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3 3433 08181645 









Librarian of Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 


— 1 i—t i' i * 





iri£Ni:W YORK 



R 1914 . , 



Physical Features, Geology, etc. — Juniata River — Principal Mountains — 
Geological Formation — Coal and Iron — Early Mining — Limestone, Sand- 
stones — Clay, Ocher, Lead — Glass Sand 1-13 


Aboriginal Inhabitants — Relics in Juniata County — Indian Groups: The Five 
Nations, the Susquehannas, the Juniatas, the Tuscaroras .... 14-25 


The Era of Settlement — First White Men in Pennsylvania — First Mention 
OF the Juniata Valley — Indian Towns — The Squatters — George Croghan 
— Murder of Armstrong, Smith and Arnold — Land Office Opened . . 26-42 


First Counties in Pennsylvania — Huntingdon County — Location of County 

Seat — First Officers — Reduction in Size — Present Area 43-67 


Huntingdon County: Present Townships — List of Post Offices — Rural Free 

Delivery Routes 68-94 


Mifflin County — Included in Ccmberi AND;CouNT'i">r-'Qi5'3ANiZATiON of Town- 
ships — First Jail — CourtHou^cs— JREp<!;cTiojjs'ij6'ARiEii^CiviL List . . 95-115 

CHAPTEll'VlI •;{ ■ 

Mifflin County: Townships, Borouchs.^tc ^vLew:st0wn — McVeytown — New- 
ton Hamilton — Allensville — BEi.rfiv-.LLFr^BttkN'fiAM — Granville — Mait- 
land — Milroy — Reedsville — Wagner' — Yeagertown 116-141 

Juniata County — First Court House and Jail — Civil List 142-152 


Juniata County: Townships, Boroughs, etc. — Present Thirteen Townships — 

The Boroughs: Mifflintown, Mifflin, Port Royal, Thompsontown 153-180 



Perry CoiiNTY — First Jail — Court House — Railroads — Civil List . . . 181-192 


Perry County: Townships, Boroughs, etc. — The Nine Boroughs: New Bloom- 
field, Blain, Duncannon, Landisburg, Liverpool, Marysville, Millers- 
town, Newport, New Buffalo — Shermansdale 193-226 


Military History — Early Forts — Indian Raids — The Revolution — Juniata 

Companies — Frontier Forts 227-249 


Military History, Continued — War with Mexico — The Civil War — Sketches 

of Regiments 250-276 


Roads and Transportation — Indian Trails — First Public Highways — Turn- 
pikes — Early Stage Routes — Canals and Railroads 277-291 


Finance and Industries — Early Furnaces and Forges — Duncannon Iron 
Works — Logan Iron and Steel Company — Standard Steel Works — Mann's 
Axe Factory — Shoe Factory — Car Works — J. C. Blair Company — Silk 
Mills — Glass Sand — Coal Mining — Water Power and Electricity — Agri- 
cultural Societies and Fairs — Farmers' Institutes 292-310 


The Professions — Early Courts — Prominent Members of the Bar — The Med- 
ical Profession — MtticAL'SoCifiTiKs: ,*.'*:.;■: 311-327 

chapter; it^ii 

Educational Development — ^The BXRi-t .SdiiooLS — Private Academies — Free 
School System iNAUGURATED^-JiiNiATA College — Lewistown Library — 
The Press — Historical fSo'cte?y, .V; .'"; ; ;. 328-342 

chapter XVIII 
Religious History — First Missionaries — The Various Denominations . 343-375 


Charities and Fraternities — Loysville Orphans' Home — Huntingdon Home 
FOR Orphans and Friendless Children — Lewistown Hospital — Blair Me- 
morial Hospital — Benevolent and Fraternal Societies .... 376-380 


THE present work, "A History of the Juniata Valley and Its People," 
presents in the aggregate an amount and variety of genealogical and 
personal information and portraiture unequalled by any kindred pub- 
lication. No similar work has ever before been presented, and it contains 
a great amount of ancestral history never before printed. The object, 
clearly defined and well digested, is threefold : 

First. To present in concise form an outline history of the Juniata 

Second. To preserve a record of its prominent present-day people. 

Third. To present through personal sketches the relation of its promi- 
nent families of all times to the growth, singular prosperity and widespread 
influence of the Juniata Valley, Pennsylvania. 

Unique in conception and treatment, this work constitutes one of the 
most original and permanently valuable contributions ever made to the 
social history of an American community. In it are arrayed in a lucid and 
dignified manner all the important facts regarding the ancestry, personal 
careers and matrimonial alliances of those who, in each succeeding genera- 
tion, have been accorded leading positions in social, professional and busi- 
ness life. It is not based upon, neither does it minister to, aristocratic 
prejudices and assumptions. On the contrary, its fundamental ideas are 
thoroughly American and democratic. The work everywhere conveys the 
lesson that distinction has been gained only by honorable public service, or 
by usefulness in n-'-^-ate station, and that the development and prosperity 
of the region of wnich it treats have been dependent upon the character of 
its citizens, and in the stimulus which they have given to commerce, to in- 
dustry, to the arts and sciences, to education and religion — to all that is 
comprised in the highest civilization of the present day — through a con- 
tinual progressive development. 

The inspiration underlying the present work is a fervent appreciation 
of the truth so well expressed by Sir Walter Scott, that "there is no heroic 
poem in the world but is at the bottom the life of a man." And with this 

goes a kindred truth, that to know a man, and rightly measure his character, 
and weigh his achievements, we must know wlience he came, from what 
forbears he sprang. Truly as heroic poems have been written in human 
lives in tlie paths of peace as in the scarred roads of war. Such examples, 
in whatever line of endeavor, are of much worth as an incentive to those 
who come afterward, and as such were never so needful to be written of 
as in the present day, when pessimism, forgetful of the splendid lessons 
of the past, withholds its efforts in the present, and views the future only 
with alarm. 

Every community with such ample history should see that it be worthily 
supplemented by Genealogical and Personal Memoirs of its leading fam- 
ilies and prominent citizens. Such a work is that which is now presented. 
And, it should be admitted, the undertaking possesses value of the highest 
importance — in its historic utility as a memorial of the development and 
progress of the commimity from its very founding, and in the personal 
interest which attaches to the record made by the individual. On both 
these accounts it will prove a highly useful contribution to literature, and 
a valuable legacy to future generations. In the production of this work, 
no pains have been spared to ensure absolute truth — that quality upon 
which its value in every feature depends. The material comprising the 
genealogical and personal records of the active living, as well as of the 
honored dead, have been gathered by men and women experienced in such 
work and acquainted with local history and ancestral families. These have 
appealed to the custodians of family records concerning the useful men of 
preceding generations, and of their descendants who have lived useful and 
honorable lives. Such custodians, who have availed themselves of this 
opportunity of having this knowledge placed in preservable and accessible 
form, have performed a public service in rendering honor to whom honor 
is due, and in inculcating the most valuable and enduring lessons of patriot- 
ism and good citizenship. 

No other region in the United States presents a field of greater interest 
for such research. Its history reaches back to the beginning days of the 
Nation. It is exceedingly rich in Indian antiquities, and here the aborigines 
have left many of their most indelible marks. It was the scene of historic 
events during the French occupation, and here The Great Washington, as a 
young man, came to take part in scenes which led to the French expul- 
sion. The immigrant settlers in this region were of the best blood and 
sinew. They fought valiantly and endured the most dreadful privations 
in the early days, and later they were a part of the very backbone of the 
Patriot Army in the Revolution. Later yet. the sons of these worthy sires 
bore their full share in the maintenance of the Union, shedding their blood 
upon many a glorious field, including that of Gettysburg, in their own 

State, destined to form a brilliant page in the history of the Nation to the 
end of time. The restoration of peace after the close of the Civil War 
witnessed a remarkable development, and has made this region one of the 
most wonderfully valuable in the whole land, its natural resources and 
the products of its labor entering into every phase of commercial and in- 
dustrial life. 

These records are presented in a series of independent genealogical and 
personal sketches relating to lineal family heads, and the most conspicuous 
representatives in the present generation. There is an entire avoidance of 
the stereotyped and unattractive manner in which such data are usually 
presented. The past is linked to the present in such style as to form a 
symmetrical narrative exhibiting the lines of descent, and the history of 
distinguished members in each generation, thus giving to it a distinct per- 
sonal interest. That these ends have been conscientiously and faithfully 
conserved is assured by the cordial personal interest and recognized ca- 
pability of the supervising editors, who have long pursued historical and 
genealogical investigations with intelligence and enthusiasm. The pub- 
lishers are under special obligations to John W. Jordan, LL.D., librarian 
of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Prof. Jacob H. 
Brumbaugh, of Huntingdon ; Mr. W. H. Sponsler, of New Bloomfield ; and 
Mr. George R. Frysinger, of Lewistown. 

In order to insure greatest possible accuracy, all matter for this work 
was submitted in typewritten manuscript to the persons most interested 
for correction. If, in any case, a sketch is incomplete or faulty, the short- 
coming is ascribable to the paucity of data obtainable, many families being 
without exact records in their family line; while, in some cases, represen- 
tatives of a given family are at a disagreement as to names of some of their 
forbears, important dates, etc. It is believed that the present work, in 
spite of the occasional fault which attaches to such undertakings, will 
prove a real addition to the mass of annals concerning the historic families 
of the Juniata Valley, and that, without it, much valuable information 
would be inaccessible to the general reader, or irretrievably lost, owing to 
the passing away of custodians of family records, and the consequent dis- 
appearance of material in their possession. 

The Publishers. 

History of the Juniata Valley 


The Juniata River — Its Tributaries — Origin of the Name — General Surface of the 
District Inchided in this Work — Principal ^lountains — How Mountains Are 
Formed — Geological Societj^ of Pennsylvania — Geological Surveys — Table Show- 
ing Geological Formations — Economic Geolog}- — Coal — Iron Ores — Their Charac- 
ter and Distribution — Early ^Mining Operations — Limestone — Sandstones — Clay — 
Ocher — Lead Ore — Glass Sand. 

THE Juniata river is formed of two Ijranches — the Little Juniata 
and the Raystown branch. The former rises near HoUidays- 
burg, in Blair county, flows northeast to Tyrone, where it 
makes an abrupt turn to the southeast, forming part of the boundary 
line between Huntingdon and Blair counties, and follows that general 
direction across Huntingdon county. The Raystown branch has its 
source a short distance west of Raystown in Bedford county. Its 
general course is northeast until it unites with the Little Juniata about 
half way between Huntingdon and ^Nlapleton to form the Juniata river 
proper. The principal tributaries of the Little Juniata are Bald Eagle, 
Spruce, Shavers and Standing Stone creeks from the north, and Canoe 
and Clover creeks from the south. Coffee run, James and Great Trough 
creeks are the only tributaries of consequence to the Raystown branch. 
From the junction of the two branches, the main stream of the Juniata 
flows southeast for some fifteen miles, forming part of the boundary 
between Huntingdon and IMifflin counties. It then flows in a north- 
easterly direction through ]\Iifflin county and enters Juniata county about 
five miles east of Lewistown. From this point its general direction is 
a little south of east through the counties of Juniata and Perry until 
it empties its waters into the Suscjuehanna river near the town of 
Duncannon. The principal tributaries of the main stream from the 



north are the Kishacoquillas and Jack's creeks in JNIifflin county; Lost 
creek, Doe run and Delaware run in Juniata county; and Cocolamus 
creek in Perry county. Those from the south are the Licking and 
Tuscarora creeks in Juniata county, and Raccoon and Buffalo creeks 
in Perry county. 

"Juniata" is a word of Indian origin. As early as 1614 the Dutch 
established a trading post at Albany, New York, and soon after that 
date three men belonging to the post followed the ^lohawk river and 
by crossing the watershed to Otsego lake reached the head of the Sus- 
quehanna river. This stream they descended for some distance, when 
they crossed over to the Delaware river. They were captured by the 
]\Iinequa Indians near the Trenton Falls, but were released through 
the efforts of Captain Hendrickson, who was then engaged in exploring 
the country along the Delaware river and bay. In 1841 a map showing 
the travels of these three Dutchmen was found at The Hague. L'pon 
this map, in the region of the Juniata valley, is marked the country 
of an Indian tribe called the "lottecas" and some writers think this 
was an effort on the part of the Dutch map makers to write the name 
from which the modern word Juniata is derived. 

During the last half of the seventeenth century a number of maps 
were published, all showing the Susquehanna river approximately cor- 
rect, but giving very few details of the country west of that river. 
Everts, Peck & Richards' History of the Sus(|uehanna and Juniata 
valleys (p. 28) says: "On all these maps, on the west side of the river 
just where the Juniata belongs, there is the name of an Indian tribe 
called 'Onojutta Haga' — a name which beyond all doubt contains the 
root of the word from which 'Juniata' is derived. 'Haga' is the Mohawk 
word for people, tribe or nation; the first part means a projecting 

Throughout the four counties embraced in this work — Huntingdon, 
Mifflin, Juniata and Perry — the surface is generally broken or hilly. 
Bald Eagle ridge forms the northwestern boundary of Huntingdon 
county, extending from Tyrone to the Center county line. Farther 
east, along the eastern side of Spruce creek, is Tussey's mountain. 
Warrior's ridge crosses Huntingdon county near Petersburg. Standing 
Stone and Jack's mountains form a considerable portion of the boun- 
dary line between Huntingdon and ]Mifflin counties. Shade mountain, 


east of Lewistown, is a broken range extending from Snyder county 
southwest into Juniata and Huntingdon counties. The Blue ridge 
forms part of the boundary between Mifflin and Juniata counties. 
Tuscarora mountain runs along the line between Juniata and Perry, 
and also forms part of the boundary between the counties of Hunting- 
don and Franklin. Southeast of the Tuscarora range is the Cone- 
cocheague hill. Through the central part of Perry county run the 
Bowers mountain and the Limestone ridge; northeast of the Juniata 
river is Half Falls mountain; in the southeastern part of the county 
are the Peters and Cove mountains, while along the southern border, 
separating it from Cumberland county, runs the Blue mountain. The" 
general direction of these mountain ranges is from northeast to south- 
west and between them are fertile valleys of varying width, which 
constitute the agricultural districts of the four counties. 

Mountains have been formed upon the earth's surface either by 
a lateral pressure of the contracting earth, or by the erosion of super- 
ficial waters. The first of these causes is based upon the theory that, 
during the process of formation and development, the interior of the 
earth cooled more rapidly than the exterior and the outside of the 
earth, following the contracting interior, was subjected to a powerful 
lateral pressure which continued until the horizontal thrust caused 
a yielding or upheaval, resulting in the formation of an elevation or 
mountain range. Several of these ranges lying close together and 
approximately parallel to each other constitute a mountain system. 
Early geologists believed and taught that the tremendous lateral 
pressure upon the earth's surface brought about a great convulsion of 
nature and the sudden formation of mountains. Those of more modern 
days teach that the evolution of mountains was a slow process, thou- 
sands or even millions of years having been required to build up such 
a system as the Appalachian, to which the mountains of Pennsylvania 
belong. This theory is sustained by the fact that in many instances 
streams have cut through mountain ranges, a phenomenon that can be 
explained only by the supposition that the elevations rose so gradually 
that the streams were able to cut them down and thus maintain their 
course. Some geologists insist that the process is still going on and 
that as the earth continues to grow colder the lateral pressure will 
add to the height of existing mountains, or new ones will be formed. 


Regarding the second agency — the erosion by superficial waters — 
it is generally conceded that "Isolated peaks, all cross-valleys, all ridges 
have been produced by erosion, and even sometimes where originally 
valleys existed now are mountains." Careful estimates show that the 
sediment carried by the Mississippi river lowers the surface of the 
entire basin drained by that stream and its tributaries one foot every 
five thousand years. How a similar work is carried on by the Juniata 
river is shown by E. W. Claypole, who was connected with the second 
geological survey of Pennsylvania. On page 39 of Report F-2, he 

"But very few people have any idea of the amount of work done 
by a single river like the Juniata in transporting the land into the sea. 
In ordinary weather, a gallon of Juniata water carries about 8 grains 
of earthy sediment, or one pound for every 100 cubic feet of water. 

"At Millerstown, the river is about 600 feet wide and 4 feet deep, 
with a current flowing about two miles an hour; that is, 24,000,000 
cubic feet of water pass Millerstown every hour, carrying 240,000 
pounds (120 tons) of rock sediment. In other words, 1,000,000 cubic 
yards of the rock waste of Juniata, Mifflin, Huntingdon and Blair 
counties pass through Perry county down the Juniata river to the sea 
every year. The water basin from which this river sediment comes 
measures about ten billion square yards. Its average loss per year, 
therefore, is about the ten thousandth of a yard. If we take into ac- 
count the gravel and stones rolled down the river in flood times, and 
carried down by the ice, it will be safe to call it the five-thousandth 
of a yard. 

"The whole surface of the Juniata country has, therefore, been 
lowered say one foot in 1,500 years, or 3,000 yards in 13,500,000 
years ; that is, supposing the climate was always the same and the 
Juniata river never did more work than it does now. But as there is 
every reason for believing that the erosion in earlier ages was much 
more violent, and the river far more a torrent, the time required to 
account for the erosion of the country may reasonably be reduced to ten 
or even five millions of years, a length of time justified by the vast 
deposits of the Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary ages." 

This statement of Mr. Claypole may seem unreasonable to many 
persons who have not studied the subject, but a more startling example 
of erosion in Pennsylvania is given by J. P. Lesley, state geologist in 
charge of the second survey. He says : 


"The coal-beds which were formed just at the sea-level were ele- 
vated in some parts of jVIiddle Pennsylvania to a height eqvial to nearly 
the whole thickness of the PaL-eozoic system — that is, nearly thirty-five 
thousand feet, higher than the highest summits of the Himalaya Moun- 
tains. Frost above, and the undermining rains below, began their rapid 
work of destruction, which has lasted ever since. Nearly the whole 
area of the State east of the Allegheny Mountains lost not only its coal 
measures, but a vast majority of all the mineral strata underneath 
them. All that escaped destruction was what lay in the deep synclinal 
basins of the anthracite country, the little patch of Broad Top and the 
tip of the Cumberland or Frostburg basin. For scores of miles the 
entire Palreozoic system was excavated and planed down to the lime- 
stone at the base of the system. Along the central lines of the Kish- 
acoc|uillas. Xittau}-. Canoe and other valleys the old Laurentian system 
cannot be more than one thousand feet below the present surface. All 
the rest has been carried off. The destruction was the greatest where 
the elevation was the greatest — along the middle belt of the Appa- 
lachian Mountains. Out of this destruction were created, on the eastern 
side. New Jersey, Delaware, and the tide-water country of Maryland 
and Virginia; and on the western side, the lower half of Alabama and 
nearly the whole of Mississippi and Louisiana. In other words, the 
Protozoic mountains were wasted to form the Palaeozoic rocks of the 
interior; and the Palaeozoic mountains, in their turn, have been wasted 
to form the Triassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks of the seaboard." 

It is a well known fact that the greater portion of the world's 
mineral wealth is found in mountainous districts, and in the early part 
of the last century many persons believed that rich deposits of minerals 
were to be found in the region drained by the Juniata river. The 
geological surveys of the state have dispelled to a considerable degree 
this belief. Prior to 1835 but little was known of the geology of 
Pennsylvania. Articles on certain geological features of the state had 
been written by such men as Thomas Hutchins, John B. Gibson, George 
W. Carpenter and others, and published in scientific journals, but these 
articles represented only the disconnected researches of private in- 
dividuals. In 1832 the Geological Society of Pennsylvania was or- 
ganized with seven members, and John B. Gibson was elected president. 
It is due to the efforts of this society that the first geological survey 
was authorized by the act of March 29, 1836, which appropriated 
$6,400 annually for five years, and Henry D. Rogers was appointed 
state geologist. The legislature of 1841-42 failed to make an appropn'a- 



tion to continue the work, owing to the "financial embarrassments of 
the Commonwealth," and the first survey came to an end. 

The second survey was authorized by the act of Alay 14, 1874, 
which provided for a board of commissioners to take charge of the 
work. This board of commissioners met and organized on June 5, 
1874, and appointed J. P. Lesley state geologist, whose final report was 
made in 1892. Nothing further was done in the matter of a geological 
survey until April 28, 1899, when the Pennsylvania legislature made 
an appropriation "for joint work with the United States Geological 
Survey." That work is still in progress, with Richard R. Hice, of 
Beaver, as state geologist. 

In the first survey. Professor Rogers numbered the main forma- 
tions of the state from I to XII, ranging from the Potsdam sandstone 
of the Cambrian age to the Coal ^Measures of the Carboniferous age. 
These numbers form the basis of all geological investigation which has 
been made in the state since that time. On page 36, Report F-2 of 
the second survey, is a table showing thirteen formations of the 
Palaeozoic rocks, as exposed in the Juniata valley and the counties lying 
farther south. For the information of the reader that table is here 
reproduced : 





Coal Measures, 






IMauch Chunk, 

















Upper Helderberg, 


VII < 






Lower Helderberg, 





' Clinton, 



1 Medina, 




Sandstone, shale and coal. 
Pebbles and sandstone. 
Red shale. 
Gray sandstone. 
Red sandstone and shale. 

Olive sandstone and shale. 


Dark shale. 

Shale and sandstone. 

Dark shale and limestone. 


Limestone and shale. 


Red sandstone and green shale. 

Sandstones and shales. 

Conglomerate and shales. 








^Hudson River, 


Slates and shales. 




Dark shales. 






. Chazy, 

|- 5.000 

Sandstone and slate. 

Total thickness, 32,725 feet. 

In the above table No. i belongs to the Cambrian age; Nos. 2 
and 3 to the Lower Silurian; Nos. 4 to 7, inclusive, to the Upper 
Silurian; group No. 8 to the Devonian, and Nos. 9 to 13 to the 
Carboniferous. The Potsdam sandstone of No. i, the Chazy and 
Calciferous limestones of No. 2, and Nos. 12 and 13 are not found 
in the Juniata district, except in the Broad Top coal fields of Hunting- 
don county. Commenting upon the table, the report from which it is 
taken says : 

"All the formations vary greatly in thickness in the different coun- 
ties, and even in different parts of a county; and in some places were 
not deposited at all ; so that the thicknesses assigned to them in the 
table must not be taken as exactly correct, but only as general indica- 
tions. ... It appears then that more than six miles of material 
accumulated in middle Pennsylvania while it was the bed of a sea; 
so that in places where these rocks exist in full thickness a bore-hole 
would have to be sunk to that depth to reach the Azoic rocks on which 
they lie." 

In all the counties of this district the lowest rocks are of the Trenton 
formation. The highest rocks in Huntingdon belong to the Coal 
Measures and are found in the Broad Top field. In Mifflin and 
Juniata the highest rocks belong to the Chemung shale, and in Perry 
county the highest formation is the Mauch Chunk red shale. Near 
Duncannon, and at a few other places in Perry, are found narrow 
belts of a dark, tough rock, called "trap-rock." This rock, which is 
easily recognized by its color, weight and toughness, is thought by some 
authorities to be a form of lava, forced from the earth's interior in 
some ancient era. Quartz, the basis of sandstone, exists in all the 
counties and geodes, hollow bowlders studded on the inside with quartz 
crystals, have been found in Perry county. Berite (sulphate of barium), 


a heavy spar used chiefly to adulterate white lead, has been found 
in veins of limestone in Mifflin county, but the deposits are too small 
to be of any commercial value. 

To describe in detail the varied geological features of the Juniata 
vallev would recjuire a large volume, and as economic geology — that 
is, the study and description of the mineral deposits that may be turned 
to industrial or commercial advantage — is the most important and in- 
teresting branch of the science, the remainder of this chapter will be 
devoted to that phase of the subject. Mention has already been made 
of the belief of a century ago, that the mountain ranges along the 
Juniata were full of mineral wealth. So strong was this belief at one 
time that large sums of money were expended by optimistic individuals 
in boring for coal, especially in Perry county. Small deposits of this 
mineral have been found in the Devonian rocks near Duncannon in two 
veins — one ten and the other thirty inches in thickness. In Berry 
mountain, in BuiTalo township, and at some other points in the county 
there are shallow veins, but the coal is soft and contains a large propor- 
tion of ash, so that the deposits cannot be worked with profit. As 
the great coal mines of the w^orld are found only in the upper forma- 
tions of the Carboniferous age, the geological survey of Pennsylvania 
proved beneficial to those seeking coal in the Juniata region by showing 
that no coal measures were to be found in that part of the state. Since 
the survey no further expenditures have been made in the district, except 
in the Broad Top field in Huntingdon county. Concerning this field, 
R. A. Ramsey, of ^^'ilkinsburg, in an article on the "Economic Geology 
of Pennsylvania," published in January, 1913. says: 

"The Broad Top IMountain in Huntingdon, Bedford and Fulton 
counties contains the eastern or isolated basin, and covers an area of 
fully 100 square miles. Coal was known to exist in that region at the 
beginning of the last century, and mines were worked over one hundred 
years ago. The operations were on an exceedingly small scale until the 
completion of the Huntingdon &• Broad Top and the East Broad Top 
railroads. The shipments from this region exceed 3,000,000 tons 

In this connection it is of interest to note that the first coal mines 
developed in the United States were in the bituminous fields of western 
Pennsyh-ania. As early as 1760 a coal mine was in operation across 


the Monongahela river from old Fort Pitt : the first shipment of coal 
from Pittsburgh was made in 1803: and tlie consumption of coal in 
1910 was over 85,000,000 tons. Concerning the deposits of iron ore 
in Penns}"lvania, Mr. Ramsey says : 

"The iron ores of our state may be grouped under four classes: 
magnetite, brown hematite, red hematite and carbonate. JNIeans are 
not accessible by which the output of the different kinds can be given. 
There are six different iron ore fields in Pennsylvania : The Cambria 
field includes part of Somerset, Cambria. Bedford and Blair counties. 
The center field is composed of parts of Huntingdon, Centre and Clin- 
ton counties. The Lebanon field includes parts of Cumberland, Perrv, 
Dauphin, Lebanon, York and Lancaster counties. The Schuylkill field 
embraces parts of Schu}dkill, Berks, Chester and Montgomery counties. 
The Scranton field is made up of parts of \Vyoming, Lackawanna and 
Luzerne counties, and the Clarion field of parts of Clarion, Jefferson 
and Forest counties." 

According to this arrangement of ore fields, Huntingdon and Perry 
counties are the only ones mentioned as belonging to the ore-bearing 
districts. Notwithstanding the fact that Mr. Ramsey failed to include 
the other counties in the Juniata valley, iron ores have been found at 
various places in the valley, the principal ones being hematite or fossil 
ore, block ore and linn mite, also called lirown hematite. Iron ore is 
seen in most all tiie geological formations, but the most profitable 
deposits are found in the Clinton, ilarcellus and Hamilton beds, which 
furnish [iracticall}' all the fossil ore in the four counties. 

The first geological survey of the Juniata valley was made in 
1839-40 by the state geologist, H. D. Rogers, assisted by Dr. A. H. 
Henderson. The latter's investigations were made along the east side 
of Shade mountain, on Jack's mountain and Sideling ridge and ex- 
tended south to Blue mountain. This surve}' determined the existence 
of a fossil ore belt, the eastern end of which was in the east end 
of Jack's mountain and the western terminus in the Black Log moun- 
tain. Outcrops were observed all along the south flank of Jack's moun- 
tain, in the east end of Shade mountain, at several places in the Blue 
ridge, in the Black Log mountain, along the west side of Shade mountain, 
and in the ridges on both sides of the Juniata river. The discovery 
of these deposits of ore turned attention to the iron industry, and ore 
banks were soon opened at a number of places in the four counties. 


In 1874 a more complete survey of the fossil ore belt in the Juniata 
district was made. This second survey determined with greater ac- 
curacy the extent and limits of the ore deposits, noted pockets of 
hematite in the Oriskany shale and discovered outcrops of the Clinton 
formation in the Tuscarora mountain in Juniata county. 

The summary of the final report of the state geologist for 1892 
(p. 750) says: "The fossil iron ore industry of Pennsylvania has 
centered at Danville and Bloomsburg on the N. Branch Susquehanna, 
at Frankstown and Hollidaysburg on the upper Juniata, at Orbisonia in 
southern Huntingdon, and along the Lewistown valley in JMifflin and 
Snyder counties." 

In Perry county the outcrops of formation No. 5 are numerous 
and arranged in zigzags. The upper fossil ore and the lower iron bearing 
sandstone are plainly indicated by ridges upon the surface, and several 
good beds of ore occur in the Clinton sandstone and shale. The iron 
sandstone, with its block iron ore, is found on the lower Juniata and 
at other places in middle Pennsylvania. At the Susquehanna gap and 
along the crest of the Blue mountain it is eighty feet thick; twenty-five 
feet thick at ^Miitlintown ; seven feet at Lewistown. and three feet at 
Mount LTnion. The report of 1892 describes the base of this sand- 
stone on the Juniata as a "hard, Ijlock iron ore, about twenty-five feet 
thick, of good quality, but nowhere worked except near Alillerstown." 

Shade mountain, Blue ridge and Black Log mountain are sur- 
rounded by Clinton and Onondaga outcrops containing fossil ore beds, 
which have been worked to some extent along the south side of Shade 
mountain in Juniata county, and more extensively worked on the west 
side of the Black Log from Newton Hamilton southward to the 
Augwick valley. Orbisonia, Huntingdon county, is the center of the 
mining industry in this field. 

Brown hematite ore deposits follow the outcrops of the middle 
Onondaga in the Huntingdon valley, which lies between Standing Stone 
and Tussey's mountain. A sample of this ore taken from an outcrop 
near Marklesburg showed nearly 45 per cent, iron and another sample 
nearly 60 per cent. Ten analyses of samples taken from the Danville 
ore beds in Penn and Walker townships of Huntingdon county showed 
from 49 to 55 per cent. iron. The Greenwood Furnace district in the 
northeastern part of Huntingdon county has been for years a mining 


center of the Danville ores. The Danville Ijeds were first worked in 
1839 and the first furnace in that field was built by Chambers, Biddle 
& Company in 1843. The Saltillo fossil ore bed appears at places in 
the shales of the Onondaga formation along Tussey's mountain and 
is mined at Saltillo, near the south end of Jack's mountain. 

In the middle Juniata valley in jMifflin county there are numerous 
deposits of fossil ore which were formerly profitably worked, when 
iron was reduced from ores by means of charcoal furnaces, but in 
recent years most of these workings have been discontinued. In this 
field, Joseph Snyder's ore bank, about four miles southwest of Yeager- 
town, was opened in 1845 in a vein of ore about eighteen inches thick. 
Some of the ore was taken to Lewistown, where it was pronounced 
good, but owing to lack of transportation facilities the deposits there 
were never fully developed. Keever's ore bank was located in a ravine 
in Ferguson's valley, about two miles southwest of Yeagertown. Six 
miles southwest of Yeagertown was John Cupple's ore bank. A mile 
farther southwest was McKee's bank, and a mile west of McKee's was 
John Sheehan's ore bank. In the first ravine west of Sheehan's were 
the McCord and Rothrock banks. Near Three Locks Wakefield & 
Cavenaugh operated an iron mine from 1S53 to 1873, and during that 
time about 45,000 tons of ore were taken from the deposits. The 
Mineheart bank, four miles southwest of Lewistown, was opened in 
1859 or i860 by John Mineheart, who later transferred it to the 
Glamorgan Iron Company. Several thousand tons of ore were taken 
from this bank. 

Dr. Henderson, in his report of the survey of 1839-40, mentions 
a bed of "brown, cellular hematite ore from eight to ten feet thick," 
belonging to the INIarcellus formation south of Newport on the Juniata 
river. Professor Claypole, in his report on the geology of Perry county 
in 1885, savs the Marcellus ore had then been mined in Limestone 
ridge south of Newport, near the old Juniata furnace and a mile north 
of New Bloomfield ; in the iron ridge south and west of the old Perry 
furnace ; in the Mahanoy ridge at New Bloomfield and three miles west 
of that town; in Bell's hill near Little Germany; in the Pisgah hills 
near the Oak Grove furnace; near the town of Landisburg and at a 
few other places in the county. Ore of the same character has been 
mined at Lewistown and McVeytown, in Miftlin county, and in the 


from four to seven feet thick and lie immediately below the ^larccllus 
vicinity of Orbisonia, Huntingdon comity, where the deposits range 
black shales. The outcrop of this ore in the Huntingdon valley runs 
from Three Springs by way of Saltillo through the Hare valley and 
north to the Juniata at Mapleton. 

Limestone has been formed from organic remains at some period 
in the remote past. Some of it is of coral growth, but most of the 
earth's great limestone deposits are fossiliferous and have been pro- 
duced by sea animals. The fossil shells, etc., so frequently found in lime- 
stone bear witness to the fact that where such stone now exists was 
once the bed of a sea. The limestone of the Juniata valley belongs 
to either the Trenton or lower Helderberg formations. As early as 
1870 the latter was cjuarried near Lewistown, and for this reason some 
authorities have conferred upon it the name of "Lewistown limestone." 
It lies under the Oriskany shale, and the deposits at Lewistown are 
about 140 feet in tiiickness. \\'hen burned, this limestone produces a 
fine Cjuality of lime which has been extensively used for fluxing at 
iron furnaces. Some lavers or ledges, rarelv over one foot thick, consist 
of a hard blue limestone, excellent for building purposes. Below the 
Lewistown limestone lies the "water-lime," which in the Lewistown 
valley is from 450 to 470 feet in thickness. Much of it is hydraulic in 
character and some of it makes a fair grade of cement. In Perry 
county it is known as the "Bossardville limestone," and at Clark's mill 
in Center township it has been used in the manufacture of lime. The 
IVIarcellus limestone has also been burned in Perry county, especially 
in ]\Iadison township, and yields a good quality of lime. There are 
some pure limestone layers near Barree, Huntingdon county, but they 
are overlaid bv 175 feet of shales. This formation may be seen in 
the Pennsylvania railroad cut a short distance east of Barree station. 

Sandstones of different ages and varying qualities are found in 
every county in this field, though most of them are too soft for use 
as building stones, Oriskany sandstone is seen near the tops of the 
ridges. Bridgeport sandstone along Sherman's creek in Perry county 
has been used as rough building stone and similar deposits are known 
to exist near Landisburg in the same county. The Delaware flagstone 
series of the Catskill period furnish some good quarries near Liverpool, 
and the Hamilton sandstone has also been mined to some e.xtent in 


Perry county. The Aledina sandstone has been used extensively by 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company as ballast. 

Clay suitable for brickmaking exists in nearly every valley in the 
Juniata district, but the deposits have been only partially developed. 

Two kinds of ocher — red and yellow — are found at various places. 
These are iron ores, more or less impure and capable of being easily 
reduced to powder, the red ocher being in composition the same as 
hematite and the yellow a limonite. Overlying the Oriskany sandstone 
in Perrv countv is a bed of iron ore of this character which has been 
utilized for mineral paint and is similar to the paint ore found in Rocky 
ridge at the Lehigh water gap. 

Galena lead ore has been found in small quantities in the Onondaga 
shales and the Lower Helderberg limestone. The geological report for 
1892 says: "A mile northeast of ilcConnellstown shafts were sunk 
and tunnels driven into the lowest hard limestones in Warrior's ridge, 
but only lumps of lead ore were found inclosed in veins of calcite 
ramifying through the lime rock, amounting in all to not a ton of lead 
ore. It is quite safe to predict that neither lead nor zinc will ever 
be profitably mined from this horizon in this district, nor in any other 
district of this formation in the State of Pennsylvania." 

One of the most valuable mineral deposits in the Juniata valley 
is the glass sand found in the vicinity of Lewistown, Vineyard and 
McVeytown in Mifflin county, near Mapleton, Huntingdon county, and 
in some other places. The sand is the product of some of the rocks 
belonging to the Oriskany formation and is especially rich in silica, 
oxide of iron and alumina, which elements render it particularly avail- 
able for the manufacture of glass. Large quantities of this sand are 
shipped to Pittsburgh and other glass-making centers. 

(Further information regarding the development of the mineral 
resources of the four counties may be found in Chapter IX.) 



The lilound-builders — Speculation Concerning Them — Relics in Juniata County- 
Description of by Professor Guss — Indian Groups at the Close of the Fifteenth 
Centur}' — Their Distribution and Principal Tribes — The "Five Nations" — The 
Susquehannas — Their Prowess in War — Their Overthrow by the Iroquois — The 
Juniatas — Origin of Their Name — The Standing Stone — Its History and Tradi- 
tions — The Tuscaroras — Driven to the Juniata Valley — The "Six Nations" — 
Indian Names of Natural Features. 

WHO were the first inhabitants of Xorth America? The question 
is more easily asked than answered. \\'hen the white man 
came he found here the Indian, with his past shrouded in 
tradition and mystery, and in various parts of the country there are 
curious relics of a more ancient race known as 'Alound Builders," 
the most noted specimens being found in Wisconsin, Ohio and Tennessee. 
Much speculation has been indulged in with regard to the period when 
the IMound Builders were here. Some writers have maintained that 
the race was one of great anticjuity. On some of the ancient earth- 
works great trees have been found growing — trees that were old when 
Columbus discovered America. Because of this fact, together with 
other evidences, the earliest investigators of the mounds advanced the 
theory of great age. Alore recent investigations, particularly those con- 
ducted under the auspices of the L'nited States Bureau of Ethnology, 
have led to the conclusion that the Mound Builders were the immediate 
ancestors of the Indians, and that the time when they inhabited the 
country was not so remote as formerly supposed. Probably the most 
celebrated mound so far discovered is the Great Serpent, in Adams 
countv, Ohio. This mound, which is in the form of a serpent, was 
once an ancient fortification and has been deemed of such importance 
to the study of archaeology that the state has purchased the site in order 
that the ruins may be preserved. 

There is very little evidence that the IMound Builders ever inhabited 
the Juniata valley. Flint arrow and spear heads, stone axes and other 



implements have been found in a few places, but it is quite probable 
they represent the work of some ancient Indian tribe. Professor A. L. 
Guss gives the following account of a mound and fort found in Beale 
township, Juniata county : 

"At Bryner's Bridge, two miles above Academia, there are the 
remains of an ancient Indian mound of human bones, and near by 
there was once an Indian fort. The mound is on the creek bottom, 
about one hundred yards from the north end of the bridge, on the 
upper side of the road, and now (1886) consists only of an unplowed 
spot, thirty feet long and twenty wide, grown up with wild plum 
bushes. Originally it was a huge sepulchre. Octogenarians living near 
informed the writer that they conversed with the original settlers con- 
cerning it, and were told that when they first saw it, it was as high as a 
hunter's cabin (fifteen feet), and that its base covered an eighth of an 
acre. Other old folks describe it as having been twelve feet high and 
one hundred feet in diameter, with an oval base. Ninety years ago 
there stood upon it a large elm tree. Some eighty years ago this 
property was owned by George Casner, who, with his sons, Frederick, 
Jacob and John, hauled out the greater portion of the mound and scat- 
tered it over the fields. An old lady says she saw the bottom all white 
with bleaching bones after it had rained. Even after this spoliation 
the mound was six feet high; but afterwards it was plowed over for a 
number of years until it became nearly level. Students from the acad- 
emy frequented it for teeth and other relics. Quite a number of stone 
axes and flint arrow-heads, pipes and other relics were exhumed, all 
of which have been lost sight of and carried away. It is believed by 
intelligent old citizens that this mound was the result of some terrible 
battle between two hostile tribes, who thus summarily disposed of their 

"At the lower end of the bottom, Doyle's Alill Run enters the 
creek. Its bank on the side next the mound, for some distance, has a 
perpendicular clifl: about twenty-five feet high. Between this cliff and 
the high bank bordering the bottom, at the edge of the swamp, there 
is an elevated flat of perhaps twenty acres, of triangular shape, extend- 
ing on the west to a high ridge, the end of which is opposite the mound. 
This elevated point between the run and swamp is called the Old Fort 
Field. The point of the Fort Field is down the creek and about three 
hundred or four hundred yards below the mound. No one knows how 
long the name Old Fort Field has been in use. There are three thino-s 
about this field that deserve notice, and, as in the case of the mound, 
it is a pity that they were not described by a competent scholar before 
thev were obliterated. 


"i. Tliere was an earth-work thrown up, from the diff on the run 
to the creek bottom bank, enclosing about three acres of the elevated 
point, which, by nature and art, was thus rendered perfectly inaccessi- 
ble. Persons yet living saw this earthen bank when it was three feet 
high. It was semicircular in form, with the concave side next the point 
of the elevated land. It was composed entirely of ground and had 
clever saplings growing upon it. By frequent plowing and cultivation it 
has now become almost entirely obliterated. 

"2. Within this enclosure Air. Alilliken. some years ago, plowed up 
an old lire-hearth or altar, composed of flat, smooth creek stones, on 
which rested a quantity of charcoal and ashes, articles which are almost 
indestructible. Such altars among the Ohio mound-builders are not 
regarded as mere fire-places, but probably connected with the council- 
house or sacrificial devotions. 

"3. One of the most interesting remains of this fort or ancient 
fortified village is a series of 'steps' cut in the rock, near the point of 
the enclosure, leading down to Doyle's Run. These steps were very 
distinct to the first settlers, and are, in fact, yet well defined. Neighbor- 
ing children used to go to 'play at the Indian stone steps.' These 
steps could not have been formed by any process of nature, such as 
the Grumblings of alternate seams of the strata, for the rock here is 
tilted on its edge and admits of no lateral cleavage. 

"We have here the earth-work, the hearth and the carved steps, 
and their proximity to the mound certain!}- links their history together. 
Was this a military fort, and are the bones the result of a battle 
fought there, or was it simply a fortified village and the bones the 
natural accumulation of successive burials?"' 

The Black Log valley, in Huntingdon county, was once a favorite 
hunting ground for the Indians. On Sandy ridge, about two miles 
north of Orbisonia. may still be seen faint traces of an old burial 
ground, while not far distant is a cave in which there is a chamber 
supported by pillars, and which once contained many bones, imple- 
ments, ornaments of teeth, etc. A burial ground used by the natives 
at a more recent date is located on a knoll near the town of Orbisonia. 
Here flint arrowheads, stone hatchets or tomahawks, pieces of flint and 
other relics have been found in abundance. 

At the time Columbus made his first voyage to the Xew World the 
continent of North America was inhabited by four great groups or 
families of Indians, each of which was composed of a number of 
subordinate tribes. In the far north were the Eskimo, a sluggish people 


who lived in huts of ice or snow and subsisted largely upon fish. South 
of the Eskimo were the Algonquian group, or Algonquins, occupying 
a large triangle roughly bounded by the Atlantic coast, a line drawn 
from Labrador to the western end of Lake Superior, and a line from 
that point to the coast near the mouth of the Savannah river. South 
of the Algonquins and east of the Mississippi river were the Muskhogean 
tribes, the principal of which were the Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws 
and Seminoles. To the west of the Mississippi and occupying the great 
valley of the Missouri river lay the Siouan group, which included the 
Sioux, lowas. Pawnees, Blackfeet and Sauks and Foxes, the wildest 
of all the North American Indians. In the far west were the Shoshonean 
and Athapascan tribes, the best known of which were the Shoshones, 
Snakes and Comanches. 

