine the face <">f the 
snrrounding country, in order to fix a site for laying out the plot 
of a village, embracing as many local and other advantages as 
possible. This was no ordinary undertaking, requiring a thorough 
geographical knowledge of the country, and a sound, discriminating 
judgment as to all the advantages and facilities that a single point 
might possess. 

From the United States survey previously made, he traced 
townships and section lines, whose markings and boundaries were 
very plain and visible. Blackman soon ascertained that, he was 
then resting on the southeast quarter of section 34, town 2 south, 
of range 1 west, two miles west of the meridian and 12 miles 
south of the base line, the two great quarforial lines drawn north 
and south, and east ami west through the Territory, on which 
the United States survey is based in regard to its descriptions. 
He found that this quarter section embraced a good water-power 
on the river, was on the direct route of the St. Joseph trail, 
the most important and heavily traveled trail of the country; that it 
would in all probability become the county-seat of the next county 
west of Washtenaw, and also that it might become the future 
capital of the State. Under all those circumstances he concluded 
to make it his location, and time has shown us with what accurate 
judgment and calculation his choice was made. Most of his 
expectations have been realized, and all would have been, had jus- 
tice been done us. 

Here then, in the midst of a vast wilderness, was the standard 
of civilization planted by a humble individual, and the first 
initiatory step taken in the march of a vast improvement. Fifty-one 
years ago the spot on which this beautiful and populous city now 

IllS-mm (.IF .lAI'KSON I'OI'NTY. 

stands was naught but the wild and desolate abode of the savage. 
Now, instead of being on the extreme frontier, we are scarcely 
midway, and looking back to the hills of the olden States and 
forward to the peaks of the Rocky mountains, we hnd ourselves in 
the midst of a vast nation, which has spread the light of science and 
civilization, and the arts and improvements of agriculture and 
domestic husbandry from ocean to ocean. 

The site which Mr. Blackman fixed upon for his log cabin was 
the same where the dwelling-house of John F. Durand now stands, 
— a spot consecrated in the memory of the early settlers. 

OFF TO MoNKoi . 

Blackman and Laverty returned to Ann Arbor, and thence went 
to the land office at Monroe to obtain the duplicate. Being soon 
joined by his brother, Russell, who had come on from New York 
with some hands they hired at Ann Arbor, came out to Grand 
river (then called Blackmail's location), put up a log house, 
and covered it preparatory to their reception the following spring. 
This was the first log house built in Jackson county. Blackman 
now returned to New York, leaving Russell at Ann Arbor to 
watch the course of events and take charge of his new possessions 
during his absence, calculating to return the next spring, with hie 
family and a colony of other settlers. 


At the session of the council of the Territory (then consisting 
of only 13 members) an act was passed setting off a new tier of 
counties, from the county of Washtenaw west to Lake Michigan. 
The county of Jackson was to contain 20 surveyed townships, thus 
giving it an area of 720 scpiare miles, being 24 miles north and 
south by 30 east and west. This establishment of the county 
limits brought Blackman's location within half a mile of the geo- 
graphical center of the county, and within 12 miles of the geo- 
graphical center of Michigan Territory, according to the United 
Smtes survey, and in all probability the most eligible point for the 
State capital. 

Another and important act of the Legislature was the laying out 
of the Territorial or State road, running through the tier of new 
counties, thus opening a new route for the immigrant north of and 
parallel with the Chicago road. This road was to commence at a 
point near Sheldon's Corners, in Wayne county, and running in a 
westerly direction, terminating at the mouth of the St. Joseph, 
along the route of the great Indian trail, called the "Detroit and 
St. Joe trail." The principal points named in the act to be on 
the line of this road comprised among others Ann Arbor and 
Blackman's location. Tin- location of this road was suggested to 
the minds of our wise legislators by the fact that it was the great 
thoroughfare of Indian travel through the Peninsula from timeim- 


memorial. The survey and the opening of this road was a 
great benefit to the Territory, as it gave a new impulse to immi- 
gration, and opened a wide field for settlement along the whole 
route on the rich and fertile lands of which those new counties 
were composed. The commissioners appointed to locate those 
roads were Col. Orrin White. Jonathan F. Stratton and Seelej 
Neale, of Washtenaw. Stratton was also appointed surveyor. 
They immediately proceeded to discharge the duty devolving upon 
them, rightly judging that the winter season would be most favor- 
able for a survey, as the marshes and streams would then be 
frozen over, and the chaining performed more accurately. Having 
made the necessary arrangements tor a winter campaign, they 
commenced the survey about .Ian. 1. 1830. and proceeded as tar as 
the village of Aim Arbor. Mr. E. Clark, in referring to the sub- 
ject of the road, and to the settlement of Ann Arbor and Jackson- 
burgh, says: "In the early settlement of Washtenaw, before we 
had facilities for transporting produce to market, and indeed be- 
fore we had much to send off. it-was the object to induce emi- , 
grants t<> come among us to settle. They made a home market 
for the surplus provisions and stock we had to spare. They 
brought all the money, so that the success of the farmer, mechanic 
or merchant depended as much upon a good season of immigration 

as upon g 1 crops." Up to the year 1829 there w T as no road 

leading west beyond Clement's farm, on Mill creek, seven miles 
from the court-nouse. The Chicago road was only traveled then 
by immigrants in search of homes. Mr. Clark was on the Chicago 
road and noticed the travel, and the idea suggested itself that a 
road might he opened through the vcimt.ral-part of the Territory; 
and thus open to the new-comer a rich district in which to make a 
home. A few days after tin.- a proposition was made to the late 
Elnathan Botsford, thatthev would call a meeting of all interested, 
and if the project was deemed feasible, to petition the Legis- 
lative Council, praying authority to lav out a road from some 
Joint on the Chicago road, in the county of Wayne, west to St. 
oseph river. Notices were written (they had no printing press 
in those days at Ann Arbor), and Botsford volunteered to post 
them\ilong the line. The meeting was duly held, and the plan 
adopted. A petition, hearing numerous influential names, was 
presented to the council, and at its first session an act was passed 
in accordance with the prayer of the petitioners. 

The commissioners began their work Jan. 1. L830, on the farm 
of T. Sheldon, in Wayne county. On the evening of the 7th they 
reached Ann Arbor. The next morning they were joined by 
eight persons, citizens of the village, namely, Henry' Rumsey, 
Samuel Van Fossen, Zenas Nash, Jr.. Wm. Hunt. Edward Clark. 
Alex. Laverty, Jerry McCarthy ami Isaiah W. Bennett, who vol- 
unteered to accompany them as far as Grand river, and 
open and work the road by removing obstructions. The first 
night after leaving Ann Arbor they lodged atMr. Clement's house, 
on Mill creek. Here they were at the remotest point of th. ir set- 


dement going west, and the end ot the white man's path ; beyond 
was a vast wilderness. That was in 1829, and where now is the 
west end of the road leading west? It is where the waves of the 
Pacific Ocean wash the strand. The second day they crossed the 
Short Hills. The snow was now nearly a foot deep. They en- 
camped for the night west of the Hills. 


After seven days' work and fatigue they crossed Grand river, 
where they found the body of a log house that had been put up by 
Mr. Blackmail the fall before. The roof was on, but was without 
chinking, floor, door and windows, — indeed they had to cut a hole 
to get into it. being left in that condition to prevent the Indians 
from destroying it during the winter. Here they stayed two 
nights. This was the first building erected on the site of the pres- 
ent city of Jackson, and the first in the county. They hung up 
their tents as curtains on the Wall to break off the winds. This 
was as far as the volunteers proposed to go; but before they parted 
witli the commissioners and their party, it was thought proper to 
have a name for the village that was to be. Accordingly the last 
night of their stay here they organized a convention by electing 
Hon. II. Kumsey as president. He was provided with a log for a 
chair, which favor he appreciated and acknowledged in a very ap- 
propriate speech. A committee, consisting of Messrs. StrattOB 
and White, was appointed to report a suitable name. While the 
members of this body were out, that is. the smoky side of the log- 
heap, the president arose, and in a grave and solemn manner, 
said: "Gentlemen, — In my intercourse with mankind, I have 
remarked that men who are respected at home for their orderly 
and moral conduct, when away from home and in a strange land 
are too often forgetful of their own positions as gentlemen and 
good citizens, and thereby bring disgrace not only upon them- 
selves, but upon their neighborhood. You are all respectable at 
home, and while you are here I trust you will not forget or forfeit 
your character as gentlemen. Soon your committee will return 
and report a name for the village that is to be built here. After 
it is adopted one of you may move that it be received with nine 
cheers. If that may be the wish of the convention I hope your 
noise will not disturb the neighbors." 


The committee soon after came in and reported Jacksonburgh. 
The report was on motion accepted and adopted by acclamation. 
It was then resolved that nine cheers be given for the name of the 
future city, and three times three wilder cheers were never sent up 
by 15 hearty men than went up then and there. The volunteers 
had provided some extra fixings for the occasion, which were now 
produced, and after partaking of a good supper, the festivities ot 


the night were prolonged by a dance, the two oldest ot the com- 
pany opening the ball to the tune of Yankee Doodle, and for a 
few moments there was a strife between the dancers and the tid- 
dler to see which could get ahead, much to the amusement of the 
lookers-on. After that seven of the number appeared bareheaded, 
to represent the fair sex. and the other seven kept their hats on 
like gentlemen. Before daybreak preparations were made to 
leave, the commissioners and their attendants for the West, the 
volunteers for home. On examination the latter found they had 
only one quart of flour left. This was put into a frying-pan, mixed 
up with some river water, and cooked, then divided into eight 
parts, when each took his share and ate it. Thirty miles of un- 
broken snow lay between them and the place where they could 
get their next meal. As soon as it was light enough, the tents, 
rifles, axes. etc.. were put into the wagon. The oxen that had 
subsisted several days on browse, were yoked, and two men were 
detailed to take charge of the team. Leave was taken of the com- 
missioners, and their party and the volunteers started for home. 
The six on foot leil oft in single tile, each taking his turn in leading 
and breaking the track. The day was cold and the snow half- 
knee deep. All went well until the former reached the first creek 
east of Grand river. There one of the party fell in and got wet. 
In the afternoon they reached the top of the Short Hills. There 
Nash ami Van Fossen left the rest of the party and went ahead. 

At the small pond, on Pierce farm, in Lima, they came up with 
the volunteers, and found them sitting upon a log. They hurried on 
until they became fatigued, and sitting down to rest they soon be- 
came chilled and drowsy; but after some exertion they started on 
with the remainder of the party, and soon were all right again. 
About dusk they came to Mill creek, now Lima Center. The 
water was, about waist deep. There was no help for it; cross it 
they must, and did. Judge Rumsey stumbled and was wet nearly 
all over. Between 8 and !• o'clock in the evening they reached 
Clement's. Here the creek was shoal and the crossing much 
easier. Some of the party stayed at Clement's all uight, while 
others accepted the hospitality of Jerry McCarthy, a warm-hearted 
son of the Emerald Isle, who had a farm two miles farther on 
toward Ann Arbor. The next day they were all comfortably at 

The commissioners went on their survey as far west as Kalama- 
zoo county, when, their provisions becoming exhausted, they struck 
across to the nearest settlement on the Chicago road, and returned 


In the foregoing narrative, given by Mr. Clark, we have ex- 
plained more fully the objects and inducements the citizens of Ann 
Arbor had in causing this great thoroughfare to be opened through 
the heart of Michigan. It also reveals the manner in which the 
city ot Jackson received its original cognomen. " Jacksonburgh." 
This has been a question often asked, and all seem anxious to 
know why this place was called ' SJacksburg, " or "Jackson's burgh." 


Beyond all controversy, it was named after Mai. -Gen. Andrew 
Jackson, the hero of New Orleans, and the then President of the 
United States. 


These "volunteers," as they styled themselves, formed the first 
conventional body of civilized citizens ever assembled in this 
" burgh," and their acts were the first inauguration of civil comity, 
manners and decorum of life, in the bush. The ball which followed 
was the first gemo-komon dance of the thousand-and-one which 
have since been enacted, and, though rude in outline and circum- 
stance, was full of hilarity and warmth of social feeling, to drive 
dull care away. A jollier set of fellows never joined in the dance. 
In regard to the political opinions held by the members of that 
convention, we are left to form conclusions, although it smacks 
strongly that they were Democratic in principle, or at least the 
sons of' Democratic forefathers, inasmuch as they were unanimous 
in bestowing the name of the great Democratic leader of the age 
on the new "burgh." 

When these men returned to Ann Arbor, the fame of Jackson- 
burgh was spread over the land, and a company was soon formed to 
carry out this work of improvement with activity. Early in the 
following spring Alexander Laverty, Isaiah W. Bennett and Rus- 
sell Blackmail became residents of the then embryo village. Mr. 
Blackman, although not mentioned by Clark, was one of the party, 
assisting the surveyor as chain-bearer, and went through the entire 
route with the commissioners. • 


Jacksonburgh — for we now had a name to distinguish our new 
settlement — had attained a considerable notoriety abroad, being the 
first point of importance west of Ann Arbor, now ready to spring 
into existence as if by magic power. It was now unquestionably 
regarded as not only the county-seat of Jackson county, but as the 
future capital of Michigan. 

Early in the spring of 1830, the settlement commenced. A 
company from Ann Arbor, comprising Isaiah W. Bennett, W. R. 
Thompson, Benjamin II. Packard, E. W. Morgan. Chauncey C. 
Lewis and some others came and located lands adjoining Black- 
mail's purchase. Messrs. Bennett and Thompson entered some lots 
on sections 2 and 3, township 3 south, range 1 west, lying on the 
river and directly south of Blackmail's, with a view of obtaining 
water-power and a portiolrof the plat. This occasioned some alter- 
cation between the parties interested, but this difficulty was settled 
by compromise made with Russell Blackman as the agent of Hor- 
ace, his brother, who was then East, each party agreeing to share 
equally in the village plat, and the original plat, which contained 
less than one-fourth of the present area, was laid out by Bennett. 


Thompson and Packard in March, 1 830, on the west side of Grand 
river, extending from Trail street on the north to Franklin 
street on the south, and running' along the hank of the river on 
the east to the quarter-post line of sections -U and '■'>. townships 2 
and 3 south, 1 west, containing an area of abont 150 acres. The 
plan was regular, all the principal streets crossing each other at 
right angles, forming the whole into blocks of convenient size, and 
subdivided into lots of 4xS roils. Public alleys of one rod 
in width ran through the entire plan once in eight rods, par- 
allel- with the streets, so that every lot was accommodated with 
a street in front and an alley in the rear. The whole was platted 
on a most convenient plan, both in regard to its streets and alleys. 
as well as its public squares and sites for public buildings. In the 
center was a square of -f v 4- rods, through which ran the two prin- 
cipal streets, forming the base and meridian lines upon which the 
Slat was predicated — Main, or St. Joseph street, as the base, and 
ackson street as the meridian line. Main street was calculated 
as the great commercial avenue of the village, and was located on 
the township line of townships 2 and 3, range '2 west, with a width 
of six rods, and also on the line intervening the location of Black- 
man and Bennett. Jackson street was platted to be the same 
width as Main street, and to cross it at right angles in the center 
of the square. 

Three-fourths of this public square has been since vacated bj 
order of the Circuit Court, upon the application of parties inter- 
ested therein, the northwest quarter only remaining. On that 
portion of the square north of Main street, and where the Congre- 
gational church now stands, was a patch of Indian plantmg- 
ground. the corn-hills of which were plainly visible at the time. 


If not deemed out of place, we would here append a little epi- 
sode of Indian history, as related by Waup-ca-zeek, a semi-chiei 
of the Pottawatomie tribe, then living at an Indian village some 
ten miles southwest of Jackson, in the town of Spring Arbor. 
Sometime during the war of 1812, an American soldier was taken 
captive by the Indians under Tecumseh, at the battle of Frenchtown, 
and was brought to this place, it being deemed by them a secure re- 
treat. Here he was tried, condemned and executed according to the 
rulesof Indian justice, no one appealing in his behalf. He was con 
demned to be burned at the stake, a kind of immolation most common 
among savages. This cruel sentence, passed upon the unfortunate 
soldier, was. as alleged by Waup-ca-zeek. in retaliation for the bar- 
barous acts of the American soldiery toward the Indians, to which 
he alluded in justification. Here, on this devoted spot — perchance 
the very spot on which the church now stands — the execution took 
place, amid the imposing and barbarous scenes of an Indian war- 
dance and pow-wow. This sad story was known by very few of 


the early .settlers, as it was revealed by the Indian only when in 
a state of intoxication. 


In March, 1830, the second colony became anxious to commence 
the settlement, thinking thereby to gain certain advantages by 
being first on the ground, and anticipating some '>t' the plans 
of Blackman, and the colony of settlers expected to come in with 
him from the East. Bennett, Thompson and Packard, who had 
already shared largely in the plot, and had almost acquired a 
controlling interest in the affairs of the settlement, were anxious to 
obtain possession of the river water-power, by flinging a dam 
across Grand river about a half-mile above Blackmail's location, 
thereby depriving him of the privilege. No time was to be lost; 
they engaged a number of men at Ann Arbor t<> assist them 
in building a dam and getting out timber for erecting a saw-mill, 
in order to secure the hydraulic privilege to themselves. Linus 
Gillett and wife, and Josephus Case and wife came out, being 
employed by Dennett and Thompson, — Gillett and his wife to 
board the workmen, and Case to do the blacksmithing. 

Mrs. Gillett and Mrs. Case were the first white women that 
came into Jackson county. 

A good story is told of our friend Case. Being out hunting one 
day. anil coming into the trail he overtook a traveler, who in- 
quired how far it was to Jacksonburgh. Case said he was going 
right there. The traveler next inquired if there was a black- 
smith there, and how far it was to his shop? Case, feeling a little 
jocose, told him he was the man; and said they were in the s/wp, 
out it was three miles to the aawil. The traveler remarked that 
his was the most extensive one he ever knew. The fact was, that 
his shop was the open canopy, his anvil being placed on a 
huge stump beside his shanty. Mr. Case was a brother of Daniel 
L. Case, late auditor of state, who soon after became a resident of 
Jacksonburgh, and is now a resident of Lansing. 


John Wickham, a millwright, and Caniff worked on the mills. 
Hiram Thompson, brother of Wm. R., George Mayo, S. Town 
and Jason Barlow constituted the posse of hands employed 
by Mr. Bennett. Those workmen occupied Blackmail's log house 
for a short time; they soon erected a double log house for their 
own accommodation, — a house with two large rooms. Tins was 
the second house built in Jackson county, and stood on the spot 
now occupied by Bennett and Thompson as a public house for 
several years. 


The preparations for building the dam and saw-mill were prose- 
cuted with vigor. Plats of the village were completed by Surveyor 
Stratton. Lots were offered at a low rate, with a proviso that they 
should be built upon and improved immediately. A number 
ot lots were soon taken by Stratton, Gillett, Case', ( 'an iff, Wick- 
ham, Mills, Prusia and others; and their rapid sale exceeded the 
utmost expectations of the proprietors. Immediately after this the 
people petitioned the Legislative Council praying that the county- 
seat be established at once in Jacksonburgh. The council acceded 
to the prayer, and sent their commissioners to locate the county- 
seat; their report was duly confirmed by a proclamation of 
Gov. Cass. The commissioners defined the* location of the pro- 
posed court-house, fixing the site on the sp«it where the Union 
school-house now stands. 

Horace Blackmail started <>n his second trip West May :;, 1830. 
accompanied by his father, Lemuel Blackman, and family — three 
sons and two daughters, — Elizur B. Chapman ami wife, and 
Wm. R. De Land, wife and two children. 

Wm. R. DeLand was the first justice of the peace in Jacksonburgh, 
being appointed Oct. 18, 1830, by Gov. Cass for the county of 

Washtenaw, in answer to a petition from the citizens. Horace 
Blackman was appointed deputy constable. 

The first ground broken in the county was an old Indian corn- 
field in the Hat between Blackman creek and Ganson street, .lack- 
son, extending north and west to the quarter-post line of section 
34, 2 south and 1 west. It was done by Mr. Blackman, with 
a large plow drawn by four to six yoke of oxen, and managed 
by three men, one to drive the team and two to hold the plow. 

In the fall of 1830 a number of fields were broken and sowed to 
wheat, by Messrs. Lewis, Durand, Daniels, Pease, Laverty, 
Roberts and others. 

In August. 1830, Messrs. Blackman. De Land and others cut over 
75 tons of hay about three miles up the river. 

The first year of the settlement business was brisk, money plenty, 
provisions 'high, the saw-mill was completed, and the people 
healthy. Hiram Thompson was the first to get sick, taking "chill 
fever." and the only other case was that of Geo. R. Cooper. Both 
these gentlemen have since been distinguished citizens. Dr. 
Packard, of Washtenaw, was the nearest physician, who attended 
the latter in his illness. 

The first .resident physician in Jackson was Dr. Samson Stoddard, 
who came here in September, 1S30. He was afterward county 
clerk, and now resides at Concord. 

The first sermon preached in the county was by Rev. John 
1). Pierce, a Oongregationalist, in the summer of 1830, at the 
residence of Lemuel Blackman. The first regular preaching at 


this place was by Revs. Elijah H. Pilcher and Henry Colclazer, of 
the M. E. Church. 

In 1830 many bridges were built, the first across Grand river 
being erected in December, on the territorial road, now Trail 


A postoffice was established in the tall of 1830, and Isaiah W. 
Bennett appointed postmaster, being the first incumbent of the 
office. The first mail brought through from Ann Arbor was by 
private conveyance, in the top of Hiram Thompson's hat. The 
mail for some time was carried by private conveyance, any re- 
sponsible citizen carrying out and bringing in the same, as oppor- 
tunity offered. Soon, however, the business increasing, a regular 
contract was made with George Mayo for carrying a one-horse 
mail once a week between Ann Arbor and Jacksonburgli. 


The name of the office was designated by the Postal Depart- 
ment "Jacksonopolis," in contradistinction to Jacksonburgli, as 
there were so many offices of the latter name in the United States 
already. This was the official name of the postoffice until the 
organisation of 1833, when it received the simple title, " Jack- 


The arrival of the first regular mail for Jackson was the cause 
of much amusement to the villagers. Mayo, of that class of 
mankind properly designated "Phunny Phellows," was desirous 
of making his vocation known and of giving to the people an 
agreeable surprise. Having provided himself with a suitable in- 
strument while at Ann Arbor, he came over the route for the 
first time. When near the verge of the day he began to approach 
the confines of the village; the villagers were enjoying themselves 
.n their quiet vocations, when suddenly they were aroused from 
their wonted serenity by the loud tooting of a tin horn, and soon a 
horse and rider were seen galloping furiously up the river bank, 
and making his way for the postoffice. Reining in his steed he 
dashed the mail-bags to the ground, and in stentorian voice an- 
nounced — "The Great Eastern Mail from Ann Arbor!" 


succeeded Mr. Bennett as postmaster in 1834. The business of 
this office has constantly increased, keeping pace with the growth 
and improvement of the country, till it has become one of the 
largest and most important offices in the country. 



hi 1830, the first year ot actual settlement, the Jacksonburghers 
determined to have a regular "down-east" celebration of Inde- 
pendence day, attended with all the "pomp and magnificence" ot 
the occasion. This was the first gala day in the new settlement. A 
committee was appointed consisting of Wm. R. De Land and Hiram 
Thompson, of Jackson, and Anson Brown, of Ann Arbor, under 
whose supervision the affair was managed successfully. A num- 
ber of citizens of Ann Arbor expressed a wish to join in the cele- 
bration, and so an invitation was extended to them to participate 
in the festivities of the day. This invitation was accepted by a 
number of the Ann Arbor friends, among whom were MissTrask, 
of Ann Arbor, and Miss Dix, of Dixboro, two young ladies who 
came the entire distance on horseback, accomplishing a 40-mile 
heat in 12 hours, over an Indian trail through the wilderness. 
Messrs. Brown, Clark, Jewett, Wilcoxson, Packard, Dix, Lovell 
and others accompanied these ladies, and all arrived on the even- 
ing of July 3, having traveled from sunrise to sunset. The com- 
mittee forwarded an invitation to Gov. Cass, which could not be 
accepted, owing to previous engagements. The day was beautiful, 
and was ushered in with an anvil salute given by Case, the village 
blacksmith. The procession was formed at 11 a. m. under Lieut. 
Clark, of Ann Arbor, and Horace Blackmail, of Jacksonburgh, 
and proceeded to the rendezvous on an elevated plateau east of 
Jackson street, near the summit level of that street, then a natural 
arbor. Isaiah Bennett presided, assisted by W. R. De Land and 
H. Thompson as vice-presidents. , Geo. Mayo read the -Declara- 
tion of Independence, Hon. Gideon Wilcoxson delivered the ora- 
tion, John Durand officiated as chaplain and Captain Alex. Laverty 
commanded a platoon of musketeers dressed in a neat uniform. 
At 1:30 p. m. the celebrants partook of the banquet prepared by 
Mr. Torrey and lady, of the Bennett and Thompson log-tavern 
house, spread upon a table 100 feet in length, extending along the 
east line of Jackson street to Courtland street, in the rear of the 
tavern house. Eighty persons sat down to the first table, and in 
turn gave place to others, until all had feasted. Those who par- 
ticipated in the festive joys of that celebration will never forget it, 
or the pleasing hopes, the friendships and acquaintances formed, 
the happiness and whole-heartedness that characterized all the 
proceedings. There will never be a pleasanter or more patriotic 
commemoration of the glorious anniversary of American inde- 
pendence while our country lasts or the monuments of freedom 


The first general manufacturing business done in the primitive 
stage of the community was a rough and unpolished kind of 
workmanship, such as the making of pole bedsteads, three-legged 

180 HISTORY OF .iaiKmin COUNTY. 

stools and cross-legged tables. The housewives made feather- 
beds and other useful articles suggested by their industry. The 
first regular mechanic who came into the county was Johri Wick- 
ham, who with Caniff commenced building the saw-mill tor Ben- 
nett tfe Thompson in L830. The first attempt at manufacturing 
was made by Major D. Mills and Christian Prusia, who erected 
a tannery on the west bank of the river, on the spot where Mr. 
Gavan subsequently built his brewery. The business was satis- 
factory for some time, but owing to the small supply of material 
for tanning, the business was finally abandoned. 


Win. D. Thompson, from Batavia, N. V.. settled here in the tall 
of 1830, and opened the first boot and shot' shop in the community. 
Mr. Thompson ranks as the first of that vocation in Jackson county, 
having established the tirst manufactory of boots and shoes in 
Central Michigan. He pursued the business for several years, and 
was honored by the citizens with several offices of trust and profit 
among which were township clerk, deputy postmaster, county clerk, 


was Mr. Kline, who, in company with Lemuel Woolsey. a turner 
and chair-maker, set up a small shop forthe manufacture of chairs 
and cabinet-ware. 

They were succeeded by John Penson, Collamer and others. 


who commenced work at Jackson was Mr. Campion, who estab- 
lished himself here in 1832. He was succeeded by Messrs. Stone, 
Graves, Chittock, Mitchell and a host of others. In justice to an 
old settler, the writer would here recount that Mrs. John Wellman 
commenced the trade the first year of the settlement of Jackson, 
and lias plied her needle unremittingly every year since, so that 
she ought to stand at the head of the profession. 


The first merchant was Daniel Hogan, from Schoharie Co., N. 
Y., who brought in a small stock of dry-goods and groceries in the 
summer of 1830, and opened a trade on North Blackstone street. 
corner of Luther street, now No. 1 North Blackmail street, then 
the residence of W. K. De Land, who was the first settler on this 
street. Strange as it may seem, it was on this street the com- 
mercial business of Jackson was first commenced. The amount of 
trade at this time was small, a considerable portion being traffic 
with the Indians. As soon as lumber could be procured Mr. 1 h igan 


commenced building- a store on the north side of the public square, 
which was finished in March, 1831. 

This was the first frame building and the first store erected in 
Jackson county. It stood in the rear of Coulter's Block. Thomas 
J. McKnight. a young man of Rochester, N. Y., was Mr. Hogan's 

Daniel Dwight succeeded Hogan in the commercial business, 
having bought out his entire establishment, which being increased 
by a new stock, a very respectable trade was acquired. Mr. Dwight 
continued trade at this location for about one year, when anew 
store was built on the south side of Main street, the goods removed 
to the new building, and John X. Dwight became principal of the 
new firm. This might properly be called the first permanent dry- 
goods establishment in the place. David F. Dwight was afterward 
associated as one of the partners in the firm, which continued for a 
number of years, as one of the principal dealing houses of the vil- 

In 1833 Messrs. Wm. E. Perrine and 0. II. Van Dorn brought 
a large stock of dry-goods and groceries, and commenced trade in 
a new store they erected on the south side of Main street, a little 
east of Dwight's. About this time the first grocery store was 
opened by Guy II. Grorham, ami soon after Moore and Warner 
opened a general store. 


Up to the spring of. 1835 the settlement was a little republic 
under the rule and authority of a single magistrate. During the 
session of the Legislative Council 1830-'31, an act was passed 
organizing the 20 townships of the county into one township by 
the name of Jacksonburgh, attaching the same to Washtenaw county 
for judicial purposes. The first township meeting was to be held 
at the house of Win. R. Thompson. April 4. ls:;i. 


We now arrived at a period at which the political sentiments of 
the settlers were to be made known by an election. Politics at this 
time were a good deal mixed, being divided into three or four dis- 
tinctive parties — "Jackson men" — "Adams men" — "Mason" 
and Anti-Mason, — the two latter constituting the distinguishing 
antagonism of party at the time. The manner of voting then was 
to ballot separately for each candidate until a choice was made, 
and then for the next in regular rotation. If no choice were made 
on the first ballot a second was taken, and so on until all the offices 
were filled. It was in fact the caucus as well as the election, and 
altogether more democratic than the present system, as it enabled 
those who wielded the political franchise to vote for men instead of 
the ticket. This was the modus operandi in the early days of our 
little republic. 


At this time the community was without any board of election 
or township officers, except a justice of the peace. The Territorial 
laws provided that in such cases any justice or legal township of- 
ficer might call the meeting to order and proceed to choose a mod- 
erator and clerk, wdio being duly sworn, together with the jus- 
tice of peace, should form a board of inspectors of election, and 
thus were authorized to receive and canvass the votes and declare 
the result. 

Under these provisions the first township meeting was held 
April 4. 1831, at the house ofWm. R. Thompson. It was called to 
order by Wm, R. De Land. Justice ofthe Peace, and proceeded to 
elect vi/oa voa . Alexander La verty, Moderator, and Hiram Thomp- 
son. Clerk. With the election of supervisor came the tug of 
war. when freemen met foemen in open ballot. The masonswere cer- 
tain they would carry the election; the Anti-Masons were confident 
the choice would be in their favor. The ballots for supervisor 
being called for and counted by the board, it was ascertained 
that the wdiole number of votes cast was SI, of which Ralph 
Updyke. Anti-Mason, received 17. and Wm. R. Thompson, Mason, 
13. Mr. Updyke cast his vote for Capt. John Durand. Christian 
Prussia. Anti-Mason, and David Stuker, Mason. the candidates for 
township clerk, received a similar vote to that recorded for the 
supervisor. Horace Blackman and Ezekiel T. Critchett received 
14 votes each. They represented the Anti-Masonic section. Horace 
Blackman received no opposition in seeking the collectorship, and 
guardianship ofthe peace. Isaac Sterling. Mason. Alex. Laverty, 
Anti-Mason, and Isaiah Bennett, Mason, were elected highway 
commissioners without opposition. Lemuel Blackman, Anti-Mason 
was elected overseer of the poor. "Wm. R. De Land and S. 
Stoddard, Anti-Masons, and Dr. Oliver Puss, Mason, were chosen 
school-commissioners. Hiram Thompson, W. R. De Land, Osgood 
II. Fifield. Isaac N. Swain and James Valentine, were elected 
school inspectors. John Durand. Martin Flint. Samuel Roberts 
and Timothy Williams were chosen fence-viewers, and Martin 
Flint, pound-master. After establishing some municipal by-laws 
for the regulation ofthe township in regard to cattle, etc., running 
at large as free commoners, and in regard to fixing a bounty on 
wolf scalps, the meeting dispersed. 


The first road surveyed and established was one commencing at 
a point on Trail street near where Blackstone crosses, running 
north to the north line of T. 2 S.. 1 W.. now the town of 
Blackman. This road was surveyed by Jonathan F. Stratton, W. 
R. DeJLand and Daniel L. Case,by order of J. W. Bennett and A. 
Laverty. Commissioners. It wascalled the Grand Riverroad. and 
gave a public and authorized highway to a number of settlers who 
had located along the route and commenced improvements. The 


record of this road like all the primitive records of the township 
for the first throe years, is not to be found. 
Tin- next road laid out was onefrom Jacksonhurgh to Spring 

Arbor, surveyed by John T. Durand, who had succeeded Mr. 
Stratton. Being a very correct and practical surveyor Mr. D. 
was thenceforth employed in all public and private surveys, 
although as yet there was no county organization by which he 
could be elected. In 1833, however, the county was organized, 
and John T. Durand elected county surveyor. 

Roads were subsequently opened and worked, as settlements 
were advanced. The Indian trails leading to various sections were 
tor some time the real roads, and many of the earliest territorial 
and county highways were laid very nearly upon or contiguous to 
those once deeply worn, and smooth paths of the red men. 

During 1830 the little colony hail gained a population ot 

over 120 souls: 25 log-houses and shanties had been built: a saw- 
mill had been erected and put in operation, anil a considerable 
amount of summer crops — corn, potatoes and vegetables — had 
been raised. The breaking plow had been kept running, and 
many fields had been sown to wheat to supply the wants of 
the coming year. The river had been spanned by a log bridge, 
the logs being split into plank, spotted and laid on the stringers 
like sawed plank. A large amount of hay had been put up 
for winter use if needed. All these improvements were the neces- 
sary beginnings of a new settlement in the unbroken forest. Very 
fortunately the community was in the possession of good health dur- 
ing that year and enabled them to perform, as one of their number 
worded it, "a prodigious amount of work preparatory to a winter 
in the West, a winter of whose mildness or severity we knew 
little. That winter was one of unusual severity; so our neighbors, 
the Nitch NcMes, informed us. and the provision we had made for 
it was insufficient: so that the erection ot temporary sheds was 
found necessary to protect our cattle, etc.. from the cold and chill- 
ing storms. " 

The foregoing pages set forth very fully the labors of the immi- 
grants. For a few brief years they battled with every obstacle, 
industriously, honorably, earnestly, and ultimately raised their 
adopted land from a wilderness to a little republic, where peace 
and good will reigned. It has been truly said that the value of 
immigrants is not to be measured by the coin they bring in their 
pockets. Of infinitely greater worth are the physical vigor and 
acquired industrial i>kill of the immigrants themselves. As to the 
rate at which these ought to be appraised, opinion will differ widely, 
for all estimates of their value are necessarily more or less specu- 
lative. We cannot apply to this wealth-producing power the 
brutal though fairly conclusive test which fixed the value of slave 
labor by the price it brought under the hammer of the auctioneer. 


It is only by indirect and imperfect modes that any idea ot its 
worth can be obtained, and so intricate is the problem that little 
reliance can be placed upon the must elaborate calculations. For 
our present purpose, however, it is not necessary that any very 
minute estimates should be attempted. The work of the settlers 
of Jackson county cannot be reduced to figures. Their labors are 
above all price. They exercised their physical and mental facul- 
ties almost at the same moment, and all combined to elevate the 
village which they raised in the wilderness to the position of a 
city, at once prosperous and elegant. In the following pages the 
primary land transactions of the county are recorded, and some 
important events described. 


As early as 1826-7 a tract of land, beginning two and a half 

miles north of the city boundary, and extending along Grand 
river north of the Au Foin, now Portage branch, was in the pos- 
session of an Indian band, under a Russian named Peter Riley, or 
O'Reilly. This land he desired to dispose of, and by the following 
letters patent he obtained the necessary permission, so that very 
soon it passed out ot his hands : 

Whereas, By the third article of the treaty made and concluded at Chicago, iu 
the State of Illinois, between Lewis Cass and Solomon Sibley, Commissioners of 
tbe United States, and tbe Ottawa, Chippewa, and Pottawatomie Indians, on the 
20th day of August, 1821, there is granted to Peter Riley, the son of Me-naw-cum- 
e-go-qua, one section of land at the mouth of the River Au Foin, on the Grand 
river, with a provision that the lands granted by tbe said third article "shall never 
be leased or conveyed by tbe said grantees or their heirs to any persons whatever 
without the permission of the President of the United States; " 

And whereas, Tbe said Peter Riley, having obtained the permission of the Presi- 
dent of the United States to sell and convey the land granted to him by tbe said 
article, has made an assignment of the same unto John R. Williams, of the City of 
Detroit ; 

There is therefore granted by the United States unto tbe said John R. Williams, 
as assignee of Peter Riley, the tracts of land reserved for the said Peter Riley, being 
the west half of the southwest quarter of section one, containing 80 acres; the 
southeast quarter of section two, containing 100 acres; tbe north part of the south- 
west fractional quarter of section two, containing fi2 acres and 23-l00th's of an acre; 
the south part of the southwest fractional quarter of section two, containing 72 acres 
and 00-lOOth's of an acre: the north part of the northeast fraction of the north half 
of section eleven, containing 102 acres; the south half of the northeast quarter of 
section eleven, containing SO acres : and tbe west half of the northwest quarter of 
section twelve, containing so acres: in township two south, of range one west, in the 
Southern Land District of the Territory of Michigan : 

To have and to hold the said tracts, with the appurtenancf s, unto the said John 
R. Williams, as assignee of Peter Riley, the son of Me-naw-cmn-e-go-qua, and to 
bis heirs and assigns for ever. 

In testimony whereof, I, John Quincy Adams, President of the United States, 
have caused these letters to be made patent, and the seal of tbe General Land Office 
to be hereunto affixed. 

Given under my hand at tbe City of Washington, the sixteenth day of April, iu 
the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty-seven, and of the 
Independence of the United States the fifty -first. 

By the President. J. Q. Adams. 

Geo. Graham, 

C. G. L. Office. 


The next patent was issued to Horace Blackmail, who repre- 
sented his father, Lemuel. It proves beyond doubt that he was 
the first patentee house builder, and therefore may claim the title ot 
the first settler; although his visit to New York, and consequent 
absence from his new home, gave others the opportunity to enter 
upon a permanent residence before him. The following is a copy 
of the letters patent : 

Whereas, Horace Blackman, of Tioga county, New York, has deposited in the 
General Land Office of the United States a certificate of the Register of the Land 
Office at Monroe, whereby it appears that full payment has been made by the said 
Horace Blackmail, according to the provisions of the art ot ( ongress of the 24th of 
April, 182H, entitled, " An act making further provisions for the sale of the public 
lands," for the southeast quarter of section o4, in township two south, of range one 
west, in the district of lands offered for sale at Monroe, Michigan territory, con- 
taining 1G0 acres, according to the official plat of the survey of the said lands, 
returned to the General Land Office by the Surveyor General, which said tract has 
been purchased by the said Horace Blackman; 

Now know ye, That the United States of America, in consideration of the prem- 
ises, and in conformity with the several acts of Congress in such case made and 
provided, have given and granted, and by these presents do give and grant, the said 
tract of land above described unto the s'aid Horace Blackman and to his heirs and 
assigns for ever. 

In testimony whereof, I, Andrew Jackson. President of the United States of 
America, have caused these letters to be made patent, and the seal of the General 
Land Office to be hereunto affixed. 

Given under my hand at the ( ity of Washington, the tenth day of November, in 
the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty, and of the Independ- 
ence of the United States the fifty-fifth. 

Andrew Jackson. 

In 1831 a patent was issued to Jeremiah Bennett, on presenta- 
tion of a duplicate certificate of purchase made at the Monroe Land 
Office in 1830. This document is recorded in the office of the 
Registrar of Deeds of Jackson county. In it the extent of the 
second purchase is laid down, and the signature of President 
Jackson attached : 

Whereas, Jeremiah Bennett, ot (ienesee count v, New York, has deposited in the 
General Land Office of the United states a certificate of the Register of the Land 
• Mtice at .Monroe, Michigan, according to the provisions of the act of < 'ongress of the 
24th of April, 1820, entitled, "An act making further provision for the'sale of the 
public lands." for the northwest quarter of section two, in township three, south of 
range one west, in the district of land subject to sale at Monroe, Michigan, contain- 
ing 161 acres and St9-100th's of an acre, according to the official plat of the survey 
of the said lands returned to the General Land Office by the Surveyor General, 
which said tract has been purchased by the said Jeremiah Bennett : 

Now know ye. That the United States of America, in consideration of the prem- 
ises, and in conformity with the several acts of Congress in such case made and 
provided, have given and granted, and by these presents do give and grant, unto 
the said Jeremiah Bennett and to his heirs the said tract above described, to have 
and to hold the same, together with all the rights, privileges, immunities, and 
appurtenances of whatsoever nature thereunto belonging, unto the said Jeremiah 
Bennett and to his heirs and assigns forever. 

In testimony whereof, I, Andrew Jackson, President of the United States of 
America, have caused these letters to be made patent, and the seal of the General 
Land Office to be hereunto affixed. 

Given under my hand at the city of Washington, the fourth day of January, in 
the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-one, and of the Inde- 
pendence of the United States the fifty-fifth. 

'By the President. Andrew Jackson. 

Elijah Hayward, 

Commissioner of the General Land Office. 


The purchase made by B. H. Packard is cotemporary with the 
Bennett transaction, and in the patent of which the following is a 
copy, the location and extent of land bought by him, is set forth : 

Whereas, Benjamin H Packard, of Washtenaw County, Michigan, has depos- 
ited in the Land-Office of the United States.a certificate of the Register of the Land 
Office at Monroe, Michigan, whereby it appears that full payment has been made 
by the said Benjamin IT Packard, according to the provisions of the act of Con- 
gress of the 24th April, 1820, for the north east quarter of section three, in township 
three south, of range one west, in the district of lands subject to sale at Monroe, 
Michigan, containing 162 acres, and 77-100 of an acre, according to the official plat 
of survey of said lands, which said tract has been purchased by Benjamin II. Pack- 

Xo» kmiw vk, That the United States of America, in consideration of these 
premises, and in conformity with the several acts of Congress, have given and 
granted unto the said Benjamin II. Packard, and to his heirs, the said tract of land 
above described, to have and to bold the same, together with all the rights, privi- 
leges, immunities and appurtenances thereunto belonging to the said Benjamin H. 
Packard, bis heirs and assigns forever. 

This document, like those offered to Messrs. Bennett and Black 
man. were signed by Andrew Jackson, President, and Elijah Hay 
ward. General Land-Commissioner. 


The emigration excitement in the Eastern State.- between H-27 
and 1840 was participated in by Washington Irving, as well as 
many other publicists of.the time. He purchased a tract of land 
in the county, and formed the intention of coming here to live; 
but as the following power of attorney will show, his enthusiasm 
abated, and he resolved to remain East : 

Washington Irving, ^ Know all men by these presents, that whereas. I. Wash- 
•ro • ington Irving, of the County of West Chester, and state 

David Godfrey. \ of New York. Gentleman, am seized in fee of, and in all 
that certain farm or piece of land situate, lying and being 
in the State of Michigan, being the west half of section number thirty-six, in town- 
ship number six nor.h, of range number five west, containing 20(5 (Hi 101) acres, as 
the same is described in certificate No. 14, o60 of Thomas C. Sheldon, Receiver, 
dated March .'4. ]s:',i,, at the Receiver's Office, Branson; also all that other certain 
farm or piece of land situate, lying and b ing in the State of Michigan aforesaid, 
being the south part of the northeast fractional section number two. in township 
one south, of range two east, containing SO acres, as the same is described in cer- 
tificate No. 19,180, of J. Kearslev, Receiver, dated April 2:!. ix:',i>. at the Receiver's 
Office. Detroit; 

Now know Ye, that I. the said Washington Irving, have made, constituted and 
appointed, and by these presents do make, constitute and appoint David Godfrey, 
of Ann Arbor, in the State of Michigan, aforesaid, my true and lawful attorney, for 
me and in my name to sell and dispose of (he said two pieces of land above described, 
absolutely in'fee simple for such price and sum of money as to such person or per- 
sons as he shall think fit and convenient, and also for me and in my name to make, 
sign, seal, execute and deliver such deeds and conveyances for the same or any 
part thereof as may be proper, with or without the usual covenants of warranty, 
and generally to do. execute and perform every act and deed that may be necessary 
in and about the premises, as fully in every respect as I myself might do if I was 
pet sonally present, and attorney or attorneys under him for all or any of the pur- 
poses aforesaid to make and substitute, and again at pleasure to revoke; and I here- 


by ratify, allow and confirm all and whatsoever ray said attorney shall do or cause 
to be done in and about the premises by virtue of these presents. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this fifteenth day of 
August, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-eight. 

Washington- Irving. (L. S.) 
Sealed and delivered in presence of * 
Gerard Morris. \ 

State of New York, j On this fifteenth day of August, 1838, be- 

City and County of New York, (fore me came Washington Irving, known to 

me to be the person and individual described 

in, and who executed the foregoing power of attorney, and acknowledged that he 

executed the same. 

Geo. Ireland, 
Commissioner of Deeds. 

The statement of the commissioner oi deeds was further veri- 
fied by Joseph Hoxie, Clerk of the City and County of New York, 
and the three documents registered in the registrar's office of 
Jackson county by Wm. E. Perrine, May 20th, 1839, at 8:30 a. 
m. The patent was signed by Martin Van Buren, President of 
the United States, Aug. 2, 1837. 


Wm. J. Moody, ) This Indenture, made July 12th, 1836. between Wm. J. 
to ■ Moody, of Jackson County, Michigan Gentleman, of the one 

Abram F. Bolton. ) part, and Abram F. Bolton, of Jackson county, of the other 

Witnesseth. That whereas Hawnopawjatin and Otothtongoomlisheaw, chiefs of 
the Naudowissie Indians, did by their certain deal, under their respective seals, 
grant and convey to a certain Jonathan ( 'arver in the words following, viz : 

"To Jonathan Carver, a chief of the most Mighty and Potent George the Third, 
King of the English and other nations, the fameTof whose courageous warriors has 
readied our ears, and has been now full}- told us by our good 1 net her Jonathan afore- 
said, whom we rejoice to see amongst us. and bring us good news from his 

We, chiefs of the Xaudowissies. who have hereon to set our hands and seals, do by 
these presents for ourselves and our heirs forever in return for the many presents 
and good services, done by the said Jonathan to ourselves and allies, give, grant and 
convey to him, the said Jonathan, and his heirs and assigns forever, the whole of a 
certain tract or territory of land bounded as f( illows : From the falls of St. Anthony, 
running on the east bank of the Mississippi, nearly south east as far as the south 
end of Lake Pepin, where the Chippawa river joins the Mississippi, and thence 
eastward five days' travel, accounting twenty Knglish miles per da}', and thence to 
the falls of St. Anthony, in a straight Hue. " We do for ourselves, our heirs and as- 
signs forever give unto the said Jonathan all the said lands, with all the trees, rocks 
and rivers therein, reserving to ourselves and heirs the sole liberty of hunting and 
fishing on the lands not planted or improved by said Jonathan, his heirs or 

To which we have affixed our respective seals at the Great Cave. May the first, 
one thousand seven hundred and sixty-seven. 

Hawnopawjatan: Turtlt . 
Otothtongoomlisheaw: Snah . 

This deed was recorded at Whitehall. London. Carver died he- 
tore 1780, leaving two sons and five daughters, who sold their title 
to this tract, to <>ne Samuel Peters, L.L. D. In 1815 Peters con- 
veyed his interest to Ben. O'Conner, and he in turn sold out to 
Davicl Watson, of Maine, in Mav. lsi't;. Ten years later. Watson 



sold to John Bradbury, of Maine, and the same year, 1836, he dis- 
posed of his interest to Wm. J. Moody, in 5,760 acres of land. 
This was a year of trading. W. J. Moody sold his real estate near 
the present City of St. Paul, Minn., to Abram F. Bolton, for the 
sum of $800, and the agreement was signed in presence of Henry 
Chapman, Justice of Peace of Jackson county. 

A patent was issued to Anson To wnley of Tompkins county. X. 
Y., granting to him a tract of land in township one south, of range 
two west. "This document bears date March 5, 1839, and the sig- 
nature of Martin Van Buren, President. Previously, in 1835, a 
patent was granted to Nicholas Townley, for a tract of so acres in 
the same township. This parchment was signed by Andrew Jack- 
so, ,. Oct. 1, 1835. 

The other patents issued to settlers in Jackson county and 
signed by Presidents of the United States embrace the following 

Wm. R. De Land. 
Wm. M. Sullivan. 
James Dowling. 
Harriet Cook. 
Anthony Brown. 
Hiram Williams. 
John Henry. 
James Hawkins. 
Jas. Townson. 
Leml. Woodworth. 
Richmond Brigg. 
John Pratt. 
Michael Nowlin. 
Seth l iris wold. 

F. Jaqisinoit. 
Foster Tucker. 
Alfred H. Kyes. 
Thomas Field. 
R. Henry. 

(i. Lumpkin. 
V. J. Teftt. 
Lewis Snyder, Jr. 
A. Henry. 
Sumner Wing. 
John P. Hitchii 
Geo. Aln 
J. D. Wadhum. 
Arsahel King. 
Saml. Kutz. 
Danl. Laddock. 
Wm. Gallup. 
1. W. Price. 
Theo. Updike. 
J. W. Whitney. 
Obed Hall. 

G. I). Godfrey. 
Ann Marsh. 
David Haumer. 
Geo. Snyder. 
T. Skeel. 

E. W. Comstock. 
E. S. (Javit. 


S. Adams. 

Hiram Fowler. 

T. F. Towler. 

Layton Pulrner. 

John Donoghue. 

Lor. Graham. 

James Wake. 

N. Dever. 

O. H. Guitman. 

Hiram Phelps. 

Hiram Austin. 

J. Tunnicliff. 

Salmon Hale. 

H. Putnam. 

Lois and Abial Tripp. 

Seth Sergeant. 

Seymour Fitch. 

James Devell. 

Edward Belknapp. 

Alanson Shelly. 

Stephen Town. 

James D. Clilland. 

Elijah T. Cole. 

Hiram Brown. 

C. M. Bostwick. 

Daniel Turmo. 

A. K. Austin. 

John Fenton. 

Peter Showeeman. 

Sira R. Grosvenor. 

Joseph Dunlap. 

John Reithmiller. 

Calvin and Nathan Burr. 

Precilla Colgrool 

S. A. Randall. 

John M. Colgrood. 

N. Jones. 

H. Choute. 

F. B. Ward 

Bosvelt Davis. 

R. M. Davis. 

Robert Davis. 

CM. Keer, 

Timothy Pratt. 
Veeder Green. 
Wm. A. Crane. 
L. Reynolds. 
B. Whitney. 

E. Van Oman. 
Anthony TenEyck. 
John Tilfair. 

G. Filley. 
Elijah Hazelton. 
Gilbert & Hanford. 
Geo. Hickkox. 
Lafayette Knight. 
Chester Clarke 
Nathan Roberts. 
Barkley Mount. 

F. A. Kennedy. 
Hiram Karr. 
Eben. Manley. 
Nathan Clark. 
L. G. Perry. 
Ber. Pratt. 
Peter Neargrass. 
Charles Kelchin. 
O. Pribble. 

D F. Moore. 

E. II Swan. 

John Durand. 

A P. Wixone. 

O. D. Thompson. 

J. Met ollum. 

Gardner Tripp. 

Al'iu-ail Tripp. 

T. B. Pierce. 

Abraham Kehl. 

Patrick Fullan. 

Amos Brown. 

Jones. Butler. Corning and 

Lepe. ( hapman. 
('. Bouthworth. 
Perriu Concern. 
Alvinzie Hunt. 


Jacob Demaret. 
tSeth Burgo. 
James B. Cole. 
""John Curtis. 
J. P. Smith. 
II. S. Skinner. 
Wm. Kose. 
John Murphy. 
Owen Ellison. 
Dan C. Wildey. 
J. A, Curtin. 
B. Robinson. 

F. P. Stillman. 
N. B. Lemm. 
Spraym & Bowen. 
Ezra Brown. 
Wm. Deebrowe. 
Josiah Whitman. 
Andrew Simmons. 
J. H. Nowlan. 
Simon Peterson. 
Amos Peterson. 
John Williams. 
Henry Wood. 

L. Huffman. 
Alpheus Putnam. 
Lewis Snyder. 
Joshua Thayer. 
Tenny Peabody. 
Isaiah S. Kaywood. 
S. Gidley. 
John C. Griswold. 
John A. Downey. 
John A. Dironer. 
Wm G, Sandford. 
I). W Whitman. 
Mary Kelcey. 
A. C. Maxon. 
J . V. Carmer. 

A. M . McKenzie. 
Garrett Chapman. 
Cornelius Sullivan. 
« 'harlcs Guile. 
Geo. Williams. 
Mary S. Walsh. 
.Mitchell Gue. 
Goodwin and Coffin. 

B. Harrington. 
A J. Crandall. 
Chatfield and Cross. 
Lewis Motrv. 

N. Archibald. 
Henry Wooden. 
A. Shutt. 
IF. Masin. 
Alfred P. Brown. 
Harvey Austin. 
L. P. Spratt. 
Grindall Reynolds. 

G. Holland. 
David Cole. 

L. A. Bostwick. 
John Wilber. 
Allen Green. 

Henry O'Neill. 

E. M. Skinner. 
Peter A. Pulmer. 
James Williams. 
Wm. Miles. 

F. A. Bolles. 
John Adams. 
J. C. Cornell. 
John Gilliland. 
Clarke Foot. 
O. D. Taylor. 
Culver B. Bragg. 
Randall Kellogg: 
Henry Berrine. 
John Manning. 
J. MeKenney . 
James M. Mc Kenny. 

! Nathl. Wadsworth." 
J. D. W. Scwnamatter. 
John R. Williams. 
David A. Conoon. 
A. & A. McKnight. 
A. W. Knight. 
Ambrose Arnold. 
Noah Clarke. 
Chas. A. Crary. 
Ira C. Backus. 
Wm. Drake. 
S. C. Dalton. 
Martin Lautis, Jr. 

G. Filley. 
John Davidson. 
TenEyek, Bun & Brown. 
Lyman Huntley. 

Geo. Field. 

Wm. Tilden. 

Peter Cochran. 

Danl. Coleman. 

Thomas Coleman . 

Allen Kennedy, Jr. 

G. W. Marsh. 

Wm. Roberts. 

Thomas Cranson. 

Sam. B. Wolcott. 

James Kress. 

Thomas Vreeland. 

Nathl. Cooper. 

Geo. W. Bentley. 

John Southworth. 

Geo. Byrne. 

El. Ring. 

Henry Lewis. 

John Burnett. 

Wm. Wilcox. 

McClelland A Christiancy. 

Elisha Burns, Jr. 

J. C. Bailey. 

Amanda F. Fitch. 

Abel F. Fitch. 

James Cole. 

James McConnell. 

Prosper J. Wheeler. 

Joseph Clark. 

W. (iilliland. 

Perrine Moe. 

John Westren. 

Isaac V. Stage. 

Stephen P. Spear. 

A. L. Beaumont. 

Laura Chapman. 

John Bostedor. 

Ben. H. Packard. 

Joanna and P. C. Vreeland. 

Gordin Fox. 

Wm. Clay. 

Eben Taylor. 

Roswell Weston. 

J. Nottingham. 

Isaac Quigley. 

Kobert Hums, 

John Willett. 

Samuel Roberts. 

David Ostrander. 

James Bell. 

David D Trumbull. 

Samuel Bassett. 

John Daniels. 

David Laverty. 

Benj. Davis. 

M . B. Adams. 

C. H. Sheldon. 

Martin Fuller. 

Joseph Whitney. 

Jas. E. North. 

Abner Bartlett. 

Burgess Hoyt. 

Wm. R. Bixbe. 

•las. Clark. 

Jos. Gardner. 

Thomas Rhoades. 

James Fisher. 

Abraham Quick. 

Matthew Stanfield. 

C. B. Seeley. 

Mary J. Haire. 

Addison P. Cook. 

Gardner H. Shaw. 

Lowell W. Tinker. 

Amos Root. 

Samuel Thomas. 

A. J. Van Riper. 

James Connolly. 

John Palmer. 

Squire Rice. 

Justice Fowler. 

Cornelius Titus. 

Royal D. Hendee. 

James Ready. 

J. A. Knight. 

Geo. Gates. 

Maurice Ready. 

Wm. Hall. 

John C. Douglas. 

P. B. Crowl. 

Edwin K. Whitman 

John Callar. 

Henry Tivinor. 

Michael Keables. 

1 on 

HfSTciRY "I'' .lAi'K>.«N c'OUXTY. 

Jobn McConnell. 
Moses Tuthill, 
Lortnzo D. Chapell. 
L. Cahoon. 
Joshua Tuthill. 
Hulda Shaw. 
Horace Blackmail. 
Mary J. Welch. 
Charles P. Woodruff 
Chauncey Hawley. 
Samuel Upton. 
Wni Pool 
Phillip Cook. 
John Stevtns. 
Isaac Amnieruian. 
Joseph Clark 
Isaac Townsend. 
M. W South-worth. 
John Preston. 
Henry Palen. 
Ira Barber. 
N. B. Ayres. 
Mosis Benedict. 
Nicholas Townley. 
Henry Ackley. 
Richard Townley. 
Aaron Davis. 
John Guinan. 
A. F. Campan. 
Gardner F. Goold. 
W. O. Stone. 
Ben Longyear. 
Sands Gidley. 
Henry Pelton. 
W. B. Gaidner. 
John Brewer. 
Constant Maguire. 
Marvin Burk. 
Miller Yeckley. 
Nathan G. Latimer. 
Timothy Collins. 
John G, Perry. 
John Hitchcock. 
Almon Cain. 
Ezra Brown. 
Asa M. Clark. 
S. L. Videtto - ■ 
Thomas Tanner. 
Ed. Arnold 
Geo. B. Fuller. 
Washington Irving. 
Geo. Kemble. 
Harrv Denison 
Geo.'W. Stolp. 
John Crego. 
M. B. Thomas. 
Geo. Hall. 
R. S. Armitage. 
H. N. Rider. 
Robert Monier. 
Ben. Huntley. 
John Maxon. 
Almus V. Main. 
Margaret Chapin. 
F. W. Peters. 

J. H. Dubois. 
Jasper Thomas. 
Orrin Seeley. 
Jas. Hayten. 
Samuel Works 
L. C. Salisbury. 
Hilas Hayes. 
Robert Bradford, 
Wm. M. Lee. 
M. C. Patterson. 
John Van Rankin. 
Samuel Hamlin. 
John S. Brown. 
John M. Carter. 
Ezekiel Lader. 
Chauncey Kennedy. 
D. Sweeney. 
Daniel B. Miller. 
Joseph Hodge. 
John Kern. 
John C. Wateman. 
Betsy I'tly. 

< Mis Cranson. 
Wm. O. Cross. 
Abraham Catlin. 
Harriet Catlin. 
Sam. R. Feeks. 
P. D. Hall. 
R. B. White. 
Bradley Freeman. 
Samuel Swezy. 
Bart W Smith. 
Daniel Smith. 
Lor. M. Chanter. 
Abram Van Gorden. 
Edwin Perry. 
J. S. Williams. 
Baxter Howe. 
Anson Townley. 
Reuben Croman. 
Isaiah Croman. 
Soloman Croman. 
Joseph McCloy. 
Elias Carwin. 
Wm. Gould. 
W. W. Wetherly. 
Eleazer Finley. 
David Finley. 
Henry Lay cock. 
Horace Wheelock. 
Alanson Woodwatt. 
Samu- 1 Higgins. 
Ira Wheaton. 
JohnM. Root. 
John A. Bacon. 
N. N. Hayden. 
Francis Woodbury. 
Ledna d A. Waldo. 
John X. Dwight. 
D. F. Dwight. 
B. P. Hutchison. 
Silas Titus 
Charles Ferry. 
David B. Dwight. 

James M. Barber 
John M Hunt. 
Lyman Fox. 
Sherman A. Randall. 
Benjamin Walker. 
Ben. S. King. 
James H. Case. 
Samuel Sheldon. 
T. W. Pi ay. 
Richard Hendee. 
H G. Dickinson. 
B. T. Webster. 
Asbury Fassttt. 
Samuel Fassett 
Robert Lawrence 
Daniel B. Hibbard. 
Patrick Brosnahan. 
John D. Vandusou 
Henry Jean . 
Daniel Porter. 
John Todd. 
Merrit Johnson. 
Amasa R. Stone. 
Washington Hewitt. 
Martha Hewitt. 
Dudley Hewitt. 
Dennis Carreu. 
Ira Petrie. 
Geo. Cogswell. 
Sidney N Soper. 
Janus Fisher. 
Chauncey C. Smith 
John J. Markle. 
John Glann. 
Ira Davenport. 
Sally Wolcott. 
Erastus Wolcott, Jr. 
J. P. Christiancy. 
John W. Fiske. 
John Chester. 
Reuben Luttenten. 
Geo. Field. 
Stephen Morehouse. 
Alvin Whedin. 
John Dunning. 
D. H. Mills 
Joseph C. Watkins. 
Geo. Denmark. 
Anson Willis. 
Joel Clemens. 
James Tullmau. 
Joseph B. Lockwood 
David Osborne. 
J. Sugendorf. 
Paul B. Ring. 
Thomas Godfrey. 
H. S.Gregory. 
James Graham. 
Hiram Alison. 
Peter Brown. 
Asa C. Thompson. 
Ansel Bissell. 
John Conn' ry man 
Jacob Waikle. 
John Russ. 

Hl^rol;-! m. .1 \<'K"inN <'"»( -N n . 

Isaac Giles. 
Alex. Richmond 
Sterling Wentworth. 
Joe. Wightman, Jr. 
Nelson McArthur. 
John Tate. 
Stephen Chesebro. Jr 
H. Phillips. 
F. C. Watkins. 
T. J Lewis. 
Simon Davidson. 
J. and A. Chesebro. 
Geo.W. Bush. 
Hiram A. Barber. 
Chauncey S. Cross. 
John J. ('rout 
Adelia ('rout. 
De Witt Knowlton. 
Win. Showerman. 
H. Spaulding. 
Benj. Sneden. 
Sincler Bean. 
Lester P. Beebe. 
Josephus Darling. 
B. B. Bradford, 
.las. Loranger. 
John Worth. 
Lathrop L. Sturgess. 
Lois Swain. 
W. W Carter. 

J. Wood. 
Fred. Johnson. 
Mason Cabine. 
James Weekes. 
Abraham J. Crego. 
Samuel B. Darrow 
D.H. Rogers. 
Lyman Harrington. 
Wm. B. Mills. 
P. B. Ripley. 
Amasa B Gileson. 
L. W. Douglass. 
Alfred Draper. 
Nicholas McC'ann. 
Joseph Avery. 
Kilwanl Smith. 
Wm. Killicut. 
Martin Austin. 
Wm. M. Sullivan 
John A. Schmidt. 
John S. Hurd. 
John G. Blanchard. 
Orson Lnderwood. 
Eri E. Underwood. 
CharL s Townley. 
John Baiber. 
Edward Strong. 
Oliver B. Ford 

John W. Pardee. 

John Smiley. 

James Slayton. 

Leander Mc( lain. 

S. Patrick. 

Bissel Huraplmy. 

Caleb Osgood. 

Barzilla Mutler. 

Joseph Patch. 

Barney Christopher. 

John E Barton. 

J E. Parham. 

M. J Hudler. 

Norman Allen. 

Wilson Spencer. 

Sarah S Chapel. 

Abraham H. Bennett. 

Aaron Pnston. 

Edwin Adams. 

Alamon Carpenter 

Wm. H. Boland 

Geo. Huxford 

Jesse Uarduer. 

A. J. Williamson. 

Andrew Smith. 
A Updi 
E Maltby. 

Mornian Sanford. 

D. H. Lockwood. 



One of the results oi pioneer organization is shown forth in the 
following series of old settlers' recollections. That within six 
years, such a number of historical papers could lie collected from 
the pioneers is equally a subject of surprise and congratulation — 
surprise, because for a period bordering on half a century, 
such an important labor was forgotten, and congratulation for 
the reason that the influence of the organizers of the pioneer 
society, and the tendency of such an organization to effect some 
good, drew firth from old settlers a statement of their coining and 
their stay. No one but he who knows what the want of a pioneer 
history is can thoroughly appreciate such memoirs; yet enough 
will be found in the pages devoted to them to interest and instruct. 


Henry Little, a pioneer of Kalamazoo county, and well ac- 
quainted with the early history of this section of the State, read 
a paper at the pioneer anniversary meeting of June 18, which was 
subsequently lost: and to gratify numerous friends he has repro- 
duced it for publication. It will be read with much interest. He 
said : — 

•'It affords me great pleasure to be with you upon this very 
interesting occasion, to exchange friendly greetings and congratu- 
lations with you. and to listen to the recital of pioneer experiences 
which you passed through during those diversified and trying- 
scenes which marked your progress all the way onward and 
upward, from the first log cabin to the crowning glory of the 
achievements which are now so conspicuously apparent all around 
us as to excite the admiration, if not the profound astonishment, 
of every beholder; while seeing our populous county, with its 
productive farms, manufacturing interests, thriving villages, and 
this beautiful city. — all having sprung into existence within the 
last 50 years. While Jackson is justly celebrated for the intelli- 
gence, morality, thrift and enterprise of its inhabitants, its unin- 
terrupted growth ami prosperity, its beautiful public and private 
buildings, ami its excellent public institutions. It is not renowned 
for great antiquity. Jackson is a voting city, and still in its 
infancy, but what an infant! There are still some persons remain- 
ing with us who well remember when it was born. I distinctly 
remember the time when that little youngster which hail been 
christened Jacksonburgh was being cradled or nurtured in its little 


rude log crib or cabin. But that child grew with astonishing 
rapidity, and soon became an active and precocious youth, and the 
next moment he was a mature man: and after a brief space of time, 
a few revolutions of our earth, instead of that feeble, tottering 
child, a powerful giant, walked forth by bis own inherent strength, 
dispensing his favors in all directions and commanding the respect 
and admiration of all. I bad known many villages in the Eastern 
States which were 150 years old. with but 5,000 or 6,000 in- 
habitants, and we supposed that a much longer time would be 
required in this county to reach similar results; but by the 
magic power of science, aiding and impelling forces in ' these 
modern times, a city, a nation, is born in a day! 

"In the early days of .lacksonburgh.the old Washtenaw trail was 
the only traveled route from East to West through this section of 
country for many years. Between Ann Arbor and Kalamazoo 
county, as tin n called, the log-cabins of the pioneers were located 
only upon the Indian trail. The distance between those primitive 
dwellings as found by me 48 years ago, was 14 miles in some 
cases and 7 miles in others, with no improvement whatever be- 
tween them. Mr. Allen was located at (iras- Lake, from which 
place an unbroken wilderness extended ten miles to Jacksonburgb, 
where a wide belt of heavily timbered land extended up and down 
on the east side of the river. When we passed over that route 
the river had overflowed its eastern bank, and the water extended 
over that low timbered land about so rods, partially concealing 
many large and small stones, and many large roots of trees, which 
caused our wagons to be contorted most fearfully, as they 
plunged up and down and rocked from right to left. By much 
time ami careful management three of our wagons passed over 
without much harm, while two wagons became fast: but by the as- 
sistance of Mr. Blackman and two pair of oxen, they were brought 
over. The bridge across the river was a rude structure of logs, and 
the east end, being much lower than the other, was under water. 
At that time (1831) Jacksonburgb contained about a dozen log- 
cabins. Among the number was that of Mi-. Blackman, the 
double log cabin, used for a tavern by William R. Thompson, 
Hiram Thompson, the postmaster of Jacksonburgb. Mr. Hogan, 
the merchant, and Mr. Richey — a schooll-house and blacksmith's 
shop — all being of logs. 

••While stopping a few days with Mr. Thompson, I learned 
that he was about to send out teams to White Pigeon Prairie for 
flour and other provisions. Therefore, two of my teams returned 
to the East and Thompson's took their places, the postmaster of 
Jacksonburgh having charge of one team, and Mr. Richey the 
other. Do you still send out ox teams on a three or four weeks' 
trip for your provisions 2 And do you now obtain your meat as 
you did a few months later, when Mr. Thompson brought a drove 

ot 100 hogs from Indiana '. As we had good teams, g 1 weather, 

and no detentions, we made the run to the place now called Gales- 
burg in six days ; two full weeks having been required in passing 


irom Detroit to Galesburg. We stopped over night with Mr. 
Allen, of Grass Lake, Thompson Blashfield, and Roberts at Sand- 
stone Creek. Crane and Abbott, a tew miles west of Rice Creek, 
where the Rev. John I). Pierce was located ; having stayed over 
night at every cabin on the route trom Grass Lake to Rice Creek, 
except at Jacksonsburgh. 

•• In those good old times, the latch-string always hung outside 
every door, if they had a door, and however poor and destitute 
the inmates might have been, they willingly entertained all trav- 
elers, who were then very few. Some of the dwelling places on 
that route were nothing but shanties, sheds or pens, without doors, 
windows, floors or chimneys, and no furniture except such as was 
made on the ] premises; the whole outfit being novel apologies for 
human comfort. The picture is not as gloomy and disheartening 
as some might suppose ; but it is a very hopeful and encouraging 
state of things for those times. 

"In 1832 Roswell Crane, formerly of Jackson county, called at 
my residence on <tu11 prairie, and informed me that he had located 
near to. and on the west side of. Battle Creek, and was therefore 
my neighbor. It was very gratifying to learn that I had a neigh- 
bor 14 or 15 miles in an eastern direction; because J. D. Pierce at 
Rice Creek had thus tar been my nearest neighbor in this direction. 
Whoever thinks that the movements of the world are slow, let him 
compare matters and things of the present time here with those ot 
a few years ago. when it might have been said that even since the 
dawn of creation, wdien the" morning stars sang on that glorious 
event, that the greatest part of Michigan was unoccupied, unknown 
and avoided, because it was supposed to be a pestilential waste. 

"It is within the recollection of many persons still living, when 
Ann Arbor was the extreme west end of the habitable world, be- 
yond which the sun went down into a bottomless morass; where 
the frightful sounds of yelling Indians, howling wolves, croaking 
frogs, rattling massasaugas, and buzzing mosquitoes added to the 
awful horrors of that dismal place. But very fortunately for us, 
that illusion was dispelled, so that out of that worthless region 
there arose one of the most beautiful, productive and prosperous 
States in the Union. Michigan has the largest lakes, which are 
literally alive with delicious fish, the best climate, soil, crops, 
minerals, timber, school-, colleges, churches, laws, smart old men 
and women, bright boys ami good girls. 

"While we have a grateful sense of rich profusion of the various 
inexhaustible natural resources of Michigan. I am not at liberty to 
withhold the merited meed of praise from the hardy, energetic, 
persevering pioneers who patiently submitted to great and long 
continued hardships and privations; while they utilized the great 
works of nature, by converting a great wilderness, previously the 
abode of wild beasts and wild men. into fruitful fields and gardens, 
so that it became a land of corn and wine, and of the finest ot 
wheat. — a land of milk and honey. They beautified the face of 
nature with the decorative works ot art; founded cities, villages. 


towns, and elegant rural palaces; highways and railroads through- 
out our broad domain; caused the light of science to illuminate 
every corner, gave us laws and educational and religious and char- 
itable institutions, which would be an honor to the older States; 
and instead of a Territory of less than 30,000, we now have a State 
containing over 1,500,000 inhabitants in the full enjoyment of all 
the rich bounties of nature and art. But has Michigan arrived at 
the zenith of its prosperous progression, and hereafter to remain 
stationary ? ' No ! ' will be the emphatic exclamation of every one, 
because the history of the past and the present indication in regard 
to the future are such as to justify a firm belief in a steady and 
continued onward movement in all the good, ennobling character- 
istics of a great and prosperous commonwealth. 

