(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Advanced Microdevices Manuals | Linear Circuits Manuals | Supertex Manuals | Sundry Manuals | Echelon Manuals | RCA Manuals | National Semiconductor Manuals | Hewlett Packard Manuals | Signetics Manuals | Fluke Manuals | Datel Manuals | Intersil Manuals | Zilog Manuals | Maxim Manuals | Dallas Semiconductor Manuals | Temperature Manuals | SGS Manuals | Quantum Electronics Manuals | STDBus Manuals | Texas Instruments Manuals | IBM Microsoft Manuals | Grammar Analysis | Harris Manuals | Arrow Manuals | Monolithic Memories Manuals | Intel Manuals | Fault Tolerance Manuals | Johns Hopkins University Commencement | PHOIBLE Online | International Rectifier Manuals | Rectifiers scrs Triacs Manuals | Standard Microsystems Manuals | Additional Collections | Control PID Fuzzy Logic Manuals | Densitron Manuals | Philips Manuals | The Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly Debates | Linear Technologies Manuals | Cermetek Manuals | Miscellaneous Manuals | Hitachi Manuals | The Video Box | Communication Manuals | Scenix Manuals | Motorola Manuals | Agilent Manuals
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "History of Jersey City, N.J. : a record of its early settlement and corporate progress, sketches of the towns and cities that were absorbed in the growth of the present municipality, its business, finance, manufactures and form of government, with some notice of the men who built the city"

974.902 

J48m 
1818117 



TWYNOLDS Hi'^TORICTO. 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



¥0 



,EN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRAI 



3 1833 02255 3165 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



http://www.archive.org/details/historyofjerseycOOmacl 



...OF... 

JERSEY ^ CITX-^N. ^ J 

A Record of Its Early 
Settlement and Corporate Progress. 



Sketches of the Towns and Cities that were absorbed 
in the growth of the present Municipality. 

Its Business, Finance, Manufactures and Form of Gov- 
ernment, with some notice of the Men 
who built the City. 



(50/npiled for tlje Eueijitj? c)ouri7al 

BY Alexander McLean. 



PRESS OF THE JERSEY CITY PRINTING COMPANY. 
1895. 



151SH7 




:-n- 






•'^I';. 

^#:--i^; 
'?-^«. 



'»^''^- 

:i^..--- 

:?^;'' 












I 
























«%' 



COPYRIGHTED 

1S95. 

F. T. SMILEY & CO. 

JERSEY CITY, N. J. 



JERSEY CITY, N. J. 
THE JERSEY CITY PRINTING CO. 

1895. 



NTRODUCTION. 






W 




HE growth of a city is the result of individual and org^anized effort 
extending over long periods. The work of the individuals merges 
into the general history. The acts of organizations form distinct 
currents in the life of the municipality. In compiling this history 
of Jersey City these facts have been recognized. 
The general history extends into the past to the discovery of the site for a city 
and the first settlement by the Dutch. The English occupation, the second Dutch 
epoch, the return of the English, the peaceful colonial times, the stirring period 
of the Revolution, the proprietary government of the Associates, the attempts to 
form a city, the final success and rapid development, the war of the rebellion, the 
time of peace and the growth of the big city, are concisely condensed into a con- 
secutive narrative. The present condition of the city is shown in copious statistics 
giving the extent and condition of its commercial, financial and manufacturing in- 
stitutions. 

The social, religious and civic progress is presented in detailed chapters on 
the organized work of the past and present. The churches, clubs and city de- 
partments are considered separately. The growth of each from small beginnings to 
present excellence is graphically described and pictorially illustrated. The learned 
professions, from the first in each department to the latest professional worker, are 
fully presented. Biographical sketches and portraits, so far as could be obtained, are 
gfiven of each judge, jurist, doctor or divine, and a complete list of all the lawyers 
and physicians who have practiced in the city is included. Historical sketches of the 
fire, police and school departments, are given with much accuracy and detail. 
The business men and others prominent at the present time in every walk of life 
are recorded biographically and by portraits, which form interesting sections of 
the work. The whole forms a reliable text book of the city's progress from its 
pastoral infancy through its speculative youth to the present municipal maturity. 



CONTENTS. 



Chapter I. — Discovery and Early Settlement — 
Trouble with the Indians — Massacre at Communi- 
paw — Settlers Driven to Xew York— Founding the 
TowTi of Bergen — Orders to Fortify the Shore 
Settlements— End of the Dutch Colonial Period. 

Chapter II.— Seizure of the Settlement by the En- 
glish — A Proprietary Government Formed— Re- 
capture by the Dutch — Another Surrender to the 
English— A New Charter Granted by Oucen Anne 
— Close of the Second Colonial Period. 

Chapter III.— Condition of Paulus Hook at the 
Beginning of the Revolutionary War — Erection of 
Fortifications by Lord Stirling— Capture by the 
British — Light Horse HaiTv's Brilliant Recapture 
of the Forts — Incidents of the War in the Town 
and Vicinity — Evacuation by the British. 

Chapter IV. —Incorporation of the Associates of the 
Jersey Company — Purchase of Paulus Hook — Rival 
Towns of Van Vorst and Hoboken — The Founders 
of the Future City— Their Efforts ti> Build a City— 
The Proprietary Government— It was a Failure. 

Chapter V. — Obstacles in the Wav of the Little City 
— The Associates' Mortgages and the Disputed 
Water Front— The City Gets its Name and a 
Municipal Government — Slow Growth under the 
Selectmen — Fulton's First Steamboat Built. 

Chapter VI.— The New City Government Fails— 
The Van Vorst Mortgage Extinguished — The First 
Cemetery— Efforts to Mamtain a Bank — A New 
Town Charter — The Water Front Controversy — 
First Railways Built— Dudley S. Gregorj- Settles 
in the Little City— Land Values Increasing— Street 
Improvements Mide - Another New Charter Fac- 
tories Established — End of the ^Associates' Govern- 
ment. 

Chapter VII. — Under a City Charter — New Life 
Infused into the Little Town— What its Main 
Streets then Consisted of — How its Institutions 
were Originated — The First Addition to the Ciiy's 
Area — Disappearance of its Inland Water Way. 

Chapter VIII.— The County Seat at Hackensack Too 
Far Away — Meetings held to Secure Branch 
County Offices— The Plan Fails, and Petitions sent 
to the Legislature for a New County — Opposed by 
Bergen County— .\rguments Presented at Trenton 
—Hudson County Set 0£E — Officers Elected— A 
Court House Built. 



Chapter IX.— A Score of Years under the City 
Charter— Moral. Social and Commercial Activity- 
Schools Established — Street Opening Carried on— 
The Exciting Election — Trouble about Saloons- 
Active Temperance People The Railroad Com- 
pany Absorbs the Ferry— New Towns Desired- 
Trying to Divide the School Fund — First Proposal 
for a Water Supply — The First Cunarder. 

Chapter X.— The Story of Van Vorst Township— 
The Duke's Farm— John B. Cole's Purchase— How 
the Neighborhoods Formed — Efforts to Build a City 
— Business and Population Attracted — A Township 
Charter- The Officers who Governed the Town — 
Public Pumps and Water Supply- How Improve- 
ments wore Made— Churches and Schr>o!s Built- - 
Parks Donated— Consolidation with Jersey City— 
The Ci\nl List. 

Chapter XI.— The Enlarged City— Bound to Have a 
Water Supply — Plans Proposed — The Site for 
Pumping Station and Reseri'oirs— Construction of 
the Works — Great Rejoicing over the Introduction 
of Water — Sudden Growth in Population — The- 
Visit by Abraham Lincoln— An Official Reception. 

Chapter XII.— The City During the War Period— 
The Flag Fired On— A Burst of Patriotism— Re- 
cruiting Stations Opened— Public Meetings Held — 
The Drafts — Street Scenes. 

Ch.aptek XIII.— History of Hudson City— Us Early 
Days— The Town Set Off from Bergen— A City 
Charter Secured — The Early Schools and Gradual 
Development of a Department— The Erie Tunnel 
Riots — Militia Called Out— The Officers who Served 
the City. 

Chapter XIV.— The Story of Bergen — Its Village 
Days — The Old Roads- Communipaw— Lafayette — 
Claremont— The Stage Line — Street Railway Built 
—School Buildings -The City Halls— A City 
Charter— Where the Consolidation Idea Originated 
— Carried into Effect — Peculiar Award of Contracts 
—The City Officials. 

Chapter XV. — Consolidation and Reorganization — 
The Petition to the Freeholders— An Election 
Ordered and its Result- -Trouble Began for Jersey 
City— Financial Condition of the Three Cities — A 
Rush of Contracts— "The Board of 32 "—.\ Bank 
War— Origin of the City Debt— A New City 
Charter— The Reser\-oir Contract— A New Govern- 
ment Inaugurated on a New Plan. 



CONTENTS. 



Chapter XVI.— •• The Bumsted Ring"— Political 
Persecution Through the Courts— Alleged E.\trava- 
gance of the Commissioners— What Caused the 
Extravagance and Who was Really Responsible 
for it— The City Out of Funds— Rapid Growth of 
the Interest-Bearing Debt — Where the Money 
Went. 

Chapter XVII,— Greenville— Its Slow Growth— A 
Town Formed— The Early Residents— A School 
Board Created— The Demand for Improvements 
Produced the Street Commission— The Commission 
Killed the Town — Consolidation— What the Town 
Contained— A List of its Officers. 

Chapter XVIII.— Changes in the City Goverament— 
The Officials Again Made Elective — Growth of the 
City Debt— Ballot-box Stuffing— The Centennial 
Celebration— Rise of the People Against Political 
Bossisra — Officers Made Appointive - Rise and De- 
cline of the City Debt. 

Chapter XIX.— City Officials and City Boards, Past 
and Present. Aldermen— Mayors— Comptrollers— 
Collectors— Law Department — Recorders — Police 
Justices— Board of Finance— Public Works Depart- 
ment — Tax Commissioners -Sinking Fund Com- 
missioners—Tax Adjustment Commissioners. 

Chapter XX.— The Fire Department— Its Origin— A 
Complete Roster of the Volunteer Department of 
the Three Cities prior to Consolidation — The Paid 
System from the Consolidation to the Present Time 
— The Alarms and Losses of Twenty-four Years — 
List of Officers and Commissioners — -Appropriations 
for the Paid Department. 

CHAFrER XXI.— The Police Department— The Old 

Watchmen — Hudson River Force Organized A 

Struggle for Supremacy— The Changes Made by 
Politics — Tenure of Office Act — Reorganization— 
The Present Force- List of Commissioners, Offi- 
cials and Appropriations. 

Chapter XXII.— The City School System— The First 
Attempts at Schools— How they Began in Bergen, 
Hudson City and Greenville— Growth and Cost— 
The Present System— Complete List of Officers, 
Census, Enrollment and Appropriations. 



Chapter XXIII.— City Institutions— City Hall, Post 
Office, City, Christ and St. Francis Hospitals— 
Pub'ic Libran- Home for the Homeless. Children's 
Home. Home for .-Vged Women. 

Chaffer XXIV.— Banks and Banking— A Brief His- 
tory of each Institution and the Board oi Trade— A 
Story of Progress. 

Chaftek XXV.— The Fourth Regiment — How the 
Organization was Formed — Who were Concerned 
in its Creation, and the Men who have Carried on 
the Work — A Brief Account of its Ser\-ices, with a 
Complete List of the Staff and Line from the tirst 
Roster to the Present. 

Chapter XXVI. — Early Days of the Jersey City 
Press— The Pioneers who Fell by the Way. 

Chapter XXVII. — The Leading Social Clubs — New- 
Jersey, Palma, Jersey City, Carteret, Union League 
and Hudson County Democratic. 

Chapter XXVIIL— The Bench and Bar— Biographi- 
cal Sketches of Xoted Jurists and a Complete List 
of the Profession in Jersey City. 

Chapter XXIX. — The Medical Profession from the 
First Practitioner to the Present Time, with a 
Complete List of all who have Lived in the City from 
the Beginning. 

Chapter XXX. — The Origin and Growth ot the City 
Churches — How the Leading Organizations were 
Started and How they Grew. 

Chapter XXXI.— The City of To-day— What Caused 
its Remarkable Growth — Statisticsof its Civic Work 
and Industries down to Date. 

Chapter XXXIi. — The Evening Journal — A Brief 
History of its Foundation and Progress — The Jersey 
City Printing Company — The Largest Printing 
Establishment in the State. 

Chapter XXXIII. — Biographical Sketches of the Men 
who are Prominent in the City's Affairs To-day. 

Chapter XXXIV. — Some of the Leading Manufac- 
turing Establishments of the City, with an Account 
of their Formation and Progress. 



CHAPTER I. 

niSCOVERY AND EARLY SETTLEMENT TROUBLE WITH THE INDIANS MASSACRE AT COMMUNIPAW 

SETTLERS DRIVEN TO NEW YORK — FOUNDING THE TOWN OF BERGEN — ORDERS TO FORTIFY THE 
SHORE SETTLEMENT END OF THE DUTCH COLONIAL PERIOD. 

|^^^33S pleasant a land as one need tread upon. In these words Jersey City made its first 
p^g^u^l appearance on the pages of history. They were penned by Henry Hudson, who 
discovered its wooded hills and undulant marshes under a September sun. 285 years 
ago. Claims have been made on behalf of other navifjators, but none have left 
indisputable records of prior discovery. They may have seen it as a "far countrie." If they did 
theirs was but the beginning of discovery. To Hudson belongs the honor of having made 
known to the world the finest harbor on the western continent and the broad river which 
bears his name. 

The spoils of a new world had enriched Spain and excited the ambition of everj- maritime 
power in Europe during a century preceding Hudson's memorable voyage. Stories of romantic 
experience and sudden wealth could not be too improbable to find universal credence. Suc- 
cessful voyagers were the lions in every community. The spirit of adventure tempted mariners 
and merchants in all sea-going nations to try their fortunes in the new world that was growing 
larger with the knowledge brought from ever}- voyage. The navigators of no nation had 
made more enterprising nor more successful voyages than those of Holland. Its ships had 
made the people acquainted ^\•ith the wealth that flowed from the East Indies, and their 
enterprise had excited the Vvfrath of Spain, who could brook no rival on the seas. The Span- 
iards tried to destroy the Dutch East India trade, and their efforts made the Xetherland 
merchants seek a new route to the Indies. When they reached that determination Hudson 
had achieved fame by two voyages under London patronage in search of the northwest 
passage. Everybody shared his belief in the existence of this route, and his failures did not 
shake his faith. He was easily induced to enter the service of the Dutch East India Company 
to make another attempt to find a route that would not require passing the Spanish coast in 
voyages to the East Indies. He was put in command of the Half Moon, a vessel of about 
sixty tons burthen, with a crew of twenty men, and sailed from the Texel on April 6, i6og. 
He did not find the northwest passage, but, after a voyage which added much to his experi- 
ence, he anchored inside of Sandy Hook on the third of September. He remained there nine 
days and made the acquaintance of the Indians who lived on the Jersey shore. He found 
them "civil and kind." He made a survey of the harbor, even to Newark Bay, which bounds 
Jersey City on the southwest, and on September 12th sailed up toCommunipaw. He found an 
abundance of game, fish and oysters, and the natives supplied him with fruit and vegetables. 

He arrived in Holland in the summer of 1610. and his description of the country pleased 
the merchants so well that they fitted out another vessel and a successful voyage was made. 
In 1614 the merchants found the trade so profitable that they obtained a monopoly of it from 
the States General of the United Netherlands. They called the country New Netherlands, 
and organized as "The United New Netherlands Company." Under their management several 
trading posts were established, and the Company soon became wealthy. Their charter expired 
on January i, 1618, and its renewal was refused. On June 3, 1621, an armed commercial associ- 
ation was formed under the title of the Dutch West India Company, Its charter gave it 
exclusive jurisdiction over the New Netherlands for twenty-one years. 

The government of the company was vested in five chambers. Nineteen delegates from 
these chambers, with one delegate chosen by the States General formed an executive board, and 
this board gave to the Amsterdam chamber the management of affairs in New Netherlands, 
which was created a province in June, 1623. One of the prominent members of the Amsterdam 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



chamber was Michael Pauw, a burgomaster of Amsterdam and Lord of Achtienhoven, near 
Utrecht. He was a man of means and enterprise, and made an indehble impress on the history 
of Jersey City. 

The work of the company for the ensuing six years belongs to the history of New York. 
Its operations were carried on in a more extensive and expensive manner than those of its less 
pretentious predecessor and were not so successful. The headquarters had been fixed on Man- 
hattan Island, where a fort was built, and the small population depended on trading for a liveli- 
hood. The company was not satisfied with what was done, and devised plans to improve the 
condition of affairs. They reserved the Island of ^lanhattan, but offered free land elsewhere 
to immigrants who would cultivate it. They also offered to any member of the company who 
would plant a colony of not less than fifty adult persons within four years, a section of land with 
sixteen miles of frontage on navigable water free of charge. With this they gave the title of 
Patroon, or feudal chief of the territory thus conveyed. 

These privileges were restricted to members of the company and claims were located at 
once by the more enterprising or better informed, ilichael Pauw was one of the active mem- 
bers. He chose the west bank of the Hudson for his colony. Before applying for a grant from 
the company he bought the land from the native owners. His purchase included the hilly 
island known to the Indians as Aresick and the upland west and north of it known as Ahasimus, 
with the intervening meadow. He then had the Indian owners join in the deed given by the 
company and the Governor of the province. This grant bears date of November 22, 1630. It 



was one of the earli- 
est deeds recorded 
in New Netherlands, 
and the first convey- 
ance made in East 
Jersey. Pauw made 
an effort to form a 
colony at Ahasimus. 
He built a house, cul- 
tivated a farm and 
changed the name of 
the place to Pavonia, 
which is supposed to 
be a Latinized form 
of his name. He also 




J.AN DE LACHER S HOOK. 



had a house of some 
kind built at Aresick, 
which a short time 
afterward was occu- 
pied by Michael 
Paulusen, who had 
charge of the trade 
with the Indians. He 
was the first white 
resident of the so- 
called island, and the 
point of land became 
known as P a u 1 u s 
Hook from his occu- 
pancy. 



The directors and other members of the company who had failed to secure land and the 
rights of patroons were jealous of their more enterprising associates, and soon clamored for a 
reapportionment. Most of those who had secured claims were forced to surrender, but it was 
only after numerous trials and hearings that Pauw gave up his valuable title. He had failed to 
found the colony he should have planted on his land, but he stood on his deed, and the company 
was forced, after four years of litigation, to pay him 26,000 florins for his title. He conveyed to 
the company in May, 1634. 

The company had taken possession over a year before the settlement with Pauw was made 
and had ordered the construction of two houses in the territory. One was built at Pavonia 
and the other at Communipaw. Pauw removed Paulusen from his charge, and on June 17, 
1634, Jan Evertscn Bout arrived from Holland as superintendent of Pavonia. He chose the 
house at Commimipaw for his home and remained in charge for two years. He was the first 
white resident of that section. Bout's farm extended from what is now Maple Street, where 
the Central Railroad round house is located, southerly to a point below the railwav to Black 
Tom Island, in Communipaw Cove. Bout leased the hill at the mouth of Mill Creek to Egbert 
Wouterssen. This hill liecame known later as Jan de Lacher's Hook. This was a circular hill 
and section of upland. The name, anglicized, is John the Laugher's Point, and it is supposed 
to commemorate the jovial disposition of Jan Evertsen Bout. When Pauw was forced to 
relinquish the powers of a patroon he presented the house to Bout and Bout lived there nine 
years, after which he moved to Brooklyn and had nothing more to do with the west side of the 
Hudson River. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 9 

In June, 1636, Pauw appointed Comelis Van Vorst superintendent of his property. Van 
Vorst chose the house at Pavonia for his residence. The house was destroyed by iire a few 
days afterwards. It caught from the wadding- of a small cannon fired in honor of the Gover- 
nor of the province, who had been entertained by Van Vorst. The house was rebuilt and 
occupied by \'an Vorst until he died, two years later. 

The company's business and the management of the New Netherlands settlement was in 
a very unsatisfactory condition after the company had secured the lands of the patroons. The 
income fell off and a great many free traders were doing a profitable trade with the Indians in 
opposition to the company. Early in 163S the directors decided to use vigorous means to pro- 
duce a profit for the company. William Kieft was appointed Governor and reached the port 
on Manhattan Island in March. He was a miserable apology for an executive head. He 
ignored the agreement by which Aresick and Paulus Hook were to be reserved for the com- 
pany. His main object was to secure money to remit to his principals. He sold Paulus Hook 
to Abraham Isaacsen Planck for the ridiculous price of 550 guilders. This deed bears date of 
May I, 1638. Planck could not raise all of the money, but gave security to pay within two 
years. In July of the same year the Cornmunipaw farm was leased to Jan Evertsen Bout for 
a quarter of the crop, two tuns of strong beer and twelve capons annually. This lease was to 
run six years. 

Kieft made an unwise attempt to levy a tax on the Indians and incurred their ill will. 
They were already jealous of the up-river Indians, who had secured firearms from the free 
traders. The company's agents would not sell firearms. There was a constant feud between 
the Indian tribes, varied by outbreaks of actual warfare. During one of these outbreaks, in 
February, 1643, the Indians on the west side of the Hudson River were so severely pressed by 
their hereditary foes, the Mohawks, that they fled through deep snow to take shelter with the 
Dutch. There were nearly a thousand of them, and they encamped on the upland at the west 
of Egbert Wouterssen's farm, near the present intersection of Pine Street and Johnston Avenue. 
There they were attacked while asleep on the night of Feb. 25th, and a large number of men, 
women and children were murdered by Dutch soldiers, acting under the orders of Gov. Kieft. 
The records show that there were eighty murdered and that the victims were horribly mu- 
tilated. It is probable that more were killed and many wounded. This treachery was the 
cause of an alliance between all the tribes in the vicinity. They made common cause against 
the whites thereafter. The retaliation began on the morning after the massacre, when Dirck 
Straatmaker was shot by the Indians in the woods near the scene of the brutal attack. The 
whites were harassed by the Indians all summer, but the real attack did not begin until the 
fall of the year. 

The widow of Cornells Van Vorst had a family of children and a farm. She had married 
the company's storekeeper, Jacob Stoffelsen, an uneducated man, but an honest, thrifty man- 
ager. They lived near what is now the comer of Fourth and Henderson streets, where the 
farm mansion, which was built on the site of the old homestead, is still standing, though con- 
siderably altered in appearance. The Indians were friendly with Stoffelsen because he never 
deceived them. In spite of this fact he had obtained from the Governor a guard of four soldiers 
as a matter of precaution. On October ist the Indians induced him to go across the river to the 
fort, and in his absence they killed the soldiers, burned the house and destroyed the crop. 
When the Indians retreated they took young Ide Van Vorst as a prisoner. He was ransomed a 
few days later at Tappan. Soon afterward the houses and farms of Jan Evertsen Bout, at 
Communipaw, Egbert Wouterssen's, at Jan de Lacher's Point, and Abraham Isaacsen Planck's 
house, at Paulus Hook, were destroyed by fire. The Indian war continued for a year and a 
half, when a treaty of peace was signed. Then the owners and tenants returned to the west 
side of the river. Bout began rebuilding, but sold his land before his house was finished. 
Michael Jansen bought the northern part for 8,000 florins and Claes Comptah the southern part 
for 1,144 florins. 

Peace with one or two brief exceptions, continued until the fall of 1655. A score or more 
of farmers had settled on the west side of the river by that time. The murder of an Indian 
girl for stealing peaches from a farm near the present site of Trinity Church, in New York, 
provoked another Indian war. On September 15th a night attack on New Amsterdam by 500 
Indians was repulsed. The Indians went back to the west side, and within an hour every house 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



in Pavonia was in flames. T\venty-ei<jht farms and a number of outlying' plantations were de- 
stroyed, with their crops and buildings. During three days the Dutch lost loo in killed, 150 
who were carried into captivity and 300 were left liomeless. The settlements on the west bank 
of the river were destroyed and for five years were practically abandoned. 

The first to return was Jacob Stoffelsen, who was allowed to rebuild his home in Pavonia in 
1656-7 and who remained there at his own risk. In 165S the Indians made a new deed convey- 
ing the territory on the west side of the river to the Dutch. The settlers who had been driven 
from their houses then petitioned for exemption from taxes for a few years in order to give 
them an opportunity to reconstruct their farms. The exemption was granted for a period of 
six years, but they did not take advantage of it for two years. The privilege was hampered 
with a condition that they should build a village that could be defended against the Indians. 

The beauty of the hill country west of Communipaw and the fertility of the soil made 
many New Netherlanders anxious to secure grants of land there for farming. The authorities 
were unwilling to authorize isolated farms. The settlers who had returned to their farms along 
the river had neglected to form villages, and their neglect caused the issue of a decree on Feb- 
ruary 9, 1660, ordering all farmers to move their houses into groups that could be protected by 




BEEGEN AND BtTYTEN TUYN IK 1660. 

fortifications. On the first of March following Tielman \'an Vleck petitioned for permission to 
found a village in the maize land behind Communipaw. This petition was refused. Van Vleck 
persisted and was again refused on April 12th. On August i6th he tried again and was success- 
ful. The conditions of the grant provided that the site of the new village should be selected by the 
Governor and Council and that it should be a spot which could be easily defended. The land 
was to be distributed by lot and work on each plot was to be begun within si.x week.s. Each 
person securing a lot was to send one man able to bear arms. The houses were to be in a for- 
tified village and the farms were to be outside. 

The site was selected within a few days after the grant was made. The path from the 
shore led to a clearing on which the Indians raised maize. This clearing was at and around 
what is now the intersection of Bergen Avenue and Montgomery Street. A knoll in the woods 
a short distance north of this maize land was chosen for the new village. It was laid out by 
Jacques Cortelyou, the Surveyor of New Netherlands, and was called Bergen, meaning a place 
of safety. A square 800 feet on each side was cleared. Two streets intersected it at right 
angles and another street extended all the way around it on the .outside. A plot in the centre 
160 by 220 feet, where the streets crossed, was reserved for public use. A stout palisade was 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. ii 

erected on the exterior line of the outer street, and g^ates were placed in this at the ends of the 
cross streets. The village \va.s plotted in four sccdon.s. each containingf eight building lots. 
Each settler received one of these house lots and a farm outside of the palisade. The palisade 
was completed early in i66r and the village grew rapidly. The lots were all taken and most of 
them were built upon at once. The houses were built of logs and had roofs thatched with cat- 
tails from the marshes. In a year the \-illage became of sufficient importance to merit a sep- 
arate government and a local court, the first in Xew Jersey. It was organized in September. 
i66i. The cross streets are still in exi.stence under the names of Academy Street and Bergen 
Avenue, and the square that formed the centre of the village is now Bergen Square. 

On January-, 1662. the \-illage council ordained that a pubUc well should be dug in the mid- 
dle of Bergen Square, and each resident was ordered to appear in person c^r by substitute to 
perform the labor required to dig it. The reason given for ordering the well was to prevent 
the exposure of the settlers in going bevond the palisade to water their cattle. The well was 
dug and continued in use nearlv one hundred and fifty years. It was cov'ered over about the 
time of the war of 1812, and a liberrv- p<«le was planted in it to celebrate the peace proclama- 
tion. The pole remained until 1870, when the square was paved and the well filled up. The 
brick work still remains buried in the ground. In December, 1662, the village officials peti- 
tioned the Council of Xew Netherlands for a minister. A subscription list, signed by twent}-- 
five of the residents, showed that they were willin* to contribute 417 guilders for the support 
of the minister. A log school was bviilt on the northeast comer of the square, and the site has 
been used for a school ever since. It is now occupied by Public School No. 11. The log school 
was used for religiotis purposes on Sundays. The \-iIlage of Bergen was fotmded and provided 
with church and school, court and separate government within two years, showing enterprise 
and public spirit on the part of the settlers. 

The dangers from Indians caused the residents of Bergen to take turns as night-watch- 
men, and there was much complaint because some residents of New Netherlands had .=«cured 
lots in the village and did nothing for its general go<<i. An order was iss-jed in November. 
1663, directing non-residents to maintain one able-bodied man for each lot on pain of forfeiture 
of the land. 

The residents of Communipaw also had trouble with the Indians, and on September 8, 
1660, Cortelyou sun-eyed a village site on the shore. It was about 200 by 600 feet, and the 
northerly boundary- was where Communipaw A%'eniie is now. They did not complete the pali- 
sade because the Indians for some time confined their attention to pilfering, but early in 1663 
two Dutchmen were killed bv Indians on the road ber^veen Commtmipaw and BergetL This 
led to the appointment, on Tune 18. 1663. of a commission to complete the fortification. 

Thus, there were four settlements within the present limits of Jersey City in the summer 
of 1663, at the end of nearly fifty years, and of these the Village of Bergen, the most recent, 
was the strongest and most progressive. 

The early settlers were healthv. industrious men and women, endowed with physical 
courage to face dangers from hostile Indians and moral courage to endure hardship and 
privation, but they were as a rule uneducated. This fact adds to the labor of all who delve 
among the records of the pioneers. Their attempts to record the Indian names of the physical 
features of the land have left a series of names for each point of interest. These names are 
so diverse in orthographv that diiterent places seem to be intended. The poetic and descrip- 
tive nomenclature of the Indians has been lost in multisyllabic monstrosities. Another 
peculiaritj" due to lack of education is shown in their personal appeUaiions. They ignored 
their family names. The son of Cornelius Baker, for example, would be christened Michael, 
but would be known as Michael Comelissen, that is. ComeUus Baker's son. Cornelius himself 
might have been the son of a man i^-ith another name and become Baker from the fortuitous 
circumstance that he supplied the staii of life. Many of the settlers were soldiers who had 
ser%-ed their time. Their passage in the company's ships and their allotment of land was a 
reward for faithful service. It is recorded that only three families among the earUer settlers 
were known by their family names, and the number of cruciform signatures among the early 
records gives a clue to the great diversity shown in spelling the names of persons and 
places. The use of the most familiar forms of spelling has been adhered to in this record 
for convenience. 



CHAPTER II. 

SEIZURE OF THE SETTLEMENT BY THE ENGLISH A PROPRIETARY GOVERNMENT FORMED— RE-CAP- 
TURE BY THE DUTCH — ANOTHER SURRENDER TO THE ENGLISH — A NEW CHARTER GRANTED 
BY QUEEN ANNE CLOSE OF THE SECOND COLONIAL PERIOD. 



FWr( .;*3HILE the Dutch were formina: small settlements around New Amsterdam, the En.i,dish 
IbI-.ls')! had founded colonies north and south of them and laid claim to all the intervening;- 
^IJLs&fflr, territory. Xew York and New Jersey had been included in several Ena;lish irrants 
Kv^^^r-j prior to and after the Dutch settlement, but no effort had been made to disturb the 
Dutch, thoug^h the Enjjlish were well informed of what they were doing-. 

On March 12, 1664, Charles II. granted to his brother James, Duke of York, all that part 
of New Netherlands lying east of Delaware Bay. On May 25th following, an expedition sailed 
from Portsmouth, England, to perfect the Duke's title by subjecting the Dutch to English 
authority. This expedition was under command of Sir Robert Carre, and his commission was 
dated April 26, 1664, several months before the time that war was declared by England against 
Holland. The fleet under Carre's command consisted of four vessels, with a land force of 300 
men. Gov. Stu\-\-esant received information of its coming from Thomas Willet, an English- 
man, about six weeks before the arrival of the vessels, and orders were issued to have the 
colonies put in a state of defence. The people of the -village of Bergen had a commission 
appointed to erect block houses for the protection of their town. The English appeared before 
they were completed. 

The English fleet arrived in the bay on August i6th, and Col. Richard Nicholl, who had 
command of the land forces, lost no time in summoning Gov. Stu^'^'esant to surrender. There 
were a number of letters written on both sides before the end came, but the result was inevi- 
table. Articles of capitulation were signed on August 27th. The terms were quite favorable 
to the Dutch, and most of the residents of New Netherlands took the oath of allegiance to 
England. 

While this fleet was still at sea, the Duke of York conveyed to John, Lord Berkeley, and 
Sir George Carteret the tract of land lying between the Hudson and Delaware rivers. In the 
deed it was ordered that the land should thereafter be known as Nova Cassarea or New Jersey. 
This was the first time the name was applied to the State. It was given out of compliment to 
Carteret, who had been Governor of the Isle of Jersey. Under their grant from the Duke, 
Berkeley and Carteret drew up a constitution for the State and appointed Philip Carteret, a 
brother of Sir George, as Governor. He arrived in July, 1665. Col. Nicholl, who had been 
appointed Governor of New York, acted as Governor of New Jersey also until Gov. Carteret 
came from England. Under his administration a legislative assembly was convened at Eliza- 
beth on April lo, 1664. Bergen was accorded two members of this assembly. They were 
Englebert Steenbuysen and Herman Smeeman. This was the first session of the New Jersey 
Legislature. 

Gov. Carteret made his home at Elizabeth, and soon after his arrival i.ssued an order to 
reorganize the court at Bergen. He appointed Capt. Nicola Varlett as President Judge, with 
Herman Smeeman and Caspar Steynmets, of Bergen, Elyas Michiels. of Communipaw, and Ide 
Van Vorst, of Pavonia, as assistants. The commissions bear the date of August 13, 1665. 
Tielman Van Vleck, the founder of Bergen, was subsequently made clerk of the court. 

The oath of allegiance was administered to the inhabitants of Bergen on November 20, 
1665. There were thirty-three signers. These did not include the residents of Pavonia, 
Paulus Hook or Communipaw, although these settlements were under the jurisdiction of the 
Bergen Court. The court granted the first lic|iior license on December 14, 1666, and Christian 
Pietersen was allowed to open an ordinary (ir victualing house to entertain strangers and to 
retail all sorts of drink. On April 7, 1668, an election was ordered, and Caspar Steynmets and 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 13 

Balthazar Bayard were chosen to attend the assembly at Elizabeth to be held on May 25th 
ensuing. 

Gov. Carteret pursued a very liberal policy in dealing- with the Indians and purchased 
from them their rights in the land. He also ordered that all comers were to purchase from 
the Indians, or if they settled on land already acquired they were to pay the proportionate 
part of this expense. By this means he made the Indians friendly and put an end to much 
of the suffering- which had been entailed by the cruelty and bad judgment of Gov. Kieft. Gov. 
Carteret confirmed the Dutch grants and deeds, and on September 20, 1668, granted a new 
charter to the town of Bergen. It gave religious freedom, provided a court, made pro\-ision for 
church and school, and confirmed all the rights the people had under the Dutch government. 
The territory included nearly all of Jersey City and Bayonne. Carteret also confirmed 
Planck's deed for Paulus Hook by patent dated May 12, 1668. The administration of 
Carteret was fortunate and attracted many immigrants as well as settlers from New England, 
and he remained governor until his death in 1682. 

The war which followed the capture of Xew Netherlands ended with the treaty of Breda, 
July 31, 1667, by which each party retained the territory they had taken during the contest. 
This confirmed the English claim to Xew Netherlands. In March, 1672, war again broke out 
between England and the Dutch States, and the Dutch sent a small fleet to harass the 
English shipping on the American coast. Two Dutch admirals combined their forces in 
Martinique and sailed for the Chesapeake with five vessels. Their captures increased their 
fleet to twenty-three vessels and they then decided to retake New York. The fleet anchored 
in New York Bay on July 29, 1673, and took possession of the city on the next day. On 
August 1 2th, the residents of the village of Bergen were summoned to surrender. The 
Bergen people did not wait long in obeying the order. They .surrendered very graciously. 
On the i8th they sent a list of their most prominent citizens with a request that the authorities 
of New York might select magistrates from among them. New Amsterdam had been renamed 
New York during the English occupancy. The Dutch again changed the name to New 
Orange. The newly appointed magistrates went to New Orange and were sworn in. A 
military company was also organized and officers appointed. The constant care of the Dutch 
after they regained the settlement was to prepare for a probable return of the English. The 
defences of New Orange were strengthened and enlarged, and the residents of the neigh- 
boring towns were enrolled in the militia. On December 22, 1673, the military company of 
Bergen was ordered to repair to New Orange. Compliance with the first order was not 
enforced, but on Friday, December 29th, the militia was ordered out, and when the Bergen 
contingent marched away there were but six men left in the town. One-third of the men 
were furloughed to attend to thre.shing grain, foddering cattle, and to maintain guard day and 
night to prevent a surprise which would cut them off from the city. Much preparation was 
made to defend the town against the English, but no attack was made and all their 
precautions were useless. The war was closed without becoming visible to the settlers. 
Peace was declared on February 9. 1674, by the treaty of Westminster. One clause in the 
treaty restored the country to the English. On November loth following, the final surrender 
took place and Dutch rule terminated. The manners and customs, the family names and 
many Dutch words were so deeply impressed on the settlement that they have not been 
effaced even at this late date, when the few small farms and broad marshes have become solid 
cities with a cosmopolitan population larger than that of the Dutchman's mother country. 

During the progress of the war Lord Berkeley sold his interest in the province of New 
Jersey to Edward Billinge, and later Billinge assigned to William Penn, Gawn Laurie and Nich- 
olas Lucas. To remove any cloud from the title which might have come from the Dutch occu- 
pation, Charles II. made a second grant to the Duke on June 29, 1674. The Duke then made a 
new grant to Sir George Carteret of the territory afterwards known as East Jersey. On July 
I, 1676, by the " Quintipartite Deed," the State was divided, and Sir George received the east- 
em portion in severalty. A number of transfers were made in the ownership, the last one being 
to a company of men who became known as the " Twenty-four Proprietors." The sale to them 
was confirmed by the Duke on March 14, 1683. In 1680 there were said to be about forty fam- 
ilies living in and around Communipaw, five families in Pavonia, about seventy families in and 
around Bergen, and one house on Paulus Hook. 



14 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

The government of East Jersey by the Proprietors was unsatisfactory both to the people 
and the Proprietors. In 1700 the people petitioned Kinjr William to take from the Proprietors 
the powers of Government. On April 17, 1702, Oueen Anne accepted the g-ovemment of the 
province. In the meantime the population was slowly increasing, and the common lands of the 
town caused a great deal of trouble. When Bergen was laid out each town lot had an outside 
farm to go with it. The remainder of the whole tract was common to all the residents, but the 
title was in the freeholders of Bergen. Land owners encroached on the common land, cut 
the common timber, refused to maintain the common fence.s, and in some instances built fences 
that cut off access to the water front. To remedy these and other evils the people petitioned 
the Queen for a new charter, and it was granted on January' 14, 17 14. The main feature of this 
charter was the power to sell the common land and to protect it. Tlie charter failed to accom- 
plish the object intended. The trouble was not ended until half a century later, when the com- 
mon land was surveyed and allotted to the freeholders. This was an event of the greatest im- 
portance, as it settled the ownership of more than 8,000 acres out of a total of 11,520 that were 
covered by the grant to the town and freeholders of Bergen. Ever>' foot of land embraced in 
the grant was surveyed, and a field book made, which remains to this day the basis for land 
titles in Jersey City. 




CHAPTER III. 

CONDITION OF PAULUS HOOK AT THE BF.OINXING OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR — ERECTION OF FORTI- 
FICATIONS BY LORD STIRLINT, — CAPTURE BY THE BRITISH — INCREASE OF THE FORTIFICATIONS — 
LIGHT HORSE HARRY's BRILLIANT RF.-CAPTURE OF THE FORTS — INCIDENTS OF THE WAR IN THE 
TOWN AND VICINITY EVACUATION BY THE BRITISH. 

^^URING the period between the charter by Queen Anne and the allotment of the 
common land in March, 1765, there was little of interest in the history of the settlers. 
They experienced the slow fjrowth of farminjj communities. Bergen remained as 
the head of the small settlements that were scattered over what is now the site of the 
city. The people assembled for worship in the log school house until 1680, when a small 
octagonal church edifice was built on the comer of what is now \'room Street and Bergen 
Avenue. It stood on a knoll in the corner of the graveyard, and its site still remains unbuilt 
upon, more than two centuries later. At the time that a more pretentious building was erected 
the site became a part of the graveyard and so it remains. It is now covered with the graves 
of the old worshippers and their descendants. 

Paulus Hook was considered the least valuable section of the future city. It remained in 
Planck's possession until i64_^, when he leased it to Cornells Arissen. Gov. Carteret confirmed 
Planck's grant in May, 166S, and his heirs sold it to Cornells Van Vorst on September 13, 1698. 
The consideration was ;i{^3oo, and the survey showed that it contained about sixty acres of up- 
land. This upland consisted largely of sand hills and there was but little arable land. What 
there was formed an outlying field in the Van Vorst farm on the mainland fronting on Harsimus 
Cove. Settlements had been formed at other points in what is now Hudson Count)' and in 
Essex, Union and other counties west of Hudson. The other settlements outstripped those on 
the site of Jersey City, some of them becoming towns of importance like Newark and Eliza- 
beth. The colonies in New England and New York on the north, and Pennsylvania, Virginia 
and other points on the south, grew rapidly and developed foreign and domestic commerce of 
importance. The City of New York, with its fine harbor, became a commercial centre, and the 
travel from points south and west converged at Paulus Hook as a natural point for crossing 
the Hudson River on the way to New York. This travel made a demand for better ferry facili- 
ties. The first ferry was established at Communipaw at the time the village of Bergen was 
started. 'William Jansen was the first ferryman, and his landing was at what is now the foot of 
Communipaw Avenue. Regular boats run by him and his successors made trips three times a 
week, but the ferry was never satisfactory to the people. A new post route had been estab- 
lished between New York and Philadelphia early in 1764 and a regular ferry was an important 
part of the plan. Abraham Mcsier, who owned a wharf at the foot of Cortlandt Street, in New 
York, and Michael Cornelissen made arrangements with Cornells Van Vorst for a landing at 
Paulus Hook. The ferry was maintained, with v<irying fortune, by .several lessees until the 
British occupation. The causeway that had been constructed to connect Paulus Hook with the 
mainland was repaired and made a charge on the ferry. A landing was built at the foot of 
Grand Street for the two periaguas, which made the trips across the river " as the wind 
served." 

The ferry road followed near the line of Newark Avenue as at present laid out, but from 
the easterly end of Newark Avenue it extended to a point twenty feet north of York Street and 
200 feet west of Washington Street. Thence it deflected to the east, crossing York Street at 
its intersection with Greene Street, and thence southerly to the ferry at the foot of Grand 
Street. Van Vorst laid out a small park, semi-circular in shape, at the foot of Grand Street, 
and the stages passed around it, after landing the passengers, in going back to the stables. 
Michael Cornelissen built a tavern and stables near the ferry stairs, at what is now the north- 
west comer of Grand and Hudson streets. The tavern faced the river and the outbuildings 



i6 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

were back of it. There were no other buildings on Paulus Hook at the outbreak of the war. 
The ferry and tavern beini; under the same manaijenieni, the boats were run in such a manner 
that the passenjjers from New Vork always arrived too late to catch the stage which left for the 
South in the morning. This compelled the travelers to remain over night in the tavern. The 
ferry became a valuable property almost from the beginning. In 1767 Van Vorst tried to ob- 
tain from the council of Proprietors of eastern New Jersey a title to the land under water. In 
response to his petition a survey was ordered and his offer of ^^lo per acre was accepted, but 
the land was not surveyed and he never received a title. In order to increase travel on the 
ferry a race track was laid out around the sand hills in 1769. The first race was run on it Oc- 
tober 9, 1769, and it was used for racing until June 13, 1804, except during the military 
occupation. 

The strategic importance of Paulus Hook was recognized earh- in the revolutionary con- 
test. When it became known that the British troops were preparing to leave Boston for New- 
York, Lord Stirling, then in command of the American forces in this vicinity, took steps to 
put Bergen and Paulus Hook in a condition for defence and to maintain communication with 
the interior. On March 18, 1776. he proposed to make a good road from Paulus Hook ferry to 
Brown's ferry on the Hackensack at the foot of what is now Mandeville Avenue, and to make an- 
other road from Weehawken to Dow's ferry on the Hackensack near the foot of Newark Avenue. 
The site of the old landing is now owned by the city. It was bought for the shore end of the 
water mains that cross the Hackensack just north of the Newark Avenue bridge. 

Lord Stirling intended to employ the Bergen militia on the works. He also de\-ised works 
on Paulus Hook and on Bergen Neck to prevent incursions from New York and Staten Island. 
He made a careful examination of the ground on March 33d and proposed to employ the 
Bergen, Essex and Middlesex county militia in constructing fortifications, but it was not until 
the arrival of Gen. Washington that the work was begun. The fortifications were soon com- 
pleted and were garrisoned by the middle of June. There w-ere three earthworks constructed, 
two above the ferry and one below it. The central works was known as the round redoubt. 
The southern works faced Communipaw Cove and the upper ones showed an angle to cover 
North Point and Harsimus Cove. 

On June 29th the advance guard of Admiral Howe's fleet consisting of forty vessels arrived 
in the lower bav, and by July ist the fleet of men-of-war and transports numbered 130 sail. The 
Tories, who had been quiescent on both sides of the river, then hastened to declare themselves 
for the King, and many who had taken an active part with the patriots forsook their friends to 
declare allegiance to England. At that time Gen. Hugh Mercer was in command of the Ameri- 
can forces on the western side of the Hudson and had his headquarters in Bergen. He placed 
guards at the Hackensack ferries and erected an earthwork fort on the hill now bounded by 
Avenues B and C, and Forty-fourth and Forty-fifth streets in Bayonne. He was much annoyed 
by the Tories. It was said there were only fourteen families living in Bergen from Hoboken 
to Bergen Point who were pronounced patriots. There were encounters between the patriots 
and the British at Bergen Point, but there was no attack on Paulus Hook until July 12th in the 
afternoon, when two men-of-war from the fleet in the bay passed Paulus Hook and gave the 
fortifications a broadside in passing.- They were answered from the fort, but the vessels were 
not damaged. That same evening Lord Howe sailed up the harbor. 

Gen. Mercer had about 8,300 men at points between Amboy and Bergen. Col. Bradley's 
regiment was in Bergen on August ist and 400 men were at Paulus Hook. The force at Bergen 
was known as a Flying Camp, and on August 15th it numbered 400 men. On August 28th 
Mercer received orders to concentrate his men to reinforce Washington who was engaged with 
the enemy on Long Island. The British veterans were drivmg the patriot army before them 
and help was urgently ntt?ded. Mercer put his forces in motion at once and soon had 2,500 
men at Paulus Hook and 4,000 in Bergen. The British captured New York City on September 
15th, and on the morning of that day two forty-gun and one twenty-gun men-of-war made an 
attack on Paulus Hook. The raw troops in the earthworks were not prepared fcjr such "a 
tremendous firing," and Gen. Mercer, in writing to Washington on September 17th, said they 
had "behaved in a scandalous manner, running off from their posts on the first cannonade 
from the ships of the enemy." During this action two of the shots took effect on the tavern, 
then occupied by Verdine Ellsworth. 



HISTORY OF JERSF.Y CITY. 17 

Col. Durkie remained in command of the patriot foree at Paulus Hook for a short time 
after New York was captured and Gen. Wa.shin<jton visited the post a number of times to rec- 
onnoitre while he had his headquarters at Harlem. The British could not allow the fort to 
remain in American hands, and Gen. Mercer, realizing that fact, had removed the stores and 
withdrawn the troops except a small fitiard. On September 23d, in the afternoon, the British 
fleet beg-an a cannonade on the batteries from tlie river and half an hour later landed a force 
from the ships and twenty boat-loads of troops from New York. They achieved a barren vic- 
tory. They got nothing but the dismantled fort. The Americans retreated to Bergen, with 
their outpost at Prior's mill, which stood (jn the hillside just above where ^Vcademy Street is 
now. The British at once began to strengthen the works on Paulus Hook and established a 
small post on the western edge of the upland near the present corner of Wayne and Monmouth 
streets. This post was called Fort Putnam, and nn one occasion a British sentry was killed there 
by a shot from Prior's mill. The last remnant of the hill on which the fort stood was removed 
last year. 

On October 4th Washington had his headquarters in Bergen and was beginning his retreat 
to the other side of the Delaware. He evacuated Bergen on the 5th, carrying away everything 
in the shape of military stores. Gen. Greene left 168 officers and men to watch the enemy. 
These men were posted at Bergen and other points on the west side of the Hudson. On Novem- 
ber 20th Fort Lee was evacuated, and Bergen was left to the undisputed possession of the British. 
Col. Abe Van Buskirk, a notorious Tory of Saddle River, was placed in command of Paulus 
Hook. The fort in Bayonne was also occupied and its name changed to Fort Delancey in honor 
of a New York Tory. make Paulus Hook a 

Both places were gar- - , ^ _.. part of the defences of 

risoned by Tory volun- • " "^ -•*.., New York, as well as the 

teers. They were very . •" ' gateway to the interior. 

zealous in murdering 'J-<^^.-_^ ' .^S:-"^-. It was naturally a strong 

and robbing their old ■: V ', ^.y- . t. .- j ,« i' ■ii"**?''^^ position. Harsimus 

neighbors. The re.giou ■ . ,...:■ '-.- -,-'-„ 1'". " Cove on the north, the 

now included in Hudson ■" ' '-'..^-. : '■' '^"" ;* Cj .;£ riS: i^ Hudson River on the 

County was raided with .,• ; ' , ■ " ^ ' \. ,^^r ^iCjCr -^ •;' east, and Communipaw 

great frequency by Brit- ^:^ ■J^^^^ — v -; - .J'^'"'"''^ ^a_-\.^.: Cove on the south, gave 

ish and Tory foraging ;~'^-^.-'' ,: .. ,-•''' ^ ' ^"'^ , . -«5^' ^"* ^' "^^^P ^^'^'er on three 
parties, and by Am eri- '^■- -■'••^:r«ffi'l'«»'^. ;^-;V JaSs^lfe^'^"^-^«»<jt>*^ sides. On the west the 
cans bent on reprisals. prior's mii-i,. tide ebbed and flowed 

The British decided to over the salt marsh. At 

ordinaryhigh tide boats could pass over the marsh and even over the road or causeway that con- 
nected Paulus Hook with the mainland. An elevated foot path had been made parallel to the road, 
to alloy/ pedestrians to pass at all conditions of the tide. This was known as Howe's bridge. A 
tidal creek extended from what is now the comer of Morris and \'an Vorst streets to the east side 
of Warren, thence westerlv on the line of York Street to a point near Van Vorst Street, thence 
northerly until it cros.sed Newark Avenue. Tliis creek had been enlarged and a ditch cut across 
from the Hne of Y'ork Street to the centre of the block between Grand and Sussex, 125 feet west 
of Warren. The ditch and creek were abi lut twenty feet wide and deep enough for ordinary boats 
to pass. The British cut a ditch from a point on the river near what is now the roadbed of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, fiftv feet west of Greene Street, to the main ditch on the line of Warren 
Street. A drawbridge was built over this ditch on Newark Avenue, and on the easterly side of 
the bridge an abatis was built provided with a strong barred gate. This was the only approach 
by land. A strong Une of abatis was built along the westerly side of the upland from Morris 
Street to Newark Avenue, and easterly to the river bank at Greene and Montgomery .streets. 
Three block houses were built. One on the upland near where Post's building is now on Mont- 
gomery Street, one near the corner of what is now Warren and Essex streets, and the third 
near the corner of Washington and Montgomery streets. An oblong earthwork fort eros.sed 
Grand Street 100 feet west of Greene Street. This fort had three guns, two twelve-pounders and 
one eighteen-pounder, and the magazine. Southwest of this, on a hill thirty feet above the 
present grade on Sussex Street, 100 feet east of Wa.shington, there was a circular redoubt sur- 
rounded by an abatis. Along the southerly side of the upland on the line of Essex Street, and 



i8 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

the present site of the sugar house, there was a row of four earthworks to prevent a landing 
being made from the cove on the south. The water supply was obtained from a spring about 
midway between Grand and Susse.K streets, on the lots now occupied by St, Matthew's and the 
Dutch Reformed Church buildings. A bur\-ing-ground was established on the west side of 
Washington Street between Sussex and Morris. When Washington Street was graded many 
bones were dug up. These were collected by Mr. George Dummer, and buried in a hogshead 
at the intersection of Morris and Washington streets. 

A garrison of two hundred men held Paulus Hook, and it was thought to be so secure that 
they became careless. This carelessness was observed by Capt. Allan McLane, who was in 
command of a party of observation. He informed Maj. Henry Lee, and suggested an attack on 
the fort. Maj. Lee, better known as "Light Horse Harry," formed a plan and submitted it to 
Washington. After its approval Lee made careful arrangements and left Paramus Church with 
between 400 and 500 men. He left camp at 10:30 o'clock in the morning of Wednesday, August 
i8, 1779. He marched by way of Weehawken and Hoboken, and thus failed to meet Lieut.- 
Col. Van Buskirk the Tory, who left Paulus Hook by way of Bergen that night at 9 o'clock, with 
130 men, to raid the vicinity of Englewood. 

The garrison had been reinforced by a captain and forty men from New York to make up 
for the men taken on the raid. A signal had been agreed upon between Maj. Sutherland, the 
commandant of the fort, and Gen. Pattison, commanding in New York, by which Sutherland 
was to fire two cannons and display three lights in case of an attack. Maj. Lee's force moved 
as rapidly as possible, but it was after 3 o'clock on Thursday morning when they reached New- 
ark Avenue and Grove Street. The tide was rising and would soon overflow the roadway. No 
time was to be lost. Itwasnearing ^-^ rely on the bayonet. The attack 

half -past three when they reached / "^v-^ was so impetuous that the garrison 

the comer of Warren Street and .f^ ^ ;^ '^^'^^ panic stricken. ;\Iaj. Suther- 

Newark Avenue. The guard was p ^'i^ land, with twenty-five Hessians, 

either asleep or mistook them for a.'T'^-' S3 fled to the rotmd redoubt and 

Col. Van Buskirk's men coming ^i', '' ' \^ opened fire on the Americans, 

back, and it was not until the men >.°,'^-, ^^ This resistance probably deter- 

plunged into the ditch that their / ' -A mined the hasty retreat. The 

presence or identity was discovered. / .'-'A main magazine was at that time on 

Then the guards fired and Lee's .-m-r^.^^-^:^>ft~V^^ Washington Street, about 100 feet 
men, their ammunition destroyed ' ^^;^* ■'^^xs^iiK - : ^ south of what is now the Morris 
by their ducking, were forced to major lee. Canal bridge, and below the round 

redoubt. It was not destroyed. Lee's attack was delayed later than he intended, and at 4 
o'clock the firing of guns in the British fleet warned him that it was time he was moving. He 
had made 159 prisoners, and had a dangerous retreat of fourteen miles to make with men 
exhausted by over sixty-five miles of marching and a sleepless night. They had no ammuni- 
tion, and were exposed to attack by superior force at many points. His retreat was as success- 
fully made as the attack had been, and his capture of the fort was one of the most brilliant 
events of the war. He was congratulated on all hands, and received a medal and the thanks of 
Congress. Washington made an award of $15,000 to be divided among the men engaged in the 
affair as a special recognition of their gallantn.'. 

In December, 1779, Gen. Wayne moved down from Tappan and established his headquar- 
ters at Bergen. He remained nearh' a month, but merely to maintain a post of observation. 
The residents of Bergen and vicinity were in the habit of going to New York to sell farm pro- 
duce and purchase supplies for their families. This fact became known to the Tories, because 
permits to cross had to be obtained from Col. Van Buskirk, in command of Paulus Hook. The 
ferr>'boats had been impressed for military ser\-ice, and the residents crossed in skiffs from 
Communipaw. The Tories made a practice of robbing them on their return. This was such a 
frequent occurrence that the residents arranged a signal to give warning to the people in the 
skiffs that the Tories were waiting for them. There was a bam on what is now Phillips Street, 
a short distance below Communipaw Avenue, which had a door divided in two parts, and it 
could be seen a long distance from the shore. The upper half was left open as a signal of safety. 
When It was shut the .skiffs landed on Ellis Island and remained until the coast was clear. 

Among the residents of Bergen who made a practice of going to New York to sell produce 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



19 



:/J 






'. 5iL> 


'-'i. 


^■^'"^ 


-^u> 


^ i ^- 


^r/ 


(\ 


.:^^--l 


(--■ " 



was Mrs. Tuers, who lived at what is now the comer of Berg-en Avenue and Church Street. 
She, in common with all who went on similar errands, put up at " Black Sam's" hotel in New 
York. Sam was a patriot, and knew that Mrs. Tuers was reliable. Under a pledg-e of secrecy 
he told her that he had heard British officers, who frequented his hotel, talking- about a con- 
spiracy in the American camp. When she came home she told her brother, the grandfather of 
the present Mr. C. C. Van 
Reipen. He went to Hack- 
ensack and told General 
Wayne, who sent word to 
Washington. Wayne of- 
fered to reward Mr. Van 
Reipen with money, but the 
sturdy old patriot refused 
to accept it, saying : " I do 
not serve my country for 
money, but if I am cap- 
tured I would like Gen. 
Washington to protect 
me." That report gave 
Washington the clue to 
Benedict Arnold's treach- 
ery, which was discovered 
a few days later. The 
Tuers mansion was torn surprise of p.\ulus hook, august ■„ .779. (From an old cud 

down last year to clear the site for the new armory. 

The winter of 1779-80 was unusually severe, and the Hudson River was frozen over. Wood 
became very scarce in New York, and fuel became so dear that the British commandant limited 
the price that could be charged to four pounds sterling per cord. The Tories organized wood- 
chopping parties and stole the timber from the west side of the river. They built a block- 
house at Bergen and Woodlawn avenues and a small earthwork on the east side of Caledonia 
Park, near Academy Street, to protect themselves while cutting wood. A number of skir- 
mishes occurred between the Americans and the woodchoppers, but none within Jersey City 
territory. 

On August 24, 1780, Gen. Lafayette marched from near Fort Lee to Bergen, which he 
reached at i o'clock in the morning. Col. Stuart's regiment was thrown out as a skirmish line 

toward Paulus Hook. In the morning the 
troops were marched to the brow of the hill 
east of Bergen in full view of the enemy. 
Their point of obser\'ation was on Waldo 
Avenue between Henr}- Street and Magnolia 
Avenue, around a large tree known to the old 
settlers as the " oude boom," and to the people 
living here during the first half of this cen- 
tury as " The King of the Woods." The tree 
was cut down December 20, 1871. 

The sketch given herewith was made by 
Alexander McLean in 1858, and gives a fair 
idea of the historic old tree and the appear- 
ance of the first roadway graded on the hill- 
side prior to consolidation. 

During Lafayette's stay in Bergen he sent 

infantry as far as Bergen Point on foraging 

•■THE KING OF THE WOODS." expedition.s. He made his headquarters at 

Hartman Van Wagenen's house on Academy Street, west of Bergen Square, and there, late in 

August, he entertained Gen. Washington. They dined in the orchard back of the house under 

an apple tree. This tree was blown down in a gale on September 3, 1821. When Lafayette 




HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



visited this country in 18^4 he passed throutjh Berg-en on Thursday, September i4th, and was 
met by the entire population at the Five Corners. He was presented with a handsome cane 
made from tlie wood of that apple tree. It was mounted with gold and bore this inscription : 
"Shaded the hero and his friend Washington in 1779 ; presented by the Corporation of Bergen 
in 1824." The presentation speech was made by Dominie Comelison, whose grave is on Vroom 
Street near Tuers Avenue. 

The Tories and patriots continued to forage in the vicinity of Bergen, but the Briti.sh had 
no foothold in Xew Jersey, except Paulus Hook. The block-house at Bull's Ferry, which had 
been the scene of active skirmishing, was abandoned by the vvoodchoppers in November, 17S0. 



!•« . .- "; 




n .' 


^-.n 


h 


i 

.'i 

- ' \ 

■ -3 


L. ...... ....... ^.^. 


.0.- S.,*f "'iijL. . i^ 



THE OLD TUERS HOMi:STE.\D. 

The Tories who had been in it transferred their energies to the Bayonne section. They occupied 
Fort Delancey and stole a great deal of wood in that section. Garret Vreeland, who owned 
timber on the land now covered by the New York Bay Cemetery, went to the commissary 
department and obtained an order to save his standing timber. It was obeyed in the letter, 
but not in the spirit, for much of the timber was girdled and spoiled. 

Fort Delancey was abandoned in September, 1782. The quarters were burned, and on 
October 5th the Tories and renegades, who had harassed the people for years, were shipped to 
Nova Scotia. The removal of the Tories put an end to the petty robberies and cowardly 
murders, but the British troops continued to send foraging expeditions from the fort at Paulus 
Hook until November 22, 1783, when it, too, was evacuated. Two days later New York was 
given up by the British and the war was over. 



CHAPTER IV. 



>RP()RATION OF THE ASSOCIATES OF THE JERSEV COMPANY PURCHASE OF PAULCS HOOK 

RIVAL TOWNS OF VAX VORST AND HOIioKEX THE FOUNDERS OF THE FUTURE CITY THEIR 

EFFORTS TO BUILD A CITY THE PROPRIETARY GOVERNMENT IT WAS A FAILURE. 

!ROM the time that Henry Hudson received yifts of fruits and veg-etables until the end 
|»>i?5l of the colonial period, nearly two centuries later, the future possibilities of the land 
on the west side of the river were not reeojjfnized. The marshes were looked upon 
as worthless and the upland was valued only for timber and agriculture. The whole 
history from i6og until the revolutionary period might be releg-ated to the antiquaries so far as 
it concerns the city that has grown up where Paulusen lived in a log hut and " trafficked with 
the Indians." 

In looking back alon.g the path of time for the germ of the present city, that June day in 
1764, when the ferry was established, stands out as the dividing line between the sandhills and 
the city. No shadow of the coming event was visible to the men who directed those puny 
ferrj-boats. They were simply breadwinners, engaged in their daily toil. Their enterprise 




i;5 






^v^:^^I'- 









PAULUS HOOK AND VAN VORST 

had many vicissitudes. It was taxed more than it would bear. It was stamped out under the 
iron heel of war, and for a quarter of a century had produced but one house in Paulus Hook, 
but it directed the current of travel. The river checked the current as carbon stays electricity, 
and in time there were men who saw the li.ght and recognized auroral flashes from beyond the 
horizon of futurity. 

After the war closed the ferry was resumed and the farming days on Paulus Hook came 
to an end. The resumption of business caused an increase of travel and the number of stage 
coaches rose to twenty a day arriving and departing from the tavern at the foot of Grand 
Street, and the rental of the ferry, paid to the city of Xew York, wrs S^.i^^s per annum. Enter- 
prising men of means were not wanting to embrace the opportunities that were offered. 

The land lying east of Bergen Hill, between Hoboken and Communipaw Cove, was divided 
between the Van Vorst estate, which included Paulus Hook and a large tract forming nearly 
the northern half of the area known in colonial times as the Duke's Farm. This northern 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



section had conflicting claimants, but they all combined to sell the land to John B. Coles, of 
New York. The purchase price was $34,285.75, out of which the town of Bcrg-en received 
$14,285.75 for its title to the land under its orij^inal g'rant, in which this territory was a part of 
the common land. The deed bears date of Feb. 4, 1804, thus making- Coles the pioneer in the 
new life that was then beginning to appear. Coles was a public-spirited man of large means. 
He was bom on Long Island Dec. 31, 1760, and was in his forty-fourth year when he enga.ged 
in this enterprise. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Benjamin Underhill, Sept. 22, 1781. He 



remained a resident of Xew 
York, where he was a prom- 
inent flour merchant, and 
lived on State Street. He 
was an alderman from the 
first ward eight years and 
served as a State senator. 
He died Jan. 2, 1S27, and 
was buried in Trinity 
churchyard. 

Coles had his purchase 
surveyed and laid out in 
city blocks, with streets at 
right angles. There were 
294 blocks, all but four of 
which contained thirty-two 
lots, each twenty-five by 
one hundred feet. 

While Coles had been 
treating with the numerous 
interests concerned in the 
West India Company's or 



'My 



/ 




A^^ 



Duke's farm, Anthony 
Dey, a successful young 
lawyer of New York, had 
been negotiating with Cor- 
nelius Van Vorst for the 
purchase of Paulus Hook 
and its fern- privilege. He 
did not succeed in buying 
the land, but he secured an 
agreement, on February' 
22, 1804, by which he was 
to get possession of the 
land and ferr^- for a per- 
petual annuity of six thou- 
sand Spanish milled dol- 
lars. This lease was to be 
secured by an irredeemable 
mortgage. Thus within 
eighteen days of each other 
two movements were be- 
gun which had important 
bearings on the history of 



the future city. The 
activity of these pro- 
gressive men stimu- 
lated John Stevens, of 
Hoboken, to an active 
rivalry which bred 
competition that still 
remains as a legacy 
long after its origina- 
tors have joined the 
silent majority. Ho- 
boken was part of the 
territory secured from 
the West India Com- 
pany by Pauw, and it 
passed into the Com- 
pany's hands when 
Pauw surrendered his 
land and his title of 
Patroon. Hendrick 
Comelissen Van Vorst, eldest son of Pauw's Commissary at Harsimus, occupied it under a lease 
until his death in 1639. In 1640 it was leased to Aert Tcunissen Van Putten for twelve years, 
but Van Putten was killed and the farm and brewen,- which he had built were destroyed by the 
Indians in 1643. The next owner was Nicola Varlett. His widow married Nicholas Bayard, 
a man of means, who built a mansion on Castle Point. It remained in that family's possession 
until 1784. William Bayard, the owner of that time, was a pronounced patriot at the beginning 





HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 23 

of the troubles w-ith Enjjland, but became scared when the British occupied New York. He 
was as active as a Tor\' a.s he had previously been as a patriot. His estate was confiscated by 
the government and sold, on March 16, 17S4, to John Stevens. He made no effort to found a 
city on his purchase until attention was attracted to the two settlements south of him. The 
newspapers of the day spoke very favorably of the plans to found towns on the west side of the 
river, and Stevens evidently resolved to benefit bv the work done by his neighbors. Each .settle- 
ment had ferr}- privileges, and each apparently had an even start. Stevens made more haste 
than the others, and he offered lots for sale at auction, at the Tontine Coffee House, on March 
20, 1804. He got ahead of his competitors at that time, but his haste did not avail. The efforts 
put forth simultaneously for the three embryti towns scr\-ed to enlighten everybody in relation 
to what was going on and the possibilities of the future for the west side of the Hudson. The 
efforts of Dey and Coles were carried on in a friendly spirit, and their sections rapidly distanced 
the colonial settlements at Bergen and other points in the county. Paulus Hook took the lead 
in this progressive movement and became the point to which the others gravitated. Thus the 
historj- of the De)' purchase became the historj- of the city. 

The men who took an active part in founding the city were Van Vorst, who owned the 
land when the idea was put in a tangible form ; Anthony Dey, who negotiated the transfer, and 
Richard Varick and Jacob Radcliffe, who were jointly interested with Dey in the enterprise. 
Their position and character, as well as 
their part as founders of the city, makes 
them worthy of special mention. 

Cornelius Van \'orst was born in the 
Van Vorst homestead on Henderson 
Street. He was of the fifth generation 
in descent from the Comelis Van Vorst 
who was a superintendent for the Dutch 
West India Company, and in the fourth 
from the Ide Van Vorst who was cap- 
tured by the Indians and ransomed at 
Tappan in 1643, the first boy bom and 
married in New Netherlands. Cornelius 
was born November 25, 1728. He was 
known as " Faddy," and was at the time 
the revolutionary war broke out reputed 
to be the wealthiest man in the county. He was 36 years old when he established the ferry 
from Paulus Hook. He w^as fond of fun and good horses and a practical joker. He took strong 
ground against the stamp act and other impositions which led to the war. At a meeting held 
in Hackensack, June 25, 1774, he was appointed to correspond with the other counties to 
arrange for an election of delegates to a Congress of Delegates of the American Colonies. On 
June 29th he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the Bergen battalion by the Provincial Con- 
gress. \^Tien the British took Paulus Hook, his house fronting on Harsimus Cove was taken 
possession of by cavalr>' officers, and he and his family forced to live in the kitchen. A part of 
that kitchen is still standing and forms part of the house at the comer of Fourth and Henderson 
streets. Cornelius died September 30, 181S. His descendants still reside in this city. 

Anthony Dey was bom in Preakness in 1776. He was descended from Theunis Dey who 
owned a farm fronting 300 feet on Broadway and 800 feet on the Hudson River. His lane is 
now Dey Street, New York. His son. Dirck Dey, bought a farm of 800 acres at Singack, 
Bergen County. Dirck's son Theunis built a stone mansion at Preakness which was twice used 
as headquarters by Washington, and is still standing. Theunis became colonel of the Bergen 
county militia. Richard, his son, was major in the same regiment. Anthony, his son bom in 
the family mansion, was graduated at Columbia College, studied law with Col. Varick, his 
uncle by marriage, and was a successful lawyer. He was twenty-eight years old when he 
became one of the founders of Jersey City. At one time he owned much of the Hackensack 
meadow and all of the site of Harrison township opposite Newark. He was many years a director 
of the New Jersey Railroad Company. He died in 1859, in his eighty-third year, leaving one 
son, James R., who also left one son, Richard Varick Dey, now a resident of Pasadena, California. 




VAN VORST HOMESTEAD. 



24 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



Jacob Radcliffe was bom at Rhincbeck, April 30, 1764, j;raduated at Princeton, 1783, 
studied law with Atty.-Gen. Eg-bert Benson of New York, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1786. He was a member of the New York Assembly, 1794-95 ; assistant attorney-general, 
1796; justice Supreme Court, 179S to 1S04, when he resigned He was twice mayor of New 
York, i8io-i5,and a member of the Constitutional Convention, 1821. He died on May 30, 1841. 

Richard \'arick was born in Hackensack in 1753, admitted to the bar in 1774, and 
appointed military secretary-general in June, 1775, with the rank of captain. In February, 
1776, Congress appointed him deputy-commander-general of Mu.sters for the Northern 
army, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was present at the battle of Stillwater and 
Saratoga. After Burgoyne's surrender Yurick became aid-de-camp to Arnold at West Point. 
Soon after Arnold's treason Yarick became a member of Washington's militarv family, 
serving as military secretary. After the British evacuated New York, Y'arick was appointed 
recorder of the city and held the office until 177S. The following year he became attornev- 



• general of New York 
.State. He was subse- 
quently for twelve 
years mayor of New 
York, and was presi- 
dent of the Cincinnati 
for nearly thirty years. 
He died in Jersey City, 
July 30, 1831, and has 
numerous descendants 
still residents of the 
city he helped to fecund. 

Thus it will be seen 
that the founders of the 
city were men of mark 
in their time and 
worthy to be held in 
remembrance. 

The location of the 
marsh and upland as 
shown in this map is 
nearly correct. There 
were but two dwellings 
on Paulus Hook when 
the new city was pro- 
jected. They were 




both small buildings. 
One was the tavern 
then occupied by Maj. 
David Hunt, and two 
large stables connect- 
ed with it, and the other 
was a small shanty 
erected by John Mur- 
phy, the first Irishman 
who lived in the city. 
He kept an eating- 
house, and his sign was 
odd enough to attract 
attention. It was in- 
scribed : "Oygh-stors 
for Sale Hear." His 
wife aided him in pro- 
viding cheaper meals 
than could be obtained 
at the tavern. Besides 
these buildings and the 
ferry house there w-as 
a small store near the 
ferry, three small sta- 
bles adjoining it on the 
south side of the street. 



a shed south of the stables, and a hay scale. These sheds and stables had been built by 
Maj. Hunt, and in the sale were valued at SSoo, which Dey agreed to pay. The whole 
number of persons living on Paulus Hook numbered fifteen including boatmen. Maj. Hunt 
had a lease of the ferry from \'an Yorst which would not expire until May i, 1805. He sur- 
rendered the lease to Dey for S600, reserving the right of ferry and the privilege of three days' 
horse racing on the course during the following month of May. Dey also agreed to keep in 
order the causeway over the meadow between Paulus Hook and the mainland. This burden 
was obligatory on the owner of the ferry by an act of the legislature passed September 12, 
1766. He also agreed to pay $600.77, being half the amount that Maj. Hunt .spent in building 
a new wharf and stairs at the ferry in i8or. Dey had agreed to interest Hunt in twenty shares 
of the stock of the new company that was to be organized and to lease to him two lots on 
Grand Street extending through to York Street. Hunt agreed to build a stone or brick build- 
ing on these lots from plr.n.s to he furnished by Dey. Hunt also .stipulated that he was to have 
a lease of the ferry for two years after May i. 1805, at an annual rental of $1,500. 

These preliminaries being settled, Yan \'orst conveyed to Dey on March 26. 1804. The 
original agreement was to convey the land with the creek and ditch for a boundar\% but for 
convenience the western boundary was maile a straight line. The description in the deed was ; 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 25 

" Bounded on the east hy Hudson's River : on the north by paid river, or the hay commonly 
called Harsimus Bay: on the south by the said river or the bay commonly called ('ommunipaw 
Bay ; and on the v>'est by a line drawn from a stake standing on the west side of the small creek 
on the southwest side of the said tract (from which stake the fla<iStafF on Ellis Island bears 
south one def^ee, twenty minutes east ; and from which the chimney of the house of Stephen 
Vreeland on Kaywan bears south fifty-six detrrces. ten minutes west ; and from which the 
steeple of the Bcrfjcn Church bears north fifty dctrrees, twenty minutes west) ; north twenty- 
six degrees, thirty minutes east to Harsimus Bay aforesaid, tof^ether with the right of ferry 
from the said tract or parcel of land across Hudson's River and elsewhere, and the right and 
title of the said Cornelius Van Vorst under the water of Hudson's River and the bays afore- 
said opposite the said premises as far as his right to the same extends." 

These bounds include 117 acres and 68-100 of an acre. So far as appears on the records 
Dey had become the sole owner of the lands and hereditaments. It was known that he had 
associated with him not only the two who became prominent as the founders, but a number of 
other well-known men whose character and wealth were a guarantee of success. 

The efforts being made by Stevens and Coles to force their lots on the market evidenth' 
caused Dey and his associates to put the Panlus Hook property before the people at once. 
On April 12, 1804, before anything was done on the land or the company organized, the sale 
was ordered. The advertisement set forth the scheme very fully. It said : 

"The proprietors of Powles Hook have lately completed their purcha.se, and agreed with 
Mr. Hunt, the present occupant, to deliver the possession of the premises to them (except the 
ferrj" buildings now occupied by him), and they give notice that they will commence the sale of 
lots at Powles Hook at public vendue on Tuesday, the 15th day of May next, at Powles Hook, 
and on the succeeding day at the Tontine Coffee House in the City of New York. The sales 
will commence at 12 o'clock, at noon, each day. A map of the whole ground will be exhibited, 
and the conditions of sale made known by the ist day of May next, at the office of Mr. Dey, 
No. 19 Pine Street, in the City of New York, and also on the days of sale. 

"An accurate survey of the premises is now making, which will include the extent of the 
grounds both at low and high water m.ark, and the soundings in the river to the depth of 
sixteen feet at low water, for the purpose of building docks or whar\-es at proper distances in 
the channel, which closely approaches the shore along the whole front upon the river. 

" The different elevations of the groimds will also be accurately taken, in order to ascertain 
a proper height for the central streets, from which the most advantageous descent will be 
given in ever)' direction to the water. It is proper to notice that the whole premises will be 
surrounded by the waters of the Hudson. The tide at present, unless obstructed, flows through 
a small ditch in the rear, which extends from the North to the South Bay. A straight canal, 
along the line by which the proprietors are bounded on the west is proposed to be opened, of 
sufficient depth and dimensions for the passage of fiat-bottomed boats, by which the whole 
tract will be insulated, and possess the benefits of navigation on every side. The natural 
shape of the grounds, connected with these and other advantages, will also furnish a fair 
opportunity to determine by experiment how far local situation, with the aid of proper regu- 
lations, will tend to protect the health of its inhabitants. This is an object which shall receive 
an early and strict attention. 

"It has probably been already understood that the proprietors could not effect the pur- 
chase on any other terms than that of a perpetual annuity to the former owner, commencing 
from and after the first day of May, 1805, u-hich is chargeable on the premises, and they are 
aware that without explanation this might be considered as an objection in the minds of scrupu- 
lous individuals. On this subject the fullest satisfaction will be given. An ample provision 
will be made by the institution of a fund to be vested in trustees, equivalent in its annual prod- 
uct to the amount of the annuity, which shall be solely appropriated to that object until the 
right can be extinguished. In addition to this fund a small ground rent will be reserved, which 
alone, in the aggregate, will be e(iual to this annuity, and will also be pledged for its payment. 
The manner of providin.g this fund, and of pledging the ground rent as an additional securitv 
will also be shown on the first day of May next, at the office of Mr. Dey. The gentlemen al- 
ready associated with the proprietors, and interested in the purchase in this State and in the 
State of New Jersey, are numerous and respectable, both in property and in character, and are 



26 HISTORY OF JERSFA' CITY. 

determined to enter into the most effectual arranpfements for this purpose, and if it shall be 
deemed expedient they have no doubt that letjislative aid will be afforded. The contract for 
the purchase of Po\\les Hook was made a few days before the Le;^islaturc of Xew Jersev, at 
their last session, adjourned. An application for a partial incorporation, with powers adequate 
to this object as well as to the purpose of local regulation and police was then made, but the 
legislature having resolved to adjourn there was no time to act upon it with effect. Sensible, 
however, of the importance of promoting the establishment at Powles Hook, the committee to 
whom the petition on this subject was referred in the Honorable the Assembly of that State 
made the following- report, which was adopted by the House: 

" House of Assembly, 
"February 29, 1S04. 

" The committee to whom was referred the petition from a number of inhabitants of the 
States of New York and New Jersey, praying an act of incorporation to assist them in erecting 
a city at Powles Hook, report : 

"That j'our committee having gone into a considerable investigation of the subject .sub- 
mitted to their consideration, are of the opinion that this State would derive important advan- 
tages from the establishment contemplated by the petitioners, at the same time considering it 
a matter which ovight to be thoroughly investigated ; knowing the situation of the legislature 
at a very late hour of the session, and conceiving no serious inconvenience can arise from a few- 
months' delay, are of the opinion the petitioners ought to have leave to present a bill, agreeably 
to their request, on the first Monday of the next sitting of the Legislature." 

"From these proceedings and the ob\-ious advantages which in a public view must attend 
the success of the establishment at Powles Hook, there can be no doubt but it will receive the 
patronage of that State. The people of New Jersey cannot be insensible to their interest on 
this occasion, and there is reason to believe that they are fully impressed with the importance 
of the object. The natural advantages of the place, its healthy situation, the hope of protecting 
it, by immediate regulations for that purpose, against the dreadful scourge which has so long- 
afflicted some of our principal cities, its vicinity to this City, and to the ocean, the benefits of an 
easy and free navigation, the patronage of the State to which it belongs, the expectation of its 
being soon made a port of entry, and its claims to the privileges of other commercial establish- 
ments, are considerations which must readily occur to every reflecting mind and afford sufficient 
inducements to men of capital and enterprise to secure to themselves a portion of the advan- 
tages which it promises." 

The map was not ready at the time of the sale, and for that reason and on account of bad 
weather the sale was postponed. On May 16, 1S04, Joseph F. Mangin completed the map of 
Paulus Hook, and it Vi-as hung up in the Tontine Coffee Hou.se in New York. The sale still 
hung fire and was adjourned until June 12th, 13th and 14th. 

The streets were laid out at right angles and 1,344 lots were laid down on the map. The 
north end of the tract was two blocks wide from east to west, and the south end was four blocks 
wide. The eastern boundary was Hudson Street, which was laid in the water except a small 
piece of upland which extended outward at Morris Street, and was sub.sequently occupied by 
the Fairbanks scale works. The building- was destroyed by fire on June 18, i88g. 

The southern boundary was South Street, subsequently called Mason Street, which was 
vacated by the city a few years ago. The northerly boundary was Harsimus, now First Street. 
The upland was nearly circular, and its greatest length was from 100 feet north of Montgomery 
Street to 175 feet south of Essex Street. More than half of the land was marsh and land under 
water. The westerly boundary was a line drawn from the ea.st side of South Street to a point 
near the corner of First and Washington streets. 

Dey and his associates intended that the western boundary of the coming city should front 
on a tide water canal. Their plan contemplated the formation of an island bordered bv piers 
and docks and surrounded by navigable water. Their successors committed an unpardonable 
blunder in changing the plan. Through this change the city has lost commercial prestige, and 
has had an expensive annoyance entailed on it by the sewage problem involved in destroving 
natural drainage. A similar and more inexcu.sable blunder was committed at a later date when 
Mill Creek was filled in, as will appear later. 



CHAPTER V. 

OBSTACLES IN THE WAY OF THE LITTLE CITY THE ASSOCIATES' MORTGAGE AND THE DISPUTED 

WATER FRONT — THE CITY GETS ITS NAME AND A MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT — SLOW GROWTH 
UNDER THE SELECTMEN — FULTON's FIRST STEAMBOAT EUILT. 



^ ".y^A ^'HE men who conceived the idea of foainding^ the city had iinUmited confidence in their 
fc-8_ •> enterprise, and left nothing undone that was within their power to add to the proba- 
bility of ultimate success. They recognized the fact that they would need all the 
assistance that could be obtained, and the most available plan for securing it w^as to 
organize a corporation. Among the preliminary steps to accomplish this, and still retain what 
was looked upon as the most valuable part of their purchase, Dey conveyed to Abraham Varick 
the tract as he bought it from Van Vorst. This was on April i8, 1S04. The next day Abraham 
conveyed to Richard Varick. Jacob Radcliffe and Anthony Dey the two blocks on Hudson 
Street between York and Grand streets, containing sixty-four lots, and the wharves, and the 
riparian right from high to low water mark along four hundred and eighty feet of frontage, with 
the exclusive right of ferry from ever}- part of Paulus Hook. On April 20th, Abraham con- 
veyed the remainder of Paulus Hook U> \'.irick, Radcliffe and Dey as co-tenants. The descrip- 
tion in the Van Vorst deed was used, except the reservation of the two blocks, the water front 
and ferry privilege. 

Two problems were presented to the proprietors at the verv' outset of their enterprise, and 
their friends north of them probably aided in presenting them. The first was the difficulty of 
giving title to the purchasers of lots, and the other was the alleged jurisdiction of New York 
to high water mark on the Jersey side of the river. These problems had caused a postpone- 
ment of the auction sale to May 15th, and again to the middle of June and later. 

The Van Vorst mortgage was a lien on all the place, and the new proprietors agreed to 
enter into a covenant with all who would purchase lots that they would sell as many lots, 
charging each lot sold with such an annual rent, less than its annual value, as would produce, 
in the aggregate, the annual sum of eight thousand dollars, and that so much of the fund as 
might be necessar)- should be applied yearly to the payment of the Van Vorst annuity, the 
surplus to be divided among the proprietors, and when the annuity should be extinguished the 
whole of the annual sum was to go to the proprietors. They also agreed to unite with the 
purchasers in applying for the incorporation of trustees in whom the money pledged for the dis- 
charge of the annuity should be vested. They had been unable to induce Van Vorst to accept 
any eqttivalent for the annuit)-, and they were forced to offer peculiar deeds with this covenant 
in them. This made investors wary of purchasing. 

A more serious obstacle was offered by the claim from beyond the river that the Corpora- 
tion of New York owned the land under water up to low water mark on the Jersey shore. 
This claim, if allowed, would have prevented the proprietors from reaching deep water, and 
would have been fatal to the new entei-prise. The proprietors were all lawyers and had exam- 
ined into the question of jurisdiction. They held that the extension of territory,- caused by 
wharfing would be under Xew Jersey jurisdiction. They said, the river is a public highway, 
and therefore they had a right to reach it from their land for the purpose of navigation. In 
any event, they claimed that Congress had a right to make the new city a port of entr\', and 
thus give it jurisdiction. The questions involved were submitted to their counsel, Alexander 
Hamilton and Joseph Ogden Hoffman, and they gave a guarded answer, in which they said 
New York had no property right of soil or title to the land under water at Paulus Hook. 

This opinion was published in advertisements of the proposed sale and the New York 
Common Council at once took steps to prevent an infringement of its alleged rights. The City 
Counsel, on May 19, 1804, in reply to questions submitted by the Common Council, announced 



iS ■ HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

that the City of New York had no title to the land under water at Paulus Hook, but claimed 
that the land belon>,'-ed to the State of New York. He also claimed a ri^ht for the city of jiiri-s- 
diction to low water mark, and that an attempt to erect a wharf in Paulus Hook would be an 
infringement of Xew York City's jurisdictional rights. Other counsel consulted agreed that 
the land belonged to the State of Xew York and the jurisdiction to the City of New York. 
Acting under this advice the Corporation of Xew York gave notice that any encroachment 
made at Paulus Hook without its permission would be at the peril of the persons concerned. 
This apparently put an end to the efforts to sell lots by auction. The men engaged in the en- 
terprise were not going to be daunted by such opposition. Having failed by direct means to 
prevent the claim of New York from becoming effective, they adopted a more conciliatory plan, 
and on June :;6, 1804, induced the Common Council to pass resolutions promising every facility 
to make improvements at Paulus Hook. The boundary dispute was not settled until eighty- 
five years later, and the early proprietors were hampered by the uncertainty engendered by 
New York pretensions. They had confidence in their claim to ownership, but could not inspire 
purchasers with similar confidence. 

The proprietors had made contracts on May 20th for the erection of two wharves to be ex- 
tended out to twelve feet of water at low tide, and had employed a number of cartmen ard 
laborers to begin grading. It was their intention to use the sand hills to fill in the marsh land. 
This work was carried on slowly during the summer more for the effect it might have on the 
intended auction sale than for actual gradings. The obstacles prevented the sale from taking 
place and only seven persons had agreed to buy lots. These were all on Morris and Montgom- 
ery streets. The Morris Street lots on the Schedule were : Nos. 34 and 36, to John B. Coles 
for $450 ; No. 25, to Phillip D. Keteltas for S230 ; No. 40, to Adam Hurd for .-^250, and No, 42, 
to Joseph Lyon for .$250. The Montgomen.- Street lots were : No. 30, to Robert Allison and 
James Morton for $200, and No. 48, to James Abeel for §250. Each was subject to a ground 
rent of $12. 

The title to the land still remained in the three purchasers, who were known as the pro- 
prietors. There were others interested with them in the enterprise, who became known in the 
preliminary legal proceedings as the associates of the proprietors, a name which subsequently 
suggested the title of the new company. The proprietors and their associates had agreed to 
form a corporation with 1,000 shares of Sioo each, and they had agreed to take varying numbers 
of shares when the company should be organized. Articles of association were prepared on Oc- 
tober II, 1804, in which the income of the ferry was pledged for the payment of the Van Vor.st 
annuity, and such lots as were marked on the map to be charged with the payment were to be 
sold subject to the rent charge to make up the fund of $Soo. The surplus was to be divided 
among the members vi the association in proportion to the number of shares held. The lots 
marked on the map as subject to rent were : forty on Hudson at S20 each, sixty-four on 
Grand Street at $15 each, eighty-eight on Washington Street at $15 each, 26S on cross streets 
at $12 each, 140 lots between Warren and Washington and Mercer and Bergen at Sio each and 
sixty lots west of Warren Street at S6 each. This rent on 660 lots, it was thought, would pro- 
duce $8,056 and leave 684 lots to be sold free of the incumbrance. 

In accordance with the articles of association Alexander Hamilton drew a bill to incor- . 
porate the Associates of the Jersey Company, and it was passed by the New Jersey Legislature 
on Nov. 10, 1804. This act conferred extensive rights and powers on the company and was a 
perpetual charter. The companv was allowed to hold the land bought from Van Vorst, with 
power to lay out streets, to establish grades, to build and regulate docks, piers, whar\-es and 
warehouses and to make such rules and by-laws as should appear proper and not inconsistent 
with the constitution. They were authorized to enforce the rules and to recover penalties not 
exceeding twenty-five dollars, which was to be sued for and recovered for their own benefit. 
They were authorized to extend their piers as far into the river or bays as was necessary for 
the improvement of their property. The land under water was given to them without limit 
so far as their purchase extended. 

The first election under the act was held Dec. 10, 1004. The list of shareowners were : 
Richard Varick, 100 shares ; Jacob Radcliffe, 100 ; Anthony Dey, 100 ; Joseph Bloomfield, 20 ; 
J. W. Cunmiings, 50 ; William Halsey, 50 : Alexander C. McWhorter, 30 ; Elisha Boudinot, 15 : 
Samuel Boyd, 20 ; Archibald Gracie, 40 ; John B. Coles, 20 ; James Thompson, 20 ; David B. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 29 

Ojj^-den, 20; John Wells, 30: John Radcliffe, ;o ; ]. Rhea, 20; David Hunt, 20; Joseph Lyon, 
20 ; David Dunham. 20 ; Abraham \'arick, 20 ; Petur \V. Radclift'e, 40 : Samuel Hays, Jr., 5 ; 
William S. Pennin,>jtnn, 20: L, Panbcll. 20; William W. Wuolsoy, 40; Aaron 0_i;dun, 25 ; Wm. 
Radcliffe, Jr., 20; Samuel Pennington, 5 ; [ohn A. Devenport, 20: Isaac H. Williamson, 5 ; 
Amasa Jackson, 5 ; John Ward, 10. and Isaac Kibbc. 5, makin.ij 975 shares. There were but 
750 shares voted on, and the trustees chosen were : Richard Varick, Jacob Radcliffe, W. W. Wool- 
sev, James Thompson, David B. <);.;den. William Halsey. A. C. ilcWhorter, W. S. Pennington 
and I. H. Williamson. Richard Varick was elected president and D. B. Oj^den secretari,-. These 
nine trustees had power to manau^e the affairs of the company and to appoint all necessary 
officers. They formed "the first municipal organization at Paulus Hook. The company became 
known as the Associates, a name which jlinjjs even now when their acts or their successors are 
mentioned. They were very anxious to attract residents and manufactures. They made special 
tcnus with Robert Fulton to establish his shipvard in the new town. They sold a block of 
j;r<iund to him at S'.o°o ^"d allowed five years' time on the purchase money, without interest. 
It was on this land that Fulton built his first machinery for propelling a vessel by steam. His 
deed was dated Nov. 3, 1804. The foundry was on the corner of Green and Morgan streets and 
the dr)' dock was in front of it. Fulton continued to manage it until he died, on Feb. 24, 1815. 

But little work in opening- streets was done during the first year, but on May 4, 1S05, the 
grade was established for the east .side of Hudson Street and the south side of South Street at 
four feet above ordinary' high tide. The centre of Grand and Washington streets was fixed 
at twenty-six feet above tide. From this corner, the most elevated in town, there was to be 
a regular descent in all directions. This pro\-ided drainage, and the gutters were hollows in 
the middle of the streets. Offers were made to induce the Associates to build, and they were 
tendered lots free of charge, except the gTound rent, if they would erect buildings on them 
worth $1,000 or more. If two buildings or a single building worth $2,000 was built the owner 
was to receive two lots on the same terms. Any purcha,ser who would erect a building worth 
$500 was to have five per cent, deducted from the price of the lot. William Halsey was the 
first Associate to accept the trustees' offer. He located lots 6 and S Essex Street and 5 and 7 
Morris Street, paid the ground rent and surveyor's fees, and proposed to build two houses cost- 
ing not less than §3,000, to be completed on May i, 1.S06. The number of stages arriving and 
leaving the ferr)- at this time can only be gues.sed by the statements made in the newspapers of 
the day. Twenty daily lines were advertised, and there were irregular stages besides the daily 
lines. " From almost ever)- direction in the interior of the State stage lines were organized, 
and all sorts of vehicles started toward Paulus Hook to accommodate the public." ilen of 
means who had business drove to the ferry and left horses and carriages in the tavern stables. 
Farmers came with loaded wagons, and their produce was put on the fcrr^-boats, leaving the 
teams until their return. When horses and vehicles were taken across the ferry thev were 
hoisted on board the sailboats, and the ferriage was more expensive than stabling. The pas- 
sengers arranged a system of signals by which the hostler at the tavern knew who were com- 
ing on the boats and got their teams ready. The time occupied in crossing varied from half 
an hour to two or three hours, and delays after landing were unpopular. 

After Maj. Hunt gave up his lease. Dey leased the ferrj' and tavern to Joseph Lvon, of 
Elizabethport. He had the ferry landing and stairs moved to a point about midway between 
Grand and York streets, so that the passengers could signal the hostler more conveniently. 
The equipment of the ferry at that time was two rowboats and two sailboats of the kind known 
as periaugers. This name had drifted into Dutch u.se from the Spanish pirogue, or piragua. 
They were open boats with two masts, but no bowsprit. The sails had gaffs, but no booms. 

This travel made it probable that a better tavern would be profitable, and the Associates 
took measures to have one built. The new building was erected in 1805 and was a brick 
structure which is still standing on Grand Street near Hudson. It was occupied by Lyon and 
was subsequently known as the Hudson House. It is now a part of the Colgate soap works. 
The same year the Jersey Bank was organized through the efforts of the Xewark As.sociates. 
It was a branch of the Newark Bank and Insurance Company. The bank building was erected 
during the summer of 1S05 on the southwest corner of Greene and Grand streets. The bank 
came to grief by attempting to evade a State tax in i8io and was closed up by the sheriff in 
February of the following year. The directors got a charter in New York and organized there 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



as the Union Bank of i-j Wall Street, on April i r, iSii. The old bank building still remains 
and is the club house of the New Jersey Club tu-day. The Assoeiates were active in devising- 
plans for the advancement of their little city and made many efforts to increase its business. 
John Stevens had incorporated a company to build a road to Hackensack to divert travel to his 
ferry at Hoboken and had improved the road from Five Corners to Hoboken to catch the travel 
from Berjfen and Dow's feiTy and the Belleville turnpike. 

The Associates, recognizins the injury this would do to their ferry, aided in forming the 
Newark Turnpike Company. This company was incorporated December i, 1804, and completed 
the road now known as Newark Avenue from Warren Street to the Hackensack River during 
1805. John B. Coles had a clause inserted in the charter requiring the company to make their 
road conform to the street lines laid down on his map, but the company ignored this provision 
and built their road nearly on a straight line from the old causeway to the hill, and thus formed 
the diagonal blocks which have since disfigured a large section of the city. The Associates 
ordered 600 trees to be planted along the streets that were laid out at Paulus Hook, and in order 
to secure variety selected a number of Lombardy poplar trees, then looked upon as rare and 
ornamental. These trees were introduced into the country by Andre Michaux, a French botan- 
ist, who was authorized to establish a botanical garden near Bergen. He came to this country 
in 1786 and bore letters to Washington written at Vienna by La Fayette. Michaux brought 



Paul Saunier, his gar- 
dener, with him and 
the legislature 
granted permission to 
him as an alien to take 
title to 200 acres of 
land. The land is 
now included in the 
Macpelah Cemetery. 
This nursery was 
known as the 
" Frenchman's Gar- 
den," and from it the 
Lombardy poplars 
were spread all over 
the country. 

The Associates re- 
tained the first award, under this rule. 



t^-ifiSie— ?®*i 



served land for a ship- 
yard, for churches, a 
school and a public 
market. In order to 
encourage purchasers 
to provide water, the 
Associates in 1807 de- 
cided to allow a boun- 
ty of Si.oo a foot to- 
ward the cost of wells. 
The only condition 
made was that the 
well should be five 
feet in the clear and 
have a pump with 
a brass chamber. 
Amasa Jackson ob- 
He dug a well at the lower end of Sussex Street, five 




OI-D TAVERN AT FOOT OF KOBOKEN" AVEKUE HILL 
(From a sketch by .A. McLean, made in 1857.1 



feet wide and seventeen feet deep. He received Si 7 from the Associates as their contribution. 

The increase during the ensuing ten years was not very encouraging. The Associates had 
built several modest little piers. They had partly graded several streets and had extended a 
retaining wall along the east side of Hudson Street from Grand to Essex, which served as a 
wharf for light draft vessels. These improvements involved expense, and the income was in- 
adequate to meet it. Comparatively few investments were made by residents. The most 
notable were the erection of a distiller\-, a .^iaw mill and a .grist mill. The distillery was on the 
corner of Hudson and Esse.x streets, and was owned by John B. Murray. He did a large busi- 
ness and maintained a swill dairy. His output in 1S29, when he was complained of for main- 
taining a nuisance, was 365,000 gallons annually. The saw mill was on four lots at North 
Point near the foot of First Street. It was built by Adam Bell and had steam power. 

The grist mill was near the corner of Greene and Montgomery streets. It was a land- 
mark for many years and is worthy of special mention. This mill was an octagonal stone 
tower seven stories high, and its motive power was a windmill. It was situated seventv-five 
feet north of Montgomery Street and fifty feet east of (ireene Street, on a pier about 100 feet 
in length. It was built by Isaac Edge, and was a duplicate of a mill in Dorsettshire. England, 
owned by Mr. Edge's father. 

It was erected in i8i5,and stood until i8.;9, when the track of the New Jersey Railroad was 
changed from the south side of Montgomery .Street to the north. Then the mill was taken 
down and removed to Town Harbor, Long Island. From there it was taken to the town of 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



31 



Southold, where it was destroyed by fire on June 25, 1870. The brown stone wall of the old 
pier was buried in jfrading- the railroad track. A portion of it was uncovered bv workmen 
who drove piles in 1890 for the elevated tracks of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. In 
connection with the ofrist mill, Mr. Edge establislied a bakery on the southwest corner of York 



and Greene streets, and sup- 
plied the residents with bread, 
besides doing a business with 
the shipping-. It was burned 
down in iSii, but he rebuilt 
it, and the building is still 
standing. 

On August 10, 1816, Col. 
Richard \'arick bought the 
lots now known as 46, 48 and 
50 Essex Street, which then 
fronted on the bav, and on 







them he built a double brick ^^5^^£*^ 

house, the first on that street. ; \;' > 

That section was known as ' ' 

Prospect Point, because of U .^o- - _.- 

the view of the bay that it 

afforded. It had a grassy 

bank, shaded with trees, and 

annoyance. New York was still so .small that possible rivalry on the Jersey side of the river 



sloping to the water edge. 
Col. Varick lived in the house 
until he died in 1831, and the 
building is still standing, 
though the pitched roof has 
been removed to make way 
for an additional stor\-, and 
the handsome circular stone 
steps have been removed. 

The Associates were very 
much discouraged as time 
rolled on and assessments 
were made instead of declar- 
ing dividends. They had the 
little city made a port of de- 
livery in 1806. It was then a 
part of the district of Perth 
Amboy, but that did not 
save them from New York 



was looked upon as dangerous. 




The income from the ferry had not proved of value to the 
shareowners. The Hoboken ferry divided 
the business and neither of them were profit- 
able. In 1809 several of the Associates were 
convinced that a steamboat such as Fulton 
offered to build would be profitable. They 
subscribed $50,000 to form a company, but 
they had a shoal of opponents in New York. 



PtTLTON'S BOAT ON THE PAULUS HOOK FERRY. 

They did not get a lease until March, 181 1. 
They incorporated on February 7, 181S, as the 
York and Jersey Steam Boat Ferry Company. 
Their first boat was not built until 181 2. It was 
called the Jersey, and was a double-cndcr. 
Regular trips were begun on Friday, July 17, 
1812. The ferry company celebrated thisevent 
by. giving a free sail and a dinner to the Mayor 





^fi^j^^g^ ^.l-.'-su^ 






FULTON FERRYBOAT. iRjft 

its build and appearance. He wrote : 



FULTON FERRYBOAT, 1827. 

and Common Council of New York at Joseph 
Lyon's Hotel on Grand Street. In the mean- 
time Stevens had built a steamboat for his 
fern,-, and got it out for a trial trip on October 
I r, 181 1. This was the first steam ferryboat. 
It was subsequently withdrawn, and horse 
boats were used on the Hoboken ferries for 
eleven years thereafter. 

Fulton's boat, on the Paulus Hook ferry, 
continued to make trips "every hour bv St. 
Paul's clock," and ran for many years. Ful- 
ton's description of the Jer.scy fully explains 
'• She is built of two boats, each ten feet beam, eighty feet 



32 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

long and five feet deep in the hold ; which boats are distant from each other ten feet, confined 
by strong transverse beam knees and diagonal braces, forming a deck thirty feet wide and 
eighty feet long. The propelling water wheel is placed between the boats to prevent it from 
injur}' from ice and shocks on entering or approaching the dock. The whole of the machinery 
being placed between the two boats, leaves ten feet on the deck of each boat for carriages, 
horses and cattle, the other, ha\'ing neat benches and covered with an awning, is for passengers. 
and there is also a passage and stairway to a neat cabin, which is fifty feet long and five feet 
clear from the floor to the beams, furnished with benches and provided with a stove in 
winter. Although the two boats and the space between them give thirty feet beam, yet they 
present sharp bows to the water and have only the resistance in the water of one boat of twenty 
feet beam. Both ends being alike, and each having a rudder, she never puts about." 

In describing the dock built for the steamers Fulton says : " It is one hundred feet long, 
seventy wide ; the bridge is fastened to the middle of the bulkhead. The boat being only 
thirty feet wide and the dock seventy, leaves twenty feet vacant on each of her sides : in each 
of these twenty feet spans and in the water are floating stages, made of pine logs, which lie 
favorably to the boat for thirty feet, and these run diagonally to the extreme end of the 
virharves, so that the boat when coming in hits mthin the seventy feet, and the stages guide 
her direct to the bridge." 

The ferryboat Jersey was in service many years, and when broken up supplied material 
for a stable on Greene Street, built for Isaac Edge. AVhen the Jerse}- was built a sister boat 
was contracted for, and in 1813 the '• York " was added to the line. This increase in equipment 
enabled the companj' to have trips made every half hour by " St. Paul's Church clock." This 
clock was visible from the river front in those days of low buildings, and the spire was a con- 
spicuous landmark. Greenwich Street was the leading business street in New York and was 
con.sidered of more importance than Broadway. For this reason the spire of St. Paul's was 
placed on the end of the church nearest to Greenwich Street. To this da}- it so stands, and the 
front door is in the rear or Broadway end of the church. This impression about Broadway 
was entertained man}' years later, when the City Hall was built. The front was made of marble 
and the back of brown stone because "its outlook was upon the fields and swamps." 

In spite of the increased equipment the ierry did not pay. Up to May 27, 1S16, only one 
dividend of five per cent, had been declared. The company was forced to appeal to Xew York 
for a reduction of the rental or for permission to increase the tariff. The Associates were 
obliged to ask Van Vorst to reduce the annuity. The.se were the onl}- means of reducing 
expenses. New York refused to reduce the rental, but agreed to raise the tariff to 12 1-2 cents 
per passenger. This laid a daily ta.K of 25 cents on men who would live in Jersey and do 
business in New York. Van \'orst consented to reduce his annuity temporarily, but the relief 
was only partial. The financial strain on the As.sociates was a burden. The new city failed to 
attract residents or business. Few lots were .sold and many who had purchased were unable to 
make their payments, even for the ground rent. The little town was oppres.sed by lawles.sness. 
The stage passengers who remained over night for want of a night ferry were away from their 
homes and the restraints imposed by family and business environment. Boatmen and others 
were attracted by the fact that there were neither police nor prisons in Paulus Hook. The 
popular amusements were dog fights, bull baits and drunken brawls. The evil reputation of 
the place and the high rate of ferriage conspired to prevent an increase of population. The 
Associates recognized some of the drawbacks and made a number of ineffectual attempts to 
obtain police power from the legislature. It was not thought wise to add to the feudal powers 
of the company. The Associates made some effort to cure the evils without distinct power. 
They set apart the little park at the foot of Grand Street for the public stocks in which to 
pillory off'enders, and designated a certain willow tree as the whipping po.st, but this was not 
sufficient to secure the desired improvement. 

The claims of New York to ownership and juri.--diction over land and water to low water 
mark were continuously asserted ; the irredeemable mortgage which entailed liens on the prop- 
erty and made purchasers feci that their lots might be taken from them by the default of the 
trustees under the mortgage, and the municipal powers conferred by their charter upon the As- 
sociates, formed a combination of evils that came near wrecking the Associates and their plans. 
The Associates were loath to relinquish any of the authority they had, and the residents were 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 33 

anxious to get control in order to secure competent jjovernment. The troubles increased until 
it became evident to the Associates that something: would have to be done to save their invest- 
ment. On November 15, 1S19, the trustees of the Associates decided to apply to the lejfislature 
for a law to create a corporation for the town of Jersey. They appointed a committee to draw 
up a bill and a petition. The petition was signed by mo.st of the residents and the act asked 
for was passed January 38, 1S20. It was entitled; An Act to Incorporate the City of Jersey, in 
the County of Bergen. It was originally intended to give the city this name to make it anal- 
ogous to the City of New York, but the assemblymen from Bergen County thought the name 
was too pretentious and had it changed in the body of the bill to Jersey Cit>-. 

Under this act, five freeholders were to be elected annually, to be known as " The Board of 
Selectmen of Jersey City." Dr. John Condict. Samuel Cassid}-, Joseph Lyon, John K. Goodman 
and John Seaman were named in the act as the first board. 

This board was empowered " To pass and enforce ordinances relative to streets ; public 
grounds ; public markets ; weights and measures ; the inspection and measurement of fire- 
wood ; the weight and price of bread : to prevent horses, cattle and swine, or other beasts or 
fowl running at large ; lighting streets ; night watch ; fire engines ; engine houses ; and what- 
ever may concern the good government of the corporation and the orderly conduct of the 
inhabitants and others within the same, so far as regards the public peace and tranquility of 
the same." 

The restrictions in the charter made it useless. No tax could be imposed unless the 
property owners consented beforehand in town meeting, and the powers of the Associates were 
left intact. The Associates owned almost all of the property. They had already been taxed 
enough by their own assessments. Naturally the selectmen did next to nothing. The annual 
tax levy was limited to $100, from 1820 to 1828. In 1825 the tax collector, Joseph Kissam, 
received a total tax of $18.45. The balance of the Sioo was tax arrears. In 1828, the col- 
lector received S39.87 out of the $100 limit. The selectmen met at Freeman Andcnson's hotel 
on Grand Street and paid one dollar for each meeting, which included room rent, fire, li.ght, 
pens, ink and paper. The board licensed ever\-one who wanted to sell liquor, and in 1828 
there were twenty-three licensed places for a total population of 1,357. What little income the 
board had must have come from this source and from fines imposed upon themselves ; for 
lateness at a meeting involved a fine of twenty-five cent.s, and absence, a fine of fifty cents. 
The board could do nothing in the way of improvement. 




CHAPTER VI. 



THE NEW CITV GOVERNMENT FAILS — THE VAN VORST MORTGAGE EXTINGUISHED — THE FIRST CEME- 
TERY EFFORTS TO MAINTAIN A BANK A NEW TOWN CHARTER THE WATER FRONT CON- 
TROVERSY — FIRST RAILWAYS KUILT — DUDLEY S. GREGORY SETTLES IN THE LITTLE CITY 

NIGHT FERRYBOATS LAND VALUES INCREASING STREET IMPROVEMENTS MADE ANOTHER NEW 

CHARTER FACTORIES ESTABLISHED END OF THE ASSOCIATES' GOVERNMENT. 



r-^'^-^.'^'^-itr^.-A,-^ 



.J^J 



■p- 



HE failure of the new government was apparent to everj-body. The streets were un- 
graded, the sidewalks unpaved and the buildings few and inconsequential. Hudson 
T'^y^ il ^^'^'^'^^ ^^'^ washed away with the tide, ilorris Street was the only one extended to 
the meadow on the west, and it was more of an open common than a street. The main 
road was still the Newark turnpike. The second in importance was the old race track which 
followed the river bank and the pathways around the sand hills. Sussex Street was known as 

Dishwater Alley, be- 
cause of the drain in 
the middle of it that 
served for an open 
sewer. The vicinity 
of Grand and Wash- 
ington streets was a 
common known as the 
Sand Lots. This sec- 
tion had been a hill 
more than fifty feet 
above the tide. The 
hill was used by the 
Indians as a burying 
place, and they called 
it Aresick, a burj-ing 
place. This hill was 
the site of the round 
redoubt built by Lord 

Stirling, and was the place to which Maj. Sutherland fled for safety when Lee captured Paulus 
Hook. The excavation for earth filling had removed the earthworks and all of the original 
surface, and left the sand which gave it the name of the Sand Lots. The enterprise was in bad 
shape for a number of years, and the forlorn appearance helped to give it a bad name. The 
first relief came from an unexpected source. 

Cornelius Van Vorst died on September 30, 1818, lacking but a couple of months of com- 
pleting his ninetieth year. By his will the mortgage to secure the annuity on Paulus Hook 
was devised to his son, John. He assigned it to Col. Varick on ilarch 12, 1824, and Varick as- 
signed to the Associates on November 18, 1S30. This rer-oved one impending danger from lot 
purchasers, but the land was still subject to ground rent, which savored of feudalism. 

This picture of Paulus Hook, taken from the vicinity of Provost Street and Pavonia Avenue, 
will convey a vivid impression of the proLjTess that had been made up to 1823, both in Jer.sey 
City and beyond the causeway where Jcjhn B. Coles was furthering a settlement. The icvry 
house shown on the next page, was the most prominent point in the river front then. 

The most prominent house on the sky line was the bank building. The Lombardv poplars 
from the " Frenchman's garden " were the most conspicuous features in the view. Almost the 



\k>,^^^-~- 



^r^^r.^iiiiMn^^V-r^'''^^-^'''^^-'^-^''^^--^-'^'^^^ 



PAULUS HOOK FROM HARSIMUS IN iSjj. 



-^m 



.axo-LX / 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



35 



only survivor of the poplar trees is now standing- near the Mills oakum works on Wayne Street. 
An incident which occurred in front of the cornfield shown in the illustration is of interest 
because it throws a flash light into the community at that time. One day, in the fall of i8;o, 
the body of a drowned man drifted ashore beyond the fence shown on the left hand of the 
picture. The receding tide left it, and it was seen by a passer. Soon a group of nine men con- 
gregated, and the body was drawn up on the grass by the fence. They speculated on the 
respectable appearance of the man and wondered who he was. Finally, they decided that he 
should have decent burial, and they contributed until they thought they had the price of a 
grave and a headstone that would identify the stranger's resting place in case his friends made 
inquiries for him. A committee was appointed to attend to the funeral, and they went to the 
sexton of the Old Dutch Church in Bergen to secure a grave. The sexton charged them twelve 
dollars for opening a grave, and the price was deemed so extravagant that it caused a scandal 
in the community. The talk about the price charged developed into a sentiment, and the resi- 
dents of Jersey City and Harsimus decided that they would no longer be dependent on the 
Dutch Church for a bur}-ing ground. A public meeting was called in Hugh McCutcheon's hotel, 
on York Street, and a subscription list was started to raise money to buy ground for a cemetery. 
McCutcheon's hotel had become one of the institutions of the city. The ferry had been 
moved to the foot of York Street, and many of the stages stopped at "Hughey's" hotel. His 
stables and yard extended to Montgome^^' Street, and covered a number of lots now known as 



^^ 



47, 49 and others be- 
tween Greene and 
'Washington streets. 
As a result of the in- 
dignation meeting 
and subsequent sub- 
scriptions, a special 
charter was obtained 
at the session of the 
legislature that win- 
ter, and on April 21, 
1830, a meeting of the 
subscribers was 
called at the hotel to 
organize a cemetery 
company. 

ark turnpike, now Newark Avenue ; Kello; 
Street 




THE FIRST FERRY HOUSE. 



At this meetint^ 
David C. Colden, one 
of the Associates and 
Mayor of New York 
at the time, was elect- 
ed president, Robert 
Gilchrist treasurer 
and J.D. Miller secre- 
tary. A committee 
appointed to secure a 
site reported two eli- 
gible locations and 
favored Olcott's rope- 
walk. This occupied 
the irregular block 
bounded bv the New- 



, now Grove Street, and Michigan Street, now Bay 
Erie Street was not then extended to Newark Avenue. This, the committee believed, 
was the most central point for Jersey City and Harsimus. The majority of the subscribers 
favored a site on the hillside, south of Newark Avenue, and it was chosen. Five and a half acres 
were purchased and dedicated under the name of The Jersey City Cemetery. There many of 
the old families of Jersey City lie in ranks waiting for the resurrection. 

The residents of Jersey City were not discouraged by failures or disadvantages. They 
were active in efforts to promote their own prosperity and that of their little city, in which most 
of them had implicit faith. The need of a bank was severely felt after the failure of the Jersey 
Bank, and a second Jersey Bank was organized on February 6, 1818. It had a capital of $100,000 
and did business in the old banking house at Greene and Grand streets. It failed during a 
"run" on July 6, 1S26. 

The New Jersey Manufacturing and Banking Company, incorporated with a capital of 
$150,000 on December 9, 1823, suspended in March, 1829. The Frankhn Bank of New Jersey, in- 
corporated December 28, 1824, with ,S3oo,ooo capital, suspended in 1826, resumed again and was 
enjoined May 29, 1828, and its charter repealed February 32, 1843. The New Jersey Protective 
and Lombard Bank, incorporated December 29, 1824, with §400,000 capital, suspended during a 
"run" on November 17, 1825. Its bills went down to thirty-seven cents on the dollar. These 
untoward events were calculated to discourage enterprise, but the people were beginning to 
comprehend that Jersey City had a future and were not daunted by failures. 

In 1824 the opening of Dummer's glass works gave an impetus to business. It occupied a 



36 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

considerable tract on Communipaw Cove west of Washington Street and south of the Morris 
Canal. The site is now occupied by the sugar house. The following- year the Rouse & Turner 
pottery was established on Warren Street. These factories gave employment to a large num- 
ber of men and contributed effectively to the growth of the town. 

The lack of an efficient municipal government was still an incubus. The people and the 
Associates endured for eight years the travesty upon a government which was provided by the 
charter of 1829. There was much complaint after the people saw that it failed to afford relief, 
and on September 15, 1S2S, the Board of Selectmen appointed a committee to draw up charter 
amendments that would meet the wants of the city. Their bill was approved and petitions 
were circulated among the residents to secure sigTiature.s. On January 23, 1829, the legislature 
passed an " Act to incorporate the city of Jersey City in the county of Bergen and to repeal the 
former Act." Under this act the corporate name became " The Board of Selectmen and In- 
habitants of Jersey City," though in the title of the law it still remained "the city of Jersey." 
The number of selectmen under this charter was increased to seven and they were authorized 
to raise $300 annually by taxation. There was no power under this charter to raise money for 
improvement by assessing property benefited, and but little good was accomplished by the 
change. The efforts of twenty-five years had only brought the population up to a total of 
1,357. New York's claims to jurisdiction over the water and land under water was such an 
annoyance that New Jersey took the question into the United States Supreme Court in 1829. 
The suit was not pressed, but it resulted in the appointment by each State of three commis- 
sioners to negotiate and agree respecting the territorial limits and jurisdiction of the two states. 
These commissioners formulated a treaty which was ratified in 1834, by which New York gave 
up its claim to ownership, but was allowed jurisdiction over the waters of the bay and river. 
This treaty was contradictory and questions .still rose under it, but it lifted a cloud which had 
prevented shore improvements for thirty years. This was one of the most important events of 
that year, but there were three other events which contributed to make 1834 memorable in the 
history of the little city. These were the opening of the New Jersey and the Pater.son and 
Hudson River railroads and the location of Dudley Sandford Gregory as a resident citizen. 

The New Jersey Railroad had but one car, " the passenger car Washington, a splendid 
and beautiful specimen of workmanship containing three apartments, besides .seats on top," ac- 
cording to the company's announcement. This railroad extended to Newark, and work was in 
progress towards Philadelphia. The I'aterson and Hudson River Railroad Company advertised 
its " three splendid and commodious car.s, each capable of accommodating thirty pas.sengers," 
drawn by " fleet and gentle hor.ses." The iron horse had not then appeared. The pioneer loco- 
motive, known as the John Bull, had been built in England in 1830, and was fitted up at Borden- 
town for the Camden and Amboy Railroad in 1831, but there were no engines ready for these 
new enterprises until later. 

Mr. Gregory's removal to Jersey City was an important event for the town. He was thirty- 
four years of age, a man of affairs, possessed of large means, an extensive acquaintance and 
business relations, and he was a progressive public-spirited citizen. His life in the city, which 
continued forty years, has left footprints im the sands of time that never will be erased. Mr. 
Gregory was born in Reading, Fairfield County, Conn., February 5, 1800. His ancestors took 
an active part in the Revolutionary War. and removed to Albany in 180S. In 1814, Mr. 
Gregory was a clerk in the state comptroller's office, and held several important commands in 
the state militia. He was one of the guard-of-honor that received the Marquis de La Fayette, 
on his second visit to this countn,-. He took an active part in every public movement after he 
settled in Jersey City. He was three times elected as a member of the Bergen County free- 
holders, to represent Bergen Township, as Hudson County was then called. He was twice 
elected to the Board of Selectmen of Jersey City, and became the first mayor under its city 
charter. He was sent to Congress from this district in 1846, and declined a renomination. 
There was no movement calculated to increase the wealth or prosperity, in which he was not a 
potent factor. He died December 8. 1S74, and the whole city mourned the loss. Mr. Gregory 
built the first house in the sand lots. It stands on the corner of Sussex and Washington, and 
is now used for the Post Office. 

Soon after Mr. Gregory's arrival he began a movement to have the ferryboats run at night. 
There was much complaint because the people were practically prisoners after nightfall. On 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 37 

December 30, 1834, a mectinj,'- was held in Temperance Hall, at the northeast comer of 
Gregory and City Hall Place, to device means for securinsj nij;ht boats. Representative men 
from Newark and Paterson were present, and a committee consisting of R. Gilchrist, J. Ca.ssidy, 
C. Van Vorst, G. Dummer, D. Henderson, J. Griffith and D. S. Gregory, was appointed to wait 
on the As.sociates. The A.ssociates were slow in responding-, and the Board of Selectmen passed 
resolutions on April 17th, ur^iny- night service. On April 20th the Associates reported through 
W. W. WooLsey, chairman of their committee, that the steamboat Washington would be put on 
night service as soon as it could be coppered and repaired. On June 8, 1835, the Washington be- 
gan half-hourly trip.s, until one o'clock at night. This event was celebrated by firing cannon, 
fireworks, bonfires, a band of music and a dinner. The impetus given by these events was felt 
in every direction. Auction sales of lots became frequent and were well attended. On June 
ist a sale showed that lots on Essex and Jlorris streets, between Warren and Washington, were 
worth over §1,470 each. They were held at $500, with no buyers, two years before. On July 
17th another .sale showed that Montgomery Street property was appreciating. It had been a 
back street prior to that, with stables on the south side and the water front on the north, sweep- 
ing around to the windmill. On that day lot No. 28 Jlontgomery fetched $1,150; lot 30, 
$1,425; lots 42 and 44, $1,050 each; lot 85 Washing^ton, $1,000; lot 87, next door and a corner, 
$1,550; lot 29 Mercer, $1,025; 1''' o' Mercer, $1,000; lots 37 and 39 Mercer, $950 each; lot 25 
Wayne, $1,000; and lots 27, 29 and 31 Wayne, each $800. All of these except 30 Montgomery 
Street and the four on Wayne Street were subject to the ground rent, and many of them 
required filling. 

The selectmen were urged to make street improvements. Petitions were presented 
to have York Street west of Washington filled in, to have Essex, from Hudson to the middle of 
Greene, and Greene, from Grand to Essex, and Essex west to Washington filled in, dug- out and 
graded. From this it is easy to guess the little progress that had been made. The selectmen 
were powerless. The charter gave them the authority to do these things but gave no power 
to levy assessments to pay for doing them. The people chafed under this restriction, and com- 
plained of the Associates, who were charged with impeding improvements in order to escape 
assessments on their land. On March 8, 1836, the legislature passed another .supplement which 
conferred power on the selectmen to levy assessments for street improvements. This did not- 
solve the problem. There were other expenses to be incurred for which assessments could not 
be made, and the general tax \e\y was limited to $300. The lighting of the streets, the night 
watch, fire service, wells, pumps and cisterns, and payment of employees had required more 
money. The people would not vote more money for the use of the selectmen, and the funds 
raised by asses.sments for street improvements were used for current expenses. In this way 
financial difficulties were invited and came. In the meantime the Morris Canal was completed 
to Jersey City in 1836 and gave hopes of increased prosperity. The selectmen called a meet- 
ing on November 16, ICS37, to get the consent of the town meeting to the expenditure of $2,500 
for a fire engine. Only thirteen citizens responded, and of these twelve voted against the 
appropriation. The selectmen could not meet their obligations and gave notes which were 
not met at maturity. On ilarch 4, 1837, Cummings and Pollock protested the city's note for 
$3,000. It was renewed for three months, and $1,000 ca.sh, with a new note for ,$2,000, was 
given on June loth. On July 17th the same firm's note for $2,440.72 was paid with .$1,000 
cash and a new note for $1,440.72. The people were afraid to allow the selectmen to have 
a larger budget. D. S. Gregory, who had been elected a member of the board, in order to 
save its credit, took up its notes amounting to $4,000. He also advised the board to issue 
certificates of loan. Acting on this advice, the board issued $12,000 in circulating certificates 
in denominations of twelve and a half cents, twenty-five cents, fifty cents and seventy -five 
cents. These certificates, sometimes called " shinplaster.s," were engraved b)- Rawdon, Wright 
& Hatch of New York, and resembled the bank notes of the day. They were in.scribed : " This 
certificate will be received by the corporation of Jersey City for the sum of fifty cents in pay- 
ment of loans or debts, or will be redeemed on the ist of August, 1838, with interest at one per 
cent, per annum. Is.sued in pursuance of an f)rdinance of the corporation, passed 17th July, 
1837." The other certificates varied in the amount for which they were issued. Each had 
a picture of the Spanish silver coin on it representing the amount it was issued for. There 
was no law for issuing this currency and it did not take well. On September i, 1837, the 



38 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

selectmen directed the President, William Glaze, to cease sijjninfj warrants until the money 
was provided. Then one citizen offered a loan of S500. His offer was accepted without 
debate and two notes, each for $350, were given as evidence. The lack of money continued 
to obstruct improvement, and the boom of earlier months of the year died out. The sales 
ceased and no buildinjjs were commenced. The selectmen were not rcstinj; patiently. Efforts 
were made to get a better charter, but strong opposition was encoimtered, both in 1836 and 
1837. The need for a change was so urgent that on January 9, 1838, a mass meeting was 
called to consider the situation. The board of selectmen then met in the "long room" of 
John Buck's hotel, 68 and 70 York Street. This was a large frame building with an entrance 
for teams under its eastern end. The long room was over this team entrance. There was 
a livery and exchange stable at the rear, extending to Montgomen," Street. The hotel stood 
until 1S91, when it was torn down to make way for the extension of the Evening Journal 
plant. The mass meeting was held in the "long room." John Griffith was chosen chairman, 
and Thomas A. Alexander, secretary. The needs of the town were fully discussed, and the 
new charter, as prepared by the selectmen, was unanimously approved. It was passed by the 
legislature on February 22, 1838. By this charter Jersey City was incorporated as a separate 
municipality. It had up to this time been a part of the township of Bergen. The act to 
incorporate Jersey City gave the new corporation the name of the " Mayor and Common 
Council of Jersey City." The boundary was extended on the east to the middle of the river. 
That settled the vexed question of riparian jurisdiction for a time. The mayor and common 
council were entrusted with complete municipal power to raise money by taxation and 
to prosecute improvements. 

This charter "had to be submitted to the citizens for their acceptance. Its opponents, who 
had failed to defeat it in the legislature hoped this would be a stumbling block. They were 
mistaken. The election was held, after required notice, on March 20th. The election inspectors 
who served at the last general election were called upon to ser\'e. They were William R. 
Taylor, Charles Gardner and Job Male. The election was held in the school-house on Sussex 
Street. There were 1S6 votes cast, and only nine of them were against the charter. The 
selectmen held their last meeting on April 7 th. and the mayor and common council held their 
first meeting on April i6th. Both meetings were held in Buck's hotel. The first mayor was 
Dudley S. Gregory, and the common councilmen were : Peter McMartin, James M. Hoyt, 
William Glaze, Henry Southmayd, Isaac Edge, John Dows, John Griffith, Peter Bentley, 
Jonathan Jenkins and Ebenezer Lewis. 

Thus the rule of the Associates ended, but their influence existed long after all the orig- 
inal members were dead. The company still exists and retains much valuable property. The 
officers in 1895 are: Trustees, F. Wolcott Jackson, C. B. Thurston, Henry D. Welsh, H. H. 
Houston, A. Parker Shortridge, Alexander il. Fox, Wm. H. Barnes, John P. Green and Samuel 
Rea ; F. AVolcott Jackson, President ; C. B. Thurston, Secretar>- ; Jos. S. Vanzandt, Treasurer. 