The members of the central, southern and western groups all 
possessed the same physical characteristics — the red or copper-colored 
skin, coarse, straight black hair and high cheek bones. They were 
rarely corpulent, strong, athletic and enduring, swift on foot and skillful 
in handling a canoe. Keen-eyed and observant, they could follow a 
trail through the forest, where a civilized man could hardly see that 
a leaf or a blade of grass had been disturbed. As friends they were 
true and faithful, but as enemies they were cruel and treacherous. A 
few practiced the art of agriculture in a primitive way, raising a limited 
quantity of corn, beans, etc., but the majority lived by the chase. In 
some tribes the people built log huts, but the wigwam or tepee was 
the most common form of dwelling. This was constructed by arranging 
poles in the form of a circle, lashing them together at the top and then 
covering this rude framework with skins. A flap of one of the skins 
formed the door, and the only method of warming the interior was 
to build a fire upon the ground in the middle of the wigwam, allowing 
the smoke to escape through a hole at the top. Frequently a number 
of wigwams would be erected close together, the whole surrounded 
by a stockade, thus constituting a village. Their implements and 
weapons were of the most primitive character, usually of flint or 
other stone, and their clothing was generally composed of the skins 
of animals slain during the hunt, though some wove blankets of buffalo 

The Indians inhabiting Pennsylvania and the surrounding states, 


as well as all of New England, belonged to the Algonquian group. 
Along the southern shore of Lake Ontario, extending from east to west 
in the order named, were the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas 
and Senecas. These five tribes, all of Iroquoian stock, entered into a 
confederacy about the beginning of the seventeenth century and were 
known as the "Five Nations." South of them were the Delawares and 
Susquehannas, occupying lands along the rivers which still bear their 
names. West of the Five Nations, along the eastern shore of Lake 
Huron, were the Hurons and occupying the country now comprising 
the State of Ohio were the Wyandots, Miamis, Shawnees and some 
minor tribes. 

Just when the confederacy of the Five Nations was formed is un- 
certain. The Jesuit Relations (1659) tell of a tradition that, at a 
time before the first English settlements were made in America, the 
Susquehannas almost exterminated the Mohawks in a ten years' war. 
Some historians assert that the defeated Mohawks appealed to their 
kindred tribes along the shore of Lake Ontario for assistance, and 
that this led to the establishment of the Five Nations. Captain John 
Smith, who explored the Chesapeake bay in 1608, says the Susquehannas 
and Mohawks were then at war wath each other. The Susquehannas 
were evidently a powerful and war-like tribe. Kelker's History of 
Dauphin County says that "in 1633 they were at war with the Algonquin 
tribes on the Delaware, maintaining their supremacy by butchery." A 
few years later they became engaged in a war with the tribes in 
Maryland and Virginia and in 1642 Governor Calvert, of Maryland, 
issued a proclamation declaring them public enemies. In 1647 the 
Hurons, although of Iroquoian stock, Avere on the verge of being 
extinguished by the Five Nations, when the Susquehannas sent to them 
an offer of assistance against the common enemy. At that time the 
Susquehannas numbered 1,300 warriors "trained to the use of fire-arms 
and European modes of war by three Swedish soldiers, whom they had 
obtained to instruct them." For some reason the friendly offer was 
declined and the Hurons were almost completely destroyed as a tribe. 

Egle's Flistory of Pennsylvania says that in 1656 "The Iroquois, 
grown insolent by their success in almost annihilating their kindred 
tribes north and south of Lake Erie, provoked a war with the Sus- 
quehannas, plundering their hunters on Lake Ontario . . . and 


though the Susquehannas had some of their people killed near their 
town, they in turn pressed the Cayugas so hard that some of them 
retreated across Lake Ontario to Canada. They also kept the Senecas 
in such alarm that they no longer ventured to carry their peltries to 
New York, except in caravans escorted by six hundred men, who 
even took a most circuitous route. A law of Maryland, passed May i, 
1661, authorized the governor of that province to aid the Susquehannas." 

In April, 1663, the Five Nations, chagrined by their repeated defeats, 
appealed to the French for assistance and at the same time sent an 
army of 1,600 men against the Susquehanna fort, fifty miles from the 
mouth of the river bearing that name. Although the invaders out- 
numbered the Susquehannas two to one, they were repulsed and "pursued 
with great slaughter." 

According to the Relations, the Susquehannas were completely over- 
thrown in 1675, but the account fails to state who were the victorious 
conquerors of the little remnant of this once formidable tribe. It is 
a well established fact in history, however, that the Iroquois claimed, 
"by right of conquest," all the lands on the Susquehanna and its branches 
and sold them to William Penn and his successors. 

Contemporary with the Susquehannas and dwelling west of them 
was a tribe of Indians known to early historians by various names. 
Prior to the eighteenth century western Pennsylvania was an unknown 
region to the white man. No trader or adventurer had yet extended 
his journeys that far from the coast and all that can be learned of 
this early tribe is based only on tradition. On Smith's map of 1608 
they are referred to as the "Attaocks" ; eight years later Hendricksen 
made a map on which this tribe appears as the "lottecas"; the 
Plantagenet Pamphlet of 1648 calls them the "Ihon a Does"; and on 
Visscher's map of 1655 they are given the name of "Onajutta-Haga." 
All these terms were finally crystallized into "Juniata," by which name 
the river running through the country they once inhabited is still known. 
The Juniatas were of Iroquois stock and the tribal name is derived 
from that language. Professor A. L. Guss, who devoted considerable 
time to the study of Indian legends and traditions, says : "The name 
Juniata, like Oneida, is derived from oiicnliia, onenya or oiiia. a stone, 
and kaniotc. to be upright or elevated, being a contraction and corrup- 
tion of the compound." Due to the fact that the names Juniata and 


Oneida were derived from the same source, some writers have sug- 
gested that the latter tribe once inhabited the Juniata valley, or at 
least the tribe living along the Juniata river in early days was a part 
of the Oneidas. There is no evidence to show that the Oneidas ever 
were a resident tribe in the Juniata valley, and it is probably only a 
coincidence that the two cognate tribes adopted names similar in sound 
and meaning. 

It is believed that the Juniata or Standing Stone people had their 
great council fire where the city of Huntingdon is now located. Here 
they erected a pillar of stone — quite likely to commemorate the fact, as 
they believed, that it was upon that spot the Great Spirit caused them 
to spring from mother earth like the trees of the forest. The first 
mention in the white man's history of the Standing Stone is in a journal 
of Conrad Weiser, Indian agent and interpreter, recording the events 
of a journey from his home in Berks county, Pennsylvania, to the forks 
of the Allegheny and Muskingum rivers. The entry in this journal 
for August i8, 1748, says: "Had a great rain in the afternoon; came 
within two miles of Standing Stone, twenty-four miles." Five or six 
years later John Harris, the founder of Harrisburg, visited the spot 
and described the stone as "about fourteen feet high and six inches 
square." In 1843 Sherman Day gathered all the traditions possible 
concerning the stone. He says it was "four inches thick by eight inches 
wide," and adds: "The tribe regarded this stone with superstitious 
veneration, and a tradition is said to have existed among them that 
if the stone should be taken away the tribe would be dispersed, but 
that so long as it should stand they would prosper." The souvenir 
edition of "Historic Huntingdon," published in 1909, says: "Arching 
around a tall, slim pillar of stone covered with hieroglyphics, were wig- 
wams or lodges of the browned sons of the forest. . . . The stone 
referred to, which was supposed to bear in its cabalistic inscriptions 
a record of the history and achievements of the tribe, was regarded 
with great veneration by the natives, and its conspicuous position and 
appearance led the white visitors to designate the locality by the name 
'Standing Stone.' This stone stood above Second street between the 
Pennsylvania railroad and the river, on or near No. 208 Allegheny 
street," etc. 

The real history of the original standing stone will probably never 




be known. Years before the white man came to the Juniata valley, the 
tribe who erected it had been overthrown by the Five Nations. There 
is no well authenticated account of the conquest, but the journals of 
the Jesuit missionaries among the Hurons and Iroquois tell of expedi- 
tions of great war parties to the southward and that they returned with 
many prisoners. No doubt these prisoners were Juniatas and that the 
tribe was annihilated by the Iroquois confederacy. For half a century 
or more the entire Juniata region then remained without a resident 
tribe and was used by the conquerors as a hunting ground. Then the 
Tuscaroras were permitted to settle there and later the Shawnees and, 
Delawares were allowed to dwell there for a time. Heckewelder, a 
missionary among the latter Indians, in speaking of the Juniata river, 
says : "This word is of the Six Nations. The Delawares say 
Yuchiiiada or Chuchniada. The Iroquois had a path leading direct to 
a settlement of the Shawnees residing somewhere on this river; I under- 
stood where Bedford is. Juniata is an Iroquois word, unknown now." 

The same authority refers to the standing stone as follows: 
"Achsinnick is the proper name for this place. The word alludes to 
large rocks standing separate and where no other is near. I know four 
places within 500 miles which have this name, two of which are large 
and high rocks in rivers. For noted places where a small rock is they 
give the name Achsinnessink, the place of the small rocks." 

The Juniatas were vanquished and lost their identity as a tribe 
prior to 1675, and the Delawares did not come into the valley until 
about 1725. Professor Guss is of the opinion that when they came 
they adopted the old name for the stream, and upon arriving at the 
site of Huntingdon they translated it to their own language as 
Achsinnick. Says he : "The old totem-post, it appears, remained. This, 
and the traveling Iroquois on their hunting and marauding expeditions, 
kept alive the story of the extirpated tribe. It was handed down to 
the white people, who never saw or heard of the old maps, or if they 
did, they could not have recognized the root and meaning of the term. 
At this place the traditions had been kept alive for over one hundred 
years, but somewhat corrupted by explanatory innovations." 

When the Indians left the valley after the purchase of 1754, they 
either destroyed the stone or carried it away with them. After their 
departure the settlers erected a second stone upon the site of the ori"-inaI 


one. According to Rev. Philip Fithian, who visited Huntingdon in 
1775, this stone was "a tall stone column or pillar nearly square . . . 
seven feet above the ground." It bore the name of John Lukens, 
surveyor general, with the date 1768, and also the names of Charles 
Lukens, assistant surveyor general, Thomas Smith, a brother of Rev. 
William Smith, and some others. This stone was later destroyed — one 
account says by some rowdies while on a drunken frolic. A part of 
it is still in the possession of E. C. Summers, of Huntingdon. Subse- 
quently a third stone was erected. It stands at the junction of Penn 
and Third streets and bears a tablet upon which is the following in- 
scription : "Onajutta — Juniata — Achsinnic. Standing Stone erected 
September 8, 1896, as a Memorial of the Ancient Standing Stone re- 
moved by the Indians in 1754." 

Following the Juniatas, the next tribe to acquire a habitat in the 
Juniata valley were the Tuscaroras. When the first white people came 
to North Carolina they found the Tuscarora Indians along the Tar, 
Neuse and Pamlico rivers. There were also Tuscarora settlements on 
the headwaters of the Cape Fear, Roanoke and James rivers. Their 
traditions show that they were descended from the same stock as the 
Iroquois and that some time in the far distant past they lived in New 
York with some of the tribes that constituted the Five Nations. In 
one of their traditions they are called the "Real People" and it is 
set forth that their origin was in the northern regions. After many 
conflicts with giants and monsters along the St. Lawrence river they 
formed a confederacy and took possession of the country south of 
the Great Lakes. In a war among the northern tribes some years 
later several families of the "Real People" concealed themselves in a 
cave. There Tarenyawagon, the Holder of the Heavens, appeared to 
them and led them down the Hudson to the sea, where the North 
Carolina branch became detached and drifted southward. As in other 
Indian tribes, they were divided into families named after animals, 
such as the bear, wolf, turtle, beaver, deer, eel and snipe. The men 
were not permitted to marry a woman of the same clan or gens, and all 
descent was reckoned in the female line, in which the military and civil 
chieftainships were hereditary. Those in North Carolina depended more 
upon the products of their fields than did their northern brethren, and 


raised large quantities of corn, beans, potatoes, tobacco and other 

Lawson's "History of North Carolina," written in 1710 and 
published in London a few years later, says of the Tuscaroras : "They 
have many amiable qualities. They are really better to us than we 
have ever been to them, as they freely give us of their victuals at their 
quarters, while we let them walk by our doors hungry, and do not 
often relieve them. We look upon them with disdain and scorn, and 
think them little better than beasts in human form; while, with all 
our religion and education, we possess more moral deformities than 
these people do." 

At the time Lawson wrote the tribe "had fifteen towns and twelve 
hundred warriors, making a population of about six thousand persons." 
The "moral deformities" of the white people who settled North Caro- 
lina were such that they did not recognize the right of the natives 
to the soil, but took possession of the lands without purchase and by 
force if necessary. In these circumstances it is not surprising that 
in time the ire of the Tuscaroras was aroused and that they entered into 
a conspiracy with the adjacent tribes to expel the trespassers. September 
22, 171 1, was the day of the general uprising. The whites were 
slaughtered without regard to age or sex, and those who sought shelter 
in the forests were hunted all night by the light of torches. Assistance 
came from South Carolina and Virginia, and a relentless war 
against the Tuscaroras was inaugurated. The Indians fortified them- 
selves near the present city of Newbern, but were driven from their 
position with a loss of about one hundred killed and the survivors were 
forced to agree to terms of peace dictated by the victors, who were more 
magnanimous than might be expected. 

Subsequently some of the Tuscaroras were captured and sold into 
slavery, and in the spring of 1713 hostilities were resumed by the 
tribe. Again South Carolina came to the rescue of the settlers. On 
March 26, 1713, the Indians were defeated in a hard fought battle 
on the Neuse river. A large number of their warriors was killed and 
about eight hundred captured and sold as slaves. An active campaign 
of three months followed, when the Tuscaroras were driven from their 
lands and villages and sought "a refuge on the Juniata, in a secluded 
interior near the Susquehanna, in Pennsylvania." 


Sucli, in brief, was the manner in Avhich the Tuscaroras became a 
resident tribe in the Juniata valley. Here they were under the protection 
of the Five Nations, as may be seen from a speech by one of the 
Iroquois chiefs at a conference with Governor Hunter, of New York, 
September 20, 1714. "We acquaint you," said the Iroquois orator, "that 
the Tuscarora Indians are come to shelter themselves among the Five 
Nations. They were of us, and went from us long ago, and are now 
returned and promise to live peaceably among us." 

Just when the Tuscaroras left the valley is uncertain. That they 
were still living there in 1720 is shown by a correspondence between 
the president of the New York council and Governor Spottswood, of 
Virginia. Late in the year 1719 the former wrote to the governors of 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia and Carolina that the Five Nations 
felt that they had been "slighted by the governments to the southward," 
and suggested the advisability of the governors of the colonies named 
coming to Albany for the purpose of holding a treaty conference. 
Governor Spottswood declined the invitation in a letter filled with sar- 
casm, in which he referred to the Five Nations as follows: "In the 
years 171 2 and 1713 they were actually in these parts assisting the 
Tuscarorouroes, who had massacred in cold blood some hundreds of 
the English and were then warring against us; and they have at this 
very day the chief murderers, with the greatest part of that natioa 
seated under their protection near Susquehanna river, whither they 
removed them when they found they could no longer support them 
against the force which the English brought upon them in these parts." 

A few years later, about 1722 or 1723, the tribe was admitted 
into full fellowship with the Iroquois confederacy, which from that 
time was known as the "Six Nations." It would appear, however, that 
some of the Tuscaroras continued to reside in the Juniata valley for 
several years after the amalgamation of the tribe with those in New 
Y'ork. On May 27, 1753. John O'Neal wrote from Carlisle to the 
governor of Pennsylvania that "a large number of Delawares, Shawnees 
and Tuscaroras continue in this vicinity, the greater number having 
gone to the west." 

After the purchase of 1754 the Indians gradually departed from 
the valley of the Juniata, leaving the white man in undisputed possession. 
But the names they gave to some of the natural features of the country 


are still in use. Such words as Juniata, Kishacoquillas, Mahantango, 
Tuscarora, and a host of other names as applied to the mountains, vales 
and streams of central Pennsylvania, stand as mute reminders of a 
departed race. 



Early Spanish Explorations — Captain John Smith — First White Men in Pennsylvania 
— Overlapping Grants — Swedish and Dutch Purchases — First Settlement in Penn- 
sylvania — William Penn — The Proprietary Government — The Great Treaty — 
Early Traders West of the Susquehanna — First Mention of the Juniata Valley — 
Treaty of 1736 — Shickalamy — Kishacoquillas — Indian Towns — Ohesson — Assun- 
nepachla — Treaty of 1749 — The Squatters — Burning Their Cabins — Licensed 
Traders — George Croghan — Murder of Armstrong, Smith and Arnold — Captain 
Jack — James Patterson — Andrew Montour — Peter Shaver — French Intrigue — 
Treaty of 1754 — Indian Discontent over Boundary — A New Treaty — The Land 
Office Opened — First Authorized Settlements in the Valley. 

FOR more than a century after the first voyage of Columbus few 
attempts were made to found permanent settlements in the New 
\\'orld. During that time expeditions sent out by the different 
European nations explored the entire coast-line of the United States 
and some of them penetrated far into the interior. At an early date 
some Spaniards visited the Chesapeake bay, where they learned from 
the Indians of a great river which flowed into the northern part of 
the bay. The Indians told them that by going up this river a distance 
of eighty leagues, then following a smaller stream westward and cross- 
ing the mountains, they would come to a great river flowing southward. 
Although the account of the expedition is imperfect in many particulars 
and the description of the streams is somewhat vague, there is little 
doubt that the rivers referred to are the Susquehanna and Juniata, 
while the great river beyond the mountains is the Ohio. This informa- 
tion, meager and unsatisfactory as it is, was probably the first gained 
by white men of the interior of Pennsylvania. 

In 1608 Captain John Smith, of the Jamestown colony in Virginia, 
explored the Chesapeake bay and visited the mouth of the Susquehanna, 
which the Indians told him issued "from some mighty mountains 
betwixt two seas." Six years after Smith's expedition three Dutch 



traders from the post at Albany crossed over to the headwaters of the 
Susquehanna and descended that stream for some distance. It is be- 
lieved that these three Dutchmen were the first of the Caucasian race 
to set foot upon Pennsylvania soil. 

Owing to a lack of accurate maps and a definite knowledge of the 
country, the land grants made by the English government frequently 
overlapped each other. The territory now forming the State of 
Pennsylvania was included in the Virginia grant of 1606 and by the 
New England charter of 1620. The southern portion was covered 
by the Maryland grant of 1632 and the northern part by the Connecticut 
grant of 1662. The Dutch also claimed the territory by virtue of Henry 
Hudson's discovery of the Delaware bay and river in 1609. Samuel 
Smith, in his "History of the Colony of Nova Caesaria, or New 
Jersey," says: "In 1627 the Swedes made their appearance in this 
region, and soon thereafter purchased of some Indians (but whether 
of such as had the proper right to convey is not said) the land from 
Cape Inlopen to the Falls of Delaware, on both sides of the river, 
which they called New Swedeland stream and made presents to the 
Indian chiefs to obtain peaceable possession of the land so purchased." 

There is some doubt as to the accuracy of the above date. George 
Smith, in his "History of Delaware County, Pennsylvania," says that 
the Swedes made no settlements on the Delaware until after 163 1. In 
1638 Peter Minuet, who had gone over from the Dutch to the Swedes, 
established a fort and trading post called Christina, near the mouth of 
Minquas creek, and at the same time purchased of the Indians all 
the west side of the Delaware river as far up as Trenton. Thus the 
Swedes got all the land from Cape Henlopen to the falls "and as much 
inward from the river as they may want." This transaction is believed 
by some writers to be the one referred to by Samuel Smith, though 
it did not take place until eleven years after the date mentioned in 
his work. 

The first settlement in Pennsylvania was made by the Swedes near 
Philadelphia in 1643. On September 25, 1646, the Dutch purchased 
a tract of land including part of the site of Philadelphia and over- 
lapping, to some extent, the Swedish purchase of 1638. This brought 
about a conflict of claims and in 1655 the Swedish authority was over- 
thrown by Peter Stuyvesant. Nine years later the Duke of York con- 


quered New Netherland and after tliat the settlements on the Delaware 
were under English control. 

Sir William Penn. father of the founder of Pennsylvania, was a 
distinguished admiral in the British navy in Oliver Cromwell's day and 
at his death left claims against the English government amounting to 
f 16,000 for money advanced and arrearages of salary. These claims 
descended to his son William, who, while a student at Oxford, became 
a Quaker and for some time paid little or no attention to their adjust- 
ment. At last, in 1680, being desirous of securing a location where 
the Quakers could worship unmolested according to their peculiar belief, 
he asked King Charles II. to grant him "letters patent for a tract of 
land in America, lying north of Maryland, on the east bounded by 
the Delaware river, on the west limited as Maryland, and northward to 
extend as far as plantable." After several conferences concerning 
boundary lines, etc., a charter was granted on March 4, 1681, and 
confirmed by royal proclamation the following month. The extent 
of the province was three degrees of latitude from north to south, 
between "the beginning of the fortieth degree of northern latitude and 
the beginning of the three and fortieth degree of northern latitude," 
and extending westward five degrees of longitude from the Delaware 
river, except "all within a circle drawn twelve miles distant from New 
Castle, northward and westward, to the beginning of the fortieth degree 
of northern latitude." On April 8, 1681, Penn addressed to the inhabi- 
tants of the region included in his grant the following proclamation : 

"My Friends: I wish you all happiness here and hereafter. These 
are to let you know that it hath pleased God, in his providence, to 
cast you within my lot and care. It is a business that, though I never 
vmdertook before, yet God hath given me an understanding of my 
duty, and an honest mind to do it uprightly. I hope you will not be 
troubled at your change, and the King's choice, for you are now fixed, 
at the mercy of no governor that comes to make his fortune great. 
You shall be governed by laws of your own making, and live a free, 
and, if you will, a sober and industrious people. I shall not usurp 
the right of any, or oppress his person. God has furnished me with a 
better resolution, and has given me his grace to keep it. In short, 
whatever sober and free men can reasonably desire for security and im- 
provement of their happiness, I shall heartily comply with, and in five 
months resolve, if it please God, to see you. In the meantime, pray sub- 


mit to the commands of my deputy, so far as they are consistent with the 
law, and pay him those dues that formerly you paid to the order of the 
Governor of New York, for my use and benefit; and so I beseech God 
to direct vou in the way of righteousness, and therein prosper you and 
your children after you." 

The deputy referred to by Penn was his cousin, William Markham, 
who came over in 1681. On July 15, 1682, he made a treaty with 
the Indians for lands along the Delaware river. Penn arrived in the 
province on October 27, 1682, and before the end of that year held 
the "Great Treaty" at Shakamaxon. That treaty marked the beginning 
of a course in dealing with the Indians of which Cyrus Thomas, in the 
Eighteenth Annual Report of the United States Bureau of Ethnology, 
says: "The task of writing up in general terms the policy of Pennsyl- 
vania during its colonial history is a pleasant one, first, because it seldom 
varied, so far as it related to its lands, from that consistent with honor 
and justice; and, second, because it was so uniform that a comparatively' 
brief statement will suffice to present all that is necessary to be said." 

Penn returned to England in 1684, but before his departure he took 
steps for the purchase of lands on the Susquehanna river from the 
Five Nations of Indians, who had conquered the native tribes. The 
Five Nations lived in New York and Penn engaged Thomas Dongan, 
then governor of that province, to negotiate the purchase of "all that 
tract of land lying on both sides of the river Susquehanna and the lakes 
adjacent, in or near the Province of Pennsylvania." Governor Dongan 
made the purchase and conveyed the lands to Penn on January 13, 
1696, for one hundred pounds sterling. Some of the Indians refused 
to confirm the transaction, and upon Penn's return to the colony he 
concluded articles of agreement with the Susquehanna and other tribes 
on April 23, 1701, in which they acknowledged the validity of the 
Dongan deed. The lands on the west side of the river were still claimed 
by the Five Nations, however, until 1736. In the summer of that year 
a great council was held by the tribes in New York and the sachems and 
head men were authorized to go to Philadelphia and adjust all claims 
and demands. Accordingly, on October 11, 1736, twenty-three chiefs 
of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga. Seneca. Cayuga, Tuscarora, Dela- 
ware and Shawnee tribes made a deed to John, Thomas and Richard 
Penn, conveving to them "all the said river Susquehanna with the lands 


lying on both sides thereof, to extend eastward as far as the heads 
of the branches or springs -which run into the said Susquehanna, and 
all lands lying on the west side of the said river to the setting of the 
sun, and to extend from the mouth of said river, northward, up the 
same to the hills or mountains, called in the language of said nations, 
Tayamentasachta, and by the Delaware Indians the Kekachtannin hills." 

Prior to that time a few adventurous characters had penetrated into 
the region west of the Susquehanna and established trading posts. As 
early as 1704 James Le Tort, Joseph Jessup, Peter Bazalian, Martin 
Chartier and Nicholas, all Frenchmen, or in the employ of the French, 
were trading with the Indians along the Susquehanna and passing via 
of the Juniata valley and Kittaning Point to the Great Indian rendezvous 
at the head of the Ohio river. In January, 1705, John Harris received 
a license from the commissioners of property to "seat himself on the 
Susquehanna, and to erect such buildings as are necessary for his trade." 
In 1733 he received a patent for three hundred acres of land where 
the city of Harrisburg now stands. James Le Tort located at Carlisle 
in 1720 and traded with the Indians as far west as the Allegheny river. 
Two years later "William \\^ilkins was one hundred and fifty miles up 
the Susquehanna trading for his master, John Cartlidge. Edmund 
Cartlidge, Henry Baly and Jonah Davenport also traded between the 
Susquehanna and Allegheny rivers as early as 1727. John Petty and 
Henry Smith were trading with the Indians in the vicinity of Shamokin 
in 1728, and probably for some time before that date. 

The first historical mention of the Juniata valley is found in the 
records of a council held in Philadelphia on July 3, 1727, with the 
chiefs of the Five Nations, who requested "That there may be no settle- 
ments made up the Sasquehannah higher than Pextan (John Harris' 
settlement where Harrisburg now is), and that none of the settlers 
thereabouts be suffered to sell or keep any rum there, for that being the 
road by which their people go out to war, they are apprehensive of 
mischief if they meet with liquor in these parts. They desire also, 
for the same reasons, that none of the traders be allowed to carry 
any rum into the remoter parts where James Le Tort trades — that is, 
Allegany on the branch of the Ohio. And this they desire may be 
taken notice of, as the mind of the chiefs of all the Five Nations, for 
it is all those nations that now speak by them to all our people." 


To this request, which was rendered in English by Madame Montour 
as interpreter, Governor Patrick Gordon replied as follows : 

"We have not hitherto allowed any settlement to be made above 
Pextan, but, as the young people grow up, they will spread of course, 
yet it will not be very speedily. The Governor, however, will give or- 
ders to them all to be civil to those of the Five Nations as they pass 
that way, though it would be better if they would pass Sasquehannah 
above the mountains. And the sale of rum shall be prohibited both 
there and at Alegany ; but the woods are so thick and dark we can not 
see what is done in them. The Indians may stave any rum they find 
in the woods, but, as has been said, they must not drink or carry any 

From the beginning it was Penn's policy to prevent the white 
people from encroaching upon the Indian domain. To this end it was 
ordered on October 14, 1700, "That if any person presumes to buy 
any land of the natives within the limits of this province and territories 
without leave from the proprietary thereof every such purchase shall 
be void and of no effect." Penn's death occurred in England on July 
30, 1718, and in time the above order was found to be insufficient to 
restrain ambitious persons from buying, or attempting to buy, lands 
from the Indians. Not infrequently they went on the land and took 
possession without even the formality of a purchase. To stop this 
practice the assembly, on October 14, 1729, passed an act much more 
stringent in its provisions. Up to that time the boundaries of the 
various tracts of land purchased from the natives had not always been 
clearly set forth, and in the deed of October 11, 1736, seven years later, 
the western boundary was fixed as "the setting of the sun" — a state- 
ment which probably meant only that the line was undecided and in- 
definite. In the treaty of August 22, 1749, by which the Indians ceded 
to the proprietaries of Pennsylvania a large tract lying between the 
Delaware and Susquehanna rivers, the boundaries of the purchase were 
more clearly defined. These facts are mentioned in this connection 
for the reason that the intruders called "squatters" often set up as a 
defense the claim that they did not know they were beyond the limits 
of the lands sold to the provincial authorities. 

During the early negotiations for the lands along and west of the 
Susquehanna there were two Indians whose influence was powerful in 


preserving friendly relations between the white men and the Indian 
inhabitants. One of these was Shickalamy and the other was 
Kishacoquillas (both names are spelled in a variety of ways). Shick- 
alamy has been described as "the viceroy of the Six Nations, maintain- 
ing a balance of power between the different tribes and between the 
Indians and whites, acting as agent of the Iroquois confederacy in all 
affairs of state and war." When the white men first came in contact 
with him he was living on the west side of the Susquehanna a few 
miles south of Lewisburg, at a place known for a long time as 
"Shickalamy's Old Town." Later he removed to Sunbury, where he 
continued to reside until his death in April, 1749. He never drank 
enough "fire-water" to become intoxicated — if he drank at all — and 
was received into the Moravian church. He had his two sons baptized, 
calling one John Petty, after the trader of that name, and the other 
James Logan, after the provincial secretary. Shickalamy was a de- 
scendant of the ancient tribe known as the Minequas. Susquehannocks 
or Conestogas, but was regarded as a chief of the Oneidas. His son, 
Logan, was a Cayuga chief, owing to the Indian custom that all positions 
of rank or power descended through the female line. Logan became 
renowned in history as "the Mingo chief" and a spring of fine water 
in Mifflin county still bears his name. L'pon the death of Shickalamy 
he was succeeded by his son, John Taghnaghdoarus, who was one of 
the signers of the deed of July 6, 1754. 

Kishacoquillas was a Shawnee chief and is first mentioned in the 
fall of 1 73 1 by James Le Tort and Jonah Davenport, in connection with 
the operations of one Cavalier, an agent of the French, who was operat- 
ing among the Indians in the Juniata valley. Their report contains 
the names and brief descriptions of two Indian towns upon the Juniata 
river, to wit : 

"Ohesson upon Choniata, distant from Sasquehanna 60 miles ; 
Shawanese, 20 families, 60 men, chief, Kissikahquelas. 

"Assunnepachla upon Choniata, distant about 100 miles by water 
and 50 by land from Ohesson; Delawares, 12 families, 36 men." 

Those who have investigated the subject most carefully agree that 
Ohesson was at the mouth of the Kishacoquillas creek on the site now 
occupied by the borough of Lewistown, and that Assunnepachla was 


where Frankstown, Blair county, is now located. There is no authentic 
account of any other Indian towns or settlements along the Juniata. 

Professor A. L. Guss says of Kishacoquillas : "He appears to have 
been one of the more decent and peaceable of the turbulent and 
treacherous Shawnees." He remained loyal to the proprietary govern- 
ment when most of his own tribe and the Delawares went over to 
the French in a body and no inducements could cause him to lift the 
hatchet against the friends or supporters of Father Onas, as the Indians 
called William Penn. He died in August, 1754, at the Half Falls on 
the Susquehanna, and the following May Colonel John Armstrong gave 
the name of Kishacociuillas to the valley in which the old chief lived 
until a short time before his death. 

By the treaty of 1749 the boundary between the white man's posses- 
sions and the Indian lands was fixed at the Keckacktany or Blue moun- 
tains, also called the Endless hills, north and west of which the lands 
belonged to the Indians. In the spring of that year, some months 
before the treaty was made, a number of adventurous white men 
crossed over the Endless hills with the intention of establishing homes 
upon the Indian hunting grounds. William White, George and William 
Galloway, David HUiddleston. George Gaboon and a few others were 
located on the Juniata, in what is now Juniata county; Simon Girty 
( father of the noted renegade ) , James and Thomas Parker, James 
Murray, Richard Kirkpatrick, John Cowan and several others settled 
about the same time on Sherman's creek in Perry county ; Robert 
Hagg, Samuel Bigham, James and John Grey settled in the Tuscarora 
valley, and along the west side of the Susquehanna between Penn's 
creek and the mouth of the Juniata there were several small settlements 
of squatters. A few had found their way to the vicinity of Aughwick, 
Huntingdon county. Lytle says : 

"In the spring of 1749, as early as the month of April, more than 
thirty families had settled west of the Kittatinny, and more were coming 
daily, some of them to the head waters of the Juniata, along the path 
that led to Ohio. In February, 1750, according to the statement of 
Governor Hamilton, they had reached the foot of the Allegheny moun- 

Both the Six Nations and the Delawares protested against this 
encroachment upon their lands and demanded the expulsion of the 


squatters. They also suggested that a few trustworthy persons be 
stationed west of the mountains, with authority from the governor to 
remove any trespasser who might attetnpt to locate upon the forbidden 
ground. In order to prevent an open rupture between the Indians 
and the provincial authorities, the latter deemed it necessary to take 
some decisive action. A proclamation from the government, carried to 
the intruders by Conrad Weiser, had been disregarded, and in May, 
1750, Richard Peters, the provincial secretary, accompanied by the 
undersheriff and justices of the newly established county of Cumberland, 
went to enforce the commands of the proclamation. Along the Juniata, 
in the Sherman's creek and Tuscarora valleys, at Aughwick and in other 
places the squatters were driven out and their cabins burned. At 
Aughwick Peter Falconer, Samuel Perry, John Charleton and Nicholas 
De Long were placed under bonds to appear at the next county court 
at Shippensburg and to remove with their families from the Indian 
domain. Charleton's cabin was burned. Near the line between Hunt- 
ingdon and Fulton counties the destruction wrought by the expedition 
was so great that the place still bears the name of "Burnt Cabins." 
In his report, Peters gives as a reason for the burning of the dwellings 
that, if they were not destroyed, they would tempt the trespassers 
to return again, or encourage others to come and occupy them. In 
his report he also makes mention of Frederick Star and two or three 
other Germans having been driven from the Juniata in 1743. 

In the meantime several traders had been licensed to carry on a 
traffic with the Indians west of the Endless hills. George Croghan, 
an Irishman by birth and a conspicuous character on the frontier in early 
days, was given his trader's license in 1744. Four years later he 
purchased land and became a resident of Cumberland county. In 
1750 he was one of the magistrates of that county and accompanied 
Secretary Peters in his visits to the squatters. Soon after that he 
removed to Aughwick (now Shirleysburg), where he continued to reside 
for several years. He appears to have been always on friendly terms 
with the Indians, for at a conference held at Carlisle in 1753 the Indians 
requested that any presents intended for them should be sent to "George 
Croghan's house at Juniata." 

John Hart also received a trader's license in 1744 and established 
a "feeding and lodging place" where the borough of Alexandria, Hunt- 


ingdon county, is now located. He did not effect a permanent settle- 
ment, however, but his place gave name to the Hartslog valley. The 
Indians did not resent the presence of such men as Croghan and Hart, 
for the traders never cleared oft' the timber and drove away the game 
as did the squatters. 

Another active trader of this period was John (commonly called 
Jack) Armstrong. Most of his trade was with the Indians living along 
the Susquehanna above Peter's mountain, but it appears that he also 
traded with the Delawares in the Juniata valley. Some time in the 
3-ear 1744 Armstrong and two of his assistants, James Smith and 
\\'oodworth Arnold, were foully murdered at the place known as Jack's 
narrows, in Huntingdon county. According to the story of the old 
chief, Shickalamy, the deed was committed by a Delaware Indian 
named ]\Iusemeelin, who owed Armstrong some skins, for which the 
trader seized a horse and a rifle belonging to Musemeelin to hold as 
security for the payment of the debt. This so incensed the Indian that, 
accompanied by two young men under the pretense of going on a bear 
hunt, he followed Armstrong and his two companions to the narrows, 
where he killed all three, the two young Indians taking no part in the 

There is a somewhat fanciful story of an eccentric character called 
Captain Jack, who, about the time of Armstrong's murder, or shortly 
afterward, took up his residence in the Aughwick valley. He has been 
described as "a man of almost herculean proportions, with extremely 
swarthy complexion." By some he was supposed to be a half-breed 
Indian and by others a quadroon. L'pon returning home from one of 
his hunting excursions he found his wife and two children murdered 
and his cabin reduced to ashes. From that time he avoided the habita- 
tions of civilized man, lived in caves or hollow logs, and devoted his 
life to avenging his wrongs by killing every Indian he could find. His 
peculiar mode of living and his daring deeds inspired the savages with 
terror and gained for him such names as the "Black Hunter," "Black 
Rifle," "Wild Hunter of the Juniata," etc. Not only did he become a 
terror to the Indians, but he also won the confidence of the settlers, 
who offered him the command of a company organized for their mutual 
protection. He accepted the command, but as the company was 
organized without the sanction of the provincial government, it took 


the name of "Captain Jack's Hunters." Skilled marksmen, used to the 
frontier, clad in rough but serviceable hunting shirts, leathern lepeines 
and moccasins, they scoured the hills and vales, and no doubt sent 
many an Indian to his "happy hunting grounds." What became of 
Captain Jack is uncertain. Says Lytle : "His exploits, if they could 
be correctly described, would perhaps be a proper subject for historv, 
but so much has been written concerning them that is purely fictitious 
that it is impossible to separate the false from the true." 

^lany persons believe that Jack's mountain and Jack's narrows 
derive their names from this peculiar individual, but John Harris, the 
founder of Harrisburg, who was contemporary with Captain Jack, 
speaks of the narrows as "Jack Armstrong's narrows, so called from 
his being there murdered." 

The driving out of the squatters and the burning of their cabins 
in the spring of 1750 was, in the main, ineffectual, either in checking 
the immigration to the Indian lands or in bringing satisfaction and 
contentment to the savages. In fact, some of the first settlers had 
not been molested by Secretary Peters and his party, and this encouraged 
others to cross the mountains and establish themselves in the Indian 
country. James Patterson settled near the present town of Mexico, 
Juniata county, in 1751, only a year after the trespassers had been 
driven out, and cleared land on both sides of the river. Egle says: 
"Patterson held his lands in defiance of the provincial government and 
the cowardly redskins until 1755, when the Indians ceased to visit his 
settlement to barter furs and venison for rum and tobacco, and instead 
began to prowl around painted for war, and armed with rifles, tomahawks 
and knives." 

It is related of Patterson that he adopted a novel method of inspiring 
the Indians with fear. In front of his house he kept a target leaning 
against a tree. Whenever he saw a party of Indians approaching he 
would step to the door and fire a few shots at the target, the center 
of which was fairly riddled with bullets. The Indians would examine 
the target and estimate the distance — probably 150 yards — then shrug 
their shoulders with an "L'gh!" which indicated their intention to keep 
beyond the range of his deadly rifle. Patterson's marksmanship obtained 
for him among the Delawares the name of "Big Shot." 

In a few instances persons were allowed to settle upon the forbidden 


lands with the consent, if not with the actual connivance, of the 
provincial authorities. One case of this nature was that of Andrew 
Montour, a half-breed and brother of Catharine Montour, the well 
known Indian interpreter. After repeated applications for permission 
to live somewhere beyond the Blue hills, Montour received from 
Governor Hamilton a commission, dated April 18, 1752, authorizing 
him to "settle and reside upon the Indians' land, in any place he should 
consider most convenient and central, and to prevent the lands from 
being settled upon by others, and to warn off all who presume to locate 
there ; also to report to the government the names of such as did locate, 
that they might be prosecuted." 

IMontour located in what is now Perry county, on a tract of land 
between Landisburg and Loysville, and near the little stream that still 
bears the name of ^Montour's run. In the same year that he received 
his commission several white men came into the Kishacoquillas valley, 
in what is now Mifflin county, looking for locations, and most of them 
became permanent settlers. Among them were the five McNitt brothers, 
William Brown, Samuel IMaclay and James Reed, whose wife was the 
first white woman in that locality. 

In 1753 William Patterson, John and Joseph Scott, James Kennedy, 
Alexander Roddy, Thomas Wilson and a few others were located in 
the Sherman valley, not far from Montour's place, but there is no 
evidence to show that Montour performed the duties rec^uired by his 
commission, either by warning these men that they were trespassers 
or lodging information with the government that would insure their 
prosecution On the other hand, he brought his brother-in-law. William 
Dason, into the valley and gave him a farm, as shown by an affidavit of 
William Patterson some years later. 

Peter Shaver (or Cheaver) had been engaged in trade with the 
Indians for some years and settled near the mouth of Shaver's creek, 
in Huntingdon county, at a date not definitely known, but supposed 
to have been in the spring of 1754. Some years later his headless body 
was found near his residence, but the cause of his death has always 
remained a mystery. Other settlers came upon the Indian lands in the 
early part of 1754. regardless of the rights of the Indians or the attitude 
of the provincial government. Most of them were of that sturdy 
Scotch-Irish stock which is noted for determination. L'nafraid of the 


dangers of the wilderness or the hostihty of the savage natives, but 
attracted by the fertile valleys along the Juniata, they resolved to found 
homes there at all hazards. Professor Guss says : 

"These continued aggressions of the white people, and their ap- 
parent determination to disregard the rights of the Indians at what- 
ever hazard, greatly incensed the latter, who. at a treaty council, held 
at Carlisle in 1753, very plainly expressed their views on the subject, 
entering their vigorous protest against this unjustifiable occupation of 
their hunting grounds, and notifying the authorities that 'they wished 
the people called back from the Juniata lands until matters were settled 
between them and the French, lest damage should be done, and then 
the English would think ill of them.' " 

The latter part of the above quotation refers to the machinations 
of the French agents among the Delawares, Shawnees and other tribes 
that claimed the Juniata valley as a hunting ground. For years these 
Indians had been in friendly intercourse with the French along the Ohio 
river, and were gradually yielding to their overtures of an alliance. 
They accepted the presents from the English, given to them for the 
purpose of drawing them away from the French, but finally went over 
to the latter in a body. Five years after the cabins of the squatters 
had been burned at the solicitation of these "children of the forest," 
they went over the same ground with torch, scalping-knife and toma- 
hawk, mingling the blood of their victims with the ashes of the frontier 
dwellings, and all this notwithstanding they had relinquished their title 
to the lands. It was simply another case of the untutored native being 
swayed by the stronger will of designing white men. In the struggles 
between the nations of Europe the Indian was frequently made the 
cat's-paw to draw the chestnuts of a rich trade in furs or the possession 
of valuable territory from the fire for the benefit of ungrateful masters. 
Had the Indians of the Juniata valley been left to themselves, it is quite 
probable that some understanding could have been reached by which 
amicable relations could have been continued, but under the influence 
of the French a crisis was reached in 1754 that made it advisable on 
the part of the English to purchase the lands lying west of the Endless 

Accordingly, a council assembled at Albany, New York, early in 


July, 1754, and on the 6th of that month a treaty was conckided by the 
execution of the following deed : 

"Henry Peters, Abraham Peters, Blandt, Johannes Satfyhowano, 
Johannes Kanadakayon, Abraham Sastagrhedohy, sachems or chiefs of 
the Mohawk nation : Aneeghnaxqua, Taraghorus, Tohaghdaghquyserry, 
alias Kachneghdackon, sachems or chiefs of the Oneydo nation; Otsin- 
ughyada, alias Blunt, in behalf of himself and all the sachems and 
chiefs of the Onondago nation; Scanuraty, Tannaghdorus, Tokaaiyon, 
Kaghradodon, sachems or chiefs of the Cayuga nation; Kahichdonon, 
alias Groote Younge, Takeghsata, Tiyonenkokaraw. sachems or chiefs 
of the Seneca nation; Suntrughwackon, Sagochsidodagon, Tohashu- 
wangarus Orontakayon, alias John Nixon, Tistoaghton, sachems or 
chiefs of the Tuscarora nation, in consideration of four hundred pounds 
(£400) lawful money of New York, grant and convey to Thomas and 
Richard Penn all the lands lying within the province of Pennsylvania, 
bounded and limited as follows, namely : Beginning at the Kittochtinny 
or Blue Hills, on the west branch of the Susquehanna river, and thence 
by the said river a mile above the mouth of a certain creek called 
Kayarondinhagh : thence northwest and by west as far as the province 
of Pennsylvania extends to its western lines or boundaries ; thence 
along the said western line to the south line or boundary of said 
province ; thence along the said south line or boundary to the south side 
of the Kittochtinny hills, thence by the south side of said hills to the 
place of beginning."' 