"Veteran pioneers, respected fathers and mothers, you do 
not need monuments of brass or marble to proclaim the re- 
membrances of your glorious achievements to coining generations; 
because your footprints are deeply and indelibly impressed upon 
this fair land, where the result of the magnificent work of your 
handsare the best of testimonials for you. Here you not only hewed 
out and laid those deep and broad foundations, but you were 
the architects and builders of a grand superstructure, whose lofty, 
imposing towers and pinnacles greet the rays of the rising sun. and 
afford shelter and protection to life and property. " 


was one of the earliest settlers in the northwestern portion oi 
Jackson county, where he located in Tompkins, in the spring ot 
1833. At that time, in that now prosperous township, there 
was but a handful of people, and Adams 1 nearest neighbors 
were Abel Lyon, who lived half a mile away, Joseph Wade, 
one mile. Deacon Townley, two miles. Mr. Adams, J. M. 
Jamieson, Henry Hecox and D. W. Parchal came into the county 
together, and located lands for future homes. Adams ami 
Jamieson were the only ones of the company who had means 
enough to move their families, and the following fall they made 
clearings and put up houses. Jamieson kept batchelor's hall; 
and the next summer Adams's family came on via the Erie 
canal to Buffalo, whence they took steamboat to Detroit. From 
the latter place they were conveyed to their future home in a 
wagon; a three days' journey over rough logways, and through 
almost bottomless marshes, with mosquitoes swarming about them 
in clouds. They often got stuck in the swales, when they were 
forced to unhitch and double teams to pull them out. One of the 
drivers on this trip declared that "his team went in out 
of sight, but he kept whipping and hallooing at the hole, and 
they eventually came out all right on the other side! " 

Of the many discouragements and hardships of those early days 
it is unnecessary to speak, as the old settlers have had experience 
in that direction and know all about them; while the younger gen- 


eration could not realize how great they were, even if told them. 
But those early days were not without their pleasures of a social 

nature. The oxen would be yoked to the large lumbering ox-sled; 
there were no horses in those days; straw would be used to sit 
upon, and a buffalo robe or a few bed-quilts employed to wrap 
women and children, and off would start a family to spend the 
day or evening with neighbors, taking other families on the way 
along with them. There were no broadcloths, no silks, no ••fuss" 
in the way of preparation; they were ready at a moment's warn- 
ing; there was no necessity to notify anyone, as they were every 
dav alike, and went just as they were, as regards their personal 
outfits. Nor was it deemed necessary to apprise the family they 
intended visiting that they were coming, as "pot-luck" was the 
word in those day,-. — there being no luxuries to offer. What was 
lacking in high living was made up in good feeling. All went in 
for a good time generally — singing, dancing, telling stories, and 
merry-making; and often an entire night would lie thus spent, as 
it was found difficult, seemingly, for the settlers to separate early 
when they got together on such occasions. They were hail fel- 
lows well met, and ready with a helping hand in time of need. 

Mr. Adams was thrown upon his own resources at an early age. 
While a boy he learned the shoemaking trade, and later learned 
the jeweler's trade, in the days when spoons were made by hand. 
He located and opened a shop in Lyons. X. Y.. where he married 
Hannah Perrine, who proved to be a help indeed, cheering and 
assisting in every womanly way to make their home bright and 
happy. She was noted for never complaining, but always making 
the best of everything as it came. In his younger days he was 
one of those generous, wholesouled men. to whom a dollar's worth 
of fun was worth five dollars of cash at any time: consequently he 
was not overburdened with this world's goods. He often re- 
marked that had he not married a prudent wife he would probably 
never have laid up anything. When he came West he was not 
rich, but had enough to keep the wolf from his own door, and 
some to help his less prosperous neighbors; for he was no niggard, 
but generous to a fault, often putting himself out to accommodate 
a friend. He never turned any away hungry from his door; his 
'•latch-string" was always out; his unvarying price for a meal was 
"$14." He was always an earnest politician.' He and T. E. Gidley, 
with a few others of like political faith, met at Slab City, a little 
west of where Parma now stands, and organized the Whig party 
in this county, lie remained in that party until it went to pieces, 
or was merged into the Republican party ot which he was an earn- 
est worker. 

In the early days the circuit court consisted of a judge and two 
associates. Mr. Adams was one of the associates, hence his title 
of "Judge." [n Woodbridge and reform times he was appointed 
"agent" of the State prison, then in its infancy, which office he 
held two years, when the political complexion of the State changed, 
and he was rotated out for another, returning to his farm. Shortly 


after this time lie joined the M. E. Church, of which he remained 
a consistent member, ever ready with his talent, time and money 
to help on the cause he espoused. His temperament was of the 
nervous, sanguine order, which always made him look on the 
bright side ot events ; consequently he was always cheerful and 
happy, with a good word for all. Although an earnest Christian, 
he was no bigot ; his charity was large, always contending that 
there was much more good than evil in man. He had many warm 
friends and but few enemies. The latter never questioned his 
honesty of purpose or the purity of his intentions. 

now of New York State, but formerly of this State, was recently 
interviewed as follows : 

■'I suppose," said the interrogator, "that your journey from 
Xew York State to Michigan at that early day was not a very lux- 
urious experience '." 

"Well, we certainly did not come in a palace car, nor did we 
go to bed at home and awake next morning in Detroit," was the 
reply ; " however, we got here. 1 particularly well remember that 
we crossed into Canada at Lewiston, May 14, 1831. The next 
day we dined atBrantford, with Brandt, a son of the renowned 
chief of the Mohawks. Our host on that occasion was educated, I 
believe, in England, and although he held a commission from the 
crown he was himself chief of his tribe. He was one of the most 
perfectly formed men I oversaw. At dinner he was in military 
undress, and he acted the host with all the possible graces and re- 
finements of the oldest civilization. 

" The next point that especially attracted my attention, and 
that lives freshest in my memory, was the town of Oxford, which 
seemed to me one of the most beautiful portions of the country I 
had ever seen. We crossed the Thames at Moravian Town, not 
far from which j dace both of my horses were poisoned. One of 
them died right there, and the other lived only about long enough 
to reach Detroit. Goodale took my wife in his wagon, and 
through his good nature we were enabled to get our stuff through. 
I never knew who poisoned my horses, but I always believed it 
was the work of a female tramp who had taken offense at my re- 
fusal to allow her to make one of our party." 

"How long did you remain in Detroit?" 

"Let's see. We arrived here Sunday, May 21, 1831, and I 
left for Jackson on the following Wednesday — three days. I left 
Goodale here and went on alone. I say alone, but of course had 
my own family. Ann Arbor was our first halting place — forty 
miles I believe they call it — but we made it in one day ; and the 
end of our second day's journey, after crossing Detroit river, 
brought us to Jackson, where I had decided to settle. There was 
no road or sign of a road west of Ann Arbor, and the only families 
in Jackson were those of William R. Thompson and his brother, 


Mr. Bennett and Mr. Elackman. I was the fifth married man 
that settled in that neighborhood, and I put up the first frame 
building in Jackson county. When I arrived there, the town of 
four bouses — two of which were taverns and all built of logs — 
boasted two physicians whose names 1 have forgotten. Half a 
mile out of the 'city' lived a man named Deland. I believe there 
were no other settlers near Jackson then. 

''On the path from Ann Arbor a Mr. Sloat kept a tavern at 
Honey creek, five miles west of Ann Arbor, and nine miles further 
on a man named Garlick had built a house. There was only one 
family at Grass Lake, and not a building from there to Jack- 

In the further course of conversation Mr. Moore said that he re- 
mained in Jackson less than a year, owing to both his own and 
his wife's ill health. 

On leaving Jackson he moved to the town of York. Washtenaw 
county, and became one of the founders of Mooreville, at which 
place he was the first postmaster, and carried the first mail through 
from Saline to Raisin, lie subsequently returned to the East, 
and since 1843 has lived in New York. During the many years 
of his proprietorship of the Madison Square and other hotels in 
the metropolis, Michigan people always found a hospitable wel- 
come. He is now living in retirement at Mt. Vernon, on a beau- 
tiful place not far from the city, in the serene enjoyment of a hale 
and happy old age. with all his faculties as brigfit as they were 
half a century ago. and his genial love of human kind in no de- 
gree abated. 


Rev. Mr. King, at present pastor of the Lone Star Baptist 
Church, at Chepstow. Kansas, prepared the following interesting 
paper for this work. The subject is well treated, although it 
claims to be a plain, unvarnished tale: 

"My grandfather, Asahel King, was born in Massachusetts, 
Sept. 15, 17^1. In the 12th year of his age he was hired to go as 
a drummer in the State militia. He was drum-major in the war 
of 1812. His company was ordered to Sacket's Harbor in 1814. 
Before it got there the British surrendered. An important event 
happened at the harbor, which is worthy of record. As the Brit- 
ish were surrounding the harbor, led by their general, and shout- 
ing ' the victory is ours,' the American soldiers were few in num- 
bers and expected defeat; a young boy lay sick in a log cooper- 
shop; but seeing the danger, he leveled his musket at the general, 
fired, and he fell dead. The British became terrified, and suppos- 
ing the building to be full of soldiers, they fled in dismay. This, 
added to other defeats, proved to be a great event in the closing 
of the war. This was in 1814. 


"My grandfather had eight daughters and four sous. He 
moved from Lafayette, N. V.. to Rives, Jackson Co., Midi., in 
1837. lie was a tanner and currier, also a shoemaker and a 
farmer. His boys were all fanners here except my uncle, Asaliel 
King, who lived on a farm at Cardiff. Onondaga Co., X. Y.. where 
the famous Cardiff Giant was exhumed. 

" When my father and grandfather settled here. Michigan was 
a wilderness; no clearing for miles around; the wolves howled 
around during the night, and Indians prowled about by day; they 
suffered for food, they lost cattle, etc.; they used to go to Detroit 
for all their provisions and to sell their wheat, etc. driving oven 
instead of horses, and there sold their wheat for :!."> cents per 
bushel. Jackson was only a small village then. My father has 
often mired fast in Main street, his oxen not being able to extricate 
the wagon. 

•• When grandfather came here in 1836, in company with 
Horace G. Cole, the soldiers were just returning from the Toledo 
war. Of course they had done 'exploits.' My father had been 
all through Michigan to ( Jhicago, the year before, in company with 
two other men named CalebJackson and Hiram Anderson (I be- 
lieve); they rode Indian ponies, going through < Janada on their re- 
turn to NewYork. When my father returned to his wilderness 
home he was yet a single man, in 1838. He was married to Miss 
Rebecca Emily Smith, daughter of John Smith, who came from 
Dover, England. Mr. Milton J. Draper was then justice of the 
peace, and he married our parents according to the Methodist rule. 
which ceremony occupied a whole hour. 

"When father was living in his log house, and my brother Jef- 
ferson was about eight years old, a black hear came into his wood- 
shed and tried to get a calf-skin hanging there. My brother 
thought it was a dog, and whistled to call it. My father shot at it, 
but it only shook itself and ran off. One day when my mother 
was alone, two large, fat deer came and stood side by side in front 
of the door and very near. A rifle was loaded in the house, but 
she dared not shoot it, although they needed meat very badly. 
Father often started large herds of deer away from his cellar while 
digging it. He shot a large turkey just where he built his house; 
the turkey -an his head into a brush heap and supposed he was 

"The Indians were all around and often came for something to 
eat. When they were through eating they always took all the 
food from the table, away in their blankets. Mother was often 
frightened at night when alone, by some old Indian looking at her 
through the window. The young Indians used to steal corn for 
roasting, then hide it (as they supposed) under their blankets; 
eyery now and then an ear would drop; they would conceal it 
again as soon as they could. 

"The wolves used to howl terribly at night. In the winter 
of 1837 they killed and ate an Indian, near the corner of 
Tompkins, Eaton Rapids, Springport and Onondaga townships. 


He bucked up against a tree and fought with his hatchet until 
he killed seven wolves; then he was overpowered. His hatchet, 
some of his clothing and part of his body and the wolves were 
soon found. Many others made verv narrow escapes. 

"Once father went to Detroit with a load of wheat. He sold 
it ami bought live barrels of vinegar. He started home; but a 
storm set in and lie was obliged to leave his vinegar with an 
'honest' farmer, who was to sell it for him and send him the 
money. He sold it, but never yet sent the money. This was a 
great loss. 1 suppose that man will say, on the day of judgment, 
'Here is your vinegar. ' 

"Twenty-three years ago last fall our atmosphere was so 
smoky that it was very difficult to see any distance. Travelers 
used hells on their teams to avoid collisions. It made tears 
come in the eyes, the fish large and small died in the streams, etc. 
It was caused by tires in the forests of Michigan and Canada. 

"Jan. 1, 1864, 17 years ago, was the coldest day on record 
in our State. The night before we attended a war meeting, 
and on going home at 11 o'clock it was raining; by daylight it was 
exceedingly cold. Some people froze to death. Cattle, sheep 
and poultry were also found dead. Very little work was done, 
except to feed and run the stock to keep them from freezing. 

" In March, 1868, we had one of the heaviest snow falls in the 
remembrance of our settlers. It came on Sunday night, I will 
relate an instance of interest to many of our young people and 
some who are older. Eleven of our young Americas left Rives in 
a sleigh for Jackson, to attend service at the Baptist church and see 
some friends baptized. When we got our load gathered and were 
about two miles from our community, the snow began to come 
down by measure. It was not very cold. We stopped to debate 
whether we would go on or not. The majority said, 'Go.' So 
go it was. I had my team. The storm raged so that we were 
very late in town. We went to the Marion House, and warmed, 
put the team in the barn, then went to the church just as the 
last candidate came ' up out of the water. ' We went back to the 
hotel and waited for the storm to abate, but it raged terribly. 
We staid all night. In the morning there was six feet of snow on 
a level. We got breakfast and started for Rives. We got in 
the community, a distance of eight miles, just at sunset. We were a 
hugry set, tired and forlorn. We fed our team and had supper at 
Rev. Mr. Osborn's. We then commenced to distribute our load, 
and we finally got to my mother's about 11 o'clock at night, having 
driven over fences, etc. ; but I could not get near the house; so 
I got my brother-in-law to carry ' my girl ' to the house in his 
arms. The next day I took her home on horse-back. We got into 
a gravel pit, climbed fences, etc., but I landed her safe at 
home, her parents fancying that we were all buried in the snow. 

"During the Civil war a great many of my cousins and some 
uncles enlisted. In one family of eight boys, five were soldiers. 
They were the sons of Charles and Lucy Smith, of North Plains, 


Ionia Co. Uncle Charles went to Memphis, Tenn.. to care tor 
three of them. He died about two weeks after his arrival there. I 
had three cousins, sons of Horace S. and Lucinda Cole, who served 
all through the Rebellion. Again, two cousins, sons of John H. 
and Amanda King, were among the first to enlist. They came 
home after re-enlisting. One of them, David Marion King, was 
Sergeant in Co. E., 3rd. Michigan ( lavalry. He went back, and SOOB 
after, while going through a piece of woods with a small squad of 
men, they were attacked by 'bushwhackers,' and as tliev ran down 
a hill, my cousin's horse fell in a miry place called a bayou; the 
last ever seen .if him by our 'boys in blue,' he was under his 
horse, struggling to extricate himself. Soon after our boys returned 
and seached diligently for him, but he was gone; we have never 
heard from him since. He is the only cousin out of many but 
that came home at the close of the war. ' Any information concern- 
ing him would be gladly received by the relatives. I think he 
died as a prisoner in Libby or Andersonville prisons." 


"In November. L834, my parents moved to Jackson county, and 
composed one of the 11 families who settled in Rives township 
that year. 

"In January, L835, my father moved into the log house which 
he had then erected. The flooring was sawed from frozen logs, 
and the boards laid down Loose and rough, with a rough partition 
forming a room. One of the windows of this house served as 
a chimney, as the stove-pipe passed through it. . Having been thus 
far established in the land, my father took a journey east to pro- 
cure a breaking-up team, as it required three or tour yoke of oxen 
to do the first plowing. He returned in April with his team, and 
also four cows. ( )n Ids arrival we had the chimney built, and the 
laying down of the floor completed, together with many other little 
improvements which render the log cabin at least comfortable. 
All were happy in this home in the wilderness except mother, who 
suffered sometimes from home-sickness. She had to return to look 
again at the old homestead in Monroe county, N". Y., after which 
visit she returned to her new home, and was ever afterward con- 
tent to dwell here. 

"Our. nearest school-house was about three miles distant, and 
for three years the children had to walk thereto, before a school 
was pro\ ided for this district. At that time the whole district was 
called Jacksonburgh. We could walk through the country then 
with as much ease and pleasure as we can drive through it now. 

" Our farm produced good flax, and we made our own cloth. 
Mother wove a piece for grain-bags, and disposed of each bag for 
seven shillings. We manufactured starch from green corn or 
potatoes; band boxes we made from elm bark, and indulged in 
many branches of domestic economy. 


"The Indians visited ns from time to time, and frequently 
brought venison to trade for bread and potatoes. 

" In 1842 I taught school in what was called the -Draper neigh- 
borhood,'' a district extending about four miles. Mv pupils were 
Harriet Draper, Ann Phelps, Cordelia Cook, Sarah Hatten, Eliza- 
beth Hatten, Charlotte Draper, Eunice Tingley, Josephine Snyder, 
Mary Draper, Violet Anderson, Andrew Phelps, Wm. Bates, 

Edwin Smith, Austin Draper, Frank Quigley, — Quigley, 

Edward Draper, .lohn Anderson and James Anderson. 

"In January, 1842, I made a visit to Ohio, and became ac- 
quainted with D. II. Ranney, who subsequently came out here, 
where in ls-M we were married by Rev. Mr. Harrison, of Jackson. 

'• When settlers first entered on their locations it was thought 
by some that tame grass would never grow here. My father, Alva 
Triu', said lie thought it would, and very soon afterward discovered 
a blade of plantain; clover followed plantain, and in a short time 
we had a pleasant green. When father moved into the township 
there was neither of these herbs. Now all the grasses and cereals 
are produced, and wild berries are abundant. 

" The first orchard was planted in the spring of 1835, on the 
farm now known as the 'Wilbur farm," then owned by Mr. 
Elmer. The following year it produced two apples, which I picked; 
as the owner did not live there. As recently as 1S47 a man 
from ( )hio was out prospecting for a location; but he formed such 
a strange opinion of the country that he said: 'This country will 
soon he deserted; the log houses will soon be left tenantless; people 
cannot live here; it is a barren waste! ' What would that man say 
now were he to visit us? The contrary, — we think it is one of the 
richest countries on the continent." 

"I left Herkimer county. X. company with Allen Bennett, 
Sen., in March, L833. Mr. Bennett came as far as Buffalo, went 
aboard a steamboat, but suddenly changed his mind and returned. 
I came on to Detroit ami there met an acquaintance, who traveled 
with me west. We took the stage and reached Ann Arbor the 
first day. -lacks, mi the second, and Marshall the third day. We 
then took our knapsacks, traveling westward to Gull Prairie. At 
Battle Creek there was but one house. We reached Cull Prairie 
the fourth day. and started thence to Grand Rapids, in company 
with a pioneer who was moving thither with his family, and who 
carried our luggage. We stopped the first daylong enough be- 
fore night to build a bough house of brush, having brush without 
leaves for our bed and covering. 

" On the morning of the second day our pioneer, whose team 
was a yoke of oxen and a single horse, found his horse missing. I 
started out with him to search for the horse, but not finding him, 
went on to Grand Rapids, and from thence to Ionia. < >nour way 
to Ionia we came across our friend who had lost the horse, who 


had himself been lost, and had wandered in the woods seven 

"During our travels we camped in the woods or open prairie 
wherever night overtook us. My valise was my pillow, and a 
camlet cloak my covering, and in the absence of water, we washed our 
hands in the dew on the grass. During our travels looking for 
land on which to make a home, we were often for long distances 
without water, and one time dug with our hands ahollow place on 
the border of the marsh, which tilled with water, and muddy as it 
was, it tasted sweet. We used an egg-shell for a goblet. We 
traveled through Ionia. Clinton, Shiawassee and Oakland counties 
to Detroit, occupying on our trip through the State over four weeks. 
I located some Government land near Lyons, Ionia county, and 
returned to Herkimer county, N. Y. 

•• In the spring of 1837 I started with my family and effects for 
Michigan, to make a permanent settlement. I drove a team 
through Canada and reached Jackson April 12, having been four 
weeks on the journey. We remained in Jackson a few weeks, and 
then went on to my farm in Rives, about ten miles north of the 
city. For the next ten years we went through all the hardships 
and privations of a pioneer life. We then moved to the city and 
resided four years, again upon the farm a few years, and for the 
last 15 years in the city. 

•• In the retrospect I have found a great source of enjoyment, 
whether as a pioneer or otherwise, in an active, busy life. 


•■ In May, 1837, we left my native place, Farmington, Ontario 

Co., N. Y., in company with Azariah Mallory and family, of Mace- 
don, Wayne Co., who were also bound for the same destination, 
the then tar West, the State of Michigan, my husband having 
purchased three-eighties in the north-west portion of Hanover town- 
ship the year previous, where we now reside. Emigration in those 
days was less expeditious than in these modern times. We went 
aboard the canal boat, and jogged along at a slow rate; but as it 
ran both night and day, we made considerable progress. Arrived 
at Buffalo, we took the steamboat for Toledo, not much of a vil- 
lage at that time, there being but a few houses. We made out to 
climb the bank, and then started by team for Adrian, Mr. Mallorv 
having transported his wagon and horses across the lake. We 
found the roads rough passing through the Cottonwood swamp, 
through mud and muck, where many a wagon had been stuck, 
Mrs. Mallory and myself walking four miles on logs and rails. We 
saw the first locomotive with cars making their first trip in Michi- 
gan. My uncle, Darius Comstock. and Geo. Crane, from Farm- 
ington, N. Y., who were stockholders, were on board. When the 
train stopped at Blissfield the old gentlemen alighted with buckets 
in hand, and descended the bank of the River Raisin, and up 
again as sprightly as young men, with their buckets of water to 


supply the tender. Both men are now dead. "We arrived at 
Moscow Plains, and put up with an old acquaintance of ours for 
six weeks, who made our stay very pleasant until our houses were 
finished, which, of course, were built of logs. We then began 
keeping house. We experienced many privations, having to go 
thirty miles to mill with an ox-team, taking two (lavs for the jour- 
ney. < >ur neighbors were few and far between. Xn roads at that 
time except the main traveled road, three miles south, known as 
the Chicago turnpike. Now and then we came across an Indian 
trail, though only one Indian called on us. Though our mode of 
conveyance for a few years was by ox-teams, we could expedite by 
taking a bee line nearly to the different points, as there was no un- 
derbrush, the Indians having kept it burned down. Afterward, 
by chipping the trees, or blazing the lines, the tracks were followed 
by others until they became established roads. 

" Jonesville had only one store at that time. Immigration was 
very great in L837. It made very hard times, on account of the 
scarcity of provisions. Many were afflicted with ague, for which 
Michigan became proverbial. The first fall my husband had 4!t 
'shakes" in 4!) days; our daughter suffered from it at the same 
time, and none of us escaped it entirely. Mr. Mallory's people 
seemed like relatives, though living three miles away. On Sun- 
day the old gray horse would bring the wife and youngest child, 
while he and one or two others trudged on foot; then we ap- 
preciated the face of a friend, and the attachment thus formed has 
ever since existed. In the spring the fire \v< raid run thn ragh the woods, 
which warmed up the ground and caused vegetation to spring up, 
beautiful to behold. The flowers covered the earth and yielded a 
fragrant perfume. The wild deer would gambol over the plains. 
and the turkey was also seen. Now and then a massasauga j put 
in an appearance, and the wolves and screech-owls would some- 
times make night hideous. 

'•We soon had a rioek of sheep, from which we spun and wove 
our own cloth, and had to be tailoress and dressmaker too; but 
clothes were made in plainer style then than now-a-days. 

" Where the village of Hanover is located were only two or 
three residences, and one log school-house, a few rods northeast 
of where the M. E. church now stands, where we \ised to attend 

"The first tombstone in the cemetery marked the grave of our 
son. It was a brown sandstone, taken from the quarry at Stony 
Point, some ten years before its inexhaustible stones were de- 

"And thus we might extend our view of pioneer life; but 
perhaps enough has been said. The improvements since those 
days that tried men's souls are before us: our State being traversed 
by the numerous railroads, and the facilities we enjoy for com- 
munication, enable us to see the progress in civilization: that which 
50 years ago was an unbroken wilderness is now dotted with cities 


and villages, with the advantages of modern improvements, and 
we truly ean sit under our own vine and fig tree. 


South and west from the little village of Onondaga the land 
gradually rises until you reach the county line, about a mile and 
one-half directly west; then turning south about half a mile you 
find yourself traveling: along: a summit level which divides tin- 
waters that flow into Grand river on the one hand, from 
those that flow into Spring brook on the other. Without being 
hilly, the land has those long undulations that make it not only 
easy of drainage and cultivation, but attractive to the lover of 
rural scenery. To the east and north the view is extensive, as the 
eye ranges across the valley of the river. Here, on the corner, 
where the east and west roads meet, the county line road at 
right angles, is situated the residence of Win. W. Wolcott, the 
first settler in this part of the county. The honse is attractive. 
being built in the Italian style and having a tower, and is situated 
on a natural building spot, well back from the road, in a handsome 
grove of oaks. .lust hack of the house Mr. Wolcott has a fine 
grapery, and one of the finest peach orchards in this part of the 
country, and when we were there tree and vine were laden with 
luscious fruit. The barns are across the way from the house, and 
near by there is a water-hole with no source of supply but the 
rainfall, yet which furnishes water for his stock throughout the 
year. .The farm consists of 1 74 acres, all but 30 acres of which 
are under improvements. It is one of the finest in this part of the 
country. He owns besides 150 acres in Jackson county, about 
one mile south. 

Mr. Woh-ott's forefathers lived at Weathersfield, Conn. The 
old building is still standing in which his great-grandfather used 
to do business, and it may be that some of his relatives took part 
in the celebrated Union war. so graphically narrated by that 
prince of historians. Dedrich Knickerbocker. 

Wm. W. Wolcott was born in Austerlitz, Columbia Co., N. Y.. 
1N07. lie lived there until 1823, when his father moved to Gen- 
esee county, and it was on the hunting ground of the Senecas 
that he acquired that love for hunting which has been one of his 
diversions through life. June 29, 1832, he was married to Miss 
Elizabeth Baldwin, who was born Nov. 4. 1808J at Dorrest, Ben- 
nington Co., Vt. 

He first came to Michigan in 1 834, and having formed a travel- 
ing acquaintance with an old gentleman by the name of Daniels, 
they footed it out from Detroit to Ann Arbor. The cholera was 
raging in Detroit at that time. 

On arriving at Ann Arbor, the old gentlemen found themselves 
so foot-sore that they concluded to try the stage, which proved to 
be a peddler's wagon "altered over" for the accommodation of 
travelers. They came in bv the way of the Washtenaw trail, the 


road along which was laid out by Firmferin in 1834. and extended 
west to St. Joseph. This trail entered and crossed the river not 
far from where the State's prison now stands, and Dr. Russell's 
brother kept tavern there on or near the site of that popular board- 
ing establishment. The land now occupied for that purpose could 
then lie bought for $300. 

Since then it is safe to say that Jacksonburgh has grown. John 
M. Dwight was then the only dealer in goods and notions; Bill 
Bothwell kept the Thompson House, which sported Indian blan- 
kets at the windows in lieu of'a more transparent medium. Black- 
man kept the rival establishment across the street. The Hamlins, 
since of Eaton Rapids, lived there then. Bailey was justice of the 
peace. There were Moody, Durand, Russey and Allen, the last 
of whom was the first dealer, aspiring to dispense groceries and 
provisions to his fellow sojourners; and this constituted about the 
entire nucleus, around which has grown up one of the most, prom- 
ising inland cities of Michigan. 

The surveyors were at that time employed in running out the 
line of the old Clinton road. Their contract specified that they 
were to lay out a road, following generally a northwest course 
between the villages of Clinton and Grand Rapids. In those days 
it would seem that Clinton was one of the prospective points in 
the territory. In looking out the line of roadj the surveyors sent 
out two men, who, taking opposite directions, prospected for the 
most eligible lines of communication and worried their way around 
swamps, or plunged through them according to circumstances. 
Mr. Wolcott and his friend, Geo. Woodworth, were the first men, 
after the surveyors, over the newly laid out road west of Jackson. 
When he came there the surveyors were encamped on the hill not 
far from the site of ex-Gov. Blair's residence. The friends re- 
solved to take time by the forelock, and having procured some 
ponies they started out but a day behind the gentlemen of the com- 
pass and chain. They followed' the line to where it struck Sand- 
stone creek, near where the bridge now spans the stream at the 
head of the pond at Tompkin's Center. Not being able to cross 
at that point, they went down the creek and felled a tree to serve 
as a bridge. They spent a part of the day on the section of land 
where Marcus Wade now lives, and returned the same night to 
Jackson. The next morning, starting before daylight, they set 
out for Tompkin's again, and when about two miles on the route 
it began to snow, and kept it up until 12 o'clock the following 
night. On the way up they crossed a number of fresh bear tracks 
in the snow; plenty of deer, but got nothing, as their guns were 

Mr. Wolcott resolved to locate a mill-site at Tompkins, and 
visited the land office at Monroe with that intention, but found 
that the land had long been taken. Becoming discouraged, he 
concluded that the whole country was a succession of tamarack 
swamps, and returned to the East. In the fall of 1835, he 
returned to Michigan and located on the land where he now lives. 


At that time a man by the name of Booth, living near Onondaga, 
was said to be the only white man in Ingham county. 

This time he visited the land office at Kalamazoo, and he 
gives a graphic account of the journey through the wilderness 
at that date. A party of 14 set out from Jackson on foot: but 
when they reached Graham's Tavern, a little west of Albion, 
they concluded to wait for the stage, and they changed con- 
veyances six times between there and Kalamazoo. Then, if there 
was a settler along the route, the stage went to his door, and every 
shanty was a public house. In taking passengers it was part 
of the contract that they should walk up hill, and even push a 
little at times, and the party had more than one laugh over paying 
fares and going a-foot. At Searles' Tavern, eight miles this side 
of Kalamazoo, while the party was there, the landlord's son 
went out and shot two noble bucks, which had got their horns 
clinched in fighting. On the way hack Mr. Wolcott put up at 
Birneg's Tavern, at Battle Creek, and was strongly urged by 
that gentleman to invest in town lots at Si\"> each: hut Mr. Wolcott 
had no faith, and responded that he would not give 25 cents. 

Returning to Detroit, he visited a cider mill on the river 
Rouge, and washed out a bushel of apple-seeds, with which to 
start a nursery near Jackson. This was (lone in company with his 

friend W Iworth; hut from a variety of reasons the project 

was not a success, though it furnished the new county with 
many trees. The large and thrifty trees in Mr. Wolcott's orchard 
are from those seeds. The grafts were brought by Thomas Baldwin 
from ( >hio. 

In the fall of 1835 he returned to New York State, stopping 
over winter in Ohio, and in the spring oi 1837 he came back 
to Michigan to build a house and get ready for his family. While 
doing so he boarded at Lyon's Tavern, then located where Mr. 
Ford now lives. It was three or four miles away, yet he went 
to and from his labors night and morning, and paid $5 per 
week for board. This, in the new country, was something scanty; 
but the hungry could always find two essentials at every public 
house, however poor, milk and whisky. Returning again to 
New York State he worked through harvest for 10 shillings per 
day, — 75 cents for haying. 

In the fall of the same year he purchased the best horses and 
wagon he could find, to please his wife, who dreaded the journey 
by water, ami they started tor their home, through Canada; 
but, after 17 days in the mud, they were glad to embark at Chat- 
ham. Having arrived, he was not able to keep his team and 
wagon, and they were sold at Jackson, to Paul I». King, for *:'>77. 
They were, perhaps, at that time, the best span of horses ever 
driven into the place, and were purchased for the use of Dan Ilib- 
bard in carrying the mail. At home in the wilderness, the ques- 
tion of provisions made itself felt, and Mr. AY. started to spy out 
the fatness of the land, and, if possible, bring some of it home 
with him. He visited Spring Arbor, but the farmers wanted 25 


cents per poundfor pork. Mr. W. contented himself with flour and 
a somewhat antiquated ox, which he purchased for beef. Being out 
of meat, in the spring he purchased 12 hens from Gartner Gould, for 
three shillings apiece, and carried them home on his back. Forty- 
two years have passed since then. andMr. W. has still the same breed 
ot fowls, and has never been out of eggs <>r fat chickens. Yet it 

would not do to begin t -ashlv on the poultry ; and, after getting 

terribly hungry, Mi-. W. started out with a pillow-case, in pursuit 
of pork and butter, lie purchased a small hog at $15.00 per hun- 
dred, but butter was not to be had, though he visited all the farm- 
ers in the vicinity of Parma. Strong in his determination to have 
some butter, he returned to Jackson, but Mas dismayed, on arriv- 
ing, by the intelligence that there was none in the city. However, 
the dealer said that he bad sent his team for some, and that he ex- 
pected it in that night. The team came, with butter from Ohio. 
Peace was restored to the households of Jackson, and Mr. W. 
turned his steps homeward with gladness in his heart and 25 
pounds of butter in his pillow-case: and after his 20 miles march 
through slush ami mini, he felt no disposition to accuse that gro- 
cery man of light weight. 

the winter of 1836 was remarkable in the annals of the county. 
.V snow fell is inches deep and crusted. The wolves, driven by 
hunger, came up from the northern wilderness and killed the deer 
in droves. Mr. W. saw 20 or 2.~> lying dead together where they 
had been pulled down by their ravenous enemies. They even killed 
young stock. The cold was something terrible. Quails and prairie- 
chickens were almost exterminated. From November 15 to January 
1 it did not thaw, and it thawed then but little. Prom February 20 
to April 20 the sky was without a cloud, and the cold was steady 
and intense. However, April 1, Mr. W., being in Jackson, ob- 
served that it thawed a little on the north side of the street. April 
20 the snow went off, and the long, hard winter was at an end. 
The wolves went back to their northern haunts, and none have 
been heard of in the county since. 

When Mr. Wblcott was here in 1835 he hired ten acres broken 
up. and let out five of them to Daniel Dunn, and has never been 
out of wheat since. For meat Mr. W. depended more on his gun 
than his pocket. He became an adept in bagging wild turkeys, 
and through the fall and winter the family was seldom without a 
fat turkey in the larder. He used to delight in getting in the 
friends, and with a big tire in the old fireplace, and the children 
at home, have a feast on baked turkey. 

lie used to hunt through the woods to Jackson, get his mail, 
and hunt back again, without thinking it much of an undertaking. 
On one occasion, having business to do at Mason, he set out on a 
trail through the woods with dog and gun. On his return, when 
he was north of Leslie, night fell; it clouded up and became fear- 
fully dark, and he lost his trail. After groping on the ground for 
some time he found it again, but without being sure which way he 
was facing. However, it must bring him somewhere, and tinallv 


he came out to the house of Mr. Phillips, on the right track. He 
awoke the inmates to learn where he was, and they were surprised 
that any human being should undertake to traverse these woods in 
the night. Arriving at the river it was necessary to halloo out the 
ferryman, Mr. Allen, who, with the generosity of a frontiers- 
man, refused to receive pay from a new settler. 

He killed one hear — a large one — famous in the country for 
killing hogs. The bear was easily recognized from the fact that 
he had lost one of his feet iii a trap. It had recently killed one of 
Mr. Sibley's hogs, and Mr. W. went for Rue. Perrine's bear-trap; 
but bruin was posted on traps. Finally Mr. Sibley saw the ani- 
mal while looking after his cow, and with Perrine and Wolcott 
turned out to hunt him. The bear first undertook to pass Messrs. 
Sibley and Perrine. who shot at him and turned him back. This 
drove him toward Wolcott, who saw him coming along the path 
in which he was standing; feeding sure that he must kill him at 
the first shot or have an encounter, Wolcott aimed for his eye, 
and with the crack of his rifle bruin went down. He proved to be 
very large and fat. 

Mr. Wolcott had six children, all of whom are Hying but one. 
Grove 11. Wolcott is a lawyer in Jackson; William V. Wolcott is 
one of tin- publishers of the Times Herald, St. Louis; Mark S. 
is a lawyer in Jackson; Thomas ('. now takes charge of the 
farm; Charles C. is a hotel proprietor and hardware dealer in 
Nashville, Mich.; his only daughter. Josephine, he buried in 



William Doliville Thompson was born Feb. 24, 1815, and is a 
native of Shenango county, N. Y. He removed to Le Koy, in 
Genesee county, when quite young, and continued to reside there 
until 1831. 

The great stream of emigration from New England and New 
York to Michigan and the then far West, which set in about 1830, 
caught in its flow many of the most enterprising and industrious 
of the young meD of those States, who sought in these then 
unoccupied fields a proper sphere for their labors, and for the 
expansion of that spirit of enterprise which was denied to them 
in the m< ire densely populated regions of the East. This was more 
especially the case with those young men who had only their 
willing hands and strong hearts with which to carve their way in 
the world to wealth and tame. 

Among those who determined at an early day to strike out 
and try his chances in a new country, where he could "grow with 
its growth and strengthen with its strength," was young Mr. 
Thompson. He came to Jacksonburgh, as the infant settlement 
was then called, in 1831, and was among the first to make it his 


The first house in the place was built and occupied in 1830, and 
they could all be counted on the fingers of one hand when he 
decided that in it and with it he would try his fortunes. 

In the fall of 1832 Mr. Thompson opened a boot and shoe store, 
the first of the kind in the village. In 1834 he built and occupied a 
store on the south side of Main street, just east of the public 
square. Mr. Thompson was elected county clerk on the Democratic- 
ticket, and served for the years 1836-7. He was one of the school 
board in 1837. In 1838 he sold his stock in trade to Walter Fish, 
and entered into partnership with George B. Cooper, who was 
transacting a general mercantile business. In 184-1, upon the 
completion of the Michigan Central railroad to Jackson, Mr. 
Thompson was appointed freight agent. He continued on the 
road at Jackson and west of this point, as completed, to Niles, for 
a period of ten years, including the administration of the road 
while owned by the State, and after it had passed into the hands of 
the Michigan Central Railroad Company. 

A period of two years elapsed after the completion of the 
railroad to Niles before it was built to Chicago, and during this 
time all the freight and many of the passengers were taken by 
boats to and from the railroad depot at Niles and St. Joseph, 
at the mouth on the river St. Joseph. This was the most desirable 
route from Niles to Chicago and the great West, then rapidly being 
settled by the emigration which had now assumed such magnitude 
that every avenue and means of conveyance was tilled to over- 
flowing. The service of the St. Joseph river was undertaken by 
Mr. Thompson on his own responsibility, and for his own account. 
It was conducted with marked success. During most of the time 
he owned and controlled a small fleet of steamboats and towboats. 
The extent of the business was such that while Commodore 
Thompson, as he was then called, conducted the business to the 
perfect satisfaction of the shippers and the railroad company. 
he also made it largely remunerative to himself. He, while at 
Niles, accumulated a capital which enabled him, on the completion 
of the railroad to Chicago, to return to Jackson, after closing- 
out his stock on the river, and in connection with George B. 
Cooper, to establish the banking house of Cooper iv; Thompson. 
The integrity, strict attention to duty, and business ability dis- 
played by Mr. Thompson in the several places at which he was 
stationed and in the positions which he tilled, were so well under- 
stood and appreciated that he has ever since, in a marked degree, 
retained the confidence of the managers of the Michigan Central 
Railroad Company: and his influence has been, many times since, 
of decided advantage to Jackson, when questions of importance 
to the interest of the city have been under consideration by the 
officers of that company. In 1S51 Mr. Thompson returned to Jack- 
son and engaged in the business of banking. As a member of the 
firms of Cooper & Thompson, Cooper, Thompson & Co., and of 
the Jackson City Bank, he has ever since been the leading banker 
of Jackson. Of the Jackson City Bank, which does much the 


largest business of any of the six banks of Jackson — and probably 
more than all the rest of them together — Mr. Thompson has 
always been general manager and president, and is now under- 
stood to be sole proprietor. 

On the first of July, 1856, Mr. Thompson was married to Alma 
M. Mann, in Madison, Wisconsin. They have two children, a son 
and a daughter. 

Mr. and Mrs. Thompson have traveled in Europe, and the 
many works of art selected during their sojourn in the old world, 
which make their home attractive, bear ample testimony to the 
correct judgment and good taste manifested in their selection. 

In 1862 Mr. Thompson took part in the organization of the 
Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw Railroad Company. Its successful 
completion to Mason in 1865, to Lansing in the spring of 1866, 
and to Wenona, on the Saginaw bay, in 1*67. is in a great 
measure due to the labors and influence of Mr. Thompson. He not 
only gave it his personal attention, but also furnished material aid 
at times when, but for the money advanced by him, the building of 
the road must have stopped for a time at least. 

This railroad is now extended through the pine woods to within 
one hundred miles of the straits of Mackinac, and will doubt- 
less soon be completed to that point, there to connect with a 
railroad to Marquette and the iron and copper regions of the upper 
peninsula. The one hundred miles of this road terminating at 
Gaylord were built exclusively by Mr. Thompson, and finished in 
July, 1873. 

In 1866 the Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw Railroad Company 
bought that part of the Lansing, Amboy & Traverse Bay railroad 
lying between Owosso and Lansing, and with it the land grant- 
made by the United States to the latter company. This purchase 
gave much greater value to the stock of the Jackson. Lansing & 
Saginaw Railroad Company. 

Mr. Thompson is noted for his broad and comprehensive business 
views. Many enterprises which have added much to the growth 
and prosperity of Jackson owe their success to the fearless manner 
in winch he in some cases invested his capital, and in others 
sustained those who were interested in building them up. He is one 
of the firm of Bennett, Knickerbocker & Co., who built and still 
own and run the extensive steam flouring mill known as the "City 
Mills." The same firm also own and run the "Stone Mills" at 
Albion, and is one of the largest manufacturers of flour in the 
State. Mr. Thompson is one of the principal stockholders in the 
"George T. Smith Middlings Purifier Manufacturing Company," 
now extensively engaged in the manufacture of their "purifiers" 
in Jackson. lie is also largely interested in the costly "Chemical 
Works " and " Pulp Mills "located in the northern part of the city, 
and he has aided to develop, and is one of the proprietors of 
coal mines now worked within the city limits. But it is as a 
banker that Mr. Thompson is most widely and favorably known. 
No man in Michigan enjoys a higher reputation in his particulai 


calling than does the subject of this sketch. The business men of 
Jackson look to him and rely upon him in time of need; and 
to him his customers never look in vain for those accommodations 
often so necessary to success in their business. 

Mr. Thompson stands prominent among the citizens of Jackson 
for his generosity and benevolence. His name is always found 
among the most liberal subscribers to all projects of a business or 
charitable nature, and the calls are many in a city so fertile in 
new enterprises as in Jackson. Both Mr. and Mrs. Thompson 
make the most praiseworthy use of the goods of this world, with 
which they are so amply endowed, in dispensing that unostentatious 
charity most acceptable to its recipients, and most creditable to 
themselves, fulfilling the Scriptural injunction: '"But when thou 
doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand 

The integrity and liberality of Mr. Thompson have placed him 
in the front rank in the State in the estimation of its people. He 
also stands prominent as one of the very few remaining of those 
pioneers who cast their lot in Jackson, when it had little to boast 
of and was held in light estimation by villages now of tar less im- 
portance, because of its marshes, sand-hills and the general unin- 
viting appearance of its surroundings. There are now living in 
Jackson but two of its citizens who made it their home previous 
to the advent of Mr. Thompson. 

Without the knowledge attained by actual experience, it is im- 
possible to realize the changes which have taken place in Jackson, 
in Michigan, in the Northwest, and in the great West, extending to 
the Pacific Ocean, during the business lifetime of a man even now 
in the midst of his usefulness. No succeeding generation will be 
able to look back upon and realize the wonderful growth of an em- 
pire, and the spread of a civilization in their own time, as can Mr. 
Thompson in contemplating what he has seen grow up under his 
own observation since he came to Jackson in 1831. 

jacob Cornell's reminiscences. 

" In the autumn of 1833 my father, Stephen Cornell, of Pough- 
keepsie, New York, came to Michigan and jmrchased of the 
United States 120 acres of land in the township of Unadilla, and 
with the help of two men, a yoke of oxen, and a rope, erected the 
first log house in the county. He hauled the clapboards and the 
lumber for the floor from Dexter, 14 miles southeast of our home. 
He and his men built a camp of brush and marsh hay in which 
they lodged and cooked for three weeks, using brush for a spring 
bed. My father returned home late in the fall, preparatory to re- 
moving his family the following spring to our home in the Territory 
of Michigan. About the middle of April, 1834, we packed up 
our little all, together with a year's supply of provisions and medi- 
cines, and employed a sloop to carry us to Albany, a distance of 
80 miles, on the Hudson river, the trip from Poughkeepsie occu- 


pying nearly a week. At Albany we took a boat on the Erie 
canal for Buffalo, reaching that city in about nine days ; thence by 
way of Lake Erie, on the steamboat Daniel Webster to Detroit. 
At Detroit we made a contract with two teamsters to take us the 
remainder of our journey, 60 miles, through the mud. We counted 
up our funds and found we could foot the bill and have 50 
cents left. We left Detroit, plodding our way, when not stuck 
in the mud. over a wild and horrible road to Dexter, being then 
within 14 miles of our new home, for eight miles of which we 
were blessed with an Indian trail to guide us. the remainder being 
trackless marshes and lakes. We waded about 50 rods through 
a lake, and this seemed close akin to shipwreck, and my mother 
and sister thought that if this was Michigan life their days were 
numbered ; but we reached the shore in safety, and three miles 
more brought us up in front of our new log house, and although 
without paint or cornice, and having a chimney of sticks plastered 
with mud, we all repaired to it with great relief from a long and 
fatiguing journey of three weeks, being obliged to walk most of 
the way from Detroit. We soon discovered that several hundred 
miles lay between us and our New York home, and to return, with 
but 50 cents in the treasury, was impossible, so we resolved to 
submit to the fortunes of the pioneer and protect our scalps from 
the swarm of Indians that surrounded us as best we could ; they 
were so numerous we felt that we were completely in their power. 
When our goods were unpacked and the rough floor was cleaned 
my mother remarked that she was now prepared to receive com- 


After a hearty laugh over the remark, sure enough, in marched 
her company in single tile, to the number of nine, all reel men, 
squaws and pappooses ; this was a stunner, as was shown by the 
pale face of my mother, who soon distributed among them all the 
cooked provisions she had in the house, hoping to save her life 
thereby, but they soon departed in a friendly manner, and we 
found it a great convenience to have such friends, for they often 
brought us venison to exchange for flour, and we ever found them 
friendly and honorable unless influenced by whisky. We expe- 
rienced very close times the first two years, and one year our 
scanty supply of provisions gave out before harvest time, and we 
were compelled to cut the unripe wheat, dry it in the sun, thresh 
it on sheets, fan it in the wind, grind it in the coffee mill and bolt 
it through crape, and this flour made into biscuits we partook of 
with a relish that I shall never forget. As we were 14 miles 
from post-office, mill, or store, it required three days to make the 
trip with an ox team, so that the bread box sometimes got lone- 
some before the new grist came from the mill. 




The howling of wolves of a winter evening was of frequent oc- 
currence, but we were never disturbed by them or any other wild 
animals ; the worst enemy to mankind with which we came in con- 
tact was whisky ; some of our nearest neighbors who settled about 
us the first year being intemperate men who sought to injure every 
outspoken temperance man ; my father, being of the latter class, 
undertook to raise a barn without the customary aid of intoxicating 
liquors, but inviting all to the raising. The whisky lovers came 
with bottles of whisky of their own, and a more disgraceful scene 
than the one that occurred on that occasion I never witnessed. 
After furnishing them with a good supper, they remained till a late 
hour drinking and carousing ; they broke our dishes, butchered 
the dog, tore flown all the outbuildings, and threatened to destroy 
the barn frame. Nearly all of these rioters have dropped into 
drunkards" graves. 


Mr. Shearer was in the county i?> years ago, and stopped at 
Ring's tavern, the site of which he could not find during his visit 
in 1877. Then he could see the whole city easily; but now it had 
been built up so that he could not. Forty-three years ago he set- 
tled in Ingham county, in the town he himself christened Bunker 
Hill. There was no school-house there, none in Jackson, and none 
in Flint, so he went to Plymouth, and finding one there located in 
that town, and has lived there ever since. In that time he lost his 
way near Lansing, while traveling through the woods, and tell in with 
Coi. Hughes and Maj. Wilson, who were in the same predicament. 
They wandered together looking for the trail, but without success. 
Their provisions ran out and they ate elm bark; and after that 
failed then they used bass-wood root bark as a substitute. After a 
time they fell in with an Indian who directed them to a house 
which had just been built, eight miles or so from Jacksonburgh. 
They walked along and at last saw a cow, and then Mr. Shearer 
exclaimed to his companions, "Glory to God! we have reached 
the pale of civilization." 

They found the house was newly built, with a blanket hung up 
for a door. They were delicate about putting the blanket aside; 
so they knocked on the logs, and a beautiful tittle woman showed 
her face. The travelers saw there no floor, but on the shelf they 
saw johnny-cake that made their mouths water. They told her 
they' were 'hungry, and asked for food. She t"ld them they might 
have all they wanted, and she supplied them with bread and milk, 
and kept them over night. When they went away next day, they 
left her four silver dollars. Afterward, he learned, she told a 
neighbor that they were angels, and that money never was so good 
before, as they were entirely out of it at the time. Her name was 
Mrs. Tanner, and the narrator was quite affected by the intelligence 
of her death. 



He came to the county in 1839, when the settlement was 10 
years old, that is 10 years after the first white settler located. At 
that time the county was not organized, but was a township of 
Washtenaw county. 

W. R. De Land was the first justice of the peace, and his juris- 
diction extended all over the county. One of the members of the 
tirst grand jury that sat in the county was present at the pioneer 
meeting of 1877, — Chester Wall, of Sandstone. 

After Mr. Livermore came to Jacksonburgh, he was admitted to 
the Bar, and the next year was appointed to take the census in the 
northern part of the county. lie rode from house to house on a pony 
lent him by old Mr. Shaw. His credit had improved; the year 
before he could not borrow a wheelbarrow. The animal was a 
stout Indian pony, and would carry a man over a bog where the 
man could not walk. 

He carried with him a large portfolio to hold blanks, and he 
used it as a desk; he would sometimes hear the remark made 
that he had to carry a guide board to tell him where he was; while 
others thought he was a picture seller. In that six weeks he 
earned $400. He brought it from Detroit in a sachel. The stage 
was full of men, and didn't he hold tight to that bag? He reached 
home and poured it out on the bed, and how proud he felt as he 
said to his wife, " We are all right now." There was enough to 
carry them through a year. 

The people then were united, full of good feeling, and stood by 
one another. 

He could remember when there were not well people enough to 
take care of the sick, but now this is the healthiest country in the 
nation. He related a number of incidents in his early life here, 
and told a story of Dr. Buss. One Sunday morning on getting 
up, he saw smoke rising in the willows on the river bank and 
walked over there. He found two men named Fox and Savacool 
dressing a hog they had just killed. Stepping up and examining 
the animal, he accused them of stealing his hog, but they denied 
it. He began talking of arrest and started as if for an officer. 
The men admitted that they stole the hog; but pleaded in exten- 
uation the fact that they were out of meat. After talking sharply 
to them, he told them to go on, and when they had finished to di- 
vide the pork in four parts, — one they were to take to Elder Har- 
rison, one to his house, and the rest they might keep. The point 
of the story was that he did not own the hog, but as he used to 
tell it, he was out of meat too. 


Prior to 1835 several families had settled along the Territorial 
road west of the village, to-wit: Abel Barrett, John Daniels and 
sons, Wm. Shipman, Osgood Fifield, John Collar, Westey W. 


Laverty, and Jotham Wood and sons; and along the river north 
of the' village, Edward Morrill. Nathaniel Morrill, Geo. Fifleld, 
Enoch Fifield, Geo. Woodworth, Samuel Woodworth, Abner 
Pease, Samuel Wing, Jerry Marvin and John McConnell; on 
(iaiiMiii street, northeast of the village, Constant McGuire and 
sons, and Joseph Darling and sons. Merrills Freeman lived on 
the farm now owned and occupied by Henry Daniels, and Jeffer- 
son Smith lived on the farm which he sold to the superintendents of 
county poor for Jackson county in 1S37, ISO acres for $3,500, 
Sl !i.44 per acre, a large price for those times. Roads took the 
direction that was most convenient to the farmer, in avoiding 
marshes and reaching his destination. All was commons except 
small enclosures about the dwellings. Fire had kept down the 
undergrowth, and one could drive as he pleased through forests of 
stately oaks, blazing a tree occasionally to ensure a safe return. 

The village of Barry (Sandstone) took the lead of Jacksonburgh 
in business and enterprise. But the building of the old water 
grist-mill in 1836, and the establishment of the State's prison and 
building of the court-house in 1837 put Jacksonburgh ahead and 
gave Barry a set-back from which, some think, it will never re- 
cover. The township of Jackson was six by twelve miles square, 
embracing the territory now constituting the townships of Summit 
and Blackman and the city of Jackson. All came to the village to 
vote, and an election was quite an important occasion; where 
the new settler could meet and become acquainted with the older; 
where neighbors could meet and talk over the news from " York 
State" or Vermont, or discuss the news only "seven weeks later " 
from Europe. Neighbors! The word seemed to imply more then 
than now. Then it meant if your neighbor was sick, or behind- 
hand with his work from no fault of his own. to make a "bee " 
and husk his corn, dig his potatoes, get up his winter's wood, or 
do many other acts of kindness, which he was very ready to re- 
ciprocate when occasion required. It was considered no hardship 
to go four or five miles to assist at a neighbor's raising, or to 
yoke the oxen to the sled and take wdfe and children for an even- 
ing's visit. Visit! Yes, that is the word. When those old 
motherly ladies — " God bless them'' — got together for a visit it 
meant business in that line. No gossiping and backbiting, but 
generous, heart and hand friendliness, while the click of knitting 
needles kept time to the intellectual feast. It may not be amiss 
to say in connection with this subject, that the ladies of that period 
took upon themselves their full share of the burdens of pioneer 
life, and are entitled to as much credit as their husbands. 

The pioneers of Jackson were intelligent, honest and indus- 
trious — were good neighbors and good citizens. Very few are 
now alive to meet with the pioneers of Jackson county; but many 
lived to see remarkable changes and to be proud of their township 
and the city which now bears its name. 

To their successors, who can never fully realize their privations, 
but who now enjoy the fruits of their hardship and toil, we would 


say: Endeavor by your actions to show the survivors that you ap- 
preciate their character and worth ; cheer their hearts and lighten 
the burdens of their declining years, and you will have nobly per- 
formed your part in life, if you make for yourselves as good a 
record as have our Jackson pioneers. 


We complete the history of the early settlement of Jackson 
enmity by quoting further from Col. Shoemaker, as follows: 


The first stock Of goods offered for sale was brought in from Ohio 
by Mr. Jesse Baird early in 1830, and to him belongs the honor 
of having been the first merchant in Jackson, and of having the 

sagacity to choose for his enterprise one of the great centers ol 
trade in the State. Mr. Baird was also a contractor of some noto- 
riety, and to him was given the contract for building the race on 
the west side of the river, for the saw-mill which was being built 
for Messrs. Bennett and Thompson. 

Mr. George B. Cooper, who came here some time in June, was 
interested with Mr. Baird, and while engaged about the pond and 
race received more than he had contracted for, the unusual labor 
and exposure bringing on him an attack of lever and ague, and to 
him belongs the unenviable distinction of having been the first to 
acquire that disease which a few years after became so common as 
to be in the care and keeping of almost every family in the com- 
munity. Mr. Cooper had also, following the ague, a severe attack 
of bilious fever, which came near closing a career which was after- 
ward, for so many years, so closely ami so usefully identified with 
the growth and prosperity of Jackson. 

Another store, with a miscellaneous assortment of goods, such 
as are usually found in a country store, and supposed to contain 
any and every article a customer might call for, was opened by 
Mr. Hogan in the house of William ft. DeLand, on the corner of 
Blackstone and Pearl streets, soon after that of Mr. Baird. The 
next year, in 1831, Mr. Hogan built and occupied as a store, a 
frame building on the northeast corner of the public square, front- 
ing on Jackson street. This was the first frame building erected 
in Jacksonburgh. 

Mrs. John AVellman, who was of the colony of 1830, was the 
main reliance of the neighborhood for the cutting and making of 
the clothes of men and boys, where that could not be done in their 
own families. Her work gave such satisfaction that there was no 
opposition for three years, and she successfully plied the needle in 
Jackson for over 35 years. 

The first carpenter to settle in Jacksonburgh was John Wick- 
ham, who came to w T ork on the saw-mill of Bennett and Thompson, 
and then made it his home. A tannerv was established here in 


1830 by Major D. Mills and Christian Prusia, on the site where 
Gavin's brewery was afterward built, between Pearl and Clinton 
streets, near the old gas works and ashery. This enterprise was 
in advance of the wants of the settlement, and did not prove a suc- 
cess remuneratively. It was abandoned after a desperate struggle 
of two years or more, worthy of a better fate. 

Some time in the spring or summer of 1830 Horace Blackmail. 
Russell Blackman, William R. Thompson, Isaiah W. Bennett and 
Benjamin H. Packard surveyed, laid out and platted "A plan of 
the village of Jacksonburgh, by Jonathan F. Stratton, surveyor," 
and caused the same to be left for record at Ann Arbor, in the of- 
fice of the register of deeds for Washtenaw county, to which this 
county was attached for judicial and other purposes — Jackson 
county not having yet been organized. 

The original plat was lost, and no record made of it in that of- 
fice. In 1842 a copy, verified by the oath of Dr. B. II. Packard, 
was filed for record in the office of the register of deeds for Jack- 
son county. This document can be found on page COO of liber 10 
of deeds. 

This plat includes part of the northeast quarter of section three, 
town three south of range one west, and part of the southeast 
quarter of section thirty-four, town two south of range one west. 
That part of the city on this ground is built on lots as described by 
this plat, except that the public square at the junction of Main and 
Jackson streets has all been vacated except the northwest quarter, 
(in front of the Congregational church), and is now occupied by 
some of the most valuable blocks of buildings in -the city. Three 
blocks of stores (the best in the city), now stand on the front of 
three-fourths of what was the public square of the village of Jack- 


Oliver Whitmore, Bethuel Farrand and Jonathan F. Stratton 
were appointed commissioners ' ; to designate the county-seat ol 
the county of Jackson." In their report made March 30, 1830, 
they say: "A territorial road, called the St. Joseph's road, was last 
winter laid directly through the heart of the Peninsula. Where this 
road crosses the Grand river, about 70 miles west of Detroit, 
a flourishing village is commenced, and the proprietors are erect- 
ing mills. The road was opened last winter as far west as Grand 
river by a company of citizens of Ann Arbor, who, together with 
the commissioners, gave the village the name of Jacksonburgh. 
We speak confidently when we say, the State capital will be at 
Jacksonburgh. So sanguine were we, that we required the pro- 
prietors to appropriate 10 acres of land for the State-house square. 
Upon a commanding eminence near the upper part of this village. 


at a point sixty-two degrees six chains from the southwest corner 
of the southeast quarter of section thirty-tour, town two south of 
range one west, we have stuck the 'stake for the county-seat. 
The proprietors have given a court-house square, a public square, 
four meeting-house squares and one college square." 

This report is addressed to "Lewis Cass, Governor ot the Terri- 
tory of Michigan, " and signed by the commissioners. Gen. Cass 
approved their finding, and issued his proclamation declaring the 
village of Jaeksonbmgh to be the county-seat of Jackson county. 


< hi the 30th of July, 1830, "An act to incorporate tin- township 
of Jacksonopolis," passed by the Legislative Council of the Terri- 
tory, was approved by the Governor. By a subsequent act, ap- 
proved Feb. is, 1831, the name was changed to Jacksonburgh. 
This township, in the language of the act, embraced "all thatpartof 
the country being within the limits of the county < >f -I ackson." The 
township and county were one in extent until 1833, when the county 
was divided into four townships — Jacksonburgh, Spring Arboi 1 , 
Napoleon and Grass Lake. 

Section 2 of the act of July 30, 1830, provides "that the first 
township meeting to be held in said township shall be held at the 
dwelling-house of I. W. Bennett, in said township, on the third 
Tuesday of August, 1830." 

Section '.', provides that the officers elected " at said special town- 
ship meeting shall not hold their offices longer than the first Mon- 
day in April, 1831." 

William R. De Land was the first justice of the peace, he having 
been selected for that office at a public meeting held in October, 
1830, his commission bearing date the 8th of February, 1831, 
signed by Lewis ( ass as governor, and attested by John S". Mason 
as secretary of the Territory. Horace Blackmail was the first con- 
stable, he having been specially appointed by Justice De Land. 
They were officers for Washtenaw county, as Jackson county was 
not yet organized. 


Isaiah W. Bennett was the first postmaster. The mails came 
from Detroit once a week. On their arrival those for Jackson- 
opolis were sorted out ami placed by Mr. Bennett in a basket, 
there to remain until called for. When a letter arrived the news 
was at once spread through the settlements that so-and-so had on 
such a day a letter from home, and its contents soon became public 
property. It was so. at least, to all who came from the same 

The postoffiee was first kept in the log-house of Mr. Bennett, 
which stood on the south side of Main street, and on the east side 
of the public square. In 1834 Mr. Daniel Coleman succeeded Mr. 


Bennett as postmaster, and held the office until his death in 1836, 
when George B. Cooper was appointed. Mr. Cooper continued to 

hold the office until his resignation in lS4fi. 


There was one occurrence of the year 1830 which cannot be al- 
lowed to sink in the waters of oblivion, and that is the celebration 
of the Fourth of July, for this proves at how early a day the fires of 
patriotism were kindled in the breasts of the citizens of tins place, 
which have always glowed so fervently since. 

In this first effort Ann Arbor kindly came to our assistance. 
Mr. Isaiah W. Bennett had invited several of his friends living at 
Ann Arbor to visit him at his new location on Grand river, and 
judge for themselves of its importance. They determined to do so 
on Hie Fourth of July, and our enterprising settlers determined 
to make their visit memorable by uniting to celebrate their visit 
and our nation's birthday at the same time. Having timely notice, 
a committee of arrangements was appointed, consisting of Mr. 
"William R. De Land, Hiram Thompson and Anson Brown. About 
30 of the citizens of Ann Arbor arrived on the evening of July 
3, and were hospitably received. They came in with Hying ban- 
ners, marshaled by Mr. Anson Brown of the -'Committee of Ar- 
rangements." Among those in Lis train were Dr. Benjamin II. 
Packard, George Corselius, Colonel Jewett, Messrs. Ramsdell. 
Maynard, Allen, Clark, Dix, Wilcoxson, Cyrus Lovell, Messrs. 
Dix and Track, of Dixboro, and two young ladies, who came the 
entire distance, live miles east of Ann Arbor, on horseback, and 
others whose names are now lost, and thereby dropped from the 
roll of fame. 

A national salute was tired at sunrise. The ordnance used for 
that purpose was the anvil of Jbsephus Case, accompanied by all 
the rifles and muskets on the ground, and these were as many as 
there were men and boys capable of handling tire-arms; for at 'that 
day all had arms of some kind, and knew how to use them. Cap- 
tain A. Laverty was master of ordnance, and made it lively for the 
boys. What with the anvil, shooting at a mark, and miscellaneous 
firing, there was kept up during the day a lively fusillade. 

The order of proceedings was regular. The president of the day 
was Isaiah W. Bennett, Esq., assisted by Hiram Thompson, who 
discharged their duties in a manner satisfactory to all. Mr. George 
Mayo read the Declaration of Independence, and all agreed that it 
was well done. An able and interesting oration, appropriate to 
the time and place, was delivered by Gideon Wilcoxson, Esq., of 
Ann Arbor. Mr. John Durand was chaplain of the day; though 
not a minister of the gospel. Mr. Durand was a strict and conscien- 
tious member of the Methodist Church, and was known to be strong 
in prayer, lie opened the services on the hill, before the delivery 
of the oration, with prayer, and his fervent manner and evident 
sincerity caused his words, which were fitly spoken, to be very 


Mr. Horace Blackman was marshal of the day, and Lieutenant 
Edward Clark, of Ann Arbor, was assistant marshal. The manner 
in which the exercises were conducted, under their masterly order- 
ing, excited the admiration of every Pottawatomie who was so 
fortunate as to witness the procession, which, forming on the 
public square, marched to the brow of the hill near the south end 
of Jackson street, where the oration was delivered. 

The festivities of the day closed with a dinner prepared by Mr. 
and Mrs. Terry, who then kept the Bennett tavern, and was 
sen I'd in a bower built for that purpose south of the tavern. Tradi- 
tion has tailed to hand down to us the "bill of fare" of the good things 
with which the table was loaded on that occasion; neither have the 
toasts given, nor the responses made thereto, been handed down 
to us; hut we are assured that a happier set of people, or a "jollier 
lot of fellows" never met at the festive board. ( Iver 80 persons, 
all that could at one time be accommodated, sat down at the first 
table, and there was in attendance at this celebration every white 
person at that time within the limits of the county, and a large 
proportion of the Indians. Tin- latter joined most heartily in the 
celebration, although they did not understand exactly why they 
did so, or what it was for. 


From 20 to 30 buildings were erected in the summer and fall of 
1830, and settlements were made in the vicinity in several direc- 
tions. Farms were beginning to be opened up and cultivated. 
Some corn and other crops wen- raised, so that in the winter of 
1830'31 the pioneers had not to depend entirely upon having the 
means of livelihood brought from abroad. 

The first land cultivated in the county was by the Blackmails, 
on their purchase on the old Indian corn-field lying between 
Blackman creek and Ganson street. In the fall there were several 
fields sown to winter wheat. 

Our hardy settlers were industriously working to provide for 
their future wants, and particularly to save themselves from the 
long and fatiguing trips they were now obliged to make to Wash- 
tenaw county for their seed and bread. The little colonies in 
Jackson county could get no seed wheat or other grain at a less 
distance than Mill creek, and no wheat or other grain ground 
nearer than the mills on the same stream, at what is now Dexter. 

The crops raised this year, and the wheat harvested from this 
fall's sowing — the yield from which was very gratifying — were of 
great benefit to the little settlement. For hay they found a ready, 
abundant and excellent supply in the grasses on the marshes, 
which were on the borders of all the streams and lakes in the 
county. This was a most favorable circumstance for the pioneer, 
as it enabled him to feed his teams and winter his stock, it he was 
so fortunate as to have any, at an expense much less than he 
could otherwise have done. Mr. Blackman and his associates 


cut and secured over 80 tons of this hay the first summer they 
spent, in their new homes. 

The settlements after the first summer became in a great 
measure self-supplying, so far as they depended upon agricultural 
products, but for long years were under the necessity of taking 
those tedious and unprofitable trips to the grist-mill' at Dexter, 
which took up so much of their valuable time and was so exhaust- 
ing to their scant stock of ready money. 


The most of the teams owned by the pioneers were composed of 
oxen, as they were much the most serviceable in the clearing of 
the land necessary for improvements of any kind, and particularly 
in logging, in plowing among and removing stumps, and in build- 
ing the log and brush heaps preparatory to burning after the tim- 
ber had been cut down. They were also much better adapted 
than any other teams to the state of the roads, or rather to the en- 
tire want of any other road than the tracks made by those who 
had " gone before " on the same route, with no bridges across the 
streams, and no causeways across the marshes, with no more cer- 
tain guide from point to point than the blazes made on the trees to 
designate the route. With these teams our patient, frugal and in- 
dustrious pioneers were obliged to go from 20 to 30 miles for 
most of their provisions the first year, and for six years t< < get 

rund their little grists of wheat, corn or buckwheat. Mr. John 
Durand informs me that it always took him three days with his 
ox team to make the trip to the mills at Dexter. 

The first orchard set out in the county was planted by Mi-. A. W. 
Daniels, on his farm adjoining the now City of Jackson. Mr. 
Daniels, in September, 1830. came in and built a log house on his 
farm, on which he is now living. He brought witli him a yoke of 
cattle and a wagon loaded with provisions and farming implements. 
The trees for this orchard were sent him by his father. Mr. John 
Daniels, who had been here in 1829. 

When returning with his ox team from Detroit with his load of 
trees, his wagon got stuck in the low wet ground at the ford. at the 
crossing of Grand river at this place, and he was obliged to leave 
it until the next day, when he procured sufficient assistance to en- 
able him to get it out of the quagmire. 


TheTirst winter, that of L830-31, was the most trying of any 
our little settlement of Jacksonburgh had to endure. Food was 
scarce and prices high. There was but little money to spend 
among our settlers after they had paid for their lands, bought their 
teams and stock, built their log houses, and made such improve- 
ments as the scant time left after this was accomplished would 
allow. It was here that srreat benefit was derived from our red 


brethren. Notwithstanding the fact that the white man was dis- 
possessing them of their houses, their inheritance and their country, 
and that they were being exterminated by their Christian brethren, 
they in the innocence of their hearts acted toward the suffering 
white settlers, the part of the good Samaritan. The supplies of 
venison, game, maple sugar, berries and fish furnished .by "Poor 
Lo" were of the last importance to our pioneers during the long 
winter and the first of spring. No more welcome sight was looked 
for than to see a string of Indians approaching single tile with a 
lot of venison or wild turkeys hanging across their ponies, for this 
not only insured a replenishment ofthe stock of provisions, but 
also that it was to be done on very favorable terms, for of all 
classes of men the Indian has the least and poorest ideas of values, 
and our sharp, shrewd first settlers from New York and New Eng- 
land were not very scrupulous in their dealings with those upon 
whose goodwill they were so dependent. All kinds of provisions 
had become extremely scarce, and prices correspondingly high. 
Potatoes sold for twenty-five cents each. 

Some hogs brought' into the neighborhood had got into the 
woods and ran wild. They were not pleasant objects to meet if 
without firearms, and were really more dangerous than the wolves, 
bears, or any other ofthe wild beasts of our forests. They, how- 
ever, at this juncture, served a good turn, as in the vicinity of 
.lacksonburgh. always since skilled for her sharpshooters, they 
were systematically hunted, and salted down when there was 
enough ofthe pork to justify that process. There was plenty of shack 
in the woods, the hogs were not very plenty, so that they were 
generally in very good condition for the pot, to which they were 
as welcome as flowers in May. 

No pork or potatoes could" be bought nearer than Plymouth, in 
Wayne county, where those who were obliged to buy had to go, 
the trip taking up the better part of. if not an entire week. 

What with the Indians, wild hogs, and such other Bcant resour- 
ces as they could command, our little community passed safely, if 
not comfortably, through the winter, and though they were sub- 
jected to many' trials and suffered many hardships, yet they did 
not despond, but hailed the advent of spring as bringing with it 
not only a release from the cold and discomforts of winter, but 
also the genial warmth ofthe spring-time, which enabled them to 
prepare the ground for the seed-time, and gave them the hope ofa 
harvest which would, in a great measure, render them independ- 
ent of other sources of supply. 