The company still owns the following property, viz.: North one-half of pier foot of 
Morris Street; Lots 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 22, 23, 24, 25 and 26 on Block 3; Lots 13, 14, 15, 
16, 17, iS, 19, 20 and 21 on Block 4; Lots 10 to 26, inclu.sive, on Block 5; all of Block 6, 
except Lots 6, 7 and 8, being 75x100 feet. cor. Hudson and York streets; and on Block 7, Lots 
II and 12 York Street ; all of the property east of Taylor's Hotel, and the piers foot of Su.ssex, 
Grand and York streets. 



CHAPTER VII. 

UNDER A CITY CHARTER — NEW LIFE INFUSED INTO THE LITTLE TOWN — WHAT ITS MAIN STREET 
THEN CONSISTED OF — HOW ITS INSTITUTIONS WERE ORIGINATED — THE FIRST ADDITION TO 
THE city's AREA DISAPPEARANCE OF ITS INLAND WATERWAY. 

EfE^^HE adoption of the charter of 1838 marks an epoch of special importance. Prior to 
Li ,-^~. ;.j^^(. time the city had an anomalous trovernment. The city was a part of the township 
of Bergen and consequently subject in some respects to the township g-overnment. 
It was subject to the special charter of the Associates in some important municipal 
matters. In addition to this dual government it had the tentative charters of 1820 and 1829, 
which added to the confusion. The Associates were anxious to see the city grow, because its 
growth would add to the value of their shares, but they were also unwilling to allow any form 
of government which would confer power on anyone to levy assessments on their property. 
Their holding still constituted four-fifths of the 1,334 lots into which the land had been divided 
and their influence was exerted against the only plan by which the city's growth could be 
stimulated. This influence was so potent with the legislature that the residents were defeated 
year after year in their attempts to secure legislative relief. The efforts made by the Associates 
to attract men of means and enterprise were moderately successful, but the more that men of 
this class established homes and business in the cit)', the more the influence of the Associates 
declined. The passage of the new charter by the legislature and its adoption by the people 
was mainly due to a concentration of eft'ort by the new life that had been attracted. The 
emergent city was freed from the clouds which had obscured its prospects and threatened its 
existence during the preceding thirty-four years. It had at last acquired the power to protect 
its independence. The result justified all that had been said and done on behalf of the little 
city. Before another period of thirty-four years had passed the village of less than 2,000 popu- 
lation which celebrated the passage of the charter, had taken rank as seventeenth among the 
cities of the nation. This glorious future was only visible to the eye of faith in 1839. What 
was physically visible was not very prepossessing. The boj-s used to run across lots from the 
old school-house in Sussex Street to a point near where the old City Hall stands, on Newark 
Avenue, to go in swimming. They would wait to see " the mail ride by " (a man on horseback 
carried the bag), then they would follow a path to the creek and swim without fear of inter- 
ruption from meddling policemen. The creek extended at that time on the line of Railroad 
Avenue to Newark Avenue. It was bordered on both sides by broad reaches of calamus plants. 
The shad fishers rowed in from the river and sold their fish from the boats on the Newark 
turnpike, and thus accommodated the residents of Jersey Cit}' and Van Vorst. The only 
house on the north side of Newark Avenue was near Henderson Street, and was occupied by a 
fisher who had a fish market. His yard ran down to the creek. Besides "the path in the 
cattails " worn by boys going in swimming, there was only one other path between Newark 
Avenue and Railroad Avenue leading north, and that was the path to North Point, which 
passed just west of the Windmill Wharf. Newark Avenue in Jersey City was simplv a mac- 
adam roadway through the marsh. 

The passage of the charter infused new life into the people, and many plans were put in 
operation for the general good. The well-to-do citizens lived in the section south of Grand 
Street and east of Washington. It was the habit of the men to call at David Smith's store on 
the northwest corner of Grand and Greene streets. This was a common meeting place for those 
who had no taste for sitting in drinking places. During the informal talks around the stove in 
this store the needs of the town were freely discussed, and from them came the gas-works and, 
later, the water-works. One night these visitors decided that the city should have a savings 
bank. That was soon after the charter was adopted, and in the following February the legis- 



40 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

lature passed the act creatine^ the Provident Institution for Savings. The incorporators were 
all visitors at the store, and included the most notable citizens. They were : John F. Ellis, 
Thaddeus B. Wakeman, Jolm K. Goodman, Samuel Cassedy, Cornelius Van \'orst. David Hen- 
derson, Henrj- Trapha<;en, John Frazer, John Gilbert, Georsje Dummer, Jabez Wakeman, Wil- 
liam Barrow, Ed.y;ar Olcntt, Cornelius Kanouse, J. Dickinson Miller, Phineas Dummer, Thomas 
A. Alexander, Job !Male, John Bruce, Darwin F. Rockwell, James W. Hifjjjins, William Wool- 
sey, William A. Paradise, John P. Hill, Johnson Durant, James Wilson, Georg:e Frazer, Stephen 
Garretson, Isaac Seaman, David Jones, Peter Sip, Hartman Van Wai^enen, Jacob D. Van 
Winkle, Jacob Vreeland, Mayor D. S. Greg-ory and the members of the Common Council. The 
distrust of banks in the little community was well founded, and a number of meetings were 
held and much time wasted before the bank was organized. The officers were not elected until 
September 29, 184,^. It is now one of the permanent institutions of the city. 

The boimdary between Jersey City and the township of Van Vorst was poorly defined. 
Creeks entered the marsh from north and south. During- the revolution these were connected 
by a broad ditch. It was the intention of the founders of Jersey City to deepen and widen this 
waterway. Unfortunately, those who came after them were not so wise. They thought the 
creeks and ditches shoiild be filled up. As a preliminary to this work they had a supplement 
to the charter passed at the session of 1839, by which the boundary of the city was extended 
westerly along the northerly side of First Street to the centre of Grove Street, and thence 
southerly to the line of South Street in Communipaw Cove. This was the first enlargement 
of the city's area. It was also the beginning of a movement which resulted in having the 
swamps and creeks filled in and brought to grade. It brought Jersey City much nearer to the 
neighboring town of Van Vorst and prepared the way for its absorption. 

The first meeting of the Common Council under the new charter was held on April 16, 
1838, in Buck's Hotel, which .still served as the City Hall. The influence of Mayor D. S. 
Gregory was a stimulus and a broader policy was inaugurated. The city's deficiency was found 
to be $4,533.79 if all assessments were paid. Under the old regime this would have been con- 
sidered a dangerous sum, but it was passed as an incident that woiild be taken care of in due 
season. Anew profile map wa; ordered, and in response to a shoal of petitions portions of 
Wayne and Washington streets, and all streets west of Washington Street, between Grand and 
Montgomery .were ordered graded. A new fire engine, to be known as No. 3, and 200 feet of 
hose were ordered at a co.st of $920, and repairing on the old fire engine was ordered at a cost 
of $341. Licenses for liquor saloons and shad fisheries were ordered and a revenue derived 
from them. Mayor Gregory, who was also a member of the Board of Freeholders, was directed 
to get $3,800 that was due to Jersey City as its share of the surplus revenue apportioned among 
the States by the general government. As the spring wore into .summer the council kept at its 
work, and much was accomplished. The school house on Sussex Street was m.oved to the rear 
of the lot at a cost of §1,300, a bridge was built across the canal at Warren .Street, wells and 
pumps were planted in many places, the grade map was established and 10,000 loads of earth 
filling ordered for street improvement. The street committee asked for 17,847 cubic yards of 
earth, and $6,000 was borrowed to pay for it and the necessary labor. The loan certificates of 
the selectmen were called in and the plates ordered destroyed. Public wharves were ordered 
built on Hudson Street, from York to Mercer. The paving of Montgomery-, York, Grand, Sus- 
sex, Morris and Essex streets, from Warren to Washington, and Warren from Essex to Mont- 
gomery, was ordered. An ordinance to regulate curbing, guttering and paving was passed; a 
stone retaining wall ordered for the cast side of Greene Street, from Wayne to Steuben, to pre- 
vent the filling from sinking into tlie marsh, and Greene from Wayne to Steuben, .Steuben from 
Greene to Washington and Washington from Steuben to Wayne were ordered filled in. Sus- 
sex Street from Warren to (Irove was ordered ^graded. Two new engine houses were ordered 
built at a cost of S-,ooo- A wharf was built at the foot of Montgomery Street. The school 
house OR-Kussex Street was practically rebuilt at a cost of S700, and the reconstructed building 
was officially designated the Town House. Flag sidewalks were laid on E.ssex, Morris. Su.ssex, 
Grand, York and Jlontgomery strcet.s, from Washington to Warren, and on Warren from Essex 
to Montgojnery Street. Grand Street from trrcene to Hud.son was sewered and repaved by the 
citv at the expense of J. P. Hill, the sewer contractor, who had neglected to do it. All this 
material advancement was completed before January i, 1S39. The new council had done more 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 41 

in its first nine months than all of its predecessors. Even this formidable list of work done did not 
cover its industry. Peter Bentlev had been appointed corporation attorney, and had attacked the 
Morris Canal Company for infringinjj on city property in Berjjen Street. George Dummer had 
been prosecuted for squatting on the market square at the foot of Washington Street ; assess- 
ments had been made a lien on property, and property had been sold for unpaid taxes and 
assessments, the sale being for a term of years ; an ordinance against sunken lots and stagnant 
water had been adopted and all such lots ordered tilled in ; ordinances had been passed to punish 
unlicensed saloonkeepers, to provide a city physician and to supervise wharves and wharfage, 
and to provide for the free education of the children of indigent parents. Engine No. 2 had 
been located at 30 and 32 Sussex Street and the council chamber had been finished in the new 
town house. 

The finances had been looked after carefully. The unpaid taxes were reduced to S87. 12, 
and $8,056.68 of the old scrip had been redeemed, besides Si.ooo that was exchanged for a bond 
by Benjamin O. Edge, one of the pviblic-spirited citizens. An arrearage of $1,542.11 was col- 
lected from the Associates on account of assessments ; Mayor Gregory had been paid 84.000 that 
he advanced to the old city government ; a committee had been appointed to secure a settle- 
ment of the school funds from the corporation of Bergen Town and Bergen County, and a part 
of the new town house was set apart for a public school, and Mayor Gregory had obtained 
$3,500 from the county for Jersey City's share of the surplus revenue. Nine wells had been 
sunk, at a cost of nearly §1,000, and at the end of the current year the receipts had been 
$ii,8ig.ii, and the disbursements $10,103.29, outside of bonds is.sued. 

Nathaniel Ellis had been appointed poundmaster, city prison keeper, city marshal, and 
janitor of the town house, in which a dwelling had been provided for him. He was the most 
dignified man in the city, probably on account of the number of titles he bore. The business 
transacted revealed .some defects in the charter, as was to be expected, and in December a 
committee was directed to report a bill to be presented at the ensuing session of the legislature 
as a supplement to the charter. The supplement was to make all assessments a lien ; to increase 
the council's power in opening and extending streets : to limit the height of wooden buildings ; 
to authorize excavation of docks ; to authorize the city to fill in sunken lots at the expense of 
the owners, and to regulate partition walls and fences. The bill was sent to the legislature in 
February. The advent of winter had put an end to out-of-doors work, but the mayor and 
council maintained their activity, and at the end of the fiscal year, in April, 1839, had trans- 
formed the city. They had not only made material and visible improvements in excess of all 
that had been done by their predecessors, but they had infused public spirit into a large pro- 
portion of the 2,500 persons who composed the population. 



V 









CHAPTER VIII. 

THE COUNTY SEAT AT HACKENSACK TOO FAR AWAY MEETINGS HELD TO SECURE BRANCH COUNTY 

OFFICES THE PLAN FAILS AND PETITIONS SENT TO THE LEGISLATURE FOR A NEW COUNTY — 

OPPOSED BY BERGEN COUNTY ARGUMENTS PRESENTED AT TRENTON HUDSON COUNTY SET OFF 

— OFFICERS ELECTED — A COURT HOUSE BUILT. 

S^;?SHE growth of Jersey City and the contignous towns had materially augmented the 
P.KJja business their residents had to transact at the County Court House. This was situated 
i, eijj^ at Hackensack, and trips to the court house involved time and expense that became 
ir-x^- . - i burdensome. One of the questions that agitated the residents of Jersey City was the 
search for means to remedy this evil. It was suggested that the principal county officers should 
appoint deputies for Jersey City and that the court should sit in Jersey City some portion of 
each term. After Jersey City was fairly started as a municipality these temporary propositions 
were swept away by a plan to have the lower part of Bergen County set off to form a new 
county. This plan was very popular in that part of Bergen County which now constitutes 
Hudson County. Bergen then had 195,290 acres of area, and the part that was asked for to 
form a new county had an area of 47,666 acres. It included what is now Union Township, then 
called Lodi, in Bergen County. Meetings were held in Jersey City and the other towns to further 
the erection of the new county, and a bill was presented to the le.sj'islature at the session of 
1838, but it failed, the most effective argument against it being of a political nature. It would 
have created a Whig county. The agitation was continued during the following vear, and again 
the legislature failed to pass the bill. The question would not down at the bidding of the poli- 
ticians, and meetings were held in Lodi and Bergen townships at various times, and petitions 
were circulated that secured the signatures of a majority of the residents, of whom there were 
12,000. On January i:, 1840, the petitions were presented to the legislature. These set forth 
the disadvantages under which the people labored. A large number of the residents lived from 
ten to fifteen miles from the court house. Jurors were inconvenienced and burdened with ex- 
penses ; witnesses were harassed by having to attend court from day to day before being called, 
and were unable to return to their families and business. Two-thirds of the cases before the 
courts came from the southern end of the county, and the accumulation of causes involved delay 
and inconvenience to the parties to suits and to their witnesses. The traveling expenses and 
hotel bills made legal redress cost excessively and deterred many from obtaining justice. The 
difficulty and expense of access to the records caused many to pass and accept real estate con- 
veyance without proper searches, and thus clouds were formed on titles. The great expense 
attending the arrest and removal of prisoners to the county jail prevented proper policing and 
thus endangered the security of property. The geographical peculiarities of the two town- 
ships and the commercial and manufacturin.g future of the southern part of the countv were 
set forth, and the strides already made in that direction were demonstrated. It was shown that 
it was the unanimous wish of all the residents and property owners to be allowed a separate 
municipal existence. 

The opponents of the bill were as active as they had been during the two preceding legis- 
lative sessions and had counter-petitions showing that the measure was not needed : that it 
would leave the county a misshapen remnant with its court house within two miles of its 
boundary, and that it would involve the people of Rcrgen and Lodi in heavv expenses for a 
new court house and for a special election to provide coimty officers. 

The Jersey City petitioners convinced the Bergen County people that no one in that section 
of the county would have to go any further to reach Hackensack, and that the property owners 
in the new county were willing to pay for a new court house. They were willing to do without 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 43 

a special election, and would let the lej,'islature appoint the first set of officers ; Bergen County 
could keep its officer;; and would not require a special election. 

There was abundant political opposition, but the movement for the new county was so 
strong and was asked for by both parties so unanimously that the bill went through the 
assembly on Februan- 30, 1840, by a vote of twenty-seven to twenty-three. It was rushed over 
to the senate, then called the council, and put through as rapidly as the rules would permit. 
It passed the council on February 22d, by a vote of nine to seven. Thus the new county had 
the same birthday as the Father of the Country and it was called Hudson after the advent- 
urous mariner who introduced it to the civilized world. Five days after the bill passed a joint 
meeting of the legislature was held, at which Robert Gilchrist was appointed county clerk, 
Edmund W. Kingsland, surrogate, and Lewis D. Hardenberg, prosecutor of the pleas. The 
other county officials were elected in April, and the county was in full operation within two 
months. The first board of chosen freeholders consisted of Garret Sip and Abel I. Smith, of 
Bergen; John Griffith and Abraham Santvoord, of Jersey City, and Joseph Budd and AVilliam 
C. Kingsland, of Harrison. At that time Harrison included the present township of Kearny 
and the township of Union, then Lodi. now in Bergen County. Union was set back into 
Bergen County on February 19, 1852. 

The first term of the Hudson County Court began on April 14, 1840, and the court was 
held in the Lyceum Hall on Grand Street, Jersey City. Chief Justice Joseph C. Hornblower 
presided, and Cornelius Van Winkle, Henry Southmayd, Stephen Garretson and George C. 
DeKay sat as judges. George H. Brinkerhoff was sheriff ; Archer G. Welsh, Abraham Van 
Winkle, Oliver H. P. Kilburne 

and Thomas Marinus, consta- ^ ' 

bles, and Nathaniel Ellis, mar- ^r'f^l^^^ 7— - , 

shal. Welsh was made crier _ '^-' ~~ ' -- _ 

of the court and held the posi- _ ': - 

tion until he died, on Novem- ^" . ' 

ber 7, 1870. He was sue- - % ., .,, , , ^ ._ 

ceeded by his nephew, John / '[ lltP hl'l ' ^^^^lUEss" 
Wesley Welsh,' who died in .^■:i ■ jlj I \\ il J . - . ' ;^:|^|vl^p^^• 
.894, after holding the posi- ^Mr^^- ..^ »^i.^SMra'"^''"^^'^■ ■■"'^'^*" 
tion twenty-four years. The ■ .JiiiL''4 fe^^: ' -* " — — — J^ . ■"'— 

courts were held in the Ly- ^ -s^TT^ ^i'l^'-^^-^^-.:^^^^^^^^ 

ceum Hall until September ,f^'^!^^^---~:,r':.-,..r,.-<^^i^:?'i^^ 

•9. 1843, when the board of huuson county court house .wd hrisox. ,34,. 

chosen freeholders provided 

a hall in the Xewkirk House, at the Five Corners, and the courts were held there until March 

II, 1845, when a court house was built. 

There was sharp rivalry- between the towns for the location of the new court house. Fif- 
teen sites were offered. Jersey City offered the public square at the corner of Grand and 
Washington streets, then valued at l^i 0,000, and as an additional inducement offered ,§S,ooo in 
cash to aid in erecting the building. The other sites within the present limits of Jersey City 
were : Hamilton Square, in Van Vorst : Bergen Square, in Bergen; a plot at Five Comers, Com- 
munipaw, and anv point on the hill from Communipaw Avenue to the West Hoboken line. 
The matter was finally submitted to a vote on June 2, 1840. The Bergen people took the live- 
liest interest in the matter, and got out 506 votes, all of which were for Bergen. There were 
twenty votes for Bergen cast in Jersey City and fifty-fourin Harrison, making 5S0 out of a total 
vote of 868. Jersev Citv had 283 votes. Among the sites offered to the chosen freeholders the 
most eligible was that on which the court house and jail were erected and still stand. 

This plot was originallv owned by Arent Tocrs. It descended through several owners to 
J. C. F. Rummel, who died seized in 1.S40. It was sold at auction in parcels by a commissioner, 
and James Harrison, who bought one parcel, induced the other purchasers to sell to him so he 
could offer it to the county. The freeholders bought the land on April 7, 1S41, after a good 
deal of haggling. The contract for the court hou,';c was given on December 5, 1843, to Thomas 
Thomas, carpenter, and William Brown, mason, for S>4.o°°. w-hich was the lowest bid. Ground 
was not broken until May i, 1844, and the comer-stone was laid October 17, 1844. The event 



44 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

was celebrated with great ceremony. All the local officials joined in a procession, and a band 
was supplied by the U. S. ship North Carolina. The corner-stone was laid by John Tonclc, Jr., 
director of the board of freeholders. The latitude and longitude was taken by \V. C. Wetmore, 
U. S. N., and the record was 40 deg. 43 min. 50 sec. north latitude; 74 deij. 03 min. 40 sec, 
5' west longitude, Greenwich time; compass variation, 5 deg. 52 min. 

The roads between Jersey City and the hill were in a very bad condition. They were so 
steep that horses could not draw half a load. Brown had contracted to build the court house 
of brick, but he found the price high and the cost of hauling so great that he would have lost 
money at the contract price. He induced the freeholders to allow him to substitute trap-rock 
for the brick. He quarried it on the site of the building and made a profit. 

The court house was finished and first used on Tuesday, March 11, 1845. It included only 
that part of the present court house occupied by the front court room and the offices under it. 
The jail was not quite finished when the court house was opened. It was but three stories high 
then. Itcontained "eight close cells and three day cells, with suitable apartments for the jailer." 



S^ 







V-esT-'* i-^ -T?r«,-i— j^.- -, 'j~;. ..57,1 i.-p^ 



chaptp:r IX. 

A SCORE OF YEARS UNDER THE CITY CHARTER MORAL, SOCIAL AND COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY 

SCHOOLS ESTABLISHED STREET OPENING CARRIED ON THE EXCITING ELECTION TROUBLE 

ABOUT SALOONS ACTIVE TEMPERANCE PEOPLE THE RAILROAD COMPANY ABSORBS THE 

FERRY — NEW TOWNS DESIRED — TRYING TO DIVIDE THE SCHOOL FUND — FIRST PROPOSAL FOR 
A WATER SUPPLY THE FIRST CUXARDER. 



^ cUaA l^^ impetuous activity that characterized the action of the city ffovemment during 
^-'*fl' '■ ^^^ ^^^^ year under the new charter could not be maintained. Time was required to 
■■'Cfl?' 1 complete the extensive public work that had been ordered, and the more tedious task 
of paying- for it gave pause to city officials, but the forward movement begun during 



that eventful year has never ceased. The whole population was in line, and though the cadence 
of their onward march fell sometimes even to marking time, they were facing front and readv 
to move, each person imbued with the spirit which breathed in Paul when he said, " I am a citi- 
zen of no mean city." 

While the city government was exerting all its power in the material development of the 
little city, the moral, social and commercial acti^^ty of the people was operating in manv direc- 
tions on convergent lines, all tending to aid the forward movement. 

The religious movement was perhaps the most distinctive and occupied more att'-ntion 
than any other. Away back in iSoS the Dutch Reformed Clas.sis tried to establish a church at 
Paulus Hook, but could not find church members enough to form a consistor}-. Later, Rev. 
Edmund Dean Barry had a town meeting called to consider the organization of a church. The 
majority of the three hundred population, probably owing to his persuasive eloquence, decided 
to have an Episcopal church established, and it was organized at a service held in the town 
hall, August 2 1, iSo8. The history of the church will be found elsewhere, but the devoted 
service rendered by Dr. Barry deserves special mention. He lived in New York and main- 
tained himself by teaching school in order that he might not be burdensome to his charge. He 
crossed the river in a rowboat, many times having to take an oar to help the boatman, and in 
the winter working his passage with a boat hook to open a way for the boat in the ice. His 
labors were heroic, and have never been properly acknowledged. The Methodists of the Phila- 
delphia Conference created the Bergen Xeck mission in 1829, and sent local preachers to hold 
meetings in private houses, one house on Morris Street, between Greene and AVashingtcn, 
serving as the meeting place for several years. 

In 1829 the Associates, moved by a desire to forward their own interests as much as by 
public spirit, decided to give land for churches and schools. They rightly believed that the 
congregations would erect buildings that would add to the beauty of the citv, enhance the 
value of adjacent property and improve the moral tone of the community. The land dedicated 
was a tier of lots fronting on Sussex, Grand and York streets. These lots were on the edge of 
the swamp and the character of the land gave church trustees some trouble, but the good work 
went on. The Episcopal Church was built on the vSussex Street site, the Dutch Reformed on 
the south side of Grand Street, the Catholic Church on the north side of Grand, and the Meth- 
odist Church on the south side (jf York. The Mcth<jdists were the first to build on the land, 
their small wooden structure being raised in 1829 on the site now occupied by Trinitv Church. 
It was a mission church until iS;;5, when it was made a .separate station and Rev. John McCIin- 
tock placed in charge. The land at that time was at the foot of a hill that had a sharp slope 
from Washington Street, and one of the annoyances was caused by the tide, which rose so high 
at times that there was difficulty in approaching the church door. The Roman Catholics in the 
community were m the habit of attending service in a church at the corner of Mott and Mul- 



46 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



berry streets, New York. A mission parish was formed in 1 8 j i and Father Bums accepted the 
gift of land from the Associates. It was coupled with a condition that the church to be built 
should have stone walls of a specified thickness and heijjht, and that the church should have a 
gallery. The Catholics were few in numbers and poor in purse, but they, like the other citizens 
of that time, were imbued with the spirit of progress and undertook the work cheerfully. 
John McKeever, a mason, took the contract to erect the building and began work in the sum- 
mer of 1837. The site of the church was on the margin of the morain and the morass and the 
weight of the western wall was too great for the piling. It fell, and the handful of the faithful 
who had been saving and scrimping to raise the money to build the church thought they were 
going to lose both land and building on account of the covenant that ran with the deed. Their 
trouble enlisted the sympathy of the community and secured from the Associates a modification 
of the terms of the deed of gift, by which a lower wall was allowed. The congregation was 
small and had difficulty in sustaining itself. Pastors succeeded each other with rapidity. Father 
Burns was succeeded by Fathers Mohan. Burns, Quarter, Rogers, Benny and Reillv. Each 
contributed to the work, and in 18.^7 the church was opened for service, though it was not con- 
secrated until 1839. It was not until November, 1844, that it began to prosper. At that time 
Father John Kelly, a returned missionary from Liberia, was assigned to the pastorate. He 
was an enthusiast and became endeared to the whole population irrespective of church affilia- 
tion. The trials of this congregation were only a sample of what was undergone by other 



^fg?^«0» 



^, 



congregations. It was a 
period of earnest effort 
among the people. Half 
a dozen churches were 
built, and some of them 
still remain as monuments 
to that generation. 

The First Presbyterian 
Church was organized in 
February, 1844, and a 
church edifice that stood in 
Wall Street, New York, was 
taken down and rebuilt at 
the comer of Sussex and 
Washington streets. The 
work on it was pushed with 
such energy- that it was fin- 
ished and dedicated in less 
than a year. Rev. John 
Johnston was pastor and 
Rev. L. Hersey Lee assist- 
ant pastor. The congrega- 
council continued the advance movement 



*^^- 



ii*?' 



tion that built the church 
numbered just 100 persons. 
The public school, at the 
time the new charter 
passed, was a small private 
school under the charge of 
Charles Gardner and Will- 
P'^^-f""'' iam Meigs. !Mi.ss A. Belts 

i'lr 'Xv had charge of the smaller 

* d, ; "^.iF pupils. The school funds 
-_-~J,. ; '4^ were used to paj' for those 

' lit''' t'^: who could not afford to pay 

■i ^^r-'^-'-'^ the rates of tuition. In 
-»'^^-^.'*;; ' . 1839 William L. Dickinson 
\l S ' '.' '^ opened a classical school in 
-|"7r; ■-'— • i the Lyceum building on 
Vy^^'. i->:-, .n| Grand Street. The Catho- 
) '"."^i •''ii^l rt '''^s opened a school in their 
church, and thus the begin- 
ning of the educational 
work was established. 
In 1840 the mayor and 
The fire department was reorganized — a chief 



FIRST PRESBVTERUN CHTRCH 



and assistant appointed; a stone bulkhead was built along the east .side of Hudson Street; 
the old boundary ditch west of Warren Street was cleaned out to afford drainage to the 
southward, and the work of street improvement was resumed, but the exciting political 
events for a time prevented concentration of effort in that direction. The early part of 
the year was devoted to the scheme for separating from Bergen County. When that was 
accomplished and Hudson County was created, the spring election engaged attention, and the 
event was not over when the presidential campaign began — the most exciting the country has 
witnessed. A log cabin was built on the plot now occupied by the First National Bank build- 
ings, and meetings were held every evening. A Tippecanoe Club was organized and business 
was largely neglected in the ardt)r of politics. The story of the campaign is national history, 
but the result in Jersey City was a Whig majority of 331. This was celebrated on Monday 
evening, November 16, 1840, with booming cannon, a torchlight procession and every demon- 
stration of pleasure the people could devise. The death of President Wm. Henry Harrison in 
the spring following his triumphant election was a great blow to the residents of the city. The 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 47 

houses were draped in mouming^, and on Wednesday, April 7, 1S41, the bells of the city were 
tolled from noon until 2 o'clock, the flajjs were placed at half-mast, and, beginning at noon, 
sixty-eight minute gams were fired, one shot for each year of the dead President's life. Every- 
place of business was closed from noon until 6 o'clock, and sen-ices were held in the churches. 
On April 10th, the mayor, common council, city officers and a large percentage of the citizens 
assembled in front of the American Hotel and formed a procession which went to Xew York 
and took part in the demonstration made in that city at the funeral. 

In the fall of 1840, when the new county officers were looking for a meeting place, the citj' 
council tendered the use of the Town Hall for freeholders' meeting room, court house and jail. 
The offer was accepted, and in May, 1841, the council moved to the Lyceum, where they had 
secured the main room for ii^ioo a year. There was a lively campaign against the liquor saloons 
carried on during the spring of 1S41. The saloons had always been numerous, and some em- 
ployers who had a large number of workmen had established drinking places in their factories 
as a part of their business. A temperance movement was spreading over the country, and 
many meetings were held. The effort of the moral element was directed to the extermination 
of the saloons in the factories, and in that there was a fair measure of success. A petition 
signed by 142 property owners out of a total vote of 3S5, was presented to the council asking to 
have the number of saloons reduced to four, but the council, moved by s\nnpathy for the saloon 
keepers, fear of the political effect and a desire to retain the income from license fees, tabled 
the petition, much to the disgust of the church element. The temperance people were organ- 
ized at that time under the name of the Washingtonians, and in Jersey City they were led by James 
Flemraing, a well-to-do builder, with strong convictions and great tenacity of purpose. He was 
popular, and was frequently elected to office. He presided over the temperance society, for 
which Temperance Hall was built, at the corner of Gregory Street and City Hall Place. It 
numbered 1,000 members at one time. The branch of the society that met in the Van Vorst 
section gave the name to "Washington Hall," at the corner of Newark and Jersey avenues, and 
the two societies were very strong, but not strong enough to banish strong drink. 

In June, 1841, the New York Common Council raised the lease for the ferry right to S4>ooo. 
This was considered exorbitant, and meetings were held to protest against it. On June 25th 
the council appointed Aldermen Hemingway, Alexander and Wakeman as a committee to ac- 
company the mayor to make a formal protest to the New York Common Council. The New 
Jersey Railroad Company was operating the ferry at that time, having leased the franchise 
from the Associates in 1831, and b<iught the four boats, the Essex, Sussex, New Jersey and 
Washington, which constituted the ferry fleet in 1839. The railroad company paid ,'«!7o,ooo for 
the boats and $18,224.99 for the ferry buildings, and a nominal rental for the franchi.se. 

The danger from fires caused much attention to be paid to the fire department, and the 
erection by the New Jersey Railroad Company of a new depot on the west side of Hudson 
Street, north of Montgomery, made them anxious to have additional protection. In order to 
secure this the company gave a site for an engine house on Greene Street, just north of Mont- 
gomery Street, and Liberty Engine Company No. i was located there. 

In trpng to secure drainage the council found difficulty in many places on account of the 
grades, and would have extended sewers across private lots if there had been authority in their 
charter. They also found that the power to tax corporations had been omitted from their grant. 
They found some difficulty in borrowing money at the legal rate of six per cent, and believed a 
great impetus would be given to the city if the people were allowed to pay seven per cent. 
They also wanted to borrow money for the erection of public buildings and had not the author- 
ity. A supplement to the charter was proposed covering these points, and it was sent to the 
legislature in February, 1S42. 

In the meantime meetings had been held in various sections of Hudson County to devise a 
plan for sub-dividing it into townships. The success which had attended the efforts of the 
people of Harsimus during the preceding year, when they had their settlement erected into the 
township of Van Vorst, had stimulated the other villages. The township of Bergen was four- 
teen miles long and from two to three miles wide, and had a number of villages and towns, 
whose interests would be better secured by representation in the board of chosen freeholders. 
A mass meeting was called at the house of Rachel Riker in Bergen on Saturday, June 15, 1842," 
to arrange for the sub-division. Jacob D. Van Winkle was chairman and E. R. V. Wright sec- 



48 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

retarj'. After a liberal discussion it was decided to prepare a bill, and the chair appointed a 
committee to do it, consistinsf of William C. Vreeland. Myndert Vreeland, John E. Post, John 
Van Buskirk, Garrett \'rceland. Asa AVriijht, Abel I. Smith, Michael Fisher. Geurg-e De Mott, 
Garrett Waters, Henry Brinkerhoff, Cornelius Van Winkle, Hartman Van Wa.ijenen. E. R. V. 
Wright, Peter Riker, John Tise, John Sturgcs, Jasper Wandel, Jr., Daniel Walsh and John 
Lovett. 

This committee reported at another meeting on January 21st. Their report included a bill 
providing for four townships, to be known as Washington, Hudson, Hoboken and Xew Durham. 
It provided that the poor farm should be maintained by the four jointly and that the funds of 
the existing town.ship of Bergen should be divided among them. The bill was approved, and 
Jacob H. \'an Winkle, Wm. C. Vreeland, Michael Saunier and E. R. \'. A^'right were appointed 
as a committee to go to Trenton with it and a petition to the legislature for its passage. 

This bill made no provision for the interest of Jersey City and Van \'orst in the funds, and 
it stirred up active protests. The old residents also found fault because the historic name of 
Bergen was omitted. The Jersey City Council had a protest prepared at a meeting held on 
January 24th, and with the aid of the town committee from \'an Vorst the bill was defeated. 
Bergen township was divided the following year by an act passed February 10, 1843. The 
dividing line was the New Jersey Railroad Company's cut. now used for the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road. All north of that was called North Bergen. This township included Hoboken and all 
the northern part of the county between the Hudson and the Hackensack rivers. The remain- 
der of the old township retained its name of Bergen, and included the rest of the county south 
of the railway cut, and Jersey City to the Kill von Kull. 

On April i, 1842, the trustees of St. Peter's Roman Catholic School sent a request to the 
common council, asking for a division of the public school funds. This was referred to the 
school committee and quietly laid away for a time. The presentation of the request caused a 
great deal of warm feeling in the community, and the committee did not feel like reporting the 
matter at once. There was a sentiment in the public mind against the Catholic priesthood at 
that time, which a few years later burst out in what was known as the Know Nothing move- 
ment, and was directed against foreigners indiscriminately. Itwas Augtist 5th before the com- 
mittee reported that it had no power to grant the request. It recommended that the trustees 
of St. Peter's could surrender their school to the aldermen, and then it would become Public 
School No. 2, and would be cared for without further expense to the church. This report was 
referred to a special committee and it remained among unfinished business. Several attempts 
were made to secure a division of the school funds at subsequent periods down to 1847, when 
Father Kelly, finding the plan to be very unpopular, withdrew his last petition. 

On October 4, 1844, John D. Ward, an engineer with a national reputation, .sent a communi- 
cation to the council urging the city to procure a water supply. The matter was referred to a 
committee, and a month later the committee reported that the legislature had chartered a water 
company, but the people were opposed to having a supply m the hands of a private corporation, 
and nothing was done. In July, 1845, a committee was appointed to consider a plan for getting 
water, but the water committee was discharged in March, 1846, without having accomplished 
any practical result. In May following another committee was appointed, and Hoboken' was 
invited to join, but this, too, failed and the question remained in abeyance for a time. 

The city was growing all the time. Manufactures and commerce were developing. In 1845 
the Atlas foundry was built ; the following year the Slater & Steele foundry was put up. In 
1847 the Cunard steamship piers were built. In 1S4S Cobb & Field's foundry was built ; the 
Paterson and Hudson railroad was extended to Suffern and connected with the Erie railway, 
then having its terminus at Piermont. The Paterson dock was built to accommodate this rail- 
road line. The furry boats reduced their time to fifteen-minute trips, and half-hourly boats 
were run at night. In 1S49 a pest-house was established on Washington Street, south of the 
Morris Canal, for cholera patients. The Adirondack steel works were built at the foot of War- 
ren Street, the Colgate soap works were built on York Street, and many smaller manufacturing 
plants were erected. The city continued street improvements, and many private houses were 
put up. 

New Year's Day, 1850, was celebrated with great rejoicing because the Hibemia sailed that 
day, the pioneer vessel on the Cunard line. A salute of one hundred guns was fired by Joseph 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 49 

G. Edge on behalf of the city. The railway service by the Newark route to the south and the 
Paterson line to the west had been very much improved. More than a million passengers were 
broug-ht in by the New Jer.scy and Morris and Essex railroads, and half a million tons of freig-ht. 
This state of affairs made \'an \'orst township anxious to join forces with Jersey City, and the 
residents of Jersey City were willing to extend the area of the city. 

During the fall of 1850 a number of popular meetings were held to consider plans for con- 
solidation, and the result was the appointment of a committee of the council to meet a similar 




4|r ill ^^ji: 



THE PATIvKSOX UnCK. NORTH OK THE R.MLROAD" DEPOT. 

committee from Van Vorst to prejjare a plan. The result of their labors was presented to the 
Jersey City council on February 7, 1.S5 i. alunj,' with a bill of expenses amounting to $163.45, 
one-half of which was assessed against each town. On February 11, 1S51, after the voters of 
Jersey City had ratified the charter prepared, it was sent to the legislature and became a law, 
subject to acceptance at a special election. This election in Jersey City was held in the fire 
engine house at the corner of York and C.rcgory streets. The total vote was 495, of which 489 
were for the charter, three were against it, and three were rejected. 



CHAPTER X. 

THE STORY OF VAN VORST TOWNSHIP — THE DUKE's FARM — JOHN E. COLEs' PCRCHASE — HOW THE 

NEIGHBORHOODS FORMED EFFORTS TO Bl'ILD A CITY BUSINESS AND POPULATION ATTRACTED 

A TOWNSHIP CHARTER — OFFICERS WHO GOVERNED THE TOWN — PUBLIC PUMPS AND WATER 

SUPPLY HOW IMPROVEMENTS WERE MADE CHURCHES AND SCHOOLS BUILT PARKS DONATED 

CONSOLIDATION WITH JERSEY CITY — THE CIVIL LIST. 

PSrjT^HILE Jersey City was laboriously overcoming- obstacles in its municipal proj^ess, the 
■"^yTli settlements on the hills and upland between it and Berg-en Hill had been growing 
gLgg*| slowly. When John B. Coles secured the "Duke's Farm" in 1804 there were but 
fey.'^.j three roads in Harsimus. One was the causewav now Newark Avenue. The 



second was "the road to church and mill." This road followed what is now the line 
of Henderson Street, along the shore of Harsimus Cove to First Street, where a bend canied 
it to the comer of Grove and Newark -V venue. Thence it followed the present line of Newark 
Avenue to Monmouth Street along the foot of a sand hill, which was the site of an earthwork 
outpost erected by the British during the revolution. The last vestige of this hill was 
removed last year from the southwest corner of Mercer and Brunswick streets. From this 
hill, nearly on the line of Railroad Avenue, the road reached Prior's mill, where the earlier 
settlers had their grist ground. This mill and the stream that supplied its motive power 
were removed to make way for the railroad cut and embankment now used for the 
Pennsylvania Railroad. From the mill the road became what is now Academy Street. It was 
the road to the Old-Dutch Church at Bergen Square. The third road began near Van Vorst's 
house on Henderson Street and extended northwesterly to a point near where Jersey Avenue 
and Twelfth Street now intersect; thence at an angle to the base of Bergen Hill, where 
Hoboken Avenue turned from an east and west direction to ascend the hillside. There was 
a small tavern at this junction which afforded a resting place for teams. This road was the 
only route by which residents of Harsimus could reach Hoboken without a boat. 

The residents of Harsimus settled in neighborhoods. The southerly settlement was on 
the upland now embraced in the area bounded by Grove Street. Jersey Avenue, York Street 
and Railroad Avenue. The Newark turnpike made a settlement along Newark Avenue. 
The Van Vorst settlement on Henderson Street formed a nucleus for another neighborhood, 
and the Traphagen and other families formed a neighborhood north of Pavonia Avenue along 
the shore. When Coles bought the Duke's farm, he secured the greater part of the upland 
and meadow north of Newark Avenue. This he laid out in lots with right-angled streets. 
The sale of these lots created a new neighborhood. The older residents were few and were 
mainly interested in fishing and farming. Harsimus Cove was used for oyster and clam beds 
and for shad fishing, and there was quite a little fishing community settled on the shore near 
where Provost Street now crosses the Erie railway. The cove was divided by a point of land 
which jutted out at Pavonia Avenue and for a short distance above it. A wharf was built at 
the outer end of this point and a roadway, dry at low tide, was built out to it. This was called 
the Long Dock. A ferry was authorized at this point in 1753, by grant of George II., but it 
was not established. Attempts were made in 1765 and iSiS to revive this grant, but no ferrv 
vv'as established there until 1S61, when the Pavonia ferry was started. 

A peculiar clannishness was generated among the e.arly residents. The tirst settlers, north 
and south of Newark Avenue, belonged to the Dutch Reformed Church. Along the turnpike 
a good many Baptists were located ; while Methodises Presbyterians and Episcopalians came 
in the wake of the Coles movement. The Particular Ba]5tists were a very exclusive set. and 
were the first in Van Vorst to organize a church. They erected a small brick building on 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



SI 






BaiTow Street. It has since been occupied by a number of denominations and is still standing. 
It was built in 1839, and is the oldest church in Van Vorst. The total population of the town- 
ship the year this church was built was 074. 

The advent of Coles put an end to farming- as the main means of support, though there 
were a good many small farms in Harsimus fifty years later. Manufacturers began to locate, 
and by the time Jersey City had emerged from its proprietary' government there were quite a 
number of them — Olcott's and Maxwell's rope-walks, Mill's oakvim factory, Saver>''3 hollow- 
ware foundr}', Soule's silverware factory, Mix's candle factory, a button factory, a large dis- 
tillery on the shore, a large brewery, starch and paper mills and several smaller places. The 
territory remained a part of the township of Bergen and the governmental wants of the resi- 
dents were so few that they wore content. It was not until Hudson County was set off from 
Bergen County in 1S40, and a county legislature was formed, that the residents of Harsimus 
began to feel the need of autonom\- and representation. The county was created in February 
and a movement was begun at once to form a separate township in Harsimus. It was simply 
a section of Bergen township, a township 
which included all of the present county 
except Hoboken and Jersey City. The 
movement for a separate municipality was 
favorably received, and at the next session 
of the State legislature a bill providing for 
anew township was introduced. It received 
the gubernatorial signature on March 11, 
1841. Thenewtown was calledVan Vorst. 
in honor of the family which had been so 
prominently associated with its history 
from its settlement in 1636 to that time. 

The new town did not reach Bergen Hill 
at any point. It was bounded on the north 
by the Creek of the Woods, a considerable 
stream which separated it from Hoboken ; 
on the west and south ilill Creek formed a 
natural boundar\' to Jan de Lacher's Point 
near Jersey Avenue and Johnston Avenue ; 
thence the shore line of the bay was the 
boundary. This point had become a part 
of the Van Horn farm at that time and was 
known to the residents as " Mill Creek 
Johnnies." The eastern boundary was 
Grove Street, then called Kellogg Street, 
and Harsimus Cove. 

The population of the new town when it 
was set off was 1,057. The first town meet- 
ing was held at David Bedford's inn, on the 

south side of Newark Avenue, between Grove and Barrow streets. The election under the 
charter was held in the same place on April 12, 1841. These officers were chosen : Township 
Committee, Cornelius Van Vorst, Thomas King.sford, Matthew Erwin. Jeremiah O'Meara and 
Elias Whipple ; Freeholders, David Jones and Henry M. Traphagen ; Town Clerk, Stephen H. 
Lutkins ; Assessor, Robert McLaughlin ; Collector, Robert Sims ; Jvidge of Elections, John 
Brill; Overseer of the Poor, John Mclver : Overseer of the Highways, Patrick Corrigan ; Pound 
Keeper, Matthew Hole ; Constables, David Bedford and Patrick McKieman ; School Committee, 
Timothy Edwards, George F. Hopkins, John Gilbert ; Commissioners of Appeals, Hiram Gilbert, 
Andrew Casey, Andrew Anderson: Surveyors of Highways, Alexander AV'ilson and Michael 
Lynch. The appropriations voted were : for support of poor, §100 ; for common school. Si 00, 
and for roads, S150. In spite of the limited tax levy the officials laid out considerable work in 
grading streets and sinking wells. This work was paid for by assessing the property benefited 
The people were fairly progressive, and the town soon showed signs of improvement. 




'r««^j^\ 



THE OLD STO.N'E HOUSB. 



SJ HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

The followinjf year the example of Van Vorst caused the other sections of Berjjen town- 
ship to ask for separation, and a bill was introduced in the legislature of 1S42 to separate the 
township of Bergen into four townships. The town committee of ^'an Vorst opposed this bill, 
because no provision was made for a distribution of the common funds, and township prop- 
erty, including' a poor farm that had been acquired before Van Vorst township was set off. 
The main cause of contention was the money returned to the States by the United States gov- 
ernment under the law of March 10, 1837, when, on account of hard times, the surplus in the 
United States treasury was apportioned amonij the States. Berjjen township had received as 
its quota $41,147.82 of this money, when the State divided it amont;- the counties, and Van 
Vorst claimed its pro rata share. There was chronic trouble about the distribution of the school 
funds, which were collected from the State treasurer by the Ber<;en township collector. 

On January 28, 1842, Cornelius Van Vorst was sent to Trenton to oppose the bill to sub- 
divide Bergen, unless the claims of \'an Vorst triwnship were recognized and provided for. 
Henry M. Traphagen was also appointed to wait on Jasper Wandel, the town collector, and 
demand the share of school money to which Van Vorst was entitled. The school money was 
secured, but no settlement was made about the surplus revenue fund. In 1843 the bill to 
divide Bergen, which had been defeated the year before, was revived, and the town of Van 
Vorst appointed a committee to co-operate with a similar committee from Jersey City to defeat 
the measure. In the meantime the new county of Hudson had decided to build a court house 
and jail. In order to avoid a direct tax and to settle disputes about the surplus revenue fund, 
it was proposed to expend the money in building. A town meeting was held on Januan,' 7, 
1843, and the people of Van Vorst resolved to contribute their share of the fund to the cost of 
the court house. This ended a controversy which caused bad feeling for six years. More than 
half of the area of Van Vorst was still cultivated as farm land. The minutes of the town com- 
mittee record that $2 were appnjpriated on December 11, 7843, '^o P^y ^oi" two sheep killed by 
dogs. The population was small, but it was too large for the charter. The little municipality 
was hampered by restrictions and a supplement to the charter was passed by the legislature on 
February 29, 1844. According to the custom of the time, this was submitted to the people for 
acceptance or rejection. A special election was held in Bedford's Inn on May 11, 1844. The 
total vote polled was sixty-seven, of which only two were against the charter. 

By this supplement the town authorities obtained a little more power and more progress 
was made. The town committee arranged with Bedford for a regular meeting room at his inn, 
for which they paid $10 a year rental. A public pump was sunk at the corner of Bay Street 
and Newark Avenue ; the west side of Grove Street, from Xewark Avenue to Pavonia Avenue, 
was laid with flag pavement and crosswalks ; Newark Avenue on the south side received a flag 
sidewalk which was extended around the block bounded by Grove, Barrow and Railroad Avenue ; 
an appropriation of $1,000 was made to build a town hall, as soon as the Messrs. Coles and 
others would donate two suitable lots for a site. By the end of the year the effect of the new 
charter was plainly visible. There was a decided improvement. 

Coles and others refused to donate the two lots, and Bedford's Inn was still the town hall 
when William Moore succeeded Bedford as the host, and Bedford became a justice of the peace, 
living long in the memor\' of the inhabitants as Judge Bedford. 

One of the most interesting questions of the time was how to supply the g^-owing town- 
ship with water. When streets were extended through the farm land a number of wells were 
left on the roadways. These were ceded to the town on condition that their efficiency should 
be maintained. One of the last that was ceded was a pump at the corner of Grove and Mont- 
gomery streets. When the town accepted it Samuel Cookson was appointed " Superintendent 
of the Pump." This was an unsalaried position, and the record of his appomtment throws 
light on the nature of the public water supply. Some property-owner near each pump was 
appointed guardian because self-interest would cause him to guard the purity of the water. 
When a new pump was required it was petitioned for, and all the property within a radius of 
convenience was assessed for it. The radius was ascertained by drawing a circle around it 
extending half way to the next pump. The pump at South Fifth and Grove streets, for 
example, was built after a petition had been signed and approved. John P. Hill took the con- 
tract on May 15, 1845. The specifications provided that he should build a fuur-inch lirick wall, 
and if he did not find water at fifteen feet he was to get six dollars a foot for each additional 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. S3 

foot until water was reached. The residents could have an eight-inch wall built if they wished, 
but it was not to add more than twenty-five dollars to the cost. This well was completed in 
one month and cost Sn". and the property one block each way was assessed. 

The first street lamp was put up, on i)etition of Selah Hill, at the comer of Grove Street 
and Railroad Avenue on December 3, 1X45, at a cost of twelve dollars. Petitions for lamps on 
Grove, Erie and South Eighth streets were presented to the town committee about the same time, 
but they were withdrawn because a majority of the property-owners had not petitioned for them. 
The to^\■n did not feel wealthy enough to maintain the lights without a special tax on the 
property in the vicinity of each lamp. This was not the only point on which it was found that 
the tovra committee lacked power. The turnpike company owned Newark Avenue and had 
open ditches on each side to drain it. These became a nuisance. Many remonstrances, public 
and private, were made, but the company igoiored them. Finally the town committee made a 
demand for the cession by the company of the roadway from Grove Street to the " Bull's 
Head," at Monmouth Street. On February 18, 1846, the legislature passed a supplement to the 
charter which gave power to settle the Newark road nuisance. This charter also gave police 
power and authority to enact ordinances to protect streets, sidewalks and trees. Under this 
charter Robert C. Bacot was authorized to make a grade map of the township. He finished it 
on July I, 1846, and fixed Grove Street and Pavonia Avenue as the summit of the grade. From 
there the grades were to fall in all directions ten inches in each hundred feet. This plan pro- 
vided for drainage easterly into Harsimus Cove, westerly into Mill Creek and northerly into 
the Creek of the Woods, which divided the township from Hoboken. It was a comprehensive 
scheme, and it would have been well if it had not been abandoned at a later date. The blunder 
made by changing this plan has entailed expense and annoyance to this day. 

The charter did not contain adequate power to enforce the payment of assessments, and 
the town committee made another appeal to the legislature at the session of 1846-7. They 
asked for this power, and also for power to construct piers and docks, to create a lamp district. 
and to provide protection from fire. There was so much opposition that the bill was with- 
drawn, and the committee decided to do what was possible under a liberal construction of their 
general powers. In December, 1846, a committee was appointed to ascertain the cost of a fire 
engine, and their efforts resulted, on June 2, 1S47, in a contract with James Smith, of New York, 
for an engine at $750, a hose carriage at $55, and four hundred feet of leather hose at .$260. 
On the same day a town meeting was held to raise money for a school and to form Engine Com- 
pany No. I. On June 23d Washington Fire Engine Company was organized with fifteen mem- 
bers and authority to increase the membership to forty. On September 1st this limit was 
increased to seventy-five, in order to have margin for absentees. Twenty-seven new members 
were elected at once, and the company petitioned for a new engine house. The town committee 
bought a lot on Bay Street from John Arbuckle for S450, and had an engine house built. The 
site has been used for fire purposes ever since, and is now occupied by fire headquarters. In 
the passage of time the neighborhoods were growing closer together, though thev were not 
united in one community, except in name. The residents south of Railroad Avenue wanted a 
church. They were tired of going either to Jersey City or Bergen, and they felt strong enough 
to support a church nearer home. The result of this feeling was the organization of the First 
Reformed Church of Van Vorst. in March, 1846. A substantial brick church was built on 
Wayne Street, and it is still in use as the Second Reformed Church of Jersey Citv. The follow- 
ing year the Episcopalians felt strong enough to start a church north of Newark Avenue. The 
first meeting was held in the Barrow Street Baptist Church. A small frame church was erected 
on the west side of Grove Street, in Olcott's rope-walk yard, a little north of Newark Avenue, 
as a result of this preliminary meeting. Six years later the congregation built a fine brown 
stone church, and the old frame structure was moved into Morgan Street for a colored congre- 
gation. Later it became a carriage house and stable on the rear of a lot on Morgan Street, 
near Henderson, where it now stands. In July, 1848, the Methodists built a small frame church 
on Third Street. It was called officially the M. E. Church at Pavonia. It was enlarged some 
years later and became St. Paul's, which still remains and is a large church. These church 
organizations are noted to indicate the kind of people who laid the foundation for Van Vorst. 
At that time its population had increased to 3,601. 

The town committee elected in 1848 decided that it would not meet in a tavern any longer. 



54 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



Organization was effected in the residence of Thomas A. Bridgewood, a jeweler, on Seventh 
Street near Jersey Avunuc. He was a member of the committee. The people who had busi- 
ness with the committee objected to soins^ to a private house, and the town committee appointed 
a sub-committee to find a suitable mcctin;^ place. They could not find a public hall and were 
forced to select another tavern. This was the Weaver's Arms, a saloon kept bv William Houjjh, 
in a brick building that is still standing on the south side of Newark Avenue, near Jersey Ave- 
nue. Hough gave the use of a room for gi a night and fifty cents a night for special meetings. 
The town committee decided to follow the example set by Jersev Citv and procure improve- 
ments by the issue of bonds. They contracted for the pavement of the drove Street roadwa}- 
from Newark Avenue to Pavonia Avenue, and decided to make more liberal arrangements for 
public school sen-ice, even to build a new school-house, to be paid for in bonds. The school 
was maintained as a private enterprise by Isaac Corriell and he received public pupils for 
a certain sum allowed by the town committee. In the spring of 1848 the committee hired 
a frame building on Willow Street, now Third Street, between Grove and Erie streets for a 
school-house. It had been used as a factory. The owner made the necessary alterations and 
leased the building for five years at an annual rental of .§^50. That was the first public school 
in Van Vorst. The Catholic Institute now occupies the site. On ilarch 30, 1849. the two dis- 
tricts into which the town was divided agreed to pay S547.13 toward the maintenance of the 
school, on condition that fifty pupils should be taught free of cost. The rates for other pupils 
were : Primary, Si a cjuarter ; intermediate. Si. 50 a quarter, and higher branches. §; a quarter. 



The teachers were Isaac 
Corriell, principal ; W. 
Sipples, A. S. Corriell 
and Miss A. M. Corriell, 
and Miss Fay, assistants. 
There were then eighty- 
two pupils of seven years 
or under, sixty-four in 
the female and ninety- 
four in the male depart- 
ments, making a total of 
240. Thefollowingyear 
the town raised the al- 
lowance to §95 o, and de- 



'"*^H- 



>C 



^v>-- ?-"--:.; '-^j^ 



RKSIDEXCF. OF CORXEI.IS V.AX VORST. 
.\t Wayne St. and Jersey .-Sive. 



,% 



manded free tuition for 
100 pupils. 

The only parks owned 
by Jersey City were cre- 
ated in the town of \"an 
Yorst, and the most in- 
teresting events in the 
history of the town dur- 
ing 1849 were connected 
with them. These parks 
are in a manner memo- 
rials of the \'an Vorst 
and Coles families. John 
B. Coles had Hamilton 



Park laid out in the northern centre of the town, but up to the time of his death it had 
not progressed beyond a park on the map. In the spring of 1848, twenty -one years after 
John B. Coles died, his heirs decided that they would take possession of the park. They 
claimed that the town had no deed for the land and had never accepted it. To remedy 
this, the town committee had four trees planted on the ground in March, and by advice 
of counsel took formal possession. For two years no further demonstration was made, but the 
land was increasing in value and the heirs did not want to lose it. They renewed their 
demands, and in 1850 the town committee had the park enclosed with a wooden fence. The 
town attorney was directed to have the statements of Henn,- Traphagen and Thomas J. 
Vermilyea taken in the presence of witnesses to preserve evidence that John B. C61es had not 
only caused a map showing the park to be made, but he had informed his contemporaries that 
he intended to dedicate it to the public use. These witnesses were old men, and the com- 
mittee feared they might die before the ejectment suit against the heirs could be tried. 
These old men testified that Coles told them in 1.S04 that he had dedicated the land for a park. 
The suit was won by the town, but before a decision was reached, the town had ceased to exist. 
At the time this question was agitating the town the \'an \'orst family made a claim for the 
surplus earth in Van Vorst Square. This park was given to the town by Van \'orst in 1835. 
It was hilly ground, and had remained unimproved fur fifteen years. Tlie tnwn committee 
and Cornelius Van \'orst agreed to settle the matter by ccmcessions. Van Vorst had experts 
examine the land, and they reported that there were 7,0^9 cubic yards of surjjlus earth in the 
hill, and 3,147 cubic yards of deficiency to bring the low ]5arts to grade. The surplus earth 
was valued at $1,500, and he offered to grade the park and erect a fence for $;,ooo. His offer 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 55 

was accepted, and he contracted with B. M. Woolsey and Wm. Sanders to build and paint the 
fence for §1,034.40, and with I. and P. Henderson, florists, to plant trees in the park. The 
work was done and the wooden fence remained until after the town of Van \'orst was almost 
forgotten. The trees were of various kinds, including- a number of willows, which were planted 
on account of their quick growth. The willows are all gone now, but the other trees are still 
in existence, nearly half a century later. 

In 1849 the assessor took a census of the town b}" order of the town committee and found 
that the population had grown to 4,166. In the spring of 1S50 the town committee appropriated 
$100 to fit up a room in the fire engine house on Bay Street to be used as a meeting room. 
That was the nearest approach to a town hall the township ever had. The United States 
census of 1850 showed a population of 4,617, of whom twenty-four were colored persons. In 
July of that year the town committee contracted for the lighting of sixty street lamps, at S15 
per lamp, the light to be supplied by camphene. In October of the same year the first police 
force was organized. It consisted of a night watch of ten men at monthly salaries of $18. 

In the meantime the marsh between Jersey City and \'a.n Vorst had been filled in. The 
creek that had divided them had long since disappeared and the streets were continuous except 
on Montgomer}- Streec, which was not cut through. The outlet for \'an Vorst was through 
Jersey City, and the interests of the two towns were so thoroughly identified that talk of con- 
solidation was frequent and the plan was popular. Meetings were held in both places to dis- 
cuss the matter, and early in 1851 it had reached a point where all that was required was action 
on the part of the legislature to produce the result. On February i;:, 1S5 i, the town committee 
held a special meeting to consider a bill which had been prepared by a joint committee con- 
sisting of sub-committees from the town committee and the Jersey Cit}' Board of Aldermen. 
This bill was a new charter for the united city. It had been thoroughly considered at ttiwn 
meetings held both in Jersey City and Van Vorst in the preceding September and had been 
amended by the people in both places. Jersey City had been more progressive in public im- 
provement, and as a result had created a bonded debt. Van Vorst had but little debt and the 
most serious question that arose was the equalization of this debt. Van Vorst accepted con- 
solidation on condition that the new city should provide schools, engine housos and fire 
apparatus to equalize the debt in the two sections. This matter disposed of, there was no need 
for further delay in accomplishing manifest destiny. The matter was submitted to the people 
on March 27, 1S51. The election in Van Vorst was held in the engine house in Bay Street. 
The poll list contained 426 names, and the vote was : for charter, 377 ; no charter, 47 ; rejected, 
2. The assessor's census that spring showed a total population of 4,725, of whom 2,264 were 
males and 2,461 were females. The last official action of the town committee was to order an 
election for officers of the new city. \'an Vorst had become the Third and Fourth wards of 
Jersey City. The Third ward polling place was at the market, comer of Grove Street and 
Railroad Avenue, and the Fourth ward poll was at the engine house in Bay Street. With that 
election the old town disappeared. To-day even its boundaries cannot be located on the ground. 
The cove is filled in, the creeks have disappeared and scarcely any of its former residents are 
alive. 

The members of the Township Committee during its brief life of ten years were : 

Cornelius Van \'orst, 1841-42. Cornelius V. Traphagen, 1S44-45-46-47. 

Thomas Kingsford, 1841-42. John Brill, 1844-45-46-49. 

Matthew Quinn, 1841-42. William R. Drayton, 1S45-46-47-48. 

Jeremiah O'Mcara, 1841-42. Selah Hill, 1846. 

Elias Whipple, 1841-42. Barzilla W. Ryder, 1847-4S. , < 

Alexander Hamilton, 1S43. Thomas D. Jordan, 1847. 

Stephen Garretson. 1843. Cornelius Van Vorst, Jr., 1848-49-50. 

Hiram Gilbert, 1843. Thomas A. Bridgewood, 1848-50. 

Henry A. Booraom. 1S43. Louis B. Cobb, 1849. 

Andrew Anderson, 1844-45-46-47-49. Joseph Kissam, 1850. 

John Van Vorst, 1844-45-4S-49. Richard R. Rappleyea, 1850. 

Robert McLaughlin, 1844. Charles Fink, 1S50. 

The Town Clerks were : Steiilien H. Lulkins, 1841-42; Andrew Anderson, 1843; Earle I!. 
Sippell, 1844; E. W. Kingsland, 1S45-50. 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE ENLARGED CITY — BOUND TO HAVE A WATER SUPPLY — PLAN'S PROPOSED THE SITE FOR PUMPING 

STATION AND RESERVOIRS CHOSEN — GREAT REJOICING OVER THE INTRODUCTION OF WATER 

SUDDEN GROWTH IN POPULATION — THE VISIT BY ABRAHAM LINCOLN — AN OFFICIAL RECEPTION. 



s^^^HHEN the census was taken in the summer of 1850 Jersey City had 6,856 population, 
-.•TB and Van Vorst had 4,617. The increase by the time the new city government was 
|SB:/J organized in the spring of 1851 gave the city about 12,000 population, or nearly as 
much as there was in the rest of Hudson County. The city government obtained 



fresh vigor and extended powers. The fire department was reorganized and strengthened, a 
board of education was organized, and a financial department was created with a comptroller 
and a city collector. The records show continual work in extending and improving streets, 
the greatest activity being in the Van Vorst section, where large gravel hills afforded ma- 
terial for grading. 

On July 13, 1852, the city debt was $52,116.07 ; the arrears of taxes, $17,616.62 ; leaving a 
net debt of $34,499.45. The real estate bought for schools, engfine houses and other purposes 
represented $33,730 of this amount, and 159 street lamps covered almost the balance; every 
dollar up to that time was accounted for. The area of the city was then about nine hundred 
acres, and the increase of population had a growing tendency to damage the water in the public 
wells. In many sections there were no wells and pipes were laid to connect flowing wells 
with cisterns to save the carriage of water. The filled-in meadow sections could not have wells 
because of the salt water, and residents were compelled to buy water. This was hauled in 
barrels and sold by the gallon from door to door. The trouble caused by wells running dry 
was very serious, and there was much complaint. On October 4, 1844, John D. Ward sent a 
communication to the common council asking them to apply to the legislature for authority to 
build a city water-works. His communication was referred to a committee. The committee 
reported back that a company had already been chartered to supply the city with water. 
That was the era of special legislation, and the charter was probably a salable commodity. 
The company did not materialize, ilr. Ward again brought the matter before the common 
council on July 14, 1845, and another committee considered it until March 20, 1846, when it was 
relieved by order of the common council. 

On May 14, 1846, a new committee was appointed. It consisted of Oliver S. Strong, Robt. 
Gilchrist and Peter D. Vroom. They took counsel with Andrew Clerk and Robert C. Bacot and 
made a thorough examination of possible sources of supply. They paid their own expenses, 
and could not be deterred by insinuations about a job. Several plans were proposed for obtain- 
ing a supply : artesian wells, catchment basins on the west slope of Bergen Hill, tapping Rock- 
land Lake, taking it from the Passaic River above the falls or at Dundee Dam, or taking it from 
the Morris Canal on the Bloomfield level, but none of these were satisfactor}-. The committee 
favored the Passaic at Belleville, and authorized Messrs. Bacot and Clerk to prepare plans and 
estimates. Finally a temporary commission was appointed to provide a feasible plan. The 
commissioners were : Edwin A. Stevens, of Hoboken ; Edward Coles, of Van Vorst ; Abraham 
J. Van Boskerk and John Dod AVard, of Jersey City. Stevens and Ward were engineers, and 
all were men in whom every citizen had confidence. The commissioners employed William S. 
Whitwell as engineer. He had made a reputation in connection with the Boston water-works, 
and was highly thought of as an hydraulic engineer. He began a sun-ey -on August :6, 185:, 
and on December 5th a public meeting was held in the Lyceum Hall, on Grand Street, to hear 
his report. The council invited the town committee of Hoboken to attend the meeting. His 
plan was to pump the water from the Passaic River above Belleville to a settling reservoir on 
Schuyler's Hill, 157 feet above tide. Thence the water was to flow by gravity to a distributing 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 







THE BERGEN HILL RESERVOIR. ~Z2 



reservoir on Berg^en Hill. 128 feet above the tide level. The water of the Passaic River at that 
time was so clear that the stones in the bottom could be seen from a boat in midstream. It was 
protected from the salt water tides by a rocky reef below Belleville, which kept most of the 
salt water from flowing up to the intake. The water was good and abundant. The estimated 
cost was about $600,000. 



The people were satisfied 
with the plan, and on 
March 25, 1852, the legisla- 
ture passed an act author- 
izing the work. The con- 
struction was prosecuted 
with vigor, and on June 30, 
1854, water was turned on 
at the Belleville reservoir. 
On August 15th the ser\-ice 
mains in the city were sup- 
plied. The plant at that 

time consisted of a rising main at Belleville, with one Cornish pump, one main across the 
meadows and the service mains, with the two reservoirs. The total cost of the works up to 
the time the water was turned on was $652,995.73. On October 3, 1854, the introduction of 
water was celebrated by a parade and a general holiday. The council made an appropriation 
of $2,500 to defray the cost of the celebration, but Mayor Planners vetoed the resolution, and 
the expense was borne by the water commissioners. It was $2,414.55. 

The introduction of water made a general sewer plan necessary, and this work w^ placed 
under the control of the water commission. The sewers previously constructed vf^e utilized, 
and the old plan of draining from the high central ground, both east and west, was con- 
tinued. An extensive plan was adopted by which Mill Creek and the Creek of the Woods, on 
the Hoboken boundary, were to be connected by a tidal canal. The engineer's estimate of the 
cost of the canal was $75,000, with $100,000 for right of way. This plan was urged for a 
number of years and modified in various ways. George H. Bailey proposed that the flow of 
water in the main from Bergen Hill should be utilized to operate a pump in passing down the 
hillside. This pump would raise 2,000,000 gallons of salt water from the canal ten feet and give 
a head that could be used to flush the sewers. This would have reduced the pressure in the 
city, but it would still have had the force of over eighty feet of head. Another plan was to 
buy a right of way, including the creek, of 300 feet in width, extending from Mill Creek in 
Communipaw to the river at the foot of the Weehawken blufiE. This space was to be used for 

a canal and a tree- 
shaded driveway, 
with paths something 
on the plan of Central 
Park, in Xew York. 
R. C. Bacot proposed 
a more economic 
plan, by which auto- 
matic gates would 
close at the turn of the 
tide and force the six 
feet of rise to escape 
through the sewers. 

The canal was 
never built. The lo- 
cation of the creeks is 

now a matter of guesswork. Instead of utilizing this natural advantage the creeks have been 
filled up and the sewers of the lower portion of the city are a source of annoyance and expense. 
Some time they will have to be entirely reconstructed at an enormous cost. 

The completion of the water-works marked another epoch in the life of the city. By the 







^AJCl 




THE CITV IN- iSs: 



58 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



spring of 1855, but little more than half a year later, the population had advanced to 21,715, or 
about 100 per cent, in five years. About this time the Long' Dock Improvement Company was 
organized to construct a terminal for the Erie Railway Company, and a large force of men 
were employed in building piers at the foot of Pavonia Avenue and north of it. Another large 
force were busy at the same time in constructing a tunnel through Bergen Hill for the railway. 
The work dragged on account of lack of funds, and the unpaid tunnel laborers created trouble 
by riots which required military force to suppress, but the enterprise was not abandoned. In 
i86i the tunnel was completed and the piers were ready for business. The Pavonia ferrj- was 
started on May i, 1861, with three boat.s. the Niagara, (.Inalaska and Onala. Thcccmpletion of 
this large undertaking gave the Erie Railway an independent terminal, and its trains were no 
longer run over the New Jersey Railroad from West End. The New Jersey Companv's busi- 
ness had increased to such an extent that it required all the terminal facilities it owned in 
Jersey City. The opening of the tunnel was speedily followed by the abandonment of the 
Piermont terminus, and the removal of the Erie's repair shops from the river town to the 
meadows near the eastern end of the tunnel. This made a large addition to the citv's popula- 
tion, and was the most important local event of the year. The census of i860 showed a popu- 
lation of 29,226. The demand for dwellings kept the artisans busy, and almost every street re- 
sounded with busy saws and hammers. The hard times of 1857 caused a great deal of suffer- 



ing in the city, and 
the relief of the poor 
was one of the most 
serious items of ex- 
pense. In i860 the 
city was financially 
comfortable, and the 
erection of a new city 
hall and a police sta- 
tion with a bell tower 
bore evidence of the 
fact. Street improve- 
ments had been car- 
ried on in a desultory 
manner during the 
hard times, but the 
work was prosecuted 
more vigorously after 
i860. 
The exciting presi- 




MONTGO.MERV STREET WEST FROM HUDSON" 



dential election of 
i860 had filled the 
Streets with marching 
men, and the excite- 
ment of the campaign 
had scarcely died 
away when the atti- 
tude of the South be- 
gan to absorb atten- 
tion. As the winter 
of i860 melted into 
the spring of 1861 the 
tone of the South be- 
gan to indicate 
trouble, but no one in 
Jersey City believed 
that the trouble 
would assume the 
proportions to which 
it developed. 'WTien 



it was known that President Lincoln would pass through Jersey City on his way to be inaugu- 
rated, a citizens' meeting was called to devise means of honoring the nation's executive. The 
common council also held a special meeting to do honor to the President. The ferry company 
prepared the John P. Jackson, its newest boat, to make a special trip. It was prettily decorated 
with flags and started for New York at 8 A. M. on Thursday, Feb. 21, 1861. Onboard was Mayor 
Cornelius Van Vorst and Atty.-Gen. Dayton, representing Gov. Olden : the senatorial committee, 
consisting of Senators Jonathan Cook, Samuel Wcstcott and Wm. F. Brown ; the assembly com- 
mittee, consisting of Socrates Tuttle, James Wheeler, T. F. Randolph, John G. Schenck and 
David Mulford ; the common council committee, consisting of President A. A. Hardenbergh and 
Aldermen Warner, Decker, McBride and Romar ; the citizens' committee, consisting of S. A. 
Hopkins, A. O. Zabriskie, Ephraim Marsh, D, .S. (ircgor\-, Magnus Traphagen, and a number of 
aldermen, citizens and ladies. When the Presidential party was received on board the boat a 
speech of welcome was made by A. A. Hardenbergh. The boat was not heated and the cabins 
were cold. Honest Old Abe towered above the heads of all and was introduced to all. He was 
in good humor and produced a good impression on all who were on board. As the boat neared 
the Jersey City slip the Hudson County Artillery fired a salute of thirty-four gims from the Pat- 
erson pier, and the Cunard steamers, that were docked at the foot of Grand Street, joined in the 
salute, making quite a cannonade for half an hour. In the railroad depot a carpeted flat car had 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



59 



been arranged for a platform, and Atty.-Gen. Dayton made an address of welcome to the Presi- 
dent. Lincoln replied briefly. The crowd pressed forward to .shake hands with Lincoln, with 
many words of con;<Tatulation. The police tried to force the crowd back, but .Mickey Free, a 
noted local character of the time, made such a noisy protest that Lincoln forbade the police to 
interfere, and all who could shook hands with the President. A decorated car, drawn by the 




NEW JERSEY RAILKO.AD DEPOT AS IT WAS IX THE W.\R TIME. 

locomotive Gov. Pennington, was waiting; for the Presidential party, and it drew out of the depot 
at 9 o'clock, amid the cheers of the larjjest concour.se of people that Jersc)' City had seen up to 
that time. Less than a month later the flags that flew out in welcome to the President were 
raised for more serious purpose. 




CHAPTER XII. 

THE CITY DURING THE WAR PERIOD THE FLAG FIRED ON — A BURST OF PATRIOTISM— RECRUITING 

STATIONS OPENED — PUBLIC MEETINGS HELD THE DRAFTS — STREET SCENES. 



HE Story of the war is the history of the nation. Local facts and incidents of the 

period as they are recalled raise pleasant recollections for some, but for many they 

T-^Syj, 1 touch old wounds that throb anew. Survivors of broken family circles are linked in 

memorv with many grassv mounds. JIany can close their eyes and see mental visions 



of enthusiastic fathers, brothers and sweethearts whose place knows them no more, while 
thousands only know that their loved ones marched away. Jersey City in those days was a 
small place. The census of iS6o showed a total of 29,226 men, women and children. Hudson 
City had 7,229, Bergen, 7,429, of which about 1,000 were in Greenville, making a total of 43,884 
in the territorj' now embraced in Jersey City. To these the daily papers brought news of the 



Slf^^J 











JERSEY CITY AT THE BREAKING OUT OF THE WAR. 

Southern discontent, but to the majority it conveyed no idea of actual war. Even when it was 
announced that an army was assembling at Charleston, and that threats were made against Maj. 
Anderson and his little band in Fort Sumpter, the people did not believe that the government 
troops would be attacked. When Gen. Beauregard had fixed upon an hour for a surrender or 
an attack, it was looked upon as a kind of a bluff. 

On the morning of Friday, April 12, 1861, before daylight, the streets seemed to be filled 
with hoarse-voiced men and boys, shouting extras. Men and women appeared at the doors 
wondering at the tumult. The extras were eagerly bought and read. The people were dumb- 
founded. The flag had been fired upon at 4 o'clock that morning. Surprise gave way to 
indignation as the news spread. It seemed as if everyone was ready to go to war in a moment. 
All day Saturday and Sunday the war feeling grew as the insult to the flag was discussed. On 
Monday, the 15th, the President's call for 75.000 men was published. Xew Jersey's quota was 
four regiments of 780 men each, a total of 3.120. The commandants of the city militia com- 
panies did not wait for Governor Olden's proclamation. Monday's daily papers contained calls 
for the companies to assemble at their meeting places that evening. The Union Minute Men's 
call was signed by President F. G. Wolbert and Secretary J. D. Van Dyke. They met in 
Cooper's Hall. Captain John Ramsey summoned the Hudson Guard ; Benjamin F. Champney 
called the Jersey City Ferry Guards ; W. A. Fisher, Captain, and Frederick T. Farrier, of the 
other company of the Hudson Guards, signed the call for a meeting and the ranks were filled 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



6i 



at once. On Tiiesday evening^ a mass meeting- was held in the Hudson House on Grand Street. 
I. W. Scudder was made chairman and C. H. Dummer secretar>'. Stirrin;^ patriotic speeches 
were made, and on motion of Thomas Potter a roll was opened for vohmteers. The first man to 
sign the roll was James M. Weart. He was a younij lawyer, in his 23d year. He served with 
distinction in two regiments, having- rc-enlisted at the end of his first term, and lived through 
the perils of war to die an accidental death seven years after the war closed. He was a brother 
of Hon. Jacob Weart. His was the first name actually enrolled as a volunteer in New Jerse)-. 
Thirty men signed the roll at this meeting and all were moved by the addresses delivered by 
Nathaniel C. Slaight, Benjamin \'an Riper, John H. Low and others. The crowd was carried 
away by their enthusiasm and sang patriotic songs as they left the hotel. The recruiting be- 
came brisk after that. The signs on the fronts of the stores where recruiting offices were estab- 
lished gave much information about the terms of enlistment, some of which was from the 
articles of war and some that was evolved from the inner consciousness of the recruiting 
agents. For example, one flaring sign on an office near the city hall offered free tickets to the 
Southern excursion. Beautiful picnic groves in the sunny South, free fireworks and refresh- 
ments were among the attractions. 

The two companies of the Hudson Guards were consolidated, and became Company G of 
the Second Regiment, New Jersey Militia. The Communipaw Zouaves were recruited in Park 
Hall, an old frame church Gov. Olden was published 



building, which had been 
removed from the south 
side of Grand Street to a 
plot adjoining the north- 
west square at Grand and 
Washington streets. No 
commissary department 
had been organized, and 
the men would have suf- 
fered if it had not been 
for the kindness of neigh- 
bors, and especially of 
Mrs. D. E. Culver, who 
pro-vided coffee and sand- 
wiches for them. Sev- 
eral camps were formed, 
and the recruits were 
hastily drilled in vacant 
lots, frequently practising 
in marching far into the 
night. The call issued by 




J.AMES M. Wii.ART. FIRST.NEW JERSEY SOLDIER. 



on Wednesday, the 17th. 
In it he ordered all organi- 
zations or individuals, 
willing to volunteer, to 
report within twenty 
days. On Friday, the 
19th, the first detachment 
of the Massachusetts 
troops arrived at the New 
Jersey Railroad depot. 
The fact that they were 
coming was known, but 
the hour had not been an- 
nounced, and the depot 
was crowded from early 
morning until noon when 
they came. They were 
received with an ovation. 
Thousands cheered them 
as they marched into the 
depot. Addresses were 



made by Col. Hoxie, Benjamin Van Riper and others, and the soldiers and the crowd joined in 
singing. The whole population seemed to have turned out to see them, and the railroad tracks 
were lined with people all the way across the city. On Saturday, April 20th, the Eighth Regi- 
ment Massachusetts Militia arrived, and there was another popular demonstration. Mr. Griswold 
of New York presented a flag to the regiment, and Gen. Butler accepted it. The .same after- 
noon the New York Seventh passed through at 5 o'clock. On the following Monday, April 22d, 
Mayor Van Vorst called a meeting at the council chamber, and a war committee of five was 
appointed. It consisted of Mayor Van Vorst, Henr>- Traphagen, John Griffith, Benjamin G. 
Clarke and David Smith. To their energy, and the liberality of Messrs. Griffith and Clarke. 
was due the preparation of the Second Regiment. The men were abundant, but there was no 
money provided to pay for equipments. Messrs. Griffith and Clarke advanced §30,000 to pro- 
cure all that was required. They were subsequently reimbursed for their outlay, but no one at 
that time knew where the money was to come from. The Mechanics and Traders Bank pledged 
itself for §25,000 and the Bank of Jersey City for §10,000, and thus the funds for equipment were 
provided. On Friday of that week the regiment left the city. The fire companies turned out 
to escort them to the depot. The streets were filled with cheering people, and flags hung from 



62 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

every possible point. The regiment was sent to Trenton, and brijjaded under the command of 
Gen Rmiyon. The command went to Annapolis bj' way of the Delaware and Chesapeake Canal, 
at the siigg-estion of John G. Stevens of Hoboken, because the "plug-uglies" in Baltimore had 
torn up the tracks of the railroad. The fleet of boats left Trenton on Mav :jd. 

The iirst regiment was not ready to leave for the front until Mav 30th. It was the first 
under the three years call of May 4th. The ladies of Hoboken, under the lead of Mrs. Stevens 
and Mrs. Hatfield, made a handsome flag for this regiment, and it was presented by Mrs. Hat- 
field before the regiment started. From this time forward every dav troops were being hurried 
through the city, and the people never tired of cheering them as they passed. C)n Saturday, 
July 27th, a part of the Second Regiment returned. They came in at night, but the whole city 
was out to receive them. There was a grand parade, fireworks and a salute bv cannons as they 
passed Van Vorst Park, Joseph A. Dixon, whose residence faced the park, having charge of the 
salute. On Sunday the balance of the regiment arrived, and there was another demonstration 
at Washington Square. Most of the men re-enlisted again in the three years regiments. 

On May 26th the government ordered nine boats of the Monitor model and six of them 
were contracted for in Jersey City. The shipyard in which they were built was not idle again 
during the war. On Friday, July 1 1, 1862, Mayor Romar presided at a meeting in the Washing- 
ton House to consider what should be done under the President's new call. A. J, Bixby was 
secretary and A. A, Hardenbergh, Ephraim Marsh and S, A. French were appointed a com- 
mittee to prepare an appeal for more men. The city had been drained of volunteers. A great 
many men had been attracted to New York regiments and were not credited to New Jersev's 
quota. This fact caused Governor Olden to issue a proclamation on August 7, 1862, forbidding 
recruiting in New Jersey for other States. This caused a large number of recruiting offices to 
close. By that time the recruiting business had become a profitable industrv. The drafts for 
unfilled quotas had produced bounties. Ever\' numerous family was already represented at the 
front, and news of battle was followed by crape on many doors. A special instance which fol- 
lowed the receipt of news from the battle of Antietam, on September 17, 1S63, ma}' serve as 
an example. Eleven houses on the block west of Jersey Avenue, in Fifth Street, bore sable 
emblems of grief. The women were bus}' preparing lint for hospitals and holding fairs for 
the benefit of the Sanitary Commission. It was not strange that there was a scarcity of 
volunteers. 

On August 21, 1862, a meeting of the common council was called to devise means of avoid- 
ing a draft. Mayor Romar presided, and Hosea F. Clark was secretary. On motion of A. H. 
Wallis it was decided to offer a bounty of S150 for recruits. On August 29th an official list of the 
men subject to draft was published in the newspapers. Fortunately no draft was required, as 
volunteers enough came forward. On June 19, 1S63, the Twenty-first Regiment came home 
and was received with every demonstration of pleasure. In July, 1863, the victory at Vicks- 
burg was celebrated by a general illumination. A mass meeting was held in the Tabernacle, 
and Peter Bentley presided. During that montli there was another call for troops, and the 
common council raised the bounty to $200. On November 6th there was another call and the 
bounty was raised to S3oo- On March 23, 1864, a draft was begun. " Blind Billy," a well-known 
newsdealer, was selected to draw the names from the wheel. Two more drafts were ordered 
that year, and they created consternation among the men with dependent families who were 
liable to the draft. The common council appointed Aldermen Gaffney and Decker as a com- 
mittee on enlistment. Stephen Quaife was enrollment officer, and the council, aided by Mavor 
Cleveland, succeeded in getting the quota filled at an expense of S347,'>9i.43. These were 
among the trials that befel those who were left at home. Almost evervone had relatives in the 
army, and each daily paper brought g'rief to someone. When any of the regiments with Jersey 
City companies were in action the vicinity of the telegraph office on Exchange Place was haunted 
by anxious wives, sisters and sweethearts, whose treasures were at the front. No one will 
ever know the suffering that was borne in the homes of the men who answered their country's 
call. Fathers and mothers had their war maps pricked full of pinholes to indicate the puints 
from which the last words had come. The joys and sorrows when regiments returned were 
familiar sights. Some met their soldier boys, others who came in joyful expectation found 
their fears realized. Exchange Place was a busy place during the war, and the walls that still 
shut it in have resounded with cheers and shaded sorrows that are enshrined as sacred in mem- 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 63 

ones of thousands. The Jersey City volunteers, according to the State records, numbered about 
one in eight of the population, but that does not represent the total. Hundreds of men enlisted 
in regiments beloni^ing to other States, and a strong contingent served in the navy. These, of 
course, are not credited fm the roster of the New Jersey regiments. Every fire company and 
every other civic organization had its quota of members in uniform, and its roll of martyrs who 
came not back. Competent judges have estimated that the total enlistment in Jersey City was 
nearly one in five of the total population. Certainlv no place was more patriotic and none more 
prompt in responding. No record has ever been made of the residents of Jersey City who en- 
listed in other States or who served in the navy. It is believed that several thousand residents 
of New Jersey crossed the Hudson and the Delaware in order to serve among friends or com- 
panions. The organizations that were recruited in Jersey City and credited to New Jersey are 
duly recorded in the office of the Adiutant-General at Trenton. The organizations recruited 
in Jersey City and credited to it included, in whole or part, the Second, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, 
Ninth, Tenth, Thirteenth, Twenty-first and Thirty -third Regiments. 

The Second Regiment was mustered into the service of the United States at Trenton, N. J., 
May I, 1861, by Maj. T. T. S. Laidley, and Lieut. A. T. A. Torbert, and at the end of its term 
of service (three months) returned to Trenton, where it was mustered out of the service of the 
United States, July 31, 1861, by Lieut. A. T. A. Torbert, U. S. Army. 

SECOND REGIMENT. 
Field and Staff. 

Colonel— Henrj' M. Barker, mustered in May i, 1861. 

Lieutenant-Colonel — Abraham Speer, mustered in May 2, 1861. 

Major — John J. Van Buskirk, mustered in June 15, i86i; Captain, Co. E, May i, 1861; com. 

Major to fill original vacancy. 
Adjutant — Cornelius Van Ripen, mustered in May 2, 1861. 
Quartermaster — Henry H. Brinkerhotf, mustered in May 2, 1861. 
Surgeon — John E. Ouidor, mustered in April 26, 1861. 
Assistant-Surgeon — John Longstafl:, mustered in April 26, 1861. 
Chaplain — Matthew B. Riddle, mustered in May 28, 1861. 

NON-COMMISSIONED StaFF. 

Sergeant-Major — Noah D. Taylor, mustered in May i, 1861. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant — Francis R. Hill, mustered in May i, 1861. 
Drum-Major — Edward C. 'Woodruff, mustered in May i, 1861. 
Fife-Major — William K. Van Ripen, mustered in May i, 1861. 

The Fifth Regiment was organized under an act of Congress approved July 22, 186 1, and 
was mustered into the sen-ice on August 22, 1S61, at Trenton. It was brigaded with the Third 
Brigade of Hooker's Division. It was subsequently attached to the Third Brigade, Second 
Division, Third Corps, then to the First Brigade, Fourth Division, Second Corps, and finally to 
the Third Brigade, Third Division, Second Corps. At the end of the three years a large por- 
tion of the regiment re-enlisted. Those who did not were mustered out at Trenton, September 
7, 1864. Three companies were raised in Hudson County, Companies B, C and G. The regi- 
ment took part in these actions : Siege of Yorktown, Va., April and May. 1862 ; Williamsburg, 
Va., May 5th ; Fair Oaks, Va., June ist and 2d ; Seven Pines, Va., June 25th ; Savage Station, 
Va., June 29th ; Glendale, \'a., June 30th ; Malvern Hill, Va., July ist and August 15th ; Bris- 
tow Station, Va., August 27th ; Bull's Run, \'a., August 29th and 30th ; Chantilly, Va., August 
31st; Centreville, Va., September 2d: Frederick.sburg, Va., December 13 and 14, 1862; Chan- 
cellorsville, Va., May 3d and 4th ; Gettysburg, Pa., July 2d and 3d ; Wapping Heights, Md., 
July 24th ; McLean's Ford, Va., October 13th ; Mine Run. Va., November 29th and 30th and 
December I, 1863; Wilderness, Va., May 5th and 6th: Spottsylvania, Va., May 8th to nth; 
Spottsylvania Court House, Va., May 12th to i8th ; North Anna River, Va., May 23d and 24th ; 
Tolopotomy Creek, Va., May 30th and 31st: Cold Harbor, Va., before Petersburg, Va., June 



64 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

i6th to 23d ; Deep Bottom, Va., July 26th and 27th ; Mine Explosion, Va., Juh' 30th ; North 
Bank, James River, Va., Aujjust 14th to i8th ; Fort Sedef«-ick, Va., September loth ; Poplar 
Spring Church, Va., October 2d ; Boydton Plank Road, Va., October 27th, and Fort Morton, 
Va., November 5, 1864. 

FIFTH REGIMENT. 

Field and Staff. 

Colonel — Samuel H. Starr. 
LiEUTF.NANT-CoLON'EL — Gershom Mott. 
Major — William S. Truax. 
Adjutant — Caldwell K. Hall. 
Surgeon — James C. Fisher. 
Assistant-Surgeon — A. W. AVoodhull. 
Quarter.master — James F. Rusling. 
Chaplain — Thomas Sovereign. 

The Sixth Regiment was one of the regiments composing the Second Brigade, New Jersey 
Volunteers, and was raised under the same order as the Fifth Regiment and shared in the same 
engagements in which the other regiments of the brigade were engaged. Company C was 
raised in Hudson County. 

SIXTH REGIMENT. 
Field and Staff. 
Colonel — James T. Hatfield. 
Lieutenant-Colonel — Simpson R. Stroud. 
Major — John P. Van Leer. 
Adjutant — Leonard J. Gordon. 
Quartermaster — Joseph Woodward. 
Surgeon — John Wile)'. 
Assistant-Surgeon — Bedford Sharpe. 
Chaplain — Samuel T. Moore. 

The Seventh Regiment was raised under a requisition made by President Lincoln on July 
24, 1861, for four regiments. It was one of the famous Second Brigade regiments, and shared 
in all the engagements of the brigade. Company F was recruited in Hudson County. 

SEVENTH REGIMENT. 
Field and Staff. 
Colonel — Joseph W. Revere. 
Lieutenant-Colonel — Ezra A. Carman. 
Major — J. Dallas Mcintosh. 
Adjutant — Francis Price, Jr. 
Quartermaster— Thomas P. Johnston. 
Surgeon— D. W. C. Hough. 
Assistant-Surgeon — Alvin Satterthwaite. 
Chaplain — Julius D. Rose. 

The Ninth Regiment was raised imder an avithorization of the War Department for a regi- 
ment of riflemen from New Jersey. Recruiting began in September, 18O1. and the regiment 
was mustered at Camp Olden on October 5th. It was sent to Washmgton December 4, 1861. It 
was a.ssigned to the Burnside expedition, in the command of Brig.-Gen. J. L. Reno. Only Com- 
pany E was recruited in Hudson County. The regiment took part in forty-two battles and 
traveled 7,652 miles. It entered the service with 1,142 men, was several times recruited, and 
then 600 men mustered out. The total loss from all causes during its service was 1,646 men. 
The principal engagements were : Roanoke Island, N. C, February 8th ; Newbeme, N. C, March 
14th; Fort Macon, N. C, April 25th; Young's Cross Roads, N. C.,July 27th; Rowell's Mill, No- 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 65 

vember 2d: Deep Creek, N. C, December 12th; Southwest Creek, December 13th: Kinsjston, 
N. C, December T3th and 14th: Whitehall, X. C, December i6th ; Goldsborough, N. C, De- 
cember 17, 1862 ; and Comfort. \. C, July 6th ; Winton, N. C, July 26, 1S63 ; Deep Creek, X. 
C, February 7, 1864 : Cherry C.rove, X. C . April 14th : Port Walthill, Va., May 6th and 7th ; 
Swift Creek, Va., May gth and loth ; Drury's Blutf, Va., May 12th to i6th ; Cold Harbor, Va„ 
June 3d to i2th ; Peter.sburjj, Va., June 20th to August 24th; Gardner's Bridge, N. C, Decem- 
ber 9th; Foster's Bridge, X. C, December loth; Butler's Bridge, X. C, December 11, 1864; 
Southwest Creek, N. C, JMarch 7th : Wise's Fork, March 8th, 9th and loth ; Goldsborough, N. 
C, March 21, 1865. 

The Tenth Regiment was organized under the act of Congress of July 22, 1861. It was 
not under State supervision. It was first called the Olden Legion. On January 22, 1862, it 
was transferred to the State by the War Department, while the regiment was in camp on 
Bladensburg Turnpike, near Washington. Company B was recruited in Hudson County. The 
regiment took part in these engagements: Carrsville, Va., ^lay 9, 1863; Wilderness, Va., May 
5th to 7th ; Spottsylvania, Va., May 8th to i-ith : Spottsylvania C. H., Va., May 12th to i6th ; 
Xorth and South Anna River, Va., May 24th : Hanover Court House, Y'a., JSIay 29th ; Tolo- 
potomy Creek, Va., May 30th and 3tst: Cold Harbor, Va., June ist to 3d: before Peters- 
burg, Va. (Weldon Railroad). June 23d; Snicker's Gap, Va., June i8th: Strasburg, Va., August 
15th: Winchester, Va., August 17th: Charlestown, Va., August 21st; (Jpequan, Va., September 
19th ; Fisher's Hill, Va., September 21st and 22d : Xew Market, Va., September 24th : Mount 
Jackson, Va., September 25th : Cedar Creek and Middletown, Va., October 19, 1864; Hotcher's 
Run, Va., February 5, 1865 ; Fort Steadman, Va., March 25th ; capture of Petersburg, Va., 
April 2d ; Sailor's Creek, Va., April 6th : Fairville, Va., April 7th ; Lee's surrender, Appomat- 
tox, Va., April 9, 1865. 

The Thirteenth Regiment was raised under President Lincoln's call of July. 1862. Ezra A. 
Carman, Lieutenant-Colonel of the Seventh X. J. Vohmteers, was commissioned by Gov. Olden 
to recruit the regiment. Companies B and H were from Hudson County. The regiment was 
mustered in on August 25, 1862. It served two years, nine months and fourteen days, and was 
mustered out on June 8, 1865. It participated in these battles: Antietam. Md., September 17, 
1862 ; Chancellors\-ille, Va., Mav i. 2 and 3, 1863 : Gettysburg, Pa., July 2 and 3, 1863 : Resaca, 
Ga., May 14 and 15, 1864: Dallas, Ga., May 25. 1864: Gulp's Farm, Ga., June 22. 1864: X'ancy's 
Creek, Ga., July 18, 1864 : Peach Tree Creek, Ga., July 20, 1864; Siege of Atlanta, July 22 to 
September i, 1864: March to the Sea, Xovember 5 to December 21, 1864; Averysboro, X. C, 
March 16, 1865, and Bentonville, X. C, March ig, 1865. 

The Twenty-first Regiment was raised under the call for 300,000 men for nine months' ser- 
vice, issued August 4, 1862. The State authorities, wishing to avoid a draft, announced that the 
quota for X'^ew Jersey would be 10,478 men, and volunteers would be received until September 
ist. Five camps were established, one at Trenton, under Brig.-Gen. X. X^orris Halsted : one at 
Beverly, under Brig.-Gcn. George M. Robeson ; one at Freehold, under Brig.-Gen. Charles 
Haight; one at Newark, iinder Brig.-(ien. Cornelius Van Vorst, and one at Flemington, under 
Brig.-Gen. A. E. Donaldson. On Sei)tember 2d there were 10,800 volunteers in the camps. 
These were reduced by the medical examination to 10,714. This was 230 in excess of the required 
number, and X'ew Jer.sey was the first State to fill its qtiota. The Twenty-first Regiment was 
organized at Trenton in August, 1862, and eight of the ten companies were from Hudson 
County. Companies E and H were from Mercer. The regimpnt was organized and equipped 
in ten days, mustered into the service on September 15th and left for Washington on the next 
day. It joined the Army of the Potomac at Antietam, being attached to the Third Brigade, 
Second Division, Sixtli Corps. The regiment participated in the engagements at Fredericks- 
burg, Va., December 13 and 14, 1862 ; Fredericksburg, Va., May 2 and 3, 1863 ; Salem Heights, 
Va., May 3 and 4, 1863 : Franklin's Crossing, Va., June 5, 1863, and in numerous minor actions. 
The regiment returned June 15, 1863, and public receptions were given to the men in Trenton 
and in Jersey City. In the battle at Fredericksburg on May 4. 1863, the regiment suffered 
severe losses. Col. Van Houten and a number of officers and men fell and were left in the 



66 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

enemy's hands. Col. Van Houten was moved to the rear, and Sergt.-Maj. Georsje B. Fielder, of 
Jerse)' City, was left to attend him. A change of position left him and his charge in the 
enemy's lines. The colonel died early in the morning- and was buried bv Sergt. Fielder. 
When Fielder informed Gen. Barksdale, the rebel commander, of the circumstances he was at 
once released on parole. A few days later the body of the brave colonel was recovered under 
a flag of truce and sent heme to Bergen under a guard commanded by First-Lieut. William D. 
W. C. Jones, of Company C. 

TWENTY-FIRST REGIMENT. 

Field and St.\ff. 

Colonel — Gilliam Van Houten, mustered in September 15. 1862 ; died near Bank's Ford, Va., 

while prisoner of war, May 6, 1863, of wounds received in action at Salem Heights, Va., 

May 4, 1863. 
Lieutenant-Colonel — Isaac S. Mettler, mustered in September 15, 1862 ; mustered out June 

19, 1863. 
Major — Hiram Van Buskirk, mustered in September 15, 1862 ; mustered out June 19, 1863. 
Adjutant — Andrew Van Buskirk, mustered in September 15, 1862 ; mustered out June 19 

1863. 
Quartermaster — William Harper, mustered in September 15, 1862 ; mustered out June 19 

1863. 
Surgeon — Daniel McNeill, mustered in September 15, 1862 ; mustered out June 19. 1863. 
Assistant-Surgeons — William S. Janney, mustered in September 15, 1862 ; promoted Surgeon 

Twenty-second Regiment Volunteers, March 27, 1863. Cornelius Conover, mustered in 

June 2, 1861 : mustered out June 19, 1863 ; commissioned Assistant-Surgeon, vice Janney, 

promoted. 
Chaplain — Samuel Conn, mustered in October 16, 1862 ; mustered out June 19, 1863 ; Private, 

Company H ; Chaplain to fill original vacancy. 

Non-Commissioned Staff. 
Sergeant-Major — George B. Fielder, mustered in September 15, 1862 ; mustered out June ig, 

1863 ; Private, Company A ; Sergeant, September 15, 1862 ; commissioned Second-Lieuten- 
ant, Company I, June i, 1063 ; not mustered. 
Quarter.master-Sergeant — Edward B. Bingham, mustered in September 15, 1862 ; mustered 

out June 19, 1863 ; Private, Company I ; Quartermaster-Sergeant, September 15, 1862. 
Commissary-Sergeant — Cornelius Young, mustered in September 15, 1862 ; mustered out June 

19, 1863 ; Private, Company A ; Commissary-Sergeant, October 10, 1862. 
Hospital Steward — William M. Comelison. mustered in September 15, 1862 ; mustered out 

June 19, 1863 ; Private, Company I ; Hospital Steward, September 15. 1862. 
Drum-Major — Theodore H. Teeple, mustered in September 15, 1S62 ; mustered out June 19, 

1863 ; Musician, Company A ; Drum-Major, September 15, 1862 ; discharged November 12, 

1862, G. O. No. 126, War Department, A. G. O., Washington, D. C. 

The Thirty -third Regiment was raised by Colonel George W. ilindil in Newark during 
the summer of 1863. It was mustered into the service September 3, 1S63, and was sent to Vir- 
ginia, but in the latter part of the month was sent to join the Army of the Tennessee, and 
reached Bridgeport on September 30. The regiment contained but three companies from 
Hudson County, though its Major, David A. Peloubet, has been a prominent resident of Jersey 
City ever since the war, and was a member of assembly from the third Jersey Citv district. 
The Thirty-third Regiment participated in these battles : Chattanooga, Tenn., November 23, 
1863 ; Mission Ridge, November 24 and 25, 1S63 ; Mill Creek Gap, near Dalton, Ga., ilay 8, 1864 ; 
Resaca, Ga., May 15 and 16, 1S64 ; New Hope Church, near Dallas, Ga., May 26 to June i, 1864 ; 
Pine Knob, June 15 and 16, 1S64 ; Muddy Creek, Ga., June 17 and 18, 1864 ; Gulp's Farm, Ga., 
June 22, 1864 ; Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., June 27, 1S64 ; Peach Tree Creek, July 20, 1864 ; Siege 
of Atlanta, July 22 to September 2, 1864 ; Siege of Savannah, Decemter 11 to 21. 1864 ; Averys- 
boro, S. C, March 16, 1865 ; Bentonville, N. C, March 18 and 20, 1865. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

HISTORY OF HUDSON CITY ITS EARLY DATTS — THE TOWN SET OFF FROM BERGEN A CITY CHARTER 

SECURED THE EARLY SCHOOLS AND GRADUAL DEVELOPMENT OF A DEPARTMENT — THE ERIE 

TUNNEL RIOTS — MILITIA CALLED OUT — THE OFFICERS WHO SERVED THE CITY. 

la^^lURING its earlier days Hudson City was a wilderness known as the Berfjen AVoods. 

jSss^l The first road or opening was made by wnodchoppers. and was known as the Bergen- 
wood Road. Settlements were formed north of Hudson City long before there was 
anyone living in the Bergen woods. The trails developed into roads prior to the 
revolution, but they were bad roads. The settlement or nucleus for a village began at Five 
Comers after the Hoboken turnpike was built in 1794. Later the Newark turnpike, finished 
in 1806, gave new life to the ^-illage. The proximity of Jersey City and New York made the 
land desirable for building speculations, and a number of them were organized. These caused 
a number of neighborhoods to form, and the demand for roads made the people anxious for a 
separate municipal government. Several futile attempts to secure independence were made 
after Hudson County was created ; but it was a dozen years later before the population was 
strong enough to accomplish its object. The increase at first was very slow. The main 
attraction was the Beacon race course, which was laid out b)' C^inis Browning in 1S38. It was 
on this track that Hiram Woodruff rode Dutchman on August i, 1839, and made a record which 
was not beaten until Huntress made a new record at Prospect Park on September 21. 1872. 
The race track attracted undesirable visitors, and it was closed in 1S45. It occupied part of 
the site of Reservoir No. 3, of later days. 

The earlier social movement was in the direction of church organization. The first was 
made by a gToup of Methodists, who met in the district school-house at Five Comers in 1839, 
and formed an organization which produced the Simpson M. E. Church. They built the wooden 
church on a small street that connected the Newark and Hoboken turnpikes. It was called 
Church Street, because of the building, and at a later date, when streets were opened, it became 
Oakland Avenue. Holy Trinity was organized by the Episcopalians September 10, 185 1, 
under the charge of Rev. "\V. R. Gries, and a frame church was built on St. Pauls Avenue. 
Rev. Norman W. Camp succeeded him in 1S55, and the building was removed to Hoboken 
Avenue to bring it nearer to the centre of population. A Reformed Church was organized in 
Miss Graves' female seminarv" on December 14, 1853, and Rev. Aaron Lloyd was assigned to it 
as a missionan.- in 1854. Prior to that the church members of that denomination worshipped 
in the old Bergen Dutch Church. A Catholic church was organized by Rev. James Coyle 
in 1856, and was known as St. Bridget's. The congregation built a small frame church 
on Hopkins Avenue, and worshipped there for several years. Rev. Aloysius Vanuta was 
pastor during the riots. The church name was changed to St. Joseph's after consolidation, not 
to conflict with St. Bridget's in Jersey City. Rev. C. Doeppenschmidt organized a church and 
built a house of worship on Central Avenue near Franklin Street for Germans of the Reformed 
faith in 1859. Other churches sprung up later, but their organization will be noted elsewhere. 
The town of Hudson was set off by the legislature on March 4, 1S53. The area included in 
it was 2,394 acres, of which 333 acres were swamps along Penhom Creek and the Hackensack 
River. The town included the territory north of the Pennsylvania Railroad cut and south of 
the Paterson plank road. On the east it extended to Mill Creek at the eastern base of the hill, 
and westward it was bounded by Penhorn Creek and the Hackensack. The act which set off 
the town gave slight powers to a board of five supervisors, and an effort was made to join in 
the march of improvement. The effort was not a success. For all practical purposes the town 
of Hudson was still a part of Bergen township. The supervisors soon found the need for more 
power, and a movement was made to get it from the legislature. On April 1 1, 1855, the gov- 



68 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

emor approved an act by which the town was incorporated as the City of Hudson, with powers 
of government vested in the mayor and common council. The charter was left to the accept- 
ance or rejection of the people, and a special election was held on April 12th, at which a 
majority of 120 votes were cast for the charter. The first officers elected under its provisions 
met in the court house on May 7th, and tcjok the prescribed oaths of office before Judge Daniel 
Haines. The total population of the new city was 3,322. In the followin;^- June an ordinance 
providing for a board of education was adopted. The members were appointed by the com- 
mon council, which audited and paid their bills. The first board was organized on July 7, 1855. 
In August a special committee had a sch(;ol census made which showed 877 children of school 
age. Of this number only 120 attended the public schools, and these taxed the accommo- 
dations. 

The first school in Hudson City was a small frame building at tlie Five Corners. The 
date of its erection has not been recorded. It was built early in the Thirties, and was used for 
public meetings as well as a school. Some time during the Forties, a new school-house was 
built on the north side of the Hobolcen turnpike, east of Oakland .Vvenue. This was a one- 
story frame building, and became Public School No. 1, and it is still standing. The building 
was sold to the Erie Railway Company, when it was buying a right of way for the tunnel, June 
ig, 1856. The building was repaired and served as the office of the Long Dock Imjirovement 
Company and the tunnel contractor, and is still in use as an office. The school completed the 
term in the old building. During the summer vacation the new stone church for the Simpson 
M. E. congregation on Central Avenue was completed, and the trustees sold the old frame 
church on Church Street to the city for §1,660. In September School No. i was transferred 
to the old church. At the same time a site on the corner of St. Paul and Montgomery 
avenues was bought for a new school, and a contract made with Charles AV. Allen for its erec- 
tion. In i860 the new school-house had absorbed the pupils of old Xo. i, and the old frame 
church was altered to be used as a town hall and jail. After consolidation the building was 
removed to make way for the Third Precinct Police Station. The street name was changed to 
Oakland Avenue. School No. 2 was at Washington \'illage. This was a land association 
settlement, occupying a tract of land on Palisade Avenue, and west of it south of the Ravine 
road. The school-house was in a leased building. The number of the school was subsequently 
changed to No. 3, and it was moved to Sherman Avenue, near Franklin, and acro.ss the street 
from the present school No. 8. New No. 2 was at Congress and Central avenues and is now 
No. 7. School No. 4 was known as the West End School. A site was selected at West End 
on property owned by James R. Dey, but it was subsequently changed to a plot on Tonele 
Avenue north of St. Pauls Avenue, and John W'helihan erected a small but neat two-story brick 
building on a terrace. The school was abandoned after consolidation and allowed to fall into 
ruin. It was finally removed as a nuisance a few years ago. 

The scarcity of water and the lack of roads to the ferry, the difficulty of drainage and the 
many advantages of being part of a large city caused a good m.any residents of Hudson City 
to desire consolidation with Jersey City, and a bill was introduced at the legislative session of 
i860 to consolidate the two cities, but it was opposed by the Hudson City government and was 
not thought desirable by Jersey City. The undesirable notoriety caused by the tunnel riots 
gave Hudson City an unenviable reputation about that time. Alderman (llauhrecht introduced 
resolutions on February 6, i860, against the proposition, and they were sent to Trenton. The bill 
was smothered. The turbulent character of the tunnel laborers caused the aldermen to employ 
a few special policemen, but there was no regular force organized until i.siiip. when Col. (lilbert 
P. Robinson was appointed chief. He had a force of nme men and one sergeant. In 1867 the 
force was increased to fifteen iiatrolmen and two sergeants. In iSiiS there were eighteen 
patrolmen and in 18O9 there were twenty-four patrolmen, two sergeants and two roundsmen. 
This was the strength of the force when the cities were consolidated, and Iliulson City became 
the third precinct. Col. Robinson was retained as captain of the precinct The time of the 
council was largely occupied with questions relating to street opening and gTading. Very 
little paving was done and but little sewering. The largest sewer built extended from the 
lowlands north of Newark Avenue, through the Harrison estate, to Mill Creek. The most 
exciting question that was discussed was in relation to water suiiply. Attempts were made to 
form a private company to extend mams ^nd sell water to be procured froni the Jersey City 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 69 

reservoir. A fire department was created and a board of fire trustees elected, but tlie records 
have disappeared. 

The board of education, hampered for funds thouj^h it was, was the most satisfactor\- (lart 
of the city government. In i86i the annual report contained this summary- of the work accom- 
plished in six vears : " Three new and commodious school buildinj,'s have been erected, at an 
aggregate cost of SjO.ooo- During the previous year over Si, 000 had been expended in im- 
proving School Xo. 3. Schools Xos. i, 2 and 3 were occupied. They contrast proudly with the 
humble tenements in which the public schools of the city were formerly accustomed to assem- 
ble — an old seven-by-nine country school-house, located at one extremity of a frog-pond, a 
metamorphosed church and two temporarily-rented lager beer saloons." 

In 1S65 there were 25 teachers and 1,729 pupils. A Normal school was established, in which 
the male principals alternated in giving instruction to the teachers and candidates for certifi- 
cates, and in the latter part of the year a High school was established with Mr. J. N. Flint as 
teacher. He resigned in 1866, and Miss Denton succeeded him until 1868, when she. too. 
resigned, and Mr. E. O. Chapman was made principal. In October, 1869, the school was dis- 
continued for lack of funds. In the following spring Mr. Chapman became superintendent of 
the schools of the consolidated city. The school census, after incorporation, showed these 
totals : 



1856 . . 


. 766 


1857 . 


972 


1858 . . 


• 573 


1859 • 


• 1,204 


i860 . . 


1,339 


I86I . 


• 1,539 


1862 . . 


>.539 



1863 . 


1,967 


1864 . 


. 2,722 


1865 . 


2,909 


1866 . 


• 3,476 


1867 . 


3,468 


1868 . 


4,006 


1069 . 


4,198 



When Hudson City was consolidated with Jersey City it had an effective school depart- 
ment with five schools. There were but four when the city was chartered in 1855. Prior to 
that there had been a continuous improvement which was noted by Mayor Wright in his first 
message to the aldermen. He said : " Twenty years ago §2 a quarter and a Yankee scho( 1- 
master who boarded around, satisfied the public demand." In that sentence he gave a pano- 
ramic view of the starting point. The school property at consolidation was : 





Value of Houses 


Val 


Lie of Furniture 




School 


and Lots. 




and Fixtures. 


Total. 


No. I 


$40,000 




§2,500 


$42,500 


No. 2 


30,000 




1,500 


3',500 


No. 3 


12,000 




1,200 


13,200 


No. 4 


10,000 




800 


10,800 


No. 5 


28,000 




1,800 


29,800 




$120,000 


S7.J*oo 


Si 27.800 



During the fifteen years of Hudson City's corpur.ate existence there was only <<ul- episode 
which attracted the attention of the outside world. That wa.s the tunnel riot, or more properly 
riots, for there were several disturbances which reached that character. Very soon attcr tlic 
city was incorporated the Erie Railway Company organized a company known as tlie I-ong I •■ ick 
Improvement Company, to build a tunnel and .1 new tcrniin.il station. Tlie Eric's ni.iiii ter- 
minal was at Piermont, on the Hud.son, but by an extension in 1.S53. under the name of tlie 
Paterson and Hudson Railroad Company, the Erie got access to Jersey City by \\\-t ICnd .ind 
the New Jersey Railroad cut. The Long Dock Company was incoriiorated in iSjO. and l)i.-^.in 
work filling in the upper part of Harsimus Cove and excavating the tunnel under Hudson t. iiv 
simultaneously. The tunnel was completed in 1861. and is 4.300 feet long. It cost .Si.oco.coo, 
exclusive of the land damage, and was. when finished, the most important work of its kiiu! :ii 
the country. A large force of labfircrs were imported !o carry on the work and tluy s,|n.ii;i.l 
on the land the company bought for a right of way. liesides s|)rca(ling over the adioiniiii; \.k- 
cant property. Tl;e panjc of 1857 caused a suspension f.f the work because the company eou!d 



70 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

not raise capital for its prosecution. This suspension was followed by riotous demonstrations 
on the part of the workmen, and the troops were called out. In 1859 work was resumed and 
things went along peaceably fur a few months, but the company found difficulty in raising- 
funds. On Thursday, September 15, 1859, the men quit work because they had not been paid. 
They built a barricade of stones across the Erie railway and refused to allow the trains to reach 
the city. Mayor Collerd, of Hudson City, and Receiver Marsh, of the Erie railway, went out 
on a special train from Jersey City to talk to the men and promise them pa\-ment for all ar- 
rears. The men would not be pacified. They had utilized their idle time in a large measure 
to get drunk, and the peacemakers were glad to make their escape. 

On Friday the company called for help. The stock trains were blockaded on the meadow, 
and the live stock were dying for want of food and water. The milk trains were shut out, and 
the milk had spoiled. The damage on milk alone was about §28,000 a day. Col. Gregory called 
out the Second Regiment. The companies responding were the Independence (".uard. Captain 
Grain ; Washington Guard, Captain Speer ; Greenville Guard, Capt:iin C. Lilichd.ud : Close 
Light Guard, Captain Van Buskirk, and a section of the Hudson Artillerv with one field-piece. 
Col. Gregory established headquarters in the Hud.scm House, Jer.scy City, He held them in 
readiness to respond to a call from Sheriff Henry B. Beaty, but the call did not come. It sub- 
sequently tran-spired that the Erie Railroad Company had refused to pay the expenses incurred 
by the Sheriff in quelling a pre\nous riot, and Beaty was not going to assume the cost of this 
much more alarming demonstration. On Saturday the rioters became more demonstrative. 
They chased the contractors away, broke into their stores and destroved railroad property. 
Hudson City was terrorized, and Mayor Collerd appealed to Brig. -Gen. 1. T. Hatfield. He 
issued an order late on Saturday, calling out the Second and Fourth regiments and the Hudson 
Artiller}-. They assembled at headquarters in Jersey City on .Sunday morning, September 
i8th, and marched to the New Jersey Railroad depoi, where flat cars were provided for the 
artillery and passenger coaches for the other troops. They were taken to West 1-^nd, and there 
a barricade was found. It was a wall built of rocks and mortar. Tlie troops removed this, 
and moved slowly, under a shower of stones and insults from the brutal mob, which contained 
a large percentage of women. The militia charged on the mob. and spent the whole dav in 
arresting strikers who had been noted by detectives. Most of the prisoners were discliarged 
after spending part of the day, tied hand and foot, in freight cars, but seventy of the ringleaders 
were arrested and taken to the county jail. During Sunday night the discomfited rioters 
attacked the house of Alfred Austin, who had done good service during the dav in causing the 
arrest of strikers. They also mide a demonstration at the house of .Mayor Collerd, but were 
driven off. At the examination, subsequently, thirty-three of the prisoners were discharged 
and thirty-nine held for the grand jury. The business of the railroad was stopped four days, 
and a very serious loss inflicted in actual damage and loss of business. 

The population increased rapidly after the city was incoqioratcd. Each five vears it 
doubled. There were 3,322 in 1855 and 7,229 in 1S60. In 1865 it had grown to 13.151, and more 
than 20,000 at the time of consolidation. The growth of the city will be more readilv .seen by 
looking at the tax levies made after the charter became operative. These were as follows: 



1855 • 


• $7,062 


1856 . 


• ■ 8,925 


1857 ■ • 


• >5,i88 


1858 . 


• • 13.923 


1859 . 


• 17,18' 


i860 . 


■ • '8,575 


I86I . . 


16,000 


1862 . 


18,300 



1863 . . 


. $2 1,260 


1864 . 


. . 40,:;oo 


1865 . 


• 4',' 25 


1866 . 


• • 44.500 


1867 . 


• 58.400 


1K68 . 


. . S6,8oo 


1869 . 


■ "6,450 



The Mayors were elected annually. The first was Gen. E. R. \' Wright, 1855 ; Garret D. 
Van Reipen was elected in 1856 and again in i.S')i and iS(,,s I'.dmund T Carpenter was elected 
in 1857, 185S, i860 and 1S61, He died in office and w.is succeeik-d by G. I). Van Reipen. 
Abraham Collerd was elected in 1.S50, and Heni.imin I". S.iwyerin 1,^69 The City Clerks were : 
Alexander Watson, in 1855 ; Thomas Harrison, 1855 to 1S56; Charles J. Roe, 1856 to 1870. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 
The members of the Board of Aldermen were : 



Nathaniel Orr, 1855. 

J. M. Wilson, 1855-56-57. 

John H. Greschele, 1855-56. 

Henry B. Beatty, 1855. 

Garrett D. Van Reipen, i855-58-<Jo-6i-62. 

Joseph Aldridgfe, 1855-57. 

E. M. Eoff, 1855-56. 
Louis Dunham, 1S55-56. 
Jacob Newkirk, 1856. 

C. W. Allen, 1856. 

George V. DeMotte, 1857-63-64-65-66. 

Joseph Schoening, 1857-58. 

J. F. Talson, 1857-58. 

James Cummings, 1857-58. 

W. H. Scott, 1857. 

James Monroe, 1857. 

G. Van Houten, 1S58. 

B. B. Brown, 1858. 

J. B. Gennocchio, 1858. 

Wortman, 1858. 

James Montgomery, 1859. 

F. Wetmore, 1859. 

G. A. Toffey, 1859. 
George Glaubrecht, 1859-60. 
Joseph Sturgis, 1859. 

J. R. Elgar, 1859. 

N. Boyd, 1859. 

Alex. Franck, 1859-60-61-62-63. 



G. Gedney, 1860-61-62-63. 

Sylvanus Judd, 1860-61-62. 

P. F. Wortendyke, 1860-61-62. 

Anton Schick, 1860-61-62. 

W. H. Dockstadter, i860. 

JohnLeicht, 1861-62-63-64. 

T. Deegan, 1861-62. 

J. D. Waugh, 1862. 

Seth Geer, 1862-63. 

Wm. M. Green, 1862. 

Charles Luxton, 1863. 

J. Leitz, 1863-64-67-68. 

Patrick McNulty, 1863-64-65-66-67-68-69. 

John R. McPherson, 1864-65-66-67-68-69. 

Perry T. Cumberson, 1864-65. 

James R. Tait, 1864-65-66. 

Tobias Martini, 1864-65-66-67-68-69. 

Charles Lockle, 1865-66. 

William Mailer, 1865-66. 

J. B. Stanton, 1867-68. 

Henr>- Pattberg, 1867-68. 

Wm. E. Benjamin, 1867. 

Fred. A. Poetze, 1867. 

Fred. A. Goetze, 1868. 

George J. Ellwood, 1868-69. 

C. P. Dakin, 1869. 

John Hogan, 1869. 

Patrick Harrington, 1869. 

John McFadden, 1869. 



The members of the Board of Education were : 

Presidents. 
Jesse West, 1855. 
Jacob Miller, 1856-7. 
Chas. E. Newham, 185S-61. 
G. VanHouten, 1862. 
Geo. V. DeMotte, 1862. 
P. F. Wortendyke, 1863-6. 
T. M. Seward, 1867-8. 
Job Lippincott, 1869-70. 



Superintendents. 
Aaron Lloyd, 1854. 
Horace M. Smith, 1855. 
Jas. R. Dey, 1856. 
N. W. Camp, 1857-8. 
Isaac Emmons, 1859. 
J. E. Culver, 1860-1, 64-5. 
Wm. H. Dockstadter, 1862-3. 
F. E. Noble, 1866, 69. 
A. H. Laidlaw, 1867-8. 



Chas. E. Newham, 1855-7. 
Francis C. Sebring, 185S-9. 
S. N. Gaston, 1 860-1. 



Wm. Clarkson, 1862. 
Jno. J. Ruete, 1863. 
E. M. Eoff, 1864-70. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 
Board of Education — Continued. 



Aldridge, Thos., 1856-7. 
Andrews, Thos., 1S64-6. 
Brower, W. E., 1867-9. 
Brown, B. B., 1857. 
Bellows, Theo., 1857-9. 
Cummings, Jas., 1855-6, 59, 60-1. 
Conklin, David, 1855-8. 
Clarkson, Wm., 1861-2. 
Conger, C. W., 1865-7. 
Dey, Jas. R., 1855-6. 
Dewint, S. H., 1S59. 
Dockstadter, W. H., 1862. 
DeMotte, Geo. W., 1862. 
Eoff, E. M., 1863-9. 
Franck, Alex., 1864-5. 
Gaston, S. N., 1858-61. 
Gedney, G., 1858. 
Gantz, Geo. F., 1859-60. 
Gennocchio, Louis, 1861. 
Glaubrecht, Geo., 1861-2, 66-9. 
Geer, Seth, 1862. 
Gennocchio, J. B., 1S62-9. 
Goetze, F. A., 1866. 
Haven, 1858. 

Higginbotham, B., 1867-8. 
Haslam, E. P., 1867-9. 
Jacobus, James, 1861-3. 
Keenan, John, 1857-8. 
Leicht, Andrew, 1862. 



Lippincott, Job, 1S6S-9. 
Miller, Jacob, 1S55-8. 
Matthews, i860. 
Magonigle, 1862. 
Magee, Robert, 1864-5. 
Metz, Albert, 1864-6. 
Naugle, Wm., 1 85 5-6. 
Newham, C. E., 1855-61. 
Newkirk, Jacob, 1S56-7. 
Noble, F. E., 1863-4. 
Orr, N., 1859-60. 
O'Neil, J. H., i866. 
Piatt, J. H., 1855, 64-5. 
Roe, Chas. J., 1856. 
Ruete, J. J., 1863. 
Rooney, C. J., 1869. 
Smith, Justus, 1855-6. 
Sebring, F. C, 1858-60. 
Seward, T. M., 1866-8. 
Sawyer, B. F., 1S68. 
Schultze, C. F., 1869. 
Toffey, Geo. A., 1850-8, 62-3. 
Tate, J. R., 1862-3, 69. 
Van Houten, G., 1860-2. 
Van Tassel, Jno. M., 1860-2. 
Van Reipen, C. C, 1S62. 
Van Home, 1863. 
West, Jesse, 1855. 
Wortendyke, P. F., 1858-9, 63- 



CHAPTER^XIV. 

THE STORV OF BERGEN — ITS VILLAGE DAYS — THE OLD ROADS COMMUNIPAW LAFAYETTE — CLARE- 

HIOXT — THE STAGE LINE — STREET RAILWAY BUILT — SCHOOL BUILDING — THE CITY HALLS — A 

CITY CHARTER — WHERE THE CONSOLIDATION IDEA ORIGINATED CARRIED INTO EFFECT — 

PKLILIAR CONTRACTS — THE CITY OFFICIALS. 

lERGEN County was formed under an Act of Assembly in 1682, and the peninsula 
j now known as Hudson County was a township of Bergen County, and was called Ber- 
; B-'-'-Bi tren. Its afifairs were manasred bv trustees, who held office for life. When matters 
t- V^ ^ .1 of more than ordinar)- importance required action town meeting^s were called to de- 
cide them. The town clerk acted as clerk of these meeting's, and a moderator was chosen for 
each occasion. The population was sparse durinfi^ the first century and a half. In 1745 the 
whole area included in Hudson and Bergen counties contained but 3,006 persons. In 1S30 it 
had only increased to 22,412, and nearly half of that increase was in the section that was set (jtf 
ten years later as Hudson _ _^ 

County. The hereditary trus- ~ i ^ ^ ''^ 

tees became unpopular and - 1 

were supplanted by elective _. . ^•■ 

officials. After the county of " ; ." ; .- 4^«'. ;- ■ 

Hudson had been formed out f?T> 

of the township of Bergen the _ . , r 'I ' ■ ; 

residents objected to elections £^_\,v'.f .-,,!? . 



because of the time lost in go- 
ing to the polling- place. After 



the revolution a custom grew T_ i — 'i jf^- -. .- _ t I Ji j J 3 f ' ","?''^y ^Wp^' 

up through which the election ^^ -• --k^^'* "'^ '•■-.- ^ f m «^-VV;f'>" ^' - • — ^^"^"^ 
officers held neighborhood '^.-.^^---x iz -4Lv '''^■--^'-'••^I-'-'-' '--^ ' T ^' ' ■ ^ ' .^ •■'"" --^/ 
elections on different days in ^ ^ 'f(ij^/^'^^ y \^^-»:^ir'^-^!~s=^^zfr---^i:^'^^^^^''''^i-^^i:i:r?^'- 
different places. In 1803 the ■^>^;S^=*;^-#^i,i2sa€;?5S^'1^^^^teSS-^i;--- "'--■■*"'" 

polls were opened at the 
Widow Van Horn's, in Bergen 
Woods, North Bergen, and 
closed at Peter StuvAcsant's tavern in Bergen town. For half a century the election officers 
established the polling place at Stuyve.sant's tavern. The last time it was used was at the 
November election in 1840. The old building is still standing on its original site at the soutli- 
west comer of Bergen and Glenwood avenues. 

The separation of towns and cities from Bergen reduced it piecemeal until its nortlicrn 
boundary was the Pennsvlvania Railroad cut. The railway made a boundary from the hill tn 
the Hackensack. Eastward of the hill the boundary was Mill Creek. This began near 
Fremont Street and crossed Montgomery Street a short distance west of Brunswick Street, 
It crossed Grand nearly on the same line and reached the bay near the corner of Jersey ami 
Johnston avenues. The two bays formed the eastern and western boundaries and tlic Kill- 
von-KuU made a natural boundary on the south. What is now Bayonne had a numi)Lr ■.! 
small settlements in it, known as Salterville. Bayonne, Centreville and Bergen Point. liayoniu- 
was lopped off in iS6i and these settlements dropped out of Jersey City's reach for tlie tiim-. 