Had the boundaries as described in the deed been established the pur- 
chase would have included all the western part of the state. The creek 
called Kayarondinhagh is Penn's creek, which flows into the Susque 
hanna at Selinsgrove, Snyder county. Starting from the river a mile 
above the mouth of that creek, a line running "northwest and by north," 
as the deed calls for, would strike Lake Erie a few miles east of the 
city of Erie, and all south of that line and west of the Blue hills would 
have been the extent of the territory purchased. The expressions of 
dissatisfaction among the Indians over the boundary led to a conference 
at Aughwick, in September, 1754, at which time the representatives of 
the different tribes declared that it was not their intention to sell the 
W'est branch of the Susquehanna, and that they would never agree to 
any boundary that extended to Lake Erie. To adjust the cpiestion of 
boundaries another treaty was concluded at Easton, Pennsylvania, on 
October 22nd, when the line starting a mile above Penn's creek was 


made to run "northwest and by west to a creek called Buffalo creek ; 
thence west to the east side of the Allegheny or Appalachian hills ; thence 
along the east side of the said hills, binding therewith to the south line 
or boundary of the said province ; thence by the said south line or boun- 
dary to the south side of the Kittachtinny hills ; thence by the south 
side of the said hills to the place of beginning." 

The purchase, as defined by the restricted boundaries, included all 
of the counties of Perry, Juniata, Mifflin, Huntingdon, Bedford, Blair 
and Fulton: nearly all of Snyder: about one-half of Center, and portions 
of Union, Franklin and Somerset. The boundaries were confirmed by 
the Indians on October 23, 1758, after which time there was no dispute 
regarding the ownership and possession of the Juniata valley. 

During the latter part of 1754 and the early part of 1755 a number 
of settlers came into the Juniata valley. The land offlce was opened for 
the entry of lands in the new purchase on February 3, 1755, and the 
same day Barnabas Barnes was granted a tract of land in what is now 
Tell township, Huntingdon county. About two weeks later he received 
a warrant for a tract in what is now Wayne township, Mifflin county. 
On February 4 James Patterson received his warrant for 400 acres at 
IMexico, where he had been living since 1751. On }ilay 26, 1755, James 
McDowell applied for 300 acres "at a place called the Burnt Cabins at 
Aucquick." ^^'illiam ilaxwell also applied about the same time for 300 
acres, "including Falkner's (Falconer's) and William and Thomas 
Thompson's improvements at Auccjuick." No warrants were issued on 
these applications, but the intention of the applicants to become residents 
is clearly shown. On June 25, 1755, Anthony Thompson received title 
to a tract on the little Aughwick, and some time during the year Hugh 
Crawford, so he afterward claimed, made some improvements where 
the borough of Huntingdon now stands. 

Concerning the first white men to locate in [Nlilflin county, Egle's 
"History of Pennsylvania" sa}-s ; "The first settlers came from the 
Conococheague, by way of Aughwick. They were Arthur Buchanan, a 
brave backwoodsman, his two sons, and three other families, all of 
whom were Scotch-Irish. They encamped on the west side of Kishico- 
quillas creek, near its mouth, opposite the Indian town on the present 
site of East Lewistown, when Buchanan, who was the leader, proceeded 
to negotiate for land. At first he found the Indians unwilling, but. 


meeting with the chief, whom he christened Jacobs, from his resemblance 
to a burly Dutchman in Cumberland county, he succeeded in obtaining 
the land, now the principal part of Lewistown, west of the creek, ex- 
tending up the river. This was in 1754. To this favored spot, this year 
and the forepart of the next, 1755, he induced so many persons to come 
to his settlement that the Indians who adhered to Jacobs became dissatis- 
fied, destroyed their town, and left. The council-house of the Indians 
was on the east side of the creek, opposite Buchanan's cabin, and a line 
of wigwams belonging to a number of different tribes stretched to the 
north along the stream." 

Among those who recei\-ed land warrants in Mifflin county in 1755 
were : Everhart Alartin, James Alexander, Edward Bates, George Sig- 
ler, Alexander Hamilton, Andrew Bratton, Samuel Holliday, Alexander 
Torrentine, Robert Brotherton, \\'illiam Brown, James Reed and Roljert 
Taylor, most of whom located along the Juniata or in the Kishacoquillas 

Some of those who had been driven out of Juniata county in 1750 
returned soon after the purchase of 1754, accijmpanied l:)y a number of 
others who entered lands and established homes. Among these pioneers 
were : Alexander ^ilaginty, John ]\IcClellan, Robert Campbell, ^^'illiam 
Buchanan, William Patterson, ^^'illiam Beale, James Kennedy, Alex- 
ander Dennison, James McMahan, George and John Armstrong, Wil- 
liam \A'hite, James Purdy, \\'illiam Huston, John Lycon, James Michel- 
tree. \\'illiam Stewart and Francis West, all of whom entered lands in 
the year 1755, and some of their descendants still reside in the county. 

John Pfoutz, whose land Egle says was the first located by order 
from the land office, settled in what is still known as Pfoutz's valley, in 
Perry county. James Baskins, Marcus Hulings and a few others located 
about the mouth of the Juniata, some of them before the land was pur- 
chased from the Indians. Other settlers in Perry county were the Rob- 
isons, Robert and James Wilson, Andrew Simeson, Robert Pollock, 
Hugh Miller, W^illiam Darlington, Samuel Hunter, James Mitchell, 
William Croncleton, Ross Mitchell, James Dixson, Alexander Roddy, 
who was one of the squatters driven out in 1750, James Cowen and 
James Blaine. 

A more complete account of these early settlers will be found in chap- 
ters on county and township history. During the French and Indian 


war many of them abandoned their frontier homes and fled to the more 
thickly settled portions of the province, returning after the close of 
hostilities, from which period the history of the actual permanent set- 
tlement of the valley has its beginning. 



First Counties in Pennsylvania — Huntingdon the Eighteenth — Organic Act — Boun- 
daries Defined — Location of County Seat — Trustees — First County Officers — Court 
Houses — Jails — Dispute over Boundary Lines — Opposition to the Federal Con- 
stitution — Open Rebellion in Huntingdon County — Conrad Weiser — John Harris' 
Journey — Early Settlements — Reduction in Size — Present Area — Slavery — Dele- 
gates to Constitutional Conventions — Benjamin Elliott — Andrew Henderson^ 
David R. Porter— John Scott— John IMcCulloch— John M. Bailey— R. iNIilton 
Speer — The Civil List. 

THE organization of counties in Pennsylvania began in 1682, when 
William Penn divided the province into the counties of Chester, 
Philadelphia, and Bucks. No boundaries were designated farther 
than the lines separating the counties where they joined each other, their 
limits in all other directions extending to the borders of the province. 
The lines of separation were confirmed by the provincial council on April 
2, 1685. Of the three original counties Chester was much the largest 
and from its territory a number of new counties have been erected. 
Lancaster was cut off by the act of May 10, 1729, and was the fourth 
county to be organized in the state. Twenty years later York county 
was erected and by the act of January 2^, 1750, "the lands lying to the 
westward of Suscjuehanna, and northward and westward of the county 
of York," were erected into a county called Cumberland. Bedford 
county was taken from Cumberland on March 9, 1771, and was the last 
county erected prior to the Revolutionary war. Huntingdon county, 
the eighteenth to be formed in the state, was originally a part of Ches- 
ter county. It was erected from part of Bedford by the act of Septem- 
ber 20, 1787, the preamble of the act and the section relating to the 
boundaries being as follows : 

"Whereas, it hath been represented to the General Assembly of this 
State, by the inhabitants of that part of Bedford county which lies on 



the waters of the Frankstown branch of the Juniata, tlie lower part of 
the Raystown branch of the same, the Standing Stone vahey, part of 
Woodcock valley, the waters of Aughwick creek, and other north- 
easterly parts of the said county of Bedford, that they labor under great 
hardships from their great distance from the present seat of justice, and 
the public offices for the said county now in the town of Bedford: For 
remedy whereof, 

"Be it enacted, etc.. That all and singular the lands lying within 
the bounds and limits hereinafter described and following, shall be, 
and are hereby, erected into a separate county by the name of Hunting- 
don county; namely, beginning in the line of Bedford and Franklin 
counties, where the new state road (by some called Skinner's road), 
leading from Shijipensburg to Littleton, crosses the Tuscarora moun- 
tain; thence in a straight course or line to the Gap in Shade mountain, 
where the road formerly called Potts' road crosses the same, about two 
miles north of Littleton; thence by a straight line to the Old Gap, in 
Sideling Hill, where Sideling Hill creek crosses the mountain; thence 
in a straight line by the northerly side of Sebastian Shoub's mill, on 
the Raystown branch of Juniata; thence on a straight line to the Elk 
Gap, in Tussey's mountain ; computed to be about nineteen miles above 
or southwesterly of the town of Huntingdon (formerly called Standing 
Stone), and from the said Elk Gap. in a straight line, to the Gap at 
Jacob Stevens' mill, a little below where W'oolery's mill formerly stood, 
in Morrison's cove; thence in a straight line by the southerly side of 
Blair's mill, at the foot of the Allegheny mountain; thence across the 
said mountain, in a straight line, to and along the ridges dividing the 
waters of the Conemaugh from the waters of Clearfield and Chest 
creeks, to the line of \\'estmoreland county ; thence by the same to the 
old purchase line, which was run from Kittanning to the West Branch 
of Susquehanna river; and along said line to the said West Branch, 
and down the same to the mouth of Moshannon creek, and along the 
remaining lines or boundaries which now divide the county of Bedford 
from the counties of Northumberland, Cumberland and Franklin, to the 
place of beginning." 

The act contained the usual provisions concerning the holding of 
courts, fixing the time for the sessions on the first Tuesday in the months 
of December, March, June, and September, and the place of meeting at 
the house of Ludwig Sell, in the town of Huntingdon, until a court- 
house should be erected. With regard to the location of the county 
seat and the erection of public buildings the act contained the following 
preamble and section : 


"And zvhcrcas. the petitioners for erecting the said county, have 
unanimously represented to this house, that the town of Huntingdon, 
on the river Juniata, is a proper and central place for the seat of jus- 
tice in the said county; and the proprietor of said town, at the desire 
and with the approbation of the inhabitants and owners of lots and 
buildings in the same, hath laid off and set apart a proper and suf- 
ficient quantity of grounds, for the site of a court house, county gaol 
and prison, and hath engaged to give, assure and convey the same to 
the commonwealth, in trust and for the use and benefit of the said 
county; provided the said town of Huntingdon shall be fixed upon by 
law as a proper place for the seat of justice in the said county: There- 

"Be it further enacted, etc.. That Benjamin Elliott, Thomas Duncan 
Smith, Ludwig Sfih- George Ashman and William McAlevy, be, and 
they are hereby appointed trustees for the said county of Huntingdon, 
and they, or any three of them, shall take assurance of and for the 
lands and grounds proposed to be appropriated as aforesaid, in the 
said town of Huntingdon, for the site of a court house and county gaol 
or prison, and shall take care that the quantity of ground so to be 
appropriated be sufficient and convenient for the public purposes afore- 
said, and as little detrimental as possible to the proprietors and owners 
of contiguous lots and buildings; which assurance and conveyance of 
the grotmds, as aforesaid, the said trustees, or any three of them, shall 
take" in the name of the commonwealth, in trust and for the use and 
benefit of the said county of Huntingdon, and thereupon erect a court 
house and prison, sufficient to accommodate the public service of said 

Soon after the passage of the act creating the county, officers were 
appointed for the transaction of the public business. Lazarus B. 
McClain received his commission on September 25, 1787, as clerk of the 
court of quarter sessions, orphans' court, prothonotary, etc., and was the 
first official to be appointed. Four days later Andrew Henderson was 
commissioned recorder of deeds, register of wills, and justice of the 
county court, and on December 13th he was commissioned prothonotary. 
On October 22d Benjamin Elliott was commissioned sherifif. Robert 
Galbraith was appointed president of the county court of common pleas, 
orphans' court, court of general quarter sessions and jail delivery on 
November 23, 1787, and on the same day Thomas Duncan Smith, John 
Williams, Thomas McCune and William Phillips were commissioned 
justices of the county. Samuel Thompson was appointed coroner on 


November 30, 1787, and on December 5th David I\Ic]Murtrie was ap- 
pointed treasurer. 

As provided in the organic act, the courts were held in the house of 
Ludwig Sell until the erection of a court-house. Sell's house was a 
double two-story log structure on Allegheny street, between Second and' 
Third streets, and was kept as a tavern by Mr. Sell, being the first public 
house of entertainment in Huntingdon. It was not long, however, until 
the trustees took the necessary steps to carry out the provisions of the 
act in the matter of erecting a court-house and jail. The first court-house 
stood between Penn and Allegheny streets, fronting on Third street. 
It was a brick edifice of three stories, one of which was a basement, in 
which were the offices of the prothonotary, register, recorder and clerk 
of the courts. Upon its completion the justices were escorted to the 
court-house with fife and drum, and for some time this method was in 
use to announce the sessions of the court. In 1798 a bell was placed on 
the court-house, after which the use of the fife and drum was discon- 
tinued. The bell weighed 254 pounds and bore the inscription "Cast by 
Samuel Parker, Philadelphia, 1798. William Smith, D.D., to the Bor- 
ough of Huntingdon, Juniata." When the old court-house was torn 
down in the spring of 1848 the bell was placed upon the public school 
building, where it continued in use until December 12, 1861, when it was 
broken while ringing for school. 

The second court-house was erected upon the north side of Penn 
street, between Second and Third streets, and was completed in 1842. 
The lots upon which it stood — Nos. 31 to 34, inclusive — were formerly 
the property of Stephen Drury and John Cadwallader, Drury owning 
lot No. 31 and Cadwallader the others. In August, 1793, these gentle- 
men mortgaged their lots to the county for $100 each, and on June 25, 
1839, Governor Porter approved a resolution of the legislature transfer- 
ring the "lien, right, title and claim of the commonwealth of Pennsyl- 
vania of, in and to the lots under the mortgages to the county of Hunt- 
ingdon, for the use and purpose of building by said county of a court- 
house and other necessary buildings for the said county, therewith and 
thereon, and for such other uses as the commissioners of said county 
shall hereafter determine." Shortly after the adoption of this resolu- 
tion the lots became the property of the county by legal process and the 


erection of the court-house was begun. It was used from 1842 until the 
present court-house was built. 

About 1876 it became apparent that the court-house was inadequate 
to the needs of the county, and the question of making additions and 
repairs came up for consideration. Successive grand juries recom- 
mended the erection of a new building, and on April 21, 1882, the com- 
missioners passed the following resolution : "In order to carry out the 
instructions of the grand juries in the matter of repairing and remodel- 
ing the court-house, it was unanimously resolved to issue bonds to an 
amount not exceeding seventy-five thousand dollars, interest payable at 
four per cent, per annum, date of issue June i, 1882. The above reso- 
lution to be presented to the court for approval." 

The court approved the action of the commissioners, and on April 
28, 1882, the plans submitted by M. E. Beebe, an architect of Buffalo, 
New York, were accepted by the board, which was then composed of 
Henry Davis, Nicholas Isenberg and Samuel P. Smith. Bids were then 
advertised for, and on May 17, 1882, the contract was awarded to 
Henry Snare & Company for $71,300. On December 5, 1883, the 
building was accepted as complete upon the report of a special commis- 
sion consisting of John Covert, John A. Blair, Henry Neft', J. F. N. 
Householder, G. W. Reynolds and Theo. H. Cremer. Some changes 
were made in the original designs, which brought the total cost of the 
building up to about $73,000. It occupies the site of the court-house 
erected in 1842. 

Concerning the first jail in the county, Lytle says : "A building that 
had been erected before the formation of the county was first used for 
that purpose. Its location is now unknown. In a letter written at that 
time, it is mentioned as a 'block-house.' It may have been the remains 
of the old fort built during the Revolutionary War." 

On August 25, 1791, Dr. William Smith, founder of the town of 
Huntingdon, conveyed to the trustees lot No. 41 as a site for a county 
prison. A log jail was erected there in that year and several sessions 
of the court were held in the building before the completion of the court- 
house. Some years later the jail was destroyed by fire, its single pris- 
oner at the time being burned with the building. The lot upon which 
it stood was on the east side of Second (then St. Clair) street, directly 


opposite the end of Penn (then Hill) street. \Mien the turnpike was 
completed to Huntingdon it passed over the lot where the old jail stood, 
and which is now the continuation of Penn street toward Standing 
Stone creek. 

Not long after the destruction of the first jail by fire, a second one 
was erected. It was a small stone structure on Third street north of 
Mifflin, "standing back against the hill, with a yard in front of it, run- 
ning down towards the street." It served as a county prison until 1S29, 
when the present jail was erected south of it, on the line of ^Mifflin 
street, the jail yard extending back to Church street. About the time 
the present court-house was completed the jail came in for severe criti- 
cism, on account of its antiquated architecture and unsanitary condi- 
tions. Nothing was done toward its improvement, however, until 191 1, 
when the jail was practically rebuilt at a cost of about $19,000. 

Although the act erecting the county designated the boundaries, no 
attempt was made to run and mark the lines until nearly two years later. 
On April 3, 1789, the supreme executive council appointed Benjamin 
Elliott, of Huntingdon ; Matthew Taylor, of Bedford ; and James Har- 
ris, of Cumberland County, "to run and ascertain the boundaries of 
Huntingdon county." Before the work of this commission was com- 
pleted Mifflin county was erected by the act of September 19, 1789, 
and when an attempt was made to run the line between ]\Iifflin and 
Huntingdon both counties laid claim to a small strip of territory south 
of the Juniata river. Jones says that a majority of the residents in 
the disputed territory favored the Mifflin county cause, and adds : 
"They were mostly Irish ; and, since the wars were over and no enemy 
to fight, were ever ready, with true Irish hospitality, to take a brush 
with their neighbors." While the dispute was at its height. John Pat- 
ton, the sherifif of Huntingdon county, went into the district in con- 
troversy for the purpose of serving writs that had been placed in his 
hands. The people, learning of his coming, congregated at an Irish 
tavern at Drake's ferry, took him into custody and lodged him in the 
Mifflin county jail at Lewistown. He secured his release on a writ of 
habeas corpus and, smarting under the humiliating treatment to which 
he had been subjected, returned to Huntingdon, where he organized a 
posse, determined to serve the writs at all hazards. Again the people 
assembled to make resistance, but fortunately the sheriff and his posse 


took a different route from the one expected, the hostile factions failed 
to come together and violence was thus avoided. 

The cjuestion was finally settled by legislative action, but not until 
two acts had been passed relating to the boundary line. On April i, 

1 79 1, an act was passed defining the line from Concord gap north to 
the Juniata river and appointing commissioners to run it. As this line 
would have included all that part of Mifflin county above McVeytown 
in Huntingdon county, the people of the former opposed the measure 
and succeeded in securing the passage of another act on March 29, 

1792, which designated the boundary between the counties as "a straight 
line beginning in the middle of the \\'ater Gap in the Tuscarora moun- 
tain and from thence to the river Juniata, in such direction as to 
include Joseph Galloway's farm within Huntingdon county, at the mouth 
of Galloway's run, shall be the line between Huntingdon and ^liftlin 

This ended the controversy concerning the territory south of the 
Juniata river, though the line was more clearly defined by the act of 
April 5, 1834. In 1895 a dispute arose regarding the boundary line 
north of the Juniata, which was carried to the supreme court of the 
state before it was settled. An account of this controversy will be 
found in Chapter VI. 

In May, 1787, a convention of delegates from the several states 
met at Philadelphia for the purpose of revising the articles of con- 
federation. Instead of revising the old agreement that had held the 
colonies together during the trying times of the Revolution, they 
adopted a new constitution, which was signed by most of the delegates 
on September 17, 1787, only three days before the passage of the act 
erecting Huntingdon county. Later in the year the Pennsylvania 
convention to accept or reject the new constitution assembled, Benjamin 
Elliott, of Huntingdon, being one of the delegates. Opposition to the 
constitution developed in various sections of the country, chiefly on 
the ground that it was one of compromise and concession, so made 
in the effort to harmonize conflicting interests, and that it lacked the 
virility which ought to distinguish the organic law of the new republic. 

In no part of the country was the opposition more marked or of a 
more violent character than in Huntingdon county, where the leader 
against the constitution was Colonel William IVIcAlevy, a man of 


influence, who had won his title of colonel in the Revolutionary war and 
had been particularly active as the foe of the Indians and Tories. 
About the time of the constitutional convention in the spring of 1787, 
he became an enthusiastic Democrat and his house at ]McAlevy's fort, 
in the Standing Stone valley, was a sort of political headquarters for 
his numerous followers, over whom his control was almost absolute, 
though it does not appear that he personally took an active part in the 
riotous proceedings that followed the ratification of the obnoxious 

The first pronounced demonstration was made on the opening day 
of the session of the court in ]\Iarch, 1788, when a large number of 
men armed with clubs and bearing an efiigy of Colonel John Cannon, 
membe' of the supreme executive council from Huntingdon, marched 
into the town and started for the house where the court was sitting. 
Two of the justices left the bench and went out to meet the mob, 
hoping to induce the rioters to disperse without disturbing the peace. 
Their efforts were without avail, however, the mob marched on to 
the house in which the court was being held and there made so much 
noise that the transaction of business was impossible. The sherifif was 
Ordered to arrest the one who seemed to be the most active and commit 
him to jail, but no sooner had the leader been taken into custody than 
he was released by his associates, the sherifif being handled somewhat 
roughly during the fracas. The names of the principals were then 
obtained and presented to the grand jury, which returned a true l)ill, 
but as an immediate trial was out of the question, the cases were 
continued until the following session of the court. 

Benjamin Elliott was commissioned lieutenant of the county on 
November 30, 1787, and soon afterward organized a battalion of militia. 
In I\Iay. 1788, this battalion was ordered to assemble for muster in 
the Hartslosf vallev. Some of the riotous element refused to muster 
under Colonel Cannon and Major Spencer, claiming that they had 
been unfairly elected. Elliott was also the object of their enmity 
because he had been a delegate to the convention that had ratified 
the constittttion. He was assaulted by several persons and a friend 
w-ho tried to shield him from the unwarranted attack and to restore 
order was severely handled. In his report of the affair, Elliott said : 
"They met, some for the purpose of doing their duty and others for 


the purpose of making a riot, which they effected, about tlie Federal 
Government, in which riot I was very ih-used by a senseless banditti, 
who were inflamed by a number of false publications privately circu- 
lated by people wlio were enemies of the Federal Government." 

Warrants were issued a few days later by Thomas Duncan Smith, 
one of the justices, for the arrest of three of the leaders in the riot 
which broke up the muster. They were taken without resistance by 
the constable before Thomas McCune, another justice, who released 
them upon their own recognizances with the injunction to appear before 
Justice Smith five days later. When the appointed day for the trial 
arrived the office of Justice Smith was crowded by an unrul}' crowd 
and the defendants, finding themselves supported by their friends, 
refused to give bail and demanded that they be committed to jail. The 
justice saw that this was merely a pretext for the commission of further 
unlawful deeds, should he issue such an order, and as the June sessions 
of the court were only a few days off, he told them he would release 
them without security, as two of them were owners of real estate. 
This was not what the mob wanted and in the afternoon nearly one 
hundred men, about two-thirds of them armed with rifles or muskets 
and the remainder with such weapons as they could lay hands on, 
marched into Huntingdon. At the corner of Penn and Diamond streets 
they formed a circle, in the center of which they placed Justice Smith 
and demanded that he destroy the warrants. This he refused to do, 
but he did surrender them to one of the mob, who destroyed them. 
The crowd then went to the office of the clerk of the court of quarter 
sessions, where they demanded and received the indictment that had 
been found at the March sessions against the leaders of the mob that 
disturbed the session of the court. After some parley the clerk yielded 
up the indictment, which was also destroyed. From the clerk's office 
the mob proceeded to the house in which the court sessions were held 
and demanded the quarter sessions docket. L^pon gaining possession 
of it, the rioters erased or tore out the entries relating to their conduct 
in March, as well as all other portions that they did not like, after which 
they threatened certain officials with summary vengeance and left town. 

During these high-handed proceedings the law-abiding part of the 
town was completely powerless to offer resistance. Two of the justices 
sought safety — one by hiding himself and the other in flight. Several 


citizens who had spoken against such doings were Hkewise compelled 
to secrete themselves ; two constables were forced to leave their homes 
in order to save their lives ; the sheriff could not discharge his duty 
in the matter of serving writs : business of all kinds was depressed, and 
Huntingdon county was in a state of anarchy. On June 5. 1788, a 
statement of the outrages and unhappy conditions then prevailing in 
the county was sent to the council, in the minutes of which body for 
June 25, 1788. may be found the following entry: 

"A letter from two of the magistrates of Huntingdon county, 
stating that the daring and violent outrages were committed by a 
lawless set of men. that the officers of the Government have been in- 
sulted and their lives endangered, and that part of the records of the 
Court have been destroyed and erased, was read, praying the support of 
the Government. &c. Thereupon. 

"Resolved, That the most proper and effectual measures be imme- 
diately taken to quell the disturbances in Huntingdon county, and to 
restore order and good government, and that the Honorable Judges 
of the Supreme Court be informed that the Supreme Executive will 
give them aid and assistance, which the laws of the State will warrant, 
and shall be found necessary to accomplish this end." 

Although this resolution promised well and encouraged the law- 
abiding citizens of the county, the state was not so ready to fulfill the 
promise with the vigorous action necessary to "quell the disturbances." 
In fact, between the time the magistrates notified the council of the 
situation and the passage of the resolution, Samuel Clinton. Abraham 
Smith and William McCune came into Huntingdon at the head of 
about twenty men, assaulted Alexander Irwin, a peaceable citizen, and 
at night stoned the residences of the coimty officers, Benjamin Elliott, 
Robert Gall)raith. Andrew Henderson and Thomas Duncan Smith 
seemed to be the greatest objects of their enmity, perhaps because they 
were the most active in trying to preserve or restore order. They were 
threatened w-ith tar and feathers, whipping and other indignities, and 
even death, if they did not cease their efforts to enforce the laws. 

Some six weeks after the adoption of the resolution above referred 
to, a body of 160 men from all parts of the county, led by Colonel 
McAlevy, John and Abraham Smith and John Little, paraded the 
streets of Huntingdon. This is the only time Colonel Mc.VIevy's naine 


appears in the accounts of the rioting as an active participant, though 
it was generally understood that he was behind the movement. No 
arms were visible, but the general impression was that they carried 
weapons concealed. The county officers and others who gave support 
to the constitution hurried to the house of Benjamin Elliott, where 
they armed themselves and resolved to defend their position. Finding 
the officers ready to meet an attack, the rioters contented themselves 
with marching through the town with fife and drum, their object being 
apparently to awe the citizens with the display of their strength. 

In June, 1789, the subject again came before the council, but 
the excitement had subsided to some extent and it was resolved by that 
body to postpone any action, which was probably the best thing that 
could be done under the circumstances. The constitution had been 
ratified by a majority of the states and was recognized as the funda- 
mental law of the land. Consequently its opponents in Huntingdon 
county realized that further resistance to its provisions was useless, and 
the "tempest in a teapot" exhausted its fury without loss of life, though 
several persons were roughly treated while it was at its height. If 
any of the ringleaders were ever punished the records do not show the 
fact. Lytle says : "It has generally been stated and believed by those 
who have nothing but traditionary accounts of these occurrences, that 
the records of the court were burned by ]\IcAlevy and his men, but 
there is no official evidence that such was the case. There are in 
existence authentic and reliable documents which seem to prove con- 
clusively that some of the records were torn and others obliterated by 
erasures. It has been said that a copy of the constitution of the United 
States was burned, and this may have been correct, and may have given 
rise to the statement that other papers were destroyed in the same way." 

The visitor to Huntingdon county at the present day, who sees on 
every hand abundant evidences of order, industry and peace, or he who 
looks into her history and observes how promptly her gallant sons have 
responded to their country's call in time of war, can scarcely believe 
that there was a considerable portion of her population that resisted 
the authority of the Federal government in its earliest days. These 
men were doubtless moved by principle to take the course they did, 
but when they found themselves unable to accomplish their ends even by 
intimidation and other lawless methods, they accepted the situation as 


gracefully as circumstances would permit and acknowledged the right 
of the majority to rule. Descendants of some of them still reside in 
the county and are numbered among the loyal and order-loving citizens. 

The first white man to leave any written account of a visit to 
that section of Pennsylvania now comprising Huntingdon county was 
Conrad W'eiser. He was born in Germany in 1696 and came to America 
in 17 10. Immediately upon his arrival in this country he went among 
the ^Mohawk Indians for the purpose of learning their language, in 
order that he might be qualified to act as interpreter between the tribes 
of the Six Nations and the German traders. In 1729 he settled in 
Pennsylvania and during the last thirty years of his life he was closely 
identified with many of the principal events in the history of the 
province. His first appearance as interpreter in Pennsylvania was on 
December 10, 1731, at a council in Philadelphia. On that occasion 
his ability so impressed the provincial authorities that he was frequently 
employed on missions of an important and confidential nature. His 
home was known as "Tulpyhocken," in what is now Berks county, but 
he spent very little of his time there, his duties as interpreter and pro- 
vincial agent constantly calling him to different parts of the country. 
In March, 1748, arrangements were made for him to visit the Indian 
tribes on the Ohio to distribute presents and make treaties with them, 
and incidentally to carry the government's proclamation to the tres- 
passers on the Indian lands west of the Blue mountains, notifying them 
to vacate. Weiser started from his home on August 11, 1748, and on 
the 17th "crossed the Tuscarora Hill and came to the sleeping place 
called Black Log, 20 miles." The next day he and his party came 
within two miles of the site of the present borough of Huntingdon 
and on the 20th he was at Frankstown (Blair county), "but saw no 
House or Cabins ; here we overtook the Goods, because four of George 
Croghan's Hands fell sick, 26 miles." In Weiser's party were George 
Croghan, the Indian trader: Andrew IMontour, who later settled in 
Perry county; William Franklin, a son of Benjamin Franklin, and a 
number of other persons of less note. His journal and report of his 
journey and mission form the first written accounts of what is now 
Huntingdon county. 

Six years later John Harris, in his description of the road from 
his ferry (Harrisburg) to Logstown, on the Allegheny river, gives 


the distances between various points in what is now Huntingdon count)'. 
Beginning at the "Tuscaroraw" hill, these distances are as follows: 
"To the Cove Spring, 10 miles; to the Shadow of Death (Shade Gap), 
8 miles; to the Black Log, 3 miles." At that point the road forked, one 
branch leading to Raystown and the other to Frankstown. Following 
the latter, Harris continues his table of distances, to wit : "Now be- 
ginning at the Black Log, Franks Town Road, to Aughwhick, 6 miles ; 
to Jack Armstrong's Narrows, so called from his being there murdered, 
8 miles; to the Standing Stone (about 14 ft. high, 6 inches square), 
10 miles. At each of these places we cross the Juniata. To the next 
and last crossing of the Juniata, 8 miles; to Water Street (branch of 
Juniata), 10 miles; to the Big Lick, 10 miles; to Franks (Stephen's) 
Town, 5 miles." 

Harris' journey was made in the year the Juniata valley was 
purchased from the Six Nations and the actual settlement of the 
country dates from that time. As stated in Chapter III, a few land 
warrants were issued for tracts in Huntingdon county in 1755. but the 
French and Indian war coming on just at that time checked the tide 
of immigration. Says Lytle : "For a period of seven years after 
1755, the region west of the Tuscarora mountain remained in almost 
primitive serenity. During all that time there seems to have been no 
demand whatever for the lands. The Indians had succeeded, for the 
time being, in making them valueless to the proprietaries, by increasing 
the dangers of frontier life to such an extent that no man was willing 
to encounter them." 

The year 1762 witnessed a revival of settlement and lands specu- 
lation, especially the latter, and a large number of land warrants were 
issued from the land office and surveys made. I\Iany of these warrants 
covered the most fertile sections of the Juniata valley and were taken 
out by residents of the eastern cities, not for the purpose of establishing 
homes there, but purely as a matter of speculation. They were not 
permitted to realize speedily upon their investments, however, for in 
the summer of 1763 Indian depredations again drove a number of 
settlers from their homes and discouraged others from coming to the 
a more permanent character. A few settlers came in during the 
Revolution and after the close of that war the population increased 
more rapidly. In 1790, when the first United States census was taken, 


the population of Huntingdon county was 7,565. At that time the 
county was much larger than it is at present. A portion of Huntingdon 
was taken to form Center county by the act of February 19, 1800: 
Cambria county was organized from Huntingdon and Somerset by the 
act of March 26, 1804; and Blair county was taken from the counties 
of Huntingdon and Bedford by the act of February 26, 1846. Since 
then the size and boundaries of the county have remained unchanged, 
the area being 899 square miles, or 575,360 acres. The surface is 
much broken by mountain ranges, but along the Juniata, the Raystown 
branch and Aughwick creek, and in the various valleys there are many 
fine farms. 

It may be a surprise to many people of the present generation to 
read that slavery was once tolerated in Huntingdon county, but such 
was the case. Of the 7,565 inhabitants of the county in 1790, forty- 
three were slaves. Thirty-two slaves were reported in the census of 
1800; none in 18 10; five in 1820, and eight in 1830. Since then every 
citizen of the county has been a freeman. 

Huntingdon county was represented in each of the four conventions 
that framed the state's four constitutions. Pursuant to the call of the 
Provincial Conference, which met in Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, 
June 18, 1776, delegates to a constitutional convention were elected 
on the 8th of July following. They met on the fifteenth and remained 
in session until September 28, 1776. when the first constitution was 
completed. Bedford county, of which Huntingdon was then a part, 
was represented by eight delegates, seven of whom signed the consti- 
tution, namely: Benjamin Elliott, Thomas Coulter, Joseph Powell, 
John Burd, John Cessna, John Wilkins and Thomas Smith. Lender 
the constitution adopted by this convention, the executive power and 
authority of the state was vested in a Supreme Executive Council of 
twelve members elected by the people. Huntingdon county had a 
representative in this council from the time it was erected during the 
remainder of the life of the constitution, or until the inauguration of 
the first governor in 1790. John Cannon took his seat as a member of 
the council on November 21, 1787, and his name figures prominently 
in the proceedings during the two years he was a member of the body. 
Before the formation of Huntingdon county he represented Bedford 
in the assembly: was a conspicuous character at the time of the rebellion 


against the Federal constitution ; subsequently was appointed associate 
judge; served three terms in the lower house of the legislature and one 
term in the state senate. 

Benjamin Elliott was the only delegate in the convention of 1776 
from the present territory of Huntingdon county. He was one of the 
trustees named in the act erecting the county eleven years later; was 
the first sheriff and first lieutenant of the county; a member of the 
state convention to ratify the constitution of the United States, which 
made him the special object of enmity of the opponents of that instru- 
ment; succeeded Colonel John Cannon as a member of the supreme 
executive council ; later served as county treasurer, county commissioner 
and associate judge, and was for many years a prominent factor in 
public affairs. He died on March 15, 1835, aged eighty-three years, 
and some of his descendants still live in Himtingdon county. 

The second constitutional convention met in Philadelphia on 
November 24, 1789, and provided for the publication of the results 
of its labors on February 26, 1790. Andrew Henderson was the only 
member of this convention from Huntingdon county. At that time he 
held the offices of prothonotary and register and recorder. When 
Henderson township was erected in 18 14, the court directed that it be 
given its name "in consideration of the distinguished uprightness of 
the late General Andrew Henderson as a public officer, and his services 
during the Revolutionary war." Thomas Mifflin was inaugurated 
governor under this constitution in December, 1790. 

A third constitutional convention was held at Harrisburg, beginning 
on May 2, 1837. The delegates to this convention were elected from 
the several senatorial and representative districts. For the senatorial 
district composed of Huntingdon, Mifilin, Juniata, Perry and Union 
counties, the delegates were James ^Merrill and William P. Maclay. 
Huntingdon county was represented by Samuel C. Royer and Cornelius 
Crum. The constitution went into effect the following year. 

David R. Porter, the first governor to be elected under the con- 
stitution of 1838, was an adopted son of Huntingdon county. He was 
born near Norristown. Montgomery county, October 31, 1788, a son 
of General x\ndrew Porter, an officer in the Continental army during the 
.Revolution. After a good preliminary training in the Norristown 
Academy, he entered Princeton College, where he was a student when 


the buildings of the institution were destroyed by fire, which ended 
his college career. In 1809 General Porter was appointed surveyor- 
general and took his son David into the office as an assistant. While 
thus employed the young man began the study of law. His health 
became impaired, however, and he gave up both the law and his 
position as assistant surveyor-general. He then came to Huntingdon 
county, where he was for a time employed as a clerk at the Barree 
forge, finally becoming manager of the works. With the experience 
thus gained, he formed a partnership with Edward Patton and began 
the manufacture of iron at the forges on Spruce creek. The business 
proved unprofitable and in February, 18 19, the firm made an assignment 
for the benefit of their creditors. The same year Mr. Porter was elected 
to the legislature from Huntingdon county and was twice reelected. 
He then held several offices by appointment until 1836, when he was 
elected to the state senate from the district composed of Huntingdon, 
Mifflin, Juniata, Perry and Union counties. Before the expiration 
of his term as senator he was elected governor and was inaugurated on 
January 15, 1839. In 1841 he was reelected by a majority nearly four 
times as large as the one he received in 1838. L^pon retiring from the 
governor's office he again turned his attention to the manufacture of 
iron and erected at Harrisburg the first anthracite furnace in that 
section of the state. He died on August 6, 1868. 

Another Huntingdon county man to achieve prominence in public 
life while the constitution of 1838 was in force was Hon. John Scott, 
who was born at Alexandria, Huntingdon county, July 14, 1824. His 
father served as major in the L'nited States army in the War of 1812 
and afterward was a member of the Twenty-first Congress from Penn- 
sylvania. John Scott received a good education and in 1842 began the 
study of law with Alexander Thomson, of Chambersburg, Pennsyl- 
vania. In January, 1846, he was admitted to the bar and soon after 
that commenced the practice of his profession in Huntingdon. For 
several years he was deputy attorney-general for that county and in 
1 85 1 was appointed a member of the board of revenue commissioners. 
The following year he led the opposition to the nomination of James 
Buchanan for the presidency on the Democratic ticket. In 1853 he 
visited Europe to recuperate his health and upon his return was nomin- 
ated by the Citizens' convention for the state legislature, but was 


defeated because he refused to countenance the "Know-Nothings," which 
organization was about that time active in American politics. He was 
defeated for the state senate as a Douglas Democrat in i860, but the 
succeeding year was elected to the lower house of the legislature without 
opposition. When the assembly convened he tried to organize the house 
without distinction of party and wanted the legislature to pledge the 
state "to the cordial support of the general government in the supres- 
sion of the rebellion." This policy was declined by the Democratic 
caucus and Mr. Scott and other war Democrats acted with the Republi- 
can members in organizing the house. In 1863 he advocated the reelec- 
tion of Governor Curtin and he supported Mr. Lincoln for the 
presidency in 1864. In 1868 he was a delegate to the Republican 
national convention and at the ensuing session of the legislature was 
elected L'nited States senator, taking the oath of office on March 4, 
1869. As senator he served upon several important committees and was 
an active participant in shaping the legislation of that period. Aside 
from his professional labors and his political activity, he was interested 
in various enterprises calculated to advance the material interests of 
his native county. He was one of the projectors of the Huntingdon 
& Broad Top railroad and labored assiduously for the success of the 
undertaking. At the close of his term in the senate he was made 
general counsel for the Pennsylvania Railroad Company and removed 
to Pittsburgh, where the company's offices were located. 

The fourth and last constitutional convention met in the capitol at 
Harrisburg on November 12, 1872. In this convention there were 133 
delegates — 28 from the state at large and 103 from the senatorial 
districts. The Twenty-second district, which was composed of the 
counties of Huntingdon, Center, Juniata and Mifflin, was represented 
by John McCulloch and John M. Bailey, of Huntingdon, and Andrew 
Reed, of Miftlin. On November 2y. 1872. the convention adjourned to 
meet in Philadelphia on January 7, 1873. At the adjourned session 
was framed a new organic law, which was submitted to the voters of 
the state at a special election on December 16, 1873, when it was 
adopted by a decisive majority. 

John McCulloch was born in Juniata county, Pennsylvania, Novem- 
ber 15, 1806; graduated at Washington College, Washington, Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1825, and four years later received the degree of M. D. from 


the medical department of the University of Pennsyh-ania. Soon after 
that he located at Petersburg, Huntingdon county, where he practiced 
a short time and then removed to Huntingdon. In 1852 he was elected 
to Congress from the district composed of Cambria, Blair, Huntingdon 
and ]\Iifflin counties and served one term. 

John M. Bailey was born at Dillsburg, York county, Pennsylvania, 
July II, 1839. In 1857 he removed to Huntingdon county, where for 
several years he taught in the public schools. He then read law with 
Scott & Brown, was admitted to the bar on August 11, 1862, and 
entered into a partnership with his preceptors, which association lasted 
until !Mr. Scott's election to the United States senate. After that lie 
continued in practice at Huntingdon and took an active interest in pub- 
lic and political affairs. 

Besides Major John Scott, who was elected to Congress in 1828, 
and Dr. John McCulloch, who was elected in 1852, Huntingdon county 
furnished the congressman for the Seventeenth district, composed of 
the counties of Cambria, Blair, Huntingdon and Mifflin, in 1870, when 
R. ]Milton Speer was elected. He was born in the village of Cassville, 
Huntingdon county, September 8, 1838, his parents having come from 
Belfast, Ireland, some years before. After attending the seminary in 
his native village, he taught in the public schools for several years, 
studying law as opportunity offered. In the fall of 1859 he was 
admitted to the bar and the following April began the practice of his 
profession in Huntingdon. From 1859 to 1861 he was the editor of 
the Huntingdon Union, the county Democratic organ, and in 1863 he 
served as assistant clerk in the house of representatives in the state 
legislature. In 1870 he was nominated for Congress against Hon. 
Daniel J. Morrell, who had already served two terms and whose defeat 
was thought to be almost impossible. Mr. Speer was elected by the 
small majority of eleven votes. Two years later he was reelected, 
defeating Hon. A. A. Barker, who had been elected to represent the 
district in Congress in 1864. 

In the early part of this chapter is given a list of the first county 
officers, with the dates when they received their commissions. Follow- 
ing is a list of the county officers from the organization of the county 
to 1 912, as completely as it could be obtained from the records, with 
the year of election or appointment. 


Sheriffs — Benjamin Elliott, 1787; John Patton, 1788; John Gal- 
braith, 1792; John Patton, 1795; James McMurtrie, 1798; John Patton, 
1801 ; John Miller, 1804; John Patton, 1806: Patrick Gwin, 1809; John 
Patton, 1812; Patrick Gwin, 1815; John Patton. 1818; Patrick Gwin, 
1821; William Speer, 1824; William Simpson, 1827; Thomas Johnston, 
1830; James Henderson, 1833 ; Thomas Lloyd, 1836 (Sheriff Lloyd died 
in 1837 and Joseph Higgins was appointed to serve until the next 
election, when Joseph Shannon was elected for the remainder of the 
term); John Brotherline, 1839; John Shaver, 1841 ; John Armitage, 
1844; Matthew Crownover, 1847; William B. Zeigler, 1850; Joshua 
Greenland, 1853; Graffus Miller, 1856: John C. Watson, 1859; G. W. 
Johnston, 1862; James F. Bathurst, 1865: D. R. P. Neely, 1868; 
Anion Houck, 1871 ; T. K. Henderson, 1874; S. H. Irwin, 1877; William 
J. Geissinger, 1880: George W. McAlevy, 1883; Joseph G. Isenberg, 
1886; David Wilson, 1889; Thomas ]\I. Oaks, 1892; David Wilson, 
1895; B. S. Rumberger, 1898; David Wilson, 1901 ; G. Chal. Port, 
1903: Frank W^ Stewart, 1906; Harry S. Smith, 1909. 