During the winter the hardy and industrious ax men had 
chopped, logged, piled and burnt the brush on such fields as they 
intended to cultivate for spring crops. Frequently the. brush-heap 
was the work ofthe women" and children, so ready were all to 
help to get the homestead improved, and to aid in preparing for 
the expected crop. v 


Indians, fleas, wolves and bears were all so numerous as to be 
somewhat troublesome. The Indians and sand-hills were equally 
covered, if not filled, with fleas, and the latter added not a little t< > 
the annoyance and discomfort of our first settlers. 

The bears and wolves were also the cause of much annoyance. 
They would prowl around the dwellings in the night time, and 
most of the housewives of those days insisted that they had seen 
them at their windows peering in with ferocious looks, as if they 
were desirous of gratifying their appetite at the expense of some 
of the smaller or weaker members of the family. We have no rec- 
ord that any such deplorable event occurred, though many hair- 
breadth escapes are related of women and children in passing after 
dark from house to house. 

We have now passed the year 1830, the first year of our infant 
settlement, and shall proceed more rapidly, as did the growth of 
the village. The first year is essentially the year of the pioneer, 
and deserves to be treated more particularly and more at length 
than any other. No incident is too trivial or too unimportant to 
narrate, if it in any manner illustrates the ways, manners or 
mode of living of those who first made their homes in the wilder- 
ness, for such at that time was almost the entire of the interior of 

The first quarterly meeting held in Jacksonburgh by the Epis- 
copal Methodist Church was on the 14th and 15th of April, 1832, 
and met in the new log house of Bennett and Thompson, the sec- 
ond house built in the place. At this pioneer meeting there was 
made a pioneer convert who made a confession of faith, and was 
received into the bosom of the Church. 

Soon after the conference adjourned, the Rev. Joseph H. Smith, 
of the same Church, came herefrom Canada, and established a 
Sabbath-school and Bible class; but in 1832 both were discontinued, 
owing, as some said, to the Black Hawk war. and others to the 
sickness in the settlement. 


Ill the spring of 1831, Dr. Oliver Russ built a log house on the 
east side of the river and on the north side of Ganson street, for 
his brother, Mr. Nathan Russ, who came here with his family that 

As illustrating the state of the streets, or rather the want ot 
them, and also the energy and determination of Dr. Russ, the fact 
may be stated that the boards for the doors and casings of this 
house were carried by the Doctor on his back from Bennett's saw- 
mill, over a mile in distance, crossing the river on the log bridge 
at Main street. The memory of Dr. Oliver Russ is highly treas- 
ured by all the old citizens of Jackson. Xo man has left behind 
him more pleasing recollections, for he was one of that original 


type of men who invested the veriest trifles with interest by his 
manner of treating them. He was brusque but very kind-hearted 
and but few men lived in Jacksi >n who would put themselves 
to as much trouble and inconvenience to perform an act of real 
charity. Of this he gave a remarkable proof by going to, and re- 
turning from Marshall on foot in 1832. where there were several 
cases of cholera. His professional services being necessary, he, 
without hesitation, set out on foot to traverse the then thinly set- 
tled country, alive only to the sense of duty, and without thought 
of anything but to do it. The question of compensation was never 
allowed to interfere with his actions in the practice of his profes- 

The county ol Jackson and township of Jacksonburgh were at- 
tached to "Washtenaw county for judicial purposes. The first town- 
ship meeting for the election of officers was appointed to be held 
at the house of Wm. R. Thompson, on the 4th of April, 1831. 
Each officer was to be voted for by ballot until a choice was made, 
and then the next in rotation, until all were in this manner elected. 
LTnder the territorial laws, the meeting was called to order on the 
morning of the 4th day of April, by Win. R. DeLand, Esq., acting 
in his capacity as justice of the peace, and then proceeded to elect 
Alexander Laverty moderator, and Hiram Thompson clerk, who, 
having taken and subscribed the necessary oath of office, constituted 
the necessary board of election. Proclamation was then made that 
notice of said election had been duly given, and that the polls of 
the election were then open for the reception of ballots. The office 
of supervisor was the first in order, and there were 31 votes cast. 
Here we have in township and county, which in extent are one, 31 
votes cast at an election which was likely to call out every voter. 

After the election there were adopted by the meeting some munic- 
ipal by-laws, which had been prepared, for paying bounty on wolf 
scalps, and for the regulation of cattle running at large, after which 
the meeting adjourned, well satisfied with now having a local gov- 
ernment of their own. 

The common council of the city of Jackson are not in such fear 
of wolves as to cause them to offer rewards for their scalps, but 
with them there is no more troublesome question than that of re- 
straining cattle from running at large in the streets, and when the 
average alderman votes on the question, he is inclined to vote for 
the largest liberty, having in his mind the otherwise indignant 
voter who at the next election would most likely go for his political 
scalp, if he did not even value it sufficiently to offer a reward for it, 
as did our worthy pioneers for that of the wolf. 

Of the township officers the most onerous duties fell tipon the 
road commissioners, as the territorial road was the only laid out 
and surveyed road in the township. All the work heretofore done 


had been voluntary, and generally only such as to prevent the worst 
places from becoming impassable. 

Mr. John T. Durand surveyed a road which was laid out leading 
from Jackson to Spring Arbor, and this was the first road estab- 
lished by the townshi] > authorities. The services of Mr. Durand, 
who was a practical surveyor, were now in frequent requisition, and 
under his supervision the following roads were laid out and estab- 
lished: Blackmail's, Buss, Durand, Austin, Woodworth, Vallen- 
tine's, Washtenaw, and 10 miles, 52.40 chains of the Jacksonburgh 
and Clinton road. 

In 1831 W. R. Thompson and I. W. Bennett divided their real 
estate, Bennett taking the east and Thompson part of the village 
property. This gave Bennett the saw-mill and water-power, one- 
half of which he sold to Jeremiah Marvin in February, 1832, and 
soon after the other half was sold to Rodney House. 

Mr. Marvin came to Jacksonburgh in the fall of 1831 with two 
yoke of cattle, wagon, bed and cross-cut saw. lie came from Mon- 
roe, and had to cut a road for his wagon through the Saline woods. 
His trip from the "mouth of the Raisin" to Jacksonburgh was a 
most tedious and laborious one. Mr. Marvin commenced running 
the saw-mill soon after his arrival here, and " Jerry Marvin's mill," 
being the only one west of Mill creek in Washtenaw county, became 
widely and favorably known in all the adjacent settlements. 

In the summer ot 1832 Mr. Marvin bought of Mr. House his 
interest in the property, and continued sole owner and manager 
until 1835, when he sold his mill and water-power to William and 
Jerry Ford. Since this time Mr. Marvin has been engaged in 
farming. A portion of his farm is within the city limits, and he is 
now living on it, working with the same energy and untiring in- 
dustry as 47 years ago when turning out lumber for the 
first settlers in the county to make themselves homes. There was 
also a saw-mill built by Mr. Ketchum in 1832, on the east side of 
the river, nearly opposite Marvin's mill. 

schools, ETC. 

The first school taught in Jackson was a private one, kept in the 
house of Lemuel Blackmail, taught in the summer of 1831 by his 
daughter, Miss Silence D. Blackman, principally for the instruction 
of her brothers, but open, as a matter of course, after the generous 
fashion of those days, to all the children in the settlement. Be- 
sides her brothers Levi, Francis and George Blackman, there were 
Harvey and Emma Thompson, children of William R. Thompson, 
Sarah Thompson, daughter of Hiram Thompson, Mary Ann 
Semantha De Land, daughter of Win. R. De Land, and a son of 
Josephus Case. 

The teaching of Miss Blackman gave universal satisfaction, and 
it was a source of much congratulation that the infant settlement 
should so soon have a good school. Miss Blackman was persuaded 
to continue her school the next year, when she had an additional 


number of scholars, the school being kept in the house of Mr. E. 
B. Chapman, and afterward in a building that had been occupied 
as a store. There were about 30 scholars in attendance at the close 
of the third term of her school. This was the pioneer school for 
•Jackson city and county. 

Lemuel Wbolsey, a chair-maker and turner, settled here in 1831, 
established himself in that business, and about the same time 
Samuel Kline made a welcome addition to the business of the settle- 
ment by opening a cabinet shop. This business was afterward 
conducted by John Penson, who had become a resident, but 
was more permanently established by Myron Collamer in 1834, 
who extended the business quite largely, and continued in it for 
over 35 years. A wagon and general repairing shop was opened 
by Mr. Hiram Godfrey in 1831. The first public school was estab- 
lished in the fall of 1832, on lot 11, block 1 south, range 1 east, on 
Main street. A boot and shoe store was established here in 1831 
by William D. Thompson. 

In the springof 1831, William D. Thompson, a lad of 12 years 
of age, son of William R. Thompson, was killed by being struck 
with a limb of a tree which was chopped down on the grounds near 
the Blackmail House. This was the iirst death, and that fact, 
coupled with the manner of it, and the narrow escape of several 
others who were standing near him, caused it to cast a more than 
ordinary gloom over the little settlement. 

There being then no minister of the gospel in the county, 
the funeral services were conducted by Mr. Samuel Roberts, an 
exhorter and a member of the Methodist Church, living in Sand- 
stone, some four miles west of Jackson. 

James Valentine was one of the earliest settlers in Jacksonburgh. 
He was chosen a school inspector at an election held April 4, 1831, 
and was the first judge of probate elected in the county, serving 
from 1833 to 1836. 

William D. Thompson came to Jackson in 1831. In the fall of 
1831 he opened a boot and shoe store, the first of the kind in 
Jacksonburgh. In 1834 he built and occupied a store on the south 
side of Main street, just east of the public square. In 1838 he 
sold his stock in trade to Walter Fish, and entered into partner- 
ship with George B. Cooper, who was doing a general mercantile 
business. He was elected county clerk, and served for the years 
1836-'7. He was one of the School Board in 1837. 

In 1841, upon the completion of the Michigan Central railroad 
to Jackson, Mr. Thompson was appointed freight agent, and con- 
tinued on the road for a period of ten years. 

In 1851 he became a partner of George B. Cooper in the bank- 
ing business, and as a member of the firm of Cooper & Thompson, 
and Cooper, Thompson & Co., and as president of the Jackson 
City Bank; he has, up to the present time, been the leading banker 


in Jackson. Mr. Thompson is now understood to be the sole pro- 

Jrietor of the Jackson City Bank. He is also treasurer of the 
ackson, Lansing & Saginaw railroad, and has acted in that ca- 
pacity since the organization of the company. 

In 1831 Amasa B. Gibson, Esq.. settled in that part <>f the town- 
ship of Jacksonburgh now in Spring Arbor. In 1834 Mr. Gibson 
removed with his family to the village of Jacksonburgh, and asso- 
ciated himself with Daniel Coleman and George B. Cooper in the 
mercantile business, which at that time meant a general stock 
of goods, comprising groceries, dry -goods, hardware, crockery. 
all kinds of country produce, and every other conceivable article 
which an Indian or inhabitant of either village or county would be 
expected to call for. There was at this time but one other store in 
the village, that of Messrs. Dwight, which was of the same gen- 
eral character. 

From this time to the day of his death Mr. Gibson was one of 
the most active and most highly esteemed citizens of Jackson, till- 
ing many offices of public trust, and always with credit to himself 
and to the entire satisfaction of his constituents. He was sheriff 
of the county from 1835 to 1838, and in l s :'>7 was also superintend- 
ent, having charge of the building of the court-house and clerk's 
office, the construction of which was commenced this year. In 
1838, Mr. Gibson was cashier of the Detroit & St. Joseph Eailroad 
Bank, which was located on the east Bide of the river. After Jack- 
son had attained sufficient importance to have a city organization. 
Mr. Gibson was three times elected mayor, and is the only person 
who has been so honored in our twenty years' existence as a city. 

In 1831, a Government contract was let for carrying the mails for 
three years west from Jackson to Marshall, Gull Prairie, Prairie 
Ronde and White Pigeon, there to connect with the Western mail 
on what was then known as the Chicago road. This mail was to 
be carried once a week, on foot or on horseback, as the state of the 
streams and want of roads made it most convenient for the con- 
tractor. The size of the mail at first was not such as to 
prevent him from carrying it in his hat or pockets, and it was 
usual for the mail-carrier to deliver letters to settlers on the route 
when they were at a distance from the postoffice, without subject- 
ing them to the delay and loss of time which would have followed 
had they been passed through that intermediary. 

( )ur hardy pioneers were more wedded to the substance than 
the form, and made even the laws, rules and regulations of the 
postoffice department (ordinarly so inexorable), lose somewhat of 
their inflexibility for their necessities. 

This mail was carried by Mr. Darling, who lived on Neal's 
prairie, in Calhoun county. 

In 1832 this route had' attained sufficient importance to require 
that the mail should be carried in a covered wagon. Mr. Darling 


was succeeded by Mr. Lewis Barnes, of Gull Prairie, and the route 
was made to include Kalamazoo, where a postoffice was established 
on the 14th of July, 1832. This was the first conveyance for pas- 
sengers from Jackson west, and was a very primitive affair. 
Strength being an element of much greater importance than 
beauty, to the passenger as well as to the contractor, the state of 
the roads, or rather the want of mads, and particularly of bridges, 
and the spareness of settlements being such as to make it of the 
last importance that there should be no hrmh-down — for such was 
the distance in many places from house to house, that had any such 
unlucky accident have happened, the chances were that the unhappy 
traveler wonld have to walk sonic miles before he could find a 
house to shelter him, if he did not have to pass a night under a 
free, or the more comfortable shelter of his wagon-bed. 


In 1836 the Legislature of the now State of Michigan passed an 
act authorizing the county to borrow $10,000 for the purpose of 
erecting a court-house and county clerk's office. The court-house 
was on the public square, on the south side of Main street and on 
the west side of Jackson street; the clerk's office was on the north 
side of Main street, and opposite the court-house. Both buildings 
were of stone, and were supposed to be erected for all time. Mr. 
A. B. Gibson, the then sheriff, was superintendent, having charge 
of the work. David Porter had the contract for doing the mason 
work, and Lemuel House for the carpenter work. Both were built 
in the year 1837. 


In 1836 Messrs. Ganson, Clark and Monroe built the furnace 
and machine shop between the race and the river, and commenced 
the manufacture of plows, and the making of such other castings 
as the business of the country required. This building is still 
standing and occupied for like purposes. 

The first frame building erected on the east side of the river 
was the store built by Mr. William Ford, in which a stock of 
goods was placed by Ford & Budington. Two other frame build- 
ings, both of which are still standing, were built on Main street, on 
the east side, in 1836. The Grand River House, on the corner of 
Main and Milwaukee streets, was also built this year by Mr. An- 
drew Shaver, who had just decided to make this place his home, 
and who joined Mr. Fifield in building this house for the accom- 
modation of boarders, they being principally those employed by 
the Messrs. Ford in building the flouring mill, the store and mak- 
ing other improvements. This house was opened as a hotel in 
1838, is still standing, and though not as prominent as of yore, 
has up to this time always been kept as a public house. 

The east side was making such rapid and satisfactory progress 
in 1836 that the denizens of that locality determined to celebrate 


the 4th of July in that part of the village and proceeded to erect a 
"liberty pole," in front of the Grand Kiver House. They care- 
lessly placed the butt of their pole in a hollow stump. After the 
pole was raised the halyards became fast at the top; Daniel Cha- 
pin climbed the pole to adjust the halyards, when the stump. 
which proved to be rotton, gave way. unci precipitated the pole to 
the ground. Mr. Chapin was in the act of adjusting the rope 
when the pole fell, and was so seriously injured that he soon after 
died. This sad accident turned into a day of grief and mourning 
what had promised to be one of enjoyment, and cast a deep gloom 
over the village, but particularly over the energetic little settle- 
ment on the east side of the river. 

MoJfK I'H.MJ.i;- 

ThomasMcGee came into Michigan in 1832; settled in Concord, 
was always a prominent citizen of the county and was elected 
judge of probate, serving from 1856 to 1860. With him came his 
son Melville, who became a resident of Jackson as a student at law 
in 1851. He has since continued the practice of his profession, 
and has been elected judge of probate for three successive terms. 
serving from 1864 to 1876. 

Cornelius Sammons settled in the township of Jaeksonburgh. 
now Blackmail, in 1S32. His son, Jacob F. Sammons, who came 
with him, is now a resident of the city, actively engaged in busi- 
ness. Helms served four years as justice of the peace. 

James McKee came to Michigan in 1832; settled in Jackson- 
burgh, and is now a resident of the city. 

John McConnell became a resident of the township of Jackson- 
burgh in 1833. His son, Oscar H. McConnell, came with him. 
He has for many years been engaged in the hardware business in 
the city, and is highly respected as an active, industrious and 
honest man. 

John N. Dwight came to Jackson in 1833. His brother, Daniel 
Dwight, had bought of Mr. Hogan his small stock of goods and 
kept store on the north side of the public square. Mr." John N. 
Dwight bought out his brother, and soon after associated himself 
with his cousin. David F. Dwight. Mr. Dwight was in the mer- 
cantile business in company with his cousin, without a partner, 
and as one of the firm of Loomis & Dwight, for a period covering 
nearly twenty years. While in company with Mr. Loomis they 
purchased the Kennedy Steam Flouring Mills. Mr. Dwight subse- 
quently sold his interest to Mr. Loomis. Mr. Dwight was elected 
justice of the peace in April, 1836. He was candidate for register 
of deeds in November. \s; J ,C>. and was elected county treasurer in 
1839, and re-elected in 1840. He continued to reside in Jackson 
to the time of his death. There was among the pioneers of Jack- 
son no more pleasant, genial gentleman than John N\ Dwight. 

Daniel B. Hibbard came to Jackson in 1835. He became 
interested almost immediately in the stage lines and mail routes 

tilSTOm OF .IAI KM.N c (.1 VI ^ . 

diverging from Jackson, and was for many years the principal 
mail contractor and stage proprietor for the Grand River valley. 
In 1S3S Mr. Hibbard and Paul B. Ring were proprietors ot a 
line of stages running from Jackson to Adrian. After the capital 
was located at Lansing, "Hibbard's stage line" was the main 
reliance for getting to that point from all places in the two 
southern tiers of counties, including Detroit, until the completion 
of the Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw railroad in 1866. Mr. 
Hibbard lias always been, as In- still is. one of the most active 
business men of Jackson. There are but few enterprises of im- 
portance in or to the city that have been carried to success in 
which he has not been interested. He was one of the first to 
engage in the building of the Jackson. Lansing & Saginaw 
railroad, and. was for several years one of its directors. He was 
one of the projectors of the Jackson Foundry ami Machine Shops on 
Mechanic street, and has always been largely interested in them, 
and is now one of the principal proprietors, lie was also largely 
interested in the Jackson Rolling Mills, which is one of the very 
few enterprises in which he has engaged which did not prove 

The "Hibbard House," which was for mam years the leading 
hotel in the city, and still ranks among the first in the State. 
was built by Mr. Hibbard and owned by him until sold to II. A. 
llayden in lsTT. It stands an enduring monument of his enter- 
prise and public spirit. Mr. Hibbard has always manifested great 
interest in the improvement of the stock of horses in Central 
Michigan, and has been the owner of some of the best stock 
and carriage horses in the State. He has always dealt largely 
in horses, and during the war was perhaps the largest contractor 
in the State for supplying horses to the Government. Mr. Hibbard 
is a member of the Horse-breeders' Association, one of the most 
successful, if not the only successful, association for trotting 
horses in the State. He was elected mayor of the city in 1865. 
He was one of the principal stock-holders in the organization 
of the People's National Bank, was vice-president, and still retains 
his interest. Mr. Hibbard has been very successful in the accum- 
ulation of property, and is one of the largest holders of real estate 
in the city. 

Joshua Palmer came to Jacksonburgh in 1S35, and engaged in 
business as a blacksmith. He was a very skillful workman. He 
worked many years at his trade, and acquired a competence by his 
industry and frugality. Mr. Palmer has always stood high in the 
estimation of his fellow-citizens as an honest and upright man. 
In 1837 his brother, Dan R. Palmer, became his partner. His 
son, William H. Palmer, is now a practicing physician in the city. 

Henry H. Vandercook came in the same year, and was for 
many years proprietor and manager of the "Jackson Furnace,'' 
near Ford's mill. He also built the flouring mill south of Jack- 
son, still known as Vandercook's mill. 


Erastus Chaplain, John Rodger and Wesley Jenkins became 
residents of Jacksoiiburgh in 1836, and worked in and on Ford's 

Hiram II. Smith settled in Jackson county in L835, but removed 
to Ingham county, and resided at Mason and Lansing until 1864, 
when he removed to the city of Jackson, where he has since 
resided. While in Ingham county he was elected treasurer, 
county clerk, member of the Legislature, and mayor of Lansing. 
Mr. Smith was engaged in the mercantile business, both in Mason 
and Lansing. At Lansing he built the first flouring mill, and 
carried on successfully both the milling and mercantile business. 
He built, in 1851 and 1852, the plank road from Lansing to 
Howell. In 1863 Mr. Smith engaged in railroad enterprises, and 
was successfully connected with the Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw, 
the Fort Wayne, Jackson ec Saginaw, the Detroit, Lansing & 
Lake Michigan, and the Detroit & Bay City railroads. In the 
construction of all these roads he rendered the most efficient and 
valuable aid. Mr. Smith was vice-president and managing director 
of the first, and president of the second and third named mads. 
The last named he built in 1872. Mr. Smith is a man of great 
energy of character, and highly respected by all witli whom he 
associates, either in business or socially. 

Paul B. King came to Jackson in 1835, kept hotel in 1836, was 
president of the Jackson County Bank in 1837, and for many 
years a prominent stage proprietor and mail contractor. Joseph 
C. Bailey became a resident of Jackson in 1835. In 1836 he was 
elected register of deeds for Jackson county. He was also elected 
justice of the peace and continued for several years an active and 
useful member of community. Lewis Bascomb came here in 1835, 
built and kept for many years "Bascomb's Hotel." Mr. Bascomb 
always occupied a high place in the estimation of his fellow 
citizens. He served for three years as one of the inspectors of the 
State's prison, and died in 1869'! In 1831 Lewis D. Welling and S. 
S. Welling settled in Tecumseh. In 1837 they removed to and are 
still living in Jackson. L. D. Welling was elected sheriff in 1846 
and 1848, and has served for many years as justice of the 
peace. Marvin Dorrill, David Markham and Frank Standish 
came to Michigan in 1835, and are still among our most active 
and useful citizens. 

Dr. Backus came to Jackson in September, 1836. He at once 
decided to make it his home, brought his family and commenced 
the practice of his profession. Dr. Backus brought with him a 
high reputation as an allopathic physician; he continued in prac- 
tice up to his final sickness, and it is not too much to say that he 
stood in the front rank of his profession, not only in Jackson, but 
also in the State. The standing of Dr. Backus as a citizen was 
equal to his reputation as a physician, and of this he received 
many proofs. He was a member and officer of St. Paul's (Episco- 
pal) Church from the date of its organization to the day of his 
death. He served for three years as an inspector of the State's 


prison, and one term (1859) in the Senate of the State. Dr. 
backus died in 1865. 

B. F. Eggleston came to Jacksonburg July 7, 1836, and at once 
commenced working at his trade as a tailor. In 18-19 he formed 
a copartnership with Wm. Aldrich and opened a merchant 
tailoring establishment. He has continued in that business to the 
present' time. In 1854- he purchased the -tore in which lie then 
was and now occupies. Mr. Eggleston ha- always maintained an 
honorable position as a business man. and has uniformly been one 
of the most active of our citizens in all works of charity or benevo- 
lence, as well as in all measures tending to forward the growth ot 
the town. 

Silas W. Stowell was another acquisition to the business men of 
Jackson in 1836, he at that time moving here with his family, and 
opening a grocery store on the south side of the public square. In 
1837 he was one of the firm of Stowell A: Collier, in the same 
branch of business. In 1838 he took the contract to build the 
west wing of the State's prison and the keeper's house. In order to 
be nearer his work Mr. Stowell built a store in the then entirely 
new part of the town, near the prison, into which he moved his 
stock of groceries. For the first two years after convicts were re- 
ceived their rations were furnished under contracts by Mr. 

In company with Stephen Monroe, in 1840, Mr. Stowell built a 
furnace and machine shop on the south side of Main street, on the 
lot next east from the Methodist Church, where they continued in 
business for two years, when they sold the property to Alonzo 
Bennett and Geo. B. Cooper. From this time for several years 
he was actively employed in the interests of the Jackson County 
Mutual Insurance Company, then doing a large and successful 
business in Illinois and Michigan. Mr. Stowell was engaged iu 
the mercantile business from 1854 to 1803. He has always been 
an active, energetic business man, and has done all in his power to 
promote the prosperity of Jackson. He has built quite exten- 
sively in all parts of the town, both stores and houses. Mr. 
Stowell, though some years past the three score years and ten al- 
loted to man, is still as hale and hearty and active as most men 
when they have attained to half a century. His genial and pleas- 
ant countenance is seen daily upon our streets. 

Chester Yale came to Jackson in 1836 and commenced business 
by opening a tin-shop, the first in the place. Mr. Yale continued 
the business for several years, and was a man highly respected 
for his upright character and habits of industry. 

Mr. Alonzo Bennett came to Jackson in 1836. In L837 he 
formed a copartnership with his brother, .Mien Bennett, who 
came here that year, and they commenced business as merchants, 
having bought out Ceo. B.' (Viper & Co. They continued iu 
business for two years. 

In 1S40 Mr. Bennett and Mr. Geo. B. Cooper entered into co- 
partnership and built an iron foundry. On the completion of the 


Central railroad in 1842 Mr. Bennett, in company with Mr. 
Sacket, commenced the storage and warehouse business in a 
building which Mr. Bennett had erected on the side-track near the 
depot. He bought the furnace of Monroe & Stowell, and was very 
successful m business in company with Mr. Oliver C. Mosher, un- 
til the latter was killed by being caught in the machinery, after 
which the business was conducted by Mr. Bennett until disposed 
of by him to his son. Mr. Bennett has always been one of the 
active business men of Jackson, and has at various times built 
both stores and houses in different parts of the city. He is quite a 
large holder of real estate, and is now president of the First 
National Bank. 

Allen Bennett, Sr., came to Jackson in 1837, and engaged in 
the mercantile business] but soon sold out to his sons, Alonzo and 
Allen. Mr. Bennett continued to reside in Jackson until his 

Mr. Allen Bennett came to Jackson in May, L837, and en- 
gaged with his brother in the mercantile business until 1839, 
when they dissolved, Allen taking the stock and moving to a 
store on the north side of Main street, afterward so long occupied 
by Patton Morrison's grocery, and yet known as his place. In 
1842 John Sumner bought an interest in his business, and they re- 
moved to the stone block built by Joseph G. R. Blaekwell in 1839 
on the north side of the public square, where they continued until 
1851, when Mr. Sumner died. Mr. Bennett then moved into 
what is now known as the Bennett block, which he had purchased 
that year of M. B. and .1. W. Medbury, by whom it was built, and 
here Mr. Bennett continued the mercantile business until 1859. In 
1857 Mr. Bennett engaged with Mr. Hubbell in the cabinet busi- 
ness in a shop built by him on Luther street. In 1860 he took the 
business into his own hands, but soon after sold out to Mr. Henry 
Gilbert, of Kalamazoo, who had taken a contract at the State's 
prison for the manufacture of furniture. Mr. Bennett now com- 
menced the manufacture of doors, blinds and Bash, in connection 
with a lumber yard, and built a large factory on the northeast 
corner of Jackson and Van Buren streets. The sash factory was 
operated by Mr. Silas Eyser until 1857, and since 'then has been 
in the hands of Mr. Bennett's son Charles. The lumber yard has 
been conducted b\ Mr. DeWitt Woods, a partner of Mr. Bennett, 
and the business is still continued. Mr. Bennett is one of the 
firm of Bennett, Knickerbocker & Co., the proprietors of the 
•• City Steam Flouring mills," one of the best arranged and most ex- 
tensive mills in the State, built in 1866. He, with the same 
company, own and operate the stone mills at Albion. lie is also 
engaged in manufacturing extensively the " Robbin's cultivator," 
in which husine-s he has associated with him his son George. 
Mr. Bennett has been one of the most active and successful busi- 
ness men in Jackson. He has been for several years engaged in 
banking, and is now vice-president of the First National Bank, 
and owns some of the most valuable real estate in the city. 


Albert Foster came to Jackson in 1837, and went to work as a 
blacksmith and machinist, at which he has continued to labor in- 
dustriously to the (.resent time, except that the last few years he 
has given the most of his attention to the sale of agricultural im- 
plements, particularly mowing machines and buggy rakes. 

Myriek 0. Ho ugh commenced the practice of the law in Jackson 
in 1837. Jesse Williams was then working at his trade — a car- 

William II. Munroe came to .Jackson in January, 1837. His 
nephew. Nelson Munroe, came with him. They soon after bought 
the stock in trade of Geo. B. Cooper & Co., and subsequently sold 
out to Mr. Gilbert. W. II. Munroe was one of the proprietors oi 
the Jackson Furnace. In 1838 he bought the "Jackson Exchange" 
hotel of Paul B. Ring, and kept it as a public house for many years. 

Dr. John McLean was a practicing physician in Jackson in 1837, 
and his familiar form is still seen upon our streets. 

At the April term of the Circuit Court in 1838, David Johnson 
was admitted to the practice of the law, the committee to examine 
him being George Miles. Peter Morey and Phineas Farrand. 
Judge Johnson had now made Jackson his place of residence, and 
entered at once upon the practice of his profession, and soon at- 
tained a reputation that placed him on a level with the ablest law- 
yers of the State. He was elected school inspector in 1839; was 
candidate for senator in 1839; was prosecuting attorney from L843 
to 1845; was member of the House i„ the Legislature of Michigan 
in 1845, and again in 1*47; was elected circuit judge under "the 
old constitution in 1851, and served six years, being also one of 
the judges of the Supreme Court, which was composed of the cir- 
cuit judges. He was the Democratic candidate for judge of the 
Supreme Court in 1857. Judge Johnson, on retiring from the Bench, 
entered again upon the practice of the law, in which he is still ac- 
tively engaged, being now the senior member of the Bar in Jackson. 

Edward Higby was admitted to practice law at the October term 
of the Circuit Court in 1838, the examining committee being David 
Johnson, A. Wright Gordon and A. L. Millard. 

Mr. Buck made Jackson his home in 1839. He was for many 
years engaged in the mercantile business on the east side of the 
river, first with Wm. Ford, Jr., and subsequently with Henry 
Vandercook. Mr. Buck was elected mayor in 1867, and again in 
1868. He is now an acting justice of the peace, having been four 
times elected. He has also been for many years supervisor or 
town clerk, and has for most of the time for 31 years been a 
member of the School Board in the district in which he lives. Mr. 
Buck has, in all the relations of life, maintained a character above 

Walter Budington came to Michigan and settled in Jackson in 
1836. He engaged in 1838 in the mercantile business with B. W. 
Rockwell. He was cashier of the Detroit & St. Joseph Railroad 
Bank. Mr. Budington was one of the most public spirited ot 
the pioneers of Jackson, and was for many years of his life con- 


nected with its interests by holding offices of more usefulness than 
profit. He was for many years a member of the School Board in 
district No. 17. He was also several times elected supervisor, also 
town clerk; was county clerk from 1848 to 1852, and city treasurer 
in 1863-'5. 

Henry A. Hayden come to Michigan in ls?,T and made Jackson 
his home in 1838. He was in the employ of the Michigan Central 
railroad as civil engineer, superintendent of repairs and paymaster 
until 1842. He bought the Vandercook mills soon after Leaving 
the road, and engaged in the manufacture of flour. In 1851 he 
and Wiley R. Reynolds bought the old Ford mills and water-power. 
In 185;> they also bought of P. B. Loomis the steam flouring mill 
east of Mechanic street. Messrs. Hayden it Reynolds are 
still operating these mills, which can make 100,000 barrels 
of flour per year. Mr. Hayden has been a member of the 
vestry of St. Paul's Church since its organization, and is now one 
of the wardens. He was chief engineer of the fire department in 
1861- '2. He was elected member of the House of Representatives. 
Michigan Legislature, in 1 862, and was mayor of the city in 1874-'5. 

Samuel lligby became a resident of Jackson in 1839, and the 
same year was admitted to the practice of his profession in the 
courts of this State. Mr. Higby at once took a high stand among 
the citizens of Jackson, not only as a lawyer, but in all the rela- 
tions of life. A consistent member of the Episcopal Church, he 
stood forth to the day of his death a bright example, to the Church 
and to the world, of the life of a Christian gentleman. The prac- 
tice of Mr. Higby was not that of an advocate, hut as counsel and 
in chancery practice it is no disparagement to the Bar of .lackson 
to say that he stood at its head. As a counselor he was sought, 
not only in intricate legal cases, but in many others of great im- 
portance, and all parties interested were perfectly certain that his 
decision would lie the impartial conclusion of his judgment. Iu 
1843 Mr. Higby was elected recorder of the village, and in 1856 
he was elected its president, being the last to hold that office. Mr. 
Higby in 1869 was elected judge of the fourth judicial circuit, but 
resigned after serving three years and resumed the practice of his 
profession, in which he was actively engaged when he was struck 
with the hand of death on the 12th of May. 1876, while in the 
office of the county clerk in the performance of his duty. Mr. 
Higby was a member of the vestry of St. Paul's Church from the 
time of its organization to the close of his life, and for many years 
was one of its wardens. Of Judge Higby it could most truly be 
said that he was an honest man. the noblest work of God. 

Benjamin M. Rockwell and William Hudson came here in L837, 
and after 41 years of industry are both living in the enjoy- 
ment of that respect and esteem to which they are entitled by lives 
of usefulness. 

Fidus Livermore came to Jackson in May. 1839, and was ad- 
mitted to the practice of the law the same year. He at once took 
a stand among the leading members of the Bar, and has to the 


present time continued in the practice of his profession. In that, 
as in all other relations of lite, Mr. Livermore has always been 
regarded as one of the leading citizens of Jackson. Mr. Liver- 
more was elected township treasurer in 1840, to the House of Rep- 
resentative of the Legislature of Michigan in 1S42, and again in 
1843; was appointed prosecuting attorney in 1846 by Gov. Felch, 
and in lsl.^ by Gov. Ransom. He was elected prosecuting attor- 
ney in lsf)4, and was Democratic candidate forjudge of probate in 
1858. Mr. Livermore was nominated for representative in Con- 

S-ess in 1874, and again in 1876, and though unsuccessful, as the 
emocratic party was largely in the minority, yet lie always ran 
ahead of his ticket in Jackson county, thus proving the high 
esteem in which he was held by those who had Longest and best 
known him. 

Phineas Farrand became a citizen of Jackson in 1836. He was 
a lawyer and continued a resident of Jackson in the active practice 
oi his profession until his death. ' In 1836 he was candidate for 
representative in the Legislature at both the special and general 
elections, and was prosecuting attorney for the county from 1843 
to 1845. In 1838 lie became a member of the firm of Farrand. 
Johnson A: Higby. 

Fairchild Farrand practiced law in Jackson from Ins admission 
to the Bar of the county to his death in 1877. He came to Jackson 
in 1837. Mr. Farrand was county clerk from 1840 to 1842, and 
president of the village in 1855. 

Levi P. Gregg settled in Jackson in 1838, and immediately com- 
menced work at his trade as a tailor. He soon formed a partner- 
ship with B. F. Eggleston and opened a tailoring establishment. 
He followed his trade until 1851, when he was elected register of 
deeds and was re-elected in 1853. Mr. Gregg invested largely in 
boring for salt in the first and deepest artesian well ever sunk in 
Jackson. He was also much more largely interested in boring for 
petroleum oil at Petrolia, Canada. Both of these investments 
were unremunerative, and by the latter Mr. Gregg was a heavy 
loser. He has for many years been engaged in the baking busi- 
ness, and has had an eating-house as well as bakery. Mr. < i regg 
is still as active as when he came to Jackson, more than forty 
years ago. 

Benjamin Porter came to Jackson, and was one of the commis- 
sioners to superintend the building of the State's prison in 1838. 
The work on the west wing and keeper's house was under the im- 
mediate supervision of Mr. Porter. In 1847 he built the State 
capital at Lansing, in which the "State Pioneer Society" is now as- 
sembled. Mr. Porter was actively engaged in contracting and 
other business to the time of his death. 

His son, Benjamin Porter, is one of the proprietors of the Por- 
ter Coal Company, and owns the land on which their works are sit- 

Benjamin G. Mosher came to Jackson in an early day. He was 
by trade a mason and plasterer and was always largely engaged in 


that business as a contractor until his death. Mr. Mosher was 
elected mayor in 1872, and re-elected in 1873. There was no man 
in the community stood higher than " Uncle Ben," as he was of 
late years familiarly called. 

We have it on the authority of William II. Monroe that when be 
came to Jacksonburgh in January, 1837, there were but 2H build- 
ings, all told, in it. including four stores. During the year W. 
Budington, D. M. Owen, Geo. B. Cooper & Co., W. H. & N. 
Monroe, Wolfley & Rockwell, ami Shears & Collier, were mer- 
chants; Wm. Ford & Son were running the "Jackson Mills:" 
the Jackson Exchange was kept by Paul B. Ring; Lewis Bascomb 
was keeping the Bascomb's Hotel; Leander Chapman, Phineas 
Farrand and W. J. Moody were practicing attorneys; Ira C. 
Backus, John McLean and Oliver Russ were practicing physicians; 
Wm. R. Thompson ran a stage to Ann Arbor, and Mr. Mont- 
gomery had a tri-weeklv lumber wagon line to Marshall. 

March i), 1838, the Legislature changed the name of Jackson- 
burgh to Jackson. 

In 183s Moody and Johnson were partners as attorneys; D. 
Parkhurst. Myrick ('. Hough, Leander Chapman, Phineas Far 
rand and K. Ilighy were also practicing attorneys; M. B. & J. W. 
Medbury. W. Baker &Co., Green & Jessup, L. Blackwell & Co., 
Ford & Buck, and Wm. II. & N. Monroe were merchants; Amos 
Bigelow, hardware merchant; J. M. Gilbert, saddlery; L. Graves, 
tailor; W. Chittock, tailoring establishment; J. B. Cobb and Smith 
M. Brown, carriage painters; Russell Blackman was keeping pub- 
lic house, and the "Grand River House" was kept by 11. P. Hay- 
bee; George W. Gorbam was a practicing physician; L. S. House, 
hat store; J. W. Gledden, watch and clock repairing: Jackson 
Academy, by Mr. Dudley;.!). B. Hibbard, livery stable; Charles 
Derby, auctioneer; Joseph Ganson and Stephen Monroe, proprie- 
tors of the Jackson Iron Foundry; Samuel Higbv, Alonzo Bennett 
and Jason W. Packard, school inspectors; Lewis I). Welling, John 
Gillespie and John Kane, constables; Fidus Livermore, township 
treasurer; Oliver Russ and Wm. P. Worden. directors of the poor; 
Norman Allen, agent for sale of Rowland's tonic mixtures; David 
F. Dwight and David Porter, in lime business, and Bunnell & 
Fish, shingles; Ring & Hibbard ran a daily line of stages to 
Adrian. In 1830 D. G. McClure and J. M. Terry were practicing 
physicians; E. D. Merriman became a resident; Childs, Houssel 
and Brown were carriage painters, paper hangers and dealers in 
cabinet ware, and Benjamin llazleton was running an ashery. 

There were in Jackson in 1830 two banks, two printing offices 
(the Jackson Senbmel and Michigan Democrat), two semi-monthly 
publications (the American Freemam and Michigan Temperance 
Herald), two drug stores, 10 dry-goods stores. Five religious de- 
nominations held services weekly (the Episcopal, Presbyterian, 
Methodist, Close-Communion Baptist and Free-will Baptist). The 
population of the village was, by the newspapers at that time, 


claimed to be 1,000, and the number of dwellings 200, with 80 ad- 
ditional in the course of completion. 

Hon. Austin Blair came to Jackson in 1840, and was a member 
of the House of Representatives of the Legislature of Michigan in 
1846, and of the Senate in 1855. He was elected prosecuting at- 
torney for the county in 1853 ; was the war governor of the State, 
serving 1861-'4,and was elected to Congress from the third district 
of Michigan in 1867, being re-elected in 1869 and '71. Governor 
Blair, in the full maturity of his powers, is now in the practice of 
law in Jackson. He was Whig, with abolitionist tendencies, until 
the formation of the Republican party, with whom he acted until 
L872, when he supported Horace Greeley, and has since been 
liberal in politics. 

Amos Root came to Jackson in 1841, and has since been one of 
the active business men of the city. Mr. Root has been member 
of the village council, and was alderman under the city organiza- 
tion. He was elected mayor in L860, and appointed postmaster in 
L861, serving for four years. Mr. Root was inspector of the State's 
prison nine years, and six years a member of the Board of Public 
Works of Jackson, of which be acted two years as president. Mr. 
Root has a large farm in Portage, and gives it a considerable 
share of his attention. Mr. Root was a Whig, but in 1872 joined 
the ■■ Liberal movement"' and supported Horace Greeley. 

Peter B. Loomis entered into partnership with JohnN. Dwight 
in 1843, and established himself in Jackson as a merchant, "in 
L850 he bought the Kennedy Steam Mills, and was for four years 
engaged in the milling business. In 1856 he became a member of 
the banking firm of Loomis A: Whitwell, which, as P. B. Loomis 
and P. B. Loomis & Co, has continued to be one of the principal 
banking houses of the present time, and of which Mr. Loomis is 
now president, fn 1857 he became president of the Jackson City 
Gas Company, and now holds that office. Mr. Loomis was very 
active in procuring the construction of the Port Wayne, Jackson 
& Saginaw Railroad, of which he has been president since its 
completion. Mr. Loomis is a Republican, lie was mayor of the 
city in 1858, and of the House of Representatives, Legislature of 
Michigan. 1859. 

John D. Conely settled in Jackson in 1S54. He was admitted 
to the Bar in 1858, and at once commenced the practice of his pro- 
fession, which he has since followed wry zealously and indus- 
triously, and with a marked degree of success. His first practice 
was in company with G. T. Gridley. In 1861 he entered into 
partnership with Co v. Blair and William K. Gibson, and was in 
company with them for two years. He is now alone in practice 
and has a large and lucrative business. Mr. Conely has been for 
several years a member of the School Board in the district iti 
winch he lives. He is a Democrat, but has taken very little inter- 
est in politics since the election in 1860, when he was a candidate 
for Congress on the Breckenbridge ticket. 


Wiley R. Reynolds came to Jackson in 1840. He engaged in 
the grocery business six months after his arrival, in company with 
George T. Gardner. In 1842 Reynolds and Gardner sold their 
stock to Henry H. Gilbert. Mr. Reynolds soon after started 
again in the same business. In 1844 he added dry goods to his 
stock in trade. In 1851 lie formed a copartnership with Ins brother, 
¥m. B. Reynolds. In 1856 he sold his interest to another brother, 
Sheldon ('. Reynolds. In 1857 Mr. Reynolds bought the interest, 
of William R. Reynolds, and the firm. W. R. & S. C. Reynolds, 
confined their business exclusively to dry goods, in which they 
transacted a very large business. They finally sold their stock to 
L. W. Field. 

In 1851 Mr. Reynolds became interested with Mr. II. A Hay- 
den in the purchase of the "jEtna Flouring Mills.*' as the mill 
built by the Fords was called, and engaged in the manufacture of 
flour. Messrs. llavden and Reynolds also purchased the Kennedy 
Steam Mills in 1854, and have been large buyers of wheat to the 
present time. Their mills have a capacity to make 500 barrels of 
flour daily. Mr. Reynolds is a Democrat, but has taken but little 
interest in polities. 

Leander Chapman came to Jackson in 1*35. and commenced 
the practice of law. He was judge of probate from 183G to l v 4n, 
and prosecuting attorney for a portion of the same period. He 
was candidate as Representative to the Legislature in 1840. Mr. 
Chapman was county treasurer from 1842 to 1846, and. member 
and speaker of the House of Representatives, Michigan Legisla- 
ture, in 1848. Judge Chapman resided in Jackson over a quar- 
ter of a century, and always maintained a high standing amongthe 
best men in the county as a lawyer and as a citizen, lie was in 
politics a Democrat. 

James C. Wood settled in Jackson, and commenced the practice 
of law in 1844. In 1847 he became a member of the law firm of 
Livermore it Wood, which existed for over _'<» years. Mr. Wood 
was elected county treasurer in 1847, and re-elected in 1S49. He 
was elected first mayor of the city in L85-, and served as member 
of the Lower House in ls75-'7. Mr. Wood is now practicing law in 
company with his son. Charles W. Wood. Mr. Wood inhis prin- 
ciple is a Democrat, and has always been active in advocating the 
principles of his party. 

Samuel O. Knap] > came to Jackson in 1844, and took charge of 
the manufacturing of woolen goods in the State's prison. In 1848 
he went to Lake Superior and took charge of the valuable "Minne- 
sota mine," in which he was largely interested, and from which 
he derived a competence. Mr. Knapp was for four years a mem- 
ber of the Board of Public Works, and president of the school 
Board of district No. 1 for several years, lie has given much at- 
tention to horticulture, and is an active and valuable member of 
the State Pomological Society. He is in politics a Republican, 
and is one of the pillars of the Methodist Church in Jackson, of 
Which denomination lie has been a member for 4<i years. 


Rev. Daniel T. Grirmell, D. !>., came to Jackson in 1847, and 
took charge of St. Paul's Episcopal Church, of which he remained 
the active, faithful and successful rector for 21 years, and 
until he was removed by death in 1868. lie found the society and 
parish poor and feeble ; he left it zealous and prosperous. When 
Dr. Grinnell took charge of the parish the Sunday-school was little 
other than such in name. Under his care it soon became one of 
the most interesting and instructive, and was attended largely by 
children not belonging to the parish, as well as bythose belonging 
to it. When its real founder and painstaking teacher was taken 
away from it. the Sunday-school of St. Paul's Church was the larg- 
est in the city. The charity of Dr. Grinnell was so broad and its 
exercise so unlimited, that he was as much loved bythose outside 
of his paiish as in it. 

Joseph Tunnicliff, Jr., is a native of the State of Michigan. He 
was educated as a physician and surgeon, and lias practiced his 
profession in Jackson for over 35 years, with the exception 
of a short residence at Sacramento in California in 1852, and while 
serving as surgeon of the 4th and 1st Michigan Volunteer Infantry 
during two years, and as assistant State military agent until the 
close of the war. He was surgeon for the Michigan Central Rail- 
road Company at Jackson from 1865 for 10 years. In 1867 he 
was appointed United States examining surgeon for pensions, and 
served until 1873. Dr. Tunnicliff has acquired much celebrity as 
a successful operator in surgery, and stands with the first in Jack- 
son in his profession. He is an allopathist. Dr. Tunnicliff was a 
Republican until 1872, when he supported Horace Greeley, and is 
now a "Liberal" in politics. 

James O'Donnell came to Jackson in 1848, was clerk for William 
Jackson, entered the Citizen office in 1854 to learn the trade of 
printer, and also worked in the Patriot office. In 1864 he pur- 
chased the Citizen office, then a weekly paper. The publication of 
the Daily Citizen was commenced in 1865 by D. W. Ray and Mr. 
O'Donnell. Mr. Ray died in 1866, and since then Mr. O'Donnell 
has been sole editor and proprietor of the Citizen, both daily and 
weekly. The Citizen, has been and is the organ of the Republican 

partv. Mr. O'Donnell was elected city recorder in , and mayor 

in 1876-'7. 

Eugene Pringle became a member of the law firm of Kimball & 
Pringle in 1850, immediately after making his home in Jackson. 
In 1852 he was circuit court commissioner, and was recorder of the 
village in 185-. In 1856 lie was elected prosecuting attorney, and 
was re-elected in 1858, and was city attorney in 1858-'9. In 1860 
he was elected to the House of Representatives, and in 1866 to the 
Senate of the Michigan Legislature. In 1867 he was a member of 
the State Constitutional Convention, and in 1871 he was appointed 
a register in bankruptcy, and is still active as such. Mr. Pringle 
was a member of the Board of Public Works from 1871 to 1875. He 
has been active in all the raiboad enterprises in which Jackson has 
been interested, and is now secretary of the Fort Wayne, Jackson 


A: Saginaw Railroad, which office he has held since the organi- 
zation of the company. 

John L. Mitchell settled in Jackson in 1S50 and commenced the 
practice of his profession as a physician and surgeon, and is still 
active in the discharge of his duties. Dr. Mitchell has "held the 
office of town clerk, supervisor and alderman. He was for 12 years 
a member of the School Hoard for district No. 1. and for 1(( of these 
years he was the director. Dr. Mitchell has always been a Demo- 
crat. He joined the Masonic fraternity in 1852, and has always 
been a very active member of all the orders of the fraternity. He 
has presided in all the subordinate and most of the grand bodies of 
which he has been a member. 

Frederick M. Foster has been a resident ol Jackson for over Mil 
years. He has filled many offices of trust and responsibility, and 
always with credit to himself. He was city treasurer in 1807- V 
Mr. Foster has, since he first came to Jackson, been prominently 
connected with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and has 
presided in the Grand Lodge and Grand Encampment, as well as 
in the subordinate societies. He was grand treasurer of the Grand 
Lodge of Independent ( )rder of Odd Fellows for several years, and 
was master of Michigan Lodge No. 50 in L858. 

Charles W. Penny came to Detroit in 1831, a young man not 
yet of age. Mr. Penny resided in Detroit 10 years. He was one 
of the originators and first members of the " Young Men's Associa- 
tion," ami of the military organization known as the "Brady 
Guards" of that city. In 1841 Mr. Penny removed to Jackson, 
which has since been his home. He was for many years engaged 
in the mercantile business, and was one of the principal business 
men of this place. He early interested himself in the formation ot 
the "Young Men's Association." has been its president, and has 
always taken a lively interest in its affiairs. He has also been an 
active Odd Fellow, and has presided in the Lodge and Encampment. 
Mr. Penny has, during bis entire residence in Jackson, been a prom- 
inent member of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and for over 
30 years a member of the vestry of the parish of St. Paul. He 
is now one of the wardens, and is one of the most vigorous and 
active men of his age in the city. 

George D. Brown is a native of Tompkins county. New York. 
He is one of four brothers who. at an early day. made their home 
in Michigan. Lewis, Amos and William were among the first set- 
tlers in the township ot Parma, in the western part of Jackson 
county, where they engaged in farming. They have always been 
of the" most intelligent and respected, as of the most industrious 
and successful farmers in the communities in which they lived. 
Hon. William G. Brown was a member of the Michigan House of 
Representatives in 1866. Mr. George D. Brown in 1S48, then a 
youth of 20 years, commenced business in Jackson in the book 
and stationery trade, which he has successfully continued to the 
present time. Mr. Brown, from small beginnings, has built up by 
his perseverance and business ability, the largest trade, perhaps. 


in the State outside of Detroit. lie has tor the most of the time 
had the entire monopoly of the retail business in Jackson, and his 
urbanity and tact have enabled him to acquire and retain the custom 
of all who have once come within the influence of his genial ways. 
The most accommodating spirit, accompanied with the determina- 
tion not to be undersold, has made it possible for Mr. Brown to 
overcome all opposition. For many years Mr. Brown lias had a 
wholesale department connected with the business, and while the 
retail book and stationery trade is large, if is but a small item oi 
the business of the present firm of Brown & Pilcher compared with 
the transactions in the wholesale. 

John B. Carter was at one time, and for several years, a partner 
of Mr. Brown, and the business was much increased by the former 
thn nigh his intimate knowledge of the wants of the trade, and more 
still, perhaps, by his ability as a salesman. 

Mr. Henry J. Pilcher has for a number of years last past been 
associated with Mr. Brown, and the firm of Brown & Pilcher have 
now a well-established reputation which insures to them a large 
and increasing business. Mr. Pilcher is the son of Rev. Elijah 
Pilcher, who was the first Methodist minister in Jackson. He or- 
ganized a class in L830, from which has sprung the present First 
Methodist Church of this city, and his was the first Church organ- 
ization in Jackson county. 

The Rev. Mr. Pilcher has lived many years in Jackson, officiat- 
ing both as local preacher and as presiding elder. He is still liv- 
ing, with his usefulness unimpaired. Henry J. Pilcher is a native 
of Jackson. He has for many years been the superintendent of 
the Sabbath-school of the First Methodist Church of Jackson, and 
to him more than to any other is due its efficiency and great suc- 
cess. Mr. Pilcher is known as one of the most painstaking and 
estimable of the business men of Jackson. 

William M. Bennett came to Jackson in 1847, and entered the 
store of S. W. Whitwell as a clerk, and from that time to the 
present Mr. Bennett has been, with little intermission, connected 
with the dry-goods trade in Jackson. In 1855 he bought out Mr. 
Whitwell. The amount of goods sold by Mr. Bennett since the 
business came into his hands has been as large as that of any house 
in the interior of Michigan. Mr. Bennett was elected mayor of 
the city in 1869 and re-elected in 1870. He was for four years a 
member of the Board of Public Works at Jackson. 

William Knickerbocker in l.M('» came with his family to Jackson, 
where he is still living in the enjoyment of a competence in his 
ripe old age, surrounded by his children and his children's children. 
In 1858 he formed a copartnership with Col. J. B. Eaton in the 
wholesale grocery business, and for eight years they transacted 
business as large as any in that line in the State. They then sold 
out to Hall & Dodge. Mr. Knickerbocker joined with Allen Ben- 
nett and William D. Thompson in building the "City Mill," one 
of the largest steam flouring mills in the State, and has since then 


>F JArKSHX rol'NTY. 

devoted himself to the flouring business. The same firm bought 
the "Stone Mills" at Albion, and Mr. Knickerbocker has been 
general manager of the business, which has always been very 
large, and in which he has shown business ability of the first order. 
The Arm are also largely interested in the patents for "purifiers," 
by which the flour known as "patent flour"' is manufactured. 
These purifiers are made at Jackson, and have become a necessity 
in all first-class mills. The capital of the "Purifier Company " is 
$1,000,000. and their business corresponds in extent to the amount 
of their capital. 

In the year 1837 N. Munroe was dealing in dry goods, groceries, 
hardware, boots and shoes, drugs, dye-stutts. window sash, etc. 
In the spring of 1837 J. K & D. F.' Dwight sold their stock of 
goods to N. Munroe. In the summer Arza Richardson sold his 
stock to Derrick W. Owens, who kept a general assortment of 
goods, as did W. Budington and Wolney it Rockwell. Spears & 
Collier were succeeded by Stowell & Collier. They sold out to S. 
W. Stowell, who entered into copartnership with A. A. Welling, 
forming the firm of Stowell oj Welling. Welling in the spring 
had been one of the firm of Clark & Welling. All these were 
dealers in groceries, liquors, paints, oils, etc. Moses Bean, David 
Porter and S. W. Stowell were selling lime. The Jackson Furnace 
and Iron Foundry, on the east side of Grand river, near the Ford 
Mills, was owned and managed by Samuel P. Clark, Stephen Mun- 
roe and Joseph Canson. Paul B. Ring kept the Exchange Hotel 
and run a line of stages to Tecumseh. M. L. Sutton kept a select 
school. Phineas Farrand, Leander Chapman, Merrick C. Hough, 
FairchildFarrand and William J. Moody were practicing attorneys. 
John N. Dwight was justice of the peace. 

In 1838 the merchants of Jackson were W. Budington & Co., S. 
Blackwell & Co., Wolflev & Rockwell, succeeded by B. W. Rock- 
well, Dyer & Derby and H. EL & J. M. Gilbert. Grocery and 
provision stores were kept by Stowell & Welling, succeeded by A. 
A. Welling, Myron Collame'r, P. C. Vreeland & Co., S. W. Stowell 
and Norman Allen. C. E. Silsbee kept a furniture establishment. 
John Phelps had an ashery. N". M. & J. M. Gilbert were saddle 
and harness makers. Wright Chittock and L. Graves, tailors. 
Ring & Hibbard kept livery stable and run a line of stages to 
Adrian. In the fall D. B. Hibbard kept a livery stable. Ganson 
& Munroe were running the furnace and iron foundry and selling 
blocks. A. P. Maybee kept the Grand River House, and Munroe 
& ( Jarpenter the Exchange. Johnson & Higby, Moody & Johnson, 
L. Chapman, D. Parkhurst, M. C. Hough, Edward Higby, Phineas 
Farrand and Fairchild Farrand were practicing attorneys. Dr. 
John McLean kept a drug store and- practiced his profession. Dr. 
Ira C. Backus and Dr. Oliver Russ were also practicing physicians. 
J. W. Glidden repaired clocks and watches. Cobb & Smith were 
painters and glaziers. G. W. Logan & Co. made and sold boots 
and shoes. 





Iii 1839 S. Blackwell & Co. kept the New York store, and W. 
Baker tin' Boston store. Burnell & Fish, A. Bennett, Dibble & 
Turnbull, and Green & Jessup were merchants, keeping a genera! 
assortment of goods. Grocery stores were kept by Anderson & 
Rogers and Munson & (ides. Horace Duryea, J. II. Rogers and 
Thomas Miller wen' makers and dealers in boots and shoes. Lo- 
renzo Griswold, Wright Chittock, L. Graves, C. L. Mitchell and 
Gregg it Kggleston were tailors. J. D. Cowden made and sold 
furniture. He sold to 0. E. Silsbee. and he to W. Collamer. H. 
A. Rider sold plastering hair. The Jackson Academy was kept 
by Mr. Dudley. Joel II. Rice kept livery stable. Terry it Mc- 
Lean kept a drug store. Dr. E. D. Merriman was a practicing 
physician. The Exchange Hotel was kept by William A. Munroe. 
The firm of Farrand, Johnson & Higby was practicing law. 

Norman Allen came to Michigan in L833. He owned and kept 
the tavern three miles east of the city, afterward known as the 
McArthur tavern stand. In 1835 lie bought the stock in trade of 
Amos Temple, consisting of books and clothing. For many years 
Mr. Allen was actively engaged in business. lie is now, and for 
some time has been, acting as agent for lire insurance companies. 

George Byrne settled in Jackson in 1838. He was elected reg- 
ister of deeds in 1840, and served two years. He also served 
very acceptably as justice ot the peace tor several years. His son, 
Gilbert P. Byrne, has been in the banking-house ot Cooper, 
Thompson & Co., and with the Jackson City Bank for many years. 
He is now assistant cashier of the last-named institution. 

Wright Chittock came to Jackson in 1836. He immediately 
commenced work at his trade as a tailor. He followed that occu- 
pation until he went to California in 1852. Mr. Chittock died in 
1853, while returning from the Pacific coast. Dr. Gordon Chittock, 
son of Wright Chittock, came with his father to Jackson. He 
studied medicine, and at an early age commenced to practice as a 
physician. Dr. Chittock was soon recognized as one of the most 
successful of the practitioners of the city, and took his stand 
among the leading members of his profession. Dr. Chittock is 
now active in his profession, in which he has a large practice. 

Latham Kassick came to Jackson in the spring of 1838. In 
1839 William P. Kassick made Jackson his home, and under the 
name of W. P. it L. Kassick they for many years transacted a 
general mercantile business. After the dissolution of the firm the 
business was continued by L. Kassick until 1867, when he retired 
from the trade. Mr. Kassick is a member of the First Congrega- 
tional Church, of which he has for a long time been one of the 

Albert Howe settled in Tecumseh, Lenawee Co., Mich., in 1837. 
He removed to Adrian in 1840, and to Jackson in 1842. Mr. 
Howe kept a saddle and harness establishment during his business 
life in Jackson, and until within a few years. He has now retired 


from active business, but his familiar face may be seen almost 
daily on our streets. Although not one of the earliest pioneers, 
yet Mr. Howe is more fortunate than most of them, as he is 
represented in Jackson by the fourth generation. 

Douglass Gibson came to Jackson in his early boyhood with his 
father, A. B. Gibson, Esq., and has been for many years one ot 
the prominent business men of the city. Mr. Gibson was for sev- 
eral years one of the largest dealers in iron, nails, stoves, tin-ware 
and hardware in general in the interior of the State, as a member 
of the firms of Rice. Pratt & Co. and Pratt A: Gibson. In 186!) 
Mr. Gibson and Mr. Thomas Westren established the Interest and 
Deposit Bank, of winch Mr. Gibson was president, which office, 
with an active participation in the management of the affairs of 
the bank, he has continued to hold to the present time. 

Mr. Albert Howe Gibson, son of Douglass Gibson, succeeded 
the firm of Pratt & Gibson in the hardware business, in which he 
is still engaged, and is one of the most active and enterprising of 
the business men of Jackson of the third generation. 

Dr. Reuben ('. Gibson came to Jackson county in 1835, and 
commenced the practice of medicine at the then nourishing village 
of Sandstone, afterward removing to Gidley's Station, near the 
present village of Parma. Dr. Gibson was very successful as a 
physician, and was held in high esteem as a citizen. He closed a 
life of usefulness among those with whom he had for many years 
been active in the discharge of every duty. 

William Iv. Gibson, son of Dr. Gibson, is now, as he has been 
tor over 2<» years, one of the most active members of the legal 
fraternity of Jackson. Mr. Gibson is one of the leaders of the 
Bar in the county, a position which he has attained by industry and 
strict attention to business, and to which he is entitled' by his legal 
attainments. He has held many offices of trust, those of city attor- 
ney and prosecuting attorney for the county among others. He is 
now the attorney for the Michigan Central Railroad in Jackson. 
Mi'. Gibson has for several years taken great interest in pomology 
and horticulture, and has come to be an authority on all questions 
connected witli those interesting subjects. He is an active mem- 
ber of the State Pomological Society, and has devoted much time 
to the advancement of its interests. 

Jerome li. Eaton immigrated to Michigan in 1834. settled in 
Adrian, where he remained until 1*4:2. when he removed to Jack- 
son, and at once engaged in active business as a merchant. In 
1858 Col. Eaton formed a copartnership with Charles K. Knicker- 
bocker, and established the wholesale grocery house of Eaton & 
Knickerbocker. For eight years tins firm was one of the largest 
dealers in their line of business in the State. Col. Eaton was 
president of the village in 1846, was supervisor for several years, 
member ot the Legislature in 1851, for four years member of the 
Hoard of Public Works, and is nowpresident of the Michigan Air 
Line Railroad Company, which office he ha- held since the organ- 
ization of the company, 


W. W. Langdon settled in Jackson in 1835, and has been a resi- 
dent of the place to the present time, except one year that he lived 
in Napoleon. 

Henrv II. Bingham settled in Michigan in 1836. He came to 
Jackson county in 1838, and was for many years engaged in trade. 
In 1851 he made Jackson his home, and has since continued to re- 
side in the city. He was for many years connected with the State 
prison, first as clerk, then as agent or warden. 

Simon Holland settled in the township of Napoleon, Jackson 
Co., in 1837. He removed to Jackson in 1856, and was for many 
years engaged in business as a member, first of the firm of Hol- 
land & Lattimer, then of that of Holland A: Son, dealing largely 
in drugs, paints, oils, medicines, etc. The business is still con- 
tinued by his son, James M. Holland. Deacon Holland was al- 
ways a leading and zealous member of the Baptist Church, of 
which he was a deacon at the early age of - _'l years. 

J. B. Tomlinson came to Jackson in 1842, and established him- 
self in business as a dealer in jewelry and repairer of clocks and 
watches, in which he is still engagea. Mr. Tomlinson has been, 
and still is, a very active member of the Masonic fraternity, and 
has frequently been the presiding officer in the lodge and chapter. 
He has always been noted for his active benevolence, particularly 
tor his attention to the care of the sick, and for paying the last 
sad tribute to the dead. 

Moses A. McNaughton settled in Jackson in 1841, and entered 
at once upon the practice of his profession as a physician, which 
he followed successfully for several years. Dr. McNaughton at 
an early day became a large holder and dealer in real estate. He 
has always taken an active part in all questions of public improve- 
ment. He was one of the principal promoters ofthe organization 
which secured the building of Grand River Valley railroad. Dr. 
McNaughton was one of the first directors of the Michigan Air 
Line Railroad Company, and as a member ofthe business com- 
mittee was continually engaged in forwarding the construction of 
the road until if was completed from Jackson to Niles. He is one 
ofthe officers ot the company at the present time. He was elected 
to the State Senate in 1852, and mayor ofthe city in 1866. 

Morris Knapp came to Michigan in 1840. In the winter of 
1843-'4 Mr. Knapp settled in Jackson. He soon after became in- 
terested in mail routes and stage lines, in connection with D. B. 
Hibbard. The firm of Knapp and Hibbard was for a long time 
the largest stage proprietors in the State, and running more miles 
of mail route than any other contractors. Mr. Knapp has for 
many years been proprietor of an extensive livery, sale and board- 
ing stable. His pleasant address and accommodating disposition 
have made for him a host of friends. His son. Charles A. Knapp, 
is associated with A. G. Sutton in the hack and omnibus line of 
the city. 

John Westren at an early day entered a large quantity of land 
in Jackson county. He made Jackson his home in 1841, and re- 


sided in the city until his death. He was always a large holder 
and dealer in real estate. He took great interest in the develop- 
ment of the iron mines of Lake Superior, and was a large stock- 
holder in the Jackson Iron Company from the date of its organiza- 
tion. Mr. Westren was a man of sterling integrity and great force 
of character. He was universally respected and esteemed. His 
sun. Thomas Westren. is a native of" Jackson, and lias always 
made it his home. He joined Mr. Douglass Gibson in the estab- 
lishment of the ••Jackson Interest and Deposit Bank." of which 
lie is now. and always lias been; the cashier. 

Joseph Ilanaw became a resident of Jackson in 1857. He was 
for many years engaged in trade, ami has always been, as he is 
now. oneof the most active businessmen of Jackson. Mr. Hanaw 
has accumulated a handsome property, and ha- a family of 11 
children to share with him his days of prosperity. His time is 
now occupied in looking after the rental of his store- and house-, 
in the care of his numerous family, and as agent oi a line of ocean 

E. J. Oonnable joined A. H. Pinneyin 1858 in a contract at the 
prison for the manufacture of farming tool- Mr. Oonnable re- 
moved from Ohio to Jackson and took charge of the business, 
which under his management was very successful. He withdrew 
from the business at the expiration of his contract in 1854, and has 
for several years been largely engaged in the manufacture of drain 
tile, sewer pipe, fire and paving brick, and other articles of stone- 
ware. Mr. Oonnable is one of the most active and enterprising 
business men of the city. He opened and worked one of the coal 
mines. To him belongs the%redit of establishing and building up 
the extensive works of the Jackson Fire Clay Company, of which 
he is president. 

Silas Heyser came to Jackson in 1855. and engaged in business 
as a carpenter and joiner. He has for several years been largely 
engaged in the manufacture of sash, blinds and doors, and has 
now, in connection with his sons, Winfield 0. and Walter J. Hey- 
ser. one of the largest manufacturing establishments in the city, 
in connection with an extensive lumber yard. 

Abram V. Berry came to Jackson in 1841, and as a member of 
the firm of Berry A Medbury, was one of the leading merchants 
of Jackson. He was at one time one of the proprietors of the 
••Ford Mills," and largely engaged in the purchase of wheat and 
manufacture of flour. Col. Berry has tilled many offices of public 
trust, and always with credit to himself. He was president of the 
village in 1843-'5, and city marshal in lSSS-^O. He has 
also been supervisor, alderman, and held other offices of appoint- 
ment. Col. Berry is of an ingenious turn of mind, and is the 
author of several inventions of merit. 

James L. Holmes came to Michigan with the family of his father 
in 1837. In L838 he removed to Jackson, and has since resided 
in this city. Mr. Holmes has always been an active business man, 
and is one of the best known in the town. He is now engaged in 


the wholesale and retail wine and liquor trade. He is a most en- 
thusiastic disciple of Izaak Walton, and has made his rod familiar 
with most of the waters in and around the State. To the lakes of 
Jackson county it is no unusual practice for him to go day after 
day, without regard to the weather, especially if it is such as is 
favorable to piscatory sport. Mr. Holmes is a most efficient mem- 
ber of the Board of Public Works of the city of Jackson, which 
position he has held for three years. 


A good story is told at the expense of (,u,. ,,f the early pioneers 
ot Jackson county, Judge Wooley who in early times was a 
shoemaker of Sandstone. < >ne cold winter's day as the judge was 
warming up his wax. preparatory to the day's work of cobbling, 
a never-do-well sort of farmer walked in. lie wanted a pair 
of boots, but had no money to pay for them. The judge not 
liking to trust him proposed that if he would draw a load of wood 
the next day as he was entirely out of that commodity (wood was 
a legal tender in those days), he would let him have the boots. In 
this the honest granger acquiesced. Well, the judge opened up 
his shop the next day by borrowing some wood of his neighbors; 
he waited all that day. but no wood came; also the next day. 
The third morning he went to the livery and hired a horse and 
cutter to drive out to the farmer's, some three or four miles to find 
out why he did not deliver as per agreement. He drove up to 
the house, and upon enquiring found that the farmer was at the 
extreme end of the farm chopping wood. The judge started out to 
find him. He wallowed through the snow knee deep, about half a 
mile or more, and found him on top of a beech log, whistling and 
making the chips fly. The judge accosted him, and said: "Why 
in the old cat don't you draw me that wood as you agreed to." 
Farmer John says: " Wood ! what wood '." "Why the wood you 
promised to draw for those boots that you have got on your feet; 
I told you I was entirely out." 

Farmer says: •• Well, the shoemakers in Sandstone lie so that a 
man can't tell whether they are out of wood or not." The judge 
dropped his head for a moment, and upon looking up, says. " By 
Kate ! the boots are yours." He turned about and wades back to 
his horse and cutter, leaving the farmer whistling some pastoral 
air known to the pioneer. 



It lias ever been considered a day of rejoicinu; when pioneers 
should meet, when old comrades should come together to renew 
their memories and cheer up their souls. In the dim past, when, 
after Babel, the migrations of the people took an extensive form, 
the idea of periodical reunion was made practicable. On the land 
where Athens now stands such another meeting is said to 
have taken place as that which did honor to the pioneers ot 
Jackson in 1874. Over two thousand years ago the spot on which 
is now built the city of Paris, the beautiful Leutetiaof Inliam. the 
early settlers united in their strength and sacrificed to their gods 
in honor of their meeting and in thanksgiving for the beautiful 
land they possessed. Three thousand years ago the Partholanians 
met at Howth and lighted the pagan tires of joy for giving them a 
home in Ireland, so far away from the assaults of their brother 
Greeks; and still later the warlike Milesians assembled on the 
same shore to celebrate the anniversary of their conquest of the 
island, and to meet this merry circle before separating for their 
homes. Revert to the olden times, to the history of every country, 
and the accounts of those happy reunions remind us of their 
utility, [f then our barbarous ancestors ot dim antiquity observed 
the customs, how much more becoming is it for the people ot 
to-day, who may be said to have reached the highest pinnacle ot 
civilization to be attained by the race at present inhabiting this 
globe '. The fact is accepted and acknowledged. Throughout the 
length and breadth of this great land, the large-souled pioneers 
who have made this country great, have assembled periodically to 
celebrate their advent and their stay, and to give thanks to their 
God for His mercy in leading them to peaceful and happy homes. 
The pleasure of such meetings is only known to pioneers. Their 
children can scarce conceive the feeling which such an assembly 
creates, or the happy memories which it awakens. For them alone 
it has an undying interest; and though the young may possibly 
share a little in the joy of the old, they never can summon up the 
same endearing memories as pertain to the latter, or entertain for 
the soil they tread that beautiful veneration which pertains to 
the heart of the old settler. He alone saw the virgin soil and 
married her. His industry tamed the beautiful wild land until it 
yielded returns a hundred fold; his hands decorated the farm 
with a modest and comfortable cottage, and now in his declining 
years he has that homestead to take pride in. and these happy 
meetings to yield him pleasure. Happy settlers ! Good old set- 
253 i 


tiers ! Well deserved are the honors you have won, well merited 
the peace and joy that waits upon your age. 