The township of Bergen was rc-chartered as the Town of Bergen on March 24, 1N55. T!i' 
population then was 4,972, and the total tax levy, including the state, county, school and town 
taxes, $4,250. The town included a number of settlements or neighborhoods separated bv broad 
stretches of farm land, common and meadows. Its total area was 7,007 acres. First ol the^c u .l^ 



74 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



>f5*'^'''^fi?:i/^-,. ^^^- i^ 







OLD SIP MANSION. 



the original Bergen, the settlement aruund Bergen ^Square. It was but a small group of houses 
in 1855. They are nearly all standing yet — quaint old buildings, like the Sip house, at Bergen and 
Newkirk street ; the old De Mott house, at the southeast comer of the square ; the old tiautier 
house, between Xewkirk and Sip, on the west side of Bergen Avenue ; the residence of Mr. C. C. 
Van Reipen, at the corner of Idaho and Academy Street : the house of the late Garrett Sip, across 

the street from the Van Reipen house ; the 
residence of H. X. Van Wagenen near 
by ; the Newkirk liouses, on Newkirk and 
Church streets, and a few others. This 
settlement was separated generally from 
the next one by a series of ponds and fresh 
water swamps. The Newkirks, Welshs, 
Vreelands and others, too long a list to 
enumerate here, lived on tlie hill south of 
the swamp on the hilly land in the vicinity 
of Communipaw Avenue. Lafayette was 
a section of upland farm land which had 
been laid out- in building plots by a land 
syndicate, in which the prime movers were 
the contracting firm of Keeney & Halladay. 
It was for these pioneers that a road was 
built out West Grand Street. Prior to 1848 travel from Communipaw and all points south had 
to reach the ferry at Jersey City by way of Academy Street, or around by Five Corners and 
Newark Avenue. Before 1805 the Academy Street road was the only one leading from Paulus 
Hook to the hill. Mill Creek at that time was navigable for small sailing vessels. 

Communipaw, the settlement of the Van Horns and the Garrabrants, was the eastern part 
of Bergen town. The story of its settlement in colonial times is given elsewhere. It was 
connected with the hill by an ordinary countr\- wagon road, on the line of what is now Com- 
munipaw Avenue. Summit and Storm avenues were laid out to shorten the distance from 
Communipaw to Bergen. 
The old Van Horn house, 
with the four chimneys, so 
charmingly described by 
Washington Irving in his 
stories of Communipaw, is 
still standing on Phillips 
Street. Lafayette, which 
was originally the Garra- 
brant farm, with an African 
burying-ground on the line 
of Pacific Avenue, about 
halfway between the canal 
and Communipaw Avenue, 
was bought by William 
Keeney and John R. Halla- 
day, and mapped as a town 
in 1856. They divided it into 
town lots and put it on the 
market, but it did not sell 
well until after the war 
period. A roadway was 
built out West Grand Street, 
and a wooden bridge erected 
over Mill Creek in 1S48. The original foundation for the roadway, near the creek, was formed 
by floating old canal boats up the creek at high tide and loading them with stones until they 
sank in the mud. That part of the work was done under the direction of Andrew Clerk. The 




INTERIOR OF OLD SIP .\I.\NSI( 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 7S 

roail was beneficial to people living in Lafayette and Communipaw, but it sank so low that it 
was sometimes overflowed by high tides. 

Claremont, another land speculation, was a small settlement on Ocean Avenue, south of 
the Newark and New York Railroad. It is still preserved on the map by the name of Clare- 
mont Avenue. Creenville, a small settlement of Oerman families that bought land on what 
was once the Gautier tract, three miles below Jersey City, completed the settlements in the 
town of Bergen. Five councilmen, who met from time to time, transacted the public business 
under a charter that gave them but little power. The roads were narrow and unpaved. There 
were no sidewalks, and most of the roads were drained by open ditches. 

The stages between Bergen and Jersey City were owned by Peter Merseles, and were 
cliangcd to omnibuses when the town got a charter. They started from the ferry every half- 
hour, when they were on time and found passengers. Sometimes they waited for the next 
boat to prevent' going out empty. An office and waiting room was maintained at the comer of 
l{av Street and Newark Avenue, in a frame building which is still standing, the central part of 
the stack of buildings on the triangle formed by Bay. Erie and Newark Avenue. These om- 
nibuses went by way of Fi\'e Corners and stopped at the Columbian Hotel, a building still 



"4; '-'■■■ .-■■ 







^i^i^^^l^iS:' 






COMMUNIPAW SHORE IN 1857. 

Standing as Foye Hall, at Foye Place, then Park Street and Bergen Avenue. During the 
winter months large sleighs took the place of the omnibuses, and the roads were frequently 
impassable for wheeled vehicles on account of the snow. In 1859 Garrett Sip and others 
organized the Jersey City and Bergen Street Railway Company and laid a single track road on 
Newark, Summit, Sip and Bergen avenues. The beginning of the colony of car stables was 
built at that time. Peter Merseles having sold out to the railway company, in order to attract 
travel to the line, the Merseles orchard was turned into a picnic grove, and for several years it 
was a popular resort for Sunday-schools in the daytime and for summer nights' dances. 
Orchard Street still preserves the memor>- of the old place, gone a quarter of a century ago. 
The horse cars were of peculiar construction. The body was a counterpart of an omnibus. 
The driver sat on top and pulled the door at the rear shut with a strap. The fares were handed 
up through a small hole by the passengers. When the cars reached the end of their destination 
the driver turned the horses and the body of the car turned, leaving the truck stationary on 
the track, thus saving turn-tables or switches. Poor as the traveling accommodations were. 
the beauty of the hill section attracted residents from Jersey City and New York, and bucolic 
Bergen had an awakening. In five years the population had increased nearly a third. The 
census of i860 showed 7,429 inhabitants. This included Greenville and Bayonne. 



76 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



rJ^_^ 




THE OLD GAUTIER MANSION, ON NEWARK BAY. 



When the war period arrived no .section wa.s more patriotic than Bergen The little plaza 
in front of Smith's hall, at the junction of Storm and Jewett avenues, was tilled nitfhtly with 
young men who were drilled by D. L. Holdcn, and all went to the front. Later, when drafts 
were ordered, the town committee paid $500 bounty to volunteers, besides paying to maintain 
the families of volunteers where required. Garrett Van Horn had charge of the enlistment, 
and expended $28,746.24 in securing 94 men. His account was audited by John Brinkerhoff 
and John C. Van Horn, in January, 1864. There was scarcely a family in the town that was 

not represented at the front, by one or more 
,^^;;. ^ir"=-'\ . . --^fe._ is..^, members. The act separating Bayonne 

from Bergen was passed in 1S62, and the 
southern boundary of Bergen was placed 
at the Morris Canal, in Currie's woods, an 
old time picnic resort. CJn March ir, 1862, 
the Bergen charter was amended and three 
wards created. These were named instead 
of being numbered. The old Bergen sec- 
tion was called the Columbian ward, the 
region east of the hill was the Communi- 
paw ward, and all south of Communipaw 
Avenue was the Franklin ward. Each 
ward had a school-house. The brick build- 
ing at the square was the principal .school. 
There was another in the Franklin ward, 
known as the Franklin School of District No. 2. It was built by Aaron V. P. Jones, a noted 
contractor in his day. He is still living, and in good health, at Cliffwood. N. J, He completed 
the building on May i, 1855, and it was opened for pupils on May loth. The building cost 
$1,158, the desks and seats added S180.40, making the total §1,338.40. James Welsh was the 
first principal, and Miss Smith was his assistant. School Trustee Myndert Van H(jrn gave the 
building his especial attention during its construction. An addition was built on the rear of 
the building in 1857 by P. Mersereau, who was an apprentice under Jones when the first struct- 
ure was erected. The Lafayette school in Pine Street was built in 1865. These schools were 
managed by a board of edu- 
cation appointed by the coun- _.,. . 
cil. There was also a fire de- '.i^^j~.-^_^^iiX^^^^i^E^!;;r^^-^v^rj .-. . .i-v 
partment, well provided with 
apparatus. In 1863 the town 
of Greenville was cut off from 
Bergen. Bayonne had taken 
away 2,611 acres of Bergen's 
area, and Greenville took otf 
1,670 acres, leaving the town 
but 2,726 acres in 1S63. In 
spite of these large losses in 
area and population, Bergen 
had increa.sed its population 
in 1865 to 7,000, and was grow- 
ing with a rapidity that in- 
vited reckless real estate 
speculation. 

In 1866 the charter was 
again amended, and the town gut a mayor and other municipal officers. The town hall 
belonged to a man named Smith, and it was knov.-n as Smith's Hall. It was burned down, 
and Smith, while exploring the ruins, stepped on a nail, injured his foot, and died of lockjaw. 
The common council moved to Belmont Hall, on Monticello Avenue, until Library Hall was 
built b>' the library association. Library Hall served for a city hall until consolidation. 
Li 1SC8 the town was incorpuratud a;; a ^it\', anJ fyom that time until it waii murgcd 




iieR(;kn SQL ark in iSs 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 77 

with JcTscv City the work of street improvement was rapid and continuous. When the 
tmvn blosscinied into a city in April, 1868, the total debt was $153,079-72. This included 
four items — a war debt of §121,500, a school-house debt of $15,800, a disputed assessment debt 
"f $4,779-72 and §10,000 for the Pacific Avenue bridge over the Morris Canal. The two first 
items were a yeneral debt. The other two were a special debt on the Lafayette section. The 
a^^es^me^.t for the improvement of Pacific, then Washini^ton Avenue, had been contested bv 
Keeney iV" llalladay and others for several years. The total receipts of the town for the fiscal 
year preceitinj^ the election under the city charter were §179,453.97, and there was a balance 
in the treasury awaitinjif the new otficers of §15,982.07, or more than the special debt. These 
recei]5ts included the money received on assessments. There had been but little spent on 
street impn.vements by prior boards, for Mayor Hilton, in his first messajre to the aldermen, 
s.iiil : " The streets are miserable apoloj^ies, simply crooked lanes." He also called attention to the 
li.iil cdndition of Franklin school-house, to the bad sidewalks and to the necessitv for appointinj,' 
Sunday police. Prior to 1868 Berjjen was only a straij.tr;in<j villajje. During- the two years of 
its city life it was a busy place. The population nearly doubled, and public work was carried 
1111 in every direction. It was provided with boards of aldermen, water commissioners, fire 
liiiard and board of education. Passaic water was secured from the Jersey Citv reservoir and 
water mains were laid in many streets. The streets were widened, extended and paved. New 
streets were laid out through farm land, new school and engine houses were built, and there 
were signs of danger ahead when the plan for consolidation with Jersey City was proposed. It 
was a big scheme, and the Hudson City people thought it was proposed to help Bergen bear its 
load. Hudson City was much more conservative, though it, tt)0, felt the forward movement 
which was changing farm land to city lots and attracting a cosmopolitan population. 

On October 11, 1869, a convention n-as called by Mayor Harrison to consider the ques- 
tion of consolidation. The result was the appointment of Jcjhn M. Comelison, George Gif- 
ford, J. B. Cleveland and Thomas W. James as a committee of one from each of the four wards 
into which Bergen was then divided to consult with similar committees from Jersey City and 
Hudson City. Mayor Sawyer, of Hudson City, and Mayor Clark, with President Clarke, of 
the Board of Aldermen in Jersey City, had been added to the committees from those cities, 
and on November 22, 1869, Mayor Harrison was added to the committee for Bergen. This 
joint committee considered the charter for the new city. It was somewhat crude when it was 
finished, and that crudity helped to secure the charter of reorganization. The last report made 
by the city board of assessors before consolidation showed this result : 

Real Estate. Personal. Total. 

First Ward $3,682,000 §400,500 §4,082,500 

Second Ward 2,087,150 196,600 2,283,750 

Third Ward 2,429,400 254,000 2,683,400 

Fourth Ward 2,672,600 159,650 2,832,250 

$10,871,150 §1,010,750 §11,881,900 

After the people had accepted the consolidation act of 1S69 there was a doubt about the 
legality of any contract for street improvement. Mayor Harrison called attention to this fact 
in vetoing a resolution to purchase land and erect a new house for Sherwood Hook and Ladder 
Company on December 16, 1869. There was no doubt of the illegality of all contracts for paving 
with Belgian blocks, because one-third of the cost was by the charter made a lien on the citv. 
There was no doubt about the illegality of contracts for Nicholson pavements, because tliis 
was a patented process, in which one person or firm e(mtrolled a citv or countv right, and tlu-n.- 
could be no competition. In spite nf vetoes and warnings, the board met nnlv to awanl i."ii. 
tracts. There was such undue haste that the petitions were put in without regard to the 
requisite number of signers. The charter provided that the owners of a majority of the liiu -il 
feet of frontage should sign the petition. The board was satisfied with a few names witin -.it 
regard to the frontage. This omission invalidated the assessments where made, anci the i'--t 
became a part of the permanent debt of the consolidated city. Sherwood Hook ami L.uMi r 
house was ordered and Lafayette Engine house still later. The contract was awarded to I! X'.m 
Kcurcn and R. A. McKnight on January 17, 1S70, and the bell tower, on Conimunipaw Avcii'i- , 



78 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



was ordered on March 7, 1870. Mayor Harrison opposed all this jobberN-, and on March 26, 
1870, in a communication to the common council he spoke of "the incentive of the immense 
profit in prospect if this Nicholson pavement job is secured." His wamin;.;s had no effect. 

There was so much doubt in the minds of the officials that manv of the records were pur- 
posely destroyed at the time the consolidation became operative. Thomas K. Halsted, assist- 
ant city clerk of Jersey City, was sent, without warnings, to seize the records of Hudson City 
and Bergen, and he collected what he could find in the two citv halls, but there are many 
grievous gaps in the records. The Mayors of the town and city of Berv^en were : Henrv Fitch. 
1866; John M. Comelison, 1S67; John Hilton, iS6t>. until he resi^-'nod and was succeeded bv 
William Brinkerhoflf, president of the board of aldermen, for the unexpired term ; Stephen D. 
Harrison, 1869. 

There were only two City Clerks, Henry H. Newkirk, in 1860-7, and .Samuel .McBurney in 
1868-9. 

There were two Boards of Aldermen. The first was elected in April, iSljS. and consisted of 
Thomas F. Hay, Jacob J. Van Riper and Abraham Spear, from the First Ward ; John S. Sut- 
phen, William Brinkerhoff and James Soper, from the Sec(md Ward : Applet(jn A. Woodward, 
William Van Keuren and Jeremiah B. Cleveland, from the Third Ward, and William H. Bum- 
sted, Hiram Sigler and Michael D. Vrceland, from the Fourth AVanl. 

The last Board of Aldermen were: W. H. Bumsted, D. L. Holden, H. H. Newkirk, Isaac 
Romaine, H. Sigler, J. Soper, James Stevens, M. D. Vreeland, W. Van Keuren. E. D. B. Wake- 
man, Marcius H. Washburn and Isaac Freese, Jr. 

The members of the Board of Education of Bergen were : 



Presidents. 
D. W. Culver, 1865. 
Jas. G. Craighead, 1S66-7. 
Jno. W. Atwood, 1868-9. 

B. C. Taylor, 1864. 
J. W. Patterson, 1865. 

Atwood, Jno. W., 1867-9. 
Brigham, L. A., Supt., i866- 
Brinkerhoff, Wm., Prest. of 
Babcock, Seth, *iS65, Prest. 
Buffett, E. P., 1S66-9. 
Bowly, Dan'l, 1867-9. 
Buck, E. W., 1868-9. 
Craighead, Jas. G., 1S64-8. 
Comelison, Jno. M., Mayor. 
Culver, D. W., 1864-5. 
Cleveland, J. B., 1S64-5, 67. 
Clark, Abram, 1868-9. 
De Witt, C. W., 1866. 
Doolittle, E. A., 1868-9. 
Freeman, R. W. R., 1865. 
Finn, Thus., 1S65-7. 
Forman, S. R,, 1SO6-9 
Fitch, H. E., Prest. Council 
Gilmore, J. W., Prest. of C' 
Hardenbergh, A. A.. *i864 
Holden, D. L., *iS66. 
Hilton, Jno., Mayor, 1S68 
• Ex-officio Chairman of 



Clerks. 



Members 



Council, 186S. 
Council, 1866. 



1 86 7. 



1865-6. 
nincil. 1867 



SuPERINrENl>E.\rS. 

B. C. Taylor, 1864-5. 
L. A. Brigham, 1S66-9. 



E. P. Buffett, 186O-7. 
D. Bowly, 1868-9. 



Haight, P. I)., 1865-9. 
Harrison, S. D., Mayor, 1869. 
Klumpp, Jno. F., 1S68. 
Linsley, H., 1S64. 
McDuff, Arthur. 1864-5. 
Miller, C. W., 1866. 
Mills, 1S68-9. 
Onderdonk, Jno., i868.<). 
P.^tterson, Jno.. 1864-9. 
Pcrrine, Jacob. 1866. 

Romaine, Isaac. Prest. <if Council, 1869. 
Soper, J.is., 1864. ♦68. 
Sigler, Hiram. *i.S6.j 
Taylor, li. C, Supt . 1.S64-5. 
Tompkins, i.S(.s 
Van Riper, Jacob, 18(14-5 
Van Horn, Jno R, 18646. 
X'rccl.ind. <',,irrct. i86;-() 
\'an Winkle. It.ml. iSi,(,.s 
Ward. H II , iSr,6.7 
Wcstcrvcll. J C . isii.s.,, 
W(H,dwanl. A A . •1.S67. 
Alderman Committee. 



CHAPTER XV. 

H>SXlLII>ATION AND REORGANIZATION THE PETITION TO THE FREEHOLDERS AN ELECTION ORDERED 

AN1» ITS RESULT — TROUBLE BEGUN FOR JERSEY LTTV — FINANCIAL CONDITION OF THE THREE 

^irips — A RUSH OF CONTRACTS — "THE BOARD OF 32" A BANK WAR— ORIGIN OF THE CITY 

„j„T — A NEW CITY CHARTER — THE RESERVOIR CONTRACT — A NEW GOVERNMENT INAUGURATED 
ON A NEW PLAN. 

^^;^"~3()OX after the war period the idea of unitinjf all of the towns of Hudson County in 
[ ^^^i one municipality bejjan to be considered. It was believed that great benefits would 
|»;*^^ I accrue to the people by uniformity in taxation, roads and drainage systems. It was 
La^— /.J thought that it would effect a large saving by doing away with the freeholders and 
many small sets of municipal officers. The idea was put into a tangible shape by Robert 
(lilchrist and William Brinkerhoff. A bill providing for submitting the question to the people 
was prepared and presented to the board of chosen freeholders in 1868. The board directed 
W. D. McGregor to have 2,000 copies printed for circulation. Copies were sent to each munic- 
ipal body, and to the heads of departments in each city and town. The bill did not propose 
to include Harrison and Kearny, but it took in all that lies east of the Hackensack River in 
Hudson County. Bergen was heartily in favor of the bill, but the meetings held in the other 
tov/ns showed many objectors. 

For instance, a meeting was held in Hoffman's hotel, Hudson City, on January 6, 1869, at 
which Mayor G. D. Van Reipcn presided. The advocates of the bill explained that it would re- 
duce the number of officials, give access to the ferries and drainage to the river. The op- 
ponents said the city would be simply swallowed by Jersey City. They said the bill had no 
friends in Hudson City nor Bergen, and if it passed they would be governed by Jersey City, 
and Jersey City people would fill all the offices. The people in Jersey City were at first in- 
clined to oppose the bill because they thought it was drawn in favor of the hill. Jersey City 
had bought and paid for many things required to make a city and the hill districts were still in 
a large measure farming land. The Jersey City Common Councilmen were at first inclined to 
ignore the movement, but on March 20, 1869, at a special meeting, decided to ask the legislature 
to postpone action on the bill. They were too late. The legislature passed the bill and it was 
approved on April 2d. It provided that a special election should be held on October 5th, en- 
suing, in each municipality to decide on consolidation. The result was as follows : 

Charter. No Charter. 

Jersey City 2,220 911 

Hudson City 1,320 220 

Bergen 815 108 

Hoboken 176 893 

Bayonne 100 250 

Greenville 24 174 

Weehawken 00 44 

Town of Union 123 105 

West Hoboken 95 256 

North Bergen 80 225 

Union Township 140 65 

This showed the desire of the people in Jersey City, Hudson and Bergen to unite their 
municipal fortunes. The residents of Union Township and the Town of Union also wanted to 
join the growing city, but the act provided that only contiguous to%vns could consolidate, and 
they were barred out. 



8o HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

This special election to allow the people to express their opinion before the consolidation 
was effected may have been wise and prudent, but it was the be.i^innin.tf of many troubles for 
Jersey City, troubles which still weigh heavily after the lapse of a quarter of a century'. On 
March 17, 1S70, the le_<jislature passed a charter for the consolidated citv. By it the new city 
was divided into sixteen wards, of which Jersey City had eij,'-ht and the other two cities four 
each. Hudson City wards were numbered from eij^ht to twelve, and Bergen's from thirteen to 
sixteen. The division was hardly fair to Jersey Citv. It had more assets, ratables and popu- 
lation than the other two combined, and should have had a larjjer representation. 

Jersey City, in 1870, had a general debt of 1^3,55 1,945.40, and an improvement debt of S217,- 
412.38. Its property and assets exceeded its debt by §8,56,042.4,^. Included in the debt was the 
water-works, which was then supplyinij Hudson Citv and Hoboken. and had a contract with 
Bergen. The water-works was scheduled at 81,518,000, but was worth as an asset at least $2,- 
500,000, as will be seen later. The bulk of the Jersey City debt outside of the water bonds was 
$834,000 of war bonds. There was nothing to show for them. It had ei,ijht fire engines, four 
hose carriages and three hook and ladders, which cost with the buildings S-04,775. It had an 
effective fire department of 498 men. It had five school-houses, which with grounds and furni- 
ture cost S2S9.000. Other realty, including the bell tower, almshouse, charity hospital and 
street lamps, represented $188,950. 

Bergen had a general debt of §497,032.72, an improvement debt of §550,000 in bonds and 
$602,875.08 in improvement certificates, making a total of §1,649.907.80. 

Hudson City had §420,492.70 in bonds, §20,000 in temporar\- loans, §5 19 due on contracts, 
and an a.ssessment debt of §270,307.55, making a total debt of §711,319.25. The consolidated 
debt of the new city was $5,130,584.83. 

This debt could have been carried easily if it had been cared for, but the knowledge that 
the new city would have to provide for the contracts made by the cities that were absorbed, 
caused the officials to lay the foundation for the city debt which has been a detriment ever 
since. After it was assured that the legislature would pa.ss the consolidated charter, the officials 
of Bergen became reckless. Every favored contractor was loaded with work which could not 
be finished, and for years afterwards the city was paying for work ordered in the month pre- 
ceding the passage of the charter. There were forty-two street and sewer contracts under way 
in Bergen when the consolidation act went into effect. In addition to these, there were twenty- 
seven contracts so recent that no work had been done on them. Xot only were these contracts 
awarded in haste, on a plea that the new city government might not favor Bergen, but the 
prices allowed to contractors were exorbitant. 

Hudson City had ten contracts under way at consolidation, and some of them were quite 
robust. A few instances will indicate the reckless manner in which the contracts were awarded. 
One sewer, Section A, came to §366,487.70, and the price was so excessive that in 1873 a com- 
mission that was appointed to examine these a,ssessments decided that the cost should not have 
been more than §238,217.01, and placed the remaining $128,270.69 on the city at large as a part 
of its permanent debt. The improvement of West Grand Street, covered up by a number of 
contracts, cost §294,251.14. It would be tedious to go over all of these contracts, but they were 
nearly all alike. 

Out of 113 jobs that were examined by the adjustment commissioners in 1S73, only about 
a score were confirmed as laid by the a.ssessors. The burden laid upon the property was re-- 
duced in each of the other cases. The improvement of Montgomery .'Street was even worse 
than these, bad as they were. This job was criminally botched. One contractor was allowed 
to drive short piles in deep mud, another contractor was allowed to substitute dressed stone re- 
taining walls for rough masonn.-, and the roadway a little over a mile long was finished with 
wooden pavement. It sank in the mud on May 28, 1872, before the a.ssessment was confirmed, 
because of its faulty construction, and more than ,§800,000 that was paid on it became a part 
of the permanent debt of the city. Many of the sewers built under these hasty contracts were 
above the level of the land they were to drain, in some instances supported upon piling ten feet 
in the air. The population was not large enough in the section where most of these improve- 
ments were made to bear the cxiJcnsc. Tlie property was unimproved, and the owners could 
not pay the taxes nr assessments. A large arrearage was created which grew rapidly, and 
bonds were issued to supply the nmney to carry on the contract work and the city gcjvernment. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 8i 

The first Board of Aldermen under thu consolidated charter consisted of : F. S. Fitzpatrick, 
T. A. Gross, John Whalen, D. \V. Gan-in, H. X. Ejje, W. H. Budlonjr, Neil Campbell, Charles 
Birdsall, Jeremiah Sweeney, C. H. Tani^eman, H. F. Clark, Patrick Sheeran, John Maloney. 
Dennis Reardon, John Ejjan, James Meehan, John Hotjan, Anton Schick, John McFadden, 
Patrick McXulty, President, Patrick Harrington, Georu^e J. Edwards, Cyrus P. Daken, Tobias 
Martini, W. H. Thomas, Daniel Toffcy, E. D. B. Wakeman, Benjamin Van Keuren, Isaac 
Freese, Jr., Wm. \'an Ketiren, \V. H. Bumsted, Garret Vreeland, Jr. 

Thev organized May 2. 1S70, and found more work than they could do. They met at two 
o'clock Tuesday afternoons, and freciuently sat until niidni5,'ht. They governed the city by 
committees, except so far as the board of education was concerned. The finance committee 
were informed bv the assessors that the ratables were : Jersey City, $24,850,550 ; Hudson City, 
$S.9'5.'.?°; Bergen, $10,874,050 ; total, §44,639.730. Upon this a tax levy of $1,013,111.49 was 
laid. The tax lew of 1.S69 in the three cities aggTcgated $679,534.41, The people could see 
no reason for this increase of $333, 577. oS. Their discontent was shown by a failure in a large 
l)p)portion of the property-owners to pay their taxes. The hoard struggled through the year, 
making a good effort to consolidate the departments of the three cities. It put in a fire alarm 
telegraph at a cost of $27,0°°. but added nothing to the permanent improvements. The con- 
tracts to which it had fallen heir were more than it could manage. The financial strain became 
greater toward the winter, and the finance committee found difficulty in getting money enough 
to meet maturing obligations. The Second National Bank was the city depositor}-, and it was 
charging seven per cent, on loans. The city had borrowed about all the bank cared to loan 
when the finance committee held a meeting in the absence of Hosea F. Clark, its chairman, and 
decided to borrow $250,000 from the First National Bank. There was a keen rivalrv' between 
the two banks, and this precipitated an open rupture. The finance committee got a resolution 
through the board authorizing the loan, and Mayor O'Neill vetoed it on December 27th. On 
Januar}' 3d Mr. Clark resigned from the finance committee. At the next meeting President 
McNulty appointed W. H. Bumsted as chairman of the committee. His sympathy was with 
the First National Bank, and he transferred the city's account. Then the Second National 
Bank called $50,000 of its temporary loan. This action on the part of President Blakely Wilson, 
of the Second National, was strongly condemned at the time, and President J. S. Fox, of the 
First National, to whom the temporary bond was presented, retused to pay it, alleging that 
there were no funds to meet it. 

After Mr. Bumsted became chairman of the finance committee, he went to President Fox 
and asked for $305,000 as a temporary loan. Mr. Fox refused to lend it. He was not willing 
to help the Second National by helping the city. After a consultation, Mr. Bumsted sold 
$100,000 of seven per cent, bonds, borrowed ,$110,000 on assessment account, depositing Siio,- 
000 of five year bonds as collateral, and paid off $150,000 of temporan.- loans on assessment 
account. In this way he overcame the evil effect of having the city's paper protested, and 
tided over the difficulty that came with the heavy demands for Januan.- payments. The event 
passed into historv- as the bank war. It was continued as a guerilla warfare as long as the two 
bank presidents lived, and has been to a certain extent a factor in the city financial problem 
ever since. The war was aggravated by many minor difficulties and by the incessant drain on 
the city's finances as the contractors called for their payments. 

When the Board of Thirty-two went out of office they were oharged with extravagance, 
and they left a bonded debt of $3,261,949.33 and improvement certificates amounting to $1,202.- 
387.89, with an unknown quantity of temporary- loans and maturing liability which did not ap- 
pear until later. This interest-bearing debt, on March i, 1S71, was $4,464,337.22. 

While the city government was groping its way blindly under an unknown load, the State 
had elected a republican legislature, and a way was opened for relief. The contracts could 
not be disposed of, but a more effective plan of government could be obtained. 

Many public meetings were held and leading citizens took part in proposing amendment', 
to the city charter. The plans proposed were not accepted, but a new charter was jjrcparcd 
It was radicallv different from any the city had tried. It changed the sixteen wards intn mx 
districts, and deprived the aldermen of a large part of their power. It abolished the board ni 
water commissioners. It created separate commissions for the government of the jiolicc ami 
fire departments, and made a new department to take charge of public works. It also created 



82 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

a new board of finance and taxation, which was composed of the presidents of the other com- 
missions, the president of the board of aldermen, and the mayor e.^-ofticio. The fire board 
took charge of the fire department with authority to substitute a paid department for the 
\'olunteer svstem. The police board took charge of street lamps, hospitals, the health depart- 
ment and the police force. The board of public works took charge of the street and sewer im- 
provement and construction and the water-works, as well as the erection and repair of all 
public buildings and street cleaning and repairs. The board of finance appointed the assessors 
and the comptroller, city collector, legal advisers, and the clerical force in these departments. 
The commissioners were all appointed by the legislature. The board of aldermen was reduced 
to twelve members, two from each district, and all that was left under the control of the elect- 
ive legislative branch of the city government was the licensing of saloons, the charge of elec- 
tions, and the control of public highways. The system was somewhat cumbrous, and removed 
from the people the power to make effective objection to the acts of the officials. 

The bill was before the legislature for some time before it was passed and histori,- repeated 
itself. While the charter of consolidation was pending the officials of the three cities made ■ 
haste to award contracts for local improvements for their own sections while the matter re- 
mained within their own control. The new city was loaded before it came into existence. 
While the new charter was pending the water commissioners, who had charge of the sewerage 
and water-works, seized the opportunity to make contracts to accommodate favored contractors. 
The most notorious and far-reaching job of the period was the contract for reser%-oir No. 3. 
The water commissioners had discussed the plan and site for this reservoir for a number of 
years. It was first proposed in 1S60. In 1863 it was strongly urged by R. C. Bacot in his report 
dated Julv ist. He said land adjoining the reservoir could be obtained at a moderate cost. In 
1864 the board urged the purchase of ground for the reser\-oir. In the board's report for 1S66, 
page 6, it is stated that the ground had been secured for the new reser\-oir. The plot is de- 
scribed as trt-enty acres, 1,300 feet long and 750 feet wide, between Bergenwood and Montgomery- 
avenues. Subsequently, on page 10 of the nineteenth report made by the board, it appears that 
some of the land was bought and resort was had to condemnation proceedings. There was no 
secret about the location of the reser\-oir. The purchase was not completed at that time, but 
it is worth while to record that it was begun. 

The new charter was well on its way when the water commissioners made the contract 
for the erection of the resen-oir. Governor Parker signed the act to reorganize the city gov- 
ernment on March 31st. The contract was dated March 3d. At that time it was well known 
that the water commissioners would go out of office in a few days. The contract was made 
with John Mitchell and David B. Bridgeford as a firm. Thomas Gannon and Hugh W. McKay 
were the sureties. A short time afterwards the contract was assigned to J. B. Cleveland. 
The exact amount that was in the job, as originally designed, will never be known. The prices 
at which the contract was awarded will afford an idea of the bonanza that was intended. The 
figures were : Embankment, 35 cents a yard ; earth excavation, 7 cents a yard : rock excava- 
tion, $2 a yard; slope wall, $3.10 a yard; cut stone masonr}-, $40 a yard; rubble masonry, 
$12 a yard, and brick masonry, 830 a yard. Mitchell & Bridgeford drew §199,500 on 
the contract, and Cleveland got $334.°°° before the financial strain and other causes 
put a stop to the work. The unfinished wall still stands as a monument of bad 
management. Cleveland demanded something like half a million for what he would have 
made if the work had been finished according to contract. He compromised several years 
later on about S3o.°oo- This contract did not attract the attention it descr\'ed at the time it 
was awarded. It was like many of the other contracts which later created what became known 
as the old debt. It was awarded a.s a iiiece nf shaq) politics, as many other contracts were 
during these transition periods of the consolidation and reorganization of the city government. 
This contract is worthy of special notice because of the events that grew out of it, and because 
it was typical of the eleventh-hour jobs oi tlie retiring officials. 

While the new charter was pending it was generally denounced by the ofticc-hoklers who 
were to be displaced and by the partisans wlio were out. Patrick Shceran made a .speech 
against it at the meeting of the board of aUlLTmen and introduced a resolution directing A. K. 
Brown, corporation counsel, and Leon Abliett to go to Trenton, and oppose the passage of the 
bill. The special features he opposed were the change from wards to districts, and the funding 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 83 

if ihc titv debt. The district lines had been arranjjed in order to make most of them show a 
rt-'nitilitan majority. One of the districts then made became known as the Horseshoe district, 
.iinl was the cause of so much buncombe that it became a synonym for a tough neighborhood 
or a ••errvmandcr. The opposition to the funding section of the contract was based on the fact 
that Mil i)rovisi(jn was made for the excess of debt over assets in Hudson City. Under the 
iharter of consolidation this excess was made a particular debt on Hudson City. The legislative 
committee was also instnicted to have a clause inserted in the charter by which the property 
.if railroad and canal corporations should be taxed on a parity with the property of individuals. 
Tin- was a cheap piece of buncombe, because it was well known that neither party was able to 
si-ciirc such a law, nor have they been able to do so since, though the corporation property at 
tli.it time exempt from local taxation was but a trifle over $5,000,000 in Jersey City, and has 
sMicc grown to more than $30,000,000, and includes nearly one-third of the area of the city — a 
-.ri til III larger than the whole of any other city in the State with two or three exceptions. 

There had been some politics in the government of the city before this period, but from 
tliat time for over twenty years politics was the bane of the municipality. 

The charter was passed after a long struggle. The commissioners were named in the act. 
The Board of Public Works consisted of Thomas E. Bray, W. H. Bumsted, Earl S. Martin, 
\Vm. .Startup, August Ingwersen, B. P. Welsh and M. H. Gillett. Henry Newkirk, an ex-city 
clerk of llergen, was elected Clerk. 

The Police Commissioners were : Thomas A. Gross. I. S. Huttbn, E. M. Pritchard, Thomas 
Kdmondson and P. A. Goetze. George Warren, an assemblyman, was elected Clerk. 

The Fire Commissioners were : John Boyd. A. B. Dean, John H. Carnes, D. S. Gregor\-, 
Jr., and Thomas W. Tilden. John T. Denmead was elected Clerk, and H. E. Farrier, Chief of 
the department. 

The Board of Finance and Taxation was composed of the presidents of the other boards, 
with Mayor O'Neill ex-ofificio. The Clerk was Robert Hutton. 

The Aldermen elected that spring were : Robert Bumsted, George H. Farrier, David C. 
Joyce, Dennis Reardon, James M. Savage, Charles Stier, John S. Edwards, Arend Steenken, 
D. L. Holden, Jasper Wandel, H. V. Mandeville and Simeon H. Smith. Jovce was ousted on 
December 26, 1S71, because he was not a citizen. He was a Horseshoe member. 

The Board of Education is given elsewhere. It had little to do with the political persecu- 
tion that followed, though it had financial troubles with the rest of the city government during 
these trying times. 

The claims for payment on back jobs and contracts kept coming in. The reservoir job 
called for a total of $616,637.85 by October, within six months after the new government took 
office. Old floating debt amounting to $159,298 was paid, and $322,500 in improvem.ent certifi- 
cates were issued on the old contracts, with $337,000 still outstanding. There were $1,677,806.81 
of bonds issued, and $1,655,000 of the bonds were issued on account of the deeds of the old citv 
government. In spite of this drain the new government reduced the tax levy for 187 1 a trifle 
below the levy of 1870. It was $1,103,456.65. This was still over thirty per cent, more than 
the last levy before consolidation, and the taxpayers paid with much complaint when they paid 
at all. The democratic politicians made great use of the extravagance of the new government 
and the high rate of taxation when addressing their political meetings. They neglected to 
state that this extravagance was due to prior administrations. It was this oversight which 
caused a balance sheet to be made at the end of the first six months under the commissions 
showing the foregoing results. 

The city government had accomplished a great deal of work in a short time. The police 
force was cleared of incompetents and reorganized, the school system was also reorganized, and 
a high school provided to finish the course of study begun in the lower schools. The fire de- 
partment was changed from the volunteer system, in which men drew the engines, to a paid 
system with horses as the motive power. The numerous contracts for street improvements 
caused many miles of grading, paving and sewering. The people were getting something for 
their money, but not enough. They were getting more than they could afford, but that was 
not wholly the fault of the officials who were called upon to raise the money to pay the contract- 
ors. One of the notable events of the fall of 1S72 was the appearance of eight-page supple- 
ments in the local papers containing the names of delinquent taxpayers, whose property waa 
advertised to be sold because they had not kept pace with the demands made upon them. 




CHAPTER XVI. 

"the BUMSTED ring " POLITICAL PERSECUTION THROUGH THE COURTS — ALLEGED EXTRAVAGANCE 

OF THE COMMISSIONERS — WHAT CAUSED THE EXTRAVAGANCE, AND WHO WAS REALLY RESPONSI- 
BLE FOR IT — THE CITY OUT OF FUNDS — RAPID GROWTH OF THE INTF.REST-liEARING DEBT — 
WHERE THE MONEY WENT. 

^HE most prominent advocate of the new charter was William H. Biimsted, He was the 
man who, as a member of the first board of aldermen in the consolidated city, pre- 
cipitated the bank war. He was a builder, -and a practical. a_L;ji^ressive man. His 
?fa'??i»»vg activity made him a target for political attack, thouj^-h he was but one of the group of 
city officials created by the charter. He was chairman of the committee that went to Trenton 
to engineer the passage of the charter, a law which was much maligned, but which provided 
the framework of the city government from that time to the present, notwithstanding the abuse 
heaped upon it and the changes wrought by partisan legislation. On account of his efforts the 
charter became known as the Bumsted Charter. The commissioners appointed under its pro- 
visions were called by their political opponents the Bumsted Ring. He has been dead more 
than a score of years. The population that knew him was not half the size of the present city. 
Fully a hundred thousand persons now in the city have come since his death and knt>w of him 
only by hearsay. Yet thousands talk glibly about the Bumsted Ring. They know nothing of the 
political persecution which was carried on against the city officials of 1X72 which made him the 
target for the attack. There were wrongs committed, and he may have been to blame, in part, 
for some of them, but there is no doubt that he suffered vicariously. The board of public 
works was authorized by an act that became operative in April, 1871. 

The political persecution was begun in Januan,-, 1872. A democratic sheriff and a demo- 
cratic grand jur\- were the instruments used to make it effective. The fire ct>mmissioners, 
among whom was Col. D. .S. Gregor)-, were indicted for buying horses for the fire department 
without advertising for and making contracts for the purchases. The police ccjmmissioners 
were indicted for levying political asses.sments and for increasing the pay of the police captains. 
J. W. Soper, city engineer, was indicted for certifying that a contractor had excavated 647 yards 
of a sewer trench at a time when he had dug but 500 yards. The two police justices were in- 
dicted for committing prisoners for trial. A number of tlie commissioners were indicted for 
owning stock in a German new.spaper which they had helped financially, and that had been 
authorized to print official advertisements. Several persons were indicted for conspiracy in 
purchasing the site for reser\-oir Xo. 3. One of these was Commissioner Bumsted. It was he 
they were after. It was charged that he informed a real estate dealer which lots were to be 
bought, and thus allowed him to buy them in and make a big profit in re-selling to the city. 
Bumsted stated that he had loaned money to the real estate dealer, and it was proven that the 
money was borrowed by the real estate dealer to pay for the land. Bumsted was carrving on a 
large business and was in the habit of borrowing from and lending considerable sums to his 
business associates. Most of the charges made were too trivial to stand judicial scrutiny. 
Judge Bedle allowed most of the indictments to be quashed on May 13th, but the case against 
Bumsted was pushed and he became the only victim. He was sentenced to imprisonment for 
a few months and the disgrace resulted in his death. 

In looking back over a score of years, after most of the participants arc dead, it seems that 
much injustice was done to the city officials, and the disgrace that was brought upon them has 
lasted beyond the object that was sought by the partisans who were concerned. Even ex- 
Mayor Charles H. O'Xeill, a man who tlien and now has the confidence and respect of all who 
know him, was besmirched by an mdictmcnt which was as great an injustice as could have 
been perpetrated against him. It failed to do him any harm, but that was because he was 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 85 

li'.iinvIcNS. The people took but little stock in the indictments. A republican maiority was 
t!u- re-.ult of the elections in 1872, in spite of the elaborate campaij,»-n in the courts. The board 
..! \v..rki made a mistake in failing; to limit the public improvements when it was found that 
the old contracts were becomin<; burdensome. The city financiers were severely tried in their 
i;T..rts to meet the claims. They found that the Board of Thirty-two had left them with a 
dc;ic:cniv account for 1S71 of $-17.°°°. made by keepinj; the tax levy below the amount of the 
l.u>! -c! Thev also found a lejjjacv of 8400,000 of floatintj debt. The claims on the old con- 
traits liad called for $348,000 in eleven months under the board of works, and the water- 
works had rcc[uired an expenditure of 8550,000. The balance of February 10. 1873, showed 
4>/.2,si8.4i paid on old contracts, besides Sj9\5oo of improvement certificates. Thus, in less 
than a vear, the board of works had paid 81,361,018.41 of debt it did not create. Besides this, 
ni'ire than one-third of the tax of 187 1 was not paid, and there was as large a deficiency in the 

t.lX of 1S7:!. 

In the face of these facts the board decided to buy the Harrison estate at the comer of 
Newark and Palisade avenues for a city hall site. It would have been a fine location if the city 
had been in a position to buy it, but it was not, and especially at the price it was offered. 
There was a job behind the apparently innocent purchase. The resolution to buy the place 
specified the area as 306,764 square feet, for which $2.°°° was to be paid for each 2,500 square 
feet. The price subsequently appeared to be 83-0,000, or more than twice what the land was 
worth. The general government owned a tract of land on the west side of Palisade Avenue, 
fronting also on Hoboken Avenue. It had an old brick building on it, once used as an arsenal. 
The plot was sold in May, 1871, for §71,000, or about $10,000 an acre. The price paid by the 
board of works for the Harrison property was over 830.000 an acre, and a considerable part of 
the estate was in the meadow below the hill. Ex-Mayor Orestes Cleveland did not appear in 
the transaction, but it was generally understood that he was concerned in it. Mayor O'Xeill 
promptly vetoed the resolution, but the fact that the board of works would pass such a resolu- 
tion militated against them. 

The new city government did a great deal of good work. The main arteries of travel were 
rebuilt and improved. There was not a decent road between Jersey City and its two neighbors 
when the board of works began. It soon had Newark Avenue, Academy Street. Montgomery 
Street and Grand Street rebuilt, and with the exception of Montgomer}- Street all were in good 
condition, and all were ver\- expensive undertakings. Xew school-houses were built, new fire 
apparatus procured, new streets were opened, new sewers built and many miles of streets were 
paved. J. B. Cleveland secured contracts at exorbitant figures to lay wooden pavements on 
Jersey A\'enue, Grand Street. Monticello Avenue. Bergen Avenue and Montgomery Street. 
Nearly all of the cost went into bonds and became a part of the permanent debt. The wood 
soon rotted away, but the bonds are still sound and bear interest. 

The legislature of 1873 continued the government by commission, and the commissioners 
appointed were: Board of ^Vorks, J. M. Comelison, AVm. Startup. M. H. Gillett, Asa W. Fr\-. 
Rudolph Surber, F. T. Farrier and J. C. De la Vcrgne ; Board of Police, F. A. Goetze, Thomas 
Edmondson, J. Z. Marinus. Walter Xeilson and Wm. Van Keuren ; Board of Fire. John B. 
Drayton. John Boyd, A. B. Dean, S. "\V. Stilsing and F. C. Speers. The clerks of the boards 
remained the same. A financial panic spread over the countrs- during 1873, and the overloaded 
city government felt it severely. The Board of Finance found great difficulty in securing 
money for current expenses. The taxes were not paid promptly, bonds could not be sold, and 
when they were sold the rate was ruinous. Six per cent, bonds were sold as low as eighty-six 
during the year. The people complained of the burdens and a commission was appointed to 
scale down the assessments in order to raise money. To add to the ditficultv the city treasurer 
absconded with 8^^7.000 in city bonds. City employes could not get their salaries and the out- 
I<«>k was discouraging. Still the improvements went on, and the final pavments on the old con- 
tracts came due. Tlic exact amount that was added to the citv debt by these old contrac;> 
cannot at this time be readily ascertained because of the manner in which they were changed 
from a.ssessments to temporary and permanent interest-bearing debt, through setting asii'.e -lil 
or part of many assessments and the issue of bonds in anticipation of pavment, whicii, by sui'- 
sequent consolidations and payments, have come to stand upon the citv books in large lilocks. 
which could only bo traced to the ultimate items by months of research that would produce 



86 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

comparatively valueless results. When City Clerk John E. Scott was asked in 1894 how much 
the debt had been increased by the old contracts he said, "About six million dollars." 

The rapid t^rowth of the city during that period involved a larije expenditure leg-itimately 
for street extension, water main extensions and sewer construction. The sudden change in the 
hill section from farm land to buildmg lots invited speculation in land, much of which was on a 
margin, and the panic of 1873 caused many persons to fail. Many of these victims of over- 
speculation associated the loss and misery they sutTered with the city government. Others 
whose bad judgment needed scapegoats, blamed the " Bumsted ring," and thus helped interested 
partisans in the largely undeserved denunciation of the city officials, who were collectively 
known as the "Bumsted ring" long after Bumsted was dead. 

The panic of 1873 bore so heavily on the city that it could not raise money for current ex- 
penses. The result of much consultation was a decision to change the fiscal year from July ist 
to November 30th. This would enable the board of finance to is.sue bonds to meet the current 
expenses of the city. The bonds were issued, and through the assistance of Frederick Lock- 
wood, of Green\-ille, who was a member of the board of finance, the whole amount of $366,000 
was hypothecated with his firm, and the money advanced. The bonds were subsequently sold 
in the ordinary way, and now form an unidentifiable part of the consolidated city debt. 

On April i, 1874, the city debt had grown to $13,082,775. It was only ,$5, 130,584.83 in 1870, 
when the three cities were consolidated. This increase of $7,952,190.17 has formed the staple 
of the charges against the " Bumsted ring " for the score of years that have since elapsed, and 
has been magnified by partisan opponents of Bumsted's party to figures that account for the 
whole debt brought on by subsequent mismanagement. It is worth while to examine the items 
which constituted this large bonded indebtedness. In the city's books the debt is divided under 
three heads : the general, assessment and water. The general debt was represented by tangi- 
ble assets and total losses ; the a.ssessment debt was for interest-bearing paper i.ssued to raise 
money with which to pay contractors for labor and material in advance of payment by prop- 
erty-owners on assessments for benefits ; the water debt was self-sustaining. The water rents 
paid the interest, and the people had something for their money. The general debt statement 
on April i, 1874, showed these figures: At consolidation: Bergen. $257,000 ; City of Hudson, 
$259,650 ; Jersey City, $928,825. 

At the end of 1870, under the board of Thirty-two : Morgan Street dock bonds, §125,000 ; 
sundry bonds, $49,000. 

Under the charter of 1S71 : Funded debt, $400,000 : for public buildings, $100,000 ; recon- 
struction of streets and sewers, Xicholson pavements, etc., ^400.000 ; Newark Avenxie im- 
provement, $10,000 ; for city expenses, July i to November 30, 1S73, $366,000 ; for Greenville's 
debt, $270,500 ; total, $3,265,975. 

The assessment debt for Bergen was $550,000, issued under the board of Thirty-two, in an- 
ticipation of assessment collections under old contracts, ,$1,000,000. and ,$3,736,500 of twenty- 
year improvement bonds, largely on accoimt of old contracts, making a total of $5,286,500. 

The water debt included these items : City of Bergen before consolidation, $102,000 ; City 
of Hudson before consolidation, $15,300 ; Jersey City before con.solidation, $1,893,000. Under 
the charter of 1871: water scrip, $1,884,000, and water bonds for .$636,000; total, $4,530,300. 
Thus, under the three heads the debt was : General, $3,265,975 ; as.scssmcnt, $5,286,500 ; water, 
$4,530,300; total, $13,082,775, of which nearly one-half was on account of the old contracts 
for which the " Bumsted ring " was not responsible. If this is deducted and the total debt at 
consolidation is added to the sum the remainder, or about $1,952,190.17, represents the actual 
sum added to the bonded debt of the city by the " Bumsted ring" during its first four years. 
This was spent for the water department and returned an income to the city. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

..kUNVJllh— ITS SLOW CROWTH— A TOWN FOR.MEI>— THE EARLY RESIDENTS— A SCHOOL BOARD 
ikHIH)— THE DEMAND FOR IMPROVEMENTS PRODUCED THE STREET COMMISSIONERS AND THE 
...MMI>M(IXKRS KILLED THE TOWN— CONSOLIDATION— WHAT THE TOWN CONTAINED— A LIST 
Hi ITS OFFICERS. 

p^^-JWAY back in the time when histon- was written on the face of the earth by the 
; ILlA , Creator, a trap-rock bench was shot up from amonjf the roots of things and formed 
ih^^h "'•'''' "* "°''' ''"°"'" as Bergen Hill. On the southern end of this hill a peninsula was 

^ . formed by glacial morains. The tides eat into the eastern side and formed marshes 

II..- u. stern side was bounded by a lake, and lacustrine sands blown bv centuries of west 
w,.uls piled dunes along the shore. The eddying currents of the Hackensack formed land 
which became Doyer s Point, the difference in the tides between the East River and the Hudson 
made a current which formed Cavans Point. Thus, on the southern boundarv of Jersev Citv 
as It was m 187. there were two points jutting out into the adjacent bavs. 'Southeri; from 
these the peninsula narrows rapidly. From this broad point to the narrowest part was old 
U ashington School District No. 3. It was first recognized as a separate entitv I Mav 1668 
when It was awarded to Jan Comelison Buys, known to his generation as ..Jan the Soldie; ■• U 
Todlanf T ^'^"7/"'^ °*' ^- ^-- '- -"-'^t residents. For centuries it remained a 
woodland with a few small farms and small fishing settlements. Among the eariv visitors in 
this century who saw beauty in the wooded hills and broad bavs was Robert Thompson who 
thTMo^ r T'"°" '" ''P\ '"'"'^^ " '^°" P^'-^'^' '" ^'''"^y City and partlv in Bavonne. When 

Se e^t s^uth f^rr ""^^T '" '""^ '"""^ '" *^'"*' '''""''^ overiooked a vallev. A marsh on 
the east, south of the line of trap outcrop still farther reduced the cost of construction and the 

a "y Tnd T°ame r " . ' "r"'"'" ' '^^"""^ ''""'^ ^round.and when Thompson passed 
daj -school and other picnics and was known as Currie's woods. It was a natural park and the 
owners allowed allcomers to use it. Later, Mr. Matthew Arm.strong buUt a handsome rJsi 

n ,848 a tract of land was laid out for a cemetery under the name of the Newark Bav Ceme- 
terj.and a small settlement, known as Saltcrsvillc, was formed on the Newark Ba'v shore 
waiter s grove at this settlement also acquired popularitv as a picnic resort 

A settlement was formed along an old road which later became Bergen Avenue an.l bv 
' ^11 ' ^T '''^' ^^P^'-^tivcly populous. It was still known more on account of i[, .small 

r Lerin b^tT , """'l "°l'' ''^" '"" ''"' "^'"" ^^"^^ '' ''■'' ^ P^' "^ the township 
ot Bergen, but tlie residents thought it was too far awav from that town, and thev felt stmn!- 
enough to stand alone. The eariiest residents attended church at the old Bergen Refonne," 
vn. M rV°° T^^' '^^"^ '° ^°- '^^'^ ^''' '•'"^'-■'^ organized in the section was tlie (ireen-' 
vhi'h , .' ' ' " "■''■' '"'=°'-P<"-^"^J J"'y -'°- -^45. The next one was Grace l- piso.pal 
Hhersrol , 1 1" ^"'>>d whalebone factory- on the old Bergen road near Danforth AveniK.' 
1 nnf. ?';'•.''"' "^? '^""P'" °" '^-^"'■'^'^'-^•^ '^'"^ ''^-^ ^'"^y- A considerable industrv 



imntif-,,.*,,^.. ^f c , r--- —- "--.-■.-.- -■ V .^...,,. .\ eiinsHieraoie maustrv 111 tile 

;."?■, fiyc^vorks was started by Messrs. Dctwillcr .V Lillienthal during the i„.ks ,„„i 

w's ,"ne n,Tir 'IT. ^' '^' P'^'^" ^°' '^' ^""'""^" '''•■^■'''"^'•' "f "^ 'P^'^- populatinn. Ther. 
tutnTuT "'^ "'"'' '"■" teachers, and it had .sufficed for a generation, wlun tlu- 

si,.n?., V '■ ""'''''"' °^ ^ "^''' "^'^ ^^''^^ ^^^ ^^-a"- ^'•'^'^ ""t- On March ,8. i.so,, an a.t «,,s 
■ >, cuin the governor which set Greenville off from Bergen as .m independent muniupahiv 



88 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

The area of the new to\vn was 1,670 acres, of which 442 acres were marsh land and 1,228 acres 
upland. 

The powers conferred upon the town committee were inadequate and soon caused diffi- 
culty. Almost the tirst business that offered for the new officials was to provide against a draft. 
The town officers of Berijen had been strug-g-ling- with that problem for many months before, 
and had assessed the Washington School district for its share of the expenses. The account 
was adjusted and settled between the two towns in a speedy and amicable manner. On August 
4, 1863, the town clerk, Jacob J. Detwiller, was directed to open a recruiting station in the 
armory of the Greenville Guards, and a town meeting was called to raise money to pay for 
volunteers or substitutes. The size of the population can be imagined when it is known that 
the quota for Greenville was only si.xteen men. The town meeting appointed Matthew Arm- 
strong, James Gibson, Andrew \"an Horn, Charles Hermann and Frederick Bishop as a com- 
mittee to attend to the relief of the families of volunteers, and the quota was soon filled. The 
subsequent calls for troops came often, and Greenville had some trouble in providing its quota. 
The trouble was largely borne by Matthew Armstrong, and the people had a torchlight pro- 
cession one night in the early fall of 1S64 to express their thanks for his assistance. At the 
last draft there were but 203 men in Greenville between the ages of 18 and 45 years. There 
were 340 children between the ages of 5 and iS years. 

The town committee met in the school-house and knew that it was in a poor condition, 
but did not feel able to repair it nor to build a new one until 1866, when the town meetin.g au- 
thorized the issue of Si5<°oo in bonds for a new school-house. It was several years before it 
was built, and then it was due to the efforts of Michael Schultz, Thomas Carey, James R. 
Williams, Charles Herig and Norman L, Rowe, who constituted the school board of 1S70. The 
New Jersey Central Railroad had been opened in 1863, and the trains offered frequent com- 
munication with New York. Prior to that the Jersey City and Bergen Railroad Company 
placed "dummy cars" on their line from Ocean and Bramhall avenues to Bergen Point, and 
these means of communication were rapidly adding to the population. It was felt that better 
streets would make the place more comfortable and attractive, and by the fall of 1865 even,-- 
one was in favor of securing legislation that would enable Greenville to compete for the 
population that was flocking to other suburban towns. 

The legislature in both houses was republican that year, and the creation of commissions 
was popular. These bodies were rapidly superseding elective bodies, and it was natural that 
the work should have been confided to a legislative commission. The legislature being repub- 
lican, it was also natural that the majority of the commissioners were republicans. The new 
official board was entitled " The Greenville Street Commission." Its members were : James 
Currie, Matthew Armstrong, Jacob O. Seymour and Michael S. Vreeland. Under their direc- 
tion a map was made, streets were laid out and grades established. But little work was done 
on the roadways. Only one street was improved to any extent, and that was Bergen Avenue. 
There was an impression that the streets, as laid on the map. favored the property of some 
owners at the expense of others and criticism developed complaint. The merits of the 
case became obscured in a political controversy, and thenceforth the residents were divided 
into hostile factions. The legislature became democratic in both branches in 1868, and the 
democratic faction had a new street commission act passed. The main feature of the new law 
was the appointment of new commissioners to supersede tlie first board. These were : Jacob 
O. Seymour, the democratic member of the first board ; Peter Rowe. a well-known consei^'- 
ative old resident ; John H. Midmer, the owner of a mineral water factory : John Tavlor and 
Robert Drake. They made a new map and attempted to rectify errors alleged to have been 
made in the first one. In i86g a .supplement to the act was passed by the legislature, which 
added to the power of the commissitmers. It also compelled the township committee to is.sue 
bonds to the extent of $5,000 on requisitions from the street commissioners. 

In the fall of 1869 the special election was held with intent to consolidate all of Hudson, 
east of the Hacken.sack River and Newark Bay, into one city, to be known as Jersey City. The 
Greenville people, by a vote of about seven to one, rejected the consolidation scheme. In the 
meantime the street commissioners awarded several contracts for street improvements, the 
principal contract being for the improvement of Bergen Avenue at figures which would have 
aggregated about §104,000, and certificates for that sum had been issued when an injunction 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 89 

w IS cibtaincd in one of the numerous lawsuits that were instituted ag-ainst the acts of the com- 
iii!-.-.iMn. The injunction stopped work and forbade the payment of interest. Hon. Leon 
Aliliflt counsel for the commission, tried to g'et a modification of the injunction to allow in- 
terest to lie paid, but the court would not grant it. Then an arrangement was made between 
S. C, Mount, counsel for the complainants, and Mr. Abbett, by which the interest on other bonds 
was paid. A special tax levy was removed by certiorari through the efforts of James Flem- 
niiii" counsel for other complainants, and there was a hopeless muddle. The property-owners 
wr.uUl not pay their taxes, the contractors could not finish their work, and the people did not 
liuow how to escape from their burdens. In 1S72 an act was procured by which the street 
toiiiiuissioners should be elected by the people. It was thought that all interests could be 
h.iriiii.nized by allowing the people to choose their own representatives. The election was held 
<.n April 9, 1S72. Feeling ran high and it was evident that the republicans would win. To 
prevent this a gang of hoodlums was borrowed from Jersey City, and barefaced repeating and 
Ir.iudulent voting decided the election against the wishes of a majority. The names on the 
siiiccssfui ticket were: Jacob O. Seymour, John H. Midmer, Peter Rowe, Frederick Thau and 
S.imuel Bostwick. The act of 1872 conferred very great powers upon the street commissioners 
and the people became alarmed. The result of the election was contested in an ineffective 
manner and numerous lawsuits prevented improvements. The time of the people was largelv 
taken up in tr>'ing to overreach each other in the factional struggle. After a few months of 
strife everj'one was disgusted, and the only way out of the difficulty that offered any hope of 
relief was consolidation with Jersey City. A petitiim was sent to the board of chosen free- 
holders asking for a special election to give the people an opportunity to get rid of their street 
commi.ssion and all of its entanglements. The freeholders appointed December loth as the 
time for the election. A town meeting was held on the evening of December 9th, in Charles 
Schreiner's hall, at which all the speeches made were in favor of consolidation. The election 
was held in Augustus Thau's saloon, and 306 votes were cast, of which 261 were for consolida- 
tion and 45 against it. More than half of the voters refrained from voting. The total popula- 
tion in 1870 was 2,790, and the total vote at the presidential election was 681. There was some 
doubt about the legality of the election because the new charter for Jersey Citv, passed in the 
early pai^ of the year, had no provision for annexation, but the legal difficulties were removed 
and Greenville was added to the city. 

After consolidation an attempt was made to ascertain the condition of Greenville's finances, 
and an expert worked on them for a long time, but no definite report was ever made. It was 
alleged that bonds and improvement certificates had been illegally issued, and litigation re- 
sulted, in which some of the old bitterness was continued. A number of claims were audited 
and paid by the Jersey City Board of Finance, and a block of $270,500 in bonds was added to 
the general city debt as a legacy from the street commissioners. In a general way the ii-ain to 
Jersey City in area and population by annexing Greenville was a strip of territory about a mile 
wide and a mile and a half long, extending from Myrtle Avenue to the Morris Canal, with a 
population said to be 5,000. The debt was about §300,000 and the ratables about $3,250,000. 

The members of the Township Committee during Greenville's independent career were : 

James Gibson, 1S63. George Vreeland, 1869-70. 

H. G. Vreeland, 1863. Isaac Van Winkle, 1869. 

D. L. Van Horn, 1863. Schumm, 1869. 

James Currie, 1863-64-65-66-67-68. G. A. Emmitt, 1869. 

J. O. Seymour, 1863. Frederick Lockwood, 1869. 

J. J. Detwiller, 1864-65-66-67. M. D. M. Vreeland, 1869. 

Matthew Armstrong, 1864-65-66-67. John Morrell, 1870. 

N. S. Vreeland, 1864-65-66-1)8. John Kennel!, 1870-71. 

John Wauters, 1S65-66-67. John A. Cadmus, 1870-72. 

George Schmolzc, 1867. Thomas Carey, 187 1. 

Peter Rowe, 1.S6S. John Myers, 1871-72. 

Gustav Thau, 1S68-72. J. B. Vreeland, 187 1. 

L. B. Bruen, 1S68. Nicholas Jantzen, 1872. 

G. A. Lilliendahl, 1869-70-71. William Cox, 1872. 



9° 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



1863 . 


• • 340 


1864 


• 395 


1865 . 


■ ■ 417 


1866 


447 


1867 . 


■ ■ 45° 


1868 


• • 533 



The Clerks were: Jacob J. Detwiller, 1863 ; W. H. Storrs, 1864-68; E. P. Barker, 1868-69; 
George F. McAneny, 1869-70; John Rowe, 1X70-7^. 

There were but two enumerations of the population durinj,"- the ten years under the town- 
ship government. These were the State census of 1S65, which showed a total of 1,356, and 
the National census of 1870, which showed 2,789. The School Census, which was taken annually, 
will indicate in a manner the growth of the population. It shows these totals : 

1869 600 

1870 - ■ ■ 633 

1871 . . 797 

1872 . . . 950 

1873 con.solidated. 

This would indicate an increase of nearly 300 per cent, in 1S73, when the township was 
consolidated and separate enumeration ceased. The school-house of the old district was a 
small affair, and there were but two teachers employed when the township was created. The 
needs of the people soon outgrew its capacity, in spite of the fact that a great many of the 
residents were unable to allow their children to go to school after thev reached an age when 
their services could be utilized. A board of education appointed by the town committee was 
created soon after the town became independent. It was hampered by a lack of funds and 
could not give the school accommodation that was required. As there was but one small 
school, no town superintendent was needed, and the county superintendent performed all the 
work that was necessarvv In 1869-70 the new school-house was erected, and on April 11, 1870, 
it was opened for use. The roll showed 228 pupils and three teachers. In 187 1 the roll had 
increased to 404 pupils and eight teachers were employed. This was about the condition when 
consolidation took effect. The members of the Board of Education, with their officers, during 
the existence of the township were : 



Presidents. 
D. M. Vreeland, 1863-4-5. 
S. B, Vreeland, 1S66. 
Robert McDougal, 1867. 
M. Armstrong, 1868. 
M. Schultze, 1869-70-1. 
J. Sesso, 1872. 



Clerks. 
John Armstrong, 1863-4. 
W. J. Barker, 1.S65. 
George Schmolze, 1866-7. 
Robert McDou.gal. 1868. 
James Currie, 1S69, 
Thomas Carey, 1870. 
J. A. Van Xostrand, 1871- 
Richard Routh. 1872. 



John Armstrong, 1863-4-5. 
Matthew Armstrong, 1866-7- 
B. L. Budd, 1863. 
L. B. Bruen, 1864. 
Wm. J. Barker, 1865-6. 
James Currie, 1867. 
Thomas Carey, 1868-9-70. 
William Currie, 1869. 
A. J. Dewey, 1871. 
Charles Herig, 1869-70. 
Aug. Kriezer, 1S72. 
Robert McDougal, 1867-8-9. 
J. H. Midmer, 1863-4. 
John Morrill, 1869. 



George B. Osborne, 187 1. 
Norman L. Rowe, 1870. 
John Ritter, 1870. 
Richard Routli, 1872. 
J. Sesso, 1872. 

Michael Schultze, 1865-6-7-8-9. 
George Schmolze, 1866-7. 
Michael Terhune, 186S. 
I). M. Vreeland, 1S63-4-5, 
George \'reeland, Jr., 1863. 
S. B. Vreeland, 1864-5-6. 
J. A. Van Xostrand, 187 1-2. 
James R. Williams, 1S70-1-2. 
Wachter, 1872. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

CHANGES IN THE CITY GOVERNMENT THE (JFKICIALS AGAIN MADE ELECTIVE— GROWTH OF THE (_ H V 

PEBT — BALLOT-BOX STUFFING— THE CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION — RISE OF THE PEOPLE AGAINST 
POLITICAL BOSSISM— OFFICERS MADE APPOINTIVE— RISE AND DECLINE OF THE CITY DEBT. 



ry^'-T IHE consolidation of 1870-73 enlarged the area and population of the city, but did nt.t 
I?- £"2^1 produce a community of interests. Before the first consolidation became operative 
each section of the larger city made haste to secure all that was possible in the way of 
local improvement. It made no difference to the men in office that each section of the 
city would feel the common burden that was to be created by these improvements. Each set 
of officials seemed to think that their section would get public work done at the expense of the 
other sections. This was vicious reasoning. Even if it had been entirely tme, it would have 
been semi-legalized robbery. Each set of otificials justified its action by claiming that their 
section would not have influence enough in the larger city to secure a fair share of benefits. 
They also claimed that they would only have to bear one-third of the expense. Hudson City 
and Bergen combined brought about an equivalent of what Jersey City contributed to the 
new municipal corporation. ' They, by their unwise action in awarding illegal and uncalled for 
contracts for local improvement on the eve of their consolidation, piled up a general debt which 
exceeded the combined debt prior to consolidation. This fact did not appear at the time, but it 
soon became apparent. The local burdens placed upon property benefited, or supposed to be 
benefited, bore heavilv on the owners, so heavily in many cases that taxes and assessments 
reached the point of confiscation. The city liens exceeded the value of the property. In this 
bad management Bergen was the chief sinner. It was improved beyond what it could bear. 
Hudson City was second in this madness, but a long way behind Bergen. Jersey City had most 
at stake, and was naturally the most conser%-ative. The form of the new city government 
was not suited to the larger city. In one year everybody was satisfied that a change would 
have to be made. 

The centralization of power which under wise management would have produced more 
efficient and economical administration had only exhibited po.ssibilities for power and personal 
aggrandizement. The democrats had control of the municipal machinery when it proved 
inadequate, and the people expressed their dissatisfaction by electing their opponents. They 
wanted a change. The power to raise mone}/ by the issue of bonds, the amount of ratables on 
which taxes could be levied, and the number oi profitable places with which the political 
workers could be rewarded, all combined to make the control of the city government desirable 
to the politicians. Both parties were organized under strong leaders. The republicans wno 
were in power used their patronage to strengthen their position and seemed to be inNiilncrable. 
The financial panic of 1S73 practically paralyzed the city government. Taxes and asscs.s- 
ments were to a large extent ignored by the property-owners. The hea%T drain caused by 
claims on contracts, interest .m improvement certificates and on bonds, made the tax rate rise. 
The expedient of changing the fiscal year as an excuse for selling bonds to provide money tor 
current expenses was resorted to, and over S3°o.ooo added to the bonded debt. Greenville, flee- 
ing from its independence to escape the results of internal dissension, was admitted t.. tne 
municipality in an illegal manner, and brought with it a bonded debt ot S-'5°.°°°. »'"" "'"^'^ '* 
had nothing to show. The defalcation of the city treasurer, who absconded with >S7,oco .■! 
city bonds, contributed to make the year disastrous in a financial aspect. The politio.ms 
who were out made manv charges against those that were in, most of which were uiur.K- 
They were apparently justified by the increase in debt and taxation, but the mass ol t.K 
people did not belierve the allegations. 



92 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

In 1875 Charles Siedler was elected mayor. He was in sympathy with the city officials but 
was conservative, and the city pro5pered with the .ufeneral improvement in business which fol- 
lowed the depression of 1873. Durinj;^ the two years that Siedler was mayor the people paid 
a larger percentage of their taxes and made considerable payments on arrears of preceding 
years. The outrageous reser\-oir contract was closed and a dangerous claim settled by reason- 
able compromise. The new state constitution was adopted with its clause prohibiting special 
legislation and the people felt reasonably safe against violent political changes. In spite of the 
constitutional inhibition the legislature of 1S77, which was democratic in both branches, in one 
house by a majority, and the other by a deal which broke a tie vote, passed a new charter for 
the city. This might have been a good thing for the city if the charter had remedied any ex- 
isting evils, of which there were many. It was more or less identical with the old one. The 
only change made was in legislating out of office all the commissioners who had been appointed 
by the joint meeting of the legislature and providing that their successors should be elected by 
the people. Six commissioners were to be elected to each board, one from each aldermanic dis- 
trict in. the city. Each commissioner was to receive a salary of Sjoo a year. The constant 
charge of peculation and extravagance made by the outs, and the demand for home rule and 
the recurrent desire for a change helped the outs and they got in. The illegality of the act 
passed by the legislature was generally admitted, and there was a desire on the part of many to 
carry the case to the courts. The officials who were in office considered the matter carefully 
and decided that the people evidently wanted a change, and they resolved to surrender control 
of the city government peaceably. The following year the democrats passed a bill to legalize 
the act of the preceding year, thus admitting the insufficiency of the first statute. 

When the democratic politicians secured control they immediately dismissed the city em- 
ployes without regard to competence or experience, and in.stalled their own partisans. The re- 
publican politicians who had controlled the city for half a dozen years were far from perfect, 
but they were on the whole wrongfully accused. While it was true that taxes had been high 
and the bonded debt had more than doubled, they were to blame for only a small part of the 
increase. There was at least something to show for the money. In looking over the record of 
the dozen years which followed this change it appears that taxes were maintained at high 
rates, the sinking fund was emptied, and bonds were issued equal in amount to what had been 
issued by the city officials from 1871, and there was nothing to show for the immense expendi- 
ture. So far as public improvement was concerned the city stood still. Any local improve- 
ments that were made were done at the expense of the property benefited. The promise of 
reform was forgotten. The tax le\-y was mainly expended for salaries. This created a horde 
of officeholders. The spoils created jealousy, and rival leaders sprang up among the success- 
ful politicians. The people soon became tired of the new management and wanted another 
change. They found that this was no easy matter. Xo headway could be made against the 
men who controlled the political machinery'. The ballot boxes were under the charge of tools 
of political bosses, and the votes of the dissatisfied property-owners were either not cmmted or 
nullified by fraud. The democratic party was in the majority, and it was their party machinery 
which was seized. Men were nominated for a price, and the elections were a farce. The peo- 
ple were slow to believe charges of fraud, especially members of the dominant party who 
were not directly concerned in the criminal work, but after a time the evidence became public 
and the change came. 

There was little of special interest in the civic history for more than a decade after city 
officials were made elective. Xo public buildings and few public improvements were m.ade. 
The population increased rapidly, and the people made long advances in numbers and wealth. 

A notable event in the civic history- was the celebration of the centennial of the battle of 
Paulus Hook, which was obser\'ed with great ceremcmy on August 19, 1S79. The idea of an ap- 
propriate celebration originated with F. (j. Wolbert. a prominent citizen, and it became popular 
at once. A number of gentlemen met in the city hall in response to a call published on June 
27, 1879, and formed an organization by electing Mayor Hcnr\- J. Hoppur, chairman, and C. H. 
Benson, of the Lvcniiia- Journal, secrctar\-. Speeches commending the enterprise were made 
by Hon. A. A. Hardenbergh, F. C. Wolbert, Rev. P. D. Van Cleef, Maj. David A. Pcloubet, 
B. W. Throckmorton, George W. Clerihew and Hon. George H. Farrier. Committees were 
appointed to prepare the details, and at a .subsequent meeting a program was adopted. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 93 

Sunrise was ushered in with much din caused by blowing every steam whistle in the city and 
harbor, ringing the bells, and a Federal salute. The Hudson County Artillen,-, under Captain 
Peter Ehler, repeated the salute at noon and sundown. At noon there was a meeting in the 
Tabernacle, which was presided over by Mayor H. J. Hopper. The list of vice-presidents and 
secretaries embraced many of the prominent citizens of that date, and for that reason they are 
preserved. They were : Ex-Gov. Joseph D. Bedle. Hon. John R. ilcPherson, Hon. L. A. Brig- 
ham, Hon. A. A. Hardenbergh, Hon. I. W. Scudder, Hon. Robert Gilchrist, Hon. Rudolph F. 
Rabe, Hon. Leon Abbett, Hon. John J. Tolfey, Hon. Asa \V. Fn,-, Hon. Jonathan Ui.xon. Hon. 
B. F. Randolph, Hon. J. X. Davis. Hon. John Garrick, Hun. W. T. Hoffman, Hon. J. Owen 
Rouse, Hon. T. J. McDonald, Hon. S. W. Stilsing, John G. Fisher, Abraham P. Xewkirk, James 
Reid, Dr. T. R. Varick, Dr. D. L. Reeve, Dr. ivm. A. Durrie, Dr. Wm. C. Lutkins, Dr. J. H. 
Vondy, Dr. John D. McGill, Dr. I. N. Quimby, F. O. Matthiessen, H. A. Greene, Amadee Spa- 
done, A. Zabriskie, Jacob Ringle, George W. Helme, B. G. Clarke, Hon. Henn.' Dusenberr\% 
Hon. G. A. Lilliendahl, Hon. James Stevens, Major D. A. Peloubet, Ex-Mayors Charles Sicdlcr, 
Henry Traphagen, Charles H. O'Neill, Orestes Cleveland, James Gopsill, William Clarke, David 
S. Manners, B. F. Sawyer and G. D. Van Reipen, Hon. Henry Meigs, \Vm. B. Rankin, James 
H. Love, C. H. Benson, E. W. Kingsland, Marcus Beach, John Mullins, M. JI. Drohan, Isaac 
Taussig, Simeon H. Smith, Jeremiah Sweeney, Henry Pattberg, Edward O'Donnell, John Mc- 
Donough, Bernard McCarthy, Thomas Leather, Simeon M. Ayres, Charles A. Rue, F. W. Wright, 
John Q. Bird, John S. Smith, David C. Joyce, Charles Stier, Otto W. Meyer, Edward P. East- 
wick, J. H. Gautier, Benjamin Gregory-, Charles Somers, E. M. Pritchard, W. H. Waite, Peter 
Henderson, Patrick Sheeran. J. F. Crandall, E. O. Chapman, James R. Thompson, Matthew 
Armstrong, David Taylor, George W. Clerihew, Charles H. Murray, Walter Neilson, John A. 
Blair, B. W. Throckmorton, H. A. Booraem, I. S. Long, I. I. Vanderbeek, Smith W. Haines. 
Wm. D. Garretson, Samuel M. Chambers, Charles L. Krugler, John Coyle, H. H. Farrier, James 
M. Brann, John Hart, J. W. Knause, Wm. Buck, James McCrea, William Hogencamp, Robert 
Bumsted, William King. William Hughes, P. F. Meschutt, Garret Haley, Jr., John ^IcLaughlin, 
Stephen Yoe, Benjamin Van Kcuren, H. R. \'reeland, Lewis E. Wood, M. W. Kelly. Michael 
Reardon, Thomas Reilly, Frederick Payne, Thomas Doran, Wm. F. Kern, C. A. Woolsey, E. X. 
Wilson, John G. Berrian, Hiram Wallis, Hay ward Turner, J. B. Cleveland, Lyman Fisk, ^^ 
Mullone, Alexander Bennell, Louis A. Lienau, Henry Lembeck, James Flemming and F. G. 
Wolbert. 

The secretaries were : John E. Scott, Alexander T. McGill, Henry S. White, William A. 
Lewis, Benjamin Edge, William Muirheid, H. R. Clarke, James B. Vredenburgh, Peter Bentley, 
E. W. Kingsland, Jr., George H. Farrier, F. G. Wolbert, John W. Harrison, Robert C. Bacot, Z. 
K. Pangbom, E. F. Emmons, Hudson Clarke, F. P. Budden, Gilbert Collins, A. D. JosHn, Frank 
Stevens, Thomas S. Xegus, Charles H. Hart.shome, George W. Edge, E. F. C. Young, William 
Pearsall, John H. Cable, Flavel McGee, H. E. Hamilton, William Taylor, William R. Laird, D. 
E. Culver and D. C. McXaughton. 

The services were opened with prayer by Rev. Paul D. Van Cleef, and closed with a bene- 
diction by Rev. R. M. Abercrimibie. The addresses were made by Mayor Hopper, James B. 
Vredenburgh, Hon. Charles H. Winfield and B. W. Throckmorton. 

A civic and military parade took place during the afternoon. Major-Gen. John Ram.sev 
was marshal, and his aids were Major D. A. Peloubet, Captams Wm. B. Mason, Frederick T. 
Farrier, Robert Clark, Henry E. Farrier, Thomas J. Armstrong, Roderick B. Seymour, Frede- 
rick PajTie, L. E. Brown and .Michael Xathan. The parade was in five divisions and had the 
Fourth and Xinth regiments, X.J. X. G., four companies of regular army infantrv and a regular 
army battery. There were many civic societies and the city police and fire departments. A 
collation was given at Taylor's Hotel in the evening. A display of fireworks was given on the 
heights at the head of Montgomery Street, which was visible from the greater part of the city. 
It was a notable celebration, and the whole city took a holidav on account of it. 

The fact that fraud was perpetrated in the elections was suspected in 1877, and more than 
suspected during the ensuing three years. In the Xovember election of 1880 it was openly 
charged by both parties. It was a notorious fact that the election of a governor was consum- 
mated by barefaced ballot-bo.x stuffing. It required strong political influence to prevent the 
facts from getting into the courts. It was a mistake that the frauds were not stopped at that 



94 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

time. The city would have been saved from much disgrace and expense. From that time 
until 1890 there were continuous frauds in the elections. The party manajjers became bosses 
and quarreled amoiijj themselves, but made common cause again-st the city and reduced it to a 
condition of .-iubmissiiin. Many persons abstained from votinjf because they believed their 
ballots would not be counted. 

In 1884 the thinkinjf men of both parties combined in a citizens' movement and elected 
Gilbert Collins Mayor. He was not in sympathy with the city g-overnment politically, but was 
unable to eradicate the evils because the law did not give him the power. The city debt con- 
tinued to increase, and the amount required to pay interest on it prevented a reduction of taxa- 
tion. The city government was extravagantly administered, and in many departments was 
grossly mismanaged. On December i, 18S7, ten years after the people had secured the change, 
the municipal debt had increased to 520,674,361.26, or nearly six millions more than it was when 
the political complexion of the city government had been changed, and there was nothing to 
show for the money. The unpaid taxes and assessments aggregated S.'<,502,i03.o,V The people 
believed the money collected for ta.xes was uselessly squandered, and pavment was withheld by 
many property-owners. Money was borrov,-ed in anticipation of tlie (layment of taxes, and the 
temporary loans were paid by the sale of long-time bonds. In this manner the city's liens for 
taxes and assessments were hypothecated. The interest became such a burden that the prop- 
erty-owners sought for relief. Augustus F. R. Martin, an assemblyman from Essex in 1885-6, 
had an act passed by which municipalities suffering from burdensome tax arrears could obtain 
relief. By the application of a number of citizens to the coiirt a commission was appointed to 
examine the city's liens and scale them down to an equitable amount. The law was known as 
the Martin Act, and among its provisions there were two that were salutary. Property in 
arrears more than two years after the taxes had been adjusted could be sold for the city's claim, 
and the money received under the operation of the law was to lie used to retire the bt)nds for 
which the arrears was pledged. The commissioners began operations at once and scaled down 
the city claims an average of twenty per cent. Everyone hoped that the work done by the 
commissioners would soon result in a material reduction of the bonded lieht and thus lower the 
tax rate. 

The bosses and the machine politicians continued to control elections and to stjuander the 
city funds until the people became thoroughly alarmed. In the early spring of 1SS9 a new 
charter was proposed as a means of getting relief. It was ap^jroved by the governor on April 
6, 1889. The facts in relation to its passage and .subsequent adoption by the i)eople were calcu- 
lated to arouse suspicion, but the people were so tired of the party that had lieen in control for 
a dozen years that they were willing to try any expedient for ridding themselves of their pres- 
ence. This charter gave to the mayor power to appoint the principal city officers. Mayor 
Cleveland was in office when this charter took effect, and his appointments were a surprise ; 
apparently every man fron; Jer.sey City who voted for the bill in tlie legislature had been pro- 
vided with an office. There were many good features about the new charter. It .separated 
the branches of the city government. It created a .separate .sinking fund conmii.ssion and it 
has done good .service. It abolished the old board of as.ses.sors and provided tax commissioners. 
It provided for commissioners of appeals and thus gave aggrieved pnijierty-owncrs a hearing. 

In the fall election of 1889 the ballot-box stuffing, which had liecn increasing semi-annually 
as the elections came around, was pushed to an extreme. The men cng,!i;ed in it as a business 
ceased to practise it as an art. It was done by day labor and unskillcil labor at tliat. A legis- 
lative committee appointed to examine the ballot boxes ;it the session of i.Srjo found over 7.000 
fraudulent ballots in them. There is good reason for believing tliat everv perv.n elected by the 
alleged majority held office ille.gally. So flagrant was the fraiul ti'.at '-i.sty-seven election 
officers were indicted. They were only a part of the .guilty crowil 'I'luir tn.d and conviction 
revealed the fact that they were rewarded for their crimes by receiving; appointments to city 
or other public offices. The exposure of the crimes caused a revulsion of popular sentiment. 
The first opportunity afforded for expressing the change was offered 1-y the charter election of 
1892. The fact that so many men had been sent to state prison fr.r theating at elections de- 
terred the ballot-box stuffers, and Gen. P. F. Wanscr was elected M.ivor. He was not in sym- 
pathy with the men who controlled the city government, and reforms cmie slowly. As soon as 
the law would permit, he filled the city offices with new men, representin;^' both parties. He 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 95 

enforced retrenchment in spite of the opposition of city officials and employees who were op- 
posed to him The legislature which was elected subsequently was also opposed to the mayor 
politically and its power was invoked to obstruct his operations. In 1S94 the lesnslature was 
in svmpithv with him, and many chancres were made in the City goyernment. The effect was 
shown in many local improyemcnts. The people began again to see something for the money 
thev paid in tAxes. New schools and public buildings, good roads and many lesser improye- 
mcnts became visible. The money derived from the arrears of taxes under the Martin Act had 
been used in a large measure for current expenses prior to Mayor AVansers term, but that and 
the economies enforced began to tell on the bonded and floating debt, and money accumulated 
in the citv .sinking fund. ^^ . 1. j 

The city was unfortunate in being composed of separate municipalities, t-ach had a sepa- 
rate plan for drainage and local improvement before consolidation was effected. The street 
lines were not coincident in many instances and bad angles have been made, as in Grand 
Street, Newark Avenue and other thoroughfares. The street nomenclature, the names of 
churches and other buildings and organizations had to be changed to get rid of duplicates. 
These, except in the matter of sewer levels, were minor ills when compared with the evils in- 
troduced by politics. During the last twenty-live years the struggle between politicians to 
secure supremacy has caused frequent changes in policy and administration, and the period 
covered by these struggles compares disadvantagcously with the earlier period. The struggle 
between politicians has too often obscured public spirit and patriotism, and the needs of the 
city have been lost sight of. The blame does not rest entirely upon any party or set of parti- 
sans. In looking over the long list of men who have made the history of the city, it would be 
easy to select men who have been demagogues, men who for personal aggrandizement have 
sacrificed the public weal, and they would represent both political parties, though one party by 
reason of longer dominance would supply the larger number : but the majority of the men who 
have controlled the affairs of the city have served it loyally. When a majority of the people 
learn that municipal government is and should be a corporate business carried on for the bene- 
fit of the people, then party politics will have little to do with the conduct of municipal affairs. 
Most of the ills the city has suffered from can be traced to politics, and politics too often was 
simply a cover for personal greed. The salarv- list and the contracts for public work offered 
many prizes which seemed desirable, while the craving for power to dispense the city patron- 
age caused wrangles for leadership that were not beneficial to the physical, financial or moral 
condition or reputation of the municipality. Fortunately for the city, the condition of affairs 
is improving. The debt is growing smaller, the ratables are increasing, and much public 
work is in progress and contemplated. The rise of the city debt from the time of consolidation 
to the maximum in 1887, and its subsequent decline, can best be exhibited in tabular form. 
The city comptroller was unable to provide the data for the years 1872-73 and 1876-77, but the 
upward progress can easily be estimated by the preceding and succeeding years. 

The amounts given are the gross debt in each year. The downward tendency, which began 
in 1890 and continued during 1.S91 and 1892. was checked by legislation procured at Trenton for 
new public buildings and other improvements. In addition to these the new city hali involved 
an issue of §800,000 in bonds for land and building. The determination of Mayor Wanser that 
the city government should be economically administered, and the bonded debt reduced, 
prevented any serious increase in the amount of the debt. There was a considerable reduction 
of the old debt, though the total shows an increase during 1893 and 1894. 

The sinking fund commission have accumulated a large fund since their appointment in 1889, 
and it is rapidly increasing. They have bought up many bonds and have bid at sales with .suc- 
cess. At a recent sale of renewal bonds their bid was the highest, and they secured the whole 
issue of $179,000. The total amount in the sinking fund in January, 1895, was $i,.S55,246.75. 
Deducting this from the gross bonded debt reported on January i, 1895, leaves the net debt 
$16,990,660.32. This is the lowest it has touched since 1879, and it shows a .shrinkage m the 
gross debt from the highest point reached of $3,683,700.94. The city property is valued at ov.t 
$1 1,000,000. Xo apprai.semcnt has liecn made in a number of year.s, and the exact value i^ nn 
known officially. Thus it is evident that the debt representing no value is over $5,000,000. 
This includes the losses of a quarter of a centurj- and the extravagant management ol the 
years when bonds were issued to pay the interest on bonds already outstanding. 1 he st.ite- 



96 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



ments made at the close of each fiscal year show the following gross totals, including the 
water debt and temporary loans : 



1870 . . . 


I87I . . . 


1874 . . . 


1875 . . . 


1878 . . . 


1879 . . . 


1880 . . . 


I88I . . . 


1882 . . . 


1883 . . . 


1884 . . . 



$5,130,584 43 


1885 . 


. . $17,629,916 66 


7,496.672 32 


1886 . . 


17,497,750 00 


13,082,775 00 


1887 . 


. . 20,674,361 26 


14,356,050 00 


1SS8 . . 


20,452,820 34 


14,281,950 00 


1889 . 


■ • 20,453,083 74 


16,808,000 00 


1890 . . 


■ '8,345,739 35 


17,426,950 00 


1891 . 


. . 18,282,318 77 


17,171,997 00 


1892 . . 


• '8,247,350 17 


17,891,450 00 


1893 • 


. . 18,597,263 16 


18,183,950 00 


1894 . . 


18,845,907 07 


■7,578,250 00 


1895 (net) 16,990,660 32 




MILLS GAP FERRV. 








y W i- -«<' 'X' "^ 






^ 




'^-"^ 


„ 






\ ^^r^ 




i '' 


K^ 


'/--■■'•- 
^ 











'5^ 









JEK.SEV CITV liOAKIi HI- Al.HI- KM TV. ,?,, and ,Sq,. 

6. AlJiTiii.." I.- I M,C....hvrv. ,,. 

7. CkTk |..hii .-...n. ,.. 
S. Prosi.l.'.il K."l..iiSKnp-..n ,,. 
■]. Mav..r I', iir r. \V.,iw.r, ,' 

lo. Al.k-rm.iii I. I' M.iruii ,5. 



Alderman Sfax SalinKcr, 

A. IV Diisonborry. 
Rit:iarcl l.ahev. 
Harry Hill. ' 
" John C. Kaiser. 



CHAPTER XIX. 




CITY OFFICIALS AND CITY BOARDS, PAST AND PRESENT — ALDERMEN, MAYORS, COMPTROLLERS, COL- 
LECTORS — LAW DEPARTMENT RECORDERS — POLICE JUSTICES — BOARD OF FINANCE PUBLIC 

WORKS DEPARTMENT — TAX COMMISSIONERS — SINKING FUND COMMISSIONERS — TAX ADJUSTMENT 
COMMISSIONERS. 

RIOR to the formation of the letjislative commissions the city was erovemed on the 
committee plan. The finance committee of the board of aldermen did the work now 
VM done by the board of finance. The committees on fire, schools, police and public 
grounds and buildinjjs had the departments controlled now by commissions. The 
police board took away the care of the lamps and lights, and later the street and water board 
took the care of the streets, and all that was left under the care of the aldermen was the 
elections, the license of liquor dealers and venders, the out-of-door poor, the appointment of 
city clerk, city marshal, city sealer of weights and measures, and some minor positions. Origi- 
nally all the departments made annual reports, and the city charter proviso requiring annual 
reports still exists, but is not enforced. The officers and members of the board since 185 1 have 
been as follows ; 

Presidents of Common Council. 

Patrick McNulty, 1870. 



David S. Manners, 1851. 
James Marine, 1S52. 
Stephen D. Harrison, 1852. 
Frederick B. Betts, 1853. 
John H. Lyon, 1854-5. 
Wm. Clarke, 1856, 64-6. 
M. S. Wick ware, 1857. 
Jonathan V. Thurston, 1858. 
Cornelius Van Vorst, 1859. 
A. A. Hardenbergh, i860. 
John B. Romar, 1861. 
Orestes Cleveland, 1862. 
Thomas B. Decker, 1863. 
Thomas Earle, 1865-7. 
Horatio N. Ege, 1868. 
Hosea F. Clark, 1869. 

Joseph Ki.ssam, 1820. 
Philip R. Earle, 182 1. 
A. Ogden Dayton, 1825. 
Robert Gilchrist, 1826-8. 
Peter McMartin, 1829-32. 
Peter Bentley, 1833. 
Edmund D. Barr>-, Jr., 1834. 



Nathaniel Elli.s, 1839-51. 
Samuel D. Ellis, 1867-70. 
Bernard McGuigan, 1 870-1. 
A. \V. Marinus, 187 1-2-3-4. 
George Deegan, 1874. 



CiTV Clerks. 



City Marshals. 



George H. Farrier, 187 1. 
Robert Bumsted, 1 87 2-3-4. 
Thomas D. Harrison, 1874-5-6. 
John Kase, Jr., 1S76-7, 
Edw-ard S. Smith, 187 7-8. 
Stephen S. Vreeland, 1878-9. 
Lewis E. Wood, 1879-80. 
James Reid, 1 880-1. 
G. D. Van Reipen, 188 1-2. 
W. H. Furman, 1882-3-4-5. 
Robert S. Jordan, 1885-6. 
M. J. O'Rourke, 1886-7-8. 
P. H. O'Neill, 188S-9. 
Chas. W. Allen, 1889-90-1-2-4. 
Reuben Simpson, 1891-2-4-5. 

Wm. W. Monroe, 1835. 
Henr>- D. Holt, 1836-8, 40-4. 
Thomas W. James, 1839. 
Edgar B. Wakeman, 1845-7. 
John H. Voorhis, 1848-50. 
George W. Cassedy, 1850-64. 
John E. Scott, 1864 (incumbent). 

Timothy C. Long, 1875-6-7-8-9-80- 
W. A. Creamer, 1883-4-5. 
Timothy C. Long, 1885-94. 
John Graham, 1894 (incumbent). 



98 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



Members or 
Abemethy, Huijh H., Jr., 1883-5. 
Allen, Chas. W., iSSy-Qi-2-3. 
Ambrose, James, 1880-4. 
Atkins, Chas. H., 1861-3. 
Barricklo, Andrew, 186 1-2. 
Barrow, Henr\', 1S52-3. 
Baum, Martin L., 185 7-8. 
Berrian, John G., 1880-2. 
Betts, Frederic B., 1852-4. 
Birdsall, Chas.. 1S70-1. 
Brockaw, Cornelius P., 185 1-3. 
Broking, \Vm. L., 186 1-4. 
Brower, John V., 1853-4. 
Brown, George G., 1873-6. 
Brown, Joseph M., 1857-g. 
Brown, William. R., 185S-60. 
Budlong, William H., 1870- 1. 
Bumsted, Robert, 187 1-5. 
Bumsted, Wm. H., 1870-1. 
Butler, Edward M., 1877-9. 
Cable, John H., 1873-5. 
Campbell, Neil, 1869-71. 
Cassedy, James, 1866-8. 
Cator, Thos. V., 1885-7. 
Champney, Benjamin F., 1872-3. 
Christie, Thos. D., 1858, 61-8, 70. 
Clark, Hosea F., 1860-2, 66-71. 
Clark, Samuel, 1S73-5. 
Clarke, William, 1855-7-S-62-3-9. 
Cleveland, Jeremiah B., 1853-5. 
Cleveland, Orestes, 1S61-3. 
Cobb, Louis B., 1851-3, 55-7. 
Combs, Henr)', 1873-4. 
Connally, Michael, 1867-9. 
Connolly, Patrick H., 1889-93. 
Comelison, Richard, 1857-8. 
Cox, Henry F., 1S60-4. 
Dakin, Cyrus P., 1870-1. 
Datz, Emil E., 1880-2. 
Davenport, James F., 1851-2. 
Davenport, James S., 1854-7. 
Davis, James N., 1S65-8. 
Davis, Robert, 1885-8. 
Day, Michael, 1891-4. 
Decker, Thomas B., 1S58-67. 
Donnelly, Peter T., 1888-90. 
Doran, Thomas, 1879-81. 
Drake, Azariah, 1861-2. 
Drayton, Wm. R., 1S56-S. 
Dusenberr>-, Alex. B., 1 89 1-4. 
Dziuba Ferdinand, 1882-6. 
Earle, Thomas, 1858-68. 
Edelstein, John, 1866-7. 
Edge, Joseph G., 1852-6, 59-61. 
Edge, Isaac, 1860-6, 6S-70. 



THE Bo.^RD OF AlDER.MEN. 

Edward.s, John S., 187 1-2. 

Egan, John, 1869-71. 

Ege, Horatio N.. 1862-3. 66-71. 

Elliot, Walter H., 1855-9. 

Elwood, George J., 1870-1. 

Erwin, Matthew, 1855-9. 

Farley, Edward J., 1891-4. 

Farrier, George H., 1871-2. 

Finck, Henry. 1864-6. 

Fisher, John G.. 1S79-81. 

Fitzgerald, Francis S., 1869-70. 

Fitzpatrick, Francis S., 1870-1. 

Flemming, Pierce J., 1893-4. 

Ford, George, 1852-4. 

Freese, Isaac, Jr., 1870-1. 

Furman, Wm. H., 1881-5. 

Gaddis, Andrew A., 1862-5, 66-7. 

Gatfney, Thomas, 1862-4. 

Gannon, James F., 1881-3. 

Gardner, Geo. L., 1856-8. 

Gardner, Geo. S., 1851-5. 

Garret, Francis, 1867-8. 

Garvin, David W., 1870-1. 

Gaul, William, 1851-2. 

Ginnbcchio, John B., 1872-4. 

Greene, Henry A., 1S54-6. 

Griffith, John. 1S55-7. 

Gross, Thos. A., 1866-7, 68-71. 

Haley, Garret, 1876-8. 

Hardenbergh, Augustus A., 1857-61, 62-3. 

Harrington. Patrick, 1870-1. 

Harrison, Stephen D., 185 1-3. 

Harrison, Thomas D,, 1874-6. 

Hauck, Anthony, 18SS-90. 

Hancox, Geo. W., 1851-2. 

Hauser, Frederic, 1882-6. 

Hawkins, Chas. M., 1857-64. 

Helms, Christian, 1873-7. 

Hill, Harry. 1891-2, 93-4. 

Hill, Selah, 1853-6. 

Hilliard, Pearl C, 1882-6. 

Hoffman, Samuel M., 1855-7, 59-61. 

Hogan, Ji>hn, 1870-1. 

Holden. David L., 1871-2. 

Hoos, I-dward. 1SS9-91. 

Hough, James T.. 1S6S-9. 

Hough. Washington J., 1862-5. 

Insley, Henry E., 1855-7. 

James, Thomas W.. 1853-5. 

Jewkcs. Joseph. 1SS4-90. 

Jordan. Robert S., 1.S82-6. 8S-91. 

Joyce. David C. 1871-2. 

Kai.ser, John C. 1890-4. 

Kane. Cornelius. 1S61-5. 

Kase, John, Jr., 1875-7. 







J|:RM;Y Cnv HOARH ch- AI.UI.k.MKX. iSruand i8.;5. 



Alderman Michael Oav, 

I'iiTCc 1. Flcmini;. 
John Miiclicll, 



AKkrm.in J. s T. .\kC.. 



Wni U.ihr 
Harrv H.ll. 
A. L.Wil.soi 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



99 



Members of the 
Kashow, Robert B., 1857-9. 
Keeney, 'WilHam, 1854-6. 
Kelly, John F., 18S1-5. 
Kelly, Matthew V,'., 1S78-S0. 
Kelly, Thos. J., 1 89 1-4. 
Keogh, Joseph, 1889-91, 92-3. 
Kern, \Vm. F., 1S77-S0. 
Kingsland, Edmund W., 185 i-j. 
Kirsten, Adolph, 1868-70. 
Knight, Wm. W., 1867-8. 
Lahey, Richard, 189 1-4. 
Lawrence, David W., 1877-9. 
Lennon, John, 1864-7. 
Low, John H., 1852-5. 
Lyman, Geo. D., 1855-7. 
Lyon, John H., 1852-6. 
McAlvanah, Wm. J., 1885-7. 
Mc Arthur, John E., 1 890-1. 
McBride, John, 1858-67. 
McComb, Hugh, 1856-8. 
McCooberj', Joseph T., 1891-4. 
McEntee, John, 1892-3. 
McFadden, John, 1890-1. 
Mackey, Geo. D., 1876-8, 80-2. 
McKnight, Robert A., 1883-5. 
McLaughlin, Dennis, 1873-7. 
McLaughlin, Geo., 185 1-2. 
McLaughlin, John, 1872-3. 
McLaughlin, Robert, 1858-60. 
McNulty, Patrick, 1870- 1. 
Maloney, John, 1870-1. 
Mandeville, Henry V., 187 1-3. 
Manners, David S., 1851-2. 
Mannion, John, 18S0-2. 
Marinus, Lewis H., 1887-9. 
Marsh, A. Harvey, 1883-5. 
Martin, John C, 1S91-2, 93-4. 
Martini, Tobias, 1870-1. 
Meehan, James, 1S70- 1-2-3. 
Meyer, John, 1874-6. 
Miller, Jonathan D., 1X51-4. 
Nafew, Wm. H., 1860-6. 
Narine, James, 1852-4. 
Newkirk, Abram P., 1878-80. 
Norton, Patrick, 1S90-4. 
Ogden, James L., 1859-61. 
Old, Henry IL. 18.S1-3. 
O'Xeill, Chas, H., 1865-8. 
O'Xeill, Patrick H., 1S86-91. 
O'Rourke, Michael, 1884-90. 
Pangbom, John \V., 1861-6. 
Payne, Frederic, 1879-81. 
Powell, Henry J., 1874-6, 77-9. 
Prigge, John, Jr., 1S86-90. 
Puster, Henry, 1881-3. 



Bo.\RD OF Aldermen — Continued. 

Quaife, Stephen, 1864-6. 

Rappleyea, Richard R., 1S52-6. 

Reardon, Dennis, 1870-2, 85-9. 

Reardon, Michael, 1 87 7-81. 

Reid, James, 1879-81, 85-6. 

Reilly, Thomas, 1878-So. 

Reily, Edward D., 1 86 1-4. 

Reynolds, Joseph J., 1S82-4. 

Reynolds, William D., 1883-5. 

Ringle, Jacob, 1880-2. 

Romar, John B., 1860-2. 

Roosevelt, AVilliam. 1857-9. 

Salinger, Max, 1887-9, 9o-4- 

Savage, James M., 1871-2. 

Schermerhorn, Horace, Jr., 1889-91. 

Schermerhom, Leroy, 186S-70. 

Schick, Anton, 1870-1. 

Schultz, Michael. Jr., 1886-8. 

Shawda, John A., 1886-9. 

Sheeran, Patrick, 1865-8, 70-1. 

Sinclair, Daniel S., 1857-9. 

Slater, Justus, 1851-2, 53-5. 
, Smith, Anning, 1866-7. 

Smith, John E., 1878-So. 

Smith, Simeon H., 187 1-4, 90-1. 

Smith, Theodore B.. 1873-4. 

Smith, Timothy L., 1854-5. 

Simpson, Reuben, 1891-2, 93-4. 

Soule, Daniel E., 1875-7, 7S-80. 

Steenken, Arend, 1871-3. 

Steltman, Chas. A., 1886-8. 

Stier, Charles, 1871-3. 

Sweeney, Jeremiah, 1868-71. 

Tangeman, Christopher H., 1870-1. 

Terry, Rufus K., 1860-S. 

Thomas, Henn- A., 1876-S. 

Thomas, Wm. H., 1870-1. 

Thompson, James R., 1854-8. 

Thurston, Jonathan V., 1S56-60. 

Tilden, Marmaduke, 1872-5, 76-8. 

Tilden, Thomas E., 1856-60. 

Toffey, Daniel, 1870-1. 

Toffey, John J., 1873-5. 

Traphagen, Cornelius V., 1852-4. 

Tyrrell, Samuel R.. 1853-7. 

VanClecf, John T., 1875-7- 

Van Horn, Henry K.. iS.So-yo. 

Van Keuren, Benjamin. 1870-1. 

Van Keuren, William, 1870-1. 

Van Reipen, (5arret D.. 1 88 1-2. 

Van Vorst, Cornelius, Jr., 1851-4, 5S-60. 

Van Vorst, John, 1852-3. 

Voorhies, William, 1857-9. 

Vreeland, Garret. Jr., 1S70-1. 

Vreeland, Stephen S., 1877-g. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



1857-9. 



Members of the Board of Aldermen — Continited. 

Wakeman, Edmund D. B., 1S70-1. White, William, 1853-5. 

Wallis, Alexander H., 1851-;,. Whitlock, Geo. W., 1853-5 

Wandel, Jasper, 187 1-3. Wickware, Melancthon S. 

Ward, Joseph F., 1S89-91. Wilson, Alex., 1851-3, 55-7. 

Warner, James, 1859-61. Wood, Lewis E., 1S75-81. 

Westcott, Samuel, 185 1-3. Wood, Richard A., 1866-8. 

Whalen, John, 1S69-71. Wortendyke, Jacob R,, 1856-8. 

White, Archibald, 1S75-6. Young, Edward F. C, 1872-3. 

The annual appropriations for the Board of Aldermen since 1871 have been: 



1871 . 

1872 . 

1873 • 

1874 . 

187s ■ 
1S76 . 

1877 . 

1878 . 

1879 . 

1880 . 

1881 . 

1882 . 



535.3°° 00 
35,000 00 
58,550 00 
40,000 00 
33,450 00 
32,500 00 
58,835 00 
47,800 00 
44,049 80 
44,049 80 
44,049 80 
36,950 70 



1883 . 


. . §38,749 68 


1884 . 


40,299 72 


IS85 . 


. 46,949 *^4 


1886 . . 


50,199 80 


1887 . 


45,649 88 


1888 . . 


43.549 84 


1889 . 


■ • 44,149 84 


1890 . . 


42,949 93 


I89I . 


■ ■ 57,^49 88 


IS92 . . 


. 58,699 72 


1893 • 


■ • 57.350 00 


1894 . . 


57,050 00 



Dudley S. Greg^ory, i 
Peter Martin, 1S40. 
Thomas A. Alexander, 1842. 
Peter Bentley, 1843. 
Phineas C. Dummer, 1844-7. 
Henry J. Taylor, 1848-9. 
Robert Gilchrist. 1 850-1. 
David S. Manners, 1852-6. 
Samuel Westcott, 1857. 
Cornelius Van Vorst. 1 860-1. 
John B. Romar, 1862-3. 

Lewis D. Hardenbergh, 1851. 
Joseph Young, 1S52. 
David Henderson, 1853. 
David Smith, 1854. 
Jacques V. Hardenbergh, 185 
Thomas R. Benwell, 1865-70. 
Samuel McBumey, 1S70. 

Isaac S. Miller, 1851-2. 
Albert T. Smith, 1853-7. 
John Cassedy, 1857. 
Peter D. Vroom, 1857-65. 
E. F. C. Young, 1S65-70. 
David Hallanan, 1S70. 

John B. Haight, 1870. 
James H. Love, 1871-89. 



The Mayors of Jersey City. 

9, 41, 58-9. Orestes Cleveland, 1864-6, S6-92. 

James Gopsill, 1S67. 
Chas. H. O'Neill, 1868-70-4. 
Wm. Clarke, 1S69. 
Henry Traphagen, 1875-6. 
Charles Siedler, 1877-8. 
Henry J. Hopper, 1879-S0. 
Isaac W. Taussig, 1880-4. 
Gilbert Collins. 1884-6. 
P. F. Wanser, 1892-7. 

City Comptrollers. 

Ezra A. Carman, 187 1-5. 
Samuel C. Nelson, 1S76-83. 
E. F. C. Young, 18S3. 
John F. Kelly. 1S84. 
i-64. Samuel D. Dickinson, 1SS5-S. 

George R. Hough, 18S9 (incumbent). 

City Treasurers. 

Josiah Homblower, 187 1-3. 

Thomas Earle, 1874-S7. 

Patrick H. Nugent, iSSS. 

Jeremiah B. Cleveland. 18S9-94. 

Samuel D. Dickinson, 1894 (incumbent). 

City Collectors. 

Patrick H. O'Neill, 1889-94. 
Simeon H. Smith, 1894 (incumbent). 




Wallace Black, Inspector of Weights and Measures. 



I. I. Wallace Black, Inspector 

2- JOHN GRAHAM, Citv Marstial. 

3. TLMOTHY C. LON-C. Ex-Clty ^ 

4. WILLUM NEI1.U BuiUlmR Inspeci 

5. Daniel W, Benjamin, Health Insi 

6. John E. Hewitt, overseer of Po 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. ,o, 

Corporation Counsel. 
Edgar B. Wakeman, 1851-3. Leon Abbett, 1877-83. 

Richard D. McClelland, 1854-68. William Brinckerhoff, 1S84. 

Archibald K. Brown, 1868-71. John A. Blair, 1885-89-94. 

Jonathan Dixon, 1872. William D. Edwards, 1S89-94. 

William A. Lewis, 1873-6. 

CoRPORATio.v Attorneys. 
Herbert Stout, 1870. Elijah T. Paxton, 1884. 

William P. Douglass, 1873-5. Roderick B. Seymour, 1885-8. 

James W. Vroom, 1876. Robert S. Hudspeth, 1889-92. 

Henry Traphagen, 1877-8. Spencer Weart, 1892 (incumbent). 

Allan L. McDermott, 1879-S3. 

City Recorders. 

George E. Cutter, 1851-6. Thomas E. Tilden, 1860-1. 

David Bedford, 1856-60. Cornelius C. Martindale, 1861-70. 

Police Justices. 

Martin Logan, 1870. Samuel W. Stilsing, 1880-90. 

Michael G. Lennon, 1870. David W. Lawrence, 1882-4. 

Roderick B. Seymour, 1871-3. Peter F. Wanser, 1885-90. 

Sidmon T. Keese, 1872-6. Michael J. O'Donnell, 1891-2-3-4. 

William W. Lee, 1871. Robert Davis, 1891-2. 

Benjamin Shackelton, 1872-4. Frank Kimmerlv, 1892-4. 

James N. Davis, 1875, 77-8-9. William P. Douglass, 1894. 

David A. Peloubet, 1876-81. J. Herbert Potts, 1894. 

Board of Finance. 
After the reorganization of the city government in 1871 the board that controlled the city's 
finances had the most difficult task in the municipal problem. The rapid increase in taxation, 
the inheritance of debt from the prior administrations, the hard times of 1873 and 1883, which 
forced the property-owners to default in taxes and assessments, and made the negotiation of 
loans difficult and expensive, all conspired to make their task more arduous. The first board 
was composed of the presidents of the city boards, except the board of education. This plan 
was not found to work satisfactorily, and it was changed to make an independent board. Later 
this board was elected by the board of aldermen, and a new difficulty was encountered. The 
aldermen numbered twelve, the members of the board of finance appointed the assessors, and 
deals were made by which members of the board of finance were appointed on condition that thev 
would appoint the aldermen who voted for them as members of the board of assessors. There 
were but six assessors, and seven votes were required to elect a board of finance. The seventh 
alderman who entered the combination had to be rewarded in some other wav. Out of this 
arrangement scandals arose which discredited the city government. The board of finance also 
acted as commissioners of the sinking fund, and did not hesitate to borrow from it when tlicir 
needs were pressing. They also acted as commissioners of appeals, and their action in this 
connection, right or wrong, gave rise to scandalous rumors in relation to political advantage 
secured or believed to have been secured. What truth there was in the charges cannot be dis- 
covered in the records. It was enough that all that was alleged was possible to create dissatis- 
faction, and this dissatisfaction was shown at the polls, and in the withholding of supplies bv 
neglect or refusal to pay taxes. The whole system is now changed, and changed for the bctt..r. 
The board of finance is appointed by the mayor. The tax commissioners' and the commis- 
sioners of appeals and the sinking fund commissioners are separate bodies, appointed liy tlic 
mayor. Deals between them are no longer pos.sible. This is a decided advantage. The beard 
fixes the appropriation for the annual tax levy on estimates prepared by the other dcpartnuiits 
of the city government, and provides for the issue of bonds and the payment of the intcrc -t 
on them. The water debt is not included in this, because the income from water rents is 
supposed to be sufficient for running expenses and the interest on the bonded debt uf the de- 
partment. The arrears for taxes and assessments and the old contract work caused the b.urds 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



of finance to issue bonds, and the demand for interest is shown by their annual appropriations, 
which have been as follows : 



I87I . . 


• $555,581 65 


1872 . 


. . 425,182 81 


1873 • 


316,000 00 


1874 . 


. . 498,940 10 


187s ■ 


• 394,604 zi 


1876 . 


■ ■ 351,139 26 


1877 . 


■ 399,761 17 


1878 . 


• • 403,943 47 


1879 . 


. 889,796 14 


1880 . 


.' . 990,408 42 


I88I . 


■ 890,303 34 


1882 . 


• ■ 824,093 80 



1883 . 


■ $',127,193 58 


1884 . 


• 939,999 84 


1885 . 


. . 936,814 84 


1886 . 


• • 969,443 33 


1887 . 


. . 929,568 17 


1888 . 


• • 922,491 53 


1889 . 


■ ■ 935,178 62 


1890 . 


• • 877,694 65 


1891 . 


920,819 89 


1892 . 


. . 966,348 20 


1893 


• • 794,137 03 


1894 . 


■ • 835,746 49 



The rapid increase in these appropriations after 1877 is significant in its bearing on the 
much abused " Bumsted rino-." An examination of the anni:al tax levies shows that the cost 
of the city government has been mainly for salaries and interest on bonds. The bonds do not 
represent the improvements made, because many blocks appear to have been issued to meet 
deficiencies created by bad management and delinquent property-owners. The improvements 
that have been secured were mainly paid for by assessments on the property benefited or by 
the issue of bonds. The tax levies during the period embraced between 1S71 and 1894, both 
inclusive, have aggregated $39,569,144.70, and of this amount the board of finance appropria- 
tions have been §17,095,190.56, and this sum was largely for interest on bonds, and at times 
bonds had to be sold to meet the interest on bonds already out. This was notably so in 1873, 
when the fiscal year was changed and the cit>"'s expenses for a time paid by the issue of bonds. 
It was also done after the legi.slative commissions were abolished. The funds in the sinking 
fund were also used for current expenses ; for example, the report of the sinking fund for 1883 
contains items lite these: Current expense general bond. 7 per cent., due 191,^, $i 10,000 ; tem- 
porary loan bonds, S628.565 ; temporary- loan bonds, $262,000. The boards of finance had great 
difficulty in meeting claims against the city, and this difficulty caused the issue of many bonds 
and much financiering. The annual tax levies made by the board have been as follows : 

1871 . . $1,546,456 65 

1872 . . 1,445,882 81 

1873 . . . 1,376,480 00 

1874 1,473,690 10 

1875 . . . 1,270,234 23 

1876 . . 1,835,539 26 
. 1877 . . . 1,182,546 17 

1878 . . 1,216,543 47 

1879 . . . 1,517,195 02 

1880 . . 1,619,757 30 

1881 . . . 1,554,282 14 

1882 . . 1,427,824 84 

The members of the Board since its first organization have been the following : 

C0MM1SS10.NF.R5 OK FlNANLK. 

John H. Carnes, 1S71. I. I. Vanderbeck, 1X73-4-5-6. 

Patrick McXulty, 1871. R. C. Bacot, 1873-4. 

M. H. Gillctt, 1871-2-3. James L. Ogden, 1S73-4-5-6. 

•Robert Bumsted, 1872-3-4. G. D. Van Reipen. 1873-4-5-6-7. 

E. M. Pritchard, 1871-2-3. George H. Farrier,':87 1-3-4. 

D. S. Gregory, Jr., 1872-3. Chas. F. Case, 1873-4. 

*C. H. OXeili, 1872-3. J. D. Carscallen, 1873-4. 
*Ex-officio. 



1883 . 


$'.776,362 9° 


1884 . 


• ',623,459 32 


1885 . 


. 1,634,966 08 


1886 . 


• i,695,9'4 61 


1887 . 


1,689,373 77 


1888 . 


• 1,725,820 93 


1889 . 


• ',799,851 35 


1890 


■ i,853,4'5 05 


1891 . 


. 2,084,259 54 


1892 . 


. 2,184,866 64 


1893 


■ ',979,693 03 


1894 . 


■ 2,054,729 49 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. "S 

Commissioners of Finanxe — Continued. 

Henr>- M. Rogers, 1873-4. Otto Heppenheimer, 1883-4. 

John Kennard, 1873-4. Isaac Romaine, 1884-5. 

Frank M. Lockwood, 1S73-4. R. B. Seymour, 18S4-5. 

T. C. Brown, 1875-6. John Edelstein, 1885-6-7-S-9-90-1. 

James L. Ogden, 1875-6. A. A. Hardenbergh, 1885-6-7-8-g. 

Asa W. Fry, 1875-6-7. Wm. D. RejTiolds, 1885-6-7. 

M. M. Drohan, 1876-7-8-9-80-1-2. Joseph Warren, 1888-9-90. 

Henry Pattberg, 1876-7-8. T. E. Bray, 1889-90-1. 

Jeremiah Sweeney, 1876-7-8. 'C. W. Allen, 1890-1-::. 

Marcus Beach, 1S77-8-9-S0-1-2. John Kenny, 1890-1-2. 

Simeon H. Smith, 1877-8-9-80. George R. Hillier, 1890-1-2-3-4. 

John MuUins, 1878-9-80. George W. Peterson, 1S90-1-2. 

I. W. Taussig, 1878-9-80. Alva A. Bedell, 1891-2-3. 

Smith W. Haines, 1881-2. J- J- Detwiller, 1893-4-5. 

Marmaduke Tilden, 1S81-2. John D. Frazer, 1890-3-4. 

Allan L. McDennott, 1883-4, •Reuben Simpson, 1S93-4-5. 

Emil E. Datz, 1883-4-5-6-7-8-9-90. James S. Bailey, 1894-5. 

Thos. D. Jordan, 1883-4-5-6-7-8-9. Joh° W. Hardenbergh, 1894-5. 

John D. McGill, 1883-4. John M. Jones, 1894-5. 
*Ex-officio. 

Clerks to Board of Finance. 

Robert Hutton. Geo. F. McAneny. 

Cornelius S. See. W. G. German. 

J. D. Van Cleef. Martin Fink. 

The Public Works Depart.men t. 
The first public works department was the board of water commissioners appointed March 
18, 1851. Their duty was to provide water-works to supply Jersey City and the townships of 
Van Vorst and Hoboken. They selected Wm. S. Whitwell as engineer, and his plans were 
approved December 9, 1851. On March 25, 1852, the legislature granted authority to build the 
works. The water was first turned into the mains on June 30, 1854, and on August 15th follow- 
ing it was delivered to the city. At the time the water was turned on the cost had been 
$652,995.73, but the construction account was not clcsed until July 1, 1857. Connected with the 
water-works a general plan of sewerage became necessary, and that work devolved upon the 
water board. The daily consumption of water increased rapidly as the ser\-ice was extended. 
In 1856 the daily consumption was 581,000 gallons and the annual rate 516,472,876 gallons. In 

1857 the daily average was 1,000,000 gallons and the annual total was 631,498,602 gallons. From 

1858 until January, 1870, the supply was kept in cubic feet, and the record showed these 

Daily Average. Annual Consumption, 

c. £. c. f. 

1858 .... 188,666 68,863,050 

1859 .... 230.684 84,199,813 
i860 .... 267,992 97,817,062 

1861 .... 288,872 105,438,394 

1862 .... 308,445 112,582,478 

1863 .... 340.344 124,225,867 

1864 .... 406,127 148,236,333 

1865 .... 478,385 174,610,667 

1866 .... 540,307 197,212,222 

1867 .... 573,276 209,246,015 

1868 .... 628,001 229,220,661 
1870 .... 810,665 295,892,887 

The amount expended for extensions of street service from July 1, 1857, to January i, 1870, 
and paid for by the sale of bonds, was SM7'>,432.32. The revenue derived from the sale of water 
from September i, 1854, to January 1, 1870, was Si.529,772.59. 



104 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



The rapid increase in consumption made a considerable increase in the plant necessary, and 
that work fell upon the board of public works created by the charter of 187 1. The water com- 
missioners, as has been seen, attempted to increase the stora<;e supply by awarding a contract 
for a new reservoir. Every dollar spent in that ill-fated enterprise was wasted, and the expense 
entered the bonded debt and was charged to the " Bumsted ring." Xew supply mains, new 
pumping machinery and a stand pipe were among the items of expense that had to be met by 
the board of public works. The consolidated city made sudden and extensive demands upon 
the supply as the new streets were opened, and that demand was met. That was the main item 
in the expenses of the city under the Bumsted regime outside of meeting demands for old 
contracts. 

The quantity of water consumed since consolidation, as far as recorded, has been : 





Daily Average. 


Annual Consumption 


.871 . 


■ • 923.323 


337,014,354 


1872 . . 


. . 1,036,407 


378,288,541 


1873 • 


1,279,307 


468,226,403 


1874 . . 


• ■ 1,487,777 


542,308,474 


187s • 


1,393,182 


508,511,574 


1876 . . 


. . 1,625,958 


593,484,627 


1877 . 


1,649,487 


602,062,909 


1878 . . 


• • 1,742,746 


636,102,454 


1879 . 


1,663,514 


607,182,464 


1880 . . 


. . 1,916,644 


699,575,121 


I88I . 


1,994,228 


727,893,459 


1882 . . 


. 2,122,899 


774,858,164 


1883 . 


2,165,241 


790,313,010 


1884 . . 


• • 1,997,678 


729,152,623 


.885 . 


• 2,353,518 


859,034.302 


i886 . 


■ • 2,263,443 


826,157,025 


1887 . 


■ 2,353,641 


859,379,132 



Water Commissioners. 



Edwin A. Stevens, 1851. 

Dudleys. Oregon.', 185 1-2-3-4-5-6-60. 

Edward Coles, 185 1. 

Abram L. Van Buskirk, 1851. 

John D. Ward, 185 1-2-3. 

Moses B. Bramhall, 1852-3-4-5. 

Thomas A. Alexander, 1852-3. 
*David S. Manners. 1852. 
•Stephen D. Harrison, 1852. 
*Fred'k B. Betts, 1853. 

Erastus Randall, 1854-5-6-7-8-9-60. 

Selah Hill, 1854. 
*John H. Lyon, 1854-5. 

Henr>' M. Traphagen, 1855-6-7-8. 

Benjamin (). Edge, 1856. 

James S. Davenport, 1856. 

Charles Fink, 1857-8-9. 

William Pearsall, 1857. 
*M. S. Wickware, 1857. 

Louis B. Cobb, 1858. 
•J. V. Thurston, 1858. 

Wm. Birkbeck, 1859-60. 

Louis B. Cobb, 1859. 
*Ex-officio. 



•Cornelius Van Vorst, 1859. 

Ephraim Pray, 1S60-1-2-3-4-5. 

B. O. Edge, 1860-1-2. 
*A. A. Hardcnbergh, i860. 

J. R. Wortcndyke, 1860-1-2-3-4-6-7. 

Delos E. Culver, 1861-2-3-5-6. 

J. B. Romar, 1S61-2. 

George McLaughlin, 1S63-4-5-6-8-9-70. 
•Orestes Cleveland, 1863. 

Noah D. Taylor, 1864-5-6-8-9-70. 
•William Clarke, 1864-6. 

Hosea F. Clark. 1.S66. 
•Thomas Earle. 1S66-7-8. 

James S. Davenport, 1866-7-8. 

Job Falkcnburgh. 1S66-7-8. 

Andrew Clerk. 1868-9. 

Patrick Reilly. 1S6S-9-70. 
•Horatio X. Egc, 1S6S. 

H. R. Clark, 1870. 

Michael Xathan, 1S70. 

John C. Hopkins. Jr.. 1870. 
•Cha.s. H. O'Xcill, 1870. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



»oS 



M. H. Gillett, 1 87 1-2- J. 

T. E. Bray, 1871. 

W. H. Bumsted, 1S71---3. 

Earl S. Martin, 187 1-2. 

Wm. Startup, 187 1-2-3-4-5. 

Ben. F. Welsh, 1871-2. 

Aug. Ingfwer.sen, 187 i. 

J. M. Comelison, 18.73. 

J. C. De La Vergne, 1873-4. 

F. T. Farrier, 1873. 

Asa W. Fr>-, 1872-3. 

Rudolph Surber, 1872-3. 

S. R. Halsey, 1874-5-6. 

W. W. Lee, 1874-5. 

C. O. Potter, 1876. 

R. C. Washburn, 1876. 

Wm. Clarke, 1877-8-9. 

Wm. O'Gready, 1877. 

R. M. Jarvis, 1877. 

P. Semler, 1877-8. 

J. F. Crandall, 1877-8. 

Henry Lembeck, 1877-S-83-4. 

Garret Haley, 1878-9-S0- 1-2-3 

John McLaughlin, 1S78-9-80. 



COM.MISSIONERS OF PlBLIC WoRKS. 

H. R. Vreeland, 1879-80. 

F. P. Budden, 1 880-1. 
3. C. Helms, 1881-2-3-4. 

David Williams, 1881-2. 

W. H. Whelan, 18S2-3. 

J. H. Keeney, 1882-3-4-5. 

Thos. W. Leake, 1884-5. 

Thomas Refolds, 1884-5-6-7. 

W. F. Kern, 1885-6-7-8-9. 

H. W. Carr, 1885-6. 

John Schweiler, 1885-6. 

Chas. J. Somers, 1886-7-9-90-1-2- 

John Watt, 1886-7-8-9. 

P. C. Hilliard, 1887-8. 

J. F. Gannon, 1888-9. 

Philip Tumilty, 1888-9. 

Reuben Simpson, 1889. 

E. A. Dugan, 1889-90- 

J. F. Madden, 1891-2-3. 

W. R. Cook, 1891-2-3. 

J. E. McArthur, 1894. 

G. W. Harding, 1894. 
W. H. Hooker, 1894. 
H. L. Kellers, 1894. 
J. J. Cone, 1894. 



-2-3- 



Stephen P. Yoe, 1879-80-91-2-3. 

Ben. Van Keuren, 1S79-80-1-2-3-4-7-8-9-90. 