Prothonotancs — Lazarus B. McClain, 1787; Andrew Henderson, 
1788; William Steel, 1809; J. A. Henderson, 1821 ; David R. Porter, 
1823; Robert Campbell. 1836: James Steel, 1839; Theodore H. Cremer, 
1848; M. F. Campbell, 1854: D. Caldwell, 1857; W. C. Wagoner, i860; 
J. R. Simpson, 1866; M. M. McNeil, 1869; T. W. Myton, 1872; L. :\I. 
Stewart, 1875; W. M. Williamson, 1878; James Kelly, 1884; John 
Brewster, 1887: Samuel A. Steel, 1893; George G. Steel, 1899; I. N. 
Swope, 1905; George W. Wright, 191 1. 

Registers and Recorders — Andrew Henderson, 1787; William 
Steel, 1809; Richard Smith, 1821 ; William Kerr, 1824: David R. 
Porter, 1827; John Reed, 1836; Jacob Miller, 1845; ^^- F- Campbell, 
1848; Henry Glazier, 1854; D. W. Womelsdorf, i860; J. E. Smucker, 
1866; W. E. Lightner, 1875; Irvin D. Kuntzelman, 1878; John S. Bare, 
1884; Milton \Y Isenberg, 1890: B. F. Godard, 1896; E. E. Enyeart, 
1902; William H. Trude, 1905; Nopher Beck, 1911. 

Treasurers — David McMurtrie, 1787; Benjamin Elliott, 1788; 
John Johnston, 1800; Robert Allison, 1806; Thomas Ker, 1809; John 
Huyett, 1812; Samuel Steel, 1813; Thomas Ker, 1815; Samuel Steel, 
1818; Isaac Dorland, 1821 ; John Miller, 1824; Walter Clarke, 1826; 
Isaac Dorland, 1829; Jacob Miller, 1832; Thomas Fisher, 1835; David 


Snare, 1S38; David Blair, 1838; Andrew B. Hirst, 1841 ; George Taylor, 
1843; Joseph Law, 1845; Isaac Neff, 1847; John A. Doyle, 1849; 
John Marks, 185 1: Joseph Stephens, 1853; -"^- ^- Crewitt, 1855 (died 
in office and F. H. Lane was appointed on April 14, 1857, to till out the 
unexpired term J ; F. H. Lane (elected for a full termj, 1857; H. T. 
White, 1859; J. A. Nash, 1861 ; David Black. 1863; Thomas W. Myton, 
1865; M. M. Logan, 1867; Samuel J. Cloyd. 1869; A. W. Kenyon, 
1871; T. W. Montgomery, 1873; G. Ashman Miller, 1875; A. P. Mc- 
Elwain, 1878; Harris Richardson, 1881 ; Anion W. Swoope, 1884; 
E. O. Rogers, 1887; John G. Simpson, 1890; George M. Green, 1893; 
Henry S. Musser. 1896; A. R. Lefifard, 1899; William H. Chilcote, 
1902; Alfred W. Spyker, 1905; Thomas W. Myton, 1908; P. B. 
Cutshall, 191 1. 

Prior to the adoption of the constitution of 1838 the offices of 
prothonotary, register and recorder and treasurer were filled by ap- 
pointment. Prothonotaries were appointed by the governor, the tenure 
of office depending largely upon the conduct of the appointee. The 
first prothonotary to be elected by the people was James Steel, who 
was elected at the annual election in 1839. John Reed was elected 
register and recorder at the same time, the first one to be chosen by 
the people. From the erection of the county to 1841, the treasurers 
were appointed annually by the county commissioners. The above list 
covering that period was compiled by reference to the bonds filed with 
the county commissioners. No bonds can be found for the years 
between 1789 and 1799. nor for the years 1802, 1804, 1805 and 1828, 
but it is quite probable that the treasurer of the preceding year continued 
in office by reappointment under the old bond. The office was made 
elective by the act of May 27, 1841, and the incumbent at that time, 
Andrew B. Hirst, was elected in October of that year. 

County Coiiunissioncrs — Three commissioners were elected in 1787, 
upon the organization of the county. From that time to 1875, with 
three exceptions, it appears that one commissioner was elected annualh-. 
Since 1875 a full board of three members has been elected every three 
years. Following is the list: 1787, David Stewart, John Dean, James 
Sommerville; 1788, Patrick Cassidy; 1789, Robert Riddle; 1790, John 
Cadwallader; 1791, John Blair; 1792, Patrick Galbraith; 1793, John 
Shaver; 1794, James Kerr; 1795, Thomas Morrow; 1796, William 


Steel; 1797, Hugh Morrison; 1798, John Steel; 1799, John Cadwalla- 
der; 1800, Benjamin EUiott; 1801, Joseph Patton; 1802, Thomas 
Wilson; 1803, \\'illiam Wilson; 1804, John Crawford; 1805, Joseph 
Patton; 1806, John Robison; 1807, John Huyett; 1808, David Lloyd; 
1809, R. James Law; 1810, Robert Provines; 181 1, John Sharrer; 1812, 
William Simpson; 1813, Maxwell Kinkead; 1814, John Morrison; 1815, 
Matthew Wilson; 1816, Philip Roller; 1817, Peter Cassidy; 1818, 
Samuel Gooshorn ; 1819, James Simpson; 1820. William Reed; 1821, 
John Stewart; 1822, John Cresswell; 1823, John McMullen; 1824, 
William Simpson; 1825, Conrad Bucher; 1826, Henry Beaver; 1827, 
James Steel; 1828, George Ashman; 1829, John Stewart; 1830, Jacob 
Hoffman; 1831, Samuel Smith; 1832, John Lutz; 1833, Robert Lytle ; 
1834, John Stewart; 1835, Peter Hewitt; 1836, John Stever; 1837, 
Peter Swoope; 1838, James Moore; 1839, Joshua Roller; 1840, Kenzie 
L. Green; 1841, Robert Moore; 1842, Alexander Knox; 1843, Joli" F. 
Miller (i year), Mordecai Chilcote; 1844, John F. Miller; 1845, William 
Bell; 1846, Daniel Teague (2 years), Robert Cummins (3 years); 
1847, Joshua Greenland; (no election in 1848); 1849, Isaac Peightal; 
1850, Benjamin Leas; 1851, Robert Still (2 years), Eliel Smith (3 
years); 1852, Samuel Wigton; 1853, Thomas Hamer; 1854. Benjamin 
K. Neff; 1855, Jacob Baker; 1856, H. L. McCarthy; 1857, George 
W. Mattern; 1858, John Flenner; 1859, M. F. Campbell; i860, John 
Cummins; 1861, John S. Isett; 1862, P. M. Bare; 1863, John House- 
holder; 1864, Jacob ]\Iiller; 1865, Adam Warfel; 1866, Adam Fouse; 
1867, Samuel Cummins; 1868, Simeon Wright; 1869, George Jackson; 
1870, A. B. Miller; 1871, Jonathan Evans; 1872, David Hare; 1873, 
N. K. Covert; 1874, W. J. Ammerman; 1875, Andrew G. Neff, David 
B. Weaver and A. Wesley Wright; 1878, W. H. Benson, James Smith 
and Benjamin Isenberg; 1881, Henry Davis, Nicholas Isenberg and 
Samuel P. Smith; 1884. David A. Sisney, Jacob F. Hoover and John 
M. Johnston; 1887, Wesley Gregory, David A. Griffith and Robert 
McNeal; 1890, A. J. Miller, John Mierly and Jackson Lamberson; 
1893, James A. Wilson, James H. Garner and Jackson L. Grove; 
1896, A. S. Welch, Andrew Schuldt and Peter Kean (Commissioner 
Kean died in April, 1899, and John S. Miller was appointed to the 
vacancy) ; 1899, George W. Stewart, \^4lliam H. Johnston and Alonzo 
W. Jones; 1902, A. L. Couch, William B. Wilson and A. L. Carothers; 


1905, H. D. Taylor, Christ Bush and Henry H. Davis; 1908, \\'iniam 
L. Johnston, Elhott R. Wible and J. K. Wiley; 191 1, J. G. Allison, 
Adam J. Black and Walter S. Herncane. 

State Senators — Previous to 1790 Pennsylvania had no state senate. 
In the constitution adopted in that year provision was made that "The 
General Assembly of this Commonwealth shall consist of a Senate and 
House of Representatives." The constitution also fixed the senatorial 
districts, which were to remain until the first enumeration of taxpayers. 
Huntingdon, Northumberland and Luzerne counties constituted a dis- 
trict. The list of state senators who have represented Huntingdon 
county, or the district of which it has formed a part, is as follows : 

1790, William ^Montgomery (elected to Congress and William Hep- 
burn elected in 1793 to the vacancy); 1794, John Cannon: 1797, 
Richard Smith; 1801, John Piper; 1805, Henry Wertz, Jr.; 1807, 
Jacob Blocher; 1808, Ezra Doty; 1812, William Beale ; 1816, Alexander 
Dysart; 1820, Michael Wallace; 1822, William R. Smith: 1824, 
Christian Garber; 1828, Thomas Jackson: 1832, George McCulloch; 
1836, David R. Porter. (The constitution of 1838 changed the length 
of term to three years, instead of four, and in that year Robert P. 
Maclay was elected for four years and James M. Bell for two years) ; 
1840, James Mathers; 1842, Henry C. Eyer; 1844, John Morrison; 
1847, Alexander King: 1850, R. A. McMurtrie; 1853, John Cresswell, 
Jr.; 1857, William P. Schell; i860, S. S. Wharton: 1863. George W. 
Householder: 1864. L. W. Hall and Kirk Haines. (In this year Hunt- 
ingdon, Blair, Center, Mifflin, Juniata and Perry counties were formed 
into a senatorial district with two senators) ; 1867, J. K. Robinson and 
C. J. T. Mclntire; 1870, R. B. Petriken and D. M. Crawford; 1873, 
Joseph S. Warren. ( Blair and Perry counties taken from the district ) ; 
1874, Chambers McKibben; 1876, Horatio G. Fisher; 1880, John 
Stewart; 1884, H. J. McAtter; 1888, \\'illiam M. Williamson; 1892, 
William W. Brewer; 1896, Henry C. Chisholm; 1900, Alexander 
Stewart; 1904, Alexander Stewart; (a change in the senatorial district 
left Huntingdon county without representation in the senate and in 
1906 Chambers O. Templeton was elected) ; 1910, Enos M. Jones. 

Rcprcsciitatiz'cs — 1787, Hugh Davidson; 1789, David Stewart; 

1791, John Cannon; 1794, David McMurtrie: 1796, Samuel Marshall; 
1798, John Blair; 1800, James Kerr; 1801, John Blair and James 


Kerr; 1802. John Blair and William Steel; 1803, Richard Smith and 
Lewis Mytinger; 1804, Arthur ]\Ioore and James McCune; 1807, 
Arthur Moore and Alexander Dysart; 1809, Alexander Dysart and 
William McAlevy; 1812, Alexander Dysart and R. James Law: 1813, 
R. James Law and John Crum; 181 5, Alexander Dysart and Conrad 
Bucher; 1816, Conrad Bucher and Christian Garber; 1818, Robert 
Young and J. D. Aurandt ; 1819, John Scott and David R. Porter; 
1821, John Scott and John Rover; 1822, John Ashman and David 
R. Porter; 1823, Henry Shippen and Peter Cassidy; 1824, Henry 
Shippen and John Ashman; 1825, Matthew Wilson and Joseph Adams; 
1826, Matthew Wilson and John Blair; 1828, John Blair and John 
Owens; 1829, John Blair and Henry Beaver; 1830. John Blair and 
John Williamson; 183 1, John Porter and Henry Beaver; 1832, Samuel 
Royer and James Clark; 1833, James Clark and Thomas T. Cromwell; 
1835, H. L. McConnell and George Hudson; 1836, James Crawford 
and J. Cunningham; 1837, J. Cunningham and John Morrison; 1839, 
John Morrison and Joseph Higgins; 1840, Joseph Higgins and John 
G. Miles; 1841, Jesse ]\Ioore and Thomas Weston; 1842, Jonathan 
]McWilliams and Brice Blair; 1844, Henry Brewster and R. A. Mc- 
IMurtrie; 1845, H. L. Patterson and Alexander Gwin; 1846, David 
Blair; 1848, A. K. Cornyn; 1850, William B. Smith and Seth R. 
McCune; 1852, S. S. \\"harton and James L. Gwin; 1853, James L. 
Gwin and James Maguire; 1854, George Leas and George W. Smith; 
1855, J. M. Gibbony and J. H. Wintrode; 1857, Daniel Houtz; 1858, 
R. B. Wigton; 1859, J. S. Africa; i860, Brice X. Blair; 1861, John 
Scott; 1862, A. W. Benedict: 1863, David Etnier; 1864, John N. 
Swoope and John Balsbach; 1865, Ephraim Baker and James M. 
Brown; 1866, James M. Brown and H. S. Wharton; 1867, H. S. 
Wharton and H. H. Wilson: 1868, John S. Aliller and Amos H. Martin; 
1869, H. J. McAteer and Abraham Rohrer; 1871, F. H. Lane; 1873, 
W. K. Burchinell; 1874, H. H. Mateer and W. P. McNite; 1876, 
Percival P. Dewees and Alexander Post; 1878, Benjamin R. Foust and 
M. P. Doyle; 1880, Alexander Post and Henry C. Marshall; 1882, 
Thomas W. Myton and Thomas H. Adams; 1884, J. P. Giles and I. G. 
Boyer; 1886, j. Irvin \Miite and George W. Owens; 1888, Perry M. 
Lytic and William H. Stevens: 1890, Perry M. Lytle and J. C. Dunkle; 
1892; Perry I\I. Lytle and John S. Bare; 1894, Perry M. Lytle and 


Thomas O. Milliken; 1896, Perry M. Lytle and John S. Bare; 189S, 
Thomas O. Milhken and John S. Bare; 1900, John C. Taylor and 
Thomas W. Montgomery; 1902. John C. Taylor and Thomas M. Mont- 
gomery; 1904, J. F. Schock and Lewis M. Haggerty; 1906, \^'arren 
B. Simpson; 1908, Warren B. Simpson; 1910, Horace B. Dunn; 1912, 
Horace B. Dunn. 

Representatives were elected annually until the adoption of the 
constitution of 1873, which changed the legislative term from one to 
two years. In the list the annual reelections are not noted. Where one 
member served more than one term the fact is shown by a gap in the 
years, as in the case of John Cannon, who was twice reelected. When 
Blair county was cut ofif in 1846, Huntingdon had but one representative 
until 1850, when a district was formed of the two counties with two 
members of the assembly. From 1857 to 1863 the county was repre- 
sented by one member, but in 1864 a district was formed of Huntingdon, 
Mifflin and Juniata counties, which was represented by two members. 
Again from 1871 to 1873 the county had but one representative and 
since 1906 Huntingdon has constituted a representative district by itself, 
with one member. 

Simryors — This ofifice was established in 1850, the term being 
fixed at three years. Following is a list of surveyors since that time, 
with the year of election, each one serving until his successor was 
elected and qualified: 1850, William Christy; 1853. J. Simpson Africa; 
1859, J. F. Ramey; 1862, John A. Pollock; 1865, James E. Glasgow; 
1871, Henry Wilson; 1877, William H. Booth; 1880, John S. Lytle; 
1886, John B. Ketterman; 1889, John E. Ketterman; 1892, Henry H. 
Swoope; 1907, Charles T. Evans (reelected in 1910). 

Directors of the Poor — The act of May 6, 1850, provided for a 
poor-house in Huntingdon county and named Thomas Fisher, Kenzie 
L. Green, Benjamin Leas, John McCulloch, James Gillam, John Porter, 
Isaac Taylor, A. P. Wilson, John Watson, Caleb Greenland and S. 
Miles Green as commissioners to purchase a site. The people were 
authorized to vote at the next regular election on the question of erect- 
ing a building and the proposition was carried by a vote of 1,299 to 
952. Under the act, three directors were to be elected in 185 1 and 
one annually thereafter for a term of three years. Elected in 185 1, 
James Clarke, George Hudson and James Saxton; 1852, John Brewster; 


1853, Samuel Mattern; 1854, J. A. Shade; 1855, Kenzie L. Green: 
1856, Joseph Gibbony; 1857, James Murphy; 1858, David Clarkson; 
1859, WilHam Moore; i860, Samuel Peightal; 1861, James Henderson; 
1862, Samuel Heckadorn; 1863, John Logan; 1864, Henry Davis 
(3 years), Henry A. Mark (i year) ; 1865, John Flenner; 1866, Jack- 
son Harman; 1867, Adam Heeter; 1868, John Miller; 1869, James 
Smith; 1870, John P. Stewart; 1871, Harris Richardson; 1872, Michael 
K3-per; 1873, Gilbert Horning: 1874, Aaron W. Evans; 1875, John 
Griffith; 1876, Daniel Conrad; 1877, James Harper (3 years), Richard 
Wills (2 years), Michael Stair; 1S78, A. B. Miller; 1879, Jacob Haffly; 
1880, James Harper; 1881, Jacob H. Isett: 1882, Jacob Haffly; 1883, 
Morris Gutshall : 1884, Jacob H. Isett; 1885, James F. Thompson; 
1886, Morris Gutshall: 1887, S. P. Brumbaugh; 1888, Samuel Dickson; 
1889, Edmund O. Heck; 1890, W. H. Henderson; 1891, Simeon 
Wright and Harrison C. Crownover; 1892, Edmund O. Heck; 1893. 
George W. Taylor; 1894, Harrison C. Crownover; 1895, David S- 
Snyder; 1896, George W. Taylor; 1897, Robert Mason; 1898, C. K. 
Horton; 1899, John Madden; 1900, Robert Mason; 1901, C. K. Horton; 
1902, John Madden; 1903, George W. Hetrick; 1904, J. Ouincy Dill; 
1905, John C. Bare; 1906, George W. Hetrick; 1907, J. Ouincy Dill; 
1908, John C. Bare; 1909, J. H. Myers; 191 1, J. R. Edwards and James 
V. Stevens. 

Jury Commissioners — 1867, George W. Snontz, N. K. Covert; 
1870. S. B. Chaney, John Vandevander; 1873, Johi^ G. Stewart, 
Samuel Brooks (Air. Stewart resigned and George W. Johnston was 
appointed to the vacancy on January 22, 1874) ; 1876, John X. Lutz, 
Nicholas Isenberg; 1879, Richard Wills, Adam Krugh (Mr. Krugh 
left the state in 1881 and James Henderson was appointed to fill out the 
remainder of the term); 1882, Jonathan Evans, Henry Chamberlain; 
1885, Harris Richardson, George W. Cresswell; 1888, George W. 
Stewart, Daniel Swartz; 1891, William P. Liveringhouse, A. W. Jones; 
1894, William B. Zeigler, F. JNI. Bollinger; 1897, Richard Cutshall, 
David F. Smouse; 1900, G. M. Cutshall. Luther Speck; 1903, T. W. 
Wood. Samuel D. Bollinger; 1906. John A. Woods, T. A. Miller: 1909, 
Anthony \\'. Beaver, W^ S. IMiller. 


Early Townships — Present Townships — Brady — Carbon — Cass — Clay — Cromwell — Dub- 
lin — Franklin — Henderson — Hopewell — Jackson — Juniata — Lincoln — Lo- 
gan — Miller — Morris — Oneida — Penn — Porter — Shirley — Smithfield — 
Springfield — Spruce Creek — Tell — Tod — Union — Walker — Warriors Jtlark 
— West — Wood — The Eighteen Boroughs — Huntingdon — Alexandria — Birming- 
ham — Broad Top City — Cassville — Coalmont — Dudley — IMapleton — Marklesburg — 
jNIill Creek — Mount LTnion — Orbisonia — Petersburg — Rock Hill — Saltillo — Shade 
Gap — Shirleysburg — Three Springs — List of Postoffices — Rural Free Delivery 

T\\'EXTY years before Huntingdon county was erected, or in 
July, 1767, the Cumberland county court created a township 
called Derry, "Beginning at the middle of the Long Narrows; 
thence up the north side of the Juniata as far as Jack's Narrows ; thence 
to include the valley of Kishacokulus and Jack's creek." These boun- 
daries included a part of the present township of Brady, in Huntingdon 

In October, 1767, the court erected five new townships — Barree. Bed- 
ford, Coleraine, Cumberland and Dublin — which, with the township 
of Derry, included all the territory within the present counties of Bed- 
ford, Blair and Huntingdon, a large part of Fulton and Alifflin and 
a portion of Center. As population increased additional townships 
were erected and at the time Huntingdon county was organized in 
1787 there were eight townships within its limits, viz.: Barree, Dublin, 
Frankstown, Hopewell, Huntingdon, Shirley, Tyrone and Woodbury. 
Frankstown and Woodbury were cut off in 1846 as part of Blair county, 
and the six original townships lying within the present limits of the 
county have been divided and subdivided until the number is now thirty. 
In making these divisions and subdivisions the townships of Huntingdon 
and Tyrone have entirely disappeared. The present townships are: 
Barree, Brady, Carbon, Cass, Clay, Cromwell, Dublin, Franklin, Hen- 




derson, Hopewell, Jackson, Juniata, Lincoln, Logan, Miller, Morris, 
Oneida, Penn. Porter, Shirley, Smithfield, Springfield, Spruce Creek, 
Tell, Tod, L'nion, Walker, Warriors Mark, West and Wood. 

Barree township, as created in 1767, was "Bounded by Dublin, 
Coleraine and Bedford townships, as already mentioned, and along the 
Allegheny until a line struck from thence to Jack's Mountain so as 
to include the waters of Little Juniata and Shaver's and Standing 
Stone creeks." In 1771, when Bedford county was erected, Barree 
township included all that part of the present county of Huntingdon 
lying northwest of Jack's mountain. Since then the townships of Jack- 
son and West and parts of Logan, Oneida and Miller have been taken 
from Barree. Before the erection of Logan and Miller townships, 
Barree had an average width of four miles, extending from Jackson 
and W^est to Oneida, and in length from ten to twelve miles, from the 
summit of Standing Stone mountain and the Mifflin county line on 
the southeast to the Center county line and the summit of Tussey's 
mountain on the northwest. Warrior's ridge crosses it east and south 
of the center. On one side of this ridge runs the Standing Stone creek 
and on the other Shaver's creek. One of the first land warrants in 
the township was issued on what was known as the "Shaver's Creek 
Manor.'" The warrant bears date of October 30, 1760. 

Brady township was erected in April, 1846, from part of Henderson. 
It is bounded on the northeast and southeast by Mifflin county; south 
and southwest by Union township ; west by Henderson, and northwest 
by Henderson and Barree. Jack's mountain on the east and Standing 
Stone mountain in the center are the principal elevations. The town- 
ship was named for General Hugh Brady, a distinguished officer in the 
United States army, who is said to have been born in the old Standing 
Stone fort at Huntingdon. Prior to the Revolutionary war several 
members of the Brady family lived in the vicinity of Huntingdon. One 
of these was the father of Captain Samuel Brady, the famous scout 
and spy. Among the early settlers were Lewis Metz, Christian Yoder, 
Caleb Armitage, the Eatons, Loudenslagers, Vandevanders and Priden- 
sons. Some of the descendants of these pioneers still reside in the 
county. Mill Creek is the principal town in Brady township. On the 
stream of that name there was formerly a blast furnace, known as 
Mill Creek furnace, and in the southern part of the township, near 


the end of Standing Stone mountain are deposits of sand which is 
crushed by steam power and shipped to Pittsburgh and other glass 
manufacturing centers. 

Carbon township, in the southern part of the county, hes chiefly 
upon the Broad Top mountain and derives its name from the coal 
deposits in that section. It was erected on April 2t^. 1858, from part 
of Tod, and is bounded on the north by Tod township; east by Wood; 
south and southwest by Fulton and Bedford counties, and on the 
northwest by Hopewell township. Among the pioneers were Anthony 
Cook, Philip Barnet, James Crawford, Henry Houpt, Walter Clark and 
Henry Miller. During the Revolution some Tory refugees came into 
the township, a few of whom became permanent residents. A large 
part of the Broad Top coal field lies within the township and coal 
mining is the leading occupation of the inhabitants. The old Barnet 
mine was opened in 1856 by Dorris, Burroughs & Company. Some 
twenty years later it was closed, but was reopened in 1882. The Pros- 
pect mine was opened in 1857 and about 1863 was purchased by Robert 
H. Powel, who erected coke ovens there. In 1858 the Clift mine was 
opened and the following year witnessed the opening of the Broad Top 
collieries. The Mooredale mine, about one mile from Dudley, was 
opened abotit i860 by Paul Ammerman, but it was abandoned in 1862 
on account of water. It was purchased by Reakert Brothers in 1876 
and reopened. The Fisher mine was opened in 1870; the Carbon 
colliery in 1872; the Ocean mine in 1879. The Robertsdale collieries, 
operated by the Rockhill Iron and Coal Company, are among the leading 
mines of Huntingdon county. There are three boroughs in the town- 
ship. Broad Top City, Coalmont and Dudley, the last named being the 
terminus of a branch of the Huntingdon & Broad Top railroad. Bar- 
nett. Cooks, Powelton and Robertsdale are mining towns. 

Cass township, erected on January 21, 1843, from part of L'nion, 
was named for General Lewis Cass, who at that time Avas a conspicuous 
figure in the political arena. It is situated in the Trough creek valley 
and is bounded on the north by the townships of Penn and L'nion; on 
the east by Shirley and Cromwell; on the south by Clay, and on the 
west and southwest by Tod. The first settlers came from ^laryland, 
but the date when the first settlement was founded is not known. 
Among the pioneers were Peter Thompson, Richard Dowling, Jacob 


Dean, Philip Ciirfman, ]Moses Greenland, and the Smith, Lovell, Greene, 
Chilcott and Stever families. The Corbins, Lilleys, McClains, Drennans, 
Caldwells, Brownings and a few other families located in the Trough 
creek valley soon after the Revolution and James Campbell, John 
Shields, William Wright, Henry Freed and a few others settled in 
Hare's valley about the same time. Cassville is the only borough in the 
township and there are no villages of importance. Agriculture is the 
leading industry. 

Clay township was erected on April 15, 1845, 'f^'O"'' Springfield, 
and was named for Henry Clay, of Kentucky, who was the Whig candi- 
date for president in 1844. It is bounded on the northeast by Cass 
and Cromwell ; on the southeast by Springfield ; on the south and south- 
west by Fulton county, and on the northwest by Wood and Tod town- 
ships. Benjamin Long, Henry Hubbell, George, John and William 
Hudson, Thomas Green, George Ashman. John Kyler, William and 
]\Iiles Bunn, Thomas Hooper, Richard Bradley and some others had 
located in what is now Clay township before the close of the eighteenth 
century. The boroughs of Saltillo and Three Springs are located in 
this township and there are a few villages of minor importance. The 
East Broad Top railroad crosses the northern portion, passing through 
Saltillo and Three Springs. 

Cromwell township was taken from the townships of Shirley and 
Springfield and was organized in January, 1836. It was named for 
Thomas T. Cromwell, who was one of the early manufacturers of iron 
in Huntingdon county, and who served two terms in the lower house of 
the state legislature. On the north it is bounded by Shirley township; 
on the east by Shade mountain, which separates it from Dublin and 
Tell townships ; on the south by Clay and Springfield, and on the west 
by Jack's mountain, which marks the line between it and Cass township. 
The principal stream is the Aughwick creek, which flows through the 
township from south to north. One of the first white men to locate 
in the township was George Irvin, who, as early as 1760, had a log store 
near where Orbisonia now stands and was engaged in trading with 
the Indians. The Cluggage family came soon after Irvin and Captain 
Robert Cluggage served with distinction in the Continental army in the 
Revolutionary war. The first iron furnace west of the Susquehanna 
river was built here by Colonel Cromwell and George Ashman in 1785. 


The Rockhill furnace began operations in 1831. Two boroughs — 
Orbisonia and Rockhill — are located in the township, both on the line 
of the East Broad Top railway, and there are several small villages. 
Cromwell township is not without its stor_v of hidden treasure. For 
many 3'ears the rumor has been current that Captain Jack, the eccentric 
character mentioned in another chapter, was once closely pursued by 
Indians at a time when he bore a heavy bag of gold and silver. This 
bag encumbered his flight and he secreted it on the side of the Black 
Log mountain, not far from the narrows. Despite repeated efforts, 
the treasure has never been found. 

Dublin township, one of the original six townships within the present 
limits of the county, was erected in October, 1767. The Cumberland 
county court records for that session describe it as "Bounded by Air 
and Fannet townships on the one side, and Coleraine and Barre town- 
ships on the top of Sideling Hill on the other side." Its original area 
has been much reduced by the erection of Tell and Springfield town- 
ships, both of which were taken from Dublin. It is situated in the 
extreme southeastern corner of the county and is bounded on the north 
by Tell township : on the east by the Tuscarora mountain, which separ- 
ates it from Franklin county ; on the south by Fulton county, and on 
the west by Springfield and Cromwell townships, from which it is 
separated by Shade mountain. The Indian trail, over which early 
traders and explorers traveled, passed through this township. Among 
the early adventurers to follow this route were Conrad Weiser and 
George Croghan in 1748 and John Harris in 1754. A few land war- 
rants, dated prior to the Revolution, indicate that white men had 
found a lodgment there, but little is known of the settlers of that 
period. About 1765 Alexander Blair and his wife Rachel came from 
Chester county and bought a part of the tract of land warranted to 
George Croghan near Shade Gap. Their son, John Blair, subsequently 
became a prominent citizen of the township, holding the office of justice 
of the peace for many years. David Cree brought his family from 
Philadelphia about 1773. John Walker and James McCardle located 
near the foot of the Tuscarora mountain about the same time. During 
the decade following 1780 the number of settlers increased rapidly. 
In 1782 George Hudson located about where the borough of Shade 
Gap is now, built a cabin and began purchasing some squatter claims for 


which no warrants had been issued. He was soon followed by William 
Swan, Hugh Robinson, Alexander McIIroy, George Wagner, Andrew 
Sands, James, Jonathan and Robert Cree, James Hooper, James Morton, 
William Fleming, Robert and \\'illiam Marshall and some others. 
Joshua Morgan, of the Black Log valley is said to have been the first 
man to drive a team through Shade Gap. 

Franklin township was erected in March, 1789, from the old town-, 
ship of Tyrone, and was the first new township to be established after 
the organization of Huntingdon county. It extends from the Center 
county line on the northeast to the Little Juniata river on the south- 
west, and from Warriors Mark township on the northwest to the 
summit of Tussey's mountain on the southeast. Among the early 
settlers were Alexander Ewing, Zephaniah Weakland, George Mattern, 
Jacob Miner, Abraham Sells, Richard Ricketts, James Hunter, James 
Armitage and the Hendersons. The township has rich deposits of iron 
ore, which were first worked about 1795 or 1796, when the Huntingdon 
furnace was built in the midst of the ore beds and the Pennsylvania 
furnace in the northern part of the township, near the Center county 
line. Spruce creek rises in this township and flows almost the entire 
length of it, emptying into the Little Juniata. The water power of this 
stream was utilized as early as 1785 to run what was long known as the 
old Bebault mill, llany years later W. D. & J. D. Isett established 
the Stockdale Woolen Mills at the uKiuth of the stream and about a 
mile farther up J. O. Adams started an ax factory. Franklinville and 
Graysville are the principal villages. 

Henderson township, established in November, 18 14, was formed 
from part of old Huntingdon township, which was one of the six in 
existence when the county was erected. It was named for General 
Andrew Henderson, a Revolutionary soldier, the first register and 
recorder and the second prothonotary of the county. The original area 
of Henderson township has been greatly reduced by the erection of 
Brady, in 1846, and of Oneida in 1856. It is bounded on the northwest 
by Oneida township: on the northeast i)y Barree; on the east by 
Brady; extends southwest to the Juniata river, and adjoins the borough 
of Huntingdon. Among the early settlers was John Fee, who served 
in Captain Blair's company that was organized during the Revolution to 
drive out the Tories. Other early settlers were \\'illiam Porter, John 


Brown. Matthew Campbell and the Hight family. Gorsuch and L^nion 
Church, near the center of the township, and Ardenheim, a small station 
on the Pennsylvania railroad, two miles east of Huntingdon, are the 
only villages of consequence. 

Hopewell township was erected in July, 1773, when the Bedford 
county court ordered that "that part of Barre township including all 
the waters that empty into the Raystown Branch of Juniata below the 
mouth of Yellow Creek and up said creek to Tussey's Mountain is 
hereby erected into a township by the name of Hopewell township." 
It was therefore one of the six original townships when the county was 
erected in 1787. Union township was taken from it in 1791 ; Penn in 
1846. and Lincoln in 1866. These curtailments have left it one of the 
smallest townships in the county. It is located in the southwest corner 
and is bounded on the north by Lincoln township : southeast by Tod 
and Carbon, from which it is separated by Terrace mountain ; southwest 
by Bedford county, and northwest by the county of Blair. The Hunt- 
ingdon & Broad Top railroad traverses it from northeast to southwest 
and the Raystown branch of the Juniata follows the same general direc- 
tion. The earliest settlers, of whom there is any record, were Jeremiah 
and William Smart, ]\Iicliael Diamond, George Elder and his sons, 
Michael and Felix Skelly, Jacob Weaver and George Russell, who en- 
tered lands along the Raystown branch. 

Jackson township, taken from Barree on January 15, 1845, occupies 
the northeast corner of the county. It is bounded on the north by 
Center county : on the east and southeast by Mifflin county ; on the 
west and southwest by the township of Barree. It was named for 
Joseph Jackson, one of the first settlers in that part of the county, 
several members of the Jackson family settling there about the same 
time. Another noted pioneer was William McAlevy, who won renown 
as a soldier and officer in the Revolutionary war and later achieved a 
rather unenviable notoriety by leading the rebellion against the United 
States constitution. He was of Scotch-Irish stock, brave, resolute and 
faithful to his friends. He married a sister of John Harris, the founder 
of Harrisburg. In 1770 he came to what is now Jackson township, 
selected a location, made a canoe and paddled down the Standing Stone 
•creek and the Juniata and Susquehanna rivers to Harrisburg for his 
family and such of his household effects as he could carry in his light 


craft. He acquired a large tract of land around McAlevy's Fort, a 
place which still bears his name. Joseph Oburn, who served in Mc- 
Alevy's company during the Revolution, was another early settler. 
Others who located there either before or during the Revolutionary 
war were the Cummins family and John Oaks. Agriculture was the 
chief occupation of the old settlers, their farms being located in the 
valleys of the two branches of Standing Stone creek. The manufacture 
of iron was begun in 1S33, when Patton & Norris built the Greenwood 
furnace, which subsequently passed to the Logan Iron and Steel Com- 
pany. The jMitchells erected a small furnace about a mile north of 
McAlevy's Fort in 1841, but it proved to be an unprofitable venture and 
was abandoned. About 1870 a charter was granted for the construc- 
tion of the Stone Creek & McAlevy's Fort railroad, but the panic of 
1873 came on before anything had been done and the road was never 

Juniata township, erected on November 19, 1856. was originally a 
part of Huntingdon township, though at the time of its erection its 
territory was taken from the township of Walker. It is bounded on 
the northeast by Henderson township ; on the southeast by Terrace 
mountain, which separates it from Union : southwest by Penn. and on 
the northwest by ^^'alker. the summit of Piney ridge forming the 
northwestern boundary. One of the early settlers in this township was 
the father of Captain Samuel Brady, the noted scout and Indian fighter, 
who located at the mouth of Vineyard creek. William Corbin, Caleb 
and Amos Folk, William Enyeart and William Dean were likewise 
early settlers. The township, at the time it was settled, was covered 
with a heavy growth of valuable timber, but this has nearly all dis- 
appeared. Large quantities of lumber, tan-bark and railroad ties have 
been taken from the township and farming is now the leading occu- 

Lincoln township, named in honor of Abraham Lincoln, the mar- 
tyred president of the United States, is situated in the southwestern 
part of the county and was taken from Hopewell on August 18, 1866. 
It is bounded on the northwest by Blair county; on the northeast by 
Penn township ; on the southeast by Tod, and on the south by Hopewell. 
The Raystown branch of the Juniata flows northward through the 
township, its principal tributary being Coffee run. The earliest settlers 


in that part of Hopewell township now comprising Lincoln were John 
Plummer. Henry Schultz, John Keith, James Entriken and a man named 
Summers. Tanneries were established at an early date on Coffee run, 
on the Bedford road, and about a mile north of the present town of 
Marklesburg, which is the only borough in the township. 

Logan township was taken from West in April, 1878. As early as 
1755 Barnabas Barnes secured a land warrant for a tract on the north 
side of the Juniata river at a place called Two Springs. In 1768 he sold 
that land to Rev. William Smith, the founder of Huntingdon. There is 
nothing to show that Barnes ever occupied the tract and the probabilities 
are he entered it purely for speculative purposes. Among the early 
settlers in this part of West township were Samuel Anderson, Jacob 
Neff, John Reed, Jacob Hiltzheimer, Charles Elliott, Hugh :\Iears, Peter 
Shoenberger, Bartholomew ]\Iaguire and the Wilsons. The first settle- 
ments were made along the Little Juniata or in the lower part of the 
Shaver's creek valley. When West township was divided to form 
Logan, the borough of Petersburg was thrown in the new township and 
it is the most important shipping and commercial point. 

Miller township was formed in May, 1881, from part of Barree. As 
earlv as 1857 a movement was started for the formation of a new 
township south of Warrior's ridge. On November i, 1859, the question 
was submitted to the voters living in the territory south of the ridge, 
but a majoritv expressed themselves as opposed to the erection of a 
new township. The agitation was kept up, however, until a majority 
was converted and the township was organized in 188 1. The pioneer 
history of this section of the county is rather meager. Matthew Miller, 
for whom the township was named, was one of the first settlers. Gil- 
bert Chaney settled on \\'arrior's ridge at an early date. John Coy 
and the Cunningham family were also among the pioneers. 

Morris township, one of the smallest in the county, was taken from 
Tvrone in August, 1794, and with its erection the township of Tyrone 
ceased to exist. It is bounded on the north by Franklin township, from 
which it is separated by the Little Juniata river ; on the east by Tussey's 
mountain, which separates it from Porter: the other boundaries are 
formed by the Frankstown branch of the Juniata, Fox run and Canoe 
mountain, which separate the township from Blair county. The greater 
part of the township is the elevated plateau known as Canoe valley. The 


soil is fertile and agriculture is the principal industry. Edward Beatty 
and his eight sons, John Tussey, for whom Tussey's mountain was 
named, Michael Wallace, John Bell, Ciiristian Harnish, John Martin, 
William Davis and John Fergus were the first settlers. In 1796, two 
years after the township was organized, there were fifty-nine land 
owners on the tax lists. About 1793 a furnace was built by Jacob Isett 
where the village of Union Furnace now stands, but the dam was 
washed away soon after and nothing further was done until 1810, when 
it was rebuilt by Dorsey & Evans. It was a charcoal furnace, with a 
capacity of thirty-five tons weekly, and continued in operation until 

Oneida township was erected on August 20, 1856, from Henderson 
and West. It is a small township adjoining the borough of Huntingdon, 
the Juniata river forming its western border. It was named for the 
Oneida Indians. The Standing Stone creek flows through it from one 
end to the other, a distance of about ten miles, between the Standing 
Stone mountain and Warrior's ridge. There are some fine farms in the 
valley, whose products find a ready market at Huntingdon. Nathan 
Gorsuch, William Carter, John Stewart, Joshua Kelley, William 
Wheeler, Jacob \A'hite, Elisha Green and Nicholas Decker were the first 
settlers. While the Pennsylvania canal was under construction a great 
deal of timber was supplied from what is now Oneida township. The 
first packet-boat — the Lady of the Lake — that ever plied the waters of 
the canal was built at William Foster's saw mill. After the supply of 
timber was exhausted the people turned their attention to the cultiva- 
tion of the soil, and agriculture is now the leading occupation of the 

Penn township was created on November 21, 1846, when the old 
township of Hopewell was divided into two nearly equal parts and the 
northern part named Penn, in honor of the founder of Pennsylvania. 
It is bounded on the north by Walker and Juniata townships ; on the 
east by Union, Cass and Tod ; on the south by Lincoln, and on the west 
by Blair county. It extends from Terrace mountain on the east to Tus- 
sey's mountain on the west, about eight miles, and it is about si.x miles 
in e.xtent from north to south. The surface is broken by numerous 
ridges, the most important of which are the Mulberry, Warrior's, Piney, 
and Allegrippus. Along these ridges are found rich deposits of iron 


ores and thousands of tons of ore have been shipped to Johnstown, Dan- 
ville and other iron manufacturing centers. Some lead ore has been 
found in Warrior's ridge, but not in sufficient quantities to make min- 
ing profitable. In the Woodcock valley, which lies between \\'arrior's 
ridge and Tussey's mountain, the valley of the Raystown branch, which 
runs along the base of Terrace mountain, and in most of the smaller 
valleys the soil is fertile and farming is here carried on successfully. 
A list of the early settlers would include the names of Hartsock, Bishop, 
Kough, Hart, Owens, Graffius, Fleck, ]\lc]ilath, Keith, and Brecken- 
ridge. Michael Garner came from Maryland in 1789 and about five 
years later purchased a part of the tract known as "Penn's Manor," 
in the Woodcock valley. Some of his descendants still live in the town- 
ship. Thomas Wilson, Jacob Brumbaugh. Ludwig Hoover, Jacob 
Grove, John and Peter Beightell. Adam Auman, John, Adam, Henry 
and Jacob Boyer and some others had located within the limits of the 
township before the year 1800. Marklesburg is the only borough and 
there are but few villages. 

Porter township was erected in November, 1814. when the old 
township of Huntingdon was divided into two new ones — Porter and 
Henderson. It was named for General Andrew Porter, an officer in 
the American army during the Revolutionary war and afterward sur- 
veyor-general. The original area of this township has been much re- 
duced by the formation of Walker township in 1827 and Smithfield 
in 1886. A portion of it was also taken to form the township of Spruce 
Creek in 1895. The old Indian path passed through this section of 
the county and Porter township was one of the first to be settled, the 
first land warrants being dated in 1755. the year following the pur- 
chase of the land from the Indians. The first settlements were made 
in the vicinity of Alexandria. 

Shirley township, one of the original six, is located in the south- 
eastern part and is one of the largest in the county, extending from the 
Juniata river to the Cromwell township line, and from Shade mountain 
on the southeast to Jack's mountain on the northwest. Between those 
two ranges are the Black Log mountain. Blue. Sandy, Owens', Chestnut 
and Stony ridges, so that the general surface is alternatively hill and 
valley. Iron ore is mined in the hills and farming is carried on in the 
valleys. The township derives its name from old Fort Shirley, which 


was erected at the time of the French and Indian war. Among the 
early settlers were the Galbraiths, who located in the Germany valley; 
the Warners, who settled where the borough of Shirleysburg now 
stands ; the Matthews family, who settled farther south, and the Davis, 
Morgan, Cluggage, and Sharrer families. Two powder mills were 
operated a century or more ago by the Sharrers — one near Shirleys- 
burg and the other on Sugar run. Samuel Drake, an Englishman, said 
to be a descendant of Sir Francis Drake, established a ferry across the 
Juniata a short distance above Mount L^nion, on the pathway from 
eastern points to the Ohio river, and Drake's Ferry was an important 
land-mark for many years. The East Broad Top railroad connects 
with the Pennsylvania railroad at Mount L'nion and runs south through 
Shirleysburg, giving the township and outlj-ing region ample transporta- 
tion facilities. 