At an early period in the history of the county efforts were 
made to organize an association in which all the pioneers would be 
embraced. For many reasons the progress made was very slow, 
so that so late as seven years ago no regularly constituted* organ- 
ization had existence. Then the people, having emerged from the 
period of labor and careful guard, turned their attention to the 
good work, and without delay handed themselves together and 
the union of venerable citizens was completed. 


For a number of years prior to 1*74 many of the pioneers looked 
forward to the time when the organization of their numbers would 
encircle them with the magnetic chain of close fellowship, and en- 
able all to commune with one another at stated seasons, relate the 
reminiscences ot the past, and thus aid in making subject for the 
history of the greatest Union the world ever saw— a history which 
will only be entered upon when other peoples may read, to wonder 
of the rise and fall of their monarchies and empires. 


The organization ot the Pioneer Society oi .Jackson County took 
place March 14. 1874, within Bronson Hall, in the city of Jackson. 
The meeting was large and influential, and on being called to or- 
der by Hon. Fidus Livermore, proceeded to the choice of chair- 
man and secretary. The duties of these offices were accorded to 
ex-Judge David Johnson and H. H. Bingham, respectively. 
Judge Johnson introduced the subjects which would have to be 
considered by the meeting, and then called on those who intended 
to bring forward resolutions to do so. The first proposal was that 
constituting Messrs. Higby, Livermore and De Lamater a com- 
mittee on constitution and by-laws. A brief adjournment followed, 
during which time these gentlemen compiled a series of 10 
articles for the government of the society, the preamble setting 
forth that the object ot the Jackson Pioneer Society is and shall 
be to collect and preserve a historical record of 'the county ot 

It is unnecessary to review at any length the 10 articles of as- 
sociation. They are broad and liberal. In June, 1877, an 
amendment was accepted, granting to persons who have resided 
in the State 30 years, or in the county 20 years, the privilege of 
becoming members, together with making the admission of mem- 
bers' wives free. Prior to the debate on these articles of constitu- 
tion no less than 1-14 pioneers enrolled themselves. Subsequently 
each article met with unanimous approval. 

The election of officers resulted as follows: Hon. David John- 
son, President; P. B. Loomis, Treasurer; and II. II. Bingham, 


Secretary. These were the first county officers ot the Pioneer 

The vice-presidency comprised 22 members, elected to represent 
their respective townships and the city of Jackson. Their names 
and respective districts follow: W. R. De Land, J. T. Durand, 
Samuel Higby and W. N. Buck, for the city of Jackson; Lewis 
Brown, township of Parma; James Gennison, Springport; L. 
Boynton, Grass Lake; Chauncey Hawley, Napoleon; Chester 
Wall, Sandstone; R. H. Anderson, Rives; J. C. Southern. 
Tompkins; II. Daniels. Blackman; .Muses Suttle, Liberty; Ira 
Willis. Pulaski; James Videto, Spring Arbor; Wm. Clapp, Han- 
over; J. II. Tanner, Henrietta; Jacob Biglow, Concord; A. H. 
DeLamater, Columbia; L. M. Barber, Leoni; A. A. Qurley, 
Waterloo; Freeman J. Watkins, Norville; William Root, Sum- 

These appointments completed the organization of the good old 
pioneers, and accomplished much for which the people of the fut- 
ure must be thankful. Before the adjournment Hon. H. A. Hay- 
den, Hon. David Johnson and A. H. De Lamater were appointed 
delegates to the State Convention of April, 1874, and a most im- 
portant resolution carried, requesting the township representa- 
tives to compile a history of their districts for the purposes of the 

During the second meeting of the society in October, 1 >74, 
James (TDonnell. editor of the Daih/ Citizen, B. L. Carlton and 
W. W. Van Antwerp, of the Daily Patriot, with Tobias Miller, 
of Ingham county, and Eugene Pringle were admitted honorary 
members. At tlie same meeting a history of Pulaski township 
was submitted by Vice-President Ira A. Willis, of Norvell, by F. 
C. Watkins. and of Grass Lake, by L. Boynton. 


took place Feb. 22, 1875. The annual election, provided for in 
the articles of organization, resulted in the return of Col. Michael 
Shoemaker. President: P. B. Loomis. Treasurer, and H. H. Bing- 
ham, Secretary; with the following vice-presidents: .1. A. Higgins, 
W. N. Buck, 'William R. DeLand. .1. T. Durand, Jackson City; 
George Landon, Springport: Lewis Brown, Parma; II. S. Smith, 
Grass Lake; Chauncey Hawley, Napoleon; Chester Wall, Sand- 
stone; Richard Townlev. Tompkins; Henry Daniels, Blackman; 
Moses Tuthill, Liberty; Ira C. Wyllis. Pulaski: George Hatch, 
Spring Arbor; Wm. Clapp. Hanover; Samuel Preston, Henrietta; 
Joel Bigelow, Concord; A. II. DeLamater. Columbia; G. M. Bar- 
ber, Leoni; A. A. Quigley, Waterloo; Alvinzie Hunt. Norville; 
William Root. Summit. 


The retiring president, David Johnson, paid a glowing compli- 
ment to his colleagues, and formally vacated the chair. Col. Shoe- 
maker, in accepting the position, reviewed the history of Michigan 
and dwelt in his happiest, manner upon the State, as well as Jack- 
son county, since 1835, the year of his advent hither. Col. Shoe- 
maker's address was followed by that of Hon. Levi Bishop, ot 
Detroit, on the "Landmarks of American History." II. H. Bing- 
ham read a historical paper on Leoni township, written by Z. M. 
Barber, a vice-president of the society. The appointment of W. 
K. Gibson. F. Livermore and H. II. Bingham on the historical 
committee, with instructions to collate and preserve letters and 
records bearing on the early history of the county, brought the 
proceedings of this meeting to a conclusion. 


The meeting oi June 21. I877. was among the most important 
gatherings of the pioneers. President Shoemaker read a record 
of the deaths of 71 old settlers who passed to their eternity since 
the last meeting. Hon. Jonathan Shearer, of Plymouth, was 
present, and gave a recital of his recollections of Jackson county 
in 1837. together with an account of his adventures in Ingham 
county during the earlier days of his settlement. Hon. F. Liver- 
more and Hon. P. B. Loomis recapitulated many interesting rem- 
inisences of by-gone times. James Bennett read a poem by W. 
H. C. Harnier, and Jonathan Shearer , one written by himself. 
The election of officers showed the terms of Col. Shoemaker's 
presidency, H. H. Bingham's secretaryship and P. B. Loomis' 
treasuryship to be continued. D. E. Wright was chosen vice-presi- 
dentfor Parma township; George Landon, Springport; H. S. Smith, 
Grass Lake: Chauncey Ilawley, Napoleon; Chester Wall, Sand- 
stone; Richard Townley, Tompkins; Henry Daniels. Blackman; 
Moses Tuthill, Liberty"; Ira C. Wyllis, Pulaski; George Hatch, 
Spring Arbor: AVilliam Clapp, Hanover; Samuel Preston, Hen- 
rietta: Joel Bigelow, Concord: A. II. De Lamater, Columbia; Z. 

M. Barber. 1.. i: A. A. Quigley, Waterloo; Alvinzie Hunt, Nor- 

vell; AVilliam Boot, Summit; E. Van Horn. Rives: with Marvin 
Darrill. J. T. Durand. J. A. Higgins and W. X. Buck for the city 
of Jackson. 

The President, in concluding his address, said: 

" Since the last meeting of the society there have been a num- 
ber of deaths among the early settlers, and in the course of nature 
it will be but a few years until the pioneers of Jackson county 
will be those bom and bred here, and not those whose stout 
hearts and strong arms first encountered all the perils and hard- 
ships of frontier life. The log-cabin, brush-fence, fields with 
stumps all standing, have given way to the comfortable dwelling, 
with ample and convenient out-houses, to the well fenced, cleared 
and improved fields. With all these advantages to aid him, the 
young pioneer wonders that his parents should complain of the 


hardships and privations attendant upon their younger days. As 
the signs of border life have passed away, with its privations of 
every kind, its unremitting labors, its agues, its fevers, and its 
many discomfort.-, so are rapidly passing away that hardy race of 
men and women, who in one generation have accomplished so 
much, who have subdued the wilderness and have caused Michigan 
to take a stand among the first States of the Union in wealth, pop- 
ulation, intelligence and all that goes to make a State in which her 
sons may take just pride. Among those we are called to mourn, 

Daniel O. Barnard, died at Jackson, June 1, 187"). 

David Chapel, died at Sandstone. 

O. H. Cobb, died at Jackson, July 21, 1875. 

Win. R. De Land, died 1875, at Jackson. 

Samuel Higby, died May 12, 187(5, at Jackson. 

Jas. P. Hawley, died at Napoleonjuly 3, 1876. 

John Keys, died at Grass Lake. 

Ben. G. Mosher. died at Jackson. 

Samson Stoddard, died at Concord. 

Thomas Tanner, died at Henrietta Jan. 2, 187G, aged 60. 

Freeman M Sandford, died at Tompkins 

F. Wilson, died at Spring Arbor. 
D. Whiteman, died at Jackson. 
Simeon Watts, died at Leoni. 
Delos Fisher, died at Jackson. 

A. Crowinan, died at Waterloo, aged 87. 
Lewis Darling, died at Tompkins, aged 64. 
Amasa Hawkins, died at Parma, aged 80. 
David Williams, died at Waterloo, aged 76. 
John A. Sloat, died at Napoleon, aged 73. 

John Norton, died at . 

FairchiUl Farrand, died at Jackson. 
Daniel Mann, died at Concord. 
Wm. Maybury. died at Jackson. 
Darman Felt, died at Jackson. 

Robert McGregor, died at . 

L.I). Wheeler, died at Blaekman, aged 55. 
Owen Griffith, died at Jackson, aged 74. 
Robert Graham, died at Jackson, aged 65. 
S. H. Sears, died at Jackson. 

Marcus Spencer, died at . 

G'O. A. Baldwin, died at Jackson. 

Allen Case, died Nov. 2, 1S75. 

S. M. Soper, died at Tecumseh, April 6, 1877, aged 70. 

John Morton, di-d March 28. 1876, aged 75. 

Isaac Kibbee, died at Summit, aged 81. 

Win. S. Moore, died at Jackson, March 15, 1877, aged 48 

Ap. Lincoln, died at Tompkins, May 26, 1877, aged 80. 

G. G. Gould, died at Tompkins. 

Lewis Brown, died at Parma, Oct. 16, 1876. 

C J . Nobles, died Nov. 23, 1876. aged 72. 

Ab. Sanford, died at Liberty, June 5, 1877, aged 80. 

Mr. Palmer, died at Liberty. 

Lorin Culver, died April 15, 1876. aged 57. 

M. J. Draper, died at Jackson, Sept7, 1876, aged 68. 

H. Mcllauirhton. died at Jackson. Nov. 1, 1876, aged 40. 

T. H. Grosvenor, died at Brooklyn, Dec. 13, 1S76, aged i\'y 

Jesse Alexander, died at Jackson, June 6, 1877, aged 67. 

A. H. Peterson, died at Jackson, March 4. 1876, aged 63. 

Mrs. II. H. Bumpus, died at Jackson. 

Eliza Hand, died July 22, 1876. 


Mrs. N. Allen, died at Jackson. 

" Morrison, died at Jackson, January, 1870, aged 84. 

" J. Trumbull, died at Rives. 

" Southworth, died at Tompkins. 

" R. Townley, died at Tompkins 

" Maria Smith, died at Jackson, March 6, 1876. 

' J. VT. Bennett, died at Jackson, March 22, 187(5. 

" M. L. Field, died at Jackson, March 22, 1870, aged 43. 

" J. Webb, died at Jackson June 3, 1876, aged 65. 

" ('. Jones, died June 22, 1870, aged 57 

" E. Howe, died at Jackson. July 22, 1876. aged 85. 

" Sally Moe. died at Parma, Aug" 21, 1876, aged 61. 

•' H McArthur. died at Parma. July 29, 1876. 

•• M J. Draper, died at Rives, Jan. 16, 1877. 

" M. Myers, died at Baldwin, Jan. 30, 1877, aged 90. 

" A. Pease, died at Jackson, Feb. 15. 1877, aged 61. 

" M Beeker. died at Jackson. .March 22, 1*77. aged ^ 

- J. Cole, died at Jackson, April 23, 1877. aged 66. 

" H. A. Jones, died at Parma. May 10, 1877, aged 72. 

" Isaac Kibbee, died at Summit. 

" A large number of those named were riot members of this 
society, but so tar as I could inform myself, all had resided a long 
time in this county, pr were of the first of those who made their 
homes in Jackson county, when it was little more than a wilder- 


The pioneers and old settlers met June 18, 1879, to celebrate the 
50th anniversary of the settlement of their county. Judge David 
Johnson delivered the address of welcome. Gen. (t. W. Brown, a 
veteran of the Sac or Black Hawk war. Judge Baxter, F. A. 
Dewey, Henry Little, Dr. Robinson, Eugene Pringle, and President 
Shoemaker delivered many valuable addresses bearing on the early 
settlement of the county. B. F. Eggleston sang "Forty Years 
Ago;" II. Ilendee. ofBlackman township, read a classical poem; 
Mi" M. W. Clapp read a historico-biographical sketch oftheearly 
settlement of her parents, and Henry Bishop, of Kalamazoo, asked 
the pioneers and people not to neglect an opportunity to collate 
every sera!, of history hearing on .Michigan. The ladies of the 
society entertained 1,500 persons at dinner and did much to con- 
tribute to the success of the celebration. 

The weather was sunny and pleasant, and the grassy grounds, 
shaded by the thick foliage of the over-arching trees, seemed never 
more delightful than during the bright and genial hours that 
marked this occasion. 

Floral Hall, in which refreshments were served, was tastefully 
decorated. Along the aisles on either side of the central platform 
the double row of pillars supporting the roof were trimmed with 
evergreen, just above which small flags depended, and the effect of 
the long and regular array of these miniature banners down the en- 
tire length of the hall was highly ornamental. The middle space 
below the skylight was hung with large flags, and festooned with 
red and blue bunting. The tables. Is ,,,- 2Q in number. 


were set in the north end of the building. Their snowy coverings 
were looped with sprigs of pine and cedar, and surmounted with 
baskets and vases of fresh and lovely flowers. The contrast of the 
emerald and crimson and innumerable dyes of these floral decora- 
tions with the snowy linen beneath them, was of course pleasant to 
the eve. and the long rows of tables thus garnished were a most 
picturesque feature of the hall. At the front entrance was a ban- 
ner bearing the words: "Welcome Pioneers." 

About il o'clock the pioneers and a large crowd of people, 
headed by the C. C. C. band marched from Floral Hall to the 
speaker's stand in the front part of the grounds to witness the 
opening exercises, and listen to the address of welcome by Judge 
Johnson and such other addresses as might be made. 

After the playing of "Auld Lang Syne" by the band, Col. M. 
Shoemaker. President of the society, introduced the Rev. Ira C. 
Billman, who offered up an eloquent and appropriate prayer. 
.fudge David .Johnson, of this city, was then presented, who de- 
livered the following address of welcome: 


"JPioneers of Michigan: — I am instructed by the pioneers of 
this county, whom you have honored this .lav by your presence at, 
their little social gathering, to bid you a hearty welcome. The few 
surviving men and women who came to this county 50 years ago 
or thereabouts, to find for themselves a home, greet you kindly 
and cordially. The associations of those days call to their minds 
many reminiscences of the past, — some bright and pleasant, some 
dark and gloomy. They, in common with you, endured the toil 
and privation incident to the settlement of a new country; they, in 
common with you. have enjoyed the blessings of a kind providence 
in the acquisition of pleasant homes in a delightful country. The 
bread that was thrown upon the waters that day has returned to 
them more bountifully than the heart can express. 

"The Lord has brought us a goodly land, a land of brooks, of 
waters, of fountains, and depths that spring out of valleys and hills: 
a land of wheat and barley and vines; aland wherein thou shalt 
eat bread without scarceness; a land whose stones are iron, and out 
of whose hills thou mayest dig brass. 

"Had the inspired prophet, who was describing to his people the 
land of Canaan, seen and surveyed Michigan he could not have 
described it more happily. He. however, gave them warning that 
the enj< >yment < >f the gift of so line a ci nintrv was upon i me c< »nditi< In, 
and that was. that they should not forget their God, who brought 
them out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage, and he 
testified to them that in the day they should forget their dependence 
on Him. they should surely perish. I think it is a law of ourbeing 
which stamps itself upon our minds and consciences, that every 
gift of Providence is held and enjoyed upon the same condition; for 
to forget our dependence is to forget our obligation. The penalty 
falls upon nations and individuals alike. 


•• It is not worth while to indulge in any fears upon this subject, 

for there is another law equally as potent and certain, and that law- 
is the law of progress. The world is growing better, and has been 
growing better day by day, since man began to worship the sun as 
the image of his Maker, and for long ages before that time. 1 
know that among a certain class it is a common thing to say, and 
they believe what they say. that the present aspect of the moral 
condition of the world is gloomy enough; and they will talk to 
you about the golden age when men were virtuous and happy. 
There never was a Golden Age. The whole thing was a myth, a 
conception. But there was a stone age in the early part of the 
world, and it was an age of suffering, an age of barbarism, an age 
when poor human nature groped its way in the dark caves of the 
earth, Living on such fruits as they could gather, and on the raw 
flesh of such beasts as they could conquer. That is the golden 
age our progenitors enjoyed and the only one. This is not partic- 
ularly a delightful picture of the condition of our ancestors, but it 
is well to understand what the truth is. and learn that in no age of 
the world has man retrograded. History, tradition and everything 
that can throw any light upon the past, teaches us that the law of 
human life is the law of progress. Man has always been advanc- 

"To prove this proposition to be true, that is. that we are advanc- 
ing into a higher life, let us for a moment review the history of the 
past. Two thousand years ago, and in all prior ages, nations at 
war made no prisoners, with very few exceptions. The < 'anaanites 
were extirpated, as a nation, by the Israelites. Samuel, their 
prophet, hewed down Agog in the presence of his king, who had 
probably saved him as a trophy of his victory; and it must be re- 
membered that those were the chosen people of God, and alone 
worthy of His care and protection. The Medes and Persians and 
Assyrians and Chaldeans and other Asiatic nations did the same 
thing. There was a noble exception to this general rule to be 
noted, in a single instance. It was the captivity ot the Jews 
by the Babylonians. They carried with them not only the men, 
but also the women and children, who were not very profitable, as 
slaves; but whether it was because of the humanity of the victors, 
or because of their belief that their captives were not fit to die, is 
a problem which the history of the times has not solved. The 
Greeks and Romans showed the same brutal indifference to lite. 
the same low standard of humanity. Some of the most sanguinary 
wars on record were between and among the Greeks themselves. 
They rarely saved prisoners except for slaves. Rome exhibited 
more legislative ability, and when she crushed a nation she took 
it into her own embrace, but oftentimes it was the embrace of 

" The Middle Ages represented a little better state of public 
morals. The vast Roman empire had crumbled to pieces under 
its own weight, and it was succeeded by a great many petty gov- 
ernments, more or less liberal, but generally arbitrary and des- 


potic. They were constantly at war with each other. The only 
organization during that whole period that acted upon any consist- 
ent and well-defined policy was the Church. The world must be 
saved or damned. It was the function of the Church to save, and 
the means she resorted to to effect that object lias been much con- 

" What better evidence have we that our conception of what is 
right or wrong is laving its foundation deep in the human heart. 
and which in the end will regenerate mankind? I do insist that 
the world is making rapid advances in its conception of truth and 
justice and mercy; and from this I will not swerve one jot or tittle; 
tor on the truth of the proposition hangs all our hopes of the fut- 
ure: and I do believe that the Infinite in His wisdom has created 
man for some purpose which lie lias not yet readied; that he has 
a glorious destiny to which he is slowly but certainly advancing. 

•'Now. allow me to occupy a moment's time in calling your 
attention to the material changes which have taken place in our 
day and generation. Assuming the fact that some of us have 
lived out the days allotted to man. to such I can say that we have 
seen changes more marked and more significant in their results 
than all the generations of men before us. Seventy years ago, nay 
60, we plowed our ground with a wooden plow. We might say 
without any great departure from truth, that we stirred the ground 
with a wooden stick. We sowed our wheat broadcast; we cut 
it with a sickle; we threshed it with a flail, and cleaned it with 
a corn-fan. and when we got a bag tilled, we put it on the hack of 
a horse, put a boy on top of the hag and sent him to mill. How 
we do these things now I need not tell you. for you already know. 
You know also "the thousand and one improvements that have 
been made in the mechanical departments. I cannot let the 
opportunity pas* without calling your attention to the subject 
of electricity and to heat expansion or the power of steam, two 
forces of nature that have been mainly utilized in our day. When 
we use the word electricity, we have a vague idea of a certain 
mysterious, imponderable, indefinable something: hut we know 
nothing of its nature: we have learned how to generate it. and to a 
certain extent how to control it; we know it passes through metalic 
substances with wonderful rapidity, and through some substances 
it will not pass at all. It was from 17">i-'. when Franklin drew 
it from the clouds, for almost a century a plaything among the 
scientific men of the day. In ls44, and about the time that little 
man, James K. Polk, was nominated for the presidency, it became 
utilized by our own countryman, S. F. B. Morse, who immortalized 
himself hy giving to a dead world a living messenger, which was 
to change its destiny. We now send messages to all parts of the 
world with the speed of thought, and with it we talk and sing 
to our neighbors many miles away. 

••The steam-engine is of slower growth. The utilization of steam- 
power cannot be justly given to any one man. James Watts did 
much to improve the engine a hundred years ago. Robert Fulton 


first applied it to the propulsion of water-crafts in 1807, and Geo. 
Stephenson to the locomotive in 1829. The locomotive was first 
used in this country in 1830. It soon came into general use 
as a mechanical power, and the steam-engines now in use in this 
country for manufacturing purposes alone are. it is said perform- 
ing the labor of 50,000,000 of men. 

" The locomotives on the great thoroughfares from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific are performing an amount of work exceeding the 
capacity ol all the horses in the world. The immensity of this 
work is beyond all calculation.' yet it lias but just commenced. 
We can hardly comprehend what a hundred years will accomplish. 

••This is the way the world is progressing; this is the way 
it is moving, ami he who does not fall into the ranks and move on 
with it. will surely be trodden under toot, and the old nations 
of the world which have been sleeping tor ages must, like Rip 
Van Winkle, wake up and march on with it also, or be crushed 
out of existence. 

"And now the question may be pertinently put. but none 
can answer it. If we do continue to march upward and onward, to 
what haven shall we arrive '. We may ponder on this, for it is the 
problem of life and eternity. We may think, and the power to do 
so is the best gift of God. I must bring my remarks to a close. 
You have my thanks for your attention, and my best wishes for 
your future welfare." 

col. shoemaker's addeess. 

"Ladies and <<■ nth rru n ofth. Pion< er Socii ty of Jackson ( bwnty : 

" It is now two years since there has been a meeting of this so- 
ciety. In the meanwhile there has been un active interest taken 
in all matters relating to the early history of the State in other 
counties, and by the State Pioneer Society. 

"I would recommend that hereafter there be held two meetings 
in each and every year, as provided in the constitution of the so- 
ciety : a winter meeting for the transaction of business, and a sum- 
mer meeting tor social intercourse. The winter meeting should 
not lie neglected, as the constitution provides that the officers of 
the society shall then be elected, and the general business of the 
society transacted. The summer meeting is of still greater impor- 
tance. That should lie in every respect a social reunion which 
every pioneer in the county and every son and daughter of a 
pioneer should attend, to renew old acquaintances and make new 
ones, so that old and young may feel that those are not becoming 
estranged who should be hound to each other by ties as strong as 
that of blood or kindred. 

"The relentless scythe of time is rapidly mowing down the 
ranks of those who first encountered the hardships and privations, 
and enjoyed the excitements peculiar to pioneer life, and their 
sons and daughters should see to it that their names are not buried 
in oblivion. Every township should have its historian, and a cor- 


rect history should be written, not only of the first settlement of 
every township, but also, and more particularly, a brief biography 
of the first pioneers, giving their lives in full, as well before they 
came to Michigan as up to the time of their death, or to the pres- 
ent time of living. 

"These sketches will add to the interest of our meetings, and 
furnish material of the most reliable kind tor the history of the first 
settlement of the State. If this is much longer delayed a large 
amount of knowledge that can now be obtained will he lost by the 
death of the few remaining pioneers who 50 years ago -tuck their 
stakes in Jackson county. 

"We have now something from the townships of Leoni, Grass 
Lake, and Pulaski, and a few personal sketches of pioneers, but 
our record is a meager one, and should no longer be neglected. 
There is now existing ample material for a full history of the first 
settlement of each township, and for the biography of most of the 
first settlers, and the preparation of it should no longer be ne- 
glected. The sons and daughters of our pioneers should see to it 
that the record is made and given to the society so that it may he 

"As there was no meeting of tin- society in the winter it is now- 
incumbent upon the members to elect officers to act until the next 
meeting of the society. There should also be provision made for 
proper books, in which may be placed such histories and biog- 
raphies as are now in possession ot the society, and also those 
which may hereafter be prepared and presented to it. 

"There are many members of the society who have but an im 
perfect record upon its books. It is very desirable that all such 
should be completed, and members are requested to examine the 
membership book, and those who have not done so should give 
the secretary the information necessary to enable him to make 
their record complete. 

"The necrology contains not only the names of the members ot 
this society who have gone before us since our last meeting, but 
also of all persons, so far as can be ascertained, who at the time of 
their death were over 60 years of age, as being entitled to this 
record ; for if they were not pioneers themselves they have followed 
their children or friends, and have spent their last days in this 
county. I regard all such as entitled to the notice of the society ; 
and in this connection I wish to say that it should be a rule of the 
society that immediately upon the death of a member the presi- 
dent and secretary should be notified, and a notice at once pub- 
lished by them asking all members of the society who can possibly 
do so to attend the funeral. No member ought to be allowed to 
go to his final resting place without this tribute of respect being 
paid to his memory. 

"The society is largely indebted to many outside of their or- 
ganization for their efforts to make this meeting successful and 
agreeable. This applies to many in all parts of the county who 
have come forward and assisted its members in every possible 


manner. Thedaily papers of the city, the Patriot and the Citizen, 
have generously granted the free use of their columns to give the 
action of the society the necessary publicity. The Michigan Cen- 
tral, its leased Hues; the Fort Wayne, Jackson Ar Saginaw; and 
the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railroads have, with com- 
mendable liberality, given reduced fare from all points in this 
State on their roads. ■ 

"To the ladies who have so kindly and so thoroughly given 
their invaluable aid is the gratitude of the society particularly due. 
They have proved themselves worthy wives and daughters of 
pioneer husbands and fathers ; the work done by them is above all 

•'To each and all the society returns its thanks for all favors re- 
ceived, and gratefully 7 acknowledge the many acts of kindness ex- 
tended to it in the effort made to bring together the pioneers of 
the counts* and the State." | .■qj: 

Mrs. N". H. Pierce, of Ann Arbor, appeared on the stand, and 
with a clear, distinct voice read the following poem, entitled 


" On to the West!" was the earnest cry 

Of our people some fifty years ago. 

The people were many, and labor was scarce, 

And industry crowded our busy marts, 

And the Eastern markets were glutted and slow. 

On to the land where the forests wild 

Were standing so lonely with out-stretched arms. 

The lakes and rivers were broad and free, 

And all uutrammeled in their rush and Mow, 

And waiting of human use to be; 

There were plains unfilled, and mills and factories unbuilt. 

And thousands of chances for hearts of steel 

To come and appropriate, till and build, 

And open a way for humanity's weal. 

There were richest mines all unexplored; 

There were leagues of iron and salt and coal, 

The greatest of blessings on earth to men, 

And source of comfort and wealth untold : 

It only needed the stalwart arm, 

The iron nerve, and the flinty will, 

To push straight on, to dig and delve, 

And our beautiful State with prosperity fill. 

And so, on they come ! and the western trains 

Of the emigrant wagons white and slow, 

Were circling round hill tops or winding through plains, 

Undaunted by menace of half concealed foe. 

They startled the deer in their ambushes wild, 

As still moving onward the invaders filed ; 

Dark savages peered at the unwonted sight, 

And forgot to resist or seek safety in flight ; 

But a garden of sweets to the venturous band 

Was this wild territory, so new, yet so grand. 

There were acres of wild flowers of every hue ; 

Springs, rivers, and landscapes most charming to view : 

There were silvery lakelets with fine sandy beaches, 

And forests of timber with broad sunny reaches; 

There were plaster and lime deeply bedded in earth, 

Which have borne no mean part in enhancing our worth ; 


There were meadows of wild grass, grapes, and wild honey. 

And nothing was wanting, indeed, except money. 

But the millions still buried in mines and in land, 

"Was now only waiting the engineer's hand 

To prove us enriched with this product unfurled. 

Which soon would astonish the rest of the world ! 

"Seekest thou, " said a voice to the brave pioneer, 

"A beautiful Peninsula ? Fehold it here !" 

And soon through the forest the silence he breaks 

With the firm, ringing blows of the engineer's ax, 

And humble log-cabins soon dotted the plains, 

And the spirit of civilization now reigns. 

And gardens and orchards next brighten the way, 

And deep, tangled wildwood soon vanish away, 

And broad fields of grain with their tassels of gold 

Soon laugh in the sunlight, a treasure unfold, 

And soon did the wilderness bloom like the rose, 

Prosperity followed, their spirits arose ; 

All nature exulting cries out with a cheer : 

" Long life and success, to the brave pioneer!" 

The years have rolled on and the young head is old, 

And the heart, warm and hopeful is fast growing cold, 

And the hand once so nimble has finished'its toil, 

For the work of the laborer in tilling the soil 

Has fallen to others still younger in years, 

Who walk in the wake of the old pioneer ! 

Now, behold what a change to the eyes of those 

Who were first to lead in the onward way : 

Great forests are felled and rivers are bridged, 

And towns and cities now stand this day. 

All over the country, like network spread, 

The rail and telegraph routes now lay; 

And eager and longing and wishing for more, 

Our youths are still seeking our western shore; 

And then, when the uttermost verge is found, 

They'll on to the east and the world go round. 

Now, looking back through the vanished years, 

We're well repaid for our toil and pain ; 

The trials are over of the pioneers, 

But their grand achievements still remain ; 

And better facilities none can find, 

In search of improvements in morals and mind. 


Gen. J. W. Brown, of Teeumseh, a veteran of 87 years, and one 
of the heroes of the Black Hawk war, in which he commanded all 
the troops of the Northwest, was introduced and made a short 
speech. He recounted his personal experience as a pioneer and 
gave a short sketch of his early life. 

The band played ''Hold the Fort" and "Sweet Bye and Bye" 
in their best manner. 

Judge Witter J. Baxter, of Jonesville, was introduced. He said 
he was a pioneer rather by virtue of his gray hairs than because of 
any pioneer work he had ever done. He said he had witnessed 
the development and growth of the great Staff < if Michigan with 
pride, and adverted in glowing terms to its religious and moral 
standing, to its educational advantages, and its political rights and 
privileges. He declared that she stood among the first in the galaxy 


of States; and in the course of his remarks made eulogistic allusions 
to the nation at large. He retired amid enthusiastic applause. 

B. F. Eggleston, of this city, followed with the ballad, "Forty 
Years Ago,'" which he sang in the happiest manner, and was re- 
warded by the attention and the applause of the assembly. 

Harrington Hendee, of Blackman, read a poem, which we regret 
we have not space to reproduce. 

Hon. Jonathan M. Shearer, of Wayne, was introduced. He is a 
genuine gentleman of the old school, and wore his silver hair in a 
cluster of curls behind, tied with a black ribbon. His speech, which 
was extemporaneous, was appropriate to the occasion and well re- 
ceived. At the close he sang a song entitled "The Down Hill of 
Life," with a great spirit. His age is 88 years. His aged but ex- 
cellent wife was also on the ground. They have been residents of 
the county for 50 years. 

F. A. Dewey, President of the Lenawee Pioneer Society, was 
presented and made a brief speech. Mr. D., who is 68 years of age, 
was a drum major under General Brown in the Black Plawk war. 
He has lived in Lenawee county 50 years, and judging from his 
appearance has a quarter of a century's lease of life before him. 

Eugene Pringle, of this city, made a most eloquent address in 
which he urged the necessity of preserving the local history of this 
county and of all the counties of the State. He said those who 
were to come after us would not understand the philosophy by 
which the civilization they will inherit was molded unless they 
were made cognizant of the early history ot the country. He said 
the prosperity we enjoyed received impetus from the pioneers who 
braved every danger and laid the foundations here for thousands 
of pleasant and happy homes. 

H. Bishop, of Kalamazoo, read a paper urging the advisability of 
preserving all attainable records of the hardy pioneers who came 
to Michigan when it was a wilderness and made it bloom with 
widespread fruitful fields. 

Aiter music by the band, the daughter of Mrs. M. W. Clapp, 
read a succinct history of the latter's pioneer life. In 1837 her 
husband bought three-eighties in Hanover township, upon which 
she has ever since resided. Her age is 75 years. 

Henry Little, of Kalamazoo, a hale and hearty man of 83 years, 
read an address entitled " Jacksonburgh and Jackson County, 
in 1831 and 1879." We regret that we are prevented for want 
of space from printing it. Mr. L. made a point by the assertion 
that "Michigan has better laws and more of them than any other 

Dr. Robinson read a poem abounding in local allusions and 
pleasant personal references which was exceedingly well received. 
We regret that the length of our report prevents our presenting 
extracts from it. Hon. James C. Wood made the closing address 
which was made up of anecdote and personal recollection. 

The following resolution presented by Morgan Case passed unan- 


Resolved, That the thanks of this city be and they are hereby 
tendered to the ladies for the bounteous banquet which they have 
prepared here to-day: and for the ornamenting of the hall, and 
their kind and successful efforts in entertaining- the society and its 

The recognition ot the service rendered by the ladies was 
merited and fully deserved. They labored hard to make the 
occasion what it was — a big success — and all united in according 
them the praise to which they were entitled. 


The celebration of the 50th anniversary of the settlement ot 
Jacksonburgh township, was also made the occasion of memorial- 
izing the settlement of the Fifield and Stevens families therein. 
Messrs. Fifield and Stevens left the township of Salisbury, Merri- 
mac Co., N. II., on the 6th day of October, 1830. The western 
bound party consisted of Enoch Fifield, James Fifield and wife. 
Osgood II. Fifield and wife. John S. Fifield, George W. Fifield, 
William P. Fifield, Edward Morrill, John Stevens and Benjamin 
Wilson. They arrived in Jacksonburgh on the 22d day of Octo- 
ber. 1830, and put up at the log tavern then kept by Thompson, 
and had the privilege of Bleeping upon a rail floor; not a board 
was used in building the house, even the doors were made of 
rails. Enoch Fifield and Edward Morrill returned East the same 
fall. The remaining nine of this company, together with the 
1'ease family, numbering eight, making a party of 17, win- 
tered in this township in 1830-'31, they being the first white people 
that ever wintered in this township outside of Jacksonburgh. 
George Fifield and John Stevens are the only two now living ot 
the 17 that settled here in 1830 and of the little party of 11 that 
left Salisbury. N. II., on the 6th of October, 1830. 

At this meeting, June 18, 1879, were present Mrs. A. L. Bolton. 
a lady aged 70 years, who, with her family, was the first settler 
in Napoleon, where she lived 48 years. Subsequently, the same 

S:ar, M< >rgan ( !ase with his wife settled here also. Senator 
odges, who lived in Pulaski and Concord for a time of 43 years, 
was present. Melvin McGee, who came into the county in 1832, 
when 14 years old, and a resident for 47 years, was also present. 
Mr. Tripp, of Hanover, although 58 years of age, was pres- 
ent and seemed in the prime of life. This settler has resided on 
the old homestead 47 years. He came to Hanover in 1832, with 
his father, Abel Tripp, who located the first farm in that town- 
ship. John Curtis, aged 79. who came to Jackson in 1837, was 
also present. 

The secretary of the Pioneer Society reported a membership ot 
.".(»4 men and 30 ladies. The oldest member is Allen Green, ot 
Napoleon, born in 17S9. His wife was born in 1801, and they 
were united in marriage in 1821. The next oldest member is Johii 
O'Dell, 88 years of age. who settled in Grass Lake in 1835. 


The following list of pioneers who have died in Hanover since 
1874 was presented to the president of the County Society : John 
Cobb, died Jan. 16, 1875. He was a native of Massachusetts, and 
settled in Hanover in 1834. Mrs. Densmore died Jan. 18, 1815. 
She was a native ot Maine, and settled in Hanover with her hus- 
band, Abiel Densmore. in 1839. Orren D. Thompson died April 
11, 1877. Mr. Thompson was a native of Connecticut and settled 
in Hanover in 1836. J. L. Hutchins died Aug. 16, 1877. He for- 
merly lived in Spring Arbor, but for quite a number of years pre- 
vious to his death had lived in Hanover. Paul Spink died ( >ct. 
22, 1877. Mr. Spink was a native of New York, and lived in 
Concord until 1840. Mrs. Nathan Shaw was a native of New 
York, and settled in the town of Hanover, with her husband, in 
1840. J. L. Rowe, a native of New York, settled in Michigan in 
1835, and died in Hanover Oct. 16, 1878, nearly 86 years old. 
Mrs. John L. Rowe died in Hanover village June 15, 1875. She 
was a native of Vermont. Jefferson Drake died Feb. 16, 1879. 
He was born in New Hampshire. Mrs. Hannah Burdick died 
Dec. 31, 1879. She was a native of Rhode Island. 

was held Feb. 21, 1880. Col Shoemaker and Hon. David John- 
son addressed the members present and were emphatic in their 
advocacy of preserving a full record of the county. The speakers 
having concluded, the choice of officers was made. II. H. Bing- 
ham, the indefatigable secretary of the society, was elected presi- 
dent; B. F. Eggleston, secretary, and P. B. Loomis, treasurer. 
The vice-presidents chosen to represent the townships were : 
George Langdon, Springpdrt; Thomas .!. Stimson, Parma; Michael 
Dwelle, Grass Lake; John C. Covert. Napoleon; Jared L. Rich- 
ardson. Sandstone; Richard Townley, Tompkins; John R. Poole, 
Blackman; Moses Tutthill. Liberty; Ira C. Wyllis, Pulaski; George 
Hatch, Spring Arbor; William Clapp, Hanover; Patrick Eankard, 
Henrietta; Richard Rriu-s, Concord; A. II. DeLamater, Columbia; 

Z. M. Rarher. 1., i; Reter Knauff, Waterloo; Charles A. Brown, 

Norvell;Wm. Root, Summit; R. 11. Anderson, Rives; Moses A. 
MeNaughton, 1st and 2d wards; .lames C. Wood, 3d and 4th 
wards; S. ( ). Knapp, 5th and 6th wards; Eugene Pringle, 7th and 
8th wards, Jackson. 

The president's valedictory, contained in his address to the pio- 
neers, was as follows: 

" To tht Pioneers of Jack*' >/i t'mnitij: — The winter meeting ot 
the society is held for the election of officers; to hear the report 
of its vice-presidents, who each constitutes amemorial committee 
for the township which he represents, and whose duty it is to 
report the death of all members of this society, and also ot' an\ 
other pioneers, which have occurred in his township during his 
term of office: the arrangements for a summer picnic meeting or 
meetings, and the transaction of such other business as the society 
may think proper. 


"I would respectfully urge that vice-presidents, in the future, he 
instructed to give special attention to the memorial reports, and 
requested to give, with the date of the death of each pioneer, the 
time and place of birth, the date of settlement within the county, 
with a brief sketch of his or her life; these reports to be made 
annually, at the winter meeting of the society. 

"The constitution of the society provides that there shall be 
two meetings of its members and other pioneers, one Feb. 22, 
and the other on the third Saturday in August. It has been found 
more pleasant t<> hold the summer meeting in June, rather than in 
August, it but one meeting is held in the summer months. It is 
desirable that the practice of the society should correspond with 
the requirements of its constitution, and I would recommend a 
revision of its provisions, not only as to the times of holding, but 
also as to the number of its meetings. In Washburn county the 
Pioneer Society meets four times a year, and at four different 
places in the county. I am decidedly of the opinion that it would 
promote the interests of the society if at least one picnic meeting 
each year should he held at some place other than Jackson, alter- 
nating each year, so that all parts of the county would have the ad- 
vantage of its proximity. There are many aged pioneers in the 
county who, if such a provision should be adopted and carried into 
effect, would be able to attend our meetings, but who now, from the 
distance they are obliged to travel, are precluded from doing so. A 
change of place of holding our meetings would also add to their 
novelty and interest. It would, I think, enable us to obtain more 
pioneer history than we can by holding our meetings at Jackson 
or any one place. 

' ' Those who attended the picnic last June will always look back 
to it as one of the most pleasant gatherings it was ever their good 
fortune to attend. It is to be hoped that these meetings will be no 
less interesting in the future. This can, I think, be better assured 
by holding them at different points in the county, as each section 
will endeavor to make its meeting as pleasant as that of any other. 
I am assured that in Washtenaw and other counties this practice 
has had, in every respect, a most happy effect. 

" In taking my leave of this society, as its president, as I shall 
at the close of this meeting, I wish to say that my interest in all 
the subjects connected with its organization has increased with the 
time I have been connected with it, and I return to the society my 
m< ist sincere thanks for the honor they have so kindly and for so 
long a time conferred upon me. My interest in the society will be 
none the less than heretofore, and I have no doubt but my associ- 
ation with it will be the source of as much pleasure in the future 
as in the past." 


The summer meeting of 1880 was one of the most pleasant re- 
unions of the Jackson Pioneer Society. Everything that possibly 


could be done to render the occasion one of pure enjoyment was 
done, so that the pioneers who attended were treated to a mental 
and corporeal feast. 

The addresses of Hon. H. H. Bingham, President; Hon. Eugene 
Pringle, Hon. II. C. Hodge, and the sketches of the early settle- 
ment of Tompkins, by Mr. Richard Townley, and of Norvell, by 
•Mrs. 8. W. Palmer, were carefully prepared and rendered excel- 
lently. The addresses follow in this chapter, while the sketches 
will claim a place in that section of the work given to reminiscences 
of the pioneers. 


ii Pioneers of Jaclson County. Ladies and G>-idlem>n: 

" On life's journey we have been carried forward another year 
since our last social gathering in this beautiful park. Since then 
some of our comrades have gone down the slope, and have crossed 
the river to the other side, joining their associates who have pre- 
ceded them. Like ripened sheaves for the harvest they have 
tilled the measure of their days, and in our sorrow for their loss, 
and while holding their memory dear, we still feel and believe that 
they have reached a haven of rest. 

" But the year has brought with it much tor gratitude and thank- 
fulness. The husbandman has been blest with bountiful harvests. 
no blighting drouth or devastating storms have reached us, and we 
have been visited with no fatal epidemics bringing sorrow to our 
households. A mild winter so appreciated by those whose life's 
blood is flowing slowly, a genial spring with all its beauty and 
freshness, and the early summer giving promise again of plentiful 
fruits and abundant harvests, these are among the blessings 
vouchsafed us by a kind Providence, and tilling our hearts to over- 
flowing with gratitude, and to-day, under a genial sun and sum- 
mer sky, we have assembled here to greet each other, and renew 
old-time acquaintance, going over again the hardships and priva- 
tions of pioneer life, but enjoying no\v the full fruition of most 
of our highest hopes and anticipations, reaping a rich reward for 
enterprise, industry and thoughtful care for the future. 

" A tew years onward, and after a few more annual reunions, 
we shall leave this beautiful heritage to our children and our 
children's children, giving them an example and a history that 
they can ever refer to with pride and gratification, representing 
their ancestry, not in every sense perfect, but possessed of sterling 
integrity and guided by a wise foresight for those that were to fol- 
low them. As an evidence, we have only to look over our 
country, with its highly cultivated farms, provided with capacious 
barns and orchards, and commodious dwellings tilled with every 
convenience and adorned with works of art; at our school -houses 
and churches; at our villages and our Central City, with its busy 
streets, manufactories and public institutions, all giving proof of 


thrift and energy, and a wisdom in designing and planning rarely 
equaled in the history of our country. 

"We greet you to-day, not as pioneers coming to this unbroken 
wilderness solely to improve its forests, hills, and plains, with the 
exclusive idea of greed and gain, but to build up homes with 
happy surroundings, and to establish and maintain those higher 
institutions molding and guiding in morality and intelligence. 

" Forty-four years ago the speaker came into the State. The 
tide of emigration was then at its height, and the long trains of 
emigrant wagons was a noted feature of the day. Those trains, 
bringing hither a race of men who were strong in nerve and 
muscle, in will and energy, and a race of women, ton, noted for 
their fortitude in enduring privations, and cheerfully adapting 
themselves to their circumstances, and taxing every effort to make 
the new homes pleasant and enjoyable. 

''We may be pardoned some egotism in writing up our history, 
though we can but be entitled to a large credit for what has been 
accomplished in our generation. 

"Forty to fifty years have transpired since the first considerable 
settlement in the county. We were younger then than now, and 
notwithstanding that gray hairs are conspicuous, we may be thank- 
ful that we are yet so hale and are still possessed of so much that 
is enjoyable in life. 

"Let the day, then, he a stopping place, a way station in which 
we can put away the cares, and stop the unceasing toil, and do 
ourselves the pleasure of once more meeting, and occupy a little 
time in calling up reminiscences and memories of the past, and 
making history that shall hereafter be read with pleasure and 

"And in referring to this history, may our children be filled 
with pride of birthplace and ancestry, of our State ami country, 
and he thereby imbued with ambition and energy in making noble 
efforts to raise the scale of manhood in everything great and good; 

••We take pleasure in greeting all those who have responded to 
our invitation, and have met with us. We hope they will carry 
away the impression that the\ have been received with a cordiality 
that comes from the heart. And so. after enjoying the festivities 
of this social reunion, and we shall have returned to our homes, 
may the recollections of the day be dwelt upon as one of the 
cheering incidents in which it has been our fortune to participate." 

The following letters were read and placed on the records of the 
society : 

Uon.H. H. Bingham : 

Dear Sir : — Your polite invitation to attend a pioneer meeting at Jackson, on 
the twenty-third instant, found me on a bed of sickness, and although 1 am recover- 
ing, I have not yet been able to leave my room. In is:;4 the entire population of 
your county was thirteen hundred and sixty-five, less than one of the wards of your 
growing city at this time. Many of these "have goi.e, and with them very much 
authentic history which can never be recovered. Many, I hope, are still alive, and 
are the possessors ot historic' tacts, which, to the coming generation at least, will be 


of priceless value — Gather them up — gather them up ! With my kindest regards 
to all " old pioneers," I am truly yours, etc. 

0. C. Comstook. 
Marshall, June 30, 1880. 

Detroit, June IT. 1880 
H. II. Bingham, Esq., President Jackson County Pioneer Society : 

Dear Sir : — Your card of invitation to attend your meeting on the twenty-third 
instant is at hand. It would give me great pleasure to meet you again, for the rec- 
ollection of my meeting with you a few years ago is a most pleasant one. I do not 
think I shall be able to attend now, and for want of something better I send you a 
copy of the fifth edition of my poetical works, which I wish you to present at your 
meeting to the oldest pioneer of Jackson county. Wishing long life and health 
and happiness to all the pioneers, T remain, 

Yours respectfully, 

Levi Bishop. 

Detroit, June 19, 1880. 
Son. H. II. Bingham : 

My Dear Sir: — Your polite invitation to the Jackson county pioneer meetiug, 
nest week Wednesday, is received. It is very doubtful whether I can be present, 
for next week I have an avalanche of engagements and preparations therefor. If I 
do not come this year, please say to the pioneers and friends that next year I will 
try and be with them and contribute something of interest to the occasion. It is 
no more than fair that, as the pioneers made history, we should take an interest in 
collating it. I hail with pleasure the interest that is being awakened on this sub- 
ject. With my best wishes for the cause and the occasion, for the pioneers | what 
there are left, of them), and for yourself personally, I remain, yours truly, 

T. W. Palmer. 

Jonesville, June 17, 1880. 
Hon. H. II. Bingham, President »f the Jackson Canity Pioneer Society, Jackson : 
Dear Sir : — I regret very much that I shall not be able to accept your kind in- 
vitation to attend your annual meeting on the twenty-third instant. I am compelled 
to go East on business of the State Board of Education to-morrow,and shall probably 
not be able to return before the first, of July. I trust you will, as I know you al- 
ways do, have a pleasant and profitable time. 

Truly yours, 

W.J. Baxter. 

Plymouth, June 21, 1880. 
Hon. II. II Bingham. President, andB. F.Bggleston,8ecir : etary, oftheStatt Pioneer 

Society of Michigan 

Gentlemen: — Please accept the highest acknowledgments for the kind invita- 
tion to meet our brothers and sisters of the Pioneer Society of Michigan, on the 
twenty -third day of June, at Jackson. It would be highly gratifying to" meet with 
you, and enjoy the pleasing recollections of pioneer life in the beginning of this 
beautiful State, and behold the noble faces of the care-worn women and men who 
have made Michigan a glorious State, one of the best in the union. Please remem- 
ber me to the Hon. M.'Shoemaker, Judge Johnson, and all the noble pioneers of 
which I should be very glad to meet on that festive occasion ; but engagements are 
such that it will be impossible. Very respectfully and truly yours, 

Jonathan Shearer. 

P. S. — I learn by the papers that our old pioneer friend, Livermore, has been 
called to leave us. His friendly acquaintance was formed many years ago, while 
members of the Legislature. In the advocacy of the right, and the welfare of the 
people at large, his equal was not surpassed by any, and as pioneers we most heart- 
ily feel and sympathize with his bereaved friends for their uncommon loss. J.S. 

Friend Bingham :— I send you " Hints on Modern Education," to be read to 
the pioneers, and say to them that if I cannot be with them personally, my mind 
and best wishes will be always with them while life lasts. " J. S. 


In pioneer life are always incidents of peculiar interest, not only 
to the pioneers, but, also, if well preserved, to their children and 
the historian. It is a matter to be regretted that the Pioneer So- 
ciety ot Jackson was not organized many years prior to 1874; 
because many of those men who converted the wilderness into pro- 
ductive fields passed away before that time, and left no record 
behind. Such a society, with copious records, is invaluable. It 
is the main channel through which history is to be handed down, 
and justice done to the memory of men who battled with nature in 
her wildest form, and tamed her after years of well-directed labors. 
While regretting the want ot antiquity in connection with the 
Jackson Pioneer Society, the county and people have to be con- 
gratulated on the magnificent progress made during the six years 
of its existence. For this, thanks are due to the first secretary, 
Hon. H. H. Bingham. A glance at the records will be sufficient 
to prove his zeal in the work of the very important office to which 
he was elected. With the Hon. David Johnson, First President, 
and Col. Shoemaker, President of the State Society, Mr. Bingham 
takes a large share in the honor which pertains to its organizers, 
and, like his friends just named, he has reached the most honorable 
position connected with a society, — that of president. 

Let the good work grow apace. The men who performed so 
much good are capable of doing more. They deserve and enjoy 
the confidence of their comrades of early days, and such being the 
case, society demands that they persevere in following the paths 
which friends of knowledge tread. 



Owing to the earnestness of the settlers <>t 1830, and the glow- 
ing reports previously circulated by the Blackmails, .1 acksonburgh 
attracted the attention of the Legislature as early as 1829, and 
proved the suggestive point, which resulted in laying out the 
southern counties, including Jackson. In opening this chapter the 
act of general organization takes precedence-, followed by subse- 
quent legislative enactments affecting the district, and a resume of 
the first township election. A review ot the important labors of 
the board of supervisors ami that of the commissioners, during 
the brief time of their official existence, from 1 sMl to 1880, is 


An act, approved Oct. 29, 1829, by the governor and council 
of the Territory of Michigan, which provided for the laying out ot 
counties, ordained, that the boundaries of Washtenaw county 
should be a line beginning on the base line where the line 
between ranges seven and eight east of the principal merid- 
ian crosses the base line; thence west along the base line to 
the intersection of the line between ranges six and seven east of 
the meridian; thence north between said ranges six and seven to 
the intersection of the line between townships two and three north 
of the base line; thence west between said townships, two and 
three north, to the intersection of the line between two and three 
east of the principal meridian; thence south on the line between 
said ranges two and three, to the intersection of the line between 
townships four and five south of the base line; thence east on the 
line between said townships to the intersection of the line between 
ranges seven and eight east of the meridian; thence north on the 
line between said ranges to the base line. 

Tngha/m Gowvty. — This county was comprised within the follow- 
ing boundaries :— North of the base line, and south of the lines 
between townships four and five north of the base line, and east of 
the line between ranges two and three west of the principal merid- 
ian, and west of the line between ranges two and three east of 
the meridian, be, and the same is, hereby set off into a separate 
county, and the name thereof shall be "Ingham." 

Eaton Count i/. — The boundaries, ordained by the act of 1829, 
were: North of the base line, and south of the line between 
townships tour and five north of the base line, and east of the line 


between ranges six and seven west of the principal meridian, and 
west of the line between ranges two and three west of the meridian 
be set off into a separate county, and the name thereof shall be 

Jackson Coimty. — The council enacted that so much of the 
country included south of the base line, and north of the line between 
townships four and five south of the base line, and west of the line 
between ranges two and three east of the meridian, and east 
of the line between ranges three and four west of the meridian, be 
set off into a separate county and the name thereof shall be 

Calhoun County — comprised the country lying south of the base 
line, and north of the line between townships four and five south 
of the base line, and west of the line between ranges three and four 
west of the meridian, and east of the line between ranges eight 
and nine west, be set off and called ' ' Calhoun. " 

Hillsdale Coimty — comprised the country lying west of the 
meridian, and east of the line between ranges four and five west of 
the meridian, and south of the line between townships four and 
five south of the base line, and north of the boundary line between 
this Territory and the State of Ohio, be named "Hillsdale." 

Branch County. — That portion of the country lying west of the 
line between ranges four and five west of the meridian, and east of 
the line between ranges eight and nine west, and south of the 
line between townships four and five, south of the base line, and 
north of the boundary line between the State of Indiana and this 
Territory, was called "Branch county." 

Other Acts. — The council approved of an act setting off and 
organizing the township of Jacksonopolis, July 30, 1830. This 
act recognized Jackson county as a township in these words: 
"That all that part of the country lying within the limits of the 
county of Jackson be, and the Bame is, herebV set off into a separate 
township, and the name thereof shall he Jacksonopolis; that the 
first township meeting to he held in said township shall be at the 
dwelling house of J. W. Bennett, in said township, on the third 
Tuesday of August, in the year L830; that the officers who shall be 
appointed in said township shall transact the business of said 
township, in all things as far as may be, in the same manner as 
they were by law required to do if they had been elected at the 
annual township meeting, provided the officers who may be ap- 
pointed at said special township meeting shall not hold their 
offices longer than until the first Monday in April, which will be 
in the year 1831. 

By authority of an act of the Legislative Council of the Territory, 
approved Nov. 4, 1829, the counties of Jackson and Ingham were 
attached to the county of Washtenaw for judicial purposes. 

The council enacted in 1829 that the counties of Jackson and Ing- 
ham should be attached to Dexter, in Washtenaw county, and form 
a part of that township. This was approved Nov. 5, 1829. 


For some reason this meeting, as directed in the act, did not 
take place in due form, as the premier election was held in 1831. 
This is known as the first. 


At the first annual township meeting held in and for the town 
of Jacksonhurgh, at the house of W. R. Thompson, Alexander 
Laverty was chosen moderator, Samson Stoddard, clerk, who, with 
Wm. R. De Land, Justic of the Peace, formed the Board of Election, 
and proceeded to ballot first for supervisor, when, on canvassing the 
votes, there were 17 for Ralph Updike, 13 for Wm. R. Thompson, 
and one for Alexander Laverty, whereupon Ralph Updike was de- 
clared duly elected. They then proceeded to ballot for township 
clerk, and on canvassing the same there were 15 for Christian 
Prusia, 13 for David Striker, and one for Hiram Thompson, 
whereupon Christian Prusia was declared duly elected. 

For Assessors- -Horace Blackmail, 15 votes; Isaac Sterling, 15 votes; Ezekiel T. 
Critchett, 15 votes. 

For Constable— Horace Blackmail, 18 votes; Ezekiel T. Critchett, 4 votes. 

For Commissioners of Highway-Alexander Laverty, 36 votes (ehcted); Isaac 
Sterling, 30 votes (elected); Isaiah W. Bennett, 21 votes ; Russell Blackman, 14 

For Overseer of Poor — Lemuel Blackman, 19 votes (elected). 

For School Commissioners— Samson Stoddard, Wm. R. De Land, and Oliver Russ, 
chosen by uplifted hand. 

For School Inspectors— Osgood H. Fifield, Hiram Thompson, Daniel Walker, 
Isaac N. Swaineand James Valentine. 

For Fence Viewers — John Durand, Martin Flint, Samuel Roberts and Timolhy 

For Overseers of Highway— Chester Wall, Horace Blackman. Ralph Updike and 
Wm. C. Pease. 

Pound Master— Martin Flint. 

The act to change the name of the township of Jacksonopolis 
was approved Feb. 18, 1831, in the following terms: "Be it 
enacted by the Legislative Council of the Territory of Michigan, 
that the township of Jacksonopolis shall hereafter be called 
' Jacksonburgh,' any law to the contrary notwithstanding." 


The act of the council organizing the county of Jackson was 
not approved until June 26, 1832, and was not ordered to come 
into force until Aug. 1, the same year. • The act says, "That the 
county of Jackson shall be organized from and after the taking- 
effect of this act, and the inhabitants thereof entitled to the rights 
and privileges to which, by law, the inhabitants of the other coun- 
ties of this Territory are entitled ; that all suits, prosecutions and 
other matters now pending before the Courts of Record of Washte- 
naw county, or before any justice of the peace of said county of 
Washtenaw, shall be prosecuted to final judgment and execution, 
and all taxes heretofore levied, or which may be hereafter levied 


tor the year 1832, shall be collected in the same manner as though 
the said county of Jackson had not been organized." 


"When -Jackson county was young and struggling, 48 years ago, 
it had about the same machinery for county government as it now 
has, except that there was not so much of it. The records show 
that the first meeting of board of supervisors met at the house of 
Lemuel Blackman, in the village of Jacksonburgh, the first Tues- 
dayin October, 1833. Atthat time the county was divided into only 
four towns, which, with their supervisors, were as follows : Spring 
Arbor, Amasa B. Gibson; Jacksonburg, C. Harrington; Napoleon, 
H. Austin; and Grass Lake, W. H. Pease. Amasa Gibson was 
elected chairman, and Hiram Thompson, clerk. At this meeting it 
was voted that a sum of $2.50 be paid for the scalp of any full- 
grown wolf killed within three miles of the dwelling of any white 
inhabitant. Claims for such killing were allowed to the amount 
of $35. The total of bills allowed at this session was $220.19. 
Property was not quite so valuable then as now, neither were taxes 
so heavy. The assessed valuation and total taxation of the towns 
was as follows : 

Valuation. Tax. 

Spring Arbor 130,11100 * 150 64 

Jarksonslmr-rh 34,765 00 164 05 

Napoleon 14, TOO 00 74 28 

Grass Lake 4,260 00 12 73 

In the tax tor Jacksonburgh were $25 for sickness. The pay of the 
supervisors was $1 per day. The next meeting was held in March, 
1834, the members of the same board being present. Among the 
accounts then allowed were $1.50 to Alexander Laverty for crying 
at court. The treasurer was allowed three per cent, for collecting 
taxes, and at that rate Dr. Stoddard managed" to earn the princely 
sum of $6.72. There was a balance reported in the treasury, but 
only of 26 cents. At that early day there were individuals so 
poor that the county had to provide for them. At this session the 
names of two sufferers were mentioned, and accounts for their 
maintenance presented. 

A special session was held in April to see about building a jail. 
John Daniels succeeded C. Harrington as supervisor for Jackson- 
burgh, and he was instructed to act as a committee of one to secure 
a safe room for use as a jail. In October it was voted to raise 
$355.72, and the taxes this year were considerably higher than 
before. Spring Arbor had outstripped Jacksonburgh, and was the 
wealthiest town, and its share of the tax was $238.76; Jackson- 
burgh, $226.62; Grass Lake, 43.82; Napoleon, $138.68. 

In March, 1835, $21.09 were reported in the treasury, and 
$116.79 had been allowed. Joseph Morris and others objected to 
the line of the Washtenaw Territorial road, and it was ordered to 


be changed, if the change could be made without doing greater 
public or private injury than the one complained of. 

In October a new board appeared. Col. Abram Bolton repre- 
sented Napoleon, and was elected chairman; Samuel Hamlin, from 
Jacksonburgh, and Caleb Culver, from Grass Lake, with W. R. 
De Land as clerk. Property was rising, and the assessment-roll 
showed an increase in the valuation of from 200 to 450 per cent. 
Spring Arbor was valued at $111,817; Jacksonburgh, $72,084; 
Napoleon, $51,749; Grass Lake, $18,657. This session was 
marked by nothing special except that the board forgot to approve 
the proceedings, and had to meet the next week to set the seal ot 
approval on the record. 

In October, 1836, the number of towns were increased to ten, 
namely : Jacksonburgh, Concord, Grass Lake, Hanover, Leoni, 
East Portage, West Portage, Spring Arbor, Napoleon, Sandstone. 
The assessed valuation was $737,621. In January, 1837, a resolu- 
tion was adopted to issue bonds for $10,000 to build a jail and 
court-house, Jerry G. Cornell and Geo. B. Cooper being appointed 
to negotiate the loan, which was to run 10 years and draw inter- 
est at seven per cent. Proposals were advertised for, and a con- 
tract for stone building awarded to David Porter. 

This was the last time the board met in " Jacksonflw/v/A," for 
before the October session the last syllable was dropped, and it 
became "Jackson." Michigan was lifted to the plane of a State, 
and now all through the record appears a new item, — "State 
Tax." Owing to there being so many non-resident landholders, 
the treasurer could not collect the State tax as assessed, and he 
was directed to pay it out of the first moneys he might collect, and 
to sell the lands of non-payers. In the minutes of this session ap- 
pear the names of Parma, Rives, Liberty, as new towns. There 
were also represented Aurelius and Stock'b ridge, of Ingham county, 
which county was then attached to this for business purposes. In 
1838 Pulaski, Springport and Tompkins were added. In this 
year the record closed somewhat abruptly, on account, as a note 
says, of the board of supervisors being abolished by law. 

For the next four years, the affairs of the county were conducted 
by a board of three county commissioners, who were Nicholas 
Townley, of Tompkins, Drusas Hodges, of Spring Arbor, and Al- 
vin Clark, of Grass Lake. During the first two years ot their rule 
nothing of interest occurred, except the addition of Columbia to the 
sisterhood of towns in 1839. In 1810 the commissioners of Jack- 
son and Ingham counties met to settle up the joint affairs, — Ing- 
ham being now old enough to run alone. The Jackson commis- 
sioners were Clark, Townley and Hodges, with the treasurer, John 
N. Dwight. Ingham county was represented by J. Loomis, 
William A. Dryer and Henry Lee, Commissioners, with H. H. 
Smith as Treasurer. It was agreed that Ingham should pay $120 
for her nursing. 

In 1840 West Portage drops out, and Henrietta appears; but it 
was seven years before Waterloo took the place of East Portage. 


In 1842 the supervisors again appear, the county system not last- 
ing long. 

The writing in the old record book is well preserved, though an 
occasional page is faded. Of the many clerks, whose penmanship 
is found, that of the late J udge W. R. De Land was the finest and 
handsomest. Czar.Jones was clerk in 1843. and claims the palm 
for plain working. 


Amasa B. Gibson, Chairman. W. H. Pease, Grass Lake; C. 
Harrington, Jacksonburgli ; Harvey Austin, Napoleon, and A. B. 
Gibson, Spring Arbor. 

A meeting of the Board of Supervisors of the county of Jack- 
son, held at the house of Lemuel Blackman, in the village of 
Jacksonburgli, on the first Tuesday of October, 1833, pursuant to 
law. Amasa B. Gibson, ot Spring Arbor, was chosen chairman, 
and H. Thompson, clerk. The first business of the meeting was 
the auditing and payment of public accounts ; and as the list ot 
county auditors contains names that cannot but recall the past, 
and the simple, easy and economical manner in which the pioneers 
attended to the interests of the county, it is but just that the list 
be subscribed : 

David Keyes, services as sheriff $ 47 49 

Russell Biackman, services to county paupers 4 03 

Lyman R. Lowell, services to county paupers 14 68 

Oliver Russ, attendance and medicine 2 25 

Hiram Godfrey, services to countv paupers 10 00 

John T. Durand, surveying bill . .' 37 54 

John T. Durand, clerk bill 3 70 

David Keyes. com. highways 10 00 

Chester Wall 4 00 

Samson Stoddard, county clerk 3 50 

Hiram Austin, chairman 1 50 

John Wellman. chairman 75 

Martin Flint, chairman 75 

James Voluntine, returning votes for treasurer and coroner 1 00 

Mart iu Flint, services to county paupers 5 00 

John M. Dwight, bill for room 4 50 

Samuel Clinio, bill as chairman 1 50 

Daniel Coleman, bill' for book 5 00 

H. Thompson, services on appeal on road 2 50 

John Met 'oniK'l, com. highways 3 00 

W. R. De Land, on appeal on road 2 50 

Charles Harrington, supervisor 3 50 

Amasa B. Gibson, supervisor 5 50 

Harvey Austin, supervisor 4 00 

William H. Pease 2 00 

Hiram Thompson, clerk of the board 5 00 

Total $185 19 

The first ordinance of the board was, ' ' That the sum of $2. 50 be 
given as a bounty for the killing of every lull-grown wolf ; that 
the nature of proof shall be as follows : Every person before he 
shall be entitled to such bounty shall make affidavit before a jus- 

1 /rn^ fj 

- m t 



tice of the peace of the county in which said wolf was killed, of 
the time and place of killing of said wolf, and that said wolf was 
killed within three miles of a white inhabitant, and shall present 
the justice the scalp of the wolf so killed, which scalp shall be 
destroyed by said justice; and the said justice shall make certiticate 
of the same, and that such person is entitled to said bounty." 

After the ordinance was duly promulgated, the following 
accounts for the killing of wolves were audited and county orders 
issued for amounts : 

Thomas McGee, killing two wolves $ 3 00 

Leander McCain, killing live wolves (L. McCain's order was $2 50 too 

much.) 12 50 

John Daniels, killing one wolf 2 50 

Henry Daniels, two certificates 5 00 

Abel W. Daniels, two certificates 5 00 

Isaac Sterling, two certificates 5 00 

Samson Stoddard, Treasurer. 

The supervisors ordered " That orders upon the county be issued 
by the clerk upon all the accounts preferred against the county, 
except for wolf certificates, which are not to be given out until 
there are sufficient funds in the treasury to pay them, after all other 
bills now audited and pending against said county are paid off and 
discharged. " 

The assessment of the townships was next supervised : 


The aggregate amount on the assessment roll $34,765 

Amount of town allowances $ 43 17 

Money raised to prevent infectious diseases 25 00 

Proportion of county expenses 95 88 

Amount of tax 164 05 


Aggregate amount of assessment roll $30,111 

Amount of town allowances $ 79 13 

Proportion of county expenses 7151 

Amount of tax 150 64 


Aggregate amount of assessment roll $14,712 

Amount of town allowances $ 30 16 

Proportion of county expenses 44 04 

Amount of tax 74 20 


Aggregate amount on assessment roll $4,260 

Proportion of county expenses $12 73 

Daniel B. Brown, Sheriff of the county of Washtenaw, pre- 
sented his account of $25.13, for keeping William Savacool, a 


prisoner from Jackson county. The account, however, was pre- 
sented too late for adjustment, and was placed on file, to be brought 
up at the next annual meeting of the board. A note says : "No 
further business being before the board, it was adjourned sine die.'''' 
This closed the proceedings for that meeting, and the report was 
duly signed by H. Thompson, Clerk. 

The next meeting of the board of supervisors was held April 14, 
1834, at the house of Lemuel Blackman. The supervisors present 
were : Amasa B. Gibson, of Spring Arbor; William H. Pease, of 
Grass Lake; Harvey Austin, of Napoleon, and John Daniels, of 
Jacksonburgh. The object of the meeting was to provide a jail 
for the reception of prisoners, and the only resolution accepted was 
that authorizing Supervisor John Daniels to furnish a room for the 
reception and keeping of prisoners committed to the custody of the 
sheriff of Jackson county. 

The board met on the second Tuesday of October, 1S34, being 
the second " annual" meeting. Among its first acts was the issue 
of a county order to D. B. Brown, Sheriff of Washtenaw, for 
$25.13, amount due him for boarding a prisoner. Reuben Barns, 
Russell Swain, Linus Gillett, John Learn, Wm. P. Worden and 
Amos Fassett were acknowledged the slayers of nine wolves; but 
the orders for amount of bounty were not issued to Kearn and Fas- 
sett until May 1, 1836. Lemuel Blackman was allowed $1.50 for 
the use of the court room. 

The financial condition of the county may be gleaned from the 
following order of the board : That the following sums be raised, 
to wit : 

Balance on allowances for the year 1833 $ 47 02 

Allowed at the March meeting 1834 80 80 % 

Allowed October, 1834 168 48^ 

A sum to meet contingent expenses 59 35 

Total $ 355 72 

Now with a view of equalizing the assessment roll of the several 
townships of the county, the supervisors ordered that the four 
divisions of the county raise the following amounts : 


Share of county expenses $ 118 20 

Town charges 108 63 

Collector's fees 11 93 

Total $ 238 76 


Share of county expenses $ 116 26 

Town charges 99 03 

Collector's fees 11 33 

Total S 226 62 



Share of county expenses $ 68 2!> 

Town charges 63 50 

Collector's fees 6 93 

Total $ 138 68 


Share of county expenses $ 21 63 

Town charges 20 00 

Collector's fees 2 19 

Total .$ 43 82 

The entire tax amounted to $647.88, with Spring Arbor town- 
ship leading in the van of prosperity, and Jacksonburgh following 
closely. Napoleon in one year almost doubled its taxable prop- 
erty, while Grass Lake showed a three-fold amount of wealth. 

The fourth meeting of the board convened March 3, 1835, with 
the same supervisors present. Lorenzo Rice was allowed $5 for 
killing two wolves, and D. Shannon $1 for guarding prison, to- 
gether with other accounts, amounting in the aggregate to $116.79, 
for all which county orders were issued, and a balance left in favor 
of the people of $21.09. The order of the board to the commis- 
sioners of highway to enquire into the complaint of Joseph Morris 
and others against the location of the Washtenaw Territory road, 
closed the proceedings of the meeting. 

The fifth annual session of the board was held in the house of 
Wm. Bothwell in the village of Jacksonburgh, Oct. 5, 1835. 
Present — Cabel Culver, Supervisor of Grass Lake; Samuel Hamlin, 
Supervisor of Jacksonburgh; Col. Abram F. Bolton, Supervisor of 
Napoleon; Caleb M. Chapel, Supervisor of Spring Arbor; Samson 
Stoddard, County Clerk. 

The supervisor of Spring Arbor was not present at that meeting, 
yet a quorum being present, it was organized and immediately ad- 
journed to the 7th. Caleb M. Chapel appeared at the adjourned 
meeting and took his seat. Accounts were passed to the amount 
of $128.12, among the items of which is one showing the claim of 
Alexander Laverty for crying in court, $3.75. 