The annual appropriations for the Public Works Department since the Board of Public 
Works was organized have been as follows ; 



187 1 $412,000 00 

1872 355.°°° 0° 

1873 317,000 00 

1874 130,000 00 

1875 104,000 00 



1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 



890 



94,500 00 

94,000 00 

145,000 00 

86,099 7- 

83.099 72 

94,799 80 

66,199 84 

Tax Co\r.\ii>sioNERS. 
1889 a board of tax commissioners was created to take the 
place of the old board of assessors. The commissioners were to serve three ^-ears, but the first 
board appointed were for terms of one, two and three years, to provide for the appointment of. 
one new member annually. Tlic Cji'mniissioncrs have been ; 



1882 



Under the new charter of 



883 



$80,199 76 

93.699 84 

77,199 60 

75,699 60 

73,099 68 

57.799 76 

52.399 88 

48,399 84 



891 181,799 80 

892 211.349 44 

893 193,400 00 

894 209,301 00 



D. W. Lawrence, 1SS9-90-1. 
M. J. O'Donnell, 1889-90. 
John Prigge, Jr., 1889-90-1-; 
John D. Gorman, 1891-2. 
The Presidents have been : 
D. W. Lawrence, 18.S9. 
M. J. O'Donnell, 1890. 
John Prigge, Jr., 1891. 



James C. Clarke, 1891-2-3-4. 
James H. Love, 1893-4-5-6. 
Richard Lahey, 1894. 



J. D. Gorman, 1892. 
J. C. Clarke, 1S93. 
Richard Lahcy, 1894. 



io6 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



O'Donnell and Prij^jje were reappointed, and O'Donnell resijjned in 1891. Alexander 
McLean was appointed to succeed Prigge in 1S94, but he declined to serve and Lahey was 
appointed. 

James E. Connolly was appointed Clerk when the first board organized and is still the 
incumbent. 

Commissioners of Appeals. 
The finance commissioners served as commissioners of appeals from 187 1 until iSgj.when 
a law was enacted providing for a separate board, the members of which were to be appointed 
by the mayor. The first Board consisted of Reuben Simpson, John D. Frazer and James War- 
ner. In the following year Simpson was elected president of the board of aldermen, and 
Frazer became a member of the board of finance. W. W. Woolley and Henry Pattberg were 
appointed in their places. The term is for three years. The Clerks have been Clarence W. 
Gessner and Mahlon Terhune. 

Sinking Fund Co.m.missioners. 
From 1871 until 1889 the board of finance ser\-ed as commissioners of the sinking fund. In 
the new charter of that year a separate board was created, and its members were appointed bv 
the mayor. The members have been : 

Sigfried Hammerschlag, 18S9. Daniel Moriarty, 1892-3. 

Jacob Ringle (President), 18S9-90-1-2-3. F. J. Matthews, 1894. 

J. G. Hasking (Sec'y), 1889-90-1-2-3-4. Charles Westervelt (Clerk), 1893-4. 

Alva A. Bedell, 1 890-1. 

Tax Adjustment Commission. 
On July 23, 1887, in response to a petition made under the provisions of the Martin Act 
Judge Manning M. Knapp appointed E. F. C. Young, A. O. Garretson and William Muirheid 
to serve as Tax Adjustment Commissioners. On November 25, 1892, Charles B. Thurston was 
appointed to fill a vacancy caused by the death of Mr. Muirheid. The corporation coimsel acts as 
counsel to the commission. J. A. Blair, Wm. Brinkerhoff and Wm. D. Edwards have acted as 
advisers in this capacity. L. D. Fowler has served as Clerk and C. Kelsey as Assistant Clerk 
since the board organized. C. E. Nugent has sen-ed as an Assistant Clerk from 1891 to the 
present, and C. Smith and E. Devlin have been employed as Tax Clerks since 1889. The board 
has adjusted city liens amounting to §8,045,280.96. The amount as adjusted is $6,260,448.21 
without interest. 










CHAPTER XX, 



THE FIRE DEPARTMENT — ITS ORIGIN— A COMPLETE ROSTER OF THE VOLUNTEER DEPARTMENT OF THE 
THREE CITIES PRIOR TO CONSOLIDATION — IHE PAID SYSTEM, FROM THE CONSOLIDATION TO THE 
PRESENT TIME — THE ALARMS AND -LOSSES OF TWENTY-FOL'R YEARS — LIST OF OFFICERS AND COM- 
MISSIONERS APPROPRIAllUNS H>R THE PAID DEPARTMENT. 



"^TP'^^N the spring of 1829 there were several fires in Jersey City, and public opinion de- 
^Urta',; manded protection against fire. The board of selectmen heard the demand and 
«rt!^'3 would have heeded it at once if there had been any money in the treasury ; not only 



'^^ did they have no money, but they had no means of raising it by tax. They debated 



long and sore over the matter until Phineas C. Dummer showed them a way out of their dif- 
ficulty. They passed an ordinance prohibiting public auctions except by licensed auctioneers. 
Dummer paid $300 for an exclusive license, and thus the board was enabled to head a subscrip- 
tion list. It also authorized John Cassedy to receive subscriptions. His list was opened on 
June II, 1829. The city then had a total population of 1,025, ^n^ most of the public-spirited 
For that reason the list is given here in full : 

John Drayton, . $3 00 

Cash, H.J.,. 

John Ogden, ... 

Fortunatus Stone, . 

Lorenzo Jaquins, 

Patrick Cunningham, 

Abram Bell, 

The Bergen Corporation, 

Charles Martin, . 

Isaac Seaman, 

Charles F. Durant, 

John Post 

Charles Chelsey, 

John H. Dey, .... 

John S. Olcott, . 

J. C. F. Kommel, . 

Charles Oakley, . 

Robert Hutton, 

Gorith G. Jenkins, 

Isaac Edge, Sr., 

John Henry Holmes, 

Mrs. Mulfo'rd 

Thomas Dixon, . 
John Walsh, .... 
M. Rupel, .... 
Thomas Alexander, 

$839 50 

The selectmen appointed Jonathan B. Jenkins and George Dummer a committee to find 
out what an engine would cost. They visited the New York chief, looked at some second- 
hand engines, and concluded that a new one would be better. They ordered one from Henry 



CIlS iippCiilCU Oil LlllS 11 

Board of Selectmen, 


$300 00 


Daniel C. Colden, 


50 00 


Yates Mclntyre, 


50 00 


Associates of Jersey L 


0., . . 50 00 


Richard Varick, 


3° °° 


D'avid Henderson, 


- 30 00 


A. Gomlaule, . 


25 00 


Samuel Cassedy, 


10 00 


Jersey City Glass Co., 


30 00 


Aaron Lyon, 


S 00 


R. Gilchrist, . 


10 00 


John Cassedy, 


S 00 


John N. Goodman, . 


10 00 


Jonathan Jenkins, 


10 00 


C. Van Vorst, . 


zo 00 


Daniel Crane, 


10 00 


Joseph Dodd, . 


10 00 


W. Weir, . 


10 00 


Henry Drayton, 


15 00 


E. V. S. Olcott, . 


• 5 00 


Thomas Van Riper, 


8 00 


Joshua Seaman, . 


. 3 00 


Hiram S. Meeker, . 


5 °o 


Francis Paulmier, 


• 3 00 


David Jones, . 


3 00 


Hugh McCutcheon, 


5 00 


Joseph Webb, 


S °o 



20 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


I 


00 


10 


00 


4 


00 


5 


00 


10 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 




5° 



io8 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



Ludlum, of Xew York, for SSoo, and it was delivered on Aufjust 28, 1829. They also boug-ht 
100 feet of leather hose for SJ*7-5o. Chief Wenman. of New York, loaned them 100 feet while 
the new hose was making. On September Sth the engine was placed in care of Selectmen 
John K. Goodman and Aaron Lyon, to be kept in cfood order imtil a fire company could be 
formed. The enjjine was placed in the stable of Hugh McCutcheon's " Farmers' Hotel," 
42 York Street. Liberty Engine Company Xo. i was organized at a meeting held in Mc- 
Cutcheon's hotel on September 21, 1S29. The citizens who signed the roll, and became the 
first firemen in Jersey City, were : Charles Martin, John Post, Charles F. Uurant, James 
Narine, William B. Jenkins. Nathaniel Holmes, Henrv- Dravton, Stephen Seaman, Hugh Mc- 
Cutcheon, Hiram F. Meeker, Henry Lyon, Abraham Po.st, John W. Hutton. \Vm. R. Taylor, 
Joshua Seaman, John C. Xewkirk, John Reid. Washington Edge, George Anderson, David 
Smith, George X. Anderson, John Drayton, Thomas Dixon, William Benson, Caleb Russell, 
Thomas Cunningham, John McLaughlin, John Xaylor. Obadiah Baulker and John Martin. 

The officers chosen were : Charles Martin, foreman : John Post, a.ssistant foreman : Charles 
F. Durant, secretary-; James Xarine, a.ssistant .secretary; representatives, W. B. Jenkins, 
Nathaniel Holmes ; steward. Henrj- Drayton. The steward's duty was to provide refreshment 
during or after tires. Dr. John F. Ellis was made an honorary member to ser\-e as surgeon. 

The engine was an old-fashioned "goose-neck." 
It was housed in a stable until December fol- 
lowing, when the selectmen built a small one- 
stor>- frame building on the southeast comer 
of Grand and Washington streets for an engine- 
house. Later, a brick building was erected on 
Sussex Street, between Warren and Washington, 
and still later a handsome building with elaborate 
emblematic stone car\-ing on the front was built on 
Greene Street, north of Montgomery, w.hich served 
until the end of the volunteer department. There 
was some friction about obeying orders, and the 
selectmen appointed Samuel Bridgart as chief en- 
gineer, though there was hut one engine to com- 
mand. In FS32 Liberty i was supplied with three 
hooks and three ladders. This company made the 
initial movement to secure exemption from jury 
and military duty, by a petition to the legislature 
on October 3, 1832. The company had four en- 
gines during forty-two years. The record of the 
second is lost. It was destroyed by a railway col- 
lision. The third was a handsome double-decker, 
bought from the Xorthem Liberties Company that laid at Front and Duke streets, Philadelphia. 
The cupola of this engine was long preser\-ed as a soda fount in a saloon at Greene and Mont- 
gomery streets. The last engine was a steamer. 

During 1837 and 1S3S there were a number of tires, and it became necessary to increase 
the fire department. In .March. 1.S3S. several citizens organized Arreseoh Engine Co. Xo. 2. 
Their names cannot be ascertained. On April 23d these names were added to the company : 
Job Male, John Lamb. Xathaniel M. Coffin. Cornelius Kanouse. Charles Gardner, David Dows. 
Moses Miller, Henrv P. Southmavd. Stephen Southard. Alfred Van Santvoord. Robert Durfee, 
John Bruce, Walter [,amb. Albert Miller. R. J. Schuyk-r. Peter ticntley. Samuel Hathaway, 
Luther A. Pratt, William W. Pratt. Robert Morrow, William Morrow and Alderman Morgan. 
The engine was delivered by builder Ludlum on AugTist 20, 1S3S. and. with 350 feet of hose, 
cost $1,040.50. Dudley S. Gregor\- loaned the money to pay for it, taking a city bond for the 
amount. Arreseoh was housed in the brick building on Sussex Street, one-half of which accom- 
modated Liberty Xo. i. This building was finished in Xovembcr, 183S. 

On May 19, 1S43, William Kelly. Joseph McManus, William Mallett. John Cantield, Peter 
W. Griffing and Rony Reed became members of Arreseoh, and this gave the "glasshouse 
boys " control of the comp,-in\-. From that time there were wars and rumors of wars in the 



h." 


■"^ 








^. 


^-^.^^ 


' N 


F 

r 






;4 


i 
i 

i- 




i 
1 


^~^ 


t,- 


■■^^ 




• t 



THE OLD .M CUT(_ 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



109 






department. It may be recorded, with'mt jjoinsj into details, that there were feuds between the 
different companies so lonjj as the vohinteers were in service. These feuds were so productive 
of disorder that a board of five trustees was appointed in 1844, and for several years thereafter, 
but their efforts to prevent one company from laying for another and enjoying- a race and a 
fight were failures, and they went out of existence after the board of 1846. A new house was 
built for Arreseoh on the south side of Essex Street, between Warren and Washington, m order 
to separate the two companies. 

The third engine company was Hercules No. 3. It was organized March ig, 1844, with 
this roster: Joseph Ouaife, George H. Farrier. Bernard Hughes, A. H. Gustin, Thomas Gross, 
Thomas W. Morehouse, Robert A. Durfee, John J. Wanner, James F. Fielder, Richard R. Rap- 
pleyea, Richard Knapp, Thomas Tennant, Martin Williamson, Philip Cadam. 

Engine Co. No. 4 was old Harsimus No. i. and its name was changed to Washington 
No. 4 after \'an Vorst was absorbed by Jersey City. It occupied a house that stood on the site 
of the present fire headquarters. Its roster when it was admitted to the Jersey City depart- 
'ment was : John A. Topping. John Welsh. William H. Roosevelt, Thomas H. Ridgewood. Selah 
Hill, Josiah M. Topping. William Wykes. William Hough, Michael C. Raring, Addison P. Row- 
ley, Henr>' Isley. John Casey, Thomas Hughes, William Allen, John Mackey, Hugh Murphy 
and Robert Harrison. 

Protection Engine Co, No. 5 was organized August 5, 1S51. The original roll was : Charles 
M. Holmes, Edgar Morris. George Molineux, John V. Brower. Horatio Reed. Jacob Rapp, Wm. 
Dugan, Garrett Cooper. Will- 
iam White, William Startup 
and Daniel R. Spinning. 

Jackson Engine Co. Ni>. 6 
was organized April 21. 1863. ^ 
The charter members were : i,. 
Peter Dolan, Cornelius Kane. I 
Michael Brannagan. Edward ■ 
Keougan, Michael McCartliy. 
R. J. Johnston, Matthew Ely, 
James Baxter. John Shields. , 
Patrick Condon, Patrick Turn - ; 
ilty, John Lennon and Felix 
Dolan. 

C. Minot Engine Co. No. 7 . 
was organized March 21. 1865. ^ 

Henwood Engine Co. No. s 
was organized December ,;. 
1867. There were twenty- 
nine charter members, and they were still members in 1871. 

The first hose company was Hud.son Hose Co. No. i. It was organized October 2, 
1846, and its members were : Albert W. Adams. J. L. Wooden, J. West, John B. Moffatt, H. 
Rextrue George H. Farrier. Jacob Z. Marinus, L. Evans, E. Pizarr, Isaac Edge, Jr., John H. 
Bolen, Charles H. Lucas and Thomas W. T. Young. 

A second-hand hose carriage was bought for $80, and 800 feet of leather hose was put on 
its reel at a cost of S520. The city was not in funds to pay for a house and lot for the hose 
company and the new engine company No. 3, but Dudley S. Gregor>- offered the free use of a 
triangular lot at the junction of York and (Jrcgory streets. A double house for the hose com- 
pany and the engine company was built, and it stood for many years as a beer saloon after the 
volunteers were gone. The second-hand carriage was replaced with a handsome new one on 
June 23, 1848. The cunipanv became noted for encounters with the other companies, and on 
complaint of the chief-engineer it was disbanded February 10, 1857. (Jn February 17th, one 
week later, it was rcurganized with these members: James Gopsill, Jeremiah B. Cleveland, 
William Bishop, James W. Hall, Richard C. .Sherman, Wm. A. Fisher, Reuben Van Horn, 
Samuel McKean, I'rieh Dehart. David Wakefield. Frederick Jackman. John W. Denver. Thomas 
Bishop, Jr., Charles M. Cook, Frederick Kissam, James Wallace, James H. Wood, Thomas S. 










•^ii;^ 



Si^»s«i^a'^2S 



.* FIkE DEP-iRTMKNT OF VF. OI.DEN TI.ME. 



•<v-.^.^„;.-_ 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 




AN OLD-FASHIONF.n FIRE ENGINK. 



Holmes, Joseph B. Eltrin<;h.iin. Gfurjjf Fewkes, flenrjrc H. Williamson. P. W. Johnson, John 
H. Lyon, Robert B. ICarle, Selnh Hill, Isaac S. .Miller, Thomas M. Gopsill, Benjamin G. Piatt, 
William Keeney, John R. Halladay, Simeon H. Smitli, Henr>- C. Dielcinson and Joseph G. Edge. 
These were among- the mo.st influential citizens of their time, and they did not care much about 
fire duty. They .soon admitted the young fellows wlio had been suspended, but they had in- 
fluence enough to prevent scandals in the way of fights. The company was known as " Old 
Stag," and it bore a good reputation for about ten vears after reorganization. The old tricks 
reappeared again in iS6y, and the company was again disbanded ; the members were permitted 

to resign in a body. The company was reor- 
ganized June I, 1S69, as Pacific Hose Co. No. i, 
with the.se members: Nelson Barron, Moses 
Coleman, Jolm Coyle, John Creech, Jr.. L. G. 
Fogg, Jr., Patrick Clrady, Theodore Hull, Albert 
Kittle. Cornelius McMillan, David (Jrr, John S. 
Praul, James Doyle, Thomas O. Blaney, Charles 
Comstock, John Haggerty, Thomas Trotter, 
Robert Johnson, George H. Thomas, Edward 
McCormack. William Thornell, Henry White- 
head, Joseph Orr, William Cunningham and 
Benjamin Titcombe. The carriage was moved 
from the old en.gine house at York and Gregory, which it occupied for many years in company 
with Hercules Engine Company, to a new house on Morris Street. 

Phoenix Hose Co. No. 2 was organized Februan,- i, i85_^. The house was in Bay Street, 
adjoining Engine No. 4. 

Diligent Hose Co. No. 3 was organized February 17. 1853, It was first housed in a shanty 
at Van Vorst and Gregor>- streets before Montgomer}- .Street was extended through Gregory 
to Newark Avenue. It was next in a part of Truck I's house at Van Vorst and Grand streets, 
and last on Newark Avenue, near Grove Street, at the bell tower. The charter members were ; 
Samuel H. Many, J. W. Coombs, Harry B. Moore, Peter H. Daly. 
Theodore F. Morris, George H. Farrier. William Knapp. William 
Robertson, William Holcomb, Cornelius Ymmg, George Brown, 
Robert B. Kashow, Lucius G. Brewster, William H. Tufts and 
John Morris. 

Passaic Hose Co. No. 4 was organized June 6, 1854, and laid 
in Bright Street, near Grove. The original members were : 
Smith Mead, Wm. il. S. Garrison, Thomas .S. Appleton. Johnson 
Crowe, C. F. Dunham, J. S. Marks, George S. Appleton, Lewis 
E. Wood, Thomas Royle, George Almont, John Engler, Alfred 
H. Mead, Samuel R. Birch, Jr, E. B. McDowell, John McGuigan. 
Empire Hook and Ladder Co. No. i. "One Truck," was 
organized April i, 1842, and the first members were : Dudley S. 
Gregory, John Dows, David B. Wakeman, Henry Southmayd, 
Phineas C. Dummer, M. Olcott Barry, George W. Edge and 
Benjamin O. Edge. This list was increased later bv adding 
Erastus Randall, Joseph R. Tal.son, Murray L. Baldwin, Isaac 
H. Smith, William Murphy, James S. Hutton, John Crockford, 
Josiah Gautier, J. Rutscn .Schuyler and Albert T. Smith. 'I'he 
house built for this company at (irand and Van Vorst streets 
was the largest and best built for the department. It was in it 
that the commissioners met when the paid department was organized. 

Americus Hook and Ladder Co. No. 2 was organized September 5, 1S54. and hou.sed in 
a small frame building on South Fifth Street, ea.st of Grove, until 1856, when John Van 
Vorst gave the company a lot on Erie Street, north of South Fourth Street, and a new brick 
house was finished on it in 1857. 

Hibemia Hook and Ladder Co. No. 3 was organized January 23, 1868. The original mem- 
bers were all on the roll when they were mustered out in 187 1. 




HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



The Volunteer Firemen. 

A complete record of the membership in each Jersey City company is contained in the 
following lists : 

Liberty Engine No. i. 

James McLaughlin, W. H. Lee, John Reilly, Thomas Reilly, E. D. Reilly, D. W. Stone, 
Peter White, John Marshall, W. D. Garretson, Robt. Boorman, John Coyle, H. P. Royal, George 
Romaine, Wm. Scully, M. iluUins, Patrick Brophy, Samuel A. French, S. C. McLaughlin, James 
Baxter, Robt. Conroy, Alex. Striker, Cornelius Morrison, Julian P. Chazotte, Jasper Wandel, 
Joshua A. French, Francis Boon, Henry French, John Priue, Michael English, John Welch, 
Thomas English, Thomas Murray, Wm. Sanderson, S. T. Drayton, Samuel Wiswell, John 
Beatty, Henry Dodd, James Gilvarry, Lloyd Gray, Wm. Anness, Fredk. Anness, John Camp- 
bell, Timothy D. Witherell, James Uoyle, John Snoddy, John Faulkner, James Havernor, 
Timothy Conk, R. O. Harrow, Michael Travers, Cornelius Bush, Samuel Hathaway, W. D. 
Nolan, A. J. Gordon, Edward Flaughcrty, Wm. Downing, Edward Mortimer, Xoah D. Taylor, 
James Hill, AVm. Bradfield, Patrick O'Neal, B. F. Champney, James AVilson, Jacob Staib, H. 

E. Hutton, Charles Timpors, E. L. Copcland. Charles Fox. Wm. Taylor, Charles Scott, Thomas 
Taylor, Peter Houghteling, Jackson Shaffer, 

W. L. Beach, Fred. Cooper, W. T. Wier, Joseph 
Barrow, William Conway, J. W. Combs, J. G. i 

Williams, F. C. Smith, Jesse McLaughlin, S. J. 1 

Zacarias, Geo. Oliver, G. W. McLaughlin, Wm. ] 

McKean, S. D. Bennett, John H. McCutcheon. j 

■John Metz, J. A McMillan, Wm. II. Gallagher. ^ 

C. B. Jaquins, James Magee, Daniel Fielding, ' 

Frederick Schreiber, Richard Wandle, P. G. Van 
Winkle, James Blaney, R. Taylor, Lyon L. \ i 

Nathan, C. G. Hoar, J. X. Smith. James Coyle, j 

A. W. Van Winkle. Andrew Mitchell, Jeremiah ' * 
Haley, Michael Walsh, S. S. Sparks, Walter G. 
Molds, Thomas Connolly, E. T. Lamb, Theodore 
Post, John W. Harrison, H. F. Crawford, Wm. 
Dixon, B. Van Winkle, E. J. Scott, M. R. Palmer, 
Abraham Post, Christopher Mills, Philo L. Snow, 
Wm. A. Phillips, B. F. Britton. John Severs, 
Horatio Read, J. W. Strobcr, Reuben Van Horn, 
P. O'Connor, Nicholas Hughes, Wm. Freligh, 

F. P. Jones, C. E. Rumsey, John Smiley, Thos. 

B. Wandle, John Croaker, Benj. Kipp, John O. siarting ior a fire. 
Adams, W. H. Conway, Chas. I. Davis, S. W. 

Nafew, James A. (^'Brien. Cornelius lUish, Wm. Smiley, Geo. W. McLaughlin, H. C. Hutton, 
A. N. Harring, J. C. Ho])kin.s. Alex. McCarthy, N. H. O'Reilly, Thomas McMurray, Michael 
MuUone, E. P. SandalLs, Alonzo Stivers, Wm. Snowden, J. D. Percy, T. J. Blaney, Chas. Com- 
stock, J. T. Amsden, H. H. Hughes, Wm. Amsden, Thomas C. Hughes, John Hagerty, Patrick 
Hagerty, Patrick Moddix, H. A. Dillon, Ji.hn Henratty, James Larkin, John Madigan, Louis 
Stono, A. F. Young, John C. Devine. Thos. McMahon, A. T. Lawrence, Daniel Watson, Cornelius 
Post, Geo. B. Curry, N. B. Smith, James Gannon, Michael Foley. 

Arreseoh Engine No. 2. 
James Smith, J. D, Nolan, James O'Connor, John Bunkle, Patrick Farrell, Martin Con- 
nolly, William Reen. Francis Riker, James Courtney, Michael Bracken, James Griffin, James 
Lockwood, John Lyons, Ji^hn Flannery, William Malier, Patrick Flanery, John Kilroy, Henr>- 
Scott, George Anderson, James Haley, Michael Fallon, James McCluskey, Patrick Quinn. 
Edward Wheelan, Rdhert Ccjok. James Cwles, Thomas Smith, Edward Mintagh, Dennis Farrell, 
Michael Connor, Charles Bryant, Timothy O'Hara, John Farrell, Henry Keely, John Rafferty, 
Thomas RatTerty, Patrick Kelly. John Duran, Thomas Pointer, Peter Dolan, Anthony Kennedy, 
James Clare, James Toner, James Price, John Kenney, Edward Corrigan, Thomas Wheelan, 




112 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

John H. O'Neill, James Cannon, James Corrisan, William Whelan. Thomas Jenkins, Edward 
Gordon, Joseph Headen, Joseph Mallon, Lewis Drewalt. V. D. Vroom, D. Oould, Robert 
Dumont, John C. Morg;an, T. H. Shafer, A. J. Fitch, A. Morrell, J. B. Arthur, A. S. Gewell, 
George J, Miller, Daniel Thomas, D. B. Wakeman, B. B. Grinnell, Charles Clark, Alexander 
McMillen, D. Smith, N. Ellis, J. D. Walton, J. H. Broas, William R. Janewa}', B. R. Wakeman, 
D. S. Sinclair, J. R. La Tourette, James Iloyt, Ludlow Dumont, Thomas B, Decker, Henr>- 
Steele, Patrick Curley, Charles Somcrs, John Whitlev, P. G. Appleton, Robert Young, J. J. 
Kipp, John R. Brownell, John P. Hardenburgh. Francis Riker, John Farrell, William Eastburn, 
John Bunkle, John 1). Nolan, William Armstrong, [ohn Cane, R. Cook, P. Hurley, Matthew 
Brown, Francis Cassady, William Kennedy, A. Kennedy, J-. Smith, Thomas Pointing, James 
Colvell, P. Delany, M. Eagan, James Price, Peter Dolan, William Engler, George B. Gardner, 
James O'Connor, John Doran, Thomas Kane, Patrick Bucklev, Matthew Hines, Patrick Foley, 
John Eagan, Thomas Corkearan, J. Clarey, J. Hoare, John Lynch, John Hodges, J. M. Alden, 
Patrick King, Edward Whelan, C. C. Martindale. Peter McGowan, Joseph Gubbins, James 
Hughes, Martin Delaney, J. F. Duclos, F. B. Betts. Sr., Lawreni^c Rvans, James Kanagen, 
Jacob Cisco, Phillip D. Nolan, !Michael Reynolds, Prvon Donnelly, Thomas Wolley, Terrence 
O'Brian, John Kane, Patrick Reehill, Thomas Lenehan, Thomas Hines, Patrick McNulty, 
Robert Ouinlan, Charles Lodick, Thomas Laneghan, James Greene, Patrick Cannon, John 
O'Brien, Francis Masterson, Michael Ward, Joseph Rudick. Michael Lane, James Lynch, James 
Marriner, Charles Hart, Patrick Searley, Felix McElroy, Owen Lee, Martin Harney, William 
Whelan, Patrick Dillon, Thomas Farrell, John Sinnot, Patrick Cain, Hugh Garland, John 
Keegan, James Bradley, Michael Moore, ^Michael Coleman, Francis Karney, James Hoare, 
Nicholas Finigan, John Flinn, John Corbley, Peter Lynch, Dclos E. Culver, Peter McGowan, 
Paul Decker, Charles McCann, John McDonough, Charles Ouinlan, Martin Connolly, H. Buhler, 
John Tempany, John Coleman. John Flanigan, Thomas Kain, Michael Foley, Michael McCul- 
logh, William Bradley, Michael Egan, Michael Tormev. John Carbcrley, Patrick Devine, John 
Canfield, John Larkin, Bernard Conlin, Frank Fitzpatrick, Patrick Keenan, Thomas McDer- 
mott, John McGinness, George P. Lynch, John Kain, Patrick Jaquins, John Norton, John 
Rourke, Dennis Cody, Joseph LjTich, Michael Kavanagh, John H. Meehan, Patrick Coleman, 
Stephen Reed, Michael Hannon, James Donley, John McDonnell, Martin Harney, James 
Bracken, Thomas Finegan, Edward O'Neil, Marshall Hall, David Ouinn, Charles Murphy, John 
Farrell. 

Hercules En<;ine No. j. 

John Sj'lvester, Joseph Ouaife, George Farrier. Bernard Hughes, A. H. Gustin, Thomas 
Gross, Thos. W. Morehou.se. Robert A. Durfee. John ]. Wanner, James F'ielder, Richard R. 
Rappleyea, Richard Knapp, Thomas Tennant, Martin Williamson, Philip Cadam, Isaac F. 
Frazee, William Rose, S. A. Stone, J. M. Riley, H. H. Fenn, J.ames R. Gautier, Gustavus F. 
Stemfield, Nathaniel Tiirner, Isaac Wakeheld, Isaac Morrow, A. W. Van Winkle, Alfred ilc- 
Kay, William McKay, George Williamsim. Oliver S. Johnson, Thomas Kinkead, Jeremiah 
Maines, Daniel R. Vreeland. William Webster, Thomas Horrington, David Reed, Edward 
Rich, John Rouse, Thomas McNickle, John Devlin, A. B. Rcynold.s, J. Halstead, W. Hanks, 
Thomas Harrington, Henry Marsiles. W. B. Shotwell, C. C. Hutchinson, J. M. Clark, Isaac Van 
Saun, Solomon F. Vanderbeck, Daniel ^■reeland, Abraham Vreeland, JL S. Wick ware, John C. 
Hardy, George Heins, E. A. Swauthout, Daniel Dalton, W. H. Ciantier, H. M. Lane, Robert 
Miller, C. Duncan, George Duncan, Thomas Kilroy, M. Smith, J. Scanlon, J. B. Taylor, H. I. 
Vanderbeck, Uriah Townsend, W. Rawlinson, J. Conroy. John W. Westervelt, James Saddler, 
Thomas Pidder, George Mindca, John Johnson. G. M. Rcilly, G. T. Sternfield, John White, 
Fred'k Bowlston, Charles Hoagland, Richard Dore, W. B. Clark, Wm. Young, P. H. Gemmell, 
W. Hughes, W. B. Payne, T. Gross, M. McCuIlen, David Smith, Robert Kirk, Charles Conklin, 
John F. Kriger, James Garribel, T. McHale, James Rcilly, J. Knight, S. Mcttcr. George Davis, 
J. Dreuman, Peter Levins, Richard Tajoncra, M. Sharp, James Roslxitham, (jeorge Freebem, 
John Mulporct, Gilbert Adams, Isaac R. Fithian, Cliarles B. Sleight, James W. Palmer, 
James F. Fielder, Lsaac F. p-razce, John W. Mulford, James Wakefield, Lsaac Edge, W. 
T. Ashford, William Smith, M. Smitli, (i. H. Dietz, Joseph Carroll, Jcjhn McKean, 
J. W. Palmer, George Duncan, Wm. Young, Maynard Sharp, Nathaniel Turner, William 



■(<: 



'■>'^f^''>\' 



i''^.^ 



<i\^ 










.IKKSKY CITY 1-IRR DEPARTMENT BUILDINGS. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 113 

Gautier, Moritz Gerson, Michael Nevin, John B. Moore, John Goldspink, Joseph Carroll, 
Wandel Green, Wm. Hughes, Michael Kilcauley, D. E. Donohoe, Jacob Fresch, Thos. Dwyer, 
James O'Brien, David Kemp, T. C. Mander\-ille, James Boyley, John Enjjler, J. L. Blackmore, 
Michael Shay, James Barry, Abraham Liminjj, Jeffrey Collins, W. \V. Knight, Jacob Schmidt, 
Chas. P. Halsted, W. H. Smith, Ceor^ce Henderson, Michael McEnerney, Terrence O'Xiel, T. 
W. Von Berner, Daniel Ryan, John Edel.stein, Geory-e Sinsrleton. James Latham, John I. Irvinjj, 
Wm. James, Andrew Carri.y-an, Edward Corrisjan, David W. Garvin, John Barry, Robert 
Lindsay, Peter Lynch, Theodore F. Dean, Samuel Ramsay, Thomas McCullagh, Thomas 
Flynn, John Whalen, Patrick Michael Burns, James Bailey, Michael Dugan, F. A. Knoeller, C. 
O. Von Berner, Alexander Reed, James Lynch, Francis Smith, H. K. Heller, J. H. Byrnes, T. 
J. Hannan, J. F. X. McCullough, Thomas McCarty, W. T. Collins, Francis McXaney, James 
Barnes, Patrick Delancy, John A. Knoeller, Peter Lynch, M. J. Clark, Patrick Mulery, Philip 
McMahon, James Conroy, Isaac Kelly, John McKenna, Michael Bowe, Charles Reynolds, 
Thomas Flannagan, John Smith, James Doyle, Michael Reagan, Thomas D. Jourdan, James 
Barry, Thomas Flannagan, Thomas Dwyer, A. W. Keeler, John JIcMahon, Henry Whiton, 
James O'Brien, John Whalan, Emmanuel Levy, Joseph Kimer, John Evans, James Ferguson, 
Andrew Hoey, Timothy Donovan, Patrick Malone, Michael Goldwig, Philip Mullen, Michael 
Eagen, John Burke, Patrick Tyghe, Charles O'Connell, John O'Brien, Edward Moran, John 
Flynn, John Golden, Michael Reardon, Michael Doyle, John Lynch, Philip Muldon, Edward 
Flanery, Michael Griffin. Hugh A. Barnes, Patrick Flannley, Daniel Garvin, Isaac Brown, John 
Mullins, John Pinkman, Patrick Tighe, Henn.- Triguer, Richard Barry, William Rowen, 
Thomas Doyle, Dominick Johnson, Cornelius Canfeel, Harr}- Devlin, Laurence Hines, William 
Lutier, John Shine, Joseph Dukes, Michael O'Brien, Thomas McCullough. 
Washington Engine No. 4. 

John A. Topping, J. M. Topping, John AVelsh, Thos. Bridgewood, Wm. Roosvelt, S. Hill, 
Wm. Wykes, Wm. Hough, X. R. Harring, A. P. Rowley, Henry Isley, John Casey, Thomas 
Hughes, Wm. R. Allen, John Mackay. Hugh Murphy, Rob't Harrison, M. J. Keane, James 
Doran, Wm. Hughes, Jas. E. Hutton, Chas. J. Farley, Edwin Topping, I. G. Boyce, Abraham 
Van Riper, Patrick Brady, Jas. Donlon, Geo. Andrews, John D. Meeker, Patrick Boyle, Wm. 
Baker, Jacob Membert, Timothy French, Samuel Boyce, Jno. B. Moflfatt, Philip Helmitt. Barzil 
Gray, Edw. B. Zeefe, Rob't Boorman, Jno. R. Mackay, Wm. Barr, John Carroll, Patrick H. 
Nugent, Edw. Andrews, Rob't O'Hara, John Travis, Chas. Griegliett, Michael Connor, Fred'k 
Boorman, Thos. Mansfield, Bernard McGuigan, Anthony Dobbing, Henry Byrne. Anthony 
Lukin, Jas. McDermott, Dan'l Dugan, M. H. Travis, Geo. W. Smith, John Hill, Jas. Hart, Rob't 
Duffy, Geo. Dempsey, John Casey, Wm. Ewald, Jas. M. Kemp, Jas. Doyle, Michael Duffy, 
Robert O'Male)-, Hiram McCarty, Jas. Reidy, Geo. H. Booth, John Rooney, R. T. Lambert, 
Wm. Parker, Matt. Somcrs, John Hannon. John Herche, John Smith, Jas. Dougherty, George 
Scheatz, Alex. Jenkins, Morris Lawler, (ius. Hauft, Jno. B. Hauft, Balser Sheets. Jacob Free, 
Jacob Ringle, Thos. Flanley, Christopher Mann, Thos. A. Riley, Thos. Riley, Jas. Ely, Michael 
Nugent, John Coyle, John Sherridan, Michael Kennedy, Jas. Dixon, Michael Simmons, Patrick 
McDonnough, W. C. Voss, Henr\- Weindager, Jas. Flannigan , Michael Clements, Peter Doyle, 
H. T. Lee, Michael Doyle, Jas. McGowan, Jas. Bigey. Chas. Isbills, Thos. Kelly, Edw. Kelly, 
Andrew Selcrig, Thos. Clements, Cornelius Dougherty, Michael X'^evin, D. C. Donahoe, A. 
Lyniing, Thos. Drayer, Jno. Cavanagh, Lawrence Burke, D. M. Buck, John Mahoney, Patrick 
O'Connor, Patrick Conconnon, Chas. J. Boone, Thos. Gross, Andrew Clancey, David McKernan, 
Peter Doyne, Geo Stratford, Jacob Wilhelm, Christopher Coogan, Wm. Murth. Rob't Duffy. 
Wm. Winges, Thos. Roe, Wm. Powlev, Jno. McMahen, Wm. Aiken, D. Simmons, Francis 
Mitchell, M. McAnally, Jas. Duff, Edw. Slattery, I. H. Jennings, M. J. McHugh, Thos. E. 
Wakefield, Ja.s. Rafters, Jas. Harper, Michael Gavigan, Chas. E. Page, Jno. Slattery, Jas. Pink- 
man, Andrew Seaback, Thos. Fields, Dennis Fields, Jas. King. Francis Heintze, Rob't Ensor. 
Jas. Halligan, Patrick H. May, Wm. Stratford, Roderick Egan, Jno. M. Flanagan, Michael 
Mahoney, D. C. ODonohue, Jas. Kenny, Albert McCarty, Jos. Kelly, Chas. McCarty, Julm Mc 
Evoy, Francis Turbcrt, Patrick Mehan, John Dugan, Michael Mahoney, Enoch Smith. Riclicnch 
Williams, Jos. McDonald, Jas. Bailey, Benj. .\Iannion, John Maxwell, Samuel Murth, Tli"-- i^cii- 
nett, Jas. Connely, David Rice, Thos. Stratford, P. J. Calders, Jas. McDonough, Wni St.iiikv. 



114 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

Geo. Log-an, Patrick Carroll, Jas. Kelly, Win. Batt, Michael McCormick, John Butler. Jas. Car- 
land, Martin Scanlon, J. A. Ouinn, M. Boyd, John McCorniack, Thos. Rod, Elias Purdy, Thos. 
McAvoy, H. C. Smith, P. D. Nolan, Thomas Farley, Jos. Cooper. 

Protection Engine Xo. 5. 

Chas. M. Holmes, Edg-ar Morris, Geo. Molineux, John Y. Brower, Horatio Read, Jacob 
Rapp, Wm. Dujfan, Garrett Cooper, Wm. White, Wm. Startup, D. B. Spinnini.f, Benj. Decker, 
Jno. Chilver, R. K. Terry, Geo. Ford, Jas. Schanck, J. B. Haight, Henry Jahne, J. B. Welch, 
Francis Fuller, Jno. Phillips, Jos. Gopsill, Daniel McXamara, John Ward, Jno. Coyle, J. H. 
Brown, Wm. Neffe, Henry Greene, Jno. T. Clapp, Charles M. Hankins. James P. Mackey, P. D. 
Haight, Chas. M. Chatterton, S. F. Xoyes, Jno. Pitts, Jno. Wilson, Wm. Howe, Geo. Woodward, 
Stephen Quaife, Wm. Chilver, Jno. Frazer, J. N. Willis, Simon Warshanier, Jos. Roberts, A. B. 
Demarest, Wm. Cairns, N. H. Coykendall, Wm. Gopsill, Chas. Van Brunt, Thos. M. Gopsill, 
Thos. Howe, Hugh McComb, Wm. Bumsted. A. T. Morri.s, Christopher Mills. John Vander- 
belt, J. H. Ward, H. G. Healy. Peter Henderson, D. B. O. Romans, Edw. Capron, R. Mc- 
Pherson, J. J. Hill, Albert Smith, A. A. Smith, John J. Hill, S. A. Hopkins, Isaac Wakefield, A. 
K. Brown, S. M. Cockin, James Ayars, Andrew Savage. Wm. Young, James Van Benschoten, 
John L. Woodin, Charles H. O'Neil, James M. Riley, Thomas V. Foster, William B. Duming, 
Garrett M. Thomas, James M. Reily, Alfred Moore, Robert Bumsted. H. R. Richardson. J. 
W, McCarty, Thomas Coar, Japhet Jardine, J. P. Lewis, George Ibbs, William W. Holmes, J. 
R. Parsons, J. D. Hopping, I. H. Barker. J. W. Adams. H. A. Halsey, A. J. Jardine. G. Tut- 
hill, B. Brown, Henry Fisher, William Seely, tl. H. Summerton.C. L. Armstrong. John G. Sut- 
ton, Henry Lohman, George W. Laforge, C. H. Parsons, T. A. Tiipper. (ieorge W. Marshall, 
Charles H. Kirby, L. W. Landrine, L. D. Co}-kendale, William H. Kirby. James H. Startup, 
Theodore Van Wert, Jacob Wilson, John H. Morison, X. H. De Xyse, E. S. Browne, A. F. Hall. 
Thomas K. Halstead, M. E. Purdy, William B. Mason, Adam Miller, C. F. Dunning, Thomas 
A. Gross, John Duncan, George L. Morrison. Jos. Brockhiirst. George E. Ring, Jr.. George M. 
Evans, James C. Reed, B. F. Witherell, A. D. Hamilton. Sylvis Bogardus. C. T. Herrick, E. T. 
McHomey, Thomas Potter, Abram Pearson, Jos. Reaney, John E. Snowden, X. A. Wilcox, 
John Blauvelt, H. A. Eckler, Elijah Gean.-, James G. Haskin, Charles H. Voorhis, William H. 
Van Buskirk, W. B. Hall, William J. Seeley, William H. Kenzell, Charles H. Fancher, L. C. 
Gosson, J. M. Startup. John W. Harrison. Charles A. Woolsey, Walter K. Fields. William B. 
Labaw, James J. Reid, John E. Cronham, W. D. Thomp.son. 
Jackson Engine Xo. 6. 

Peter Dolan, Cornelius Kane, Michael Branigan, James Sherridan, Edward Keougan, R. 
H. Johnston, Michael McCarty, Matthew Bly, James Baxter, John Shields, Patrick Condon, 
Patrick Tumilty, John Lennon. Feli.x Dolan. Matthew Hughes, John Higgins, Lawrence 
Sheridan, John English, Philip Tumulty, Michael Ouinlan. C. Xicholson, Simeon Cuff, Michael 
Kane, John Dempsey, John McCabe, David Chub, George W. Barnes. Thomas Clements. James 
McTigue, Thomas McKieman, James Branagan, Thomas O'Conner, Patrick Dignan, John 
Barrett, Thomas Condon, John Jennings, Thomas Kane, James Meehan, Bernard McCarty, 
Thomas Brown, James Farley. Thomas Golden, John McKeon. Michael McAvoy, Martin Ryan, 
Albert B. Pryer, Charles McGinnis, William L. O'Shaughne.ssy, Jacob Heein, Bernard Sheridan, 
Michael Smith, John Guiton. Michael Conners, Augustus Holtick. Michael Tuite, John Frieny, 
John Gallagher, James McXulty, John A. Freund, John Dulan. Bernard Holdig, John 
Birmingham. 

C. MiNoi Engine X'o. 7. 

A. J. Baum, Abraham W(.iod, John Dnrscy, Frank Garrett, Thomas Keogh, William R. 
McDonald. John Morriscm, Thomas Regan, Harris Seymour, George Springsteed, Charles ,S. 
Tyson, James S. Wood, Joseph Sabine. William H. Wocxl. Isaiah Dennis, P. F. Haldani, lacob 
Raub, John D. Swartout. A. A. Bliven. John Council, William Cobert, Henry Entner, John 
Hoefle, Thomas Farley, Robert W. Shaw. James C. French, John Davis, L. M. Decker, John 
Regan, George Cnimmenaner, Harold Henwood, Moses Conklin, Michael Connors, George 
Adams, James H. Hurst, David Patterson, James Corbley, Franklin Smith, William E. Coleman, 
Reuben Hunt, William Collins, Timothy Cuff, Francis Adams, John Stapelton, Patrick Mangan, 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. ,,5 

William Murphy, Richard Morrison, John Maloney. Michael Maloney, John Strav Thomas 
Argue, Hu-h Hair, James Lear>-. Thomas O'Xeil, John Anderson. James O'ReillV Patrick 
McDermott, John Holmes, Michael Rotchford, John Toomev, John Halev, John Hare' Charles 
M Hughes, John Brady, William Sutherland. John Talihee, Dennis Stapleton, John Carroll 
Abraham Van Buskirk, John Woolf, WilHam J. Moffatt. William Hunt. Nicholas Callihan' 
George Keasley, Dennis McLaughlin, Edward Suffolk, Charles Carroll, John McLaughlin' 
William F. Peoples, John Sullivan, Daniel Donovan, Joseph Howard. 

Henwood E.noinf. No. 8. 

Thomas Andrews, John Argue, Michael Burke, Owen Bradv, Thomas Brewer John Bren- 
nan, Andrew Cassidy, Patrick Curran, Thomas Crowley, John Duggan, Martin Dalv Thomas 
Eagen, Nicholas Farrell, Patrick Fury, Andrew Gariand, John Godfrev, Michael Gradv lames 
Kearney James V. Maxwell, Thomas Marshall, John Murphy, Henrv McDonald, John McLean 
Thomas McNamara, Edward McMalion, Michael O'Conner, James Toohev Michael Toohev" 
Thomas ^Vallace, John Andrews. Joseph Burke, Michael Connelly, John Campbell James Cor- 
ngan, John Falaher, John Hooper, William Mack, Thomas Maxwell, Theodore Carel Harold 
Henwood, Ambrose Rooney, Thomas Shen-idan, James McPhillips, Patrick Lamb Thomas 
Duff, James A. Commertord, Matthew Coogan, James Burns. John McDonald, Patrick Duo-o-an 
Neil Campbell, Thomas Mack, Patrick Lee, William Doyle, Patrick McCannon, LawrenceTlul' 
hgan, Patrick Dolan, .Michael Brennan, Nicholas Bratten, Terrence J. McDonald Daniel Mc- 
Namara, Patrick Mulligan, John Ouinn, Thomas Lamb. 

E.MPIRE HoOK .\ND LaDDER No. I. 

Dudley S Gregory, Jr., T. R. Rodger.s, James K. Morgan, Joseph S. Alexander, Richard 
Mycoth, Joel C. Potter. L. I. M. Sythoff, J. D. Narine, \Villiam Coleman, Henrv Coleman 
George Dummer, Jr., Andrew J. Rache, Robert H, McClearv, James R, Tillev Vrancis \' 
Leak, Joseph R,Sk.Ilman, Gcor,ge Cummings, Matthew Lenard, Joseph Hickman, John h' 
Mason, John ^\ . Fox, George McCrindell, J. Z. Marinus, John B. Dravton, John W. Orr A B 
Reynolds, Joseph P. I^„.cr, A. Brown. Orestes Cleveland, W. H. Frazee, Joseph Strober b'. 
F. Holden, H. rhiclman,,, L P. Cook, E. R Rogers, Frank Johnson. Charies H. Murrav G D 
Jones, J. C Shaffer, I!. V. Grinnel, Frank Vanderbeek, William Clark, Frederick Gram' Nelson 
Johnston E.F.C. \oun,g Victor Peard, A. McT. Henderson, Samuel Phillips, J. Pringle, George 
Philips NMcConmck. P B. Marsh, Hugh Kirkpatrick, Alfred H. Keep, Edgar Morris John 
C, Hardy, Louis 1 he eman, A. H. Vroom, E. O. Sewell, O. Cram.siU, Philip c' Rogers, ^Villiam 
L. Hanford, John B. \ room, Henry H. Brinkerhoff. Philip Selew, James Fenner F S Low A 
C Shipley, Charles A. Hillvcr. William James Van Duser, H. H. (Gordon, William D. A DalV 
Maunce Fancon Henry A. I'ierson, Joseph Raworth, Joseph W. Redding, Richard Tavlor, Joei 
?■ T 1'' ^t'\ ^^''."'>''^'''- ^'''^"'^'•'"' ^^■=1''^^^. ^'riah DeHart, William S. (Jillelan, John Camp 
Jr., Luther h. Cummings, W dliam E. Cox. Henry F. Cox. Richard M. Jordan, Joseph W. ,Stro 
berH. A Courscn. Nathan R- 'owler. Henry C. Smith, John B. Arthur, I. I. Comslock. Jr.. E. 

Tn^r^R """ u "V-^T- '\"'';;"\ }''"""'• ''"'"'"" •^•^^^'3' J'-- T- W. Vandergrift, John 
Anness, Benjamm I . Dur.cc. . . 1 . Kmg, M.rtimer Jahne. Samuel Pearson, Jr.. John B Drav- 
ton George B. r.elder. I .Vshhey, N. B. Shafer, John H. Carne.s, Amos B. Falkinburgh. 

fr Tt-^^h r'u- ',;"","; ■'''"'•^'' ""■ '"'''''''-■ '^h°'"^^ J- '''"elan. Jr., F. R Stovek^n, 
Jr., . L. Holbrook U. J. .s.c v. Charles M. Irwin, James S. Bradlev, David W. Tavlor. W. D. 
Clarke Leonard . .ordon Join, H. , mnian. William Pearsall, Jr., Otto L. Peterson, k. B. Dean. 
J. N. Harnman. Edward . . S,„„h, I). Bliss. S. H. Waplcs, A. K. Hackett, William R. Hillver. 
^^.^r^" ■'■^r'"''"- ; f ";;"':"■• -■-■---■ «■ R--e>. WilHam W. Buckley, Walter S. Nelson. 
William K Norton. U alter H .regon-. Landon R. Gregory-, T. B. Smith William F. T.alor. 
E.H.Rodd James Uhacly. W.n.am P Douglass, F. H. Doremus, R. A. Durfee, D. C.Mc 
Naughton,^\,lham B. Si, a er h. I \ .Ihams, Jr., George W. Underhill, Theodore E. T..wn- 

Zfr n [T u^ u :"■ ' " "^'''""- ""■ ^- "^■"^^■- J-"^^^ T. Gr.idv, R I Sh,,.cr. 

Wilham B. Adams. R. s. H. - .ood. S.„„„cl Clark, Horace Crandall, J. Walter Clark, El, Nc....„. 
H. A. \,tt. ,lham h. j. ,Saun,ler>, \\,Ili.,m .Murray, D. W. Harkness. John L. Durant. J.,l,„ 11 
Randolph, I lio;nas Spiers. -^ -^ 



ii6 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

A.MERicLS Hook anb Lauder No. 2. 

Samuel M. Hoffman, John Francisco, Peter Stilsinj;, John G. Haybcck, (ieorge W. Romaine, 
John D. Thompson, Eli Jones, Charles Thoma.s, Thomas Startm, B. F. Tuthill, John Romans, 
Andrew Riddel!, W, Howeth, C. W. Myers, T. D. Withcrall, J. Myers, E. F. Crane, S.C. Lathrop. 
A. A. Paff, James S. Bishop, Thomas \\'. Tilden. J. H. Smyth, Jonathan Tayler, D. E. O. Romans. 
S. P. Romans, James \'an Hise, Cornelius Morrison. Uaniel B. Spinning, Charles J. Gilbert, 
Henr\- P. Robertson, Robert Griijlietti. Henry Gri;rlietti, Frederick Button, AVilliam A. Craw- 
ford, David G. Christie, Charles Birmer, Georg-e Doremus, George Brown, Edward H. Ridgway, 
William Dutcher, John Engler, George W. .Smith, John A. Topping, James Linkroun, Stephen 
Witherel, Peter H. Wood. Royston S. Tilden. Elison Duncan, Charles M. Cook, A. A. Sperling, 
James Bemer, Charles Frazcr, Phineas Bates, Oram \Varren, Charles J. Gilbert, Josiah M. Top- 
ping, Joseph H. Gaddis, William Meeker, Aaron W. West, Thomas Leather, Oscar Maltman, 
William H. Duryee, William H. Keeney. Alfred Jacobs, Garrett Van Vnr.st. James M. Clarke, 
Phineas T. Bates, Benjamin V. Warren, Warren K. Witherell. M. Duke Tilden, Edward Osborn, 
S. W. Hoyt, Richard Ramsey. A. B. Coykendall. J. AVood, William M. Smith, Nathaniel B. 
^ Rommell, Benson Rommell, William H. AViley, George Warren, Charles Sheffield, George 
McLeod, William H. Cnie, John Grimes, Edward Warren, James Doremus, Ambrose P. Rike- 
man, Ebenezer Bern.-, George Coates. Charles Van Brunt, William Vanbuskirk, Noble Grig- 
lietti, John L. Denmead, Jr., Theo. Shaffer, Peter H. Hoyt, (ieorge W. Speyer, Jos. W. Edwards, 
Cornelius Collins, Clayland Tilden, George W. Swain, Philip Duffy, John C. Lawrence, Ray 
A. Thompson, R. Skinner Tilden, T. A. L'Hommedieu, A. N. Bird. Theo. Barker, John Bell, 
George W. Denver, Edward Dingier, John Duffy, Daniel Johnson, Walter Jackman, Samuel 
Stilsing, Frank H. Benson, John H. Osborne. X. B. Rommel. William L. Sharp, Daniel W. 
Frazer, Charles A. Bliven, James Henderson, Harr\- E. Duncan, Jc^hn N. Brill, Charles Jobes, 
. William Post, Henn,- Smith, Jr., James P. Spencer, Samuel Wright, Dennis L. Spencer, George 
W. Scudder, James N. G. Verrinder, Jacob Bergman, C. H. Benson, Alexander McFadden, 
William Kipp. 

HiBERNiA Hook and Lauuer No. 3. 

William Batt, William Burns. John Craven. Michael Bennett, Patrick Carrol, Thomas 
Cedell, Edward Cullen, William DaltiiU, John Dolan. John A. Freund, Michael Gibbons, John 
Hennesy, John Higgins, Daniel Kamey, Francis Lehane. C. F. Marquard. Murty McConville. 
John McSpirits, John Nevin, Michael Nevin. Robert D. O'Beirne, Patrick O'Xeil, Patrick 
O'Rourke, James J. Reid, Patrick Sheeran. Daniel .Shea. Michael Ouinlan, Michael Freel, 
Patrick Corrigan, Thomas Brady, George Beck, Patrick Lennon. Valentine Puster, Miles 
Tiemey, James Smith. Conrad Stier. Thomas Coolahan. M. J. Bracken, Lawrence Regan, Thos. 
Egan, Samuel Evans, William Morgan, Michael Masterson, Patrick Matthew Lennon, Thomas 
Cutley. 

Hudson Hose No. i. 

Joseph G. Edge, James Wakefield, Henrv' Stiff, Edward Barton, Thomas Morrow. James 
Wallace, John Rooney, Oliver Duncan. James Gopsill. Michael Rodahan, Isaac Edge, Jr.. J. H. 
Cadugan, Joseph T. Lacey. David Wakefield, William J. Holmes, Theo. F. Morris, William 
Fisher, Charles Cook, Samuel McKeon, Frederick Scott. ( )rum Warren, John Morris, Augustus 
Baum, William T. Ashford, Hiram Meeker, Joseph Conck, Stephen Jaquins, George Fewkes, 
John H. Lyon, Jeremiah B. Cleveland, Alexander Given, James N. Clarkson, James H. Corwin, 
James Given, James Landes, Robert Earle. John Hannon, William J. Holmes, Benj. G. Piatt, 
Richard Wood, John P. Masseker. Thomas B. Kissam, A. Reed. William Jelly, Samuel ilcKean, 
Thomas S. Holmes, John S. Marston, James Welch, Hiram Meeker, p'rederick Stolly, William 
M. Bassett, Ruben J. Van Horn. Frederick Jackman, James Woods, Jo.seph B. Eltringham, 
Frederick T. Farrier, Isaac Miller, J. E. Brown. P. W. Johnson, S. H. Smith. Mcxses B. Hess- 
doifer. James Robertson, John Denver, Thomas Bishop, Frederick Kissam, John D. Frazer, 
Thomas M. Gopsill, Richard E. Sherman. James W. Hall. Henry C. Dickinson. M. R. Case, 
Selah Hill, Charles DcHart, William Bishop. William Keeney. John R. Haliday, John Q. 
Adams, George H. Williamson. Joseph D. Gopsill. Uriah DeHart, James H. Wood, John Doyle, 
Robert J. Johnson, John Ramsey, John Lee. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



PHfF.MX Hose Ni 



Robert S. Cillman. Gcorjje Muore. William Connelley, Jnhn R. Benedict, Luther F. Dun- 
ham, John Bumsted, Samuel McLautrhlin, Henry Steel, John T. Miller. George B. Youn.irblood, 
Michael Xugent, Oliver Strinijham, John Bennett, Gabriel Hartford. James Dun, Cieorire H. 
Thomas, Edw. Andrews, J. T. Avers. William Hamilton, John Hartford. A. Wakefield, James 
Hairy, Georjje W. Gaul, Spencer Filbe, John Dexhermand, Geor5,re Whitlock, S. Hammond. 
William P. Ba^^ley. Jas. Williams, Charles A. Dickenson, J. D. Xarine, George Conklyn, Edw. 
Kenney, Samuel Bennet. Samuel Stone. Oliver Duncan. John B. Davis. Jas. Xarine. Jr.. Samuel 
A. Brooks, Abraham Berry. John Lynn. John H. Harney, William Ramsey, Schuyler D. Prel- 
fort, Henry M. Baker, Ebenezer Bern,-, Thomas Calton, William Lenoir, Adam Lyncks, Jacob 
V. Worster, George W. Boorman, A. if. Conover. John Lincks. Thomas Flockton, John Kirwin, 
H. A. Pierson. Jacob Garretson. Frederick Longhogen, Henry Jackel, John Worster, Frederick 
Boorman, David Evans, Frederick Hautch. William Shepard. Joseph Selew, Abraham Garra- 
brant, Robert S. Gilman. John D. Frazer. John G. Hauft, John B. Hauft, F. W. Leonard, Jo.seph 
A. Earle, William H. Crane, Addison P. Rowley, James Brand, J. V. Thurston, Georcre Scheetz, 
Henry Shaw, Oliver S. French. F. R. Hill, Theo. Tupper, Charles L. Krugler, James Berrv! 
William H. Conway, James Meehan, Henry Kehr, William G. Wright, Samuel C. Britton, Peter 
Clos, William Breede, John J. Grogan, John Conners, James Reid, Robert Ehrlich, Frederick 
Lincks, Henr>- Blake, Frederick S. White, Henry Lincks, James J. Blake, F. Heizmon. John 
Clos, Frederick Links. Jr.. Herman Brantigan. Charles L. Kappes. William Webber, Henrv 
Turner, Jacob Seebach. Jacob Clos. Jacob Stuckey. Louis Meyers. Xathaniel Calton, Thomas 
Wall, Henry T. Lowndes, Theo. Hall, Samuel Farran, Isadore Douglass. Thomas R. Beck. 
Samuel Allen, Matt. V. Cavanaugh. William J. Lloyd, Michael Kappes, Charles Martin, A. A. 
Shopp, Louis Evans, Thomas McCarthy. John O'Connell, George Smith, Frederick Race, Wm. 
Vogt, William Hogan, John G. Bennerd. Peter Donnely, William Winfiekl, Edw. Lewi.s. Owen 
Pagan, Thomas Williams, Charles Stevenson, Pearce Lincoln, John Hogan, John Doherty. 

Diligent Hose No. 3. 

S.. H. Many, J. W. Coombs. H. B. Moore. P. H. Daly. Theodore F. Morris. George H. 
Farrier, William Knapp, William Robertson. William Holcomb, Cornelius Young, George 
Brown, R. B. Kashow, L. G. Brewster, William H. Tufts, John Morris, James Gilkinso'n, 
Samuel Hetherington, Edward Van Anglen, Peter Houghtaling, C. Van Buskirk, Charles 
DeHart, William H. Bumsted, J. C. Flower, Jos. B. Eltringham, F. W. Tufts. W. J. Stevens. 
George H. Haight. J. Groves. James R. Gautier, Louis Thielman. F. Xewcomb, Francis Post, 
George Woodhead. Charies Baekhurst. William Robertson. John Marshall. Isaac Morrow, 
David Taylor. Henr>- C. Smith. Ruben Howe. Japhet Jardine, William Cooper, Xathan R. 
Fowler, Isaac H. Baker, Daniel T. Hegel, James B. Farrier, Theodore Wines, Thomas S. 
Holmes, John Springsteen, James Hagerty, Morris E. Van Syckel. John X. Jackson. Daniel 
Shea, William A. Fisher, John W. Harrison, L. L. Xathan, Henry Smith, John D. Piercev, 
Michael Xathan, Joseph H. Rommel, Jr.. Theodore H. Teeple. John Dickson, George s! 
Duncan, Charies H. Scott, Thomas C(mnelly, Joseph H. Bumsted, James H. Love, James 
O'Brien, S. W. Dougherty. Henry E. Farrier, James Dickson, Andrew Jackson, Augustus J. 
Baum, John J. Devlin, Thomas C. Baughan, John Duncan, William Garretson, George R. 
Hillier, John E. Wright, A. W. Marinus, Charies E. Baker, William H. Crane, William H. 
Eaton, William W. Earner. Alexander Reed, James Clark, Robert Sterling, Frederick F. 
Farrier, Joseph L. Hughes. Thomas A. Jackson. Benjamin Murphy, William H. Van Syckle, 
William W. Douglass. Stephen Hoyt. L. H. Marinus. Andrew H. Teeple. Thomas C. Baughan,' 
John O'Brien, Isador \'. Douglass, Charles H. Mulliken, Thomas Moulds, Charles H. Weberj 
Samuel L. Eaton. Joseph H. Bumsted. Thomas Brockhurst. Lionel Pickens, F. J. Anness, 
Thomas J. Howe. Albert Jardine. Branch Barrows. George P. Plimley, Horace H. Farrier, 
Frederick Bouftlcr. William Mc(;owan. John R. McKenzie. Edward McCarthy. 

Pass.mc Hose Xo 4. 

Smith Mead, William M. S, Garris.m. Thomas S. Appleton, L. F. Dunham, Johnson Crowe. 
G. S. Mark.s. George S. Appleton, Lewis E. W...k1. Thom.is R..yle, C.corge Alniont, John Englerj 



ii8 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

Alfred H. Mead, S. R. Birch, Jr., E. B. McDowell. John McChiiij.in, S. P. Romans, Francis 
Bagley, Patrick Rooney, John Denver, Lewis Dillman, Charles Henkle, Anthony Ryder, 
Michael Hall, David Lees, (jeortje McLaughlin, Christian Hoh, Philip Eajjle, Theodore Frank, 
Richard Brown. James Smith, Joseph Roberts. Elbridj,re \'an Syckle, Cornelius Van Vorst, 
James Warner, Christian Rapp, Miles McMartin, Jacob B. Schanck, John Howeth, Jacob Frank, 
C. Arnheiter, Richard M. Jurdan, Robert Coar, Theodore Tapper, Jacob J. Banta, James M. 
Court, F. P. Budden, Theodore L. Lutkins, George Ibbs, Japhet Jardine, James P. Lewis, John 
Gerraghty, Michael Schaflfel, Henry R. Gray, William Johnson, Joseph F. Tyler, Joseph S. Pil- 
ling-, Joseph H. Garrett, John Slattery. Peter Kappes, Jr., George Ruddick, John Corner, 
Michael Dillon, William Coogan, John Cokley, James C. Orr, William B. Walters, Thomas 
Haley, Charles H. O'Xcil, Thomas Mahoncy. Jr.. Richard Garrick, John Hughes, James O'Neil, 
John Shaffel, Anthony Reutter, Martm Ruuse. Hubert Closter. Josiah Jones, Thomas A. Gross. 
Patrick Lee, John Ouirke. James A. Rikeman. George Brammer, John H. Burke, Samuel 
Losey, Amos Moore, John Thurston, Robert Ruddick, John Scanlin, Matthew Bracken, John 
Evans, Philip Cavanaugh, Michael O'Xeil, John Kuglar, William Madigan, Francis Macawley, 
Thomas McCormick, Ale.x. H. Sturterant, Michael Eagen. Michael Corner, Charles F. Mc- 
Carthy, John Smith. John Dillon, Andrew Kittrick. Thomas J. ilullaly, Patrick H. Langan, 
Richard Webster, Lawrence Lorenzew, Robert Davis, Michael Kenney. 

Pacific Hose No. i. 

Nelson Barron, Moses Coleman. John Coyle, John Creech. Jr., L. G. Fogg, Jr., Patrick 
Grady, Theodore Hall, Albert Kittle, Cornelius McMillin, David Orr, John S. Traul, James 
Doyle, Thomas J. Blaney. Charles Comstock, John Haggerty, Thoma.s Trotter, Robert Johnson, 
George H. Thomas, Edward McCormack, William Thomell, Henry Whitehead, Joseph Orr, 
William Cunningham, Benjamin Titcombe, Peter I. McKelvie, Jo.seph Edge, George H. Phyfe. 

The Hudson Citv and BFk(.KN Dfpartments. 

The records of the Hudson City Fire Department were taken by Theodore Tachiera at the 
time of consolidation, and he took them to Western New York some years later. He died there, 
and the records were lost. 

The records of the Bergen City department went into the custody of Henry H. Newkirk 
at consolidation, and they, too, were lost. 

The Hudson City department was merged with the Jersey City department in 1870. Hud- 
son Engine No. i became No. 9. It lay on Bergenwood Avenue. It was organized July 14, 
i868. The original members were : Edward O'Donnell. (lideon Islcy, Alfred Heritage, John 
Wandle, Michael Lennon, William Guinan, Thomas Mead, William Kimball. Thomas Towell.s, 
Charles Kohland, James Earl, William Conk. William H. Boyd, Sylv.anus Judd, Albert .Shore, 
Sylvester Van Buren, John Headden, Jr., John McF'adden. Joseph P. Rovell, John Miller. Isaac 
Clyde, Joseph Greenleaf, William H. Celk-n, William Islcy, James Burke, John R. McPherson. 
In addition to these, at the time of disbandmcnt. the roll had these names : James Boucher, 
John Allen, Jr., Patrick McFadden, Henry (ireenlcaf. Jacob Ilarri.son. Isaac Van Wort, Winfield 
DeMott, James Nolan. John Hogan, George Peyser. Peter F. Crugcn. Archibald Smith, Samuel 
Judd, Nicholas Keller, Frederick Kruger, Edmund Roerbel. John Case. William McCleary, 
Nathan R. Valentine, William Blackley and William H. Thoma.s. 

L'nion Engine Co. No. 2, of Hudson City, lay im Palisade Avenue, and became No. 10 
at consolidation. It was organized July iS, 1S50. with these members: Edward Esler, Ste- 
phen D. Colley, Joseph F. Hill, Albert T. Griffiths. Iliraui K. Gaynor, James R. Bogert, Samuel 
N. McDonald, George W. Heritage, James Montgomen,-, John Wallace. Isaac L. Meyer, David 
Tuttle, Thomas Dorsev, John Hawkins and Thomas .Shirlan. These additional names were on 
the roster when the companv was mustered out : IClisha T. Conover, Richard R. Conover, Geo. 
Martin, James Helme, George Eubrey, Joseph L. Hoffman. George W. P.cll. Horace Webster, 
Thomas Howell, Isaac Bolborongh, William .Veetiis and Henry T. Mogridge. 

Palisade Engine Co. No. 3, of Hudson City, became No. 11, of Jersey City, and lay in 
Franklin Street. The company was organized May 20. 1863, the original members being: 
Henry Hasted, E. Tebbenhoff, J. Bracklein, P. Adams, H. Comens, J. Feiler, J. Pfore, J. Berger, 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 119 

C. Freiknecht. C. Heine, H. C. Rantt, B. (loll. When the company was disbanded these addi- 
tional names were on the rull : S. < irunan, C. Rcineman, Henry Brautifjam, E. Wilcke. E. Blume, 
John Prij^-jje, A. Stovcssner, John Wri^'lit, M. V. Mora, C. Schildwachter, G. Kriener, J. Reil- 
back, C. Off, J. Reinhart, Emile Ste.ijer, Georije Schlade and Henry Shaffel. 

Hibemia Enjjine Co. No. 4, of Hudson City, became No. 12 after consolidation. The 
members mustered out in 1S71 were: Thomas Reddington, Edward Hopper, James Varley, 
Patrick Anderson, Charles Willson, J. R. Tate, Robert McDonnell, Michael Maijee, Philip 
Blumm, Patrick H. Lynns, Robert Elwood. Robert H. Gorbuth, William Brown, Charles Boll- 
decker, John H. Besta, [cjhn Hauj^-hoy. Joseph Boyer, Ausjustus Wood. Thomas Sloyan, Chris- 
topher KarhoiT, Lawrence B. Fa^'an. William McCarthy, Barnwell Sweetinjjham, Robert Flat- 
tery, Hu.tjh Mellon, James Coyle, Frank A. Van Horbeck, Lawrence J. Walsh, Thomas McNeil, 
Patrick Sullivan, Alfred Zabri.skie, Thomas McCarthy, William D. Gregory, Charles Morgan, 
Lawrence Collett, Hiram McXiff and John Dickson. 

American Hose Co. Xo. i, of Hudson City, became No. 5, of Jersey. It lay in Bergenwood 
Avenue. The final roll call showed these members : Walter Rogers, Thomas Wood, Anton 
Schick, John Boyd, Thomas Hardy, M. C. Hardy, Robert McGue, Randolph Schuchart. George 
Wagner, William J. McClave, Andrew Bittner, John Schuchart, Jr., William Smith, F. H. Book- 
staver, John Moran, Thomas Hcnnessy, Frederick Gelting, James Mende, John Engles, John 
Olter, John Steele and James Pendergast. 

Eagle Hose Co. No. 2, of Hudson City. lay on Palisade Avenue and became No. 6, of 
the Jersey City department, in 1S71. It was organized November 12, 1859. The last mem- 
bers were; Stephen P. Voe, Edward B. Jones, Theodore Tasheira, Theodore W. Edwards, 
Nathaniel Smith, John H. Heritage, William Greenleaf, August Nesteer, Henry Morgan, John 
S. Edwards, John C. Clark. Frederick C. Yoe. William A. Armstrong, Albert Dayton and Will- 
iam Cashman. 

Hudson Hose Co. No. 3, of Hudson City, was housed in Washington Avenue and became 
No. 7 on consolidation. The final membership was : John Rudolph, Frederick Baker, John 
H. Niebuhr, George J. Elwood, A. Dunken, H. M. Kattenhorn, J. Schweader. H. Brashel, 
A. Shippert, G. P. Krehbell, W. H. Van Ogen, A. Bloomstock, G. F. Kattenhorn, C. Ohlandt, 
John Camp, Jr., John ^McCulUmgh, J. A. Wolf and Martin Fo.k. 

West End Hose Co. No. 4 lay at West End, on Newark Avenue. It became No. 8 of 
the new department. The tinal roll in 187 1 had these names: William Oerling, Frederick 
Rodsfeld, George Schober. Jo.seph Autenreith, Henry Klein, John Schwerty, Charles Becht, 
John Hoersch, Henry Schmalc, George Dover, Ernst Brinkmayer, Nicholas Tiedemann, Fred. 
Vogel, WiUiara O. Lf>cn,-. 

Hudson Hook and Ladder Co. No, 2, of Hudson City, lay on Palisade Avenue and be- 
came No. 4 of the new department. The final roll was: A. L. Lennon, J. De Temple, W. J. 
Robinson, E. Sharp. J. Pattison, G. Smith, J. () Lynch, J. R. Gillen, J. W. Robinscm, P. Ban- 
hard, C. F. KiessHng. Fesber D. Asthumer. J. W. Hyde, D. Farrington, P. Farrington, J. 
Fenton, A. Siegfried, Edward (_)uinn, Thomas Nolan. George Murphv. Thomas Coffev. James 
Jolhe. 

Vesta Hook and Ladder Co. No. 3. of Hudson City, was located on Newark Avenue, 
between the court house and Palisade Avenue. The final roll was : Henry C. Thomas, C. 
Whyrate, R. M. Packer, William Dunbar, John Lowenberg, H. M. Thomas, Henry vSmith, 
William Payne, John J. Toffcy, John R. Dcwar, John Walters, J. B. Hunt, James (jlass, S. J. 
Austin, W. I). Reynolds, Alvin C.raff, John Cornell, P. W. Levering, E. L. Kimberlv, L. F. 
Ward and John Flahertv. 

Franklin Engine Co. No. 1, of Bergen, became No. 13 after consolidation. It was housed 
on Bowdcn Avenue. The tinal roll call was : William Scrivcns, James Hughes, John McMahan, 
E.sau L. Trotter, Francis MeNichol, Micliael Lemur, William McAllister, .Vugust Kresinger, 
John McBride, John .McGeney, Jolm F. Daab, Thomas Scrivens, Martin May, Adam Bender, 
James Coleman, Franklin Sheid, John Dunn, Christopher Wagenhals, Thomas Bovs, Lewis 
Schanck, Jo>cph Franklin, George Lusch, Thomas Palmer, Robert Boxhall, Charles Kellv, 
Jo.seph McKean, John V. Burke, Michael Farrell, Patrick Aully, John Campbell, Henry 
Windecker, James Russell, John Moran. Michael .Mulligan, Timothv O'Sullivan, E. T. B. 
Wakcman, Jnsepli Ryan, George Maturin, Thomas R. McKee, James Soper, Charles Koeble, 



I20 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

Alfred Maturin, John Burns, Thomas Kearney, John Langdon, Bernard Thornton, Frederick 
Rivle and John Staples. 

Lafayette Engine Co. No. 2, of Bergen, lay on Halladay Street: was Xo. 14, of Jersey 
City. It was organized April 11. 1S66. The roll bore these names at disbandment : A. L. 
Martin, Howard Slater. Francis Clark. J. B. Cleveland, Simeon M. Ayres, William F. Snow, 
William Van Keuren, A. A. Woodward, John R. Halliday, f;arrett Van Horn. Franklin Mallon,-, 
Frederick Storm, M. S. Roe, M. (1. \'an Buskirk, Albert W. Powell, Edward S. Allison, John 
E. Halliday, Charles E. Knoeller, G. C. Mechin. John Henry, E. Cowper, John Woods, John 
Vile, G. V. H. Brinkerhoff, Isaac B. Culver, Cornelius \'reeland, George R. Hillier, Seth G. 
Babcock, Robert W. Moore, Russell W. Woodward. James Dickson, John Arbuckle, James A. 
Britten, John Westervelt, John W. Welsh, James Barton, James Bloy, William Ferguson, John 
Hudson, John P. Culver, William H, Case, John C. Smith, Peter Ritscher, William H. Nieve, 
Gardner O. Kimball, William A. Kimball, Richard W. Buren. Charles M. Watkins, James H. 
Dolly, Reese Hughes, James McDougall, Charles S. Wilson, James Stevens, Isaac Freese, 
Jr., Cornelius A. King, John O'Donnell, Alpheus L. King, Joseph Vile, Edward H. Curtis, 
John H. Cable, James R. Hillier, Richard M. C. Broas, C. C. Humphreys, Wesle}- H. Lovell, 
Edwin Fowler. 

Columbian Engine Co. Xo. 3, of Bergen, became X'o 15. The company was organized 
November 10, 1868. It lay on Tuers Avenue. The membership was: Asa A. Ashley, Walter 
B. Gumey, William G. Hauser, Henry L. Xewkirk, Daniel R. Van Riper, Jr., John M. Parks, 
William H. Ti.se, William S. Okie. Thomas D. MilLs, Abram P. Bush, John M. Van Winkle. 
Joseph Prior, Cornelius L. Post, Jacob Sip, Edward X'. Wilson. John P. Lewis, Joseph X^. Crane, 
John A. Van Gelder, Moses Townley, Louis B. DuBois, B. Mortimer Franks, Edward Wilson, 
Adelis E. Ryan, Charles H. Perrine, Philemon Hounnel, Jan.os R. Morehouse. Daniel Goslin, 
William H. Giles, William H. Thoma.s, George Piatt, D. Van Wart, Isaac Taylor, Albert 
Kreinere and Frederick Schott. 

Claremont Hose Co. Xo. i, of Bergen, was organized April 27, 1869. It was housed on 
Columbia vStreet. The membership as Xo. g, of Jersey City, was : John P. Lowe, Samuel A. 
Besson, Andrew G. Smith. Sidmon T. Keese. John E. Heywood, John F. Klumpp, Frank M. 
Bartleman, Joseph B. Bartleman, William B C. Carpenter, Allen I. Clark. John M. Chamber- 
lain, George Coppell, Abraham H. Clark, George W. Daumont, Charles H. Daniels, James A. 
Daumont, James C. Daniels. James Fleming, Edward Floyd, Stephen Hoff, Peter Henderson, 
Henry B. Laidlaw, Charles V. Martin, John R. MuUany, John R. Onderdonk, John H. Simonson, 
Robert L. Smith. William J. Tait, A. W. TurnbuU, Jamas J. Henderson, Peter P. Turnbull, 
James Halsey, John Reid, George L. Kernaghan, Wilbur X. Wickham, Andrew Reid, John 
L. Parker, Joshua Clark, William W. Remmey, Daniel F. Bumstcd, John \'. R. Vreeland. 

Bergen Hook and Ladder Co. Xo. i was organized December 17, 1863, and became Xo. 6 
of the Jersey City force. The roll contained these names : J. V. R. Vreeland, D. L. Holder, C. 
H. Fash, J. A. Alexander, W. S. L. Jewett, Alexander Bonnell. J. J. Van Riper, S. Stevens, 
S. McBumey, Philemon D. Haight, J. A. Hilton, F. H. Bluxome, W. Wand, A. Thompson, C. 
E. Laidlaw, A. Daumont, J. W. Gilmore, Thomas D. Harrison. E. B. Price, J. W. Soper, J. 
Romaine, A. J. C. Foye, R. P. Percy, A. Romaine, J. L. Hallenbeck. G. E. Baxter, A. Powell, 
W. H. Gilder, J. V. B. Vreeland, George Tirru. Jr., John Warner, Jr., D. T. Holley, E. M. 
Allen, J. B. Loveland, Joseph (iodfrey, C. H. Racbergh. Jr.. J. D. Romain. D. W. Palmer, J. 
W. Thomas, A. C. Learned, William Hepsley. David Totfey. 

Union Hook and Ladder Co. Xo. 2 was housed on .Sackett .Street near the Plank Road. Its 
roll contained these names: William Welsh. Charles P. Knowles, B. F. Welsh, (leorge J. Lang- 
worthy, William Hanbury, J. X. Rapp, Benjamin \'an Keuren, P. H. Tealing, James Hether- 
ington, H. S. Dickcrson. E. W. Brown, George Sip, Peter Messereuy, Hugh Muir. A. M. Vree- 
land, William Hill, Barney Bonner, Daniel Rapp, Christopher Sip, Alford Jones, Gat. A. Vree- 
land, William Pearcy, H. V. Mandeville. W. H. Bumsted, (iodfrey Jogurs, John Shopp, 
Edward Jones, C. G. Vreeland, Jr.. Robert .Moffitt. li. Campbell. Patrick Kinlon, Charles 
Choplin, M. D. Vreel.ind. Charles Xobt, Joseph Wyks, Samuel Baile, Louis F. Garson, James 
Soper, Jacob Ebcrt, De Witt Shaffer, Jabez Wakeman. William Twait.s, Ricliard A. Vreeland, 
Alford Van Winkle, J. C. Vreel.ind, Robert Biewitt, J. C. Westervelt, Energy Berry. 

Sherwood Hook and Ladder Co. Xo. j wa.s located in Union Truck House. The roll was: 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. i2i 

Humphrey Price, Francis Henry, Thomas Brynes, Patrick Wall, James Coyle, James Mc- 
Conigly, Patrick Dnnnijhue, John McGuiru, James Ward, John Grant, Henr>- Conber>-, Daniel 
Martin, Richard .Macwt-ll, Thomas Markey, Edward Hays, John Bulhvinkle, Jeremiah 
Mahoney, Michael Covington, Charles Smith, Patrick O'Brien, Michael Nolan, John Dutfey, 
Dawson Roberts, Roland OMaras, James Munroe, Thomas McRay, Patrick Dawson, James 
Walsh. 

Officers of the Volunteer Department. 

The first chief engineer of the fire department was Samuel Bridgart, who was appointed 
by resolution of the board of selectmen on February 5, 1835. There was only one company at 
that time, and Charles Scott was the foreman. The first fire after his appointment Bridj^art 
attempted to assume command, but the summary manner in which Foreman Scott prevented 
him from interfering- con\-inccd him that he had better act as chief emeritus. The office of 
chief was not regailarly created until December 4, 1840, when the common council passed an 
ordinance to reorganize the fire department. There were then two companies, and they enjoyed 
a continual feud. There was some misunderstanding about the ordinance, and Liberty No. i 
made the only nominations for the election held January ig, 1841. These were John Scott for 
chief engineer and John Thane for assistant. When the votes were counted it was found that 
Arreseoh had voted for Scott, but had ignored Thane and voted for Walter Lamb as assistant. 
A dispute over the result showed that Arreseoh had most members, but the common council 
left the position vacant. The next election was held on May 12, 1842. Timothy L. Smith was 
elected chief and Joseph W. Morgan assistant. On May 18, 1843, Smith was re-elected, with 
William A. Pollard as assistant. They were re-elected the two succeeding years. On May 4, 
1846, Pollard became chief and Jonathan J. iJurant assistant. They were re-elected the follow- 
ing year. On Mav 5, 1848, Pollard was re-elected, with William Coleman as assistant. They 
were re-elected in 1849. In 1850 the city was di\'ided into two fire districts and there were two 
assistants. After an exciting canvass William Sanderson was elected chief and George Mor- 
row and William Bumsted first and second assistants. This result was achieved by a com- 
bination between Libertv, Arreseoh and Empire Truck, and Hercules, and Hudson Hose 
protested. , An investigation showed irregularity, and a special election was held for chief 
and first assistant, Bumsted's election having been conceded. At this special election Jacob 
Z. Marinus was elected chief and John Post a.ssistant. There was no opposition, but there 
was not a majority of all the firemen in the ballot, the companies who had elected Sanderson 
refusing to vote. The common council filled the vacancy by appointing Phineas C. Dummer 
as chief and confirming Bumsted, leaving a vacancy. The annexation of Van Vorst added 
Harsimus Engine No. i to the department, and on September 16, i85i,the two departments 
were consolidated. From that time until consolidation there were four chiefs, Thomas W. 
Moorehouse, 1851-53; Samuel A. French, 1853-62; Samuel C. McLaughlin, 1863-66; John Coyle, 
1867-70. 

The Jersey City Commissioners of the Volunteer Department were ; 

Dudley S. (Ircgory, Jr., 1S57. John B. Haight, 1862. 

C. C. Martindale, 1857. William A. Fisher, 1863. 

William White, 1057. John Rooney, 1865. 

Charles Scott, 1S57-61-8. John Egan, 1865-6. 

James M. Clark, 1857. Salmon W. Hoyt, 1866. 

Thomas Roylc, 1858. . , John McGuigan, 1867. 

James K. Morgan, 1858. , Robert Duff)-, i86g. 

James F. Fielder. 1859-64. Joseph W. Strober, i86g. 

Bernard McGuigan, i860. 
Frederick P. Huddeii was Clerk during the time the board existed. 

The Paid Department. 

In 1870 the departments of the three cities were consolidated under the direction of Chief 
Coyle and the Jersey City fire commissioners. The board met in the hall on the upper floor of 
the city hall during its existence. The numbers of the companies were changed, and where 
the names were duplicated, these also were changed. The fire alarm telegraph was purchased 



122 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

soon after consolidation, but the volunteer force was not adapted for such a larg^e area. When 
the legislative commission was appointed, steps were at once taken to org-anize a paid depart- 
ment. The new board met in the parlor of One Truck, at the comer of Grand and \'an Vorst 
streets for several months, and while they met in that room the chansje was effected. All of 
the building-s and apparatus that belonged to individual companies were bought and paid for by 
the city. The apparatus was inspected, and man v enj^incs and other apparatus were condemned 
and sold. .Steamers were substituted for hand en<;ines, and horse power for transportation. 
The number of companies was reduced, and a dual system adopted. The working- force for 
each company was uniformed, paid, and required to remain in the engine-house. A supple- 
mental force known as " buffaloes " was organized for each ccmipany. These semi-volunteers 
were paid $75 a year, and had a foreman for each companv. It was their duty to respond to 
every alarm and to do fire duty the same as the full-paid force. Within a few months after 
organization the fire crimmissioners had the parlors of tlie old Harsimus Engine nouse on Bay 
Street fitted up for headquarters, and they have remained there ever since. The department 
suffered from political changes for several years, Ijut on March 24, 18S5, the firemen's tenure of 
office act became a law, and since then there have 'lecn no violent changes on account of politics. 
The force has steadily improved from that time in discipline and efficiency. Later a law was 
enacted by which firemen injured in the service were pensii'ned, and superannuated men were 
retired on half pay. The funds arising from payments made by insurance companies under a 
State law were placed in the hands of trustees for the benefit of sick firemen and the widows 
and orphans of firemen. These were wise laws, and helped to improve the personnel of the 
force. Improvements were made from time to time in the apparatus, and each increased its 
efficiency. It would require too much space to enumerate the changes that have been made, 
but they have reduced the time required to reach a fire, and systematized the work to be done 
after the fire is reached. No part of the city administration has been more appreciated or 
better deserved the praise obtained. 

The annual appropriations for the department have been : 



I87I . . 


■ . §113,875 


1872 . . . 


143,70° 


1873 ■ ■ 


• ■ 149,430 


1874 . . . 


130,000 


1875 . . 


. . 125,000 


1876 . . . 


127,000 


1877 . . 


• • 117,150 


1878 . . . 


109,000 


1879 . . 


. . 84,999 


1880 . . 


■ ■ 84,999 


I88I . . 


94,999 


1882 . . . 


84,999 



1883 . . 


■ ■ $89,999 


1884 . . , 


• ■ 92,399 


1885 . . 


• • 96,999 


1SS6 . . . 


94,999 


18S7 . . 


• ■ 105,149 


r888 . . . 


, . 102,150 


i88g . . 


■ ■ 104,499 


1890 . . . 


. . 114,299 


1891 . . 


• ■ 143,599 


1892 . . 


■ ■ 154,249 


1893 . • 


• ■ 166,133 


1894 . . . 


■ • 159,550 



The present force consists of i chief engineer, i assistant engineer, 2 battalion chiefs, 
I inspector of horses, i superintendent of telegraph, 5 telegraph linemen, 14 engineers, 14 
stokers, 14 steamer drivers, 14 tender drivers, 5 hook and l.ulder drivers, 14 permanent hosemen, 
14 permanent truckmen, 5 tillermen, 19 foremen, and 133 nicn-at-call, known as "buffaloes." 

The apparatus consists of r2 steam fire engines, 5 hook and laildcr trucks, one of which is 
an aerial, 2 chemical engines, 6 hose wagon.s, 6 hose tcnder.s, and 13 houses. The force is 
divided into two battalions, and at the first alarm 4 engines and 1 hook and ladder respond ; 
at the second alarm 2 additional engines and i hook and l.ulder respond : at a third alarm 2 
more engines turn out. A general alarm is responded to l,v the whole deiiartnient. 

There are three bell towers, and alarm boxes in all ]).nts of the city, all connected by tele- 
graph. The lio.xes give the alarm by a code which is re])c.ited in every tire hou.se. The hou.ses 
are thoroughly equipped with appliances for use at (ire-;, to secure speed in responding to alarms 
and for the comfort of the men. The department lias niched a high degree of efficicncv. 
The majority of buildings in the city are built of wood. This was made necessary in a large 
measure in the earlier davs on account of bad foundations in made land that had been reclaimed 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 123 

from the meadows. This increased the danger and tried the efficiency of the department. 
The followinjj table affords a birdseye view of the work accomplished : 





Alarms. 


Bell. 


Still. 


False. 


Loss. 


Insurance 


1871 


67 


60 


7 


6 


$79,610 


$156,000 


1872 . 


151 


109 


42 


13 


875,061 


276,275 


'S7,5 


l6g 


Si 


88 


6 


i75>o3i 


289,227 


1S74 . 


1S9 


106 


83 


10 


'°3.359 


327,556 


1875 


'94 


i°5 


89 


6 


i5o.43<' 


250.977 


1876 . 


221 


106 


"5 


10 


1 13,662 


164,986 


1877 . . 


162 


73 


89 


7 


34,701 


137,600 


1878 . 


173 


80 


93 


1 1 


220,065 


319,335 


1879 


iS.S 


So 


i°5 


4 


36,123 


300,785 


1880 . 


219 


98 


121 


I 


85,470 


297.149 


1881 


209 


8g 


120 


8 


20,091 


112,695 


1882 . 


267 


122 


145 


'3 


255,6>8 


669,281 


1883 


-53 


io8 


145 


5 


563,439 


393,471 


1884 . 


-55 


1 10 


145 


I 


376,709 


288,822 


1885 


241 


'33 


108 


4 


i73,>04 


129,291 


1886 . 


280 


'53 


127 


3 


472,440 


397,147 


1887 


2 So 


'3° 


150 


I 


186,861 


161,445 


1888 . 


277 


'47 


130 


3 


81,134 


71.994 


18S9 


25' 


'38 


"3 


3 


407,448 


344,848 


1890 


261 


'42 


119 


6 


189,492 


■09,370 


1891 


386 


193 


■93 


6 


394,818 


369,785 


1892 . 


421 


-45 


176 


5 


628,933 


584,811 


1893 


38; 


224 


159 


12 


.97,482 


479,876 


1894 . 


-45 


149 


96 


7 


423,676 


968,416 



2,758 



,244,763 



$7,601,142 



The Commissioners who h;;' 
created have been : 



• lield office in the Fire Board since the paid department was 



John H. Carnes 

D. S. Grejjory, Jr. 
T. W. Tilden . 
John Boyd 

A. B. Dean 
J. B. Drayton 
S. \V. Stilsin- . 
T. C. .Specrs . 
A. J. Martin 
J. S. Edwards 
F. P. Budden . 
J. J. Van Riper 
W. A. Fislicr 
C. I,. Kru-Ier 
J. Mcehan 
C. H. Parsons 

E. ODonnell . 
S. M. Ay res . 

J. McDonnllirh 

H. McCarty . 
C. A. Roe'. 



87.-72 
87'-73 . 
871-73 
871-74 
871-74 

872-75 
873-77 
873-76 
874-77 
874-77 
875-76 
876-77 
876-77 
87 7-79 
877-79 
877-78 
877-80 
877-80 
878-80 
879-81 
879-Si 



T. Leather . 
J. Brennan 
M. Kuntz 

C. J. Speck 
J. Ej(an . 
G. Isley . 
H. Windecker 

J. H. Henderson 

D. J. Burke . 
D. F. Shea 

P. H. Madden 
J. Conway 
J. Guiton 
T. D. Mills 
R. Quinlan 
J. H. Brown 
W. F. Kern . 
J. J. Donnelly . 
J. Brennan . 
T. D. Mills 



1879-85 

1880-86 

1880-81 

1880-84 

1881-85 

1881-86 

1881-87 

1S84-93 

1885-87 

1885-89 

1886-89 

1886-91 

1887-89 

1887-89 

1889 

1889-91 

1890 

1891-94 

1893-97 

1S94-96 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



The Clerks have been : 



T. W. Tilden (temporary) 1S72 

J. T. Denmead 1S71-77 

J. B. Doremus . . 1877-80 

S. M. Avers (temporary') 1S80 

The present locations of the companies are : 



J. I. Van Alst, Jr. . 1880-89 

J. T. Denmead (acting) . 1889 
C. Esterbrook . . 1889-95 



Engines — Xo. i, Warren near Morgan ; No. 2, Morris near Warren; No. 3, Mercer near 
Grove ; No. 4, First near Coles ; No. 5, Sixth near Coles ; No. 6, Henderson near Twelfth ; No. 
7, Summit Avenue near St. Pauls; No. 8, E^e Avenue near (^cean; No. 9, Bergen Avenue 
cor. Duncan; No. 10, Halladay near Communipaw ; No. 11, South near Central Avenue; No. 
12, Summit Avenue near St. Pauls; No. 13, Linden Avenue near Old Bergen Road ; No. 14, 
Webster Avenue near Franklin. 

Hook and Ladder Companies — No. i. Van Vorst cor. Grand; No. 2, Ninth near Grove; 
No. 3, Webster Avenue near Franklin ; No. 4, Ocean Avenue near Dwight; No. 5, Communi- 
paw Avenue near Monticello. 







^""^^"^-m 









w^^f^^^^^^r-^^^^^f^^^^-^r^. --l"~fifejf-^ 




CHAPTER XXI. 



THE Pill. ILK IIKI-ARIMKNT THE Dl-U WATCHMEN HUDSON RIVER FORCE ORGANIZED A STRUGGLE 

FOR SUPREMACY — THE CHANGES MADE BV POLITICS — TENURE OF OFFICE ACT — REORGANIZATION 
— THE PRESENT FORCE — LIST OF COMMISSIONERS, OFFICIALS AND APPROPRIATIONS. 

iRIOR to consolidation the police force of Jersey City was of a very primitive character. 
The first attempt to mamtain a force was made in May, 1829, when Hiram S. Meeker. 
;, J -"J Lewis Randolph, Isaac Seaman, Charles Schriver, James Pollard, John Post and 
jhT'Tt.-fill Lorenzo Jaquins were appointed as watchmen. They wore no uniform nor badge of 
office. Thev were simplv citizens who were authorized to preserve the peace, and acted when 
called upon. For a number of years after their first annual appointment expired there were no 
officers, and the constables were relied upon to do police duty. In 1.S37 four night watchmen 
were appointed, and Citv Marshal Ellis was the only officer on duty during- the daytime. The 
watchmen were paid a dollar a night for nights 
they served, and there was so little for them to 
do that in 1838 the number was reduced to three. 
These were John Lyon. John Watson and James 
McCutcheon. Even this force became burden- 
some, and it was reduced to one night watch- 
man. In 1840 there were half-a-dozcn watch- 
men-at-call, who were paid for their services at 
the rate of a dollar a day. In 1844, R. M. Du- 
rant, W. A. Pollard and James McDonald were 
appointed as watchmen and lamplighters at sal- 
aries of $32 a month. In the following year 
Pollard was made captain, and with the other 
two foimed the police force. With three of 
equal authority nothing was accomplished- 
That year the watch were ordered to call the 
hours during the night. In 1.S4S the common 
council was authorized to appoint watchmen-at- 
call up to a maximum of fifty. These men 

were to be paid for any service rendered. The power to appoint was the outcome of disturb- 
ances caused by tough characters from New York, who invaded the city periodically. In 1S49 
the force was increased to ten men, five fcjr day and five for night service. The pay allowed was 
$3.50 per man each week. On Augtist 10, 1849. a more pretentious effort was made. Benja- 
min F. Champney was appointed captain, William Anness, assistant-captain, and the regular 
force of four men was augmented by the appointment of two chancemen and five menat-call. 
In 1850 the force was again divided into day and night men. The captain was paid §23 a 
month, the assistant $20. and the patrolmen $18. In 1851 Champney was reappointed and 
Joseph McManus was ni.-ide assistant. Twenty-four watchmen were appointed that year, and 
the force wore uniform caps and carried clubs. 

The city prison during all the.se years had been in the basement of the town house on Sussex 
Street. On December 11, 1852, a small frame building at the northwest comer of Wayne and 
Henderson streets was rented for a station as a more central locality. The city then included 
Van Vorst township. This frame building served for a station-house eight years, and prison- 
ers were kept in the basement. .Sometimes they broke out and ran away. Champnev resigned 
on October 2, 1852, and John R. Benedict succeeded him as captain. McManus also got out, 




FIRST pone 



126 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

and was followed by Charles J. Farley as assistant. In 1S54 Farlev was made captain, and 
James B. Dunn became assistant. In 1S54 Hiram Fenn was made chief of the day police at a 
salar}- of SSoo. The rest of the force received S500 a year. The fines were u.sed to reduce the 
police appropriation, and the amount inserted in the citv budijet for the department was $9,000. 
In 1855 Thomas B. Kissam was made chief, and Charles A. Tanner assistant. In the followinsj 
year the force consisted of the chief, two aids and twenty patrolmen. In 1857 Benjamin Haines 
was made chief and John Ayres assistant, and there were twenty-eig-ht patrolmen. The fines 
and liquor license fees were added to the police appropriation that year, and the department 
figured in the ta.x levy for Si (J, 000. On March z-j. 1S58, four men were detailed for detective 
service. These were the fir.st detectives the city had. In 1S59 Jacob Z. Marinus was made 
chief. The followinj,' year the force was increased to one chief, three aids and thirty-two patrol- 
men, with an annual appropriation of $20,000. The new station-house at Cooper's Alley and 
Gregory Street, in the rear of the city hall, was built that year. It had a basement provided 
with brick cells; the first story contained the police offices and the .second the Recorder's Court. 
There was a tall tower on the top of the station-house, from which a watch was maintained for 
fires, and a large alarm bell was suspended about half way up, to summon the firemen. The 
tower decayed, and had to be taken down about a dozen \'ears later. 

In 1862 Edward D. Reilly became chief, and in 1862 the force was increased to thirty-four 
patrolmen. The salaries of aids were increased to $700 and of patrolmen to 8650. In 1S64 the 
high prices of war times caused another increase in salaries, the chief getting $1,100, aids, S850 
and patrolmen, $800. In 1865 the appropriaticm had increased to $37,000, and the police force 
began to be a factor in local politics. The department was under the charge of an aldermanic 
committee, and the aldermen found the officers efficient election workers. When an alderman 
failed of election his appointees were removed by the successful candidate to make room for his 
• workers, who were,paid by police appointments. The State had been under the control of the 
democratic party for ten years, either by control of one or both branches of the legislature, and 
the people made a change in 1S66. Both houses were republican, and one of the reforms de- 
manded was a reorganization of the Jersey City police force. Oov. Ward had carried the State. 
John Hill was speaker and Jas. M. Scovill was president of the senate. It was ea.sy to pass a 
republican measure. A bill to create a board of police commissioners became a law on March 
23, 1866. It created the Hudson River police district and gave the city a form of police gov- 
ernment which is practically retained to the present time. The commissioners named in the 
act werejno. W. Pangbom, Henry Fink and Isaac W. Scudder. They organized on April 20th. 
electing Jno. W. Pangborn president, Stephen Ouaife clerk and Dr. B. A. Watson police 
surgeon. He thus became the first regular police .surgeon. ( )n April 1 8th the new commis- 
sioners sent' a communication to the aldermen requesting an office and meeting room. A 
resolution was adopted granting the chief's office at police headquarters, making an appropria- 
tion for furniture and tendering a committee room in the city hall for temporarv quarters. 

On April 20th the police commissioners took the oath of office before Recorder C. C. Martin- 
dale. On April 25th the aldermen rescinded their resolution and directed the city counsel to 
oppose the police commission in the courts. Quo warranto proceedings were instituted under 
the direction of Mayor Cleveland. On April 26th the m.-iyor went to police headquarters and 
made a speech, urging the police to resist until the courts decided the appeal. On April 28th 
the commissioners met at Scudder's office in the Darcy buildings to receive applications from 
members of the police force for appointment in the new department. The board hired a vacant 
store at the corner of Gregory and Henderson streets as temporary headquarters. On May ist 
these appointments were made from the old f<irce : J. H. Onslow, Ira .Smith, Lewis Shaffer, 
Michael Walsh, Copely Cottrell, Michael Campbell and Hugh Killeen. The new men appointed 
were : Jonathan H. Baldwin, T. Crimmins, CO. Stivers, J. O'Connell, C. C. Rose, J. H. Rommell, 
George A. Ma.xham, E. F. Piatt, W. H. Campbell, D.W.Garvin. A. D. Fordham, William Reen 
and Michael Callahan. The uniform was a cap, club and badge. f>n May 5th William Ams- 

den, Edward Ridgeway and Steinberg were added to the force. There were then two 

forces patrolling the street.s, and it required but ordinary ability for .anyone to get arrested. 
Mayor Cleveland took such an active part in the proceedings that the force was called the 
mayor's police to distinguish it from the lawful force. Charles .Stivers, a newspaper tnan, was 











>i;v cirv 1)111 ucrivi: fokli-; and cither omici.aLs at i'Olicu headquarters. 

5. Sc^^; 



,. Chief lUnj Mur; liv. 
: CUTlcliill>erlK..lv,n~..n. 
,. SerBl. J..s»-l* Ci.rn.ll, 



MiLhiiil McNallv. 
IVier Morns. 
Piilico Huiuiquarttrs. 



,. Dctecti've Michael Kilcaule 
GcorKe DouRlas, 
1. ■■ Michael Dovie, 

!. " Johnth.s, 

V '■ Robt. Pearson. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 127 

temporarilv appointed chief, because Joseph McManus did not at first know what side he was 
on. He had been elected chief under the act of iS6i, which made the office elective. The new 
law recojjnized him as tlie chief, and provided for his successor after he had .sen-ed his term. 
He so<m saw that it would be to his advantajje to «jet on the side of the commissioners, and 
Stivers was reino\ed to make way for him. This left Captain Jordan in command of the 
mayor's forces. Public feeling was very much excited, but the coolness and intcUiijence of the 
police commissioners prevented a clash between the forces. The ease was decided by the courts 
in favor of the c(pnimissioners, and the decision has formed a precedent that has been quoted 
in everv quo warranto ca.sc in this State ever smce. After the commissioners were put in pos- 
session of the department they appointed most of the members of the old force, only the no- 
toriously incompetent beinj,'- dismissed. The act under which the commissioners were appointed 
provided that none but American citizens should become police officers, and that the members 
of the force should not be removed without cause, and only after they had been heard on writ- 
ten charjjes. This was a lon;^- advance in the direction of competent officers and ,u;ood discipline. 

A jjreat deal of political capital was made of the fact that the commi.ssion was appointed 
by the lej;islaturc, and a demand for home rule was made b)- the outs. It was not heeded until 
1868, when the democratic party ajjain controlled both houses of the legislature. The Hudson 
River Act was repealed, and an act passed creatinjj the Jersey City police district. Under it 
Thomas Gatfney, So'.mon \V. Hoyt and Kphraim Pray were appointed commissioners. At the 
succcedinjjf election the peo])le were to elect a commissioner to hold office thr':!e years, and one 
each year thereafter. The recorder c<mtinued a member of the board, and the people elected Mr. 
J.GopsiU as the additional member. Thomas Gaff ney was elected president, and Recorder 
Cornelius C. Martindale Clerk pro tem. One of the earliest acts was to remove McManus and 
appoint Nathan R. Towler chief. Patrick Jordan. Janis L. Ayres, James Farley and James 
Mann were appointed aids. The force consisted of forty-four patrolmen and two detectives. 
and the ser\-ice was fairly efficient. This board and force remained with little chanjje until 
after the consolidation cliarter in 1S70. The last appropriation for the force in the (jld city was 
$62,000. 

The act to reorganize the city j^overnment. passed in 187 1, created a legislative commission 
to govern the police department. The commissioners named in the act were : Thomas A. 
Gross, Isaiah S. Ihitton, IC. M. Pritchard. F. A. Goetze and Thomas Edmondson. George 
Warrin was elected clerk. Chief X. R. Fowler resigned and Edward McWilliams was ap- 
pointed in his place. The four captains were removed and their places were filled by the 
appointment of .\ljraham \'an Riper, Charles Mahon, James G. Parker and John Benson. 
Several new sergeants were appointed, but no changes were made in lower grades worthy of 
mention. McWilliams became the point for a political attack and resigned. Capt.ain Mahon 
was removed. Robert P. Dick.son w.as appointed as captain and detailed as inspector. This 
was a non-partisan move, as he was a dem(jcrat and the board was republican. He was a very 
efficient official. .Several .scandals arose in connection with the department during the summer, 
but they were not of a lasting ehar.acter. Later in the year Inspector Dickson was made acting 
chief. On April 5, 1.S7JJ. Gross. Ihitton and Pritchard retired, and the new appointees were: 
Jacob Z. Marinus, Walter Xeilson and William Van Keuren, who, with Goetze and Edmond.son 
holding over, constituted the board. They appointed B. F. Champney as chief on April otli. 
and on May 7th reduced Inspector Dickson to detective and appointed Benjamin Murphy as 
inspector. He had served in the anny with distinction, rising from a private to the command 
of his company. He had .udcd in forming Company C, Fourth Regiment, X. G., X. |.. and 
was its captain. He was known as a good disciplmarian, and the board wanted the force drilled 
by a military man. He has proved all that was expected of him. He has been chief for a 
number of years, and the prevent excellence and discipline of the force is mainly due to his 
efforts. Chief Chami)ne\- mtrodueed the photographing of criminals and made a beginning 
for the rogues' gallery, now a feature of police headquartens. In August. 187.5, the lirst 
mounted police were appointed for suburban duty. The financial depression of 1S73 was felt 
by the police department in delayed s.ilaries and by a reduction in the ajjproiiriations for 1S7 1. 
which fell on the officials. The board made an effort to prevent it, but the board of (in. nice 
would not allow the full apiiropriation. The pay-roll was reduced S''>.''^°- In iS7(i anntlier re- 



128 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

duction of $30,940 was made in the salary list. There was little of interest in police history 
during that year. The democrats did nut rej^-ain control of the legislature until 1877, and then 
they got it by a deal, in which a democrat was made speaker in a tie house. They had control 
sufficiently to get a bill passed by which the election of police commissioners by the people was 
ordered. The election was held in April and six commissioners were elected. They were : 
James T. Hough, Matthew Monks, David C. Joyce, Nathaniel R. Fowler, Anton Schick and 
John Q. Bird. 

The old board consisted of Commissioners Thomas Edmondson, Walter S. Neilson, William 
Keeney and Louis A. Brigham. Some of them were willing to attempt to hold their positions 
by force while an appeal was made to the courts to decide the legality of the act under which 
the election was held. Many active repxiblican partisans thought it should be done, but some 
of the commissioners were imwilling to be bothered with a legal contest, and they wisely de- 
cided against opposition. The change of political complexion in the board at that time meant 
for most of the rank and file in the force a speedy dismissal. Perhaps this had something to 
do with the fact that the officers of the department were willing to obev orders to prevent the 
new board from taking possession of the station-houses, if that had been deemed advisable. The 
old commissioners held a meeting on the night of April z^d, the night before the new board 
was to meet. At the end of the meeting, early in the morning, they decided to allow the new 
board to take possession quietly. In the meantime rumors had been circulated through the 
city that there would be violence when the new board attempted to take possession. The new 
board held a long consultation with Leon Abbett and Henry Traphagen, the corporation 
counsel and attorney, and it was decided that they should go to police headquarters in the 
morning, and Abbett should make a demand for possession as a preliminary for legal proceed- 
ings. At nine o'clock on the momingof the 23d Abbett and the commissioners went tothepolice 
headquarters, and much to their surprise no one offered any opposition. A large crowd had col- 
lected in front of the building. It was largely compo.sed of the lower element in the city, and 
included several hundred applicants for positions on the force. The mob intended to seat the 
new commissioners by force. Of course they would have been promptly dispersed if they had 
committed any overt act, but the loudly expressed determination showed the character of the 
crowd. The new board organized at once by the election of James H. Hough as president, 
and Daniel McAghon as clerk. They had a .slate prepared before they reached headquarters, 
and they elected new officers for the department at once. Chief Champney was removed and 
Michael Nathan elected in his place. Competent men were removed to make way for men 
who knew nothing about police duty. A few competent men were retained to instruct the new- 
comers, but they were reduced in rank and pay. It was a disgraceful exhibition of partisan 
rapacity, and for a time did away with discipline in the department. The offense has never 
been repeated. 

The police appropriation of 1871-2 was $190,000. In 1872-3 it was $250,375. In 1873-4 '^6 
board of finance reduced the estimate $42,000, and the appropriation was $207,500. During 
1875 and 1876 the board was engaged in reducing expenses, because of the difficulty found in 
meeting the city's expenses. When the outs got in they showed the insincerity of their clamor 
about extravagance by an appropriation of ^385,250. In July, 1877. the threatening aspect of 
the railway strikes caused Chief Nathan tu appoint 500 extra patrolmen. They were retained 
one week, at an expense of $4,645.60. They were known as the sparrow police and were abso- 
lutely useless. Chief Nathan had no time to make a selection, and the force consisted of men 
out of employment. 

In 1885 both branches of the legislature were republican in politics, and a law was enacted 
which put an end to the wholesale removal of rank and file when the political color of the board 
changed. This was the tenure of otiice law whicli guarantees the position of competent men. 
Since then the force has improved in discipline and efficiency. The act was prepared bv Chief 
Murphy and approved by all chiefs of police in the State. It failed at several .sessions of the 
legislature before it finally became a law, but since it has been in operation it has proved so 
valuable that no partisan legislature will repeal it. 

In April, 1SS9, the legislature passed a new charter for the city, which repealed the act 
under whicli the police board held office and authorized the mayor to ajuioint a new board, to 
consist of three members. There was .sonic talk of resisting the new board, .and the mayor 




j «—■'-!<: j.::--W -'3>V'^ vC----r*:'-^-'v.i^r-— JL/v 



:-'■ ^ 



m==^ 






^^:„^^ 



c<= .:^ 



^t,-. 
c 









,->• 



^^^. .2fi»B^ 



y 



FIRST I'RECINC r, JKKSliY CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT 

1. Capt Frederick T. Farn.r, ^. Sergt. William Duffv, 

2. Sergt. James Hnptm^, ,. .. Patrick Malorie, 

3. •• James O Bnen, A. ■■ Chas. E. ilcQin 

7. Roundsman Frederick E. Hellmer. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 129 

decided to appoint as one of the three James E. Kelly, who was a member of the old board and 
had been re-elected under the old act. This weakened the old board and left but President 
James X. Uavis and Commissioners M. O'Donnell, Elias P. Roberts, Thomas Nugent and 
John Smith, (ineof these was rendered lukewarm by promise of subsequent preferment. The 
others were anxious to make a lesral contest to retain their positions. To accomplish their pur- 
pose the aid of tlie chief was necessary, and they decided to deprive him of all authority by a 
resolution which made President Davis acting chief. The clerk was ordered by resolution to 
withhold all books and papers from the new board and to refuse to act for them. Chief 
Murphy was sent for and he was asked which board he would obey. He said he would not say 
what he would do, but would expect to be suspended if he disobeyed any orders. While the 
board was still in session Commissioners John P. Feeney, Cornelius H. Benson and James E. 
Kelly, constituting; tlie new board, entered the room. They had already organized by the 
election of Commissioner Feeney as president. The old board had just adopted a resolution to 
take a recess when the new board entered. President Feeney walked to the president's desk, 
took the gavel from the hands of ex-President Davis, who was so much astonished that he 
made no resistance, and before the old board realized what had happened he had called the 
new board to order. He then directed the clerk to call the roll. The clerk attempted to read 
the resolution adopted by the old board in relation to the clerk's action. Commissioner Benson 
objected because the police commis.sioners had not yet adopted any resolution. The clerk 
tried to explain, but was cut short by a peremptor}- order from President Feeney to call the 
roll. He said he could not do it, and left the room. Commissioner Benson was then elected 
temporar}- clerk and the roll was called. The new board was proceeding with its business 
when the old commissioners raised a tumult and adopted a resolution to eject the new board. 
Ex-President Davis ordered Chief Murphy to eject the police board. This order produced a 
silence and caused every eye to turn to the chief. He held<the key to the situation. He 
promptly recognized the new board as the legal board. The old board adopted a resolution 
deposing the chief, and did a number of things before the orders of the court and their own 
common sense came to th^ir aid. A ilccision of the Supreme Court in favor of the legality of 
the new charter was sjiecdily ol)tained. The department was well managed by the new board. 
The force was increased in numbers and its efficiency strengthened by the electric patrol svstem 
and patrol wagons. Commissioner Benson was the first of the members to drop out of the 
board. He tendered Ins resignation before his tenn expired and the mayor held the place 
open for some time, while an elTort was made to induce him to accept reappointment, but he 
would not. Benjamin \'an Keuren was apijointed on April 23, 1891, and President Feeney was 
reappointed when his term expired. That year the legislature passed an act creating the office 
of police superintendent. It w.is an unnecessary office, but it was promptly filled by the 
appointment of Christopher I'. .Smith, He held the position until 1894, when the legislature 
abolished the office 

In 1892 the election ot M.iv..r Wanser changed the politics of the board. There was one 
republican commissioner. Mr. \'an Keuren. and the vacancy caused by the expiration of Com- 
missioner Kelly's term allowed tiie niav.ir to appoint Col. H. H. Abernethy, the commandant 
of the Fourth Regiment, as .1 t. immissiimer. In 1S94 Van Keuren's term expired, and P, W. 
M. West was appointed. T'ne cli.inge made no difference to the rank and file. There were no 
dismissals. Chief Murjiliy is still the head of the department. 

In 1S70, the year of o.ns..hdation, the force con.sisted of i chief, i inspector, 4 captains, 16 
sergeants, 2 detectives aiKl iiS p.itn.hucn ; in 1S71 two patrolmen were added, but dropped 
again in 1S72, .-ind replaced in ..s; ; .\,, change was made in numbers until 1878, when twenty 
patrolmen were dropped for w.mt ot funds to pay them. The number remained imehanged 
until 1SS5. when twenty-two )Kitn. linen were added. Five more were added in 1886, fifteen in 
18S7, ten in i.s.s.s. ten in iss.,. ten m i.s,,o In 1891 the patroliucn were increased to 200, In 
1S94 the total lorce consisted ,,t 1 chirf. i inspector. 7 captain.s. i surgeon, 31 sergeants, 13 de- 
tectives, 14 roundsmen, 2c., iMtn.lmen, 7 doormen, .s drivers and 7 janitors. It is governed 
by three commissioners, who hold ,,iliec two years, have a clerk, and draw §1,000 each in salarv. 
There are seven precincts in the city with station-houses, and the police board has charge of 
the city hoard of healtli and the city hosi.ital. The beats patrolled bv the force aggregate 300 
miles of streets. The force is divided int.i seven companies, each having a captain, four ser- 



13° 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



geants and a roundsman. Each company i.s sub-divided into two platoons, and each platoon 
into two sections. The detectives are not uniformed. The captains make a daily per.sonal re- 
port to the chief at 9 o'clock every moniins^. Each precinct is laid out in day and nijjht posts, 
and the patrolmen on the posts learn the habits of every family, so they can tell at a g-lance if 
anything unusual is transpiring. 

In 1884 the Police Mutual Aid Society was organized. Each member contributes $6 a year 
as dues. Since it was organized it has paid in sick benefits, 310,266, and for death benefits. 
$19,692, aggregating, $29,958 to September, 1894. The orticersare: President, Charles H. Cox ; 
Vice-President, Alexander McCoy ; Recording Secretary. Gilbert P. Robinson ; Financial Sec- 
retary, Charles M. Solomon; Treasurer, Fred. T. Farrier; Sergeant-at-Arms, Alexander Wat- 
son ; Medical Examiner, John Xevin. M. D. 

In 18S7 the legislature passed a law providing for the retirement on half-pay of members 
of the force who have attained the age 1 if fifty years and have .served on the force twenty years. 
At sixty years of age the retirement is compulsory. The act also provides half-pay for officers 
on sick leave. The act was submitted to a popular vote in April, 18S7. before it became opera- 
tive, and the people accepted the provisions almost unanimously. 



The members of the Police Commission since the board was established under the old 
Hudson River act have been as follows : 



John W. Pangborn, 
Isaac W. Scudder, 
Charles Finke, 
Ephraim Pray, 
Samuel W. Hoyt, 
Thomas Gaff ney, 
John McCarthy, 
Samuel Besson, 
Matthew Monks, 
William Taylor, 
Thomas Gross, 
Isaiah Hutton, 
Ezekiel Pritchard, 
Thos. Edmondson, 
Fredk. A. Goetz, 
Walter S. Xeilson, 
Wm. Van Keuren, 
Wm. Keeney, 
Jacob Z. Marinus, 
Arend Stcinken, 
Louis A. Brigham, 
David C. Joyce. 
N. R. Fowler, 
Matthew Monks, 
Anton Schick, 



1866-8 


Legislative. 


Johng. Bird, 


1877-9 Elected. 


1866-8 




J. T. Hough, 


1877-8 


1866-8 




F. W. Wright, 


1878-80 


1870 


Elected. 


John S. Smith, 


1879-81 


187. 




Charles Steir, 


1879-S1 


1869 


" 


Otto W. Meyer, 


1879-87 


IS70-I 




J. H. Halladay, 


18S0-2 


I870-I 


" 


Patrick Malone, 


1880-2 


IS69-7I 




Patrick Buckley, 


18S0-2 


I870-I 




Abram Van Riper, 


1 88 1 -5 


1871-.-? 


Legislative. 


Clayland Tilden. 


,885.7 


I87I-2 




James Clark, 


1884-6 


I87I-3 




I. J. Stnible, 


1884-6 


I87I-7 


" 


E. R Roberts, 


1S86-8 


187-4 


" 


Thomas Nugent, 


18S6-8 


IS72-7 


" 


I. H. Fenner, 


1886-8 


IS73-5 


" 


James E. Kelly, 


1887-93 


IS75-7 


" 


Edward O'Donnell, 


1887-9 


1S74-6 




James N. Davis, 


1887-9 


1874-6 


" 


John H. Smith, 


1887-9 


i«73-7 




John P. Feeney, 


18S9-95 Appointed 


1S77-80 


Elected. 


C. H. Hens.m,' 


18S9-91 


1S77-9 




Henj. \'an Keuren, 


1S91-4 


1877-9 




H. H. Abernethv, 


1S9.3-6 


1877-9 


" 


P. W, M. West, " 


1894.7 



The Clerks of the board have been : 



.Stephen Ouaife, 1866-7 George Warrin, 1871-6 

Wm. McLean, iS(,8-7o John W. p:ilisnn, 1S76-7 

Daniel McAghon, 1869-71 Daniel McAghim, 1877-80 

G. P. Robinson, iSSo (incumbent). 






« 2' il 



: »s (^ •■' V * I 



O 




SiiCONU PRKCINCT. JERSEY CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT. 

5. Detective Michael F. Clark. 

6. Roundsman X. A. Toppin, 
7- " John Ens;els, 
S. Second Precinct Police Station. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



The appropriations for the Police Department since eonsolidat 



I87I . 


$235,300 00 


1883 . 


$228,999 88 


1872 


260,000 00 


1884 


234,539 88 


■873 ■ 


. 207,500 00 


1885 . 


■ 254,439 72 


1874 


433.75° 00 


1886 


266,239 80 


187s • 


■ 37^,030 00 


1887 . 


. 286,023 88 


1876 


343.-5° °o 


1 888 


323,645 80 


1877 . 


. 290,250 00 


1889 . 


■ 350,173 45 


1878 


288,250 00 


1890 


438,653 72 


1879 . 


. 228,249 84 


1891 


. 391,186 76 


1 880 


230,849 84 


1892 


414,843 88 


I88I . 


. 232,049 88 


"893 


. 394,466 00 


1882 


2^1.799 93 


1894 


392,765 00 



on have been as follows : 



Police Okficiai.s ok the Present Time. 

Benjamin Murphy was born in Ireland, January 25, 1845. His parents removed to this 
country during- his infancy. Before he was seventeen years of age he enlisted in the Eighth 
N. J. Infantr\', which rcinmcnt formed a part 
of the famous Second New Jcrscv Briijade. 
A year after he entered service he was made 
a corporal and assigned to the color guard, 
where he remained until the battle of ( icttys- 
burg, when he was made a sergeant. At the 
battle of Chancellorsville he with another of 
the guard were all that came oft tlie field, the 
other seven having been killed or wounded 
during the engagement. He and his com- 
rade were also wounded, but did nut leave 
the field until the regiment retired. At 
Gettysburg he was wounded, having been 
hit three times. Before the Wilderness cam- 
paign he was promoted to first sergeant, and 
as such commanded his company thnrngli the 
Wilderness and Spottsylvauia campaign aiul 
up to Petersburg, when he was promoted to 
first-lieutenant. In May, 1S65, he was pro- 
moted to the captaincy. He is one of less 
than twenty men of his regiment who served 
with it continuously from its urgani/aiiim 
until it was mustered nut, without having 
been absent during its service of four years 
and eleven months. Tlie regimenl took jiart 
in thirty-eight general cngagenieius and lost 
nearly nine hundred men. 

On his return from the arm\- he was em- 
ployed in the Jersey City pnst-..liiee, where he 
remained until he was appointed ..n the p(,lice force. Soon after returning from the war he was 
one of the active organizers of Company C, Fourth Regiment, called the Hooker Rifles. He 
was its .second captain, and reniaineil in command until he joined the police force. He served 
four years as Inspector and two ami a half years as Sergeant, when he was appointed on August 
4, 1879, as Chief of the department, a position he still retains. He drew and secured the pas- 
sage of the tenure-of-olhce law, which to a large extent eliminated politics from the police de- 
partment, and improved the police force of the entire State. His military training and good 
executive ability has secured good order and discipline in the department, and his skill in the 




iu;ni.\min 



132 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 




detective line has resulted in miiny successful attacks upmi crimes and criminals. He is a 
member of the Military Order nf the Loyal Le},rion, and of Lod-c .\'o. 06, I. O. O. F. 

Insjjoctor \Villi:nii H. Lanjje was born in 
(jerniany in 1.S40. .\fti.r comin^r to America he 
was emplo\ed as bonkkccpcr and clerk in a 
wholesale druj^- store in Xew York City. He was 
appointed a Cliancciiian, Xoveniber, 1S71 ; pro- 
moted to I'citrolinan, 1.S7:;: ])roinoted to Rounds- 
man, i.S;;: promoted to Scrj;eant, 1.S76; removed 
from the force for ijolitical reasons, 1S77 ; ap- 
pointed Captain, iSSo; assij^ned Captain of Third 
Precinct, iNS4-, assi^'ned as Inspector, 1885; as- 
sivcned Captain of Fourth and Si.xth Precincts, 
1885; assii;ned Inspector. i.SS<;; assij,'Tied Captain 
of the Seventh Precinct. iSgi ; assijrned Captain 
of the Fourth Precinct. iXcjj ; assij,>-nL-d Captain 
of the Seventh I'recinct, 1893; a.ssijjned In- 
spector, i8<)4. In 1887, during the },''reat railroad 
strike, he was in chari^e of the police and about 
150 men from tlie I'inkcrton l)etcctive Ai,'encv. 
He has for tlic past nine years been Chief 
Murphy's close adviser. 
wiiLUM H I \Nc;i- Gilbert P. Robinson was born in Ireland, 

-April II, 1831. He received an education in the 
schools of his native place. After learning; the trade of a house painter he emiijrated to 
America in 1852, settlini; in Xew York Citv, In 1854 be enlisted in the Second Re,L,ament, 
United States Artillery. He was sent to Florida in February of tlie same year and joined Com- 
pany I. He was promoted corporal on June ist of that year, and in the folh.wini; September 
was made a sergeant : he held the latter position until iSOc. when he received an honorable 
discharge from the Secretary of War. In 1861 he org.-mized acomjiany ;uid was mustered into 
the service, with the rank of captain, at Williamsport. .Md., with the First West Virginia Regi- 
ment, which was afterwards consolidated witli the Tliird Regiment. Maryland Infantry. In 
August, 1862, he was promoted major, and in ( ictol)er of tlie same yi,ar was made lieutenant- 
colonel. He ser\'ed under the leading Union 
Generals, and was in all the important Ijattles 
during the entire four years of the rebelHon. 
In August, 1865, he commanded a brigade at 
the Weldon Railroad, for which he was bre- 
veted colonel. On July 31, 1S65, he was mus- 
tered out of service, and was the only one of 
the original officers of the regiment as it was 
when it entered .service. .\t the close of the 
war Mr. Robinson located in Jersey City, 
where he purchased a home at the corner oi 
Webster and Booraem avenues, and wlicre iie 
has resided with his family ever since. Ik- 
was appointed Chief of Police of old Hudson 
City in August, 1866. When that place was 
consolidated with Jersev Citv, Mr. Robinson 
was made Captain of the Third Precinct, a 
position he held until 1871, when he was a])- 
pointed Assessor for the I'ourtli l)istrict for 
two years. In 1873 he was em))loyecl as 
painter, and held that position until 187.). 
at which time he became a clerk in Singer's 
needle department. In April, i8So, he w.is .ippointed to his present poMtion, that of 





SLTi,^t. Richard \V. Hattersbv 
Hatrolman Detuik.l H. Clav 
Rnundsnian CriKlius X..(.ii 
Third Precinct I'ulice t 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



'33 




Clerk to the- Board of I'olicu Comniissiont.-rs. Mr. Robinson is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, the Kni^'hts of Honor, the Royal Society of Good Fellows, Police Mutual Aid 
Society, etc. 

Mr. Robinson distin'.4-uished him.self in many 
ways durin;.,' liis service in the defense of his 
country. He was a brave, etiicient officer, and his 
many promotions were well deserved. Since his 
return to civil life he has been honored many times 
by his fellow-citizens with positions of honor and 
trust. He enjovs a jiure social and political rec- 
ord that he may well feel ])roud of. 