Smithfield is one of the newer townships of the county, having 
been organized in March, 18S6, from Porter, Walker, and Juniata. It 
lies directly across the Juniata river from Huntingdon borough, the 
village of Smithfield forming practically a suburb of the county seat. 
The Huntingdon & Broad Top railroad runs southwest through the 

Springfield township, located in the southern part of the countv, was 
organized in December, 1790, from the townships of Dublin and Shir- 
ley. Its original area has been much reduced by the erection of Crom- 
well in 1836 and Clay in 1845. It is bounded on the north by Cromwell; 
on the east by Dublin ; on the south by Fulton county, and on the west 
by the township of Clay. John Bailey, a Revolutionary soldier, settled 
on the banks of the Aughwick creek soon after that war. He was 
soon joined by \^'illiam Jones, John Robertson and ^^"illiam Ward. 
Then came a tide of immigration from Maryland, the Browns, Mad- 
dens, Ramseys, Lanes, Cutshalls, Wibles, and several other families 
locating in what is now Springfield township. Thomas Stains settled 
where the village of Meadow Gap is now, and the village of Maddens- 
ville bears the name of one of these pioneer families. 

Spruce Creek township, the 3'oungest, but one in the county, was 
erected in September, 1895, from the townships of Morris, Franklin 
and Porter. It takes its name from the stream which empties into 
the Juniata river opposite the village of Spruce Creek. The early 


histor)^ of this township is inckided in the sketches of those from which 
it was taken. 

Tell, one of the southeastern border townships, was erected in April, 
1810, its territory being taken from Dublin township. It lies between 
the Tuscarora and Shade mountains and its surface is divided into 
several small valleys by parallel ridges running from northeast to south- 
west. Although a populous township there are no boroughs within its 
limits and only a few small villages. The first land warrant was issued 
to Barnabas Barnes on February 3, 1775. Among the early settlers 
were Samuel ]\IcMath, Robert Vaughan, James Stonkard, Thomas 
Morrow and Jacob Goshorn, all of whom were located in the Shade 
valley by 1780. Between that time and the year 1800 came the Sharps, 
Wilsons, Chilcotts and the Cisney, Waters and Parsons families some 
of whose descendants still live in the township. Tell township is an 
agricultural community without a railroad, the nearest stations being 
Orbisonia and Shirleysburg on the line of the East Broad Top railway. 

Tod township was formed from L'nion in April, 1838. It is located 
in the Trough creek valley and is bounded as follows : On the north- 
east by Penn and Cass townships ; on the southeast by Cass and Clay ; 
on the southwest by Wood and Carbon, and on the northwest by Hope- 
well and Lincoln. Nearly all the pioneers came from Maryland. About 
1760 John Plummer settled in the Trough creek valley. On September 
20, 1762, Colonel Henry Bouquet received four warrants for lands in 
that locality and in August, 1767, four tracts, aggregating nearly 1,500 
acres, were surveyed for him by Richard Tea near the base of Broad 
Top mountain. John Edwards came in 1785. Jacob Houck in 1786, 
Michael and William Houck in 1787, John Taylor and others in 1795. 
Walter Hudson built a log mill on Trough creek some time between 
1790 and 1800, the first in the township. Paradise furnace and Eagle 
foundry were both located in this township, but they ceased operations 
long since. 

Union township was taken from Hopewell in June, 1791. Before 
the erection of Cass and Tod townships it included nearly all of the 
Trough creek valley, extending from the Juniata river on the north to 
the Broad Top mountain on the south, and from Jack's mountain on 
the east to Terrace mountain on the west. Settlements were made 
some years before the township was organized. John Shoop (or 


Shoiip), John Loughrey, Henry Freed, Jacob Miller and Henry Dell 
located in Hare's valley; Hughey Johnson, Levi and Eliel Smith, Asa 
Corbin and some others settled in Smith's valley; Richard Chilcott, 
John Wright, William Estep, James Estep, the Deans and Biimgart- 
ners established themselves in the Trough creek valley. The borough 
of Mapleton is located in this township and there are a few small vil- 
lages within its limits. 

Walker township was erected in April, 1827, from part of Porter. 
At the time of its organization it extended from Piney ridge on the 
southeast to the Blair county line on Tussey's mountain, and from 
Porter township on the north to Penn township on the south and south- 
west. Its boundaries were changed and its area reduced by the forma- 
tion of Smithfield township in 1886. One of the first settlers was 
Henry Lloyd, who came from Virginia. Alexander INIcConnell, the 
founder of McConnellstown, Joshua Lewis, William Moore, Samuel 
and Henry Peightal and the Entrikcn family were also early settlers. 
The township was named for Jonathan \\'alker, who was at one time 
the president judge of the judicial district in which Huntingdon county 
was situated. There are considerable deposits of iron ore, some of 
which have been developed, the ores being shipped to Johnstown and 

Warriors Mark, the most northwestern township of the countv, 
was erected from Franklin in January, 1798. Originally it included 
a portion of Snyder and Tyrone townships, now in Blair county, and 
a part of the present county of Center. It is bounded on the north- 
west and southwest by Blair county ; on the northeast by Center county ; 
and on the southeast by Franklin township. It derived its name from 
a settlement in the central part, established at an earlier date. There is 
a tradition, not very well defined, that the Indians had marks of some 
kind upon the trees near the settlement, indicating a meeting place or 
place of holding councils. Michael Maguire, who settled there in 1773, 
said some years later that the marks were stones placed in the forks 
of four oak trees and that these stones were almost covered by the 
growth of the trees. John Baynton, Samuel Wharton and probably 
some others, who came in 1766, were proliably the first settlers. Nathan 
and Thomas Ricketts came in 1777, and when th*^ township was or- 
ganized in 1798 there were over one hundred land owners. A school 


house was erected in this township as early as 1790. It was of logs, 
but later was replaced by a stone building, of which James Thompson, 
an old settler, said "That school house cost a drink of whisky for 
every stone in it." The Little Juniata and the Pennsylvania railroad 
run along the southwestern border and the Lewisburg & Tyrone rail- 
road from the northeast to the southwest through the township. Bir- 
mingham is the only borough and W^arriors Mark is the largest town. 
\\^est township. located chiefly in the ShaA-er's creek valley, was 
established in April, 1796, its territory being taken from the old town- 
ship of Barree. Part of Oneida was taken from West in 1856 and it 
was further reduced in size by the erection of Logan township in 1878. 
James Childs settled in the township in 1762; William \\'ilson came 
the next year, and James and John Dickey in 1764. The first saw 
and grist mill was built by Alexander McCormick on Gardner's run, 
but the date when it was built is not known. John Ambrose erected a • 
mill on Lightner's run soon afterward. In 1798, two years after the 
township was organized, there were upon the tax lists the names of 
more than one hundred land owners. Shaver's creek runs through 
one of the most fertile valleys in the county and farming is the chief 
occupation of the people of West township. Samuel Anderson, who 
settled in that part of the township afterward cut ofif to form Logan, 
built a fort on the west side of Shaver's creek about 1778. Concern- 
ing this fort, J. Simpson Africa, late of Huntingdon, relates the fol- 
lowing incident : 

"The inhabitants of the fort, after defending themselves for a long 
time against the attacks of the savages, finding their supplies becoming 
exhausted, fled to Standing Stone fort. In their flight two of the men, 
named Maguire, were killed by the Indians, and their sister, afterwards 
Mrs. Dowling, who was driving the cows, was chased by them. Spring- 
ing from ambush, the sudden surprise frightened the cows and they 
started to run. The foremost Indian caught her dress and imagined he 
had made sure of a victim, but she simultaneously grasped the tail of 
one of the cows, held on, her dress tore, and she escaped. She reached 
Fort Standing Stone, half dead with fright, still holding on to the tail 
of the cow." 

Wood township, the youngest in the county, was taken from Car- 
bon. The first petition for the erection of a new township in this por- 


tion of the county was filed with the court on September 2, 1901, C. 
E. Benson and Elbra Chilcott were appointed viewers and made their 
report on December 16, 1901, whereupon the court ordered an election 
for February 18, 1902, at which time the people were to vote upon the 
question of dividing Carbon township. The result at that election was 
tie vote and on January 5, 1905, the court ordered another election for 
February 21st following, when a majority of the electors expressed 
themselves in favor of a new township. On March 6, 1905, the court 
ordered the division of Carbon township, from the eastern half of which 
should be erected the township of Wood, the line running a short dis- 
tance east of Broad Top City. 

Li Huntingdon county there are eighteen boroughs, viz. : Alex- 
andria, Birmingham, Broad Top City, Cassville, Coalmont, Dudley, 
Huntingdon, jNIapleton, ]Marklesburg, JNIill Creek, Mount Union, Or- 
bisonia, Petersburg, Rock Hill, Saltillo, Shade Gap, Shirleysburg and 
Three Springs. 

Of these boroughs Huntingdon is the oldest and, being the county 
seat, stands first in importance. The first white claimant to the land 
where Huntingdon now stands was Hugh Crawford, who was an en- 
sign in Captain Hamilton's company at the time of the French and 
Indian war. He claimed to have made an improvement here about 
1753, but just how he acquired title to the land is not clear. By a 
deed executed at Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh) on June i, 1760, he conveyed 
to George Croghan, for a consideration of £100, "a certain tract of 
land of four hundred acres on the north side of the Frankstown 
Branch of Juniata, known by the name of Standing Stone, including 
my improvements thereon, from the mouth of Standing Stone Creek 
to the crossing up the creek, and to the upperward part of a small 
island," etc. On December 10, 1764, Croghan perfected and strength- 
ened his title by obtaining from the proprietaries a warrant for the 
land, and on March 25, 1766, he conve}-ed the same to "William Smith, 
D.D., Provost of the College of Philadelphia," for the sum of £300. 
The following year Dr. Smith laid out a town on the Crawford or 
Croghan tract, which town later was named Huntingdon. Just when 
that name was first applied to the town is not certain. The oldest 
deed to be found is one dated September 7, 1768, in which Dr. Smith 
conveys to .Samuel Anderson lot No. 12, situated on Allegheny street, 


between Third and Fourth. This deed recites that "\\'ilham Smith hath 

laid out a certain Town called . at Standing Stone, 

on Juniata, in the county of Cumberland, and divided the same into 
streets and lots, regularly named and numbered," etc. As a blank ap- 
pears in the deed where the name of the town should be, it is reason- 
able to suppose that no name had at that time been selected. 

Rev. William Smith, the founder of Huntingdon, was an Episco- 
pal minister and a man of considerable learning and ability. He was 
elected provost of the University of Pennsylvania in 1755 and some 
time later made a journey to England to solicit funds for that insti- 
tution. Among those who responded to his appeals was the Countess 
of Huntingdon, who gave him a liberal donation for the university and 
the town was named in her honor. At the beginning of the Revolution 
Huntingdon was a straggling village of but four or five houses. The 
only known inhabitants at that time were Benjamin Elliott, Abraham 
Haynes, Ludwig Sell, one of the Cluggages and their families. The 
town was then, and for some years afterward, more frequently called 
Standing Stone than Huntingdon and when the latter was used the 
other name was often added as a matter of explanation. 

Two brothers, James and David Mc^Murtrie, came from Philadelphia 
about 1776 or 1777, having been sent there by their father, "a prudent 
Scotchman," to keep them from joining the "rebel army." They re- 
mained there and became useful citizens, David having been the first 
county treasurer. After the Revolutionary war the town grew more 
rapidly and on ]March 29, 1796, it was incorporated as a borough by 
act of the legislature, with the following boundaries : "Beginning at 
a large stone corner placed on the bank of the river Juniata, at or 
near the entrance of a fording place, and at the distance of two hundred 
feet, on a course south sixty-six degrees east, from the east side of St. 
Clair (now Second) street; thence north twenty-four degrees east, 
one hundred and nine perches to a stone; thence south twenty-four 
degrees west, including Charles (now Seventh) street, one hundred 
and ten perches, or thereabouts, to the river Juniata ; thence down the 
same on the northerly bank or side, to the place of beginning; being 
the boundary of the said town of Huntingdon on record in the office 
for recording of deeds in and for the said county of Huntingdon." 
Upon the incorporation of the borough Benjamin Elliott was 




elected chief burgess and held the office for three years. By the act 
of March 2-j, 1855, the borough limits were extended to include what 
is known as West Huntingdon and some territory on the east side along 
both sides of the Standing Stone creek. A second extension of the 
borough limits was made on August 14, 1874, while Richard Langdon 
was chief burgess, when an ordinance was passed by the burgesses 
and town council annexing a part of Oneida township lying on the 
north and northwest of the town. On March 3, 1871, more than two 
years before the above territory was annexed, an ordinance was passed 
changing the names of the streets. St. Clair, Smith, Montgomery, Bath, 
Franklin, Charles, Fulton, Chestnut, \Valnut, Spruce, Pine, Locust, 
Cypress, Anderson, Grant, Scott, Lincoln and Jackson being numbered 
from Second to Nineteenth, respectively. Standing Stone Ridge road 
was made First street. The same ordinance provided that each square 
should be divided into spaces of twenty-five feet, each space to con- 
stitute a street number. In 1873 the city was divided into four wards. 

In laying out the town two lots on the south side of Allegheny 
street — one on the east and the other on the west side of Smith (Third) 
street — were set apart by the proprietor for a market place. When it 
became apparent that Huntingdon was to be the county seat. Third 
street was regarded as the most available site for the public buildings 
and a site for a market house was secured at the intersection of Penn 
and Fifth streets by widening the former to eighty feet, forming what 
has since become known as the "Diamond." This was done in August, 
1787, and soon after a market house was erected there. Markets were 
held on AVednesdays and Saturdays of each week for many j^ears, but 
the market laws were frec|uently infringed and on September 2, 1S47, 
the burgess and council adopted a resolution ordering the market house 
to be torn down. 

The first provision for protection against fires was made on January 
10, 1 801, when the borough authorities ordered the purchase of fire 
ladders and hooks, which were to be kept in the market house. In 
1804 the old hand engine "Juniata" was built by Philip i\Iason of Phil- 
adelphia and arrived in Huntingdon early the following year. It was 
placed in charge of the "Active" fire company until June, 1852, when 
it was succeeded by the "Juniata" fire company. It was in turn suc- 
ceeded by the Juniata Fire Company No. 2 in September, 1873. The 


"Phoenix" engine was purchased in 1840 and committed to the Phoenix 
Fire Company, which was organized at that time. It was removed to 
the Fourth ward in 1874 and was soon after supplanted by a steam 
fire engine. The Independent Hook and Ladder Company was or- 
ganized in October, 1873. Huntingdon Fire Company No. i was or- 
ganized in December, 1872, and was incorporated on January 14, 1874. 
For several years it had charge of the first steam fire engine — a Silsby — 
which was exchanged for a La France engine in November, 1880, and 
the Silsby machine went to the Phcenix Fire Company. The engine 
and council house on Washington street was built about this time. 
It has accommodations on the ground floor for the hook and ladder 
truck, the Juniata hand engine and steamer No. i. On the second 
floor are rooms for the meeting of the borough council and quarters 
for the fire companies occupying the building. 

The Huntingdon Gas Company was incorporated on ^larch 14, 
1857. and on August 29th, following, began supplying illuminating gas 
to the citizens. A charter was received by the Huntingdon Electric 
Light Company on March 19, 1886, and in 1902 the gas and electric 
light companies were consolidated under the name of the Huntingdon 
Gas Company. 

In 1885 the Huntingdon Water Company (Limited) was organized 
and by the close of the year 1886 had its works in oi^eratiou, taking 
water for the street hydrants and the use of citizens from Standing 
Stone creek opposite the east end of Washington street. The works 
have been improved from time to time until the borough has a bounti- 
ful supply of pure water, suitable for all domestic purposes. 

The Juniata Valley Electric Street Railway Company was incor- 
porated on August 8, 1906, and soon afterward completed its line 
from the Pennsylvania railroad station over Fourth, Washington, 
Eleventh and Moore streets to the Juniata College. Cars commenced 
running regularly over this line on June 3, 1907. Plans are now 
(1913) under contemplation for the consolidation of this company 
with the Big Valley Electric Railway Company, by which the lines 
will be extended to Mount Union and into the Kishacoquillas valley. 
When the plans are carried out and the lines completed Huntingdon 
will become an important trolley center. 

On August I, 1880, was established the Central Pennsylvania Tele- 


phone and Supply Company, a part of the Bell system, with its prin- 
cipal office at Williamsport. The Huntingdon exchange was opened 
on April i, 188 1, with D. S. Drake as manager. This exchange now 
has about 700 local telephones connected with it and furnishes long 
distance communication to all parts of the state. 

Huntingdon has three national banks, one private bank, one trust 
company, one daily, one semi-weekly and three weekly newspapers, 
a number of well appointed mercantile establishments, good hotels 
and several important manufacturing enterprises. Excellent educa- 
tional facilities are afforded by the high school, three ward schools 
and the Juniata College. 

In 1792, four years before the borough was incorporated, the 
population of Huntingdon was eighty-five families. Since then the 
growth has been gradual and steady, the population in the various 
census years since 1810 being as follows: 1810, 676; 1820, 848; 1830, 
1,222; 1840, 1,145: 1S50, 1,470; i860. 1,890; 1870, 3,034; 1880, 
4,125; 1890, 5.729; 1900, 6,053; 1910, 6,861. 

The borough of Alexandria is situated on the north side of the 
Frankstown branch of the Juniata river and the Hollidaysburg division 
of the Pennsylvania railroad, eleven miles by rail west of Huntingdon. 
It is on the line of the old Indian path and the first land warrant was 
issued for a tract where the borough now stands in 1755. The town 
was laid out by Elizabeth Gemmill in August, 1793. Lewis Mytinger 
opened the first store and was the first postmaster. William Moore 
and John Walker were the first tavern keepers, and Dr. John A. 
Buchanan was the first physician. Alexandria became the western 
terminus of a stage line to Harrisburg in 1808, and after the comple- 
tion of the Pennsylvania canal it became an important shipping point. 
It was incorporated by act of the legislature on April 11, 1827, and 
in July, 1847, Trimble's addition was made to the original plat of one 
hundred lots. The town has a good public school building, a public 
library, handsome church edifices of different denominations and in 
1 9 10 reported a population of 432, an increase of 26 over the census 
of 1900. 

Birmingham, situated on the Little Juniata river and the main line 
of the Pennsylvania railroad, seven miles west of Huntingdon, was 
laid out in December, 1797, by John Cadwallader, "for a manufac- 


turing town at the head of navigation." The proprietor was generous 
in his ideas of building up a town, donating lots for educational and 
religious purposes, a "library hall," etc. On the plat, near the bank of 
the Juniata, was marked "the Public Landing," which was also desig- 
nated as the "head of navigati(?n. " In order to stimulate the sale of 
lots Mr. Cadwallader sold tickets at fifteen dollars, to draw a lot of 
two acres suitable for manufacturing purposes, or ten dollars for a 
regular town lot. These sums represented one-half the price of the 
lots, the other half to be paid after the drawing and the execution of 
the deed. The first store was started in Birmingham in iSii by Dr. 
Burt, who was also the first physician. Thomas Stewart was the first 
postmaster. Birmingham was incorporated as a borough by act of 
the legislature on April 14, 1828, and the first election was ordered 
to be held at the house of Mary Jordan. The records of that election 
have been lost, so that the names of the first borough oflicers cannot 
be ascertained. The earliest records available are for 183 1, when John 
Owens was the chief burgess. Birmingham lias never come up to the 
anticipations of its founder and in 1910 had a population of only 196. 
On July 4, 1878, a soldiers' monument was unveiled in the old Metho- 
dist cemeterv. It is about twelve feet in height, with a medallion profile 
of Abraham Lincoln, the inscription "With malice toward none, with 
charity for all." It is surmounted by an "Angel of Mercy" and cost 
about $800. 

Broad Top City, a borough in the southern part of the county, was 
laid out bv the Broad Top Improvement Company in 1854. while the 
Huntingdon & Broad Top railroad was under construction, and it was 
incorporated on August 19, 1868, with Paul Ammerman as the first 
chief burgess. The failure of the railroad company to extend the 
line to Broad Top City prevented its attaining the proportions its pro- 
jectors expected, though it is a mining town of some importance and 
in 1910 reported a population of 478. 

Cassville, located in the Trough creek valley, south of the center 
of the county, was laid out by Benjamin and Rolieson Chilcott aliout 
1796 and was first known as Salisbury or Chilcoatstown. Three build- 
ings stood upon the site when the town was laid out. AA'illiam Lovell 
was the first tavern keeper and Robert Speer the first merchant. Mr. 
Speer was one of the most energetic of the pioneers and carried one 


of the largest stocks of general merchandise in the county at that 
period. In September, 1830, Dr. Roljert Baird and Andrew Shaw laid 
out an addition and the lots sold readily at from forty to fifty dollars 
each. A tannery was started in that year by Lemuel Green, and two 
potteries — one operated by Jacob Greenland and the other by E. B. 
Hissong — were started a few years later. In 1849 a public meeting was 
called to consider the advisability of applying to the proper authorities 
for the incorporation of the place as a borough. Some objected to 
the name of Salisbury and a committee of three was appointed to select 
a new name. A majority of the committee decided upon Cassville, and 
it was incorporated by that name on JNIarch 3. 1853, by an act of the 
legislature. The records prior to 1857 have been lost. In that year 
John S. Gehrett was the chief burgess. A seminary was established 
at Cassville in the fall of 1851. After several }-ears of varying success, 
the building was purchased by Professor A. L. Guss, who conducted 
a school for soldiers' orphans for about eight years. The population 
of Cassville in 1910 was 165, showing a slight decrease during the 
preceding decade. 

Coalmont, as its name indicates, grew up in connection with the 
development of the Broad Top coal fields. It is situated about two 
miles from the Bedford county line, on the Huntingdon & Broad Top 
railroad, and occupies a site formerly used for holding camp meetings. 
The first house in the town was built by David E. Brode in 1843. 
On August 10, 1864, a petition signed by twenty-seven citizens w^as 
filed with the court praying for the incorporation as a borough. The 
petition was granted and on November 11, 1864, Coalmont was in- 
corporated, with J. S. Berkstresser as the first chief burgess. The 
population in 1910 was 228. Coalmont is a trading center for a con- 
siderable district. 

Dudley began as a mining village in 1859 and was named after a 
place in England. A Catholic church had lieen established here in 
1857 and the settlement grew up around the church. In the summer 
of 1876 a movement was started to have the place incorporated as a 
borough, which was finally done on November 13, 1876, with William 
Brown as the first chief burgess. In 1910 the population of Dudley was 
440, an increase of 150 over the census of 1900. 

Mapleton (postotifice name Mapleton Depot) was first started as 


a station by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company and in 1858 con- 
sisted of three houses. The land belonged to John Donaldson, who laid 
out a town about the time the railroad was completed and on August 
12, 1866, ilapleton was incorporated as a borough, with A. H. Bau- 
man as the first chief burgess. In 1870 the population was 389 and 
in 1910 it was 752. A postofiice was established here at an early date. 
In 1876 two sand quarries were opened near the town and have added 
materially to its growth and prosperity. ^Nlapleton has a fine public 
school building, churches of various denominations and is a place of 
considerable commercial activity. 

^larklesburg (postoffice name Aitch) is located near the head of 
James creek, about twelve miles southwest of Huntingdon and half 
a mile from Grantville, on the Huntingdon & Broad Top railroad. 
It was laid out in the summer of 1844 by Jacob Cresswell and was 
named for General Joseph Markle, at that time the Whig candidate 
for governor. The first house was erected by Jacob Skyles in that 
year. A postoffice called James Creek had been established there as 
early as 1840, with John B. Given as the postmaster. In August, 1855, 
trains began running between Huntingdon and Marklesburg and the 
latter place experienced a boom. Within a few years it boasted forty- 
five dwellings, three churches, a school house, three stores, two car- 
riage factories, blacksmith, cooper and carpenter shops and a popula- 
tion of 300. Then the railroad passed on and much of Marklesburg's 
trade was diverted to other points. The place was incorporated on 
November 19, 1873, with E. D. Beatty as the first chief burgess. In 
1 910 the population was 211. 

Mill Creek, a station on the Pennsylvania railroad six miles east 
of Huntingdon, was laid out in October, 1848, by James Simpson for 
David Zook & Company. It takes its name from the stream upon which 
it is situated. The first stores in this locality were opened at Wilson's 
Mills about 1828. Mill Creek was incorporated as a borough on De- 
cember 13. 1905, with I. N. Foust as chief burgess. The population 
in 1910 was 308. 

Mount Union, the second town in importance in Huntingdon county, 
was first laid out by William Pollock in 1840, for John Sharrer. In 
1849 Dougherty & Speer purchased the adjoining tract, having re- 
ceived a charter for the Drake's Ferry & East Broad Top railroad, and 


this place was designed by them as a transfer point, though no steps 
were taken to build the railroad. The first building in this immediate 
locality was a stone house near Drake's ferry, occupied by William 
Pollock as merchant and postmaster. This building was subsequently 
destroyed by fire. John Sharrer opened the American Hotel in 1848, a 
tannery was started in 1859, ^""^ ^^ the meantime several business en- 
terprises had found a footing at Mount Union, which was incorporated 
as a borough on April 19, 1867, with Augustus Eberman as chief 
burgess. The town has two national banks, a number of good mer- 
cantile houses, hotels, several prosperous manufacturing concerns and 
in 1910 reported a population of 3,338. Li 1900 the population was 
i,oS6, and in 1890 it was 810. Few boroughs in the state show as 
great an increase in population and wealth during the last twenty years 
as Mount Union. 

Orbisonia, a station on the East Broad Top railroad, which con- 
nects with the Pennsylvania at Mount Union, is the largest town in 
the southeastern part of the county. As early as 1760 George Irvin 
had an Indian trading post at this point. The Bedford furnace was 
opened in 1785 and two years later a grist mill was started. Another 
mill was built by Hezekiah Crownover in 1812. The store of Crom- 
well & Cornelius was opened in 1824, a postoffice was established in 
1830 in Taylor Crownover's store, there were two distilleries in 1833 
and in 1836 Jonathan Carothers opened the Eagle Hotel. Up to this 
time the town, like Topsy in L'ncle Tom's Cabin, "just growed." There 
were no streets and the lots were of irregular size, straggling along 
on either side of the road. In May, 1850, it was regularly laid out and 
named Orbisonia, for Thomas E. Orbison, who located there about 
1830 or 1 83 1. The growth of the town continued and on November 
23, 1855, it was incorporated as a borough, with Simon Gratz as the 
first chief burgess. Orbisonia has two banks, a weekly newspaper, 
churches of different denominations, a good retail trade with the sur- 
rounding country and in 19 10 the population was 618. The first school 
house was a small log structure, but this has been replaced by a modern 

Six miles west of Huntingdon, on the main line of the Pennsyl- 
vania railroad, stands the borough of Petersburg, one of the oldest 
towns in the county. It was laid out on \lay 21, 1795, by Peter Shoen- 


berger on the tract of land owned by him on the east side of Shaver's 
creek, opposite the site of old Fort Anderson. Mr. Shoenberger, for 
whom the borough was named, was the first merchant and also kept 
the first tavern. A postoffice called Shaver's Creek was established 
there at an early date, with Valentine W'ingart as postmaster. Dr. 
Peter Sevine was the first physician. While the Pennsylvania canal 
was in operation Petersburg was quite a commercial center and ship- 
ping point. Flour and saw mills were established at an early day 
and the Juniata forge, operated by Hunter & Swoope, was located 
at the mouth of Shaver's creek. It was one of the pioneer concerns 
in the manufacture of the famous Juniata charcoal iron. On April 7, 
1830, Petersburg was incorporated by act of the legislature and George 
Rung was the first chief burgess. Lodges of various benevolent socie- 
ties are located here ; Juniata Grange, Patrons of Husbandry, was or- 
ganized in 1874; there are churches of dififerent faiths, the Shaver's 
Creek Bank, several good stores and in 19 10 the population was re- 
ported as being 705. 

Rock Hill (postoffice name Rockhill Furnace) was laid out in 
1874 across the Black Log creek from Orbisonia. A large number of 
the early houses were built and owned by the Rockhill Iron and Coal 
Company. An iron furnace was opened at this place in 183 1 by Diven 
& Morrison. The Winchester furnace was built two or three years 
later. Rock Hill was incorporated on June 16, 1S87, with A. W. 
Sims as the first chief burgess. It is a station on the East Broad Top 
railroad and in 1910 reported a population of 504. 

Saltillo, a station on the East Broad Top railroad in the southern 
part of the county, was settled in 1796 by Henry Hubbell. On August 
20, 1796, Thomas Greer filed for record the plat of "Springville," which 
occupied the site of Saltillo. A grist mill was built by Henry Hubbell 
in 1797 and J. & J. C. Brewster were the first merchants. A number of 
lots were sold to people in Philadelphia and other places, but the lack 
of transportation facilities caused many of the purchasers to surrender 
their claims and Springville died a natural death. Some years later 
Henry Hudson laid out Saltillo, which was incorporated as a borough 
on December i, 1S75, with Samuel ^McVitty as the first chief burgess. 
There are two rich veins of iron ore in the immediate vicinity. A large 
steam tannery was established by Leas & McVitty a little while before 


the borough was incorporated. The population in 1910 was 410. 

Shade Gap, in the Black Log valley, was settled by George Hudson 
in 1782. It is located on the old Indian path from the Tuscarora 
valley to Kittaning Point and was one of the few places easy of access 
in early times. James Stark was the first merchant and a man named 
Forman kept the first public house of entertainment. George Hudson 
built a woolen mill and a grist mill near the gap a few years after 
he first settled there and in 1803 Michael Mills opened a blacksmith 
shop. The Milnwood Academy was founded in 1849. Shade Gap 
was incorporated as a borough on April 20, 1871, but the early records 
have been lost. In 19 10 the population was 143. 

Shirleysburg, formerly known as Aughwick, Old Town- and Fort 
Shirley, was settled by George Croghan prior to the French and Indian 
war. The town was laid out by Henry Warner and in its early days 
was the most important place in the county southeast of Huntingdon. 
Saw and grist mills were built at an early date. Every spring for 
many years the militia from the southeastern townships met at Shirleys- 
burg for review and inspection. A factory for the manufacture of 
earthenware was established in 1866 by George W. Hawker, who also 
made drain tile and terra cotta. Dr. Loughran was the first physician. 
Shirleysburg was incorporated as a borough on April 3, 1837, with 
John Lutz as the first chief burgess. The completion of the East Broad 
Top railroad through the place in 1873 S^"^^ ^ "^^^ impetus to business 
and for a time the population showed considerable increase. Rival 
towns then offered better inducements for the investment of capital 
and for the last half a century Shirleysburg has barely held its own. 
In 1910 the population was 256, a slight decrease under that of 1900. 

Three Springs, a station on the East Broad Top railroad in the 
southern part of the county, was laid out in the spring of 1843 ^"d 
was first called Scottsville, for General W'infield Scott. A postoffice 
was soon after established there under that name. Richard Ashman 
and William \\'hite were the first merchants. George D. Hudson built 
the first hotel, in the kitchen of which was taught the first school. Dr. 
Robert Baird was the first physician. Three Springs was incorporated 
as a borough on November 10, 1869, with William J. Hampson as 
the first chief burgess. Soon after the incorporation P. F. Bence started 
a local newspaper. In 1870 the population was 189 and each census 


year since that time has shown a slight increase, the population in 1910 
being 248. 

In addition to the eighteen boroughs above mentioned, Huntingdon 
county is supplied with the following postoffices: Airydale, Augh- 
wick Mills, Barree, Blairs Mills, Calvin, Charter Oak, Clair, Coles Sum- 
mit, Colfax, Cora, Cottage, Decorum. Eagle Foundry, East Broad Top, 
Entriken, Franklinville, Grafton, Graysville, Jacob, James Creek, 
McAlevy's Fort, McConnellstown, McNeal, Maddensville, Manor Hill, 
Meadow Gap, Mentzer, Neelyton, NefFs Mills, Norrace, Nossville, Penn- 
sylvania Furnace, Robertsdale, Ronald, Salter, Saulsburg, Selea, Shade 
Valley, Shy Beaver, Spruce Creek. Todd, Trough Creek, Union Fur- 
nace, Valley Point, Warriors Mark, Water Street and Wood. There 
are fourteen rural free delivery routes in the county, to wit : One 
from Alexandria, one from Grafton, three from Huntingdon, one from 
McAlevy's Fort, one from Mapleton Depot, one from Penns}-lvania. 
Furnace, one from Petersburg, one from Shirleysburg, two from Three 
Springs and two from Warriors Mark. 



Cumberland County Erected — Included Mifflin — Purchase of 1754 — Organization of 
Townships — Petition for a New Count}' — Organic Act — Trouble over the Location 
of the County Seat — Trustees Refuse to Serve — Vacancies Filled — Purchase of Site 
— First Jail — Court Houses — Lewistown Riot — Clarke's Account — Dispute over 
Boundaries — County Line Commission of 1895 — Litigation — Reductions in Area — 
The Poor-house — The Civil List. 

BEFORE entering upon any historical account of Mifflin county it 
is pertinent to notice some of the events which preceded and 
led up to its organization. Cumberland county, erected in 1750, 
embraced all the territory west of the Susquehanna river, except the 
present counties of York and Adams. At that time the Indians still 
claimed most of the lands lying west of the Susquehanna. Their title 
was extinguished by the Albany purchase of July 6, 1754, and what is 
now Mifflin county was a part of the lands ceded at that time to the 
white men. Part of Cumberland county was taken to form the county 
of Bedford on March 9, 1771 ; part of Northumberland was cut off on 
March 27, 1772; and Cumberland was still further reduced in size by 
the formation of Franklin county on September 8, 1784. 

In the meantime other changes were found to be necessary. Im- 
mediately following the cession of 1754 there was a rush of settlers 
to the "New Purchase." In August, only a little more than a month 
after the treaty was concluded at Albany, petitions were made to the 
Cumberland county court by the settlers in Sherman's, Tuscarora and 
Path valleys and along the Buffalo creek, asking for the establishments 
of new townships "to facilitate the improvement and good government 
of the new settlements." In accordance with the request of the peti- 
tioners, four new townships were erected, one of which was described 
as follows : 

"And we do further errect the settlement called the Tuskerora Valey 



into a sepparate Township and nominate the same the Township of 
LAC, and we appoint John Johnston to act therein as Constable for 
the remaining part of the current year." 

This township inckided all of the present county of Juniata lying 
west of the Juniata river. Some time after it was erected the letter 
"k" was added to the name, and what remains of the original township 
now forms the western township of Juniata county. In 1762 the town- 
ship of Fermanagh was erected. It embraced the territory lying north 
and east of the Juniata and included all the unorganized portion of the 
lands purchased from the Indians in 1S54. 

During the next four years, owing to the unsettled conditions due 
to the French and Indian war, few additional settlers came to the Juni- 
ata valley, but in the years 1766-67 there was another heavy tide of 
immigration to the "New Purchase." In July, 1767, Derry, Penn and 
Greenwood townships were taken from Fermanagh, the first named 
including nearly all the present county of 3,Iifflin. Alilford township 
was cut off from Lack on November 7, 1768; Armagh was formed 
from Derry in 1771, Jack's mountain being designated as the dividing 
line: Bald Eagle township, Northumberland county, was erected in 
1772; two years later part of Bald Eagle was taken to form the town- 
ship of Potter, and Wayne township was formed from part of Derry in 
1782. It was from the townships of Lack, Mil ford, Fermanagh, Derry, 
Armagh, Bald Eagle, Potter and Wayne that the territory was taken 
to form the county of INIifflin in 1789. 

During the latter part of the year 1788, petitions were circulated 
among the people of these townships asking for the erection of a new 
county, to include within its boundaries practically all the territory now 
forming Mifflin and Juniata counties. The next step on the part of 
the inhabitants of this region was to elect delegates from the several 
townships to decide upon some plan of organization and the manner 
of selecting a seat of justice for the new county. The delegates from 
Armagh, Derry and W'ayne townships were: William Brown, John 
Culbertson. James McFarlane, John Bratton, John Oliver, William 
Smith, Arthur Buchanan and James Burns. Those from Lack, Mil- 
ford, Fermanagh and Greenwood townships were: John Stewart, 
James Murray, Thomas Turbett, Samuel Sharron, John Lyon, Samuel 
Cowan, John Harris and Robert Little. About the time, or perhaps 


a little while before, the legislature met in the winter of 1788-89, 
these delegates met at the house of David Sharron, in Fermanagh town- 
ship, and agreed "that Col. James Dunlap, of Cumberland county, Col. 
James Johnston and IMatthew Wilson, Esquire, of Franklin county, 
should be the three persons recommended to the legislature as disinter- 
ested and suitable characters to explore said prescribed boundary and 
make report to the succeeding legislature of the most convenient and 
central place for a seat of justice within said boundary." 

When the legislature assembled the petitions and action of the dele- 
gates were brought before that body and a bill in accordance therewith 
passed the house on March 21, 1789, but failed to pass the senate. The 
bill named Messrs. Dunlap, Johnston and Wilson to locate the county 
seat, "their judgment to be final and conclusive." After the bill passed 
the house, these three men began the work assigned them and after 
examining several locations decided in favor of John Harris' farm, 
where ]\Iit^intown now stands. This action of the commissioners was 
not satisfactory to the people above the "Narrows" and was largely 
responsible for the defeat of the bill in the senate. After the defeat 
of the measure, the citizens above the Narrows took steps to annex 
additional territory on the north, with a view to having the seat of 
justice established in that part of the county in the event of its erec- 
tion. That their efforts in this direction were successful may be seen 
in the act which passed the legislature on September 19, 1789, creating 
and defining the boundaries of jMiitiin county. The preamble of the 
bill is as follows : 

"Whereas, It hath been represented to the General Assembly of 
this State by the inhabitants of those parts of Cumberland and North- 
umberland which are included within the lines hereinafter mentioned, 
that they labour under great hardships by reason of their great distance 
from the present seat of justice and the public offices for the said 
counties, for the remedy thereof." 

Then follows Section i, which provided "That all and singular 
the lands lying within the bounds and limits hereinafter described and 
following, shall be and are hereby erected into a separate county by 
the name of Mifflin county, namely: Beginning at Susquehanna river 
where the Turkey Hill extends to said river; then along the said hill to 


the Juniata where it cuts the Tuscarora mountain ; thence along the 
summit of the said mountain to the Hue of FrankHn county; thence 
along the said line to Huntingdon county line ; thence along the said 
line to the Juniata river ; thence up said river to Jack's Narrows ; thence 
along the line of Huntingdon county to the summit of Tussey's moun- 
tain; thence along the line of Huntingdon and Northumberland coun- 
ties, so as to include the whole of Upper Bald Eagle township, in 
the county of Northumberland, to the mouth of Buck creek, where 
it empties into the Bald Eagle creek ; thence to Logan's Gap in Nittany 
mountain; then to the head of Penn's creek; thence down the said 
creek to Sinking creek, leaving George McCormick's in Northumber- 
land county; thence to the top of Jack's mountain, at the line between 
Northumberland county and Cumberland ; thence along the said line 
to Montour's Spring, at the head of Mahantango creek; thence down 
the said creek to Susquehanna river, and thence down the said river 
to the place of beginning." 

The boundaries as established by this bill differed from those given 
in the bill of the preceding March by including Potter and LTpper Bald 
Eagle townships on the north and leaving out Greenwood township 
(now in Perry county) on the south. By this change the center of the 
county was thrown much farther northward, which had great influence 
on the question of the location of the county seat. In fact, so great 
was this influence that Section 9 of the bill provided: 

"That John Oliver, William Brown, David Beale, John Stewart, 
David Bole (also spelled Bowel in some of the public documents) and 
Andrew Gregg of said county, be, and they are hereby appointed 
trustees for the county aforesaid, with full authority for them or a 
majority of them, to purchase, or take and receive by grant, bargain 
or otherwise, any quantity or quantities of land, not exceeding one 
hundred and fifty acres, on the north side of Juniata river, and within 
one mile from the mouth of Kishicoquilis creek, for the use, trust and 
benefit of said county, and to lay out the same into regular town lots 
and to dispose of so many of them as they or any four of them, may 
think best for the advantage of said county; and they, or any four 
of them, are hereby authorized to sell and convey so many of them 
as they may think proper, and with the monies so arising from the 
sale of said lots, and with other monies to be duly assessed, levied 
and collected within the said county of ^Mifflin, for that purpose, which 
it is herebv declared it shall and mav be lawful for the commissioners 


thereof to do. or cause to be done, to build and erect a court-house and 
prison, suitable and convenient for the public, on the public, and such 
other square as shall be reserved for that purpose ; and the said trustees 
shall, from time to time, render true and faithful accounts of the ex- 
penditures of the same, not only to the commissioners, but to the Grand 
Jury, for inspection, adjustment and settlement of the accounts of 
said county." 

Of the six trustees named in this section, William Brown, John 
Oliver and Andrew Gregg resided in the townships of Armagh, Wayne 
and Potter, in the northern part of the new county, while John Stewart, 
David Beale and David Bole lived below the Narrows in the town- 
ships of Lack and Greenwood. As the last named township, in which 
David Bole resided, was left out of the county by the act of September 
19, 1789, he was therefore disqualified as a trustee, leaving only David 
Beale and John Stewart to represent that part of the county on the 
board of trustees. These gentlemen, realizing that they constituted a 
minority of the board, refused to serve, claiming the act creating the 
county did not comply with the provisions of the state constitution. 
The disqualification of Bole and the refusal of Beale and Stewart to 
act left but three trustees to organize the county, whereas. Section 9, 
above quoted, provided that a majority, "or any four of them," should 
be necessary to perform legally the acts authorized by the organic law. 
To relieve this situation and render the organic act effective, the leg- 
islature, on April 5, 1790, passed the following: 

"Whereas, David Bowel (Bole), one of the said trustees, does 
not reside within the limits of the said county of Mifilin, and as the 
act erecting JMiftlin county requires its trustees to concur in every trans- 
action done under and in virtue of their appointment, etc.. Be it there- 
fore enacted: 

"That Dr. James Armstrong is hereby appointed a trustee in and 
for the county of Mifiiin, and is hereby invested with like powers and 
authorities in every matter and thing whatsoever that of right belongs 
to any trustee appointed for the county of Mifflin." 

Dr. Armstrong was in harmony with the provisions of the law 
regarding the location of the county seat at the mouth of the Kishaco- 
quillas creek, but his appointment evidently was not satisfactory to the 
citizens of the southern part of the county. Several petitions were 


sent to the legislature during the next decade, asking for a change in 
the location of the county seat. In the petition to the legislature of 
1801-02 the appointment of Dr. Armstrong is referred to as follows: 

"That John Stewart and David Beale, being all the trustees who 
lived below the Narrows, uniformly refused to act as Trustees, con- 
sidering the Laws as unconstitutional, together with the undue ad- 
vantage obtained thereby, until, by other device of those who lived in 
the vicinity of Lewistown, got a fourth trustee added to their side of 
the county, viz., James Armstrong. On the 23d of June, 1791, the 
four Trustees who lived above the Narrows., viz., William Brown, 
John Oliver, Andrew Gregg and James Armstrong, published in the 
Carlisle Gazette, — 'The Trustees hereby give notice that, agreeable to 
said Act, they have received by bargain a quantity of land at the con- 
fluence of the river Juniata and the Kishaqcoquillas Creek and con- 
firmed thereon a town for the Seat of Justice called Lewistown.' " 

The publication of this notice was hardly in conformity with the 
existing facts, as the trustees did not receive title to the tract of land 
mentioned, nor even to the lots upon which the county buildings were 
erected, until January 14. 1802. Soon after the appointment of Dr. 
Armstrong, the trustees employed two surveyors named Samuel Ed- 
miston and James Potter to locate the site for the county seat and 
"to lay out the same into regular town lots," pursuant to the pro- 
visions of the act erecting the county. At that time the title to the 
land was the subject of litigation and no one could make a valid deed 
to the trustees. In July, 1787, more than two years before the passage 
of the act creating Mifflin county, the Cumberland county court awarded 
Mary Norris judgment in the sum of £1,000 against Arthur Buchanan, 
who owned 300 acres of land on the north side of the Juniata at the 
mouth of the Kishacoquillas creek. To satisfy the judgment, the court 
ordered Thomas Buchanan, high sheriff of Cumberland county, to 
levy upon this tract of land and offer the same for sale, etc. It was 
first offered for sale by the sheriff on December 30, 1788, but there 
were no purchasers. On November 2y, 1790, the land was sold to 
Samuel Edmiston, and on January 22, 1791, he received his deed from 
the sheriff. On January 14, 1802, as above stated, Mr. Edmiston ex- 
ecuted a deed which set forth that the trustees "laid out the seat of 
justice for the said county of Mifflin on the land of Samuel Edmiston, 
lying on the north side of the river Juniata, and situated on the high 


ground at the junction of said river with the Kishacoquillas creek." 
By this deed he conveyed to John OHver, WiUiam Brown, David 
Beale, John Stewart, Andrew Gregg and James Armstrong, trustees 
of Mifflin county, lots No. 15 and 16 for a cemetery and meeting-house; 
lot No. 86 for a jail; lot No. 120 for a public school house; the ground 
on the Juniata from the first alley to the junction of the river with 
Kishacoquillas creek, together with the streets, lanes, alleys and the 
center of said borough, agreeable to the plan of the town of Lewis- 
town, as laid out by the trustees, etc. 