Olney Hawkins, the former district attorney, presented an ac- 
count of $100 for professional services rendered in 1834. This 
claim was rejected, after which the board received the following 
notice : 

Gentlemen : — Please take notice that I shall appeal to the Circuit Court, tobe held 
in and for said county, on Tuesday, j-fter the first Monday in December next, on 
my claim for professional services as district attort ey for said county, for the year 
1834 this day presented before said board, and rejected, and ask said court to do me 
justice in regard thereto. Olney Hawkins. 

Jacksonburgh, Oct. 7, 1835. By Daniel Coleman, Agent. 

Seth T. Atkins, John Pratt, L. Gillett, C. Matthews, Elijah 
Spencer, John F. Fifield, received $22.50 for killing wolves. 


Wm. R. De Land was allowed $10 for services rendered in crimi- 
nal prosecutions. l833-'4, and $7 to Wm. R. Perrine on lost order, 
which sums brought up the disbursements to $167.62. The as- 
sessments of the townships for L835 were: Jacksonburgh, $206.53; 
Spring Arbor, $407*90; Napoleon, $255.64; Grass Lake, $90.00; 
total, $060.07. 

The board sat on Oct. 8, 13, and 26, and transacted much rou- 
tine business. Wm. R. De Land acted as county clerk. 

The sixth meeting of the board was held Jan. 20, 1836, in the 
house of Paul B. Ring, of Jacksonburgh, but the only subject 
brought before the meeting was the petition of E. H. Packard, 
asking for alterations in the Territorial road between Jacksonburgh 
and White Pigeon. The board did not accede to the prayer, being 
convinced that said alterations were not required for public con- 
venience and expedient. 

The seventh meeting was also held in Mr. Ring's dwelling. 
March 1, 1836, with Win. E. DeLand, Clerk. County Treasurer 
Samson Stoddard reported a balance in the treasury of $34,371-2. 

The eighth meeting was held July 7, 1836, at which were pres- 
ent Jerry G. Cornell, Alonzo Brown, Daniel Porter, Josiah Mills, 
John Barnum and Thomas McGee. The board resolved that the 
assessors of Sandstone township should report to the meeting to be 
held July 20. 1836. 

The ninth meeting, or fourth annual meeting, was held in the 
dwelling of Paul B. Ring, Oct. 4, 1836, witlTWm. R. De Land. 
Clerk, and the following supervisors elect: Jerry G. Cornell, 
Spring Arbor; Alonzo Brewer, Grass Lake; Daniel Porter, Han- 
over; Jonathan Wood, Jacksonburgh; Josiah Mills, Leoni; Har- 
vey Austin, Napoleon; John Barnum, Sandstone; Thomas McGee, 
Concord; Andrew Coryell, East Portage; Lewis D. Stowell, West 

Israel S. Love was allowed for services as constable at court, 
$2.13; P. B. Ring, for use of court room, $30; Geo. B. Cooper, 
for jail room, $19.50; A. B. Gibson, for sheriff, $31.50; Samuel 
Hamlin, for services as supervisor, $7; making a disbursement for 
the day of $90. 13. 

The following day Guy H. Gorham, Deputy Sheriff, was 
allowed $35; Samuel Hamlin, for use of grand jury room for two 
terms — June, 1835, and December, 1836, $6; and Samson Stod- 
dard, as county clerk, $21; aggregating a sum of $69. 

The sitting of Oct. 6 was the most important of the session. 
The assessment rolls of the new and old townships were received 
and examined, showing the valuation of property to be as follows: 
Jacksonburgh, $194,205; Concord, $125,159; Grass Lake, $40,136; 
Hanover, $64,867; Leoni, $27,731; East Portage, $6,112; West 
Portage, $11,864; Spring Arbor, $50,872; Napoleon, $77,171; 
Sandstone, $139,507. The board subsequently lessened the valu- 
ation to the following townships, from 10 to 50 per cent.: Jackson- 
burgh, $174,784; Concord, $68,837; Hanover, $32,433. The tax 
ordered to be levied off townships was; Jacksonburgh, 


#1,008. 77i; Concord, $400; Grass Lake, $250; Hanover, $188.81; 
Leoni, $254.85; East Portage, $44.62; West Portage, $61.40; 
Spring Arbor, $323. 8£; Napoleon, $493.50f; Sandstone, $687.08. 

An amendment to the wolf section of the by-laws was carried, 
directing that $1.25 be the bounty for the scalp of a wolf whelp, 
and $2.50 for that of the full-grown animal. The business of the 
session closed Oct. 8. 

The tenth meeting was held in the office of Wm. R. De Land, 
County Clerk. A number of county orders were issued in pay- 
ment of the following accounts: 

Thomas McGee, services as coroner, holding inquisition on body of George C. 

Pease t 4 25 

Chauncey Hawley, as grand juror I 85 

J. N. Swain, as grand juror 2 15 

Drusus Hodges, as grand juror 1 35 

Elias Keyes, as grand juror 1 95 

A. B. Gibson, summoning grand jury 1G 50 

Paul B. Ring, room for court 32 00 

Samuel Hamlin, as juror 85 

Anson De Lamater 2 55 

Czar Jones 2 25 

Thomas \V. Pray 2 55 

Jonathan Wood, services as supervisor 6 00 

Jonathan Wood, services making tax and copy 7 00 

Thomas McGee, supervisor and making tax and copy 15 00 

Lewis D. Stowell, " " " " 4 00 

Wm. R. De Land, clerk to the board 10 75 

Daniel Porter, as supervisor, and making tax and copy 12 00 

H.Austin, " " " " 13 00 

Josiah Mills, " " " " 13 00 

John Barnum, " " - " 17 00 

Jerry G. Cornell, " '■ " " 15 00 

Alonzo Brewer, " " " " 10 50 

Andrew Coryell, " " " " 4 00 

The eleventh session began Monday, -Ian. 2, 1837, but owing to 
a quorum not being present it was postponed to Jan. 9. The 
legislators of the county assembled that day at the dwelling of 
P. B. Ping, ami at once proceeded to resolve — 

"That the sum of $10,000 be raised (agreeably to the provisions 
of an act to authorize the boards of supervisors of certain counties 
to borrow money, etc., for the erection of county buildings, 
approved March 24, 1836) for the purpose of a court-house and 
jail for the county of Jackson. 

"That Jerry G. Cornell and George B. Cooper, Esqs., be 
authorized to negotiate a loan of $10, (too (at an interest not exceed- 
ing 7 per cent, per annum) for the above mentioned purposes. 

"That the above mentioned loan be made for 10 years, condi- 
tioned that the board of supervisors of said county may be at 
liberty to pay up said loan at anytime after five years, and in such 
installments as the board may direct, by giving three months' 
notice to any person or persons to whom said loan or loans may 
be due, provided a loan can be negotiated on such conditions." 

The first regular salary was ordered by the following resolution: 
" That the district attorney for the county of Jackson be al- 


lowed, as compensation for his services, a salary of $100 per 
annum, to commence the first day of January, 1836; and the clerk 
of the board he authorized to issue an order for the same for one 

The sheriff was ordered to expend $20 on preparing a room for 
the reception of criminals. 

Plan of Court-house and Jail. — At the adjourned meeting, held 
Jan. 10, 1837, Messrs. Austin and Porter were appointed a com- 
mittee to procure a draft or plan of the proposed court-house and 
jail, together with estimates for building the same. 


Reuben Barns, 1 wolf killed * 2 50 

Roswell Hall, 1 wolf killed 2 50 

Henry Daniels, I wolf killed '^ 50 

Abraham Francisco, grand juror 2 25 

Phineas Farrand, one year's salary as district attorney for the county.. . . . 100 00 

Thomas McGee, as supervisor ... 4 00 

Jonathan Wood, " 4 00 

Daniel Porter, " 4 00 

Josiah Mills. " 4 00 

Henry Austin, " 2 00 

A Ion zo Brown, " 2 00 

Wm. R. De Land, as clerk to the board 7 00 

The board adjourned to the 25th of January, but. as was pre- 
viously the case, there was not a quorum present on that day. and 
the meeting was postponed until the 26th, when a similar comedy 
was enacted. The few members of the board adjourned until Feb- 
ruary 6. 

Ait the February meeting they considered the plans and estimates 
furnished by S. R. Green for the new court-house and jail. The 
board resolved, that in case the loan, referred to hitherto, could 
be negotiated, the two county buildings should be erected at once. 
With this view the clerk of the board was instructed to cause 
notices to be posted throughout the neighboring counties, asking 
proposals for building a court-house and jail of stone or brick, 
such proposals to be opened March 1, 1837. 

The consideration ot the taxes due by absent property-holders, 
drew from the board the following resolution: 

" Whereas, It is ascertained that by reason of the large amount of non-resident 
taxes unpaid in the county of Jackson, there is not money sufficient to pay the State 
tax and county contingent, expenses, and that to proportion the amount would be 
attended with much difficulty and perplexity, in as much as a balance would be due 
the State, and a portion of county expenses remain unpaid, until said taxes may be 
collected: therefore, 

"■Resolved, That the treasurerof said county be and he is hereby instructed to pay 
off all county orders already issued, and no others, until the State tax shall be fully 

The session of March was important, as it undertook to review 
the public accounts. This review proved that on March 8 the 


treasurer held a balance in favor of the county amounting to 

The board also opened the proposals for the building of county 
offices, and resolved, ' l That the proposal offered by David Porter 
for building a court-house and jail of stone for the sum of $10,000, 
be and is hereby accepted; provided, that (agreeable to a previous 
resolution of this board) the loan of $10,000 shall be effected." 
Supervisors Daniel Porter, of Hanover, Jonathan Wood, of Jack- 
sonburgh, and Amasa B. Gibson were appointed members of the 
building committee. 

The sitting of March 9 was given up to the examination of ac- 
counts and the payment of themselves and the county clerk, $7.53 
to Messrs. Dwight, and $15 to Paul B. Ring for room. 

Tlie Meetmg of October, LS37. — The supervisors present at this 
session were J. G. Cornell, Spring Arbor; Thomas McGee, Con- 
cord; James Ganson, Jackson; Daniel Porter, Hanover; R. B. 
Rixford, Napoleon; Ezra Rumery, Liberty; C. M. Chapell, Sand- 
stone; John Barnum, Parma; E. B. Chapman, Rives; Sherlock 
Patrick, West Portage; Ben. Davis and O. Gregory, Aurelius and 
Stockbridu'e. Ingham county; A. Brewer, Grass Lake: Josiah 
Mills, Leoni; P. Hubbard, East Portage. 

The reading of the journal of proceedings for the past 12 months 
was then gone through, after which $85.16 were voted away for 
services rendered to the county. Chippewa and Wenonquit, two 
Indians, were paid $5 tor killing two wolves. A. B. Gibson, as 
sheriff, received $3S.47-jV, and the balance was paid to wolf-scalpers. 
October 4 a sum of $182. 64 1-4 was voted to the various officers 
of the county. 

At the sitting of Oct. 5 the bounty for killing wolves, to be 
granted only to white inhabitants, was increased to $5. The 
equalization of the assessment-rolls was a most important portion 
of their proceedings. 

Wm. D. Thompson presented an appeal asking $15.50 for ser- 
vices performed by him as county clerk. 

Leander Chapman, Judge of Probate, was allowed $550, and as 
district attorney received his salary of $100, with $22.35 for ex- 

The board gave notice to the electors that it recommended the 
raising of $5,000 for the purpose of completing county buildings, 
and erecting a fire-proof safe for the county records. 

Wm. J. Moody. District Attorney, was allowed $25 for a half 
year's services. 

The board also ordained that $4,600.07 be raised during the 
current year to defray contingent expanses of the county and for 
the purpose ot paying State tax. 

Not. 10, the subject of the $5,000 loan was taken up, with the 
following result: " Whereas, the electors of the county of Jackson 
have by their vote authorized the board of supervisors to 
negotiate a loan of a sum of money not exceeding $5,000, for the 
purpose of erecting a fire- proof register's office and the completion 


of the court-house and jail yard, it was therefore resolved that the 
hoard authorize Amasa B. Gibson to effect said loan of $5,000 for 
the accomplishment of said object." 


was next ordered to be constructed, 24 feet in the clear; to be built 
of wrought stone, one story high; to be partitioned into four rooms. 
This order was conditioned on the loan being obtained. The busi- 
ness of the year was concluded in December. 

The first meeting of 1838 was held March 6, with Super- 
visors Thomas McGee, James Ganson, G. M. Chapell, Benj. Davis, 
E. I). Chapman, S. Patrick, A. Brewer, John Barnum, J. Mills 

and Hubbard present. The session was continued to March 

8, but the only business transacted was the auditing of numerous 
accounts, aggregating $519.11, and the reception of a petition from 
Sylvanus Parkinson and other inhabitants of Concord township, 
asking the alteration of the Monroe (State) road. 

The meeting of Oct. 1, 1838, was carried over to the following 
day for want of a quorum. On the 2d the following members of 
the board presented themselves: Jerry G. Cornell, Spring Arbor; 
Henry Aiker, Concord; Benjamin Copeland, Napoleon; Jonathan 
"Woods, Jackson; C. M. Chappell, Sandstone; Daniel Porter, Han- 
over; John Barnum, Parma; Jesse B. Burrougli, Pulaski; Nicholas 
Townley, Tompkins; E. B. Chapman, Rives; Isaiah Whitman, 
Spring] xirt; A. Brewer, Grass Lake; J. Mills, Leoni; James Pres- 
ton, East Portage; E. Rumery, Liberty. William R. De Land 
was appointed deputy clerk by William D.Thompson, County Clerk, 
and ex-qfficio Clerk of the Board. 

The equalization of assessment-rolls was the principal business 
before the meeting. 

77„ .\,,r O&urt-JBbuse.— The supervisors appointed a committee 
of three, at their sitting of Oct. 18, to examine and report on the 
rooms in the court-house, fixing the amount of rent, annually, for 
each room according to its size, situation and value. This com- 
mittee' reported as follows: "That the north and middle rooms on 
the west side of the hall, occupied as the registry and probate 
offices, were worth s7."> each: that the south-west room, same side 
of the hall, occupied by P. Earrand, was worth $100, and that 
the north and middle rooms, on the east side of the hall, were 
worth $50 each per annum." A debate ensued, but the report 
was adopted. 

Th> Board Abolished.— The last meeting of the old hoard of 

supervisors was 

held Oct. 19, 1838, whel 

i wai 

rant- were issued to 

the several coll 

■ctors. The following ac< 


were ordered to be 

paid: Bildad I 
Crowell, bill of 

einiett. for services as 


ible, $2.25; A. P. 

costs, $2.44; Bildad Benn 

ett, c 

•nstable bill, $20.13; 

O. Puss, con^t: 

hie hill, $1.31; N. Sullivs 

n, pi 

mtingSO blank war- 

rants, $2; W. I 

. De Land. Deputy Clerk 


ard for two last sea- 

sions, §25. 


The board ordered that the clerk do issue orders on the treasurer 
of the county for the payment of all claims admitted and allowed 
by the board, prior to that date. The final motion was to adjourn 
slur ,///>, and the record was signed by W. D. Thompson, Clerk, 
per "W". R. De Land, Deputy Clerk. 

' New Government. — The first session of the Board of Commis- 
sioners of Jackson county was held in the office of the county 
clerk Nov. 19, 1838. Messrs. Nicholas Townley. of Tompkins, 
Drusus Hodges, of Spring Arbor, and Alvin Clark, of Grass Lake, 
the commissioners elect, were present, and having taken the oath 
of otfice, proceeded to the classification of the board, with the 
following result: Nicholas Townley, commissioner for three years; 
Drusus Hodges, Jim., commissioner for two years; Alvin Clark, 
commissioner for one year. The organization of the new body 
was perfected by the election of Nicholas Townley as chairman, 
W. D. Thompson, clerk, and Wm. R. DeLand, deputy clerk. 

These first labors being performed, the members adjourned to 
Dec. 3, 1838. On that day the commissioners held their second 
conference, and their first regular duties were entered upon. 
Norman Allen, the county treasurer elect, who would have charge 
of the public moneys from Jan. 1, 1839, to Jan. 1, 1841, received 
their early attention, so that on motion of Commissioner Alvin 
Clark, it was resolved, --That Norman Allen be required to 
execute a bond to said commissioners, with three or more good 
and sufficient sureties, in the penal sum of $10,000, before enter- 
ing upon the duties of his office." 

Dec. 4, A. B. Gibson, of the court-house, jail and clerk's office 
building committee, presented his report, in accordance with the 
request of the commissioners, and also one dealing with the loans 
which he was empowered to negotiate. 

The board entered upon the work of an important session .Ian. 
8, L839. The three commissioners were present. The name ot 
Wm. R. De Land now appears as county clerk, and <./■ ojfirio clerk 
of county commissioners. A verbal report of A. B. Gibson 
showed that the title to the lands on which the county buildings 
were erected, was full and complete. Mr. (Gibson presented to 
the board the release deeds at the same time. Mr. Perrine, the 
register elect, applied to the board for blank books for use in his 
omce. Such books A. B. Gibson was authorized to procure. 

Norman Allen's bond as county treasurer was signed by Jona- 
than Wood, David F. Dwight and Henry H. Gilbert, sureties in 
the sum of $10,000, and was accepted by the board. (See page 
53 of old record.) 

The first license granted to an auctioneer was issued Jan. 9, 
1839, to Charles Derby, in the following form: 

We the undersigned, the Board of Commissioners in and for the county of 
Jackson aforesaid, do hereby license Charles Derby, of the township of Jackson, 


in the county aforesaid, to be and act as auctioneer within said township for the 
term of one year from the date hereof. 

Given under our hands at Jackson, this ninth day of January, A. D. 1839. 

a" N Cl A rk ' J of*" CvuntyofJackM. 
A true copy of the original. \ p -„ p . , 
W. R DeLand, Clerk. J * ee - *'*• ™ a - 

The first licensed auctioneer had to give bonds for the faithful 
discharge of his duty, prior to the issue of the license. 

Jan. 10, the board received the statement of the former county 
treasurer, Oliver Russ: Amount of receipts, $12,038.26; amount 
of disbursements, $6,1*72.15; balance in treasury, $5,066.11. 
Oliver Russ received the sum of $90 in full compensation for his 
services in receiving and disbursing the sum of $6,972.15. 

A board of superintendents of the poor was appointed during 
the same sitting, composed of W. R. DeLand, Jackson; Thomas 
Cotton, Napoleon; and Elihu M. Goold, Parma. 

Jan. 11 the board resolved that A. B. Gibson should be author- 
ized to pay L. S. House $-K>0. the sum to apply on his bill of extra 
work on the court-house; and also $100 to David Porter to pur- 
chase materials for the clerk's and registrar's office. The sum of 
$25 was also voted to the judge of probate. L. Chapman, to pur- 
chase blank books for his office. 

The board ordained that H. Acker be authorized ' ' to procure 
the following weights and measures, scales and beams, to be pur- 
chased in the city of Detroit, for to be the standard measures of 
said county, viz. : One half bushel, one peck measure, one half 
peck — one measure to contain two quarts, one ditto, one quart, one 
ditto one pint, said measures to be made of copper, in a substantial 
manner. The weights to be of cast iron, of good workmanship, 
the scale and beam such as are usually furnished, and a com- 
plete set of wine measures, made of copper." Subsequently Mr. 
Acker applied to the State for standards, but on account of the 
State being minus such, the agent of the board in the matter could 
not procure the same. 

The prison cells occupied the attention of the commissioners on 
the 12th. L. 8. House, the builder under Mr. Porter, was directed 
to make the door in the partition of the hall of the jail in the fol- 
lowing manner: "Of iron bars 1J inches wide, the bars crossing 
at right angles, and firmly riveted at each angle. The open space 
of the squares shall not exceed 5 inches square. The hangings 
and fastenings of said door shall be similar to those now used on 
the doors of the cells of the State's prison now building at Jack- 
son. This door to be made in lieu of a door which said House was 
bound to make by contract for the finishing of said jail, and that 
Mr. House, for complying with the above, shall receive the sum of 
$32.50 as entire pay for making said door." 

A similar instruction was given him in regard to the doors of 
cells, and so far the labors of the commissioners may be consid- 
ered of a most precise character. 


The new Board of Superintendents of the Poor took the oath of 
office on the 21st, and was duly organized 

At the meeting of the board, held Feb. 4, 1839, Leander Chap- 
man, Judge ot Probate of the county of Jackson, by virtue of his 
said office, took the oath of a commissioner, as required by law, 
and was constituted one of the board. On the 5th Judge Chap- 
man's resolution, asking A. B. Gibson to show by certificate of 
deposit or otherwise the amount of public money he has in his 
control, was carried, and a statement of the result was submitted. 

May 7, 1839, the board abolished all distinctions between town 
and county poor. James M. Goold. of Tompkins, was appointed 
to fill a vacancy on the Board of Superintendents of the Poor. 

The first county poor-house was the work of the commissioners. 
A resolution of theirs says : " In view of the resolution abolish- 
ing the distinction between town and county pom-, the board is of 
opinion that it is necessary and expedient to carry into effect the 
provisions of law in regard to the erection of a county poor-house; 
therefore, it is resolved that the superintendents of county poor 
are hereby authorized to purchase for the use of the county a tract 
of land, not exceeding 320 acres, and to erect one or more suitable 
buildings for the reception and accommodation of the county 

The board resolved " That E. Higby, Esq., be charged $20 for 
the rent of room No. 4, from the time he first occupied it up to 
the 1st day of April, 1839; that P. Farrand be charged $40 for 
rent of room No. 5 prior to said 1st day of April, 1839; that Joseph 
C. Barley, Esq., be charged for the use of room No. 1, from the 
9th day of January, 1839, to the 1st day of April, 1S39, nine dol- 
lars, it being at the rate of $40 per annum, and that the rent of 
said room (No. 1) be fixed and rated at $40 per year, provided 
the treasurer's office shall be continued and kept in the same 

The clerk of the board was directed to open accounts with each 
occupant of the rooms, and to prohibit all gambling and card play- 
ing. Sheriff Jas. A. Dyer was authorized to rent the court-room 
to religious societies for Sabbath services only. 

On June 24 the following statement was pronounced correct by 
the board : 



Napoleon . . 




Grass Lake. . 
Tompkins. . . 


Spring Arbor 
West Portage 
East Portage 



Springport . . 




The object of these statistics was to afford such information to 
the auditor general as would enable him to impose upon the county 
a share of the new tax, ordained March 29, 1838. 

On June 27 the resignation of Thomas Cotton, one of the super- 
intendents of the county poor, was accepted, and Chester C. Car- 
penter, of Napoleon, and Daniel Parkhurst, of Jackson, were 
appointed to fill the vacancies then existing. 

The appeal of Abram F. Bolton and others from a decision ren- 
dered by the commissioners of highways of the town of Columbia, 
came before the board for final hearing July 9, 1839. Messrs. 
Farrand and Higby represented the appellants, and Samuel H. 
Kimball the respondents. After the examination of 40 witnesses, 
the board deliberated, and finally rendered the following judgment. 

In the matter of appeal of Abram F. Bolton and others from the decision of 
the road commissioners of the town of Columbia to the count}' commissioners of 
the county of Jackson, the said road commissioners having discontinued the follow- 
ing described road, viz.: The Napoleon and Michigan Center road, so-called, or so 
much of the same as is within the town of Columbia, commencing on th« section 
line about 50 rods east of the northeast corner of section 36, in T. 3 S., R. 1 E., and 
running in nearly a northwest direction until it intersects the north line of the town 
of Columbia. 

Now, therefore, we, the commissioners in and for the county of Jackson, having 
heard the proofs and allegations of the parties, and all the testimony of witnesses 
offered under oath, and upon due consideration of til's whole matter, do hereby 
adjudge that said road is necessary and for the public convenience, and we hereby 
reverse the decision of the said commissioners of highways discontinuing said road, 
and establish the same according to the survey of said road on record. 

9, A. D. 183!). 

Nicholas Townley, 1 

Alvin Clark, - Committet 

DRtTSns Hodges, Jr. ) 


The annual meeting of the hoard was held Oct. 7, 1839, with 
Commissioners Townley, Hodges and Clark present. The audit- 
ing of. accounts and the consideration of taxes for the years 1839- 
'40 were proceeded with. 

Nov. 18, 1839, Alvin Clark took his seat in the board, having 
been re-elected to that position, and, on the motion of N. Townley, 
was chosen chairman. 

Dec. 17 the board investigated the public accounts, as kept by 
ex-Treasurers O. Russ and N. Allen. In the settlement there is a 
sum of $9 allowed Norman Allen for money he received as treas- 
urer when current, and failed in liis hands. 

Dec. 20 the resignation of N. Allen was accepted, and the board 
appointed John N. Dwight to that position. The closing days of 
1839 were given up to much routine business, such as the auditing 
of accounts and examination of tax records. The Christmas holi- 
days were unobserved by the members, nor did they adjourn until 
Saturday, Dec. 28, 1839! 

The first meeting for 1840 was iinportant, in so much that the 
accounts of 1839 were received, and W . R. De Land, County Clerk, 
ordered to superintend their publication in the columns of a news- 
paper known as the Sentinel, then printed in the county. This 
report appeared Jan. 15, 1840, and is said to have afforded much 
satisfaction to the people. 

The meeting of Jan. 16, took up the question of standard weights 
and measures, and ordered the clerk to apply to the State for them. 

Jackson and Ingham, Counties. — The commissioners of the two 
counties, with the county treasurers, assembled at Jackson March 
23, 1840, for the adjustment of claims existing between the two 
corporations since the time they were united for judicial purposes. 
Messrs. Alvin Clark, Nicholas Townley, Drasus Hodges, Jr., and 
Treasurer John N. Dwight represented Jackson, with Wm. R. De 
Land acting as clerk. Messrs. Jacob Loomis, Henry Lee, Wm. A. 
Dryer and Treasurer H. H. Smith, of Ingham, represented their 

The afternoon of the 23d was devoted to a resume of the ac- 
counts of both corporations and in fixing upon a principle which 
might lead to a friendly adjustment of claims. Much desultory 
debate ensued, in which all the members of the convention took 
part. A simultaneous proposition from each board was suggested, 
but was not a success. After recess Henry Lee, a commissioner 
from Ingham, took his seat, and a further examination of books 
and papers was ordered. 

The sitting of March 24th was more conciliatory. After a short 
deliberation the following paper was drafted and signed: — 

The commissioners of the county of Ingham, in pursuance of powers vested in 
them by law, agree to pay to the county of Jackson the sum of $120; said sum to 
be paid out of moneys collected on the unpaid non-resident taxes on lands in the 
s-.iid county of Ingham returned, and now in the office of the treasurer of Jackson, 
levied in the year 1S37; and provided said sum of $120 should not be realized from 
Collections on said tax within six months from this date, the commissioners of the 
county of Ingham agree to pay it over from other funds. And it is further under- 


stood that this settlement is to extend to all claims prior to this date, that have been 
audited and allowed by the Board of Supervisors or Commissioners of the County of 
Jackson. And whatever claims may arise hereafter growing out of the judicial 
connection of the two counties shall be a matter of future adjustment. And the 
commissioners of the county of Jackson hereby agree to relinquish for the benefit 
and use of said county of Ingham, all claim which "the said county of Jackson may 
have had to the balance of the above mentioned non-resident unpaid tax, amounting 
to about 1517.00, and permit the same to be collected by the treasurer of the county 
of Jackson, — the said county of Ingham paying all extra expenses which may arise 
from collecting the same. 

[Signed.] Alvin Clark, I „ . . ,. T , 

Nicholas Toilet, (Comrrassioners oj Jackson 
Drtoto Hodges, Jr. ) Omit*. 

Jacob Loomis, ) „ . , T , 

Henry Lee, [ Commmioneriof Tngham 

Wm. A. Dryer. ) voway. 

Wm. R. De Land, Clerk of the Board of Commissioner* of Jackson County. 

The united wisdom of two counties dispersed, and the fact is 
thus set forth in the annals of that important and amicable trans- 
action. "Having no further business, on motion the two boards, 
adjourned sine die." 

Miscellaneous. — So late as March, 1840, there were sums paid 
out to wolf-scalpers. 


In the annual abstract furnished to the Auditor General, the 
total value of real and personal property, pertaining to the county, 
is set down at $1,661,318, which, compared with the exhibit made 
June, 1839, viz.: $2,065,720, shows a depreciation in value, equaling 
$404,402. This exhibit was completed June 29, 1840. A few days 
later, the same board approved a corrected assessment roll, show- 
ing a further reduction in total value of real and personal property 
of $158,954, or a total depreciation within the years 1838-'40 of 
$563,356, or over a half million dollars. 

A resolution of July 10 orders "That Daniel Parkhurst, the 
present district attorney for this county, be allowed the sum of 
$450, and the use of the room he now occupies in court-house, 
known on the Journal of the Commissioners as room No. 1 (reserv- 
ing said room for the use of the grand jury at each term of the 
Circuit Court), as his salary for one year, — the year to commence 
from the time of his appointment to said office. " Many accounts 
were authorized to be paid, some routine business transacted and 
the board adjourned. 

Nicholas Townley, of Tompkins, Alvin Clark, of Grass Lake, 
and John Belden, of Spring Arbor, with Fairchild Farrand, ea>- 
offieio clerk of the board, met January 4, 1841, and organized by 
electing Alvin Clark chairman for the ensuing year. The first 
action of the board was the appointment of superintendents of the 
poor for one year from January 4. They were John Daniels, 
Dru'sus Hodges, Jr., and Daniel Parkhurst. 


Nicholas Townley's motion, to have the court-house insured for 
$1,000 and the poor-house for $300, in the office of the Jackson 
Mutual Fire Insurance Company, was carried. 

At a special meeting held Feb. 8, 1841, the commissioners re- 

That said county of Jackson shall and will prepare, construct and furnish for the 
use of the Legislature of said State, a good, suitable and convenient building at the 
village of Jackson, in said county, for all sessions of said Legislature, and equally 
as suitable and convenient in all respects as the building now occupied by said Leg- 
islature, in the city of Detroit, without any charge for the same or expense to the 
said State, at all times from and after the first day of September next, until such 
time as the seat of government of said State may and shall be permanently fixed 
and located by law; provided, that the seat of government of said State of Michigan 
shall be temporarily fixed and located at the said village of Jackson by law. 

Alvin Clark, Cliuirmnu limnil (Jmniiiixxinnent. F. Farrand, Clerk. 

The commissioners assembled on the J 0th to consider the ques- 
tion of the collection of delinquent taxes. After some considera- 
tion the hoard resolved, "That Alvin Clark be and is hereby 
authorized to bid off all the lands that are not sold to private in- 
dividuals for taxes remaining unpaid, as agent, for the benefit of 
the county, and that the treasurer be requested to make such cer- 
tificates, as required by law, to said Alvin Clark, agent." 

The June session was mainly occupied in the preparation of the 
annual report for the Auditor General of State. 

A county surveyor was appointed Nov. 8, 1841, to serve until the 
election of county officers, the first Monday in January, 1843; James 

A. Knight was chosen to fill the position. 

The following day George Byrne, Registar of the county, was 
authorized to compile a general index to the record books of his 

In December the' board voted a sum of $500 to Treasurer John 
M. Dwight in compensation for his services from Jan. 1, 1841, to 
Jan. 1, 1842. 

The commissioners held their last regular session, as recorded, 
Jan. 3, 4 and 5, 1842. A number of accounts were ordered to be 
paid, and a sum of $200 allowed Phineas Farrand for his services 
as prosecuting attorney during the year 1841. 

Norman Allen's name with that of John Belden appear as 
signers and commissioners, on the last record. 

Revival of Popular Government, July 4, 1842. — The rule of 
supervisors was re-established, and though few complaints were 
lodged against the oligarchy who for a few years ruled over the 
county, the change to the government of many was hailed with 

The supervisors assembled at the meeting of July 4, were: 
Nicholas Townley, Tompkins; Benj. Davis, Napoleon; A. R. 
Morrison, Parma; Abram Van Ue, Liberty; H. G. Cornell, Spring 
Arbor; Charles Wood worth, Concord; A. H. De Lamater, Co- 
lumbia; Wm. J. Moody, Jackson; David Porter, Hanover; Stephen 

B. Crawford, Springport; C. M. Chapel, Sandstone; Ben. Seidle, 


Grass Lake; Russell Ford, Leoni; A. T. Gorton, East Portage; 
G. Coolbaugh, Henrietta; Alvin True, Rives; Elijah Dixon, 

The new board having appointed committees, adjourned to the 
5th, when it took up the subject of claims against the county, and 
the equalization of the assessment roll. The table showing the 
result of their deliberations in the second instance gives the fol- 
lowing totals: No. of acres, 399, 866; value of real estate, $1,355, - 
213; value (4 personal property, $82,701; total value, $1, -437, 

The session of October, 1842, opened on the 10th. The super- 
visors ordered a sum of $2,875.83 to be levied for the purpose 
of paying State tax ; and $8,500 as county tax for 1842. This was 
duly apportioned to the township. 

Messrs. Jonathan Wood, Marcus Wakeman and Oliver Russ, 
were elected by the board superintendents of the poor for one 

During the December sessions the supervisors manifested a de- 
sire to increase the salaries of the county treasurer and district 
attorney. Consequently a motion was carried granting the for- 
mer, J. N. Dwight, $450 for services rendered during the year 
1842, and $470, together with the use of two rooms in the court- 
house, for the latter, Phineas Farrand, for services from April, 
1842, to April, 1843. 

At this time the question of leasing the court room to the 
Methodist society created much discussion, both within and with- 
out the board, so that when the motion granting the lease was 
placed before the meeting, it required the casting vote of Chair- 
man Cornell to pass it. 

From the table of equalized valuation the total worth of real 
and personal property is set down at $1,412,160, and the number 
of acres in the county at $410,880. The supervisors ordered that 
a sum of $10,591.25, including $2,824.24 State tax, be levied offthe 
county for 1843. 

The election of the superintendents of the poor, held by the board 
Oct. 24, resulted in the re-election of Messrs. "Wood, Wakeman 
and Russ. 

In December, 1843, the tenants, repairs and decoration of the 
county court building occupied the attention of the board, and if 
resolutions of such bodies ever resulted in trouble to outside par- 
ties, a few of those characterizing that meeting promised anything 
but peace to an old citizen. 

Oct. 19 was given up to the examination of 112 claims against 
the county, and also to the equalization of value of county prop- 
erty for 1844. The entire value of real estate was set down at 
$1,245,556, and that of personal property at $178,080, with an 
acreage of 402, 797. 

The name of David Johnson appears as prosecuting attorney in 
1844. Oct. 31, that year, the board voted him a salary of $500 per 
year for his services from April 10, such salary to be paid quarterly. 


By some happy advance in the knowledge of orthography, the 
word " moneys 1 ' is spelled correctly for the first time in the pages 
of the records Jan. 1, 1845. The corrected word is contained 
in a resolution affecting the poor-farm, carried that day by the 

The second < lav of the January session, 1845, was occupied in 
the auditing of 79 accounts against the county. 

At the annual meeting in October, the supervisors having an- 
swered to their names, proceeded to organization. Superintendent 
Townley's motion, "That Marcus Wakeman be chairman of the 
Board for ensuing year," was carried, when the call of townships 
was again made. 

The business brought before the October session was of a varied 
and important character, though not exceeding in subject the 
ordinary routine. 

At the meeting held Dec. 19, 1845, the supervisors resolved 
" that Hiram Thompson be authorized to procure the binding of 
the entry books in the register's office ; also to procure an abstract 
at the land office of the original entries of lands in Jackson 
county." From this it appears that the county did not possess 
any records of the first land purchases until 1846 : and it does ap- 
pear strange that a number oi supervisors and commissioners, win. 
bestowed so very much attention on the county, should overlook a 
subject so interesting and valuable, and remain without such im- 
portant knowledge from 1S33 to 1845. 

In the calculations of the board it appears that the number of 
acres credited to the people in 1845 was 407,204; the aggregate 
value of real and personal property, $1,407, 369; the State tax, $3,- 
518.38; the county tax, $8,796.96, and the rejected tax. $1,158.84. 

Sixty-six accounts were passed by the board, and receipts pre- 
sented by G. T. Godfrey, Prosecuting Attorney, for his salary ; by 
H. Tisdale for £454. 78, for services rendered county in 1845 ; and 
by L. D. Welling for $1,072.51, for services rendered the county 
during the years 1843-'5. 

At the October meeting of 1846 Supervisor Nicholas Townley 
was elected chairman of the board for the succeeding 12 months. 
On the third day of the session the following resolution was 
adopted : "That Hiram Thompson be authorized to make an ab- 
stract of all the records of the register's office of Jackson county, 
affecting the titles of any lands in said county, but at his own 
costs and charges, reserving the right to the county of Jackson of 
purchasing the same at the rate of nine cents for each abstract en- 
try ; the said Thompson to have the use of the books of the office, 
when not in use by the register or other person or persons, for the 
above object." Whether Mr. Thompson carried out his patriotic 
offer remains to be seen. 

The board ordered the payment of 111 accounts Oct. 22. On 
the 23d Marcus Wakeman, Abram Van De Bogart and William 
Moody were chosen by the board superintendents of the poor for 
the ensuing year. 


The board began to entertain the idea of erecting new county 
offices, ami among other committees appointed was one composed 
of Nicholas Townley, F. C. Watkins and John Belden, to ascer- 
tain whether it would be advisable to remove the register's and 
county clerk's office from the public square ; if so, upon what 
terms can a site be procured, and also the terms for erecting a 
fire-proof building. This committee reported Dec. 30, but a resolu- 
tion of the hoard postponed its further consideration indefinitely. 

The duplicate for 1846 presented the following totals of township 
valuation: Number of acres, 406,676; value of real estate. $1,225,- 
407; value of personal estate. $195,409; aggregate value, $1,420,816; 
State tax. $3,551.08. county tax, $7,812.46. This statement being 
approved by the hoard, the public accounts were taken up, and 52 
claims ordered to be paid. This closed the labors of the supervi- 
sors for 1846. 

The January session of L847 was principally occupied in audit- 
ing and passing accounts. The meeting of Jan. 22, however, 
entertained a resolution offering to levy upon the county the sum 
of $50,000 for the erection of a capitoi, provided the Legislature 
woidd fix the permanent location of the State Government in the 
village of Jackson. Forty two accounts were ordered to be paid. 

At the annual session of 1847, Oct. 11. David Menzie was 
elected chairman for the year ensuing. 

The business transacted during the first three days of the session 
was of an unimportant character. On the 14th the committee on 
equalization presented their report, which, summed up, showed, 
the following totals: Number of acres, 409,350; value of real 
estate, $1,312,155; equalized value, $1,295,599; value of personal 
estate. $112,851.50; total, $1,425,006.50. 


A tax of 50 cents per scholar, aggregating $195, was ordered to 
be levied in Hanover township for the support of primary schools. 
The supervisors further granted the use of the court-house for the 
meetings of the teachers' institute. 


of superintendents of the poor resulted in the choice of Stephen 
3- Crawford, Caleb M. Chapel and Amos Pickett to fill that posi- 
tion. The closing meetings of the year 1S47 were almost entirely 
devoted to ordinary routine business. 

The annual meeting of 1848 was held Oct. 9. The supervisors 
elect were duly installed in office, and organized by choosing 
Alford Hall as chairman for the year 1848-'9. 

The committee appointed to examine the assessment roll re- 
ported as follows, on the third day of the session: Acres of land, 
422,788; value of real estate, $1,360,S36; value of personal estate, 
$235,503; equalized valuation, $1,274,201; aggregate valuation, 


The meeting of the new board was held ( >et. 8, 184:9, and organ 1 
ized by the election of Michael Shoemaker as chairman. 

At the annual meeting Oct. 14, 1S50 Supervisor J. B. Eaton, ot 
Jackson, was elected chairman for the ensuing year. 

The duplicate was then presented and approved, showing totals of 
assessed value, $1, 334,928; equalized value, $1,141,847; personal 
property, $253,651; aggregate value, $1,355,498; State tax, $5,- 
478.80;'county tax, $\512.47; total tax, $13,991.17. 

The superintendents of the poor presented a voluminous report, 
under date of Oct. 10, 1849, dealing with expenditures for the 
year ending Oct. 12. The various items arc set forth thus: Inci- 
dental expenses, $9.76; temporary relief, $2.'i3. 78; justices' orders, 
$194.34; directors of poor, $81.79; physicians temporary relief, 
$182. 51; justices of the peace, $4.50; keeper of county poor-house, 
$79(3.96 repairs on poor-house, $6.19; varnishing poor-house, 
$27,35; carrying paupers to poor-house, $13.25; total, $1,551.53. 

The foregoing may be considered a record of the more important 
transactions of the supervisors and commissioners, for each year 
from 1833 to 1S50. 

1851. — At the June meeting of the board the following figures 
were adopted as the totals on which to base the assessment of the 
county: Number of acres, 409,025; assessed valuation, $1,304,S34; 
equalized valuation, $1,268,961.01; personal property, $247,498; 
aggregate equalized valuation, $1,516,852. 

The adoption of the report of the committee on equalization 
closed the proceedings of the board of supervisors. The ancient 
record book from which the particulars were taken was devoted to 
the minutes of their transactions for 19 years, from Oct. 1, 1833, 
to June 11, 1851. It contains much valuable and interesting mat- 
ter, and cannot fail to prove instructive, while passing in review, 
as it were, the men who watched over the well-being of the county 
from a period extending over 19 years. It is unnecessary to follow 
up the proceedings of the supervisors. Their names will suffice 
to prove the upright character of their transactions as repre- 
sentative men, and their earnestness in contributing to the pros- 
perity of their county. 

1852 — 1880.— It is unnecessary to extend an account of the gen- 
eral transactions of the supervisors through all the years following 
1852. With what has been hitherto written on the subject, the 
reader is enabled to examine into the financial condition of the 
county almost from its organization, and to mark the years wherein 
progress was made. 

The assessment of real and personal property of the county and 
city for the year 1880 is $9,255,302, represented as follows : 



Townships. Aggregate value. 

Blackmail $ 355,110 

Columbia 406,499 

Concord 423,i 

Townships. Aggregate value 
Springport 321,155 


Spring Arbor 



First Ward, Jackson. 




Grass Lake 555,326 

Hanover 369,339 

Henrietta 250,590 

Leoni 366,291 

Liberty 276,697 

Napoleon 283,597 

Norvell 277,695 

Parma 377,015 

Pulaski 330,919 

Rives 299,420 

Sandstone 346,933 

Jackson County Tax Sales. — County Treasurer Townley received 
from the State treasurer a report of the amount of the tax sales in 
this county for 1880, together with the amount due the State on old 
account. The latter officer writes : 

" The footings of your sales-book and State-tax-land list have 
been completed. The amounts sold are ascertained to be as fol 
lows : 

On the sales-book 

From the State tax land list. 

.$ 1,131 71 

"There is due from the county to the State on old account the 
sum of $4,201.17. This account grows out of interest on returned 
and rejected taxes. However, sales of the current year aggregat- 
ing $3,090.85 stand nominally to the credit of the county on the 
State treasurer's books, but will not be reckoned as such until next 
year. Could it be so used at the present time it would reduce the 
old account to §1,110.32." 

Under the fostering care of the board of supervisors, the condi- 
tion of the county finances is flourishing, every department of the 
public service, under the jurisdiction of the board, is well ordered, 
and thus a feeling of confidence is engendered in the hearts of the 
people, while those who administered the government of the 
county leave a sure record of duty done. 

The Court-House — is situated near the Bennett Block, a short 
distance west of the spot where the first stone building stood, 
erected at the instance of the county. The present edifice is suf- 
ficiently extensive for the transaction of county business, but its 
situation is altogether out of place. Such an institution should 
form the central figure of a public square, and be a thing of beauty 
as well as utility. 

The importance of Jackson among the counties of the State sug- 
gests the propriety of having its public buildings made the image 
of such a situation. The court-house, as erected in 1871, is en- 
tirely too massive a concern to be hidden away in its present corner. 



is fortunately large enough for the few tenants furnished by the 
district. It is an unpretentious structure, situated in rear of the 
court-house, with frontage on Jackson street, south of the Bennett 


Since such an institution as a poor-house seems to be a necessity 
of our day throughout the civilized world, it is not surprising to 
learn that one exists in this prosperous county. A description of 
the building and its occupants is, therefore, right and becoming in 
the pages of this general work : 

"The house is a long brick structure, two stories high, with an 
L in which are the kitchen and women's dining-room. In the 
kitchen we find one of the paupers cooking, and the articles she 
turns out look as good as any baked in household ovens. We pass 
through a long hall, opening from either side of which are the 
sleeping rooms of the women. The men sleep up stairs, and in 
one of these rooms we find lying a man whose large frame and 
well-turned muscles show plainly that he was, when well, a strong, 
finely built man, but for three years a rupture has confined him to 
his room, almost helpless. 

"All these rooms are marked by great cleanliness, and the in- 
mates are clean and neat in their personal appearance. Many of 
them are venerable, motherly looking dames, who appear as if 
they had sometime known better days. May be they were mothers 
who worked early and late, taxing their strength to the utmost to 
rear their little ones; may be those little ones grew to be men and 
women, and the cares of the world choked up the fount of affection 
in their breasts. Oh, no, Will Carleton did not draw altogether 
on his imagination when he penned ' Over the Hills to the Poor- 
house.' That's the romance, but unfortunately for it the reality is 
apt to be the other way. In this ward we find one of those unfor- 
tunates who seem calculated to inspire sentiments of both disgust 
and pity in the mind of the beholder. Sitting on the steps of aback 
enclosure sits awoman,clad in a stout blue frock, for she has a preju- 
dice against clothes and frequently destroys them. She is bearheaded 
and seems to enjoy a sun bath. She is insane, not violently so as 
a rule, but seems to have lost all sense of human nature, and to be 
degraded to the level of the brute, showing but little more idea of 
wants. She has been in the Kalamazoo asylum, but was pronounced 
incurable, and for the last six years has been an inmate of the 
county-house. She is intensely filthy, and her habits are decidedly 
more animallv natural than humanly decent, and none of the other 
inmates will associate with her. She is a German woman, unable 
to speak English, and even Germans find it difficult to understand 
her speech, so uncouth is it. 

' ' In the house we find extremes meeting. We meet here Thomas 
Bolton and Mrs. Atkins, both of whom have passed the usual 


term of life, and who have passed nearly a generation in this ref- 
uge. On the other hand, there are two infant children who were 
born in this place, and others who never knew any other home. 

"In a small stone annex is the room where the men eat and 
where the blind live, for there are three old men of this class in 
the institution. One of the inmates is a deaf mute, 'and he is re- 
garded as one of the best men to work in the whole number, but 
then he is young. Back of the blind ward is a room where the 
most sickening sight of all greets our eyes. On one side of the 
room are two bunks, and on these there lie two men. One of them 
is a victim of that horrid disease, St. Vitus dance, and the convul- 
sive twitching of his muscles sends a shiver down the visitor's 
spine. The other is bedridden, unable to do anything for himself 
or to change his own position. In this room these two pass their 
lives — it seems wrong to say they live — fed and cared for by a con- 
sumptive inmate. 

"The number now confined is 33, about equally divided as to sex. 
Those who are able work — the men about the farm, garden, barn 
and woodpile, and the women in the ordinary duties of the house- 
hold economy. 

" The poor farm contains 160 acres, nearly all under cultivation. 
The crop of grain this year has been large. The superintendents 
expect to get about five hundred bushels of wheat, while the yield 
ot vegetables will be better than usual. 

"The furniture of the rooms is, of course, simple, but none the 
less clean and substantial. All the wood-work shows the marks of 
plentiful libations of soap and water, and the bedding is well 
washed, and aired daily. These precautions have sufficed to 
keep up the health of the house, and there is little sickness. It 
should not be supposed that the inmates keep themselves so clean 
entirely from choice. Many of them left to themselves would re- 
lapse into a state of filth such as marks too many of the homes of 
poverty outside. But by a firm discipline they are compelled to 
keep looking decent, bathing frequently. It is to be regretted that 
in this latter respect the accommodations are not better, a tub of 
water being all the facilities thus afforded. The food given them 
is solid and good. They eat good bread, salt meats, and occasion- 
ally fresh, a general assortment of vegetables, with tea, and fruit 
in season. Those who form their ideas of poor-house fare from 
'Seven Oaks' and other books of that class will please take 
notice that Jackson county does not support that kind of a poor- 
house. The inmates are healthy and appear well fed and contented, 
and differing in no particular respect from those outside." 

The support of poor persons within the county, the maintenance 
of paupers, and aid to strangers cost the people of the county over 
$3,000 per annum in direct and indirect taxation. 



In dealing with the court of Jackson county, it is desirable to 
give only its history from the beginning to that period when its 
organization may be said to have been completed, and its rules 
understood and observed. Therefore, in the succeeding pages 
the legal transactions of the Circuit Court are summarized up to 
1838, after which a roll of the president and associate judges is 
given, with the names of the clerks of court who entered the pro- 
ceedings. The county officers being partially connected with the 
courts, the roll of names and year of election are given, and added 
to this record. 


The Territorial Governor, Hon. Lewis Cass, issued the following 
proclamation under date Feb. 2, 1831, confirming the action of the 
commissioners appointed to locate the county-seat of Jackson: 


A Proclamation. 

Whereas, By an act of the Legislative Council, approved July 31, 1830, authority 
is given to the governor of the Territory to appoint commissioners to locate the seats 
of justice in the several counties where the seats of justice may not have been 
located, and to receive their report and confirm the same if he approve thereof; 
and then to issue a proclamation establishing the seals of justice so located; 

And whereas, Henry Rumsey, Chauncey S. Goodrich and John Allen, Esquires, 
were appointed commissioners to locate the seat of justice of the county of Jackson, 
and have proceeded to execute the said duty, aod have by a report signed by them. 
located the seat of justice of the said county of Jackson at the said village of Jack- 
sonopolis, in the said county: 

Now, therefore, By virtue of the authority given in said act, and in conformity 
with the said report, I do herd by issue this proclamation, establishing the seat of 
justice of the said county of Jackson at the said village of Jacksonopolis, in the said 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the great 
seal of the Territory to be affixed. Done at Detroit, on the second of February, in 
the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-one, and of the Inde- 
pendence of the United States the fifty-fifth. 

By the Governor, Lewis Cass. [L. S.] 

John T. Mason, 

Secretary of the Territory. 


The formation of counties throughout the State in 1829 was fol- 
lowed by acts of the Legislative assembly of the Territory, relating 


to the government of such counties, their partition into townships, 
and the establishment of county and circuit courts in each district 
so organized. These acts were approved June 29, 1832, and 
among many others relating to this county was one dealing with 
the courts, in the following terms: "That a county court should be 
established in Jackson county, possessing all the privileges of the 
other county courts in the Territory, a session of which must be 
held on the first Tuesday of September each year, and the first 
session to take place at the house of Horace Blackman. The 
county of Jackson was created one circuit, and a session of the 
court ordered to be held on the second Tuesday of September each 
year, the first session to be held at the house of Horace Black- 

Always prompt in matters of this kind, the authorities appointed 
Dr. Oliver Russ judge, Samson Stoddard clerk of court, and David 
Kves sheriff. The necessary legal notice was extensively posted, 
and in accordance with the spirit of the act, the first court of justice 
in Jackson county was proclaimed open on the first Tuesday of 
September, 1832. A grand jury was impaneled, which comprised 
almost every responsible man then in the neighborhood. Attor- 
neys John Allen and Olney Hawkins were present, with a few 
determined litigants ranged in the back-ground. The court-room, 
— a parlor in the log house of Horace Blackman — was densely 
packed with the jurors, lawyers, litigants and the curious. The 
judge sat patiently waiting the time when the multitude would 
cease their converse, and settle down to hear the lecture to which 
he was determined to treat the jurors. It came. Sheriff Kyes 
read the proclamation a second time, and declared the session 
of the court to have begun. The judge rose from his seat with a 
good ileal of dignity, took a long look at his assembled friends, 
and then entered on one of those peculiar addresses heard only in 
the courts, or at the meetings of a people recently settled in a new 
country, lie said: 

" Gentlemen of the < intml Jnr>/, Friends mn/ Cowit/rymm: "We 
are just emerging from the barbarous period of our lives, and that 
is comprised in the few months which have passed away since we 
left our Eastern homes in search of Western ones. The State has 
not forgotten us; but, on the contrary, has recognized our courage 
by bestowing upon us all the forms of government known in much 
older counties, and above all she has blessed the county by placing 
me a judge over you. Gentlemen of the jury, I am proud to 
assure you that your duties at this session of the court will be of 
the lightest character, but 1 trust the time is not far distant 
when intelligent men. such as you are, will be idle in such a 
cause, or lawyers, such as I see before me, be without a train of 
clients. The advancing civilization of our time requires that 
litigation and trouble of all sorts should accompany it, and I must 
congratulate the State for placing among us, so early in the history 
ot our county, an institution which may, undoubtedly, cause more 
trouble and anxiety than it will be ever able to relieve. 


' • Gentlemen, in closing this little address, I must not forget to 
remind you that this is only the beginning of the end. The time 
will soon be at hand when the juror may lose the curiosity which this 
court now awakens, and seek a means to escape a visit to the 
county court-house, that will soon offer us', at least, a larger room 
to examine and deliberate in. The case of John Doe will come 
before you; treat it as it deserves." 

The jurors were satisfied, the crowd was satisfied; but the 
happiest mortal in all that gathering was the judge himself, who 
looked with a smile at the following entries, made by S. Stoddard, 
Clerk of the County Court, in one of the early record books: 

John Doe, selling liquor to Indian; damages, $20. Attorney, 
John Allen. 

Thomas Godfrey vs. Daniel D. T. Warner, trespass; damages, 
$100. Attorney, O. Hawkins. 

Fee bill — Summons, 50c.; docketing, 12£c. ; same, 6Jc. Date — 
Sept. 4, 1832. Eemarks — Summons issued returnable at next 
term of court. Returned, served by David Kves, Sheriff; fee, 

Under date of Sept. 7, 1832. the fee bill, in the case of Abel 
Millington vs. Sanford Marsh and Daniel D. T. Warner, comprised 
a capias, costing 50c; docketing, 12ic; tiling papers, 25c. So 
Stoddard remarks: — "Capias issued on filing affidavit of E. W. 
Morgan. Capias returned with bond for defendant's appearance 
by David Kyes, Sheriff. Fees, $1.50." 

The action of Stephen Grant and Trumbul Cary against Elijah 
Spencer, claiming damages of $1,000, was brought before the 
court in 1832, and a capias was issued returnable at the next term 
of the Circuit Court. 

The Bank of Michigan vs. John Wickham, H. W. Bassett and 
H. Blackman, a case noticed under date Dec. 18,1832, is treated 
to the laconic remark, "Capias issued returnable at next term of 
Circuit Court. Returned, served by David Kyes. Sheriff." 

All the cases were returned to the Circuit Court, the judge 
asked three hearty cheers for the stars and stripes, which were 
freely given, and then, placing one foot on the chair and his hand 
under his chin, spoke to the members of that grand jury for over 
an hour, and might have continued for the succeeding 60 minutes 
had not the last of the fatigued pioneers followed the example of 
his friends, leaving Messrs. Stoddard and Kyes for the audience. 

It is related by one of the surviving first settlers that the judge 
was very desirous to indite John Doe. then a tavern-keeper in the 
township, for selling liquor to Indians. In his charge to the grand 
jury he referred to it; but the jury requested the judge to make out 
a bill against the breaker of laws, as they were not conversant 
with legal forms in their adopted State. Buss snatched up a pen 
and wrote: John Doe to Jackson ('mint//. Dr., To sellinq liquor to 
Indian*, $20.00 

What became of this "true bill" is not recorded; but it is handed 
down in legend that Doe never paid the $20, and that Dr. Russ' 


"true bill" is still passed round the judicial circuits of the State, 
always forming subject for the leisure moments of modern lawyers. 


The first session of the Circuit Court, held in Jackson county 
June 3, 1833, was presided over by Hon. William A. Fletcher, 
with Win. R. DeLand as assistant judge. The commission of 
Judge Fletcher was issued by Gov. G. B. Porter April 23, 1833. 
This document appointed him judge of the Circuit Court in and for 
the Territrv of Michigan for four years, or during the pleasure of 
the Governor of the Territory for the time being. 

David Kyes, the sheriff, read this commission, together with 
that appointing W. R. De Land assistant judge. As the latter 
named has been so intimately connected with the county, it is well 
to give a copy of his commission: 

George B. Porter — Ooeernor in and over the Territory of Michigan. 

To nil to wh', in these presents nun/ come. Greeting :— Know ye that reposing 
special trust and confidence in the integrity and ability of William R. De Land, I 
have nominaicd and. by and with the advice and consent of the Legislative Coun- 
cil of the said Territory, have appointed him an Associate Judge of the Circuit 
Court for the county of Jackson; and I do hereby authorize and empower him to 
execute and fulfill I he duties of that office according to law, — to have and to hold 
the said office with all the rights, privileges and emoluments thereunto belonging, 
during the pleasure of the governor of the said Territory for the time being. 

The date of this document is contemporary with that of Judge 
Fletcher's commission. 

A commission, under the same date, was issued to Hiram 
Thompson, appointing him associate judge, though he did not 
take his seat until the November session. 

The first grand jury was composed of the following persons : 
Solomon Brill; Lemuel Blackmail, Russell Blackmail, Jacksonburgh; 
Wm. 11. Pease, Wesley W. Laverty, Elizur B. Chapman, Ezekiel T. 
Critchet, John Laverty. Jacksonburgh; Zenas Fuller; Jotham Wood; 
Wm. T. Worden; Charles Henington: Wm. D. Thompson, Jackson- 
burgh; Samuel Wing; Hiram Austin; Nathan Russ, Jacksonburgh; 
Abel Benett, Wm. Pool, Nathan Z. Lattimore, Caleb Chapel, Ira 
Kellogg, Timothy Williams, James Jacobs. Solomon Brill was 
appointed foreman and authorized by the court to administer oat) is 
to such witnesses as might appear for examination. 

The petit panel comprised the following: Nathaniel Boyn, Moses 
Boyn, George Woodworth, Edward Morrell, Aaron Evans, John 
Daniels, Josephus Case, Alexander Laverty. Isaac Carrier. Joseph 
Sutton, John Eames, Ethan Allen. James Fifield, Jeremiah Mar- 
vin, David Riley, Orrin Gregory, Leander M. Cain, Sanford Marsh. 
William Worth, Stephen Rowan, Martin Flint, Major I). Mills. 

The court ordered that ( )lney Hawkins, of Ann Arbor, be ap- 
pointed district attorney. Those preliminaries being completed, 
the case of Millington against Marsli and others was called, when 
Attorney Hawkins moved for judgment of nonsuit, owing to some 


informality in the procedure of plaintiff ; but the motion was over- 
ruled at the adjourned meeting, June 4, and the plaintiff allowed 
to file a declaration within 30 days. 

A nonsuit ensued in the case of Thos. Godfrey versus Daniel D. 
T. Warner by consent of plaintiff's attorney, John Allen, and 01- 
nev Hawkins, the defendant's attorney. 

The little difficulty between Harvey Austin and Calvin II. 
Swain was simply settled by the failure of defendant to appear be- 
fore the court, or, as Dr. Samson Stoddard, then county clerk, re- 
ported, " The defendant being three times solemnly called comes 
not, but makes default.*' 

The United States against Win. Savacool was almost a cause cel- 
ebre. Savacool was indicted for larceny. He denied the crime. 
not wisely, but too well, and was requested to sojourn for three 
months in the hospitable jail of Washtenaw county, and instructed 
to stay there until the costs of the prosecution be paid. All this 
kindness, resulting from the stealing of property valued at $2.25, 
was fully appreciated by the prisoner. The jurors who tried this 
terrible man were Sanford Marsh, Wm. Worth, Geo. Woodworth, 
Orrin Gregory. David Riley, Aaron Karnes. Moses Bovn, Isaac 
Curier, Major D. Mills, Jeremiah Marvin, Edward Morrell and 
Martin Flint. 


The session of November, 1833, was held under President Judge 
Fletcher, with Associate Judges Hiram Thompson and W. R. De 
Land. Alexander Laverty proclaimed the court open, after which 
the commission of Judge II. Thompson was read. The grand 
jury panel was called, when the following answered to their names : 
O. Gregory, J. Wood, A. F. Bolton, J. Valentine, J. S. Love, A. 
B. Gibson, O. Buss, A. Trip, J. McConneU, A. Eames, C. M. 
Chappel, N. Buss, "N". G. Lattimer, J. Tunnicliff, J. Daniels, C. 
Harrington, C. Harrington, Jr., J. N. Swain. W. I). Thompson, 
D. Laverty, E. Allen, J. II. Otis, C. Smith. Abram F. Bolton 
was appointed foreman, and directed to swear any witnesses who 
might come up for examination, and O. Hawkins, district attorney, 
pro tt in. 

Attorneys E. W Morgan and Jewett appeared at this session, 
but the docket was so light, showing only five unimportant cases, 
that they manifested their disapproval by leaving the village the 
evening of the first day's sitting. On the 12th a jury appeared 
consisting of S. Brill, B. Davis, J. S. Fifield, Lyman Pease, Hi- 
ram Austin, J. Marvin, A. Barrett, W. Laverty, J. Laverty, Sam. 
Boberts, Stephen Bowan. M. Bean, N. Bean, E. B. Chapman, J. 
Case, R. Updike, Ed. Morrell, J. T. Durand, J. Wellman, M. D. 
Mills. This jury was immediately discharged, as there did not 
appear any necessity for its further attendance, and subsequently 
the court adjourned without naming a day for the next session. 

A session of the court was held June 5, 1834, with the judges 
named hitherto presiding. A jury was impaneled, and the docket 

HISTORY "]' .lAi'KSiiN nil'NTY. 

disposed of. A most peculiar pair of cases, those of Nehemiah 0. 
Sargeant against Daniel D. T. Warner, and Abel Millington v&rsw 
Marsh and Warner, seem to have occupied almost the entire atten- 
tion of the court from its first session in 1833. Sometimes Warner 
would appear, and sometimes an attachment would be issued 
against him; but the celebrated defendant still considered himself 
at liberty to do exactly what he pleased. Attorney C. Clelland ap- 
peared for Warner at this session, and succeeded in causing the 
attachment against him to be discharged. 

( )gden B. Laverty was not so successful. He was committed to 
Washtenaw jail for ten days, and fined $10 for offending the 
State by battering a citizen. 

At the session of December, Edward Mundy, an Illinois attor- 
ney, was examined by Attorneys G. W. Jewett, James Kingsley 
and E. W. Morgan; took the usual oath, and was admitted an 
attorney and counsellor at law. Wm. J. Moody was admitted in a 
similar manner. 

The judgment in the shocking case of Solomon Brill, a man 
guilty of a crime that sent a thrill of indignation through the hearts 
of the people, was rather too lenient to be just. The second jury 
impanelled to try the prisoner found him guilty, when the court 
delivered the following sentence : " It is considered and adjudged 
by the court, that the said Solomon Brill be and he is hereby sen- 
tenced to be imprisoned by solitary imprisonment, and at hard 
labor, for the period of three years from, and including, this day, 
and that he pay a fine of $100, together with the costs 
of this prosecution, and that he stand committed until the 
sentence be complied with. And it being made to appear to the 
court that there is no gaol in the county of Jackson aforesaid, suit- 
able for the confinement of said convict, it is therefore ordered by 
the court that this sentence be executed by the imprisonment of 
the said Solomon Brill in the gaol of the county of Washtenaw, in 
the Territory of Michigan; and the sheriff of the said county of 
Jackson is hereby authorized to convey the body of the said Solo- 
mon Brill into the said county of Washtenaw, and to deliver it to 
the keeper of the gaol in the said county of Washtenaw." 

W. J. Moody appeared for the terrible defendant; but all that 
could be done by him was to obtain leave to indorse the writ in 
the case nimcpro fame, and cause the first jury to disagree. Solo- 
mon was plaintiff in a number of cases, which were now discon- 

The session of 1S35 was principally engaged in investigating a 
number of civil cases. The case of the State against E. M. Barnes 
for assault and battery, resulted in a fine of $2. The charge 
against him of selling spirituous liquors to Indians was postponed 
to the December session, the defendant and his surety, Samuel 
Quigley, giving bonds in the sum of $50 each. W. J. Moody was 
appointed district attorney, Jonathan Wood, foreman of jury, and 
A. Laverty, crier. 


The session of 1836 was opened under the presidency of Judge 
Fletcher and Associate Judge De Land. Harvey Austin was 
elected foreman of the jury, and Phineas Farrand was appointed 
prosecuting attorney. The trials of civil cases were proceeded with 
without ceremony, and disposed of; and the court having admitted 
Leander Chapman as an attorney and counselor at law, adjourned 
June 8. 

The Circuit Court of 1837 was declared open by the newly ap- 

fointed crier, Joseph C. Watkins, April 25. Hon. Wm. A. 
'letcher, Ethan Allen and David Adams presided. A jury was 
impaneled, and Moses Benedict being elected chairman, the ex- 
amination of the docket was proceeded with. W. D. Thompson's 
name appeared as clerk, and the criminal prosecutions were car- 
ried out under the name of the State of Michigan versus the United 
States as formerly. 

The president and associate judges, with foreman of jury, Town- 
send E. Gidley, assembled April 24, 1838. The organization of 
the session was followed by the motion of Wm. J. Moody to ad- 
mit David Johnson as an attorney and counselor at law. The 
aspirant for legal honors having been examined by Phineas Far- 
rand, P. Morgan and George Miles, ami having taken the usual 
oath, was duly admitted to the Bar of Jackson county. The Peo- 
ple of the State of Michigan against -lira Payne, Paul B. King, 
Abel F. Fitch, C. H. McClure, Phineas Farrand, were charged 
with conspiracy this year, and a commission appointed to take 
depositions of witnesses in the several cases. 

The October session proved a feast for the few professors of law 
permitted to practice at the Bar of Jackson county. Every adult 
in the county appeared upon that uncertain ground where angels 
fear to tread, until at length the very hard-working agriculturist 
sued the studious lawyer, and of course did not receive any re- 
ward beyond the experience gained dining the progress of his 

Having had a synopsis of the proceedings of the pioneer courts, 
we will now take a glance at the roll of judges who presided over 
the sessions of the tribunal from 1832 to the present time. Be- 
ginning with the name of Oliver Russ, who was specially com- 
missioned to preside over the court's first session in 1832, the fol- 
lowing named judges, associate judges and clerks succeeded him : 

Presiding Judges . Associate Judges. Clerks. 

1833 William A. Fletcher. | W -* ££££* f Samson Stoddard. 

j ^d^mr | Wm.D. Thompson. 


,£,,, ,, ( Henry A. Francisco and ( 

J041 } Samuel Selden. i 

1842 Alpheus Felch. 

1843 '• " Czar Jones 
, a .- ,, ( Barnabas O. Hatch and j ,, 
1Mt) ) Aaron T. Gorton. t 

Wm. R. De Land. 
F. Far; and. 


Judge Alpheus Felch retired from the Bench in November, 1845, 
and on the 27th of that month, following the close of the Novem- 
ber session, the Bar of Jackson assembled under the presidency of 
Leander Chapman, with George Sumner as secretary, and adopted 
the following preamble and resolutions : 

Whekeas, The Hon. Alpheus Felch, one of the justices of the Supreme Court of 
this State, anil presiding judge of the Circuit Court of this county, has signified his 
intention of resigning his scat upon the Bench in consequence of' his election to the 
office of governor of the State of Michigan; therefore 

Renolieri, That it is with ureal pleasure we arc enabled to testify that he has dis- 
charged the duties of his judicial office with such faithfulness, impartiality and 
ability, that he has reflected much credit upon himself and upon the judiciary of 
our infant State, and given entire satisfaction to the public and the members of the 

Rets/iked, That while necessity demands that we should lose his valuable services 
in that important and honorable office, we shall ever cherish the liveliest remem- 
brance of those peculiar relations that have existed between himself as the presiding 
officer of this court aud ourselves as members of the Bar. and which have been use- 
ful and pleasing to us and marked with so much courtesy and good feeling on his 
part; and that he will carry with him in his retirement from the liench our highest 
respect, for his character, and our warmest personal friendship and best wishes for 
his prosperity and happiness in whatever station he may hereafter be called to act. 

Samuel II. Kimball's motion to adopt the above was earned. 
Samuel Higby's motion to present, and G. J. Gridley's motion for 
leave to enter the proceedings ot the meeting upon the court jour- 
nal, were also adopted, and thus closed the last session of 1845. 

1846 — Warner Wing, Presiding Judge; B. C. Hatch and A. T. 
Gorton, Assistant Judges; Czar Jones, Clerk; George Miles, Pre- 
siding Judge. 

1847 — Epaphroditus Ranson, Presiding Judge; Geo. Miles, Pre- 
siding Judge. 

During the progress of the November session of the court, At- 
torney Augustus I). Hawley died, when a meeting of the Bar 
was held under the presidency of Leander Chapman, with G. T. 
Grid ley as secretary, and a series of resolutions of condolence 

184S — George Miles, Presiding Judge. 

1849 — George Miles, Presiding Judge. 

1850 — George Miles and Abner Pratt, Presiding Judges. 

The first business of the December session of 1850 was a meet- 
ing of the Bar of Jackson county, to draw up a series of sympa- 
thetic resolutions in connection with the death of Hon. Geo. Miles. 
The record of this meeting appears upon the Court Journal under the 
following head : "In the matter of the death of Hon. Geo. Miles, 
late circuit judge and presiding judge of the court." The minutes 
of the meeting are signed by L. Chapman, Chairman, and Samuel 
Higby, Secretary. 

1851 — Abner Pratt, Presiding Judge. 

1852 — David Johnson, and Abner Pratt, Presiding Judges. 

1853 — D. Johnson and Charles W. Whipple, Presiding Judges; 
Eugene Pringle, C. C. Commissioner. 



1854 — David Johnson, Samuel T. Douglas and A. Pratt. Pre- 
siding Judges; David Johnson, C. C. Commissioner. 
1855 — David Johnson and A. Pratt, Presiding Judges. 
1856 — David Johnson, Presiding Judge. 

1857 — David Johnson and Edwin Lawrence, Presiding Judges. 
1858 — Edwin Lawrence and E. II. 0. Wilson, Circuit Judges. 
1859-69 — Edwin Lawrence, Circuit Judge. 
1870-2— Samuel Highv. Circuit Judge. 
1873-'5— Alex. D. Crane, Circuit Judge. 
L876 '81 — Geo. M. Huntington, Circuit Judge. 


Thomas McGee 18"i6 

Joseph Beebe 18C0 

MelvriHe McGee 1864 

L. M. Powel 

James M. Gould 1880 

James Valentine 1 833 

Leander Chapman 18:16 

Wm. R. De Land 1840 

Samuel Higbv 1844 

Orson W. Bennett 1818 

Jonathan L. Videto 1852 

The judges of the Probate Court were elected for a term of four 
years. Judge Gould was elected November, 1880, and will hold 
the position until January, 1885. 


Olney D. Hawkins— appointed 1833 

Wm. J. Moody " 1835 

Leander Chapman 1838 

Phineas Farrand 1840 

David Johnson 1844 

G. T. Gridley I84ii 

Fidus Livermore 1848 

Samuel Higby 1850 

Austin Blair 1852 

Fidus Livermore 1854 

Eugene Pringle 1856 

Wm. K. Gibson" 1860 

O. W. Bennett 1862 

Victor M. Bostwick 1864 

Wm. K. Gibson 1866 

Thomas A. Wilson 1870 

James Gould 1872 

L. M. Power 1874 

James A. Parkson 1876 

Robert Haire 1878 

John C. Sharp 1880 

CIKCCIT con,'!' . uMMIs-luM US. 

Eugene Pringle 1852 

W.T.Howell 1854 

Wm. K. Gibson 1856 

James R. De Land 1858 

James W. Bennttt ) 1Q ,. 