William H. I'oley was born in Brooklyn, X. Y.. 
in 1S65. His parents removed to Jer.sev City 
in 1870. He was educated in Public School 
No. 3 and became an otiice boy in the office of 
Police Commissioner Clayland Tilden, in the 
freight department of the Pennsylvania Railroad, 
on leavin<j school. He left there to become a tele- 
graph operator on the road. He was known all 
along the line as the "' boy oijcrator." His chief, 
William Ettini^er, toi>k him to the general office 
and he became operator for tlie train despatcher. 
He entered the Western L'nion employ and some ^.^^ ^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^.^. 

years later was ojicrator for J.am.son Bros. iS: Co., 

Wall Street brokers. ( )n December 21, 1S91. he was appointed Superintendent of the Police 
Patrol telegraph system in fersey City, a position he still retains. 

Col. Abemcthy is the fourth son oi the late Dr. H. H. Abernethy and ilary J. Maxwell, 
his wife. He was born in ICastetn IV-nnsvlvania, but during his early years his parents removed 
to Warren County, New Krse>- lie w.is graduated at the Blairstown Presbyterian Academy 
in 1865 and taught school -.iiuil iMi;. wiien he removed to Jersey City to accept a position as 
shipping agent for the coal linn of Randolph Bros., of which the late Senator Theodore F. 
Randolph was the senior partner. At present he is superintendent of the Communipaw Coal 
Company and has charge of their extensive docks and piers in this city. 

He was elected to represent the third district in the board of aldermen in 1883, and served 
two years as chairman of the committees on baths and armories and streets. On May 13, 1884, 
he was nominated by Mayor Collins, with A. A. Hardenbergh and Henry Lembeck, as a com- 
missioner under the act of March ::;, 1.S.S4, for the construction of a city hall and armory. In 
1889 he was nommated bv the repulilicans as a candidate for assembly in the second district. 
He was elected by the peojjle. but w.is conn ted out by the ballot-box stufifers, who were especially 
active that year. He inherited a love for military matters from his ancestors, the Maxwell 
family, who were famous military leaders under (jen. Washington. 

He is now commandant of ti-.e I'onrth Regiment, having been connected with it from its 
organization and risen from a priv.Ue through all the grades to the top. Under his command 
the regiment has become one oi the i'cst in the National (iuard of the State. He enlisted 
as a private in Company E of tlie Riiic t'or])s on Ai)ril 8, 1S68. When the Fourth Regiment 
was organized he became a pri\ale in it. on A])ril 14, 1869. Since then his record has been 
a series of promotions. He liec.nnc lir^t sergeant of his company on July 8, 1869, and was 
chosen as sergeant-maior "i tiie regiment on ( )ctober ::o, 1869. He was elected first-lieu- 
tenant of Company E on December jj. iSiki, and became captain on April 23, 1873. He was 
appointed cai^tain and aide-de-cam|) on the staff of the First Brigade on June 25, 1875. He 
was elected major of the I'onrth Reu'inieiit on May 21,. i.s,S5, anil promoted tcj the lieutenant- 
colonelcy on I'ebruary 20. is.s.j. lie wa^ elected colonel on [une :o. 1892. 

He wears tlie Creedmoor decor.ition of New York, and the silver cross of honor of Xew 
Jersey for marksinaiiship. He has been a strict disciplinarian in military matters, but has been 
a favorite with the members of the Fourth Regiment, rank and lile, ever since it was (jrganized. 
He has taken an active interest in iiroinoting the welfare of the regiment, and has been an in- 



'34 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 




UOL. H. H. ABERXEIHY. 



defatigable worker for the new armory. There was no appropriation to build it. and the colonel 
went to the lejjislature to secure one. When it was made the money was insufficient, and the 

adornment of the armory was reduced. Even 
then more money was required to complete the 
building-, and when it was built another appropria- 
tion became necessary to provide lockers and 
gun ca.ses. This lejjislation consumed a great 
deal of time, but he was determined to succeed, 
and this made the coUmel a familiar figure at the 
State house for se\eral years. 

He was appointed a police commissioner b)' 
Mayor Wanser on April 22, 1S93, but was com- 
pelled to seek the aid of the courts, and was not 
admitted to his seat in the board until the ensuing 
December. On April 2,^, 1S94, he was elected 
President of the Board as well as President of 
the City Board of Health, positions he still fills. 
He is chairman of the committee on hospital 
and dispensary, and has introduced many reforms 
in the city hospital. It is now on a parity with 
the best hospitals in the country. Under his 
direction during the past year, the police com- 
missioners paid all the debts of the board and 
entered the new fiscal year on December i, 1894, with a balance on hand. This is the first 
time this has been done in the history of the board. 

The colonel has always been a republican in pnHtics and an active partisan, but in his 
official capacity he has achieved a reputation for impartial fairness, and has conducted the police 
business on business principles. 

John P. Feeney was born November S, 1859, in Jersey City. At the age of nine years he 
displayed the energy which has ever since characterized him by building up a news route and 
delivering the Evening- Journal to numerous readers in his district. At the same time he dili- 
gently attended school, and acquired the rudiments of a good education. In 1882 he was al- 
most unanimously elected Constable, and two 
years later he %vas appointed doorkeeper m the 
House of Assembly. In the same year he was 
re-elected Constable without any opptisition. 
In 1887 he obtained a .seat in the Assembly, and 
was returned with increasing majorities in iSSS 
and 1889. During the same period he liUed the 
important office of Chief Detective of the Prose- 
cutor of the Pleas. He still retains tliis post, in 
which he has repeatedly distingui.shed himself 
by clever professional work, and by di.scovering 
and bringing to justice .some of the most des- 
perate criminals whu have been tried in Diir 
courts. In 18S0 he was appointed by Mayor 
Cleveland under the new charter a member of 
the board of police commissioners, and for five 
consecutive terms was chosen by his colleagues 
as President of that department. He wa^ 
instrumental in causing the erection of new police 
stations and the estalilisliment of the |iresent elec- 
tric alann system, and largely throii:_;li liis elforts 
the discipline and morals of the department were iohn r. kkknky. 

vastly improved. 

As President of the Police Board he was e.N.-odicio President of the City Board of Health, 



/ 



V^ 



/ 



V 



vX 







HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



'35 




and to the intclli^'^ent and indcfatij,rablc zeal which he evinced in maintaininjf and enforcinjf sani- 
tary precautions durin;,' the threatened invasion of cholera in the summer of 1S93, it is mainly due 
that the city escaped the rava^^es of that epidemic. 
For his invaluable services in this matter he re- 
ceived the applause of the people and the press 
regardless of politics, and the ollicial thanks of Sur- 
geon-General Wvmen, of the United States Marine 
Hospital StatV. and of Health Officer Jenkins of 
the Port of New York. 

In 1 89 1 an act was pa.ssed by the legislature pro- 
viding fur a State police, and (iovernor Abbett 
commissioned Mr. Keeney without any solicitation 
on his part as Cliief of that force. The bill was 
p.xssed in conse(|Uence of the labor riots in Kearny, 
at which the police of [er.sey City were summoned 
to act as special deputy-shcritfs to protect prop- 
erty and maintain order. Mr. Feeney, as Presi- 
dent of the Police Board, did nut favor the em- 
ployment of the Jersey City police in such a capac- 
ity in another municii)ality, and to avoid a repe- 
tition of such an e.xperiencc the law creating the 
State police was enacted. 

Peter W. M. ^Vest was horn in A'an ^'orst Town- 
ship July 27, ..S4S. He is the son of Aaron W. '■"" *' "'■ "f-^^- 
West and Margaret Baker, his wife. He was educated in the public schocjls of Jersey City. 
From 1861 to 1S65 he was employed in various mercantile establishments. In 1865 he entered 
the banking liousc <•( Willi, mi Ue Mutt i^- Co., 40 Wall Street, New York. This linn was suc- 
ceeded by Martin \- Run\nii ;ind Martin & Co. He became a member of the latter tirm, and 
has continued in the lianking business to the present time. In 1872 he married Miss Kate A. 
Smith, of New York, and four children, two sons and two daughters, are the is.sue of the mar- 
riage. He was a member of " Tw<i Truck " in the volunteer fire department, and was one of 
the organizers of C'inii'.iny F, I'ourth Regiment. He filled all the offices in the company to 

captain, and retired in 1883. He is a member of 
Jersey City Lodge, F. & A. M., the Pavonia Yacht 
Club, Lafayette Battery, Union League Club, 
Hudson County Republican Committee and other 
organizations. He was a member of the Grand 
Jury that indicted the race-track gamblers, and 
in 1894 was appointed a member of the Jersey 
City police commission. 

Benjamin Van Keuren was born in Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y., in 1825. He came to Jersey City 
i" '853, and in 1868 was appointed Street Com- 
missioner and served until 1S70, when he was 
elected a member of the board of aldermen in the 
con.solidated city, and served one year, when he 
was again elected to the position of Street Com- 
missioner and ser\-ed in that capacity until 1877. 
In 1879 he was elected a member of the board 
of works and scr\-cd until 1S81. He was re- 
elected and served until 18S3, and again re- 
elected and served until 188^. 
i:h\i\Mis \ \N KM Kfs In 1887 Mr. Van Keuren was again elected 

to the board of public works and served until 
1889, when the law was changed, making the incumbent of the office of cummissioner of public 
works to l)c appointed by the mayor. The mayor then appointed him to that office, which he 



' 


»' 




1 




. ii 



■36 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



contiimed to fill until he was appointed Poliee Commissioner, on the 23d of April, 1891, for three 
years. Mr. Van Keuren is a republican, and has the reputation of beinjj able to be elected to 
any office his party mii^ht put him in nomination for. He has been in business as a contractor 
for many years. 

James E. Kelly w.is born in San Francisco, Cal., in 1S5S. When he was nineteen years of 
age he came East, Iocatin>,r in Jersey City, where he has resided ever since. After comings to 
Jersey City Mr. Kelly enfjajjed in the liquor business. He has always taken an active interest 

in politics. In 1.SS7 he was nominated for the 
office of Police Commissioner. The contest was 
a warm one at the polls, there being' two oppo- 
nents — republican and labor candidate.s — against 
him. He was elected to the office by a good ma- 
jority. At the expiration of his first term he was 
renominated and elected by an increased majority. 
During- his second term the legislature enacted 
a new law touching on police boards, making 
its membei-s appointive by the mayor. Mr. Kelly 
was among the first of the board to receive an 
appointment from Mayor Cleveland. His appoint- 
ment was for one year. At the expiration of that 
term he was immediately reappointed for a term 
of three years. Mr. Kelly is a member of the 
Ever Faithful Council, No. 237, American Legion 
f^ \ ^X ^^-v^ of Honor, and has officiated as treasurer of that 

I \ / ' 1 council for the past seven years. He is also a 

I \ I I rnember of Paulus Hook Catholic Benevolent 

^ -Ati- < .J Legion, the Ancient Order of Foresters of 

America, the Police Mutual Aid Society and a 
number of political organizations. 




Headquarters. 

Detective John Clos was bom in New York City, June 22, 1842. He was appointed on the 
police force as a Patrolman in May, i866, and was made a Detective in 1873. 

Detective Michael Doyle was born in Ireland in 1844, and has lived in Jersey City nearly all 
his life. He joined the Jersey City police force as a Patrolman in 1870, and was made a De- 
tective in June, 1885. 

Detective Michael Kilcauly was appointed on the police force in 1858, under Chief Haines, 
and has served successively under the administrations of Chiefs Marinus, Reilly, Jordan, 
McManus and Murphy. In 1S79 he was legislated out of office, but was reappointed in 



Detective Michael McNall)- was bom in February, 1S60. He was appointed a Chanceman 
May 15, 1882, and served as such for six months, when he was promoted Patrolman. In 1887 
he was made a Detective. 

Detective Robert H. Pearson was bom in Jersey City in 1856. He was appointed a Patrol- 
man in 1880, and promoted to Detective in 18S6. 

Detective Colville Smith was born in New York City, May 17, 1843. On June i, 1877, he 
was appointed on the J erse}' City poliee force as Patrolman. He was promoted to Roundsman 
May 2, 1884, and to liis present po.sition May 15, 1894. 

Detective Peter Morris was bom in Jersey City, and has been a member of the police force 
since May 2, iSSo. He has proved an efficient officer. 

Sergt. Joseph Carroll was born in New York City in 1.S37. He has resided in Jersey Citv 
since he was ten years old. At the age of 21 he was made a Patrolman on the Jersey Citv 
police force, and subsetiuently served three years as a Detective. For political reasons he was 
removed in 1S71. In 18S7 he was reappointed to the force as a Sergeant. 

Sergt. Samuel A. Archibald was born in New York City, March 18, 1856. He ha.s resided 



:^ i.:::^ 






if^ 






^"'^ '^.:^ 







FIFTH PRECINCT. .IKKSiIV lITV I- »!,:CK I»KI'ARTMENT. 

CapL Thomas RXaccni. 4. K.-nnd^Tnan I^ajs Mclntyre. 

>* ret. Th-.TTia* Toomev. " 
iK^fTivc M-cnael Ecan. 



2. Roundsman Michail 
> Fifth Precinct Poli. 

7. S«:nci. Th<<tnAsKc:i; 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 137 

here since 1865. In Ausrust, 1883, he was appointed a Patrolman on the Jersey City police 
force. In October, same year, he resigned, and in July, 1885, he returned to the force. He 
was promoted Sergeant in 18S6. 

First Precinct. 

Capt. Frederick T. Farrier, First Precinct, was bom in Jersey City in 1836. In 1851 he 
went to sea. In 1S54 he returned to Jersey City and learned the trade of steam and gas fitting. 
In 1861 he enlisted in the Second Regiment, X.J. State Militia, for three months, and re-enlisted 
forthe war in Company (5, Tenth X. J. \'olunteers as a private. He served until July 5, 1S65, and 
was mustered out as cajjtain. In 1S66 he engaged at his trade in Jensey City. In 1867 he was 
elected Justice of the Peace and served ten years. In 1873 he was appointed Commissioner 
of the Board of Public Works and served one year. In 1875, was elected to the board of free- 
holders for one year from First District. In iSSo he was appointed Captain of the First Pre- 
cinct and has held that positicm continuously ever since, excepting one year when he was in 
charge of the Fourth Precinct. 

Sergt. Charles B. McGinnis, born in New York City in 1847. He served in the AVar of 
the Rebellion. He was appointed to his present position — he is Acting Detective. 

Sergt. William Duffy was born in England, November 19, 1862. He became a member 
of the Jersey City police force May 32, 1891, and promoted to Sergeant November 21st, same 
year. He has resided in Jersey City since he was twenty-five years of age. 

Sergt. James Hopkins was born in Ireland, August 15, 184S. He came to America in 
1866, and is a painter and paper lianger by trade. He became a member of the Jersev Citv 
police force in 1S75 and was promoted Roundsman in 1890, and to his present position in Octo- 
ber, 1894. 

Patrick M. Malone was born in Ireland, March 10, 1848; came to America in 1S49, and 
resided in Xew York, where he was educated at public schools. At the age of fifteen he started 
to learn the boiler-maker trade ; after serving his apprenticeship, he came to Jersey Citv in 
1863, and has been here since. He was appointed on the police force December, 1891, as Ser- 
geant, and attached to the Fourth Precinct. He was appointed Police Commissioner and 
served for one term, and was re-elected but counted out. 

Sergt. James O'Brien was born in Ireland in December, 1847. He was appointed Ser- 
geant in 1878, and on account of political reasons was removed in 1881. He was reinstated 
January i, 1891. 

Roundsman Frederick C. Ilellmer was bom September 15, 1848. He became connected 
with the Jersey City Pcvlice Department in 187 1, and was promoted to his present position April 
16, 1894. 

Second Precinct. 

Capt. John F. Kelly, Second Precinct, was bom in Ireland. He came to America when two 
years old. He took up his permanent residence in Jersey City about twenty-two years ago. 
He joined the police force Janf.ary i. 1 89 1, and was appointed to his present position. 

Sergt. Robt. Jelly was born in Jersey City, September 11, 1841. He was appointed a Pa- 
trolman Xoveniber i, i,S6(), and promoted as Sergeant May, 1872; served as such until April, 
1877, when he was removed on account of politics. He was reinstated in 1880. 

Sergt. William H. Cotlin was born at Xew Bedford, Mass., in 1849, and came to Jersey 
City in 1859. Wlien lie was twenty-eight years old he was appointed in the Second Precinct in 
the Police Department, in which capacity he served nine months. He was then made Pa- 
trolman, and later Roundsman, and in May, 1S88, was promoted to his present position. 

Sergt. Charles McDcvitt was born in Ireland in 1854 and came to Jersey City in i868. 
He was appointed on the jiolice force in 1890 as a Patrolman, promoted to Roundsman in 1892 
and to his present rank in 1803 

Roundsman Xicliolas A. Toppin was born in Jersey City, May 15, 1862, was appointed 
Patrolman in iSSS and promoted to his present rank March 29, 1893. 

Roundsman J. Engles was born in Xew York City in 1S43. He is a butcher by trade and 
has resided in Jersey City for thirty years. He is a veteran of the war and was a member of 
the Seventy-second keginient under Daniel Sickles. He was appointed to his present position 
Xoveniber, 1879. 



138 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

Detective Michael F. Clark was born in New York, Xovember 16, 1858, and came to Jersey 
City in 1S60. He was appointed Keeper in the Penitentiary at Snake Hill January, 1SS6, and 
resigned July 1, 1SS9; was appointed Patrolman July. kSSq, and promoted as Detective Decem- 
ber, 1889. 

Third PKEtiNCT. 

Capt. Moses E. Newton was born in New York City, October 31, 1832. He is the son of 
Wm. and Mary Newton, both natives of New York City. His father was a member of the New 
York police department early in the Thirties, Early in life Capt. Newton served an apprentice- 
ship to the iron moulding,' trade. In 1.^*61 he located in Hudson City, where he engag-ed in the 
trucking business. In 1870 he was appointed Seri^eant of the Jersey City police. In 1S87 he 
was promoted to Captain of the Third Precinct. Capt. Newton is a member of Exempt Fire- 
men's Association, of New York, havinj;- served his time with Company 14 of that city. He is 
also a member of the Firemen's Association of Hudson City ; the Central Assembly of Good 
Fellows, and several other organizations. On December 31, 1855, Capt. Newton married Miss 
Margaret A. Lannuier, of New York City. They have two sons and three daughters living. 

Sergt. John Kelly was born in Jersey City in June, 1861. He entered the police department 
as Chanceman in April, 1S87, and was promoted to Patrolman November, 1807, and to his pres- 
ent position in 1 890. 

Sergt. Bernard AVade was born in Ireland, ilarch 7, 1856, and came to America when a 
child. He was appointed to the force in June, 1877, and was promoted to Sergeant in April, 
1889. 

Sergt. Daniel S. Moriarty was born in England, August 10, 1855. He is a machinist and 
engineer by trade. He was appointed on the police force of Jersey City in December, 1890, 
and was made Sergeant May 22, 1891. 

Sergt. R. T. Battersby was bom in Jersey City, November 10, 1864. He is a painter by 
trade, and has been a member of the Jersey City police force since 1891. 

Roundsman Frank Duffy was born in Troy, N. Y.. June 24, 1856. He was appcnnted a 
Patrolman on the Jersey City police force in kSS6, and was promoted to Roundsman January 
I, 1893- 

Roundsman Cornelius Noonan was bom in Jersey City, October 28, 1866. He joined the 
Jersey City police force in April, 1890, and was promoted to his present position in 1893. 

Fourth Prkcinci. 

Capt. Archibald McKaig was born in Ireland in 183S, and came to America in 1858, when 
he became a clerk in the employ of Colgate & Co., with whom he remained until 1861. He 
served in the War of the Rebellion and received several promotions during that period. At 
the close of the war he returned to his former position with Colgate &- Co. In 1866 he became 
connected with the Jersey City police force as a Patrolman ; was promoted to Sergeant October 
I, 1871, and to Captain in October, 1875. He was reduced to Sergeant in June, 1877 and 
promoted to Captain in May, iSSo. 

Sergt. James Finley was born in Ireland in 1S36, and came to Jersey City in 1849, and 
learned the tin and sheet-iron business. In 1,^77 he became connected with the police depart- 
ment as a Sergeant, a position he has lield ever since. 

Sergt. Patrick McLoughlin w.is Ix.rn m Irel.ind. November 29. 1S53. He came to Jersey 
City in 1871. In 18S9 he was appointed a I'atrolnian, and on November 21, 1891, was promoted 
to Roundsman. 

Sergt. G. W. Snow was born in Allianv. N Y, May 22, 1.S45. Three years later his 
family moved to Jersey City. He was a))pimUcd u< the police force May 5, 1880, as a Patrol- 
man, and was promoted to Sergeant August -,, iSSo. 

Sergt. Theodore A. Salomon w.is horn in New York City, November 5, 1842. He be- 
came connected witli tlie Jersey City polKc lorce as Cli.mceman August i, 1882 ; was promoted 
to Patrolman April 24, i.ss;; Roundsman, .\pril 1, iN>;5. and to his present rank. May 15, 1885. 

Round.sman Wilhau) II. Higgins w.is l)..rn in Jersey City, December 17, 1856. He became 
identified with the force June 15, 1890, .ind was made Roundsman April i, 1893. 

Roundsman Abner J. Welsh was born in Jersey City, July 15, 1828, and is a painter by 




II :.rv U :..i,i.Mn 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 139 

trade. He is a veteran of the War of the Rebellion. He was appointed to his present position 
in May, 1S68. 

Detective Auj,'-ustus Holtic was born in Germany, January 12, 1847. He came to America 
in 1853, and is a carpenter by trade. He joined the Jersey City police force in 1877 as a Patrol- 
man. He was promoted to Roundsman, and in 18S7 was made a Detective. 

Detective H. Clay Keenan was born in Paterson, X. J., December 23, 1841. He has lived 
in Jersey Citv since 1855. He was appointed a Patrolman on the Jersey City police force in 
1880, and is now Acting Detective of the Fourth Precinct. 

FiKTH Precinct. 

Capt. Thomas P. Xugent was born in Jersey City, December 24, 1853. He was appointed 
Sergeant on the Jersey City pulice force m June, 1S90, and was promoted to Captain in ilarch, 
1893. He has also had other prominent official positions, having served as a member of the 
boards of police commissioners and freeholders. 

Sergt. Thomas J. Toomey was bom in Ireland, March 19, 1857. He was appointed to the 
police force in 187S, and was promoted to his present position April 16, 1888. 

Sergt. Charles Hoag was born in Germany, December 30, 1850, and was made a Sergeant 
of the police department in 1S7S. 

Sergt. Thomas P. Kelly was born in Jersey City, March 16, 1858. He joined the Jersey 
City police force December 1 ;, i,S,S6, and was promoted to Sergeant in 1893. 

Roundsman Michael Casev was born in Ireland in 1855. He became a member of the 
police force in 1S91, and in 1S92 was promoted to Roundsman. 

Roundsman Adam L. Mclntvre was bom in Greenville, December 8, 1857. He received an 
appointment on the Jersev Citv police force as Patrolman September 15, 1881, and was pro- 
moted to his present position in 18.S5. 

Detective Michael Egan was bnrn in jersey City. He joined the police force May i, 1870. 
For political reasons he was removed in 1S77 and was reinstated as a Detective in 1890. He 
served in the War of the Rebellion. 

Sixth Precinct. 

Capt. James McXulty was bcirn in \ew York City in 1853. He learned the trade of a 
machinist in 1866, but afterwards engaged in the chemical business with his father. In 187S 
he was appointed a Sergeant in the Jersey City police department, and was promoted to 
Captain in 1888. 

Sergt. Henry Wilshusen was born in New York City. March 8, 1846. He has been a resi- 
dent of Jersey City since 1S59. He was appointed Chanceman Januan* 2, 1877, promoted to 
Roundsman Aug^ust 12. 1S79. and to Sergeant May 4, 1S80. 

Sergt. Charles A. Holdcrer was burn m New York City, June 9, 185 1. He has resided in 
old Hudson City (now a part of jersey City) all his lifetime, excepting for fifteen months spent 
in Europe. In 1872 he engaged in tlie jewelry- business. He was appointed to the police force 
Xovember 18, 1879, and has served cnntinuously ever since. He is one of the best Sergeants 
in the service. 

Sergt. M. Conlon was born in l-^ngland, August 10, 1855, and is an engineer and machinist 
by trade. He was appointed on the force December, 1890, and promoted to Sergeant May 22, 
1891. 

Sergt. John J. Flannelly was born in Jersey City, January 5, 1858. He was appointed on 
the police force in 18S6. In 18S8 he was pn'inoted to Roundsman, and in 1893 was made a Ser- 
geant. 

Detective Dalton was bom in Ireland in 1846, and has resided in Jersey City since he was 
a child. He served for nine months in the War of the Rebellion. He was appointed to the 
police force in May, 1.S71, serving as Patrolman until May i, 18S7, when he was promoted to 
Detective. 

Sknknih Pkkcisct. 

Capt. Charles H. Cdx was born in New York City, Xovember 8, 1848. He has resided in 
Hudson County since 1849 He was appointed a Chanceman in 1873 ; promoted to I'atrolin.m 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



I 



in 1874, but was removed in 1877 for political reasons. He wa.s reappointed Patrolman in 1880, 
and was promoted to Serjjeant in 18S5. In 1894 he was made Captain of the Seventh Precinct. 
He was elected President of the Police Mutual Aid Society in 1884 and re-elected in 1886. 
He has held that position ever since. 

Sergt. William Buckbee was born in Flushing-, Long Island, October 14. 1842. He ser\-ed 
three years in the War of the Rebellion. He came to Jersey City in 1866, and was appointed 
a Sergeant on the police force in 1879. 

Sergt. George Wohlleben was born in Jersey City, December 17, 1849. By occupation 
he is a tinsmith. He was appointed a Patrolman August 29, 1879; was promoted to Sergeant 
May 15, 1883. 

Sergt. Michael F. Reardon was bom in Jersey City in 1863. He was for some 
years in the employ of Fuller's Express Company. He was appointed to the police force in 
1885, and promoted to Sergeant in June. 1889. 

Sero^. John J. Quinn was born in England, February 21, 1862. He came to America in 
1864. He was appointed Patrolman on the Jersey City police force in 18S8, and was promoted 
to Roundsman in 1891, and to Sergeant in 1892. 

Roundsman Joseph R. Edwards was born in Liverpool, England. Januarv 13, 1843. He 
has resided here since 1867. He was appointed on the Jersey Citv police force May 11, 1880 ; 
was promoted to Roundsman April 4, 1S82. 

Roundsman Andrew J. Sheridan was born in Jersey City, ilarch 2, 1S60. He was ap- 
pointed a Patrolman May 7, 1890, and promoted to Roundsman November 21, 1S91. 

Detective John F. Larkins was born in Jersey City, ilay 22, 1S66. He was appointed a 
Detective on the Jersey City police force April 20, 1893. 




PENNSVLVAN-I.\ K. R. FF.RRV IX 1S65. 




,/' -' 








SEVEN'TH i'KhXlNCT. JKRSKY CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT. 

5. Seventh Precinct Police Station. 

6. Serg't. Michael Reardon, 
r-L- WnnlUlK-n. 7. Detective James Larkins. 

William Mu^kUi-. 8. Roundsman Joseph R. Edwards, 

(y. KuunJsman Andrew J. Sheridan. 



CHAPTER XXII. 



THE (JITV SCHOOL SYS IF.M — THE FIRST ATTEMPTS AT SCHOOLS — HOW THEY BEGAN IN BERGEN, HUD- 
SON LITV AM) C.RKKNVILLF. GROWTH AND COST THE PRESENT SYSTEM COMPLETE LIST OF 

OFFICERS, CKNSIS, KNKIU.LMKNT AND APPROPRIATIONS. 

!HE education of the younjf was one of the first duties attended to by the people who 

settled in what is now Jersey City. The town of Bergen has the honor of opening 

.i|]C-. \ the first public school in New Jersey. It was supported by apublic tax. Two vears 

after the town was begun the town authorities engaged Engclbert Steenhviysen, a tailor, 

to teach a public school. His license was dated October 6, 1662, and it is believed that he began 

to teach on that day. At tirst the school was in his dwelling, but in i66_^ a log school-house 

was built on the northeast corner of Academy Streetand Bergen Square. This building ser\-ed 

for many generations of children. It was torn down in 1790 to make way for a stone buildino' 

much more pretentious in size and appearance. 

This school-house was called the Columbia Academy, the name showing the patriotic im- 
pulses of the town officials at that time when the scars of the revolutionary war had scarcely 

healed. In 1S57 this buiUIiug was torn down 

to make room for a ninilrrn school-house. 

The structure erected at that time is still in 

use as Public School Xo, 11 A jjortion of 

the material of the old cditicu was built into 

the rear wall of the new schoi'l, and is still 

there, a patch of stone work in a brick wall. 

The weather-vane from the i^ld cupola was 

placed on top of the school-house, and the ; 

quaint old rooster is still showing which wav ^ 

the wind blows as it did more than a hundred 

years ago. The old Columbia Academv T 

afforded sufficient accommodation for the 

resident pupils, and for a good many boys 

from other localities. The classical depart- 
ment offered facilities for preparing boys^to 
enter college. 

The first school in Paulus Hook was built by the Associates. The land was given by them 
in 1806, and the town authorities, comp.psed of members of the company, provided the monev 
for the building. It was originally intended to add to the inducements offered to settlers. The 
building was completed in February. 1S07, and w.as located on the two lots east of St. Matthew's 
Church. It was used as a town hall and al.so ser\-ed as a meeting-hou.se for a number of relig- 
ious bodies before there were enough of members to build a church. The earlier efforts to 
maintain a school were not successful. The school was known as the Mechanics' Institute. In 
the years preceding 1830 Charles (;arduer and William Meigs, with Miss Mirzah Betts, kept 
the school. Later they had Julia C. Iktts. and still later Man.- Farrell as assistants. It was not 
a free school. There was also a school maintained by subscription, known as the Columbia 
Public School. Both schools failed financially. On July 14, i.S;,4. the selectmen appointed a 
special committee to treat with the two schools in order to get them consolidated and put under 
the town management. At that time the .Mechanics' Institute was called the Jersey Academy. 
They soon reached a ba,sis for the transfer, and in 1835 the selectmen reorganized it as the Me- 
chanics' School. Dr. Albert Thorndyke Smith, a young man from one of the Eastern States, 




li; 



Sj iij i ji ^ 



;.i%SEf 



..OLUMKIA ACADE.MY. 



142 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



was employed as teacher. He received a small allowance from the selectmen and charged 
tuition fees. When the new charter of 1838 created the mayor and common council the city 
government took speedy action in relation to the school. Less than two months after the new- 
board of council organized the building was removed to the rear of the lot, and refitted for use 
as school-house, town liall and jail, at a cost of $1,30°. a very considerable sum for the little 
town. 

The trustees of the Columbia Public School were unable to support the school, and their 
debts produced lawsuits. The semi-public character of their school gave them a color of a 
claim against the city, and in 1S44 the trustees of the late school petitioned the common coun- 
cil for aid in settling the claims. It was not until Januar\- 3, 1845, that the council granted $100 
to Joseph Dodd, Daniel Crane, Lorenzo Jaquins and David Jones, the trustees of the late 
school, on condition that the city should be saved from further claims in connection with their 
enterprise. 

On July 23, 1843, the State school money, the receipts from liquor licenses and the money 
received from the Bergen township funds were appropriated for the public school, then first 
called School Xo. i. It was still held in the town house. It was not yet a free school. 
Primary- pupils paid fifty cents a quarter and pupils in the higher branches paid one dollar a 
quarter. Those who could not afford this were taught and their fees were charged against the 
public funds. In 1847 the council appointed a committee to prepare plans for a new school 

building. This committee spent several weeks 
in examining public schools, and finally decided 
to duplicate School No. 18, on Forty-first Street, 
New York. On Februar}' 19, 1847, they bought 
four lots on York Street, west of Washington 
Street, for $4,000 as a school site. R. C. Bacot 
drew the plans for the school-house and Robert 
Brown built it. The contract price was 89,000. 
This building forms the central portion of the 
present structure. Originally there were yards 
on each side, but they were subsequently built 
up. The new school had six teachers, and their 
salaries aggregated $2,300. 

The council committee that had charge of 

the new school was composed of Dr. Yroom, 

Fred. Betts and Stephen D. Harrison. On 

January i, 1848, the council adopted a resolution 

H. Linslev, Miss Mar>- Westry, Miss C. D. Wilson, Mrs. Eliza J, 

as the corps of teachers for the new school. There were 145 




•i:1._ 



>l 









TOWN HALL -AND SCHOOL. 



appointing Dr. Smith. Oeorg 
Eveland and Hannah J. R" 
primarj' scholars, 98 in the female department and 142 in the male department on Februan,- 8, 
1848, when the school was opened. Mr. Linsley was chosen principal. He still retains the 
position. Mrs. Eveland also remains in the service as principal of the primary department in 
School No. 2, both having served continuously nearly forty-seven years. The surviving pupils 
of the first decade in No. i fornied an association a few years ago, and on each anniversary of 
Mr. Linsley 's birthday a bamiuet is given, at which the old principal is the honored guest. Mr. 
Linsley was .seventy-three years of age at tlic anniversary of 1894. 

In 185 1 Principal Linsley began to have his teachers meet in the school on Saturday for 
training in theorv and practice. He also admitted candidates for teachers' certificates, and, .so 
far as can be learned from tl-.e scIum)! records, this was the first Normal School in the country. 
It was a voluntarv effort on Mr. Linsky's part, anil it was so successful and filled such a want 
that the committee <>n '-chools estal>lislied a Saturday Normal School in 1856, and Mr. Linsley 
continued to serve as principal (jt the Normal School until it was superseded in 1879 by the 
Training School deijartmcnt of the High School. 

The trustees of the Catholic parochial scliool made numerous efforts to secure a division of 
the school funds, but always failed. The officials would not take action on their petitions unless 
they would surrender their .schools to the city. Timothy McCarthy was the only teacher in the 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



143 



parish school, and he had 300 pupils. This school grew rapidly, and in 185 1 had 420 pupils. 
James Brann was principal and Henry Brann as.sistant in the male department. Margaret 
Carey was principal of the female department, and Mary lJickins(m was her assistant. When 
No. I was (j])cned, a number of colored children were refused admittance, and the colored resi- 
dents applied to the council for a part of the school funds. They did not succeed, but the 
council lea.sed the <jld .school building from Mr. Gregory, who had bought it at a sale, and main- 
tained a colored school for several years in it. 

In 1X30 William L. Dickinson opened a classical school for boys in the Lyceum building 
on Grand Street. In 1S66 he was succeeded by Dr. W. Hasbrouck, who had conducted a school 
for boys in Mercer Street. He was the founder of Hasbrouck 's Institute, which is noted else- 
where. Anids Kellogg conducted a large private school, between Storm and Fairmount avenues, 
for a number of years prior to 1873, and Rev. R. H. L. Tighe conducted a classical school in 
Fifth Street for a nimiber i)f years after the war. There were a number of private schools for 
girls and children, but most of them were 
transient. Caqjcntcr's school on Hudson, 
now Storm Avenue, in Bergen, and Miss 
Graves' school in Hudson City, were the 
best known in the early Fifties. 

The first school in Harsimus was a pay 
school kept by Isaac Cornell at his home. 
The date of its opening has not been re- 
corded. After the township of Van Vorst 
was created, the town committee made an 
arrangement with Corriell by which his 
school became the township school. It 
was moved tn a twn. story frame building 
on Third Street that had been used for 
manufacturing' ])urii(ises, and the lower 
floor was for a time used as a carpenter 
shop. The building adjoined Kutzmeyer's 
coal yard, and theCatlmlic Institute covers 
the site now. This was the only school in 
the township until iSjfj, when Dr. Wa.sh- 
ington Hasbrouck opened aschcjcil for boys 
at S3 and 55 Mercer Street. Prior to that 
boys went to William L. Dickin.son's 
school in the Lyceum, or to New York, 
the old North Moore Street public school 
being a favorite. Corriell's school was a 
public school with a gond many pav schol- 
ars. It was under the charge of a com- 
mittee of the tiiwn>-hi]) committee. 

The .scIkhiIs of Jersey City prior to the annexation of Van Vorst were eared for by a com- 
mittee of the coniniou council, but the new charter provided for a board of education. It was 
organized on January 14. 1.S5;, with twelve members, half of whom were from Van Vorst. 
There were then three schools in the department, and the salary list was $6,500 out of a total 
annual approjiriation of Sn.^.'s A Normal School was organized in 1854. It met in School No. 
I in York Street on .Saturd.iys, with Principals Linsley and C. A. Yerrington as teachers. 
Yerrington had succeeded Cornell as principal of the " up-town " school. This Normal School 
was continued twenty-four years with the same teachers. The city schools were not eflfectivelv 
graded until i.soo. wlicn William L. Dickinson became a member of the school board and prac- 
tically reorganized tile -lIiooIs. Jersey City had accumulated school property worth $289,000 
at the time of con-.olKlatioii, ami had' a school populatiim of 11,589. Hud.son Citv had five 
schools, a fairly good organization and 5.594 children of school age. Bergen had four large 
including the frame building at Harri.son and Monticello avenues, and a small 




ALOVSIUS ACADEMY. 



school-hous 



f 



144 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

annex school in a wooden buildings on Tonelle Avenue near the railroad cut. This building 
was a mi.ssion church, started by Rev. Alex. Shaw in 1S68, as an offshoot from the Bergen 
Reformed. 

The total school census for the consolidated city was 20,165, ^"'^ '* school board was organ- 
ized in 1870 with thirty-two members, two from each ward. E. O. Chapman, the ex-principal 
of the Hudson City High School was elected city superintendent, and W. L. Dickinson, assist- 
ant superintendent. They made an effort to secure uniformity between the three sections of 
the department, but had only a moderate degree of success. 

In 1872, under the new charter, Thomas Potter became president, and W. L. Dickinson the 
superintendent. This was a strong combination. Potter had great energy and shrewd busi- 
ness ability. Dickinson was an experienced teacher and knew what should be done. The 
schools were brought under a harmonious system and many reforms were made. The High 
School was created that year, and a free public school library was opened, Thomas Potter was 
born in Rahway, in 1S37, and was a resident of Jersey City for more than twenty-five years. 
He now lives in Rahway. 

The High School was organized in 1.S72, in School Xo. 5 on Bay Street. This building was 
erected in 1871, and was designed to accommodate a primary school as well as the High School, 
and it had rooms for the use of the board of education, which met in the city hall prior to 
the completion of this school-house. In 1872 the High School building was burned down 
through the carelessness of artisans who were making repairs. It was rebuilt at once and was 
occupied in less than a year. George H. Barton was the lirst principal, and he had seventy- 
one pupils when the school opened. The average attendance has been about five hundred 
since then, and the school has deser\-edly grown in popularity. In 1892 a new site was bought 
for the High School. It is on the corner of Bergen and Fairmount avenues. There was some 
doubt about the desirability of the location, and the new building has not been undertaken. 

The department to-day has 25 school buildings which, with their contents, are valued 
at $943,677.33. There are 41 principals, 414 assistant teachers, 25 janitors, and 19,000 pupils 
enrolled in the schools. The gradual increase in enrollment and ex])enscs is shown in the fol- 
lowing table : 



1871 
1872 

1873 
1874 

187s 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 



1883 



1886 
1887 



1889 



■893 
1894 







City 




Received from 


School Census. 


Enrollment. 


Appropriations. 


State .School Ta: 


• 24,163 


Xo record. 


$194,400 


00 


$114,000 00 


30,011 


" 


227,000 


00 


97,555 32 


■ 30,758 


16,762 


265,000 


00 


145,368 8c 


34,769 


18,278 


241,000 


00 


142,340 42 


■ 38,068 


■8,737 


235.150 


00 


156,177 98 


38,051 


19,463 


223,'50 


00 


161,364 42 


■ 37,482 


20,876 


222.550 


00 


156,357 23 


40,204 


2", 193 


222,550 


00 


145,099 87 


• 39.203 


20,991 


'83,999 


68 


145,195 02 


41,226 


2 2,5 '9 


186,349 


68 


133,669 84 


41,110 


23,039 


198.039 


40 


166,314 06 


47,552 


2 2,453 


'93,774 


64 


167,274 84 


• 49,880 


23,397 


21 1,220 


08 


181,220 31 


52,207 


24,062 


222,520 


12 


185,876 39 


• 57,586 


24.446 


222,562 


16 


192,362 34 


5 ',087 


24.988 


239,332 


16 


202,832 41 


52,467 


23.873 


249,882 


20 


187,698 23 


57,455 


23.494 


276,184 


00 


236,184 44 


61,660 


23.036 


288,449 


68 


249,551 61 


65,21 1 


24,669 


305.767 


04 


262,367 20 


75,000 


24,411 


326,949 


80 


269,415 71 


59,9' > 


24,681 


352,825 


76 


292,758 33 


66,047 


26,350 


35 '.664 


00 


255,942 59 


69,657 


Xot completed. 


377, "66 


00 


265,701 14 










6;;^-., :--^ '->'""■*- 









_^^-, . -n^ iV,N^ 



iVA^ 



"^^=^^^ 



PI 












HISTORY OF J ERSE V CITY. 



'45 



The PresidL-nts of the Jersey City Board of Education from the first board to the present 
have been : 

Presidents of the Board ok Education. 



P. D. Vroom, 1852-3. 

A. S. Jewell, 1S54. 
Georj^e Ford, 1055-6. 
David Gould, 1S57-63. 
C. V. Traphajfen, 1S64. 

B. F. Randolph, 1865-6-7-8-9. 
Leon Abbctt, 1869. 

A. A. Gaddis, 1S70-1 
Thomas Potter, 1872-3 
E. O. Chapman, 1874. 
W. J. Lyon, 1875. 
John W. Panij-born, 1876. 

Clerks of the Board 



J. R. Mercein, 1S77. 
Thomas M. Norton, 187S. 
J. F, O'Sullivan, 1879. 
John D. McGill, 18S0-1 
Edwin Van Houten, 1S82. 
W. H. Simmons, 1883. 
W. R. Laird, 1SS4. 
John A. Walker, 1885-6. 
John J. Voorhees, 1887-91. 
John Reid, 1892. 
John M. Jones, 1893-4. 
Ulamor Allen, 1894-5. 

)F Education. 
H. A. Shrope, 1880. 
E. P. Cringle, 1S81. 
George Warrin, 1882. 
J. F. O'Sullivan, 1883-4. 
Mark Curley, 1885. 
Bernard Wester\-elt, iSS6-g. 
J. J. Wiseman, 1890-1. 
Alvin H. Graff, 1892-4-5. 



J. W. Parker, 1852. 

J. A. Ryerson, 1852. 

David Gould, 1853-5. 

P. D. Vroom, 1856-64. 

C. W. Peri-eil, 1S65-8-70-1. 

M. S. Wick ware, 1869. 

W. A. Dixon, 1S72. 

Martin Finck, 1873-4-5-7-8-9. 

John A. Mcfirath, 1876. 

CiTV School Superintendents. 

Lewis Colby, 1N51-3. *W. L. Dickinson, 1871-S3. 

Joseph W. McCo}-, 1854-63-9. ♦George H. Barton, 1883-4. 

A. S. Jewell, 1855-62. fA. W. Edson, 18S5-7. 

A. H. Walli.s, 1862. fA. B. Poland, 1S88-91. 

Sydney B. Bevans. 1S69-70. Henry Snyder, 1891 (still in ofhce) 
E. O. Chapman, 1870. 

*Died in otiicc. + Resigned. 

NU\ii;krs of the Board of Education. 



Abbett, Leon, 1S69 
Adams, H. C , iSSo-i. 
Allen, L'lamor, 1892-6. 
Arms, Nelson, 1865-6. 

Barnes, , 1.S53-6. 

Bartlett. J. E . iS(.5-6. 
Beach, Wm. M , 1S02-3. 
Beach, Wm. H., 1X93-5. 
Beck, George, 1.S70-1. 
Ben.son, C. H . 1.S87-S 
Betts, I'. B, 1867-8 
Bentley, IVter, 1852 
Bockcrs, Will C , 1862. 
Boyd, John, 1S80-1-2-3-4. 
Brown, R P., 1.S.S2-3 
Brown, Geo B. 1.S70-1 
Buffett, E 1", 1.S70-1 
Case, M. R , 1X53-62 
Clancy, Andrew, Jr. 1864-7. 
Clark, II. R., 1869. 
Clark, J. E., 1884. 

*F.x-othcio members. 



Clarke, Abram, 1870-1. 
*CIarke, Wm., 1868-9. 

Clarke, J. C, 1S77-8. 
♦Cleveland, C)., i860- 1-4-6. 
*Chapman, E. (.)., 1S70-4-5-6-7. 

Cobb, Lewis, 1854. 

Colby, J. A., 1852-4. 

Cowles, Jos., 1853. 

Cowles, E. S., 1894-6. 

Cringle, E. P., 1878-9-80-1. 
*Dakin, , 1870. 

Davis, J., 1S70-1. 
*Decker, Thos. B., 1S60-2. 

Degnan, T. J., 1894-6. 

Detwiller, J. J., 1876-7. 

DeWitt, C. A., 1870-1. 
*Dickinson, W. L., 1859-60-S-9-71. 

Dieffenbach, F., 1873. 

Ditmar, A. J., 1869-71. 

Douglas, Wm. P., 1872-3. 

Down, James, 1S72. 



146 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



"Members of the Board ok Euucation — Continued. 



Dugan, E. A., 1887-8. 
*Earle, Thomas, 1863-4. 

Edelstein, John, 1S69. 

Edge, Benj., 1S85-6, 

Edge, Isaac, 1S69. 
•Ege, H. N., 1872-3. 

Finck, M., 1881-3. 

Fleming, James, 1S52-62. 

Ford, George, 1854-6. 

Gaddis, A. A., 1870-1. 

Garrison, B. S., 18S9-90-1-2-3. 

Gennocchio, J. B., 1870-1. 
*Gopsill, James, 1867. 

Gorman, J. H., 1869. 

Gould, David, 1853-66. 

Greene, H. A., 1856-9. 
•Gregory, D. S., 1858-9. 

Griffiths, J., 1858-61. 

Haight, J. B., 1855-6. 

Hancox, Clement, 1857-9. 

Hart, \Vm. O,, 1865-6. 
•Hardenbergh, A. A., 1858-9. 

Heins, J. D., 1874-5. 

Henwood, H., 1865-7-70-1. 

Hillier, G. B., 1872-4. 

Hollins, F. C, 1874-5. 

Holmes, James, 1853. 

Hope, A. D., 1852. 

Horsley, , 186 1-3. 

Homblower, J., 1883-4-6-7. 

Hoos, Ed., 1893-5. 

Insley, H. A., 1854. 

Jeliffe, W. H., 1857-9. 

Jewell, A. S., 1853-4. 

Jewell, C. C, 1873-4-5-6. 

Jones, J. M., 1892-4. 

Jordan, R. S., iSSo-i. 

Kelly, John, 1883-4. 

Kelly, H. A., 1SS8-9.90-1-2. 

Lacy, Thomas T., 1855-66. 

Laird, W. R., 1SS2-3-4-5. 

Laverty, P. H., 1S72-3. 

Lyman, L. C, 1S52. 

Lyon, John H., 1863-8. 

Lyon, William J., 1S74-5. 

Male, Job, 1S63-6. 

Mangels, J. P., 1SS3-4-6-7. 

Mason, Mial, iSSo-i. 

McAnemy, J., 1S70-1. 

McCabc, j. II., i,S6i-3. 

McCoy, J. \V.. 1S52-4.63-9. 

McDonald, T. J., 1S74-5. 

*Ex-officio members. 



McGill, J. D., 1879-80-2-3. 
McGrath, J. A., 1873-4-5-6. 
McNaughton, 1878-9. 
Mercein, J. R., 1875-6. 
Miller, George, 1872-3. 
Miller, J. D., 1860-2. 
Miller, J. S., 1870-3. 
Mills, C. D., 1864-6-70-1. 
Moore, Chas. H., 1878-9. 
Moran, M. P., 1887-8-9-90-1-2-3. 
Morris. T. F., 1879-80-1-2. 
Morris, W. C, 1852-3. 
Muldoon, P., 1887-8-9-90-1-2-3. 
Murphy, Jos., 18S1-2. 
Murphy, E. L., 1872-3. 
Norton, T. H., 1870-3. 
Norton, Thos. N., 1877-8. 
Nugent, P. H., 1870-1. 
Obergfell, W. M., 1893-5. 
Olney, E., 1852. 
O'Mara, John, 1870-1. 
O'Neil, C. H., 1868-72. 
O'Sullivan, J. F., 1876-7-8-9. 
Pangbom, J. \V., 1872-4-5-6. 
Parker, J, A., 1876-7. 
Parker, J. W., 1852-8. 
Pearsall, \Vm., 1873. 
Perkins, G. F., 1885. 
Pcr\'eil, C. W., 1865-8-70-1. 
Pfingsten, C. A., 1888-9-90-1-2. 
Potter, Thomas, 1872-3. 
Plympton, G. S., 1876-7. 
Ramsey, Alex., 1854-6. 
Randall. E., 1852-3. 
Randolph, B. F., 1865-9. 
Record, George L., 1885-6. 
Reid, John, 1S89-90-1-2-3. 
Richardson, R. T., 1877-8-9-80. 
Rittcr, W. F., 1883-4. 
Roe, C. A., 1882. 
Robinson, Francis, 1S64-6. 
Romaine, Isaac. 1.S80- 1-3-4. 
Romar, J. B., 1867-S. 
Rooncy, C. J , 1 870-1. 
Rowe, John, 1S78-9. 
Ryan, Patrick, 1S70-1. 
Ryer.son, J. A., 1854. 
Sanborn, Hiram M., 1875-6. 
Schcrmcrhorn, L., 1873-4. 
.Scmler. Peter, 1873-4-5-6-8-9-80. 
Shain, F. W., 1893-4. 
Sherwood, T. P., 1885-6. 




w ^-^1' v^'^Ed-'), 






'ifl^^' 



y^^' 



•|TV ll.M.l, I. C1\1MI>S1(IN 



6. William U. Tallman. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 
Members ok the Board of Edication — Continued. 



147 



Simmons, W. H., 1SS2-3-4. 
Simpson, R. A., 1S94. 
Slater, Justus, 1855-S. 
Smith, A. T., 1S54-7 
Soper, James, 1 870-1. 
Soule, H. M„ 1852-62. 
Spencer, D. L., 1S79-80-2-3. 
Startup, Wm., 1X62-5. 
Steger, Emil, 1870-1. 
Tate, J. R., 1.S70-1. 
Terrill, S. R., 1S61. 
Theis, Charles, 1872-3. 
Thomas, H. A., 1 87 2-3. 
Thomas, \Vm. H., 1873-4-5-6-7. 
Thurston, J. V., 1S60-1. 
Tiemey, Miles, 1S68-71. 
Tilden, C, 1 87 7-8. 
Traphagen, H. M., 1861-4. 
Van Buskirk, J. A., 1858-61. 
Vanderbeek, I. I., 1867-71. 
Vanderzee, W. L., 1885. 



Van Doren, Jos., 1862-5. 
Van Houten, E., 1882-3. 
Van Riper, B., 1884. 
Van Vorst, John, 1870- 1. 
Van Vorst, C, 1 860-1. 
Voorhees, J. J., 18S6-7-8-9-90-1. 
Vreeland, G., 1870-1. 
Vroom, P. D., 1852-64. 
Wakeman, E. B., 1852. 
Wallis, A. H., 1 870- 1. 
Walker, John A., 1885-6-95. 
Warner, James, 1 859-60-3-8-70-1. 
Warwick, Robert, 1884. 
Wells, Umstead, 1878-9. 
Welsh, B. F., 1870. 
Wester\-elt, J. C, 1870-1. 

Wilcox, , 1854. 

Wild, Henry, 1867-8 
Wickware, M. S., 1859-62-S-9. 
Witsch, Otto, 1879-80-1-2. 
Woodruflf, W. T., 1857-9. 



Ro.MAN Catholic Schools. 

The Roman Catholics have organized a .school system of their own, which now numbers 
sixteen schools, with an enrollment of 7,643 pupils and 125 teachers. The first Catholic school 
was opened in 1844 in the basement of St. Peter's Church, at no Grand Street, on the site now 
occupied by St. Aloysius Academy. The second was a pay school, kept by Morgan Nolan, on 
Grand Street, between Hudson and Greene, in 1847. In 185 i a Mr. Smith opened another, in 
Grove Street, near Fifth. The parochial school in St. Peter's became a free school in 185 1 and 
had 200 male and 220 female pupils. James Brann was principal in the male department and 
Henry Brann assistant ; Margaret Carey was principal in the female department and Mars- 
Dickinson assistant. 

The present list of schools comprises St. Peter's College, on Grand Street, under the charge 
of the Society of Jesu.s, with 9 professors and 150 students; St. Aloysius Academy, for girls, 
on Grand Street, under the charge nf 10 sisters, with 170 pupils; St. Mary's Academv, on 
Jersey Avenue, with 7 teachers and 140 pupils; Sacred Heart of Jesus and Mar^' Academy, on 
Jersey Avenue, with 4 teachers and 100 pupils; St. Dominic's Academy, with 10 teachers and 
135 pupils. The parochial schools: St. Peter's, 15 teachers and 900 pupils; St. Boniface, 6 
teachers and 279pu])ils; St. Bridget's. 19 teachers and 1,052 pupils; St. Joseph's, 11 teachers 
and 725 pupils ; St. Lucy's, with 6 teachers and 441 pupils ; St. John's, 8 teachers and 496 pupils ; 
St. Mar>-'s, 18 teachers and 1,270 pupils; St. .Michael's, 10 teachers and 650 pupils; St. Nicholas, 
4 teachers and 253 pupils; St. Paul of the Cross, 7 teachers and 373 pupils, and St. Paul's, 10 
teachers and 489 pupils. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

CITY INSTITUTIONS CITV MALI. POSI-OFFICK LIIV, CHRIsr AND ST. FRANCIS HOSPITALS 

PUBLIC LIBRARY HO.MK FOR 1 HE HOMF.LF.SS — CHILDRKx's HOMK HO.ME FOR AGED WOMEN. 

?^N the early days of Jersey City the towa house was used for a school in the daytime 
and for official ineetintjs in the eveninjj. Later the city officials met in hotels and 
halls. The selectmen held meetings in the Hudson House, on Grand Street ; in 
Hug^h McCutcheon's hotel, on York Street ; in Buck's hotel, on York Street ; in 



M 



Temperance Hall, at Gregory and Montgomen,^ and in the Lyceum Hall, on Grand Street. 

The town committee of Van Vorst met in the Weavers' Arms ; in David Bedford's 
tavern, on Newark Avenue : in the parlor of one of the members, and in the meeting room of 
Washington Fire Engine house, now fire headquarters. 

The town committee and common council of Hudson City met in an old church on Oak- 
land Avenue, the site of which is now occupied by the Third Precinct station-house. 

The town committee of Bergen met in various taverns until the township was very much 
reduced in size by the lopping off of Jersey City, Van Vorst, Hudson City, Bayonne and 
Greenville. The first regular meeting place was Smith's hall, at the junction of Jewett, Storm 
and Summit avenues. When this hall was burned down the common council met in Belmont 
Hall, on Monticello Avenue. It found a permanent home at Library Hall after a city charter 
was obtained. When the city was consolidated the city hall of Jersey City became the only 
one for all sections. 

In 1 860 the business of the common council in Jersey City had increa.sed with the growing 
population, and the quarters rented in Lyceum Hall became inadequate. A committee, in 
searching for a site, chose a plot on the corner of Cooper's Alley and Newark Avenue. This 
was a central location, as the city was then constituted, and on the main thoroughfare. At that 
time there was a row of two-story dwellings on the south side of Xewark Avenue, extending 
west from Cooper's Alley. These houses were white-painted frame structures and had front 
yards, ornamented with lilacs and hollyhocks. They were built by Dudley S. Gregory, and 
when new were ver\' comfortable little houses. Two of them were torn down to make way for 
the new city hall. Stephen Ouaife was appointed as architect for the building and the contract 
was awarded to Evan Jones & Co. There were twelve competitors when the bids were 
opened on July 3, 1S60, but through .some oversight the amounts of the bids were not recorded. 
The cost of the city hall can only be learned from the record of the bonds i.ssucd to pay for it. 
The land cost $1 1,500, including the houses that were on it. The building cost Sj;3,645, making 
the total cost §35,145. During the same year the police stati<in and bell tower was built at the 
comer of Gregory Street and Cooper's Place, in the rear of the city hall. The bell tower was 
built on the roof of the station-house, and was removed about ten years later because it en- 
dangered the building. The station-house did duty for thirty years, and was torn down to 
make way for the present police headquarters building. The old station-house was built by 
Hunt & Armstrong, a Xew York firm. 

The city hall was known officially as the " Temporary City Hall." The men who were in 
charge of the city government at that time recognized the future that was before the city and 
knew that it would not be many years before the needs of the municipality would demand a 
more commodious building. In KS70, when it was propo.sed to build a new city hall for the 
consolidated citv. Mayor O'Xcill. in a message to the board of aldermen, said the temporarv 
city hall would do until the city reached its growth and included the rest of the county. 

The last meeting of the common council held in the Lyceum was made memorable by an 
address delivered by H(m. A. A. Hardcnhcrgh, the president of the council, in which he elo- 
quently bid farewell to the old hall. On April i, i86i, the new city hall was completed and 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 149 

thrown open for public insjiection. It was crowded with visitors all day. The first meeting 
of the common council was held in the council chamber on the nitfht of April 2, 1862, less than 
ten mcpnths after the contract was awarded. The council chamber was the finest meetint; room 
in the city. It was artistically frescoed by a brother of (len. Garibaldi, who was one of the 
Italian refu.L;ccs at that time, and had found employment with Henry Steffins, who had the con- 
tract for paintinj^ the city hall. The wall l)ehind tl'.e president's desk represented a Venetian 
scene from a columned piazza, and was very effective. About thirty-two years later a house 
painter was emplnyed to decorate the chamber, and he retouched the dainty .scene with bar- 
barous eftcct. 

The old chamber has been the scene of many exciting' events, and much of the city's his- 
or)' has been made within its walls. Here patriotic meetings were held in war times; here the 
sanitan.' fairs were held to provide aid for woimded soldiers ; here the sympathy of the people 
was expressed for victims of disaster in sister cities, and here mass meetings have been held to 
express the wishes or indignation of the people on many municipal subjects. Here aldermen 
have turned on floods of eloquence and wrangled over matters great and small, and now it is 
to be abandoned. 

The city outgrew the temporary city hall long ago. The fire board, the board of educa- 
tion, the street and water board and the police board have quarters and offices elsewhere. 
Citizens having business with the several departments have to travel considerable distances to 
accomplish their errands. Even in the matter of paying taxes the house-owner must go to the 
city hall to pay city taxes, and to the street and water office on Jersey Avenue to pay water 
taxes. A desire to concentrate all the city offices in one place gave birth to the new citv hall. 

On April 5, 11SS7, (Jov. (Ireen approved an act authorizing the mayor to appoint three com- 
missi(mers to select a site and build a new city hall. The time was not propitious, and no action 
was taken until February 10. iSgo, when Mayor Cleveland appointed James Burke, Emil E. 
Datz and John Pearson as the mmmissioners. They held their first meeting on June 9, 1S90, 
and organized by elcctin;r John Pearson president and Frederick Kissam clerk. Xo change has 
been made in the organization except in the clerk. George F. Farrell was appointed to succeed 
Kissam on January 10, 1S92. The tinancial question caused some delay in selecting a site, and 
the commissioners examined i number of sites before selecting a plot fronting on Henderson 
Street, between Mercer and Montgomer\-, and extending back 150 feet. On December 17. 1S91, 
they got an extension of fifty feet, making the plot 200 feet square. Plans were advertised for 
on April 25, 1892, and a number of architects competed. The office of the mayor was deco- 
rated with pictures of possible city brills for a month. While the plans were under consideration 
the Board of Trade held several meetings to consider the advisability of buying the whole block 
and having the city hall erected in a small park. On June 2, 1892, the Board of Trade recom- 
mended the purcha.se of the entire block and the commissioners decided to wait until the 
citizens had applied to the I^.•gi^lature for authority to make the purchase. In the meantime 
the four plans which had been most favorably considered were selected from the competition. 
They were marked "O. I. C." -'Maltese Cross," "Hudson" and "Unity." The award of the 
contract to " O. I. C." revealed the identity of the architect, and L. H. Broome took charge of 
the building. The Maltese cross plan was awarded $250. the Hudson plan S150 and the Unity 
Sioo. The land was purchased and the whole block included in the site before any work was 
done. The owners of the houses on Montgomery Street were : Ann Miller, GeorgeR. McKen- 
zie, Helene Hinsc, Horace H. Farrier. Martin Devitt and James T. Gough. There were nine 
plots, including over a dozen houses, and the award for them was S142.550. On the Henderson 
Street front the owners were: Julius C. Wittpen. (;eorge H. Klink, Hugh Cranshaw, John 
Whitfield, George W. Morris. Mary F. Brown, Robert R. Stcriing, W. S. Weed, Philip Growney, 
Sarah C. Van Zandt and the estate of Daniel Keenan. The award was §79,500. The owner's' 
on the Mercer Street front were : Margaret Granger, James Hunt, John Edelstein, D. E. Cleary, 
John Durkin, Peter P. Smith, Thomas J. Mann .and August Fengado. The award was 874,375' 
On the Grove Street front the owners were : \V. W. Van Cleef. Amelia Hammond, Lizzie Fos- 
dick, Patrick Rooney. William R(jl>ertson, Martha Bumsted and Mary Ann Bumsted. The 
award was S9''.''oo- The thirty-five plots and the buildings on tliem aggregated 8,593,025. The 
contracts for work <in the building were awarded late in 189;, and it was December 28, 1893, 
when work actually began. The contracts and contractors were : Richard English, mason 



•5° 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



work, $236,436 ; John Kicrnan, carpL-nter work, §75,000 ; W. W. Farrier, plumbing work, §18,160 ; 
Patrick Connolly, pile-drivinjj, §13,646.56. Total, §343,243.56. niakinjj, with land damage, $736,- 
267.56. The corner-stone was laid at 12 o'clock on Mav 26, 1S94, with but little ceremony, and 
the work will be completed on Januan,- i, 1S96. 

The Post-Okfice. 

The early residents in the territory now embraced in Jcrsev City had little use for a post- 
office. Their letters were sent either to Newark or Xew York, and remained until called for. 
The few business men had their letters sent in care of the wholesale dealers who supplied them, 
and thus prevented extreme maturity in their mails. 'When the Associates of the Jersey Com- 
pany secured control of Paulus Hook, they had manv schemes which thcv thought would help 
their little city to grow. One of these was to have a post-office created on the Jersey side of 
the river. A petition was sent to Gideon (.Granger, postmaster-general at that time, and so strong 
was the influence of the Associates that a post-office was created. The first postmaster was 
Samuel Beach, whose appointment was dated January i, 1S07. The post-office is recorded at 
Washington as Jersey City, Bergen County, N. J. Beach held the office for several years and 

was succeeded by Waters 
Smith on January i, 1813. 
He failed to qualify, and 
Charles A. Jackson was ap- 
pointed on February 20th 
of the same year. He was 
followed by Daniel Hin- 
man who was appointed 
March i, 1815. He retain- 
ed It but little over six 
months, when he was su- 
perseded by Joseph Lyon. 
He was lessee of the ferry 
and kept the hotel. The 
office was in the hotel office 
for five years. William 
Lyons was appointed July 
20, 1820, and served fifteen 
years. William R. Taylor 
next took it on May 2, 1835, 
and held it until May 21, 
1837, when Samuel Brid- 
gart, a grocer, was appointed. Feeling ran high during the campaign of 1840, and Brid- 
gart infused some politics into the postal arrangements. One of the early results of the 
whig victory was the appcjintment on July 26. 1S41, of David Smith, a general storekeeper. 
His place was one of popular resort, on the northwest comer of (irand and Greene streets. He 
lived above the store. The old building was removed to a new site on (Jrand Street near Mill 
Creek a few years ago. and is still standing. While David Smith wa.s postmaster, the name of 
the office was changed to Jersey City, Hudson County. 

When James K. Polk became president, the change was made apparent by a change of 
postmasters. Thomas J. Frost was appfiinted June 18, 1.S45. He soon wearied, and John 
Ogden was appointed on August 26, 1S45. He resigned the following year, and Samuel Brid- 
gart was reappointed on August 1 7, i S46. He moved the office to his gri>cery, and kept it until 
June I, 1849, when President Taylor's administration made anothcrchange possible, and David 
Smith was reappointed. Under his charge tlic Ini.siness of the office increased rapidly, and on 
August 27, 1S50, it was made a first-class ottice. Smith remained in charge until another demo- 
cratic administratiim came in. with the election of Franklin Pierce. Samuel M. Chambers was 
appointed postmaster on April 6, 1853. He moved tlie office from Smith's store to 66 Washing- 
ton Street, where it remained until 18(17, when he iiioveil to 121 Washington Street. The elec- 
tion of Lincoln caused the next change. Henry A. Greene w;is appointed April 6, i86i,and re- 





.A 

i 


f- """ -■ ,>,^ •' 


i 

3 

( 



U. S. POSl-OFUCK. 



A 



^ Tfi 



\r\ , ;!i,ji:!s>ii ;;T75p'(nit! 



xi:w ciTv iiAi.L. ji;ksi;y citv. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. ,5, 

mained in office eijjhteen years. He retained the office that had been fitted up by Chambers 
until 1867, when he moved to 117 Washinijton Street. A few years later he moved to the 
basement of the Hud.son County Bank Buildiny, at 351 \Vashinj,'-ton Street. The office was 
there several years. In 187.; Congressman Georpfe A. Halsey, of Newark, secured an appm- 
priation of $100,000 to build a post-otfice for Jersey City. The amount was inadequate, and a 
compromise was made between what was possible and what the city needed. The Greyon- 
residence at the comer of Su.ssex and Washing-ton streets was bought, and somewhat altered to 
suit it for postal business. As soon as the new building- was read}' for occupancy Greene 
moved the post-office, and for twenty years the building has served its purpose. On November 
3, 1879, John G. (jopsill was appointed postmaster, and continued until Januarv 10, 18S8. when 
John F. Kelly was appointed. Another change in the administration was followed bv the ap- 
pointment of Col. Samuel D. Dickinson on June 4, 18S9. During his incumbency the ground 
floor of the building was extended northward, and the accommodations niateriallv increased. 
On April 5, 1894, Robert S. Jordan was appointed. He is the present incumbent. 

The first postmaster in Bergen was Daniel Van "Winkle, who was appointed in 1S70. He 
kept the office in his store on the corner of Communipaw Avenue and the old Bergen Point 
road, now Garfield Avenue. The first postmaster in Hudson City was H. A. Hellerman, and 
he kept the office on Newark Avenue near the Bergenwood Road, now Summit Avenue. He 
was appointed in 1871. In 1874 the Bergen post-office was made a sub-station of the Jersey 
City post-office as Station B, and W. Van Zee was made superintendent. The same year the 
Hudson City office was changed to Station H, and Postmaster Hellerman was retained as 
superintendent. In 1876 G. W. Famham was made superintendent of the Bergen station. 

For a number of years after an office was opened in Jersey City no letters were delivered 
at the hou.ses. All who suspected that there might be letters for them called at the office and in- 
quired for them. Once a week the list of letters remaining in the office was published in the 
newspapers. Later, private individuals were authorized to deliver letters, and thev charged 
one cent each, which was collected from the recipients of the letters and was the onlv compen- 
sation allowed to the carriers. After the .war carriers were appointed and half-a-dozen men 
were sufficient. There are now ninety carriers and fourteen substitutes. The two sub-stations 
have been increased to nine. There are five stamp agencies and two hundred lamp-po.'-t 
boxes. The receipts of the office in 1893 were $202,470, and the total expense of operation 
was $77,787.22. 

The City Hospital. 
When Surveyor Mangin made a map of Paulus Hook for the Associates of the Jersey 
Company he laid out a plot at the fool of Washington Street for a public market. It was on a 
point of land that projected into South Cove. The Associates intended to build a market- 
house in the middle of the street with room on each side for market wagons. A bulkhead was 
to be built along the sciuthern side to afford a landing for market boats. Something like 
Washington market in New York was intended. This plot was not sold with the rest of the 
property when Anthony Dey transferred his purchase to Col. Varick. After the Morris Canal 
was built the plot was isolated and insulated. In the cholera epidemic, which visited New 
York during the eariy part of this century-, a small pest-house was built on this island, and on 
several occasions it was used for small-pox patients. It was abandoned for several years and 
was finally turned to acci>unt as a poorhouse. It was given up in 1861, when the Snake Hill 
institution was built, and no jjractieal use was made of it until 1866, when it was u.sed for 
cholera cases. On December 15, i,S68, the aldermen by ordinance made the plot the Jer.sev 
City Charity Hospital. It was enlarged and did good service, but it was too small for the 
needs of the cimimunky, and tlie growth of manufacturing establishm.ents made that section of 
the city undesirable. In iSS. .-i new site was secured on Baldwin Avenue near Montgomery 
Street, and a large hospital building w.as erected. The appropriation was not sufficient to 
cover the expense of furnishing, and a theatrical entertainment was arranged at the Academy 
of Music to supply the deticiency. The hospital was fini.shed in December, 18S2, and wa.s 
opened at once with George < ). ( )sl>orne as warden. He still retains the position, and much ..1 
the success of tlic institution has been due to his faithful ser\-ice. 

In 1S85 the name of the hospital was changed from Charity to City Hospital. The <ii- 
mands upon the hospital grew with the growth of the city, and a few years ago it became iieee-. 



'52 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



sary to add a second hosjiital buildinsf. The cild buildinjj was set apart for male patients, and 
the new one is used for female patients. The hospital j^rtmnds are larjje and well kept, and the 
location is one of the healthiest in the eity. The buildings comprised in the institution are the 
two hospitals with over a hundred beds in the wards, the stable and dead-hou.se, and the warden's 
house, which contains tlie pharmacy and dispen.sary, tlie warden's office and rooms for the em- 
ployees and resident physicians. The staff is composed of the best surjjeons and physicians in 
the city, who .tjive their services without char^.'-e. It is under the control of the police depart- 
ment, and the committee in ehari^e has always been well chosen and effective. Among^ the 
more interested of the commis.sioncrs who have siiven the hospital their attention the most con- 
spicuous ser\-ices have been rendered bv Commissioners Van Riper, Roberts, Feenev, Benson 
and Abemethy, thouj^h there have been others who devoted a jjrcat deal of time to the institu- 
tion. Samuel D. Kay, the pharmacist, has served continuously for twenty-five years, and aver- 
ages 1, 800 prescriptions a month, and has made over 1,300 miles of bandaijes for wounds since 
his connection with the institution. Two ambulances are kept busy in brinrjinjj in cases. The 
large number of railroads converging in the city, and the number of manufacturing places, 
cause a great many accidents, and give the hospital a high death-rate because many of the 
cases received are hopelessly injured. The staff of the hospital is : fleorge O. Osborne, warden ; 

Samuel D. Kay. pharma- 
cist; Mrs. G. O. Osborne, 
matron ; AV. W. \"arick, 
president of the medical 
board ; W. J. Parker, sec- 
retary ; surgeons — W. W. 
Varick, John D. McGill, 
Gordon K. Dickinson, E. 
P. Buffett, I. N. Ouimby 
and T. J. M. McLaughlin ; 
physicians — W. P. Watson, 
W. J. Parker, J. J. Eaa- 
man, S. V. W. Stout, John 
H. Finnerty and A. J. 
Loomis. The house phy- 
sician is Dr. Bone, the am- 
biilance surgeon. Dr. Pol- 
lard, and the nurses, C. W. 
Moore, Robert Silver, W. 
H. Goldey, Peter Seaman, 
William Boyce, Maggie 
Dolan. Ella Regan, Catha- 
rine Scully and Mary Wyatt. Some idea can be formed of the amoimt of work accomplished 
in the hospital by the following synopsis of work done .'■■.ince Warden Osborne has been in 
charge of the hospital : 






>»H, 



*; ■^. 






'% J^^^t^^r^ 







■^ ^w^ ^ ^jajrin^rsggai^ia^j^SiJ 









:i I V uiiMM I \i 





Total 


i)i>Lirii 


Ili^Lh'd 


SciUt.. 




Sup^ital 


Medical 


.-\nd)iilanco 


Prescrip- 


Vears. 


treatt d. 


CUlL-d. 


.mp'.l. 


C... In~ 


Died, 


Disp. 


Disp. 


calls. 


tions tilled 


1882 


31- 


-:!7 


M 


9 


.>9 


562 


3=4 


-'95 


6.321 


1883 


494 


2,S8 


4^ 


'4 


47 


79^ 


5 -'3 


375 


7.4 = 8 


1884 


594 


4f.6 


4S 


16 


^'4 


S74 


630 


41 = 


.'^,73 = 


1885 


6S9 


506 


75 


^7 


Si 


.,046 


79° 


504 


9.7*^4 


1886 


SSj 


69, 


.So 


24 


«7 


I,2^S 


S75 


596 


io,7S2 


1887 


956 


70(1 


1 13 


-9 


107 


',624 


966 


703 


ii.Sii 


1888 


1,016 


044 


105 


.i9 


1 13 


'.•'*.?5 


1.209 


657 


I 1 .890 


1889 


'.'77 


7 13 


--5 


55 


TOO 


l,.Si,S 


1.390 


768 


".934 


1890 


'.-5 ' 


75- 


-i'^' 


5& 


[(;9 


2.^27 


1,508 


681 


".747 


1891 


'..»-,? 


740 


-45 


1 22 


14S 


2.420 


1.3 = 7 


73S 


".3 = 5 


189.' 


'..U.'^ 


749 


-49 


9.-1 


141 


4, "8 


1.217 


73S 


'3.'U7 


■S93 


'..•,0^> 


.S24 


-5 ' 


96 


'5 1 


4.095 


1,97-' 


691 


'9.79' 



II.43S 



=2.946 



7,'5« 








UJ^ 



i'^l'^- '»i"»-v-,' .«•*•«.. 

' ~^- ^'.«S;t *o ••s-i. . ; -. \ - - 






Q 






^--^■^^N^ 



L 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 153 

Christ Hospital. 

Rev. Richard M. AbL-rcrombie assumed pastoral char,^e of St. Matthew's Episcopal Church. 
on Sussex Street, Jersey City, in January, 1872. The vicinity of the church had in prior years 
been the home of the well-to-do and the social centre of the city. At that time it was under- 
going a chan},re. Factories and tenement houses were supplanting^ the homes of the wealthv. 
Dr. Abercronibie's duties brouj,'ht him in contact with the poor and suffering in an unusual 
degree. The suffering were rarely members of his church, but they excited his sympathv. 
They were human, and his religion was big enough to reach all who came within his knowledge. 
Out of that sympathy Christ Hospital was organized. 

A hospital had been organized in the hill .section and had bought the Tonelle mansion, on 
Magnolia Avenue. The enterprise failed, and when Dr. Abercrombie was looking for a con- 
venient place this building was brought to his attention. He had no money and could not buy 
it, but he rented it and began his good work, well equipped with faith and determination. He 
carried on the work until the double duty it entailed wore him out, and he died in the harness 
December 7, 18S4. He left no estate, but the generation that knew him was better because it 
had known him, and his memory is honored and cherished by all who knew him. as well as bv 
thousands whose bodily ills were ministered to through his labors. Ten years after his death 
memorial services were held in St. Matthew's Church to express a lively sense of his worth and 
the unfilled gap made by his removal. Rev. Fernando C. Putnam, rector of St. Paul's, was 
chaplain of the ho.spital from its opening until his death, October 30, 1886. He was an earnest 
christian worker, and to him the hospital owes the Daisy Ward, one of its distinctive features. 
Finding a ten cent piece as he was entering the gate one day he proposed to use it as the 
beginning of a special fund for the maintenance of a ward for children. He lived to see the 
" Daisy Ward " one of the most interesting departments in the hospital. 

The new hospital was ojjened for its work of mercy in November, 18S9. A plot of land 
with a frontage of 155 feet on Pali.sade Avenue and a depth of 225 feet was secured for $15,000, 
and the present building w.is erected at a cost of §46,000. Of this total cost of §61.000, there 
was $25,000 paid, and the remaming ,S.i6,ooo was provided for by a mortgage. The buildings 
consist of the main administration building, an operating room, wards for men, women and 
children, and rooms for pnv.ite patients. Sixty patients can be accommodated. The care of 
children is an especial feature. The practical work of the year 1893 is a specimen of what is 
done each year. The m-jiatients numbered 566, the patients in the eye and ear department 
numbered 274, and the dispensary patients 1,596, making a total of 2,436 sufferers who were 
relieved during the year. In 1892 the total was 2,184. The maintenance of the hospital in- 
volves an expense of $12,000 a year, and requires the close attention of the council and hospital 
guilds. The members of the council are : Rt. Rev. Thomas A. Starkey, bishop of the diocese, 
honorary president ; Rev. (leorge Stephen Bennitt, president ; J. Hull Browning, vice-president; 
John G. Crawford, secretary; lieorge H. White, treasurer; building fund treasurer, Edward 
H. Bearsc ; members. Rev. M. H. Throop, Rev. George S. Bennitt, Rev. F. E. Mortimer, Rev. 
W. P. Bru.sh, Rev. J. C. Ilewlitt, Rev. C. D. Chapman, Rev. E. L. Stoddard, Rev. D. F.Warren, 
Rev. W. R. Jenvey, Rev. G. C. Houghton, Rev. W. M. Sherwood, J. Hull Browning, James M. 
Erskine. S. I>. Maekey, Ji.lm I 'i Crawford, Robert L. Stevens, George H. White, Rev. James 
Cameron. R C. l"e-.sen(ien, M M. Doniinick, James Warner, E. H. Doughertv, W. F. Whitte- 
more, J. H. Gilmnre. Rev ]•" J. Clayton, E. H. Bear.se, A. S. Baldwin, J. C. Besson, George W. 
Young, R. H. Riddick, Lnisley Rowe. Honorary members, Rt. Rev. N. S. Rulison, D. D., Rev. 
W. W. Hnlley. I). I).. Rev. J. F. lUitterworth. Thoma.s W. James, William T. Evans, James D. 
Simons; ehaplaiii. Rev. I)aiiiel F. Warren, I). I). ; superintendent. Miss Janet Gahring ; collector. 
Rev. B. R. I'helps 

The rei)nrt (^f the liniince enmmittee for December 30, 1893, .showed that the cost of land, 
building and furniture in the new hos])ital was $62,000, and at that date the mortgage had been 
reduced to $30,000. The training sehi">l for nurses was established in 1890, and provides, by 
lectures, clinics and actual hospit.d exiK-rienee, a thorough course of instruction. In 1893 there 
were five graduates and ten pupil-nurses. 

The Ladies' Guild was organi/.ed in 1S76 under the direction of Rev. Dr. Abercrombie. It 
was legally incori'orated in 18M5, under the name of the Abercrombie Guild. It is auxiliary to 
the council ; its ohject is to secure money and supplies for the current expenses of the hi'vim.d. 



154 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

and to collect and invest money for the endowment of the beds, in order that a fund may in 
time be created that will make the hospital self-sustaining-. It has collected and invested for 
endowment the sum of 836,353.97. Durinsf 1893 it also contributed $::,i3S.73 to the current ex- 
penses. The members of the Guild are : Mrs. J. Hull Browninjf. president ; Mrs. R. B. Stimble, 
vice-president; Mrs. Alexander McLean, secretary; Miss M. C. Barry, treasurer. Active mem- 
bers : Mrs. J. Anderson, Mrs. A. K. Applcton, Miss C. Barn-, Miss Battin, Mrs. H. L. Booraem. 
Mrs. C. F. Bound, Mrs. R. Boulton, Mrs. E. L. Bradley, Miss C. Cauter, Mrs. J.mies Dall, Miss 
E. Dummer, Miss Fiijuera, Mrs. V. A. Grote, Mrs. Benj. Illingworth, Mrs. \V. R. Jenvey, Mrs. 

A. Johnston, Miss M. .S. Kin.ijsland, Mrs. J. W. Lincoln. Miss J. McMichaul. Mrs. S. Peacock, 
Mrs. F. Pcet, Mrs. R. H. Riddick, Mrs. T. H. Smith, Mrs. S. Stanford. Mrs. Stearns. Mrs. M. 

B. Stevens, Mrs. E, Stone, Mrs. S F. Tilden, Miss A. A. Tripp, Mrs. J. M. Vidal, Mrs. J. G. 
Welch, Mrs. S. A. AVinficld and Miss Addie Thoma.s. 

Associate members: Mrs. Spencer Aldrich, Mrs. A. Alexander, Mrs Barkalew, Mrs. G. S. 
Bennitt, Miss B. Brice, Miss Brettell, Mr.s. A. C. Brooks, Mrs. \V. I'. Brush, Mrs. A. Crevelinjr, 
Mrs. M.E. Chamberlin, Mrs. F. Chamberlin, Mrs. G. W. Cauter, Mrs. W. H. Daly, Mrs. J. M. 
Erskine, Mrs. M. M. Fotherg:ill, Mrs. A. O. Garretson. Mrs. J. Garriek, Mrs. Knox, Mrs. H. 
E. Niese, Mrs. D. F. Xorris, Mrs. H. C. Jones, Mrs H. H. Kimball, Mrs. G. Pattison, Mrs. Rob- 
erts, Mrs. J. D. Probst, Mr.s. D. F. Warren, Mrs. M. E. Tripp, Mrs. E. C. Webb, Mrs. J. J. 
Voorhis. Honorar}' members : Mrs. M. Abercrombie Miller. Miss Berret. 

The St. Mar)''s Guild, auxiliary to the council (inanee committee, has committees that at- 
tend to reading in the wards, supplying flowers, providing delicacies, and .sewing and mending 
for the hospital. It also has 438 mite boxes distributed, and its committees make periodical 
visits to collect contributions to the hospital given in that manner. This Guild collected 
$1,400.40 during 1893. The officers are : Miss Cornelia Barn-, president ; Mrs. E. W. Hodsdon, 
vice-president ; Mrs. A. C. Brooks, secretary- : Miss Marion Canol, treasurer ; Miss Cornelia 
Barry, treasurer of mite chests ; Mi.ss F. L. Brown, a.ssistant treasiirer. The active mem- 
bers are : Mrs. A. K. Appleton, Mrs. C. F. Bound, Mrs. R. Blakely, Miss F. L. Brown, Mrs. A. 

C. Brooks, Miss M. Canol, Mrs. J. Coons, Miss E. Dummer, Mrs. J. Dall, Mrs. E. Davis, Miss 

E. Earle, Miss L. W. Elliott, Miss X. H. Coffin, Mrs. J. (iarrick. Mrs. E. W. Hodsdon, Mrs. C. S. 
Jacobs, Miss E. M. Lewis, Miss A. Flcmming. Miss S. Gratf. Mi.ss S. Haight, Miss E. J. Mills, 
Mrs. E. Stanford, Miss H. Tomlins, Miss E. Vreeland, Mrs. T. H. Smith, Miss M. Philbrook, 
Miss J. M. Voorhis, Miss A. H. Thomas, Miss M. E. Butler. Mrs. A. Creveling. Miss M. R. Brett, 
Miss C. L. Cauter, Miss M. Collard, Miss R. Cole. Miss J. Dobson, Miss V. A. Doggett, Miss K. 
H. DuBois, Miss E. T. Carswell, Miss E. AV. Elliott. Miss G. M. Coftin. Miss L. Erickson, Mrs. 

F. D. Gray, Mrs. G. R. Hough, Mrs. C. R. King. Mi.ss Magmley, .Miss E. C. Ogden. Miss A. E. 
Godden, Miss M. S. Kingsland, Mrs. F. Pcet, Mrs. R. Stevens. Miss M. Vultee. Mrs. V. D. 
Wienges, Mrs. G. M. Mead, Miss G. Grimes, Mi.ss L. Wardwell. Miss A. A. Tripp, Mrs. R. H. 
Riddick. 

Associate members: Mrs. A. Alexander, Miss S. Edgcworth, Mrs. J. Hunt, Miss J. Kirk- 
patrick, Mrs. W. S. Cerren, Miss L. Osborne. Mrs. H. L. Bcinraeni, Mrs. Dawson, Miss A. Lewis, 
Mrs. F. Relyea, Mrs. M. B. Lyons. Miss M. \\'(.!bert. Mrs. G. Wil.scn. 

Honorarj- members : Miss M. C Barry. Mrs. G. S. Bennitt. Mrs. J. Hull Browning, Miss 
Janet Gahring. 

The medical board consists of these surgeons and physicians, who give their services w-ith- 
out compensation : Frank D. Gray, president ; Conrad \Vicnges, secretary ; W. R. Fisher, E. G. 
Jancway, consulting ])hysicians ; L. A. Stimscm, consulting surgecm ; Cnnrad Wienges, Bur- 
dette P. Craig. Calvin F. Kyte, Ulamor Allen, attending i)iiysicians ; H. Melville Smith, (jordnn 
K. Dickinson, Frank D. Gray. John J. Bauman. attcndingsurgeons ; Arthur T, Mu/.zy. ophthal- 
mologist ; Gordon K. Dickinson, patliologist ; Joim C. Parsons, curator; ICIbcrt M. Somcrs, 
house physician and surgeon ; Herbert B. Masten, assistant liouse ))hysician and surgeon 

S r. Fk.wt Is Ho^i'i 1 M 
The Sisters of the Poor of .St. Francis came to Jc-rscy City in the sjiring of 1S64 and opened 
a small asylum for the sick on the northe:ist comer of old Fourth and Coles streets. This 
hospital was a very small and primitive .ilfair. in a private dwelling, withmit a regular medi- 
cal statT. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 







T»' 









In the early part of 1869 the Sisters removed their hospital to a more commodious buildinjf 
in Second Street, which had been the pastoral residence of St. Mary's Parish. In 1869 the 
present site of the hospital was purchased, and the dwellins< upon it, with the addition of a new 
wing, constituted the hospital buildini;. This lot and dwellinjj cost $32,000, and the new wincf 
added $25,000. A plot c^f land adjoinin.,^, to the north, was bought soon afterward at a cost of 
$16,000, bringing the total cost up to $73,000. The hospital, as finished in 187 1, contained about 
one hundred beds in the wards. In 187 1 a regular medical and surgical staff was appointed. 
Up to this time medical .service had been given by a few physicians when called upon by the 
Sisters. The first medical and surgical staff consisted of these physicians: Surgeons— Theo- 
dore R. Varick, John U. McGill, U. L. Reeve and J. J. Prendergast. Physicians— J. E. Culver, 
A. A. Lutkins, T. F. Morris and H. Mitchell. Of these. Dr. J. D. McGill, now surgeon-general 
of the State, is the only active member of the staff in service. Dr. J. E. Culver is still con- 
nected with the hospital as a consulting physician. 

In 1881 another plot of ground south of the new wing was purchased, with a three-story 
brick building upon it, for $10,000. This was added to the hospital and increased the capacity 
twenty or thirty beds. St. Francis now had a frontage of 150 feet on Hamilton Square. In 
1885 a g\-necological ser\-ice was organized, and Dr. Nathan Bogeman, with his son as assistant, 
placed in charge. 

In November, 1S.S7, the 
hospital was sorely afflicted 
in the loss by death of Dr. 
T. R. Varick, who was 
then its medical director. 
Dr. Varick had always 
taken the greatest interest 
in the welfare of St. Fran- 
cis and had contributed 
largely to its success, par- 
ticularly in the realm of 
surgery. He was succeed- 
ed as medical director liy 
Dr. J. D. McGill 

In 1889 the erection i.f 
the preseni. hospital luiiUl- 
ing was commenced. The 
northerly portinn was l)iiilt 
first and the old portion 
used as a hospital until the 
newportion was completed. 
then the new part was occupied and the old structure torn down. This completed the hospital 
as it now stands. With the exception of the site occupied by the bank building on the north- 
west comer of Eric Street and Pavonia Avenue, the hospital buildings cover the entire block 
bounded by Erie and Ninth streets, Pavonia Avenue and Hamilton Square. The location is 
salubrious, convenient and handsome ; fronting upon Hamilton Park, it affords abundance of 
those desirable adjuncts to the successful treatment of the sick — fresh air and sunshine. The 
hospital has miw .1 inmtage uf two hundred feet on Hamilton Square, a depth of eighty-eight 
feet on Ninth Street, and ,i rc.ir facing of one hundred and twenty-five feet on Erie Street. 
with a south front of f.>ny-live feet on I'.ivoiiia Avenue. The main building faces the square, 
and, besides tlie cellar and ha^elnent. is tivc stories in height. The chapel occupies the ground 
south of the main building. The " accessory " building, containing boiler and engine-room, 
laundn.', stables, dc.ul-housc, and other necessary rooms, is situated on Erie and Ninth streets. 
The main buiUling is ili\idcd into muneroiis male and female wards and private rooms, boidcs 
the parlors, iitlices, (ihyMcians' .uul surgeons' rooms and apothecaries' rooms. The numlicr oi 
beds in the various wards is .ibont two linndred and fifty. xV fine, large steam elevator eonn'.ct-. 
the different stories from the cellar Two large, complete operating rooms, one for males, the 
other for females, are also in the main building, furnished with the latest imported ( \'ieii. 1.1 1 



^ 









^■^A 












!l S'.y 



vr. FR..INC1S HOSPllAI.. 



» 



iS6 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

aseptic operating- tables, steam sterilizers and furniture. Hot water is used to heat the hospital, 
and the latest methods of ventilation, with two lar^je fire-proof stairways are amonjj the de- 
sirable improvements. The exterior of the main buildinjj is plain and substantial but impos- 
ing from its extent and heiijht. The basement is of jrranite. and the superstructure of pressed 
brick with blvie stone trimminjjs. The stvle is a form of i^othic. 

This magnificent institution, complete in even,- way and admirably adapted to its mission, 
is all due to the tireless work and activity of the noble order of sisterhood who have charge of 
it. Their devotion to duty, indomitable courage and perseverance, energy and self-denial, 
have enabled the Sisters to give to Jersey City the most complete hospital in the State. St. 
Francis is not endowed. It is a distinctively charitable institution, dependent upon the public 
for its support. It receives no State or municipal aid. Its charities are free to all persons, 
irrespective of religious creeds, social condition, color or nationalitv. While under the direc- 
tion of a sisterhood of the Catholic Church, the hospital is strictly unsectarian in the exhibition 
of its charities. The success and reputation of the hospital in alleviation and cure of disease, 
and the wonderful success which has followed the manv and dithcult surgical operations per- 
formed within its walls, are matters generally known in Jersey Citv and its vicinity. 

The number of patients treated annually in St. Francis exceeds that of all other hospitals 
in Jersey City added together. Since August i, 1871, there have been 17,360 medical and 10,684 
surgical in-patients, making a total of 27,944 in twenty-three years. St. Francis has never had 
any out-door patients. 

The medical and surgical staff ser\-e without remuneration, and are appointed by the med- 
ical director with the approval of the Sister Superior. At present the medical board is consti- 
tuted as follows : 

Medical Director— John Dale McGill, M. D. 

Surgeons — John Dale McClill, M. D., Thomas James McLoughlin, M. D., Mortimer Lamp- 
son, M. D., Nathan Gross Bogeman, M. D. Assistant Surgeons — Edward Leonard Bull, M. D., 
William Franklin Faison, M. D., Christopher Dudley Hill, ^L D., John Edwin Corrigan, M. D. 
Consulting Surgeon — -Xathan Bogeman. Surgeon Dentist — (ieorge John Horning, D. D. S. 

Physicians — William James Parker, M. D., William Pern.' Watson. M. D., Hamilton Vree- 
land, M. D., John Xevin, M. D.. Burdette Post Craig'. M. D. A.ssistant Physician.s — John Joseph 
Broderick, M. D., Matthew Joseph Smith, M. D., OHver Rowland Blanchard, >L D. Consulting 
Physicians — Joseph Edwin Culver, M. D., James Leonard Corning, M. D. 

The Free Puki.ic Lihk.akv. 
During the early years of Jersey City no attempt was made to establish a public library' of 
any kind. About fifty years ago a Newark Avenue stationer named Stephens opened a small 
circulating librar\', but it was not profitable and had but a small range of b(joks. A more ex- 
tensive collection was got together by the Bergen Library Association in 1S66. A number of 
public-spirited citizens who had erected a public hall for the use of the city and for public meet- 
ings, offered to give the use of a room free for a library. Subscriptions were collected, among 
which one of S500 from the Bergen Fire Department was the most considerable, and the neces- 
sary furniture, with 1,000 volumes, were procured. In consideration of the donation from the 
fire department, the Library Associatujn ottered twenty annual subscriptions as prizes to be 
competed for by the children in the public schools. The library was open Wednesday and Sat- 
urday evenings, from 7 imtil g o'clock, and on Thursday afternoon for ladies only from 3 until 
5 o'clock. The directors were : xMexander Bonnell, president, and Messrs. Walter Storm, Geo. 
Gifford, E. B. Wakeman, G. Van Horn, J. C. Van Horn, J. R. Ilalliday, C. N. Belts, treasurer, 
and H. Gaines, secretary and librarian. The interest in the library died out, and the books 
were sold. Later there was a private circulating library on Pacific Avenue. All of these were 
small neiglihorhood efforts. About the time of ccjnsolidalion the demand for books cau.sed the 
Mercantile Libran.', of New York, to open a branch office in this city for borrowers' cards. The 
ser\'ice was maintained by express and proved incthcicnt. Tlie linancial tmubles of the con- 
solidated city prevented an immediate movement for a library, tlioiigh the (piestion had 
been discussed as one of the needs of the citv In 1S7', tlie board of education was authorized 
to establi.sli a free library. The appro|)riation for this purpose waslimitcd to $1,000 a vear, and 
it was ten years bet\>re 5,000 books accumulated. The books as a ride were well chosen, and 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 157 

numerous duplicates were provided. The librari.' was open on Saturdays only, and mainlv 
patronized by Hijjh School pupils, and public school teachers. The clerk of the board of edu- 
cation was also librarian, and his duties as clerk left no time for the care of the librarv. The 
result mij;ht have been predicted. Many books were lost and the library became simplv a col- 
lection of books. After 1S83 very little attention was paid to the library. Evervone recoj^- 
nized the fact that a public librar}' would have to be established, and it was thought there was 
no need of addinjj the Si,°oo annually to the budjfet for the schools. By omittinj;- the item 
more money could be obtained for the requirements of the schools. 

The public .school library was a move in the riyht direction, but its scope was too limited 
and the available fund was insutficient. The effort to secure lejfislation in 1SS3 that would 
result in a real library was not successful. The passat;e of a law on April i, 1SS4. providing 
for free libraries in cities where the provisions of the act were accepted by the people at a 
g'eneral election, opened the way for a public library. The question was submitted to the people 
on April 14, 1SS5. The result was a surprise. The poll list showed that 17,230 voters exercised 
the rijfht of suffrajfe. but there were only 8,788 who felt interest enouj^h in a public librarv to 
vote on its acceptance or rejection. Of those who voted, 7,446 were in favor and 1,342 ajjainst 
acceptinjj the provisions of the act. The law required a majority of all the votes, and thus 
the city failed to secure the benefit of the act. In 1SS7 another law was enacted, by which the 
question could be submitted to the people again. Other cities in the State had benefited bv 
the law, and when, on April 9, 1889, the question was voted upon, 15,304 votes were cast in favor 
of the library- and only 345 ajjainst it. In the following month the mayor appointed a board 
of trustees, who tinder the law had power to create a library. Tlie selection made by the 
mayor was very fortunate. The trustees were intelligent and enthusiastic. Thev were : 
Leonard J. Gordon, M. D., Michael Murray, W. C. Heppenheimer, Nelson J. H. Edge and Chas. 
S. Haskill. The mayor and the city superintendent of schools were ex-officio members. Super- 
intendent A. B. Poland was in office that )-ear and made a valuable member, but the success 
which was achieved was mainly due to the labor of Messrs. Gordon, Edge and Haskill. Dr. 
Gordon was chosen as president of the board, W. C. Heppenheimer, treasurer, and Xelson J. 
H. Edge, secretary. A demand was promptly made to have tlie city board of tinance insert the 
amount authorized by law for the library in the tax levy for the year 1S89-90, but it was not done. 
The board of finance, as usual, wanted to keep the tax rate down. The library trustees asked for 
$25,533.15, the amount allowed by law. The board of finance ignored the mandatory feature 
of the law and inserted the sum of Sio,ooo in the tax levy. If the trustees had been less clear- 
sighted they would have accepted that amount. They saw the danger of establishing a 
precedent and took legal steps to compel compliance with the law. George L. Record, counsel 
for the trustees, obtained a mandamus by which the board of finance was compelled to raise 
the additional sum required to make the full appropriation. This process had to be repeated 
twice before it was made clear to the party bosses that the library was not a part of the polit- 
ical machine, and that its appropriation was a fixed charge for betterment. 

The city was then under control of the bosses' ring, and an effort was made in the legis- 
lature to have a law enacted which should reduce the annual appropriation from one mill on 
the dollar of ratables to a fixed sum of ten or fifteen thousand dollars a vear. The indignant 
protest made by the press and the people showed the politicians that the free library had taken 
such a hold on the affections of the people that it could not be disturbed. The bill was voted 
down and has not since been heard of. 

The trustees secured the services of George Watson Cole as librarian after months of 
search for the right man for the jiosition. Mr. Cole wasatrained librarian of much experience, 
and the wisdom of the trustees in appointing him has been shown by the result. Alfred C. 
Herzog was appointed a.ssistant librarian and served for a time, but the librar\- trustees of Bav- 
onne induced him to take charge of their new library. Miss E. C. Eurdick was subsequently 
appointed to the position. The other employees were appointed by competitive examination. 
The trustees hold office five years, but the first board was appointed for varying terms in order 
to secure a new member annually. 

In February, 1S90, \V. C. Heppenheimer gave up the position of treasurer, and Xelson J. 
H. Edge succeeded him. Ur. Gordon, whose term expired in 1S90, was reappointed for five 
years more, an appointment which was universally approved. In the following November the 



158 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

old public school library, consistiny^ of 5,631 volumes, was transferred to the public library trus- 
tees. These books formed a basis for the new library. The lalxjr of buyinsr and catalotfiieing 
the books required time, and it was not until July 6, 1.S91, that the library was opened. The 
number of books on the shelves then was 19,103, with q^G pamphlets. The circulating^ depart- 
ment was opened on July 6, 1S91. Within six months there had been ^,319 borrowers' cards 
issued, and 78,900 books had been taken out for home readinj;. At first the cireulatinjj depart- 
ment was closed on Sundays. It was opened on July 12, 1S91, and proved very popular. Branch 
delivery stations were opened on October i, 1S91, and the number has been increased until 
there are now twelve of them where borrowers can obtain books as easily as they can at the 
library. The reading room in the library building, York and Washington streets, was opened 
on July 6, 1891, and 26,111 persons availed themselves of its privile.gcs in less than five months 
after it was accessible. The library became popular at the start because of its wise manage- 
ment, and now it is one of the fixed institutions of the citv. It will have a permanent home 
in a fire-proof building in time. A sinking fund has been created to secure this result, and if 
the plans are as well attended to as the other details have been in the past, it will be an orna- 
ment to the city. 

There have been several changes in the board of trustees. In April, 1891, Mr. Heppen- 
heimer resigned, and Robert J. McMillan was appointed to succeed him. Mr. Murray's term 
expired the same year, and Stephen L. Har^-ey was appointed in his stead. Mr. Haskell's term 
expired in 1892, and Mr. Edge's in 1S93. Both were reappointed. Mr. McMillan's term ex- 
pired in 1894, and he found his duties so exacting that he did not desire reappointment. Mr. 
Murray, one of the original board, was reappointed in his place. The board at present consists 
of: President, L.J. Gordon; treasurer, Nelson J. H. Edge; Stephen L. Har\-ey, Charles S. 
Haskell and Michael Murray, with George Watson Cole, secretary and librarian. Mayor P. F. 
Wanser and School Superintendent Snyder are ex-ofiicio members. The trustees have suc- 
ceeded in making the Jer.sey City library give a larger return for the mimey than any other 
library in the United States. They have also accumulated a reserve fund of nearly §30,000 
toward the erection of a library building. 

The statistics are compiled annually up to December i. The latest available are for the 
year 1893. During that year 7,880 books and 146 pamphlets had been added to catalogue mak- 
ing a total of 38,725 volumes and 1,41 1 pamphlets. By September, 1894, the number of volumes 
had increased to 42,667. During 1893 there were 336,887 books circulated for home reading, of 
which 183,814 were sent out through the delivery stations. There had been 83,747 persons who 
made use of the reading room during the year, which was an increase of 1 1.963 over the pre- 
ceding year. There were 4, 174 books called for in the reference room. The Sunday circula- 
tion for home reading was 5,578, and the visitors to the reading-room on Sundays was 7,031. 
The library has outgrown its quarters. 

Hasrkouck's Instii l tk. 

In the early days of Van Vorst township the only school for boys was in what is now Third 
Street, between Erie and Grove streets. It was a long distance for boys to go from the lower 
section of the township, and the only alternative was to go to the Grand Street school in Jersev 
City. That could only be reached by way of Grove Street and Xcwark Avenue. To afford 
school facilities convenient for residents of the lower secticm of the tnwn. Cciruelius Van \'orst 
built a one-story frame building in the centre of two lots on the south side of Mercer .Street, 
near Barrow. There a school for boys was opened. It was a pay scliool and accommodated 
twenty-five pupils. After a few years the teacher found a more lucrative field, and a number of 
influential citizens united in requesting Washington Hasbrouck, nf Xewburgli. X. V., to 
abandon a school in Yonkers, and take charge of the little school to prepare boys there for col- 
lege. During the first two years Mr. Hasbrouck taught almost alone. Rev, P. D. \"an Cleef. 
the pastor of the Wayne Street Reformed Church, aided by giving instruction in Greek and 
Latin, but the school was practically for a single class under the direction of an individual 
teacher. It was popular and successful. Parents had to apply weeks before terms opened to 
secure admission for their boys. By utilizing the platform and crowding it had been possible 
to admit forty boys. The pressure for admittance, and the cramped ([uarters caused Mr. Has- 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 159 

brouck to lease the Lyceum building- at 109 Grand Street in 1866. Van Vorst was Jersey City 
then, and the street were all connected. In May, 1866. the Institute was opened with sixty- 
seven bovs as pupils. Peter Hasbrouck became vice-principal, new classes were formed and 
more teachers were required. The school i;rew in size and public esteem. 

In 1876 Wa.shinjjton Hasbrouck was chosen principal of the State Normal School at Tren- 
ton. The death c >f his brother Peter and other causes moved him to accept, after having devoted 
twenty years to buildinj,'- up a popular and profitable school. Henry C. Miller and Charles C. 
Stimets, at that time instructors in the Xormal School, purchased the institute and remodelled 
it for more extensive educational work. In 1877 Horace C. Wait became connected with the 
school, and is now one of the proprietors and vice-principal. James Hoffman and E, H. Clark 
were added to the faculty, makinj: five male teachers. Their ability soon became manifest, and 
the school increased rapidly. In i.SSo Mr. Miller withdrew, and the faculty was increased. The 
popularitv of the school caused many parents to request the principal to add a prls' depart- 







"-ST. 



HASHKOLCK IXSTITUTF.. 

ment, and it was done. The growth of the school had made the Lyceum building too small, 
and adjoining buildings were lea.scd and connected with it. Schools of music and art were 
added in time, and special instrtictors were obtained for these branches. In 1892 the school 
had grown too large for the buildings. The Bonnell estate, on Crescent, Harrison and Com- 
munipaw avenues, was iiurchased, and there the present institute was erected. It is now the 
largest and most successful private school in the State. It has been a growth produced by the 
needs of the people. Half a century ago a small school that would accommodate twenty-five, 
it is now a juodcrn school equipjK'd with cver\-thing required for advanced education and at- 
tended by about five hundred students. It has a large corps of teachers, and has had many 
who have gone out from it, among wliom are Doctors Hoffman, Parsons and Blanchard, now 
practising ])hysici.uis m the city. Prof. Henr\- Frye, who is still in the facultv, has been there 
many years, and has a warm place in the memon.- of the alumni. Miss Carrie S. Stow, the first 
superintendent in the girls' department. Miss Jennie C. Drake, her successor, and Mi.-'S May 
Florence Park, the third in the position, have been women of skill and ability. Prof. N'ictor 
Baicr has been superintendent of the school of music since it was opened. Mr. Stinicts still 
remains in charge as principal, and Mr Wait as vice-principal. 



i6o HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

The Homk of the Homeless. 

The Home of the Homeless was estabhshcd March 31, 1883, by Mrs. H. il. Dunninjj, Mrs. 
\V. Dear and Mrs. S. A. Chamberlain, who saw the necessity that existed lor an institution that 
should give temporary assistance to indij^cnt women, aid them in the support of their children, 
help them to find work, carinof for the children while the mothers were at work, and so render 
them efficient help in the work of keeping- their families totjether, while the home stood ready 
to assume the support and education of children in cases of necessity and utter destitution. 

This pioneer home was established in a small house at Xo. 165 Cole Street, whence, in 
May of the following; year, it was removed to Xo. 25:; X'inth Street. Jersev City. The work of 
the home increased ,trreatly. and many demands were made upon it for a.ssistance that largely 
exceeded its accommodation. To secure greater permanence, wider usefulness and increased 
confidence, it was incorporated under the State law on October 28, 18S5, the incorporators 
being: Z. K. Pangborn, William Hanks, Dr. William Durrie, T. M. Gopsill, Joseph A. Dear, F. 
W. Pangborn, Walter Dear, G. H. White, Mrs. H. M. Dunning, Mrs. M. Thom. Mrs. Ellen 
Cockein and Mrs. W. Dear, who, in accordance with the law, were the first directors of the home. 
A Board of Lady Managers to take charge of the domestic affairs of the home was subse- 
quently appointed, of which Mrs. J. T. Richards was elected president; Mrs. J. A. Dear, vice- 
president ; Mrs. J. S. Richardson, treasurer ; Miss E. Williams, corresponding secretary, and 
Miss L. C. Richardson, secretary. 

In 1887 it was decided that the Home of the Homeless should truly have a home of its own, 
and, after much consideration, the property known as the Xeilson Homestead, at X'o. 266 Grove 
Street, possessing frontage of 160 feet and depth of about 150 feet, was purchased, and possession 
taken of the same on April i, 18SS. Since then the home has proved a shelter to hundreds of 
children and some destitute women. 

The roof of the old building has been raised, pro\-iding large, well ventilated dormitories 
on the top floor ; a large rear extension has been erected, affording room for laundrv. store- 
room, play-room for the children and proper closets on the ground floor; a spacious hospital 
and sleeping rooms for the help, beside a dining-room for the matron and officers of the home 
on the main floor have been provided. The home has now accommodations, in case of neces- 
sity, for one hundred children. 

The directors and officers for 1895 are : J. W. Dusenbury, president ; W. Dear, Wm. Reed 
and C. A. Holbrook, vice-presidents ; L. H. Apgar, J. H. Frye. Dr. P. J. Koonz. A. J Xew- 
berry, Geo. Tennant, Thos. M. Gopsill. treasurer ; Joseph A. Dear, secretarv. 

The officers of the Board of Lady Managers are: Mrs. J. Anness. president : Mrs. J. W. 
Dusenbury, ilrs. L. H. Apgar, vice-presidents ; Mrs. P. S. Van Winkle, treasurer ; Miss L. R. 
Darling, recording secretary, and Miss M. L. Jacobs, corresponding secretarv. 

Medical Staff : Drs. j. B. Craig. J. Lochner and Jas. Hoffman. 

During the last three years, by the kindness of the authorities of the Ocean (Jrove Camp 
Meeting Association and J. A. Bradley. Esq.. of Asbury Park, the children have been enabled 
to spend the months of July and August at the seaside. 

The last report of the home showed a total income of about S4.500, and expenditure for 
interest, repairs, summer excursion, provisions and salaries of about $4,300. It is doubtful if 
any institution is able to show a larger amount of good accomplished for the money expended 
than the Home of the Homeless. 

Chii.orkn's Fkiknh Socikiv. 

One dreary December day in 1.S63, two motherless little ones were driven into the Jersey 
City streets by a brutal, drunken father. They were found at midnight asleep in a wagon, 
clasped in each other's arms. (Jut of that pathetic incident the movement grew which provided 
the Children's Home. Rev. Dr. R. L. Dashiell, then pastor of the Trinity M. E. Church, and 
James Gopsill, subsequently Mayor of Jersey City, toe ik the initiative in the movement. A 
meeting was held in the residence of Dr. Dashiell, on January 7, 1S64, to devise a plan for pro- 
viding a home. There were present at this meeting : Dr. Dashiell, James Gopsill, A. H. Wallis, 
J. A. Kingsbury, John W. Seh.anek, A. S. Hatcli and K. F. C. Young. Mr. Wallis was elected 
chairman, and Mr. Young, secretary. The first result of the meeting was the passage bv the 










^^llli^^-^il^^^'v;':^/^^ 



-r- n^^v^fi 






^^ 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. i6i 

legislature, on March 22, 1S64, of an act of incorporation. The corporators named in the act 
were : John Armstrong, Edward F. C. Yuun.tf. Charles E. Grejjor)-, Alexander H. AVallis, 
Michael Lienau. Elias B. Bishop, Jr., Benjamin (). Clark. James Gopsill, John Olondort, John 
A. Kinjjsbury, Jnhn W. Schanck, Theodore F. Randolph. Jacob R. Schuyler, Abraham Hooley, 
Jr., John H. Camcs, Jami-s A. William.son, Altrederick S. Hatch, John Owen Rouse, Joseph 
Colgate, Edgar B. Wakcman and Hampton B. Coursen. 

On April I, 1S64, the society bought an old homestead at the southeast comer of Erie 
Street and Pavonia Avenue for $14,000 and established the Children's Home there. The first 
officers were elected at a meeting held April 2, 1864; they were : A. H. Wallis, president; 
John Armstrong, first vice-president ; Benjamin G. Clarke, second %-ice-president ; E. F. C. 
Young, secretary and James Gopsill. treasurer. The first meeting in the home was held 
November 5, 1.S64. The first inmates were admitted on November 11, 1S64. Mrs. E. Hoagland 
was appointed matron. She resigned in 1873 and Mrs. M. A. Lockwood was appointed. She 
served until June. 1S75, when she was succeeded by Mrs. Sarah B. Winchester, who has con- 
tinued during more than nineteen years in charge of a family of boys and girls that averages 
about fifty in number. Miss Maria L. Carnes was for 29 years the school teacher, but the 
children now attend the public school. In 1874 the society sold its Pavonia Avenue property, 
and built its present home on Glenwood Avenue near AVestside Avenue. 

The officers and tnistees are : John A. Walker, president ; George F. Perkins, vice-pre.si- 
dent ; John H. Carnes, secretary; George W. Conklin. treasurer; Elijah S. Cowles. E. F. C. 
Young, Charles C. Stimets, George Miller. Henry E. Neise, James R. Turner. AYilliam H. 
Turner, Charles D. Ridgeway, E. \V. Kingsland, Washington Belt, O. H. Perry, John J. ToiTey, 
J. J. Voorhees and S. D. Mackay. 

The board of domestic control is now unorganized. In October, 1S94, Mrs. Z. K. Pangborn 
resigned its presidency, and other members have since resigned, and no new officers have 
been elected. The board then was composed as follows : Mrs. Z. K. Pangborn. president ; 
Mrs. G. W. Clerihew and Mrs. H. McBride, vice-presidents; Mrs. A. Creveling, secretary; 
Mrs. S. D. Fcjrman, treasurer; Mrs. Marcus Beach, Mrs. A. J. Post, Mrs. B. lUingworth, Miss 
J. Allison, Mrs. Geo. R. Hillicr, Mrs. James Flemming, Mrs. H. S. Niese, ilrs. W. Belt, Mrs. 
Geo. H. White, Mrs Solon Palmer. Mrs. M. F. Brown, Mrs. N. Condit, Mrs. Geo. F. Perkins, 
Mrs. vS. D. Mackay, Mrs. II. A. Chamberlain, Mrs. R. O. Babbitt, Mrs. Wm. Cumings, Mrs. 
Hudspeth Benson. Mrs. I. X. (Juimby, Mrs. L. Apgar, Mrs. Geo. Miller, Mrs. Bennett. 

Miss Emma Demarest is .Sunday-school teacher, and Drs. Edward P. Butfett and Wm. J. 
Parker, volunteer physicians. 

HoMK For Aged Women. 

In January, 1S66, a number of ladies who were interested in a ragged school in Jersey City 
became impressed with tlie need that existed for a home for aged women. They began in a 
small way by contributing one dollar each, and pledging themselves to urge their friends to 
give a like amount to fonu a fund to organize a home. The difficulty of procuring suitable 
boarding places for ])ersons dependent on the congregations of their respective churches in- 
duced other ladies to join in the movement They wanted to found a home entirely free from 
sectarian influences. The success they achieved enabled them to call a general meeting of sub- 
scribers early in February. 1S07, at which temporary- organization was efi'ected. At the close 
of 1S67 they bad collected S-'.7S2. and early in iSfiS they had a bill before the legislature to in- 
corporate tlic society. 

The ladies named in the act .as incorporators were: Anne E. Miller, Irene Wilbur, Kath- 
arine J. Sauzadc. .Mary L. Willi. inison. Harriet W. Ames. Aurinthia Doremus, Mary F. Hcjag- 
land, Maria 15. M.ison. Cordelia MclCln.y, Sarah J. .Morrow, Anna L. Olendorf, Sophia A. \'an 
Vorst, Eliza A. \'an I)e Wntcr, .M)bcy A. Weaver. Edna C. Woolsey, Emily H. Van Vorst and 
their successors. They were constinitcd a body corporate by the name of "The Home For 
Aged Women." The act was .ipproved by Governor Marcus L. Ward on February ij. I'^'i'^. 
As soon as they were incorporated the society bought a dwelling house at 131 Wavne Street, 
next door west of the Kcfonned Church, paying S7,ooo for it. Half of the purchase price re- 
mained in a mortgage. By the eml <<i .May, i.SfiS. their total receipts had reached So. 005. 22. 
The first officers were : Mrs. .\nnc V.. Miller, fir.st directress ; Mrs. Irene Wilbur, second dnvc- 
tress; Mrs. M.iry L. Williamson, secretary; .Mrs. Katharine J. Sauzade, treasurer. Tlie 



l62 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



manag'ers were the incorporators. The advisory committee con.sisted of Messrs. James A. 

Williamson, Joseph F. Randolph and Thomas Earle. Miss (iardner was appointed 

matron. She was succeeded in iS6g by Mrs. Irene Wilbur. In 1S70 Cornelius \"an Vorst and 
his sisters donated three lots at Bri.Lcht and Barrow streets on which to build a permanent home. 
In 1873 Mrs. Henry became matron, and was succeeded in 1S7S by Mrs. Brevitt, who died in 
1882, and was succeeded by Miss M. C. Dooley, the present incumbent. 

The home was maintained at 131 Wayne Street seventeen vears. doinjf its work in an un- 
obtrusive manner. In 1885 Mrs. Moore, a Scotch lady, residing; on the Heiirhts, auve the 
society the property on the southwest corner of Beryen and Fairmount avenues, in considera- 
tion of a home in the institution for the rest of her life. The propertv included a commodious 
dwelling-. By the aid of le<4-acius, subscriptions to the buildini; fund, and the sale of the Bar- 
row Street lots, a dormitory adjoininaf the main buildingf was erected at a cost of Sio.ooo- The 
two building's are virtually one, and form the present home. 

The officers in 1S94 were: Miss F. 1). Booream, tirst directress: Mrs. C. A. DeWitt, second 
directress; Mrs. Mary L. Williamson, secretary : Mrs. K. J. Sauzade. trea.surer. Managers; Mrs. 
J. Smith Richardson, Mrs. S. A. Dickinson, Mrs. Duane Searle, Mrs. R. G. Lyle, Mrs. C. T. 
Shone, Mrs. Wm. Speer, Mrs. C. W. Pendexter, Mrs. John Van Horn, Mrs. A. Becker, Miss 
Bailey, Miss M. R. Forster, Miss J. E. Bunce. 

Collectors: Miss M. 
Dickinson, Miss Dora 
Smith, Miss Lathrop, Mrs. 
Van Houten, Mrs. Edward 
Cairns, Mrs. John F. Stan- 
dish, Mrs. Wm. P. Brush. 
Mrs. X. Grellet, Mrs. Op- 
dyke, Mrs. Sophia Thomp- 
son, Mrs. Wm. German. 

Advisory Committee: 
James A. Williamson, Jos- 
eph Randolph and Henry 
V. C o n d i c t . Attending 
Physician, J. W. Parker, 
M.D. 



St. Michael's Orphan 

ASVLU.M. 

St. Michael's Orphan As}'- 
ST. MICHAEL'S ORPHAN ASVHM. '"'"> ^^ Pavonia Avenue 

and Erie Street, was estab- 
by Mgr. J. De Concilio, rector of St. Michael's R. C. Church. The building was 

wn stone, four stories high. It 




lished in i 

erected soon after, and is an imposing structure of brick and b 

is conducted by Sisters of Peace, from Madison, X. J. There is a large school connected with 

the asylum. 

St. Joseph's Home. 

St. Joseph's Home is situated on the north side of Grand Street, near Washington Street. 
The home was originally cnntincd to the front building-, but the demand for more room caused 
the erection in 1S91 of a large brick and stone building on the rear of the original site. The 
property extends through the block to York Street, and the new building has a gond frontage 
on that street. It is five stories high and has a playground on the roof, where, under shelter, 
the children are allowed to play at will. The lionie and school are conducted by the .Sisters 
of Peace. 

St. Marv's Orphan A>-vhm. 

St. Mark's Orphan Asylum, at Jersey Avenue aiul Second Street, was established by Rev. 
Louis U. Senez. jiastor of St. Mary's Church. It is a commodious four-stor\- brick building, 
and has a chapel and a .school. 




ST. JOSEPHS HOME, JERSEY CITV. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

BANKS AND BANKING A BRIEF HISTORY OF EACH FINANCIAL INSTITUTION AND THE BOARD OF 

TRADE — A STORY OF PROGRESS. 



F> j'.;.^ ^HE bankinjif institutions of Jersey City are well known in financial circles and enjoy 
'~' "■'- a good reputation for stability and good management. There are four national banks, 
- . one state bank, two savings banks and one trust company. Their buildings are among 
^ J the finest in the citv. some of them being quite ornamental. The existing institutions 



were preceded by a series of banking enterprises which did not succeed. The first effort was 
made when the Newark Banking and Insurance Company was chartered, November 13, 1S04, 
with authority to establish a branch at Paulus Hook, with the consent of the Associates. The 
State reser\-ed the right to subscribe $50,000 to the stock of the branch bank. This privilege 
was subsequently sold to Col. Aaron Ogden for §4.000. The branch was established under the 
name of the Jersey Bank. The subscription books were opened January 24, 1S05, and the 
directors were elected on April 2d ensuing. The building on the southwest corner of Greene 
and Grand streets was erected for this bank in the summer of 1805, and it is still standing and 
in good condition. A State t:i.\ of one-half of one per cent, was laid on the bank in iSio, and 
the sheriff sold the building in trying to collect the tax which the directors had decided to evade. 
The State bought the property Februarv- 23, 181 1. In March, 181 1, the directors obtained a 
New York charter and reninved the bank to Wall Street, where it began business as the Union 
Bank on April 11, 181 1. 

There was no bank until February 6, 1818, when a new company was chartered under the 
name of The President, Directors and Company of the Jersey Bank. A condition of their 
charter was that the company should buy the building at Grand and Greene streets from the 
State at §5,000. The bank had a capital of §100.000, and it failed on Thursday, July 6, 1826. 

The New Jersey Manufacturing and Banking Company was incorporated December 9, 
1823, with §150,000 capital. It Ijcgan operations in March, 1824, and failed in March, 1829. The 
Franklin Bankof New Jersey was incorporated December 28, 1824, with $300,000 capital. It had 
a checkered existence and failed Fcbruar\- 22, 1843. The president and directors of the New 
Jersey Protection and Lombard Bank was the name of a bank incorporated December 29, 1824, 
with a capital of $400,000. It failed November 27, 1825. 

Other banks that had a brief existence were the Marine Bank, incorporated September 21, 
1857 ; Hudson River Bank, incorporated March 24. 1S62 ; Bank of America, incorporated Julv, 
4, 1862; City Bank of Jersey City, incorporated September 9, 1862 ; United States Stock Bank, 
incorporated October 17, 1S62; Highland Bank, incorporated December 4, 1862; North River 
Bank, incorporated December 10, 1S62: Union Bank, incorporated January 2, 1870; Mechanics 
and Laborers Bank ; Germania Bank, incorporated March 29, 187 1. Most of these were .specu- 
lative charters, obtained as experiments. The managers failed to draw business awav from 
the old reliable banks, and they fell away, leaving the solvent concerns more firmly rooted in 
the public confidence. 

The Provident Institution for Savings. 

The Provident Institution for Savings was incorporated Februarv 27, 1839. The first meet- 
ing under the act was held in the town hall on Sussex Street, April 18, 1839. Dudley S. 
Gregorj' presided, and a certified copy of the legislative enactment authorizing the formatiuii 
of the bank was read. It was thought that the time had not arrived for carrving out the pm- 
visions of the act, and it was left in abeyance. Meetings were held in the Lyceum on Grand 
Street, on December 6, 1841, and August 7, 1S42, but it was not until September 29, i.'<43, tliat 



164 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



permanent organization was effected. D. S. Grejjorj- was chosen president, and Thomas W. 
James secretan,- and trea.surer. The bank was opened for business in Temperance Hall, an old 
building- that stood at the northeast comer of City Hall Place and Oregon.- Street. The bank 
was open in the evenings only. The first deposit was made by Samuel Davidson, a lumber 
dealer, who lived in the small brick house ne.xt V> the Fleming building on Washington Street. 
His deposit was SjO. Of the first hundred accounts opened there were eight still active on Sep- 
tember 29, 1S93, the fifty-fifth anniversary nf the bank. On the d:iy the bank was opened the 
deposits reached §227, and on the second day the total was increased only S30. The bank 
could not afford a safe, and the money was kept in D. S. Gregory's safe in the Darcy building, 
now known as the Fuller building. One night the place was raided by burglars, and Sioo was 
stolen from the safe. This loss nearly paralyzed the trustees and they were ready to abandon 
the enterprise. They moved their office to Peter Bentley's office, 23 Montgomery Street, and 
used the office at night that was used during the day by the Mechanics and Traders Bank. In 
1853 business had improved and both banks moved to the building on the .southwest comer of 
Plymouth and Washington streets. The Mechanics and Traders used the first floor, and the 
Provident Savings used the basement. This arrangement lasted until the war period, when 
the Mechanics and Traders built a new banking house on the corner of Hudson Street and 

Exchange Place, where it 
is now known as the First 
National. The Provident 
Bank moved up-stairs after 
its neighbor had gone to 
its new home, and the em- 
blematic sign erected at 
that time gave the bank 
its popular name " The 
Bee Hive Bank." The first 
dividend declared was 
S70.65 on Januarv- i, 1845. 
The dividend declared in 
July, 1893, was S' 28,000. 
At the end of the bank's 
first year there were 200 
open accounts. At the end 
of its fifty-fifth year there 
were 77,272 active ac- 
counts. The total amount 
of deposits on January i, 
1845, was, 83,440. On 
(October 17, 1893, the ag- 
gregate of deposits was $8,069,807.26. The liability to depositors was $7,481,050, and the 
surplus S5''"^.757'7- 

The first board of trustees was elected in Temperance Hall, December 18, 1843. They 
were : D. S. Oregon.-, president ; John F. Ellis, Jonathan Jenkins. John K. (ioodman, Cornelius 
Van Vorst and Peter Bentley, vice-presidents, and David Henderson, Henr)- Traphagen, John 
Gilbert, Cornelius Kanouse, J. I). Miller, Phineas C. Dummer, F. A. Alexander. Job Male, John 
Dows, Darwin F. Rockwell, Stephen Garretson, David Jones, Hartman Van Wagenen, Abra- 
ham Van Santvoord, Peter McMartin. John r.rilVith. J. W. Palmer, Luke Hemingwav, Thomas 
Kingsford, Thomas Weldon, William Glaze, T. L. Smith and Samuel Davidson. On December 
2,1844, David Smith was added to the board and remained until his death. The officers retained 
their positions until death or removal from tlie city severed their cinnection, with the excep- 
tion of Thomas W. James, who resigned, but is still engaged in his profession in Jersev City. 
The presidents liave been : I). S. Gregory, Andrew Clerk, David .Smith, I. I. Vanderbeck and the 
incumbent, FrLem.in A, vSniith, a son of David Smith, one of the prime movers in the original 
organization. When T. W. James resigned County Collector E. W. Kmgsland was elected in 
his place. K. W. Kingsland was the first county collector, and lield the position from 1S40 




PROVIDE.NT INSl ITLTION Fi>R sAVlNI 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



i6s 



until 1882. Mr. E. W. Kingsland, the present secretary and treasurer, was elected at the death 
of his father. 