The county jail was the first public building erected under the pro- 
visions of Section 9 of the act of erection. In 1790 the county com- 
missioners ordered that a log building, two stories in height, with an 
outside stairway, be built upon lot No. 86, at the northwest corner 
of Market and Wayne streets, the lower story of which should be fitted 
up for a jail and the upper one for a court-room. Sessions of the 
court were held in this upper room until 1795, when the commissioners 
ordered an addition of fifteen by twenty feet to be made to the jail. 
This addition was completed in the fall of that year, the records of 
November 5, 1795, showing that on that day William Harper was paid 
£74 for its construction. The old log jail was demolished in 1802 
and in its place was built a stone jail, which in turn was torn down in 
1856, when the present structure was erected. 

Although the act establishing Mifflin county authorized the com- 
missioners of the county to "build and erect a court-house," six years 
passed before any definite action was taken to that end. Late in the 
year 1794, when it was known that an addition to the jail was con- 
templated, a room was rented from Robert Kinney for a court-room. 
During the next three years the court sessions were held in James 
Ruglers' house and in Michael Foncannon's and William Elliott's tav- 
erns. In 1795 the public square in the center of the town, where the 
soldiers' monument now stands, was selected as a site for the court- 
house and the commissioners advertised for bids for the erection of 
"a court-house of brick, two stories in height, in accordance with 
plans," etc. The contract was awarded to John Norris and James 
Alexander and the last payment was made on April 11, 1799. The 
total cost of the building was something over $5,000. It was evidently 
not large enough to accommodate all the county offices, for at the 


same session when final payment was made to the contractors it was 
ordered that Samuel Edmiston, the prothonotary, "should receive com- 
pensation out of the county treasury for his expense in furnishing an 
apartment for holding the public offices of the county, and also the 
adjourned Courts of Common Pleas and Orphans' Courts." Just how 
long this arrangement continued is not certain, but the quarters fitted 
up by Mr. Edmiston were probably used until the county erected a 
building for the public offices. 

On November 24, 181 5. the county commissioners advertised for 
proposals for building public offices according to the plans and specifi- 
cations in the hands of David Reynolds. Early the following year 
work was commenced on the building, which stood where the present 
court-house stands, and which was completed before the end of the 
year. No further changes were made in the provisions for conducting 
the county business for more than twenty years. In November, 1S37, 
the grand jury, after investigating the needs of the county, made the 
following report : 

"To the Honorable, the Judges of the Court of General Quarter 
Session of the Peace, now holding for the County of Miftlin. 

"The Grand Inquest of the body of the County of Mifflin, inquiring 
for the interest of the same, would respectfully present that, after 
having gone through our other duties, think it very proper, imder all 
the circumstances of the case, to recommend the removal and rebuild- 
ing in a permanent manner, in some suitable place the Court-House 
and Public offices of the said Coimty (believing as we do that within a 
very few years past the present Court-House has cost in repairs a sum 
very near equal to what would be required to rebuild the same in a 
more suitable place). We do therefore recommend the taking down 
of both the Court-House and offices and rebuilding the whole together 
in a systematic manner out of the materials that may be used from the 
old buildings in addition to such new materials as may be necessary. 
And think it would be proper for the County Commissioners to make 
provision in due time for such little expense as may be necessary to 
carry out the aforesaid project under the order and instruction of 
the Court aforesaid (believing as we do that money expended with due 
economy towards building and keeping in a proper state of repair 
such buildings as the public business of the County indispensably re- 
c^uires for public convenience, as also for the safe keeping of Public 
Records, etc., can never be a public loss). 

"D. R. Reynolds, Foreman." 


The report was not approved until November 8, 1839, and then 
nearly three years elapsed before any active steps were taken to carry 
out its recommendations. In 1842 the commissioners purchased of 
R. C. Hale the lot at the northwest corner of ^lain street and the 
public square and entered into a contract with Holman & Simon for 
the erection of a new court-house thereon. The building was com- 
pleted in December, 1843, when it was accepted by the commissioners, 
its total cost having been about $15,000. The old court-house was torn 
down the following year. The dimensions of the new court-house 
were thirty-two by forty-eight feet, the several county offices being 
located upon the first floor, the second story being fitted up for use of 
the court and the jury rooms. Across the front ran a portico ten feet 

As the county increased in population more room was found to 
be necessary for the transaction of the public business and the preser- 
vation of the public records. In November, 1877, the grand jury made 
a recommendation that the court-house be enlarged and put in good 
repair. A similar recommendation was made by the same body the 
following April, and on April 20, 1878, the board of commissioners 
adopted a resolution "to repair and enlarge the court-house as recom- 
mended by the grand jury, provided the expense shall not exceed ten 
thousand dollars." Plans for the improvement were made by Daniel 
Ziegler, and on May 9, 1878, a contract was made with Buyers, Guyger 
& Company to build an addition to the north end of the old court-house 
and make certain specified repairs for the sunTi of $7,245. Subsequently 
it was decided to add the tower and to make some other minor changes, 
which brought the entire cost of the addition and repairs up to $9,095. 
The court-house as thus improved remains in use to the present time, 
but further alterations are under contemplation and will probably be 
made in the near future. 

What is known as the Lewistown riot occurred about two years 
after the county was organized and created considerable excitement. 
Reports of the afifair are somewhat contradictory, as is always the 
case in a controversy, the adherents to each side desiring to tell the 
story in such a way as to strengthen their cause. It appears that in 
the summer of 1791 Governor Mifflin appointed Samuel Bryson one 
of the associate justices of the Mifflin county court of common pleas. 


Prior to his receiving this appointment, Mr. Bryson had for several 
years held the office of county lieutenant and as such "had excited the 
determined enmity of two men who were ambitious of being colonels 
of militia, and against whom (as vmfit persons) Mr. Bryson, as County 
Lieutenant, had made representations." The meml)ers of their re- 
spective regiments had elected the two men, according to the custom 
of that day, though the right of Mr. Bryson to set aside the election 
and issue commissions to men of his own selection could not be ques- 
tioned under the militia law. That he did so aroused the indignation 
of many of the men belonging to the two regiments and when he was 
appointed associate judge some of those whose will had been set at 
defiance resolved that he should not be permitted to serve in that ca- 

William \\'ilson, a brother to the sheriff of ]^Iifflin county, and David 
Walker organized a force of some forty men, all of whom were armed, 
and at the head of this little army of insurgents marched, with a fife 
playing, to Lewistown, "with the avowed determination to seize upon 
the person of Judge Bryson whilst on the bench, drag him from thence, 
oblige him to resign his commission." etc. 

The movements of these men had been conducted with such se- 
crecv that the people of Lewistown knew nothing of what was going 
on until about an hour before the rioters appeared. What happened 
when they did appear in Lewistown is probably best told in the report 
of John Clarke, deputy state's attorney, to Judge Thomas Smith, who 
was appointed judge of the Fourth judicial district soon after the oc- 
cunence. Says ]\Ir. Clarke: 

"On Monday, the 12th of September. 1791, the Hon. William 
Brown, Samuel Bryson and James Armstrong, Esquires, met in the 
forenoon in order to open the court and proceed to business ; but 
Thomas Beale, Esquire, one of the associate judges, not having arrived, 
their Honours waited until three o'clock in the afternoon, at which 
time he arrived, and was requested to proceed with them and the of- 
ficers of the court to the court-house. He declined going, and the 
procession moved on to the court-house, where the judges' commissions 
were read, the court opened, and the officers and the attorneys of the 
court sworn in, and the court adjourned till ten o'clock ne.xt morning. 

"About nine o'clock, while preparing business to lay before the 
Grand Jury, I received information that a large body of men were 


assembled below the Long Narrows, at David Jordan's tavern, on the 
Juniata, and were armed with gnns, swords and pistols, with an avowed 
intention to proceed to Lewistown and seize Judge Bryson on the 
bench and drag him from his seat, and march him off before them, and 
otherwise illtreat him. This information was instantlv communicated 
to Messrs. Brown, Bryson and Armstrong, the judges, who agreed with 

me that Samuel Edmiston, Esq., the prothonotary. Judge Beale, 

Stewart, Esq., William Bell, Esq., should, with George Wilson, Esq., 
the sheriff of Mifflin county, proceed and meet the rioters ; and the 
sheriff was commanded to inquire of them, their object and intention, 
and, if hostile, to order them to disperse, and tell them the court was 
alarmed at their proceedings. 

■"Two iiours after this the court opened and a grand jury was 
impanelled. A fife was heard playing, and some guns fired, and im- 
mediately the mob appeared marching toward the court-house, with 
three men on horseback in front, having the gentlemen that had been 
sent to meet them under guard in the rear; all of whom, on their ar- 
rival at Lewistown, they permitted to go at large, except the sheriff, 
whom four of their number kept guard over. The court ordered me, 
as the representative of the Commonwealth, to go out and meet them, 
remonstrate against their proceedings, and warn them of their danger; 
wdiich order was obeyed. But all endeavors were in vain, the mob cry- 
ing out, 'March on! March on! Draw your sword on him! Ride 
over him!" I seized the reins of the bridle that the principal com- 
mander held, viz., Wilson, Esq., brother of the sheriff 

aforesaid, who was well mounted and well dressed, with a sword, and, 
I think, two pistols belted around him, a cocked hat, and one or two 
feathers in it. He said he would not desist, but at all events proceed 
and take Judge Bryson oft" the bench, and march him down the Nar- 
rows to the judge's farm, and make him sign a paper that he would 
never sit there as Judge again. 

"The mob still crying out 'March on!' he drew his sword and told 
me he must hurt me unless I would let go the reins. The crowd pushed 
forward and nearly pressed me down; one of them, as I learned after- 
ward, a nephew of Judge Beale, presented his pistol at my breast, 
with a full determination to shoot me. I let the reins go and walked 
before them until I arrived at the stairs on the outside of the court- 
house, when Judge Armstrong met me and said. "Since nothing else 
will do, let usdefend the stairs.' We instantly ascended, and Mr. Ham- 
ilton and the gentlemen of the bar and many citizens; and the rioters, 
headed by William Wilson, Colonel Walker and Colonel Holt, came 
forward, and the general cry was. 'March on ! damn you ; proceed and 
take him!' Judge Armstrong replied, 'You damned rascals, come on! 


we will defend the court ourselves, and before you shall take Judge 
Bryson you shall kill me and many others, which seems to be your 
intention, and which you may do!' At this awful moment one Holt 
seized Judge Armstrong by the arm with the intent to pull him down 
the stairs, but he extricated himself. Holt's brother then got a drawn 
sword and put it into his hands and damned him to run the rascal 
through; and Wilson drew his sword on me with great rage, and young 
Beale his sword, and cocked his pistol and presented it. I told 
them thev might kill me, but the judge they could not, nor should they 
take him; and the words 'Fire away!' were shouted through the mob. 
I put my hand on his shoulder and begged him to consider where he 
was, who I was, and reflect but for a moment. I told him to withdraw 
the men and appoint any two or three of the most respectable of his 
people to meet in half an hour and try to settle the dispute. He agreed, 
and. with difficulty, got them away from the court-house. Mr. Hamil- 
ton then went with me to Mr. Alexander's tavern, and in \\'ilson and 
Walker came, and also Sterrett, whom I discovered to be their chief 

"Proposals were made by me that they should return home, offer 
no insult to Judge Bryson o'r the court, and prefer to the governor a 
decent petition, stating their grievances, if they had any, that might 
be laid before the legislature; and that, in the meantime, the judge 
should not sit on the bench of this court. They seemed agreed and 
our mutual honor to be pledged: but Sterrett, who pretended not to 
be concerned, stated that great delay would take place, that injuries 
had been received which demanded instant redress, and objected to the 
power of the governor as to certain points proposed. At this point 
young Beale and Holt came up (the former with arms) and insisted 
on Wilson's joining them, and broke up the conference. I followed, 
and on the field among the rioters told Wilson, 'Your object is that 
Judge Bryson leave the bench and not sit on it in this court?' He and 
Wafker said 'Yes.' 'Will you promise to disperse and go home and 
offer him no insult?' He said 'Yes,' and our mutual honor was then 
pledged for the performance of the agreement. 

''^]Mr. Hamilton proceeded to the court, told the judge, and he left 
his seat and retired. I scarce had arrived until the fife began to play, 
and the whole of the rioters came on to the court-house, then headed 
by Wilson. I met them at the foot of the stairs and told them the 
judge was gone, in pursuance of the agreement, and charged them with 
a breach of the word and forfeiture of honor, and Walker said it was 
so, but he could not prevail on them. Wilson said he would have the 
judge and attempted going up the stairs. I prevented him, and told 
him he should not, unless he took off his military accoutrements. He 


said he had an address to present and complied with my request, and 
presented it, signed 'The People.' Young Beale, at the moment I was 
contending with Wilson, cocked and presented his pistol at my breast, 
and insisted that Wilson and all of them should go, but on my offering 
to decide it by combat with him, he declined it, and by this means 
they went oii' swearing and said that they had been out-generaled. 

"The next day Colonel McFarland, with his regiment, came down 
and offered to defend the court, and addressed it; the court answered, 
and stated that there was no occasion, and thanked him. 

"Judge Bryson read a paper, stating the ill-treatment he had re- 
ceived, and mentioned that no fear of danger prevented him from 
taking and keeping his seat ; but that he understood that an engagement 
had been entered into by his friends that he should not. and on that 
account only he was prevented. The court adjourned until two o'clock 
that day, and were proceeding to open it with the sheriff, coroner and 
constable in front, when they observed that Judge Beale was at the 
house of one Con. They halted and requested the sherifT to wait on 
him and request him to walk with them. He returned and said the 
judge would not walk or sit with Bryson, and addressed Judge Bryson 
with warmth, who replied in a becoming manner. The sheriff struck 
at him and kicked also. Judge Armstrong seized the sheriff, and com- 
manded the peace and took the sheriff's rod from him; the coroner 
took his place, and the sheriff was brought up before the court. I 
moved that he might be committed to gaol; and his mittimus being 
written and signed, the court ordered the coroner and gaoler to take 
him, and he submitted. The court adjourned. After night the drum 
beat and Holt collected about seventy men, who repeatedly huzzaed, 
crying out 'Liberty or death!' and he off'ered to rescue the sheriff', but 
the sheriff' refused. At ten o'clock at night I was informed expresses 
were sent down the Narrows to collect men to rescue the sheriff, and 
Major Edmiston informed me he was sorry for his conduct and offered 
to beg the court's pardon and to enter into recognizance. I communi- 
cated this to the Judges Brown and Armstrong, and requested they 
would write to the gaoler to permit him to come down. They did, and 
the sheriff came with Major Edmiston, begged pardon of every mem- 
ber of the court but Judge Bryson. who was not present, and entered 
into recognizances to appear at the next sessions. 

"The next day near three hundred men were assembled below the 
Narrows, and I prevailed on some gentlemen to go down and disperse 
them; and upon being assured the sheriff" was out of gaol, they returned 
to their respective homes, and the court have finished all business. 
Nothing further requiring the attendance of the grand jury, the court 
■dismissed them and broke up. I must not omit to inform you that 


Judge Beale had declared, during the riot, in court, that he would not 
sit on the bench with Judge Bryson, and that both he and said Stewart 
appeared to countenance the rioters, and are deeply concerned. 

"I must now close the narrative with saying that, owing to the 
spirit and firmness of Judge Armstrong and the whole of the bar, I was 
enabled to avert the dreadful blow aimed at Judge Bryson, and to keep 
order and subordination in court; and unless the most vigorous meas- 
ures are exerted soon, it will be impossible ever to support the laws 
of the state in that county, or to punish those who dare transgress. The 
excise law is execrated by the banditti, and from every information I 
expect the collection of the revenue will be opposed. 

'T am happy to add, the dispute which originated by mistake between 
Huntingdon and IMifilin counties is happily closed in the most amicable 
manner, without any prosecution in ]\Iifflin. I am. Sir, your most 

"John Clark, Dy. St. Attorney." 

The reference in the last paragraph of ]\Ir. Clarke's report to a dis- 
pute between Huntingdon and ilitiflin counties relates to the ditTerence 
of opinion regarding the location of the boundary line between those 
two counties. An account of this dispute, the arrest of the sheriff of 
Huntingdon county, his release on a writ of habeas corpus and the 
final adjustment of the difficulty may be found in Chapter IV. 

Mifflin county was reduced in size by the formation of Center 
county on February 13, 1800. Some changes were made in the bound- 
aries in 1912, when the line between Huntingdon and ]\Iifflin counties 
was more clearly defined by an act of the legislature and a part of 
Beaver Dam township was annexed to Mifflin. The following year, 
upon the erection of Union county the Beaver Dam territory was an- 
nexed to the new county, but in 1819 it was restored to Mifflin and 
now forms a part of Decatur township. By the act of March 2, 183 1, 
all that portion of the county lying southwest of Shade mountain and 
the Blue ridge was cut off to form the county of Juniata, leaving: 
Mifflin with an area of about 370 square miles. Its greatest length 
is about thirty and its greatest width about fifteen miles. It is bounded 
on the northwest by Center county ; on the north and east by Union and 
Snyder; on the southeast by Juniata; and on the south and west by 

For many years the line between Huntingdon and Mifflin counties, 


from the Juniata river to the Center county line was in a state of uncer- 
tainty, both counties claiming certain tracts of territory along the 
boundary. The legislature of 1876 passed an act authorizing the run- 
ning and marking of the line. This act. for some reason, failed to 
accomplish the purposes for which it was intended, and in 1895 was 
passed a supplementary act, providing for the appointment of five com- 
missioners to run and mark the line. On June 24, 1895, William 
Huey, D. C. Peachey, Jacob K. Metz and others, citizens of Menno 
township, Mifilin county, presented to the court of quarter sessions of 
that county a petition in which it was set forth : "That the county 
line between Huntingdon and Mii^in counties is in dispute from the 
line of Centre county to the Juniata river; that it has never been run 
and marked as required by the acts of the assembly establishing said 
counties; that persons living in the disputed territory labor under great 
inconvenience as to their taxes, schools, liens, roads, etc., on account 
of the imcertaint)' of the county line location. They therefore pray 
the court to appoint a surveyor as required by the act of the assembly, 
approved the 22nd day of May, A. D. 1895, and to appoint a surveyor 
as provided for in said act, to the end that a commission may be formed 
in conjunction with similar appointments to be made by Huntingdon 
county, for the purpose of designating, surveying and marking the 
said division line between the said counties of Huntingdon and Mif- 
flin," etc. 

A commission was accordingly formed to run and mark the line. 
It consisted of J. Murray Africa, of Huntingdon county; John C. 
Swigart, of Mifflin; W. P. Mitchell, of Clinton; John Campbell, of 
Fayette: and M. E. Shaugnessy, of Union. On March 8, 1897, these 
commissioners made a report, favoring the claims of Huntingdon 
county. Mifflin county, through her attorneys, F. W. Culbertson and 
John A. McKee, filed a bill of thirteen exceptions, to wit: i. That 
the act under which the commission acted was unconstitutional. 2. 
That all the surveyors were not present at all times. 3. That the 
commissioners of Huntingdon county paid or promised to pay ten 
dollars a day to the surveyors, etc. 4. That the line was not run in 
accordance with the provisions of the acts erecting the counties of 
Huntingdon and Mifflin. 5. That the commissioners, in running the 
line, disregarded the evidence suljmitted. 6. That the line run by them 


was arbitrary and unwarranted by the testimony. 7. That the com- 
missioners, or a majority of them, prejudged the case and determined 
on the location of the line before testimony was heard. 8. That the 
commissioners of Huntingdon county paid money to members of the 
county line commission from time to time, contrary to their duty in 
the premises, and allowed them mileage. 9. That the county line com- 
missioners were paid money before the work was commenced. 10. That 
M. E. Shaugnessy declared he would favor Huntingdon county unless 
Mifflin county paid him a certain bill, and that he could get all the 
money he wanted from Huntingdon county. 11. That the line was 
on an entirely different location from any line or survey previously 
made and that there was no evidence to sustain it. 12. That the county 
line commission was not authorized to establish a new line, but to "desig- 
nate, survey and mark the line," on evidence, etc. 13. That said county 
line commissioners have embraced the village of Allensville in Hunting- 
don county, when said village and all lands up to the lived to line have 
been in Mifflin county for more than one hundred years and so recog- 
nized by both the counties of Huntingdon and Mifflin. 

Huntingdon county contended that the act of 1779, fixing the line 
between Bedford and Northumberland counties, which is, or should 
be, the line between Huntingdon and Mifflin counties, made the water- 
shed of Kishacoquillas valley the line, and that the commissioners had 
run the line in accordance therewith. 

John Stewart, of Chambersburg, was appointed a special judge 
to hear the arguments on the exceptions. The case was argued before 
him on April 5 and 6, 1897, and on Alay i8th he overruled the ex- 
ceptions and approved the report of the county line commission. On 
June 30, 1897, the report of the commission was presented to the 
court of quarter sessions of Mifflin county, which refused to approve 
it. The records were certified to the superior court on March 15, 
1898, and on November 17, 1898, that tribunal handed down a decree 
"That the assignment of error filed by Huntingdon county is overruled 
and the appeal from the order of June 30. 1897, is dismissed without 
prejudice, however, to the right of the commissioners of Huntingdon 
county to move the court of quarter sessions to Mifflin county to 
appoint a time for hearing their petition, at which the commissioners 
of Mifflin county may present their exceptions to the report of the 


county line commission and the evidence taken in support of and against 
the same may be submitted," etc. 

Huntingdon county then appealed to the supreme court for a change 
of venue from the Mifflin county court of quarter sessions. On Octo- 
ber 30, 1899, the supreme court granted an order restraining the 
Mifflin county court "from proceeding to hear the case until the rule 
pending in this court for a change of venue is disposed of." On Novem- 
ber 6, 1899, the supreme court dismissed the petition of Huntingdon 
county for a change of venue at the cost of the petitioners and that 
ended the case, the boundary line remaining as it has been generally 
recognized since the formation of Mifflin county in 1789. 

Following is a civil list of Mifflin county, as complete as could be 
obtained from the records : 

Sheriffs — George Wilson, 1789; William Wilson, 1792; Andrew 
Nelson, 1796; William Elliott, 1798; William Sterrett, 1800; Edward 
McCarty, 1803; William Scott, 1805: William Bell, 1806: John Mc- 
Dowell, 1809; Daniel Christy, 1812; Thomas Horrell, 1815"; Thomas 
Beale, 1818; John Beale, 1821; Samuel Edmiston, 1821; George Mc- 
Culloch, 1824; Foster Milliken, 1827; Samuel W. Stuart, 1830; James 
Gibboney, 1833; Robert Matthews, 1836; James Turner, 1839; John 
Stoneroad, 1842; Robert McManigal, 1845; Davis M. Contner, 1848; 
William Shimp, 185 1; Jacob Muthersbough, 1854; Thomas E. 
Williams, 1857; C. C. Stanbarger, i860; Davis M. Contner, 1863; 
William T. McEwen, 1866; William Willis (commissioned on Febru- 
ary 20, 1869, and succeeded by Mitchell Jones on November 13, 1869) ; 
David Muthersbough, 1872; Joseph W. Fleming, 1875 (first sheriff 
elected under the present constitution); George Buffington, 1878; John 
S. Garrett, 1881 ; C. Stewart Garrett, 1884: William Ryan, 1887; 
Henry G. Isenberg, 1890; William J. Blett, 1893; Joseph Collins, 1896; 
William P. Schell, 1899; Mitchell Bricker, 1902; A. C. Kemberling, 
1905; Samuel H. Boyer, 1908; Allen Fultz, 191 1 (Mr. Fultz died soon 
after entering upon his duties and M. M. Bricker was appointed to 
the vacancy). 

Prothonotarics — Samuel Edmiston, 1789; John Norris, 1800; 
William P. Maclay, 1S09; David Revnolds, 1816; Ephraim Banks, 
1818; Robert Craig', 182 1 ; William Mitchell, 1824; Abraham S. Wilson, 
1830; David R. Reynolds, 1832; William B. Johnston, 1836; William 
Brothers, 1837; James Gibboney, 1839; David R. Reynolds, 1841 ; John 
R. McDowell, 1841 (David R. Reynolds served from April to Novem- 
ber only); Zachariah Rittenhouse, 1847; Thomas F. McCoy, 1850; 
Henry J. Walters, 1856; Nathaniel C. Wilson, 1862; William H. 


Bratton, 1866: William S. Settle, 1S74; Lafayette Webb. 1883: Frank 
S. McCabe, 1898; Stewart M. Peters, 191 1. Lafayette Webb held the 
office for five terms and Frank S. McCabe for four, his last term 
being four years owing to the constitutional amendment fixing the 
term of all county officers at four years. 

Treasurers — Samuel Armstrong, 1790; Samuel Montgomery, 1793; 
James Alexander. 1794; John Norris, 1797; Andrew Keiser, 181 1; 
Joseph B. Ard, 1812; Robert Robison, 1815: William Brisbin. 1819; 
Joseph B. Ard, 1822; Henry Kulp, 1824: Joseph B. Ard, 1826: William 
Mitchell, 1830; James Dickson, 1832; Samuel Edmiston, 1834; James 
Burns, 1835; Charles Ritz, 1838; James Burns, 1841. L'p to this time 
the office of county treasurer had been filled by appointment. The office 
was then made elective, with terms of two years until the adoption of 
the constitution of 1874, which lengthened the term to three years. 
The treasurers elected are as follows: Lewis Hoover, 1841 ; James 
Cunningham, 1843: John C. Sigler.. 1845: Nathaniel Fear. 1847; Robert 
H. McClintic, 1849; E)aniel Ziegler, 1851; William Morrison, 1853; 
Henry Zerbe, 1855; John B. Selheimer, 1857; William C. Vines, 1859; 
Robert W. Patton. 1861 ; Amos Hoot, 1863; Charles Gibbs, 1865; 
Joseph McFadden, 1867; John Swan, 1869; John A. Shimp. 1871 ; 
Jesse Mendenhall. 1873: James ]\I. Nolte. 1875; Joseph A. Fichthorn, 
1878; James Firoved, 1881 ; Robert Myers. 1884; C. Stewart Garrett, 
1887; William Ryan, 1890; Lewis N. Slagle. 1893; George R. Mc- 
Clintic, 1896; W. F. Berlew, 1899; Allen A. Orr. 1902: C. A. Shunk- 
wiler, 1905: Oliver O. Marks, 1908: S. Will Shunckwiler, 191 1. 

County Commissioners — A full board of three commissioners was 
elected in 1789, soon after the organization of the county. From that 
time until 1808 the elections were somewhat irregular, as the following 
list will show. From 1808 to 1875, with few exceptions, one commis- 
sioner was elected annually. Since 1875 a full board of three members 
has been elected every three years. The list — 1789, James Lyon, Robert 
Little, Enoch Hastings; 1793, Thomas Anderson; 1794, John Wilson, 
Joseph Sharp; 1795, James Harris, George McClelland; 1796. Joseph 
Edmiston, John McConnal; 1797, William Bratton; 1799, William 
Lyon, Ezra Doty; 1800, Andrew Banks, John Piper; 1801, Nicholas 
Arnold; 1802, John Horrell; 1803, William Alexander; 1805, John 
Kelley; 1806, Jonathan Rothrock; 1808. William Arbuckle; 1809, Henry 
Steely; 1810, Joseph Sellers; 181 1, Francis Boggs; 1812, Samuel 
Myers; 1813, George Hanawalt ; 1814, Henry Burkholder; 1815, John 
Kinser; 1816, Samuel W' allick ; 1817, Christopher Horrell; 1818, Louis 
Evans; 1819, Henry Long; 1820, David Walker; 1821, William Ram- 
sey; 1822, William Wharton; 1823, Andrew Bratton; 1824, Benjamin 
Law; 1825, Stephen Hinds; 1826, William Sharoi:;.; i8-7, James Gib- 


boney: 1828, Thomas Kerr; 1829, Francis Boggs; 1830, John Knox; 
1831, Lukens Atkinson; 1832, Robert Alilbken; 1833, Francis McCoy; 
1834, John McClenahan; 1835, Samuel Alexander, Casper Dull; 1836, 
Thomas I. Postlethwaite ; 1837, Isaiah Coplin; 1838, Hugh Conly; 
1839, Robert McKee; 1840, Henry Leattor; 1841, James Brisbin; 1842, 
Samuel Barr; 1843, John Fleming; 1844, George Bell; 1845, Solomon 
Kinser; 1846, David Jenkins; 1847. Levi Glass; 1848, William Custer; 
1849, Gabriel Dunmire; 1850, Thomas Stroup; 1851, James Dorman; 
1852, Cyrus Stine; 1853, James Fleming; 1854, Jacob Hoover; 1855, 
Jacob Linthurst; 1856. William Wilson; 1857, William Creighton; 
1858, John Peachey; 1859. Richeson Bratton; i860, Samuel Brower; 
1861, John McDowell; 1862, Samuel Drake; 1863, Moses Miller, Oliver 
P. Smith; 1864, John Taylor; 1865, James C. Dysart; 1866, John W. 
Kearns; 1867, Charles Naginey; 1868, Thomas Roup; 1869, James 
Shehan; 1870, Henry S. Wilson; 1871, Henry Garver; 1872, Moses 
Miller; 1873, Henry L. Close, Jacob Stine; 1874. David Hiester; 1875, 
David Hiester, John Culbertson. William A. Orr; 1878, John Henry, 
Robert F. Cupples, Robert J. McNitt; 1881, John F. Stine, Francis A. 
Means, H. C. Van Zandt; 1884, J. T. Wilson, Samuel Neese, Jacob 
Miller; 1887, J. T. Wilson. B. C. Cubbison, William P. Witherow; 
1890, John C. Shahen, Willis F. Kearns, William H. Taylor; 1893, 
Thomas J. Novinger, William H. Taylor, John C. Shahen; 1896, Albert 
W. Nale, Thomas J. Novinger, J. R. Sterrett; 1899, Albert W. Nale, 
Horatio G. Bratton, J. R. Sterrett; 1902, Horatio G. Bratton, Samuel 
Dell, S. W. Fleming; 1905, James H. Close, Samuel Dell, George A. 
Butler; 1908, James H. Close, David S. Price, George A. Butler; 191 1, 
David S. Price, William M. Baker, Robert C. Houser. 

Registers and Recorders — Prior to 1809 the duties of this office 
were performed by the prothonotary. The list of registers and re- 
corders since 1809 is as follows: David Reynolds, 1809; David Milli- 
ken, 1816; Tobias Kreider, 1824; Joshua Beale, 1830; Daniel Eisen- 
beise, 1836; Enoch Beale. 1839; Jesse R. Crawford, 1842; James L. 
Mcllvaine, 1848; James McDowell, 1851 ; Joseph S. Waream, 1857; 
Samuel Barr, i860; Samuel W. Barr, 1862; Michael Hiney, 1865; John 
Baum, 1868; Willis V. B. Coplin, 1874; McClellan P. Wakefield, 1880 
(reelected in 1883) ; William H. Mendenhall, 1886; Samuel D. Coldren, 
1889 (four terms); Harvey C. Burkett, 1901 (three terms); William 
B. Rodgers, 1911. 

Surz'eyors — This office was filed by appointment from the time it 
was established in 1812 until 1839. Michael M. Monahan, 1812; Robert 
Robison, 1829; David Hough. 1832; William Shaw. 1836; John Shaw, 
1839; David Hough, 1842; John R. Weeks, 1850; John Swartzell. 1853; 
George H. Swigart. 1859; Thomas F. Niece. 1862; John Swartzell, 


1868; William J. Swigart, 1874: David A. McXabb. 1877; David 
Hough, 1880; \V. Worrall Marks, elected in 1880. David Hough serving 
from January of that year until the election: Grantham G. Waters, 
1883; John C. Swigart, 1886 (five terms); Samuel T. Moore, 1901 
(reelected in 1904) ; John C. Swigart, 1907 (reelected in 191 1). 

Coroners — Like the surveyor's office, the coroner's office was made 
elective in 1839. Previous to that time the coroner was appointed. 
James Ta3dor, 1789; William Armstrong, 1791 ; John Culbertson, 1792; 
Robert Steel, 1795; James C. Ramsey, 1798; Edward Williams, 1799; 
John Steel, 1802; James Walker, 1805; James Glasgow, 1809; William 
McCrum, 181 1; John Stewart, 1826; Thomas J. Postlethwait, 1829; 
James McDowell, 1830; John McKee, 1836; Christian Hoover, 1839; 
Frederick Swartz, 1845: George Davis, 1848; George Wiley, 1851; 
James McCord, 1854; John McKee, 1857; John Musser, 1858; George 
Miller, 1859; John Davis, 1872; Samuel Bedford. 1875: George Miller, 
1876; William ^^^ Trout, 1877; William N. Hoffman, 18S0: Grantham 
T. Waters. 1883; Samuel A. Walters, 1886 (failed to qualify and M. 
M. Bricker appointed) ; Samuel A. Marks, 1S90; \\'illiam Printz, 1893; 
Henry M. Owens, 1896; J. A. Davidsizer, 1902; Emerson Potter, 1905 
(reelected in 1908 and again in 191 1"). 

Directors of flic Poor — On March 31, 1845, an act was passed by 
the legislature authorizing the people of Granville and Derry townships 
and the borough of Lewistown to vote upon the cjuestion as to whether 
a poor-farm should be purchased, and if a majority voted for the 
purchase, the townships and borough were each to contribute S2.500 
for that purpose. The two townships and the borough purchased a 
poor-farm in accordance with the provisions of the act. On April 22, 
1850. another act of the legislature provided that if that poor-farm 
should be sold a loan might be made and a county poor-house erected. 
The new law was carried out by the appointment of Samuel W. Taylor, 
Isaiah Coplin, Samuel Barr, David Jenkins and James Criswell as 
commissioners to purchase a suitable tract of land by August i, 1850. 
Thev purchased a tract of James Burns containing 202 acres, located 
on the Kishacoquillas creek a short distance east of Lewistown, for 
$1,600 and the buildings upon it were converted into a home for the 
poor. Three directors of the poor were elected in that year and one 
annually thereafter, except that from 1858 to 1870 the county com- 
missioners were also made directors of the poor in accordance with 
an act of the legislature. The list of poor directors is as follows : 
1850, James M. Brown, August Wakefield. Robert ]\Iathews; 185 1, 
William M. Fleming; 1852, Joshua ]\Iorrison: 1853, Adam Crisman; 
1854, Henry Book; 1855, John Atkinson; 1856, John Peachey; 1857, 
John Cubbison; 1870, Alexander ]\Iorrison, Christian Hoover. James 


Kyle; 1871, Joseph H. Morrison; 1872, Charles Bratton, Jr.; 1873, 
Andrew Spanogle; 1874, Joseph M. Fleming; 1875, William Greer; 
1876, William Wilson; 1877, Samuel B. Wills: 1878, Samuel 
Mitchell; 1879, ^lichael C. Bratton; 1880, Robert M Taylor; 1881, 

E. C. Kearns; 1882, David Norton; 1883, Jacob Bollenger; 1884, Rob- 
ert Taylor; 1885, Joseph Winter; 1886, John R. Garver; 1887, A. Stein- 
berger; 1888, John I. Smith; 1889, John R. Garver; 1890, Joseph 
McKinstry; 1891, David S. Price; 1892, Clarence G. Milliken; 1893, 
Alexander Cummins; 1894, David S. Price: 1895, loseph M. Fleming; 
1896, Alexander Cummins; 1897, W. F. Riden; 1898, William B. Kyle; 
1899, S. C. Myers; 1900, George Moyer; 1901, Thomas H. Bailey; 1902, 
S. C. Myers; 1903, George Moyer: 1904, Thomas H. Bailey; 1905, 
David Rhodes; 1906, Sylvester Brought; 1907, James B. Smith; 
1908, Charles G. Kauffman; 1909, George S. Kemberly. Owing to a 
change in the law no poor director was elected in 1910. Thomas J. 
Hazlett and G. ^^^ Carson were elected in 191 1. 

. State Senators — Ezra Doty, 1808: William Beale, 1812; Alexander 
Dysart, 1816; George McCulloch, 1832: Robert P. Maclay, 1838; 
J. J. Cunningham, 1850: Joseph S. \\'aream, 1874: John B. Selheimer, 
1884; Joseph M. \^'oods, 1888: ^^'alter H. Parcels, 1896; James W. 
McKee, 1900; William Manbeck, 1904: Franklin Martin, 1912. 

Representatives — John Oliver. 1790: James Banks, 1790; Ezra 
Doty, 1790; Jonathan Rothrock, 1790: Daniel Christy, 1820: Robert 
Alexander, 1823; John Patterson, 1828: Joseph Kyle, 1828; John Cum- 
mings, 1830: Abraham S. Wilson, 1837 and 1840; James Burns, 1844; 
\\'illiam Wilson, 1845; William Reed, 1846; Hugh McKee, 1847; Alex- 
ander Gibboney, 1849; John Ross, 1850; Henry P. Taylor, 1852; 
Alexander Gibboney, 1853: Elijah Morrison. 1854; John Purcell, 1855; 
Charles Bower, 1857: David Withrow, 1858: George Bates, 1859 ;'A. 

F. Gibboney, i860; James H. Ross, 1861 ; Holmes Maclay, 1862; C. 
C. Stanbarger, 1863; James M. Brown, 1865; John S. Miller, 1867; 
Henry S. Wharton, 1867; Samuel T. Brown and Amos H. Martin, 
1868; Henry J. McAteer and Abraham Rohrer, 1869; George V. 
Mitchell, 1871; George Bates, 1872; Jerome Hetrick, 1873; Joseph W. 
Parker, 1874; E. H. H. Stackpole, 1876; Joseph H. Maclay, 1878: W. 
H. Parcels, 1882; George S. Hoffman, 1884: William P. Stevenson, 
1886: Joseph H. McClintic, 1890: Walter H. Parcels, 1894; Gruber 
H. Bell. 1896; Samuel H. Rothrock, 1898: T. A. W. Webb, 1902; 
James M. Yeager, 1906; Joseph Kelley, 1908; J. H. Peachey, 1912. 



The Ten Townships — Armagh — Bratton — Brown — Decatur — Derry — Granville — Menno 
^Oliver — Union — Wayne — Early Indian Raids — Pioneers in Each Township — 
Schools — Drake's Ferry^Boroughs and Villages — Lewistown — Its Early History — 
Incorporation — Stump Pulling — Market Houses — Fire Department — Police Force — 
Water-works — Street Railway — Gas and Electric Light — McVeytown — Newton 
Hamilton — Allensville — Belleville — Burnham — Granville — Maitland — JNIilroy — 
Reedsville — Wagner — Yeagertown — Postoffices — Rural Free Delivery Routes. 

MIFFLIN county is divided into ten townships, viz. : Armagh, 
Bratton, Brown, Decatur. Derry, Granville, Menno, Oliver, 
Union and Wayne. Three of these townships — Derry, Ar- 
magh, and Wayne — were erected in the order named before the forma- 
tion of the county as a separate and independent political division of the 

Armagh township was created and organized by the authorities of 
Cumberland county in January, 1770, nearly twenty years before the 
erection of Mifflin countv- About the close of the French and Indian 
war a number of settlers came into Derry township, Cumberland 
county, which township then included all of the present county of Mif- 
flin, and located in the valley north of Jack's mountain. The elec- 
tions were held, and in fact all the township business was transacted 
south of the mountain, and as there were no roads yet opened the peo- 
ple on the north side of the mountain were placed at a disadvantage. 
By the latter part of 1769 the population of the valley had increased 
until the settlers felt justified in asking for the formation of a new town- 
ship. A petition was accordingly presented to the Cumberland county 
court, which in January, 1770, took action upon the question as follows: 

"Upon reading the petition of several of the inhabitants of Kishacho- 
quillas Great Valley, setting forth that they labour under the Burthen 
of being in one township with Derry, and as Jack's Mountain lies be- 



tween the Great Valley and the rest of the township, which cuts away 
all communication only at the Narrows. The Petitioners therefore 
humbly prayed that the Court would take them under due consideration 
and strike the Great Valley of¥ into a township by itself, leaving Jack's 
Mountain to be the division line. The Court do thereupon consider and 
order that Jack's Mountain aforesaid be the Division line between the 
township of Derry and the part struck off from said township, which 
is called by the name of Armagh township, allowing the township of 
Armagh to include Kishachoc|uillas Narrows to where the road now 
crosses Kishachoquillas Creek." 

When Brown and Menno townships were erected in 1836 Armagh 
township was reduced in size. It is bounded on the northwest by Cen- 
ter county; on the northeast by Union and Snyder counties; on the 
southeast by the townships of Decatur and Derry along the summit of 
Jack's mountain ; and on the southwest by Brown township. Hunting- 
don county forms a small portion of the boundary at the northwest 
corner. After the formation of Brown township Armagh was described 
as being "six and a half miles in length and six miles in width, and 
from the Knobs eastward to the Union county line it is uninhabited, 
being a continuous range of mountains." 

Among the early settlers in what is now Armagh township were the 
five McNitts — -Alexander, John, James. Robert and William — who 
located near the foot of the Seven mountains in 1766. Other early 
settlers were George Sigler, James Alexander, Mathias Ruble, John and 
Edward Bates and George Bell. Indian depredations were of frequent 
occurrence in that day and the settlers united in building a fort of the 
stockade type near a spring, on the land taken up by Robert McNitt. 
The Indians continued their raids for more than ten years after the 
coming of the McNitts, when the white men in the valley had become 
so numerous that the savages apparently concluded that "discretion is 
the better part of valor" and ceased their forays. In July, 1775, a party 
of Indians captured George Sigler, Jr., a boy thirteen years of age, 
and carried him to Canada, where he was kept a prisoner until after 
the treaty of peace, when he was released and returned to his home. 
About the same time another party attacked Mathias Ruble's house in 
the east end of the Kishacoquillas \'alley, but several cross dogs owned 
by Ruble gave the alarm, which enabled the family to defend the house 
until one of the boys slipped out of the window unobserved and ran to 


the nearest neighbors, who organized a rescuing party. The Indians 
had left, however, before the assistance arrived. In 1777, in one of the 
latest raids made by the Indians in this section, Robert McNitt, the 
eight-year-old son of Alexander McNitt, was captured and taken to 
Canada, where he was kept for four years. He was then rescued by a 
man named Lee, who had gone there after his daughter, also a captive 
among the Indians. 