Joshua Haire f m, ~ 

Grove H . Wolcott ) 

Geo. P. Griswold 
Geo. A. Armstrong 
Grove H. Wolcott 
Homer A. Curtis 
James Hammil 


John A. Townsend ) 
James Hammil ) '" 
W. S. Gridley / 

Geo. Proudfit f 

Walter Johnson ) 

Joshua Haire j 

Reuben E Clark > 

James (loss j 

Frank Hewlett / 

V. V. B.Merwin f 1878 

V. V. R. Merwin 1 1san 

JohnMcDevitt f ™ W 



. iSiTt; 

county clerks. 

S. Stoddard 1832 

W. D. Thompson 1836 

W. R. De Land 1838 

F. Farrand 1840 

Czar Jones 1842 

James A. Dyer 1846 

Walter Budington 1848 

Horace G. Bliss 1852 

Dc v.i.t ;■ " ..;;:. <s.-4 

Alex. G. Bell 1856 

Daniel Upton 1858 

Robert D. Knowles 1866 

Luther H. Ludlow 1872 

Almerin M. Tinker 
(■apt. Holden, 


linker ) 

l.D.C. f 
William D. Taylor f • 1c _ a 

E A. Clement, DO. f lfc78 

lllMcia OF .IA< Kmi.\ I'lll'XTV. 

[(!■■(. !M KAUs u|- DKKIIS. 

Hiram Thompson 1832 

Jas. C. Bailey 1836 

Wrn. A. Perrine 1840 

Hiram Thompson 1*42 

Peter E. De Mill 1846 

Gardner II. Shaw 1848 

Levi P. Gregg 1852 

John M. Root 1856 

8. IT. Ludlow 1860 

At). Van de Bogart 1862 

Harvey Bush 1864 

DeWitt C. Smith 1868 

Anson Townley 1870 

Harvey Bush 1H72 

Anson Townley 1874 

Anson Townley 1876 

Anson Townley 1880 


David Keyes 1832 

Amasa B. Gibson 1831? 

James A. Dyer 1838 

JohnL.Videto 1840 

Henry Tisdale 1842 

L.D. Welling 1846 

Amos Pickett 1850 

Wm. Wycoff 1854 

Geo. L. Smalley 1858 

J. K. Smallev 1862 

D. II. Lockwood 

Geo. Jennings 

Danl. W. Shaw 

Ogden A. Green 

Wm, R. Brown 

Wm. R. Brown 

Chauncy S. Webster 

Norton M. Terry 1878 

David II. Lockwood 1880 




S. Stoddard 1834 

O. Russ 1836 

Norman Allen 1838 

John N. Dwight 1840 ! 

Leander Chapman 1842 

James C. Wood 1846 

Reynolds Landon 1850 

Amos Pickett 1854 

Anson Townley 1856 

L. F. Grandv 1860 

Anson Townley 1862 

L. F. Grandy 1864 

L. H. Ludlow 1868 

Reynolds Landon 1870 

Mark L. Rav 1872 

David Trumbull 1874 

Dwight F. Gillett 1876 

Richard Townley 1878 

Luther H. Ludlow 1880 

Gordon Case 1840 

Marcus Wakeman ( 1RAO 

B. H. Deming ( 1M ~ 

Marcus Wakeman ( . „,, 

John Griffith t 184 * 

Charles Mooney ) ia .„ 

Ben. Sidell f 1846 

H. O. Bronson ) ,„.„ 

N. P. Stanton \ lb48 

J.G.Cornell ) . .. 

A. N. Moulton \ 185U 

Abr. Croman [ 

J. R. Crowell J 18aj 

E. K. Whitmore { ^ 5i 

Mathew Dearin j ' ' ' 

R. C. Robinson ) ,0^ 

J.R Crowell I •"■' 1B 

G. W. Watkins ( 1R e R 

S.Stoddard \ 18 ° 8 

A. A Dorrance 1 1860 

J. R. Crowell \ 

A. A. Dorrance ) ..... 

S. C. Crafts f 18b2 

A. A. Dorrance / 

M. J. Draper l 1864 

A. S. Cushman ) .... 

M. J. Draper f 18W) 

A 8 Cushman / 

G. W. Watkins \ 1868 

Albert Foster [ 

Jas. F. Sammons ) 1870 

Jacob Bieber ) 

Lewis Gunder j" 187 '*' 

James Finn { 

Lewis Gunder \ ltsti 

James Finn / 

Lewis Guilder C 18 ' b 

James Finn { 1fir j R 

Charles W. Cook ) 18 ' s 

Capt. John Bedford } -toon 

Frank Therman \ 188 ° 

The latter is the first colored man elected to a county office' in 



lll-'h>l;> c.|. .1 Ac K>'C\ i "I'NTY. 



J. P. Stratton / , g , lg29 t 1843 
John Durand \ ' 

Caleb A. Canfield 1842 

Henrv A. Hayden 1844 

Anson H. De Lamatre 1846 

John T. Durand 1852 

Austin Pouieroy 1856 

Henry Bean 1862 

The following is a list of the justices of the peace, of Jackson 
county, together with their postoffice address and the year upon 
which their terms expire: 

Austin Pouieroy 1864 

Wm. S. Crowl 1868 

W. S. Crowl 1870 

M.F. Cook 1874 

Henry F. Bean 1 876 

Percy T. Cook 1878 

Wm. S. Crowl. . . 1880 


Willard W. Wooster, Jackson 1880 

Charles Wood, " 1881 

James Mayo, " 1882 


Andrew J. Williamson, Brooklyn. .1879 
George N.Bertram, " ..1881 

W. J. Casey, " ...1882 

W. S. Pitcher, " . .1883 


John G. Darling, Albion 1880 

James M. Dodge. Concord 1879 

Richmond Briggs, Parma 1881 

James W. Townsend. 


Solon S. Clark, Grass Lake 1883 

DeWitt C. Johnson, " " 1882 

Aaron A. Price, " " 1881 

W. Hopkins, " " 1880 


James D. Knight, Hanover 1883 

George S. Wilson, Horton 1882 

Walter J. G. Dean, Hanover 1881 

E. J.Sprague, " 1880 


S. S. Johnson, Henrietta 1880 

Daniel Garfield, " 1883 


E. A. Sager, Michigan Center 1880 

J. P. Kaywood, Leoni 1882 

James Hayhoe, Jackson 1883 


Wallace E. Kennedy, Liberty 1882 

James P. Sanford, Horton 1883 


Charles C. Dewey. Napoleon 1880 

Amos H. Phillips Jackson 1882 

Ralph Covert, Napoleon 1883 


Philip Howland, Norvill 1880 

Benjamin F. Burgess, Norvill 1881 

Thomas Rhead, " 1882 

Cornelius L. Hall, " 1883 


Milo C. Beeman, Albion 1882 

Horace King, " 1883 


Robert Brail, Pulaski 

Jacob Findlay, Concord 

Ira A Willis, Pulaski 

Samuel D. Brown, Mosherville. 

Lester Miner, Leslie 1879 

Orwin True, Rives Junction 1880 

William Peak. Jackson 1881 

Michael Graham, Leslie 1883 


Ezekiel Root, Parma 1880 

Thomas Sackerider, Sandstone 1881 

Daniel D. Petrie, Parma 1883 


Joseph T. Day, Springport 1880 

Alfred W. Soule, " 1881 

Martin L. Day, " 1882 

Robert Rockwood, Otter Creek. . . 1883 


W. J. Tefft, Spring Arbor 1879 

Amasee M. Pardee, " " 1880 

George Coggswell, " " 1881 

Zora McGonegal, " " 1882 

Heniy N, Tefft, " " 1883 


Alexander H. Lattimer, Jackson . . . 1879 
Philander E. Pierce. " ...1880 

Samuel Gates, " ...1881 

John O'Brien, " ...1882 

Kennicut B. Green, " ...1883 


Marcus P. Wade, Tompkins 1879 

George A. Stimpson, " 1880 

Chauncey Ferguson, E. Springport. 1881 

Amenzo'M. Cook, Tompkins 1882 

Joseph C. Wade, " 1883 


Samuel E. Dewey, Waterloo 1881 

Edwin B. Parks, " 1882 

Orville Horton, " 1883 


Warren N. Buck, Jackson 1879 

Horace Hunt, " 1880 

L. D. Welling, " 1881 

Minard F. Cook, " 188<> 

D. Gibbs Palmer, " I883 


In the review of the pioneers, brief sketches of the ancient Bar of 
this county have been given, so that a repetition is unnecessary. The 
junior members of the present society, whose years do not place them 
among the early settlers, will be referred to in the biographical 
chapter. Therefore a review of the surviving pioneers of the pro- 
fession, and their very promising juniors, will form the close of 
this chapter. The following comprise the present Bar : 

Jackson — Austin Blair, James C. Wood, David Johnson, G. T. 
Gridley, Wm. K. Gibson, Eugene Pringle, John D. Conely, Eras- 
tus Peck, Melville McGee. J. AY Bennett, Grove H. Wolcott, 
Enoch Banker. 

Brooklyn — Nathan G. King. 

Jackson — Lewis M. Powell, Thomas A. Wilson, John C. Sharp, 
Jonathan L. Videto, Andrew J. Gould, Frank Hewlett, James 
Hammil, James A. Parkinson, Mark S. Wolcott, Calvin 0. Burt, 
James Gould, 1ST. B. Hall, Geo. Proudfit, Albert A. Bliss, Wm. 
Seward Gridley, Richmond Livermore, Wm. H. Potts, Reuben E. 
Clark, Robert J. Haire, Walter Johnson, Robert D. Knowles, J. 
T. Hammond, Eli A. Clement, 

Grass Lake — James Goss. 

Norvell — George H. Fay. 

Jackson — J. C. Lowell, Chas. B. Wood, Y. Y. B. Merwin, 
Joshua Haire, George F. Anderson, Thomas E. Barkworth, By- 
ron S. Ashley, Henry Hanaw, Alfred E. Lucking, Charles A. 
Blair, George H. Jameson, Verne S. Pease, Ray Hewlet, Mel- 
ville Stone, John E. Winn, John McDevitt. 

Hanover — Charles E. Snow. 

Jackson — W. A. Chamberlain, F. Livermore, Sr. 


A review of the various political campaigns in any extended 
form is impracticable ; first, because such a mass of campaign 
items as this county alone could furnish would require every 
page in this large volume ; secondly, because the greater number 
of readers are content with the quadrennial literature which is 
drawn from its hiding place to make known to the world that 
there is political war in the United States ; and, thirdly, because 
there is no earthly use in reverting to a subject which is wanting 
in every charitable and Christian aspect. Here are given a few 
items dealing with political organization, pure and simple, with 
three papers seemingly unconnected with politics, and yet exer- 
cising a very great influence. These comprise " Sympathy with 
the Oppressed," "The Pulpit and the Press,' 1 and the "Railroad 
Conspiracy. 1 ' Such papers are most valuable, and the events 
which they chronicle had a peculiar effect upon the political par- 
ties of the county. 

The first election held in the township of Jacksonburgh was in 
1831, for one congressional delegate and two members of the 
Legislative Council. The Van Buren-Harrison campaign of 1836 
drew forth all the political energies of the jjeople. Again, in 1840 
the same political contestants met in the field and excitement 
reached its highest point. "Hard cider 11 and " log cabins" were 
introduced into the campaign ; poles of liberty, stars and stripes, 
and a hundred inconceivable nicknacks occupied every prominent 
eminence. The Whigs of Jackson county worked with amazing zeal, 
and so gained for General Harrison a vote of 1,504 against" 1,121 
recorded for Mr. Van Buren. 

In 1811 James K. Polk was nominated for the presidency by 
the Democrats, Henry Clay by the Whigs, and James G. Birney 
by the Free-Soil party. The electors of the county came forth in 
their numbers, giving to President Polk a majority of 87 over 
Henry Clay, who received 1,302 votes. The Abolitionist Birney 
received 475 votes from men who even then recognized true liberty 
and a free soil. 

In 1848 Zachary Taylor, Lewis Cass and Martin Van Buren 
were nominated by their respective parties, the first on the 
Whig ticket, the second on the Democratic, pure and simple, and 
the third by the Free Democrats. The contest throughout the 
Union was spirited, and in no place more so than in this county. 
Gen. Taylor received 969 votes, the old Governor of Michigan 
Territory 1,547, and Mr. Van Buren 1,072. Jackson county acted 
wisely and well in giving a great majority for Lewis Cass. 


In 1852 (it'll. Scott, with Messrs. Franklin Pierce and John P. 
Hale, were in the held for the presidential race. Mr. Pierce re- 
ceived 1,840 Democratic votes in the county, Gen. Scott 1,727 
Whig votes, and Mr. Hale 484 Abolition. 

The Republican party was formed at Jackson in 1854. The 
campaign of 1856 was opened by the nomination of John C. 
Fremont. "The Pathfinder, "on the Republican ticket, James Bu- 
chanan on tlic Democratic, and Millard Fillmore on the "Ameri- 
can." The nominee of the Republican party received 2, 996 votes 
from the electors of Jackson county. Mr. Buchanan 2.11s, and the 
Know-Nothing nominee 44. 

In 1859-'60 the Republic was a scene of popular discontent. The 
repeal of the Missouri compromise, the struggles in Kansas, and 
John Brown's raid, all tended to this end. the Northern States 
were determined to prevent the extension of slavery, and even re- 
solved to take measures tor its abolition mtoto. The Southern 
States were equally determined to perpetuate theterrible stain on 
the principles of human liberty. The Democratic party allowed 
divisions to creep into its rank and tile, which resulted in the 
nomination of Stephen A. Douglas for President on the one side. 
and John C. Breckenridge on the other. The utter defeat of the 
great Douglas was the result. The Republicans formed a phalanx 
of determination. At the Chicago convention of I860 they nom- 
inated Abraham Lincoln, succeeded at the polls, and inaugurated 
him as President of the United States. Austin Blair was elected 
Governor of Michigan, and in almost every State a determined 
anti-slavery man was honored with a similar position. 

In 1864 President Lincoln was re-elected over Geo. B. McClel- 
lan, the Democratic nominee. After the assassination of Lincoln 
a Tennesseean named Andrew Johnson — the Vice-President — a 
Unionist, although half a flunkey, became President of the United 

The Democratic convention of 1868 nominated Horatio Sey- 
mour and Francis P. Blair. Jr., for President and Vice-President. 
The Republicans brought forward U. S. Grant and Schuyler Col- 
fax, and elected their nominees by a popular majority. 

The campaign of 1872 opened with the nomination of Horace 
Greeley for President by the Liberal Republicans ; Charles < >*- 
Connor, the great lawyer.' by the Democrats, and U. S. Grant by 
the Republicans. The nominee of the latter party reached the 
White House for his second term. 

The choice of James A. Garfield for President in 1880 seems 
now to be judicious. The party of which he is the acknowledged 
head took a wise course and baffled the nefarious designs of a 
host of vampires, who would again hoist a man to the highest posi- 
tion in the State, who would permit them, and perhaps join with 
them, in sucking the best blood of the Republic. Gen. Hancock, 
the Democratic nominee, is without stain either in his social or mil- 
itary record. However, the nation acted wisely in abolishing hero 
worship; and in leaving the gallant General to occupy his comfor- 


table quarters on Governor's Island. The vote recorded as given 
by the electors of Jackson to the various candidates for the presi- 
dency is as follows : James A. Garfield, 4.4x6; WInfield S. Han- 
cock, 3,744; James B. Weaver, National Greenback, 1,810; and 
Neal Dow, Prohibition, 117. 


The meeting of Whigs, held at Jackson Sept. 27. 1837, was at- 
tended by many of the pioneers, including those of the following 
well-known names : Norman Allen, Zina Allen, Russell Black- 
man, Horace Blackman, N. Bayne, Benah Bean, J. C. Burnell, 

C. P. Cowden, John Callar, R. W. Chamberlin, L. Calkin, J. N. 
Dwight, Wm. R De Land, R. Davis, I. A. Dyer, John Daniels. 
John Durand, John T. Durand, I. Darling, P. Farrand, Heman 
Fassett, H. II. Gilbert, Samuel Hamlin. Reuben Eollister, Thomas 
Jenkins, W. W. Laverty, Lyman Lewis, George Monroe. Stephen 
Monroe, Stephen Town, Leander McCane, John McConnell, Na- 
thaniel Morrell, Lyman Pease, S. V. Richardson. Nicholas Sullivan, 
James McKee, Ralph Stiles, Amos Temple, Peter C. Yreland. 
Samuel Wing, G. W. Woodworth, S. Woodworth, P. Will- 
iams, Jotham Wood, George Weston, Enos Wheeler, Ansel Wing. 
Jonas Wing. 

The meeting was organized by the appointment of Phineas Far- 
rand, president, and J. C. Burnell, secretary. The persons whose 
names are given above were appointed delegates to the county 
convention held at Jacksonburgh seven days later. P. Farrand, 

D. T. Dwight and J. C. Burnell were appointed a town corre- 
sponding committee, and the president, secretary, and Norman 
Allen were appointed a committee to draft a series of resolutions, 
expressive of the sense of the meeting. The resolutions were 
submitted and approved, and so the voice of the people, seeking 
for their liberties, went forth from the village to be re-echoed 
throughout the State. 


Of all the peculiarities of man, there are none so comically 
strange as those drawn forth during the progress of a political con- 
test. Enthusiasm is rampant, and that which men would fear to 
speak or act in calmer days is made patent to the world. In the 
campaign of 1840, the Tippecanoe boys of Jackson and the towns 
in the neighborhood, were excited to the sticking point, and May 
9, 1840, assembled at Monroe's tavern for the purpose of doing 
something,or anything. The morning was miserably cold and wet, 
yet the boys were all there, with teams, axes, spades, and all the 
rude paraphernalia of men who are determined on some desperate 
work. Their ardor conquered every opposition, and before the 
night crept on, the logs were brought to the location, the cabin 
erected, and the lofty pole of liberty raised. The cabin stood on 


J. T. Durand's lot, opposite the Sentinel office. Mr. Durand fur- 
nished many of the logs, while Culver and Stone, of Leoni, pre- 
sented the liberty pole. 


The Sentinel and Democrat, of 1840, were often guilty of in- 
dulging in the extraordinary and complimentary (?) language, 
which the journalists of that day were so skilled in using. In 
April, 1840, while "Winter lingered in the lap of Spring," the 
Presidential campaign was opened at Jackson by the Democratic 
party, and a scathing editorial appeared in the journal represent- 
ing that platform. The following week the S, ntinel gave up its 
second page to a eulogy of Gen. Harrison, with a small paragraph 
devoted to the Democratic edit< >r, his tierce opponent. This was 
headed "X» Wondeb," anil took the following peculiar form : "The 
..Id wonumoi the Michigan Democrat has been shaking with the 
ague like mad, for a day or two ! Well, really, when a loco-foco 
editor (?) sings out, 'Hurrah for Harrison; — hurrah for Wood- 
bridge," and calls himself an old woman, is it any wonder, at all, 
that he should take to shaking like 60 ? We rather guess not. 
Well, 'go it,' old woman; we hope Mr. Ague will shake the evil 
spirits out of you before he takes his leave. Again, under the 

head of ' Wellerism,' is written: "Who the d 1 thro wed that 

stone 'i " as the old woman of the Michigan Democrat said when the 
teller threw a rotten egg between his eyes. " 


Then rally, ye log-cabin Democrats all : 

Tis Grati'tuile's. justice's, Liberty's call ; 

As Harrison has always conquered his foes, 

E'en thus will he use up the loco-focos. 

So, Huzza for old Tip, and God save the Union ! 

The editor of the Sentmd, desiring to reassure his constituents ot 
his unswerving loyalty to party, announced his intention to be 
present at Fort Meigs, thus : "We are all, save the d — 1 (and he 
wants to go bad enough) going to attend the jubilee at Fort Meigs 
the first week in June, 1840, and shall therefore be unable to issue 
a regular sheet until after our return." 


A lengthy communication from Wm. H. Pease, of Grass Lake, 
dated Oct. 22, 1845, appeared in the columns of the Patriot, Oct. 
28. It dealt with the subjects of judicial reform, reduction of sal- 
aries, and sale of railroads most rationally, and, without doubt, 
would essay to carry out his opinions in the Chamber of Repre- 


sentatives ; yet the vote of the district, returned shortly after- 
ward, deprived him of an honor which he merited. Hon. Austin 
Blair, Marcus Wakeman and Frederick A. Kennedy were 
elected on the occasion to represent the county in the State Legis- 


The appointment of Warner Wing as the successor of Judge 
Filch in the second judicial circuit, was as unsatisfactory as it was 
impolitic, on the part of Gov. Barry. The new judge did not 
belong to the Bar of the circuit, his acquaintance with the people 
was of the most limited character; and his knowledge of the duties 
devolving on such an office, not superior to that possessed by law- 
yers residing in the district, over which he was appointed. The 
disaffection oftheipeople was apparent; as the act of the out- 
going governor promised to his appointee a short tenure of office, 
and thus deprived his successor of the privilege of commissioning 
a lawyer, whose presidency of the Circuit Court would be hailed 
with expressions of satisfaction. 


The year 1845 was one of intense political enthusiasm through- 
out the country. Sixteen years after the first settlement of this 
tract — years of toil and anxiety — men began to seek all those high 
privileges which form the birthright of the American citizen, and 
consequently to demand a share in the government of the State. 
Hitherto power was vested in what is named the "ruling class;" 
but now the time had come when the people claimed their heritage, 
and an opportunity 'to rectify the errors of impolitic men and 
measures. Conventions were held with telling results, — liberal, 
broad-minded men expressed themselves, new ideas were enun- 
ciated to be fostered, and reform, pure and simple, resolved upon. 
In the midst of this righteous agitation, three citizens of Jackson 
addressed Judge Felch, submitting to him five inquiries, the 
answers to which would be neither instructive and conciliating to 
the people, nor enigmatical in themselves, and humiliating to the 
respondent. It is not stated what cause prompted this letter — 
presumably patrotism ; probably a desire to obtain additional 
knowledge ; or, likely, a wish to draw forth from the judge a re- 
view of his policy, by which electors might be guided. The let- 
ter and Mr. Felch's reply are able documents, but too voluminous 
for these pages. 


In 1845 the State Railroad Commissioner and W. F. Storey, of 
the Patriot, were not particularly friendly. The latter, doubtless, 
was a close observer of men and events, a terrible enemy of him 


who opposed the interests of Jackson county, or of its comity-seat, 
and a regular slayer of its avowed opponents. Commissioner 
Comstock may have done something detrimental to the city inter- 
ests, and so he is honored with this nattering editorial no'tice : 
"Jackson is a favorite point with Commissioner Comstock, we 
think. Train after train of empty cars have recently passed us 
going to Marshall, and on Sunday seven returned empty to Albion, 
there being no more freight at Marshall. At Jackson 40,000 
bushels of wheat await shipment, and a large portion of this has 
been in store since the break at Ypsilanti. O. C. Comstock, Jr., 
is no more tit for commissioner than the devil is for paradise. 
Them's the sentiments of the people of this county. He had bet- 
ter resign and let some boy be appointed." This comical refer- 
ence to a most popular and able commissioner was suggested by 
an idea, originating in the editorial mind, that he opposed the in- 
terests of the Jackson people. 


A convention of the Democrats of Jackson county was held in 
the county court-house, Sept. 3, 1846. The meeting was organized 
by the appointment of Paul B. Ring, chairman, A. F. Bolton and 
Marcus Wakeman, vice-presidents, with Michael Shoemaker and 
B. C. Hatch, secretaries. The delegates from the townships pre- 
sented their credentials, and took their seats as members of the 
convention, in the following order: 

Jackson: — Simon Peterson, Henry Tisdale, P. B. Ring, W. J. 
Moody, John Yarrow, A. Ford, David Markham, M. Wakeman, J. 
D. Davis, Gr. W. Logan, Charles Mooney, I. L. Tobey, Charles 
Boyce, S. W. Stowell, J. B. Pierce, C. L. Wing, Walter Fish. 

Concord- J. Reynolds, J. Stevens, J. Vau Warmer. 
Liberty — R. C. Sanborn, F. Pierce, B. Harrington, L. Thompson 
Hanover— H. S. Skinner, A. Brown, B. C. Hatch, F. A. Kennedy, J. Crittenden. 
Parma — H. S. Hollister. 

Sandstone — John Rouse, P. Lane, C II. Rouse, L Bascomb. 
Pulaski— H. C. Hodge, Ira Wilbur, J. Thorn. 
Spring Arbor — 11. S. llolcomb. H. H. Hammond, II. Anson. 
Napoleon— A. F. Bolton, N. B. Lemm, J. P. Elliot, C. C'alver, R. C. Baker, J H. 
Wells, and .1. Slay ton. 

Leoni— M. Shoemaker, S. Higby, II. C. Orendorf, I. (_'. Backus. 

Grass Lake— W. L. Palmer, Robert Lawrence, H. H. Bingham, N. S. Palmer. 

Delegate J. D. Davis' motion "that the county be divided into 
eight districts" was carried, and 18 members of the convention 
elected to represent the people of Jackson at the Congressional 
and Senatorial convention to be held subsequently. A series of 
motions presented by Ruel E. Baker was accepted. The first 
declared that Jackson county ought to have the nominee to Con- 

S-ess from the second district; another, that the nomination of 
avid Johnson should be secured by all honorable means, and a 
third, that a committee should be appointed to wait upon David 
Johnson, and request him to address the convention. 


In this manner the rights of the people were guarded, and the 
best interest of the State served. It is now 35 years since this 

fithering of representative men resolved upon a certain procedure, 
heir deliberations were carried out in a dignified manner, and so 
sure as these were matured, were they acted on with precision and 
dispatch which would do honor to the assemblies of the present. 


Notwithstanding the central position of Jackson city, and the 
hopes of its enterprising citizens that the wisdom of the State 
would point it out as the location of the capital, a bill was passed 
locating the offices and chambers of the State Legislature in the 
wilderness, at the imaginary village of Lansing, Ingham < '<>. 
The bill with some additions was to come into force Dec. 25, 1*47. 
although it passed the Senate on March 12, the same year. The 
press of Jackson, in dealing with the subject, deals with it from a 
cool, rational and patriotic standpoint. The Put riot, in its editorial 
column, speaks as follows: 

•'Thus the long vexed question has been settled, and the 
capital of the State has been placed well nigh in the wilderness. 
Those, however, who suppose that the proposed location is in a 
frog pond or on a dreary waste, are vastly mistaken. A flying 
visit a week ago to 'Seymour's place,' so called, and through a 
portion of the town of Lansing, enables us to correct any false 
impressions that may have obtained in reference to the character of 
the country. The part of the town through which we passed (and 
that includes 'Seymour's place') is what is termed timbered or 
heavy openings. The surface is slightly undulating, the soil rich, 
and the face of the country delightful. The land is elevated and 
free from marsh; and for arable purposes can scarcely be excelled. 
Grand river runs to the town, and at this point it is no inconsider- 
able stream; the water is clear, the current rapid, and the banks 
high. At ' Seymour's place " a dam is erected across the river, and 
a saw-mill is in operation. The water-power seems to be extensive 
and valuable, and should that point be the place, a more desirable 
location for a village cannot well be desired. It is situated on the 
east bank of the river, and the country back is truly magnificent. 
On the whole, since Jackson could not secure the coveted honor, 
we are pleased with this location. It will cause that portion of the 
State to settle rapidly, its rich resources will be developed, and we 
shall see a thriving village grow up, where there is now but a 
single log house." 

The course pursued by the people of Jackson in connection with 
the Location of the capital was well calculated to bring them honor 
and even the capital, but the people represented in the Legislature 
looked at Ingham county without a prospect, and wisely argued 
that Jackson was following in paths that lead to prosperity. It 
was, therefore, their duty to build up another county, and from 
the moment the State Senate resolved on this course, the people of 
Jackson merged their ambition in patriotism, and approved. 



The varied causes which led to the revolution in the minds ot 
men, that called for new political ideas and ultimately made them 
practicable in 1854, have been inquired into and elucidated in the 
following pages. The fact that Jackson justly claims the honor of 
being foremost among the communities in opposition to the exten- 
sion of slavery, will also be apparent after a perusal of the first 
paragraphs of the chapter. The historical material has been ob- 
tained by a careful examination of the contemporary records in the 
public prints. The riles for that year of the Detroit Tribune, ed- 
ited by Joseph Warren, who was so prominent in the movement, 
have not been found, but the Detroit Advertise (Whig), the Free 
Democrat (Free Soil), the Free Pre** (Democrat) and the Jackson 
Citizen ( Whig) are accessible and have been used in the compila- 
tion. The literary enterprise of the Detroit Post and Tribune has 
contributed more than anything else to the collating of all the 
facts in connection with that meeting of Northern patriots "under 
the oaks." at Jackson in 1854, A year or two ago the idea of col- 
lecting each item of information connected with the formation of 
the Republican party suggested itself to that journal, with the re- 
sult of placing befi »re its readers < >ver two pages of pure and simple 
history, dealing with one ot the most important political changes 
that ever agitated a free people. This important contribution to 
history has been utilized here because it bears principally on the 
Jackson meeting, and, therefore, becomes identified with the 
county and the city of which this is a history. 


better known as "Under the Oaks," was situated on a farm ad- 
joining the village, called "Morgan's Forty," near the county 
race-course. Between 3,000 and 4,000 persons assembled around 
the rude platform on that beautiful July 6 to denounce the exten- 
sion of slavery and to expand, rather than contract, the cherished 
principles of the fathers of this republic. 


The question had recently been started anew as to when and 
where the present Republican party was founded and named, and 
claims have been put forward for Massachusetts and Wisconsin, in 
which States preparations were made for the celebration of its 25th 
anniversary. The first Republican convention in Wisconsin was 
held at Madison July 13, 1854, the call being issued July 9, after 
a number of "anti-Nebraska" meetings had been held in different 
parts of the State. The call invited ' ' all men opposed to the re- 
peal of the Missouri Compromise and the extension of the slave 
power " to take part. No names were signed to it and no name 
for any new party was indicated in it. but the convention which 


met in response thereto adopted the following as one of its resolu- 
tions : 

Resolved, That we accept the issue forced upon us by the slave power, and in de- 
fense of freedom will co-operate and be known as Republicans. 

In Massachusetts some preparation was made for a celebration 
on July 19. On that date, in 1854, a convention was held in Wor- 
cester, an organization effected, and the name Republican adopted 
by the following resolution: 

Resilverl, That in co-operation with the friends of freedom in sister States, we 
hereby form the Republican party of Massachusetts. 

But the movement in that State at that time could not secure the 
cn-operation of the Whigs, and in the succeeding election made 
but little showing at the polls, most of the anti-slavery strength 
being given to the Know-Nothing party. 

On the 13th of July, 1854, a mass convention was held in Ver- 
mont of persons "infavor of resisting, by all constitutional means, 
the usurpations of the propagandists of slavery. 1 ' Among the res- 
olutions adopted was one which closed with these words: " We pro- 
pose and respectfully recommend to the friends of freedom in other 
States to co-operate and be known as Republicans." A State ticket 
was nominated, but the State committees of the various parties be- 
ing empowered "to fill vacancies," a Fusion ticket was afterward 
placed in the held, voted for and elected under the name of Fusion. 

On the 13th of July, also, a convention was held in Columbus, 
Ohio, of those in favor of " breaking the chains now forging to 
bind the nation to the car of American slavery." The canvass 
which was then inaugurated swept the State for the party which, 
during that canvass, was generally known as Republican. 

On the same day a similar convention was held in Indiana, at 
which speeches were mady by Henry S. Lane, Henry L. Ellsworth 
and Schuyler Colfax, and the campaign resulted similarly to that 
in Ohio. 


But earlier than all these conventions was the Michigan mass 
convention held in the grove of oaks at Jackson on July 6, 1854. 
In reference to the claim of priority raised in behalf of other 
States, the late Henry Wilson says truly in his "Rise and Fall of 
the Slave Power in America:" 

"But whatever suggestions may have been made, or whatever 
action may have been taken elsewhere, to Michigan belongs the 
honor of being the first State to form and christen the Republican 
party. More than three months before the passage of the Kansas- 
Nebraska bill the Free Soil convention had adopted a mixed ticket, 
made of the Free Soilers and Whigs, in order that there might be 
a combination of the anti-slavery elements of the State. Immedi- 


ately on the passage of the Nebraska bill, Joseph Warren, editor 
of the Detroit Tribune, entered upon a course of measures that re- 
sulted in bringing the Whig and Free Soil parties together, not by 
a mere coalition of the two, but by a fusion of the elements of 
which the two were composed. In his own language, he 'took 
ground in favor of disbanding the Whig and Free-Soil parties and 
of the organization of a new party, composed of all the opponents 
of slavery extension.' Among the first steps taken toward the ac- 
complishment of this vitally important object was the withdrawal 
of the Free-Soil ticket. This having been effected, a call fur a 
mass convention was issued, signed by more than 10,000 names. 
The convention met on the 6th da}- of' July, and was largely at- 

"A platform drawn by the Hon. Jacob M. Howard, afterward 
United States senator from Michigan, was adopted, not only oppos- 
ing the extention of slavery, but declaring in favor of its abolition 
in the District of Columbia. The report also proposed 'Re- 
publican' as the name of the new party, which was adopted by the 
convention. Kinsley S. Bingham was nominated by the conven- 
tion as the 'Republican' candidate for governor, and was trium- 
phantly elected, and Michigan, thus early to enter the ranks of the 
Republican party, has remained steadfast to its then publicly- 
avowed principles of faith." 


In 1852 there were three State tickets in the field in Michigan. 
The Whigs gave Zachariah Chandler, for governor, 34,660 votes; 
the Democrats gave Robert McCeUand 42,798, and the Free Soil- 
ers, or Free Democrats, or Free-Soil Democrats, as they were 
variously called in contemporaneous records, gave Isaac P. Chris- 
tian cy 5,850 votes. 

During the exciting contest in Congress in the winter of 1853-4, 
the possibility of uniting all classes of those opposed to the Kan- 
sas-Nebraska bill and the policy which it indicated, was frequently 
discussed, but steps to this end were not taken until late in the 

The Free Democracy, as they styled themselves in the call for 
their State convention, were the first in the field for the campaign 
of 1854. Their call was issued Jan. 12, and was for a State con- 
vention to be held at Jackson, Feb. 22. It was signed by I'. 
Tracy Howe, Hovev K. Clarke, Silas M. Holmes, S. A. Bakei, 
S. B. Thayer, Samuel P. Mead, Samuel Zug, J. W. Childs and 
Fh-astus Hussey as the State Central Committee. 

Before the issue of that call a county convention at Ionia had 
been held, and resolutions of denunciation and warning adopted. 
The Eaton county convention, held Jan. 20, denounced both of 
the old parties and the fugitive slave law. Addresses were made 
bv the Rev. W. B. Williams, of Charlotte, and Mrs. O. C. Buck, 
of Eaton Rapids. 


Anti-Nebraska meetings were also held of those who were not 
specifically committed to the Free Soil organization, among them 
one at Detroit, Feb. 18, in the call for which appear the following 
well-known names: Oliver Newberry, Jacob M. Howard, Z. Chan- 
dler. Howard, Smith * Co., Geo. B. Pease, W. S. Wood, Wm. 

B. Wesson, Fred Morley, Baker & Conover, John S. Jenness, 
Lyman Baldwin, Francis Raymond, Silas M. Holmes. F. Buhl, 
J. Owen, J. A. Vandyke, Samuel Zug, B. W. King, Daniel 
Scotten, Wm. A. Butler & Co., Richmond & Backus, Henry P. 
Baldwin, A. C. McGraw, D. Bethune Duffield, T. A. Parker, 
Edward Kanter, Seymour Finney, A. H. Dey, Geo. Kirby, T. K. 
Adams, Joseph Warren, Jacob S. Farrand, A. J. Brow, S. Folsom 
and Marcus Stevens. This meeting was largely attended, and 
was officered as follows: President — Major Jonathan Kearsley, 
Vice Presidents — Oliver Newberry, Shubael Conant, John Gibson, 

C. C. Trowbridge, B. Wight. H. P. Baldwin, Henry Chipman, 
James A. Van Dyke, John Owen, Duncan Stewart and Peter 
Fischer. Secretaries — C. A. Trowbridge, D. Bethune Duffield, 
E. N. Wilcox. Speeches were made by Major Kearsley, James 
A. Van Dyke, Zachariah Chandler. Samuel Barstow and D. Be- 
thune Duffield. 

The committee on resolutions consisted of Samuel Barstow, 
Jacob M. Howard, Joseph Warren, James M. Edmunds and H. 
H. Leroy, and a series of stirring resolutions were reported and 

The idea of a union of all the anti-Nebraska men into one polit- 
ical party had not yet, however, been seriously entertained as a 
practical matter, and the Jackson convention was held as a con- 
vention of the Free Democratic party. It was called to order by 
Hovey K. Clarke as chairman of the State Central Committee, and 
organized with the appointment of D. ('. Leach as temporary 
chairman, and C. Gurney as secretary. 

The committee on resolutions reported a series (prepared by 
Hovey K. Clarke, it is understood) which were taken up, amended, 
and adopted as follows: 

The Free Democracy of Michigan assembled in convention on the anniversary 
of the birthday of Washington, "deem it an appropriate occasion to express our 
veneration for the character of this illustrious man. and our appreciation of the 
wisdom and patriotism which laid the foundation of our national prosperity in the 
admirable instrument, the Constitution of the United States. We desire now and 
always to proclaim our attachment to that Union among the people of the United 
States, of which the constitution is the bond, and that its great purpose "to estab- 
lish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defense, promote 
the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to themselves and their 
posterity," is. and ever shall be, ours. And, as a political party organized to promote 
this purpose, we believe it to be our duty, a duty which is especially anil solemnly 
enjoined upon every man who has sworn to support the constitution, to support 
every measure calculated to advance this purpose, and to resist with the energy of 
inflexible principle every scheme which may defeat or retard it. We therefore 

Resolve, 1. That we regard the institution of domestic slavery, which exists in 
some of the States of the Union, not only as a foe to the domestic tranquillity and 
the welfare of such States, but as subversive of the plainest principles of justice and 
the manifest destroyer of the blessings of liberty. As an institution, we are com- 


pelled to denounce and abhor it. Yet we concede that in the States where it exists 
it is politically beyond our reach. But as we cannot deny our responsibility con- 
cerning it, so long as it finds protection under the laws of the federal Government, 
so we will never cease to war against it so long as the purpose of the constituiton 
shall remain unaccomplished to securethe blessings of liberty to all within its power. 

2. That in following in the footsteps of the fathers of the republic, who regarded 
freedom the national, and slavery the sectional sentiment, we best vindicate their 
claims to enlighten patriotism, and our own to be considered loyal supporters of 
the Government they established; and that opposition to any extension of slavery, 
a - d to any augmentation of its power, is clearly the duty of all wh o respect the 
doctrine or the practice of the wisest and ablest of the framers of the constitution. 

3. That the attempt now pending in Congress to repeal the enactment by which 
the vast territory north of the Missouri compromise line was dedicated to freedom 
is an outrage upon justice, humanity and good faith; one by which traitorous ambi- 
tion, confederated with violation of a solemn and time-honored compact, is seeking 
to inflict upon the nation a deep and indelible disgrace. We denonnce the scheme 
as infamous; and we call upon the people to hold its authors and abettors to the 
most rigid and righteous accountability. 

4. That executive patronage has grown to be an evil of immense magnitude ; 
consolidating the power of the Government into the hands of the incumbent of the 
Presidential mansion to a degree subversive of all proper accountability to the 
people; and for which there is no adequate remedy short of a transfer of this power 
from the President to the people. 

5. That we are in favor of cheap postage by land and sea ; of free grants of land 
out of the public domain in limited quantities to actual settlers; of harbor and river 
improvements, national in their character; and of grants by the Government in aid 
of the railroad to the Pacific, in such form as shall best avoid the wasteful splendor 
of Government jobs and secure the early completion of the road. 

6. That upon questions of state policy we are in favor of the re-enactment of the 
law for the suppression of the traffic in intoxicating liquors, with such amendments 
as shall remove all constitutional doubts aud secure the highest degree of efficiency 
to the law; we are in favor of general laws under which capital may be associated 
and combined for the prosecution of works of public improvement and of various 
industrial pursuits; we are in favor of free schools, and of such a disposition of the 
public money as shall promote the interests of the State rather than the interests of 
any individual or corporation; and especially are we opposed to the loaning of pub- 
lic money at one per cent, interest. 

T. That the subjects likely to be presented to the action of the next Legislature 
are such as require the selection for the offices of senators and representatives of 
men of sound head, of business capacity and of unimpeachable integrity ; and 
we take the liberty of commending this subject to the seasonable and thoughtful 
consideration of the electors of this State, for we are assured that it is only by such 
selections for this important trust that wise legislation can be accomplished, and 
the recurrence of scenes which linger painfully in the memory of the people, can be 
effectually prevented. 

At the evening session the committee on nominations reported 
the following ticket, which was accepted by the convention : 

Governor— Kinsley S. Bingham. 

Lieutenant Governor — Nathan Pierce. 

Secretary of State — Lovell Moore. 

State Treasurer— Silas M. Holmes. 

Auditor General — Philotus Ilayden. 

Attorney General — Hovey K. Clarke. 

Commissioner of Land Office— Seymour B. Treadwell. 

Superintendent of Public Instruction— Elijah II. Pilcher. 

Member of Board of Education— Isaac P. Christiancy. 

Additional resolutions were adopted recommending the Michi- 
gan Free Democrat to the confidence and support of the party, 
recommending thorough local organization, and advising the die- 


tribution of documents. The following State Central Committee 
was appointed : S. A. Baker, Samuel I'. Mead, Samuel Zug, J. W. 
Cliilds. R. R. Beecher, W. W. Murphy, D. C. Leach. 

Of the speeches made at the convention, we find but little con- 
temporaneous record. The nominee for Governor, Kinsley S. 
Bingham, was "vociferously called" and made a short speech. 
which was received with •'rapturous applause." Mr. Henry 
Barnes and Mr. H. II. Emmons also spoke briefly. 


The following call was published in the Tribum : 
Totht PeopU oj 'Michigan, : 

"A great wrong has been perpetrated. The slave power of this 
country has triumphed. Liberty is trampled untjjir foot. The 
Missouri compromise, a solemn compact entered into by our 
fathers, has been violated, and a vast territory dedicated to free- 
dom has been opened to slavery. 

lv This act, so unjust to the North, has been perpetrated under 
circumstances which deepens its perfidy. An administration placed 
in power by Northern votes has brought to bear all the resources of 
executive corruption in its support. 

"Northern senators and representatives, in the face of the 
overwhelming public sentiment of the North, expressed in the pro- 
ceedings ot public meetings and solemn remonstrances, without a 
single petition in its fa vor <ni their table, and not daring to sub- 
mit this great question to the people, have yielded to the seductions 
of executive patronage, and, Judas-like, betrayed the cause of lib- 
erty; while the South, inspired by a dominant and grasping ambi- 
tion, has, without distinction of party, and with a unanimity 
almost entire, deliberately trampled under foot the solemn com- 
pact entered into in the midst ot a crisis threatening to the peace 
of the Union, sanctioned by the greatest names of our history, 
the binding force of which has, for a period of more than 30 
years, been recognized and declared by numerous acts of legis- 
lation. Such an outrage upon liberty, such a violation of plighted 
faith, cannot he submitted to. This great wrong must be righted, 
or there is no longer a North in the councils of the nation. The 
extension of slavery under the folds of the American flag, is a 
stigma upon liberty. The indefinite increase of slave represen- 
tation in Congress is destructive to that equality between freemen 
which is essential to the permanency of the Union. 

" The safety of the Union, the rights of the North, the interests 
of free labor, the destiny of a vast territory and its untold millions 
for all coming time, and, finally, the high aspirations of humanity, 
for universal freedom, — all are involved in the issue forced upon 
the country by the slave power and its plastic Northern tools. 

" In view, therefore, of the recent action of Congress upon this 
subject, and the evident designs of the slave power to attempt still 
further aggressions upon freedom, we invite all our fellow citi- 


zens, without reference to former political associations, who think 
that the time has arrived for a union at the North to protect 
liberty trom being overthrown and down-trodden, to assemble in 
mass convention on Thursday, the 6th of July next, at 1 o'clock, 
p. m. . at Jackson, there to take such measures as shall be thought 
best to concentrate the popular sentiment of this State against the 
aggression of the slave power. 

This convention was an unwieldy body, an incongrous assem- 
blage ; and from the nature of things there were discordant views 
and conflicting inte-ests. But all were animated by patriotic mo- 
tives, and there was a general realization of the absolute necessity 
of union, and a manifest disposition to subordinate personal inter- 
ests and private judgments on minor points, to the common good. 
In the convention there were a considerable number of shrewd 
and sagacious politicians, in the best sense of the word, who saw 
what was needed, understood the material they had to deal with, 
and by masterly management preserved harmony, and brought 
about desired results. 

After the appointment of the committee on resolutions the gen- 
tlemen composing it withdrew about 10 or 15 rods away, to a 
clump of trees on the edge of the oak opening, a point which is 
now marked by the intersection of Franklin and Second streets. 
There, some standing and some sitting on the grass, they deliber- 
ated upon the first Republican platform ever constructed. The 
leading spirit in the committee was unquestionably Jacob M. 
Howard, He had prepared and carefully written out the reso- 
lutions before leaving Detroit, and the platform was agreed to 
substantially as he had drawn it up, a few minor changes being sug- 
gested by different members of the committee, and adopted. The 
main difference of opinion was over the additional planks touching 
upon affairs of State policy, which were proposed by Austin Blair, 
and which were not agreed to by the committee, but submitted by 
him as a minority report, and finally adopted by the convention, 
as shown in the record. There was no great discussion over the 
adoption of the name, which seems to have been favorably re- 
ceived by the entire committee. 

The committee to nominate the State ticket was compelled to 
exercise no little discretion in reconciling differences of opinion 
and personal judgment, considerable resistance being made to 
dropping some of the names on the Free-Soil ticket and the sub- 
stitution of Whigs in their stead. 


Toward the close of 1875 a convention of Jackson county prohi- 
bitionists was held. The following named gentlemen were chosen 
to represent the interests of the organization in their respective 
townships: Blackman, Win. Gunn; Columbia, Dr. L. M. Jones; 
Concord, Nathan Shotwell; Grass Lake, Dr. Willis; Hanover, 
Horace Gilford; Henrietta, Richard Holling; Leoni, Mrs. H. A. 


Reed; Liberty, Jedediali Palmer; Napoleon, William Blackmar: 
Norvell, Deacon Reed; Parma. Frederic Richardson; Pulaski, L. 
D. Jacobs; Rives, H. G. Cole; Sandstone, A. Avery, Jr.; Spring- 
port, A. Bryan; Spring Arbor, Amos Bradford; Summit, Benanual 
Bradford; Tompkins, H. Adams; Waterloo, "Pastor Baptist 
Church;" First Ward, Rev. Moses Smith; Second Ward, Dr. 
Egbert Ward; Third Ward. W. P. Fitield; Fourth Ward, Rev. J. 
B. Drew; Fifth Ward, Rev. J. H. Keeler; Sixth Ward, Mrs. E. A. 
Goss; Seventh Ward, Rev. E. M. Lewis; Eighth Ward, Deacon 

After the appointment ot this county committee the dual resolu- 
tion subscribed was unanimously adopted: "That there is needed 
in all parts of the county, earnest, systematic and persevering 
efforts. That meetings should be held in every township, and if 
practicable, in every school district; that temperance literature 
should be Midcly distributed, and that no means should be left 
untried to enjighten public opinion upon the important issue to be 
decided in November, 1876. That the chairman of each township 
and ward committee in this convention appointed be expected to 
complete his own committee by the addition of four co-laborers 
and proceed to action without delay. 

The renewal of saloon prayer-meetings was again attempted; 
but the ladies were politely repulsed at Reis Bros., and ceased 
the pursuit of their useful labors. 


In June, 1878, a large number of the most influential citizens 
of Jackson city and county signed an appeal to those who believed 
in a national currency, as distinguished from an irredeemable 
paper money, to assemble at Jackson July 1, with a view of 
organizing an honest-money league. The meeting proved a com- 
plete success, and added, by its influence and appropriate resolu- 
tions, another barrier to the great number which must be forced, 
prior to the adoption, by the United States, of an irredeemable 
currency, or any section of such an Utopian scheme. 


There has been an organization in this county for a number of 
years known as the "Andrew Jackson Association," which num- 
bered 185 in 1879, and whose principles are: That the old Jeff ersonian 
principles, as exemplified by Andrew Jackson, of individual free- 
dom and liberty properly regulated by laws enacted by the people, 
as against the arbitrary idea of a strong, absolute government, 
independent of and above the people, are no less important at the 
present time than when they were first established; that the pres- 
ent generation has been largely educated in a direction calculated 
ro overthrow these time-honored principles, and establish on their 
tuins the ancient idea that the government is everything — the 


HI^Tnin "F .1 M'K-mi.N llirSTT. 

people nothing; and that it is a duty incumbent on us to recall the 
attention of the present and rising generation, so far as lies in our 
power, to those elementary principles of freedom and free gov- 
ernment, under the operation of which, for over 60 years, our 
nation prospered and flourished beyond all other people. 

At a meeting held Jan. 8, 1879, Benjamin was elected 

president, Sanford Hunt vice president, and W. N. Buck secretary. 


The following is the official vote of every general election from 
1837 to 1880. To save space we omit the votes for some of the 
candidates, but enough is given to show the relative strength of 
each party : 

NOVEMBER, 1837. 

Epaphroditus Ransom, dein. 12(i9 
James M.Edmonds, whig.. 1078 

Chester Gurney, abol 256 

Miscellaneous ■ . ■ ■ 2 

Representative to Congress. 

Charley E. Stuart, dem 1178 

James W. Gordon, whig. . . 1105 
William C. Dennison, abol.. 212 

Miscellaneous 109 

Assistant Judge. 
Nehemiah P. Stanton, dem 1255 
Henry A. Francisko, whig.. 1008 

Thomas McGee, abol 236 

Joseph Tuunicliff, Jr., dem. 1202 
Mows A. McNaughton.whig 1008 

Daniel Cook, abol 191 

Miscellaneous 58 

NOVEMBER, 1839. 

William Woodbridge, whig. 1331 
Elon Fain-worth, dem 969 

NOVEMBER, 1841. 

John S. Barry, dem 1127 

Philo C. Fuller, whig 862 S. Fitch, abol 147 

Alvin Clark, whig 1153 107 

Henry Austin, dem 1046 


Gordon Case, whig 1247 308 

Oliver Russ, dem 939 

County Treasurer. 

John N. D wight, whig 1084 182 

"i C.Bailey, dem 902 

County Commissioner. 
Norman Allen, dem. ....... 1122 

Elihu M. Gould, whig 834 

Reuben H. King, abol 159 

NOVEMBER, 1842. 

Henry Tisdale, dem 872 

James A. Dyer, whig 870 

Harvey Austin, abol 383 

Miscellaneous 8 

County Clerk. 

Czar Jones, dem 

Henry Frink, whig. . . . 
Lucien H. Jonts, abol. 


Register of Deeds. 
Hiram Thompson, dem. . . . 1080 

George Bryan, whig 815 

Norman Allen, abol 300 

Miscellaneous 4 

County Treasurer. 

Leander Chapman, dem 1027 

Berthin M. Sheldeu, whig. . 882 

Thomas Cottin, abol 243 

David Bingham 27 

Miscellaneous 12 


Marcus Wakeman, dem 1058 

B.Hill Deming, dem 1021 

Caleb Culver, whig 832 

A. Van De Boquait, whig. . 787 

James St. Johns, abol 314 

Josiah Whitman, Jr., abol. 288 
Miscellaneous 37 

Count a Surveyor. 

Caleb A. Canfield, dem 1062 

A. Van De Boquart, whig. . 783 

Austin Poineroy, abol 317 

Miscellaneous 2 


NOVEMBER, 1848. 

John S.Barry, dem 1172 497 

Zina Pitcher, whig 675 

James G. Birney, abol 391 

Representative to Congress — Second Dist. 

Lucius Lyon, dem 1119 453 

Joseph R. Williams, whig. . 666 

Rufus B. Bement, abol 401 

NOVEMBER, 1844. 
President and Vice President. 

Democratic electors 1389 S^ 

Whig electors 1302 

Abolition electors 475 

Representative to Congress. 

John S. Chipman, dem 1410 133 

Henry W. Taylor, whig 1277 

Edwin A. Atlee, abol 476 

State Senator. 

James Videto, dem 1427 163 

Henry Acker, whig 1264 

Seymour B. Treadwell, abol 469 

Henry Tisdale, dem 1405 141 

ffm. Clapp, whig 1264 

Henry Austin, abol 493 

C'ott nty Clerk. 

Czar Jones, dem 1370 88 

Marion A. Dailey, whig. . . . 1282 
County Treasurer. 

Leander Chapman, dem 1424 158 

Henry Frink, whig 1266 

Norman Allen, abol 481 

Register of Leeds. 

Hiram Thompson, dem 1449 201 

Sylvester G. Abbott, whig.. 1248 

Foster Tucker, abol 471 

Judge of Probate. 

Samuel Higby, dem 1426 159 

Asher B. Bates, whig 1267 

David Bingham, abol 479 

County Surveyor. 

Henry A. Hatch, dem 1429 145 

John T. Durand, whig 1275 

Austin Pomeroy, abol 480 


John Griffith, dem 1419 1 

Marcus Wakemau, dem. . . . 1418 
George H. Watkins, whig... 1278 
Nicholas Townley, whig.... 1273 

Reuben H. King, abol 481 

Luther F. Grandy, abol 481 

NOVEMBER, 1845. 

Alpheus Felch, dem 1150 84 

Stephen Vickery, whig 1066 

James G. Birney, abol 335 

NOVEMBER, 1846. 

Representative to Congress. 

Edward Bradley, dem 1239 

James W. Gordon, whig. . 1187 
Krastus Hussey, abol. .'.... 318 

Miscellaneous 4 


Lewis D. Welling, dem 1330 

Sherman Eastman, whig.. . 1089 
Frederick Johnson, abol — 313 

County Clerk. 

James A. Dyer, whig 1264 

Edward Higby, dem 1145 

Munnes Kenny, abol 311 

Francis M. Lancing, abol.... 311 
Seymour B. Treadwell, abol 306 

Miscellaneous 18 

r, unity Treasurer. 

James C. Wood, dem 1221 

Gordon Case, whig 1192 

Norman Allen, abol 316 

Register of Deeds. 

Peter E. Demill, whig 1211 

Henry H. Bingham, dem.... 1209 
Robert Davis, abol 316 

County Judge. 

William J. Moody, dem 1210 

Nehemiah H Joy, whig 1164 

Thomas McGee, abol 316 

Miscellaneous 7 

County Surveyor. 
Anson H. Delamater, dem. . 1252 
A. Van De Bogart, whig. . . 1170 

Homer A. Hodge, abol 323 

Charles Moony, dem. ..... 1252 

Benjamin Sidell, dem 1249 

Solon S. Clark, whig 1169 

Jerrald Richardson, whig.. 1166 

David Sanford, abol 323 

Reuben H. King, abol 323 

Miscellaneous 2 

NOVEMBER, 1847. 
Epaphroditus Ransom, dem. 1296 
James M. Edwards, whig.. 1070 

Charles Gurney 256 

Representative in Congress 

Charles E. Stuart, dem 1178 

James W. Gordon, whig. .. 1105 

William C. Denison 212 

Charles Stewart 99 


Joseph Tunnicliff, dem 1202 

M. A. McNaughton, whig.. 1080 

Daniel Cook 191 

Scattering 50 



NOVEMBER, 1848. 

President and Vice President. 

Democratic electors 1547 

Free Soil electors 1071 

Whig electors 968 

Representative to Congress. 
Wm. Sprague, whig and f. s. 2048 

Charles E. Stuart, dem 1582 


D wight Webb, dem 2076 

Beriali King, whig 1558 

William Pinley, dem 2075 

George Skinner, whig 1537 

Miscellaneous 21 

Count!/ Treasurer. 

James C. Wood, dem 1537 

Berthie M. Sheldon, f. s 1120 

Henry Frink, whig 940 


Lewis D. Welling, dem 1619 

Benjamin Davis, whig 1042 

Bela F. Van Brooklin, f. s. 953 

Walter Buddington, dem... 1477 

James A. Dyer, whig 1128 

Jerome M. Treadwell. f. s. . 1027 

Scattering 5 

Judge of Probate. 
Arson W. Bennett, dem. . . 1620 

Austin Blair, free soil 1163 

Abram VanDe Bogart, whig 861 

Scattering 2 

Register of Deeds. 

Gardner H. Shaw, dem 1519 

Hiram Thompson, free soil. 1072 

Peter E. De Mill, whig 1044 

Scattering 5 

County Surveyor. 
Anson H. Delamater. dem.. 1555 
Benj. F. Burnett, free soil. . 1084 

IraW. Kellogg, whig 968 

Henry O. Bronson, dem. .. 1557 
Nehemiah P. Stanton, dem. 1549 

Isaac Mott. free soil 1089 

Thos. B. Colton, free soil.... 1089 

John Sweeney, whig 989 

Jared Richardson, whig. ... 987 
NOVEMBER, 1849. 

John S. Barry, dem 1427 

S. J. Littlejohn, free soil. . . 1464 
William Woodbridge, whig. 1 
State Printer. 

Rensselaer W. Ingalls, 1415 

Hubbard H. Demkler 1533 

MAY 6, 1850. 
Judges of the Supreme Court. 

Warner Wing, dem 1577 

Abner Pratt, dem 1557 

Sandford M. Green, 1574 

Henry Chapman 1456 

Samuel H. Kimball 1471 

Charles Draper, 1458 

Auditor General. 
John Sweegles, Jr., dem. . . 1566 
Elisha P. Champlin, whig.. 1207 
J. M. Harmond, free soil... 254 

Miscellaneous, 2 

State Treasurer. 
Barnard C. Whitmore, dem. 1579 

James Birdsall, whig 1198 

Dallamore Duncan, free soil, 257 
Secretary of State. 

Charles II. Taylor, dem 1577 

George .Martin, whig 1206 

Joseph Chedsey, free soil.... 257 
Attorney General. 

William Hale, dem 1600 

Austin Blair, whig 1418 

Representative in Congress- 

Charles E. Stuart, dem 1516 

Joseph R. Williams, whig. . 1516 

Amos Pickett, dem 1509 

Gordon Case, whig 1495 

Miscellaneous 3 

County Treasurer. 

Reynolds Landon, dem 1585 

Charles W. Penny, whig.... 1432 

Miscellaneous 4 

Register of Deeds. 

Gardner H. Shaw, dem 1641 

William Clapp, whig 1373 

Miscellaneous H 

County Clerk:. 

Walter Budington, dem 1579 

William Aldrich, whig 1436 

Miscellaneous 4 

Prosecuting Attorney. 

Samuel Higby, dem 1636 

John C. Spencer, whig 1316 

.Miscellaneous 4 

County Surveyor. 
Anson H. Delamater, dem.. 1624 

Benj . F. Bennett, whig 1318 

Miscellaneous 3 

APRIL, 1851. 
Robert McClelland, dem.... 1284 
Thomas E. Gridley, whig... 1359 
Miscellaneous I 4 

HI-ToH-l OF .lAi'Kvi.N nil'MY. 


NOVEMBER, 1852. 

Robert McClelland, dem. . . 1824 
Zachariah Chandler, whig. . 1873 
I. P. Christiancy, free soil.. 350 

Miscellaneous 2 

State Treasurer 

Bernan C. Whitteman, dem. 1859 

Sylvester Abel, whig 1732 

Silas Holmes, free soil 439 

Attorney General. 

William Hale, dem 1849 

Nathaniel Breen, whig 1740 

Miscellaneous, free soil 299 

For Congress, 1st. Cong. Dist. 

David Stuart, dem 1532 

Wm. A. Howard, whig. . . . 2238 

Miscellaneous 79 


Amos Picket, dem 2023 

Daniel Larzden, whig 1095 

Scattering 1 

County Clerk. 

Milton Myrch, dem 1858 

Horace G. Bliss, whig 2100 

Miscellaneous 3 

County Treasurer. 

Reynolds Landon, dem 2063 

James M. Jamison, whig. . 1878 
Miscellaneous 4 

Register of Deeds. 

Levi P. Gregg, dem 1993 

Alexander G. B ell, whig. . . 1925 
Miscellaneous 6 

Judge of Probate 
G. Thompson Gridley, dem. 1885 
Jonathan L. Vedito, whig... 2033 

Miscellaneous 9 

Prosecuting Attorney. 

Samuel Higby, dem 1715 

Austin Blair, whig 2180 

G. T. Gridley 1 

Circuit Court. 

Fidus Livermore, dem 1671 

Eugene Pringle, whig 2164 

Miscellaneous 4 


S. T. Dewey, dem 1864 

Benjamin Siedle, dem 1924 

J. Reed Crowell, whig 1962 

Abram Crowman, whig 1945 

Miscellaneous 2 

State Senator. 

Jerome B. Eaton, dem 891 

Moses A. McNaughton,whig 1137 
Miscellaneous 3 

Representative State Legislature. 

James C. Bell, dem 694 

Amos Root, whig 694 

Miscellaneous 2 

JUNE 27, 1853. 

For Prohibition 2441 1635 

Against Prohibition 806 



Kinsley S. Bingham, rep. 2061 306 

John S. Barry, dem 1755 

Scattering 10 

Secretary of State. 
William L. Bancroft, dem. 1924 110 
John W. McKinney, rep... 1814 
State Treasurer. 

Silas M. Holmes, rep 2069 305 

Derastus Hinman, dem . . . 1764 

Attorney General. 

Jacob M. Howard, rep 2073 315 

Benj. F. H. Witherell, dem. 1758 

Auditor General. 

Whitney Jones, rep 2061 295 

John Sargles, dem 1766 

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

Ira May hew, rep 2069 

Francis W.Sherman, dem. 1755 314 
State Board of Education, Full Term, 

John R. Kellogg, rep 2065 300 

Chauncey Joslin, dem 1765 

Representative in Congress. 
William A. Howard, rep.. 2178 587 

David Stuart, dem, 1591 

Scattering 14 


William Wycoff, rep 2007 203 

Hiram J. Paddock, dem. . . 1804 

Scattering 1 

County Clerk 

Dewitt C. Smith, rep 1932 90 

Joseph M. Griswold, dem. . 1842 

Scattering 6 

Register of Deeds. 

Levi P. Gregg, dem 2084 855 

Alexander G. Bell, rep 1729 

Scattering 4 

County Treasurer. 

Norman Allen, rep 1814 

Amos Picket, dem 1992 178 

Scattering 2 

Prosecuting Attorney 

Eugene Pringle, rep 1816 841 

Fidus Livermore, dem 975 

Scattering 3 



NOVEMBER 11,1856. 
Presidential Electors. 

Republican electors 2996 8 

Democratic electors 2119 

Electors 46 

Electors 4 

Electors 1 

Kinsley S. Bingham, rep . . . 2971 1 

Alpheus Felch, dem 2194 

Scattering 1 

Secretary of State. 

John W. McKenny, rep 2994 I 

Fitz Henry Stephens, dem. 2179 
State Board of Education. 

George Willard, rep 2994 

Daniel Blackman. dem 2181 

Representative in Congress. 
William A. Howard, rep. ... 3024 
George V. N. Northup, dem 2150 

William WycoflE, rep 2960 

Robert H. Anderson, dem.. 2198 

Scattering 1 

County Clerk. 

Alexander G. Bell, rep 3008 

Abram Van DeBogart, dem 2158 
County Treasurer. 

Anson Townley, rep 2991 

Elisha S. Robinson, dem. . . 2177 
Prosecuting Attorney. 

Eugene Pringle, rep 2984 

Orson W. Bennett, dem 2187 

Circuit Court Commissioner. 
William K. Gibson, rep. . . . 2973 

Fairchild Farrand, dem 2185 

Scattering 1 

County Surveyor. 

Austin Pomroy, rep 2998 

Anson H. De Lamater, dem 2158 

Ransom C. Robinson, rep . . 3003 

J. Reed Crowell, dem 3003 

Harry R. Nichols, rep 2158 

George W. Tyler, dem 2158 


Moses Wisner, rep 2752 

Charles E. Stuart, dem 2254 

Scattering 3 

Representative in Congress. 
William A. Howard, rep. ... 2721 

George B. Cooper, dem 2282 

Scattering 3 

Senator 12th District, 

Ira C. Backus, rep 2717 43 

Amos B. Gibson, dem 2279 

Scattering 3 

George L. Smalley, rep. . . . 2700 401 

Amos Bickett, dem 2299 

Scattering 1 

County Clerk. 

Daniel Upton, rep 2798 589 

Abram Van De Bogart, dem 2209 

Scattering 1 

County Treasurer. 

Anson Townley, rep 2743 483 

Reynolds Landon, dem 2260 

Prosecuting Attorney. 

Eugene Pringle, rep 2664 340 

Fidus Livermore, dem 2324 

NOVEMBER, 1858. 
Representative in Legislature. 

George W. Brown, rep 885 

Lewis F. Pickett, dem 791 

Second District. 

Peter B. Loomis, rep 928 

George W. Graham, dem.... 791 

Scattering 3 

Third District. 
William F. Goodwin, rep. . . 916 

Lewis Brown, dem 678 

Scattering * 

APRIL 13, 1859. 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. 

Alpheus Felch, dem 2321 

George Martin, rep 2702 3: 

NOVEMBER 13, 1860. 
Presidential Electors. 

Electors, rep. . 
Electors, dem. 


Austin Blair, rep 

John S. Barry, dem. 




Representative in Congress 
Bradley F. Granger, rep. . . . 3366 
Geonre V. N. Lathrop, dem 2i>2!> 

John D. Conely, Buck 48 


I Luther T. Grundy, rep 3368 

Reynolds Landon, dem 2670 


Prosecuting Attorney 

William K. Gibson, rep. 
Fidus Livermore. dem. 

3340 646 



County Surveyor. 

Austin Pomroy, rep 3376 700 

Merritt S. Cook, dein 2676 

NOVEMBER, 1862. 

Secretary of State. 

Wm. R. Montgomery, rep. . 2655 55 

James B. Porter, dem 2600 

Rep. in Congress. 
Bradley F. Granger, union... 2672 70 

John W. Longyear, rep 2602 


Jacob K. Smalley, rep 2650 82 

Abram V. Berry, union. . . . 2568 
County Clerk. 

Daniel Upton, rep 2657 55 

Lewis M. Powell, union. . . . 2602 
'Treasurer . 

Anson Townley, union 2654 40 

Luther F. Grandy, rep 2614 

County Surveyor. 

Henry Bean, union 2673 76 

Austin Pomroy, rep 2597 

NOVEMBER, 1866. 

Henry H. Crapo, rep 3410 398 

Alpheus L. Williams, dem.. 3012 

Secretary of State. 
Oliver S. Spaulding, rep. . . 3432 431 
Bradly M. Thompson, dem.. 3001 

APRIL, 1863. 
Associate Justice of the Sup re me Court. 
James C. Campbell, rep. . . . 2935 262 

David Johnson, dem 2673 

Circuit Judge. 

Edmun Lawrence, rep 2944 278 

Lyman D. Norris, dem 2666 

Presidential Electors. 

Republican electors, rep 3002 93 

Democratic electors, dem . . . 2909 

Henry H. Crapo, rep 3005 95 

Wm. M. Fentou, dem 2910 

Rpresentatice in Congress. 

John W. Longyear, rep 3603 102 

David Johnson, dem 2901 

David H. Lockwood, rep. . . 3278 308 
James E. FurgusoD, dem. . . 2970 
Count,, Clerk. 

Daniel Upton, rep 3352 428 

Lewis M. Powell, dem 2924 

County Treasurer. 

Luther F. Grandy, rep 3261 261 

Anson Townley, dem 2990 

Representative in Congress. 

Austin Blair, rep 3431 438 

Bradley F. Granger, dem . . . 2983 

George Jeninngs, rep 3469 511 

Edwin Smead, dem 2958 

County Clerk. 
Robert D. Knowles, rep . . 3248 82 
Franklin Johnson, dem 3166 

APRIL, 1867. 
Justice of the Supreme Court. 

Benjamin F. Graves 2332 

Sandtord M. Green 2724 392 

Benjamin F. Graves 715 

NOVEMBER, 1868. 
President and Vice-Pres't Electort. 

Electors, rep 4033 403 

Electors, dem 3630 


Henry P. Baldwin, rep 4025 369 

John Moore, dem 3656 

Representative in Congress. 

Austin Blair, rep 3960 245 

Isaac M. Crane, dem 3715 


George Jennings, rep 4069 456 

Joseph Sammons, dem 3613 

County Clerk. 
Robert D. Knowles, rep . . . 4059 443 

Girbens Gardner, dem 3616 

County Treasurer. 

Luther H. Ludlow, rep 4039 401 

James I. Hawley, dem 3638 

NOVEMBER, 1870. 


Charles Comstock, dem. .. . 3395 55 

Henry P. Baldwin, rep 3340 

Henry Fish, temper 137 

Representative to Congress. 

Austin Blair, rep 3365 15 ' 

D. Darwin Hughes, dem . . . 3350 

John Russell, tem 116 


Theodore Bennett, rep 3570 453 

Lewis F. Pickett, dem 3117 

William G. Brown, tem.. . . 127 

Daniel W. Shaw, dem 3475 243 

Isaac N. Smalley, rep 3232 

Leonidas W. Jones, tem. . . . 105 


Count {/Treasurer. 

Reynolds Landon, dem 3529 307 

Frederick A. Kennedy 3222 

Josiah Bigelow, tem 110 

County Clerk. 

Robert D. Knowles, rep 3432 130 

William H. Terpening, dem. 3302 
Forrester Keeler, tem 119 

NOVEMBER, 1872. 
Presidential Electors. 

Electors, rep 4093 608 

Electors, dem 3485 

Electors 135 

Electors 46 

Electors 2 


Austin Blair, dem 3682 

John J. Bagley.rep 4047 365 

Henry Fish 154 

Scattering 37 

Representative in Congress. 

George Willard, rep 4044 398 

John G. Parkhurst, dem . . . 3646 
Scattering 132 


Ogden A. Green, rep 3944 239 

James E. Furguson.dem . . . 3705 

Scattering, pro 104 

County Clerk. 

Luther H. Ludlow, rep 4004 300 

Josiah Hammond, dem. .. . 3704 

Norman Allen, pro 140 

Scattering 1 

County Treasurer. 

Mark H. Ray, rep 3933 139 

Reynolds Landon, dem. . . . 3794 
Scattering 146 

APRIL, 1873. 
County Siiperintiiiilent of Schools. 
W. Irvine Bennett, dem.. . . 3642 
Edward P. Grandy, rep. . . . 2696 54 

Scattering 49 

Justice of Supreme Court. 
Isaac P. Christiancy, rep. . . 6385 
NOVEMBER 3, 1874. 

John J. Baglev, rep 3165 

Henry Chamberlain, dem . . 4153 988 
Charles K. Carpenter, pro. . 411 
Representative in Congress. 

Fidu9 Livermore, dem 4210 1124 

George Willard, rep 3986 

Dan. P. Sagendorph, pro . . . 404 
Scattering 5 

State Senator. 

Lucius D. Hawkins, dem. . 4013 

Caleb Anerevine, rep 3763 

William G. Brown, pro 269 

Scattering 124 


Win. R. Brown, dem 4400 

John R. Pool, rep 2931 

Benjamin Peckhan, pro 406 

Scattering 5 

County Clerk. 