The present oflficers are : President, Freeman A. Smith ; Vice-President, R. C. Washburn ; 
Secretary and Treasurer, E. W. Kinjjsland ; Assistant Secretary and Treasurer, J. S. Xewkirk; 
Trustees, John D. Carscallen, John Chilvur, X. W. Condict, John E. Cronham, Henry S. Dray- 
ton, William E. Pearson. John Scott, William F. Taylor, William H. Turner, James B. Vreden- 
burgh, Richard C. Washburn. James Warner, Jacob Weart and Washington B. Williams. In 
1889 the bank was removed to its new bankin<i house on Washington Street, near Grand. 

The Hudson County Nation.^l Bank. 
The Hudson County National Bank is the oldest institution in the city doing a general 
banking bu.siness. It has always been conducted in a conservative manner and has enjoyed 
prosperitv and the confidence of the pubUc. It was incorporated as the Hudson County Bank 
July 7, 1 85 1, and was the first bank created 
under the free banking law. The direct- 
ors were : D. S. Gregory, John Cassedy, 
James Kcene, John Griffith, Samuel West- 
cott, Richard Morrow, Matthew Arm- 
strong, Minot C. Morgan. John Van Vorst. 
Abram Becker and James R. Thompson. 
John Ca.ssedy, ex-senator and ex-judge 
of the court of common pleas, was one of 
the prime movers in the organization and 
he was elected president. Albert T. 
Smith, for many years principal of the 
public school, was chosen as cashier. In 
1854 A. A. Hardenbergh became assistant 
cashier. Judge Cassedy resigned in 1856 
and John Griffith became president. In 
1858 Griffith resigned and was succeeded 
by Matthew Armstrong, who held the 
place until his death, seven years later. 
In 1857 Smith resigned and Lewis N. 
Condict became cashier. He remained 
but a year, and in 1S5S A. A. Hardenbergh 
became cashier. In May, 1X65, the bank 
was reorganized under the national bank- 
ing law, with a capital of §^30,000. The 
directors were : Matthew Armstrong, 
Abram Becker, I). S. C.rcgon.-, John Grif- 
fith, Job Male, J. Dickinson Miller. Minot 
C. Morgan, Garrett Sip, Cliarles G. Sisson, James R. Thompson and John Van Vorst. 
Matthew Armstrong was elected president, John Van Vorst, vice-president, and A. A. 
Hardenbergh, cashier. President Armstrong died during the year and his son, John Arm- 
strong, was elected to fill the vacancy. John Armstrong died in 1873 and was succeeded by 
Job Male. In 1S7S Male resigned and A. A. Hardenbergh was elected to fill the vacancy. He 
held the presidency until his death, in October. 18S9, and much of its success was due to his 
wise management. Mr. Van Vorst resigned the vice-presidency in 1S72, and Thomas Earle 
succeeded him. David W. Taylor was elected cashier in 1878 and held the po,sition until 
May, 1882, when he resigned, and Edward A. Graham succeeded him. In July, 1889, Mr. 
Graham went away for a vacation and did not return, on account of poor health. J. W. Harden- 
bergh was elected cashier in tX>^<). In ( >ctober, iS.Sq, Richard C. Wa.shburn was elected president. 
The bank is now located in a new building erected for it at the corner of York and Washington 
streets, one of the finest bank buildings in the State. It was built in 1889. The present 
officers are: R. C. Washburn, president : Augustus Zabriskie, vice-president ; J. W. Harden- 
bergh, cashier. Directors: Hampton A. Coursen, Garret D. \'an Reipen, R. C. Washburn, 




THE HUDSON COUNTY NATIONAL BANK. 



1 66 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



Cornelius Zabriskie. Aujjustus Zabri.skie, Gilbert Collins, Myles Tierney. John D. McGill, John 
A. Blair, J. W. Hardenber.oli and Erank H. Earle. The capita! is 8^50.0°°. '^e surplus 
$300,000, and the annual statement of the bank's business showed S^,<'04.6oi-('i in resources at 
the end of June, 1S94. 

The First National Bank. 

The First National Bank was incorporated as the Mechanics and Traders Bank in 1853. 
The leading spirit in ortranizin<j the institution was Peter Bcntley, who became its first presi- 
dent. The bank was reorganized under the national bankinjj law February 19, 1S64. The 
directors chosen were ; John S. Fox, M. B. Bramhall. A. O. Zabriskie, James S. Davenport, 
Ephraim Marsh, S. Alofsun, P. Rafferty, H, G. Eilsbemiiis and A. H. AVallis. John S. Fox was 
elected president, and M. Sandford cashier. On January i. 1S65, James S. Ogden was elected 
vice-president, and Edward F. C. Young assistant treasurer. Mr. Fox died in 1871, and A. H. 
Wallis became president. In 1874 Mr. Sandford resifrned, and E. F. C. Younjj was elected 

cashier, George W. Conkling being elected 
assistant cashier. Mr. Wallis died in 1879, 
and E. F. C. Young succeeded to the presi- 
dency ; Mr. C( inkling became cashier, and 
John W. Omberson became assistant 
cashier. James S. Ogden was vice-presi- 
dent until 1890, when he died, and his 
place still remains vacant. The other offi- 
cers still remain unchanged. The directors 
are: E. F. C. Young, A. M. Fuller, Ham- 
ilton Wallis. Charles Siedler, George T. 
Smith. F. A. Smith and F. O. Matthiesen. 
Ex-Gciv. Bcdlcwas in the directorate until 
his death tliis year. The capital stock is 
§400,000, and the surplus S5oo-°°°- The 
resources in October, 1894, were 86,597,- 
066.37. The bank building was erected in 
i.he earlv Si.xtics at the corner of Hudson 
and Montgomery streets, and reconstruct- 
ed and enlarged within a few years. 

Thk Sk.co.M) National Bank. 

The Second National Bank was organ- 
ized originally as the Jersey City Bank, 
on June 35, 1 S56. It was reorganized under 
the national banking act December 23, 
1864. The first directors were : Blakeley 
Wilson, Joseph M. Brown, H. M. Trap- 
hagen, Daniel T. Hoag, Robert Mc- 
Laughlin, Joseph McCoy. I. I. Vandcrbcck, Horati<i N. Egc. John Ncilson. William Pearsall 
and Joseph M. Fuller. Blakeley Wilson was the first president, and William Hogencamp was 
the first cashier. Mr. Wilson died after holding the presidency eleven years. Cashier Hogen- 
camp was chosen as president on March 23. 1S7I), and is .still inofiicc. I. I. Vanderbeek became 
vice-president in i86,S. and continued until his death, February 21, 1.SS9. Edward N. Wilson 
became cashier March 23. 1.S76, and continued until his death in January, 1882. James G. Has- 
king was assistant cashier from .\pril i, 18.S0, until May 1, iSSj, when he was elected cashier, a 
position he still fills. Thorn is IC Mray was elected vice-president February 21, 1889, and re- 




THE second NAIK 



taincd the position until Novem 
ceed him on February 4. iSi).-, a 
gencamp, Marcus Beach. Cliarlc 
capital is §250,000. 



was ele 
;, 1S90, when he died. A. A. Lutkins was elected to suc- 
•d Mav 0, ■■'<')4 Ihe present directors are : William Ho- 
\llen, James G Ilasking and Charles H. Winfield. The 



r 



L 




FIRST XATIDN'AI, KAN'K BUlLDIXi: 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



167 



The Third Xaticixai. Bank. 

The Third Xational Rank, at the corner of Pavonia Avenue and Erie Street, was org'anized 
May 2, 1SS7, with a capital of §200,000. The first directors were: John D. Carscallen, Henr\- 
Lembeck, ()livi;rH. Perry, Frank J. Matthews, Delevan DeLonjj, John Gardner, James AVamer, 
P. G. \'an Zandt, C. H. \'an Dyke. A. O. Garretson. B. A. ^Vatsun,' R. M. Jarvis and William M. 
King-. J. r>. Carscallen was elected president: Henry Lembeck vice-president: William M. Laws, 
ca.shier, and Genrj^e H. Farrier, assistant cashier. The officers, at the close of 1894, were nn- 
chanjjed, except that Robert S. Ross had become cashier, Geo. H. Farrier had resi;.4ned and the 
vacancy had not been filled. The board of directors were : John D. Carscallen. Henrv Lem- 
beck, 6. H. Perry, F. J. Matthews, James Warner, C. B. Van Dvke. P. G. Wm Zandt, A. O. 
Garretson, D. E. Clean,-, H. H. Farrier and Dennis McLaug-hlin. 

The bank has had a remarkable success, and its surplus is over §100.000, or fiftv per cent, 
of its capital, besides payinij the rejjular dividends. The mianap^ement has been all that could 
be desired, and the bank is one of the stronsj financial institutions of the citv. 



The Fifth Ward Savings Bank. 
The Fifth Ward Savin.srs Bank, at Erie 
Street and Pavonia Avenue, was ortjanized 
March 19, 1883. The first board of man- 
agcrs were: Henry M. Traphas^en, .An- 
drew J. Post, Charles W. Cropper, M. D., 
Henn- Wood, John H. Burtjess and Charles 
L. Rieker.son. Henry M. Traphagen was 
elected president and C. L. Rieker.son 
treasurer. On September 10, ensuing, 
Mr. Rickerson resigned and (leorgc H. 
Gould was elected to fill tlie vacancv. He 
is still in office. President Traphagen 
died in May, 1SS4, and Mr. John H. Bur- 
gess was elected president. He continued 
in office until his death in 1887. Mr. 
Henry Wood took an .ictive part in the 
bank's affairs until his death in 1884. 
The presidency was conferred upon An- 
drew J. Post in 1S87, and Dr. Cropper be- 
came vice-president the .same year. Thcv 
are the only survive irs of tlie original 
board of managers. The bank has grown 
stronger financially each year and in the 
favor of residents in that section nf the 
city. On January 1. 1893, tlicre were 844 
depositors, and tlie deposits aggregated 
$■45,356.80. Since that time the financial 

depression and general business stagnation has operated against all savings banks, but up to 
October 1, 1894. the I'ifth Ward Bank had no cause to complain. Its depositors had increased 
in number t.i 070, and the deposits were ,§144.944.72. The bank has been bles.sed with wise 
and conservative man.igement. and its loans have been so carefully placed that it has never 
lost one dollar of principal or interest and has not been forced to foreclo.se a single mortgage. 
The bank has received from depositors §657,595.44, of which it has loaned §230,085 on bond 
and mortgage and has paid to depositors in interest §34,191.41. The present officers are: 
Andrew J. Post, president; Chas. W. Cropper, M. I)., vice-president: Geo. H. Gould, treasurer, 
and H. M. T. Beekman, secretan.-. The managers are: Andrew J. Post, John Pellens, Carl 
Lanipe, Walter E Amnion, Charles W Cropper. Theodore PeilJns. Henr)- Rollfs, Edward 
Walmsley and J, Nelson Pidcock, Jr. 







THE THIRD N'ATir 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



Thk HiDSON City Savings Bank. 

The Hudson City Savintjs Bank was incorporated March 2-}, 1868, and beg-an business in 
the followinj,'- Aujjust. The first officers were : Benjamin F. Sawyer, president ; Georg-e A. 
Toffey, vice-president ; Garret D. \'an Reipen. secretary and treasurer ; John J. Toffey, assist- 
ant secretarv-. The trustees were : G. D. \'an Reipen, B. F. Sawyer, George V. De Mott, J. E. 
Culver, Charles Gobisch, Andrew McLean, Charles J. Roe, John R. McPhcrson, Patrick Mc- 
Nulty, John Roemmelt, Geo. A. Tntfey, Andrew Leieht. Joseph Montgomery, C. J. Rooney, 
Fred. A. Goetz, John Leitz. C. \V. Conger, Wilson M. Hosier, Thomas E. Bray, A. H. Laidlaw, 
Chas. Kamioh, John Hogan, John Bott. J. B. Stanton, George Gloubrecht, Arend Steenken, 
George Oeh and Asa \V. Fry. 

G. D. Van Reipen was elected president January 9. 1873, and still holds the position. John 
Hedden, Jr., was elected secretary January 8. 1S74, and still fills the position. The bank, under 
a special act, does a regular banking business. 

The Xew Jersey Title Guarantee and 
Trust Company. 
On April 2, 1868, there was incorporated 
under the laws of the State of New Jersey' 
a company known as " The Hudson Stor- 
age and Indemnity Company." It was 
formed under a special act of the legisla- 
ture, and was granted a perpetual charter, 
under which it had the following power : 
" The said company shall have power to 
guarantee the payment, punctual perform- 
ance and collection of promissory notes, 
bills of exchange, contracts, bonds, ac- 
counts, claims, rents, annuities, mortgages, 
choses in action, evidences of debt and 
certificates of property or value, and the 
titles to property, real or personal, upon 
such terms as may be established bv the 
board of directors of said company ; to re- 
ceive upon storage, deposit or otherwise, 
merchandise, bullion, specie, plate, stocks. 
bonds, promissory notes, certificates and 
evidences of debts, contracts or other 
property, and to take the management, 
custody and charge of real and personal 
iHK. Hiiis.iN (iiv -\M\i;s KVNK. cstatc and property, and to advance 

moneys, securities and credits upon evi- 
dences of debt, or any pmpcrly. real or personal, on such terms as may be established bv the 
directors of said company, but no rate of interest to exceed seven per centum per annum shall 
be charged or received by said C"ni))any upon any transaction." 

The corporation, though chartered, neverestablished any business, and its valuable charter 
privileges were unenjnycd and unap))reciated until April 2. 18.SS. when some enterprising citi- 
zens secured control and changed the name to The Xew Jersey Title Guarantee and Trust 
Company. SuhsLtiuently tlic number nf directors was increa.sed and thecapital stock doubled. 
In the infancy of the company A. U. Garretson was president, and William H. Corbin, 
treasurer; both of these gentlemen devoted a great deal of energy and time to laying the 
foundation for the new business, and it is to tlieir efforts that the present success of the com- 
pany is in a measure due. The eomiKiny's first ofhce was at Xo. 45 Montgomen,- Street. Here 
the records of the register's office were copied and arranged in a plant for the purpose of search- 
ing titles in Hudson County. 

Owing to the increase in the company's business, Mr. P. H. Charlock was elected secretar)- to 




— 1' ii|""V 




|H'.- f/}rr^.^:, iiUlil 






r^w^'Sv 



™, rnL_, ' 

"■■■ H-LJ' '-= 



t. 1 



L 



p .-, 






rr] 

iii'.; 



ill'!;'' 
ii-ii" 



,- ^^-^^;::^.-- 



inriLDIV.-. OF TlIK NKW JKRSKV TITM-; (1 L'ARANTKr; AND TRIST C(X, JERSEY CITY. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 169 

relieve Mr. Corbin, whose law practice required all of his personal attention. Mr. Charlock 
filled the position creditably until he resigned to manag-e a large estate in New York. 

The business of the company soon grew to such proportions that it was deemed advisable 
to erect a building that would be calculated to meet its requirements; accordingly the structure 
now occupied by the company at Xo. S3 Montgomery Street was erected and occupied June. 
30, 1891. 

The company has three distinct departments — Trust, Title and Safe Deposit. In the 
Trust Department the company carries on a general banking business, allowing interest on 
daily balances subject to check, loans money on bond and mortgage in accordance with a plan 
of mortgag-e peculiar to the institution, known as instalment mortgages, issues debenture 
bonds, acts as trustee, registrar, transfer agent, pays coupons, makes demand and time loans on 
approved collateral, and executes all trusts known to the law. 

In the Title Department the company searches and guarantees titles to real estate any- 
where in the State of Xew Jersey, for charges that are much cheaper than it is possible for 
lawyers to make them, furnishes memorandum and chain of title searches and issues abstracts 
of title. In this department the company has one of the most complete plants of Hudson 
County that it is po.ssible to obtain. For five years the locality dockets have been verified by 
searches made therein, and by the indexes at the register's office, and the superioritv and ac- 
curacy of the dockets have been established beyond a doubt. 

When the company's plant was completed, Mr. John Olendorf was called to ser\-e as Title 
Officer. He still holds the position devoting his entire time to the examination of titles. He 
is a conscientious worker, and is regarded as one of the best real estate lawyers in Xew 
Jersey. 

In the Safe Deposit Department the company has spared neither pains nor expense to 
make its vaults equal to any vaults that have ever been constructed. Every device, protection 
and safeguard known to the business are to be found there. 

The stockholders have always elected for their board of directors gentlemen of the highest 
moral character, good judgment and skilled in their various business capacities. The present 
officers and board of directors of the company are as follows ; 

President, Abram O. Oarretson ; Vice-Presidents, William H. Corbin and George F. Per- 
kins; Treasurer and Secretary. J. E. Hulshizer, Jr. ; Assistant Secretary, John Alvin Youn^ ; 
Title Officer, John ( Jlendorf. Board of Directors: Abram Q. Garretson, Charles L. Corbin,' 
Frank Stevens, William G. Humsted. Edward F. C. Young, De Witt Van Buskirk, Earle Insleyj 
George F. Perkin.s, William H. Corbin, John A. Walker, Frank H. Earle, James B. \'reden- 
burgh, George W. Yt>ung, Spencer Weart, Lawrence Fagan. 

Ex-Judge A. y. Garretson has occupied the position of president since the company changed 
its name to that now in use. The offices of vice-presidents have changed from time to time 
and some changes have been made in the board of directors, but in the main they are the same 
now as when tlie new companv .started. 

Mr. William H. Corbin was the company's first treasurer, and resigned the position in 
favor of Mr. George W. Young. During Mr. Young's administration the new building was 
completed. He devoted his entire time and skill to the interest of the company, and it is^^ati- 
fying to him to see the results of his labors. He resigned his po.sition to associate himself in 
the management of the United States Mortgage Company, of which companv he is now the 
president. He was succeeded by Mr. J. E. Hulshizer, Jr., the present incumbent. Mr. Hul- 
shizer has been associated with the company for more than four years, and has served in various 
capacities, fp.m tlie lowest position to that now occupied; he is therefore thoroughly conversant 
with all details of the business. During his administration the company has continued to 
enjoy flattering success, and its atTairs were never in a better condition. Its last published 
statement slmwcd rescjurcos of S-, 475, 527. 54. 

The .success of the company proves beyond a doubt that Jersey City was in need of such 
an institution. 

The Bo.\ri) of Trade. 
Early in the Eighties the leading merchants down town formed an informal association for 
mutual benefit and protection. The moving spirit in this association was George W. Clerihew. 



'7° 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



For several years the meetings were held in his store on Xewark Avenue. The advantag-es 
obtained by co-operation were many, and it was believed that much good would be accom- 
plished, not only for the merchants, but for the city at large, by extending the scope and powers 
of the organization. Through the efforts of Mr. Clerihew, a committee was appointed to call a 








J-^COB RISCLE. 



EX-PRESIDENTS BOARD OF TRADE. 



meeting for the formation of a Board of Trade. This committee consisted of Messrs. G. W. 
Clerihew, C. C. Van Anglen. J. W. Knause, George Hawes and E. M. Doane. The meeting 
was held on March 14. iSSS, in Murray's Hall. 47 Montgomery Street. t)restes Cleveland was 
elected chairman, and representatives from one hundred and ninety -two business firms were 
present. On April 25, 1SS8, a second meeting was held, at which The Board of Trade was form- 
ally organized. The officers elected were : Orestes Cleveland, president : Jacob Ringle, first 
vice-president ; Joseph A. Dear, second vice-president ; Edward Hoos. third \-ice-president ; F. 
W. Hayes, secretary; Frank Stevens, treasurer; C. C. Van Anglen, P. H. Hanley, J. C. Lind- 
say, Charles S. Furst, W. R. Turner. H. AV. Carr, Da\-id W. Lawrence, James Leo, John 
Edelstein, W. McLaughlin, Simeon H. Smith, directors. 

The presidents since its organization have been : Orestes Cleveland, Leonard J. Gordon, 
Jacob Ringle, Joseph A. Dear and John J. Voorhees. The officers for 1895 are : John J. Voor- 

hees, president ; C. C. Jewell, first \-ice-presidcnt ; James 
G. Hasking, second vice-president; A. J. Corcoran, third 
vice-president; Frank Stevens, treasurer; W. J. Tait, 
secretary-. The directors are : Joseph A. Dear, Myron 
J. Furst, R. Anderson, E. R. Wessells. H. V. Condict, J. 
E. Banks, Daniel E. Clcary, James Leo, H. W. Carr, B. 
L. Stowe and F. C. Wolbert. 

The board has exerted a beneficial influence in the 
city, and many local improvements have been procured 
through its action. The enlargement of the site for the 
new city hall from part of a block to its present size, 
the extension of the city railways, the night collections 
i>f letters from the street b<ixcs, the imposition of a tax 
of five per cent, nn the gro.ss earnings of city railroads, 
the increase of funds for the boulevard, the prevention 
of the secession of Harrison and Kearny from Hudson 
County, the abolition of the Ellis Island powder maga- 
zine, and many other benefits have been secured or 
aided by the board. It has persistently labored for 
the improvement of the city, the increase of facilities for business and everything that has a 
tendency to make the city more desirable for residents, merchants and manufacturers. 




HEAnQt•.^RT^"Rs 



N 




--* ^^^i2'^ '•''\^^^W*^^^~'i^ 



•2S <— 



-AV 







J r.i, 






Jw»** i; 






m^K-:^ 







"^W 



r 






^ \ 



1) 






;</\'. 




DlKECrnKS 111- T'lK ,11:K>-I;V city MDAKU of TKADi:. 

J. J. V..orhis. Prc-Ment. '>. 1. K. Rnnks, D.rcct. 

•- ■■ ■ •!. Vici-l'r.-.lLnt. - 1^.^.-11:." 



;. C. C. Jcwfll. Vici-l'r.- .Knt 

8. I. (i. fla-kin^. ■■ 

1.. A. J. C. reran, " 

2. H W. Carr. lliroclMr. 

4.' (ieorKC Hiilicr. " 



k. An'lir:."n. 
, I. A. Walker, 




CHAPTER XXV. 

THE FOURTH RKCJIMKNI HOW THE ORGANIZATION WAS FORMED WHO WERE CONCERNEIl IN IIS 

CREATION, AND THE MEN W HO HAVE CARRIED ON THE WORK A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF ITS SER- 
VICES, WITH A COMPLE1E LIST OF IHE STAFF AND LINE FROM THE FIRST ROSTER TO THE PRESENT. 

1RIOR to iS6i the militia of the States lacked uniformity in tactics and equipment. 
The disadvantaije arising- from this attracted attention during the earlier stages of 
the war, but the rebellion was suppressed before the general government attempted a 
remedy. Legislation by Congress created the National Guard. The militia of all the 
States was in bad condition at the close of the war, and the New Jersey organizations were 
practically demoralized. It never had uniformity. Special acts had been passed from time to 
time by the legislature creating the Hudson Brigade, the Essex Brigade, the Rifle Corps and 
other organizations. Most of the young men who composed these commands had enlisted, 
and many had not returned. Most of those who came back had no desire to return to the old 
organizations. The old tactics had been superseded and the old commandants were back num- 
bers. In Hudson Countv there was a formidable list of brigadier-generals, colonels and staff 
officers of the old regiment, but not a single uniformed and equipped company. Out of this 
chaotic condition the Fourth Regiment sprang, and with it the entire National Guard of the 
State. The importance of the preliminary movements, and the fact that they are nowhere re- 
corded, makes it worth while to go more into the details of the series of events, than of those 
msre generally known in connection with the regiment. 

In i860 Col. Ellsworth, of Chicag.i, with his celebrated Zouaves, visited Xew York Cit\- 
and excited the envy of every military man by the excellence of their drill and discipline. A 
company of young men, clerks and students, was immediately formed in New York with the 
laudable intention of rivaling the ICllsworth Z:)uaves. They secured W. W. !McChesney, previ- 
ously the drill-master of the Zouaves, tn eummand them. They soon had a company of seventy 
young enthusiasts, who became known as the National Zouaves. They had an armory in an 
old building at the comer of Mercer and Broome streets, known as Mercer Hall. Many of the 
young men procured mattresses, and slept in the armory in order to have an hour or two of 
drill in the mornings before they went to business. 

When President Lincoln issued liis call for troops after Fort Sumpter was fired upon, this 
company volunteered almost to a man. It subsequently became Company A, Tenth Regiment, 
N. Y. Volunteers. One of the charter members of the National Zouaves was AVm. E. Rogers. He 
was a law student as well as a student at Cooper Institute. With his comrades he was mustered 
into the United States service in April, 1S61, under a two years' enlistment. After one month 
spent in drill and equipment in their camp on the point at Sandy Hook, the regiment sailed 
for Fortress Monroe. The former captain of Company A was then its colonel. In a short time 
he brought the regiment to such a state of perfection in drill and discipline that it was selected 
by Gen. Wool from his divisitm of fifteen thousand men as the show regiment and garrison of 
Fortress Monroe. It was engaged in this duty when the conflict between the Monitor and Mer- 
rimac took place almost under the walls of the fortress. 

In those early days of the war the dividing line between our forces and the enemy was the 
village of Hampton, two miles from tlic fortress. Raids and counter-raids were frequent, and 
in one of tliem tlie village was Inirned by the enemy. 

For the first year of its service the regiment was confined to garrison and picket duty on 
the road to Yorktown. with occasional cx])eilitions to the eastern shore to destrov the enemy's 
supplies. Wliile on picket duty Private Rogers was seriously wounded. A bullet passed 
through the bone of the left arm, making a compound fracture at the shoulder socket. Dr. 
Hunt, formerly universally known in Jersey City, saved his life. The surgeons at the hospital 



172 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

decided that nothinsj but amputation would save Rogers' life. Dr. Hunt was surgeon of the 
regiment, and was entitled by courtesy to perform the operation. After examining the wound 
he declined to amputate, because he believed Rogers would die under the operation. This 
wound destroyed Rogers' chances for promotion. The ball could not be found, and it was not 
until three years later that it was extracted. Treatment at the Xew York Hospital by Drs. 
Agnew, Van Buren and Mott only afforded temporary relief. A few weeks of duty reopened 
the wound. Finally the medical director pronounced Rogers unfit for ser\'ice. Rather than 
return before his term of enlistment had expired Rogers obtained a detail as chief clerk of the 
Chesapeake General Hospital, now the Soldiers' Home, at Fortress Monroe, and ser\-ed there 
until he was mustered out. This Private Rogers was the father of the Fourth Regiment, 
and of the National CJuard of Xew Jersey. 

After his return from the war he became the teacher of the boys' bible class in the Simpson 
M. E. Church, in Hudson City, and a practising lawyer and As.sistant Corporation Attorney of 
New York City. He was popular among the young men and they induced him to give them 
instructions in the manual of arms. He had a class of forty boys, among whom were : C. W. 
Laws and J. L. Bookstaver, afterwards captains in the Fourth Regiment, and Walter J. Smith, 
Sidney J. Everett and Robert L. Woodley, who became lieutenants in the regiment. The 
boys soon became enthusiastic, and a company was formed which was known officially as 
"Company A, unattached, N. J. Rifle Corps." It was drilled almost every night in a hall over 
a beer saloon on Beacon, near Oakland Avenue. The commanders without commands were 
jealous of Rogers and wanted the company turned over to them. They made so much op- 
position that it was with difficulty that uniforms were procured from the State. Gen. Hatfield 
and Colonels Speer and Gregory were especially opposed to a new organization. In spite of 
the opposition Company A flourished. Its first public appearance was in the parade of the 
Newark militia in Newark on Washington's Birthdav, 1865. It turned out eighty strong in a 
blinding snow storm, and its discipline and soldierly bearing was such as to provoke the com- 
mendation of Gov. Ward and Maj.-Gen. Runyon, the reviewing officers. From that day they 
were the friends of the company and the battalion that grew out of it. 

The officers of the old Hudson Brigade held .several meetmgs in Taylor's Hotel, which re- 
sulted in the appointment of a committee to go to Trenton to demand that the new companies 
then organized or to be organized should be placed under their command. The opposition was 
so strong that Col. Rogers suggested that a committee be appointed to draw up a new law to 
conform with the National Guard act passed by Congress. This committee was appointed, and 
Gen. Runyon, now Minister Plenipotentiary to Germany, Col. Plume, of the Second Regiment, 
now Maj.-Gen. Plume, and Col. W. E. Rogers were its members. The result was the present 
National Guard act, which was passed by the legislature after a great deal of opposition. The 
paper organizations with their officers were wiped out. Col. Rogers was especially active in 
securing the passage of the act. 

The opposition manifested by the old officers gave impetus to the movement for reorgan- 
ization. Company B was organized by Capt. Bellard, Company C by John McLaughlin, better 
known at that time as " Bull " McLaughlin, and Benjamin Murphy, both veterans. " Bull " 
became captain, but discipline was not his strong point and he resigned. Murphy, who had 
been first-lieutenant, was elected captain, and soon gave the company a reputation for drill and 
discipline. Companv D was organized by John J. TolTey. Thus a battalion was formed, and 
Col. Rogers was elected major to command it. It was known by general orders as the Third 
Battalion, N. J. Rifle Corps. Company E, of the old regiment, was located at Hoboken, and 
about that time it got into disgrace and was disbanded. Henry (1. Shaw at that time was city 
editor of the Jersey City Tii/us and a military enthusiast. He took advantage of the vacancy 
and organized a new Company E, the City Guard of Jersey City. Company F was organized 
by Capt. John B. Randolph, a graduate of West Point and ex-lieutenant m the C S. Army. He 
is now private secretary to the chief clerk in the war department at Wa.shington. He did not 
retain command of the company long, and was succeeded by Benjamin \'an Riper. This made 
six companies, and gave a regimental formation, when general orders were issued creating 
the six companies into the Fourth Regiment, X. J. Rifle Corps. At the subsequent election 
Maj. W. E. Rogers was elected colonel, C. G. Van Reyper, lieutenant-colonel, and William B. 
Shafer, major. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 173 

This was the condition of the regiment when the National Guard act was signed by Gov. 
Randolph, on March 9, 1S69. A general order was issued by Adjt.-Gen. W. S. Striker, on April 
14, 1869, by which Companies A, B. C. D. E and F, of the Fourth Re.^ament, X. J. Rifle Corps, 
and Company G, of the Second Ru-^-imcnt, N. J. State Militia, were assij,fned to a provisional 
regiment desii^oiated as the Fourth Rej^iment and assigned to the First Brigade. 

The six companies of the Rifle Corps retained their letter designations. Company E of 
the Second Regiment became Company G of the new regiment. The held officers of the old 
organizations were retired, but the line officers were transferred with their commands and took 
rank for previous service according to the date of their commissions. The general order did 
not reach Jersey City until April 19th, and a meeting of the oflicers was called for April 23d to 
elect field officers for the new regiment. They met at the armory of Company E, 25 and 27 
Newark Avenue, on that evening, but A. A. G., Col. S. M. Dickinson, who was detailed to pre- 
side at the election, did not appear. The roll was called, and these officers were present : 

Company A— Captain, Augustus C. Bennett ; First-Lieut., Walter J. Smith : Second-Lieut., 
David W. Meeker. 

Company B— Captain. Alfred Bellard : First-Lieut., Thomas McKeon. 

Company C — Captain, Benj. Murphy ; First-Lieut., Wm. A. Graham. 

Company D— Captain, John J. Tuffey ; First-Lieut., John M. Van Winkle ; Second-Lieut., 
George Newkirk. 

Company E— Captain, Henry G. Shaw ; First-Lieut., Dudley S. Steele ; Second-Lieut., Thos. 
K. Halstead. 

Company F — Captain, Benjamin \'an Riper ; First-Lieut., John Magrath ; Second-Lieut., 
Andrew C. Purdy. 

Company G-^Captain, Hiram Van Buskirk ; First-Lieut., Andrew Van Buskirk ; Second- 
Lieut., Henr\- C. Post. 

They organized bv electing Capt. Hiram Van Buskirk, the senior officer, chairman, and 
Capt. Henr>' Grenville Shaw, .secretary. Capt. Van Riper and Lieut. Steele had been elected 
but had not received their commissions, but they were allowed to vote. The secretary- read 
General Orders No. 5, and the bnard decided to adjourn until April 30th in order to secure the 
presence of the A. A. G., Ci>l. Dickinson. The election was held on the 30th, and Hiram Van 
Buskirk was elected colonel, Henry G. Shaw lieutenant-colonel, and John J. Toffey major. 

On May iith Col. Van Buskirk had received his commission, and he issued General Order 
No. I, appointing these regimental officers: Adjutant, Wm. W. Buckley; Quartermaster, Wm. 
B. Shafer; Paymaster. G. D. Van Reipen ; Surgeon, Frederick G. Payne; Assistant-Surgeon, 
Frank C. Fr>-. 

Col. Rogers was appointed inspector-general on the staff of Gen. Runyon, and was con- 
stantly occupied for a vear or more in securing compliance throughout the State with the 
National Guard act. He removed from Jersey City to Washington, where he has practised law 
for a number of years. 

In the meantime the members of the regiment had been preparing to celebrate the reor- 
ganization, and an inaugiiral concert and hop was given in Kepler Hall, now the Academy of 
Music on the night of Wednesday. May 12, 1869. This was one of the most brilliant events of 
its kind in the history of the city up to that time. It was attended by officers from all the sur- 
rounding States, and the gnod will generated then removed the last evidence of opposition. 
It also gave the regiment a standing among tirst-class military organizations which it has never 
lost. The regiment made its first parade on May 30th with the city Grand Army Posts. In 
September the motto of the regiment, /« Ulriiiitquc Paratus, was adopted. The common 
council leased the top floor of the buildings 25 and 27 Newark Avenue for headquarters, and it 
has remained there twentv-tive years. Some time later the next lower floor was added to the 
headquarters, which have been known as the City Armory. 

Col. Van Buskirk was a veteran of the war, and filled a number of civic positions in Bay- 
onne. Lieut.-Col. Shaw was the author of the competitive sy.stem of rifle shooting still prac- 
tised in the United States. He was instrumental in starting the Creedmoor range, which was 
. known a score of years ago as the American Wimbledon. It has since been superseded by the 
New Jersey State range. Col. Shaw served during the war as a lieutenant in an Ohio regi- 
ment, and for a number of vears has lived on the Pacific coast. Lieut. Dudley S. Steele sue- 



'74 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



ceeded Capt. Shaw in command of the company. He became colonel of the regiment on Feb- 
ruary 7, 1873, and brijjadicr-jjeneral of the First Brijjade, April 13, 1S85, a position he held 
until his death in 1S92. He served in the army durinj^- the war, and subsequently was a mem- 
ber of the New York Seventh Rej^iment. Maj. Toffev became lieutenant-colonel, and is now 
the sheriff of Hudson County. He served in the army and as an alderman, assemblyman and 
State treasurer. Capt. Benjamin Murphy served in the army with distinction durinjj the war. 
and for many years has been chief of police in Jersey Citv. Quartennaster Shafer ser\'ed durinjj 
the war under Gen. Kilpatrick, and was lieutenant-colonel uf the rejjiment when he resig-ned. 
Lieut. Halstead served in the army during the war, and has been assistant city clerk of Jersey 
City since 1 87 1. Many other members served in the army and filled civic positions of honor 
and trust. There have been 2,776 members on the regimental roster since its organization. 
Company A had 45S; old Company B. 37S ; new Company B, 74 ; Company C, 413 ; Company 
D, 436 ; Company E, 439 ; Company F, 391 ; Company G (new). 93 ; Company H (new), 94. 
Company K was added to the regiment in October, 1S94. 

The Fourth Regiment was ordered out for duty by Gov. Randolph un July 12, 1871. when 
a riot between Orangemen and others was anticipated. Fortunately the regiment was not 

ordered from the armory. 
Its presence and readiness 
had much to do with pre- 
venting disturbance. In 
1874 it was called out to 
suppress the " Long Dock " 
riots. In the same year it 
was ordered out to guard 
the county jail during the 
execution of Mechella. It 
was (ordered out as a goiard 
of honor to the remains of 
\'ice- President Wilson, at 
Jersej- City, November 27, 
1S7O, and was one of the 
regiments of the Provis- 
ional Brigade, which, under 
command of Brig.-Gen. W. 
J. Sewell, was ordered to 
Phillipsburg to suppress 
the railroad strikers who 
had seized several lines 
of railroads at that point. The strikers had paralyzed railway travel for several weeks, and 
in other States, notably Pennsylvania, had destroyed millions of dollars' worth of property 
and many lives. When matters a.ssumcd an alarming condition in this State, Gov. Bedle 
summoned the staff of the First Brigade to Jersey City. ;ind opened headquarters as com- 
mander-in-chief, in the Fuller building, then known as the Darcy l)uilding, at Hudson and 
Montgomery streets. On August 29th tlie iMiurth Regiment, wliieh had been in the armorv 
several days, received marching orders. Near midnight the regiment marched without music 
to the Pennsylvania Railroad depot. .\ tr.iin of eigiiteen cars took them to Elizabeth, where 
they were transferred to the Central oi .\ew Jersey. There everything had the appearance of 
war. The First, Third, Fifth, Si.xth and Seventh regiments had lieen assembled, and all were 
loaded on trains including the Fourth which got otT at two o'clock in tile morning. Soon after 
daylight the troops left the trains a slu.rt dist.incc outside of Phillipsburg. Camp was formed 
in and around the little town. Tin- regimental liculiniarters was in the Phillipsburg hotel on 
Main Street, and the regiment was i|iKirtered m the railroad repair shop across the street. 
Quartermaster-Lieut. L.imb. .unl Sergt. W.ilter .McGuwn, his as.sistant. soon h.ad evervthing- ready 
to feed the regnnient, and Maj. J. I). .\Ic<"iill. M. D.. fitted up a hospital in the railroad paint 
shop. The military demonstration intimidated the strikers without blondshed. Tlie regiment 
remained in Phillipsburg one week. The imly sad event of the encampment was the death of 







— T 








L^ 


. . _^ 


1 


-— 


— ■', 





FOURTH RK(W-MK-\"J 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY 175 

Private Henr>- Weinspau^jh from exposure. He belonged to D Company, and was buried in 
the Phillipsburjj cemetcr\-, with militar)' honors, where a tombstone was erected over his grave. 

The regiment took part in the parade and review at Newark, May 30, 1S78. and went to 
Pompton as part of the First Brijrade for iieid manotuvcrs and a sham battle. May 31. 1880. 
The rejfimeiit acirompaniol the remains of Gen. Torbert across the State. September 29, 18S0. 
It took part in the Evacuation Day parade in Xew York. November 26, ia»3. It paraded in 
New York on Auj^st S, 1S86. at the Grant funeral. On Jan-oarv- 14. 18^7, it was called out to 
suppress a riotous demonstration of strikers at the Lorillard Tobacco Works, and was held at 
the armor>' in readiness. The regiment paraded in Philadelphia at the Centennial Celebration 
of the Inauguration of the First President of the United States, April iS. 1S89. It was the escort 
at the funeral of Gen. Steele, and acted as guard of honor at the funeral of Gen. Sherman dur- 
ing its passage through Jersey City. The regiment has encamped at the Slate camp in its 
turn ever since the camp was established, and has qualitied nearly all of its members as marks- 
men at the State riiie ranges. 

In the reorganization of the First Brigade. May 31. 1S92, the Fourth Regiment was in- 
creased by the addition of Companies A. B. C. 1) and E. Second Regiment. These companies 
were known as Companies G. H. I. K and L. and constituted the Second Battalion. Company 
B was transferred to the new Second Regiment. Companies G, H, I, K and L were disbanded 
April 26. 1S93. The present Companies B and G were mustered into the ser^-ice May 25th. and 
Company H was mustered June 5. 1893. The regiment is di\-ided into mo battalions, the First 
consisting of Companies B, C. E and F : the Second of Companies A, D. G and H. 

The comer stone of the new armor\" was laid on December 20, 1893, and it was finished in 
February, 1895. The occupation of the building was celebrated by a balL The original plans 
included a tall tower at the comer of Bergen Avenue and Church Street, which was to have 
been used as a signal station. The appropriation was not large enough to allow for the tower 
and it was omitted. 

Field OrncEBS. 

CoLOXELS — Hiram Van Bu.skirk, April 23. 1S69. resigned December 11. 1S72; Dudlev S. 
Steele, February 7. 1873, elected Brig.-Gen. April 13, 1885 ; Samuel D. Dickinson, April 
22, 1885, resigned December 7. iSS-S; Peter F. Wanser, February 20, 1&S9, elected Brig.-Gen. 
1892 ; Hugh H. Abemethy. Jime 2c. 1S92. 

LiECT.-CoLOXELS — Henr\- G. Shaw. April 23, 1869, resigned April 25, 137 1 ; J. J. Tottey. 
March 6, 1872, resigned April 26. 1S75 : Wm. B. Shafer. March 20, 1876, resigned June 6, 1S84 : 
Samuel D. Dickinson, July 23. 1SS4, prom-oted to Colonel April 22, 1S85 : P. F. Wanser. April 

22. 1885, promoted to Colonel Febmaiy 20. 18S9: H. H. Abemethy, February 20, 1 689. pro- 
moted to Colonel June 20. 1S90: Wm. B. Mason, June 20, 1892. 

M.^JORS — John J. Totiey. April 23. 1869. promoted Lieut. -Col. March 6. 1S72: William B. 
Shafer, March 6, 1.S72. promoted Lieut. -Col. March 20. 1876 ; Benjamin Gregorv. March 20. 
1876, resigned October 17. 1S72 : S. D. Dickinson. December 6. 18S2. promoted LieuL-Coi. July 

23, 1884 ; P. F. Wan.ser. July 22. 1SS4, promoted to Lieut. -Col. April 22. 1SS5 ; John A. Parker. 
April 22, 1S85, promoted Licut.-Col. and A. A. G.. First Brigade. April 23. 1SS5 : H. H. Aber- 
nethy. May 23. 1SS5. promoted LieuL-Col. February 20. 1SS9: Wm. B. Mason, February 10. 
1889, promoted Lieut.-Col. June 20. 1S02: Robert G. Smith. Tune 20. 1S92. 

Co.MMAND.^XTs OF GiN Det.^chmknt — Robert G. Smith, September lo. 1886. resigned Sep- 
tember 5, 1SS7 ; George P. Babcock. Captain and Comdt.. November 14, 18S7. 

St.*ff Ai>jrT.»NT> — Wm. W. Buckley, May 8. 1S69. resigned November i, 1870; Martin 
Finck, November i. 1S70, resigned December 9, 1S72 : Benjamin Gregory, March 15. 1S73, pro- 
moted to Major; .S. D. Dickinson. April i, 1876, promoted to Major December 6. 18S2: Thomas 

D. Vondy. December 7, IS.^2, resigned June 6. 1SS4: Benjamin il. Gerardin. October i, 1884, 
Captain and Adjt.. October 1. i.^iSg. 

Qi ARTER\iA>iKK> — Wm. B. Shafer. May 8. 1S69. promoted to Major March 6. 1872 ; Geor<^ 

E. .Sherm.in. August 15. 1872, removed from State July 26. 1S75 : S. D. Dickinson, December i, 
1875, promiited to Adit. April i. 1.S76 ; George W. Firth. June 12, 1S76, resigned December 17. 
1877: John A. Parker. JanuarT,- 17. 1S7S. promoted to Major April 22, i-VS^ : Ah-in H. Graft, 
May 9. 18^(5. Captain and (Juartennaster May 9. 1S90. 



176 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

Paymasters — G. D. Van Reipen, May 8. 1869, resisjned June 14, 1875 ; Abner A. Coyken- 
dall, July 3, 1875, commission made void October 2, 1875 ; Edward P. Demotte, October 8, 

1875, resigned April 25, 18S3; Frank. J. Matthews, Mav 3, 1883, Captain and Paymaster May 
3, 1883- 

Surgeons — Fred. G. Payne, May 8, 1869, tailed to equip, void October 9, 1869; Beriah A. 
Watson, October 19, 1869, resigned June i, 1877 ; John D. McGill, June i, 1877, promoted Lieut. - 
Col. and Surgeon First Brigade May 1, 1885 ; Mortimer Lampson, May 9, 1885, promoted Lieut. - 
Col. and Medical Inspector First Brigade May 10, 1S92. 

AssiSTANT-SuRGEo.NS — Frank C. Fry, May 8, 1S69, resigned April i, 1893: J. D. McGill, 
July I, 1873, promoted June i, 1877 ; Mortimer Lampson, November 24, 1SS3, promoted May 9, 
1885 ; Steven V. Morris, May 14, 18S5. Captain and Asst. Surg. May 14, 1S90. 

Judge-Advocates— Wm. P. Douglass. March 27, 1874, Major and Judge Advocate First 
Brigade May 22, 1876 ; Charles Boltwood, March 25, 1878, promoted Captain and A. de. C. First 
Brigade May i, 18S5 ; John Briggs, June i, 1885. 

Chaplains— Ralph B. Hoyt, March 25, 1878, resig-ncd December 19, 1881 ; Henry W. Spald- 
ing, July 4, 1883, resigned Xovember i, iS,S6 ; John L. Scudder, June 2, 1887. 

Inspectors Rifle Practice — Andrew Anderson, May 10, 1879, resigned March 3, 1882; 
Abram P. Bush, May 16, 1882. . 

NON-COMMISSIONED StaFF. 

Sergeant-Majors — Clarence O'Reilly (E), May i, 1873, elected Captain Company C De- 
cember 8, 1874 ; Wm. L. Jones, December 8, 1S74, relieved at own request July 10, 1875 ; Walter 
a: McGown (E), July 10, 1875, discharged May 25,1876; Chas. W. Laws (A), May 25, 1876, 
elected Captain Company A October 30, 1877; Jarvis P. Wanser (E), Xovember 30, 1877, dis- 
charged June I, 1886 ; Wm. R. Clements (E), June i, 18S6. 

Quartermaster-Ser(;eants — Benj. T. Van Allen (D), , discharged Augtl'st 4, 1873; A. 

A. Coykendall (E), August 4, 1S73, discharged Deccmher 10, 1875 ; Charles McArty (E), De- 
cember 10, 1875, discharged June 17, 1876; Jarvis P. Wanser (E), June 17, 1876, Sergt.-Maj. 
November 30, 1S77 ; Wm. Klein (K), November 30, 1877, discharged July 18, 1882; Wm. G. 
Van Slyke (A), July 8, 1S82, discharged October 2, 1883 ; W. H. S. Nodyne (C), October 27, 1883, 
Second-Lieut. Company C February 24, 1885 ; Ed. T. Baker (E), April 10, 1885, honorably dis- 
charged October 23, 1889 ; Robert F. Martin (E), October 23, 1889 (incumbent). 

Commissary Sergeants — A. W. McGown (E), March 20, 1S74, .Scrgt.-ilaj. Julv 10, 1875 ; 
C. W. Laws (A), December 11, 1875, Sergt.-Maj. May 25, 1876 ; Jarvis P. Wanser (E), May 25, 

1876, Quartermaster Sergt. June 17, 1876 ; Fred. S. Cully (C), June 17, 1876, discharged Novem- 
ber 30, 1877; Daniel Wissert (C), November 30, 1877, discharged July 9, 1880; George K. 
Dean (E), December 22, 18S0, discharged August 5, 1885 : Geo. B. Beiderhase (A), August 12, 
1885, discharged November 23, iSSS ; Benj. F. Moore. Jr.. (E), June 25, 1892. 

Hospital Stewards — Geo. F. Applcton (A), February 15, 1875, discharged October 13, 
1879; S. V. Morris (A), May 22, 18S0. promoted Asst. -Surg. May 14, 1885; Geo. C. Fountain, 
(A), July 8, 1885 (incumbent). 

Dru.m-Major — John Brownlcc. September i, 1868 (incumbent). 

Color-Sergeants. — George K. Dean (E). May i, 1S73, Com.-Scrgt. December 22, 1880; Jacob 
Kramer (C), December 22. 1S80, discharged .-\pril i, 1S.S4 ; Waldo E. Gibbs (C), April 20, 1884, 
reduced at own request June 14, 1886 : Clias. A. Bauer (F), June 18, 1SS6 (incumbent). 

Right General Glides — Herman Wackinan (A), April 15. 1S75, discharged November 30, 
1877 ; George R. Gray (A), November 30, 1877, discharged December 6, 187S ; W. G. Van Slvke 
(A), December 6, 1878, promoted July 8. 1SS2 ; Frank W. Edmunds (D), July 8, 1882, discharged 
July 6, 1883; Nicholas Terhune (E), July 2, 1.SS3. discharged May 13, 18S5 ; B. F. Moore, Jr. 
(E), May 13, 1885, promoted June 25, 181)2. 

Left General Guides — Robert R. C.rcig (D). December 21. 1874 — February 28, 1877; 
Justus B. Eckert (D), February 28. 1S77— .May 16, 1882 ; A. H. (JratT (A), July 8, 1882— Sep- 
tember 25, 1S83 ; B. F. Moore, jr. (K), November 7, 1S83— May 13, 1885 ; J. Phyfe, Jr. (A), May 
13, 1885 — December 15, 1885 ; Wm. Brooke (A). February 10. iS.So — June 10, 1880; Thomas B. 
O'Neill (D), June 24, 1886— April 9. 1S80 : Arthur Scott (F), May 15, 18S9 (incumbent). 

Sergeants and Bvi-,i.ers — Adolph Walter (E), November 22, 1S86 — November i, 1890; J. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 177 

R. Quaife (E), November 19, 1890 — April 3, 1891 ; Frank Siefert (F), April 29, 1891 (incum- 
bent). 

Sergeants OF Gun Squad — E.K. Sutton, October 18, 1886— October 22, 1887 ; John T. Prin- 
gle, December S, 1S87 — 1S94. 

Corporals Gun Squad — J. T. Pringle, October 18, 1886— December 8, 1887 ; John Laws, 
December S, 1SS7. 

The complete roster of statf and line from the organization of the regiment to the present 
has included these officers : 

Line Officers — Company A. 

Captains — Augustus D. Bennett, November, 1868 — June 14, 1869 : J. S. Bookstaver, June 
25, 1873 ; Wm. R. Davis, August 5, 1873 — June to, 1876 ; Chas. Boltwood, June 21, 1876 ; Chas. 
W. Laws, October 30, 1S77 — Januan,- 12, 18S2 ; Fred. A. Appelles, May 2, 1882 — October 26, 18S5 ; 
Hej-^vard E. Bowley, December 29, 1S85 — June 15, 1888; Fred. A. Appelles, September 11, 1S88 
— April 3, 1S90; J. Howard Bumsted, Jr., May 13, 1890. 

FiRST-LiEUTs. — Walter J. Smith, June 3, 186S — April 6, 1870 ; Sidney J. Everrett, June 28, 
1870 — August 16, 1S71 ; Robt. L. Woodley, November 8, 1871 — February 25, 1873 ; W. R. Davis, 
May, 1873 — August 5, 1873 ; Eugene K. Shrope, August 5, 1873 — April 14, 1876 ; P. W. Levering, 
June 21, 1876 — May 25, 1877 ; Wra. P. Wood, June 29, 1877 — March i, 1878; Henry W. Post, 
April 16, 1878 — June 21, 1S78 ; Jas. N. Van Benschoten, July 30, 1878 — June 7, 1881 ; Edlow 
Harrison, July 26, iSSi — June 25, 18S3 ; Heywood E. Bowley, September 25, 1883 — December 
29, 1885 ; John W. Aymar, December 29. 1885— September 24, 1887 ; J. H. Bumsted, Jr., Decem- 
ber 13, 1887 — May 3, 1S90; Wm. Robertson, Jr., May 13, 1890 — March iS, 1893; Chas. H. 
Springstead, April 25, 1S93 — June i, 1893 ; Jno. C. Westervelt, June 30, 1893 (incumbent). 

Second-Lieuts. — David W. Meeker, June 3, 1868 — July 26, 1869 ; Edward Koerbel, Sep- 
tember I, 1869 — November 20, 1872; Wm. R. Davies, February, 1873 — May 6, 1873; E. K. 
Shrope, May 6, 1S73 — August 5, 1S73 ; P. W. Levering, August 5, 1S73 — June 21, 1876 ; Geo. W. 
Lamb, June 21, 1S76 — November iS, 1S76; Wm. P. Wood, January 9, 1S77 — June 29, 1S77; H. 
W. Post, January- 29, 1S77— April 16, 1878 ; Henry J. Gilien, April 16, 1878 — April i, 1879 ; E. W. 
Harrison, July 8, 1879 — July 26, 1S81 ; E. H. Bowley, July 26, 1881 — September 25, 1883; Alvin 
H. Graflf, September 25, 1.S.S3— May 9, 1885 ; J. W. Aymar, May 19, 1885— December 29, 1885 ; 
Richard P. Romaine, December 29, 18S5 — October 21, 1886 ; Emile A. Noltemyer, December 14, 
1886 — October 10, 1S87 ; Wm. Robertson, Jr., December 13, 1887 — May 13, 1890 ; Chas. H. Spring- 
stead, May 13, 1S90 — April 25, 1893; J. C. Westervelt, April 25, 1893 — June 30, 1893; Henry H. 
Bowley, June 30, 1S93 (incumbent). 

Old Company B. 

Captains — Alfred Ballard. August 14, 1S68— October 20, 1879 : Frank B. Lawrence, Decem- 
ber 30, 1S79 — February 24. 1S83; Frederick B. Wright, ilay 17, 1S83 — May 14, 1884; Andrew 
Derrom, Jr., July 31, 1884 — November 5. 1S85 ; Charles A. Stelling, March 11, 1886 — September 
2, 1887; James J. Rcid, December 6, 1887 — Octobers, 1889; Andrew Derrom, Jr., December 
12, 1889. 

Company B was transferred to Passaic December 11, 1869. 

Company B. 

FiKST-LiKur>. — Thomas McKeown, August 4, 186S — November 2, 1871 ; Andrew Anderson, 
May 14, 1872 — May 5, 1876; Aubrey N. Staples, July i, 1876 — June 10, 1877; Robert B. Moss, 
June 4, i878^I)eceniber 20, 1879 ; Richard B. Tinall, December 30, 1879 — Mav 4, 1883 ; Robert 
Morrell, June 7. 1S83 — December 24, 1884: Charles A. Stelling, Februarys, 1885 — March 11, 
1886; Warren ,S. Colegrovc, March 11. 1886 — February 3, 1888: Andrew Derrom, Jr., Septem- 
ber 13, 18S6 — December 12, i88<); Hamilton M. Ross. Jr., December 12, 1889 (incumbent). 

Seuoni)-Likut>. — James H. Jollie, August 4, 18(18 — July i, 1869: (iustav Konert, July 23, 
1869 — May 25. 1871 ; Frederick J, Angerbower, May 14, 1872 — June 20, 1S76 ; Richard Morrell, 
December 30, 1879 — June 7, 18S3 ; Andrew Derrom, Jr., June 7, 1883 — July 31, 1884; Charles A. 
Stelling, July 31, 1884 — Febniary 5, 18S5 ; J. C. Shearman, Februar>- 5, 1885 — March 27, 1886; 
Enos Vreeland, May 6, 18S6 — September 15, 1888; John O. Thurston, April 4, 1889 — Aprils, 



178 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

1891 ; James W. Clinton, May 11, 1X91 — January 28, 1S92 ; James T. Barker, February 25, 1892 
(incumbent). 

Company C. 

Captains — Benjamin Murphy, Februar)' 26, 1S69 — June 26, 1873; Georjje S. McLaug-hlin, 
August II, 1873 — .September 20, 1S73; Clarence O'Reilly, Decembers, 1874 — December 29, 
1877 ; Herbert E. Hamilton, March 2, 1S78 — Ausfust 21, 1S82 ; John Brennan, June i, 1883 — June 
6, 1884 ; Joseph R. Van Sickle, August 18, 1884 — January 7, 1887 ; John Graham, April 4, 1S87 ; 
James Sprouls, Daniel C. Bums, H. H. Brinkerhoff, Jr., July 2, 1S94. 

FiRST-LiEUTS. — Wm. A. Graham, February 26, 1S69 — December 29, 1870; Fred. T. Farrier, 
January- 11, 1S71 — January 15. 1S74; Judson M. Startup, January 30, 1875 — Aug-ust 8, 1876: 
Thomas K. Halstcd, June 11, 1S77— May 27, 1878; William Peel, July i, 1878 — December 2, 
1879; John Brennan, April 5, 18S0 — June i. 1883; Chas. W. Greenop, January i, 1883 — Octo- 
ber 29, 1883; John E. Brown, February iS, 1S84— Aujjust 18, 1884; Chas. C. McCullough, Feb- 
ruary 24, 1885 — August 16, 1886; John Graham, November 15, 1886 — April 4, 1887; Robert 
Berry, April 4, 18S7 — November 2, 1891 ; Daniel C. Burns, December 7, 1891 — May 16, 1894; 
Charles A. Wells, January 15, 1894 — May 26, 1S94; Michael Ambrose. 

Second-Lieuts. — Wm. Patrick, February 26. 1869 — June. 1869 ; Lionel Pickens. June 25, 
1869 — June 26, 1873; Charles Boltwood, December 11, 1875 — June 21, 1877; Thomas K. Hal- 
sted, July 1,1876 — June 11, 1877; Aubre}' N. Staples, June 11, 1877 — December 22, 1877; 
John Brennan, March 2, 1S78 — April 5, 18S0 : Charles W. Greenop, September 2, i88i — June 
I, 1883; John E. Brown, Jime i, 1S83 — February iS, 1084; Timothy J. Furey, February 18, 
1884 — January 27, 18S5 ; Wm. H. S. Nodyne, Februan,- 24, 1885 — November 9, 1891 ; Albert E. 
Trotter, December 7, 1S91 — December 20, 1891; Fred. J. Lambert, January 4, 1891 — June 19, 
1893; Charles A. Wells, June 30,1893 — January 15, 1894; H. H. Brinkerhoff, Jr., January 15, 
1894 — July 2, 1894 ; Merwin Armstrong, Jr., July 2, 1S94. 

Co.MPAXV D. 

Captains — John J. Toffey, March 5, 1867 — April 23, 1869 ; George V, Newkirk, May 29, 
1869 — May 10, 1870 ; John Kase, Auj^ust 17, 1S70 — October 18, 1870 : Abraham Speer, October 
19, 1870— November 30, 1875 ; George W. Dickson, February 8, 1876 — April 15, 1878; George 
B. Fielder, June 11, 1878 — July 11, 1S83; Frod. W. Hering, October 9, 1883 — December 2, 
1887 ; John N. Bruns, February 29, 1SS8 — January 4, 1893; Thomas B. O'Neill, February 28, 

1893- 

FiRST-LiEUTS. — John M. Van Winkle, March 23, 1S69 — February 14, 1872; Geo. A. Wad- 
leigh, April 5, 1872— December 30, 1S-4; Geo. W. Dickson, Jr., March 20, 1S75 — February 8, 
1876; Herbert C. Hamilton, February 8, 187O— March 2, 1878 : Abram P. Bush, July 2. 1878— 
May 16, 1882 ; Frederic W. Hering. July 2, 1N82— October 9, 1883 ; Godfrey G. Dillaway, Octo- 
ber 9, 1883 — May 29, 1894 ; Edward See, July 3, 1S94. 

Second-Lieuts. — Geo. V. Newkirk, March 23, 1869— May 29, 1S69 : Edward A. Wilson, 
May 29, 1869 — February 25. 1870; William R. Davie.s, October 19, 1870 — February 25, 1873; 
Charles A. Billings, April 29, 1873— December 2. 1873; Geo. W. Dickson, Jr., April 28, 1874 — 
March 20, 1875; Jas. S. Newkirk, .March 20, 1S75 — March 29, 1875 ; Jas. H. Van Benschoten, 
October 24, 1876 — April 20, 1S78: Chas Koelble, July 2, 1878 — August 12, 1881 ; Frederic W. 
Hering, December 6. 1881 — July 11, 18S2; David T. Robinson. July 11, 1882 — June 9, 1883; 
Geo. P. Babcock, November 13, 1883 — Novemlier 14, 18S7 ; Jos. H. Brensingcr, February 29, 
1888 — March 5, 1SS9 ; Thomas B. O'Neill, April 9, 1889 — February 28, 1S93 ; Edward See, Feb- 
ruary 28, 1893 — July 3, 1894 : Mortimer J. Gleason, July 3, 1S94. 

CoMl'VNV K. 

Captains — Henry G. Shaw, October 21, i>^'^p7 — April 23,1869; Dudley S. Steele. May 29, 
1869 — February 7. 1X73 : Hr.-Ii II .Mierncthy, Jr.. .\pril 2^. i S73— November 27. 1874; John 
A. Onslow, September 25, 1S75 — Januan,- 30, 1S77 ; P. Farmer Wauser, March 21, 1877 — July 23 
1884; John Briggs, July 30, 18S4 — June i, 1885; Charles W. Dowd, September 23, 1885 — Jan- 
uary 3, 1888 ; Robt. C. Smith, Januan,- 18, i8SS— June 20, 1S92 ; .\rthur L. Steele, July 13, 1892. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 179 

FiRST-LiEUTS.— Dudley S. Steele. March 17. 1869— May 29, 1869 ; Walter S. Neilson, June 
25, 1869— October S, 1S69 ; H. H. Abernethy. Jr., December 22, 1869— September 23, 1873, 
John A. Onslow, April 23. 1S73— September 25. 1S75 ; P. Farmer U'anser, September 25, 1875— 
March 21, 1S77 ; Thomas D. Vondy, March 21, 1877— December 7, 1872 ; John Briggs, October 
3_ 1883— July 30, 1884 ; Charles W. Dowd, July 30, 1884— September 23, 1885 ; Robert G. Smith, 
September 23, 1885— September 10, 1886; Arthur L. Steele, December 8, 18S6— July 13, 1892 ; 
Joseph H. Evans, July 73, 1892 — February i, 1892 : Adam Steip, April 18, 1894. 

Second-Liflts.— Thomas K. Halstcad, October 21, 1S67— November i, 1869; Martin 
Finck, December 22, 1869— November i, 1870 ; George S. McLau.',^hlin, January 11, 1871 — Au- 
gust II, 1873; P. F. Wanser, September 17, 1873— September 25, 1875; Samuel D. Dickinson, 
September 25, 1875— December i, 1875; Thos. D. Yondy, February 3, 1876— March 21, 1877; 
William O. Chase, September 26, 1877— Januar>' 12, 1880; John Briggs, December i, iSSo — 
October 3, 18S3 ; Chas. W. Dowd, October 3, 1883 — July 30, 1S84; Benj. :M. Gerardin, July 30, 
1884— October i. 1884; Robert G. Smith, November 19, 1884— September 23, 1885; Nathaniel 

A. Hilbrow, February 3. 1886 (failed to qualify) ; AVilliam Hermans, (Jctober 5, 1887— May 24, 
1889 ; Joseph H. Evans, July 3, 18S9— July 13, 1892 ; Adam Steip, July 14, 1892— April 18, 1894 ; 
Isaac Pullen, April iS, 1894. 

CO.MPANV F. 

Captains— Benj. Yan Riper, February 25, 1869 — April 23, 1872 ; William A. Lang-don, 
June 27, 1872 — March 16, 1873 ; Eugene K. Shrope, June 15, 1876 — September 9, 1880 ; William 

B. Mason, ilay 4, 1882 — February 20, 1889 ; Jos. H. Brensinger, March 5, 1889 — July 17, 1S93 ; 
John H. Keim, August 8, 1S93. 

FiRST-LiEUTS. — John McGrath, January 3, 1868 — March i, 1870 ; Thos. B. Wandle, October 
15, 1870 — June 23, 1872 ; Andrew C. Purdy, October 10, 1872 — June 12, 1878; Peter W. M. West, 
August I, 1878 — January 3, 1881 ; John T. Rouse, May 4, 1882 — September 10, 1884; John G. 
Berrian, Jr., March 3, 18S5 — April 8, 1S91 : John H. Keim, May 5, 1891 — August 8, 1893 ; Mar- 
tin L. Fritz, August 8, 1 893. 

Second-Lieuts. — Andrew W. Purdy, January 3, 1868 — October 10, 1872 ; Francis Ettling, 
October 10, 1872— June 8. 1877 ; Peter W. M. West, October 11, 1877— August i, 1878; John T. 
Rouse, August i, 1S78 — May 4, 1882; Hartman Van Wagenen, May 4, 18S2 — April 3, 1884; 
George W. Russell, Jr.. March 3, 1885— April 30, 1888; John H. Keim, December 18, 1888— 
May 5, 1891 ; Werner Bruns, May 5, 1891 — February 8, 1893 ; Martin L. Fritz, March 7, 1893 — 
AugfUSt 8, 1893 ; Edward I. Edwards, August 8, 1893. 

CO.MPANY G. 

Captain — Frederic J. Lampert, June 19, 1893. 
FiRST-LiEL'T. — Robert F. Martin, June 19, 1S93. 
Second-Lielt. — John E. Brennan, June 19, 1893. 

Co.mpanv H. 

Captain — Henr\- Spielman, June 19, 1893. 
First-Liel't.— Frank A. O'Sullivan, June 19, 1893. 
Second-Liei T. — William H. Wild, June 19, 1893. 

New Co.mpanv B. 

Captain — Andrew Derrom, Jimc 19, 1S93. 
FiRST-LiHi'T. — A. La Rue Cliristie. June 19, 1S93. 
Second-Liki 1. — Harry E. Ramsey, June 19, 1S93. 



I 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

EARLY DAYS OF THK JERSEY CITY PRESS THE PIONEERS WHO FELL BY THE WAY. 

|URING the earlier years of Jersey City's existence there was neither local ne\vs nor a 
clientele to supply a home ne^Yspaper with matter or money. The newspapers pub- 
l> lished in New York answered every purpose. Neither the Associates of the Jersey 
Company, Col. John Stevens nor John B. Coles appear to have thouijht of publishin,a: 
a newspaper to aid in attractinj;' settlers. They used the New York papers liberally in adver- 
tising their land schemes, and much of the early history of the city would have been lost but 
for the files of these old newspapers. 

The first evidence of a local paper is contained in the title of a weekly started at Hacken- 
sack in 1830. E. B. Spooner, a young man who had been brought up in the office of T/w Long 
Island Star made an effort to branch out for himself by opening a printing office at the county 
seat. There he published The Bergen County Gazette and Jersey City Advertiser. The paper 
was scarcely large enough to earn,' so much title. Jersey City's share of the paper seemed to be 
confined to the sxib-title. The legal advertising was not abundant, and the population was too 
sparse and means of communication too infrequent to make the circulation profitable. The 
22,000 population was scattered from Bergen Point to SufEern, over 275 square miles of terri- 
tory. George Spooner succeeded his brother in a few weeks, and he, too, wearied. The enter- 
prise failed in a few months. 

John Post and Joseph E. Handley, two practical printers, made the first attempt to print a 
newspaper in Jersey City. They issued the first number of a weekly, called T/ie Bergen County 
Courier, on February i, 1832. They wrote their own copy, set their own matter and circulated 
their papers. The paper went out of existence with the forty-second number, on November 
14, 1832. Part of the material was sent to Philadelphia and became useful in starting the Ledger 
of that city, which subsequently became and is one of the most prominent papers in the country. 
The rest of the outfit was used in a small job office, and when last used, some time before the 
war, was in the second story of a building on the corner of Warren Street and Railroad Avenue. 

Robert W. Lang made the next attempt. His father was editor of The Xei^< York Gazette, 
and the paper young Lang started was called The Jersey City Gazette and Bergen County 
Courier. It was printed as job work at the ofiice of the elder Lang, 2 Hanover Square, New 
York. Lang visited Bergen County twice a week, and his paper was a semi-weekly. It con- 
tained a good deal of "saved matter" from the New York paper and little that was new. The 
office was destroyed by the big fire of December, 1S35, and that ended the paper. 

The first bona fide new.spaper printed and published in Jersey City was The Jersey City 
Advertiser and Bergen Republican. It was issued semi-weekly by Henry Dobbs Holt. The 
first copy was dated December 2, 1S37. Holt was born in New York City. Februar}- 20, 1S14, 
and was educated in a private school. He was a contributor to young Lang's short-lived enter- 
prise in 1835, and had a taste for literary work. The sem.i-weekly was too much of a strain for 
him, and a year later he changed to a weekly is.sue, the first number of the weekly being dated 
December 14, 1838. In 1840, when Hudson County was set off from Bergen, he changed the 
name of his paper to The Jersey City and Hudson Kepubliean. While he was getting out a 
weekly paper he began the study of medicine. On May 14, 1842, M. Cully began the publi- 
cation of a weekly paper called /'//(■ Jersey City Democrat. Luther A. and William W. Pratt 
established an afternoon jKiper, entitled The Daily livening Sentinel, in December, 1844. Two 
weeklies and a daily were ti 10 many for Jersey City and Van Vorst, whose combined popu- 
lation was about 5,000. The daily was the first to feel the strain, on account of its heavier 
expense account, (hi August 23, 1S45, eight months after it began publication, the firm became 
RejTiolds & Pratt, antl the paper was changed to The Morning Sentinel. f)n January 15th The 
Democrat succumbed. That left the field to the weekly and the daily. In the meantime Holt 
had graduated from the medical department of the New York University and had removed to 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. i8i 

Harlem, where he bejjan to practise. The following- year he found that he could not give his 
paper the attention it required, and he otfered to sell out to Reynolds & Pratt. They were 
glad to end competition and merged the two concerns. They changed the name of their paper 
to the Scntiiul an:/ Ai/vL-rtist-r. 

John H. Voorhccs began the publication of The Jersey City Telegraph as a semi- weekly on 
March 15, 1847, and later, when there was but one opponent in the field, he changed it to a 
daily. It was too severe a strain, and Voorhees was succeeded by John A. Ryerson, who con- 
tinued it until June 25, 1859, when it suspended. 

On August 12, 1S52, A. R. Spccr began publishing Tlie Hudson County Union as a weekly 
paper. It did not pay, and Speer got out, leaving S. P. Hull and William T. Rogers to carry it 
on. They suspended publication in June. 1854, and Augtistus O. Evans, subsequently speaker 
of the house of assembly, bought the material to establish a weekly in Hoboken. 

On August I, 1855, William B. Dunning and H. F. Milligan issued the first number of the 
vi&^)g\y Jersey City Courier. In a few months they made it a daily paper. There were then 
three daily papers, and thev were over shadowed by the metropolitan dailies. The first one to 
go was the Sentinel and Advertiser. Reynolds and Pratt found it more than they could carry. 
and in January-, 1856 they sold out to Dunning & Milligan. They changed the name of their 
paper then to the Courier and Advertiser, and issued a weekly in connection with it called the 
Hudson County Courier and Advertiser. In the subsequent competition The Daily Telegraph 
lost ground, and it was suspended on June 25, 1859. ]\Ietz & Co. took the material and began 
the publication of the Anieriean Standard on August 8, 1S59. They were glad to sell out in a 
couple of months, and John II. Lvun became proprietor October 14, 1859. Daniel E. Gavitt 
established a weekly in 1854, and called it the Jersey City Xcii's. His credit lasted about a year. 
After Lyon became proprietor of the Standard there were but two dailies. In May, 1S61, Dun- 
ning and most of his staff went to the war, and the Courier and Advertiser suspended, leaving 
the Standard alone in the field. In 1863 John C. Clarke & Co. began the publication of a 
daily called 'The Peupte's Advoeate. On February 14, 1863, Davidson & Colston began pub- 
lishing The Jersey City Chrome le as a semi- weekly. On September 14, 1864, The Jersey City 
Times was published b.\- a stock company. 

This company absorbed the Advocate and Chronicle, and again there were but two dailies. 
The Times continued as a daily until 1873, when it became a weekly and suspended after six 
months. The Standard wan published by Lyon until April, 1875, when he sold it to Michael 
Mullone, who changed the name to The Jersey City Argus. He sold in September, 1SS6, to 
Charles S. Clark, who organized The Argus Printing Co., which continued the publication until 
1891, when publication was suspended. 

On July 19, 1864, Hugh F. McDermott issued a weekly paper called The Jersey City Herald. 
On March i, 1867, William D. McGregor began the publication of The Hudson City Gazette in 
an office opposite the court house. After the consolidation of Hudson City and Jersey City 
in 1870 this paper was merged with The Herald, which is still published by the sons of Hugh 
F. McDermott. 

The Sunday Tattler was first issued on the morning of Sunday, December 24, 1882, by 
William E. Sackett, assisted by Cornelius Young. A few months later Mr. Young sold his in- 
terest in the enterprise to Mr. Sackett. and he took his brother Clarence into partnership. Three 
years later, on petition by Mr. Sackett, the court changed the name to The Sunday Morning 
NeTvs. In May, 1SS8, the plant was sold to a company composed of William J. Fuller, James 
Luby, Frank Tucker and W. E. Sackett. This company began at once the publication of a 
daily called The Jersey City Sews. About a year later, as The Jersey City AVii'j, the plant was 
sold in receivership proceedings to a syndicate represented by William D. Edwards. Mr. 
Sackett remained the practical editor of both daily and Sunday editions for about two years, 
when he surrendered his position because the management had decided to support Orestes 
Cleveland for re-electi<m as mayor, and Mr. Sackett would not lend himself to the scheme. 
The Sunday edition was abandoned, but the daily paper is still published, and is the official 
paper for city, county and State, and the only democratic daily paper in Jersey City. Mr. James 
Luby is the editor. 

There have been a number of efforts to start newspaper enterprises, but their early failure 
or ephemeral character make them scarcely worth the trouble of remembering. 




CHAPTER XXVII. 

the leading social clubs n'ew jtrsev, palma, jersky city, carteret, union league and 

hudson county democratic. 

The New Jersey Club. 
IX Friday evening, September 30, 1870, a number of prominent citizens had a meeting- 
in the parlor of Taylor's Hotel, and after the subject of the meeting had been attended 
to it was proposed to form an organization for the better government of the elections. 
John R. McPhcrson, the senior United States Senator from Xew Jersey was chosen 
temporary chairman, and Samuel McBurney temporary secretary. The minutes of that meeting 
contain this record: "After considerable discussion by the gentlemen present, on motion of 
Sydney B. Bevans. it was ordered that when we adjourn, we do so to meet again on Friday, 
October 7th, at the same place." 

At the adjourned meeting, Dr. John J. Craven urged the gentlemen to make the organiza- 
tion non-political. He advocated a social club without parti.san distinction. His request was 
unanimously agreed to, and it was embodied in the club's constitution. Thirty-five gentlemen 
signed the original membership roll. When it came to naming the club, a number of titles 
were suggested. Senator McPherson wanted it called the Union Club. Mr. Gibson favored 
the Hudson Club. Major Z. K. Pangborn thought some historic name would be more appro- 
priate. The matter was referred to a committee for settlement. Permanent organization was 
effected on October 21, 1S70. John R. Mullaney presided, and Dr. Leonard J. Gordon acted as 
secretan.'. The officers chosen were : John R. Mullaney, jjrcsident : William F. Taylor, D. S. 
Gregorj', J. B. Cleveland, B. S. H. Good and D. H. Sherman, vice-presidents ; Samuel Mc- 
Bumey, secretan,- ; A. Q. Garrettson, assistant secretary- ; Wm. H. Bumsted, treasurer. On 
October 25, 1870, the organization received its name. The vote on the names proposed was : 
New Jersey Club, 12 votes; Hudson Club of Xew Jersey, 3 votes ; Union Club of Hudson, 2 
votes ; Winona Club of Hudson County, i vote, and Jersey City Club, 1 vote. The club at first 
had the Gautier mansion at the comer of Sussex and Washing-ton streets for a club-house, but 
subsequently bought the Morris Canal Banking- house at Grand and Greene streets, which it 
still owns and occupies. It is considering the propriety of selling the property and building a 
new club-house in a more central location. The club now has ninety members. The officers 
are : Alva A. Bedell, president ; William H. Hooker, vice-president ; William H. Henderson, 
secretary ; Cornelius J. Cronin, treasurer. 

Palma Club. 

This is the largest and most flourishing organization of its kind in the city. It numbers 
about 500 members composed of the leading citizens, and was the first to erect a building of 
its own devoted exclusively to club purposes. It was organized by a few gentlemen on the 27th 
of September, 1882, who elected Mr. Theo. Wegman as their president. The objects of the 
club were announced to be "the cultivation of skill in the use of the rifle, and the pleasure 
derived from a friendly intercourse of the member.s." This was at a time when international 
tournaments in rifle sliooting were at their height, and intense interest was manifested through- 
out the country in tlie matches which were then being held. The prize which was competed 
for by different nations was a magnificent work of art in the shape of a Ruman standard seven 
and a-half feet high, compo.'^cd of steel inlaid with gold and silver, and called the " Palma," a 
Latin word signifying success, a palm branch g^iven in token of victory. From this the club 
took its name, " Palma." As time wore on and the novelty wore off, the club gradually changed 
from marksmanship to good fellowship, and is now a leading .social organization, where eveir- 
thing objectionable, such as liquor or g.imbling, is strictly tabooed. Mr. Chas. L. Carrick was 
its second president, and under his adn-iinistration the club increased so largely that they found 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



I O.I 



it necessary to provide increased accommodation. A small house on Railroad Avenue was sub- 
rented at S'° per month with the privileg-eof occupying it every niyht "except Sundays. Christ- 
mas and Good Fridav." Mr. Geo. R. Davis was elected its third president, and shortly after- 
wards, on April 26, 1S83, the club was incorporated under what was known as the boat club act, 
"for the promotion of athletic exercises." Meanwhile the club had ag^ain outgrown its accom- 
modations, and Mr. Wm. Muirheid, who was elected its fourth president on April 11, 18S4. ap- 
pointed the " Palma Club Building Committee," consisting of Geo. A. Vroom. Dr. Benjamin 
Edge, Jas. B. Vrcdenburgh, Alex. Bcnncll, Maxwell Abernethy, Nathan Peck and X. R. Van- 
derhoof, to take the matter in hand. They purchased the property on the northwest comer of 
Jersey Avenue and Bright Street, 50 x 105 feet, and commenced the erection of the present 
club-house. To help liquidate the debt contracted for the building, a fair was projected and 
held on November iS, 1S85, under the management of Messrs. Willard Fisk, Nelson J. H. Edge 
and \Vm. M. Vanderhi>of. It was one of the largest affairs of its kind ever held in the city, and 
during its continuance of ten days was attended by 8,534 persons, the gross receipts being 
$9,433.32. Mr. Muirheid acted as its presi- 
dent for seven years, and was succeeded 
by Mr. Nelson R. Vanderhoof in 1891. 
Mr. Nelson J. H. Edge was elected presi- 
dent in 1892, and under his administration 
the club has maintained its prosperity and 
popularity. 

The Jersey City Cllb. 

The Jersey City Club was organized as 
the Jersey City Athletic Club in the fall 
of 1878. The first officers were : W. J. 
Tait, president ; J. M. Tappen, vice-presi- 
dent ; E. N. Wilson, treasurer, and E. F. 
Emmons, secretary.-. A club-house was 
leased at 723 Grand Street. The club 
grew rapidly, and athletics were a feature 
of its earlier years. In 1880 the new club- 
house was built at the corner <ti Crescent 
and Madison avenues. It is a handsome, 
commodious building. The dramatic .sec- 
tion of the club scored many .successes, 
which carried the name <jf the club into 
all the surrounding cities. Its .social events 
were always attractive. The membership 
at one time approached 600. In 1894 the 
club was reorganized and its name changed 
by dropping the word Athletic. The building was bought by the new club September 16, 1894. 
The old organizatitm had run down to about 200 members, but the impetus given to the new 
club by reorganization brought the membership up to 400 in a few months. The officers are : 
William BrinkcrhotT. president : J. F. Klumpp, vice-president: E. B. Gale, treasurer; W. R. 
Starrett, .sccrctar>-. The board of governors are : Wm. F. Chesley, George F. Perkins, Wm. J. 
Tait, Samuel C. .Mount, Wm. V. Toffey, George Wilkinson, John A. Young, William I. Mcllroy, 
Alfred G. Evans, (). S. Mecabe, Marcus B. Coughlin and (iiibert C. Arrowsmith. 

The Carieret Ci.in. 
The Carteret Club was organized November 17.1SS5. The first officers were : W. W. Coffin, 
president; William BrinkcrhotT, vice-president; E. H. Apgar, secretan,- ; Thomas E. Bailev, 
treasurer; H. W. Carr, A. J. Pi)st, W. Y. Toffey and John H. Carnes, trustees; H. W. Carr, e". 
F. C. Young and Y. R. Schanck, finance committee ; A. J. Post, H. E. Spadone, D. E. Manton, 
W. B. Jenkins and William Meyers, house committee ; \V. Y. Toffey, John Headden, Jr., and 




JERSEY CITY Cl-lli. 



184 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



Thomas R. Withers, membership committee; John H. Carnes, Georjre F. Perkins and Living-- 
ston Gifford, committee on literature. A special committee on securinjj; a club-house rented 

the old De Mott home- 
stead, on Bergen Square, 
as a temporary home. It 
was comfortably furnished 
and served for a number of 
years, until the new club- 
house, on the corner of 
Church Street and Bergen 
Avenue, was erected sev- 
eral years later. 

Thk Catholic Club. 

The CathoHc Club was 
organized in 1892 by Rev. 
Charles J. Kelly, now pas- 
tor of St. Mary's Church in 
Hoboken. A plot of land 
on Jersey Avenue near 
Third Street, was purchas- 
ed and a handsome club- 
house was erected. The 
192, to raise funds for the 
The club-house is a 




CARTERET CLUB. 

members, aided by their lady friends, held a 
enterprise, and in about three weeks they 
four-storied brick building with stone 
trimmings. It has a frontage of fifty feet, 
and is one hundred feet deep. It is fitted 
with all the comforts and conveniences 
required to make it attractive. The ground 
floor is devoted to baths, bowling alleys 
and the cycling department. The second 
floor contains a large billiard room, a spa- 
cious game and smoking room, a coat room 
and a reading room. On the third floor 
are the ladies' parlor, music room and a 
well-filled librar}', all luxuriously furnish- 
ed. The fourth floor is a well equipped 
gymnasium, which akso .serves for recep- 
tions and entertainments. The club has 
358 active and 245 associate members. 
The associates are ladies, and they enjoy 
the privileges of the club on Thursday 
evenings, and all afternoons, excepting 
Sundays and holidays. The membership 
is open to all Catholic men over eighteen 
years of age. The tifficcrs and commit- 
tees in January, 1895, were: 

Officers — Rev. James F. Mooney, presi- 
dent ; James R. Bowen, secretary. 

Directors — John (inffin, James J. Mo- 
ran, Thomas Harney, H. J. Riordan, A. A. 
Daly, N. R. Vanderho.if, H. J. Bums. 

House Committee — John Griffin, chair- 
man ; M. J. Fagin, Arthur Rice. 



fair in October, 1892, 
secured over §16,000, 




CATHOLIC CLLB. 




'sr»-»;i~,"?.. ., _- 



~1? 



1 

v3 



••ii 

,;*■•< 



HOMli OF TllK rXIOX l-ICAGLi; Cl.Vli, JKRhKV CITV. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 185 

Librar>- Committee— James R. Bowen, chairman ; S. H. Horgan, John J. Joyce, Daniel 
Reilly, Charles F. Galla^rher. 

Entertainment Committee — James J. Moran, chairman ; Edward H. Holland, E. M. Har- 
rison, N. Louis I'aladeau. D. J, Sullivan. 

Bowling Committee — E. J. Riordan, chairman; B. J. Laverty, J. C. Minihan, D. F. Mallon, 
Thomas Cavanai^rh, T. F. O'Brien. 

Billiard Committee— Thomas Harney, chairman : G. F. Farrell, B. B. Anderson, Frank 
Riordan, E. J. Devitt, J. A. Shields, J. W. Mullins. 

Athletic Committee — N. R. Vanderhoof, chairman ; M. Mclnemey, John Reilly, James 
Donohue. 

Cycling Committee— A. A. Daly, chairman ; John Stone, Thomas Kennedy, Joseph Duane, 
Joseph Hayes, lieorge Moersdorf. 

Committee on Games — H. J. Burns, chairman ; Thomas J. Meslcill, John F. Relish. 

The management of the club is in the hands of a board of directors, with the Rev. James F. 
Mooney, of St. Mary's Church, as president of the board. Each member of the board is also a 
chairman of one of the several departments of the club, with authority to appoint his own as- 
sistants in that department. Reports, suggestions and resolutions of the several departments 
are presented at the meetings of the board of directors, and acted upon to the best interests of 
the departments themselves and of the club in general. No effort is being spared by the board 
of directors to make the club attractive in every feature and department. 

The Union League Club. 

The defeat of Mr. George F. Perkins, the republican nominee for mayor of Jersey City, 
was a severe disappointment to the better element in the community. If the people had been 
satisfied that the result was honestly obtained there would have been no protest. In arrang- 
ing for a judicial scrutiny of the means by which the election was conducted, the absence of a 
comfortable place for meetings and a strong organization was severely felt. When Gen. John 
Ramsay proposed to organize a club on the same plan as that adopted by the L'nion League 
of New York, he found many who were willing to take part in the proceedings. The idea was 
first presented at a meeting held in Franklin Hall, a short time after the spring election of 1890. 
Among those who were present and agreed to join in the movement were : Major Z. K. Pang- 
bom, Gilbert Collins. C. D. Ridgeway, W. E. Pearson, S. D. Dickenson, Thomas McEwan, 
George McDowell and General Ramsay. After talking about the plan it was decided to call a 
meeting for June 3d, at the same place, to organize a club. Circulars were sent to a large 
number of prtmiinent republicans, and there was a large attendance when the club was form- 
ally organized by the election of Charles D. Ridgeway, president and Thomas McEwan, Jr., 
secretary. The club was incorporated the following day, and it was a success from the start. 
Numerically and financially it was strong. Almost the first thing done was the purchase of 
the handsome club-house on York Street fronting on Van Vorst Park. The building was re- 
fitted and enlarged. It contains everything that is required to make a social club attractive 
and comfortable. 

It has been the .scene of many popular demonstrations, and its members have been ad- 
dressed by prominent statesmen from all sections of the country. The officers of the club from 
its organization to the present have been as follows : 

Presidents — Charles D. Ridgeway, 1S90; John A. Blair. 1891 to the present. 

Vice-presidents — (Icurge F. Perkins. 1S91-92; John J. Toffey, 1894; Simeon H. Smith. 1895. 

Secretaries — Thomas McEwan, Jr., 1800-94 ; Robert B. Gray, 1895. 

Treasurers — Dr. Pierson Rector, 1890, deceased 1891 ; George J. Medole, 1891-92 ; Frank J. 
Matthews, 1893 ; J. Alvin Young, 1894; W. H. Vermilye, 1893. 

Tnistees — 1890 — John A. Blair, Z. K. Pangborn, S. Hammerschlag, James H. Love, Gilbert 
Collins; 1.S91 — William K. Pearson, Oliver H. Perry. John A. Walker, George E. Watson, 
Edward W. Woolcy ; iS92—(;ilbert Collins, H. H. Abcrnethy, Jr.. J. J. Detwiller. George R. 
Hillier, S. H. Smith ; 1893 — George E. Watson, A. B. Dusenberry, Spencer Weart, S. F. Swezev, 
Robert B. Gray ; 1894— N. B. Shafer, John A. Walker, H. H. Holmes, Harry Hill, J. R. Turner ; 
1895— John Ramsay, ( ). H. Lohscn, John A. Walker, Flavel McGee, R. S. Ross. 



i86 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY'. 

The Hudson Colntv Democratic Club. 

The Hudson County Democratic Association was orjjanized in iS.S8. The more prominent 
among the incorporators were: Dr. Leonard ]. (iordon, the late Gen. Wm. F. Abbett, cx- 
Assemblyman Georsje A. Heaney, c.\ -(Governor Leon Abbett, e.x-Govemor J. D. Bedle, Georr;;e 
L. Record, and Dr. Benjamin Edge. The iirst club-house was a dwelling on Barrow Street, 
owned by the late Cong-rcs.sman A. A. Hardenbergh. After two years, the present club-house 
was secured. It is located on York Street, fronting on Van Vorst Square, and is a commodious 
three-storj' and basement brown stone building. The first floor contains the pool and billiard 
rooms, the large assembly-room and library. The assembly-room is decorated with portraits 
of the Presidents of the United .States and the State governors. The second floor contains a 
series of meeting-rooms. The membership is limited to 150, and is always full. It contains 
the more prominent members of the democratic party, including Governor Werts. ex-Govemor 
Abbett, Judges Lippincott, Hudspeth, and McGrath, Robert Davis and John P. Feeney. The 
present officers are : George A. Heaney, president ; Dr. Wm. Perry Watson, vice-president ; 
Fred. S. Carter, treasurer ; Joseph D. Bedle. Jr., secretar},-. Board of governors : James P. Hall, 
chairman; Otto Crouse, secretary, and John J. \'oorhees, Thomas Egan, John L. Bonham, 
Fred. C. Wolbert, Dr. M. J. Smith, Geo. W. C. Phillips, Dr. Mortimer Lampson, Thomas 
Hinds and Dr. J. D. McGill. 





CHAPTER XXVIII. 

THE BENCH AND BAR — BIOGRAPHIC Al, SKETCHES OF NOTED JURISTS AND A COMPLETE LIST OF THE 
PROFESSION IN JERSEY CITY. 

^HE bar oi Hudson County dates from the formation of the county in 1840. The 
first court was opened in Lyceum Hall on Grand Street, Jersey City, on April 14, 
1840. Chief Justice Joseph C. Homblower presided. The court was held in this place 
until September 19, 1843, when it was removed to the Newkirk House at Five Comers. 
There they met until March 11, 1845, when the court house was opened. At the time the first 
court was opened at the L\ccum there were only eiijht lawyers living in the county, and all 
were residents of Jersey City ; six of them were men of ability and prominence ; two were 
young men who died before they had made their mark in the community. 

The members of the bar in Jersey City have always borne a good reputation, and quite a 
number of them have achieved eminence in their profession. Even the individual members 
who have failed to fulfil public expectation have been faithful to their trusts, and the 
records show a remarkable scarcity of moral wrecks. 

The first practitioner who lived in Jersey City was James Williams. He was admitted at 
the May term, 1S12, and opened an office soon after. The population was small and there was 
but little litigation. He was glad to abandon the field after four years' unfruitful efforts to 
build up a practice. He left his office to Samlel Cassedv in 1816. Cassedy was born in Hack- 
ensack, thecounty seat, on June 22, 1790. He was one of three brothers, each of whom achieved 
prominence. George, the elder brother, was a distinguished member of the Hackensack bar. 
He was three times elected to congress, and candidates at that time had to run at-large in the 
State as there were midistricts. He served in the XVII, XVIII and XIX Congresses, from 1821 to 
1827. John Cassedy. the other brother was a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, represented 
Bergen in the State council, of which he was president in 1842. He was a senator from Hudson 
County in 1850, after the council had become the senate. He was a member of the constitu- 
tional convention of 1844, and is on the record as "gentleman, age 47." Samuel was educated 
in Hackensack, and moved to Kentucky, where he was admitted to the bar in 1814. He re- 
turned to New Jersey, and was admitted as an attorney in 1816. He located in Jersev City at 
once, and became popular and successful. He was a volunteer in the \var of 181 2, and vvas 
a lieut.-col. on the staff of (luv. Vroom. He was Prosecutor of the Pleas in Bergen, when it in- 
cluded Hudson County. He died August 30, 1862. 

Jonathan Dickin.-on Mii.iek wa.s born at Somerville, Somerset County, January 22, 1804. 
His family lived there for many generations. He was admitted to the bar in May, 1827, 
and became counselor in May, 1S31. He was the second lawyer to practise in Jersey City and 
was a prominent citizen for forty years and took an active interest in its progress. He married 
Ann Eliza, a daughter of ]"hn Van Vorst, a grandson of that Cornelius Van Vorst known in 
history as "Faddy. " Mr. Miller became quite wealthy and died in June, 1867. 

Lewis D. HARnKMiKKi;n was the third lawyer resident in Jersey City. His grandfather 
was the first president of Ouccu's (now Rutgers) College, in New Brunswick. His father, Jacob 
R., was admitted to the bar at tlie February term, 1805. Lewis D. was bom in New Brunswick 
in 1803. He was admitted to the bar at the May term. 1825, and became counselor 1828. He 
went to Utica to practi.se and while there Horatio Seymour, afterwards governor of New York, 
was a student in his ollice. He returned to New Jersey and was appointed Prosecutor of Bergen 
County in 1836. He resigned, and in 1S40 was appointed Prosecutor in Hudson County. He 
was one of the organizers of the Park Reformed Church and one of its first deacons. His 
hsalth failed and he gave up his practice to accept the secretaryship of the Hudson Mutual 



i88 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

Insurance Company, a position he held until his death, in 1857. His son, Jacob R., practised in 
Jersey City a number of years, but removed to Omaha, Xeb., where he resumed his practice. 

Peter Bentley was the fourth lawyer in the city. He was bom in the village of Half- 
Moon, Saratoga County. X. Y., in 1805. His early life was spent on a farm, and he was twenty 
years of age when he moved to Jerscv City and learned to set tvpe to secure a livelihood while 
he prepared himself for his profession. He read law in Samuel Cassedy's office and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1S34, becoming a counselor in 1839. He practised in Jersey City forty- 
one years, and died September ^6, 1875. He was clerk of the selectmen in 1833 and mayor of 
the city in 1843. He was <uie of the organizers of the Provident Sa\-ings Institution and a 
member of its board of trustees thirty years, vice-president fourteen years and counsel for 
many years. He was one of the organizers of the Mech.inics and Traders (now the First 
Xational) Bank, also of the Jersey City Fire Insurance Company, and was a director of the 
Jersey City and Bergen Plank R<jad Company and of the Jersey City Gas Light Company. He 
married Miss Margaret E. Holmes October 13. 1842. who still survives. They had two children. 
Rosaline H., who married Thomas H. Tower, a member of the Xew York Stock Exchange, 
and Peter, who was bom December 5, 1845. He was trained to the law in his father's office 
and admitted as an attorney in June, 1S6S, and as counselor at the June term, 187 1. He suc- 
ceeded to his father's practice and became a trustee in the Provident Savings Institution and 
its counsel, as well as a director in the Hudson County Bank. He took an active part in munic- 
ipal affairs, as his father had done, though he never accepted any office. He died at his home 
in Jersey City. 

Thomas W. James, the fifth lawyer in Jersey City and the only sur\-ivor of those who con 
stituted the Hudson County bar when the county was created, was born in Philadelphia in 181 2. 
His parents were living there temporarily at the time. They were of Huguenot descent, and the 
family settled in Xew Jersey before William Penn reached America. Mr. James was admitted 
to the bar at the September term, 1S39. and (ipLiied an office in Jersey City. Soon afterwards 
he admitted E. R. V. Wright to partnership. Mr. James is the oldest practising counselor in 
the State. He is counsel for the Second X'ational Bank and does a profitable office business. 
He was one of the organizers and the first secretary and treasurer of the Provident Savings 
Institution. He has always been an earnest worker for the Protestant Episcopal Church, and 
has had part in organizing all the chiirches of that denomination there are in this city. 

The sixth la\\wer in the order of time in the city was Edwin Ruthven Vinxent Wright. 
He was bom in Hoboken Janu.nry 2. 1S12. and died in Jersey City January 21, 187 1. He was 
admitted at the May term. 1-^30. and became counselor in February. 1844. He began practice 
as a partner of Thomas W. James. After the partnership was dissolved he moved his office to 
Newark Avenue, opposite the court house. He edited a weekly newspaper called the Jersey 
.5/«c, and published in Hoboken m 1S36 while he was studying for the bar. In 1843 he was 
elected a member of the state council. In 1S50 he was appointed Prosecutor by Gov. Haines, 
and served five years. In 1S55 he became the first mayor of Hudson City. He was the demo- 
cratic nominee against Cluirics .S. Olden in i.'<5o, and was defeated, after an exciting campaign, 
by a majority of 1,601. In 1S64 he ran for Cmigress against E. B. Wakeman and was elected, 
serving in the XXXIX. Congress in i.'<6;-7. He was a popular speaker and a prominent figure 
in State politics for over thirty years 

Benjamin F. Vanclkvk w.as admitted to pr.atice May, 1830, and settled in Jersey City some 
time later. 

William S. Cassidv was .idniitted in Sciiteuilier. 1.S40. Both of these gentlemen were resi- 
dents of Jersey City in 1S40. \'ani.lcve w.is tnim Hunterdon County. Cassidy's record has 
not been preser\-ed. 

Tiu Bin, 11 

Joseph C. HoK\ni.>«tK w.is Cliiet Jii'-tKc nf tlie Sii])r(.-me Court fourteen years. He was 
bom in Belleville. ICssex Cwuiuv. in 1777 llis l.itlier was a civil engineer, and served as a 
member of the Icgisl.itiire and as a ileleg.ile to the Continental Congress. He was chosen 
Chief Justice in 1S32. and reelected in 1.S3.). In tlie folldwmg year he opened the first court 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 189 

in this county. He took part in the ceremony of dedicatini; the court house, and was a favorite 
with Hudson County people of his day. He was not reappointed for political reasons. He was 
a federalist, a whi^ and a republican. He was an anti-slavery man of the most radical type. 
After leaving' the bench, he was for a time Professor of Law at Princeton. He was an elder in 
the Presbyterian church, and took an active part in religious and benevolent work. He was 
one of the original members of the American Bible Society, president of the Xew Jersey Colo- 
nization .Society, and president of the Xew Jersey Historical Society, and a member of the 
Tract and Missionary societies. He was one of the convention that nominated Gen. Fremont. 
He died in 18^)4. 

Henry Woi>i)Hr LI. (.Jkkf.n w.is the second Circuit Judge of Hudson. He was also Chief 
Justice, and held his first circuit in Hudson at the November term, 1S46, and his last at the 
April tenn, 185J. He was born at Lawrence, Hunterdon, afterw.irds Mercer County, September 
20, 1804. He gr.aduated at Princeton, in the class of 1S20, studied law with Charles Ewing, 
afterwards Chief Justice, and was admitted at the November term, 1825. He was Recorder of 
Trenton, represented Mercer County in the legislature in 1842. was a delegate to the whig na- 
tional convention in 1844, w.as appointed Chief Justice by Gov. Stratton in 1S46, reappointed by 
Gov. Fort in 1853, and resigned to accept the position of Chancellor in i860, which he held until 
1866, when his health gave way and he resigned. He was a trustee of the College of Xew Jer- 
sey and also of the Theological Seminary. He was a learned judge and a christian gentleman. 
His most conspicuous service was in preventing X^ew York rowdies from creating disturbances 
in Hudson. It was the custom for Xew York target companies to visit the west side of the 
river, and they generally indulged in riotous disturbances. The Kelly Guards came over, and 
during a drunken spree discharged fire-arms on Montgomery Street, spreading consternation 
as far as their weajxins would carry. Many of the men were arrested, and Judge Green sent 
them to State prison for long terms. This put an end to the outrage. He died Decem- 
ber 19, 1876. 

Daniel Haines was the third Circuit Judge. He succeeded Chief Justice Green at the Sep- 
tember term, 1S53, and served until the January term, 1856. He was born in Xew York City, 
1801 ; graduated at the College of Xew Jersey, 1820 ; studied with Thomas C. Ryerson at New- 
ton, and admitted to tlie bar in 1S23. He began practice the following year at Hamburg, 
Sussex County. He was elected a member of the State council from Sussex, was governor in 
1843, and when the new constitution was adopted. In 1847 he was re-elected governor, and 
was appointed an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court by Gov. Fort in 1852, and re- 
appointed in 1 85 9 by Gov. Xewell. He retired from the bench in 1866. He was one of 
the commissioners to .select a site for a lunatic asylum in 1845, and one of the first board of 
managers. In 1S70 he represented the State at the Xatioiial Prison Reform Congress, and was 
for many years a trxistee of the College of Xew Jersey. In 1S73 he was one of the commis- 
sioners to adjust the Jersey City street and sewer assessments. He died January 26, 1877. 

EuAS B. D. Oi.iiKN was the fourth Circuit Judge. He was a son of Gov. Aaron Ogden ; 
was born at Elizabcthtown in 1800. He graduated at Princeton in 1819, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1S24. He was the last lawyer in Xew Jersey who received the honorary- title of 
Sergeant-at-Law. He practised in Paterson, and was Pro.secutor of Passaic for two terms. He 
was a member of tlie Constitutional Convention in 1S44. He was appointed an Associate- 
Justice of the Supreme Court in 1848 by Gov. Haines, reappointed in 1855 by Gov. Price 
and again m 1862 by Gov. ( )klcn. He died February 24, 1865. He held court in Hudson 
from January, 1856, until he died. He was a democrat in politics, and a member of the Epis- 
copal churcli. 

Joseph I).>k^ki 1 Bkdi.k was the fifth Judge. He was born at Matawan, Monmouth Coun- 
ty, X'. J., January 5, 1S31. He c.unc from a family which emigrated from Bermuda a century 
and a half ago. His father. Tliomas I. Bedle, was a merchant, a justice of the peace twenty- 
five years, and a judge of tlie Court of Common Pleas in Monmouth County. His mother, 
Hannah Dor.sctt, descended from ,1 family of tile early settlers of Monmouth. He was edu- 
cated at the M.itawan .\cadeniy and at tlic Law School at Ballston Spa, Xew York. He began 
the study of law m the ollice of \V. L. Dayton at Trenton in 1848, and was one winter in the 



190 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



law office of Thompson & Weeks at Pouyfhkeepsie, N. Y. In 1S53 he was admitted to the New 
York bar as attorney and counselor. He returned to his home, and was for a short time in the 
office of Henry S. Little at Matawan. He was admitted to the Xew Jersey bar in June, 1S53. 
He began the practice of his profession at Matawan and remained until 1S55, when he removed 
to Freehold. He had built up a good practice when he was offered a seat on the Supreme Court 
B^nch by Gov. Parker. His commission wasdated March 13, 1.S65. In 1S73 he was reappointed. 
He removed to Jersey City when he accepted the appointment. In 1S7 1 he was prominently named 
as a candidate for governor, but he discouraged the movement. In 1S74 the unanimous nomi- 
nation was tendered by the democratic State convention, and he accepted on condition that he 
should not be required to take any part in the campaign. He was unwilling to have any action 
of his bring politics into a judicial position. The people appreciated the hi.gh position he took, 
and elected him governor with the large.st majority ever cast for that office in the State. After 
his term e.xpired he associated himself v.-ith the law firm of Muirheid & McGee, in Jer.sey City, 

the firm thereafter being Bedle, Muir- 
heid & McGee. In 1S75 Princeton Col- 
lege added the degree of LL.D. to the 
degree of A. M., which it had previously 
conferred. 

On July 10, 186 1, he was married to 
Althea F., daughter of Hon. Bennington 
F. Randolph, of Freehold. Their chil- 
dren are : Bennington Randolph Bedle, 
bom in 1862, now United States Consul 
at Sheffield, England ; Joseph Dorsett 
Bedle, Jr., born 1S64, now a colonel on 
the staff of Gov. ^Verts ; Thomas Fran- 
cis Bedle, born 1S65, now a major on 
the staff of Brig.-Gen. Wanser ; Althea 
Randolph, bom 1871, now wife of 
Adolph Rusch, of Xew York ; Mary 
Howell Bedle, born 1873, died 1S83; 
Randolph Bcdlc, born 1S75, now a 
student in Princeton. 

Gov. Bedle died October 21, 1894. He 
wa.s an able lawyer, a conscientious 
christian, a good citizen and a power 
for good in the State. 

Manning M. Knapp, the sixth Judge, 
was born in Newton, Sussex County, 
June 7, 1823. He studied law with Col. 
Robert Hamilton in Newton and was 
admitted to the bar at the July term, 
1846. He removed to Hackensack that winter and retained a residence there for the 
rest of his life. He was appointed Pro.secutor to fill an unexpired term as Prosecutor for 
Bergen County and held the office over a dozen years. When Judge Bedle was elected gov- 
ernor he nominated Mr. Knapp for the position of Associate Justice. The judicial district prior 
to 1875 embraced Hudson. Bjrgen and Passaic : but the work was too much for one man and 
the legislature in 1875 divided it, setting off Hudson as a separate district. It was to Hudson 
that Judge Knapp was assigned, and he thus became the first Circuit Judge for Hudson alone. 
He was reappointed by Gov. Ludlow in 1882 and by tiov. Green in 1889. He was married to 
Anna Mattison, daughter of Capt. Joseph Mattison, United States Navy, in 1850, They had 
two children — Annie M., wife of W, \'. Clark, of Hacken.sack. and Joseph M. Knapp, who was 
admitted to the bar in June, 18X3. and practises in Jersey City. Judge Knapp fell dead while 
charging the Grand Jury on January 26, 1802. 

George T. Werts, the seventh Circuit Judge, was appointed by (tov. Abbett in t'ebruar^-, 
1892. He was born at Hackettstown, Warren County, Marcli 24, 1846. He was educated at the 




JOSEPH DORSETT liKIlI.E, 



/'"'"■^^^% 




HON. JOB LIPPINXOTT. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



191 



■*^'', 


'\- 












■ % 

y 


7 


A 


t 


i 



;E0RGE T. WERTh 



Bordentown Hiyh School and the State Model School at Trenton. He studied law in Morris- 
town with Atty.-Gon. Jacob Vannatto, his maternal uncle, and was admitted to the bar at the 
November term. 1S67. He was Recorder ot Mor- 
ristown from 1SS3 to 1S85 and mayor from 1SS6 
to 1893. He was senator from Morris from 18S6 
until he resi>,Ticd to become Associate Justice of 
the Supreme Court in 1893. He was elected gov- 
ernor in 1892 and resii^ncd from the bench. 

Job H. Lii'PiNcoT r was born near Mount Holly, 

New Jersey, November 13, 1S43. He was reared 

on his father's farm at Vincentown, New Jersey, 

and received a common school edr.catioii. When 

eijjhteen years of age he attended a private 

academy at Vincentown, conducted by John G. 

Herbert, for one year. Afterwards he attended 

the Mount Holly Institute, under the tuition of 

the Rev. Samuel Aaron, for about a year. He 

entered as a law student the law office of Ewan 

Merritt, Esq., at Moimt Holly, January i, 1863. 

During his period of ser\-ice as a law student he 

attended the Dane Law School of Harvard Uni- 
versity, at Cambridge, Mass., and in July. 1S65, he 

graduated therefrom with the degree of Bachelor 

of Laws, and at the February term, 1867, of the Supreme Court, he was admitted to the bar of 

this State. 

In May, 1867, he located in Hnd'ion County and opened a law office at the court house, in 

what was then the City of Hudson. He 
was a member and president of the board 
of education of the City of Hudson from 
1 868 to 1871, until the three cities of Ber- 
gen, Jersey City and the City of Hudson 
were consolidated. In 1874 he was elected 
Counsel of the Board of Chosen Freehold- 
ers of the County of Hudson, which office 
he held, bj- annual election, for thirteen 
successive years. In 1S86 he was appointed 
by President Cleveland United States At- 
torney for the District of New Jersey, 
which office he held one year, and then re- 
signed to accept the position of Law Judge 
of the County of Hudson, to which he was 
appointed by Gov. Green, to fill the unex- 
pired term of Chancellor McGill, who held 
that office at the time of his appointment 
as chancellor. 

In 1888 he was reappointed as Law 
Judge by ex-Gov. Green for a full term of 
five years. In January, 1893, he resigned 
this po.sition and was appointed by Gov. 
Wcrts one of the Associate Justices of the 
Supreme Court for the full term of seven 
years. 

.MKX.wDFR r. \i (;ii.i.. Alexander T. McGii.l was bom in 

Alleghany City, Pa., in 1843. His father, 

the Rev. Alexander T. McGill, D. D., LL. D., was then a professor in the Western Theological 




.! J.I .1-1 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



Seminary of that'city. In 1854 the subject of this sketch, then a child, removed to Princeton, 
N. J., his father having been elected to a professorship in the Princeton Theological Semi- 
nary, which position he occiipied until his 
death in uSSg. 

Mr. McGill was graduated from that col- 
lege in 1864, which has since conferred on 
him the honorary degree of LL. D., and 
from the Columbia Law School, New York, 
in 1866, receiving the degree of A. B. He 
continued the study of law with the late 
Judge Edward W. Scudder, at Trenton, 
and was admitted to the bar as an attorney 
in 1867, and as a counselor in 1870. He 
remained in Trenton with Judge Scudder 
until 1868, when he removed to Jersey 
City. He soon afterwards formed a part- 
nership with the late Robert Gilchrist, who 
was then attorney general of New Jersev. 
In 1876 Mr. McGill retired from the firm, 
deciding to practise alone. 

In 1S74 and 1875 he was Counsel for the 
City of Bayonne, when he also represented 
the then first district of Hud.son County in 
the house of assembly. He served on lead- 
ing committees, and took a very active 
part in legislation. In 1878 Gov. George 
B. McClellan appointed Mr. McGill Prose- 
cutor of the Pleas of Hudson County, suc- 
ceeding Hon. A. Q. Garretson, who was 
appointed law judge, and when the latter 
resigned that office Mr. McGill again suc- 
ceeded him as Judge, an otfice he held when he was appointed Chancellor bv Gov. Robert S. 
Green on March 29, 1887. He was unanimously confirmed by the senate the 31st of the same 
month. His term expired on May i, 1894. and he 
was reappointed by Gov. Werts for a second term. 

Mr. McGill has held many minor positions. He 
is a lawyer of great ability, and has an extended 
acquaintance all over the East. 




HUDSPETH. 



-^' 



V 



r 



N 



Robert S. Hudspeth was bom at Coburg, 
Canada, October 27, 1853. He entered mercantile 
life at an early age. In 1S71 he entered the law 
office of Thomas Carey in Jersey City, and was ad- 
mitted in 1S74. He entered into partnership with 
Mr. Care)' and continued two years, when he decided 
to practise alone. In 1SS9 he was ap])ninted Cor])ora- 
tion Attorney of Jersey City, and rctauud the oificc 
until February, 1893, wlien Cmv. W'erts .qipiiintcd 
him to fill the unexpired term of Judge Liii|iini.i>tt. 
as Presiding Judge cjf the Hudson Cotmtv Court. At 
the expiration of the term he was reap])ointed for the 
full term of five years. In 18S6 he was elected to 
the legislature in an unexpected and comi)liment- 
ary manner. Three days before the election it 

was discovered that the democratic candidate was ineligible, because he had not lived 
long enough in the State. Judge Hudspeth was hastily nominated, and on election day 



mj 



s ''•^>. 



:^^ 



■r / 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 193 

he had a majority of sixty-seven in a republican district. Tlie following year he was re-elected 
by a majority of six hundred. He received the caucus nomination for speaker that year, but 
by the defection of some of the democratic members he was defeated. In 188S he declined a 
renomination, but in iSSg he was nominated and elected by a thousand majority, and was 
chosen speaker. In 1S91 Judge Hudspeth was elected senator, to fill the unexpired term of 
Senator McDonald, who had been elected to Congress. He carried the county by seven thou- 
sand majority, but declined renomination. Judge Hudspeth has filled all of the public positions 
to which he has been called with marked ability. He is a member of the Palma and Xew Jer- 
sey clubs, and of a number of political organizations. He was the mainstay of his widowtd 
mother, and in her old age she has seen him rise to the most prominent positions in the State. 
Judge Hudspeth's wife was the widow of Robert Beggs, a well-known lawyer and journalist. 

Albert Hoff.man was born in Prussia. His parents removed to Hoboken in 1849 when he 
was a small child. He attended school in the log school-house at Tenth and Garden streets, 
then at Dr. Feltner's Classical School and graduated at St. Matthew's Lutheran Academv in Xew 
York. His parents intended him for a mercantile career, but his preference was for journalism 
and polities. He wrote for New York papers until 1S76, when he became editor of The Hudson 
County Democrat, a paper that had been carried on for years in Hoboken by Hon. A. O. Evans. 
He retained this position ten years. He acquired a reputation as a translator from English to 
German. He was Court Interpreter in 1S67, and became the official interpreter when the posi- 
tion was created. He was also official interpreter for the State, translating the laws and official 
documents for publication in German. He resigned the position of Court Interpreter when 
Gov. Green appointed him one of the Judges of the Common Pleas Court in 18S9. He was one 
of the State prison inspectors by appointment of Gov. Abbett in 1886. He was reappointed in 
1894 by Gov. Werts, and still fills the position of Judge. He has achieved prominence as a po- 
litical speaker, first having attracted attention in a debate with Brick Pomerovat Union Hill in 
1867, when he was declared the victor. Since then he has spoken in all parts of the State, both 
in English and German. During the Greeley campaign he spoke in California, Indiana and 
Illinois, and during the three campaigns for Cleveland he spoke in New York, Connecticut, 
Pennsylvania and West Virginia. With Carl Schurz and Gen. Sigel, he was selected to speak 
at the meeting held in New York to celebrate the democratic victory. Judge Hoffman is now 
about fifty years of age and unmarried. 

James S. Nevins was bom in Somerset County in 1786, graduated at Princeton, 1816, read 
law with Frederick Frelinghuysen, and admitted to the bar in 1819. He was appointed an Asso- 
ciate Justice of the Supreme Court in 1845, and served fourteen years. He moved to Jersey 
City and practised until 1S59, when he died. One of the most interesting cases in the history 
of Jersey City which was decided by Judge Nevins was the suit over the market plot at the foot 
of Washington Street, Jersey City. His opinion was in favor of the city, and is recorded in 
Spencer's Reports, 86. 

S.\.MUEL L. S(UTHARi) Was bom at Basking Ridge, Somerset Crunty, June 9, 1787. He gradu- 
ated at Princeton in 1S04. He was admitted in iSii, after teaching school a number of vears. 
He was Prosecutor in Hunterdon in 181 5, and a member of the assembly the same year. In 
the fall of that year he was appointed an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. In 182 1 he 
was appointed United States Senator. In 1823 he resigned to become Secretarj- of the Navy. 
He held the position until 1829. He was appointed Attorney-General of New Jersey, when he 
resigned from the Cabinet. He was governor of the State in 1832. resigning to take a place in 
the United States Senate. He was president of the senate after from May 31, 1841, until he 
died, June 26. 1S42. He was president of the Morris Canal Company, and lived in Jersey City 
from 1S38. 

Wii.i.nM Cri i.KN Morris was born at Middlebrook, Somerset County, Februan- 27, i^'^o. 
educated at the Sunierville Academy, read law with John Frelinghuysen, and was admitted to 
the bar in 181S. He practised lawat Belvidere thirty-one years before removing to Jersey I, it\-. 
He accepted a custnm-linuse position in 1849, and four years later resumed his practice. Ik- 
was appointed a Lay Judge in Hudson in iH6i,and held the position until he died, .May 17, 1S70. 
He was Prosecutor in Warren County twenty-five years before removing to Jersey City. Anmng 



194 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



his children were Dr. Theodore F. Morris, of Jersey City ; Wm. C. Morris, who was cashier of 
the Lehigh Valley Railroad Company, and Mrs. J. G. Shipmau. 

Matthias OoDF.N, a son of Gov. Aaron Ofrden, was bom in Elizabethtown in 1792. He 
graduated at Princeton in iSio, was admitted in 1814, became a counselor in 1818, and died in 
July, i860. He practised in Jersey City from 1S40 until 1S4S. 

Aaron Ogden was bom in Elizabethtown in 1756. graduated at Princeton in 1773, and 
serve'd as an officer in the Revolutionary- War. He was admitted to the bar in 1784. In 1801 
he was elected to the United States Senate. In 1812 he was elected governor of New Jersey. 
In 1824 he became president of the Society of the Cincinnati, and held that office fifteen years. 
He settled in Jersey City in 1.S29. He was appointed deputy-collector for Jersey City, and held 
the office until he died, in 1839. 

JosKi'H FiTZ Randolph was bom in New 
York City, March 14, 1S03. His family re- 
moved to Piscatawav, Middlesex County, 
when he was a child. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1S25 and became a counselor 
in 1828. He was Prosecutor of Monmouth, 
and was elected to Coni^^ress in 1828 and 
re-elected twice. He served in the XX.. 
XXI. and XXII. Congresses, and declined 
another term. In 1S45 he was appointed 
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court 
and served seven years. In 1854 he was 
one of the commissioners to revise the 
constitution of the State. He lived at 
Freehold, New Bnmswick and Trenton 
until 1865, when he removed to Jersey 
City. He was a member of the First Pres- 
byterian Church in Jersey City, and was 
liked by all who knew him. 

Abraham O. Zaiiriskie was born nt 
Greenbush, opposite Albany, X. Y., Jime 
10, 1807. His father was a Reformed 
church minister and removed to Millstone, 
Somerset County, in 181 1. Abraham was 
graduated at Princeton in 1825, and read 
law with James S. Green at Princeton. 
He was admitted in 1828 and became a 
counselor in 1831. He practised law at Newark and Hackensack until 1S49, when he removed 
to Jersey City. During his residence in Bergen County he was Surrogate for ten j'ears from 
1838, and was appointed Prosecutor in 1842 and reappointed in 1S47, but resigned. He was Law 
Reporter of the Supreme Court from 1S47 to 1S55. He was senator from Hudson in 185 1 to 
1853, and was appointed Chancellor in 1866 and tilled the office until 1873. He was president 
of the commission to revise the State constitution, and died at Trackec, Col.. June 27, 1873, 
during a recess of the commission. He was one of the most notable members of the New 
Jersey bar. 

Stephen Billings Ransom was born in Salem. New London County, Conn., October 12, 
1814. He taught school in a number of places. He read law in the office of William Thompson 
at Somerville. and was admitted to the bar in 1S44, becoming a counselor in 1S47. He prac- 
tised at New Gemiantown and Somer^-ille until 1854, when he mcn-ed to Jersey City. In 1869 
he organized the prohibition party in New Jersey and was one of its active supporters, being 
the nominee of that party for governor in iSSo. He was a laborious, painstaking lawyer, 
and had a large practice. It was said that no lawyers name in the State appeared more fre- 
quently on the court calendars. 




JOSEPH FITZ RANIXII PH. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. ,,5 

Edgar Banks Wake.man was born at Monticello. Sullivan County, N. Y., April 17, 1S16. 
He taught school for a number of years, and was admitted to the Pennsj-lvania bar in 1840. 
He was admitted to the Xew Jersey bar in 1S4J, and became counselor in 1845. He was city 
clerk of Jersey City from 1S45 to 184S; alderman for three years, and Corporation Attorney 
three years. He was the republican candidate for Congress in 1864, and cut Gen. Wright's ma- 
jority from an average of 4,000 to 700. He was an elector on the Fremont and Dayton ticket 
in 1856. He had a large practice, and invested heavily in real estate. The shrinkage in values 
in 1873 practically ruined him financially. 

Isaac Wii.lia.mson Scudder was born at Elizabeth in 1S16. He was admitted in 1S3S, and 
became counselor in 1844. He removed to Jersey City about the time the new countv of 
Hudson was created. He was appointed Prosecutor in 1845, holding the position ten years. He 
was a member of the first police commission of Jersey City, and was elected to Congress in 1.S7;, 
serving in the XLIII. Congress. He was counsel for the Associates of the Jersey Company, 
the New Jersey Railroad and Transportation Company and the Pennsylvania Railroad C(jm- 
pany. He was not married. He left a large fortune when he died, September 10, 1881. 

Bennington F. Randolph was born at Belvidere, December 13, 181 7. He graduated at 
Lafayette College, read law with W. C. Morris at Belvidere, and with J. F. Randolph at Free- 
hold ; was admitted to the bar in 1839, and became counselor in 1842. He practised in Ocean 
and Monmouth until 1S61, when he removed to Jersey City. Hewas at one time a law partner 
with Judge J. F. Randolph, and later with J. F. Randolph, Jr. He was admitted to the New 
York bar, and was a member of the firm of Alexander & Green. In 1868 he was appointed 
Law Judge of Hudson County and held the olfice five years. In 1877 he was appointed Judge 
of the District Court of Jersey City and sen-ed two full terms. In 1859, was one of the organ- 
izers of the Equitable Life Assurance S(jciety of the United States, and was one of the trustees 
until he died. He was a director of the Freehold Bank, of the First National Bank of Jersey 
City, of the Mercantile Trust Compan}' and the Mercantile Safe Deposit Company of New 
York. He was a riparian commissioner and a member of the State board of education, a di- 
rector of the Theological Seminary at Princeton, a trustee of the Presbyterian board of church 
extension, and an elder in the First Presbrterian Church of Jersey City. He was one of the 
organizer's of the New Jersey Southern Railroad, its counsel and for a time its treasurer. He 
was a member of the Jersey City board of education, and a trustee of the State Normal School. 
In 1 86 1 he was one of the organizers of the Nicaragua route to California. 

Jacob Rvnier Wortf.ndvke was born at Pascack, Bergen County, November 27. iSiS. He 
was graduated at Rut.gers in 1S39, and taught school for a number of years. He read law with 
Judge Knapp and Chancellor Zabriskie and was admitted to the bar in 1S53, becoming coun- 
selor in 1859. In 1856 he was elected a member of Congress. He was an alderman in Jersey 
City, president of the water commissioners, a riparian commissioner and a trustee of Rutgers 
College. He was a member of the General Synods of i860 and 1866. He was counsel to tlie 
Hudson County board of freeholders, and was president of the Fifth Ward Savings Bank. He 
died in Jersey City, November 7, iS68. 

George W. Cassedv was born in Jersey City, July 5, 1824. He studied at Columbia Ci'I- 
lege, read law in the office of his father, Colonel Samuel Cassedy, and was admitted to tlic l).ir 
in 1845. He was appointed city clerk of Jer.sey City in 1S50 and held the office until iS';;. 
when he was elected county clerk. In 1870 he resumed the practice of law and is still eng.igcd 
in his profession. 

John Lvxn was born in Harmon)-\-ale, Sussex County, May 15, 1821. He graduated .it 
Princeton in 1841. He read law in Gov. Pennington's office and was admitted to the i>.ir in 
1844, becoming a counselor in 1848. He practised at Newton and Dcckertown. lie reiii.iuuil 
there until 1S67, when he removed to Jersey City. He became known all over the .State betore 
his removal to Jersey City. He was for several years in partnership witli Joseph C. I'ntis, .md 
later with R. O. Babbitt, but for a dozen or more years has practised alone lie is cnii^nii nil 
a safe counselor and is an expert in all that pertains to mining law or (>i>eraiii>ii. He w.i-. .1 
candidate for Congress in the fourth district in 1863, but was not elected. 

John Dunn Little was born at Port Richmond, Staten Island, Octnber i.i. i'^.m He 
studied law with Chancellor Williamson, was admitted in 1847 and became coun.--elor in i>;j 



196 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

He was the first lawyer to settle in Hoboken. He was city clerk of Hoboken, Prosecutor of 
the Pleas for Hudson County from 1855 to i860, and was a member of assembly in 1853. He 
died February 19, 1S61. 

John P. Vroom was a son of ex-Oov. Peter D. Vroom. He was bom in Somer\'ille, edu- 
cated at Rutgers, admitted as an attorney in 1852 and as counselor in 1857. He practised in 
Jersey City from 1856 until 1S63, when he died. He was appointed Law Reporter for the 
Supreme Court in 1862 and bejjan the series of Vroom Reports which have been held in the 
family for three cjenerations. 

RiCH.\RD D. McCi.F.LL.ixii was born at Xew Brunswick in 1824, his father being a profes- 
sor in Rutgers. During- early life Richard followed the sea for .seven years and had a mate's 
license when he left it to study law in the office of E. R. \'. Wright and later with Thomas W. 
James. In 1S49 he went to California and was not admitted until 1S51. He became a coun- 
selor in 1854. He was appointed Corporation Counsel in 1854, and retained the position until his 
death, August 23, 186S. He was Prosecutor of the Pleas and an alderman in Hudson City, 
holding the three offices at the same time. He was a good municipal lawyer. 

James Harvey Lyons was bom at St. Mar)-'s Isle Parish, Dumfrieshire, Scotland, in Octo- 
ber, 1825. He was educated at Salem, X. Y., and admitted to the New York bar. Later he 
was admitted in New Jersey, at the February term, 1856, and as cfiunselor in 1859. He was 
Prosecutor for Hudson County, and died at Hoboken, November 24, 1874, from injuries received 
by being thrown from his carriage. 

Garrick M. Ol.mstead was bom at Montro.se. Su.squehanna County, Pa., Decembers, 1830. 
He graduated at Lafayette College, and read law in the office of A. H. Reeder, afterwards 
territorial governor of Kansas. He read law in the offices of E. R. V. Wright, and J. D. 
Miller, and was admitted in 1856, becoming a counselor in 1868. He died May 7, 1881. 