Among the pioneers on the Kishacoquillas the mill and the still- 
house were the principal manufacturing enterprises. As early as 1781 
there were six mills, seven still-houses and two tan-yards in operation 
in Armagh township. William Brown, who operated two of the mills 
and two stills, was the owner of two negro slaves, and Matthew Taylor, 
who also operated two stills, was the owner of one negro. The first 
assessment roll after Mifflin county was erected in 1789 showed 159 tax- 
payers, of whom 126 were land owners. 

Probably the first school house in the township was on the old road 
leading to Penn's valley. It was of round logs, with a clapboard roof, 
but the date when it was built is uncertain. The second school house 
was on Cameron hill, and another early school house was on James 
Armstrong's farm on the south side of Honey creek. In 1912 there 
were sixteen teachers employed in the several schools of the township, 
and seven were graduated in the township high school at Milroy. 

The first postoffice in the township was established in 182S under 
the name of Valley. William Thompson, the first postmaster, kept the 
office at his residence a short distance northwest of Milroy. In 1850 
the name was changed to Milroy. 

Bratton township was erected in 1850. The territory comprising 
it was taken from Oliver township, which was originally a part of 
Wayne. It is bounded on the north by the Juniata river, which sepa- 
rates it from Oliver township; on the east by the township of Granville; 
on the south by the Blue ridge, which separates it from Juniata county ; 
and on the west by Wayne township. It was named for Captain Will- 
iam Bratton, who lived in that part of Cumberland county which is now 
Mifflin at the time of the Revolutionary war, and who commanded a 
company in the Seventh Pennsylvania regiment in the Continental army. 

Early in 1755 Andrew Bratton and his brother-in-law, Samuel Hol- 
liday, came over the mountains for the purpose of founding homes in 


the Juniata Valley. Bratton selected a tract of land on the south side 
of the Juniata, and was the first actual settler in what is now Bratton 
township. The first warrant for land located in the township was issued 
to Alexander Hamilton on February 10, 1755, for 280 acres on the 
Juniata, but he did not become an actual resident until several months 
later. Andrew Bratton's land warrant was dated September 8, 1755. 
Before that time and the close of the century John, William, George, 
Jacob, Edward, James and John Bratton, Jr., had all entered lands in 
what is now Bratton township, and during the next fifteen years mem- 
bers of the family took up over 1,000 acres of land. Other early set- 
tlers were George Mitchell, Nathaniel Stanley, John Beatty, who was a 
native of Ireland, Elijah and Benjamin Criswell, John Beard and John 

Andrew Bratton, the original pioneer, built a log meeting-house 
near his dwelling for the use of the Presbyterians in the vicinity, and 
Rev. Charles Beatty, the missionary, held services in this house in 1766. 
This is believed to have been the first regular religious service held in 
the township. The earliest school house of which there is any record 
was a small log building on the Bratton farm. It was erected about 
1780, and James Jacobs was one of the early teachers. Some time prior 
to 1800 a log school house was built on John Beard's farm on Shank's 
run. Glass was a luxury in those days, and this school house had 
oiled paper for windows. In 1S34 a brick school house was built by 
Andrew Bratton on his farm, and private or "pay" schools were taught 
in this house until it was purchased by the township authorities in 1851. 
In that year the township was divided into three — the Bratton, Y'oder 
and Humphrey — school districts. Subsequently three new districts 
were added, and in 1912 there were six teachers employed in the public 

The Pennsylvania railroad runs along the northern border, follow- 
ing the course of the Juniata river, and there are three stations in the 
township — Longfellow, Horningford and Mattawana — the last named 
being the station for McVeytown, on the opposite side of the river, and 
is now generally called by that name. 

Brown township, one of the northwestern tier, was established in 
January, 1837, and was named for Judge William Brown, who was the 
first settler in the Kishacoquillas valley. At the April term of court 


in 1836 a petition was presented asking for a division of Armagh and 
Union townships and the formation of two new ones in that part of 
the county. The court appointed Robert Allies, D. R. Reynolds and 
Thomas I. Postlethwait to view the townships and make a report as to the 
merits of the petition. On July 30, 1836, they reported that they had 
performed the duty for which they were appointed, and recommended 
the division of the township as asked for by the petitioners. They pre- 
sented a plot or map of the territory, showing the four townships as 
they would appear after the division. Brown being described as five 
and a half miles in length and having an average width of four and a 
half miles. The report of the viewers was accepted, and at the January 
term following the order was made by the court for the erection of 
Brown township. At that time there Avere within the limits of the new 
township 211 taxpayers, with property valued at nearly half a million 

About 1752 William Brown and James Reed visited the Kishaco- 
quillas valley in search of suitable lands for farming purposes. These 
two men and Robert Taylor settled in the valley on land warrants taken 
out in 1755. Brown settled where the town of Reedsville now stands, 
and lived there for the remainder of his life. He erected a grist-mill and 
saw -mill there in 1781, and the place was known as Brown's Mills until 
Reedsville was laid out in 1838. Upon the erection of Mifflin county 
in 1789, Mr. Brown was made the presiding justice of the courts and 
two years later became an associate justice. Samuel ]\Iilliken settled in 
the township in 1772. He was a son of James Milliken, who came from 
Ireland in that year and settled in Dauphin county, where he died about 
a month after his arrival. Samuel came to the Kishacoquillas valley 
soon after his father's death, and at the time of his death in 1804 was 
the owner of over 1,000 acres of land in what is now Brown township. 
Another pioneer was Abraham Sanford, who owned a tract of land along 
the Kishacoquillas creek near the line of Derry and Brown townships 
and was running a grist-mill on the farm as early as 1772. Still-houses 
were built in the township by William Brown before 1790; William 
Henry in 1791 ; John Fleming about 1795; and Samuel Milliken about 
1800. Matthew Taylor, John Cooper and Kyle & ]\Iilliken also operated 
stills in the township at an early date. In 18 12 James, Jonas and 
George Spangler built a small stone shop in the Narrows and began the 


manufacture of gun barrels. It was in this building that William Mann 
first began to make axes some years later. John Fleming, one of the 
early distillers, also had a grist-mill and a woolen mill, and John Taylor 
started a tan-yard on his farm about 1813. 

Just where and when the first school was taught in the township is a 
matter of uncertainty. The Kishacoquillas Seminary had its beginning 
in the fall of 1847, when Rev. J. W. Elliott opened a select school in 
the Centre church, near the line between Union and Brown townships. 
It received a charter in 1854, and continued as a private school in a 
building erected by Mrs. Elizabeth Alexander on the road between 
Reedsville and Belleville for a number of years. The building was then 
sold to a man named Garver, who occupied it as a dwelling and store. 
In 1912 there were fourteen teachers employed in the public schools. 

Decatur township, \y'mg in the southeastern corner of the county, 
was a part of Derry township for forty-five years after the latter was 
organized by the Cumberland county court in 1767. In August, 1812, 
the people living in the eastern part of Derry township presented a peti- 
tion to the court of quarter sessions asking for the erection of a new 
township. In response to this petition the court appointed commissioners 
to investigate the matter and make a report. In their report, which was 
presented to the court at the January term in 1813, the viewers recom- 
mended the erection of a new township and closed the report by saying: 

"They therefore submit to the Honoralile Court the within plot or 
draft of Derry and the part of Beaver Dam lately annexed to it, and 
the division line which they have made and caused to be marked on the 
ground ; the said line beginning at the North Boundary of Derry town- 
ship, in Jack's Mountain, and running south 25° east five and a half 
miles to the South Boundary of the said township in the Shade Moun- 
tain, and they further beg leave to represent that by the said line the 
said township is equally divided, and due consideration has been paid 
to the local interest of said township in said division." 

The court confirmed the report, approved the recommendations of 
the commissioners, and ordered that the new township be called Decatur. 
The 3'ear following the erection of the township the assessment rolls 
showed 149 landowners in the township, eight saw-mills, two grist- 
mills, a fulling-mill and carding machine. 

On January 26, 1763, an order of survey gave John Gilchrist the 


right to take up 300 acres of land in the Jack's creek valley, and he was 
jDrobably the pioneer settler in Decatur township. The first land warrant 
bears date of August i, 1766, and was issued to Jacob Bach for 250 
acres. George Frey located 300 acres on February 12, 1767, and 
Philip and William Stroup were early settlers. George Sigler, who 
had been captured by the Indians in 1775, took out a warrant in 1784 
for a tract of land at the head of Long Meadow run. In 1793 he was 
the owner of 400 acres. After the Revolution the settlement was more 
rapid, and before the close of the century the Bells, Hoffmans, Ever- 
harts, Wagners, Klines, Shillings, Yeaters, Tresters, Caleb Parshall and 
several other families had located in the Jack's creek valley, most of 
them near the old Indian path that ran from the Juniata to the Susque- 
hanna river. Some years later this path became a public highway, over 
which a stage line was operated, and the route is now closely followed 
by the line of the Sunbury division of the Pennsylvania railroad. 

That part of Beaver Dam township mentioned in the report of the 
viewers was made a part of L'nion county soon after Decatur township 
was organized, but on ilarch 16, 1819, by act of the legislature, the 
territory was again annexed to Mifflin county and became a part of 
Decatur township, where it still remains. With the lines thus estab- 
lished, Decatur is bounded on the northeast by the county of Snyder; 
on the southeast by Juniata county ; on the southwest by Derry town- 
ship, and on the northwest by the township of Armagh. 

It is doubtful whether a regular school house was built in the town- 
ship prior to the adoption of the public school system in 1834. Before 
that time the schools were maintained by private subscriptions and were 
usually taught in a room of some residence or in some abandoned struc- 
ture fitted up for the purpose. John H. Bell and Samuel Bair were 
appointed directors after the passage of the act of April i, 1834, au- 
thorizing the establishment of public schools, and these directors divided 
the township into the first school districts, four in number. In 1912 
there were eight teachers employed in the public schools. 

A postoffice — the first in the township — was established at the tavern 
of Stephen Hinds early in the nineteenth century, but after several 
years it was abandoned. In 1853 another postoffice was established 
about a mile west of where the first w-as located, with George Sigler as 
postmaster. Upon the opening of the railroad, offices were estab- 


lished at Paintersville, Soradoville and Wagner. Some of these have 
been discontinued on account of the introduction of the free rural de- 
livery system. 

Derry township, the oldest in the county and at one time including 
the entire county, was erected by the court of Cumberland county more 
than twenty years before Mifflin county was organized. In August 1754, 
about a month after the purchase of the lands in the Juniata Valley 
from the Indians, Cumberland county organized four townships "tother 
side of the North mountain." These townships were Tyrone, Lack, 
Fannet and Aire (or Ayr). Early in the year 1767 a petition was pre- 
sented to the court by the settlers living north of the Juniata, asking 
for the erection of a new township in that region, and at the July term 
the court defined the boundaries of Derry township as follows : "Be- 
ginning at the middle of the Long Narrows ; thence up the north side 
of the Juniata as far as Jack's Narrows; thence to include the valleys 
of the Kishacokulus and Jack's creek." 

The boundaries as thus established embraced all that portion of the 
present county of Mifflin lying north of the Juniata river and part of 
what is now Brady township in Huntingdon county. Just when that 
portion of Mifflin county south of the Juniata was taken into the town- 
ship is not shown by the records, but when the assessment of 1768 was 
made the names of the settlers living in that territory were included, so 
it is probable the annexation was made soon after the township was 
organized. The assessment rolls for that year included the names of 
seventy landowners and over 25,000 acres taken up on land warrants. 

One of the earliest settlers on the Kishacoquillas creek, on the south 
side of Jack's mountain, was Everhart Martin, whose first land warrant 
was dated April 2, 1755. Later he entered several other tracts, a large 
part of which became the property of the Freedom Iron Company and 
later of the Logan Iron and Steel Company. It is not certain, however, 
that he ever lived upon the lands thus entered in his name. His son 
Christopher built a saw-mill on the creek opposite Yeagertown at an 
early date. Mention has been made of Samuel Holliday, who came to 
what is now Bratton township in 1755. He located on the Juniata, 
near the present borough of McVeytown, where he built a grist-mill, 
which was probably the first one in Derry township. It was built about 
the time the township was organized. The site of this mill was after- 


ward occupied by the Troxwell tannery. Robert Buchanan located a 
trading post at the mouth of the Kishacoquillas creek, where the borough 
of Lewistown now stands, before the purchase of the lands from the 
Indians in 1754. When the French and Indian war began he went back 
to Carlisle and did not return to his trading post until about 1762. On 
July 2, 1762, he took out a warrant for 201 acres of land "lying on the 
northwest side of the river and extending above the mouth of the 
Kishacoquillas creek." His son Arthur and his daughter, at the same 
time, took out warrants for land in the vicinity, the former for ninety- 
six and the latter for 218 acres. John Early, on August 2, 1766, took 
up part of the land where the village of Kellyville was afterward built. 
John Rothrock came from Xorthampton county before the Revolution 
and settled four miles northeast of Lewistown, where his son Joseph 
continued to reside until his death. George Rothrock settled in Fergu- 
son's valley in 1773. About the same time Matthew and George Kelly 
settled in the south end of the Dry valley and received warrants for 
their lands on October i, 1776. During the closing years of the Revo- 
lution and in the decade following a number of settlers came into Derry 
township. In 17S4 Robert Forsythe came and afterward became one 
of the pioneer merchants of Lewistown. Andrew Gregg took up a tract 
below that of Jane Buchanan in 1787. built a cabin and put in a stock 
of goods. Two years later he was appointed one of the trustees to 
organize Mifflin county. John Alexander also came in 1787 and pur- 
chased a large tract of land of Christopher ]\Iartin in Little valley. The 
following year Ulrich Steely entered 100 acres on the south side of 
Jack's mountain. James Mayes took out a warrant on March 9, 1790, 
for 250 acres near the present village of Yeagertown, and his brother 
Andrew settled in the same neighborhood, where, in 1792, he took up 
a large tract of land. In 1793 Philip Minehart was running a saw-mill 
in that part of Derry afterward cut off to form Granville township, and 
the next year Joseph Strode built a grist and saw-mill on Brightfield's 
run. Other settlers came in before the close of the century, and in 1800 
the population of the township was 1,135. 

A school house was built at an early date on the farm of George 
Rothrock, in the Ferguson valley, and early in the nineteenth century 
one was erected near the present village of \'ira. It was a log struc- 
ture and was used as a church and school house until 1843, '\vhen it 


was sold to the Freedom Iron Company, who removed it to Freedom and 
converted it into a dwelHng. Upon the adoption of the pubHc school 
system in 1834 Joseph Matthews and David Hough were appointed 
school directors, and they divided the township into five districts. In 
1912 there were twenty-six teachers employed in the several schools of 
the township, exclusive of the borough of Lewistown, which is located 
in Derry township. 

By the formation of new townships from time to time Derry has 
been reduced in size until it is only about six miles square. On the north 
it is bounded by Armagh and Brown townships, the line being the sum- 
mit of Jack's mountain: on the east by Decatur township: on the south 
by Juniata county and the Juniata river, which separates it from Gran- 
ville township : and on the west by Granville. 

Granville township is first mentioned in the public records at the 
April sessions of the court in 1S38, when it was erected from the western 
part of Derry. At that time there were 203 taxpayers living within its 
limits. The principal manufacturing concerns were a tan-yard, an iron 
furnace, four saw-mills, two grist-mills, a carding machine and a still- 
house. The first settlers in the township were William and James Arm- 
strong. A land warrant was issued to William Armstrong on February 
3, 1755, the day the land office opened for business, and James Arm- 
strong received a warrant dated April 10, T755, for 282 acres. Settle- 
ment was retarded by the French and Indian war for several years, but 
in 1762 Thomas Holt took out a warrant for 400 acres of land near the 
junction of Brightfield's run and the Juniata river. Four years later he 
purchased other lands. Rev. Charles Beatty stopped at Mr. Holt's house 
in August, 1766, while on his missionary tour through the Juniata val- 
ley. In 1798 Holt's heirs sold the greater part of the estate to William 
Lewis, who erected the old Hope furnace soon after becoming the owner 
of the land. James Brown also received a warrant in 1762 for 136 
acres. On October 30, 1765, Joseph Swift took up 400 acres: on April 
9, 1766, 300 acres, and on x\ugust 4, 1766, 300 acres, making 1,000 
acres in all, l:)ut he never became a resident of the township, his lands 
being purchased for speculative purposes only. In 1766 Ephraim 
Blaine, of Carlisle, received a warrant for 250 acres, and in August of 
that year Isaac Strode located on 300 acres on Brightfield's (now 
Strode's run). Thomas Evans took up 248 acres in August, 1767. and 


the same year James Gemmel received a warrant for 300 acres. James 
Lyon, who came from Ireland in 1763, located near the present railroad 
station of Anderson in 1768, where he entered 200 acres of land. 

Other pioneers were George Bratton. John Cever, Charles Magill, 
Abraham Miller, Thomas Martin, James Edwards and the Baums. Most 
of the early settlers located along the foot of the mountain or near the 
Juniata river. In October, 1777, James Armstrong sold a tract of land, 
who purchased other land adjoining and established a tavern which w'as 
widely known as the "Rob Roy." It was afterward kept for some time 
by Abraham Hufferd, who purchased it after Steel's death in 1821. 

The first school house of which any authentic information can be 
gained w'as about where the village of Granville now stands. It was 
a log house, built at an early date on the farm later owned by F. A. 
McCoy, and was used as a school house until about 1840, wdien it 
was torn down and a better one erected near the site. Most of the early 
school houses were built by the cooperation of the citizens and no record 
of their location has been preserved. In 19 12 Granville had a township 
high school and fourteen teachers were employed in the several dis- 

Granville township is bounded on the northeast by Derry; on the 
southeast by Juniata county, from which it is separated by the Blue 
Ridge; on the southwest by Bratton and Oliver townships, and on the 
northwest by Brown and Union. The Juniata river runs through it, and 
following the course of the river is the main line of the Pennsylvania 
railroad, Granville and Anderson being the two railway stations in the 

Menno township was erected at the same time as Brown and in re- 
sponse to the same petition, the order of the court being issued at the 
January term in 1837. The viewers appointed at the April term in 
1836 made a report the following July, with which report they submitted 
a map or plat, describing ]\Ienno township as "six and a half miles in 
length and the average width from the summit of each mountain four 
miles." It was named after Simon Menno, the founder of the Menno- 
nite society. Originally it was a part of Derry, but was cut off with 
Armagh in 1770 and remained as part of that township until the for- 
mation of Union in 1790, when it became the western part of that town- 
ship. It lies north of Jack's mountain and is bounded on the northeast 


by Union township; on the southeast by OHver, and on the west and 
northwest by Huntingdon county. Kishacoquillas creek rises in this 

As early as 1754 Alexander Torrentine and Robert Brotherton vis- 
ited the upper Kishacoquillas valley in search of land, and as soon as 
the land office was opened the following year they took out warrants 
and settled in what is now Menno township. The first religious services 
at which a regular preacher officiated were held at the house of Robert 
Brotherton some years later. Other pioneers were IMatthew Kenney, 
Hugh McClellan, Samuel Gilmore, John AIcDowell. John Wilson, the 
Allisons — Joseph, James and Robert — Joseph Kyle and Henry McCon- 
key. For services rendered at the grand council with the Indians, held 
at Easton in October, 1758, several tracts of land were granted to An- 
drew Montour, one of which, called "Sharron." was where the village 
of Allenville is now located. It contained over 1,700 acres, and was 
surveyed in May, 1767. more than a year before it was granted to Mon- 
tour. Subsequently it became the property of Rev. Richard Peters, 
whose executors sold it to Benjamin Chew, who obtained a patent for 
it dated September 3, 1796. 

Nothing can be learned of the early schools. In 1834, when the 
present public school system was inaugurated, there were four school 
houses in the township, to wit: one at Yoder's, near the county line; 
one at King's, east of Allenville; one at Wilson's, and one near the 
"Brick Church." In 1912 Menno had a township high school, and in 
the several districts there were employed seven teachers. 

Oliver township, situated in the western part of the county, was 
erected in 1835. A petition asking for a division of Wayne township 
was presented to the court at the October term in 1834, when David 
Hough, William P. Elliott and Thomas McClure were appointed viewers, 
with instructions to report as to the advisability of granting the peti- 
tion. On January 8, 1835. they recommended the division of the town- 
ship on the following line ; "Beginning at the Strode mountain ; thence 
north 36° west, crossing the Juniata river to the mouth of Shank's 
run; thence through Joseph Langton's lane to Jack's Mountain." They 
also stated, "Our opinions are that said division is the best that can be 
made satisfactor}- to a large majority of the inhabitants of said town- 


At the April session of the court the report and recommendations of 
the viewers were approved and confirmed and an order issued for the 
erection of a new township to be called Oliver, in honor of John Oliver, 
long a judge of the court. The assessment rolls for 1836, the year fol- 
lowing the erection of the township, showed 183 taxpayers and about 
25,000 acres of land under ownership. At that time there were within 
the limits of the township one iron furnace, one distillery, one carding 
and fulling machine, two taverns, two cabinet-makers, two wagon- 
makers, three tan-yards, three coopers, three grist-mills, three shoe- 
makers, four weavers, six tailors, eight blacksmiths, seven stores and 
ten saw-mills,. 

One of the early settlers was Robert Samuels, who on June 2, 1762, 
took out a warrant for 200 acres of land. William Samuels received 
a warrant for fifty acres in the same locality in 1768. In that year 
Alexander and James Stewart located in the township, the former taking 
up 100 acres and the latter 400, and ]\Iatthew Wakefield entered 100 
acres. Robert Forgy, a weaver by trade, came to America about 1772 
and soon after came to the house of John Beatty, in what is now Brat- 
ton township. He married Elizabeth Beatty and settled in Oliver town- 
ship shortly after their marriage. \\'illiam Aloore located in what is 
now Oliver township some time prior to the year 1770. L'pon the break- 
ing out of the Revolutionary war he enlisted in the Continental army 
and died in the service. His widow, Isabella, continued to live upon the 
old homestead of 100 acres until her death in 1822. Some of their 
descendants still live in IMifHin county. About the close of the Revolu- 
tion, or between that time and the year 1800, a number of settlers came 
into the township. Among them were Robert Elliott, William Robison, 
John Allen. Richard Coulter, James Stackpole, Benjamin Walters. John 
Rankin, John Ctilbertson, Thomas Collins, Hector Galbraith, James Hus- 
ton, Henry Hanawalt and John Swigart. 

John Oliver, for whom the township was named, was a native of 
Ireland, where he was born in 1752-. He came to this country when 
a young man. and in 1780 was engaged in teaching school in Wayne 
(now Oliver) township. In 1782 he married ^largaret Lyon, daughter 
of James Lyon, and from 1794 to 1837 was an associate justice of the 
Mifflin county courts. He died on February 9, 1841. 

The first school house of which any definite knowledge can be ob- 


tainecl was near Strode' s Mills, but the date when it was built or when 
the first school was taught there cannot be ascertained. Another early 
school house was on the farm of John Culbertson, about a mile west 
of the present borough of McVeytown. Soon after the township was 
formed in 1835 John Haman and Richard Miles were appointed directors 
for the five school districts taken from Wayne. Nine teachers were 
employed in the schools in the year k; 12-13. 

Oliver township was reduced in size by the formation of Bratton 
in 1850, when that portion south of the Juniata was taken for the new 
township. At present it is bounded on the northwest by Union and 
Menno townships; on the northeast by Granville; on the southeast by 
the Juniata river, which separates it from Bratton ; and on the south- 
west by the township of Wayne. Huntingdon county forms a small 
portion of the boundary near the southwest corner. The borough of 
McVeytown is situated in this township. Near McVeytown are large 
sand quarries from which large quantities of sand are shipped to glass 
factories in different parts of the country. 

L^nion township, the first to be organized after the erection of Mif- 
flin county, lies northwest of Jack's mountain and extends to the Hunt- 
ingdon county line. At the i\Iarch term of the jMiftlin county court in 
1790 a petition was presented on behalf of the inhabitants of the west 
end of Armagh township, asking that a new township be formed and 
that the division line be made, "Beginning at a certain stream of water 
extending from the Plumb bottom to Kishacoquillas creek, emptying into 
the same near the widow Alexander's.'' At the June term in the same 
year the court ordered 'That the said township of Armagh be divided 
according to the prayer of the petitioners, and that the township erected 
out of the west end thereof be called and known by the name and style 
of Union township, and that the inhabitants thereof choose township 
officers according to law." 

One of the first white men to settle in what is now Union township 
was James Alexander, who was born in Ireland in 1726, but came to 
America with his parents when he was but ten years of age. The fam- 
ily located near West Nottingham, Chester county, Pennsvlvania, and 
when the purchase of 1754 was made he and his brother Hugh started 
for the new domain in search of land. Hugh settled in Sherman's val- 
ley. Perry county, but James came on to the valley of the Kishacoquillas 


creek, \vhere he made a selection, and on February 5, 1755, he received 
a warrant for a tract containing a tritie over 239 acres. He was driven 
out by the Indians in 1756 and did not return to his frontier farm for 
six years. He married Rosie, daughter of Robert Reed, of Chambers- 
burg, and reared a family of eleven children. During the winter of 
1777-78 he served in the commissary department of General Washing- 
ton's army at Valley Forge, for which service he received 1,600 acres of 
land in Clearfield county. He died in 1791, and some of his descendants 
still reside in Mifflin county. 

In September, 1762, Thomas Ferguson took out a warrant for a tract 
of 400 acres, which was later purchased by Robert and John Campbell, 
who settled there in the spring of 1774. In July, 1762, Caleb Gordon 
entered land in Union township. John ^NIcKee and Samuel ]\Iaclay re- 
ceived their land warrants on August i, 1766, the former for 106 acres 
and the latter for 352. Other early settlers were David Johnson, Chris- 
tian Voght, William Baker, the Hartzlers, Yoders, Peacheys, Rennos 
and Zooks. 

The last named families were either Mennonites or Amish, a large 
number of people belonging to these religious sects locating in the 
township before the close of the eighteenth centur}-. The assessment 
roll of the township for 1791 — the first after its erection — showed the 
names of sixty-two landowners, who held about 10,000 acres. There 
were at that time one mill, one tan-yard, two negro slaves and eight still- 
houses in the township, which had a total population of about 600. 

The western part of L'nion was cut off in 1837 to form the town- 
ship of Menno, leaving it only about one-half its original size. Since 
then the township is bounded on the northwest by Huntingdon county ; 
on the northeast by Brown township ; on the southeast by Granville and 
Oliver, from which it is separated by Jack's mountain ; and on the south- 
west by the township of Menno. The most thickly settled portion is 
along the Kishacoquillas creek, and Belleville is the only village of im- 

No record of the early schools has been preserved. At the Novem- 
ber term of court in 1834 William P. Maclay and David Zook were 
appointed school directors for the township, and the following March 
these directors established nine school districts (including the territorv 
cut off two years later by ]Menno township). A township high school is 


now established at Belleville, and in 19 12 thirteen teachers were em- 
ployed in the public schools. 

^^'ayne township, which was formed seven years before Mifflin 
county was erected, occupies the extreme southwestern part of the 
county. The records of the Cumberland county court for July, 1782, 
contain the following entry : 

"Upon the petition of the inhabitants of Derry township to the 
court, setting forth that they labour under considerable disadvantage, 
from the great extent of their township and the inconvenience of serv- 
ing in public offices for the same, met by appointment on Thursday, the 
13th day of June, 1782, and chose Arthur Buchanan, Samuel Holliday, 
John Keever, James Ross, Joseph Westbrook, W'illiam Armstrong aiid 
Matthew Wakefield to form a line to divide said township into two 
equal parts, and that they mutually agreed the run called Brightfield's 
Run should be the division line, from the rise of the main branch thereof 
until the mouth, and from thence in the course that it enters the Juniata, 
directly to the mountain. And praying the Court that the said division 
may be confirmed and entered of record according to the aforesaid 
line, and that the inhabitants of the upper division desire the name of 
their township may be distinguished by the name of ^Vayne township, 
which division having been taken into consideration by the Court, is 
accordingly approved and confirmed, and that the upper division thereof 
be distinguished by the name of \\'ayne township." 

The assessment rolls for 1783 showed the names of 121 landowners, 
holding nearly 20,000 acres. Besides the farming interests there were 
in the township two saw-mills, two grist-mills, one tan-yard and five still- 

The first warrant issued for land in Wayne township was dated 
February 14, 1755, and was issued to Barnabas Barnes for a tract 
"situate on the north side of the Juniata river, about a quarter of mile 
below the falls." This land was soon after sold by Barnes to Richard 
Tea, who sold it to Daniel Carmichael in December, 1767. In 1762 
James Ross, Hugh Brown, John Carmichael and Christian Hamilton 
settled in the township. David Jenkins, a native of Ireland, was a sol- 
dier with General Braddock in 1755. Not long afterward he came to the 
Juniata valley, and for several years was a teacher in the early schools 
of Mifflin county. His wife, a Miss Miller, was a cousin of General 
Anthony Wayne, for whom the township was named. James Jenkins, 


a son of David, was with the Aaron Burr expedition in iSo6 and later 
served in the L'^nited States army in the War of 1S12. Robert, another 
son was also in the War of 1812 and was killed at Black Rock. On 
February 28, 1766, George Galloway took out a warrant for 150 acres 
of land on the south side of the Juniata, at the place long known as 
Galloway's ford. Other early settlers were Alexander McKinstry, John 
Miller, Patrick Dunn, William Scott, Arthur Starr, Joseph Corbett, John 
Cunningham, William Alorrison, John Unkles, Samuel McKeehan. Fran- 
cis Hamilton, Samuel Drake, James Macklin and William McMullen. 

Samuel Drake settled on fifty acres of land at Jack's Narrows, where 
he established a ferry and conducted a tavern for many years. About 
1840 he removed to Newton Hamilton, where he passed the remainder 
of his life. His sons continued to operate the ferry for several years, 
when they also located in Newton Hamilton. Drake's ferry was known 
far and the tavern was a favorite stopping place for travelers. It was 
at this tavern that the sheriff of Huntingdon county was arrested in 
1 79 1, while the dispute concerning the boundary line was before the 
people of the two counties, an account of which may be found in 
Chapter IV. 

William Scott's warrant, which was dated February 22, 1776, called 
for 100 acres of land, including the site of the present village of Atkin- 
son's Mills, in the northern part of the township. 

At the time the township was erected the line ran from Concord gap 
to a point on the Juniata between 2iIcVeytown and Gallow-ay's ford and 
included territory that remained a part of Huntingdon county until 
annexed to Mifflin by the act of April 15, 1834. The township is now 
bounded on the north and west by Huntingdon county ; on the east by the 
townships of Oliver and Bratton; and on the south by Juniata county, 
from which it is separated by the Blue ridge. The Juniata river flows 
through the township, and closely following its course is the main line 
of the Pennsylvania railroad, the stations in Wayne being Vineyard, 
Ryde and Newton Hamilton. Large sand quarries are operated at Vine- 

Probably the first school teacher in Wayne was David Jenkins, men- 
tioned above, who taught in a small house built of poles on the old 
Galloway farm. In 1793 there was a school house on the farm of John 
James. When the public school system was adopted in 1834 John 



Oliver, Jr., and Dr. L. G. Snowden were appointed school directors for 
the township, which then included Oliver and Bratton, in which they 
established ten school districts in March, 1835. In 1912 there were 
eleven teachers employed in the public schools. 

In 1837 the Matilda furnace was built on the Juniata river, opposite 
Mount Union, Huntingdon county, by John F. Cottrell and others. 
Power was at first supplied by a large overshot wheel and charcoal was 
used in the furnace, but in 185 1 the plant was purchased by John and 
Peter Haldeman, who installed a steam engine and began the use of 
anthracite coal. The furnace was operated by different persons at inter- 
vals until 1884, when it was abandoned. 

Mifflin county has but four boroughs — Lewistown, McVeytown, 
Burnham and Newton Hamilton — though there are a number of flour- 
ishing and important villages that have never been incorporated. Fore- 
most among these are Allensville, Belleville, Granville, Maitland, Matta- 
wana, Milroy, Reedsville, Wagner and Yeagertown. 

Lewistown had its beginning in 1754, when Robert Buchanan came 
from Carlisle and established a trading post where the borough now 
stands. He bought the site from an Indian chief named Pokety, and 
the settlement that grew up around the trading post was at first called 
"Poketytown./.' It was also called Old Town and Kishacoquillas' Old 
Town. In 1856, upon the breaking out of the Indian hostilities. Bu- 
chanan was warned of his danger by Kishacocjuillas, the Shawnee chief, 
and returned to Carlisle. He came back to his trading post some years 
later, and in July, 1762, took out a warrant for his land. Poketytown 
is described in the Columbia Magazine in 1788 as "consisting only of a 
tavern and a few scattered hovels and containing nothing worth notice." 

\\'hen Mifflin county was erected in 1789, the county seat was located 
by the organic act at the mouth of the Kishacoquillas creek, and when 
the town was laid out later in the year by Samuel Edmiston and James 
Potter, it was given the name of Lewistown, in honor of William Lewis, 
who was a member of the legislature from Berks county and to whose 
efforts was largely due the location of the seat of justice at that point, 
instead of below the long narrows, on the site now occupied by the 
county seat of Juniata county. 

On April 11, 1795, Governor Mifllin approved an act for the incor- 
poration of Lewistown as a borough, with the following limits or boun- 


daries : "Beginning at a post on the bank of the river Juniata, thence 
north 38° west to a post, thence north 52° east 161 perches to a post, 
thence south 38° east 143 perches to a post on the south side of Kisha- 
cocjuillas creek, thence down said creek south 85° west 17 perches to a 
post, thence north 68° west 50 perches, thence south 62° west 22 perches 
to the mouth of the said creek, thence up the said river north 78° west 
45 perches and thence west 32 perches to the place of beginning." 

"The L'nited States Gazetteer" for 1795, the year Lewistown was in- 
corporated as a borough, describes it as "the chief town in }ilifthn county, 
Pennsylvania, situated on the north side of the Juniata river at the 
mouth of Cishicoquilis creek. It is regularly laid out and contains about 
120 dwellings, a court-house and a jail. A court of common pleas and 
general c^uarter sessions is held here the second ^Monday in January, 
April, August and November. It is 150 miles W.X.W. of Philadel- 

By the act of incorporation the first borough officers were named as 
follows: Joseph Cogill, chief burgess; George McClellan, burgess; 
Robert Patterson and JNIichael Foncannon, burgesses' assistants ; James 
Robertson, town clerk; Jeremiah Daily, high constable. It was further 
provided that these officers should serve until the first ^Monday in ^lay, 
1796, when the first borough election should be held. A supplementary 
act, approved by Governor Snyder on February 6, 181 1, provided for 
the election, "on the Friday next preceding the third Saturday of March 
next, and on the same day in every year hereafter," of a chief burgess, 
an assistant burgess, five reputable citizens to be a town council, and one 
reputable citizen to be a high constable. 

In the early days of the town travel was obstructed by a great many 
stumps in the streets. One of the early ordinances imposed as a penalty 
for drunkenness the digging out of one of these stumps. Sometimes the 
sentence would be suspended until a number of men had been found 
guilty, when the culprits would be rounded up by the constable and 
a "stump-pulling bee" would be the result. On such occasions the stumps 
extracted were used to fill a ravine that ran through the town. 

A market-house was erected north of the court-house about 1796 
and was used until the spring of 18 19, when the council passed an 
ordinance declaring it a nuisance and ordering its sale. It was merely 
an open shed, the roof being supported on brick columns. A second 


market-house was built on the southwest corner of the public square in 
1S33 and continued in service for ten years. It was taken down at the 
same time as the old court-house, in 1843. ^Y 'i" ^ct of the legislature, 
approved on April 27, 1844, the authorities were given power to pur- 
chase a lot and erect thereon a market-house and town hall. A lot at 
the corner of Main and Third streets was purchased and a town hall 
and market-house built the same year. ^Markets were held in this build- 
ing at irregular intervals until 1870, when they were abandoned entirely. 
The Lewistown Market-House Company was organized in 19 10, and 
the succeeding year erected a market-house on Third street between 
Main and Wayne streets, with a public hall on the second floor. 

On February 23, 1815, the burgess and council passed an ordinance 
providing that every owner of a house "shall furnish the same with 
leathern fire-buckets, which buckets shall be kept in the entry or such 
other part of the house as shall be most easy of access, and be marked 
with the owner's name or initials thereof, and shall be kept in good 
repair for using at all times in case of fire." This was the first step 
toward providing fire protection. An engine was purchased not long 
afterward, and in April, 1817, was placed under the direction of the 
corporation of the borough of Lewistown, "for the better and more per- 
fect organization of a Fire Engine Company," the first record of a 
regularly organized company until August, 1834, when the "Kite Fire 
Company," composed of boys, was formed. The Juniata Fire Company 
was incorporated by the act of June 22, 1839. In the spring of 1843 
two companies — the Fame and the Henderson Hook and Ladder Com- 
pany — were organized. In October, 1877, the council purchased a 
Silsby steamer, which was named "Henderson," and placed in charge 
of the company of that name. The steamer was kept in the old Luth- 
eran church on Third street, which had been bought by the borough 
some years before for that purpose. In 1913 there were five companies 
in the city, including the one at Lewistown Junction across the Juniata 
river. Two of these companies are equipped with steam engines ; there 
are two automobile hose trucks, a hook and ladder truck, etc. The 
Henderson Company is still located on Third street ; the Fame and City 
companies on Valley street, and the Brooklyn Company is located on 
Hale street. 

A police force, consisting of a captain and first and second lieuten- 


ants, was organized under the ordinance of February 4, 1850. These 
officers were authorized "to appoint a proper number of citizens in each 
ward to patrol the streets and alleys during the night." The reason 
for this action was that a short time before there had been a number of 
serious fires which were believed to have been the work of incendiaries 
and the police force was established to capture the offenders. The pres- 
ent force consists of two patrolmen. 

By the act of April 10, 1826, the borough of Lewistown was author- 
ized to establish a system of water-works and to borrow, not to exceed 
$8,000, for the purpose, the work of construction to be commenced 
within five years. Work was commenced early in 1829 and continued 
for some time, Init the supply of water was never delivered to the people 
of the town. The Lewistown Water Company was incorporated on 
April 16, 1838, with a capital stock of $15,000 and power "to purchase 
springs, streams of water or water-power for their purposes." Work 
was begun on the reservoir in June, 1839, and it was completed in 1843, 
when the first hydrants were placed on the streets. The first water 
came from half a mile west of the borough limits, where some springs 
along Minehart's run were leased by the company. The capital stock 
was increased $10,000 in 1843, s"d in 1846 twelve acres of land, includ- 
ing the springs, were purchased of David W. Hulings. In 1865 there 
were about two and a half miles of pipe laid. Since then the lines have 
been extended and the capital stock increased from time to time until 
the company now supplies Lewistown, Burnham, Y'eagertown, Reeds- 
ville and Milroy. Besides the old source of supply at Minehart's run, 
new sources have been developed at Cooper's gap. north of Lewistown, 
Laurel run and Treaster's run, also north of the city. The five dis- 
tributing reservoirs established at convenient points have a capacity of 
15,000,000 gallons, and the cpiality of the water is unsurpassed, as shown 
by analyses. 

The Lewistown & Reedsville electric railway was established in 1900. 
The first line ran from Lewistown to Reedsville, a distance of about six 
miles. Subsequently the tracks were extended across the Juniata to 
Lewistown Junction and a branch east of Lewistown runs to Burnham 
and to Burnham Park, an amusement resort established in 1905 by the 
street railroad company. 

On April 6, 1855, the Lewistown Gas Company was incorporated. 


and before the close of the year a plant was erected at the foot of Mar- 
ket street. The Electric Light Company was chartered in 1889, and 
some years later both these companies were merged into the Penn Cen- 
tral Light and Power Company, which fnrnishes gas and electric light 
and power to a number of towns and boroughs in the Juniata Valley 
and adjoining territory. 

In 1800, the first United States census after Lewistown was in- 
corporated, the borough had a population of 523. Each census year has 
shown a substantial increase, until in 1910 the population was 8,166. 
The borough has four banking institutions, a high school and four ward 
school buildings of modern t}-pe. the principal streets are paved with 
brick, there are a number of well-appointed mercantile houses and manu- 
facturing concerns, good hotels, local and long distance telephone serv- 
ice, good transportation facilities, and a number of fine church edifices 
of different denominations. 

McVeytown (formerly W'aynesburg) was founded by John McVey, 
who took out a land warrant for 200 acres of land where the borough 
now stands, in July, 1787. Samuel Holliday had settled there in 1762, 
but it was nijt until 1795 that W'aynesburg was laid out. John Haman 
and Edward Dougherty were also early settlers. The completion of the 
canal in 1830 gave an impetus to W'aynesburg and brought an increase 
of population. On April 9. 1833, Governor Wolfe approved an act to 
incorporate W'aynesburg as a borough under the name of McVeytown. 
The first election was held on ]\Iarch 21, 1834, at which John M. Barton 
was elected burgess ; G. H. Galbraith, Richard Miles, John Haman, Revel 
Elton and William Rook, members of the town council. By a supple- 
mentary act, approved on May 9. 1841, the boundaries of the borough 
were extended and the burgess and council were granted additional 
powers. A local newspaper called The People's Friend was started by 
William D. Mc\^ey in the spring of 1842, and the first public school 
building in the borough was erected on a lot donated by Samuel Holli- 
day. It was torn down in 1844 and a larger one erected in its place. In 
1840 the population of McVeytown was 348. This had increased to 679 
in 1880, since which time there has been a slight decrease, the census 
of 19 10 showing 514 inhabitants. Including the railroad station of 
Mattawana (also called McVeytown) on the opposite side of the Juniata, 
the population in 1910 was 785. McA'eytown has a national bank, sev- 


eral good stores, churches of different religious faiths, a money order 
postoffice, etc. 

The borough of Xewton Hamilton is located upon land entered by 
Hugh Brown in 1762. The town was laid out about 1802, and in 1828 
Elijah Davis opened a store. John Postlethwait started a tavern called 
the Logan House the following year. Robert Thompson & Company 
and Richard A. McDowell & Company were among the early mercantile 
firms. A school was taught by Samuel Cross in 1830 in a house next to 
the old Sigler residence. In 1838 a stone school house was erected and 
was used for many years, when the present building was erected. By 
an act of the legislature, approved on April 12, 1843. Xewton Hamilton 
was incorporated as a borough, and the first election was held in March, 
1844, when John Morrison was elected burgess; Robert A. McDowell, 
Benjamin Norton, Joseph H. ]\Iorrison, John AV. Smith, Samuel D. 
Postlethwait, Samuel Drake, Charles Knox and James D. ^Morrison, 
members of the first town council. A Presbyterian church was organized 
in the spring of 1838, a ^Methodist church having been organized some 
twelve years sooner. In 1872 a camp-meeting association was organ- 
ized and purchased thirty-six acres near the borough. In 1850 Newton 
Hamilton contained nearly 100 taxpayers and a total population of 353. 
Very little change has been made in the number of inhabitants since the 
incorporation, the population in 19 10 being 340. A postoffice was estab- 
lished at this point in 1836, with Philip Strouse as the first postmaster. 
The borough is located on the main line of the Pennsylvania railroad 
twenty-two miles southwest of Lewistown and not far from the Hunt- 
ingdon county line. 

AUenville (or Allensville), one of the old settlements of the county, 
was laid out about 1806. A store was opened soon after that, and in 
18 19 Christopher Howell opened a hotel and also engaged in merchan- 
dising. A Presbyterian church was built in 1800 and a Lutheran church 
in 1827. Allensville is located in the western part of Alenno township, 
not far from the Huntingdon county line, and being some distance from 
a railroad its growth has not been what its founders anticipated. In 19 10 
it reported a population of 338. It has a money order postofiice, and is 
a rallying point and trading center for that section of the county. 