A. M. Tinker, dem 4199 

Luther H. Ludlin, rep 3131 

Henry N. Archer, pro 401 

Scattering 3 

APRIL, 1875. 
Justice of the Supreme Court. 

Beu. F. Graves, rep 7347 

Lyman D. Norris, dem. . . . 4092 

Isaac Marston, rep 3193 

Circuit Judge. 
Geo. M. Huntington, dem. . 3955 

Alex. D. Crane, rep 3354 

Lucien Reed, pro 125 

NOVEMBER, 1876. 
Presidential Electors. 

Electors, rep 5255 

Electors 4913 

Miscellaneous 123 


Fidus Livermore, dem 5634 

Jonas H. McGowan, rep . . . 4554 
M. C. Woodmancy, pro. ... 79 

William L. Weber, dem .... 5332 
Charles M. Croswell, rep. . . 4845 

Levi Sparks, pro 24 

Albert Williams 86 

Attorney General. 

Martin Morris, dem 5267 

Otto Kirchner, rep 4887 

Miscellaneous 118 

APRIL, 1877. 
Judge of the Supreme Court. 

Thomas Cooley, rep 3915 

Henry Severens, dem 3808 

Scattering 1 


Henry F. Smith, gr' b |5570 

Charles Croswell, rep 3051 

Orlando M. Barnes, dem.. . . 1829 

Watson Snyder, pro 244 

NOVEMBER, 1878. 
William R. Brown, dem.. . . 2381 
Norton N. Perry, gr' b 3245 



Alviu ('.Smith, rep 2808 

Benjamin Peckham 223 

County Clerk. 
William D. Taylor, gr' b. . . 3303 

Elmore L. Griffin, rep 2884 

Aim M. Tinker, dem 2574 

Henry N. Archer, pro 231 

Representatives in Congress. 

John Dawson, gr' b 3396 

Jonas H. McGowan, rep .. . 3014 
James S. Upton, dem. . . . 1972 

Samuel Dickey 300 

APRIL, 1879. 
Justice of the Supreme Court. 

John P. Shipman, gr' b 4710 

James V. Campell, rep 3308 

NOVEMBER, 1880. 
Presidential Electors. 

Electors, rep 4485 

Electors, dem 3744 

Electors, gr'b 1817 

Scattering 129 


Daniel H. Jones, rep 4329 459 

Fred. M. Holloway, dem. . . 3870 

David Woodward, gr' b 1893 

James McKur, pro 129 

Scattering 11 


Edward E. Lacey, rep 4564 1277 

Eugene Pringle, dem 3287 

Hiram C Hodge, gr' b 2196 

George Landon 125 


David H.Lockwood, rep... 3718 48 

Eugene D Winsey, dem 3670 

Norton M. Terry, gr' b 2621 

Henry E. Francisco 117 

County Clerk. 

W. Henry Van Horn, rep. . 4333 856 

John C. Covant, dem 3477 

Aaron Moe, gr' b 2006 

Fred. E. Palmer 126 


Never perhaps in the history of a nation has a brighter example 
been laid down, or a greater sacrifice been made, than that which 
distinguished Michigan during the civil war. All, from the " War 
Governor," Hon. Austin Blair, down to the poorest citizen of the 
State, were animated with a patriotic ardor at once magnificently 
sublime and wisely directed. Every one held the cause dear; every 
one was determined to defend the Republic and its principles against 
all enemies, whether they existed within the commonwealth or 
threatened it from without. When the number of troops sent into 
the field by Michigan, their equipments, and above all their moral 
and physical courage, are considered, the motto might well be 
inscribed on their banners: " JVecede malis, seel contra audentior 
ito;" that is, "Do not yield to misfortunes, but advance to meet 
them with greater bravery. " 

Very early in 1861 the coming struggle cast its shadow over the 
northern peninsula. Governor Blair, in his message to the Legis- 
lature in January of that year, dwelt very forcibly on the sad 
prospect of civil war; and as forcibly pledged the State to support 
the principles of the Republic. After a general review ol the 
condition of the State, he passed on to a consideration of the 
relations between the free and slave-holding sections ot the Re- 
public, saying: " While we are citizens of the State of Michigan, 
and as such deeply devoted to her interests and honor, we have a 
still prouder title. We are also citizens of the United States of 
America. By this title we are known among the nations of the 
earth. In remote quarters of the globe, where the names of the 
States are unknown, the flag of the great Republic, the banner ot 
the stars and stripes, honors and protects her citizens. In what- 
ever concerns the honor, the prosperity and the perpetuity of this 
great Government, we are deeply interested. The people of Michi- 
gan are loyal to that Government — faithful to its constitution and its 
laws. Under it they have had peace and prosperity^; and under it 
they mean to abide to the end. Feeling a just pride in the 
glorious history of the past, they will not renounce the equally 
glorious hopes of the future. But whether in peace or war, they 
will rally around the standards of the nation and defend its integ- 
rity and its constitution, with fidelity.*' etc. The final paragraph 

" X recommend you at an early day to make manifest to the gen- 
tlemen who represent this State in the two Houses of Congress, 
and to the country, that Michigan is loyal to the Union, the 


constitution and the laws, and will defend them to the uttermost; 
and to proffer to the President of the United States, the whole 
military power of the State for that purpose. Oh, for the firm, 
steady hand of a Washington, or a Jackson, to guide the ship of 
State in this perilous storm ! Let us hope that we shall find him 
on the 4th of March. Meantime, let us abide in the faith of our 
fathers — ' Liberty and Union, one and inseparable, now and for- 

How this stirring appeal was responded to by the people of 
Michigan will be seen by the following figures, furnished during 
the war: 

Call April 15, 1861, 3 months 781 

Call May 3. 1*61, 3 years 23.546 

Call July 2. 1862, 3 wars 17,656 

Call Oct. 17, 1863, 3 years 18,403 

Call March 14, 1864,"3 years 7,374 

Call July 18, 1864, 3 years 12,509 

Call Dec. 19, 1864, 3 years 7 842 

Total 88,111 

The three months' men were out of service before the 
men of May 3, 1861, went into it, and the 27,725 men of the last 
three calls were not in the service until after the expiration of the 
term of the 41,202 three years' men of 1861-'2, and a number of 
these appear twice by re-enlistments in the last calls. But the 
total credits of the State, not including men who enlisted in the 
volunteer corps of other States, may be actually computed at 
90,747. Of this large number of volunteers, Jackson county 
furnished no less than 3,232 men, with a corps of officers, whose 
unexcelled heroism won honor for the State and county on many 
well-fought fields. It has been truly said, that the quality of the 
men, physically, mentally and morally, who formed the material 
of these regiments, has never been and never can be excelled 
in the armies of any State or nation on earth, and it may well be 
questioned if it was ever equaled outside of the limits of the 

• The infantry regiments went into the field thoroughly armed and 
equipped, the arms furnished them having been Springfield, En- 
field and Austrian rifled muskets. The cavalry were equally well 
equipped, but a portion of the arms of some of them remained to 
be furnished after reaching the seat of war. The first effort of 
Michigan was real, earnest, patriotic. Stunned for a while by the 
repeated successes of the rebels, the people of a few counties lapsed 
into lethargy, so that when the President's call for 600,000 troops 
was made Governor Blair issued the following proclamation : 

To the People of Michigan : It is essential to the maintenance of the honor of 
the State, by meeting its obligations to the Federal Government, that the quota of 
the troops required of Michigan under the call for 600,000 men should be speedily 
furnished. I have felt great confidence that this might be done without resort to a 
draft, but it will be impossible at the rate enlistments have been making for the last 


month and more. The number required of each town and ward in the State has 
been assigned upon the principle of giving credit for all recruits furnished since the 
first of July last. Substantial justice in this respect has been done toward all. To 
be exact was impossible, and to go back of the first of July was impracticable, both 
because the order of the secretary of war did not authorize it, and because there 
was no reliable record by which such credit could be made up with any chance of 

It is, therefore, indispensable that the several towns and wards of cities should 
furnish the number of recruits assigned to them, and I take this occasion to assure 
the people that unless the men are furnished by voluntary enlistment, they will be 
taken by the draft. For the purpose of still giving abundant opportunity to fill the 
quota of the State by voluntary enlistment, recruiting will be continued as follows : 

1. Recruits will" be received for new regiments now forming in the State, and 
for all the old regiments now in the field, until and including the 29th day of De- 
cember next. These must be enlisted for the term of three years or during the war. 

2 From the 1st to the Kith day of December next, volunteer recruits will 
be received for old regiments only, to serve for nine months, in pursuance of the 
act of Congress. 

3. On the 30th day of December next, the draft will commence and proceed 
until the requisite number is obtained in all those towns and wards which shall then 
be found delinquent. 

Less than 4,000 men are now required to fill the entire quota of the State, and I 
earnestly hope that they will be found to come forward cheerfully and enlist for the 
war, as all our troops thus far have done. And I desire this, not so much because 
there is anything discreditable in a draft, as because it is exceedingly desirable that 
all the troops from Michigan should st°nd on the same footing in the army. Let 
the people of Michigan make one more loyal_and vigorous effort, and the entire num- 
ber required can be obtained, and the high reputation of the State for patriotism 
and promptness will be maintained. 

Austin Bi.aik. 
Dated Jackson, Nov. 29, 1862. 

The State must have slept when the veteran war governor 
deemed it necessary to be so emphatic. This will be evident from 
the fact that even Jackson county alone, which was always among 
the foremost in its support of the Republic, sent into the field, 
within a few months after Sumter, 1,230 men, distributed among 
the following commands: 

Reg. Reg. 

Inf. Men. Int. Men. Reg. Men. 

1st 103 13th 38 3dCav 66 

2d 6 14th 9 4th " 49 

3d 2 15th 5 5th " 16 

4th 15 16th 10 Merrill Horse 5 

5th 1 17th 199 3d Battery 17 

6th 21 20th 159 6th " 1 

7th 55 26th 56 7th " ■ 1 

8th 104 Engr's & Mech 103 9th " 1 

9th 109 IstCav 3 Sharpshooters 7 

10th 25 2d " 5 Stanton Guard 1 

12th 38 

Total 1,230 


was organized so early in the progress of the war that we must 
mention it here. It played its noble part well. Their daily 
rounds were made with military regularity, in the neighborhood 
of their homes; and each round drew toward them the thanks of 
a thousand sufferers, who fell in defense of all those sacred princi- 


pies which were born and nurtured to be the 'birthright of the 
millions who will come after us. The ladies, uninured to battle, 
fought nobly throughout their county, and sent to the tented field 
all those useful articles intended to heal the wounded, cure the 
sick, clothe the way-worn soldier, and spread joy throughout the 

The society was organized Nov. 4, 1861, with Mrs. A. P. Avery 
as president, Mrs. P. Livermore, vice-president, and Mrs. L. 
Kassick, secretary. The directory completed its organization a 
few days later, and comprised Mesdames MeNaughton, A. O. 
Bliss, Sherwood, G. Thurber, Dwight Merriman, J. E. Beebe, 
Harwood, Seaton, Stetson, L. J. Burr, Whitmore, Connable, B. 
G. Mosher and many other ladies. How well the labors of an 
aid society were performed by the directors, assisted by hundreds 
of ladies throughout the county, is best known to the soldiery who 
received that aid. Their work was that of magnificent and true 


The following list shows how Jackson was represented among 
the leaders of the army : 

Hon. Austin Blair, Governor and Commander-in-chief of Michi- 
gan from Jan. 1, 1861, to Dec. 31, 1864. 

"William K. Gibson. Military Secretary from May 15, 1861, to 
Sept. 13, 1862. 

Eugene Pringle, Military Secretary from Sept. 13, 1862, to 
March 10, 1865. 


Col. W. H. Withington, 1st and 17th Michigan Volunteers. 

Col. Michael Shoemaker, 13th Regiment. 

Col. W. G. Eaton, 13th Regiment, 

Major W. W. Van Antwerp, 4th Cavalry. 

Major Horace D. Grant, 4th Cavalry. 

Surgeon Joseph TunniclifF, Jr., 1st Michigan Infantry. 

Capt. Eben. B. Griffith, 1st Michigan Infantry. 

Capt. G. C. Lyon, 1st Michigan Infantry. 

Capt. Alcott, 1st Michigan Infantry. 

Capt. William Hurd, 1st Michigan Infantry. 

Capt. James H. Wheaton, 1st Michigan Infantry. 

Capt. Edward Pomeroy, 1st Michigan Infantry. 

Lieut. Ransom F. Poole, 1st Michigan Infantry. 

Surgeon A. J. Hobart, 1st Michigan Infantry. 

Col. Charles V. De Land, 1st Michigan Sharpshooter. 

Major Harrison Soule, 5th Infantry. 

Capt. Geo. Proudfit, J. B. C. and 8th Michigan Infantry. 

Capt. R. S. Cheney, 8th Michigan Infantry. 

Capt. William Minor, 9th Michigan Infantry. 

Capt. Joseph H. Scott, 9th Michigan Infantry. 

J. Curtis Purdy, 9th Michigan Infantry. 

J. H. Shaw, 9th Michigan Infantry. 


ll[s'|u|;v <>!• JACKSON rOCN'n . 

Captains — Joshua Slayton, M. M. Lattirner, Frank Porter, John 
Anderson and Haight; Lieutenants — C. E. Brown and Charles II. 
Hohlen; Regimental Surgeon — Dr. Cyrus Smith; Hon. Fidus Liver- 
more, Commander of Camp; Q. M. — F. L. Smith, 29th Regiment. 

Doubtless there were many others, citizens of Jackson county; 
who ranked among the commissioned, officers during the war. It 
is not possible to select their names from the military reports, and 
even the names given rest on legendary rather than written 
records. In the foregoing list, however, sufficient honor is por- 
trayed to crown the military chapter of the county. 


Brief sketches of the various regiments in which Jackson county 
is represented are here given, with the names of all men from this 
county as compiled from the Adjutant General's report : 

First Mich. Vol. Inf. Three Months. — The " Jackson Grays" was 
organized in Jackson county under Capt. W. H. Withington dur- 
ing April, 1861, and mustered into service the same month with 
the 1st Michigan Infantry. The company enlisted for three 
months' service, and during that brief time veteranized at Alexan- 
dria and Bull Run. The following is a copy of the original roster : 


3d Sergt., Edward Pome- 

4th Sergt., Monroe Web- 
1st Corp., Geo. W. Bullock, 
son or Prank Sharp- 2d Corp., J. Benton Keh- 
steen. nedy. 

Capt,, W. H. Wituimrton. 
1st Lieut., EbenB. Griffith. 
2d Lieut., G. Collins Lyon. 
1st. Sergt., Newton Haight. 
2d Sergt., Eugene Robin- 

3d Corp., Marcus Grant. 

4th Corp., DeWitt C. Well- 

1st Musician, Sylvester 

2d Musician, Geo. Young 

E. H. Arnold. 
William Alexander. 
Harrison Bennett. 
Oliver W. Baker. 
Joseph Bowdish. 
Charles Maker. 
Charles W. Bennett. 
Robert Beiry. 
Daniel J. Briggs. 
Geo. Bennett. 
Warren J. Brizette. 
Wm. A. Bell. 
George B. Curtis. 
L. J. Curtis. 
W. W. Champlin. 
J. N. De Damer. 
Henry A Davis. 
Denis Donohue. 
James Dillisten. 
D. W. Ennis. 
Curtis Fowler, Jr. 
Solan J. Grant. 
W. A. Gregg. 
W. H. Gregory. 


William B. Hurd. 
H. E. Hunt. 
G. Holcomb. 
W. D. Hawes. 
Ed. A. Hammond. 
J. Hall. 
J. H. Jott. 
Edwin Livermore 
Fred. Lantis. 
Charles Lane. 
Geo. Lockley. 
James McQueen. 
D. W. Miller. 
John It. Owen. 
James O'Donnell. 
F. D. Pease. 
William Peterson. 
Nathan Post. 
Wm. Piper. 
David Reeve. 
Frank M. Restine . 
Henry Reidel. 
James Rose. 
Martin Reed. 

Wm. L. Reynolds. 
Wm. Reynolds. 

D. W. Roberts. 
Henry W. Simpson 
Eli Sear. 
Wallace Scott. 
Frank Townley. 

J. F. Tuttle. 
R. F. Thayer. 
L. B. Thayer. 
Geo. W. Woodruff. 
Morris Wheelock 
J. H. Whitmore. 
Letaut Williams. 
Geo. Young. 
John Harvey. 
Ira W. Skinner. 
J. Badgley. 
Geo. Kent. 
C. H. Greek. 

E. A. Morgan. 
Egbert P. Price. 
Spiegel Ernst. 



The following extract from the letter of James O'Donnell, writ- 
ten at a point in Virginia, and relating to the first capture of the 
war, will not fail to prove the honors which should justly be ac- 
corded the Michigan volunteers : 

u ¥e left the capital (Washington) on Thursday night about 

12 o'clock, and after a long march reached here about five this 
morning (May 29, Is(il). We crossed the Long Bridge which 
spans the Potomac, and took up our line of march toward this 
point. The night was cool and pleasant, and the moon shone out 
clear and bright upon the scene. You can imagine what a splen- 
did sight it was to see 3,000 bayonets glistening in the moonlight, 
and to feel that those bayonets were borne aloft by brave hands, 
to defend the glorious old stars and stripes. We were accompanied 
by a New York regiment about half way, when it was ascertained 
that that regiment had mistaken its orders, and they consequently 
marched in another direction. They left with us a company of 
cavalry and six pieces of artillery. 

" We reached the outskirts of Alexandria, halted, and the line 
of battle formed, as we expected an attack from the ' chivalry, ' 
who have so long kept up an espionage upon the Spartan band of 
Unionists residing in this section. But in this we were disap- 
pointed, as they had received information of our coming from their 
picket guards, who retreated before us. They therefore left in all 
directions, except a company of cavalry, who failed to awake in 
time, and which was captured by our troops. No blood was 
spilled in the taking of the city. I presume you have published 
the particulars of the transaction, so I will not infringe on your 
space by particularizing. But one error appears in the telegraphic 
report. The Michigan regiment marched into town while the 
New York Zouaves were coming from the boat, so that we en- 
tered the city together. The telegraph makes no mention of the 
Michigan regiment entering Alexandria at all." 

The writer refers briefly to the first capture of the war, the 
honors of which were shared in by many soldiers belonging to his 

First Infantry. — The three years' volunteers went into active 
duty at Mechanics ville, Va., June 26, 1862, and took part in a 
series of brilliant actions to the close of the war, viz. : Gaines' 
Mill, Va., June 27, 1862 ; Peach Orchard, Va., June 29,1862; 
Savage Station, Va., June 29, 1862; Turkey Bend, Va., June 30, 
1862 ; White Oak Swamp, Va., June 30, 1862 ; Malvern Hill, Va., 
July 1, 1862 ; Harrison's Landing, Va., July 2, 1862 ; Gainesville, 
Va., Aug. 29, 1862 ; Bull Run, Va., Aug'. 30, 1862 ; Antietam, 
Md., Sept. 17, 1862; Shepardstown Ford, Va., Sept. 20, 1862 ; 
Snicker's Gap, Va., Nov. 14, 1862 ; Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 

13 to 14, 1862 ; U. S. Ford, Va., Jan. 1, 1863; Chancellorsville, 
Va., May 1, 2, • 3, 4, 5, 1863 ; Kelly's Ford, Va., June 9, 1863 ; 
Ashby's Gap, Va., June 21, 1863 ; Gettysburg, Penn., July 2, 3, 


4, 1863 ; Williamsport, Md., July 12, 1863 ; .Wapping Heights, 
Va., July 21, 1863; Culpepper, Va., Oct. 13, 1863 ; Brandy Sta- 
tion, Va", Oct, 13, 1863 ; Bristow Station, Va., Oct. 14,1863; Rap- 
pahannock Station, Va., Nov. 7, 1863 ; Cross Roads, Va,, Nov. 
26, 1863; Mine Run, Va., Nov. 29, 1863 ; The Wilderness, Va., 
May 5, 6, 7, 1864; Laurel Hill, Va., Mav 8, 1864; Po River, Va., 
May 10, 1864 ; Spottsylvania, Va., May 12, 1864 ; Ny River, Va., 
May 21, 1864 ; North' Anna, Va., May 21, 1863 ; Jericho Mills, 
Va., May 24, 1864 ; Noel's Turn, Va., May 26, 1864 ; Tolopotomy, 
Va., Mav 30. 1864; Magnolia Swamp, Va., June 1, 1864; Be- 
thesda Church, Va.,June 2, 1864; Petersburg, Va., June 13,1864; 
Weldon R. R, Va., Aug. 19, 20, 21, 1864 ; Peeble's Farm, Va., 
Sept. 30, 1864 ; Hatcher's Run, Va,, Oct. 27, ;1 864 Nottaway Court 
House. Dec. 3, 1884 ; Hatcher's Run, Feb. 6 and 7, and March 
25, 1865; White Oak Road, Va., March 29, 1865; Five Forks. 
Va., April 1, 1S65 ; Amelia Court-House, Va., April 5, 1865; Ap- 
pomattox Court-House, Va., April 9, 1865; Siege of Petersburg, 
Va., June 17, 1864, to April 3, 1865. 


David Darling died of disease at Washington, Oct. 4, 1861. 

Francis Z. Fowler fell at Bull Run, Va., Aug. 30, 1862. 

James W. At wood fell at " " " " 

Alanson M. Holt fell at " " " " " 

John M. Riley fell at Blackford's Ford. Sept, 20, 1862. 

John B. Kennedy fell at Fredericksburg, 1862. 

Matthew Moran fell at Bull Run, Va, Aug. 30, 1862. 

Freeman Fish died from disease, June 28, 1862. 

Edward Grover died from disease, Aug. 24, 1862. 

Robert McCall died at Washington, Nov. 1, 1862. 

Ransom F. Pool, missing at Gaines Mill. June 27, 1862. 

Edward Creech " " " " ' • " " 

Caleb H. Greek " " " " " " " 

Daniel Griffith " " " " " 

Gharles E. Loomis " " " " " " " 

Isaac Ruff " " " " " " " 

Newton S. Bibbin " " Blackford's Ford, Sep. 20, 1862. 

Thomas H. Tucker " " " " " " " 

Silas S. Burt died of wounds at Washington, October 20, 1864. 

Nathaniel P. Drake, missing in the action of the Wilderness, May 5, 1864. 

Richard Bunker, missing at the Wilderness. 

Nicholas Brown died of wounds June 2, 1865. 

Charles E. Lcomis died of wouuds at Richmond, June 27, 1862. 

Richard P. Bunker died while a prisoner in Georgia, April 17, 1864. 

Newton S. Bibbin died of disease, in Michigan, Jan.13, 1865. 


Riehard Murphy. James H. Wickmire. John V. Stowell. 

Hugh A. McCall. Clark Barton. L. Schneckenberger. 

Alliert Sherman. Edward Cruch. L. B. Thayer. 

Hobart P. Sweet. Nathaniel P. Drake. Friend T. Dennison. 

Alfred T. Harris. Joseph B. Johnson. Ira Gillispie. 

William Collins. Edson Peckell. Daniel Hawley. 

Hooker A. De Land. Alexander Quinnin. C. M. King. 

Wm. P. Stiles. F. L. C. Rising. Aram Keeler 

Jacob Brakeman. Isaac Ruff. Chauncy Rick«tt. 


*.\ S s 

1 J 


Reuben Zariek. 
Thomas H. Graham. 
0. K. Cody. 
W. H Luce. 
Alonzo J. Blake. 
Isaac Flowers. 
Charles E. Hunt. 
Samuel Kennedy. 
G. \V. Lee. 
Myron Moe. 
Benry Maxson. 
Peres M. Picket. 
Wm. H. Vandusen. 
Loring G. Wooster. 
H. TV". N. Savage. 
Sheridan F. Hill. 
Henry II Hulin. 
Daniel Griffith. 
Frank Townley. 
Charles W. Lane. 
Rufus D. Rogers. 
Sheldon Powell. 
Irving D. Reed. 
John W. Wyman. 

John Cradit. 
Francis Cassidy. 
John E. Vandenburg. 
S. W. Martin. 
Alanson M. Hoit. 

C. A. De Land. 
Frederick A. Kennedy. 
Ellory C. Knight. 
Francis Dancer. 
John Gastofer. 
Levant Williams. 
Charles E. Redner. 
Oliver Beach. 
Thomas Young. 
Walter Rossman. 
Charles Kenny. 
Henry Harrison. 

T. H. Tucker. 

D. Jordan. 
Henry M. Teft. 
Thomas Wellburn. 
Harrison Hawkins. 
Charles W. Todd. 

W. J. Perkins. 
Henry A. Davis. 
Albert Morsman. 
Peter Rogers. 
James L. Wilson. 
Hobart P. Sweet. 
Alfred T. Harris 
Newton S. Bibbins. 
Clark Barton. 
Edward Cruch. 
Joseph C. Johnson. 
John V. Stowell. 
Samuel Trumbull. 
C. M. King. 

E. Pickell. 

R. P. Bunker. 

N. Brown. 

James II. Wickmere. 

F. T Dennison. 
Reuben Yarick. 
Joseph H. Fish. 
Randall Fox. 
W. H. Luce. 

Capt. J. B. Kennedy, who was killed at Fredericksburg in De- 
cember, 1862, received the following letters of approbation from 
the commanding officer of the 1st Mich. Inf.: 

" Camp 1st Mioh., Aug. 8, 1862. 
It gives me great pleasure to testify to the gallantry, courage and coolness dis- 
played by Capt. J. B. Kennedy of this regiment in the actions in which the com- 
mand has been engaged : and also to his unfailing endurance in holding his men 
together, and aiding in keeping in good condition during the toil and wearisome 
labor of the army during the"bnttic irak before Richmond Captain Kennedy is 
entitled to the credit of all this, and, personally, he has my thanks for his assistance 
rendered on more than one occasion. 

Horace S. Roberts, Col. Com. Regt. 

Lt.-Col. Whittelsey, of the 1st Kegiment, says, regarding this 
young soldier: "It is with much pleasure that I can fully concur in 
the above, regarding Capt. Kennedy." The remains of Capt. Ken- 
nedy were conveyed to Jackson, and interred in the village cemetery 
of Hanover. 

The Second Infantry entered on field service at Blackburn's 
Ford, Va., July 18, 1861, and was present at Bull Bun on the 21st. 
Its regular campaign opened with the siege of Yorktown, carried 
from April 4, to May 4, 1862, after which it participated in the 
following movements: 

Williamsburg, Va., May 5, 1862; Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, 1862; 
near Bichmond, Va., June 18, 1862; Glendale, Va., June 30, 
1862; Malvern Hill, Va., July 1, 1862; Bull Bun, Va., Aug. 28, 
29, 30, 1862; Chantilly, Va., Sept. 1, 1862; Fredericksburg, Dec. 
12 to 14, 1862; siege of Vicksburg, Miss., June 22 to July 4, 1863; 
Jackson, Miss., July 11 to July 18, 1863; Blue Spring, Tenn., 
Oct. 10, 1863; London, Tenn., Nov. 14, 1863; Lenoir Station; 
Tenn., Nov. 15, 1S63; Campbell's Station, Tenn., Nov. 16, 1863, 



siege of Knoxville, Tenn., Nov. 17 to Dec. 5, 1863; Fort Saunders, 
Tenn., Nov. 29, 1863; Thurley's Ford, Tenn., Dec. 15, 1863; 
Strawberrv Plains, Tenn., Jan. 22, 1864; near Knoxville, Tenn., 
Jan. 24, 1864; The Wilderness, Va., May 5, 6, 7, 1864; Ny River, 
Va., May 9, 1864; Spottsylvania, Va., May 10 to 12, 1864; Ox 
Ford, Va., May 23, 1864; North Anna, Va.^ May 24 to 25, 1864; 
Tolopotomv. Va., May 30, 1864; Bethseda Church, Va., June 2 to 
3, 1864; Coal Harbor,' Va., June 7, 1864; Petersburg, Va., June 17 
to 18, 1864; The Crater, Va., July 30, 1864; Weldon R. R, Va., 
Aug. 19 to 21, 1864; Ream's Station, Va., Auej. 25, 1864; Poplar 
Springs, Va., Sept. 30, 1864; Pegram Farm, Va., Oct. 2, 1864: 
Boydton Road, Va., Oct. 8, 1864; Hatcher's Run, Va., Oct. 27 to 
28, 1864; Fort Steadman, Va., March 25, 1865; capture of Peters- 
burg, Va., April 3, 1865; siege of Petersburg, Va., from June 17. 
'64 to April 3, '65. 


The following comprises the casualties of the members of the 
regiment from this county: 

Henry Smith died at Knoxvill Tenn., Nov. 24, 1863. 
Eugene Winue died at Jackson, Miss., July 11, 1863. 


The following named were mustered out either at expiration of 
term of service, or previously, for disability or transfer to other 

regiments : 

Geo. A. Southworth. 
Andrew A. Showers. 
Darwin C. Beebe. 
Sanford G. Rogers. 
John C. Sessions. 
Jerome Robbins. 
Thomas Coulson. 
Andrew Holmes. 
M. N. Herbert. 
Allen Clark. 
W. H. Wetherbee. 
John Sparling. 
James M. Allen. 
James Reed. 
Jacob Sayers. 
Wm. Cannon. 

A. L. Hubbard. 
Charles McDole. 
Geo. Sayers. 
Albert Dunham. 
Phillip J. Bristol. 
David McMullen. 
Charles M. Adams. 
Thomas H. Sanford. 
John W. Ford. 
Wm. F. Murray. 
Henry Nicolls. 
Patrick York. 
John, Barger 
Harvey Towner. 
Alfred W. Fleming. 
Wm. Sweet. 

E D. Hathaway. 

J. K. Hawkins. 

John Adair. 

D. A. Overacher. 

Loomis McCarthy. 

Wm. Morgan. 

John Leitch. 

James Stearns. 

Wm. Evans. 

S. Sullivan. 

John Schemkinburger. 

Clark Tenny. 

Ed. R.Dudley. 

D. J. Grimes. 

Third Infantry. — The history of the Third Infantry comprised 
nearly all the battles and skirmishes credited to the Second Mich. 
Vol. Reg., with that of Todd's Tavern, Locust Grove, Mine Run, 
Deep Bottom, Sailor's Creek, Va., and New Store, Va. The 
regiment was consolidated with the 5th Infantry, June 13, 1864, 
and continued to serve until after the siege of Petersburg, April 3, 
1865. The reorganized battalion served at Decatur, Ala., Oct. 28, 


29 and 30, 1864, and at Murfreesboro, Tenn., Nov. 3 to Dec. 20, 

Of this regiment Simeon D. Woodward fell at the battle of Mine 
Kun, Nov. 30, 1863. 

The Fourth Infantry served with distinction throughout all the 
battles mentioned in connection with the 2d and 3d Regiments. 
Though mustered out June 28, 1S64, a large proportion of the 
troops served with those of the 1st and reorganized 4th until the 
close of hostilities. 

Samuel Tyler, of Co. H., 4th Infantry, died April 25, 1862, from 
the effects of accidental wounds. 


The following names are given of those mustered out of this regi- 
ment from this county : 

Charles A. Oliphant. Wm. C. Adams. John J. Davis. 

Myron Chalkes. Wm. W. Crannell. James M. Huddler. 

Joseph Crocker. Wesley L. Robinson. Geo. Lazellier. 

Wm. A GiddingS. Charles L. Andrews. John S. Conant. 

Stephen V. Doty. Burdsley H. Morse. Richard Henfry. 

John W. Holmes. Daniel Rozelle. John Post. 
Robert F. Bradley. 

The Fifth Infantry took a very prominent part in the Virginia 
campaign, being associated with all the stirring engagements 
throughout that State. 

Samuel Matthews died at Columbia, S. C, Jan. 10, 1864. 


A. V. Dean. Fredrick Parks. Jefferson Hill. 

Frank M. Smith. 

The Sixth Infantry, Heavy Artillery, took part in the actions 
of Sewell's Point, Va., March 5, 1862; Port Jackson, La., April 
25,1862; Vicksburg, Miss., May 20, 1862 ; Grand Gulf, Miss., 
May 27, 1862 ; Amite Paver, Miss., June 20, 1S62 ; Baton Rouge, 
La., Aug. 5 to 17, 1862 ; Bayou Teche, La., Jan. 14, 1863 ; Pon- 
chatoula, La., March 24 to 26, 1863 ; Baratoria, La., April 7, 1863; 
Tickfaw River. La., April 12, 1S63 ; Amite River, Miss., May 7, 
1863 ; Ponchatoula, La., May 16, 1S63 ; Port Hudson, La., May 
23 to June 30, 1863 ; Tunica Bayou, La., Nov. 8, 1863 ; Ashtoii, 
Ark., July 24, 1864 ; Fort Morgan, Ala., Aug. 23, 1864 ; Spanish 
Fort, Ala., April, 1865 ; Fort Blakely, Ala,, April, 1865 ; Fort 
Huger, Ala., April, 1865 ; Fort Trace v, Ala., April, 1865 ; siege 
of Mobile, Ala., March 20 to April 12," 1865. 


Abraham Patterson died of disease at Baltimore, Md., Sept. 
Geo. C. Perry, Co. I, died at Baton Rouge July 24, 1862. 
Mathias Casey died at New Orleans Sept. 23, 1862. 
James L. Kenyon died at Camp 'Williams Oct. 18, 1862. 



George Coldstream died at New Orleans Nov. 7, 1862. 
L. A. Getty died at New Orleans Nov. 10, 186'?. 
Michael Franklin died at Baton Rouge, La., June 8, 1863. 
Thomas langlcy died at New Orleans, La., Nov. 13, 1864. 
Adolplius Grovenburg died at Vickslmrgh Oct. 19, 1864. 
Oscar Prescott died at Chicago, 111., Nov. 13, 18G3. 
Ransom Fisher died at Fort Morgan Nov. 8, 1864. 
Josiah Weaver died at Henrietta, Mich., Oct. 15, 1864. 
E. R. McArthur drowned in Mobile Bay March 25, 1865. 
Jabez Robinson died of disease at Jackson Feb. 3, 1865. 
John H. Price died at New Orleans, La., Oct. 25, 1864. 
Andrew Enapp died at New ( blenns. La., A pril 38, 1865. 
Reuben Stevens died at Natchez, Miss., Sept. 5, 1864. 
David Keck died at New Orleans Dec. 1, 1S64. 
Geo. W. Allen died at. Regt. Hospital, La., May 34, 1864. 
Byron Stoddard died at Port Hudson, La., July 17, 1863. 


Geo. W. Soules. Edward Wall. Philip Peterson. 

Joshua Howe. Ira II. Eastman. J. J. Perkins. 

Charles Davis. A. D. Hogle. H. M. Miller. 

Barney Casey. John Keeler. Charles Bunker. 

Nelson R. Stephens. Phil. Sackett. W. H. Chapman. 

Arthur Cole. Geo. B Shual. Henry Darner. 

Joseph Brunger. A. A. Vanriper. Samuel Martin. 

James E. Doak. Myron Harris. E. B. Perkins. 

Alvin Stoddard. Andrew J. Rank. Austin W. Ripley. 

Geo. Murray. A. D. Ackles. Chelsea E. Rhodes. 

JohnMcMann. Wm. Fenton. A. H. Rynix. 

David E. Conway. James Losey. Peter Stimmer. 

Wm. Blood. Reuben F. O'Neil. H. S. Wickwire. 

Geo. N. Lee. Albert L. Pomeroy. Lewis Merrill. 

Justin O. Neil. Harry F. DeWitt. G. B. Oatman. 
Cleveland Lathrop. Isaac Rynix. 

The Seventh Infantry entered active service at Ball's Bluff, 

Va., Oct. 21, 1861, and participated in all the engagements and 
skirmishes pertaining to the campaign in Virginia, terminating 
with the siege of Petersburg, April 3, 1865. 


Colwell Philander, Co. B., 7th Infantry, died at Camp Benton, Md., Oct. 26, 1861 
Hamilton Freeland died at Ship Point, April 16 1862. 
Thomas Grogan died at Fortress Monroe April 23, 1862. 
Andrew Hill died at Washington, D. C, May 17, 1862. 
Wm. W. Culver was interred at Alexandria, Va., June 8, 1862. 
Fr. derick Rurrett, missing in the action of White Oak Swamp. 
Alouzo D. Palmer fell at Antietam Sept. 17, 1862. 
David Reynolds fell at Sharpsburg Sept. 27, 1862. 
Dwight C. Slack fell at Antietam Sept. 17, 1862. 
Theoron B. Seeley fell at Aut'etam Sept. 17, 1802- 
Rodolphus P. Tryon died at N. Y. Hospital of wounds, Jan. 29, 1862. 
David W. Lawrence, supposed to have died from wounds received at Antietam 
Sept. 17, 1862. 
AbnerB. Hill man. drowned. 

Albert Wilson died of wounds received at Gettysburg July 3, 1862. 
Frederick Barrett, died at Harrison's Landing, Va., July 16, 1862. 
Al 1 ert Wilson, died at G< ttysburg. July 3. 1863. 
William Flowers died at Gettysburg July 3, 1S63. 
Z. H. Sanborn died at Gettysburg July 3, 1863. 


A. B. Laycock died at Philadelphia July 20, 1863. 

Benjamin Waterman died of disease at Falmouth Mar. 1, 1863. 

Geo. C. Bell died at Fort Schuyler, N. Y., April 3, 1863. 

William O'Neil died at New Orleans Aug. 30, 1864. 

Asa Wilcox, died at Natchez. Miss , Aug. 2, 1864. 

J. Avis died at Vicksburg, Miss., Aug. 17, 1864. 

Dupuy Davis died at Vicksburg, Miss., July 30, 1864. 

C. Waldon, died at Vicksburg, Miss., Aug. 3, 1864. 

Geo. W. Karr died at Vicksburg, Miss., June 2, 1864. 

Robt. J. Ramsden died at Vicksburg, Miss., June 6, 1864. 

Riordan Ancil died at New Orleans Oct. 10, 1864. 

George Murray died at Port Hudson, La., Feb. 29, 1864. 

Archibald Campbell died at Vicksburg. Miss, July 10, 1861. 

Alfred lfartwell died at Vicksburg July 1, 1864. 

A. O. Mills died at Vidksburg July 20, 1864. 

O. Woolover died on the steamer Continental June 7, 1864. 

Nathan W. Carter died at New Orleans Oct. 13, 1864. 

Henry W. Green. 
William L. Leeson. 
Charles D. Clough. 
Perry Abbot. 
Wm. H. Childs. 
Andrew Gibbs. 
David Fiscall. 
Wesley A. Barber. 
David Vandeusen. 
Geo. W. Vaughan. 
John I. Handee. 
Orlando G. Andrews. 
Calvin Lusay. 


Hiram Smiley. 
Geo. W. Karr. 
Geo. Jennings. 
Russell Godfrey. 
John Sydlemire. 
Andrew H. Bronson. 
Charles A. Brink. 
John A . Fabrique. 
Jacob Bowers. 
Ralph R Huntington- 
Elijah Frazer. 
Wm. Bennett. 
Lucius Bowdish. 

Oliver C. Chapman. 
W. N. Dunne. 
James E. Elliot. 
John Rohrer. 
Henry Henderson. 
Henry H. Dresser, 
Hiram L. Mason. 
James Etchison. 
Gilbert Buzzel. 
Wm. Everts. 
Geo. W. Perkins, 
Silas B . Bement. 
Francis W. Drake. 

The Eighth Michigan Volunteer Infantry took part in the 
military affair at Port Royal, S. C, Nov. 7, 1861, and thenceforth 
earned for itself a most enviable name on the battle-fields of South 
Carolina, Georgia, Maryland, Mississippi, Tennessee and Vir- 


Willam Alexander died from the effects of wounds at James' Island, S. C, June 
16, 1862. 
Orville C. Wheelock died of wounds at Alexandria, Sept. 9, 1862. 
Thomas Barns died of wounds received near Fairfax, Va., Sept. 1, 1862. 
Geo. Davis died at Bull Run Aug. 30, 1862. 
James M. Morgan died at James' Island, S. C, June 16, 1862. 
Geo. W. Davis fell at James' Island June 16, 1862. 
Elias Mires fell at Wilmington Island, Ga., April 16, 1862. 
Richard E. Patz died at Wilmington Island, Ga, April 16, 1862. 
Charles Wickham, wounded at Hilton Head, and died June 23, 1862. 
Harvey Soules died at Washington Oct. 5, 1861. 
Welcome Herrington died at Beaufort, S. C, July 11, 1862. 
Jacob Scott died at Annapolis Nov. 28, 1862. 
William Crum died at Hilton Head December, 1861. 
Denis Parrish fell at Hilton Head November, 1861. 
Amos Smith died at Beaufort, S. O, June 9, 1862. 
Lewis Wood died at Beaufort, S. C, June 23, 1862. 
Frederick Zandrick died in New York Sept. 28, 1862. 
Edward Carley died of wounds on James' Island, S. O, June 16, 1862. 


John H. Davis died of disease at Hilton Head, S. C, December, 1861. 
Algro Train died of disease at Beaufort, S. C, March, 1862. 
Albert Foster died at Washington Feb. 17, 1863. 
A. Nicolls died at Windmill Point Feb. 2, 1863. 
Wintield Greek died at Nicolasville, Ky., Sept. 10, 1863. 
Philander Karr, missing in ;ir Jackson, Miss., July 10, 1863. 
Richard Herzer, of 12th Infantry, died at Duval's Bluff, Ark., Sept. 9, 1863. 
Martin Creps, Co. G, loth Regiment, died in the action of Stone River, Dec. 81, 

Joseph Gould died at Murfreesboro March 28, 1863. 
Orrell Hodge diedat Gallatin, Tenn., Dec. 9, 1862. 
John Brand, missing at Chickamauga Sept. 19, 1863. 
Charles B. Hersha died of disease at Rhode Island Oct. 21, 1864. 
Omer. F. W. Eckerman died near Petersburg, Va, June 17, 1864. 
Jerome Beardsley died at the Wilderness May 6, 1864. 
Stephen L. Smith died at Knoxville Dec 5, 1863. 
James Hollenbeck died near Petersburg, Va., June 29, 1864. 
Peter A. Bingham died of wounds at Cold Harbor June 2, 1864. 
Edward Seott died of wounds near Petersburg July 3, 1864. 
Win. M. Hersha died at Weldon, R. R., Va, Aug. 19, 1864. 
Lvman W. Pixley died at Beverly Hospital. N, J, Oct. 24, 1864, 
Frank Thayer died of wounds May 20, 1864. 

Daniel D. Keves died of disease at Tecumseh, Mich, March, 1864. 
Arthur M. Matins died of disease at Baltimore Oct. 28, 1864. 
Albert W. Thayer died at Baltimore March 28. 1864. 
Alonzo Hersha died at Washington Aug. 29, 1864. 
James Doran, Portsmouth Grove, R. I, Oct. 25, 1804. 
Philo W. Jones died at Alexandria, Va., Oct. 8, 1864. 
Jerome Beardsley, missing in the action of the Wilderness May 6, 1864. 
Ben. A. Cahoon, missing at the Wilderness, Va , May 6, 1864. 


Joseph E. Holton. 
Martin Hough. 

Wm. Longstreet. 
Lewis Pelton. 
John Rouse. 
Chester McGraw. 
Henry Spears. 
Charles K. Eggleston. 
Isaac Winchell. 
Thomas Malony. 
Thomas Long. 
Nicholas Mvers. 
Wintield Myers 
Marcus Dunham. 
Carl Zandrick. 
Geo. Eldrid. 
Edward H. Strik. 
Alvinza Chamberlain. 
Anson X. Patchin. 
Amasa Nichols. 
Reuben Rockwell. 
Geo. Harrington. 
Robert McWilliam. 
Alonzo Chamberlain. 
Henly Welch. 
JoIib Downey. 
Charles E. Miller. 
John Robinson . 

Isaac Young. 
James E. D. Cahill. 
Omer Eckerman. 
D. W. Thurston. 
Arthur Mathers. 
James O'Brien. 
Jerome Beardsley. 
Daniel D. Keys. 
Oliver P. Shurrager. 
Charles Wheeler. 
Anthony Shetler. 
Lyman W. Pixley. 
William Shumway. 
D wight N. Blaisdell. 
B. A" Cahoon. 
Win. Johnson. 
Augustus Ploss. 
Alonzo Hersha. 
D. W. Ford. 
Wm. II. Clark. 
Nathan K. Haines. 
Addison Simmons. 
Herbert A. Cook. 
J. B. Crannover. 
Mark Phillips. 
.I.E. D. Cahill. 
John Williams. 
Bartholomew Crowley. 
Charles Beardsley. 

James O'Brien. 
Mortimer A. Crawford. 
Charles A. Vredenburg. 
Charles B. Beardsley, 
Delos Brown. 
Charles Buddington. 
F. P. L. Suurragar. 
O. P. Shurragar. 
Phillip Carr. 
Charles Wheeler. 
Dwight Blaisdall. 
Ben Calhoun. 
Herbert Cook. 
W. D. Ford. 
Amos Horton. 
Wm. Johnson. 
Wm. Painter. 
J. B. Crownover. 
Jos. T. Harstock. 
Mark Phillips. 
William Weller, 
Ge irge W. Ransom. 
Val. O. Ford. 
Joseph Brener. 
Everett Dennis. 
J. S. Pinney. 
Wm. N. Richardson. 
W. W. Parker. 
Nicholas Hardee. 



The Ninth Infantry ■from its first engagement at Murfreesboro, 
Tenn., July 13, 1861, throughout the Tenesseean and Georgian 
campaign, performed useful service as guards of military prisons, 
together with obtaining a fair fame on a dozen well-fought 
fields. This regiment comprised the " Jackson Rifles," under Cap- 
tain DeLand. The company left Jackson Sept. 24, 1861, and re- 
ported at Fort Wayne for service a day later. It comprised, after 
organization, the following officers and private troops from 
Jackson and vicinity : 

Jackson County Rifles, Ninth Infantry left the city Sept. 24, 
1861, to muster in with the 9th Michigan Volunteers, then being 
organized at Ft. Wayne : 

Capt., Charles H. De Land. Sergeants, Alpheus Chase. Sergeants, Chas.Burroughs 
1st. Lieut., Joseph H. Scott. " Jas. R. Slayton. " Denis Donohue 

2d. Lieut. ,.T. Curtis Purdy. " John G. Owens. 

Wm. C. Smith. 
W. B. Byrams. 
J. W. Cranmore. 
II. T. Thayer. 
H. Cranmore. 
Arnold Lamdin . 
L. C. Sprinsrstun. 
F. H. K. Barker. 
F. A. Palmer. 
W. II. Fleming. 

E. P. Wheeler. 
L. S. Weeks. 
J. A. Stiles. 

J. B. Wilson. 
W. C. Hubbard. 
John Blessing. 
Samuel Miller. 
Geo. Waldo. 
H. S. Hubbard. 
J. R. Owens. 

C. W. Hubbard 

D. W. Pratt. 
D. W. Thayer. 
W. C. Whitman. 
B. W. Shaw. 

F. H. Tuthill. 
H. Bullinger. 
W. II. Trask. 
Phil. Bacon. 
Ira P. Parker. 
J. W. Ripley. 
Alex. Frazer. 


W. A. Whitney. 
J. H. Fish. 
Wm. Keeling. 
E. B.Price. 
A. R. Lewis. 
J. C.Love. 
A. W, Ruppel!. 
G. M. Palmer. 
Dewitt Purse. 
S. Graham. 
Moses Shepard. 
James Webb. 
C. H. Snow. 
G. S. Streator. 
J. A. Winnegar. 
N. M. Carpenter. 
E. R. Matthuson. 
R. H. Farnham. 
M. J. Spinnings. 
Wm. Barnes. 
G. W. Bowser. 

C. B. Hogle. 
Milton Ford. 
E. (J. Lyman. 

A. Bingham. 
Moses Hill. 

B. O. Morton. 

A. W. De Lamatre. 
S. N. Clarke. 

D. W. Moulton. 
Henry Griffith. 
Geo. Herrione. 

Lot Griffith. 

Myron Wade. 

L. F. Gallup. 

A. II. Gallup. 

A. C. Lester. 

T. S. Vining. 

H. Hasbrouch. 

A. A. Leech. 

F, B. Knickerbocker. 

J, M, Knickerbocker. 

A. B, Pixley. 

F. Lester. 

G. W. Buckhart. 
H. II, Reynolds. 
G. A. Clifford. 
H. T. Mills. 
Edward Putnam. 
C. Bronson. 
James Florence. 
C. Emerson. 

J. B. Lovett. 
Walter Hicks. 
Walter Lee. 
Ben. Dearin. 
H. H. Beyers. 
J. K. Blackburn. 
E. B. Walworth. 
Levant Bangs. 
Wm. Leg gett. 
Thomas Rielly. 
J. R. Webster. 
Geo. Wheeler. 


Amos W. Abbot died at Murfreesboro July 13, 1862. 
Myron Flagler '■ " "■ '" 

William A. Hamilton died at Murfreesboro July 13, 1862. 
Ryal Benjamin " " " " 

Samuel Baird " " " " 

Norman Gass " at Nashville, Tenn., October 5, 1862. 



Lewis Flatt died of disease 
George Bennett died at 
Dallas Ilogle 
Samuel C. AVait 
Andrew Walworth " 
Edward De Diemer died 
Daniel Olmsted ' 

Philetus Bacon " 

Samuel Dougherty " 
Russel H, Famhaui " 
Milton Ford 

Anson R. Lewis ' 

Henry Reidner ' 

John Cogswell " 

Alexander Frazer " 

James Traver 
Henry Maxon " 

Bensel Redner " 

Harmon C. Russell " 

Levi S. Case 
Owen Parrish 
Townsend Deering " 

Jacob Redner " 

Bernard Riley 
Horace W. Bartlett 
Stephen A. Cowden " 

at Murfreesboro April 23, 1862. 
Farmington July 14, 1862. 

" 11, " 

" 7, " 

at Murfreesboro, Ten'n., July 13, 1862. 
■ Nashville, " Sept. 4, " 

West Point, Ky., Jan. 18, 1862. 
Murfreesboro June 5, " 
West Point, Ky., Jan. 1, 
Nashville April 18, 1862. 
West Point, Ky., Dec. 31, 1861. 

" 4, " 
Murfreesboro July 14, 1861. 
Elizabethtown. Ky., April, 1862. 
Chattanooga, Tenn., Jan. 11, 1864. 
Nashville, Tenn., March 4, 1864. 
Chattanooga May 3, 1864. 

June 19, 1864. 
Nashville, Tenn., June 10, 1865. 
Nov. 24, 1864. 
Indianapolis June 26, 1865. 
Chattanooga April 19, 1864. 
Dec. 29, 1864. 
May 2, 1865. 
Nashville Aug. 15, 1865. 

The Tenth Infantry took a most distinguished part in the fol- 
lowing battles:' Farmington, Miss., May 9, 1862; Corinth, May 
10 to 31, 1862; Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 29 to 31, 1862; and Jan. 
2 and 3, 1863, together with Mission Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, At- 
lanta, Jonesboro, and through the campaign down to Bentonville, 
N. C, March 19 and 20, 1865. 


Thomas Holton killed near Louisville, Ga., Nov. 29, 1864. 
Joseph Barber died at Dallas, Ga.. -May 27, 1864. 
Joseph A. Gleeson died at Jonesboro, Ga., Sept. 1, 1864. 
Standish Maxfield died at Jonesboro Ga., Sept. 1, 1864. 


Eugene Norton. John Edwards. Wm. Bunker. 

William H. Sergeant. Eli Parrish. Enos Delong. 

Hiram House. Charles J. Phillips. Ben. F. Hands 

Herbert N. Phelps. Thomas Proctor. Eli Parrish. 

Eugene Cole. Gordon Rudd. Charles Phillips. 

Joseph Barber. Putnam Welling. Putnam Welling. 

Joseph Cudworth . Albert S. Wildey. Albert Wildey. 

Charles Cook. Thomas Weaver. Hiram C. Osgood. 

Jason Clark. Geo. E. Cole. Geo. H. Fishill. 
Enos Delong. 

The Eleventh Infantry served in 16 general engagements from 
Gallatin, Tenn., Aug. 13, 1862, to the siege of Atlanta, Ga., 
July 22, to Aug. 27, 1864. The regiment was reorganized in 
February, 1865, at Jackson, under the superintendence of Col. W. 
L. Stoughton, Commandant of Camp, and on March 4, four com- 


panies left the State for Nashville, Tenn. , the remaining six com- 
panies leaving Jackson, with the star!', within 14 days subsequently. 
After a period of severe service, it was mustered out at Jackson, 
Sept. 16, 1869. 

Ml SI I KKI> ol'T. 

The members of this regiment from Jackson as mustered out are 
as follows: 

Thomas C. Pendall. 
Alonzo D. Luce. 
Chauucey Bronson. 
Win. J. Bates. 
Alva Counterman. 
Converse B. Dyer. 
.lames Gildea. 
Thomas Hendry. 
James B. Hill. 
Henry G. Titus. 
Herbert A. Weston. 
Cornelius Westgate. 
Wm. Watkins. 
Geo. D. Westgate. 
Edward E. Hurnham. 
James H. Elliott. 
Melvin B Elliott 
Steuben Filkens. 
Charles B. Graves. 
Geo. H. Grindall. 
Henry G Hoag. 
Isaac" Kilbourn. 
Geo. H. McLane. 
Frank Rust. 
George Russell. 
John Simpson. 
Mark Upthegrove. 
E M. Seeley. 
Volney J. Miller. 
Myron S. Anson. 

Daniel Cronachet. 
John A. Cummings. 
Frederick A. Krause. 
J. S. Dietal. 
Richard Elliott. 
Goodrich Ferguson. 
Albert F. Haven. 
Reuben Hoag. 
Joseph Murray. 
Freeman E. Parmeter. 
Samuel Praine. 
Andrew Sutton. 
Aldin H. Wright. 
James Stillwell. 
Peter Bower. 
Samuel Hunt. 
Moses Kline. 
W. Scott Millard. 
Geo. W. Sweezy. 
John Gill. 
Franklin Lindsey. 
Henry H. Young. 
Holden S. Albro. 
Adam H. Burke. 
John M. Barlow. 
Chester Brockway. 
Moses Combs. 
Ed. S. Cooper. 
A. W. Cooper. 
O. F. Colgrove. 

Melvin A. Crane. 
Loreu E. Cole. 
Win. Francisco. 
John Green. 
Monroe Ingraham. 
Theodore Johnson. 
Geo. Knowles. 
Ira C. Landon. 
Alex. B Lee. 
Ben. P. Mount. 
Henry R. R ce. 
Edward A. Sheffield. 
George Torrey. 
Nathan G. Wall. 
Samuel O. Williams. 
.John Solomon. 
Wm. A. Drake. 
Alexander Merrills. 
Lewis Pippinger. 
Wm Ferguson. 
Harvey J. Bates. 
H J. Ferguson. 
John S. Pixley. 
Stephen D Brockway. 
Daniel Coykendall. 
John Densmore. 
Henry Frazer. 
Arthur R. Joslyn. 
Willis Ray. 

TJie Twelfth Infantry began service at Pittsburg Landing, Tenn., 
April 6, 1862, and continued a brilliant career over the fields of 
Iuka, Miss.; Metamora, Middleburg, Tenn.; Mechanicsville, 
Vicksburg, Miss. ; Little Rock and Clarendon, Ark. ; bringing its 
campaign to a close with the affair ol Gregory's Landing, Sept. 4, 


Harvev Post, Co. K, 12th Regiment, died at Shiloh April fi, 1862. 

Stoddard H. Roosa, Co. K,12th Regiment, died at Shiloh April 6, 1862. 

Henry C. Johnson, Co. D, 12th Regiment, died at Niles. 

Franculo Crego, missing at Shiloh April 6, 1862. 

Samuel O. Carey, missing at Shiloh April 6, 1862. 

Willlan Higgiu?, missi lg at Shiloh April 6. 1863. 

Isaac Roosa, missing at Shiloh, April 6, 1862. 

Wallace A. Hoyt died at Louisville April 7, 1863. 

Ephraim H. Brockway died near Mooreville, Ala., July 17. 1862. 



James M. Reeve fell at Corinth, Miss., April 10, 1862. 
Isaac B. Barly, died of disease at Atlanta, Ga., May 2, 1862. 
James E. Gait, died of disease at Qnincy, 111., May 13, 1862. 
Charles C. Grant died of disease at Keokuk, Iowa, May 16,1862. 
Adam Spears died of disease at Atlanta, Ga., Aug. 25, "1862. 
Isaac Koose died at Montgomery, Ala., June 28, 1862. 
S. O. Carey died at Montgomery, Ala. May, 16, 1862. 
John H. Larabee died of dUease at Millikm's Bend. La., July 27, IE 
Frederick Wmchell died at Duvall's Bluff, Ark., May 11, 1865. 


George Brown. 
Charles Pierce. 
James P. Shoemaker. 
Clark Wright. 
John Pennington. 
Henry S. Clafflin. 
John Coger. 
James O. Graham 
Geo. W. Cowen. 
Arson Straw. 
Henry Fluke. 
Leonard Hodge. 
Paul Wangler. 
George Evans. 
Joseph Sheitz. 
Albert Whitney. 
Win. Lyman. 
Wallace Skutt. 
John J . Coger. 
Henry S. Clafflin. 
Wesley Skutt. 
Henry Wiufield. 
Datus Wright. 
James R. Barlow. 

Win. M. Bell. 
F. B Bayne. 
Otis A. Rider. 
George W. Wilcox. 
Charles Cross. 
Abram Bush. 
James O. Graham. 
Carl R. Herguth. 
Nathan Hatt. 
Henry Pope. 
Daniel Buckley . 
F. B. Knickerbocker. 
Josiah W. Smith. 
Emerson Blackmail. 
Corraden Howard. 
Orville D. Olmstead. 
John Sheahan. 
Abner Branaid. 
John C. Burgen. 
Francisco ( rego. 
Sherwood Earl. 
Lewis Arnell. 
Win. R. Pierce. 

Joshua H. Berry. 
Geo. N. Lee. 
Edwin Short. 
Abraham Porter. 
Harrison R. Phelps. 
Henry S. Conser. 
William C. Windell. 
Arthur W. Chapman. 
Lucien M.Jones. 
Wm. II Lewis. 
Robert Sanberlick. 
Henry C. Matthews. 
Adelbert B. Stetson. 
James McQuin. 
Albert A. Allen. 
Carmi E. Boyce. 
Moses H. Amphlet. 
Geo. Norton. 
Titus Smith. 
Geo. W. Kief. 
Owen Williams. 
Wm. M. Kellogg. 
Charles H. Tuthill. 
Charles T. Discore 

The Thirteenth Mich. Vol. Inf., under command of Col. Michael 
Shoemaker, of Jackson, and his successor, was engaged in no less 
than twenty-six battles, each bringing honor to the troops and 
officers, though not always victory. It is unnecessary to follow 
this regiment through all its vicissitudes. On the following fields 
it won for itself a place in the military annals of the republic and 
the hearts of the people: Shiloh, Tenn., April 7, 1S62; Farming- 
ton, Miss., May 9, 1862; Owl Creek, Miss., May 17, 1802; Corinth, 
Miss., May 27, 1862; siege of Corinth, Miss., May 10 to 31, 1862; 
Stevenson, Ala., Aug. 31, 1862; Mumfordsville, Ivy., Sept. 14, 
1862; Perryville, Ky., Oct. 8, 1862; Danville, Ky., Oct. 17, 1862; 
Gallatin, Tenn., Dec. 5, 1862; Mill Creek, Tenn!, Dec. 15, 1862; 
Lavergne, Tenn., Dec. 27, 1862; Stewart's Creek, Tenn., Dec. 29, 
1862; Stone Kiver, or Murfreesboro, Tenn., from Dec. 29, 1862 to 
Jan. 3, 1863; Eagleville, Tenn., Jan. 20, 1863; Pelham, Tenn., 
July 2, 1863; Lookout Valley, Tenn., Sept. 7, 1803; Chickamauga, 
Tenn., Sept. 12, 18 and 19, 1865; Chattanooga, Tenn., Oct. 6, 
1863; Mission Eidge, Tenn., Nov. 26, 1863; Florence, Ala., Oct. 
8, 1863; Savannah, Ga., Dec. 17, 18, 20 and 21, 1863; Catawba 
River, S. O, Feb. 29, 1862; Averysboro, N. O, March 16, 1865; 
Bentonville, N". G, March 19, 1865; Lookout Mountain, Sept. 10, 




In January, 1862, he was appointed colonel of the 13th Michigan 
Volunteer Infantry, joined the army of the Cumberland, and 
served for two years, taking part in the battles of Shiloh, Corinth, 
Stevenson, and Stone River, or Murfreesboro. During the battle 
of Murfreesboro, the colonel and men of the Thirteenth won a 
most enviable name, and received public thanks in general 
orders for their magnificent charge, their capture of 58 prisoners, 
their recapture of two guns, which had been lost by the battery, 
after the other regiments of the brigade had been twice repulsed. 
While under Col. Shoemaker, the 13th Regiment marched three 
times across Kentucky, twice across Tennessee, into Mississippi, and 
once across Alabama, building the fort at Stephenson, and hold- 
ing it until Gen. Euell moved into Kentucky to repel Gen. Bragg. 

The Nashville (Tenn. ) Union named Col. Marker's brigade "a 
band of heroes," and in its review of the battle said : " But there 
is one regiment which deserved more than a passing notice. We 
refer to the 13th Michigan Infantry. The brigade was sent tor- 
ward to check the advance of the rebel horde ; the 13th Michigan 
being one of the regiments held in reserve, the overwhelming 
force of the enemy brought against the advance line, drove the 
brigade steadily backward, when two guns, belonging to the 6th 
Ohio Battery, were captured by the enemy. He did not long hold 
them, as the 13th, which occupied a small cedar grove, was quickly 
formed, and rushed upon the enemy, yelling like hyenas, 
charged him, drove him back from his position, retook the lost 
pieces of artillery, and over 100 prisoners." 


Ileury Martin died of disease at Louisville August, 1802 . 
Oerell Hodge died at Gallatin, Tenn., Dec. !), 1862. 
James II. Eno died at Biir Springs, .Miss, July 21, 18(12. 
Edgar H. Hasford fell at Goldslidro, N. C, April 2, 18fi5. 
Jerome Met 'all fell at (ioldsboro, N. C, March 24, 1865. 
JohnC. Cotton died at Lookout Mountain Sept. 7, 1884. 
Edwin Hoot died at Savannah Dec. 10, 1864. 
James E. Town died at Chattanooga June 4, 1865. 
Elmer Thompson died at Kayett, ■villi- March 13, 18G5 
Orlando Pardee died at Hilton Head Jan. 10, 1865. 
Elias Thompson died at Columbia, S. C, Feb. 19, 1855. 
James Bell died at Jeffersonville, Ind., Dec. 14, 1864. 
Henry Perkins died at Michigan September, 1864. 


Robert F. Bradley. Clemens K. Shultz. Albert Townlee. 

Miner Robbins. Eli Martin. J. J. Holmes. 

Hugh A. Porter. Hiram S. King, Simon Rogers. 

Peter Moore. James McNamara. Thomas Jackson. 

David P. Corey. Edward A. Rogers. Normeus S. Sparks. 

Thomas J. Burch. Win. F. Holmes. Wm. A. Slayton. 
D. P. Corey. 

I! IS I < >U1 (iK .1 \('KSi>N ('"IN] ^ . 


Joseph O, Selden, 
James H. Winters. 
Simon Rogers. 
John Counterman. 
Samuel Snedaker, 
Peter M. Etchell. 
Albeit Townley, 
Nathan P. Barlow. 
John Brand. 
Robert A . Forester . 
Edwin Henderson . 
Silas James. 
Geo. J. Price. 
Henry Aldrich. 
Erza St. James. 
Joseph H. Stall. 
Samuel Antcliff. 

Wilson M. Torrey. 
Eli Martin. 
James McNamara. 
Sidney B. Pierce. 
Wm. Callaghan. 
James Moran. 
Alvah D. Armstrong. 
Wm. Beebe. 
John Blessing. 
Mathias Shran. 
Carroll Lamkee. 
Thomas Hoere. 
Dewitt Ilindershot. 
Tracy Maitland. 
Samuel Maitland. 
James C. Pemberton. 

George Pratt. 
David S. Alvord. 
Albert Barher. 
Charles Burkhart. 
Henry Beckwith. 
Lewis Gordon. 
Euos Hinckley. 
St' phen Playford. 
W. H. Parmer. 
Henry A. Stephens. 
Eber Weed. 
Ezra Whittier. 
Hiram S. King. 
Clemens R. Shulto. 
Geo. F. Whitney. 
James A. Joyce. 

The Fourteenth Infantry shared in the fortunes of the gallant 
13th, participating in the same battles from Farmington, Miss., 
May 9. 1862, to Bentonville, K C, March 19 and 20, 1865. 


Charles C. Vanhorn, Co. D, 14th Infantry, died Jan. 14, 1862. 

Samuel McDonald died at Shiloh April 0, 1833. 

Martin Truax died of disease at Rome, Ga., Nov, 1, 1864. 


William Little Patrick Kelly. Wm. English. 


De Wayne Tenant. 

Eldridge Godref. 

The Fifteenth Michigan Volunteer Infantry entered into the 
action at Pittsburg Landing, Tenn., April 6, 1862, and through 
Mississippi, Georgia and the Carolinas made a magnificent cam- 
paign, participating in 24 battles and seven skirmishes. 


John R. Blaekman died of dis 
Jacob S. Burgess died of disease at 

Louis. Mo., May 17, 


Eli Fisk. 
Ira Keeler. 
Alvin Felton. 
Eugene Daly. 
R. W. Thompson 
Geo. Walker. 
John H. Myarants. 
Calvin B. Ames. 

Christian Christopher. 
David Horn. 
James Knauf. 
James A. Pixley. 
( 'harles Carroll. 
Perry D. Hawley. 
Bergiu D. Christopher. 
Algernon S. Fellows. 

Henry Lander. 
John R. Osborn. 
John Scipley. 
Wm. Hands. 
Sylvester Kimball. 
Adam Bible. 
Joseph Carey. 
Geo. B. Case. 


The Sixteenth Infantry's record shows its participation in no 
less than 52 battles and minor encounters with the enemies of the 
Union, viz.: 

Siege of Torktown, Va., April 4 to May 4, 1862; Hanover 
Court-House, Va., May 27, 1862; Mechamcsville, Va., June 26, 
1862; Gaines' Mills. Va., June 27, 1862; White Oak Swamp, Va., 
June 30, 1862; Turkey Bend, Va., June 30, 1862; Malvern Hill, 
Va., July 1, 1862; Earrison's Landing, Va., July 2, 1S62; Ely's 
Ford, Va., Aug. 29, 1862; Bull Bun, 2d, Va., Aug. 30, 1862; 
Antietam, Md., Sept. 17, 1862; Shepardstown Ford, Va., Sept. 
19, 1862; Snicker's Gap, Va., Nov. 4, 1862; U. S. Ford, Va., 
Jan. 1, 1863; Chancellorsville, Va.; April 30, May 2 to 5, 1863; 
Middleburg, Va., June 21, 1863; Gettysburg, Penn., July 1, 2, 3, 
1863; Williamsport, Md.. July 12, 1863; Wappin^ IIights,'Va., July 
21, 22, 1863; Culpepper, Va., Oct. 12, 13, 1863; Brandy Station, Va., 
Oct. 13, 1863; Bristow Station. Va., Oct. 14, 1863; Rappahannock 
Station, Va., Nov. 7, 1863; Cross Roads, Va., Nov. 26, 1863; Mine 
Run, Va., Nov. 26, 27, 29, 1S63; Wilderness, Va., May 5, 6, 7, 1864; 
Laurel Hill, Va., May 8, 1864; Po River, Va., May 10, 1864; Spott- 
sylvania, Va., May 18,1864; Ny River, Va., May 21, 1864; North 
Anna,Va., May 23, 1864; Noel's Turn, Va., May 26, 1864;Hanover, 
Va., May 29, 1864; Tolopotomy, Va., May 30, 1864; Magnolia 
Swamp, Va., June 1, 1864; Bethesda Church, Va., June 2, 3, 4, 
1864; Coal Harbor, Va., June 7, 1864; Gaines' Creek, Va., June 
5, 1864; Petersburg & Norfolk R. R., July 30, 1864; Weldon R. 
R., Va., Aug. 19, 20, 21, 1864; Peebles' Farm, Va., Sept. 30, 
1864; Hatcher's Run, Va., Oct. 27, 1864; Dabney's Mills, or 
Hatcher's Run, Va., Feb. 6, 7, 1865; Hatcher's Run, Va., March 
25, 1865; White Oak Road, Va., March 29, 1865; Quaker Road, 
Va., March 31, 1865; Five Forks, Va., April 1, 1865; Amelia 
Court House, Va., April 5, 1865; High Bridge, Va., April 6, 1865; 
Appomattox Court House, Va., April 9, 1865; siege of Petersburg, 
Va., from June 17, 1864 to April 3, 1865. 


Alexander Lishley missing at Ohickahominy June 27, 1862. 

Daniel E. Smith died of wounds June 27, 1882. 

Jacob H. Evans died of disease at Washington June 5, 1865. 


Isaac Dodge. Adelbert D. Williams. William Nero. 

Daniel Buckley. Denis Belliner. James Fowler. 

Sanford Hull. Geo. E Bull. Frank Ludlow. 

Chauncey Bunyea. James H. Nicolls. David S. Chatfield. 

Jacob Watters. Geo. D. Nicolls. Sherman H. Hendee. 

The Seventeenth Michigan Volunteer Infantry, under Col. W. 
H. Withington, was mustered into service August, 1862, and was 
attached to the army of Gen. McClellan during the first days of 
September. At South Mountain and again at Antietam the'com- 


mand of Col. Withington won the honors of a campaign. This 
regiment was the first of the new organizations to leave the State 
under the call of the President for volunteers. It was in rendez- 
vous at Detroit, whence it moved Aug. 27, on its route to Wash- 
ington, with a force of 982 officers and enlisted men. It was sent 
immediately into the Maryland campaign, under Gen. MeClellan, 
and in little more than two weeks after it left the State, was 
fiercely engaged in the hotly contested action of South Mountain, 
whence it emerged with a loss of 27 killed and 114 wounded. 
Three days afterward, at Antietam, it was again in battle, sus- 
taining a further loss of 18 killed and 87 wounded. The next day 
it was in the front, skirmishing with the retreating enemy, and 
had one man killed. On the 30th November, 1862, its casualties 
had been, 65 dead, 201 wounded and two missing. 

Its aggregate on that date was 765, present and absent. It was 
in General Burns' Division of the 9th corps of the army of the 
Potomac. The list of officers then was as follows: 

Wm. H. Withington, Colonel, Aug. 11 '6 
Constant Luce, Lieut., " " " 

G. Collins Lyon, Major, " " " 

Jonathan Bevier, Surg., " " " 

D. L. Heath, Ass't Surgeon, Nov. 18, '6 
F. R. Crosby, 2d Ass't ■' " 7, " 

Wm. A. Richards, Adjutant, July 2, " 
Charles Ford, Qr. Master, June 14, " 
Henry I Brown, Chaplain, Sept. 4, " 
Loreh L. Comstock, Capt., June 17, 186 
Isaac L. Clarkson, " " " 

Henry B. Androus, " " " 

Julius C. Burrows, " " " 

Gabriel Campbell, •' " " 

Frederick W. Swift, " 
John Goldsmith, " " " 

Charles A. Edmonds, " " " 

W. W. Thayer, 
Alfred Brooks, 

John S. Vreeland, 1st Lieut.,June 17, 1862 

John Cunningham, " " 

George II. Luird, " 

William H. White, " 

Thomas Mathews. " " 

John Tyler 

Rowan Summers, " " 

J. P. C. Church, 

Nelson D. Curtis, 

James E. Thomas. " " 

Richard A. Watts, 2d Lieut., " 

Abraham Horton, " " 

William S. Logan, " 

James S. Moriran. " •' 

William Winnegar, " 

Christian Rath, 

Benjamin F. Clark, " 

Ben j. B. Baker, 

Geo. S. Newman, " ■■ 

General Wilcox, in his report of the battle of South Mountain, 
said : 

"I planted a section of Cook's battery near the turn of the 
Sharpsbm-g road, and opened fire on the enemy's battery across 
the main pike. After a few good shots, the enemy unmasked a 
battery on his left, over Shiver's Gap, from a small field encircled 
by woods. He threw canister and shell, and drove Cook's cannon- 
eers and drivers down the road with their timbers. Cook remained 
with the guns. The attack was so sudden, the whole division be- 
ing under fire — a fiank fire — that a temporary panic ensued, 
until I caused the 79th New York, Lieut. -Col. Morrison, and the 
17th Michigan, Col. Withington, on the extreme left, to draw 
across the road facing the enemy, who were so close that we ex- 
pected a charge to take Cook's battery. The 79th and 17th here 
deserve credit for their coolness and firmness in rallying and 
changing front under a heavy fire. 