Robert Gilchrist was born in Jersey City, August 21, 1S25. He read law in the offices 
of John Annin and I. W. Scudder, and was admitted tu the bar in 1847, becoming counselor in 
due time. He formed a partnership with Mr. Scudder, and continued it until 1857. In 1857 he 
was elected to the legislature. In 1S61 he became captain of Company F, Second N. J. Militia, 
and went to the front. In 1866 he was the democratic candidate for Congress, but was defeated. 
In 1869 he was appointed Attorney-General of the State, holding the office six years. He had 
a large practice and was highly esteemed. 

Benjamin Williamson, son of Gov. I. H. Williamson, was born at Elizabeth. He graduated 
at Princeton in 1827, was admitted in 1830, and became a counselor in 1833. He was counsel 
for the Central Railroad of X. J. for a generation. He was Prosecutor of the Pleas in Es.sex 
for a number of years, and was appointed Chancellor in 1852. He returned to practice in 1859, 
and had his office in Jer.sey City from that time until he died. He was regarded as one of the 
best lawyers of his time. He never accepted political office, though he failed to be a United 
States Senator by a few votes in 1864. He was a member of the Peace Congress which met at 
Washington in 1861. He held many positions of honor and trust, and died much regretted. 

Charles Haruenbukc; Win held was born in Deer Park, Orange County, X. Y., November 
8, 1829, and graduated at Rutgers in 1852. He studied law with Chancellor Zabriskie, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1S55, coun.selor in i860. He was .senator from Hudson in 1865-68. He 
was appointed Prosecutor for Hudson County by Gov. Ludlowin 1883, andstill fills the position. 
He has been very successful in his practice, and Iiis name is associated with manv celebrated 
cases. He has been one of the best political speakers of his party in the country for many 
years, and is known everywhere tor liis stump .--peeclies. His literary work will be his most 
enduring monument. In 1S72 he luilili-lied " A Histor\- of Land Titles in Hudson County," 
and in 1S74 a " History of Hudsnn County." In iS,S2, a hocik entitled "Adjudged Weirds and 
Phrases," that became a standard at nnce. In is.)2 he published a monograph on the Founding 
of Jersey City. These books wore iinnluccd (hiring the leisure hours of a busy life and are the 
result of much patient research. Mr. WinlicUl was educated originally for the ministrv. and a 
portion of the expense was borne by the Rclurnieil church. He discovered a taste for law, 
and decided to make a change bef<ire he was nrd.uned. One of the items read in the financial 
statement at the meeting ot Classis, is the sum refunded by him after he decided to change. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



It is a notable fact that it stands alone. Mr. Winfield is an art connoisseur, and his collection 
of painting's and bric-a-brac is one of the largest in the county. 

George M, Roueson was bom at Oxford, X. J., in 1839, graduated at Princeton in 1S47, 
read law with Chief Justice Hornblower, and was admitted to the bar in 1S50 and bc^jau jjrac- 
tice in Jersey City. He moved to Camden, and was Prosecutor there in 185S. He bLcame 
Attorney-General of the State in 1867. He resigned to become Secretary of the Xavy in i.srig. 
He held this position until March 4, 1S77. He was elected to Congress, and served from 1879 
to 1883. He is now a resident of Trenton. 

Frederick Be.vsley Ogue.n, son of Judge Ogden, of the Supreme Court, was hnm at 
Paterson, July 20, 1827, graduated at Princeton in 1S47, admitted to the bar in 1850, and as 
counselor in 1854. He was mayor of Hoboken and Judge of the District Court. 

Washi.noton B. WiLi.n.MS was born in Jersey City, August 18, 1S32. He received his earl\- 
education at Mr. Wm. L. Dickinson's Lyceum School, in Grand Street, and later at a private 
classical school in New York City. He began the study of law in 1S4S under the late Peter 
Bentley and was admitted to the bar in November, 1853. He continued for some time in charge 
of Mr. Bentley 's office while the great ease of Gough vs. Bell was in progress, in wliich Mr. 
Bentley was the "power behind the throne." Mr. 
Williams devoted many weeks to the important 
questions of real estate law and riparian rights in- 
volved in that cause, and to preparing for its future 
prosecution in the United States courts. This and 
other lines of work in which he was engaged under 
Mr. Bentley and Mr. Scudder. who were close 
friends and associates in many important equity 
causes, directed his practice to the branches of 
real estate, equity and corporation law, which he 
has ever since pursued. 

For-- some years past, especially before the in- 
crease in the number of vice-chancellors, he was 
much occupied in hearing equity cases as Advisorv 
Master, and among other matters had occasion to 
pass upon over 600 divorce cases, and prepared 
some interesting statistics on that subject. 

Among the caxises conducted by him as counsel 
were the series of suits in the winding-up of the 
unfortunate Mechanics and Laborers Savings 
Bank and the City Bank, in which were developed 
very important and far-reaching principles of law 
as to the duties and liabilities of directors of such institutions. 

Mr. Williams joined the republican party at its inception in 1856 and rendered active am 
efficient service in the Fremont campai.gn and in others during and since the Civil War. ll<. 
has traveled much in this country and in Europe, with special reference to literary and his 
torical research, and possesses one of the most extensive historical and classical libraries 11 
the State. 

His paternal ancestors were of the Williams family of Rhode Island, but removed t.. Nc« 
York about one hundred years ago. His mother's family were also of Welsh descent and ii.ui 
resided for several generations in New York. 

In 185S Mr. Williams married a daughter of the late John W. Van Den Bergh, of X'ii-ini.i, 
and their only child, a daughter, is now the wife of Mr. G. J. Edwords, of the New Jersey ikiv. 
his present law partner. 

Charles H. VooRHEES was bom at Spring Valley, Bergen Countv, March 1;,. iS;,; "' 
graduated at Rutgers in 1853, was admitted as attorney in 1856, and counselor in iSj., li. 
was one of the incorporators of the First National Bank of Jersey Citv in 1S64. .nid u..--.;- 
counsel until 1876. He was for .several years trustee of the BurHmnon College. iikiii!h r ..1 il:. 




HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



standinjj committee of the diocese of Northern Xew Jersey, treasurer of the Convocation of 
Jersey City, and trustee of the General Theological Seminary. In i86g he was elected a mem- 
ber of the Hackensack Improvement Commission, and was its president until 1872, and its 
treasurer until 1873. He was one of the founders of the Hackensack Academy and of Christ 
Church, havinjj- presented the jjround for the rectory. He orjjanized the First National Bank 
of Hackensack in 1S71, the Hackensack Savinjjs Bank in 1873, and was president of both until 
October, 1879, and owned a majority of the capital stock. He organized the Hackensack Water 
Company in 1873, was delegate to the national republican convention in 1864, and was ap- 
pointed Law Judge for Bergen County in 1S68. In 1878 he was elected a member of Congress. 
The panic of 1873, and the succeeding years of depression, wrecked the fortune which had been 
built by years of labor, but Judge \'oorhees, being a good lawyer and popular, is regaining what 
he lost. 

' James Fi.emmixg was the oldest son of James Flemming, Sr., the grandson of Isaac Edge, 
and was bom in Jersey City, January 24, 1832. His early education v>'as received in the old school 

in Sussex Street. He then attended and 
graduated from the High School in New 
York City, and afterwards, under the kind- 
ly eye of Dr. Barry, whom many of the 
older generation remember with affection. 
he got his first glimpse of the classics and 
imbibed a love for them which continued 
to the end. 

He had been destined for a university 
education, but instead, in company with 

A. A. Lutkins and Washington B. Will- 
iams, began the study of medicine under 
Ur. Clerk. 

It took, however, but a short experience 
to show him that medicine was not to his 
liking and he abandoned it for law. He 
was a student at law in the office of Edgar 

B. Wakeman, was admitted as attorney at 
the February term, 1S55, and as counselor 
in June, 1858. On admission to the bar he 
formed a copartnership with his preceptor, 
which lasted for several years. After this 
was dissolved another was entered into 
with Washington B. Williams, for whom, 
too, the mortar and pestle had lost their 
charm. 

Mr. Flcmming's distinguishing charac- 
teristics as a lawyer were pertinacity and 
indefatigable energy. United with these were consummate skill in the conduct of a cause and 
strict honestv with the court and opposing counsel. Once started in a case, no labor was too great, 
no task too difficult. He knew not only his own side of the case, but was quick to discover the 
weakness or strength of his opponents. If painstaking effort, directed by keen, logical reason- 
ing and readv wit, would avail, his client had the benefit of them. 

His method of conducting the ver\- first case gave promise of the qualities which later 
years and ripe experience brought together full fruition. With John P. Vroom, Esq.. he was 
assigned bv the court to defend Marg-aret Hogan, who was under indictment for the murder of 
her infant child. An intensely dramatic scene was presented at the end of the trial. Night 
had fallen. There were no lights in the court-room save tho.se on the judge's desk. They 
served onlv to make tlic half-revealed faces of the crowd grotesque and unreal. The jury, 
already deeply moved by the elo<iuent pleading and forceful logic of the mere .stripling, were 
completely carried away by his falling in a faint at the close of his appeal. The verdict was 
"Not guilty." 







y .; 


yy^ 




yC 


Y 


'-^<X.^-. 




\ / 
V 




/ 







JA.MLS FLF.-MMIN( 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. ,55 

The annals of the bar contain no more celebrated trial than that of Jennie E. Smith and 
Covert D. Bennett, indicted for the murder of Mrs. Smith's husband, a Jersey City police 
officer. This case will always be cited as one of the most stubbornly and bravely contested 
legal battles for human lives. 

The evidence presented on the part of the State was larjjely circumstantial, but so strnnij 
was the chain that, despite the efforts of Gilbert Collins, William T. Hoffman, Charles H. Win- 
field and James Flemming the defendants were found guilty of murder in the first decree. 
This verdict was set aside by the Court of Errors and Appeals, on the exceptions taken bv Mr. 
Flemming, and a new trial granted. The second trial closed with the acquittal of the accused, 
but not until eighteen months had elapsed. 

The interest in this case was national. In response to a call for subscriptions by the Rev. 
Spencer M. Rice, D. D., Miss Emma Abbott gave a benefit concert in New York, the proceeds 
of which were expended part in payment of the printing of the case on appeal, and the balance 
given to the prisoners when liberated. 

The accused were too poor to pay, and not only did all their counsel work whollv without 
remuneration, but in addition Mr. Flemming .spent large sums out of his private purse on the 
expenses incident to so protracted a trial. 

The Law and Chancery Reports bear witness that he conducted with great distinction and 
uniform success many civil suits. 

The cases of Sisson against Donnelly and O'Neill against Lawless, the latter lasting more 
than twelve years, and fought out m the courts of New York as well as our own State, show 
his untiring energy. 

But another case, in which the validity of a bond was brought into question, shows how. to 
his trained mind and fertility of resource, every scrap of evidence, every little circumstance was 
of use in the conduct of a trial. 

He was the first to use, and did in this trial use for the first time, a photographic enlarge- 
ment of a signature to prove forgery. 

The climax was reached when at the moment most opportune for himself, and di.sastmus 
to his opponent, he proved that the revenue stamp claimed to have been affixed to the bond 
at the Hme of its execution, was not issued by the government until two years afterward. Tliis 
knowledge had been procured by Mr. Flemming on a visit to Washington for that purpose, and 
was kept secret until sprung upon his adversary when too late to recover from the blow. 

James Flemming's interest in life was keen, and his knowledge of men deep. He was pre- 
eminently a student, a man of intellect, of refinement and rare mental ability. 

His broad learning was gained, like that of all true scholars, by following the bent of .-i 
mind earnestly seeking for knowledge. This, supplemented by extended travel athnnicand 
abroad, and preser\'ed by a phenomenal memory, made him a delightful social companion. 

He prized his family beyond ever^'thing earthly, and wherever he went, there were tlii.\' 
also. His beautiful home on Grand Street was filled with good books, fine bronzes, and rare 
paintings, European and American, and its generous hospitality will not soon be forgotten. 
Simple in taste, unostentatious in manner, he was respected alike by high and low. Thnugh 
surrounded on all sides by a stress of work, he always found time to devote to religion ::m\ 
charity. He was at the time of his death a member of the state board of charities, a warden 
of Grace P. E. Church, one of the directors of the Second National Bank, director and counsel 
of the New Jersey Dry Dock & Transportation Company, a member of the Board of Trade, ot 
the Hudson County and United States Bar Associations and of the Cosmos Club, of which he 
had been president tor many years. He married Sarah Latou, daughter of the late Roltcrt 
Latou, Esq., of New York City, and she, with his three children, Alice, wife of John I.inton 
Kirk, Esq., of the New York bar, Sallie, wife of the Rev. Elmer Severcnee Forbes, of St. John ■• 
Church, Jersey City, and Robert L., of the Hudson County bar survive him. 

William Allen Lewis was bom near Red Bank, Monmouth County, N. J., May <(>. iS;r. 
He was educated at Freehold Institute and Madison University. He read law with Jiid^c j.i-- 
S. NevHis and received the degree of LL. B. at the Albany Law School. IIu was .idiiuitid 
to the New York bar as attorney and coun.selor. After being for some time in theoiim-ol 
Isaac W. Scudder, he was admitted to the bar in 1862 and became counselor in iSd- Ik- ".is 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 




JOHN KENNV. 



in partnership with X. C. Slajijht until 1868, when Slaight's death ended the partnership. He 
was Counsel for the City of Berf^en in 1868. He was a member of the board of freeholders in 

1872 and 1873. In 1872 he was Corporation Attor- 
ney for Jersey City and Corporation Counsel in 
^^73-y(>- In '875 he was elected to the assembly. 

John Kennv was bom in Ireland, May 7, 1835. 
He was educated in the Catholic panjchial schools 
and in the sch(jiils established by the national 
board of education. After leaving school he was 
appointed a member of the revenue police, and 
ser\-ed until the force was disbanded by an act of 
Parliament in 1857. Positions in the Iri.sh con- 
stabulary were tendered to the ex-members of 
the revenue police who were young-, of the re- 
quired height, and able to pass the examination. 
Mr. Kenr.y was appointed a member of the force 
on October i. 1S57, and continued in the ser\-ice 
until the Fenian agitation in 1866, when he re- 
signed, in spite of proffered promotion. He enter- 
ed the employment of Barber Bros., the noted 
linen manufacturers, and remained with them 
many years. He came to the United States in 
1866, and after leaving Barber Bros, he entered 
the employment of G. A. Clark Bros., the thread manufacturers. In iSSg he was appointed a 
member of the Jersey City board of finance, and sen-ed acceptably three years. In April, 
1892, he was appointed by Gov. Abbett as a Lay Judge for the Hudson County Common Pleas 
Court. The acceptance of this position caused him to sever his connection with Clark Bros., 
after nearly fifteen years' ser\-ice. Judge Kenny was one of the charter members of St. 
Michael's Total Abstinence Society when it was organized in 1869, and has been its president 
for several terms, and a delegate to State and national conventions. He is a democrat and an 
enthusiastic total abstainer. 

Cornelius Christie was bom at Leonia, Bergen County, X. J., December 6, 1S35. He was 
prepared for college by the Rev. W. V. \'. Mabon, 
of Newj Durham, X. J.; after graduating he 

began the study of law with Zabriskie. 

Later on he attended Harvard Law School, and 
was a classmate of Chief Justice Beasley, of the 
New Jersey Supreme Court. He was admitted 
to the bar as an attorney in i860, and as a coun- 
selor in 1863. During the years of 1867 and 1868 
he was a member of the Xew Jersey assembly, 
and was from iS7oto 1S76 editor and publisher 
of the Hackt)isacL' Jcrsiy Citizen. 

Leon Abbett was born in Philadelphia, Octo- 
ber 8, 1836. He graduated at the High School 
in that city in 1S53, and studied law in the otticc 
of District-Attorney John W. Ashmcad in Phila- 
delphia. He was admitted to the Xew York bar. 
and formed a partnership with \V. J. A. Fuller, 
continuing in business thirty years. In 1862 he 
moved to Hobi ■ken, and was Corporation Counsel 
for that city in 1863. He was admitted to the 
New Jersey bar as attorney and cuunselor in 
1865. In 1S64 he was elected to the a.sscmbly and again in 1865. In 186^) he removed 
to Jersey City. In 1S68 he was re-elected to the assembly and again \n 1869. Botli terms 




K.SH.US CHRIS I IK. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



he became speaker. In 1874 he was elected senator from Hudson. He was president of 
the senate in 1S79. He was a member of the Jersey City board of education for severaly ears, 
being president in 18O9. He was Corpora- 
tion Coun.sel of Jersey City eijjjht years 
from 1876, rcsiijning' when he was elected 
governor in 1^83. He was re-elected gov- 
ernor in 1889. In 1893 he was appointed 
an Associate Justice of the Supreme 
Court. His term would have expired in 
1900. He was a member of the constitut- 
ional convention of 1S73. He was a dele- 
gate to the democratic national conventions 
of 1872, 1876 and 18S4, and was named for 
Vice-president on the national ticket in 
1884, but would not consider the propo- 
sition. He had a large, lucrative practice 
and took the highest rank at the bar. He 
died after a brief illness on December 4, 



Elijah Strong Cowlf.s, born at Coven- 
try, Vt., April 30, 1836, was educated in 
the common schools and St. Johnsbury 
Academy, fitted for Dartmouth College, 
but was prevented by sickness from enter- 
ing. He studied law in the office of Hon. 
Ephraim Paddock, one of tlic justices of 
the Supreme Ctiurt of \'ermont, and was 
admitted to the bar and practised for two 
years in Coventry, Vt., his native town. He 
came to New York in 1 866 and was admitted 
to the bar and practised for about two vears. 









r 




^^^ 


! 

! 
i 











... a 



l.F.ON AP.Hr.TT. 



In 1 868 he came to Jersey City and entered the law 
office of Washington B. Williams, where he be- 
came acquainted with Mr. Edgar B. Wakeman, 
then a prominent lawyer, who was retiring from 
the practice, and, entering his office, he succeeded 
to such of his business as remained. 

In 1875 ^Ii"- Cowles became associated with Mr. 
Williams again, and the firm of Williams & Cowles 
was well known and continued for twelve years. 
Recently Mr. Cowles has formed a partnership 
with Mr. William H. Carey, formerly one of the 
profes.sors in Hasbrouck Institute. The law firm 
of Cowles & Carey is now practising both in Jer- 
sey City and in New York. 

Mr. Cowles is also interested in a corporation in 
New York known as the Automatic Fire Alarm 
and Extinguisher Company, and for several years 
has been president of that company. Much time 
has been devoted by him to the organization and 
development of christian and charitable work. 
He is one of the active members of the board of 
The Children's Home, was one of the founders of 
the Young ilcn's Christian Association, and for 
five years the president of that organization. Mr. Cowles has been twice married. His first 
wife was Miss Sarah L. Persons, of Coventry, Vt., who died in 1871. In 1875 he married Miss 




FI.IIAH SIRIIM 



202 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

Sarah E. Woodward, of New York City, who died in 189.1 without issue. Two children by the 
first marriajre are both decea.sed. Mr. Cowles is a member of the board of education of Jersey 
City, appointed by Mayor W'anser, chairman of the Hijfh School committee, and takes an 
active interest in the work of the board. Mr. Cowles is a republican and at times takes an 
active part in political campaigns. 

Nathaniel Cowpf.rthwaite Slaight was born at Tuckerton, Burlington County, X. J., 
February 26, 1S37. He was educated in the Philadelphia High School, and studied law in the 
office of E. B. Wakeman in Jersey City. He was admitted in 1858, and became a counselor 
in 1 86 1. He was a member of assembly in i860, and in 1863 formed a partnership with W. A. 
Lewis, which was continued until February, 1S68, when he died. He was highly respected as 
a citizen and had a large practice. 

Lansing Zabriskie, eldest son of Chancellor Zabriskie, was born in Hackensack, April 20, 
1837. He was educated in Columbia College, studied law in his father's office, and admitted to 
the bar. in 1859, becoming a counselor in 1862. He practised for about twenty-five years, but 
being fond of travel spent a number of years abroad. He was an accomplished gentleman. 

Abraham S. Jackson was born at Passaic and graduated from Columbia College in 1853. 
He studied law with Chancellor Zabriskie, and practised in Jersey Cit}- for many j'ears. He 
was United States Commissioner, and was an enthusiastic worker in St. Matthew's Church and 
Sunday-school. He has retired from active practice. 

James Manners Weart was bom at Hopewell, Mercer County, N. J., June 30, 1839, and 
died at Independence, Buckingham County, Iowa, December 11, 1874. His death resulted from 
an accidental gunshot wound while gunning. He was the seventh and youngest son of Spencer 
Stout Weart and Sarah Garrison, his wife. He studied law in the office of his brother Jacob 
Weart in Jersej- City. When the war broke out, and a call was made for troops, Mr. Thomas 
Potter was instrumental in having a meeting called at the Hudson House on Grand Street, 
Jersey City, on Monday, April 15, 1861, to see if the Second Regiment would volunteer. 
I. W. Scudder was chosen chairman, and a vice-president was elected from each ward in the 
city. Charles H. Dummer was elected secretary. No one was present with authority to speak 
for the regiment. Capt. Frederick Grain, Jr., of Company C, was present, but could not 
speak for his company. He said he was ready to lead a company to the front, but did not know 
whether a single man would volunteer. Mr. Thomas Potter then moved that a roll be opened, 
and volunteers were called for. James M. Weart was the first to g(j forward and sign the roll. 
Thirty names were put down at that meeting, and Capt. Grain led them to the front. This was 
the first meeting held in the State to raise volunteers, and Mr. Weart was the first volunteer 
from New Jersey. His older brother, George, also volunteered, and they were corporals in Com- 
pany C. Mr. Weart was the correspondent of the Courier and Advertiser while at the front. 
On his return from the war he was admitted at the November term of 1861, and opened an 
office in Hoboken. In 1S62 he helped to raise the Twenty-first Regiment of nine months men, 
and went to the front as second-lieutenant of Company H. He ser\-cd until the regiment was 
mustered out. He located at Independence, Iowa, and was city clerk. He also held the city 
criminal court, and was subsequently secretary of the Iowa .senate and clerk of the house. The 
Grand Army Post, No 108, at Hopewell, N. J., is named after Mr. Weart as the first New Jersey 
volunteer. James M. Weart was married on August 30, 1866, to Miss Jane Maria Taylor, at 
Philadelphia, and five children were bom to them. They are : Katie Taylor, James Taylor, 
Spencer Stout, William Garrison and Lucy Taylor Weart. After the death of Lieut. Weart 
the family returned to Philadelphia, Pa., and are still all living, December, 1894. 

Norman Leslie Rowe was born in New York City, December 12, 1839. When he was one 
year of age his parents removed to Greenville, where his father still resides. 

Mr. Rowe oinaincd his early education in the public .schools of Jersey City, after which he 
entered the Free Academy of New York City, and from wliich he was graduated. After com- 
pleting his education, he engaged in the coal business with his father, with whom he remained 
until 18O0, at which time he decided to take up the study of law. He began that profession 
under the preceptorship of the Hon. Isaac W. Scudder, with whom he remained until the Civil 
War began. In 1861 Mr. Rowe enlisted as a private in Company E, Second Regiment, New 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



Jersey Volunteers, in the three months' service. After 
business with Louis Stevens, of Jersey City, continuint,^ 
up his law studies in the otTfice of William Voor- 
hees. He was admitted tu the b.ar in 1867 as an 
attorney and counselor, after which he be^i^an 
active practice of his profession for himself. 

Mr. Rowe served three years as a member of 
the school board of Greenville, prior to its annexa- 
tion to Jersey City. He is now Assistant Counsel 
to the Board of Chosen Freeholders of Hudson 
County. As a criminal lawyer he has but few 
equals in this part of Xew Jersey. He is the senior 
partner of the well-known law firm of Rowe iS: 
Braden, of Jersey City. 

Mr. Rowe is a member of Berj^en Lodtje, F. & 
A. M., having been identified with that lodfje since 
1S62. He is also a member of Post Henry Wilson, 
G. A. R., Improved Order of Red ilen. Protective 
Order of Elks, and is commodore of the Pavonia 
Yacht Club, and a member of several auxiliarj- 
organizations. 

In 1862 Mr. Rowe married Miss Marj- F. Davis, 
of Monmouth Countv. Three sons have been born to 



returning home, he engaged 
in that imtil i36i;, when he 




NOR.MAN LF.SI.IE ROWE. 

the marriage. 



Jonathan Dixo.v was born in Liverpool, England, July 6, 1839. His family removed to 
New Brunswick, N. J., during his childhood. He was educated at Rutgers, and read law with 
Warren Hardenbergh, George Dutton and Congressman Robert Adrain. He was admitted to 
the bar in 1862 and began practice in the office of E. B. Wakeman, Jersey Citv. In 1870 he 
formed a partnership with Gilbert Collins, who had been a law student with him. and the firm 
of Dixon & Collins continued until his elevation to the bench in 1875. He was appointed an 
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court in 1S75, reappointed in 1882 and in 1S89. In 1S83 he 
was nominated for governor by the republican party. He accepted as a part of a citizen's 

duty, but remained quietly on the bench. He 
is remarkably quick of apprehension, and delivers 
his opinions in concise logical terms. 



Ex-JuuoE John Garrick was bom at Bolton, 
Lancashire, England, November 15, 1840. When 
he was seven years of age his parents came to 
America and settled in Jersey City, where Mr. Gar- 
rick attended St. Peter's Catholic School, and 
afterwards Public School No. 2. His education 
was completed at St. Francis Xavier College, of 
New York City. After completing his college 
course he began reading law under the preceptor- 
ship of Isaac W, Scudder, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1862. He immediately thereafter began 
practising his profession in Jersey City. In 1870 
he was appointed Counsel to the Board of Police 
Commissioners under the new consolidated city. 
He held that position one year, and in 1878 he 
was appointed by Gov. George McClellan Judge 
of the District Court of Jersey City. He was the 
incumbent of that office for five years. Since the 

devoted his time exclusively to his large law practice. 

Wright, a daughter of Gen. E. R. V. Wright. Three 




conclusion of his term in 1SS5 he li;i 
In 1874 Judge Garrick married Mis> 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



children have been born to the union, t)ne of whom is living, a son, and who is at present a 
student at Stevens' Institute, in Hoboken. X. J. 

Judge Garrick is a member of the Palma, Carteret and Hudson County Democratic clubs. 
He is also a member of the Catholic church. 

Judge Garrick's father, Ji^hn Garrick, Esi[., was one of the Serrell.Engineer Corps engaged 
in building the works before Fort Pulaski to attack that fortihcation. He died while the works 
were in course of construction. 

Philif J. Rv.-vLL was born at Freehold. His father, Daniel B. Ryall, was a prominent 
lawyer there. Philip graduated at Rutgers in 1S54, and studied law in the office of Gov. Bedle 
in Freehold, He was admitted in 1857, and became counselor in i86o. He practised in Jersey 
City for several years, but hib health became impaired, and he returned to Freehold, where 
he died. 

Isaac Ro.\iain'e was bom in the township of Bergen, Mav 4, 1840. He prepared forcollege 
at the Columbia District School, Berg^en .Square, .and at a classical school, which numbered 
among its teachers Hon. Charles H. \'oorhis and Hon. L. A. Brigham, afterwards members of 
Congress. He graduated at Rutgers in 1859, and studied law with Hon. A. O. Zabri.skie, subse- 
quently chancellor. He was admitted at the No- 
vember term, 1863, and became counselor in due 
season. He was Corporation Counsel of the town 
of Bergen from 1865 to 1S67. He was elected 
alderman of the city of Bergen in 1869, and was 
president of the board in 1870, when the city was 
consolidated. He was a member of the Jersey 
City board of education from 1880 to 1885. In 
1883 he was made a member of the Jersey City 
board of finance, but owing to legal complications 
did not take his seat until 1885. He was a mem- 
ber of assembly in 1884. In 1863 he was married 
to Annie Martin, and they reside at 407 Bergen 
Avenue Mr. Romaine is a member of the Jersey 
City, Carteret and Union League clubs, and of a 
number of other social, civil and political organiza- 
tions. He is a member of the Bergen Reformed 
Church, and a republican. 

P^i.ijAH T. Paxto.s was bom near Jamesburgh, 
ISAAC romaink. Middlesex County. N. J. He was educated at the 

Englishtown Academy, and at Harvard Law 
School. He read law with Gov. J. D. Bedle in Freehold, and was admitted to the bar in 1866, 
and has been in active practice ever since. He was Corporation Counsel for L'nion Hill a 
number of vears. He was an assemblyman from Hudson in 1877. The same year he was ap- 
pointed to the Common Pleas Bench in Hudson, to till a vacancy cau.sed by the death of Judge 
John Wiggins. He was elected to the State senate in 1880, and served three years. He was 
Corporation Attorney for Jersey City, Assistant Prosecutor for Hudson, and is now Judge of the 
Hoboken District Court. 

Henrv Traphaokn was born in Jersey City, June i. 1842. He was educated in Rutgers 
and Brown University, and studied \.).w with Isaac \V. Scudder. He was admitted to the bar in 
1864, and became coun.selor in 1867. He was mayor of Jersey City in 1874, 1875 and 1876, and 
was Corporation C<ainsel of Jersey City in iSjo to 1S79. His family is one of the oldest in the 
city. His great-grandfather, Henry, was a trustee of (Jucen's College, now Rutgers, in 1782. 
His grandfather, Henry, graduated at Rutgers in the class of 1791, and married a daughter 
of Cornelius \'an Vorst. His father, Henry Magnus, was a wealthy and prominent citizen of 
Jersey City. 

James B. X'kkoi^ mu kch was Ixirn at Frcehnld, X, J,, October i, 1844, He was graduated 
at Princeton in 1S63. and studied law with .\aron R. Throckmorton at Freehold. He was ad- 




HISTORY OF JERSFA" CITY. 



205 




JAMES B. VREDEXBIRGH. 



mitted to the bar at the June tenii, 1866, and became a counselor in 1869. He located in Jersey 
City and speedily attracted attention. In 1872, when Hon. I. W. Scudder was elected as a con- 
gressman, he formed a partner.ship with the risinj; 
young lawyer, givin<j him an equal share in an ex- 
tensive and lucrative practice. This partnership 
was continued until the death of Mr. Scudder, in 
1881. In 1883 ludi^e A. O. Garretson became a 
member of the firm and the partnership still con- 
tinues. Mr. Vredenburjjh is counsel for the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company, havin^^ succeeded Mr. 
Scudder in that position. He )ias been interested 
as counsel in all the important cases in which the 
railroad company and allied corporations have 
been en<,'^aged during tlie past score of years. He 
was placed on the staff of (iov. Bedle, with the 
rank of colonel, and he is a member of the Ameri- 
can Bar Association. He is a member of one of 
the oldest families in Xew Jersey. His great- 
grandfather was a merchant in New Brunswick 
and one of the most influential men in Middlesex 
County. He was a justice of the peace in 17S0 
and a member of assembly from 1790 to 1795, and 
was collector for Middlesex County forty-one years, 
from 17S2 to 1S23. He had two sons. Rev. John 
S. Vredenburgh. a celebrated divine, and Peter, who was a well-known physician. The doctor 

had one son,' also Peter \'redenburgh. who 
graduated at Rutgers College, studied law 
at Somerville and located at Freehold, 
where he became prosecutor of the pleas, 
served in the legislature as a member of 
the senate, when it was known as the coun- 
cil. He was associate justice of the Su- 
preme Court fourteen years, and many of 
his decisions still remain as oft-quoted 
precedents. James B. \'redenburgh is the 
third son of Judge Vredenburgh, and has 
maintained the high reputation which has 
marked his family for generations. 

Judge Abr.am Q. G.\rretson was bom 
in Somerset County, N. J., March 11, 1S42. 
He received his education in the common 
schools of his native place, and at the age 
of thirteen years he entered Trenton Acad- 
emy, at Trenton, N. J. After taking a 
special preparatory course under well- 
known tutors, he entered Rutgers College 
in the sophomore class of 1859. and was 
.graduated from that institution in 1S62. 
After reading law for one year in the office 
of the late Chancellor Zabriskie, he at- 

c. AkREiso.N. tended Harvard Law School, where he also 

spent one year, after which he returned to 

where he remained for one year. In November of 1865 he was 
and in 1S68 as counselor. In February' of i86q Gov. 
of the Pleas for a term of five years, and he -vas re- 




Mr. Zabriskie's offi 

admitted to the bar as an att 

Randolph appointed him Prose 



2o6 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

appointed in 1874 by Gov. Parker. He served four years of his second term, and rcsirrned in 
April of rSyS to accept the appointment of President Judjje of the Common Pleas, as tendered 
him by Gov. McClellan. He served five years in that position, and at the expiration of his 
term he entered into a partnership with James B. Vredenburjfh, Esq., which has existed ever 
since that time. 

Judge Garret.son is a member of the Palma and Carteret clubs, and al.so of the Democratic 
Society of Hudson County. In 1S79 he married Miss Josephine Boker, of Philadelphia. Three 
children have been born to the union. 

As a judge Mr. Garretson was always conscientious and upright in his decisions, which 
were always clear and convincing. He is president of the Xew Jersey Title Guarantee and 
Trust Company, and was one of the original directors. He is one of the directors of the Third 
National Bank and of the Jersey City and Bergen Railroad Company, of Jersey City, and is a 
commissioner of adjustment for Jersey City imder the ^lartin act. 

Joseph F. R.-vndolph, a son of J. F. Randolph, who was an associate justice of ihe Supreme 
Court in 1845-52, was born in New Brunswick, December 4, 1843. He was educated at Trenton 
Academy, Yale College and the Columbia Law School, with post-graduate studies at Berlin, 
Heidelberg, Paris and Gottingen. He was admitted to the bar in 1S67, and became counselor 
in 1870. He has published an American Jarman on Wills, and Randolph on Commercial Paper. 
He is an able lawyer, and has a large practice, being counsel for a number of foreign nations 
in New York. 

Augustus Zabriskie, youngest son of Chancellor Zabriskie, was born at Hackensack in 
1843. He was educated at Princeton College and the Harvard Law School. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1866, and became a counselor in 1869. 

WiLLi.-i.M Brinkerhoff was born in the city of Bergen, July 19, 1843. He was educated at 
Rutgers, and studied law with Jacob R. Wortendyke in Jersey City. He was admitted in 1865, 
and became counselor in 1869. He was president of the common council of Bergen in 1S67, and 
became mayor ex-officio when the mayor resigned. He was a member of assembly in 1870 and 
a member of the constitutional convention of 1873. He was a member of the democratic State 
executive committee from i8Soto 18S3. He was senator from Hudson from 1S84 to 1887. He 
was Corporation Counsel for Jersey in 1S.S4, and for several years. He was Counsel to the Board 
of Chosen Freeholders from 1S6S to 1872. He was a director in the First National Bank for a 
number of years. 

William Talcott is a son of W^ H. Talcott, the engineer who built the inclined planes on 
the Morris Canal, and was secretan,- of the canal company for a number of years. William was 
born at Fort Plains, Montgomery County, N. Y., May 3, 1843. He was educated at Philips 
Academy, Williams College and Columbia Law School. He was admitted in 1S77, and prac- 
tised in Jersey City until 1887, when he removed to Paterson. He, with Joseph F. Randolph, 
edited an edition of Jarman on Wills, with American notes. 

Roderick Burt Seymour was born at Newark, Kendall County, Illinois, on Sunday, May 
21, 1843. His father, Ephraim Sanford Seymour, was a native of Vermont, and was a graduate 
of Middlebury College. He took up the profession of law and practised in Chicago and other 
places in the State of Illinois. He was a great friend of Col. E. D. Baker, and at his solicita- 
tion joined him in the construction of the Panama Railroad. His grandfather was born at 
Norwalk, Connecticut, where the family originally settled in 1660. His mother was a daughter 
of Dr. Bestor, who lived and had a large practice at Wilmington, Vermont. She was a de- 
scendant from the Foote family of .Massachusetts and Connecticut. 

The subject of this sketch came East at an early age, and after pursuing his studies at the 
Lyceum on Grand Street, under Prof. William L. Dickinson, and .at Monson Academv and Yon- 
kers Military Institute, he entered the freslmien class of Columbia College, New York, and 
was graduated in 18(15 with the degree of A. B. The college conferred upon him the degree 
of A. M. in 186S. After graduating he studied law, and was admitted to practice by the Su- 
preme Court of this State in June, iSdQ. He w;is afterwards admitted as a counselor-at-law, 
and was als(j admitted to pr.ictice in the United States courts. The motion for his admission 
to practice in tlie United States courts was made by the late ex-Gov. Bedle. He has a large 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



207 



general practice in all the courts of this State, and has had charge of a number of important 
cases. He has an extensive admiraltj- practice, equal to that of any lawyer in this State. 

In 1862 he enlisted as a private in Company A, Twcnty-.second Regiment, N. Y. S. M., and 
took part with that regiment in the campaign at Harper's Ferry and the Shenandoah Valley. 
At the e.-cpiration of his term of service he received an honorable discharge. In 1S64, in re- 
sponse to a call fur troops by Gov. Parker, he raised a company of 100 men, which was mustered 
in as Company A, Thirty-seventh Regiment, N. J. Volunteers, and he was commissioned cap- 
tain. With his regiment he took part in the campaig-n of the Army of the James, in Virginia, 
under Gen. Butler, and afterwards in the siege of Petersburg, under Gen. Grant. He was 
honorably discharged with his regiment at Trenton upon the expiration of their term of service. 
He was one of the firiit members of the G. A. R. of this State, and was a member of Joe 
Hooker Post and Edwin il. Stanton Post, and is now a member of G. Van Houten Post, Xo. 3. 
He has held the position of post commander, has served in the council of administration, and 
as delegate to the national encampment, and as Judge Advocate of the department during 
several terms. 

In i86g he became a member of Enterprise Lodge, No. 48, F. and A. M., of Jersey City. 
He was master of the lodge two years. He is also a member of Enterprise Chapter, No. 3, R. 
A. M., Hugh de Payens CommandePi-, No. i, K. T., 
and of Warren Council, No. 5, R. and S. M., of 
which he was master five years. He is also a 
member of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite, 
Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, in which he has 
received the thirty-second degree. He is a mem- 
ber of all the Jersey City bodies in this rite, and 
has held important positions in all of them. In 
187 1 he was appointed police justice of Jersey City, 
which position he held for three years. In 1 SS.^ 
he was elected a member of the board of chosen 
freeholders ; in 1885 he was elected a member of 
the legislature, and was (me of the committee 
who revised the Martin act, and took a promi- 
nent part in securing its passage. In 1S82 he was 
elected a member of the board of finance and taxa- 
tion in Jersey City for the term of two years. In 
1885 he was appomtcd Corporation Attorney of 
Jersey City, which position he held several years. 
He has always been a member of the republi- 
can party, and taken an active interest in public 
aiTairs. He has been a member of the republican 

county committee and the republican city committee almost continuously since 1868. For ten 
years he was chairman of the city committee. In i S89 he was appointed a member of the repub- 
lican State committee, and has continued a member of that committee up to the present time. 
He is a member of the Palma, the Union League and Crescent clubs, and of several polit- 
ical clubs. He is also a member of the Alumni Association of Columbia College, and of the 
Medico-Legal Society, of New York, and of the Society of the Army of the Potomac, and 
of Compass Lodge, No. 35, A. O. U. W., of Jersey City. 

MiCH.\EL T. Newboli) was born at Springfield, Burlington County, N. J. He was educated 
at Yale University and the Albany Law School. He was admitted to the bar in 1868, and be- 
came counselor in 1S71. He built up a lucrative practice. 

WiLi.i.\M Pkshinf. Doi:(}L.\sn was born at Uuanesburgh, Schenectady Countv, N. Y., August 
7, 1844. He was educated at Trinity School and Columbia College. He was admitted to the 
bar in 1S67, and became counselor in 1S70. He was Corporation Attorney of Jersey Citv from 
1873 to 1876, and a member of the board of education from 1872 to 1874. He was Judge-Advo- 
cate of the Fourth Regiment, and District Court Judge in Jersey City. He is now one of the 
Police Justices of Jersey City. 



r-\ 


y 


"\>^N 



II1FRICK i!l'RT SKV.MOUK. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



John A. Blair was bom near Blairstown, X. J., July S, 1843. He belonijs to the distin- 
guished Blair family of New Jersuy. His rudimentary education was obtained in the public 

schucils <if his native place, and later on he pre- 
pared for collej;-e at the Blairstown Presbyterian 
Academy, and entered tlie Collcj;e of Xew Jersey 
at Princeton, and was "-raduatcd from that institu- 
tion in 1866. At the close of his college term he 
began the study of the law in the office of the 
Hon. J. G. Shipman, at Belvidere, N. J. He was 
admitted to the bar as an attorney at the June 
term, iSOg, and as a counselor at the June term, 
1872. In Januar\-, 1S70, he came to Jersey City, 
where he has ever since resided and been engaged 
in his professicjn. 

On the passage of the law creating district 
courts in Jersey City. Hon. Bennington F. Ran- 
dolph and Mr. Blair were appointed the fir.st 
judges thereof by the Hon. Joseph D. Bedle. who 
was at that time governor of the State. In May 
of 1885 Mr. Blair was appointed Corporation Coun- 
sel of Jer.sey City, which office he held until his 
resigTiation in 1SS9. He was reappointed in 1894, 
and still retains the position. 
Judge Blair is a sound lawyer, an attractive and eloquent speaker, a man of fine classical 
acquirements, and the possessor of a large and choice libran.'. He is a prominent and active 
republican in politics, although never seeking office, his name has been frequently mentioned in 
connection with some of the most prominent positi<-ins in the State. He is a regular attendant of 
the First Presbyterian Church of Jersey Citv. He is a member of the Palma and Union League 
clubs, and has been president of the latter organization since the first year of its existence. 




Flavel McGee was bom April 6, 1844, in Frelinghuysen Township. Warren Count 
His ancestors on both sides were natives of Xew 
Jersey and graduates of Princeton College as far 
back as the family records go. 

His maternal great-grandfather was an officer 
in the Revolutionary War and .served with distinc- 
tion. With the exception of his paternal grand- 
father, who was a manufacturer on a large scale 
for his time, all his ancestors for a eentur)' have 
been Presbyterian clergy-men. 

Mr. McGee was prepared for college at the Xew- 
ton Collegiate Institute and Blair Presbyterian 
Academy and entered Princeton College in the 
junior class in 1863. While in college he took the 
first prize for debate in Clio Hall. 

He graduated in 1865, and immediately entered 
upon the study of the law at Belvidere, X. J. He 
was admitted to the bar at the Jime term. i.so.'-;. 
That fall he stumped the countv of Warren on tlie 
republican side in the national and gubernatorial 
campaign which ficcurred that year. In Xovem- 
ber of that year he came to Jersey City and n w^, M'l^if 

began the practice of his profession, where he 

has ever since remained. During that time he has been in partnership with the late W 
Muirheid and ex-Gov. Joseph I). Bedle until their respective deaths, and with Messrs. J 
D. Bedle, Jr., and Thomas F. Bedle, with whom he is still associated. 



, -X.J. 



-„^ 




r^ 


V 


'^ ^ 


i 


-,,^ 








V 




r^ -i^'; . 


■\ 


" V 


■* 


/ 




.„_^ / ^ 





illiam 
ose])li 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



209 



Mr. McGee early acquired a reputation for enerjjy, industry and forensic ability, and soon 
acquired an enviable position at the bar. 

He was admitted to the degree of counselor-at-law at the June term, 1871, and at the same 
term argued two cases in the Supreme Court and one in the Court of Appeals, two of which have 
since become leadin^^ cases. He has for many years been employed in many of the most im- 
portant cases tried in the hi.yher courts of the State. 

On the death of Jud;.4^e Bradley he was unanimously recommended by the Bar Association 
of Hudson County, and largely by the bar of the whole State, for the position of Associate Jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Mr. McGae is a hereditary member of the 
Society of the Cincinnati and of the Sons of the American Revolution. 

In politics he is a consistent republican and rarely allows an important campaign to pass 
without his voice being heard in the councils of his party and on the stump. In the recent 
campaigns of this city and county, which have resulted in the overthrow of ring rule, he has 
been especially active. 

He is a member of the Union League, Palma and Carteret clubs of this city. In religion 
he is a Presbyterian and a ruling elder in the First Presbyterian Church of Jersey City. 

Mr. McGee has been married twice. His first wife was Miss Frances E. Hariis, a daughter 
of the late Dr. H. S. Harris, of Belvidere, N. J. 
His present wife was Miss Julia F. Randolph, a 
daughter of the late Judge Bennington F. Ran- 
dolph, of this city. 

Mr. ilcGee is a man of strong' will, but of good 
judgment, affable manners and kindly disposition, 
and may safely be said to have no enemies and 
many friends. As a citizen he is public-spirited 
and ready to assist with his voice and purse in 
every work which is calculated to better the con- 
dition of his city or fellow-men. 

Henry Simmons White was born at Red Bank, 
N. J., July 13, 1844. He is a son of Isaac P. White. 
who was a prominent citizen and lumber merchant 
of that place. He received his early education ia 
Red Bank, and in 1S60 entered the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons in Xew York, graduating 
in 1864, before he could legally receive his di- 
ploma. He entered the United States army as 
assistant surgeon, and was assigned to duty in the 
Army of the James, where he remained until the 
close of the war. He returned to Red Bank and 
practised his profession two years. He decided to adopt the legal profession. He removed to 
New York and began his legal studies. He was admitted to the bar of that State as attornev and 
counselor on June 7, 1870. He removed to Jersey City, and was admitted to the Xew Jersey bar in 
1872, becoming a counselor in 1875. Soon afterwards he was made a Special Master-in-Chancerj'. 
On November 3, 1876, he was appointed United .States commissioner. In 18S8 he was a dele- 
gate to the national republican convention at Chicago, at which Benjamin Harrison was 
nominated. On August 22, 1890, he was appointed United States District Attornev for New 
Jersey. When the death of Hon. Roscoe ConkHn occurred, plans were being perfected 
whereby a law partnership was to have been formed between that gentleman and Mr. White. 
He has been concerned in a number of notable legal contests, among which one of the most 
important was in connection with the Hudson River Tunnel Companv, for which he was 
counsel. On November 19, 1878, he married Anna H., daughter of ex-Judge McLean. C^ne 
child, a daughter, has been bom to the marriage. He was a resident of Jersev City for thirteen 
years, but at present has his residence at Red Bank. 

AiiEL I. Smith was bom at Sccaucus, June 12, 1S43. He was graduated at Rutgers in 1852, 
and studied law with J D, Miller in Jersey City. He was admitted to the bar in 1866, and 




HENRY SIMMONS WHITE. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 




GILBERT COLLINS 



became counselor in 1873. He was a member of the assembly in 1870. He ranks high as a 
lawyer, and has a lucrative practice. 

GiLBEKT Collins was born at Stonington, Conn., 
AugTist 26, 1846. His great-grandfather, Daniel 
Collins, was a Revolutionary officer of the First 
Connecticut Line Regiment, and was engaged in 
agricultural pursuits. His grandfather, Gilbert 
Collins, was also a farmer, and was several times 
a member of the Connecticut legislature. Daniel 
Prentice Collins, father of the subject of this 
sketch, was a prominent manufacturer at Stoning- 
ton. He died in iS6j. 

Mr. Collins was prepared for Yale College, and 
was about to enter that institution when his 
father's death occurred. Owing to an impaired 
fortune he abandoned his object. A short time 
thereafter he received a federal appointment in 
New York, and in 1863 removed to Jersey City, 
where his father had had extensive business inter- 
ests. After locating in Jersey City, Mr. Collins 
began studying law in the offices of Judge Jona- 
than Dixon, and was admitted to the bar in Febru- 
ary' of 1869. He has practised here continuously 
ever since, first under a partnership arrangement 
with Judge Dixon, and later on with Charles L. and William H. Corbin. 

In 1884 Mr. Collins was nominated and elected mayor of Jersey City, and filled that posi- 
tion with dignity and honor for two years. 

Mr. Collins is a member of the Union League, Palma and Federal clubs of Jersey City. 
He is a member of the board of managers of the Society of Sons of the Revolution of New- 
Jersey. He is a staunch republican, and has always been a hard and earnest worker for the 
success of his party. He has established a large and lucrative law practice, and is at present a 
member of the firm of Collins & Corbin. Mr. Collins resides at 312 York vStreet. In June, 
1870, he married Miss Harriet, daughter of John O. Burk, Esq., of Jersey City. Three children 
have been bom to the union, one, a son, now 
studying law, 

William D. Edw.\rds was born in Grecnpoint, 
Long Island, N. Y., December 17. 1855, and re- 
moved to Jersey City in i860, his parents having 
settled in that part of the city known as Lafayette. 
He obtained his rudimentary education at the pub- 
lic schools, and in 1867 entered Ilasbrouck Insti- 
tute. In 1871 he entered the University of the 
City of New York, and was graduated therefrom 
in 1875. He immediately thereafter took a course 
at the Columbia Law School of New York City, 
and was graduated from there in 187.S. During 
his term at the latter named institution lie wa.s in 
the office of William Brinkcrhotf. In i.S7Shewns 
admitted to the bar of New Jersey. In 1S79 lie 
entered into partnership with Ilaniiltim Wallis 
under the firm name of Wallis \- ICdwards. In 
1888 Mr. G. Bumsted was .admitted, the tirm mnv 
being Wallis, Edwards & Bumsted. 

Mr. Edwards has always taken an active interest in politics. In 1879 he was secretary' of 
the Hudson County democratic conimiitce. and in 1.S80 and iHHi was chairman of that organi- 



^\ 








^. -.,-. J 





II I I AM n. K. riw \Rn-;. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 




zation. In iSSi he was elected Corporation Attorney of Bayonne, and held that office for five 
years. In i8S6 he was elected State senator from Hudson County to succeed William Brinkerhoff. 
During his senatorial term he framed the bill 
which gave J er.se V City its new charter. In iS8q 
he was appointed Coqjoration Counsel of Jersey 
City, and held that position until the spring of 
1894. In 1889 he received the unanimous nomina- 
tion of his partv for a second term as senator, but 
declined the honor. 

John W. Bissf.ll was born at Matawan, Mon- 
mouth County, N. J., January 6, 1S47, and came 
to Jersey City in June, 1S73. Early in life he 
adopted the le;.jal profession, and for one year 
was connected with the law office of Messrs. 
Scudder & \'redenburgh, of Jersey City. After 
severing his connection with that firm he began 
practice on his own account in Jersey City, and has 
continued at it ever since. 

Cornelius S. See, son of Rev. John L. See, 
corresponding secretary* of the Reformed Church 
in America, was born in Xew Brunswick, Septem- 
ber 29, 1847. He graduated at Rutgers in 1867, john w. bissell. 
and read law in the office of A. V. Schanck. He 

was admitted to the bar in 1870, and became counselor in 1873. He was clerk of the Jersey 
City board of finance four years, and for a number of years was chairman of the republican 
county committee. He was elected to the assembly in 1883 and 1SS4. He removed to Kansas 
several years ago. 

Judge John A. McGr.ath was bom in Ireland, December 16, 1847. His parents removed 
to this country- when he was two years of age, and he received his education in the public 
schools and Cooper Institute. He was intended for a civil engineer, but the death of his uncle, 

who was killed in the United States service in 1864, 
changed the plan. In March, 1864, he enlisted in 
the First United States Artillery and ser\'ed six 
months, when he was discharged for disability. 
He is a prominent member of the G. A. R., and 
was adjutant of Stanton Post in Jersey City. In 
1872 he entered the law office of Capt. Albert 
Cloke as a student. One year later he was ap- 
pointed a member of the Jersey City board of edu- 
cation. He was also elected a Justice of the Peace, 
but he resigned for fear it might affect his admis- 
sion to the bar. He remained fifteen months in 
Capt. Cloke's office, and accepted a position in the 
office of Rowe & Wood, where he remained eight 
months, completing his studies in the office of A. 
Q. Garretson. He was admitted in 1878, and be- 
came a counselor in 1881. In 1884 he succeeded 
Hon. William McAdoo as Counsel to the County 
Board of Health. In 1S87 he was appointed Coun- 
sel for the County, a position he still retains. In 
March, 1891, he was appointed Judge of the Sec- 
ond District Court of Jersey City to succeed Hon. 
Albert Dayton. He has had many important cases for the county during his incumbency as 
Counsel for the County, including suits against Jersey City and other municipalities for arrears 





i^- .-^.^^ 










y 


Ax -V 




^ 


\ 


^> 


K* 


-^ . -^ _-.^-t . .— -- 


- 



i!i2 HISTORY OF JERSFA' CITY. 

of county taxes, and the series of suits growing out of the boulevard act and condemnation 
proceedings. 

In 1S76 he married Matilda J., daughter of the late Hon. August Ingwersen. He is a mem- 
ber of the American Legion of Honor, the Arion Society, the Hudson County Democratic 
Society, and a number of social and political organizations. 

Robert- O. Babiutt was born at .\[orristt)wn, November 5, 1848. He read law with Fred- 
erick G. Burnham at Morristuwn, and moved from there to Jersey City, where he entered the 
office of Potts & Linn. He was admitted to the bar in January, 1873, and became counselor 
in 1878. L'pon coming to the bar he entered the tirm, which then became Potts, Linn & Bab- 
bitt. At the end of a year Potts retired, and the tirm of Linn& Babbitt continued seven years. 
About a dozen years ago Mr. Babbitt formed a new partnership with Robert L. Lawrence, 
which still exi.sts. 

Edward D. Gilmokk was born at Fortress Monroe, Va., November 9, 1851, graduated at 
Rutgers, and admitted to the bar in November, 1S75. He became counselor in 1878, and prac- 
tised with Attorney-General Gilchrist. 

LiN'SLV RowE was bom in New York City, January 19, 1848, and read law in the office of 
Muirheid & McGee. He was admitted in June. 1875, and became counselor in 1878. He prac- 
tised in Jersey City from 1875 until 1882, when he was appointed Clerk of the United States 
District Court at Trenton, a position he held for ten years. He is now practising in Jersey 
City. 

Hamilton Wallis was born in New York, November 25, 1842. He graduated from Yale 
University and the Columbia Law School, and was admitted both in New York and New Jersey. 
He became an attorney in 1875, and a counselor in 1S78. In New York he is a member of the 
firm of Marsh & Wallis, and in Jersey City of Wallis, Edwards & Bumsted. His father, A. H. 
Wallis, was president of the First National Bank. He was a well-known New York lawyer be- 
fore he moved to Jersey City fifty years ago. He served in the Jersey City board of aldermen, 
and was twice United States collector of internal revenue for the fifth district of New Jersey. 

William Horace Corhin, of the firm of Collins & Corbin, was bom at McDonough, Che- 
nango County, N. Y., on July 12, 1851. He was educated at Oxford Academy, Cornell Univer- 
sity and Columbia Law School. He was admitted to the New York bar at Binghamton. Sep- 
tember, 1S72, and to the New Jersey bar in 1874, and became coun.selor in 1877. His home is 
in Elizabeth, where he was a member of the hoard of education from 1876 to 1880. In iSSihe 
published The New Jersey Coqioration Law. with notes. In 1S82 he published Corbin's Forms. 
He was elected a member of assembly from Union in 1885 and again in 1886. In 18S6 he was 
appointed a member of the Gettysburg Memorial Commission. During his second year in the 
assembly he was leader of his party on the tloor. He has borne a high reputation as a citizen 
and a christian. His ability has made him one of the most prominent members of the bar in 
the State. 

Charles L. Corhin was born in McDnncmgh, Chenango County, N. Y., January 22, 1846, 
educated at Hamilton College, .r.lmittcd to the bar Novemlicr, 1871, and became counselorin 1875. 
He has earned a reputation wliich extends licynnd the State for the able and thorough manner 
in which his cases are prepared. He is a nieniber of the firm of Collins & Corbin. 

Charles Hopkins HAKi-ii.ikM was born in Jersey City, November 22, 1851. He was ad- 
mitted as attorney in November, 1S7 :, and counselor in 1.S75. He formed a partnership with 
Peter Bentley, Jr. 

J. Heri'.kri- Pol i> was born in Treiitoii, .\. J , July ;, 1S51. He received his education in 
the public schools of that pl.ice, ailer which he prepared for colkge. He was a member of the 
class of 1872, of Princeton College. After spending nearly two years at that institution he 
returned to Trenton and l)e:.;.in studying law in the odice of Hon. Edward T. Green, now a 
judge of the United StatL-. C'xm He w,is .iilmittLil to (iractice on Febru.iry 5, 1874. During 
the same year he came to Jersey City ami a^-ociatcd himself witli Josejih C. Potts, a relative, 
for the practice of his proie-sion. < )nc year prior to his admission to the bar he was appointed 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



^^ 


I x^ 


\'"'^^^ 


y ^ 






r^' 



assistant clerk in the assembly at Trenton. He was a member of that body in 1880 and 1881, 
representin<j the sixth a.ssembly district of Hudson County. In the session of 1880 Mr. Potts 
was chairman of the committee on the revision of 
the laws, and in the ses.sion of 1S81 was chairman 
of the committee on the judiciary. He was aijain 
elected to the assembly in 1889 and re-elected in 
1890 and 1 89 1. In the new reapportionment he 
represented the second district and was the only 
republican member from Hudson County in 1892. 
During- that year he was the minority leader on 
the floor of the house, and he served on the com- 
mittees on judiciary, revision of laws and treas- 
urer's accounts. In 1893, he was the republican 
nominee for senator in Hudson County, and re- 
duced the democratic majority from S.ooo to .■5.000. 

In 1894 he was appointed Jud,L;eof the First Dis- 
trict Court. Is a member of the Carteret Club and 
was for two years vice-president of that organiza- 
tion. He is also a member of the Union Leay-ue, 
Federal and Palma clubs, and was for two years a 
trustee of the latter. He has for a number of 
years been a member of the republican committee 
of Hudson County. 

In 1876 Mr. Potts married Miss Louise Bechtel, 
daughter of Charles Bechtel, E.sq., who was for 
many j'ears the publisher of the Stah- Gazette at 
Trenton. Three children have been born to the union. 

Asa Willi-^ms Dickinson was born at Amherst, Mass., October 24, 1S53. He prepared for 
college at Williston Seminary, East Hampton, Mass., and went to Amherst for his collegiate 
course. After leaving college he was on TJic XeiK.' York Tribune city staff, and during the ses- 
sions of Congress in 1876 and 1S77 was on the Associated Press staff at Washington. He was 
two years court reporter for Tlie Eve)ii)ig Journal, and two years legislative correspondent for 

the same paper at Trenton. During the sessions 
of 1879 and 1880 he was assistant clerk of the 
assembly. For five years he was deputy collector 
of customs for Jersey City, by appointment of 
President Arthur. He studied law with C. E. 
Schofield in Jersey City, and was admitted to the 
bar at the June term, 1880. He was appointed a 
colonel and aid to Gov. Werts in 189.5, and is a 
member of the law firm of Dickinson, Thompson 
and McMaster in Jersey City. 



0\ 



J. HERP.KRT POIT; 




Thomas McEwan, Jr., was born in Paterson, 
X. J., February 26, 1854. His father. Thomas Mc- 
Ewan, was born in Scotland, and his mother, whose 
maiden name was Hannah Ledget, was born in the 
north of Ireland. He was formerly a civil engi- 
neer, but gave up that profession for the law, 
graduating at Columbia Law School. He was a 
member of the Jersey City board of assessors in 
1886 and 18S7, and was chief supervisor of elec- 
tifiiis for New Jersey from August, 1892, until Octo- 
ber, 1893. He was a delegate to the national re- 
publican convention in 1S92, and in 1S93 was elected a member of assembly from the eighth 
Hudson district. He was secretary of the Hudsfm County republican committee for iifteen years 



I HOM.AS M K\VAN,-JR. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



ending in January, 1893, He was a delegate to and secretary of every republican county con- 
vention for fifteen years past, and has been a dele<,^^te to all the State conventions during that 
period. He was secretary and a member of the board of governors of the Union League Club 
from its organization. He is also a member of the Federal, Fremont and Palma clubs, a mason, 
and connected with numerous other social and political organizations. In November, 1894, he 
was elected to represent the seventh district of New Jersey in Congress. 

Charles Deder.\ Tho.mpso.v was born at Xewton. Su.ssex County, N. J., June 28, 1853. 
He was educated at Princeton College and the Columbia Law School. He read law in the office 
of his father, a prominent lawyer of Xewton, and was admitted to the bar in June, 1877. He 
became a counselor in June, 1S80, and practised in Susse.x County until 1886, when he moved 
to Jersey City and soon took high rank at the bar. He is a member of the firm of Dickinson, 
Thompson & McMaster. 

Jacob Weart, third son of Spencer Stout Weart and Sarah Garrison, his wife, was born at 
Hopewell, Mercer County. N. J., June 8, 1829. He was educated in the public schools, and at 
nineteen years of age became a law student in the office of John Mannen, at Clinton. N. J. He 
finished his studies with Mercer Beasley, now Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1852, and became counselor m 
1855. He has been engaged as counsel in a num- 
ber of noted cases, and his contention has made 
these cases precedents. He was the successful 
counsel in Walkins vs. Kirkpatrick, 2 Dutcher, 84, 
and Durant vs. Banta, 3 Dutcher, 624, which fixed 
the law of commercial paper in New Jersey. His 
opinion on the legality of the Hudson River Police 
act of 1866 produced the case of Pangbom vs. 
Young, 3 Vroom, 29, which established a police 
commission in Jersey City, and formed a prec- 
edent for everj- quo warranto proceeding since 
that time. He was retained by the countv of 
Hudson to defend the railroad taxation acts of 
1873. On March 21, 1867, he was commissioned 
internal revenue collector for the fifth New Jer- 
sey district. He held the office four years and 
collected about ten millions of dollars. He was 
for a number of years treasurer of the Tabernacle, 
and for two years was Counsel to the Board of 
Chosen Freeholders, and prepared and procured 
the enactment of the laws creating the county 
boards of health and vital statistics, and the board to equalize taxes. In company with 
John Cassedy he organized the Bank of Jersey City, now the Second National, and was 
a director and its counsel for many years. He was instrumental in establishing the 
Jersey City Law Library, and has been its president since its organization. He is a member of 
the American Bar Association, and for a number of years represented New Jersey in its govern- 
ing council. In 1S72, by articles published in the daily press in relation to the increase of the 
city debt, he caused the formation of the "Committee of Twenty-eight," and he was one of the 
sub-committee which prepared the charter amendments of 1873, which modified the charter 
of 1870. He took an active part in the movement to tax railroad property, which was the main 
subject of interest in Jersey City during 1873. He cau.sed the passage of an act to mark the 
grave of John Hart, at Hopewell, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. In 
1881 he took part in the public demonstration in Jersey City on the death of President Garfield, 
and was chairman of the committee that prepared the memorial volume. He has had an ex- 
tensive law practice, and has been trustee or executor in a number of large estates. He mar- 
ried Catharine J. Van Winkle, of Passaic, N. J., and has two children, Spencer Weart, who is 
now corporation attorney for Jersey City, and Ella Weart. 




JACOB WEART. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



2IS 



Allan Lancdon McDermott was bom in South Boston, Mass., on the 30th of March, 
1854. His father was Hujfh Farrer McDermott, who, to use the lanjfuajje of the memorial 
resolutions adopted by the New Yorlc Press Club on his decease, in iSqo, "in the wide scope of 
his literary- labors, as journalist, dramatist, author and poet, made a conspicuous place and 
earned endurinjj fame for himself." His mother's maiden name was Annie J. Lang-don, and 
she was of one of the oldest families in New England. In 1S70 the subject of this sketch de- 
termined to follow journalism, and, as a preliminary step, learned to set type and run a press. 
A few verses published in a Boston paper, and reprinted in the AVic York Telegram in 1S70, 
show that Mr. McDermott had a very narrow escape from a literar)- tomb. In 1S76 he entered 
the law school of the University of the Cit}' of New York, and was graduated the following 
year, delivering an essay on " The Sanction of the Law," at the commencement exercises held 
at the Academy of Music, in June, 1877. The same year he was admitted to the bar of New 
Jersey, becoming a counselor in 18S0. While he was a student in the office of the late Leon 
Abbett there was formed a friendship between preceptor and pupil which grew with the 
years, and on more than one occasion evidenced a steadfastness which is rarely found in the 
harsh lines of political association. In 1878 Mr. McDermott was defeated as a candidate for 
assembly from the fourth district of Hudson County, but was elected in 1879 and 18S0, and in 
1 88 1 was the democratic candidate for speaker of that body. From 1878 to 1 883 he was Cor- 
poration Attorney of Jersey City, resigning that 
position when appointed Judge of the Second Dis- 
trict Court by Gov. Ludlow. In 1884 Gov. Abbett 
appointed Mr. McDermott a member of the state 
board of assessors. In that position he formulated 
the rules which have ever since been followed in 
the taxation of railroad property and corporate 
franchises in New Jersey. In 1886 Gov. Abbett 
nominated him to his present position. In com- 
municating the fact to the legislature, the late ex- 
United States Senator Cattell, also a member of 
the State board, wrote : " The Hon. Allan L. Mc- 
Dermott, one of the original members of the board, 
was, during the last session of the legislature, ap- 
pointed and confirmed as Clerk in the Court of 
Chancer}-, and on the ist of April resigned as a 
member of this board to enter upon his new posi- 
tion. Much of the success of the early work of 
this board is due to the intelligent and faithful 
service of Mr. McDermott, largely supplemented 
by his legal knowledge, which was invaluable. The 
board parted with him most regretfully, and we are free to say that in our judgment it will be 
difficult to find one who will in all respects fill his place." In 1884, 1885 and 1886 Mr. McDer- 
mott was president of the board of finance and taxation of Jersey City. Upon his retirement 
from that position the Wr?'«.r said : "The withdrawal of Allan L. McDermott from the man- 
agement of our municipal finances is a public calamity. His clear head, his honesty of purpose 
and untiring enerin,- have rendered him of inestimable value to our city. He has introduced 
and enforced rigid principles of economy in our local expenditures, and has, with the aid of his 
colleagues, established an admirable financial system, which has placed our credit above ca\-il 
or suspicion." He was renominated for Clerk in Chancer^', in 1891, by Gov. Abbett. In 1892 
Mr. McDermott was, because of dissatisfaction with the existing local government, defeated in 
a canvass for the mayoralty of Jersey City. In 1894 he was nominated by Gov. Werts as a 
member of the commission appointed to revise the State constitution. In 1895 he was nomi- 
nated by the democratic legislators for United States senator. He has been chairman of the 
State democratic committee since 1886, and has drawn every platform, with one exception, 
adopted by a State democratic convention during that time. His term of office expires March 
29, i8g6. 

Frank P. McDermott was bom on the historic ground of the Battle of Monmouth, Oc- 




ALLAN LANGDON M DERMOTT. 



2l6 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 




tober 23, 1854. His prreat-grandfather, William McDermott. was enjjaged in the Revolutionary 
War, and after that decisive battle settled in Monmouth County. For the past century the 

family name has been identified with that of Mon- 
mouth. 

After receiving a common school education he 
was prepared for college at the Freehold Institute. 
Being obliged to forego a college course, he en- 
tered the law office of Acton C. Hartshorne, with 
whom, and his partner, Chilion Robins, a skilful, 
studious and ingenious advocate, he pursued his 
legal studies. In November, 1S75, shortly after 
attaining his majority, he was admitted to the bar. 
Mr. McDermott's abilities as an advocate, his ac- 
curate knowledge of the law, and his devotion to 
the profession soon won for him a place among 
the leading lawyers of Monmouth. The law and 
equity reports of New Jer.sey contain many cases 
of great importance argued by him, not a few of 
them settling important legal principles. 

Although practising at the Freehold bar the 
sphere of his legal work has not been confined to 
his native county. 

FRANK p. m'df.rmiu 1. Like so many of the able lawyers of Hudson 

County who hail from ilonmouth, Mr. McDer- 
mott sought Jersey City as a more central point and a wider field for the practice of the 
law, and in the fall of 1894 he opened offices in the Davidson building in this city. 

In March, 1879, he married Miss A. Lizzie Thompson, daughter of Dr. Joseph C. Thomp- 
son. The family consists of four children, three sons and a daughter. 

Mr. McDermott has for several years been a member of the Lawvers' Club of New York. 

James Pal.mer was born in the City of New York, February- 11, 1854. His parents re- 
moved to Jersey City in 1S59, and he has been a resident of this city ever since. He attended 
school until his sixteenth year, when he entered the office of Thomas W. James as a law student. 
He was admitted as an attorney at the February 
term, 1874, and became a counselor in 1877. He 
has practised law for twenty-five years, and has a 
lucrative practice. Several large estates have 
been managed by him in a very successful manner. 
In i88g he married Miss Elizabeth Wilson, daugh- 
ter of John Wilson, of Hamilton, CJntario. He has 
never accepted public office, having no taste fi>r 
politics. 

Edwin Mannkrs, A. M., LL. B., was born in 
Jersey City, March 6, 1855. He is a son of the 
late Hon. David S. Manners (for several terms 
mayor of Jersey City, and esteemed as one of its 
best executives) and Deborah Phillips Juhncs 

The ancestry on the paternal side in .\niLTica 
dates back to John Manners, of Yorkshire, \'.n- 
gland, who .settled in New Jersey about 1700. and 
married Rebecca Stout, granddaughter of I'enl- 
ope Van Princes .Stout, whose tragic story is well 
known. Mr. Manners' great-great-grandfather, 
John Schenck, was a captain in the Revolutionary ' ^^"^' i'ai mkr. 

War, took an active part in the principal battles of the State, and by a well-planned ambuscade 
prevented the British troops from overninning Hunterdon County. His grandfather, David 




HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



217 



Manners, was an officer in the War of 1812, and won honorable mention in several important 
engagements On the maternal side his mother is a lineal descendant of Edward Johnes and 
Anne Griggs, his wife, natives of Dinder, Somerset, England, and who sailed for America with 
John Winthrop in 16^9, landing at Charlestown, Massachusetts, in 1630. In the same direct 
line are Grace Fitz Randolph, whose brother Nathaniel gave to Princeton the land upon which 
Nassau Hall is erected, and David Johnes, who was a captain and major in the Revolution and 
rendered efficient service in establishing American independence. 

Early in life Mr Manners showed a disposition for the world of letters. He was connected 
with the Quill, a sch.iol paper of Hasbrouck Institute, edited the Mount Pleasant Rnrille, the 
organ of the Mount Pleasant cadets at Sing Sing on the Hudson, and during his senior year at 
Princeton was one of the editors of the Xassau Literary Magaziiu-. In preparatory school and 
college he won prizes for composition and speaking, select and original, and on class-day de- 
livered to the alreadv distinguished class of 1877 a characteristic presentation address. 

He was graduated Bachelor fif Arts, and the Master's degree was conferred by Princeton 
in course. Studying law with Messrs. Collins & Corbin, and at the Columbia Law School, Mr. 
Manners received the degree of LL. B. in 1879, and was duly admitted to the bar of New Jer- 
sey in 18S0. He has since practised in Jersey City, and has now an office in the Weldon 
building. 

Although interested in municipal matters and 
politics, he has declined offers of political prefer- 
ment. A large portion of his time is taken up 
with the affairs of the estate left by his father, in- 
cluding a farm at Harlingen, New Jersey, grati- 
fpng the Horatian desire instinctive in man. " I 
often wished I had a farm." 

Mr. Manners has ably assisted those endeavor- 
ing to procure for Jersey City an improved water 
supply. It is a coincidence worth mentioning that 
his father, while president of the common council, 
and also as mayor of Jersey City, was mainly in- 
strumental, in conjunction with the late Hon. John 
D. Ward, in procuring for the municipality the 
introduction of the Passaic water. This still con- 
tinues to be the source of supply, and has hitherto 
proved an excellent one : but with increased popu- 
lation, and consequent pollution from sewer and 
factory, a change is demanded. The son of Mr. 
Ward and the subject of this sketch are now 
striving for a method and supply better suited to 
the altered conditions. 

Greater Jersey City has also claimed Mr. Manners' attention, and received his favorable 
comment. Many advantages are to be gained in bringing the various municipalities of Hudson 
County under one name and government. Their unity of development in particular is much 
to be desired. With the extension of rapid transit facilities the last of apparent excuses for de- 
laying con.solidation has disappeared, and it would seem a needless expense to keep up separate 
charters in contiguous towns. Undoubtedly this and other great advances are in store for the 
city's betterment. 

As a landlord Mr. Manners is liked by his tenants, and their praise is in evidence of his 
Hberality and forbearance. He is unmarried, resides with his three sisters at 287 Barrow 
Street, and is a member of the Hudson Democratic Society, the Board of Trade, the Palma 
Club, the Princeton Club and the Sons of the American Revolution. 




EDWIN MANNERS. 



John W. Heck was bom at Trenton, N. J., July 17, 1855. In 1859 his parents removed to 
Jersey City, where his father took charge of the oil works of I. & C. Moore, at the foot of Mor- 
ris Street. His father died in 1S65. On April i, 1867, he entered the office of the late S. B. 
Ransom, and later began the study of law there. On September 28, 1874, he entered the office 



2l8 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



of L. & A. Zabriskie as clerk and student. He was admitted at the November term, 1876. 

When the firm was dissolved he remained with Lansintj Zabriskie, the senior member. In 1884 

Mr. Zabriskie retired from practice and left 
his business in the hands of Mr. Heck as 
his attorney. Mr. Zabriskie was the execu- 
tor of several lartje estates, and Mr. Heck's 
practice has been incident to the manage- 
ment of estates. In 1SS4 he was elected a 
member of assembly from the sixth Hud- 
son district. During his term he intro- 
duced the citizens' charter, which was de- 
feated by his republican colleajjues from 
Jersey City. He also introduced and 
passed the firemen's tenure of office act, 
by which the fire department was removed 
from politics. He introduced a bill provid- 
ing for a bridjje over the "Gap "on Wash- 
ington Street, but the influences against it 
were too powerful. He was renominated 
in 1885, but was defeated by Robert S. 
Hudspeth. In 1SS7 a committee of the 
Hudson County Bar Association was ap- 
pointed to prepare a bill to provide proper 
indices in the office of the register of deeds. 
Mr. Heck was a member of that commit- 
tee, and in connection with Spencer Weart 
secured the passage of a law providing for 
the " Block System." The work under the 
act was performed by a commission ap- 
pointed by Judge Knapp, and Mr. Heck 

was appointed its clerk. Their labors were completed in fourteen months, and Hudson 

County now has the best set of indices to its land record that there are in the State. 

He was married in October, 1884, to Miss Lillian Benson, of Haver.straw, New York, 

and two children have been bom to them. He is 

a member of Amity Lodge, F. and A. M., of this 

city. In 1884 he was elected president of the Jer- 
sey City Athletic Club, but only served a short 

term. He was one of the charter members of 

that popular club, and held official positions in it 

for the first six years of its existence. He is a 

member of the Union League Club, also of several 

fraternal insurance orders, a director of the Xorth- 

ern R. R. Co. of N. J., and attorney for the latter 

company. He is a trustee and .secretary and treas- 
urer of The Bay View Cemetery Association. 

Mervy.n Armstrong; was bom in Jersey City in 
1858. He studied law with the late Capt. Albert 
1. Cloke, and was admitted to the bar at tlic No- 
vember term, 1879. A week after admission he 
went to Europe, where, through the influence of 
Judah P. Benjamin, Secretary of War of tlie Con- 
federacy, he was afforded unusual facilities at the 
inns of court and the great libraries and lectures. 
He was made a counselor in Februarv, 1.S92. He 
Regiment, National Guard, N.J. 




JOHN W. HF.LK. 



^««*. 




f 




^ A 





MKRVVN .^RMSI RONC. 

Company C, Fourth 



first-lieutenant of 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



219 




EZRA K. SEGUINE. 



Ezra K. Seguine was born at Delaware Water Gap, Pa., November 18. 185S. He comes of 
a Huguenot family that settled Sei,mine's Point, Staten Island, on their arrival from 
France. He was educated in the local school, and 
entered mercantile life in New York at an early 
age. Subsequently he read law in the office of 
Charles E. Scufield in Jersey City, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar at the November term in 1879. 
After the death of Mr. Scofield in 1X78 Mr. Se- 
guine closed out his extensive bankruptcy practice. 
In addition to an extensive law practice, he is in- 
terested in iron and coal properties in East Ten- 
nessee. In 1884 he was married to Emma, 
daughter of John Small, who for many years was 
prominently connected with the management of 
the Morris Canal. 

Judge Henry Puster is a fine example of the 
German-American citizen, one of that large class 
whose industry, economy, intelligence and sturdy 
integ^ty have done so much toward the develop- 
ment of our country, and whose solid qualities and 
valuable ser\'ices in all departments of private 
and public life have been recognized in every por- 
tion of the republic. 

He is a native of Jersey City, N. J., where he was born, March 10, 1858, and where he has 
always resided. His father, Valentine Puster, a native of Bavaria, came to America about the 
year 1850 and located in Jersey City, where his son enjoj-ed the advantages of the public as 
well as the German private schools. 

While but a youth he made choice of the j e weir j- business as his life work, but after a short 
apprenticeship he became convinced that his tastes, abilities and natural aptitudes pointed to a 
very different sphere of action. Hence, with more mature judgment revising his former de- 
cision, he resolved to make the law his profession. In the light of subsequent events no one 

can doubt that this was a most fortunate change. 
Mr. Puster now entered the law office of Hon. 
William D. Daly, since State senator. For four 
years following he received kindly ad\-ice and in- 
struction from Mr. Daly, also from his partner (at 
that time), Mr. Wyncoop, who took a lively and 
warm interest in him, seeing his aptitude and in- 
dustrious endeavors, and coached him through all 
the intricacies confronting the law student. Mr. 
Puster also found a warm friend in the late Hon. 
Bennington F. Randolph, judge of the Jersey City 
district court, who did much for him while pursu- 
ing the rugged course of the law student, and now 
has the extreme pleasure of succeeding his said 
benefactor and friend on the district court bench. 
At the close of this period Mr. Puster took his 
examination, in company with a number of fellow- 
students from the same building (Flemming build- 
ing), and to-day is the only living and successful 
lawyer of all those who took the journey to Tren- 
[^^;,;^y ii.>ihk t"" with him bent on attaining the same goal. 

After becoming regularly admitted to the bar of 
New Jersey he at once entered upon the practice of his profession in his native city, where his 
courtesy, ability, his knowledge of the law, his tireless activity, with prompt and thorough at- 




220 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

tendon to business, rapidly added to his circle of friends and steadily built up for him an ex- 
tensive and valuable practice. 

He is a man of kind and "generous impulses, as is evidenced by the fact that he is known 
as a friend of the poorer classes, who often receive the benefit of his \Qgal services and advice 
with little remuneration or quite i^ratuitously. 

So bright and enery^etic a man could scarcely fail to become a leader in politics. He comes 
of democratic stock and has always been true to the democratic standard, and hence enjoys the 
fullest confidence of his party. 

As early as 1881, when but twenty-three years of age, he was elected alderman of his dis- 
trict (the sixth), which position he held for two years, and labored assiduously for his district 
with good effect. In iSgo he was chosen assemblyman for the same district by a large majority 
over his opponent. The duties of this office he discharged with ability till the late Hon. Leon 
Abbett, having discovered his fitness for the honors and responsibilities of the bench, in April, 
1891, appointed him to succeed William P. Dougla.ss as Judge of the First District Court of 
Jersey City. As a judge he fully meets the high expectation of his friends, presiding with 
marked dignity, ability, justice and decision. 

Judge Pusteris a member of Grant Lodge, Xo. 89, K. of P.; of Unique Council, R. A.; of 
the Order of Good Fellows; Past Grand of Lincoln Lodge, No. 126, I. O. O. F., and president 
of the Home for Aged and Indigent Odd Fellows of Xew Jersey. He has also served as repre- 
sentative to the Grand Lodge of Odd Fellows of Xew Jersey. He is one of the managers of 
the Aged German Home, known as the Raymond Roth Altenheim, under the management of 
the German Pioneer Verein, as well as counsel for the same institution. He is also counsel for 
five building and loan associations. 

On the 23d day of January, 1S83, Judge Puster was married to Miss Julia A. Wenner, 
daughter of John C. Wenner, for many years past a leading business man and manufacturer of 
Jersey Cit}', and is now blessed with three pretty daughters, in whom he has a great and 
fatherly pride. 

Recently Judge Puster has become associated in partnership with Hon. Robert S. Hud- 
speth, presiding judge of the Hudson County Court of Common Pleas, and has a suit of finely 
appointed offices in the Davidson building, Jersey City. 

Mr. Puster is still quite young, having scarcely reached the prime of life, and has every 
prospect of a brilliant future before him. 

WiLLi.\M H. Carey was bom in South Warren, Pa., June 21, i860. He received his educa- 
tion in the public schools of his native place. In 1S79 he entered the State Normal School at 
Oswego, N. Y., where he remained one year. In 1882 he entered Lafayette College at Easton, 
Pa., and was graduated from that institution in 18S6. After traveling for one year in the in- 
terest of a large manufacturing ct)ncem located at Utica, N. Y., in 1887 he became connected 
with the Hasbrouck Institute of Jersey City as a teacher, and continued in that pcjsition until 
1891. Just after Mr. Carey had graduated from the Lafayette College he began reading law, 
and during his connection with the Hasbrouck Institute he devoted his leisure time to his legal 
studies under the preceptorship of Elijah S. Cowles, Esq. In 1891 he was admitted to the bar, 
and, after serving one year in tlie capacity of managing clerk in Mr. Cowles' office, a partner- 
ship arrangement was made between that gentleman and Mr. Carey which has existed ever 
since. At the time Mr. Carey graduated from college he was the recipient of one of the 
highest honors of the class, having received three out ot the four prizes offered. He is a mem- 
ber of the Phi Delta Theta fnitcrnity, and is also prominently connected with the Methodist 
church. 

In 1887 Mr. Carey married Mi^s Z.ie W. Hopson, of Oswego, X. Y. One child, a daughter, 
has been bom to the union. 

WiLLi.\M B. GiLMOKF. Was born at West Point. .Vovember 14, 1S56. He received his rudi- 
mentary- education in a private sclionl at Sing Sing, .\. Y.. after which he entered Rutgers Col- 
lege, and was graduated from that institution in 1S76. Mr. Gilmore is the son of Gen. Q. A. 
Gilmore, a distinguished army otlicer, and a hero of the late civil war. 

After Mr. Gibmre had completed hts college course at Rutgers he decided to adopt the 
legal profession. He began reading law in tlie olfiecof Attorney-General Gilchrist, with whom 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 




he remained until 1879. In that year he was admitted to the bar, and immediately thereafter 
he formed a partnership with his brother, Edward D. Gilmore, Esq., which was continued until 
1884, when he decided to practise alone, and which 
he has done ever since that time. 

Mr. Gilmore is a member of the Palma and 
Catholic clubs, and is very popular in social walks 
of life. In politics he is a democrat of unbiased 
opinions. 

In 1892 Mr. Gilmore married Miss Aimee Girar- 
din, and resides in a pleasant home at Xo. 4 
Idaho Avenue. 

Thomas F. Noon.an, Jr., was born in Hudson 
City, December 9, 1859. He received his edu- 
cation m the public and parochial schools, and was 
recalled from college by reason of financial re- 
verses sustained by his father. He obtained em- 
ployment in the Hudson County rejjister's office, 
and attended Cooper Institute in New York at 
night. He became a student in the law office of 
M. T. Newbold. In 1SS3 he was elected reading 
clerk of the assembly and re-elected in 18S4. For 
several years after that he was chosen as reading 
secretar>' at the State democratic conventions. In 
1886 and 1887 he was a member of assembly from the eighth Hudson Countv district. 
He took an active part in securing the passage of the Martin act. and introduced the 
bill which forced the D. L. S- \V. Railroad Company to pay taxes. In 1S89 and 1S90 he wa> 
clerk of the house, and in the latter year was appointed Judge of the Bayonne District Court. 
He completed his law studies in the office of Job H. Lippincott, now of the Supreme Ccjurt, 
and was admitted as counselor in 1892. He was married on June 25, 1891, to Miss Hannali 
Paterson Kelly, of Bordentown, N. J. He has achieved a reputation all over the Slate as a 
political speaker on. the democratic side of politics. 

William C. Gebhardt was bom at Croton, Hun- 
terdon County, N. J., March 28, 1859. He was 
educated in the Clinton Institute, and studied law 
with T. J. Hoffman at Clinton. He was admitted 
at the June term, 1S87. He began to practise his 
profession at Clinton and still retains an otiicc 
there, and is Corporation Counsel for Clinton, and 
pre.sident of its board of education. He has iiail 
an office in Jersey City for a number of years, i le 
married a daughter of the late Philip G. Reading, 
a prominent citizen of Frenchtown, X. J. 

John Steve.nson Mc Master was born at I'oco- 
moke City, Worcester County, Maryland. Decem- 
ber 29, 1859. He was educated at Pncomoke Citv 
High School, Delaware College and Lafavette 
College, where he graduated in 1S.S3 as I,.iti;i 
salutatorian. He studied law W'th Vice-Cli.iiKcl- 
lor Pitney at Morristown, and later in the L'ni-.i r- 
sity of Virginia. He was admitted as attorney in 
WILLIAM c. GEHHARUT. 1 888, and three years later as CDUU.seli ir. Hei)r.u- 

tised law with Mahlon Pitney at I>(.ver until i >>,,, 

when he removed to Jersey City, and in 1892 he became a member of the firm nl I»Kkiiis..ii. 

Thompson & McMaster. He was private secretary to President Werts in the senate in i>^'). 




HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 





1 






7 


r- 


^ 



private secretary' to Speaker Heppenheiiner in the assembly of iSgo, and secretary' to President 
Adrain, in the senate, during 1891 and xSgs. He ser\-ed as Gov. Werts' secretarj- during the 

term of the governor. 

William D. D.alv was bom in Jersey 
City in 185 1, and has been a resident of 
Hudson County all his life. He received 
his earlier education in Public School No. 
I, under Principal Lindsley. At the age 
of fourteen he entered the iron foundry 
of Uzal Cory, at the foot of Greene Street, 
Jersey City, as an apprentice. He con- 
tinued at his trade, working at the Erie 
foundry and at Blackmore's foundry on 
Railroad Avenue. In 1870, while in the 
Erie foundry the gTeat strike occurred. 
and he went out with the other moulders. 
He then entered the law office of S. B. 
Ransom and Judge Blair in Jersey City as 
a student in May, 1871. In 1874 he was 
admitted to the bar, and in due time be- 
came a counselor. He has been a con- 
spicuous member of the bar ever since, 
having been engaged in a number of nota- 
ble cases. He was Assistant United States 
District Attorney for the District of Xew 
Jersey under the first Cleveland adminis- 
tration. He was an alternate delegate to 
the national democratic convention at St. 
Louis in 18SS, and was elected a member 
of assembly from the eighth Hudson dis- 
trict in 1891, and was his party leader on the fioor. He was appointed Judge of the Hoboken 
District Court in 1S91, and served until he resigned in 1893 to become the senator from Hud- 
son, to which position he was elected at the fall election of 189:: by a plurality of 5,645. Senator 
Daly is a forcible public speaker, and very popu- 
lar with his party in Hudson County. 

Arthur B. Archib.^ld was bom in Jersey City, 
July 16, 1870. He was educated in the public 
schools. After completing his studies he attended 
the New York Law School, from which he was 
graduated in 1892. He began the study of law 
in the office of Judge Henr>- Puster, and later with 
William M. Dougherty. He was admitted to the 
bar as an attorney June 9, 1892. He is a member 
of the Empire Bowling Club and several other 
organizations of Jersey City. 

WiLLl.\M Mark Dolgherty was born in Jersey 
City in 1859. His early education was obtained 
at private schools and at St. Mary's Institute in 
that city. He afterwards attended the De La .Salle 
Institute in New York City, being graduated 
therefrom in 1874, at the early age of fifteen years, 
with the highest honors in his class. Not being 
desirous of further pursuing classical studies. 
but wishing to acquire further knowledge in .scientific branches, he entered the Stevens 
Institute of Technology at Hoboken, N. J., took the full course in science, and was grad- 



eiLLIAM D. DALY. 




AK 1 HIK 11. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



"3 




WILLIAM MARK 



uated therefrom in 1878 with the degree of Bachelor of Science. Immediately thereafter 
he attended the Law School of Columbia Colleg-e, New York City, then in charge of the cele- 
brated Prof. Theodore \V. IJwijjht, and upon grad- 
uation therefrom in 1S80 had conferred upon him 
the degree of Bachelor of Law.-;, and entered the 
bar of the State of New York as attorney and 
counselor during the same year. 

Mr. Dougherty has many interesting and valua- 
ble tokens received by him as evidences and re- 
wards of his intelligent and industrious pursuit of 
knowledge during the period of his student life, 
including a diploma of the special degree of Bach- 
elor of Science fiiin laiidc received by .him from 
Columbia College Law School in 1S80, that being 
the first year when such diplomas were granted, 
and when they were awarded to but thirteen of 
the 225 graduates of that year. 

Mr. Dougherty entered the bar of New Jersey as 
an attorney in June, 18S1, and as counselor in June, 
1884, and has since practised the profession of law 
at Jersey City. His scientific attainments render 
him of special value in cases involving engineer- 
ing, architectural, toxicological and other scientific 
questions, and he has therefore had a large experi- 
ence in mechanics' lien law, while his earlier studies, by enlarging his vocabulary and cultivat- 
ing his memor)', have enabled him to especially distinguish himself as an advocate and public 
speaker. Among the cases of general and public interest in which he has appeared as counsel 
may be mentioned the Trainor murder case in Hudson County Oyer and Terminer, in which he 
was appointed by the late Justice Knapp, had only three days to prepare his defense, and saved 
his client's life ; also the trial of Joseph Schlemmer for the murder of his wife, in which he ob- 
tained a reversal of the death sentence on error to the Supreme Court of this State, and thereby, 
against many adverse circumstances, prevented the hanging of the prisoner. He was also the 
counsel in the contest for.senator for Hudson County in i8go, between William S. Stuhr, contest- 
ant, and Edward F. McDonald, incumbent, in which 
case over 42,000 ballots were counted and nearly 
1,000 witnesses examined, and during which the much- 
talked-of ballot-box frauds were exposed. As a result 
of this case Mr. Stuhr, the contestant, his client, was 
seated by the senate, and the exposure of the frauds 
caused the enactment of our present election law.s. 
Previous to this contest people talked and editors 
wrote about fraud at the ballot-box and in elections, 
but it remained for Mr. Dougherty and his client to 
demonstrate it. This he did conclusively, and for 
this we believe the people of the State, as well as of 
his county, owe him a debt of gratitude. He l-.as 
neither held nor sought public office, preferring tlie 
practice of his profession, and the honors incident. il 
to succe.ss therein. 

De Witt Van Buskirk was born at Hayininc. N 1 . 
April 22, 1858. His father, Nicholas C. Van liuskirk, 
is a son of the late James C. Van Buskirk, wln'se farm 
extended from New York Bay to Newark H.iy, ami 
now forms that part of Bayonne from 35th to 41st streets. Mr. Van Buskirk's nmtlur w.is 
Elizabeth Vreeland, daughter of the late Captain Peter Vreeland, and a granddauglitir ot 




I)K WI IT VA.S BUSKIRK. 



224 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



Steven Vreeland, of Caven Point, ilr. Van Buskirk was educated in the public schools of 
Bayonne, and was graduated from the Hij^-h School of Jersev Citv in 1877. He entered the 
law offices of Messrs. Cortlandt and Wayne Parker, of Newark, X. J., and continued with that 
firm until 1SS5. He was admitted to the bar of New Jersey as an attorney m 1S81. He con- 
tinued in the office of Messrs. Parker in the capacitv of manajjinj^ clerk until he was admitted 
to practice as a counselor-at-law in 1884. He then opened an office for the practice of law at 
Bayonne City. While studyins,' law with Messrs. C. and W. Parker Mr. \'an Buskirk attended 
Columbia Law School of New York City, and was graduated from that instittjtion in 1880. 

In 1885 Mr. Van Buskirk organized a movement for the formation of a bank at Bayonne. 
After interesting a number of the leading citizens of that city, including the late James W. 
Trask, Hiram Van Buskirk and Solim Humphreys, his efforts resulted in the incorporation of 
the Mechanics' Trust Company, of which he is a director. 

Mr. Van Buskirk was one of the original subscribers to the stock of the New Jersey Title 
Guarantee and Trust Company of Jersey City. He has been one of the directors of that institu- 
tion since its incorporation. 

Charles Wolcott P.\rker was bom at Newark, N. J., October 22, 1862. His ancestors 

have long been prominent in the history of the State of New Jersev. His father, Cortlandt 

Parker, Esq., so long a member of the New Jer- 
sey bar, is a son of the late James Parker, who 
was one of the Board of Proprietors of New Jersey, 
and also a member of Congress, both ha\'ing been 
bom in Perth Amboy, N. J., the latter having been 
deceased since 1868. The mother of the subject 
of this sketch is also a descendant of an old and 
honorable Southern family, her father being the 
late Richard W. Stites, formerly of Savannah, Ga., 
but later of Morristown, N. J., where he resided 
at the time of his death. 

Mr. Parker received his rudimentary education 
at the Pingry School in Elizabeth, N. J. He 
afterwards took an academic course at Phillips 
Academy at Exeter, N. H., and in 1879 he entered 
Princeton College, graduating therefrom in 1882. 
After an apprenticeship of a year in his father's 
office he entered Columbia Law School in New 
York City, graduating in 1885, and in June of the 
same year he was admitted to the bar of New Jer- 
.sey, and has practised his profession continuously 
since that time. In 1S90 Mr. Parker entered into 

a partnership with Mr. De Witt Van Buskirk, of Bayonne, N. J. The firm retain offices in 

that city in connection with their Jersey City office. 

On November 22, 1893, Mr. Parker was married to Miss Emily Fuller, of Boonton, N. J. 

They reside at Bergen Point, N. J. 

Joseph D. Bedle, Jr., son of e.x-( "lov. Picdle. was born at Freehold, Monmouth County, N. J., 
February- 18, 1864. Mr. Bedle receiveii liis earlv education at Hasbrouek In.stitute, and v.-as 
graduated therefrom in 1881. after which he rntered Princeton College, graduating in 1885. He 
then entered the Law School department ot (.'olumliia College, New York City, and in 1888 he 
was admitted to the bar of New Jer.'-ey as an .ittoniey. and as a counselor in 1S91. Before his 
admission to the bar Mr. Bedle studied law in tlie (^ffices of Messrs. Bedle, Muirheid & McGee. 
In 1888 he was admitted as a partner to that tirm. under the title of Bedle, Muirheid, McGee & 
Bedle, Jr. After the decease of .Mr. Muirlieid tlie tirm name was changed to Bedle, McGee & 
Bedle. 

He is now a member of the governor's staff with the rank of colonel. He is also a member 
of the Palma and Carteret clubs, and lias been one of thetmstees of the former for two years. 
He is one of the board of governors of the Hudson Democratic Society, and a member of the 




CHARLES won 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



"S 




J 



\ 



--i-A^ 



JARVIS NORRIS AlKIN'Snx. 



Princeton and Reform clubs, of New Ycjrk City. He was chairman of the Hudson- Coimtv 
delegation to the State ccjnvention that nominated (inv. Werts. In iSSSMr. Bedle married Miss 
Fanny D. Eijc, a dauL;htcr of Horatio N. Eljc, 
of Jersey City. 

Jarvis Xorri> Atkinsos was born in 1S67. He 
graduated at Penninj^ton Seminary, and entered 
Princeton Collefje, where he remained for a time, 
but pursued his studies at the Xew York Univer- 
sity, where he received his B. A. de-jree in 1S89. 
He received the decree of Bachelor of Laws from 
the University Law School in iSgr, and the same 
year was admitted to the bar, both in New Jersey 
and Xew York. He married Miss Mary Francis, 
daughter of the late James C. Cloyd, of Glenhead, 
Long Island, and they have one child, Thalia. 
Mr. Atkinson located in Jersey City, and his 
brother, John W., is associated with him in a good 
legal practice. 

Warren Di.xon was born July 2, 1S65, at Xew 

Brunswick, X. J. He is the son of Judge Jonathan 

Dixon, of the Xew Jersey Supreme Court. He 

received his rudimentar}.- education in the public 

schools, after which he entered Rutgers College, 

and was graduated fn>m that institution. After completing his college course he began 

reading law in the office of Messrs. Collins & Corbin, of Jersey City. In 1SS9 he was admitted 

to the bar, and for about two years practised alone. In 1891 the present copartnership of 

McGrath & Dixon was formed. 

Mr. Dixon is a member of the Hudson County Democratic Club, and is vice-president of 

the Third District Democratic Club. 

Tho.mas Francis Bedlk, the third son of ex-Gov. Bedle was born at Freehold, Monmouth 

County, X''. J., August i. 1S65, He received his early education at Hasbrouck Institute. After 

leaving that institution he entered the Lawrence- 
ville {X. J.) Institute, popularly known as the 
" Hamill School." He was graduated from iliere 
in 1883, after which he entered Princeton Ci>lle;.;c, 
and was graduated tlierefrom in 1.SS7 as a civil 
engineer. He afterwards decided to study law. 
In 1 89 1 he was admitted to the bar as an attor- 
ney, and is now a member of the firm of wliicli his 
father was the head. He is quartermastur of tlie 
First Brigade, Xational Guard of Xew Jersey, and 
has the rank of major. He is also a member oi 
the Palma and Carteret clubs, the Hudson County 
Democratic Society and the Princeton Club ot 
Xew York City. 

\Vii,[.n\T M. KiiNK was born in Indiana, in I>c- 
cember, 1.S6.S He removed to Jersey Citv w!u n 
five years of age. He .studied law witli K.iniloli.h. 
Condict iS: Black, and was admitted to the l..ir in 
February, 1S92. He is a memiier ot t'no P.ihn.i. 
C(^smosaIld Union League chilis, lie i-. .1 num- 
ber of tlic law firm of \'an Winkle .V Kliiik In 
the Letts embezzlement case Mr. Kliiik w.i- |'i;i> 
bencli for skill and abilitv shown in a case whicli w.i- tried tliri e 






^.. ^'^^i 



X' 



\ 






X 



L. . 



VWI.I.IAM \l. KI.INK 



licly complimented from th 

times and occupied the attention of th 



court for a large portion of the summer < 



( f 



226 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 




MARSHALL VAN" WINKLE. 



Ma-rshall Van Winkle was born in Jersey City, September 28, 1869. He studied law with 
Vredenburgh & Garretson in Jersey City, was admitted to the bar in Xovember, 1890, and 

became counselor Febniar}- 2-;, 1S94. He began 
practice as a member uf the firm of Bedle & Van 
Winkle and is now a member of the firm of Van 
Winkle & Klink. He is secretary of the Hudson 
County Bar Association, a member of the Holland 
Society of New York, the Palma Club and other 
organizations. 

WiLLARi) C. FisK was bom in New York City, 
March 26, 1S56. He is a son of Lyman and Jane 
Fisk, both of whom are natives of Massachusetts, 
but who removed to Jersey City in 1869. where the 
subject of this sketch obt,^ined an academic edu- 
cation at Hasbrouck Institute. In 1872 he entered 
the University of the City of New York, and was 
graduated therefrom m 1S76. After completing 
his college course he decided to adopt the legal 
profession, and graduated from the Colum^bia Law 
School, and from 1876 to 1S78 he studied law 
under ex-Gov. Abbett, and at the June term of the 
latter year he was admitted to the bar as an at- 
torney, and in 1880 as counselor. He is now a 
member of the firm of Parmly, Olendorf & Fisk. 
Mr. Fisk is a member of the Palma Club, the Hudson County Democratic Committee and 
Society. He seri'ed as private secretary to Guv. Abbett during his first term as governor, and 
since 1890 has been a member of the State riparian commission, being appointed to fill the 
vacancy caused by the death of Judge Randolph. 

Robert Carey was bom in Greenville on September 16, 1872. His father, Thomas 
Carey, was a member of the New York and New Jersey bar and a member of the New 
Jersey legislature. Robert studied in Public School Xo. 20, the Jersey City High School, 
class of '88, and received the degree of LL. B. at the New York Law School in 1893. 
He read law in the office of Judges Hudspeth and 
Puster, and was admitted to the bar at the Novem- 
ber term, 1893. Prior to his admission he was 
connected with several newspapers as a local writer. 

H. W. WiNFiELD was bom in Jersey City, New 
Jersey, January 4, 1857. 

Mr. Winfield received a careful education at 
Hasbrouck Institute and Rutgers College. He 
was graduated from the latter institution in 1S76, 
after which he began reading law with Gilchrist. 
McGill & Gilmore. and subsequently studied with 
Mr. McGill, the present chancellor. In 1878 he 
entered Columbia College Law School, in New 
York City, taking the degree of Bachelor of Laws 
in June of 1879. In the same month he was admit- 
ted to the New Jersey bar, and was made coun- 
selor in June of 1882. In 1879 he entered into a 
copartnership with his father, which was con- 
tinued until 1883, at which time the elder Win- 
field entered upon the duties of the district attor- 
ney's office. 

On June 6, 18S7, Mr. Winfield was appointed Counsel to the Hudson County Board of 
Health and Vital Statistics, succeeding Juilge Julm Mc(irath, Judge McGrath's predecessor 




HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



having been the Hon, William McAdoo, now Assistant Secretary of the United States Xavy. 
The followinjT list contains the names of all the members of the legal profession who have 
been members of the Hudson County bar : 



Attornevs and 
Abbett, Leon, June '65, '65. 
Abbett, Leon, Jr., Feb. 'Sq, '92. 
Abbett, William F., June '85, '89. 
Allen, Halscy W., Xov. 'Si. 
Allen, Horace L., Xov. '91. 
Anderson, Joseph, June '89, 'gj. 
Annin, Joseph, Xov. '43, Jan. '46. 
Archibold, Arthur B.. June '9::. 
Armstrong, Merwyn, Jr., Xov. '79. 
Atkinson, Jarvis X., June '93. 
Babbit, Robert O., Feb. '73, Xov. '78. 
Bacot, John V., Feb. '81, '84. 
Baker, William S.,June '82, '05. 
Banghart, Johnson D., June '62. 
Barricklo, William R., Xov. '81, June '85. 
Balliet, Albert H., Feb. '83. 
Barron, G. H., Feb. '81. 
Bentley, Peter, May '34, Sep. '39. 
Bentley, Peter, Jr., June '68, '71. 
Bedle, Joseph D., June '53, '56. 
Bedle, Jo.seph D., Jr., June '88, Xov. '91. 
Bedle, Thomas F., Xov. 90. 
Beekman, H. M. T., Jime '80, Feb. '89. 
Bell, Frank, Xov. '77, Feb. '89. 
Bell, William H., Xov. '77. 
Benny, Allan, Feb. '89. 
Besson, John C, Feb. '63, '66. 
Besson, Samuel A,, June '79, '82. 
Bissel, John W., June '73, '80. 
Black, Charles C, June '8i. 
Blair, John A., June '69, '72. 
Botzong, Phillip F., June '93. 
Bowen, James R., June '86. 
Bowen, Matthew, June '93. 
Boyd, Adonijah S., April '47. 
Braden, James X'., June '76. 
Breen, Maurice J., Feb. '91. 
Brennan, James, Feb. '85. 
Bretzfield, Morris, Feb. '65, '68. 
Bretzfield, Henry, Jiine '74. 
Brinkerhoff, William, Xov. '65, Feb. '69. 
Brown, Archibald K., June '56, Feb. '68. 
Brown, Francis M., Xov. '75. 
Brown, George R., Jmie '75. 
Bruns Werner, Xov. '90. 
Bumsted, William G., June '79. 
Bunting, A. B., Xov. '67, June '71. 
Bush, Lewis C, June '54. 
Byrnes, Daniel P., Feb. '92. 
Cassedy, Samuel, May '16, Sep. 'i:^. 
Cassedy, George W., June '45, '92. 



Counselors. 

Cassedy, William S., Sept. '40. 
Cannon, Charles K., Xov. '70, '73. 
Carey, Samuel W., June '53, '56. 
Carey, Robert, Xov. '93. 
Carey, Thomas, June '67. 
Carey, William H., Nov. '91. 
Carmody, Michael H., X'ov. '79. 
Carrick, Charles L., Xov. '83, '86. 
Chapman, James, Feb. '71. 
Chapman James M., April '46, July '49. 
Christie, Cornelius, Feb. '60, '6^. 
Christie, James J., June '70, Xov. '73. 
Cloke, Albert S., Feb. '62, '66. 
Clark, Frank L., Nov. '77, '81. 
Clayton, Henry G., Nov. '65, '68. 
Cleveland, M. C, June '82. 
Collins, Gilbert, Feb. '69, '72. 
Conant, Duane, Nov. '75. 
Condict, Henry V., Nov. '77, 81. 
Corbin, Charles L., Nov. '71. Feb. '75. 
Corbin, William H., Nov, '74. '77. 
Cowles, Elijah S., Feb. '68, ■71, 
Cox, Edward B,, June '76. 
Cranstown, William, Jr., Feb. '75. 
Craven, M., Feb. '82. 
Crouse, Otto, June '36, '89. 
Culver, James M., June '76. 
Curley, Mark, Nov. '77. 
Cudlipp,- William C, June '84, '88. 
Currie, Mungo, Jr., Nov. '82. 
Darling, R. S., June '72. 
Da>-ton, Alfred B., June '69. 
Daly, William D., June '74. 
Davis, Frank, Feb. '75. 
Davis, William H., Nov. '75, June 'So. 
Davis, George R., Nov. '82. 
Davis, William J., June '84. 
Deacon, Edward D., Feb. '67, Xnv. '7S. 
De Hart, John S., June '64, '67. 
De Mott, Edward P., Xov. '74. 
Dennin, John A., June '86. 
Dixon, Jonathan, Jr., Xov. 62, '65. 
Dixon, Warren, June '89, '92. 
Dickinson, Asa W., June 'So. 
Dougherty, William M., June 'Si, '^4. 
Douglass, William P., Feb. '67, 70. 
Drayton, Albert I., Nov. '91. 
Drew, Clarence A., Feb. '79 
Eaton, Charles P., Xov. 'gi. 
Eberhard, Frederic W., June ':<). 
Edwords, Guy J., Feb. '87, '90. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



Edwards, 'Winiam D., June '7S. 
Elmer, Luther S., Feb. '44. 
Englebrecht, Anthony, June '8;, '85. 
Ervvin. James S., Feb. 'Si. 
Ewald, Henry, June '84, '92. 
Eyears, Isaac John. June '92. 
Fagan, Michael I., Xov. '90. 
Fielder, James F., June '88, '92. 
Fisher, Benjamin \'. D.. Feb. '85. 
Fisk, Willard C, June '78. 
Flaacke, George \V., Feb. '75. 
Flemming, James, Feb. '15, June '58. 
Flamming, Robert R., June '94. 
Foulke, William U., Feb. '74. 
Frambach, Frederic, Jr., Xov. '80. 
Fuller, Charles W., Xov. '79. 
Furey, James J., Xov. '76, 
Gaede, H. A., Xov. '78. 
Garretson, Abram O., Xov. '65, '68. 
Garrick, John, June '62, Feb. '69. 
Getty, James A., June '85. 
Gilbert, Wm. S., Jr., June '79, X'ov. '72. 
Gilchrist, James, Xov. '55. 
Gilchrist, Robert, April '47, '50. 
■ Gillmore, E. D., Xov. '75, '7S. 
Gillmore, William B., X'ov. '79, '82. 
Glaubrecht, George. Feb. '74. 
Gould, David, June '52. 
Goldenhom, Isaac F., June '94. 
Gordon, James A., June '85, '88. 
Grece, William, Feb. '76. 
Green, Andrew S., June '84. 
Gregory', Da\-id H., Jnne '67. 
Griffin, John, Jr., June '81. 
Gulick, Har\-ey, Xov. '72. 

Haines, Samuel D., Feb. '64. 

Hardenbergh, J. R., June '56, Feb. '60. 

Hardenbergh, L. D., May '25, Xov. '28. 

Hartshorn, Charles H., Xov. '72, '75. 

Han,'ey, C. B., Xov. '73, Feb. '77. 

Harvey, AVinfield S., Feb. '85. 

Heck, John W., Xov. '76. 

Henry, Selden T. S., Xov. '77. 

Heppenheimer, Wm. C, June '86, '89. 

Herbert, John W., Jr., June '76, '79. 

Hoffman, WilHam T., Feb. '62, Nov. '72. 

Holmes, George, Feb. '8 1 

Holt, Frank L., June '92. 

Howard, Rensselaer C, Xov. 77. 

Hudspeth, Rt)bert S., Feb. '81. 

Hughes. Charles B.. Feb. '89. 

Hugo, William E.,June '79. 

Insley, Earle, June 'S2. 

Inwright, John C. Xov. '8^, '86. 

Isbills, James H., Feb. '91. 

Jackson, Abram S., Xov. '56, '59. 



James, Thomas W.. Sep. 39, Nov. '59. 
Jelliff, William H., June '53. 
Joline, Ferdinand S., June '70, Xov. '73. 
Keller, John L., June, 'S6, '89. 
Kelley, Charles C, June '94. 
Kellyi Thomas H., Feb. 'Si. 
Kennedy, Thomas J., June '74, '77. 
Kip, Walter, June '78. 
Klink, William M., Feb. '92. 
Knapp, Joseph M., June '83. 
Landregan, John A., Xov. '71, Feb. '75. 
Lawrence, Robt. L.. Xov. '76, June '85. 
Lawrence, William A., Xov. '58, '62. 
Leicht, W. K., Feb. '75, '78. 
Leonard, Clement De R., June '73, '76. 
Lewis, William A., X'ov. '62, '67. 
Lewis, William Henry, June '76, '79. 
Linn, Clarence, June 'S3, '86. 
Linn, John, Xov. '44, Oct. '4S. 
Lippincott, Job H., Feb. '67, June 'So. 
Littel, J. Dunn, July '47, Feb. '55. 
Litterst, George W., Feb. '93. 
Longstreet, Jonathan, Feb. '54, '57. 
Lozier, Theodore F., Xov. '79. 
Lyon, William J., Nov. '70, Feb. '74. 
Lyons, J. Harvey, Feb. '56, '59. 
Mabon, John S., June 'So, '83. 
MacSherry, Howard, Feb. '76. 
Man, E. A. S., Xov. '68, '71. 
ilan, G. E., Xov. '79. 
Mann, Thomas J., Feb. '79. 
Manners, Edwin, Xov. '80. 
Manning, James D., Feb. '73, '77. 
Mara, John J., June '82. 
Marion, John F., Xov. '91. 
Marks, Maurice, June '93. 
Mason, Hiram E., June '77. 
Matthews, Godfrey B., Feb. '93. 
McAdoo, William, Xov. '74, Feb. '79. 
Maxson, Edward E.. June '93. 
McBumey, Elgin L., Feb. '92. 
McBurncy, H. D., Feb. '74. 
McCartin, Henr\- C, Xov. '87. 
McCarty, Daniel, Feb. '91. 
McCabe, fieorge J., Feb. 'So. 
McClelland, Richard D.. Xov. '51, '54. 
McCloskey, William, Xov. '78, '81. 
McCrea. D. W., Xov. '82. 
McCrcery, Jo.seph A., Xov. '76, '79. 
McDermott, Allan L., Xov. '77, June '81. 
McDemiott, P. H.. June '73, '76. 
McDermott. Robert L., Feb. '91. 
McEwan. George J.. June '87, '90. 
McEwan. Tiiomas, June '89. 
McGee; J. Flavel, June '68, '71. 
McGill, Ale.x. T., Jr., June '67, Xov. '70. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



McGill, Samuel H., Feb. 'Si. 
McGowen, Francis J., June '8i. 
McGrath, John A., Feb. '76, '79. 
McMa.ster, John S., June '8S, 'gi. 
Melosh, Henry J., June '89, '92. 
Meyer, Charles, Jr., June '77, '81. 
Midlige, W. F., June '85, '88. 
Miller, Jonathan D., May '27, '31. 
Mills, William D., Nov. '78, -82. 
Mintum, Jame.s F., Nov. 'So. 
Morgan, Charles, June '60. 
Morris, William C. Nov. '18, '24. 
Moore, Frank W., Xov. '77. 
Mount, Samuel C, June '70, '73. 
Muirhead. William, June '66. 
Mulgrew, George B.. Xov. '80. 
Mulvaney, John J., X'ov. '93. 
Murphy, James J., Xov. 'S9, Feb. '93. 
Murphy, J. Randall, Feb. '92. 
Murphy, Daniel J., Xov. '89. 
Nash, Thomas M., Feb. '76. 
Nevius, James S., Xov. '19, Sept. '23. 
Newbold, Michael T., June '68, '71. 
NicoU, Charles P., X'ov. '79, '82. 
Niven, Malcolm W., Feb. '74, '77. 
Noonan, Joseph M., Xov. '81, Feb. '88. 
Noonan, Thomas F., Jr., Feb. '85, '92. 
Northrop, James P., Xov. 'So, Feb. '92. 
Nugent, James W., Xov. '81. 
Nugent, John A., June '74. 
Nutzhom, Henry M., Feb. '91. 
Ogden, Aaron, Sep. 1784, 1787. 
Ogden, F. K., July '50, Feb. '54. 
Ogden, Mathias, Xov. '14, Feb. '18. 
Olendorf, John, Jr., Feb. '76, Nov. 'So. 
Olmstead, Garrick M., Feb. '56, '68. 
Palmer, James, Feb. '73, '76. 
Palmer, John H.. June '89, '92. 
Parker, Charles W., June "85, Feb. '90. 
Parker, Joseph, Jr., Nov. '78, '82. 
Parmly, Randolph W., June '78, '81. 
Parr}-, Joseph S., June '88, '90. 
Partridge, Charles, Xov. '59. 
Perkins, Randolph, June '93. 
Perry, John B., Xov. '63. 
Pintard, William, Xov. '78. '81. 
Potts, Joseph C, Sep. ' ^^, June '70. 
Potts, J. Herbert, Feb. '74. 
Potts, Stacy G., Xov. '79. 
Puster, Henn.-, June '79. 
Queen, John Wahl, Xov. '93. 
Randolph, Bennington F., Feb. '39, '42. 
Randolph, Joseph F., May '25, '28. 
Randolph, Joseph F., Jr., Nov. '67, '70. 
Raisch, Carl, Feb. 'Si 
Ransom, Charles A., Xov. '81. 



Ransom, Edward A., Nov. '74. 
Ransom, Stephen B., Sept. '44. Oct. '47 
Record, George L., June '86, '89. 
Reilly. Hugh P., Nov. '76. 
Rich, A. A., Nov. "74, Feb. '78. 
Robertson, Horace, June '87, '91. 
Robeson, Geo. M., July '50, Feb. '54. 
Rogers, William E., Nov. "67. 
Romaine, Isaac, Nov. '62. '65. 
Romeyne, James A., June '79. 
Rosenburgh, Max T., X'ov. '81, '84. 
Rowe, Linsley, June '75, Xov. '78. 
Rowe, Norman L., Nov. '67. 
Rutherford, AValter, Sept. '34, '37. 
Ruser, Ludvic, Feb. '77. 
Russ, Edward, Jr., Feb. '79. 
Ryall, Philip J., Nov. '57, '60. 
Ryerson, George A., Feb. 'S3. 
Ryerson, Theodore, June '72, Feb. '79. 
Salinger, Max, Feb. '82, '03. 
Salter, William D., June, '86. 
Sanderson, William W., June '74. 
Sayles, Philip A., Nov. '76. 
Scahill, Patrick H., June '75. 
Scheel, Edward, Nov. '82. 
Schofield, Charles E., May '43. 
Schofield, James J., May '29, '33. 
Scudder, Isaac W., May '38, '44. 
See, Cornelius S., Nov. '70. '73. 
See, William G., Nov. '78, '82. 
SegTiine, Ezra K., X'ov. '79. 
Seymour, Roderic B., June '69, 'Si. 
Shrope, H. H., June '76. 
Simon, Albert, June '81. 
Simpson, Alexander, Feb. '1,2. 
Skinner, William E., Xov. '60, '64. 
Slaight, Xathaniel C, Feb. '58, '61. 
Smith, Abel I., June '66, '73. 
Southard, Samuel L., May '11, '14. 
Speer, James A., June '92. 
Speer, William H., Jr., Xov. 91. 
Spencer, William C, Feb. '76, '79. 
Spierling, William F., Feb. '93. 
Steams, Kent K., Xov. '82, June '.s6. 
Stevens, Richard, Xov. '93. 
Stevens Theodosius F., June '8;. 
Stillwell, Peter, Xov. '89. 
Stout, H., June '61, Feb. '65. 
Straley, John A., June '84. 
Stuhr, Frederic J., June '93. 
Stuhr, William S., Xov. 'So, 'S;, 
Stumpf, F. C, Xov. '79. 
Talcott, William, Xov. '6.H, '77 
Taylor, Isaac S., June '64, Nov. 71 
Tennant, George G., June ''i-'. 
Terry, Henry C, June '79. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



I 



Throckmorton, A. R., May '41. Oct. '46. 
Traphagen, Henry, Nov. '64, '67. 
Trimmer, Martin L., Feb. '68, Xov. '71. 
Tunison, Benjamin C. June '81. 
Turner, D., June '71, '74. 
Vancleve, Benjamin F., May '30. 
Van Blarcom, James, Xov. '54. 
Van Buskirk, De Witt, Feb. '81. '84. 
Vandervoort, Alexander B., Nov. '77. 
Van Cleef, John T., June '72, '76. 
Van Dyck, Henry L. R., June '62, '73. 
Van Horn, Abraham, June '73, '76. 
Van Horn, George, Nov. '64, '68. 
Van Winkle, Marshall W., Nov. '90. 
Voorhees, Daniel P., June '56, Nov. '59. 
Voorhis, Charles H., Nov. '56, '59. 
Voorhies, William, June '56. 
Vredenburgh, James B., June '66, '69. 
Vreeland, Charles M., Nov. '90. 
Vreeland, Stephen S., June '80. 
Vroom, James W., June '69, Feb. '73. 
Vroom, John P., Nov. '52, '57. 
Wakeman, Edgar B., Feb. '43, '55. 
Wall, Albert C, Nov. '89. 
WalHs, Hamilton, Feb. '75, Nov. '78. 
Waples, Sharon H., June '65. 
Washburn, Charles L. D., June '78, '81. 
Watson. Alexander, June '54. 
Weart, Jacob, June '52, '55. 
Weart, James M., Nov. '61. 
Weart, Spencer, June '79, Nov. '82. 



Wehle, Charles, Nov. '62. 
Wellcr, John I., Nov, '90. 
Welling, Charles L., Feb. '76. 
Werts George T., Nov. '67, '91. 
A\1iite, Henr\- S., Nov. '72. '75. 
Williams, James, May 12. 
Williams. W. B., Nov. '53, Feb. '57. 
Williamson, Benjamin, Nov. '30, '33. 
Williamson, Benj., Jr., Nov. '59. Feb. '69. 
Williamson, Frederic B., June '77, 'So. 
Williamson, William K., June '73. 
Willis Alexander H., Feb. '73. 
Wills, Henr>- E., Nov. '79, '82. 
Winfield, Charles H., Nov. '55, Feb. '60. 
Winfield, H. Westerbrook, June '79, '82. 
Wood, William H., Nov. '70. 
Wood, William P., Nov. '75. 
Woolsey, Henry Harrison, Feb. '59. 
Wortendyke, Jacob R., Feb. '53, '59. 
Wortendyke, Rynier J.,June '85, '88. 
Wortendyke, Raymond P., June '69, '72. 
Wright, Edwin R. V., May '39, Feb. '44. 
Wright, James H., June '75. 
Wright, Samuel G. H., Nov. '82. 
Wynkoop, R. D., June '71, Feb. '75. 
Young, Alexander C, Feb. '92. 
Zabriskie, Abraham O., Nov. '28, '31. 
Zabriskie, Augustus, June '66, '69. 
Zabriskie, David D., Nov. '82, June '89. 
Zabriskie, Lansing, Feb. '59, Nov. '62. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

THE MEDICAL PROFESSION, FROM THE FIRST PRACTITIONER TO THE PRESENT TIME, WITH A COM- 
PLETE LIST OF ALL WHO HAVE LIVED IN THE CITY FROM THE BEGINNING. 

BSg^STjHE first doctor known to have lived in Jersey City was Josiah Hornbiower. He was 
r.'Kjlja a .son of a mechanical engineer, who came from England in 1753 to build a steam 
{.'■■-iUC, 1 engine for the Schuyler copper mines, which were located a short distance north nf 
the Arlington Cemetery. It is believed that Josiah, the elder, established the first 



machine-shop in America. His son, Josiah, was bom in Belleville, May 23, 1767. He studied 
medicine with Dr. Thomas Steele and settled in Bergen to practise in 1789. 

John M. Cornelison, a son of Rev. John Cornelison, pastor of the Old Bergen Church. 
was bom in Bergen, now Jersey City, April 29, 1802. He was educated at the Columbia 
Academy, Bergen and Union College. He graduated 1822, and studied medicine with Dr. 
Valentine Mott, and received his diploma from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1825. 
He gave up practice in 1862, He was a member of assembly in 1832. In 185 1 he was a lav 
judge of the court of errors and appeals and held the position sixteen years. In 1869 he 
retired from the bench and was elected mayor of Bergen. In 1873 he was president of the 
Jersey City board of public works. He died May 24, 1875. 

Josiah Hornbi.owi r, a son of Dr. Josiah Hornblower, was born at Bergen, August 7, 1792. 
He studied with Dr. Valentine Mott and graduated from Rutgers Medical College, X. V., in 
1823. He practised in Jersey City and died Januan,- 23, 1824. 

Thomas B. Gautier was bom in Bergen, now Jersey City, July 25, 1797. He graduated 
from Columbia College in 1823 and received his diploma from the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons. He practised until his death, December 23, 1845. He was descended from a Hugue- 
not family that settled in Xew York in the seventeenth century. His father and grandfather 
were educated men and lawyers by profession, though they did not practise. 

Silas L. Condict was bom at ilorristown in Augu.st, 1805. He graduated at Princeti^n 
and studied medicine in Xew York. He practised in various places until 1S33, when he mnved 
to Jersey City. He was an enthusiastic temperance man and took an active part in the mcAc- 
ment in Jersey City. He was Grand Worthy Patriarch of the Sons of Temperance. He died 
Februar)- 4, 1S46. 

WiLLiA.M T. V. H. Hornblower, a brother of Josiah, was born at Bergen, October 22, i.'^oo. 
He studied with Prof. John B. Beck in Xew York, graduated from the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons in 1832. He practised in Jer.sey City tmtil he died, April 3, 18S1. He left tun 
sons, both of whom became physicians. 

Charles S. Shelton was bom at Huntington, Conn.. August 28, 1819. He gradu- 
ated from Yale College in 1840, and received his diploma from the medical department of tlie 
same college. The early years of his professional career were spent in India for the American 
Board of Foreign Missions. He practised in various cities from 1856 until 1861, when lie served 
as a surgeon in the Union Army. In 1867 he settled in Jersey City and practised until his death. 
May 21, 1S79. 

Josiah H. Gaitier, son of Dr. Thomas B. Gautier, was born in Bergen, Xnvember i.-. 
1818. He was educated in the Xew York University, and graduated from the nu-ilicil <ii.- 
partment in 1S45, and practised in Jersey City until 1853, when he gave up his jirofi.-— inn \"r 
mercantile pursuits. He was connected with the Di.Kon Crucible Company, the steel inclu~tr\ , 
the Gautier Crucible Works and other manufacturing firms. 

Theodore R. Varick was bom June 24, 1825, in Dutchess County, X. Y. IK i^r.idii- 
ated from tlie academic department of the Xew York University in 1843, and fmui thr .Mi ihi .il 
School in 1846. He served as physician in the Xew York Dispensaryth rce years Hi- pi.c>- 
tised in Jersey City from 1S48 until his death. 



232 . HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

He achieved a national reputation as a surgeon. In 1853 he was elected a member of the 
American Medical Association, and was a fellow of the State Medical Society, beinsj its presi- 
dent in I S64. He was a member of the Xew York Academy of Medicine, and a member of the 
New York State Medical Society. He was the tirst president of the Xew Jersey Academy of 
Medicine, a member of the Jersey City Pathological Societv, and the Xew York Neurological 
Society. He was appointed surjreon-ijeneral of the State by Gov. Randolph in 1S69. He was 
medical director of St. Francis' Hospital in Icrscv Citv. and a surj^eon on the staff of the Jer- 
sey City Hospital. He was one of the board of manai^ers of the State Insane Asylum at Mor- 
ris Plains. He was a member of Centennial Medical Commission, reprcsentinsj New Jersey 
His contributions to medical literature were numerous and valuable. He was president of the 
County Board of Health and Vital Statistics. He died in November, 1SS7. 