" I received orders from Gens. Reno and McClellan to silence 
the enemy's batteries at all hazards. Sent picket report to Reno, 
and was making disposition to charge, moving the 17th Michigan 
so as to cross the hollow and flank the enemy's guns, when the 
enemy charged out of the woods, on their side, directly upon our 
front, in a long, heavy line, extending beyond our left to Cox's 
right. I instantly gave the command, 'Forward !' and we met 
them near the foot of the hill, the 45th Pennsylvania in front. 
The 17th Michigan rushed down into the hollow, faced to the left, 
leaped over a stone fence and took them in flank. Some of the 
supporting regiments, over the slope of the hill, fired over the 
heads of those in front, and after a severe contest of some minutes 
the enemy was repulsed, followed by our troops to the opposite 
slope and woods, forming their own position. The 17th Michigan, 
under Col "Withington, performed a feat that may vie with any re- 
corded in the annals of war, and set an example to the oldest 

South Mountain would have proven a rebel household word 
had not the 17th Regiment been there. It is unnecessary to dwell 
at any length on the brave command. So general was the esteem 
in which Col. Wellington's military prowess was held that the 
poem delivered on Class Day before the University of Michigan 
bore the following dedicatory page : 

"To Col. William H. Withington, of the 17th Michigan In- 
fantry, whose bravery in the charge of the ' Stonewall Regiment ' 
at South Mountain, and in the battle of Antietam made him the 
pride of his men, and whose sterling qualities of mind and heart 
endeared him alike to all, these lines are respectfully inscribed by 
the author." It was written by Gabriel Campbell, A. R, of the 
University, and for a time a captain in the 17th Mich. Vol. Inf. 
It portrays the shifting scenery of the battle-field very well, and 
essays fairly to paint the ardor and unconquerable bravery of the 
colonel and his command. In the verses devoted to the descrip- 
tion of South Mountain, and the gallant part taken by the 17th in 
the battle of that name, the poet deals justly by his subject, and 
the history of the affair with a prosaic precision : 


A sultry, dull, September, Sabbath mom 

Woke us unrested— much inclined to scorn 

The unwelcome bugle. Five weary days 

We've toiled beneath the overpowering blaze 

Of yonder Southern sun. Five weary nights 

We've marched across the thirsty plains and heights 

Of cheerless Maryland; and still we go, 

Undaunted, to dislodge the haughty foe. 

Toil makes our scanty breakfast relish well ; 

But e'er 'tis ended, hasty tidings tell 

That Lee has made a stand. Burnside is mounted— 

A smile upon his noble face. Recounted 

Are the orders. We, his first brigade, 

Will take the left, cross the contested glade 

And carry Turner's C4ap Then comes " Fall in." 

The word is whispered down the line, " Fall in," 


Quick rations are finished, and rammers are sprung, 
And waist-belts are buckled, and knapsacks are slung; 
As soon all are marshaled and fearlessly stand 
Awaiting impatient the word of command. 
Tis given. As quick as the word they face 
And advance by the flank — every man in his place. 
The old starry flag waves proudly and high, 
So f ondly caressed by the soft autumn sky ; 
While the eagle, extending his wings on the air, 
Seemed to whisper of victory hovering there. 
The low, tumbling sounds that rise on the ear 
Inspire to valor, yet waken to fear, 

As louder and nearer with pondrous roll 

The death knells of Orcus toll— toll- -toll. 

We reach the hill-top, and fearfully riven 

South Mountain before us aspires to heaven, 

While round his huge head incessant is curled 

The smoke of those cannon that quiver the world — 

Those traitorous cannon ! Their air-rending shells, 

With echoing voice, a monody swells 

In dirges forlorn . With demon-like sound 

They crash in the air or recoil to the ground. 

But just as we reach the foot of the mount. 

Their batteries cease . Oh, who can recount 

The pleasure it gave? We seek to ascend 

The steep, narrow way to the summit, and bend 

To the task 'neath the scorching noon. While down 

Roll streams from our cheeks flushed, dusty and brown. 

But what a fearful spectacle 

Appalls the soldier's eye — 
They enfilade our rising flank 

With masked artillery. 
They charge our battery, seize our guns, 

And wheel them half around. 
And pour a withering volley forth, 

That mows scores to the ground . 

Up gallops gallant Wilcox 

Who led our foremost van, 
And shouts as he approaches us : 

" Is this my Michigan ? 
Form into line." The word— 'tis done. 

See, every man looks pale. 
A few lie silent at our feet, 

Who ne'er will tell the tale. 

The Seventeenth Michigan stands firm — 

Unflinching mid the roar ; 
Her ensign waves the stars and stripes, — 

Ne'er loved so much before . 
"Forward." We march. Up — upward still — 

We're almost at the height ; — 
When Oh ! a double-shotted fire 

Annihilates our sight. 

Down drop we to the earth and cling 

And kiss the mother sod : 
And every heart with one accord 

Resigns its fate to God. 


Oh what a shrine to worship at ! 

Amid the shot and shell 
And smoke that seemed to bear aloft 

The souls of those that fell ; 
And as it bore each patriot up, 

Clothed in unstained renown. 
We almost saw the angel stand 

And greet him with a crown . . ; 

At length the voice of Withington 

Makes every heart enlarge. 
Up-springing at the welcome word, 

We rally for the " Charge." 
Sudden from right to left arose 

A wild unearthly yell, 
As on the foremost rebel line, 

Like maddened wolves we fell . 

Back driven from their firm stockades, 

They rush with hideous groan, 
And rally, with redoubled strength, 

Behind a wall of stone. 
On comes the line of Michigan, — 

With bristling bayonet all; 
Three volleys and a charge ! Great God 1 

It clearly scales the wall . 

They rally yet,— and yet again — 

Fiendish mid recking blood! 
Nor rebel steel nor walls of stone 

Can check the loyal flood; — 
But just as o'er that mountain top, 

Reflects the setting sun, 
Our victor shouts sent heavenward 

Proclaim the battle won . 

Back, o'er the heaps of mangled men, 

We move as shuts the day, 
And there recline upon our arms, 

To watch the night away ; 
And as to heaven's calm, peaceful vault, 

We turn the weary eye, 
We feel that we have struck one blow 

For God and Liberty. 

The following list of battles and skirmishes, comprising no less 
than the names of 30 well-fought fields, is in itself a hitsory of 
the regiment : 

South Mountain, Md., Sept. 14, 1862; Antietam, Md., Sept. 

16, 1862; Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 12, 13, 14, 1862; siege of 
Vicksburg, Miss., June 22, to July 4, 1863 ; Jackson, Miss.. July 
11 to 18, 1863 ; Blue Spring, Tenn., Oct. 10, 1863 ; Loudon, Tenn., 
Nov. 14, 1863 ; Lenoir Station, Tenn., Nov. 15, 1863; Campbell's 
Station, Tenn., Nov. 16, 1863; siege of Knoxville, Tenn., Nov. 

17, to Dec. 5, 1863; Tkurley's Ford, Tenn., Dec. 15, 1863; Fort 
Saunders, Tenn., Dec. 29, 1863; Strawberry Plains, Tenn., Jan. 
22, 1864; Wilderness, Va., May 5, 6, 7, 1864; Ny River, Va., 
May 9, 1864; Spottsylvania, Va., May 10, 11, 12, 1864; North 
Anna, May 24, 1864. Bethesda Church, Va., June 2, 3, 1864; 


Coal Harbor, Va., June 7, 1864; Petersburg, Va., June 17, 18, 
1864; The Crater, Va., July 30, 1864; Weldon K. R., Va., Aug. 
19, 21, 1864. Reams' Station, Va., Aug. 25, 1864; Poplar 
Spring Church, Va., Sep. 30, 1864; Pegram Farm, Va.,Oct. 2, 
1864; Boydton Road, Va., Oct. 8, 1864; Hatcher's Run, Va., Oct. 
27, 28, 1S64; Fort Steadman, Va., March 25, 1865; Capture of 
Petersburg, Va., April 3, 1865; siege of Petersburg, Va., from 
June 17, 1864, to April 3, 1865. 


Robert C. Irwin died at South Mountain Sept. 14, 1862 

A. McKinster died at South Mountain Sept. 14, 1862. 

Gilbert B. Peck died at Antietam Sept. 17, 1862. 

Ruggles M. Stiles died Aug. 25, 1862. 

Silas Gardner died at South Mountain Sept. 14. 1862. 

Joseph Dicey died at Washington, D. C, Oct. 24, 1862. 

I. Darling Ansil died at Antietam Sept. 17, 1862. 

Peter Zott died at South Mountain Sept. 14, 1862, 

Calvin A. Pickle died at Big Spring Hospital Oct. 28, 1862. 

Eli Sears died at South Mountain Sept. 14, 1862. 

Wm. Clay died at South Mountain Sept. 14, 1862. 

Oliver Cheeney died at South Mountain Sept. 14, 1862. 

Daniel D. Tompkins died at South Mountain Sept. 14, 1862. 

James H. Tuttle died at Antietam Sept. 17, 1862. 

Edwin .B Ashley died at Antietam Sept. 17, 1862. 

Owen Kehoe died at Antietam Sept. 17, 1862. 

Silas W. Chapman died at Frederick, Md., Oct. 18, 1862. 

James E. King died at Falmouth, Va., Nov. 25, 1862. 

Major E. Taylor died at Camp Israel Oct. 24, 1862. 

Daniel Tooker died of disease at Baltimore September, 1862. 

"Wm. P. Riley fell at Knoxville, Tenn., Nov. 27, 1862. 

Wellington Hendrickson fell before Petersburg, Va., March 25, 1865. 

Frederick Hoag fell before Campbell's Station Nov. 16, 1863. 

Peter McCanu 'fell before Campbell's Station Nov. 16, 1863. 

Franklin Vanawker fell into the enemy's hand sNov. 19, 1863. 

Daniel D. Fanniker died of disease at Baltimore. 

Charles E. Finch died of disease at Andersonvill, Ga. 

John Luener died of disease at Andersnnville April 2, 1864. 

John A. Watson died of disease at Florence S. C, Feb. 11, 1865. 

Andrew Craig died of disease at Knoxville Jan. 6, 1864. 

Edwin W. Murray died of disease at Andersonville Sept. 6, 1864. 

Emmett R Stetson died of disease at Crab Orchard. 

Bernard S. Guinan died of disease at Andersonville Aug. 16, 64. 

Lyman J. Brower died of disease at Andersonville July 23, 1864. 

Samuel C. Briggs, killed by the explosion of the steame'r Sultana. 

Cornelius O'Leary died in Ohio April 4, 1864. 

Stephen Turner missing at Spottsylvania Va., May 12, 1864. 

William Kinne died at South Mountain Sept. 17, 1862. 

Thomas Scully died at Antietam Sept. 17, 1862. 

John E. McMartin died at Washington Nov. 27, 1862. 

Wm. H. Arnot died at Washington of disease, Dec. 30, 1862. 

Adin S. Eldridge died at Knoxville, Tenn., Sdpt. 20, 63. 

William Smith died at Washington, 1863. 

Hiram Sweatland died at Milldale, Miss., July 22, 1862. 

Francis A. Smith died of wounds received at the Wilderness May 6, 1864. 

Walter B. Maxfield died at Campbell's Station, Tenn., Nov. 16, 1863. 

Edwin Hague died of his wounds at Washington June 2, 1864. 

John Crandall died of wounds Sept. 14, 1864. 

Mansen M8Sten died at Richmond, Va., in hospital prison, Feb. 14, 1864 

A. F. Grey died at Knoxville, Tenn., Jan. 12, 1864. 

Jacob Wash missing in action at Knoxville Nov. 29, 1863. 



John Lueuer missing in action at Knoxville Nov. 29, 1863. 

Frank Vananker missing in action at Campbell's Station Nov. 10, 1803. 

Peter McCann missing in action at Campbell's Station Nov. 10, 1803. 

Elin G. Mills missing in action at Campbell's Station Nov. 16, 1803. 

Samuel Briggs missing at Campbell's Station. 

Bernard S. Gainun missing at Campbell's Station Nov. 16„ 1863. 

Josiah Spaulding missing at Campbell's Station Nov. 10, 1803. 

Lyman J. Brower missing at Knoxville Nov. 29, 1803. 

>i-<'LiAi;<.|.i> ,\\n \n -ti:i:i:i> ni'T. 

Andrew Holmes. 
Thomas Coulson. 
William Cannon. 
Wm. F. Murray. 
Henry Nichols. 
Patrick York. 
Erman Winans. 
Alfred W. Flemming. 
John W. Ford. 
Wm. Sweet. 
Ezra D. Hathaway. 
Joel Hawkins. 
Robert Graham. 
Edward Dudley. 
Daniel Grimes. 
John Leitch. 
Henry Fish. 
Geo. R. Turner. 
Henry Miller. 
David Lane. 
Wm. Anderson. 
Wm. Bellingham. 
Michael Barrett. 
Amos R. Carter. 
Samuel Corley. 
Orvile Campbell. 
Elon G. Mills. 
John B. Pickell. 
George Fisk. 
George French. 
Charles Grosbeck. 
Andrew Grimes. 
Frank Voorhees. 
Robert Vanness. 
Isaiah Trefry. 
William Dunham. 
Jesse Newton. 
Freeman L. Thompson. 
Orville A. Goss. 
Wm. O'Callaghan. 
Cornelius Murray. 

Charles A. Kennedy. 
Edward Smith 
Orsin B. Wooden. 
J. C. Riley. 
Jos. D. Aurivee. 
Wm. Micks. 
Henry Branter. 
Oscar Foster. 
Charles C. Huttenlocker. 
Munroe E. Hillman. 
Henry H. Hudson. 
Alonzo Lewis. 
Stuart C. Moon. 
Delevan D. Slack. 
Charles Jones. 
Columbus C. Patrick. 
Citizen M. Sparks. 
Wm. A. Dunham. 
Theodore Palmer. 
F. A. Noble. 
John C. Bodman. 
John Clark. 
Joseph Conway. 
Francis Hall. 
James II.Kilhner 
Geo. M. Killmer. 
Mark II . Kenniston. 
Patrick Meagher. 
Hilliard Mench. 
Daniel Remington. 
Henry Rosser. 
John 0. Chapman. 
Slmbvl It. Hoysington. 
Peter B. Perkins. 
Venony Watson. 
Robert E. Vining. 
William Sweezey. 
John J. Barber. 

Grove Sevey. 
Seth H. Tolles. 
Jacob Wash. 
Jonathan M. Wood. 
Henry Sisson. 
Charles P. Wimple. 
Lafayette B. Sackrider. 
Geo. C. Barker. 
Jas. L. Bushrec. 
David Bouchard Jr . 
Edward W. Cornell. 
Patrick Collins. 
E. F. Dickenson. 
Joseph Derlam. 
Roswell Reardon. 
Geo. N. Sandford. 
Emery L. Smith. 
Frank B. Seymour. 
Francis W. Wright. 
Phillip Traver. 
George Goss. 
Nicholas Baumgartner. 
Wm. M. Sackett. 
Edward St. John. 
Jacob S. Pickle. 
Charles Wickman. 
Luke Knowles. 
Charles E. Loud. 
Charles H. Bates. 
James Guman, 
Geo. Henderson. 
Harlow H. Whitney. 
Fayette Kilmer. 
Patrick McGarrol. 
Thomas Secord. 
John Reynolds. 
John Haven. 
Ambrose Dickenson. 
James H. Dorman. 
Charles Goodall. 

The Eighteenth Infantry was first engaged at Danville, Ky., 
Feb. 24, 1863. The affairs of Pond Springs, Ala., June 28; Cur- 
tiss Wells, 24; Courtland, 25, 1864; Athens, Sept. 24, and De- 
catur, Oct. 24 to Nov. 28, 1865, are minutely connected with 
this regiment. Henry Canfield, of the 18th, was transferred to 
the 9th Michigan Infantry, and Wilson Lee was mustered out June 
26, 1865. 


The Nineteenth Infantry participated in the actions of Thomp- 
son's Station, Tenn., March 5, 1863; Nashville and Chattanooga 
Railroad, Oct. 5, 1S63; Oulp's Farm, Ga., June 22, 1864; Peach 
Tree Creek, Ga., July 20, 1864; siege of Atlanta, July and Sep- 
tember, 1864; Resaca, Ga., May 15; Cassville, May 19; New Hope 
Church, May 25; Golgotha, June 15; Savannah, Dec. 11, 18, 20 
and 21, 1864; Avervsboro, N. C, March 16, and Benton ville, 
March 19, 1865. 

The Twentieth Regiment took a distinguished part throughout 
the campaigns in Virginia and Tennessee, from Fredericksburg, 
Dec. 12, 13 and 14, 1862, to the siege of Petersburg, from June 
17, 1864, to April 3, 1865. 

John H. Blanchard died near Petersburg, Va., June 21, 1864. 

John W. Levy died of wounds at Kuoxville Nov. 30, 1863, 

John Salisbury died of wounds at Knoxville Jan. 1, 1864. 

Walter Hathaway died of wounds at Spottsylvania May 12, 1864. 

Lorenzo Hayden died of wounds at Spottsylvania May 12, 1864. 

W. H. Showers died of wounds at Spottsylvania May 12, 1864. 

James D. Taylor died of wounds at Spottsylvania May 12, 1864. 

Israel S. Kee'ler died of wounds at Cold Harbor June 2, 1864. 

Daniel Battershall died of wounds near Petersburg June 18, 1864. 

Charles Scoby died of wounds near Petersburg June 18, 1864. 

Willard Snow died of wounds near Petersburg June 27, 1864. 

Eben Howard died of wounds near Petersburg July 20, 1864. 

Frank Schemerhorn died of wounds near Washington July 20, 1864. 

John W. Bennett died of wounds near Washington July 20, 1864. 

George Cede died of wounds at Spottsylvania May 12, lsi;4. 

Fred. Frymouth died of wounds at Spottsylvania May 12, 1864. 

Ransom P. Jones died of wounds at Washington June 10, 1864. 

Myron C. Parks died of wounds at Petersburg July 30, 1864. 

James b. Stead died of wounds at Washington Aug. 1, 1864. 

Wm. P. Joslin died of disease at Annapolis April 15, 1864. 

Joel Ordwav died at Knoxville Jan. 26, 1864. 

Wm. F. Swain died at Annapolis April 13, 1864. 

Michael Bushrod died at Annapolis April 22, 1S64. 

Seneca Dunham died at City Point. Va., July 4, 1864. 

Calvin E. Troulman died at Alexandria, Va., Oct. 23, 1864. 

Charles C. Hungerford, James Bennett, John Selby, Win. Ross, John Brown, F. 
A. Fassett, Truman Rice, Lafavette Stump, Adam M. Austin, Harvey J. Upton, 
Theodore H. Whipple, Elijah W. Soule, George Hawkins. John W. Notton, Andrew 
A. Smith, Kingslev M. Suvlandt, were all missing after the series of battles from 
Knoxville, Tenn., Nov. 29, 1803, to Petersburg, July 30, 1864. 

William Ross fell at Cold Harbor. Va., June' 2, 1864. 

Cornelius Huddler fell at Fredericksburg, Va., May 24, 1864. 

Milo Chamberlain died of disease at Washington Nov. 6,1864. 

Charles E. Hungerford died in rebel prison Aug. 25, 1864. 

V. P. Thayer died at Richmond, Va.. March 1, 1864. 

Geo. H. Cromer died at Richmond. Va., March 1, 1864. 

Louis L. Relvea died of disease at Washington Dec. 18, 1862. 

Thomas Mitchell died of disease at Jackson, Mich., Aug. 29, 1862. 

J. C. Southworth died at Falmouth Dec. 18, 1862. 

George Knowles died near Falmouth Jan. 26, 1863. 

Frederick E. Corwin, at Louisville April 7, 1863. 

William Beck, at Milklale, Miss., July 7, 1863. 

George C. Conant, at Cincinnati Aug. 21, 1863. 

Walter Gould, at Camp Park Sept. 3, 1863. 


Luther J. Buller, at Stuart's Mansion Nov. 26, 1862. 
S. A. Bostwick, at Covington, Ky., Sept. 28, 1863. 
Levi S. Relyen, at Harwood September, 1863. 
Edward ("apron, at Cincinnati Aug. 14, 1863. 
Daniel Crowman, at Columbia, Tenn., June 2, 1863. 


Stephen R Hawkins. 
Albert C. Bayne. 
Thomas J. Saxton. 
Charles Showers, 
M. Stringhames. 
Charles S. McOmber. 
Geo. W. Richards . 
Addison Osgood. 
Charles Haynes. 
Francis H.Hullbut. 
Levi J. Kimball . 
Harvey McConkey. 
Darwin Farnham . 
Henry Monroe. 
Samuel Austin . 
Albert Miner. 
Alfred Swift . 
W.S. Cory. 

Lafayette Stump. 
Henry E. Hughson . 
Wm. W. Rodgers. 
Charles T. Dixon . 
Danna Clifford. 
Elijah B. Brown. 
Annias Orrison. 
Ben. G. Bremenstuh! 
Henry C. Bush. 
Henry B. Jenks. 
Daniel Shelley. 
W. D. Stanard. 
Hiram H. Capron. 
Wm. Clark. 
John B. Suylandt. 
Jacob Sayer. 
Charles McDale. 

Daniel E. Parker 
John Schnekenburger. 

George Sayer. 
Clark Teuney. 
Henry Tonner. 
Charles N. Adams. 
A. L. Hubbard. 
Edwin Tyler. 
Stephen D. Duker. 
Peter Earl. 
John R. Greenmar. 
Urban Gyde. 
Joseph Garrison. 
Henry Jennings. 
Charles M Jones. 
Thomas B. McCollum. 
Stephen Moore. 

in 13 battles, 

The Tcenty-frsf Infant nj though only en^ 
won for itself a hio;h-elass reputation on the battle-field from Perry- 
ville, Ky., Oct. 8, 1862, to Bentonville, K C, March 19, 1805. 
Of this regiment, Hiram 1ST. Young died of disease at Savannah, 
Ga., Jan. 12. 1865, and DeWItt Tenant was transferred to the 14th 
Mich. Inf. 

The Twenty-second Infantry boasts of eight well-fought fields, 
namely: Danville, Kv., March 24, 1863; Hickman's Bridge, Ky., 
March' 27; Pea Vine Creek. Tenn., Sept. 17; McAffee's Church, 
Tenn., Sept. 19; Chickamauga, Tenn., Sept. 20; Wantahatchie, 
Tenn., Sept. 28 to Oct. 28; Mission Ridge, Tenn., Nov. 26, L863; 
and Atlanta. Ga., July 22 and 23, 1864. 


Andrew F. Briggs. 
John Brown. 
James Brown. 
Luther Brown. 
Marquis Benson. 
W.N. Bridenstein. 
John P. Baker. 
Welcome S. Cory. 
Darius Carson. 
John Clay 
Frank Castor. 
George Dood. 
James K. P. Deann. 
Echler B. Dughton. 
Edgar Edson. 
Luther J. Fuller 
Charles G. Gould. 

Charles Hammond. 
Andrew Haling. 
Charles E. Henderson. 
Charles T. Henderson. 
Francis Hoag. 
William J. Hungerford. 
William Hammel. 
Henry A. Livingston. 
John McNab. 
James McAllister. 
Levi Parker. 
Merritt Peckham. 
Jackson Peek. 
Garmer A. Rose. 
Truman Rice. 
Charles Picket. 

James H. Stringham 
Frederick Turner. 
Harvey J. Upton. 
Joel Underwood. 
Samuel Webber. 
Theodore Whipple. 
Charles T. Webster. 
Luther J. Buller. 
Elmer Dimmick. 
Albert C. Bavne. 
Albert B. Taylor. 
Calvin Becker. 


The Twenty-third Infantry made for itself a brilliant history. 
In 25 terrible conflicts it served with rare valor, and carved for it 
self a name on the roll of fame, through the battle-fields of Ten- 
nessee, Georgia, and the Carolinas, having taken its initiatory step 
at Paris, Ky., July 29, 1863. 

The Twenty-fourth Infantry served with distinction from 
Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 12, 1862, to Petersburg, Feb. 11, 1865. 
During the war it participated in over 20 battles, and, in each, sur- 
rounded itself with laurels. 

Ml Ml RK1) OUT. 

Geo. A. C'oykendale. 
John Hogan. 
Daniel C. Holmes. 
Charles F. Wickwire. 
Geo. W- Hanna. 
Herbert 0. Southworth. 
Christopher Fitchmire. 
Greenville M. Smith. 
John A. Fisher. 
Augustus O. Taylor. 
William Reynard. 
Theron Q. Bartholomew. 
Charles A. Moore. 
G. W. Sullivan. 
Joseph J. Eoberts. 
Llewellyn Smith. 
John W. Black. 
Andrew Miller. 
Edward Pope. 
Henry Pope. 
Elmer E. Cooper. 
Joel S. Fessenden. 

Myron Holden. 
P. G. Kelley. 
John Wied. 
Win. R. Whitman. 
Sylvester K. Holden. 
John Ryan. 
John K.Taylor. 
Wm. H. Thomas. 
Richard Blodgett. 
Charles F. Beardsley. 
Geo. R. Chapman 
Jackson R. Myers. 
John Preston. 
Hiram B. High. 
Dwight J . Brewer. 
Levi 11 Brower. 
James Brokan. 
Nelson W. Burkhart. 
Daniel Beardsley. 
Oliver W. Baker. 
Mortimer M. Campbell. 

Anson Croman. 
Edwin Fields. 
Harvey Hawkins 
Daniel Lincoln. 
Peter Maxwell. 
William Notton. 
John W. Notton. 
Gustavus D. Pierce. 
Henry Perrine. 
John Russman. 
William II. Robinson, 
Philemon F. Sparks. 
Harry C. Smith. 
K. B. Swylandt. 
Edwin Stearms. 
George Zimmerman. 
Andrew Smith. 
W. H. Brown. 
John Marshall. 
David G. Markle 
Jacob Rielly. 

Tli < Twenty-fifth Infantry entered on its field of duty at Mum- 
fordsville, Ky.. I><'<-. 27, 1862, and concluded the labors of a 
brilliant campaign at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 16, 1864. It took a 
magnificent part in most of the battles of the Georgia campaign, 
together with leaving its name to be remembered in Kentucky, 
Tennessee and Alabama. 

Tin Twenty-sixth Infantry served from the siege of Suffolk, 


Va., April 
The followm, 
Windsor. V: 
ness, May •">. 
May l* and LO: I'" R 
and IS; North Anna 

dege of Petersburg, April 3, 1865. 
iscribed upon its banners: Suffolk, Ya. ; 
63; Mine Run, Nov. 29, 1863; Wilder- 
i 7, 1S64; Corbin's Bridge, May 8; Nj River, 
ver. May 11; Spottsylvania, May 12, 13, 14 
May 24; Tolopotomy, May 30, 31 and -Tune 
1; Coal Earbor, June 2 to 12; Petersburg, June 16 and 17; Weldon 
R. i:.. June 22; Deep Bottom, July 27 and 28; Strawberry Plains, 
Aug. 14 to 17; White Oak Swamp,' Aug. 16; Ream's Station, Aug. 
25,1864; Hatcher's Run, Boydton road. White Oak Road, Suther- 
land's Station, Amelia Springs, Deatonsville. Sailor's Creek, High 



Bridge, Farmville, Appomattox Court-House followed each other 
in quick succession during March and April, 1865. 


David S. Schlaffl died at Spottsylvania May 12, 1864. 

Kufus Wines died at Spottsylvania May 12, 1364. 

Wm. M. Crocker died at Washington June 7, 1864. 

Charles Wellman fell at Spottsylvania May 12, 1864. 

W. H. Maxon fell at Spottsylvania May 12, 1864. 

G. Quinnette fell at Spottsylvania May 12, 1864. 

John Golden died of disease at Washington Dec, 17, 1863. 

Columbus Case died at .hospital Feb. 22, 1863. 

Frank De Land died at Alexandria, Va., .March 1(1, 1863. 


George Warner. 
Wm. Purcell. 
James G. B. Lamb. 
Wm. M. Horton. 
T. J. White. 
Judson Palmer. 
George White. 
Sylvester L. Steever. 
Henry B. Brown. 

A. P. Blsworth. 
John A. Hubbell. 
Alexander Hay. 
Wilson Napoleon. 
Abram Maxon. 
Wm. Pool . 
James M. Carpenter. 
Brigham Graham. 
John Caghy. 

John Flynn. 
Isaac L. Johnson. 
Lyman Newville. 
James Pulver. 
Cyrus Pierce. 
Evard L. Winuee 
Harrison Wyman. 
John Foley. 
Cecil Warner. 

The Twenty-seventh Infant nj was mustered in at Ypsilanti, and 
proceeded to the seat of war April 12, 1863, with a lorce of 865 
men and officers. During its term of service it appeared upon 
30 battle-fields, and in each instance upheld the honor of the re- 
public and the State which it represented. Orlando A. Eogers 
was mustered out July 26, 1865, and Hezekiah Bennett, of the 
2d Independent Sharpshooters attached to this regiment, tell at 
Fairfax, Va., July 15, 1864. 

The Twenty-ei(/hth Infant ru was organized at Kalamazoo, in 
August, 1864, and left m route for Nashville, Tenn., Aug. 26, under 
Col. Wm. W. Wheeler. It took a brilliant part in the action at 
Nashville. Dee. 12 to 16, L864, and completed its martial career 
at Wise's Forks, N. C, March 8, 9 and 10, 1865. The regiment 
returned to Detroit June 8, 1865, and was mustered out. 

John W. H. Edwards fell at Wise Forks, N. C, March 8, 1865. 
Lafayette H. Gilbert died of disease at Nashville Jan. 5, 1865. 
John H. Swan died of disease at Louisville Dec. 20, 1864. 
M. A. Elliott died of disease at Wilmington, N". C, Jan. 3, 1866. 
Cornelius C. Foot died of disease at Indianapolis Jan. 31, 1865. 
Thomas Austine died of disease at Greensboro, N. C, May 10, 1865. 
David F. Buchanan died at Lineolnton, N. C, Aug. 19, 1865. 
Gilbert Skinner died at Wise Forks, N. C, May 10, 1865. 
F. E. Weber died at Dallas, N. C, June 11, 1865. 
Noah R. Fletcher died March 1, 1865. 


George W. Bailey. 
Samuel Bailey . 
Ransom Buffington . 
James Duune . 
Snyder Gary. 
Peter Godley. 
Charles Holdare. 
Edward G. Page. 
Joseph Pfoff. 
John E. Rose. 
Edgar Thompson. 
George W. Burman- 
Archibald Campbell. 
John A. Elsworth. 
Charles Reese. 
A. D. Dormer. 
Michael Bullinger. 
Asa N. Horton. 
Hiram Van Dyke. 
Edward Ryan. 

A. B. Crego. 
Franklin Chapman. 
Dorey Conley. 
Henry Deigan. 
Francis Drake. 
James M. Davis. 
Leonard Engleter. 
James H. Ferguson. 
Wm. Gardner, Jr. 
M. A. Griffes. 
Norman D. Nelson. 
James H. Pierce. 
A. T. Phelps. 
Roswell Rexford. 
Peter Sanersing. 
Henry Short. 
Martin C. Saunders. 
W. D. Tucker. 
Frank Vaudenburg. 
C. W. Wheeler. 

Frank Austine. 
Adelbert Heath. 
Thomas Courtney. 
Joseph Crofoot. 
Thomas Daniels. 
George Doty. 
Henry D. Hinman. 
James J amison. 
Patrick Nounile. 
John Powers. 
O. A. Sherman. 
Daniel Tillipan. 
William Williams. 
Wm. D. Haney. 
Edmund R. Corey. 
John F. Billings. 
Wm. H. Haight. 
Edward Ryan. 
Samuel G. Kennedy. 

The Twenty-n'tntJi In/'" ntr// was organized at Saginaw by Hon. 
John F. Driggs.and was mustered into service under Col. Thomas 
Taylor, Oct. 3, 1864. The command left camp Oct. <i. and re- 
ported at Nashville on the 12th. Subsequently it took a distin- 
guished part in the battles of Decatur. Ala.. Oct. 26. 27 and 28; 
Overall Creek, Tenn., Dec. 7; Winsted Church. Tenn., Dec. 13; 
Shelbyville Pike, Tenn., Dec. 15 and 16; and Nolansville, Tenn., 
Dec. 17, 1864. The regiment was mustered out at Murfreesboro, 
Sept. <i. 1865, and arrived at Detroit for discharge on the 12th. 

D. A. Hayse was mustered out May 25, 1865. 

Tlie Thirtieth Infantn/ was raised 'fur home duty for one year, 
from Nov. 7, 1864, under direction of Col. G. S. Warmer. The 
first rendezvous was at Jackson, together with regimental bead- 
quarters; subsequently moved to Detroit, where organization was 
perfected, and on Jan. 24. 1865, to Fort Gratiot. Company K., 
however, was left to garrison Jackson, while the other divisions 
of the regiment were tolled off for duty throughout the State. 

John Helmer and H. L. Gildersleeve were mustered out June 
30, 1865. 

The First Michigan Sharpshooters began its organization in the 
fall ot 1862, under Col. Charles V. De Land, and subsequently 
moved South to repel the guerrillas, who threatened Ohio and In- 
diana. Like most of the other regiments, it comprised many men 
from Jackson county, who tailed not to acquit themselves most 
creditably on every field from North Vernon and Pierceville, in 
Indiana, July 13 and 14, 1863, to the siege of Petersburg. 1865. 
"With the exception of the two first named engagements, the valu- 
able services of this regiment were rendered in Virginia. 


Apollos Fordham died of disease at Dearborn, Mich., Aug. 21, 1861 
Edward Fisher died of wounds at Washington May 11, 1»64. 
Eugene R. Spencer fell at North Anna River, Va., May 25, 1864. 
Cornelius Montgomery died of disease at Chicago Jan. 20, 1864. 
Horatio D. Blackmail "missing near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864. 
Edwin Wiley, missing near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864. 
Joseph H. Hall, missing near Petersburg, Va., June 17 1864. 
Dallas P. Jumc missing near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864. 
Wm. H. Stubbs, missing near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864. 
Daniel Wells, missing near Petersburg, Va., Jjne 17, 1864. 
Charles Wibort, missing near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864. 
John Saunders, missing near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864. 
John Riley, missing at Cold Harbor, June 12, 1864. 
Amasa Coon, missing Sept. 30, 1864. 
William Shaw, missing Sept. 30, 1864. 
Jeremiah O'Leary, missing near Petersburg, June 17, 1864. 
John Bennu died of disease at Washington June 6, 1865. 
Dallas Jump, died of disease at Anders. mville Sept. 1, 1764. 
Edwin T. Wiley, died of disease at Anderson ville Aug. 24, 1864. 
John Wade died of disease at Andersonville Aug. 24, 1864. 
Oscar C. Dennis died of disease at Andersonville Aug. 18, 1864. 
Jeremiah O'Leary died of disease at Andersonville Aug. 9, 1864. 
Darius Hall died of his wounds May 15, 1864. 


Henry Young. 
John S. Paul. 
Henry C. Gates. 
Wm. Knapp. 
Caleb Stiles. 
Erastus M. Cool. 
Seneca Canfield. 
Isaac W. Quimbv. 
Clark Wright. 
Alonzo Bierce. 
John S. Crawford. 
Frank Greenman. 
Stephen II . Chat field 
Wm. ('. Fordham. 
Amos Hawley. 
John Sanders. 
Charles Walser. 
Olney W. Draper. 
Jerome B.Tift. 

Walter J. Lee. 
W. T. Wixcey. 
Warren Barber. 
James Coon. 
Melvin Phelps. 
John Rielly. 
Wm. Snau. 
L. P. St. Amour. 
H. C. Stockwell. 
W. B\ Stubbs. 
W. H. Van Dusen. 
Henry Decker. 
Amasa Coon. 
Lewis O. Cass. 
Francis II. Tuttle 
II. F. Rolfe. 
Anthony Richley 
Charles'E. Fox." 

John Morrissy. 
John Winman. 
Hiram Brown. 
Thomas A. Blake. 
O. B. Ingram. 
John W. Kirkland. 
Charles Renardon. 
t 'harles Kalgenstien 
( '. C. Parker. 
R. D. Tift. 
Augustus Call. 
Thomas Fisher. 
Michael Hourigan. 
Lemuel Marvin. 
E. H. Nicholls. 
Sylvester Walker. 
George W. Johnson. 
John Shipman. 

Of the Old Fourth Infantry, Samuel Tyler died of wounds at 
Washington, April 25, 1862 ; Silas S. Burt died of wounds at 
Washington Oct. 20, 1864 ; J. F. Harrington, transferred to 1st 
Michigan Infantry, Sept. 1, 1861 ; John Post, transferred to New 
Fourth, Jan. 28, 1865 ; Morris Eastman, discharged for disability. 

Of the Old Eleventh Infantry, Wm. E. McColgan was dis- 
charged June 26, 1865 ; Edward M. Seeley was discharged May 
29. 1865 ; Hugh J. Ferguson was discharged June 16, 1865 ; Wm. 



Ferguson was discharged June 16, 1865 ; Lewis Pippinger was 
discharged June 16, 1865. 

The First Michigan Colored Infantry (102 U. S. C. T.) fought 
the good fight over 10 battle-fields, beginning at Baldwin, Fta. , 
Aug. 8, 1861, and concluding at Singleton's Plantation, S. C, 
April 19, 1865. 

Of the 102c/ U. S. Colored Tr'oojis, the following, from this 
county, died of disease : Charles H. Grayson and John Hill, at 
Beaufort, Nov. 11, 1864 ; Henry Carter, April 10, 1865, and Geo. 
-Ionian. Nov. 11, 1864, both also at Beaufort ; Isaac Buckner, at 
Pocotaligo, S. G, Feb. 8, 1865 ; John W. Grayson, at Beaufort, 
July 5, 1864, and Kichard Huddleston, at Baltimore, May 28, 

Green Long and George Kandall were discharged for disability, 
the former Oct. 20, 1864, and the latter Aug. 31, same year. 


Augustus Bullard. 
Win. Keely. 
Jackson O'Neil 
John Freeman. 
Jacob Hamilton 
Lewis Morgan. 
Charles F. Queen. 
Augustus Queen 
Henry Harrison. 
Wm. Wheeler. 
Samuel H Goings. 
Phelan Henderson 

Wm. Jones. 
Geo. S. Osborne. 
James Blackwell. 
Geo. Thomas. 
Joseph .Miller. 
James Thomas. 
Peter Garnett. 
Elijah Stowers. 
John Taylor. 
William Tennis. 
Elias M. Hammond. 
Thomas H. Logan. 

John J. Logan. 
James H. Ross. 
Albert O. Grayson. 
Wm, Prater, 
Henry Williams. 
John Brown. 
James Brown. 
Johu Williams. 
Boyd Porter. 
John Taylor. 
Reuben Williams. 


During the month of September, 1861, the war excitement may 
be said to have reached its highest point. Everywhere military 
organization was in progress, the conversation always turned on 
war subjects, and the republic throughout its length and breadth 
recognized powerful enemies in the Southern slave holders, and 
their silent but sufficient trans- Atlantic allies. Jackson was among 
the foremost supporters of the general Government. Company 
after company was organized, and among the array of armed men 
the Blair Cadets and Kellogg Rangers were found. The former 
company was organized in September, 1861, under Capt. Proud- 
fit, and named the "Jackson Blair Cadets," in honor of the able 
war governor. The officers included Capt. George Proudfit, 1st 
Lieut. R. S. Cheney, 2d Lieut. Wm. Minor. The company left 
for the seat of war Sept. 23, 1861. 


The Kellogg Rangers, consisting of 107, rank and file 
Orand Rapids Sept. 26, 1861, with the following officers: 

left for 

C'apt ., J. H. Shaw 

1st. Lieut., M. M. Lattimer 

2d. Lieut., C. E. Brown 

Orderly (Sergeant, Geo. Woodruff. 

Q M. Sergeant, L. C. Case 

C. B Sergeant, C. B. Palmer 

1st. Sergeant, I). \V. Roberts 

2d Sergeant, C. C. Wood 

3d Sergeant, A. P. Kimball 

4th Sergeant, Henry Kiddell 

1st Corporal, L. P. Champenois... 
2d Corporal, James Resnor 

3d Corporal, David King 

4th Corporal, S. 6. De Land... 

5th Corporal, J. P. Bond 

6th Corporal, Thomas Hickey. 

7th Corporal, Jackson Elmer.. . 

8th Corporal, I. N. Durfee 

TWlara * Edwin Livermorc . . 
Buglars, } Marcug Spencer _ 

Blacksmith, Wm. Eakam ... 

Sadler, W. H. Dutcher 

Clerk, B. Bradford 


Owing to the defect in the military reports, which omit to give 
the names of troops, nativity, and date of muster into service, we 
have to resort to the record of discharges, for the purpose of com- 
piling a roster. A few names may possibly not appear in the sub- 
scribed list, but a reference to the roll of casualties will reveal the 
fact that the name of every man from Jackson county, who ranked 
in the national armies, holds a place there, if deceased during the 
war, and if surviving until its close to be mustered out, has his 
name given among the discharged soldiers. The names of officers 
are given, perhaps with some exceptions, yet as completely as it is 
now possible to give them. 

The First GamaVry was, according to the reports of its com- 
mandants, engaged' in 68 battles and skirmishes, extending from 
the engagement at Winchester, Va., March 23, 1862, to Appomat- 
tox Court-House. Va., April 8 and 9, 1S65, and again to Willow 
Springs, D. T., Aug. 12, 1865. The regiment, throughout its long 
term of service, won a distinguished name and the gratitude of the 

E. N. Hitchcock missing alter the action of Brentsville, Feb. 14, 1883 
Third CnraJrij: — 

Jason H. Ayleworth died at La Grange, Jan. 29, 1863. 

Orson IS. Norwood died at Memphis, Oct. -'. 1S(!3. 

Michael Kenny died of disease at Jackson, Tenn., April 25, 18H3. 

James Sheldon died Jan. 13, 1863. 

Peter Ayres died at La Grange, Jan. 21, 1863. 

Geo. W. Rogers died at Jackson, Tenn , Feb. 13, 1863. 

Thomas Whelan died at La Grange Aug. 28, 1863. 




Ed. M. Hitchcock. 
Edward Knapp. 
Julius Gregory. 
W. R. Walters. 
Freeman G. Johnson. 
George F. Johnson. 
Sylvester Dalrymple. 
William Eakam. 
Oscar Dixon. 
JohnW. Bradford. 
Walter Johnson. 
Hans Lamont. 
Charles Palmer. 
Charles Terrill. 
Bailey Bradford. 
Walter Hicks. 
Levi Clark. 
Rufus Burness. 
James McElroy 
Samuel Meyers. 
Harmon Ford. 
Lewis Beeman. 

Alfred Pritchard. 
Charles Branch. 
Watson H. Beaver. 
James M. Riner. 
Ira T. Parker. 
Bromley Cassady. 
Geo. W. Roberts. 
David W. King. 
Patrick Savage. 
Geo. Burral. 
Parden Fisher. 
Oscar Holden. 
R. B. Merrill. 
Nels. Nelson. 
H. B. Palmer. 
M. S. Robins. 
Joseph Robson. 
Wallace Gillespie. 
Wm. H. Blake. 
Ira Wildman. 
Samuel Austin. 
Charles Depuy. 

Albert Shafer. 
John Walker. 
Elijah C. Hazzard 
Corydon Crossett. 
Thomas Kettle. 
Joshua Porter. 
Daniel Dooley. 
Lewis L. Flint. 
Wm. Croat. 
Lafayette Allcock. 
Joseph Silverthorn. 
Lewis Hubble. 
Jerry W. Van Wormer. 
Henry L. Coraen. 
John Clarke. 
Daniel A. Dawson. 
Henry Rice. 
Wm. J. Ray. 
John W. West. 
Joseph A. Wolcott. 
Henry Arnold. 
Edward M. Hitchcock. 

The Second Cavalry was in 70 battles and skirmishes during the 
years of civil strife, and in each one acquitted itself with honor 
and bravery. Its term of actual service extended from Point 
Pleasant. Mo.. March 9, 1862, over Mississippi, Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee, Alabama and Georgia, to the action of Talladega, April 
23. 1865. 


Jacob Stine died at Nashville Tenn., Dec. 14, 1864. 

David Barnum died of disease Feb. 25, 1864 

Oliver B Desley died at Chattanooga July 4, 1864. 

Henry Moon died at Chattanooga June 5, 1864. 

William Dutcher died at Nashville Sept. 4, 1864. 

Dan. II. Kellogir. missing on McCook's raid July 28. 1864. 

Dank! Beasev died at Waterloo. Ala., March 16, 1865. 


Hans Hallenbeck. 
Stewart Drummond. 
Woodruff McMurry. 
Robert Stevenson." 
Robert B. Beasey. 
Jason W. Clark." 
John H. Daikens. 
Eugene Dresser. 
Orville Hamlin. 

Ward Hamlin. 
Daniel H. Kellogg. 
Richard Morrison. 
Frank L. Weston. 
Charles Wooster. 
Eugene R. Roberts. 
George Wheaton. 
John O. McNair. 
Wm. Piper. 

Raymond Mather. 
Henry Rowe. 
Henry Travis. 
Henry Cain. 
Joseph Stoner. 
Geo. 1". Sweeney. 
Julkis Gregory. 
John Merrill. 
Joseph Wilder. 

Tin Tliiril ( 'iirulrij entered on active duty at New Madrid, Mo., 
March 13, 1862; was present at the siege of Island No. 10, and 
subsequently aided in carrying through the Mississippi campaign, 
completing its 25th engagement at Jack's Creek, Miss'. Dec. 24, 



1863. The regiment continued in the service of the States until 
March 15, 1866, when it was disbanded at Jackson, Mich. 


Peter Brase died at Evausville, Ind., Juue 30, 1862; and Nicholas J. De Laniater 
Dec. 24, 1861. 

Warner H. Culver, Co., M, 5th Cavalry, died of disease at Detroit Nov. 9, 1862. 

Lewis E. Leeler, Co. I., Merril Horse, died of wounds received at Memphis, Mo., 
Julv 18, 1862. 

B. B. Wetherhead died at Orizaba, Miss , Nov. 29, 1863. 

Henry C. Bond died at Brownsville, Ark., Sept. 4, 1864, 

Joseph Shade died at Jackson, Tenn. 

John King died at St. Loui?, Mo., April 17, 1864. 

Daniel Pearson died in military prison, at Audersonville, July 18, 1864. 

John II . Courtney died at St. Louis, Mo., March 29, 1864. 

Henry B. Palmer died at St. Louis, Mo , April 8, 1864. 

Thomas Hickey died at Memphis, Tenn., April 12, 1864. 

Martin N. Sou'le died at St. Louis, Mo., May 8, 1864. 

Alfred Marsh died at Lake Bluff, Ark., July 27, 1864. 

George F. Latimer died at Duval's Bluff, Ark., Aug. 17, 1864. 

Elka'nah Dillon died at Brownsville, Ark., Sept. 28, 1864. 

Peter Stewart died at Duval's Bluff, Ark., Sept. 26, 1864. 

Peter Brate died of disease at Evausville, Ind., June 30, 1862. 

Joseph Robson, killed by explosion of steamer Hamilton April 25, 1865. 

Charles Credit, killed by explosion of steamer Hamilton April 25, 1865. 

Stillman Goodenough, killed bv explosion of steamer Hamilton. April 25, 1865. 

Geo. Hanstead died at New Madrid, Mo., April 13, 1862. 

James Wyman died at Brownsville, Ark., Feb. 13, 1805. 

Jeremiah Alexander died at Memphis March 28, 1864. 

Philo Bonham died at Tompkins. Mich., Sept . 14, 1864. 


Caleb Loud. 
Thomas Collins. 
Duncas S. Case. 
John Loyd. 
Elmer E. Armstrong. 
Win. Waters. 
Samuel A. Woodworth. 
Tuthill P. Gregory. 
Michael Hoar. 
Melvin Coykendall. 
Alexander Wilkins. 
Daniel W Roberts. 
Charles C. Wood. 
Edwin Livermore. 
Asa L. Horton. 
Michael Hoar. 
Samuel B. Smith. 
Ed. T. Smith. 
Thomas Hoar. 
Michael Welsch. 
John Howard. 
James Rezmor. 
Charles Sanborn. 
Oceas Sutherlin. 
Belus Van Camp. 
Wm. Ekeun. 
Calvin Whitney. 
Marcus IT. Spencer 

J. Courtney. 
Oscar Dixon. 
Alexander C. Scott. 
Thomas Hickey. 
Patrick Savage. 
Robert Coddington 
Joseph Christie. 
Charles Credit. 
Hiram Wm. Cure. 
George Drake. 
Joseph Eaton. 
Charles H.Jones. 
Franklin Hopkins. 
Wm. Lovell. 
Geroge H. Miller. 
Andrew K. Marion. 
B. S. Maynard. 
James Marion. 
Jacob Manmun. 
Geo. C. Stearnes. 
Geo. W. Stone. 
Dennis Sullivan. 
Martin V. Soule. 
G. A. Sage. 
Wm. M. Storms. 
Samuel Myares. 
Presley Thorps. 
W. R. West. 

Thomas Presley. 
Samuel O. Green. 
Clark C. Keyes. 
Harmon Ford. 
Phillip Hartman. 
Daniel Flynn. 
Pulaski I. Bryan. 
Palmer S. Cook. 
Cyrus Howard. 
Wm. Byron. 
Ephraim Barnhart. 
Wm. W. Beers. 
W. F. Cook. 
Abram R. Cool. 
Andrew I, Kings. 
Charles Lonsburg. 
Sandford Osburn. 
H.H. Smith. 
Joshua Soloman. 
Gabriel T. Cantriel. 
Freeling H. Cantriel. 
Joseph N. Green. 
August Tupper. 
Martin Vanderhoof. 
D. E. Stearnes. 
George B. Jones. 
Nicholas Bartling. 
Lewis M. Beeman. 



Michael N. Frase. 
Charles Bashford. 
Albert Pritchard. 
James M. Ryrner. 
Ira P. Parker. 
Sylvanus J. Delano. 
Marcus H. Spencer. 
Geo. H. Abbey. 
Pardon Fisher. 
Oscar Holden. 
Patrick Holland. 
Granville Lymau. 
Robert B. Merrill, 
Chauncey Perry. 
Geo. W.'Roberts. 
Patrick Savage. 
Charles Sanborn. 
Oscar Sutherlin. 
Galen H. Thayer. 
Belus Van Camp. 
Calvin Whitney. 
William P. Chipman. 
Robert S. Maynard. 
Willard F. Potter. 
Francis M. Schofield. 
Joseph Christian. 
G. W. Drake. 

Joseph H. Eaton. 
Franklin Hopkins. 
Stephen A. Brooks. 
Melvin W. Kerkendall. 
Bradley R. Conklin. 
Andrew K. Marion. 
James Marion. 
Francis M. Miles. 
Ceo. II. Miller. 
Denis Sullivan. 
Alexander O. Scott. 
Hiram W. Cure. 
Tuthill P. Gregory. 
Win Beeker. 
Dwight C. Nimms. 
Ben. E. Miles. 
Geo. C. Stearns. 
James Glenow. 
Wm. R. Lovell. 
Paniel Flynn. 
P. J. Byron. 
Wm. W. Beers. 
Palmer S. Cook. 
Isaac Taylor. 
Geo. W. Cantrell. 
A. J. Freeman. 

Lemuel C. Friant . 
John Parman. 
Frederick Steffin. 
Martin Whitney. 
Perry G. Drew. 
Jacob Binder. 
John Holcapple. 
Hiram Cheeney. 
Phillip Hartman. 
Hiram W. Marsh. 
Willard F. Cook. 
Cyrus Howard. 
Stephen W. Wickham. 
Sanford Osborn. 
Daniel W. Wooden. 
James Ward. 
Isaiah Salmon. 
Charles Burkhart. 
Gabriel T. Cantrell. 
F. H. Cantrell. 
James F. Williams. 
Andrew Van Riper. 
Bernard Zibble. 
August Thupper. 
C. M. Schwartzmeyer. 
Wm. C. Balch. 

The Fourth Cavalry, under Col. B. D. Pritchard. which, to- 
gether with taking an active part iii 93 battles and skir- 
mishes, claims the honor of capturing the Arch Traitor of the 
Southern Confederacy, May 10, 1865, deserves a record of its roll 
of battles, both on account of its magnificent fame and the great 
number of Jackson men in its rank and file. 


Stamford, Ky., Oct, 14, 1862; Gallatin, Tenn., Nov. 8, 1862 
Lebanon, Tenn., Nov. 9, 1862; Eural Hill, Tenn., Nov. 15, 1862 
Baird'sMill, Tenn., Nov. 30, 1862; Hollow Tree Gap. Tenn. 
Dec. 4, 1862; Wilson's Creek Koad, Tenn., Dec. 11, 1862; Frank 
lin, Tenn., Dec. 12, 1862, Eural Hill, Tenn.. Dec. 20, 1862; Wil 
son's Creek, Tenn., Dec. 21, 1862; Lavergne, Tenn.. Jan 26, 1862 
Jefierson's Bridge, Tenn., Jan. 27, 1862; Nashville Pike, Tenn. 
Jan. 30, 1862; Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862; Lavergne. 
Tenn., Jan. 1, 1863; Manchester Pike, Tenn., Jan. 5, 1863; Har 
peth River, Tenn., Jan. 12, 1863; Cumberland Shoal, Tenn., Jan 
13, 1863; Chickamauga, Tenn., Sept. 19, 1863; Rossville, Ga. 
Sept. 22, 1863; Cotton Port, Tenn., Sept. 30, 1863; Smith's Creek 
Roads, Tenn., Oct. 1, 1863; Hill Creek, Tenn., Oct. 3, 1863; Mc 
Munnville, Tenn., Oct, 4, 1863; Chattanooga, Tenn., Nov. 17 
1863; Mission Ridge, Tenn., Nov. 25, 1863; Cleveland, Tenn. 
Dec. 12, 1863; Bradyville, Tenn., Jan. 21, 1863; Woodbury 
Tenn., Jan. 22, 1863;' Rover, Tenn., Jan. 31, 1863; Charlotte 
Tenn., Feb. 6, 1863; Rover, Tenn., Feb. 13, 1863: Auburn, Tenn. 
Feb. 19. 1863; Liberty. Tenn., Feb. 20, 1863; Unionville, Tenn. 


March 4, 1863; Thompson's Station, Tenn., March 9, 1863; Ruther- 
ford Creek, Tenn., March 10, 1863; Duck Eiver, Teun., March 
11, 1863; Prosperity Church, Tenn., April 2, 1863; Liberty, Tenn. 
April 3, 1863; Snow Hill, Tenn., April -1, 1863; McMinnville 
Tenn., April 21, 1863; Statesville, Tenn., April 22, 1863; Alex 
andria, Tenn., April 23, 1863; Wartrace, Tenn., April 29, 1863 
Middleton. Tenn., May 22, 1863; Wartrace, Tenn., June 3, 1863 
Versailles, Tenn., June 10, 1863; Cherry Valley, Tenn., June 16. 
1st;:-!: Shelhwille, Tenn., June 27, 1863; Hickory Creek, Tenn. 
July 4. L863; Tullahoma, Tenn., July 5, 1863; Rock Island 
Tenn., Aug. 2, 1863; Sparta, Tenn., Aug. 9, 1863; Sperrv's Mill 
Tenn., Aug. 17, 1863; Smith's Cross Roads, Tenn., Aug. 21, 1863 
Reed's Bridge, Ga., Sept. 18, 1863; Tunnel Hill, Ga., Jan. 28 
1864; Farmer's Bridge, Ga., May 15, 1864; Arundel Creek, Ga. 
May 16, 1864; Kingston, Ga., May IS, 1864; Dallas, Ga., May 
24, 1864; Villa Ricca, Ga., May 26, 1864; Lost Mountain, Ga 
May 27, 1864; Big Shanty, ' Ga., June 9, 1864; MeAffee 
Cross Roads, Ga., June 11, 1864; Noonday Creek, Ga., June 19 
1864; Latimer's Mills, Ga., June 20, 1864; Noonday Creek. 
Ga., June 23, 1864; Kenesaw Mountains, Ga., June 27, 1864: 
Rosswell, Ga., July 4, 1864; Lebanon Mills, Ga., July 14, 1864 
Stone Mountain, Ga., July 18, 1864; Covington, Ga. July 22, 1864 
Flat Rock, Ga., July 27, 1864; Atlanta, Ga., Aug. 1 to 14, 1864 
Fair Oaks, Ga., Aug. 19, 1864; Jonesboro, Ga., Aug. 18, 1864 
Lovejoy's Station, Ga., Aug. 20, 1864; McDonagh's Station, Ga. 
Aug. 20, 1864; Rosswell, Ga., Sept. 26, 1864; Sweetwater, Ga. 
Oct. 2. 1864; Moses Creek. Ga., Oct. 3, 1864; Lost Mountain, Ga. 
Oct. 5, 1864; New Hope Church, Ga., Oct, 7, 1864; Stilesboro 
Ga., Oct. 11, 1864; Rome, Ga., Oct. 12, 1864; Blue Pond, Ga. 
Oct. 21, 1864; Selma, Ala., April 2, 1865; Double Bridges, Ga. 
April 18, 1865; Macon, Ga., April 20, 1865; capture of Jeff Davis 
near Irwinsville, Ga.. Mav 10, 1865. 

Charles Dubois died of disease at Mitchellvffle, Tenn., Nov. 14, 1862. 

Simon A. Downer died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 2, 1862. 

James M. Freeman died of disease at Cincinnati, Tenn., Dec. 21, 1862. 

David Parker died at Noonday Creek. Ga., June 20, 1864. 

Edwin W. Lyman died at Lebanon, Ky., Nov. 2, 1862. 

John Lippert died the same day from wounds received during that engagement. 

Prentiss Douglass died at Camp Dennison Jan. 25, 1863. 

David J. Root died at Murfreesboro Jan. 31, 1863. 

Austin Lincoln died at Gallatin Jan. 27, 1863. 

Francis B. Jones died at Nashville Jan. 25, 1863. 

Albert Cogswell died at Murfreesboro Feb. 22, 1863. 

E Anglesmyer died at Nashville April 3, 1863. 

Leonard Wing died at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 12, 1863. 

Charles W. Harris died at Jackson, Mich., April 1, 1864. 

Hawley Nearpassdied at Louisville, Ky., April 8, 1864. 

Dennis H. Cobb died of disease at Florence, S. C, Nov. 1, 1864. 

George Elder died of disease at Camp Smith Oct. 30, 1864. 

Edwin II. Lyman died of disease at Lebanon Nov. 2, 1862. 

Chailcs H Berrien died of disease at Nashville Dec. 9, 1862. 


Albert Cogswell died of disease at Murfreesboro Feb. 22, 1863. 
Charles Dubois died of disease at Mitchellville Nov. 14, 1862. 
Simon A. Downer died of disease at Nashville Dec. 19, 1862. 
Lucius M. Marshall died of disease at Cincinnati Jan. 27, 1865. 
Henry Collier, killed in a quarrel at Louisville Nov. 16, 1864. 
James N. Freeman died at Cincinnati Dec 24, 1862. 
George W. Holt died at Nashville Jan 10, 1863. 
Henry H. Fowler died at Murfreesboro Jan. 15, 1863. 
W. F. Dickenson died at Nashville Jan. 15, 1863. 
Mellville C. Harris died at Murfreesboro Jan. 16, 1863. 
Stephen R. Spencer died at Washington Nov. 21, 1863 . 
Edward Alfred died of disease March 27, 1864. 
John F. Miller died of disease Jan. 23, 1864. 
William C. Klump died of disease. 


William D. Haines. Roland Wood. John W. Greenman. 

David Wing. Oscar Tiff. Wm. H. Logan. 

W. J. Willbur. Cornelius Carrol. Emery Miller. 

James H. Packard. Carrol T. Duchman. Elias Pierce. 

William Britton. Edwin Crout. Martin Pomeroy. 

William Marshall. Geo. F. Hodge. Geo. Smith. 

Geo. Hatfield. Lester P. Bates. John W. Wildley. 

Edward Gavitt. Orlando Streator. C. A. Losey. 

Woodard Wells. Egbert H. Clarke. Charles T. Howden. 

Wm. O. Halloran. Mason Brown. Orrin J. Bates 

Geo. H. Hellfield. Geo. M. Boydwell. Theo. R. McDonald. 

James Nowlan. Charles Flugger. Henry H. Bunker 
Francis E. Thompson. 

The Fifth Cavalry extended its operations over Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, and principally over Virginia. It participated in 45 
actions in Virginia, 10 in Maryland, and two in Pennsylvania, 
viz. : Hunterstown, July 2, 1863, and Gettysburg, July 3, 1863. 
The last battle in which it took a distinguished part was that at 
Appomattox Court-House, April 8 and 9, 1865. 

Augustus F. Corser fell near Gainesville, Va., Oct. 30, 1863, at the hands of 

E. J. Lathrop fell at Trevillian Station, Va., June 11, 1864. 
George H. Near died of disease at Washington April 3, 1864. 

John B. Estill, nrssing in action of May 1, 1864, reported dead at Trevillian 
Station, June II, 1864. 

John Stillwell, missing at Richmond March 2, 1864. 

John Benedict, mining at Trevillian Station June 11, 1864. 


John B. Stillwell. 
Win. R. Scott. 
Wm. H. Blake. 
John B. Fish. 
A. W. Robinson. 
Jefferson Soursman. 

Joseph Slack. 
Algernon Cooper. 
Alexander Brown. 
John B. Estell. 
Edward A. Warner. 
Wm. W. Crannell. 

Murray W. Hess. 
Edgar P. Randall. 
Edward F. Riggs. 
Lyman Riggs. 
John Benedict. 
John B. Stillwell. 

The Sixth Cavalry shared in the honors of many battles with 
the Fifth, from Hanover, Va., June 30, 1863, to Appomattox, 


'<#* . 



but exceeded the service of the former by taking part in military 
affairs at Little Laramie, D. T., Aug. 6, 1865. The regiment re- 
turned to Jackson Nov. 30, 1865, where it was disbanded, after 
sharing in the fortunes of 57 severe encounters with the slave- 
holders. Jackson county's loss in this regiment was but one — 
Wm. H. Botsford, died of disease, Aug. 13,1864. 


Franklin Hughes. 
E. Harmon 
Louis L. Flint. 
Daniel Dooley. 
Ransom W . Burgess. 
Joseph Silverthorn. 
Sheldon Wright. 

Reuben C. Austin. 
Lafayette Olcott. 
StUlman Davenport. 
Henry Rice. 
William Rav. 
Harlan C. Huff. 

Joseph A. Walcott. 
H. S. Corser. 
John Clark. 
Dan. W. Dawson. 
Hiram F. Moe. 
Amos K. Dowell. 

The Seventh Cavalry opened its campaign with the affair at 
Thoroughfare Gap, Va., May 21, 1863, and during its career par- 
ticipated in 59 general engagements and skirmishes. The brill- 
iant services oi this organization were rendered almost on the 
same fields and in conjunction with the Sixth Regiment. 


James Rockford, of Co. G, missing after the action of Buckland Mills, Oct. 7, 
Van Ransaler Parks died at Andersonville Aug. 30, 1864. 
Wm. H. Knowles died at Leavenworth July 3, 1865. 
John Davenport died at Winchester, Va., Dec. 10, 1864. 
Wm. C. Bolton died at Annapolis, Md., Feb. 16, 1865. 
A. W. Fritts died at St. Louis, Md., June 23, 1865. 


Kverson Moore. 
Rolley Wells. 
John E. Grienman. 
Henry Snyder. 
Croydon Crossett. 
John F. Cooper. 
James P. Grahan. 
Joseph Stack. 
Ira Wildman. 
Jefferson Sourman. 
Thomas Kettle. 
Joshua Potter. 
Julius Doak. 

( 'lark Dunn. 
Eratus Eldridge. 
Alton Knowles. 
Bertatell Dorbyuz. 
Albert Helmer. 
John Lloyd. 
.Michael Shatts. 
Wm. K. Scott. 
Alfred CoHtock. 
( 'harles H. Gillett. 
Wm. H. Honson. 
Wm. Walsh. 
John B. Fish. 

Ben. Champlin. 
Samuel S. Haskell. 
James Rochfort. 
John McGee. 
Samuel Austin. 
A. W. Robinson. 
J. H. Snyder. 
Algernon Cooper. 
James Allen. 
James Thomson. 
Albert Thornton. 
Lewis Tromley. 

Tfte Eighth Cavalry extended its operations over Kentucky, 
Tennessee and Georgia, but more particularly over the two latter 
States, in which States it contributed to the success of the Federal 
arms in 30 battles, including some of the most sanguinary recorded 
during the war. 



Char es Wright fell at Post-Oak, Tenn., Nov. 18, 1803 
D. M. McKellar fell at Kuoxville. Tenn., Nov. 18, 1863. 
N. S. Reynolds died at Knoxville, Tenn., Feb. 1. 1865. 
Herman Walker died at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 24, 1865. 


Geo. Whaling. Orville Albro. Charles E. Henderson. 

Cyrus H. Fountain. Peter Damm. John Kikendall. 

Edgar Reynolds. John R. Butler. Harrison T. Mills. 

Charles E. Shultz. Silas E. Nugent. Tenant W. Miller. 

David Irish. Dixon A. Carpenter. Israel Pilky. 

Richard Dodge. Theo. E. Hughson. John Murphy. 

Cornelius Murray. William P. Jones. Timothy Smith. 

Dewitt P. Hubbard. Edwin F. Sandburn. 

The Ninth Cavalry was present at Triplet Bridge, Ky., during 
the severe lighting of June 24, 1863, and subsequently was engaged 
in no less than 55 terrific engagements. The regiment returned to 
Jackson, July 30, 1865, where it was disbanded. 


Horace M. Wharton died at Camp Nelson, Ky., Oct. 10, 1863. 

W. C. Smith died at Knoxville, Tenn., Jan. 23, 1864. 

Nathan Updyke died at Knoxville Dec. 14, 1863. 

Josiah S. K a v wood died at Loudon, Tenn., Oct. 8, 1863. 

John G. Gillman died at Knoxville, Tenn., March 7, 1864. 

Charles W. Leslie died at Nicholasville, Ky., April 22, 1864. 

C. M. Farlev died at Jackson, Mich., March, 1864. 

C. A. Taylor died at Nashville, Tenn., April, 1864. 

Anson Williams died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., February, 1863. 

I. L. Ransom died at Belle Isle, Va., May 1, 1864. 

Eugene Sutton died at Louisville, Ky., May 4. 1864. 

James Booker died at Camp Nelson, Ky., July 2, 1864. 

Henry Miller died at Andersonville, (4a., Nov. 15, 1864. 

Ira D. Parker died at Davis' Island. N. Y. H., June 16, 1865. 

Anson Williams died at Knoxville, Tenn. 

The Tenth Cavalry services extended from the battle of House 
Mountain, Tenn., January, 1864, to that of Newton, N. C, April 17, 
1865. Though only a little over a year in the field, the regiment 
shared in the honors of 55 battles, and returned to Jackson for dis- 
charge Nov. 15, 1865. 


Stanley Thorn died at Camp Nelson, Ky., Feb. 9, 1864. 
Michael Cady died at Camp Nelson. 
Win. T. Perrin died at Somerset, Ky., Feb. 9, 1864. 
Franklin Armstrong died at Camp Nelson Feb. 18, 1864. 
Edgar A. Baldey died at Lexington, Ky., Dec. 11, 1863. 
George L. Rodders died at Nashville, Tenn., April 14, 1864. 
Charles H. Harvey died at Knoxville, Tenn., April 16, 1864. 
Thomas G. Kenyon, killed at Martinville, Va., April 8, 1865. 
Joel M. Hicks died at Lexington, Ky., Feb. 4, 1864. 
Richard Dodge, missing at Mt. Sterling, Ky., June 9, 1864. 
Charles D. H. Tolyns. missing at Saltville, Va., Oct. 2, 1864. 
Francis M. Townsend, missing at Saltville, Va., Oct. 2, 1864. 
Peter Cline died of disease at Detroit June 14, 1869. 



E. W. Farley. 
Henry Green. 
Ch. F. Gillett. 
Wm. J. Hyde. 
Wm. B. Lester. 
Elijah Lindsay. 
Amos Naughton. 
Edward O'Brien. 
Abram Porter. 
W. B. C. Pitts. 
C. Robb. 
J. H. Randall. 
Alfred Williams. 
Geo. R. Wickham. 
J. 8. Wilkerson. 
Gilbert Alexander. 
Addison Draper. 
Austin F. Draper. 
Aggrins Dubois. 
O. L. Fox. 
Phillip Heller. 
Geo. S. Naughton. 
James T. Shoemaker. 
J. C. Runion. 
John G. Snyder. 
Peter G. Levengood. 
Geo. W. Rhiness. 
Milo Dakin. 
James G. Cook. 
C. M. Martin. 
Albert Wheeler. 

Geo. W. Kutz. 
John Hood. 
Francis Towsley. 
Wm. C. Hubbard. 
Esick B. Crawford . 
Wm. Buchanan. 
Mortimer Streeter. 
David Daily. 
G. F. Gardner. 
Caleb Loud. 
Thomas O. Piper 
Wm. B. Bouton. 
Jesse A. Fletcher. 
O. Driscoll. 
Wm. McGraw. 
Geo Eldred. 
Harvey Clark. 
Thomas F. Brewer 
C. W. Bryant. 
Egbert Briggs. 
John Brooks. 
Stanford Thorn. 
Hiram E. Sprague. 
Frederick A. Noble. 
Oscar A. Davis. 
James Morgan. 
Peter Hogan. 
Asa B. Beer. 
Edward S. Hall. 
J. H. Huntley. 
Frank Michaelis. 

Silas A. Ketchuni. 
U. M. Hicks. 
F. A. J. Cole. 
A. W. Barrett. 
Horace M. Cole. 
E. P. Halliway. 
W. D. Smith. 
James S. Cole. 
John Holenback. 
Robert Steele. 
Henry Small. 
Thomas Whitney. 
Thornton Franklin. 
Hugh (iilson. 
A. M. Campbell. 
L. II. Holmes. 
M. H. Miller. 
Ed. Robbins. 
Joseph H. Bird. 
Albert B. Beaman. 
Oscar K. Cardy. 
Horace A. Howard. 
O. S. High. 
Milton Hurlbut. 
Hugh Montgomery. 
Joseph Myers. 
Oscar Moore. 
Levant Williams. 
J. B. Westbrook. 
W. H. Jeffards. 

The E