William A. Durrie was bom in Xew Haven, Conn., July 21, 1832. He jjraduated from 
Yale in 1843, and from the medical department in 1S46. In 1847 he located in Jersey City. 
He was the pioneer of homeopathy in the city. He was one of the founders of the State 
Homeopathic Medical Society and its third president. He was physician to the Jersey City 
Almshouse five years. He removed to Orange in 1884. 

Lorenzo W. Elder was bom in Guilford, Chenanj^o County, X. Y., April 15, 1S20. He 
graduated from the Collegfe of Physicians and Surgeons. He was president of the Hudson 
County Pathological Society and a member of the County Medical Society. He was physician 
to the Hudson County Hospital, was president of the County Board of Health and from 1851 
to 1861 was brigade surgeon of the Hudson County militia. He was an aid on the staff of Gov. 
Price, and was medical examiner of several insurance companies. He wa.s superintendent of 
schools in Hoboken and mayor of Hoboken in 1863. 

Henry D. Holt was bom in Xew York, Februar\- 20, 1S14. He was graduated from 
the New York Medical University in 1847 and practised until 1879, when he retired. 

Alfred A. Lltkins was bom in the city of Xew York, October 16, 182S. He grad- 
uated from the New York University Medical School in 1848 and settled in Jersey Citv. 
He was president of the District Medical Society, a member of the staff in the Hudson County 
and Jersey City hospitals and had a large practice. 

Joseph E. Culver was bom in Groton, New London County, Conn., February- 9. 1823. 
He studied in the Medical College at Pittsficld, Mass., and graduated from the College of Phvsi- 
cians and Surgeons in X'ew York in 1S49. He was a member of the Passaic Medical Societv 
and was sent as a delegate to the State Medical Society in 1850. He was then authorized to 
organize the Hudson County Medical Society, which was chartered the following year. He 
held ever^• ofRce in its gift. He was a member of the standing committee of the State Societv 
and a charter member and vice-president of the State Medical Academy. He was a member 
of the Xew York Pathological Si.cicty and the Xcurotogical Society. He was one of the physi- 
cians of St. Francis' Hospital. He was city superintendent of schools in Hudson Citv and 
city treasurer of Hudson City eight year.s. He was a tmstee of the Hudson City Savings Bank. 

Nelson R. Derby was bom in Lodi, Seneca County, X. Y., July 20, 1823. He graduated at 
the medical school of the Buffalo University. lie practi.sed in Elmira for several years, until 
1844, when he removed to Hoboken. He was medical director of the Sixteenth Armv Corps, 
and was wounded on the Red River expedition. He retired and removed to Morristown. 

Francis E. Nople was bom at Rocliester. X. Y., July 1. 1824. He was educated at Dayton, 
Ann Arbor, medical department of the Western Ki.serve College, graduating in 1S51. He 
practised in Michigan and California until i.-.(io, wlicn !ie removed to Jersev Citv, where he still 
resides. He is a member of ihc County Soci(.ty. and w.as on the staff of Christ Hospital manv 
years. 

Joseph H. Vosnv was bom in llie jirovince of Xew Brunswick, October 9, 1829. He 
graduated from the Xew York Univer--ity Medical School in 1851, and settled in Jersey 
City, where he still practises. He was a member of the medical staff of the Hudson County 
and the City Hospital. He is a member of tlie County Society, and was a delegate to the 
American Medical Association. He is still pr.atising. 

Alex. H. Laidlaw was bum in Scotland, July 11, 1S28. He graduated from the Phila- 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 233 

delphia Medical College, and subsequently in 185 1 from the Pennsylvania Homeopathic Collej,'e. 
He practised in New York and Philadelphia until i86i, when he located in Jersey City, and 
gave his attention to chronic diseases. 

Ottacor E. Kopetsch.nv was bom in Neuhaus, Bohemia, January 2, 1821. He was 
educated in the University of Vienna, and received his diploma from the Jefferson Medical 
College. He located in Jersey City in 185 1. 

Natha.niel Foote was born in Colchester, Conn., August 8, 1831. He studied in the Yale 
Medical School and the Berkshire Medical College at Pittsfield, Mass., graduating in 1S52. He 
located in Jersey City and retired from practice in i860. He was for many years president of 
the Jersey City Insurance Company. 

Eleazer Bowen was born at Rehoboth, Mass., in October, 1829. He studied at Amherst 
and the Pittsfield Medical College. He practised in several cities and settled in Jersey Citv in 
1864. He is a member of the County Society and the National Institute. 

Hugo H. E. Se.nftleben was bom in Cranz, East Prussia, August 14, 1832. He was edu- 
cated at Frederick's College and Konigsberg University. He ser\'ed as surgeon in the British- 
German Legion. He was a staff-surgeon in the German army at Metz, Paris and Dijon. He 
was a ship surgeon for a number of years until 1883, when he located in Hoboken. 

John J. YouLiNwas born at Rupert, Vt., December 31, 1821. He .studied at Geneva 
College, University of New York, and at the Western Reserve Medical College. He settled in 
Jersey City in 1856, and was president of the State Homeopathic Medical Society for eleven 
years, and for several years was president of the Coimty Homeopathic Society. He was di- 
rector of the Jersey City dispensary, vice-president of the American Institute of Homeopathy in 
1870-1872, and president of the Hudson County Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Animals. He died in October, 1S81. 

Philip M. Senderling was bom at Brunswick, Rensselaer County, N.Y., March 19. 1S31. 
He was educated at Williams College and the medical department of Pennsylvania Universitv. 
He located in Jersey City in 1856 until 1861, when he became surgeon of the Eighth New ]vr- 
sey Volunteers, and served until July, 1S65. In 1877 he returned to Jersey City. 

James H. McDowell was bom in Philadelphia, February i, 1825. He graduated from 
the medical school of the Maryland University in 1857, and located in Jersey City in 1S63. 

John W. Hunt was born at Groveland, Livingston County, N. Y., October 10, 1.S34. 
He graduated at the New York Medical University in 1859. He located in Jersey City. He 
became surgeon of the Tenth New York Volunteers in 1861, and subsequently brigade surgeon - 
in-charge of the general hospital near Fortress Monroe. He returned to Jersey City after tlic 
war and held all the offices in the gift of the County Society. He was one of the organizers of 
the City Hospital and first president of its medical board. 

Frederick Schuhl was bom in Offenbach, Germany, August 31, 1842. He was educated at 
Darmstadt and the University of Giessen. He removed to Jersey City in 1868. 

James Craig was born in Glasgow, Scotland, January 22, 1834. He graduated at the New 
York University in 1S61 and located in Jersey in 1863, He was a member of the County .S<i- 
ciety and of the New York Medico-Legal Society. He was attending physician at St. Francis' 
Hospital. 

William H. Newell was bom in New York City, February 19, 1837. He was educated 
at Phillips Academy, Andover, Dickinson College, Carlisle, and the medical department. Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. He was surgeon of the Fifth Maryland Regiment in the Ciintc(ier:itc 
army. He returned to Jersey City at the close of the war and practised a number nf yc.irs 
He removed to the South in 1889. 

Beriah a. Wa ison was bom at Lake George, Warren County, N. Y., March 36, 183^ IK- 
graduated from the medical school of the New York University in 1861. He became surge in 
of the Fourth New Jersey Volunteers. Later he was surgeon of the First Brii,'a(i'.-. I";r--t 
Division, of the Sixth Army Corps, and later took charge of the Sixth Corps hosjiital and ht 
came medical purveyor to the corps. He located in Jersey City at the close of tlic w.ir Id 
was a member of a large number of medical societies and a surgeon at the City and St I r.iiu ■•■- 
hospitals. He was a voluminous writer on medical subjects and enjoyed a European as u ill as 
a national reputation. 



234 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



John J. Craven was born in Newark, N. J., September 8, 1822. He was graduated at 
the College of Physicians and Suri^eons. He was surjjeon of the First New Jersey Militia in 
the war. He became brigade surgeon in 1S62 and corps surgeon of the Tenth Corps in 1S64. 
He was medical purveyor and chief medical officer of the Department of Yirginia and North 
Carolina from January 17, 1865, with rank of lieutenant-colonel, and headquarters at Fortress 
Monroe. In 1867 he established himself in Jersey City and lived in the city a number of j'ears. 
He removed to Long Island in 1S79 and died there. 

George S. Ruoi; was bom in .Martinsburg, Lewis County, N. Y.. May 7, 1S21. He 
graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1862, and was surgeon of the Eighth 
New York Militia and the One Hundred and Fourth New York Yolunteers. Later he had 
charge of the Second Division hospital of the Fifth Corps at City Point, Va. He returned to 
Jersey City in 1865. 

H. Mortimer Brush was born in New York Citv, December 3, 1836. He was educated at 
Mount Washington and the New York University, graduating in 1862. He practised in New 
York until 187 1, when he located in Bayonne. 

PiERSON Rector was born in Duanesburg, Schenectady County, N. Y., January 11, 1839. 
He was educated at Milton Academy, Racine College and Albany Medical School, graduating 

in 1863. He ser\-ed as a surgeon in the United 
States Army until 1877, when he located in Jersey 
City. 

George B. Cornell was bom in Dukes County, 
Mass., April 24, 1833. He graduated from Madison 
L'niversity and the medical school of the New 
York University. He practised in New York until 
1869, when he located in Jersey City. 

William N. Clark was bom in New York City 
in 1844. He graduated from the New York Uni- 
versity and after practising some time in Jersey 
City became surgeon on a Belgium steamer. 

Henry MrrcHELL was born in Norwich, Chenan- 
go Co., N. Y., August 6, 1S45. He was educated 
at Catskill Academy, Phillips', Exeter and Belle- 
vue Medical College. He settled in Jersey City 
in 1870, and served on the staff of the Hudson 
County and St. Francis' hospitals. 

Dr. Mortimkr Lampson was bom in the village 
of Rose, Wagner County, N. Y., October 23, 1843. 
When a boy his parents removed to Hartland, 
Niagara County, in that State, where he at- 
tended the public school.s, after which he attended the High .School of Lockport, N. Y., for 
three years. In i860 he entered the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, where he re- 
mained three years, the last six m<inths of liis course in that institution being spent in the medi- 
cal department. In the spring of iso^ lie returned home on account of the high state of feel- 
ing caused by the Civil War. He applied for a pnsition in the militarj- ser\-ice. He was as- 
signed to the medical .service by the War Department, and during the battle of Gettysburg he 
was on his way to be assigned to duty At tliat time there was a small corps of medical stu- 
dents, numbering forty, who were attached to tlic army and were styled Medical Cadets. In 
July of 1S63 he was sent with the Wasiiingtnn detachment to attend the wounded. In Oc- 
tober of that year he was nrdered to I'l^rtsinoiitli. \'a., where he served until July, 1864, in the 
Chesapeake General Hnsiiital. At t!iat time Dr. Lampson was appointed assistant surgeon of 
the Thirty-sixth United States Cull )red X'niunuer.';, and participated in several engagements, 
among which were the siege of Petersl)iirg. the liattle of Fort Harrison and the capture of 
Richmond. At the close "f tlie war in i.'<'>; he returned home and entered the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons of New York City, and was graduated therefrom in 1866, receiving 
the degree of M. D. He then located in Sussex County, New Jersey, where he remained and 
practised medicine for seven years, dividing his time between the towns of Beemerville and 



X'- ■ -V. 


\'<_^ f 


♦ .■ -'■ ■ 


^^y '^ , 


\n^/ 


■ y f i.r 



MORTIMER 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 235 

Stanhope. In June of 1873 Dr. Lampson located in Jersey City, and has continued his practice- 
there ever since. 

Dr. Lampson is visiting- .surgeon to St. Francis' Hospital. He has been surj.,'eon of the 
Fourth Rei,ament, New Jersey National Gviard, since 1883, and was for one year lieutenant- 
colonel and medical inspector National Guard of New Jersey. When the National Guard was 
reorganized he was reappointed major and surgeon of the Fourth Regiment, a positidn he 
still retains. He is a member of Van Houten Post, G. A. R. ; the Hudson County District 
Medical Society ; the New Jersey Academy of Medicine ; the Order of Militan.- Surgeons ol' 
New Jersey; Amitv Lodge, No. 103, F. and A. M., of which he is Past Master; he is also a 
member of Hugh de Payens Commandery No. i, K. T. 

In 1869 Dr. Lampson married Miss Josephine Crane, of Sussex County. New Jerscv 
After a wedded life of a few months he was deprived of her companionship by death. Twelve 
years thereafter he married Miss Mary Loui.se Hayward, of Rochester, N. Y., and on July 16. 
1883, death again deprived him of his wife. Dr. Lampson resides at 203 Pacific Avenue, occu- 
pied at one time by the late Erminie Smith, who was so prominently connected with " Sorosis." 

Dr. Isaac Newton QLiMnv.a distinguished physician and influential citizen of Jersey Cilv. 
bom at Bernardsville, near Basking Ridge, in Somerset County, N. J., August 5, 1S31, was the 
son of Nicholas Emmons and Rachel Stout Ouimby. 

His father was a farmer who had served in the war of 1812. Hewasthe grandson of Judge 
Nicholas Emmons, of the Supreme Court of New Jersey. His grandfathers upon both sides 
were patriot soldiers in the Revolutionary War. 

Dr. Quimby was left an orphan at an early age and thrown upon his own resources, so that 
his useful life and the honorable place he has won for himself are wholly the results of his own 
persevering industry, integrity, skill, intelligence and well-directed efforts. 

His early employment was farming and milling, and at nineteen years of age he had 
acquired a good practical knowledge of the milling business. About 185 1 he went West, ami 
successfully engaged in the flour and milling business at Zanesvilleand Somerville, Ohio. Here 
he formed an acquaintance with Dr. Barr, a friend, who took a kindly interest in him, and, per- 
ceiving his aptitude for a dilferent career in life, advised him to undertake the study of medi- 
cine. To this course, as more congenial to his tastes, and affording a more appropriate field 
for his powers, he was readily persuaded. 

Accordingly, for three years he pursued his medical studies in connection with his dail\ 
labors. At the same time, by a wise economy, he accumulated means sufficient to carry him 
forward for some time in pursuit of a higher general culture as a basis for his special proies- 
sional training. Hitherto he had enjoyed but the meagre advantages of a limited attendance 
at the countn,' school, and in the successful attempt to educate himself he met and vancjuished 
many difficulties and discouragements. In this struggle he evinced that energy, cnurage and 
invincible will-power which has ever distinguished him, and has greatly contributed tn his -.iie- 
cess in life. At the Chester Institute, then a flourishing collegiate school under the care ot the 
late Prof. Rankin, and situated at Chester, N. J., he completed an academic course which filled 
him for college. 

However, he did not enter Princeton College, as he had at one time intended, but now lie- 
came a student in the medical department of the University of the City of New York, troni 
which he graduated in 1S59, second in his class, and with a special certificate of himor. Hi-- 
health now somewhat failing, he acted upon the advice of Dr. Valentine Molt, his preeeiit"r. 
and began the practice of his profession in Jersey City, where he has since resided. 

He soon established a thriving practice, which, upon the breaking out of the Civil War, he 
left to enter the army as a volunteer surgeon. He ser\-ed with Gen. McClellan's turee m the 
swamps of the Chickahominy, in the Seven Days' Battle and "change of b;ise " in ihc l.iiiu-- 
River, and the retreat to Harrison Landing. He was at Anlietam, and remained with his tU\ 1 
sion till after the battles of the Wilderness, when, on account of illness, he returned h..iiie. .111. 1 
shortly after resumed his practice, in which he has been actively engaged to tlie iirceiit tiiiu- 
(1895). Dr. yuimby was for some time lecturer in the spring course of the l'niversit> oi ilic i it\ 
of New York, and al.so assistant to Prof. A. C. Post in his surgical clinic at the same lustitnt. 
He was the originator of the Hudson County (now Christ) Hospital, and for ye.irs one oi i!-- 
leading surgeons. 



C5" TQISET 




of Tceoanac of Congfrrrrii' Tiilipes- ' iXiot TTsnsacaoci — Amenr^i: "XlWrm^ Assci n n mnr . TdL 
> I*. < : *" A Xew iletinic of AmiJjnanan 21 ~tv^- Ankitj-iann ' ; Trimsamont. Xol \ N ! ' : ""A 
r^"*^ of CafmBomiL "^ ~7i". in -f- of "rht Tibui inul TiimiiL* 221 nr v. ^,i n r ur i>^v -^"^*>' "boiieE uy w n i rr 
•ai£ annnuaaot a: ^ irmr -mav be 2voiqs£ TTaiisa::iiant_ it<7P) 

A-r rr-it rma" inv^Ejc^ariai: uiU- demonstraavir f-Tr rv— frTx-ma . of greai mCTammrf » enmodkic 
ir £ nansr TTansaznoiiE, "Vol \ \ x ! iBSd i or "Tilt ( ~ ' iml.i; !" Ts£ of Cblorof arm " The mai- 
isr g3svr an: az ins Trori: as at exner: ir xht: ci^uraiet imrrai-Ssinisi luuiusr ■miil ii: Jersev 
CilT. Mii Smitr ttss »;Vf-»T Trnr ^ririi birr imsfaaiul v-nsr it was loiilrr nurrdereL by aer sine, 
ntr - .-•- n^f gh-- izoew iiotnin^: abtiic E until shr rtrrHr-i- iron; £ ehi u j ui om: sieep Tbis "rria: 
" . ' tat anesaoii Triiefiier c i;^ uossiiiit ii. ! .^i i»CTf— e T3£isai: Imn. a riri' 11 i.'i" yfefp to 2 

^: - '— i3^*grri^*gi? jyr TTv»aT>t. of rnilfTr fifii' 11 Tritbtnn 7^ "btda*: atra^snsc uDor Yht- sppiicaiicji; 
o; iTit ::~iL^ - S^ £. number n: Trur-T^ti'w**; 2,fZ- Ctujmjyv r"i*-tn / 11 *^.1 •. iu- ^r thsc: lins -mirrjj* Tsscdry be 

Tssciffic TE bfr arnrirral 

Zrr C/nnniTT boins TrtnnbersTn: ir. "nit Amsr- 
ir-jT TL^orri--^" AssDzisnon. anc Tvas ant of Tnr 
iaimnsrs anf -rh^ fcsr ■•""-j' ■"-" of Tirif ser- 
Tinr of TTVf^m'^' Tiin5imiasix2£ in tliaT ^^g- 
-TirH nr H± if ^ Tnember of "fet Hnnsun 

rnTrn-r~ng^-i— AT^ri~a' Nri~l°-T- rrfhf- A-rry— - 

T-ar Pnbii:. Seaiti: -^cgn-iir-inrT- : of fhf^ "A^°6- 
iix*-X«eg3" Stcisrr, of ^ew T'oci : nf ibi: 
Socisry of "\T^m--?.' j jiJmj^ i infTirr^ 211c Staa 
TH-ani-Trvf- irCe\r Tori; : of ±be "XTtssTSSitJix 
"Talier- TtT-orrim^^ AssoidaiiaE : bniiDrsr^ msnj- 
ber of tbi Gyiiscoiojri::al Sooerv of Bastat 
■member uf TTf- "Fi~^ ~'-gr "\T^-^--r' — ■j; o — :grirr - 
imr" uf Ttv- Attv"- T-;>T A c^ f i-rjr-i rrr Tn — -ri^ Cirr= 

(.^^ of "rnfbngrr. ar 

^^. St is aist rm^ rr -rn^ T r nmn"— t, ;mr Thr -r-i"»^ 

prssmem of tbt Amenzar "M'^T^-t-a' Temper- 
anci: As»oci2tiaii. *. socier^ 1 1 ' ^; ^ . r-y^-^ *-tc at- 
Tnmrf^ Ibt pramr-e of xcnsl absnaense ir anc 
l i iii ii igT tiii mecica.. xrrais^cnL. aii£ xt jnx- 

mote 7Tn?->.' !■;:,: HIT 2£ XC ±21= aaaOX of aV-nrinl 
m Tt*»a"hT ;mr r^c*>:>s^ ; :>nf xt XOnr £. bond 

of nnior. amoa^ -m?r:i:T-. sbsm^TH-rs aT over 
ir "VTasaun^riui:. X' C. May. iSpi.T-nx aineiii- 

bersmr of cme 'niinni -^-f TrvpnT^^' -TTi*»r " i i i i i aV 

jars^ off Ae TniEsc Scai^. i"^" ' of ■frvrr 
DiTTsicsaasxaic snrjjetmii icinsiT fjuncc m 'their pruiffssaiin- Tik msa Sr id smny hedt^sx. v.iiL 
aL tie uses g-"f abntss- of aisxmuVL. faiiii^.. jmrs-r-' Tntm 13K: snomSt ant Tn^i-a" ssumionc^ 
jTwr XC n'^t^^if- xiur untirxnaiaar s* ttntamsc. 

2>T Clirnun iiat. br hi> <ibier-.-ati'ir. am. irsiie.iuism}-. beer nus: compesiy cumiui sc of 
■utf rreneiialiT Bermcitni;- eiiecs; cr aunaiii'; hiht I3tu iiiiiii .i i^ sysiot i±£ sironjriy feursatec i 
T=2kies. aimi.>>: nuhszmniiuiU: aac faamitul 3j«. ic i: in tin roactJCE nf i jaig£ -a u i UuL of bit 
islitre piiT- sicsici- liirfiiisbuin liit. ^-riiiirt; \nrric. As tisi Tesaii cc s:h±;ni.:ri'. sriirry. oiBerrstior 
anc till iiette" nniincaiiar tin*^ .linamrc ni i'-iia- i<r- li»t xjrsiein rrrn" far airoboni a j ta>c rn>- 
tuoK aa£ 5< -caliec sanniiaiKn: !• ■ ue:. ■ niu i» uuMiicti' at iias- maiiy aannET sspioosc lijsrarr 
nirr» iiainUar ttht. TTt^- iiT»>i:?s?ii<n; aiui tin Tiuniu.. 

Xrr Znmnbr ^ puacnir s^ mJ'. st^c: iiitiiuet tiic 3»1iinnnf; rwiAr^ Xruu. iie 'gj"-"'^ Toan: 
-Hi-' TTrr-'ir' - TsinaeTsiUi C<nJ:r's?^ ^c Lijou:" m 5*'9j : ^'TTje: -mfnira". xrrofessiar. or ai: e omu 
nf IJE Uiumu : ami aenrorra: ciifcz •o aiixb"^ iiavt iiccii afstray iar sentn-iej -rrnii Tsisrsnis: xt 
IS -r!-TTv°r;Tn' anil ^it-— rrrt-nTi- ixiwrr Ih Eit- se-i-r. TFTi-ierTTiKX ir all mt a i v, ; ? t»» ix aZ '; — nnv of OB- 



1 



\ 



•CSir:! '_'> 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. j^^ 

eases, in all their various stages — both acute and chronic — without regard to age or sex or tem- 
perament. It has been used as an antidote to poison — itself a poison, as a stimulant — itself a 
depressor, as a food — with none of the properties of food, to increase the power of the pulse or 
to depress the same ; as a remedial agent in paral_vsis — itstlf a cause of paralysis, to aid and 
promote mental and physical force — when everyone is familiar with its power to destrov both • 

to promote digestion, enrich the blood, increase cell-growth, prevent disease and prolong life' 

when, in fact, it has been clearly demonstrated and proven by many of the most eminent inves- 
tigators of the world to possess none of the virtues and powers so long ascribed to it. There 
is no drug in the whole range of the pharmacopoeia that has been used with such persistent 
and reckless inconsistency and contradiction as alcohol. But the world does move, and throu<'h 
God's help and the labor of scientific men, alcohol will be removed from the position it now 
occupies — the front lines of civilization — to the rear, and placed among the relics of barbarism." 
His paper on the " Pathological Action of Alcohol in Health and Disease," read before the Xew 
Jersey State Temperance AUiance, was printed by that society and circulated in a pamphlet 
edition of five thousand copies. It received high commendations from distinguished educators 
in various parts of the country. Dr. Ouimby has recently been appointed one of the physicians 
on the advisory boards of the national and international department of scientific temperance 
instruction in schools and colleges. The doctor was nominated for governor of the .'^tate bv 
the prohibitionists in 1883, but declined the place of honor on their ticket. His interest in the 
subject is especially scientific, rather than political. Still, he always takes a deep interest in 
any reform movement for the betterment of any class and ever}' condition in city. State or 
nation. He has a wholesome hatred for all corrupt schemes and schemers, all monopolies and 
oppressions. With the heart of a philanthropist, he naturally sides with the masses, the poor 
and the weak. 

Brought up under democratic influence, during the Ci\-il War and the years subsequent, he 
gave his best etforts to the republican party ; but now, as always, he considers the interests of 
the people as far above all party measures and claims. Guided by such independent considera- 
tions, he has still been active in affairs of his city and State, where he exerts an extended in- 
fluence. He was president of the first citizens' association of Jersey City in 1870, and instru- 
mental in breaking up the corrupt official ring which at that time controlled the affairs of the 
city. He was also one of the originators of the anti-monopoly union of Hudson, which h.ns 
done good service in checking the selfish schemes and corrupting influences of railroad coq'o- 
rations, and compelling them to bear a more equable portion of taxation. Largelv through iiis 
intelligence, tireless industry and zeal, the monstrous railroad land-grabbing water-front bill 
(known as Bill 167) was defeated in the State legislature. 

In 1875 Dr. Quimby visited many of the prominent hospitals and public institutions of 
Evtrope. In 1881 he was delegate from the American Medical Association to the International 
Medical Congress at London, and actively participated in its deliberations. He also attended 
the sessions of the British Medical Association. Three years later he was again appointed dele- 
gate to the International Medical Congress, at that time convened in Copenhagen, Denmark. 
He was a member of the first Pan-American Medical Congress, which met at Washington. 
D. C, in September. 1S93, and he was a delegate to the International Medical Congress which 
convened at Rome, Italy, in April of 1894. 

Dr. Quimby 's first marriage, to Helen Stark, daughter of the late Thomas McKie, a retired 
merchant of Xew York, occurred in 1863. They had three children, of whom one. Alfred 
Charles Post Ouimby, sun,-ives his mother, who died in 1868. In 1S75 Dr. Quimby marned liis 
present wife, Frances H., daughter of the late James Flemming, a well-known citizen of [erscy 
City. They have one son, Isaac Newton Quimby, Jr. 

The doctor, still vigorous in body and intellect, enjoys a well-merited success, with the 
confidence and respect of a wide circle of the best citizens of his city and State. 

Augustus Villeroy Hill was born at Salem, Washington County, X. Y., August 0. r.-^.); 
He was educated at Norwich University, Union College, and the College of Physician-, .m.l 
Surgeon.s, graduating in 1S69. He practised in Xew York until 1872, when he Incited .it 
Guttenberg. He was elected clerk of the town council in 1880, and held the iinsitimi a iiuiiil'i r 
of years. 

James A. Petrie was born at Liberty, Sullivan County, X. Y., in 1840. He gr.uhi.ited .it 



23» 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



the Pennsylvania University, and practised medicine ten years in Jersey City, when he removed 
to Phillipsburg, X. J. 

Charles O. Vif.rs was born in Brook County, \'a., April lo. 1S41. He was at Bethany 
College when the war broke out, and went to the front with the Virginia cavalr)'. He gradu- 
ated from Belleviie in 1867, and located in Jersey City in ;S6g. 

Philemon Hommell was born in Alsace, July 16, iSj6. He was educated in the University 
of Strasbourg. He was a pharmacist for twenty years, and graduated in medicine at the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons in 18S1. He continued to practise in Jersey City until he 
died. 

Henry De L.acv Sherwood was born at Deposit. X. Y., March 19, i.Sfjo. He was educated 
at the Jersey City High School and the College of Physicians and Surgeons, graduating in 1S82. 
He located in Jersey City. 

Victor C. B. Me.\ns was bom at Concord. X. C, May i, 1S60. He graduated at the New 
York University in 1881, served in the Jersey City Hospital ayear and a half, and was appointed 

surgeon in the U. S. Navy in 18S4. 

Calvin F. KviEwas bom at Eldred, Sul- 
livan County, N'. Y. He graduated at the 
New York Univer.sity in 1881 and settled 
in Jersey City. 

Ula.mor Allen is the- son of the late 
Henry Allen, a prominent United Pres- 
byterian clergyman of Ohio who died in 
1878. He was bom in Hamilton Co., Ohio, 
August 13, 1854. He was educated at the 
schools of his native place, and graduated 
from the medical department of the X'ew 
York University in 1S80. He located in 
Jersey City and lias practised his profes- 
sion there ever since. He is one of the 
medical staff of Christ Hospital, and one of 
the surgeons for the Xorth Hudson Rail- 
way Company. He is a member of the 
Hudson County Medical Society, and of 
the American Medical Association. He 
was married in April, i8gi, to Miss Clara 
O. Martin, of Lancaster, Pa., and one child, 
a daughter, has been bom to them. In 
1892 he was appointed a member of the 
Jersey City board of education to fill an 
unexpired term, and in 1894 was reap- 
pointed for a full term and elected presi- 
dent of the board. 
Charles H. Shelton was born in JalVnaputani. India. .May 14.1854 He was educated at 
Hasbrouck Institute, Yale College and the Xcw York llomcoijathic College, graduating in 
1880. He practised in Jersey City four year.s, and removed to Montclair, 

J. Lawrence Xevin was born in Xorth Sewickly. I'a,, January .'i. 1,^53. He graduated at 
the New York Homeopathic College in 1878, and located in Jcr.sey City. 

George E. Titus was born in Xew York City, July i, 1855. He was educated at the Penn- 
.sylvania College and Bellevue, graduating in 1.S77, and located in Jersey City. 

Stephen V. Morris was born in Jersey City, October 12, 1845. He graduated at 
Bellevue in 1S77 and lo.-ated in Jersey City. 

William A. Dlrrie, Jr.. was horn in Jersey City. June 11. 1S55 He graduated from 
Yale in 1876, and from the College of I'liysieians .ind Surgeons and tlic Xew York Homeo- 
pathic College He located in Jersey City in 1.S7H. 

Charles W. Croi'per was born at Rock Island, III, June i,?, 1848. He graduated at Belle- 
vue in 1876 and located in Jersey City. 




HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



239 



Rudolph B. Lienau was born at New Brighton, Staten Island, October 21, 1846. He 
was educated in the Vitz Thum Gymnazium at Dresden and the University of Wurtzburs,--, 
Germany. He hjcated in Jersey City in 1876. 

Walter Rak was born in Dumfrieshire, Scotland, September 29, 1849. He graduated at 
the New York University in 1S76, and settled in Jersey City, where he soon acquired a large 
practice. 

William L. Darlln-gton- was born in West Chester, Pa., November 5, 1849. He graduated 
at the Jefferson College in 1S75. He located in Jersey City in 1SS3. 

WiLLL\M J. Mackev was born in Dubhn, Ireland, Februar>- 23, 1S47. He graduated at the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1S75 and located in Jersey City. 

Charles A. LiMEiiURS'ER was born on the ocean, November iS, 1854. He was educated 
at Rutgers and the College of Physicians and Surgeons, graduating in 1879. He practised in 
Brooklyn for a year and located in Jersey City in 1880. 

Clement C. Young was bom in Washington, D. C, March i, 1853. He was educated at 
Rock Hill College and Bellevue, graduating in 1874. He settled in Jersey City and was city 
physician in the fifth district. 

WiLLL-v-M J. McDowell was born in Baltimore, February 23, 1854. He graduated from the 
University of Maryland in 1874. He was surgeon in the Baltimore Eye and Ear Infirmary, 
surgeon in the Presbyterian Eye and Ear Hos- 
pital, professor of eye and ear diseases in the 
University of Maryland and president of the Bal- 
timore Medical Society. In 18S2 he located in 
Jersey City and practised until his death. 

Horace G. Bidwell was born in Greenville, May 
24, 1849. He was educated in the New York 
College and Bellevue Hospital College, graduating 
in medicine in 1S72. He has practised in Jersey 
City since 1874. 

John D. Van Saun was born in Jersey City, 
March 21, 1851. He graduated from Bellevue in 
1873, and has practised in Jersey City since 1874. 

John Van Vorst was born in Jersey City, Octo- 
ber 18, 1850. He was educated at Princeton and 
Bellevue, and .spent several years studying in Paris 
and Vienna hospitals. He located in Jersev Citv 
in 1879, and was considered one of the most ad- 
vanced practitioners in the city. 

Hiram M. Eduy was born in Springfield, N. V., 
July 14, 1848. He graduated from the New York 
University in 1872. He was medical superintend- 
ent of the County A,sylum i873-'75 and was a member of the Jersey City board of educatiim. 
He removed from the city after building up a lucrative practice. 

Conrad Wiengf.s was born in Charleston, S. C, August 20, 1848. His father. Conrad 
Wienges, was for many years a merchant of that city engaged in the West Indies trade. He was 
educated at Carroll's Academy in Cliarlestnn. after which he was engaged in the drug business 
at Memphis and Jersey City for a number of years. He graduated from the New Ynrk College 
of Pharmacy in 1S71. In 1S68 and 1869 he attended a course of lectures at the .South Can^lin.i 
Medical College in Charleston, and in 1S81 entered the College of Physicians and .Surgeons in 
New York, graduating in 1S83. He is a member of the Hudson County Medical Society anci oi 
the New York Academy of Medicine, and is a member of the stalT of Christ Hospital, Jer-ev 
City. He is aniember of Sherman Lodge, No. 129, K. of P. ; Garfield Lodge. No. 65. I. < ' < 1 I' . 
and of Grace P. E. Church. On November 7, 1875, he married Miss Virginia I) Mo.. re. oi 
Jersey City. 

Julius Fehr, physician and pharmacist, was born at Castle, near Mayence, in the '".r.in.l 
Duchyof Hesse, Germany, March 29, 1S25, He was educated in the schools of Darnist.iilt. .md 
at sixteen years of age was apprenticed to a druggist in the city of Hanau, with w!i..iii lu 




)NRAD WIENf;EH 



240 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



I 



remained four years ; he then went to Colmar, in Alsace, where he spent a year in the same 
business. Soon after this he enlisted in the French army, and served four j-ears in Algiers. 
He had his discharf,''e as non-commissioned officer when he returned to his native town in Ger- 
many. In 1S50 he emij^ated to America, landinjj at Xcw York in May of that year. He at 
once obtained employment in E. & S. FouL;era's pharmacv. and remained in that business in 
different positions in New York City until 1855. During that vear he removed to Hoboken, 
N. J., where he had charge of the pharmacy of C. V. Clickner & Co. for four years, when 
he purchased the business himself and continued in it until 1S77. During this time he had 
taken the regular medical course of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia Col- 
lege, Xcw York, from which he 
was graduated in 1S69, and for 
a time practised in Hoboken. 
After experimenting for several 
years with talcum, the silicate 
of magnesia (a sxibstance which, 
although known for many cen- 
turies, had been entirely over- 
looked by therapeutists and der- 
matologists) Dr. Fehr succeeded 
in perfecting his celebrated 
preparation of compound tal- 
cum. In 1874 it was exhibited 
at the meeting of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association at 
Louisville, Ky. ; in 1875 at Bos- 
ton, and in 1876 at the Centen- 
nial Exposition at Philadelphia 
— at all of which places it was 
given marked attention. In the 
year of 1890, on invitation of 
Dr. Wales, surgeon-general of 
the L'nitcd States Na\'\-, it was 
placed on exhibition at the Mu- 
seum of Hygiene, founded in 
the City of Washington for per- 
manent exhibition. From a 
small beginning, in 1873, it had 
grown with Dr. Fehr, in 1893, 
to be a large and still increasing 
business, extending not only 
throughout the United States, 
but to foreign lands. In 187 1 
Dr. Fehr was one of the found- 
iaticm. and at the meeting of that association in 




JUI.IVS KK.MK. 



ers of the New Jersey Pharmaceutical A 
Newark was elected vice-president. 

In 1867 Dr. Fehr married Mrs. Eiiz.i Brocpict. liy whum he had one son. Dr. Louis Julius 
Fehr, of Hoboken. His stcp.son. Dr. Edward Hroquet, is a practising physician in New York 
City. After the death of his first wife Dr. I'chr, in iS.S,^, married Antnnia, daughter of Francis 
Heger. 

James F. Morgan was born at Mystic Hridge, Conn., May 6, iS;S. He graduated from the 
Long Island College Hospital in iSf.S. He practised in jer.sey City for a number of years, three 
of which he served as a city physician. 

Hugh Thomas Adams was bom at Portglcne, County Antrim, Ireland, January, 1846, He 
was educated at Roval Academy, Belfast, Carmichael School of Medicine and (Jucen's Univer- 
sity. He practised five years in Ireland, and removed to Jersey City in 1S74. 

Robert Maitland Petric was born in Liberty, Sullivan County, X. Y., Augiist 15, 1850. His 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



ancestry on the paternal side is Scotch, while that of the maternal side is native born American 
Dr. Petrie received his early education at the Blairstown, N. J., preparatory' school, alter 
which he entered Princeton Collejfo, graduatinij with the class of '68. After completinjj his 
colleg-iate education he entered the medical department of the University of the State of Penn- 
sylvania, at Philadelphia, and was graduated therefrom in 187 1. Relocated at Jacksonville, 
Fla., where he began active practice of his profes.sion, and where he remained one year. In 
the spring- of 1S72 he came to Jersey City to reside, and has continued here ever since. 

Dr. Petrie is a member of the Union League Club and the Pathological Society of the State 
of New Je.rsev. In 1S73 and 1874 he was appointed city physician. He is also a member of 
Jersey City Lodge, No. 76. F. and A. M.; Court Onward, Independent Order of Foresters ; Negon- 
tatogue Tribe, No. 161, I. O. R. M. ; Lincoln Lodge, No. 36, K. of P.; Industrial Council, U. ( ). 
A. M., and Sumner Lodge, I. O. O. F., being one of the charter members of the latter. On 
April 30, 1S89, Dr. Petrie married Miss Louise Dudley Mann, of Brooklyn, N. Y. One child, a 
daughter, has been bom to the marriage. 

William J. Cadmus was born in Bergen County, August 30,1839. He graduated at the 
New York L'niversity, and has practised in Jersey City since 1870. 

Georck N. Tibbles was born at Cooleyville, Athens County, Ohio, May 2, 1842. He 
enlisted in the Fourth Iowa Volunteers, was taken 
prisoner and escaped from Andersonville after 
seven months' suffering. He graduated from the 
New York Homeopathic College, and practised in 
Jersey City until he died. 

John Q. Bird was born at Bernardsville, Somer- 
set County, April 20, 1845. He graduated from 
the New York L'niversity Medical School. He 
was a member of the County Society, the Patho- 
logical Society and the Medico-Legal Society. He 
was police-surgeon in Jersey City for six years, 
and was police commissioner a number of years. 
He was house-surgeon in the City Hospital, and a 
general practitioner until he died. His death was 
caused by blood poisoning incurred in the line of 
duty. 

Theodore Frelinohuysfn Morris was born in 
New Brunswick, X. J., December 30, 1831. He is 
a descendant of John Morris, who was distin- 
guished as a captain under Oliver Cromwell. His 
son, Maj. Joseph Morris, was a prominent man in 
the French and Indian wars, and raised the first 

company in New Jersey, at the village of Whippany, for the Revolution. He was a m.ajor 
in the Morgan Rifles. In a report to Congress under date of Whitemarsh, December 10, 
1777, Washington wrote of the engagement between that place and Chestnut Hills; "We lost 
twenty-seven men in Morgan's Corps, killed and wounded, besides Maj. Morris, a brave and 
gallant officer, who was among the latter. He fell, shot in the mouth by a bullet that lodged 
in the back of his neck." 

Jonathan Ford Morris, son of Maj. Morris, was a second-lieutenant in his father's com- 
mand, and fought at Ticonderoga, March i, 1777. William Cullen Morris, his son, a pniminent 
lawyer and judge of the commim pleas in Hudson County, 1861-70, was the father of Dr. Morris 
The doctor received his early education in Belvidere, and took a classical course at the 
academy in that town. In 1849 his parents removed to Jersey City, and in 1S50 he beg.in llie 
study of medicine in the New York University. In 1855 he was licensed to practise. In i.'^''.'-.? 
he studied in Bellevue Medical College, taking his degree in 1S63. He was city physician .iiid 
coroner in Jersey City for a number of years, and was one of the founders of the Jersev Luv 
Hospital. He has served as physician and surgeon in all of the local hospitals. For Imir yi.irs 
he was a member of the Jersey City board of education. In 1855 he married (lertnule. d.iii'^'liter 
of Leonard Johnston, of Bergen, and eight children were born to the marriage, four ot wli..in 




ROBERT M.MTL. 



242 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 





('^"S 






fa 





EDWIN PAYSON BUFFETT. 



are living. He is a member of the Palma Club, supen-ising; medical officer of the Royal 
Arcanum for New Jersey, and medical examiner-in-chief for the Loyal Additional Benefit 

Association. He is an elder in the Wayne Street 
Reformed Church. 

Edwi.v p. Buffett, M. D., was born at Smith- 
town, Suffolk County, Long Island, November 7, 
1833. His father, Vv'illiam Piatt Buffett, was a 
well-known and prom.inent lawyer of that place, 
and for some years filled the positions of county 
judge and surrogate of Suffolk Coimty. Dr. 
Buffett's mother was a Miss Nancy Rogers. She 
was a lineal descendant of John Rogers, one of 
the Puritan martyrs who was burned at the stake 
in England in the seventeenth century. 

Dr. Buffett received his rudimentary education 
in a private school of his native place. He after- 
wards attended the Burr and Burton Seminar}', a 
preparator}- school located at Manchester, Vt. In 
1850 he entered Yale College, graduating there- 
from in 1854. After completing his college course 
at Yale he entered the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons of New York City, and was graduated 
from that institution in 1S57, the degrees of A. M. 
from Yale and M.D. from the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons being conferred upon him. Before graduation he served as interne in the 
Albany County Hospital. In 1S58 he removed to Jersey City to practise his profession, and 
has resided here continuously ever since. He is one of the few remaining of the older prac- 
titioners. His opinions on all matters pertaining to medicine and surger\- have always been of 
value to the profession. 

Dr. Buffett is a member of the Hudson County District Medical Society and the Hud.son 
County Pathological Society. He has been identified with all the local hospitals, and was for 
fifteen years visiting surgeon to Christ Hospital and for the past seven years has been surgeon 
to the City Hospital. He has been a member of 
the boards of education of the Bergen and Jersey 
City schools. He is medical examiner for the 
Royal Arcanum and the Mutual Life Insurance 
Company, and is a member of the Carteret and 
Cosmos clubs. 

Dr. Buffett is a literarj- person of no ordinary 
ability. He has written and published a number 
of works possessing great merit, besides being an 
occasional contributor to a number of leading 
journals and magazines in this country. 

On April 26, 1S64, Dr. Buffett married Miss Cath- 
arine Lewis Smith, of New York. After a wedded 
life of a few months he was deprived of her com- 
panionship through death, which occurred Sep- 
tember 14th of the same year. On June 6, 1S72, he 
married Miss AUetta Van Reypen, a daughter of 
C. C. Van Reypen, Esq., of Jersey City. On Sep- 
tember 26, 1S73, she died. One son, Edward Pay- 
son Buffett, was bom to his last marriage. Dr. 
Buffett resides at 520 Bergen Avenue. 

Theodore R. Hok.nhi.ower was born in Jersey 
City, Juno 9, 1S47. He comes of a family of medical practitioners who have been identified 
with Hudson and Bergen counties for the past centurj' and a half. His grandfather was the 




IRNIII.OWER. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



*43 



first physician who practised in Berg-cn County, while his father, William Homblower, was unc 
of the oldest and best known practitioners in Jersey City. 

Dr. Hornblower received his early education in the public schools. After completini,' his 
common school education he entered Columbia ColleT-e of New York City, and was tfraduated 
from that institution in iS66. He next devoted himself to the study of pharmacy, in which he 
^aduated in i«6S. It was then he decided to adopt the medical profession, and entered the 
Colleg-e of Phvsicians and Surgeons of New York, from whence he was g-raduated in iS-i, re- 
ceiving the degree of M. D. He located in Hoboken, where he purchased a drug store which 
he conducted for several years, practising medicine in connection with that business. In i S90 
he established an office at No. 6.^1 Bergen Avenue, where he now resides. Dr. Hornblower is a 
member of the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Society and several other organizations. 

John D. McGill, A. M., M. D., was born at Allegheny City, Pa., December 23. 1S46. His 
father, the Rev. Alexander T. McGill, D. D., LL. D., was then a professor in the Western 
Theological Seminary at that city. In T854 Dr. McGill, then a child, removed to Princeton, 
N. J., his father having been elected to a 
professorship in the Princeton Theological 
Seminary, which position he occupied 
until his death in iSSg. 

Dr. McGill received his education at 
Princeton College, and was graduated 
therefrom in 1S67. After completing his 
college course he decided to take up the 
study of medicine. He entered the medi- 
cal department of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, and was graduated in 1S70. He 
then went to Europe, where he took a 
special course at Virehow's Pathological 
Institute at Berlin, and saw surgery at the 
Prussian military hospitals during the 
Franco-Prussian War. In the winter of 
187 1 he returned to the United States, lo- 
cated in Jersey City, began active practice, 
and has resided here ever since. 

Dr. McGill has one of the most exten- 
sive medical practices in Jersey City, and 
stands high in the estimation of the medi- 
cal profession and of the people as a citizen 
and practitioner. He has been connected 
with St. Francis' Hospital as surgeon since 
187 1, and succeeded the late Dr. T. R. 
Varick as medical director of that institu- 
tion in 18S7. He has filled the position of 
surgeon at the Jersey City Hospital since 1S86. It was through his efforts that a charter was 
secured creating the Academy of Medicine of New Jersey, of which body he has been tlic 
president. He was also instrumental in organizing the Military Order of Surgeons of New 
Jersey, which order was the first one of its kind in the United States. Dr. McGill is also .i 
member of the Hudson County Medical Society, and a permanent member of the American 
Medical Association and the Medical Society of New Jersey. In 1873 he was appointed assist- 
ant surgeon to tlie Fourth Regiment, National Guard of New Jersey ; in 1S77 he was promoted 
to be surgeon ; in 1885 hewasmade brigade surgeon, and in 1886 Gov. Abbett promoted him to 
be surgeon-general of New Jersey, a position he still retains. Since his promotion he li.is com- 
pletely revolutionized tlie old methods, and has introduced the latest and most approved iil<..i- 
in ambulance and hospital service, analogous to the methods in vogue in the C iiited M.iti ■- 
Armv, New Jer.sey being the first State in the Union to adopt this modern medical service 111 
her National Guard. 

In polities Dr. McGill is a democrat. In 1879 he was elected a member of the b<iard ol 



^"^ 












f ■" 


■f ■• 


- ■ ■ y t ■ 





JOHN DALt M GILL. 



244 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 





4^^— 


^ 






t^ "■JSsv 








. -^\ 








V- 


/ 








\ 








f *-^^ 




.,' ■ 


'^rk "^ 


~--.^ 


i» 


'i^ 








- 


/" 


-i^ 




. -Ji-.i 




i 



education and served four years ; two years of that period he was president of that body. In 
1882 he was elected a member of the board of finance and taxation. In i8S4he received the 

democratic nomination for mayor, but was 
defeated by a candidate nominated by the 
Citizens' Association and endorsed by the 
republican party. 

Dr. McGill is surijeon for the Peiinsvl- 
vania, Lehig;h \'alley, and Jersey City and 
Bergen railroads, also a surgeon for the 
American Sugar Refining Company. Ho 
is a director of the Hudson County Na- 
tional Bank. 

Dr. McGill resides at 272 Montgomery' 
Street, where he has his office. He is a 
brother of Chancellor of New Jersev, Alex. 
T. McGill. Another brother, the late 
George M. McGill, distinguished himself 
as a surgeon in the United States Armv 
during the rebellion. He was one of three 
assistant surgeons of the regular army to 
receive the title of brevet colonel for faith- 
ful and meritorious services throughout 
the war. He died in 1867, of Asiatic 
cholera. His youngest brother, Samuel 
Hepburn ilcGill, a young lawyer of great 
promise in Jersey City, died in 1889, 

WiLLi.A.M J. Parker was born in Hudson 
County, N. J., and has been a resident of 
Jersey City for the past twenty years. He 
received a liberal education and read 
medicine under the preceptorship of Surgeon-General Theodore R. Varick. After attending 
Bellevue Medical College he graduated with its diploma in 1S79. In 1880 he began to practise 
his profession in Jersey City, and has continued to 
the present. He is physician to St. Francis' and 
the Jersey City hospitals. Children's Friends 
Society and the Home for Aged Women. He is a 
member of the Palma, Carteret and Jersey City 
Yacht clubs, and an officer of the National Guard. 
He is alsoa member of Bergen Lodge, K. and A. M., 
Unique Council, Royal Arcanum, Highland Coun- 
cil, American Legion of Honor, a Fellow of the 
New Jersey Academy of Medicine, a member of 
the Hudson County Medical Society. He is medi- 
cal examiner for the Mutual Accident Association 
and the American Legion of Honor. On July S, 
1889, he married Miss Annie Dunn, of Jersey City. 
John Lochnkr was horn m All)any, X. V. Ik- 
was educated at the public schocils and Alhanv 
Academy. In 1.S60 he took a course in chciiu.stry 
as a preliminary to a medical course. lie studied 
in the medical department of Union I'niversity 
at Albany. In 1869 he entered tlie University of 
New York, and took his medical degree tliere in 
1871. He was appointed a city pliysician in Jersey 

City in i87i,and held the position for nineteen years. He was tendered tlie nomination for 
assembly, but was compelled to decline. In 1890 he resigned as city physician and member of 



WILLIAM J. HARKEK 









1 


^A 














"■'~^,_ 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



245 



the city board of health. He is a member of the New York Medico-Lefjal Society, the Hudson 
County Patholoj^cal Society, and the Hudson County Medical Society. He is medical 
examiner for the Actors' Fund of America, the American Lejjion of Honor, Kni_i,rhts of Hcjnor 
the Hudson County Life Insurance Company, and the Sharpshooters' Association of New Jerscv." 
He has been physician to the Home of the Homeless since its orjfanization. He was married 
December 33, 1879, to Miss Kittie E. Hall, of Newark, N. J., but death ended a happy union 
four years later. 

While surgeon of the Veteran Company of Jersey City he received a set of resolutions, 
September iz, 18S1, thanking him for gratuitous services to the veterans who were unable to 
pay for treatment. He was instramental in having the bureau of vital statistics established 
and rendered conspicuous service during the small-pox epidemic of 1871-7;. 

Adolph Kirsten was born at GiJttingen, Germany, August 31, 18^4. He received his 
earlier education in a classical college in which his grandfather was a director. At the a"-e of 
nineteen he entered the University of Guttingen and studied medicine three years. His fatiicr, 
Adolph Kirsten, was a prominent lawyer, and his 
mother belonged to the noble family of Heusinger 
von Waldegg. In 1S30 his father participated in a 
revolutionary movement, which caused him to flee 
from Germany after having been a political pris- 
oner eight years. Dr. Kirsten located in Pough- 
keepsie. He practised there and in Albany until 
1857, when he removed to Jersey City. He has 
always taken an active interest in civic affairs. In 
1867 he was elected coroner of Hudson County, 
and while holding that position was instrumental 
in causing railroad companies to maintain gates at 
all street crossings in the city. In 1868 he was 
elected a freeholder. In 1S69-70 and '71 he was 
elected a member of the board of aldermen, and 
during his first year was chairman of the com- 
mittee which founded the Jersey City Hospital. 
In 1876 he received the republican nomination for 
director of the board of freeholders, but declined 
on account of illness. In 1850 he married Catharine 
Lochner, of Albany, X. Y., a sister of Dr. John 
Lochner, of Jersey City. Dr. Kirsten was the orig- 
inator of the Germania Savings Bank of Jersey City, which did a prosperous business tiftccii 
years, until it became insolvent through the defalcation of its treasurer Dr Kirsten \\ms ,1 
charter member of the Palma Club, and is a member of the Union League CIu!). Teuti.ni.i 
Lodge, F. and A. M., Pythagoras Lodge, K. of P., and Camp Delta, Fraternal Legion 

Edwin W. Pvlf. was born in Unionville, Chester County, Pa., September 16, 1849, anil cnmi-. 
of Quaker antecedents. His early life was that of a farmer boy, working in the summer ami 
attending school in the winter. His father, William H. Pyle, was engaged in the milling busi- 
ness and agricultural pursuits, in which young Pyle a.ssisted him. 

Dr Pyle received his education in the public schools of his native place, and -.a the St.ilc 
Normal School, located at Millcrsville, Pa., where he prepared himself for a teacher. In i>'..^ 
he was graduated from that institution, and taught for one year in the common sclmol .<( Ini-n 
ville. In 1869 and '70, inclusive, he was employed as an instructor in the cnnimerc i.il (U ■ 
partment of the Newark. N. J., Academy. While engaged in teaching in Newark l.e l..-.,n 
reading medicine under the preceptor.ship of Dr D. M. Barr In 1871 he entered l!.i:. vm.- 
Hospital Medical College, of New York City, where he spent one year. In 187-' iie enteral tl,, 
University of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia, and was graduated therefrom in 1873. rcieivir...; th. 
degree of M. D. On June 22d of the latter year he located in Jersey City, wiiere he li.is . .mi 
tinned to reside ever since. 

He is a member of the New Jersey Medical Club, and was for two years iiresulcnt .•! Ili.'i 





S\ 




-- 




1 


■ x;' 


1 


^ 


. .. .. 1 


i . A^ 


- ... J 



ADOLPH KIRSIKX. 



246 



HISTORY f)F JERSEY CITY. 



organization. He is also a member of the New Jersey Homeopathic Society, and was a 
charter member of the Carteret Club and the Jersey City Athletic Club. He is a prominent 
member of Hij^hland Lodg^e, Xo. 49, F. and A. M. 

In 1876 he married Miss Hattie A. Myers, of Jersey City. Three children have been born 
to the union, two sons and a daughter. 

Dr. Pyle has traveled extensively in every part of the North American Continent, from 
Alaska on the north to the Isthmus on the south, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific. He has 
also traveled in almost every part of Europe, seeking- knowledge and information, and giving 
the benefit of same to the medical fraternity. During the summer of 1889, while in Vienna, he 
spent almost his entire time in several of the celebrated hospitals of that city. He is a member 
of St. John's Church, and was for a number of years a trustee of that congregation. 

WiLLH.M Perry W.^tson was born in Bolton, Warren Co., X. Y., May 17, 1S54. His early 
education was obtained in the district schools of Warren County and in the Warrensburgh 
Academy, where at the age of fourteen he passed the examination of the regents of the Univer- 
sity of the State of New York. Under the direction and with the assistance of his father's 

brother, Dr. B. A. Watson, of Jersey City, 
his preparatory education was completed at 
the Blair Presbyterial Academy in Blairs- 
town, N. J., and he entered Rutgers College 
in i87i,andwas graduatedA. B. in i875and 
A. M. in course in 1878. In the latter year 
he received the degree of M. D. from the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons in X'ew 
York City, and immediately thereafter be- 
gan the practice of his profession in Jersey 
City, where he has since been located. In 
1878-9 he was assistant surgeon in St. Fran- 
cis' Hospital. In 1S81 he was one of the 
organizers of the Central Dispensary, and 
he has since had charge of the department 
of diseases of children in that institution. 
In 1883-4 he was assistant visiting physician 
and surgeon to Christ Hospital, in charge 
of the children's ward, and in 1884 he es- 
tablished and has since edited the "Ar- 
chives of Pediatrics," the first and only 
medical journal in the English language 
devoted exclusively to the diseases of in- 
fants and young children. The " Archives " 
is an octavo monthly of eighty pages, and 
is one of the most successful special jour- 
nals published. In 1884-5 he was president 
of the Hudson County Medical Society. 
In 1885-8 he was clinical assistant to the chair of diseases of children in the Xew York Poly- 
clinic. In 1889 he was appointed visiting physician to St. Francis' Hospital, and he is now presi- 
dent of the medical board. In this year he was al.so appointed consulting physician to St. Michael's 
Orphan Asylum. In 1S89 he was one of the organizers of the American Pediatric Society, of 
which he has since been the recorder and the editor of its transactions, and in 1S91 he was 
president of the " Section on Diseases of Children " of the American Medical Association. In 
1890 he co-operated with Dr. James T. Wrightson. of Xewark, in securing the enactment of 
the present medical law of Xew Jersey, which is one of the best of our State medical laws. 
Under this law Clov. Abbett aiipointed him a member of the State board of medical examiners, 
and upon the organization of the board, in September, 1890, he was offered the presidency of 
the board, but refused it to accept the secretaryship, in which position he has perfected the 
entire working details of the board, and by his zeal and executive ability has made the law a 
menace not only to the advertising quack, but to the ignorant physician, thereby securing for 




EDWIN W. PYLE. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. j^^ 

the "mixed " board the respect of all the schools of practice, not only in the State, but throug-h- 
out the United States. In 1891 he secured the repeal of the charter of the only medical c(>lle),rc 
in the State \vhii.h had dejjenerated into a cheap diploma manufactorv. 

In 1892 he secured the enactment of a law regulating the " Practice of Midwifery" in Xew 
Jersey, thus making it the second State in the Union with such a law. 

He has been a frequent contributor to current medical literature, and has acquired much 
reputation by his articles on " Cholcra-Infantum," " Therapeutics of High Temperatures in 
Young Children," "Atropine in Enuresis," and "Value of Creosote in Diseases of the Air Pa>- 
sages." He is a member of the New York Academy of Medicine, the Xew York PathoUxdcal 
Society, the Xew Jersey Academy of Medicine, the American Pediatric Society, the American 
Medical Association, the Hudson County Medical Society and the Society for the Relief of the 
Widows and Oqjhans of the Medical Men of Xew Jersey. 

In 1882 he married Cornelia E.,the only daughter of the late ex-Congressman J. R. Worten- 
dyke, of Jersey City, X', J. 

Dr. Gordon K. Dickinson was bom in Jersey City, December 4, 1855. He is the son of tlie 
late William Leveritt Dickinson, who for so many years was superintendent of the Jersey Citv 
public schools. 

Dr. Dickinson received his early education in the public schools of Jersey City, after which 
he attended Dr. Clark's private school, known as the Mount Washington Institute, Xew Vnrk. 
When he was fifteen years of age he entered Stevens Institute of Technology', of Hoboken, X. 
J., where he took a special course, preparatory for the medical profession. At the age of 
eighteen he was examined in Washington, D. C, for photography, having been appointed bv 
the government to go to Xew Zealand to observe the transit of Venus. One week prior to his 
intended sailing his mother prevailed upon him to relinquish his appointment on account of 
his extreme youth. In 1874 he entered the medical department of the University of the City 
of New York, where he remained two years under the preceptorship of Professor Darling. In 
1876 he entered Belle\-ue Hospital Medical College, and was graduated therefrom in 1S77. In- 
stead of taking the usual lectures in college he placed himself under the private tutorage of 
Dr. Winters for three years, including a one year post-graduate course. He then served one 
year in the Jersey City Hospital, after which he began his profession in this city. He enjovs 
one of the largest and most influential medical practices in Jersey Citv. 

Dr. Dickinson was assistant surgeon to the late Dr. B. A. Watson at St. Francis' Ho.spit.il 
for four years. He is surgeon to the City and Christ hospitals. He was connected with 
the Central Dispensar\- during the existence of that institution, and with Dr. Gordon was 
one of its founders. He is a prominent member of the Palma Club and several other similar 
organizations. 

In 1888 Dr. Dickinson married Miss Louise Waterman, of Glen Spey, X. Y. Her fatlu-r 
for many years was the business partner of the late Cyrus W. Field. Three children have lici-n 
born to the happy union, all daughters. Dr. Dickinson resides in a comfortable home at X.i, 2 
Hampton Court. He has for some years made a study and a specialty of operative surgery. 

Charles E. Putnwm is a son of George Putnam, a paper manufacturer of Jordan. He w.is 
born at Jordan, Onondaga County, Xew York, Xovember 9, 1864. He received his rudimentary 
education in the common schools of his native town, after which he entered the Cazciiovia 
Seminary in iSSo, where he spent one year. In 1883 he entered the Xew York Homeopathic 
Medical College, and was graduated in 1886, receiving the degree of M. D. After spending ..:u- 
year at Ward's Island Hospital he located in Jersey City and became associated witli Dr. K. 
W. Pyle, with whom he remained a short time, having decided to reside in Xew York ti> pru • 
tise his profession. In 1SS9 he returned to Jersey City, where he has resided ever since. 

He is a member of the Hudson County .Medico-Chirurgical and the State Medical socielu-- 
He is examining physician for the Improved Order of Foresters, is a member nf Katlili^'iu- 
Lodge, K. of P., Magnolia Council, American Legion of Honor, and I. O. O. F., and ni tin- 
Carteret Club, 

On October 5, 1892, Dr. Putnam married Mi.ss Lila A. Taylor, of Jersey City. 



248 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 





• .^ 












1 •>■ 


r 




k. 


J 



WELLMAN CI. ARK. 



S. Wellman Clark was born in Xewark, X. J., May 29, 1857. His father was the late Rev. 
Samuel W. Clark, who for more than thirty years occupied the position of principal of the 

public schools at X'cwark. Early in the Seventies 
he was a local preacher in the Methodist church. 
In 1883 he was ordained. In 18S2 he removed from 
Philadelphia with his family to Jersey City, and in 
1885 to Paterson, where he resided until his death. 

Dr. Clark received his education in the public 
schools of his native place, and was g'raduated from 
the High School in 1874. After completinjj his 
education he entered the Park National Bank of 
New York City as a clerk. He remained in the em- 
ploy of that institution four years. From there he 
accepted a position as bookkeeper in the Penn Na- 
tional Bank of PhiladLli)hia, where he remained one 
year. During the years he was employed in the 
banks mentioned he began reading medicine. In 
1878 he entered the New York Homeopathic Medical 
College, and was graduated therefrom in 1881. After 
completing his medical studies he Avas made assist- 
ant surgeon at Ward's Island Hospital, New York 
City. He was after^vard promoted to the position 
of hou.se surgeon. In November, 1S81, he located 
in Jersey City, where he became .successor to the late 
Dr. J. J. Youlin's practice, which he has retained ever since. 

Dr. Clark is a member of the State Homeopathic Society of New Jersey ; the New Jersey 

Medical Club, and the Medico-Chirurgical 

Society of Jersey City. He is attending ! ' | 

physician to the Home of the Homeless. 
He is also captain of the Carteret Riding 
Club of Jersey City Heights and a mem- 
ber of the Palma Club. 

On December 16, 1S85, Dr. Clark mar- 
ried Miss Saidee M., daughter of Col. John 
N. Coyne, of Jersey City. Four children 
have been bom to the union, three daugh- 
ters and one son. Two of the children 
are now deceased, a son and daughter. 

Frank De Los Gray was born in Ricc- 
ville. Pa., July 17, 1857. He received his 
early education at the public schools of 
that town. He graduated in 1S74 from 
the Pennsylvania State Normal School at 
Edinboro and entered Allegheny College 
at Meadville, Pa., where he remained two 
years. The succeeding five years he de- 
voted to teaching school in Western Penn- 
sylvania towns. In 18S0 he entered the 
medical department of the New York Uni- 
versity. He was president of his class and 
took second prize at graduation, when he 
received his degree as M. I), in 1S83. The 
following year he spent in the Jersey City 
Hospital, and in 1SS4 a.ssociatcd him- 
self with the late Dr. B. A. Wat.son. In iS.S; he began practice alone, and has been very 
successful. On June 2, 18S7, he married Katharine H., daughter of Rev. John Atkinson, 



\ 
/ 






Z ^_ 



FRANK UK 1,1 




BURDETTE POST CRAIG. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. ' 

of Jersey City. He is one of the surgeons on the staff of Christ Hospital, city physician for the 
first district in Jersey City, port surgeon for the Guion, Red Star and American Steamship 
companies, attending: physician at St. Joseph's 
Convent and Dqjhan Home, medical e.xamir- 
er for the New York Life, Massachusetts 
Mutual, Provident Life and Trust of Phila- 
delphia, Xew Enjjland Mutual Accident of 
Boston, and the Mutual Benefit Life Insurance 
Company of Xewark, X. J. He is a member 
and trustee of Trinity Church, a member of 
Enterprise Lod>,'-e, Xo. 48, F. and A. M., and a 
member of the Cosmos Club. 

BuRDETTE PostCr.mc; was bom in Jersey Citv. 
November 13, 1S64. He (graduated from Has- 
brouck Institute in 1882, and from Bellevue 
Medical Collej,re three years later. Being under 
the legal age he did not receive his diploma 
until the fall of the year. In the summer of 

1884 he served as ambulance surgeon at the 
Chambers Street Ho.spital in Xew York. During 

1885 he was resident physician and surgeon at 
the Connecticut State Hospital of Xew Haven. 
In 1886 he located in Jersey City and has prac- 
tised here ever since. He was a member of the 
Central Dispensary- staif of Jersey City in 1886 
and 1887. In 1888 he was elected a member of the staff of St. Francis' Hospital and still 
retains the position. He is a visiting physician at Christ Hospital and secretarv of its medi- 
cal board. He is a visiting physician for the Home of the Homeless, having be'en appointed 
in 1892. From 188710 1890 he was medical e.xaminer for the John Hancock Life Insurance 
Company, and is now hlling the same position for the Mutual Reserve and the Penn Mutual 
Life Insurance companies. He is a member of the Palma and Union League clubs, St. 

Andrew's Society, the Hudson County Medical 
Society, the New Jersey State Medical Society, a 
fellow of the New Jersey Academy of Medicine, 
and a member of the Society for the Relief of 
Widows and Orphans of Medical ilen in Xew 
Jersey. 

In X''ovember, 1889, he married Isabella, daugh- 
ter of the late George R. Mackenzie, of Jersey 
City. One child, a son, has been born to them. Dr. 
Craig is a trustee of the Scotch Presbyterian 
Church of Jersey City. 

Alder Charles Muttart was bom on Prince 
Edward's Lsland, July 31, 1864. He received his ed- 
ucation in the public schools of his native place, 
after which he attended Prince of Wales College, 
from which he was graduated in 18S4. After cian- 
pleting his education he began studying medicine 
with his cousin. Dr. Carruthers, M. D., C. .M.. I- 
R:, C. P., of London, England. In the latter jxirt 
of 1884 he entered the medical department ■>( the 
Ai.iiiR iiiAnns \itii-\ki. University of the City of Xew York, and w.i- 

graduated therefrom in 1887. He then U'«k a P'.^t- 

graduate course, after which he located in Jersey City and began the practice of his pn.u-si..ii 
Dr. Muttart is a member of Bergen Lodge, Xo. 47, F. and A. M., Onward Lod.i,'e. X.. ly,. 

I. O. O. F., and Lafayette Lodge, Xo. 79, K. of P. He is phvsician of Court Pride of the Iliil. 



""^ *: 






1 


>%^ -^^ 


1 

J 


'.^ 


/" 


A' 




\ 


^ 




^--^^ 


\ \i ■ 


1 

( 


' ^. V _ 


. 1 



250 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



No. 7,560, and Court Aim, No. 8,077. Foresters, and is medical examiner for Communipaw 
Tribe, I. O. R. M. On Xovember :!4. 1887, Dr. Muttart married Miss Mary R. McLean, of 
Pictou, Nova Scotia. One child, a dauj;htcr, has been born to the marriage. 




Dr. J.i.MES Hoffman, was born at Auburn, 
Salem County, N. J., March 24, 1850. His 
parents were James Hoffman and Sarah 
Fisler, the former being of German extrac- 
tion, while the latter comes of old English 
stock. Dr. Hoffman received his rudi- 
mentary education in the common schools 
of his native place, after which he entered 
the State Nonnal School of New Jersey, 
and was graduated with honors in 1875. 
Returning to his native place, he spent 
one year as an instructor in the public 
schools. In 1876 he occupied the chair 
of English branches in the Hasbrouck 
Institute a position he retained six years. 
In 1882 he decided to take up the medical 
profession, and in October of that year he 
entered the Hahnemann Medical College 
of Philadelphia, Pa., and was graduated in 
1885, receiving the degree of M. D. He 
immediatel}- located in Jersey City. 

On November i, 1892, Dr. Hoffman mar- 
ried Miss Roberta C. Brown, of Jersey 
City. He is a member of the Union 
League Club of Jersey City, the State Ho- 
meopathic Medical Society of New Jersey, 
the Communipaw, Machaon and Meissen 

Medical clubs. He is an attending physician of the Home of the Homeless and president of 

the Communipaw Medical Club. He is also a member of Jersey City Lodge, No. 74. Dr. 

Hoffman is a member and trustee of the Hedding 

M. E. Church. 

William Ferdenand Radue was born in New 
York City, Januar}- 22, 1S62. He received an 
academic education, and entered the railway ser- 
vice. He filled positions in the Pennsylvania, Eric 
and West Shore companies. In 1SS4 he entered 
Columbia College, and a year later entered the 
medical department of the New Ycjrk University, 
graduating in 18S7. He has practised in fersey 
City ever since. He is a member of Allemania 
Lodge, No. 132, F. and A. M., and of several 
other societies. He is physician and surgeon tn 
the Germania Schutzen Bund, W. R. of N. J. 

Dr. John* Nevix was born in jersey City. Sep- 
tember 21, 1S63. He received his early educatinn 
at the Catholic Institute of this city, after which 
he entered Manhattan College of New York City, 
and from whence he was graduated in 1862, re- 
cei\-ing the degrees of B. A. and M. A. After 
completing his college course, he decided to adopt the medical profession 



JAMES HOFFMAN. 




n.LIAM FKKIIKNAM) RAHIE. 



In 18S3 he entered 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



2SI 



1 




#• 




o^ 


^ 


"^ ■ 


-/ 


V 






/ 


\ 


K 




-1 '^ 





the medical department of the University of the City of New York, and was graduated there- 
from in i8S5, rcceivinjj the de.cn'ce of M. D. He immediately began the practice of his profes- 
sion in Jersey City. In November of iS86 
he was appointed police surgeon, a posi- 
tion he still retains. He is a member of 
St. Mary's Church and several social and 
benevolent organizations. 

William F. Faison was born at Clinton, 

N. C, in 1865. He was educated at 

Davidson College of North Carolina, and 

at Washington and Lee University, in 

Lexington, Va. He received his medical 

degree at the State Medical College of 

Virginia, where he graduated in 188S. 

He located in Jersey City, and served 

two years in the City Hospital, the second 

year as house physician. He was two 

years assistant-surgeon in Christ Hospital, 

and later became emergency surgeon. On 

October 29, 1894, he married Jessie M. 

Butler, of Jersey City. 

Dr. Harris K. Simmons was bom in 

New York City, January 7, 1851. He 

received his early education in the public 

schools of that city, after which he entered 

the New York City College, from which 

institution he was graduated. In 1874 he 

began the study of medicine, and in that 

year entered the New York Homeopathic 

Medical College and Hospital, and was 

graduated therefrom in 1S77. He also attended lectures at Ward's Island Hospital. After 

receiving his degree he immediately located in Jersey City, where he has resided and practised 

his profession ever since. He is associate surgeon for 
the Commercial Travelers' Mutual Accident Asso- 
ciation of America, and is a member of the New 
Jersey State Homeopathic Medical Society. He is 
also a prominent member of the Jersey City Athletic 
Club. On January 9, 1878, Dr. Simmons married 
Miss Mary Hill, of New York City. Two children, 
sons, have been bom to the marriage. 

Henry H. Brinkerhoff was born at Rocky Hill, 
N. J., May 23, 1865. His ancestors located in Bergen 
County in 1630, and the family is one of the best 
known in the eastern part of New Jersey. He was 
educated in the public schools of Jersey City, gradu- 
ating from the High School in 1.SS3. After spending 
half a dozen years in mercantile pursuits he entered 
Bellevue Medical College, and graduated in i.-^o:: 
He spent seven months in the Jersey City lldsjv.tal 
before beginning private practice. He is a niemher 
of the H(jlland Society of New York, a member oi 
the Fourth Regiment, N. G., N. J., and w.is a ser- 
geant in Company A. He is a member of Wnocll.uul 

Lodge, K. of P., and is city physician of the fifth Jersey City district. He is a memlier "f tlu- 

city board of health, and had charge of the cholera hospital in 1S92-93. 



JOHN NEVIN. 




BRINKtkH( 



2S* 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 




Roy Inglis is the son of James Injrlis, Jr., and Ella M, Field, and is of Scotch and English ex- 
traction. He was bom in Paterson, X. J., March 28, 1S67, and received a careful education in 

public and private schools of Paterson, 
after which he went abroad, and attended 
a classical institution located at Kel.so, 
Scotland. In 1887 he entered the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons of New York 
City, and was graduated in 1890. He im- 
mediately located in Jersey City, where 
he spent eight months as a member of the 
house staff of the City Hospital. He was 
afterwards called to a similar position in 
the German Hospital of New York, where 
he also spent eight months, after which he 
went abroad, remaining three months seek- 
ing professional information in noted hos- 
pitals of Continental Europe. In 1892 he 
located in Jersey City and ehtere? upon 
active practice of his profession. 

On December 12, 1892, Dr. Inglis mar- 
ried Miss Myra Moffat AVatson, daughter 
of the late Dr. B. A. Watson, of Jersey 
City. 

Dr. Inglis is a member of the Palma and 
Carteret clubs of Jersey City and the F. 
and A. M. fraternity. He is the medical 
examiner for the American Prudential 
Life In.surance Company of Newark, and 
the Northwestern ilasonic Mutual Aid 
Society. 
Dr. John P. He.vry was born in New York City, January 23, 185S. After receiving an aca- 
demic education he entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York, and was 
graduated therefrom in 1881. He immediately 
began his profession in Jersey City and has prac- 
tised here ever since. 

In 1884 Dr. Henr\' was appointed city physician 
for the fourth district of Jersey City. He has con- 
tinued to fill that position since then. 

In 1885 Dr. Henn.- married Miss Whiteside, a 
step-daughter of the Hon. Dr. S. V. .Stout, of f ersey 
City. He is a member of the Hudson County 
District Medical Society and the Academy of 
Medicine of New Jersey. He is also a member of 
the Union League Club and several other organi- 
zations. For several years he was one of the 
attending physicians to Christ Hospital. 

Dr. Enoch Mills B.^ker was born at Irvington, 
N. J., January 9, 1861. He received his early 
education in the public schools of that phicu, and 
was graduated from the High School in i.Sj.S. 
He afterwards entered the Newark Academy, 
where he completed his studies. In 18.S6 Dr. 

Baker entered the medical department of the University of the City of New York, and received 
his degree in 1890. Before beginning the study of medicine, he filled the position of principal 
in the Salem Public School ot Elizabeth, N. J. After his graduation in medicine he immedi- 



ROY INGLIS 




JOHN I'OWLI.L HINKV. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



*53 



ately began his practice in Jersey City. Dr. Baker is a member of the Union League Club, 
Lincoln Lodge, I. O. O. F., No. 126, and Hudson Lodge, K. of P. He is a member of the 
Reformed Church of Irvington, and was 
for several years a deacon in the church 
and superintendent of the Sunday-school. 
Dr. Baker has resided in Jersey City 
since 1890. In 1S92 he married Miss Helen, 
daughter of the Rev. Dr. Ambrose, of 
Digby, Nova Scotia. He was for one year 
resident physician to Christ Hospital. 

Dr. James Wilkinso.v was born at Acer- 
ington, England, April 27, 1S37; was 
brought to this country when a child ; 
reared and educated by his uncle at New 
Brighton, S. I. ; received his education at 
the boarding school of Rev. Thomas 
Towle at Clifton, S. I., also at the classical 
school of Solomon Jennerin Henry Street, 
New York City. This was a school well 
known to all New Yorkers, and many of 
New York's famous men were educated 
at Solomon Jenner's, notably the late Ros- 
coe Conklin, and many others afterwards 
prominent in the professions. 

In 1855 he entered the office of Prof. 
James R. Wood, and matriculated in the 
same year at the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, then situated in Crosby Street. 
The subject of our .sketch was graduated 
in 1858. In November, 1S58, he settled in South Bergen (now Jersey City), and began the 
practice of his profession. Slow and laborious work it was, for the population was sparse, and 
not a paved street existed, nor even a sidewalk, except that a wooden sidewalk stretched on 

Bergen Avenue as far as the steps of Dominie 

Taylor's church. 

Dr. Wilkinson, with one exception, was the only 

physician in Jersey City from the Pennsylvania 

Railroad cut to the Greenville line, including 

Lafayette. 

After seventeen years of incessant labor, he took 

for the first time a vacation and went to Europe. 

Since that time he has been a great traveler — 

has crossed the Atlantic many times and has 

also traveled extensively in the West Indies and 

in South America. 

Failing health induced him to retire fmm the 

active exercise of his profession in 1.S.S7. 

On May 9, i860, he married Miss Li/./.ic V 

Burton, of Staten Island, and ten children, .it 

whom seven survive, were born. His two sur-iv- 

ing sons are both practising physicians in JcrM-y 

City. 

Eschewing politics altogether, the doctor h.is 

been entirely wedded to his profession, .iml h.iN 
always preferred the pleasures of the domestic circle to the allurements of .society in any sh.ipc 
He is, and has been for many years, a ruling elder in Rev. Dr. Herr's Presbyterian thiirch 





"1 


■"S 








ENOCH MILLS BAKER. 





^i.^"~^■~^v 




k 


^ 




^' 






N. 








V/X 


■^1 






—^j 



JAMES WILKINS 



*S4 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



--. 








,-^ i-t 


-\^ 


.V 


V 




"'--';■' 





GEORCE WILKINSOV 



Of late years disease of his ankle-joint has kept the doctor closely confined to his home, 
and now he restricts his practice entirely to office consultations. 

Dr. GEORt;F. Wilkinson was bom in Jersey City, 
July i6, 1S62, He was educated at Hasbrouck 
Institute, after which he entered AVilliams Col- 
lege, of Winston, Mass., where he remained one 
year. In 1S79 he entered Bellevue Hospital Medi- 
cal Colleije, and was ifraduated from that institu- 
tion in 1882. Durin;^ his medical course his pre- 
ceptor was Dr. James R. Wood. After complctin;:: 
his medical studies he went abroad, where he spent 
several months in travel in various parts of Europe. 
Durinjf the latter part of that year he began the 
practice of his profession in Jersey City. 

In 1883 Dr. Wilkinson married Miss Ida Dickin- 
son, of Jersey City. After a wedded life of a few 
months he was deprived of his wife's companion- 
ship by death. On Februar}- 22, 18S9. he married 
his present wife, who was Miss Juliet Basted, of 
Brooklyn, X. Y. Two children have been born to 
his last marriage, both sons. Dr. Wilkinson resides 
at 274 Bergen Avenue. He is a member of the 
First Presbyterian Church, and is also a member 

of the Jersey City Athletic and Carteret clubs. He is medical examiner for the Mutual Benefit 

Insurance Company and American Legion of Honor. 

Dr. Arthur Delevan DeLoxo is the son of the late Delevan DeLong, who was vice-presi- 
dent of the Third National Bank of Jersey City, and was an old and highly esteemed citizen. 
He was bom in Jersey City, Januari,- 25, iS(J6, and was educated in the public .schools. 
In 1885 he entered the medical department of the University of the City of Xew York, from 
which he was graduated in 18S8. After completing his medical course he spent eighteen 
months in Christ Hospital, after which he entered St. Michael's Hospital of Newark, wlicre 
he remained two years. In 1891 he returned to 
Jersey City and entered upon the duties of his 
profession. 

Dr. Walter AVilkixsont was bum in Jersey 
City, October 11, 1868. He was educated at the 
Hasbrouck Institute, and was graduated from that 
institution in 1886. He immediately began read- 
ing medicine with his father, Dr. James Wilkin- 
son, also with Dr. Morton Grinell, of Xew York 
City. He entered Bellevue Hospital Medical Col- 
lege, and was graduated in 1SS9. After receiving 
his degree he went abroad, and after gaining con- 
siderable experience in hospitals of the various 
cities of Europe he returned home and began 
active practice of his profession. 

Dr. Wilkin.son is a member of the Jersey City 
Athletic Club, and the First Presbyterian Cluirch. 
On December 31, i8gi, he married Miss Emma J 
Kitching, of Staten Island. 

Joseph Wolfson was born in Xew Brunswick, 
May 8, 1S60. He graduated at Rutgers in iSSo. 
and at Bellevue in 18S3, when he established hnu 




VLllK W][.klN^O.\. 



L-lf in 
Charles E. Jaechle was born in Baltimore, Md., April 7, 



.Tscy Lity. 

862. He graduated from the 




STF.GMAIK. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. ,55 

Jersey City Hijjh School, and from the New York Homeopathic College in 1S84. He located 
in Jersey City. 

Dr. Jti.iis A. Steom.^ir was bom in New York 
City, July 23, 1857. When he was fifteen years of 
age he was apprenticed to the drug business. He 
afterwards attended the Xew York College of 
Pharmacy, and was graduated from that institu- 
tion in 1877. In 1879 he opened a drug store in 
Green\-ille, which he conducted with considerable 
success. In 1SS3 he entered the medical depart- 
ment of the University of the City of New York, 
and was graduated therefrom in i886, receiving 
the degree of M. D. 

Dr. Stegmair is physician to Raymond Roth 
Home. He is medical examiner for the Royal 
Arcanum, Ladies and Knights of Honor, the 
Sexennial League, Order of Iron Hall, Odd Fel- 
lows, Knights of Pythias, Order of Chosen 
Friends and several other organizations. He re- 
sides at 77 Linden Avenue. 

Dr. Ed.mond p. Shelby, Jr., was born at Lexing- 
ton, Ky., November 25, 1866. He is a descendant 
of one of the best known pioneer families of that State. His great-grandfather, Isaac 
Shelby, was Kentucky's first governor. Dr. Shelby received his rudimentar\" education 
in private schools of his native town, after which he entered the Kentucky University, and was 
graduated in 1887. After cnmpleting his education he decided to take up the study of medi- 
cine. He entered the University of Virginia, and later the medical department of the Univer- 
sity of the City of New York, from whence he was graduated in 1891, receiving the degree nf 
M. D. In the competitive examination he was appointed to the house statf of the Jersey City 
Hospital. After serving one year as house surgeon he associated himself with the late Dr. B. 
A. Watson in the practice of medicine, which association continued until the death of 

Dr. Watson. ,. „ , ,-,,,, 

Horace Bowen was born at Jsorth Attlebur- 

ough, Mass., June 26, 1867. He was educated at 
Phillip Exeters Academy and Har\-ard Cnllege. 
and took his medical degree at the New York 
Homeopathic College in 1889. In 1890 he located 
in Jersey City with his uncle, Dr. Bowen, to whose 
practice he succeeded in May, 1893, when the 
elder Dr. Bowen died. He is a member of tlie 
Carteret and Union League clubs, and has a large 
practice. 

William L. Pvle was born in Chester County. 

Pa., June 22, 1865. He received his rudimentary 

education in the public schools of his native 

place, and at the age of fifteen years entered tile 

State Normal School at West Chester, Pa., where 

he remained three years. In the fall of 1SS4 he 

entered the medical department of the University 

of Pennsylvania, and in 1887 received his degrie. 

carrying off the third honor. He immediately 

located in Jersey City. Dr. Pyle is a brother I'l 

MORALE i!o«K.v. Edwin W. Pyle, M. D., one of the most proiuiiKiit 

homeopathic practitioners in Jersey City. 

In 1890 Dr. Pyle married Miss Louise Apgar, of Jersey City. Two children, a son am! 

daughter, have been the fruit of the marriage. He is president of the Machaon Mcdicai t hi)i 



^- ■ 


- 


^ ^ 




I,,'^ 


^ ' 




>x 


L ^^- 


I 



2S6 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 




Dr. John J. jMcLean was born in Pictou, \ova Scutia, September 3, 1858. He received his 
education at the Pictou Academy and Dalhousie Collejje of ?Ialifax. In 1S76 he entered the 

Halifax Medical CollcLfe, and was g'raduated there- 
from in 1880. While a student at the latter named 
institution he was enji^aijed in hospital work in the 
Prov-incial and City Huspital of Halifax. After 
receivinjj his dejjree, he immediately began the 
practice of his profession at Alberton, Prince Ed- 
ward's Island, and where he remained seven years. 
In 1 888 he took a course at the Post-Graduate 
School of Xew York City. In October of 1889 he 
located in Jersey City, and has resided here ever 
since. He succeeded to the practice of Dr. O'Sul- 
livan, who formerly resided in Jer.sey City. 

Dr. McLean is medical examiner for a number 
of social and benevolent organizations, among- 
which are the Royal Society of Good Fellows, the 
Knights and Ladies of Honor, the Knights and 
Ladies of the Golden Star ; he is also a member 
and examiner of Alpine Lodge, I. O. O. F. He 
resides at Xo. 2 Central Avenue. 

JOHN J. M'LE.^.v. Dr. Joseph Joh.n Craven is a son of Patrick 

Craven and Julia O'Brien, natives of Dublin, 

Ireland, and residents of Jersey City for more than forty-one years, the former having held a 

responsible position with the Cunard Steamship Company for that period. He was bom in 

Jersey Cit>-, June 27, i860. 

He received his education in the parochial schools of Jersey City, after which he attended 
St Mary's College of Montreal, from which institution he was graduated in 1879, receiving 
the degree of B. A. and M. A. The following three years were spent at St. Francis Xavier 
College of New York City, from which he was graduated in 1S82. It was then that Dr. Craven 
decided to take up the study of medicine, which he began at the College of Phvsicians and 
Surgeons. In 1887 he was graduated, receiving 
the degree of M. D. After spending one year 
in Christ Hospital as house surgeon, and six 
months in the Chambers Street Hospital in the 
out-patient department, he returned to Jersey City, 
where he began the practice of his profession. 

Dr. Craven is medical examiner for the Massa- 
chusetts Life Insurance Company, and was tor six 
years the medical examiner for the Industrial Life 
Insurance of Newark, N. J. He is a prominent 
member of the Hudson County Medical Society, 
the Society for the Relief of the Widows and 
Orphans of New Jersey, of Court General Wayne 
Foresters, the Jersey Club, and is emergency sur- 
geon of St. Francis' Hospital. 

On February S, 1892, Dr. Craven married Miss 
Isabelle Hamill, daughter of Alexander Haniill, 
a well-known citizen and iron merchant of Jersey 
City. He is a member of St. Peter's Church. 

Joseph Manuel Rector, M. D., was born in 
Charleston, S. C, September 10, 1X67, and is the 
son of the late Dr. Pierson Rector and Mary Eliza- 
beth Jordan, the former having been a practising physician of Jersey City for manv years, 
He died Januarj- 22, 1891. Dr. Joseph Manuel Rector received his early education at Trinity 





T-anw 


"-s. 


/U- 


0- 


N 


1 




-J 




V .^ 


.^ 


f~ 


A 




K 


\ - 




J ^. 


V 


t / 




'-i*- 


./ 


^ 



.lost I'H JOHN CR WKN, 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



*S7 




JOSEPH MANUEL RECTOR. 



School of Xew York City. He afterwards attended Hasbrouck Institute of Jersey Citv, where 
he prepared himself for colleg-e. In the sprinsf of 1886 he entered Columbia Colletre. and 
after a four years' course he was g;raduated with 
honors, receivinjj the degree of B. A. The fol- 
lowing autumn he entered the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons in the medical department of 
Columbia College and was graduated therefrom in 
the spring of 1S93. He immediately began active 
practice of his chosen profession in Jersey City. 

Dr. Rector is a member of Monticello Lodge, I. 
O. O. P., Highland Council, 39S, American Legion 
of Honor, the Phi Gamma Delta Fraternity and 
the Philoleian Literary Society of New York City. 

Dr. Rector's office and residence is at 100 Grand 
Street, the same as occupied by his father. 

Dr. Charles P. Opdyke is a son of the late 
Sylvester H. Opdyke, a well-known and prom- 
inent clergA'man of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
who died at Xewton, Xew Jersey, in 1S81. He 
received his rudimentary education in the public 
schools. After a preparatory course at the New- 
ton Collegiate Institute, he entered the Weslevan 
University, where he spent four years. After 
completing his college course he entered the New 
York Homeopathic Medical College, where he remained three years and was graduated. He 
immediately located in Jersey City, and for a time practised medicine with his brother. Dr. L 
A. Opdyke. He is a member of the New Jersey State Homeopathic Medical Society and the 
Machaon Medical Club of Jersey City. 

Dr. James H. Ke.nnedy is a son of John Kennedy, a prominent merchant of Lindsey for 
the past thirty years. He was born in Lindsey, Ontario, Canada, August 7, 1864. 

He received his education at the Toronto University. After completing his studies in 1SS4 
he entered McGill University of Montreal. He was graduated and received" his diploma in iS.sx. 

After practising successfully for five years at 
Guelph, Ontario, he located in Jersey City in 189;, 
where he now resides. 

He is a member of the Physicians' and Surgeons' 
Society of Ontario, and is medical examiner for 
the John Hancock Life Insurance Company and 
Court Onward, Independent Order of Foresters. 

On November 19, 1890, he married Mi.ss Anna 
Doran, of Guelph, Ontario. 

Dr. Matthew J. S.mixh was born in Jersey City 
July 24, 1859. He received his rudimentary edu- 
cation in the public schools of Jersey City, after 
which he entered St. Mar\-'s College of Montreal, 
Canada, where he remained during the years of 
1873, '74 and '75. In 1876 he entered St. Francis 
Xavier College of Xew York City, and was gradu- 
ated from that institution in 1881, receiving t!io 
degree of B. A. After completing his stiulic-. Ik- 
'^"K^ged in mercantile business with his f.alKT. 
with whom he remained for five years. In i.^-''' 
he entered the College of Phy.sicians and .'^nr 
geons of New York City, and was graduated in 1889. He was immediately made a nii.riil>er ..i 
the staff of the Central Dispensary, Jersey City, and ser\-ed in that capacity eighteen niontli- 




james h. kfnnkdv. 



25» 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 




MATTHEW J. r-MIlH. 



During that time he was also connected with St. Francis' Hospital, being still a member of 

the house staff of the latter institution. 

Dr. Smith is a member of the Hudson County 
Medical Society, and has filled the office of treas- 
urer of that body for the past two years, and is now 
serving in his second term. He is also a m.ember 
of the Alumni Association of St. Francis Xavier 
College and the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons ; also a charter member of the board of gov- 
ernors of the Hudson County Democratic Society, 
the Palma Club : also a charter member of the 
Catholic Club, and is one of the charter members 
of the Academy of Medicine of New Jersey, and 
a member of the Cathnlic Historical Society of 
the United States. 

Dr. Peter Hoff.man was bom in New York 
City in iS6i. His ancestry on the paternal side 
is German, while that of the maternal side is 
English. He received his earlier education in the 
public schools. In 1873 he entered Hasbrouck In- 
stitute, and was graduated from that institution in 
1S75. In 1S77 he entered the medical department 
of the University of the City of New York, and 
was graduated in 1881, receiving the degree of M. D. He was for two years on the house staff 
of Bellevnie Hospital. In 1882 he came to Jersey City, where he has resided ever since. He 
was for two years a member of the cit\- board of health, and is at present citv physician for 
the third district ; the latter position he has now filled for three vears. 

In 1887 Dr. Hoffman married Miss Ida X., a daughter of James Cassidv, a well-known and 
highly esteemed citizen of Jersey City. 

Seth B. Sprague, son of the late Captain Dennis Sprague and Olive A. Sprague, of Milo, 
was bom in Dexter, Me., January 12. 1840. The family was originally from England, and 
removed to Massachusetts in early colonial days. 
Seth B. was educated at Foxcroft Academy, and 
taught school five years after graduation. He gradu- 
ated with the degree of M. D. at Bowdoin College, 
Brunswick, Me., in 1867. He married Maria E. 
Kimball, daughter of the late Ezra Kimball, M. D., 
of Maine. She died in 1876, lea\'ing three children : 
Ezra K., now a surgeon in the U. S. Marine Hospital 
service ; Olivia A., a graduate of Mt. Holyokc Col- 
lege, now a teacher in Public School Xo. 7, Jersey 
City, and Seth B., Jr., now a student in the Jersey 
City High School. In 1S78 he married his second 
wife, Miss Addie L. Billington, of Jersey City, 
daughter of the late Seth Billington. By this mar- 
riage two children are living, Lily B. and Mar)- A., 
who are students at Hasbrouck Institute, Jersey 
City. Dr. Sprague practised medicine in his native 
town twenty-five years, and two years in Lcwiston. 
Me., and while in this place was professor of theorv 
and practice in the Eclectic Medical College, lie 
was associated in Milo two years with his brother. Dr. ^^ , ,, „ sPKAr.uE. 

C. D. Sprague, who is now practising in Omaha, Xeh. 

He was a congressional candidate on the (irecnliack ticket in 1.S84, and ran several hundred 
ahead of his ticket, but was defeated by the rcinililican nominee in the Bangor district. For ten 




HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 



*59 




EZKA KLMUALL 



years he was United States pension examining surgeon, and in 1887-88 was surgeon for the 

Canadian Pacifie Railroad Company, and superintendent of the C. P. R. R. Hospital at Brown- 

ville, Me. He is a member of Piscataquis Lodge, 

F. and A. M., Dirigo Lodge, I. O. O. F., and Mutual 

Lodge, A. O. L'nited Workmen, in Maine. He has 

been a resident of Jersey City since June, 1891, 

and has been actively engaged in his profession. 

He is president of the S. B. Sprague Medicine 

Company, and physician and surgeon at the Jersey 

City Dispensar}-. 

Dr. Ezr.\ Ki.\ih.\i.l Spr.\guf, son of Dr. S. B. 
Sprague, was born in Milo, Me., May 26, 1866. 
His early education was obtained in the public 
schools of his native town. He prepared for col- 
lege at Nichols Latin School in Lewiston, Me., 
and entered Bates College in 1883, graduating 
there in 1887. He studied medicine in the office 
of his father, surgeon to the Canadian Pacific 
Railroad Company. Three years later he gradu- 
ated as a doctor of medicine at the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons in Boston. After spend- 
ing a year practising in Brownville, Me., he re- 
moved to Jersey City in i8gi. In August, 1892, 
he was appointed as interne at the U. S. Marine Hospital, at Stapleton, S. I. He passed the 
competitive examination for the Marine Hospital service in April, 1893, and was commissioned 

by President Cleveland as assistant-sur- 
geon, and assigned to duty at Charleston, 
S. C. In August, 1893, he was ordered to 
assume charge of the Marine Hospital at 
Cairo, 111., and in October, 1S94, was ordered 
to Mobile, Ala. He is now in charge of 
that station. In August, 1893, he was 
united in marriage to Miss Clara R. Blais- 
dell, of Newton, Mass. She was a gradu- 
ate at Bates College in the class of '8;. 

Gilbert J. Ligxot was born in Brook- 
lyn in 1852. He is the eldest son of Julius 
LigTiot, who lived in the Greenville sec- 
tion since 1853. He received his earlier 
education in the public schools, and gradu- 
ated from the scientific department of the 
New York University in 1873, after taking 
a four years' cour.sc, receiving the degree 
of Bachelor of Science. He graduated 
from the medical department of tlic ^ame 
university in 1S76 with the degree cf puc- 
tor of Medicine. He served four uiinith-- 
in the surgical ward of Rol)^eveit lli'^i'it.ii 
under Prof. Erskine Mason, liuriii.; i.-^:'' 
and 1877 he studied at the I'.iculte dc 
Medecine de Paris, and at tlic K k. 
Allegemeines Krankenhaus Uuivcrsitv . 1 
Vienna, during 1878. After hi-- return !.• 
this city he located in the Greenville section, and built up a large practice. He is iiKiiu.d 
examiner for the Knights of Honor, Chosen Friends, Foresters, Companions of tlie F"re-t, t 




jILEKRr J. 



26o 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 




JOHN 



B. L., Schuetzenbund and other fraternal org'anizations. Kc is vice-president of the Greenville 
Building Loan Association, one of the larjjest in the State, and a trustee in Greenville Build- 

ini,'^ Loan, Xo. 2. He was appointed by the late 
Justice M. M. Knapp a commissioner for the con- 
demnation of land required for the riafht of way 
for the Bayonne section of the County Road known 
as the Boulevard. He has always taken an active 
interest in local improvements, and as executor of 
his father's estate has done much to improve the 
Greenville section of the city. 

JoH.v R. Evf;Rrri was bom in Birmingham, 
England, May 6, 1S45. His parents removed to 
Bergen township in 1850. He was educated in the 
public schools and prepared for college in Rev. 
W. H. Pendleton's private school. After complet- 
ing his studies he taught school until 1S65, when 
he entered the Long Island Medical School. He 
graduated at that institution in 1873 and began 
practice in Jersey City, where he has remained 
ever since. In 1873 he was made cit},' physician 
for the sixth district, and was reappointed in 1878. 
On May 20, 1870, he was united in marriage to Miss 
Ada J. Rapp, of Jersey City. For five years he 
was medical examiner for the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, and he is a member of 
the Jersey City Club, Bergen Lodge, F. and A. M., of the Grand Lodge, Knights of Pythias, 
Royal Society of Good Fellows and Hudson Medical Society. 

RuFUS W. PE.4C0CK. was bom near Goldsboro, N. C, June iS, 1827. His father was a 
planter in that section and his grandfather was aid-de-camp to Gen. Washington. Dr. Peacock 
was educated at a private academy in Connersville, Tenn.. and read medicine under Dr. Ar- 
buckle, of that place. He received the degree of M. I), from the Memphis Medical College. 
He was also under the tutorship of Dr. J. J. Matthews, of Paris, Tenn., two years. After 
practising eighteen years in the South he entered 
the Universit)- of New York and graduated in 1875. 
when he removed to Jersey City. When the war 
broke out he was tendered the position of surgeon 
in the Confederate army, but declined on account 
of loyalty to the United States Government. Dur- 
ing the last two years of the war he was an assist- 
ant surgeon in the United States army. In 1S70 
he married the widow of Robert McCulloch, of 
Clarkson, Tenn. He is a member of the M.isonic 
and other fraternities. 

Charles Beli. Convek^k was born at NUrwich, 
Vt., on April 2, 1842. His parents were Shubael 
Converse and Luvia Morril, of Vermont. He pre- 
pared for college at the Kimball Union Ai.adeniy 
at Meriden, X. H. In 1859 he entered Darlnimnli 
College at Hanover, X. H. During his senior year 
he enlisted in Company K of the .Sixteenth Ver- 
mont Volunteers. When they were mustered out. 
in July, 1S63, he returned to the college and gradu- 
ated. After leaving college he was apiiointed 
clerk in the office of the (piartermaster-general at 
Washingti>n. He held that position until January, 




Bellevue Hospital Medical College in 



He then studied medicine at the 
New York City, and graduated there in 187 1. He was 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. j6, 

the second resident physician of the Jersey City Hospital, serving until April, 1872. From 1S72 
to 1874 he traveled in Europe, studying- medicine in Paris for about nine months. He was 
assistant to Dr. Vondy for one year, and had a private practice until 1876, when he was ap- 
pointed county physician for Hudson County. He still holds that position. He is a mem- 
ber of George H. Thomas Post, G. A. R. His efficient service has been recognized by every- 
one in the county, and he has been re-elected by the freeholders without regard to the political 
complexion of the board from then until now. 

The following list contains a complete record of the members of the medical profession 
who have been registered in Hudson County, with the date of graduation : 

Abemethy, H. H., 1826, University of Pennsylvania. 

Abercrombie, W. H.. Feb. 29, 1872, Homeopathic Medical College, New York. 

Andrews, B. A., Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Alluntus, J. F., 1836, Germany. 

Adams, H. T., iS6g, Queens University, Ireland. 

Avery, A. G., March 9, 1840, Medical Institute, Louisville, Ky. 

Alton, C. D., 1875, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Appleton, Geo. F., March 23, 1878, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Allen, Ulamore, 1880, University of the City of New York. 

Adam, Cloris, 1877, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New' York. 

Anderson, C. T. G., 1884, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Ackerson, A. E., 1892, University of the City of New York. 

Buck, E. W., 1857, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Brost, J. G., 1868, University of the City of New York. 

Buffett, E. P., 1857, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Bowen, Horace, 1852, Philadelphia College of Medicine. 

Burdette, J. B., March, 1S56, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Bock, Emil, 1869, University of the City of New York. 

Brooks, G. L., 1855, University of the City of New York. 

Bowen, Elezer, Nov., 1854, Berkshire (Mass.) Medical College. 

Bullard, W. E., March 3, 1S74, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Blake, James S., March i, 1869, College of Physicians and Surgeons. New York. 

Bidwell, H. G., 1872, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Bell, Henry, March 19, 1874, Georgiopolitan College. 

Brieglib, Wm., March 6, 1S81, United States Medical College, New York. 

Buchly, W. C, 18S5. College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Baumann, L., 18S4, University of the City of New York. 

Briggs, Josephine S., 1S75, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Boyd, Wm. S., Jr., 1S84, University of Maryland. 

Bauman, J. J., 18S6, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Benedict, F. A., 1887, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Bull, Edward, 1888, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Broughton, L. D., Jr., 18S2, New York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Brownell, C. D., 18S8, University of the City of New York. 

Bogardus, H. J., 1883, University uf the City of New York. 

Bowen, Horace, 1889, New York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Bondy, S. E., July 23, 1877, University of Prague, Austria. 

Broderick, J. J., 1890, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Bance, M. Edith H., April 22, 1890, New York College and Hospital for Women. 

Baker, E. M., March, 1890, University of the City of New York. 

Blanchard, O. R., 1891, University of the City of New York. 

Brien, Wm. M., 1891, University of the City of New York. 

Brinckerhoff, H. 11., Jr., 1S92, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Bone, R. L., 1883, Vanderbilt Medical College, Marshall, Tenn. 

Broughton, Mark A., Feb. 22, iSSi, Eclectic Medical College, New York. 

Bevan, Jno. A., 1S70, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 



\ 



262 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

Belmer, R., 1878, University of the City of New York. 

Beatty, E. E. B., March, 1S87, University of the City of New York. 

Craig, James, 185 1, University of the City of New York. 

Case, C. H., 1868, Colleije of Physicians and Surj^eons, New York. 

Culver, J. E., 1S49, Collejje of Phvsicians and Surjjeons, New York. 

Caton, P. T., 1836, Fairfield (N. Y.) Collei,'e. 

Connell, G. B., 1S64, Univer.sity of the City of New York. 

Craven, Jno., 1865, Academy of Medicine, Baltimore, Md. 

Carrow, F., 1874, National Collej^'e of Medicine, Washin.irton, D. C. 

Cone, H. E., March 10, 1873, University of the City of New York. 

Cadmus, W. J., March 1S70. University of the City of New York 

Carey, J., 1867, Bellevue Hospital Medical CoUeiic, New York. 

Converse, C. B., 187 1, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Campbell, Huldah T., April i, 1874, New York Free Medical Colleg^e for Women. 

Clark, Wm. A., 1875, University of the City of New York. 

Crocker, P., 1876, University of the City of New York. 

Cropper, Chas. W., March, 1876, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Cahill, H. H., 1873, Eclectic Medical Clkj^-e. New York. 

Clark, J. G., March, 1877, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Culver, D. W., Nov., 1843, Castleton Medical College, Vermont. 

Clark, S. W., 1881, New York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Craig, Burdett P., 1S85, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Carpenter, A. J., March 25, 1886, Eclectic Medical College, New York. 

Cudlipp, E. A., 1886, University of the City of New York. 

Craven, J. J., Nov. i, 1887, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Connell, Jno., 1889, New York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Clark, W. J., June 13, 1889, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Corrigan, Jno. E,, Jan. 17, 1S93, University of the City of New York. 

Cooney, Jno. P., June, 1892, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Curtis, Thos. A., May, 1886, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Culver, Geo. M., July, 1894, State Board nf Medical E.xamincrs of New Jersey. 

Congdon, E. H., Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Durrie, W. A., 1846, Yale Medical College. 

DeHart, M. F., 186S, New York Medical College for Women. 

Dickinson, G. K., Feb., 1877, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Durrie, W. A., Jr., Oct. 7, 1878, New York Homei>]5athic Medical College. 

Duryee, Geo. W., 1876, College of Phy.sicians and .Surgeons, New York. 

Donance, Jno. G., 1879, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Darlington, Wm. L., 1875, Jefferson (Pa.) Medical College. 

Drain, Jno. S., 1S84, University of the City of New York. 

Doherty, Jno. W., July, 18S7, University of Vermont. 

Due, M. M., 1888, College of Physicians and Suri,'eiins. New York. 

Delong, A. D., March 6. 1S88, University of the City of .New York. 

Davies, Ja.s., Feb. 8, 1S83, Eclectic Medic.1l College of Maine. 

Drayton, H. S., 1S77, Eclectic Medical College of New York. 

Drossner, Morris, March 19, 1863, University of I 'ifcipswold, Germany. 

Doyle, Jos. M., Oct. 12, 1890, State Board of Medical E.\aminers of New Jersey. 

DeHart, Florence, 1894, State Board of Medical IC.Naminers of New Jcr.sey. 

Everitt, Jno. R., June, 1872. Long Island College Hospital, N. Y. 

Eddy, H. M., Feb., 1870. University of the City of .New York. 

Ennis, Thos., April 11, 18SS, Victoria University. Montreal. Canada. 

Elmore, W. T., Nov. 22. 1888, Dartmouth (N. H.) Collei,'c. 

Forman, S. R., 1857, College of Physicians and Svirgeon'i. New York. 

Freeman, A., 1S69, College of Physicians and Siir;:cons, New York. 

Finn, J. F., 1854, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Fry, R. W., 1872, University of Virginia. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 263 

Faber, J., University of Erlangen, Germany. 

Fry, H. D., Feb. 39, 1876, University of Maryland. 

Foote, N., 1S52, Berkshire (Mass.) Medical College. 

Ferguson, B. W., 1S78, Belleviie Hospital Medical Colleg-e, New York. 

Fuller, F. C, 18S0, New York Homeopathic Medical Collecje. 

Finnerty, J. H., 1SS4, Belle\-ue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Faison, W. F., June 29, 188S, University of Virginia. 

Finerty, Jos. W., April, 1SS9, New York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Fanning, N., Jr., 1S59, Albany (N. Y.) Medical College. 

Fletcher, Z. P., iSSS, New York Homeopathic iledical College. 

Fergu.son, J. S., April, 1S9;, State Board of Medical Examiners of New Jersey. 

Frazer, F. M., April 26, 1S92, State Board of Medical Examiners of New Jersey. 

Femold, Sarah, March 23, 1870, New York Medical College for AVomen. 

Oilman, R. B., 1S67, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Gordon, L. J., 1S75, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Golding, J. F., March i. 1S75, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Gray, F. D., 1883, University of the City of New York. 

Geary, J. C, June, 1877. Har\-ard University. 

Guerin, L. V., 1885, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Griswold, Wm., 1881, New York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Goode, L. G., 18S6, University of the City of New York. 

Grinnell, Mrs. A. S., 1885, New York Medical College for Women. 

Gray, D. T., March 6, 1852, University of the City of New York. 

Gray, Jas. E., 1885, University of the City of New York. 

Gallagher, W. C. 1886, Belle\-ue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Gilchrist, Chas., 1S92, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Grabowski, C, 1894, State Board of Medical Examiners of New Jersey. 

Homblower, Josiah, i860. University of the City of New York. 

Hunt, J. W., 1859, University of the City of New York. 

Homblower, T. R., 187 1, Columbia College, New York. 

Harkness, James, 1S62, New York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Hoper, Wm. N., March i, 1832, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Hadden, W. J., i860, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Hardenberg, D. S., May 28, 1863, Albany Medical College. 

Holt, Henry D., 1847, University of the City of New York. 

Holcombe, A. J., 1S74, Eclectic Medical College of New York. 

Hatch, W. B., 1837, Vermont Medical College. 

Hinchman, Melissa, 1878, New York Eclectic Medical College. 

Hoflfman, A. C, 1876, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Haase, H. W. A., 1881, University of the City of New York. 

Hoffman, P., 1881, University of the City of New York. 

Henry, J. P., 1881, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Holcombe, H. J., March 15, 1882, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Hommell, P., Se])t. 26, 1882, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Hillegar, W., 18S1, Albany Medical College. 

Hoffman, Jas., April 3, 1885, Hahnemann Medical College, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hunt, H. E., March i, 1882, New York Eclectic Medical College. 

Hollister, S. A., 1SS6. Cleveland (Ohio) Medical College. 

Humphrey, C. L., Jan. 1865, Geneva Medical College, N. Y. 

Hill, Chas. D., July i, 18S8, University of Virginia. 

Harder, Geo. W., April 10, 1890, New York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Hallock, H. M., 1889, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Hommel, P. E., 1S93, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Howard, Wm. (i., July, 1894, State Board of Medical Examiners of New Jersey. 

Hills, F. L. ' 

Hart, H. M., July, 1894, State Board of Medical Examiners of New Jersey. 



264 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

Inglis, Roy, Jan., 1891, State Board of Medical Examiners of New Jersey. 

Irvine, J. L., University of Louisville, Kentucky. 

Jaeckel, C. E., 1SS4, New York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Jones, Wm. F., 1S83, University of Vermont. 

Johnson, F. L., May i, 1890, Universitj- of Pennsylvania. 

Jellecker, Frank, March 2.S, iiSgr, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Jardine, Matilda A., April 19, 18S7, New York Medical College. 

Kirsten, A., 1867, University of the City of New York. 

Knuiper, F., 1875, University of the City of New York. 

Kopetschny, O. E., 1876, Jeffer.son College, Pennsvlvania. 

King, D. F., 1874, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Keating, John, Feb. 21, 1S77, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

King, Geo. W., 1S79, University of Michigan. 

Kyte, Cah-in, 1881, University of the City of New York. 

Kopetschny, O. E., Jr., 2%Iarch 6, 1886, University of the City of New York. 

Kopetschny, E. F., March 15, 1886, Belle\Tie Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Kuehne, R., May 10, 188S, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Kahn, Arthur, 1886, BerliUj Germany. 

Kelly, Jno. S., 1885, Missouri Medical College. 

Kennedy, Jas. H., 1888, McGill Medical College, Montreal, Canada. 

Kirsten, A. G., July 3, 1894. State Board of Medical Examiners of New Jersey. 

Knox, John, 1894, State Board of Medical Examiners of New Jersey. 

Lund, O. F., 1867, Harvard Medical College. 

Laidlaw, A. H., 1861, Pennsylvania Homeopathic Medical College. 

Lutkins, A. A., May 15, 1848, New Jersey State Medical Society. 

Lampson, M., 1866, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Lochner, Jno., 187 1, University of the City of New York. 

Lienau, R. B., 1870, L^niversity of Wurtzburg, Germany. 

Lathrop, C. C, 1875, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Lutkins, W. C, 1876, University of the City of New York. 

Lynch, H. H., University of the City of New York. 

Lingot, A., Feb., 1876, University of the City of New York. 

Lockwood, H.L., March 12, 1879, New York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Limebumer, C. A., Feb., 1879, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Long, H. A., 1881, Belle\Tie Hospital Medical College, New York. 

La Rue, Frank, 1881, University of the City of New York. 

Loomis, Albert J., 1884, Bellevue Ho.spital Medical College, New York. 

Lewis, W. C, Jr., 1880, University of Pennsylvania. 

La Vence, Geo. W., 1889, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Love, J. W., College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Law, Chas. K., April, 1893, University of the City of New York. 

Mitchell, H., 1866, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Morris, Theo. F., March 5, 1863, Bellevue Hospital Medical College. New York. 

Morgan, J. F., June 30, 1S68, Long Island College Hospital, New York. 

McBride, L. A., May, 1871, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

McDowell, J. C, March 10, 1875. University of Maryland. 

Miller, M. A., 1863, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

McGill, J. D., 1S70, University of Pennsylvania. 

Murray, D., March i, 186S, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Moore, C. H., 1873, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

McLoughlin, T. J., College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

McNeil, C. H., Feb. 29, 1S72, New York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Macwithey. E. L., March i, 187 1, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

McNeil, D., 1S41, Albany Medical College. 

Mackey, W. J., 1875, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Mallaliew, A. W., 1875, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Morris, S. V., Feb, 21, 1877, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 265 

MacMartin, D., March i, 1S7;, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Xew York. 

MacBride, J. C, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

McXaughton, Geo., Feb. 28, 1S7S, Bellevue Kospital Medical College, Xew York. 

Moelling, P. A., 1S78, University of the City of Xew York. 

Morrow, Benj. R., 1879, University of the City of Xew York. 

McDonald, F. C, Jr., Feb. 1S80, University of the City of Xew York. 

Mabon, Wm., Aug. i, 1S81, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, Xew York. 

McAdoo, R. M., 1 88 1, College of Physicians and Surgeons, X'ew York. 

Metcalf, G. R., College of Physicians and Surgeons, Xew York. 

Means, V. C. B., 1881, University of the City of Xew York. 

Moorehouse. E. W., March 7, 18S2, University of the City of Xew York. 

McDowell, W. J., March 3, 1S74, University of Maryland. 

McKenzie, W. \'., 1884, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Xew York. 

Muzzy, A. T., 1S79, College of Physicians and Surgeons. Xew York. 

Macmillan, J. W., 1S86, Xew York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Muttart, A. C, 1SS7. University of the Cit>- of Xew- York. 

McFarlane, A., 18S7, Albany Medical College. 

Montmarquet, J., 1889. College of Physicians and Surgeons, Xew York. 

McLean, J. J., iSSo, Halifax Medical College. 

Merrins, Edw. M., 1S90, University of the City of Xew York. 

Mitchell, Mary E., ilay, 1S90. Woman's Medical College of Xew York Infirmari-. 

Mulvaney, Edw., 1S91, University of the City of Xew York. 

Meisgeir, E. B., 1891, Belle\-ue Hospital Medical College, Xew York. 

Murphy, F. K. 

McLaughlin, Geo. E., 1S91, University of the City of Xew York. 

Muttart, G. W., 1S92. University of the City of Xew York. 

Morris, A. F., 1S93, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, Xew York. 

McCann, H. H. M., July 2S, 1892, State Board of Medical Examiners of Xew Jersey. 

Masten, H. B., 1S93, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Xew York. 

Newell, W. H., 1859, Universitv of Pennsvlvania. 

Noble, F. E. ' ' . " " 

Nevin, J. L., 1887, Xew York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Nevin, J. J., March 6, 18S6, University of the City of Xew York. 

Newell, Jennie W., 1887, Xew York Medical College. 

Nelden, A. L., 1S87, Xew York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Nevin, W. R., Xew York Homeopathic Medical College. 

O'Callaghan, J. C. 1S62. University of the City of Xew York. 

Opdyke, L. A., Xew York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Ouleus, M., 1S79, University of the City of Xew York. 

O'Grady, J. F., 1S80, Long Island Medical College, X. Y. 

O'SuUivan, P., March 8, 1887. University of the City of Xew York. 

Opdyke, C. P., April, 18S9, Xew York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Oestmann, A. \V.. University of Leipzig, Germany. 

Pj"le, E. W., March. 1873, University of Pennsylvania. 

Petrie, J. A., 1S66, University of Pennsylvania. 

Petrie, R. M., March, 186S. University of Pennsylvania. 

Pendergast, J. J., 1S6S, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Xew York. 

Paul, James, 1S64, University of Glasgow. 

Pettigrew, F. W., 1S45. .M. R. C. I. of England. 

Peacock, R. W., University of the City of Xew York. 

Peck, E. E., Feb., 1S79. Bellevue Hospital Medical College, Xew York. 

Parker, Wm. J.. Feb., 1S79, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, Xew York. 

Pearson, J. C, June 29, 1S75, University of Vermont. 

Peflfer, H., 1S83, University of the City of Xew York. 

Putnam, C. E., 18S6, Xew York Homet>patliic Medical College. 

P}-le, Wm. L., 18S7, University of Pennsylvania. 

Paddock, X. J., 1889, University of the City of Xew York. 



266 HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 

Potter, G. E., June, 1880, Eclectic Medical C(>lle},'e, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Poole, L. E., April, 1890, New York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Parsons, J. C, University of the City of New York. 

Pollard, J. E., July, 1894, State Board of Medical Examiners of New Jersey. 

Pruss, E. E., Jan., 1894, State Board of Medical Examiners of New Jersey. 

Quimb)', I. N., 1S58, Universit}- of the City of New York. 

Reich, J., July 23, 1S60, University of Pesth, Hunjjary. 

Reive, D. L., 1S45, University of the City of New York. 

Rugg, G. S., March, 1S63, Collcj^e of Physicians and Sur<^eons. New York. 

Rae, Walter, 1876, University of the City of New York. 

Rickerts, E. C, March 2, 1876, New York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Rector, P., May 28, 1S63, Albany Medical College. 

Rachel, G. W., March, 1S74, College of Physicians and Surgeons. New York. 

Rothe, C. G. L., Eclectic Medical College of New York. 

Roth, E., Feb. 24, 1S80, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Redmond, M. C, June, 1881, University of the City of New York. 

Rosenkrans, J. H., March, 1883, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Russell, ^Vm. H., 1877, University of the City of New York. 

Rushmore, E. C, 1886, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Radue, ^V. F. Von, University of the City of New York. 

Rechardt, H. J., Feb., 1S76, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore, Md. 

Renwick, A, G., March, 1890, University of the City of New York. 

Ramsey, M. E., March 7, 1S89, Medical College of Ohio. 

Rector, J. M., 1893, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Robertson, F. C, July, 1894, State Board of Medical Examiners of New Jersey. 

Rowe, S. A., May, 1894, University of the City of New York. 

Stout, S. V. W., 1868, Ccjllege of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Sherman, O. T., 1S66, University of the City of New York. 

Shelton, C. S., 1847, Yale Medical College. 

Selnow, F., 1861, Goppingen, Germany. 

Skellenger, E. B., 1875, College of Phy.sicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Seward, F. W, 1866, University of Vermont. 

Sanderson, L., 1869, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Schmetzer, G., 1877, University of the City of New York. 

Seagram, T., 1832, Bartholomew Hospital, London, Eng. 

Simmons, H. R., 1877, New York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Senderling, P. M., 1856, University of Pennsylvania. 

Stephenson, A. L. W., 1865, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Swan, A. T., 1879, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Searle, S. T., Jr., 1880, Bellevue Hospital Medical College. New York. 

Shelton, C. H., March 5, 18S0, New York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Strubel, J., March, 1880. New York Eclectic Medical College. 

Straughn, F., 1870, University of Mar\iand. 

Smith, H. M., 1871, College of Physicians and Surgeons. New York. 

Salter, Jos. E., March, 1S81, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Sherwood, H. De L., 1882, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Schulte, C. G. A., May, 18S2, S. M. R., N. C. 

Sanborn, J. L., 1885, University of the City of New York. 

Stegmair, J, A., 18S6, University of the City of New Y(jrk. 

Steele, G. E.. May 13, 1886, College of I'hysicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Schierholz, E., March 11, 1882. University of the City of New York. 

Snyder, C. F., 18S7, New York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Silvers, G. M., March, 1887, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Shain, F., March, 1882. Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. 

Small, Edw., 1SS5, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore, Md. 

Steffens, Jno., March, 1S.S4, New York Eclectic .Medical College. 

Smith, Hukla, Feb., 1SS8, New York Eclectic Medical College. 



HISTORY OF JERSEY CITY. 267 

Smith, M. J., Xov.. 1S89, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Scofield, R. J., 1S90, University of the City of New York. 

Sexsmith, G. H., 1S90, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Xew York. 

Shellby, E. P., Jr., 1S91, University of the City of New \''ork. 

Sprague, S. B., April, rHg;, State Board of Medical Examiners of New Jersey. 

Spence, Henry, 1S92, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Sprague, E. K., iJ<9o, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Boston, Mass. 

Seiners, E. M., April, 1893, University of the City of New Y'ork. 

Sherrill, Geo., Jr., 1891, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New \''ork. 

Tibbies, G. A., March, 1S67, New York Homeopathic Medical College. 

Toepfer, A., 1874, University of the City of New Y'ork. 

Tyler, L , March, 1S76, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Titus, G. E., Feb., 1877, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New Y'ork. 

Treskatis, G., Medical College of Albany, N. Y. 

Taylor, C. O., March, 1879. Belle\-ue Hospital Medical College, New Y'ork. 

Treskow, H., June, 1S79, University of Medicine and Surger}', Philadelphia, Pa. 

Thomson, J. W., 1875, Hahnemann Medical College of Pennsylvania. 

Thomas, J. P., 1887, University of Georgia. 

Varick, Theo. R., 1846, University of the City of New York. 

Van Saun, J. D., 1873, Bellevue Hospital ^Medical College, New .York. 

Viers, C. O., 1867, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New Y'ork. 

Vondy, J. H., 1S51. University of the City of New Y'ork. 

Van Houten, J. W., 1S70, University of Pennsylvania. 

Van Vorst, John, March, 1874, Belle\Tie Hospital Medical College, New Y'ork. 

Varick, W. W., June, 1S76, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New Y'ork. 

Van Home, J. P., March, 1877, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New Y'ork. 

Van Tine, M. H., Jan., 1878, New York Eclectic Medical College. 

Vreeland, H., 1885, University of the City of New Y'ork. 

Van De Venter, J., 1S81, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Van Horn, A. F., 1884, University of Pennsylvania. 

Valentine, E. J. G., 1894, State Board of Medical Examiners of New Jersey. 

Watson, B. A., March. 1861, University of the City of New Y'ork. 

Wolfe, Theo. F., March, 1868, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New Y'ork. 

Wilkinson, James, Nov., 185S, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New Y'ork. 

Whittemore, F. H., Feb., 1874, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New Y'ork. 

Waldmeyer, J. R., May, 1865, S. M. R., N. C. 

Wright, W. P., 1875, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Watson, W. P., 1878, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New Y'ork. 

Warner, W. B., 1882, University of the City of New Y'ork. 

Wilkinson, George, March, 1S82. Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Ware, W. P., March, 1SS3. New York Eclectic Medical College. 

Winges, C, May, 1883, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New Y'ork. 

Wolfson, Joseph, March, 1883, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New Y'ork. 

Weeks, James, 18S5, University of the City of New Y'ork. 

Willis, Mar)- A., March, 1SS6, New York Eclectic Medical College. 

Wilson, W. S., March, 1861, Jefferson Medical College. Pa. 

Warwick, H. S., Oct., 1886, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Whalley, T., 1855, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, England. 

Williams, T. D., May, 18S5, University of Pennsylvania. 

West, J. E., March, 1867, Medical College of Ohio. 

Walter, A. P., March, 1S84. College of Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore, Md. 

Wilkin.son, W., Oct., 1SS9, Belle\-ue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

White, Wallace, 1894, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

Yerrington, C. II., 1870, University of the City of New York. 

Young, C. A., 1874, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

Youlin, J. J., 1S54, Homeopathic Medical College, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Zabriskie, G. A., 1881, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New Y'ork. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

the origin and growth of the city churches — how the leading organizations were 
started and how they grew. 

The Dutch Refor.med Church of Bergen.* 

ESSgS^HE earliest settlers of Hudson County were from the Netherlands. They found 
fe;'''?Cj3 J good farming lands where New York Bay washes the Jersey shore at Communipaw, 
s'^IlT^ 3 and then climbed the hill to establish a town at Bergen. Bergen Square was the 
fegr^tij centre of the original village, which was laid out in four blocks — bounded by Newkirk 



and Vroom streets, Tuers and Van Reypen avenues. This was probably stockaded for defense 
against Indians, and the townfolk congregated within the lines for mutual protection. Out- 
side of the enclosure each citizen had allotted to him a farm, and a wood lot, so that the 
agricultural pursuits of fatherland might be continued in the adopted home. The church was 
not forgotten in the distribution. There was not room for a church site within the stockade. 
bvit on the comer of Vroom and Bergen avenues a lot large enough, as it was then thought, 
for a burial plot as well, was set aside for the future edifice. At the same time four acres, 
including the site of the present church, were allotted to the future minister for a parsonage, 
while a meadow lot in South Bergen and a wood lot in North Hudson were further set apart 
to free the dominie incumbent from worldly care. 

Just when the church was organized is not certainly known. 

The oldest record in possession of the corporation is a list of members dated 1664, It is 
not a contemporaneous record, but a copy in the handwriting of Dominie Selyn, of the church 
in New York City, made some 30 years after the first mentioned date. The record of members 
who subsequently united with the church is complete down to the present year, with the 
exception of a hiatus covering the few years of confusion resulting from the American 
Revolution. 

The records of baptisms are, with the same exceptions, complete from 1666, and the 
marriage records begin in 1665. 

A subscription list bearing da