Belleville, one of the most important unincorporated towns of Mif- 
flin county, is situated in L'nion township, almost due west of Lewis- 


town, and is the terminus of the Kishacoquillas Valley railroad. The 
first settler here was Joseph Greenwood, who started a blacksmith shop, 
and the little village that grew up around his shop was at first called 
Greenwood. A postoffice was established about 1800 by the name of 
Belleville, and that name was afterward applied to the village. Kirk & 
Steel were the first merchants. Among the early industries was a sickle 
factorv, established in connection with his blacksmith shop by Jesse 
Tanier. The first tavern was opened by James Poe in the early '30s. 
As Belleville grew and its limits were extended it absorbed the old town 
of Mechanicsville. which was laid out in 1832 on the farm of David 
Zook. Belleville is the headquarters of the Kishacoquillas Mutual Fire 
Insurance Company, which was incorporated by the Mifflin county 
courts on February 9, 1854. The town has two national banks, a num- 
ber of good mercantile establishments, churches of various denomina- 
tions, and the Union township high school is located here. The popula- 
tion in 1910 was 1,000. 

Burnham (formerly Logan) is the outgrowth of the iron industry 
at that point, beginning with the establishment of Freedom forge in 
1795. A small settlement grew up about the forge and in time devel- 
oped into a considerable village. The plant of the Freedom Company 
was purchased by the Logan Iron and Steel Company in 1871, when the 
village took the name of the new company. North of the original works 
a new establishment was started in November, 1868, for the manufacture 
of steel bv the Bessemer process, but it was discontinued the succeeding 
year. In 1S71 William Butcher, of Philadelphia, bought the plant and 
began the manufacture of steel tires, but became financially embarrassed 
and turned the works over to his creditors, who organized the Standard 
Steel Company, and the village later came to be called Burnham, after 
one of the head men of the Standard Company. At the January ses- 
sions of the court in 191 1 a petition was presented asking for the in- 
corporation of Burnham as a borough, and on June 26, 191 1, the court 
granted the prayer of the petitioners, fixed the boundaries and ordered 
an election for the 20th of July following. At the election R. L. Eward 
was elected chief burgess : A. M. Plank, tax collector : J. L. Groninger, 
constable; Miller Leeper, Cloyd Williams, David Thomas, A. K. An- 
drews, John Ward, Albert Reich and Frank Broome, councilmen. Sub- 
sequently the borough limits were extended to include a wider scope of 


territory. Burnham is a station on the Rlilroy I^ranch of the Pennsyl- 
vania railroad, four miles north of Lewistown, with which it is con- 
nected by electric railway. The population in 1910 was 585. 

Granville, a station on the main line of the Pennsylvania railroad, 
takes its name from old Fort Granville. \Valter Owen opened a store 
here in 1865, and the next year the railroad company made it a passenger 
station. A postoffice was established in that year imder the name of 
Granville, the place having been known prior to that time as "W'olfkill's 
Siding." In 19 10 Granville reported a population of 219. 

IMaitland is a village of 159 inhabitants on the Sunbury division of the 
Pennsylvania railroad, five miles northeast of Lewistown. A writer in 
1885 describes it as having "a postoffice, store, depot, school house and 
a few dwellings." That description would apply to the village to-day, 
except the number of dwellings has slightly increased. 

Milroy, situated in the western part of Armagh township, twelve 
miles north of Lewistown, was originally known as Perryville, after an 
early settler. In 1850 the name was changed to Milroy, a postoffice by 
that name having been established there some time in the early part of 
that year. An iron furnace was started at Milroy in 1828, and in 1868 
Joseph Wagner established a foundry. Another early industry was a 
tannery started by James Milroy while the town was in its infancy. 
James Johnson was one of the pioneer merchants, and John Fertig had 
a distillery at Perryville. It was located in the basement of his house, 
which was the first dwelling in the village. A Presbyterian church was 
built in 1833, and a Methodist congregation was organized in 1825, when 
a small house of worship was built. It was replaced by a larger edifice 
in 1846. A Lutheran church was established in 1857. Milroy is the 
terminus of a branch of the Pennsylvania railroad that connects with 
the main line at Lewistown Junction. It has a bank, a good public 
school, several good mercantile establishments, etc., and in 1910 reported 
a population of 1,000, but it is not incorporated. 

Reedsville, with a population of 900, is located in the Kishaco- 
quillas valley and is a station on the Milroy branch of the Pennsylvania 
railroad, seven miles from Lewistown. The first settler at this place 
was Judge William Brown, who built a saw-mill and a grist-mill, and 
until the village was laid out, aljout 1838, the place was known as 
"Brown's I\Iills." At the time the village was laid out there were about 


twenty houses there and a tavern had been conducted for many years. 
A large brick hotel was built soon after the town was laid out. Reeds- 
ville is also connected with Lewistown by electric railway. It has a bank, 
the Brown township high school, several good stores, hotel, etc., and is 
supplied with water by the Lewistown Water Company. 

Wagner, a station on the Sunbury division of the Pennsylvania rail- 
road, had its beginning in 186S, when the railroad was completed. A 
tan-yard had been started there in 1853 by William Mitchell & Son, and 
doubtless had some influence in securing the location of a station. Soon 
after the railroad was opened for business a postoffice was established 
and a store opened. In 1910 it had a population of 158. 

Yeagertown, situated on the Kishacoquillas creek, about a mile above 
Burnham, and connected with Lewistown and other points along the 
Kishacoquillas by electric railway, is the outgrowth of a settlement that 
grew up about the saw-mill and grist-mill erected there at an early date. 
James Mayes settled in that section in 1790 and built a tavern which was 
kept by different persons for many years. In 1S42 Jacob Yeager came 
with his family from Dauphin county and purchased the mill property. 
Simon Yeager opened a store in 1857, though he had been a resident of 
the village for a number of years prior to that date. Jonathan Yeager 
opened a tavern in 1845, and Jeremiah Yeager bought and rebuilt the 
mill in 1859. Through the activity of the members of this family the 
place came to be known as Yeagertown. In 1910 the village had a 
population of 600. The Derry township high school is at Yeagertown, 
which has a number of stores and some manufacturing enterprises. 

In addition to the boroughs and villages above enumerated and de- 
scribed, the postoffices of Mifflin county are Kishacoquillas, five miles 
northwest of Lewistown ; Mattawana, just across the Juniata from Mc- 
Veytown; Naginey, the first station on the railroad south of Milroy; 
Paintersville, on the Sunbury railroad, eight miles from Lewistown; 
Ryde, on the main line of the Pennsylvania railroad, seventeen miles 
west of Lewistown ; Shindle, eleven miles northeast of Lewistown 
on the Sunbury division; and Strodes Mills, on a branch of the 
Kishacoquillas creek, six miles southwest of Lewistown. There are 
ten free rural delivery routes in the county, to wit : Four from 
Lewistown, two from Belleville, and one each from McVeytown, Milroy, 
Newton Hamilton and Reedsville. 



Juniata Originally a Part of Mifflin County — Dissensions over the Location of the 
County Seat — Petitions to the Legislature to Change Location — Agitation for a 
New County — A Peculiar Highway — Memorial to the General Assembly — Petition 
of Protest — John Cummins — ^Juniata County Erected — First Court-House — Jail — 
Present Court-House — Form of the County — Area — Boundaries — Never Had a 
Poor-House — The Civil List. 

JUNIATA county is a child of much tribulation, ^^■hen the county 
of Mifflin was created by the act of September 19, 1789, there 
arose a great deal of dissatisfaction among the people living 
in the southern and western townships over the location of the county 
seat. In the chapter on Mifflin county may be found an account of 
the change in boundaries from those first proposed, which change in- 
fluenced the legislature to provide for the location of the county 
seat at the mouth of the Kishacoquillas creek, and which was the 
cause of most, if not all, the dissatisfaction that later developed in that 
part of the county lying below the Narrows. On November 14, 1789, 
the people living in that part of ]\Iifflin county addressed a communi- 
cation to the legislature, setting forth that it was their intention 
to use every honorable means to secure a change in the location of 
the seat of justice. The communication expressed the belief that a 
time would come when territory would be taken from the northern 
part of Mifflin county, and declared that, when that time came, the 
people living below the Narrows would assert their just rights, "thereby 
undeceiving every person who might have an inclination to purchase 
in the borough of Lewistown, in order that they might judge for them- 
selves with regard to the seat of justice remaining in that place, 
and those who purchased cannot plead ignorance of an existing dis- 
pute, but are on the same footing with a person purchasing his chance 
of a disputed title." 



Again, on February 9, 1790, a similar statement was promulgated 
by the disaffected citizens, and from that time until Juniata was cut 
off as a separate county the strife went on. The movement to change 
the location of the county seat received a fresh impetus when, on Feb- 
ruary 13, 1800, the legislature passed an act erecting Centre county, 
taking a generous slice from the northern part of Mifflin for that pur- 
pose. A lengthy petition, reviewing the history of the organization of 
Mifflin county and the origin of the dispute, and asking for a removal 
of the seat of justice, was presented to the legislature of 1801-02. The 
principal paragraphs of this petition were as follows : 

"That numbers of your petitioners who live below the Long Nar- 
rows (and have the same to pass through to get to Lewistown) live 
at the distance of T,y miles from thence; and those who live above the 
Narrows (except a few persons in the west end of Wayne township, 
who are petitioning to be annexed to Huntingdon County) do not 
exceed eighteen miles from their Seat of Justice. 

"That your Petitioners believe, as to numbers of those above and 
below the Narrows, very little difference exists, but claim the majority, 
and contend the town of Mifflin to be much more central and con- 
venient than Lewistown, taking into view the local situation of Mifflin 
County as it at present stands ; also a further and very material accom- 
modation of Greenwood township, in Cumberland, Mahantango and 
Beaver Dam townships, in Northumberland, and Dublin, in Hunting- 
don Counties, the three latter of whom have petitioned to be annexed 
to Mifflin County on proviso that the Seat of Justice be removed to 
the town of Mifflin." 

Upon the refusal of the legislature to grant the request of the peti- 
tioners, an agitation was started for a division of the county of Mifflin. 
More than ten years elapsed before this movement assumed anything 
like definite shape, but the people below the Narrows sent a petition, 
signed by a large majority of the voters living in that part of the 
county, to the legislature of 1813, praying for the erection of a new 
county. Early in February of that year there was introduced in the 
state senate a bill entitled "An act erecting that part of Mifflin county 
which lies east of and below the Black Log mountain and Long Nar- 
rows into a separate county." After some discussion the title of the 
measure was changed to "An act erecting part of Mifflin county into 
a separate county, to be called Juniata," and hopes were entertained 


that it would become a law. It was finally defeated, however, and 
the petitioners buckled on their armor for another contest. Again the 
work of circulating petitions for a division of the county was com- 
menced, but this time the people living above the Narrows got up a 
counter petition, the county officers and tavern-keepers of Lewistown 
being particularly active in their opposition. 

The statement in the petition of 1801, that "numbers who live 
below the Long Narrows (and have the same to pass through to get 
to Lewistown) live at a distance of 2>7 niiles from thence." could 
neither be denied nor ignored, and, to provide for a shorter rrnite, the 
opponents of division petitioned the court "for a road across the moun- 
tains from Lewistown into Tuscarora valley." Road viewers were 
appointed and made a favorable report, which was confirmed by the 
court, and a road six feet in width was ordered to be laid out. but 
the townships through which it passed refused to open it. An appro- 
priation of $500 to aid in its construction was made by the legislature 
of 1816, and the money was used to build part of the road from Lewis- 
town to the Licking creek valley. Concerning this road, Everts, Peck 
& Richards' "History of the Susquehanna and Juniata Valleys," pub- 
lished in 1886. says: "It has in some places a grade of twenty-four 
degrees, or seven feet to the perch, and it is not known that any one 
ever risked his neck or that of his horse in riding down that road, 
and had it Iieen finished it would have taken five thousand dollars 
and then been utterly unfit for any vehicle except a one-wheeled cart. 
It crossed the Blue Ridge near the route of the Fort Granville path, and 
is sometimes mistaken for it, though both may yet be easily found. In 
1818 a road was laid out from the paper-mill to intersect this tavern- 
keeper's road. Few people in Licking Creek to-day know they have a 
laid-out road to Lewistown." 

That the construction of this road failed to pacify the people below 
the Narrows is evidenced by the fact that another bill providing for a 
division of Mifflin county passed the senate in the session of 1816, 
but failed to pass the house. Two years later, in the session of 1818-19, 
another petition came before the legislature praying for a division of 
the county. After calling attention to the fact that petitions had been 
presented to the general assembly every year for seven years, and that 
these petitions had been signed by from 11,000 to 13,000 bona fide 


residents of that part of the county below the Narrows, the petition 
goes on to show the existing conditions, as follows : 

"The old townships of Milford and Fermanagh alone in our pro- 
posed new county are now nearly as numerous and much more wealthy, 
and will sell for more money than all the county of Mifflin would have 
done at the time of its erection, in 1789. In our proposed new county 
we have twenty-eight grist and merchant mills, forty-nine saw-mills, 
three fulling mills, thirteen carding machines, three oil-mills and one 
complete paper mill, and it will be seen by the printed documents here- 
with submitted that there are seventeen counties in the State that are 
fewer in number than either the old or new county would be if divided, 
and twenty counties in the State in which the lands are not valued half 
as high as in ^Mifflin count)-, and some of them are entitled to two mem- 

"The people below these Narrows have all to come from east, 
south, and west to one entering place, and then go up the Long Nar- 
rows and through the mountains, a distance of nine or ten miles — 
the whole distance they have to travel to the seat of justice is from nine 
to forty miles. 

"Nature has fixed a boundary, which ought, at least, to separate 
counties; that boundary is a chain of high mountains between Mifflin- 
town and Lewistown. Besides, there exists so much prejudice and 
jealousy between the people above and those below that almost all 
public improvement is at a stand while the question is pending. 

"Therefore your memorialists most solemnly pray your honorable 
bodies to restore harmony and good will among the people by putting 
this long-litigated question and the people to rest by passing a law to 
divide the county agreeably to the prayers of the petitioners, and they 
will, as in duty bound, ever pray." 

Petitions of protest from the citizens living above the Narrows were 
also presented, and their influence seemed to weigh more with the 
members of the legislature than did the petition from those living below, 
as no action was taken on the question during the session. Discour- 
aged by repeated defeats and rebuffs, the citizens of the southern and 
western townships for a time ceased their efforts to secure the estab- 
lishment of a new county, ^^'ith this cessation the people above the 
Narrows became more active. In 1823 they exerted their influence 
to have Lack township annexed to Perry county, and, five years later, 
a bill was introduced in the general assembly to annex Greenwood town- 
ship to Union county, which then included the present county of Snv- 


der. The object of these measures was to get rid of some of the most 
active advocates of county division — those who had to travel farthest 
to reach Lewistown — and to hold the central part of what is now 
Juniata county to INIifflin. Xeither of the bills passed, however, and 
the boundaries of Alifflin county remained unchanged. 

In 1830 John Cummins, who lived below the Narrows, was elected 
to represent Mifflin county in the lower house of the state legislature. 
His election gave the friends of division fresh hope, and he did not 
disappoint them. Early in the session he introduced a bill providing 
for the erection of a new county, to be called Juniata, secured its 
passage in the house, and, after it was sent to the senate, he guarded 
it with zealous care until it finally passed that body, on the last day 
of February, 1831, by a vote of 18 to 12. The measure was approved 
by Governor Wolfe on March 2, 183 1, and the long dispute was settled, 
Juniata county taking her place in the great Commonwealth of Penn- 
sylvania as a separate and independent organization. 

Section i of the bill provided "That all that part of ^Mifflin county 
laying south and east of a line beginning on the summit of Black Log 
IMountain, where the Huntingdon county line crosses the same, and 
running thence along the summit thereof to the Juniata River; thence 
along the same to a marked black oak, standing by the road on the 
north side of said river, about the middle of the Long Narrows, 
known as a line-tree between Derry and Fermanagh townships, in 
said county; thence along the summit of Shade ^Mountain to the line 
of Union county, and thence along said line down Mahantango Creek 
to the Susquehanna river, shall be and the same is hereby erected into 
a separate county, to be called Juniata." 

The section relating to the location of the county seat and the 
manner in which such site should be selected was as follows : "That 
the Governor be and he is hereby authorized and required, on or before 
the first day of May next ensuing, to appoint three discreet and disin- 
terested persons, not residents in the counties of Mifflin or Juniata, 
whose duty it shall be to fix on a proper and convenient site for a court- 
house, prison, and county offices within the aforesaid county of Juniata, 
as near the center thereof as circumstances will admit, having regard 
to the convenience of roads, territory, population, and the accommoda- 
tion of the people of the said county generally." 


In the exercise of the authority thus vested in him Governor Wolfe 
appointed PhiHp Benner, of Centre county; Joel Baily, of Dauphin, 
and Chauncey Frisbie, of Bradford, commissioners to visit the county 
and select a proper and suitable site for the seat of justice. The com- 
missioners met at MifBintown on the ist of June and entered upon 
their duties. After viewing several proposed sites in the Tuscarora 
valley, on Lost creek, in Greenwood township, and other parts of the 
county, they reported in favor of Mifflintown, which has since remained 
the seat of justice. 

On March 22, 1832, for the purpose of giving the county a location 
for the court-house, twenty-seven of the proprietors of IMifflintown 
conveyed to the county commissioners, for a consideration of one dol- 
lar, the public square where the court-house now stands. In the deed 
of transfer the square is described as "the same piece of ground 
originally laid out by John Harris, the proprietor of said town, and 
intended by him for the purpose for which it is now conveyed, and 
for none other." 

Thomas McCurdy submitted plans for a court-house, which were 
accepted by the commissioners, and a contract was entered into with 
Gustine & Oles for the erection of the building for $3,940. The court- 
house was completed before the close of the year 1832, and the last 
payment was made on January 22, 1833, with an additional sum of 
$225.93 for extra work. The first court was held in it the following 
May, the sessions having been previously held in the old stone Pres- 
byterian church. Soon after the completion of the court-house the 
commissioners — George Gilliford. William Wharton, and Louis Evans 
— advertised for proposals for the erection of a stone jail, according 
to plans prepared by Everett Oles, such proposals to be submitted by 
February 26, 1833. Wise & McCurdy were awarded the contract for 
$2,600, and the jail was completed that year. At first the yard in the 
rear of the jail was inclosed by a high wooden fence, but subsequently 
a stone wall was built, reaching almost to the eaves of the two-story 
building. The jail is still standing on the northeast corner of the 
public square, and, after eighty years of service, is in good condition. 

In February, 1868, the grand jury recommended the erection of a 
new court-house, and immediately a movement was started to remove 
the seat of justice to Perryville ("now Port Royal). For a time excite- 


ment ran high, and the question was brought to the attention of the 
legislature then in session. The result was that, on April ii, 1868, 
Governor Gear}- approved an act "Authorizing an election to be held 
in the county of Juniata relative to a change in the county seat and 
the erection of new buildings." The election w'as held on the 13th of 
the following October, and resulted in 2,122 votes being cast for Mif- 
flintown and 1,165 foi" Port Royal. Nothing was done toward the 
erection of a new court-house for nearly five years after that election. 
At the April term of the court of quarter sessions, in 1873, the grand 
jury reported on the subject as follows : 

"The grand inquest of said county (Juniata) would respectfully 
report that an inspection of the court-house has counciled them that 
it is unfit for the accommodation of persons having business to trans- 
act in the several courts ; and also unfit for a proper transaction of 
business; that the building is in a dilapidated condition; the vaults in 
which the public records are kept are entirely insecure; the offices are 
illy arranged, and the court room entirely too small to accommodate 
the citizens of the county; that such complaints have long been known 
to and made by the citizens of the county."' 

The report concluded with a recommendation to the court to direct 
the commissioners to remodel the building so that the public offices 
should occupy the first floor and the court-room the second, and that 
such additions or enlargements be made as might be necessary to carry 
out the recommendations. No action was taken by the court at that 
session, and at the September term in 1873 an entire new court-house 
was recommended, all the materials in the old one fit for the purpose 
to be used in the new building. In the meantime the board of com- 
missioners instructed the president, WilHam L'lsh, to go to Harrisburg 
and consult with L. M. Simon, an architect of that city, with regard 
to repairing or remodeling the old building. The report of ^Ir. L'lsh 
cannot be found, but it is probable that his consultation with the archi- 
tect was in some degree responsible for the action in September. On 
September 15, 1873, the commissioners adopted a resolution to bor- 
row $50,000 under the provisions of an act passed by the legislature 
on April 9, 1868, said loan to be secured by six per cent, bonds, pay- 
able in eight annual instalments, and on February 6, 1874, a contract 
was made with G. W. Smith for the removal of the old court-house. 


A little later a contract was made with Hetrich & Fleisher, of Newport, 
to build the new court-house, according to certain plans and specifi- 
cations, for $42,100, though some changes in the work and the addition 
of a clock and bell, with the installation of new furniture throughout, 
brought the total cost up to about $63,000. While it was in process of 
erection the sessions of the courts were held in the Lutheran church. 

On the first floor of the court-house are the offices of the register 
and recorder, the prothonotary, the orphans' court, sherifif, treasurer, 
and county commissioners. The second floor is occupied by the court- 
room, jury rooms, etc., and on a third floor are the rooms for the use 
of the grand jury. The building stands upon an eminence overlooking 
the Juniata river, and can be seen for some distance by passengers on 
the Pennsylvania railroad. 

Juniata county is irregular in shape, its boundaries being formed 
by natural features, such as creeks and mountain chains. From the 
Susquehanna river at the mouth of the Mahantango creek to the south- 
west corner of the county, where it touches Huntingdon and Franklin 
counties, the distance is about forty-five miles. The widest part is 
east of the Juniata river, where it is about ten miles. The area is 
360 square miles, or 230,400 acres, nearly two-thirds of which is 
cleared and under cultivation. It is bounded on the north and north- 
west by the counties of Mifflin and Snyder; on the east by the Susque- 
hanna, which separates it from Northumberland county ; on the south- 
east by Perry and Franklin counties, and on the southwest by the 
county of Huntingdon. 

It speaks well for the county that it has never had a poorhouse. 
As a rule the people are industrious and self-sustaining, hence few 
paupers have ever appealed for public aid. Those few have been taken 
care of by the authorities of the townships in which they reside or 
sojourn, and the county commissioners have not deemed it necessary 
at any time in the county's history to go to the expense of purchasing 
a farm and erecting a home for the poor. In the matter of criminal 
historv the county is also fortunate. Two men have been executed 
in the old jail yard — the only two legal executions in the county in 
nearly a century — and in recent years the jail has been without inmates 
more than two-thirds of the time. 

Following is a civil list of the officials of Juniata county, as com- 


pletely as it could be obtained from the records, some of which are 
missing. In this Hst the names of the county ofihcers prior to 1885 
are copied from a Hst made by Professor A. L. Guss. From 1885 
to the present time (1913) they have been taken from the official 

Sheriffs — Amos Gustine, 1831; John Beale, 1835; Henry Miller, 
1838; William W. Wilson, 1840; William Bell, 1843; Samuel Mc- 
Williams, 1843; David McKinstry. 1850: Joseph Bell, 1853; D. M. 
Jamison, 1856; George Reynolds, 1859; James W. Hamilton, 1862; 
Samuel B. Loudon, 1865; John Deitrich, 1868; Joseph Ard, 1871 ; Wil- 
liam H. Knouse, 1874; W. D. Walls, 1877; Joseph B. Kelly, 1880 
George Shivery, 1883; David Fowler, 1885; Franklin W. Noble, 1888 
Samuel Lapp, 1891 ; James P. Calhoun, 1894; S. Clayton Stoner, 1897 
Theodore J. Schmittle, 1903; Daniel B. Reitz, 1906; R. B. Zimmerman, 

Prothonotarics — William W. Kirk, 1831 ; Robert Patterson, 1836; 
Tobias Kreider, 1839; Lewis Burchfield, 1839; James M. Sellers. 1845; 
J. Middagh, 1851; Amos H. Martin, 1S54; R. M. Sterrett, i860; 
George W. Jacobs, 1863; George Reynolds, 1866; Robert E. McMeen, 
1869; I. D. Wallis, 1872; Jacob Beidler, 1876; George Reynolds, 1879; 
George S. Conn, 1882; Theodore H. Meminger, 1883 (reelected in 
1887); John W. Gibbs, 1890; W. H. Zeiders, 1896; Styles K. Boden, 
1899; H. H. Hartman, 1905; S. B. Murray, 191 1. 

Registers and Recorders — James S. Law, 183 1; Robert Barnard, 
1833; Tobias Kreider, 1836; Joseph Bogg, 1839; William Reader, 
1845; Benjamin Bonsell, 1848; Alexander Magonigle, 1854; Joseph L. 
Stewart, 1855: John P. Wharton, 1855; R. P. McWilliams, 1861 ; 
Joshua Beale, 1867; Eli Dunn, 1870: J. T. Mittlin, 1873; J- D. Musser, 
1876; J. M. McDonald, 1880; S. Drady Coveny, 1883: Edward E. 
Berry, 1885; John R. Jenkins, 1891 ; Anson B. Will, 1894; George B. 
Cramer, 1897; Elmer G. Beale, 1903 ; G. Frank Bousum, 1906 (reelected 
in 1909 and second term prolonged one year by constitutional amend- 
ment making all county officers elected in 191 3 for terms of four 

Treasurers — J. Cummings, 1831 ; William H. Patterson, 1836; Amos 
Gustine, 1837; Robert Barnard, 1838: James Kirk, 1844: Samuel Pene- 
baker, 1842; James Kirk, 1844; Benjamin Bonsell, 1846; Joseph M. 


Belford, 1848; Benjamin F. Kepner, 1850; George Jacobs, 1852; John 
Yeakley, 1854; Benjamin F. Kepner, 1856; D. W. A. Belford, 1858; 
George W. Stroup, i860; Jacob Suloff, 1862; John B. M. Todd, 1864; 
Robert E. Parker, 1866; Jacob A. Christy, 1868; David Watts, 1870; 
WilHam C. Laird, 1872; Samuel H. Showers, 1874; Robert E. Parker, 
1S76; John \V. Kirk, 1879; Jacob Lemon, 1881; John M. Copeland, 
1884; Henry S. SchoU, 1890; W. S. North, 1893; W. W. Landis, 1896; 
John F. Ehrenzeller, 1899; E. Milton Guss, 1902; Ferdinand Meyers, 
1905; Harry C. Lawson, 1908; Samuel R. Bashore, 191 1. 

County Commissioners — 1831, Joel Baily, P. Benner, C. Frisbie; 
1832-33, George Gilliford, William Wharton, Louis Evans; 1834, John 
Funk, Louis Evans, David Glenn; 1836, Michael Bushey, Paul Cox; 
1837, Emanuel Wise; 1838, Daniel Collins; 1839, John North; 1840, 
John P. Shitz; 1841, John Kenawell; 1842, John Crozier; 1843, John 
F. Saeger; 1844, James Lauthers; 1845, John Dimm; 1846, David 
Beale; 1847, Ezra McLin; 1848, Robert Inners; 1849, Samuel Rannels; 
1850, David Alexander; 1851, John Anderson; 1852, Thomas J. Alil- 
liken; 1853, William Adams; 1854, Joseph Seiber; 1855, Daniel Flick- 
inger; 1856, James Anderson; 1857, Barnett Rapp; 1858, Joseph Ker- 
liss; 1859, Henry McConnell; i860, John Landis; 1861, William 
Kohler; 1862, James S. Cox; 1863, John Foltz; 1864, John Kenawell; 
1865, Matthew Clark, William Logue; 1866, David Diven; 1867, David 
Suloff, Sr.; 1868, Walter App; 1869, E. R. Gilliford; 1870, William 
Ulsh; 1871, William Von Swearinger; 1872, David B. Diven; 1873, 
Alexander A. Crozier; 1875, Thomas Watts; 1876, James McLaugh- 
lin, David B. Cox, William H. Groninger; 1879, J. Banks Wilson, Hugh 
L. McMeen, John B. Mc Williams; 1881, J. Banks Wilson, Hugh L. 
McMeen, David Partner; 1884, O. P. Barton, John T. Dimm, W. N. 
Sterrett; 1887, John H. Cunningham, Francis Hower, Absalom Rice; 
1890, John Balentine, David Beale, Uriah Shuman ; 1893, W. H. 
Moore, Neal M. Stewart, John Neimond; 1896, David D. Rhinesmith, 
William Puffenberger, Jeremiah Loudenslager ; 1899, J. W. Hostetler, 
H. Cloyd Horning, Robert Long; 1902, David B. Stoufifer, Samuel A. 
Graham, George F. Goodman; 1905, James Adams, W. K. McLaugh- 
lin, Samuel A. Graham; 1908, William B. Zimmerman, W. H. Bru- 
baker, David B. Stoufifer; 191 1, John N. Carney, B. P. Clark, Albert 


State Senators — Ezra Doty, 1808; William Beale, 1812 (both from 
Mifflin county, of which Juniata was then a part) ; James Mathews, 
1840; J. J. Cunningham, 1850; James I\L Sellers, 1855; E. D. Craw- 
ford, i860; John K. Robinson, 1868; D. ]\L Crawford, 1871 (elected 
again in 1877); Joseph 'SL Woods, 1888; Walter H. Parcels, 1896; 
James W. McKee, 1900 ; William H. ^lanbeck, 1904; Franklin Martin, 

Representatives — John Cummins, 1831 (elected from Alifflin county, 
and secured the passage of the bill under \\hich Juniata county was 
organized): William Sharon, 1832; (after William Sharon Professor 
Guss gives the names of Thomas Stinson, William Curran, John Adams, 
James Mathews, James Hughes, John Funk. John H. iNIcCrum, William 
Cox, Andrew Patterson and John McMinn, but does not name the 
years in which each served. In 1850 the counties of Union and Juniata 
were made a representative district). John ]\IcLaughlin. 1850: William 
Sharon. 1852: John Beale. 1853; John W. Simonton, 1854; James W. 
Crawford, 1855; George \\'. Strouse, 1856: Thomas Bower, 1857; 
John J. Patterson, 1859; George \\'. Strouse. 1863; John Balsbach, 
1864; A. H. ]\lartin. 1869: Abraham Rohrer. 1870; Jerome Hetrick, 
1874: T. D. Garmon. 1877: William Pomeroy, 1878; Lucien Banks, 
1879; John D. Alilligan. 1881 ; James Xorth, 1884; Louis E. Atkinson, 
1886: William Hertzler, 1888: J. C. Crawford, 1890; Hugh L. Wilson, 
1892; Jeremiah X. Keller. 1896; A. J. Fisher. 1898: Thomas K. 
Beaver, 1900; George B. ^l. Wisehaupt, 1902; William C. Pomeroy, 
1906; Jerome T. Ailman, 1908; I. D. Musser, 1912. 

Surveyors (since 1886) — Wilber F. 3iIcCahan, 1886; William H. 
Groninger, 1889; \^■ilber F. ]\IcCahan. 1892; A. B. Evans. 1895; J. O. 
Brown, 1898; C. \\'. flayer. 1904; W. F. ^IcCahan. 1907 (reelected 
in 1911). 

Coroners (since 1886) — James J. Patterson, 1886; Philip A. Smith, 
1889; L. P. Walley, 1892; j. O. Brown, 1895-; Jacob A. Davis, 1898; 
W. H. Rodgers, 1901 ; B. F. Long, 1904; D. L. Snyder, 1907 (re- 
elected in 191 1 ). 



Early Township Organizations — Their Subdivison — The Present Thirteen Townships — 
Beale — Delaware — Fayette — Fermanagh — Greenwood — Lack — Milford — Monroe — 
Spruce Hill — Susquehanna — Turbett — Tuscarora — Walker — Earh' Settlement of 
Each — Squatters — Principal Villages — Schools — The Four Boroughs — IMifflintown — ■ 
^Mifflin — Port Royal — Thompsontown — Pioneer Business Enterprises — Postotfices 
and Population — Rural Routes in the County. 

THE organization of townships in wliat is now Juniata county 
began on October 23, 1754, when the magistrates "in con- 
junction with the commissioners and assessors of Cumberland 
county" met at Carlisle and concluded that, "Whereas, there has been 
an addition to the county aforesaid by a late purchase from the Indians : 
to erect the habitable parts added to the said county into separate town- 
ships, and to appoint constables in the same for the better regulation 

Four townships were at that time formed, viz. : Aire, Fannet, Lack, 
and Tyrone. No boundary lines were mentioned or described, it being 
merely stated that certain settlements should constitute the townships 
named. Lack township included all that part of Juniata county lying 
south and west of the Juniata river and part of the present county 
of Huntingdon. Since the establishment of these four original town- 
ships in the new purchase each has been divided and subdivided until, 
in 1913, Jimiata cotmty was composed of thirteen townships, viz.: 
Beale. Delaware, Fayette. Fermanagh, Greenwood, Lack, Milford, I\Ion- 
roe, Spruce Hill, Susquehanna, Turbett, Tuscarora and W'alker. 

Beale township was taken from Milford in 1843. Nine petitions, 
signed by 218 citizens, were presented to the Mifflin county court 
(Juniata county was at that time a part of Mifllin), asking for the 
appointment of viewers to lay of¥ a new township from parts of Mil- 
ford and Turbett, but no action was taken by the court on the peti- 



tion. The question again came before the court late in the year 
1842, when William Dunn, Thomas Stinson, and William Sharron were 
appointed viewers. They reported in favor of the petitioners, and 
recommended the formation of a new township, the territory of which 
was to be taken from Alilford township, the dividing line to be "a 
public road, first laid out in 1768, from Tuscarora creek to a point 
near Shade mountain, and from the top of that mountain to the Tus- 
carora township line." On February 8, 1843, the court approved the 
report of the viewers, and ordered the erection of the township as rec- 
ommended. By the act of March 15, 1853, the area of the township 
was slightly increased by the annexation of John Woodward's farm, 
which had previously been in Milford township. Beale township is 
bounded on the north by the Blue Ridge, which separates it from Gran- 
ville township. Alifllin county; on the east by Milford; on the south 
by Spruce Hill, and on the west by Tuscarora. It was named for one 
of the oldest families in Juniata county, particularly for John Beale, 
who was one of the mfluential citizens of the township at the time of its 

Squatters came into the territory now comprising Beale township 
before the lands in the Juniata valley had been purchased from the 
Indians. An old agreement, or deed, dated June i, 1854, recites that 
Robert Taylor, "for and in consideration of eighteen pounds," trans- 
ferred all his "Right property and interest of an improvement of land 
situate on ye Tuscarora Creek to ye said James Waddle." Then fol- 
lows a description of the boundary lines of the land, and Robert Taylor 
binds himself "in ye Pennal Sum of Thirty & Six Pounds Current 
money of Pennsylvania, allways Excepting ye Indians & Proprietor 
of this Province," etc. 

The instrument is witnessed by Samuel and Charles Kenny and 
William Beale, who must have been squatters in the vicinity. James 
Kennedy and Robert Pollock had also established homes in the imme- 
diate neighborhood of Academia, where the above transaction took 
place. The property received by Waddle (correct spelling Waddell ) 
from Robert Taylor was conveyed to William Beale on October 14, 

One of the first land warrants was issued to Alexander Maginty 
on February 3, 1755, for 312 acres. Others who entered land in that 


year were: James Williams, eighty-nine acres on the river; Thomas 
Freeman, 163 acres; James McMahan, 100 acres; Samuel Brice, 202 
acres; John Woods, who located in the upper part of the township; 
John Irwin, 200 acres on Tuscarora creek. Irwin obtained a warrant, 
but before he got the land surveyed it was included in the claims of 
others. Ten years later he entered 350 acres in the best part of the 
Tuscarora valley. In 1762 warrants were issued to Ralph Sterrett, 
John McMahan, Samuel Finley, and some others for lands in what 
is now Beale township. David Bowel (or Bole), who was appointed 
one of the trustees to organize Mifflin county in 1789, took out a war- 
rant in 1767 for sixty-seven acres, which he later sold to one of the 
Beale family. James Scott, Abraham Dewitt, Joseph Scott, and others 
came in 1767, and in that year Abraham Sanford appears on the assess- 
ment rolls as a renter of a grist-mill on the west side of the Juniata, 
the first mill on that side of the river. Other early settlers were Clement 
Horrell, David McNair, Samuel Fear, Robert Walker, the Pomeroys, 
the Beales, Robert Campbell, Thomas Harris, William Reed, and sev- 
eral others, all of whom had located in the township before the Revo- 
lutionary war. 

Beale township is bounded on the north and east by Milford, on 
the south by Spruce Hill, and on the west by Tuscarora. The principal 
villages are Academia and Walnut (or Johnstown). The former is 
located in the southern part, on the tract of land transferred by Robert 
Taylor to James Waddell in 1754, and the latter is in the northeastern 
corner. Academia takes its name from the Tuscarora Academy, which 
was the outgrowth of a classical school opened by Rev. John Coulter 
in 1800. It is the principal postoffice and trading point for the neigh- 
borhood in which it is situated, and in 1910 had a population of 186. 
Walnut was laid off by John Beale, and took the first name of the 
founder, but when the postoffice was established there it was named 
Walnut, to avoid confusion with the postoffice at Johnstown, Cambria 
county. The population was 150 in 1910. About half-way between 
these two villages was once a settlement called Allendale, but it does 
not appear on the modern maps. 

Delaware township was erected in 1836. Early in the year 1835 ^ 
petition asking for a division of Walker and Greenwood townships 
was presented to the court. John Patterson, S. Turbett, and A. Gus- 


tine were appointed viewers and made a report on September 2, 1835, 
recommending the division and the formation of a new township to be 
called "Delaware," but at the December term the report was referred 
back to them for certain corrections. An amended report was filed in 
January, in which the viewers said : "On reconsideration began at 
a post corner southeast corner of Fayette township ; then south five 
degrees, east three miles and 132 perches to a chestnut oak on the sum- 
mit of Turkey Ridge, standing in the line of Perry county; thence along 
the different courses of the same as aforesaid, as represented by the 
red line through the above draught, and humbly submit the same to 
the court." 

No action was taken at that session, but on February 3, 1S36, the 
report was read in open court and confirmed. As thus established 
Delaware is bounded on the north by Fayette township ; on the east 
by the townships of Monroe and Greenwood ; on the south by Perry 
county, and on the west by Walker iownship. Cocolamus creek flows 
across the northeast corner, and Delaware run empties into the Juniata 
near Thompsontown, which is the only borough in the township. 

In the early settlement of Juniata county many tracts of land in 
what is now Delaware township were taken up by speculators, who had 
no intention of becoming residents. Among those who settled in the 
township were Thomas Evans. James Gallagher, Edmund Huff, James 
jMcLin. Edward Edwards, Duncan AIcDougal, and William Stewart. 
The last named was a nati^•e of Ireland, who settled in Perry county 
in 1753, but was driven out by the Indians. In 1761 he located on the 
Juniata about a mile above Thompsontown. When the settlers in that 
section were driven off by the Indians he went to Carlisle, where he 
married, and in the fall of 176C returned to the settlement just above 
the mouth of the Delaware run. In 1774 his name appears on the list 
of contributors to the sufferers of Boston on account of the Stamp Act, 
his contribution being sixteen shillings. He was also one of those 
who associated themselves together for the protection of the frontier 
in 1780. Other pioneers who came before the Revolution were Edward 
Nicholas, Hugh Micheltree, John Thompson, Gabriel and Samuel Fry, 
Joseph Cookson, John Kepler, and Thomas Jordan. Edward Nicholas 
was killed by the Indians in 1756. 

About 1776 John Hamilton built a grist-mill and saw-mill on the 


Cocolamus creek, near the northeast corner of the township. Twenty 
years later this mill became the property of Jacob Sellers and later of 
Joseph Sellers. One of the first schools in the Cocolamus valley was 
at this mill. In December, 18 18. a contract was made by certain citi- 
zens, as subscribers, with John Keller "to teach a school in the school 
house on the premises of Joseph Sellers, for a term of three months, 
beginning on Monday, the 2Sth of December, which school shall be 
taught in spelling, reading, writing, and arithmetic, in English." 
The subscribers agreed to furnish twenty scholars, at $1.50 each, and 
"a sufficient supply of firewood at the door." 

The village of East Salem, near the northwest corner, was founded 
by Samuel j\I. Kurtz in the spring of 1844. In 1848 John Caveny 
opened a store there, and two years later a two-story house was built 
by John Kurtz, in which Curtis Winey kept a store. A little later a 
postoffice was established, and for several years i\Ir. Winey served as 
postmaster. Methodist and United Brethren churches were established 
there, a school house was built, and East Salem gave evidence that "it 
had come to stay." The population in 1910 was 140. 

Fayette township was the first one to be erected after Juniata be- 
came a separate county. At the December term of court in 1833 a 
petition was presented, asking for a new township, to be formed from 
parts of Greenwood and Fermanagh. Alexander Patterson, George 
Gilliford, and James Hughes were appointed to consider the merits of 
the petition and. if they found it advisable to establish a new township, 
to report the boundaries thereof. Their report was made in March, 
1834, but was not acted upon by the court until the 4th of the follow- 
ing December, when it was confirmed, and the new township was 
named Fayette. It is bounded on the north by the counties of Mifflin 
and Snyder, on the east by Monroe township, on the south by Delaware 
and Walker, and on the west by Fermanagh. 

As early as 1749 white men came up the Juniata to the mouth of 
Doe run and followed that stream to its source at the Cedar Springs. 
After exploring the surrounding country they returned to Harris' ferry. 
When a second party, influenced by the report of the first, attempted 
to visit the region they made the mistake of following Delaware run. 
and consequently failed to find the beautiful valley described by their 
predecessors. This is said to be the origin of the name "Lost creek." 


No permanent settlers came in until after the lands had been purchased 
from the Indians in 1754. On February 3, 1755, ^\'illiam Armstrong, 
John Irwin, David Hope, and William Giltnockey took out warrants 
for four tracts of land in the vicinity of ]\IcAlisterville. David Hoge 
soon after sold his land to Samuel ]\Iitchell, who built a cabin upon it, 
but in 1756 all the settlers in that part of the valley were forced to 
abandon their homes on account of Indian hostilities. Hugh AIcAlister 
bought the tract entered by John Irwin, and settled there in 1756. 
During the Indian war he served in the company of Captain Forbes, 
and in 1776 he was a member of Captain Hamilton's company, which 
joined Washington's army the day after the battle of Trenton. He rose 
to the rank of major and, after the war, was in command of the forces 
at Potter's fort, in what is now Centre county, and led an expedition 
against the Indians. His son William served in the War of 1812, and 
at its close built a fulling mill where the little village of Cocolamus 
now stands. 

Other pioneers in Fayette township were John Ouigley, James 
Jamison, Michael Stuhl, Joseph Bogle, Samuel Sharon, William Martin, 
Epenetus Hart, Hugh Watt, Jonathan Kearsley. Reuben Leonard, Rich- 
ard Dunn, John Pauly, the Shellenberger family, and others. Joseph 
Woods, a Revolutionary veteran, came into the township soon after the 
close of the war and settled near the mountain, where he remained for 
many years, when the land was claimed by some Philadelphia specu- 
lators, and he was forced to vacate. 

Most of the early settlers were of Scotch-Irish extraction, and were 
members of the Presbyterian church. The Cedar Spring church was 
organized in 1763, and a branch of the congregation was established 
at Lost Creek. It became an independent congregatiijn in 1797, and a 
log house of worship was built by Hugh Watt. A school house was 
built on the church lot in 1799, though a school house had previously 
been built on the road between Oakland Mills and McAlisterville. Wil- 
liam Pelaw was one of the first teachers. Other pioneer teachers were 
George Keller, Andrew Banks, and Stephen George. 

The villages of Fayette township are Mcx-\listerville, Oakland Mills, 
and Cocolamus. McAlisterville was laid out by Hugh ]\IcAlister in 
December, 1810. The original plat contained seven lots of one acre 
each. Two of these lots were sold to John Lauver for sixty dollars. 



and Lauver put up a blacksmith shop. In 181 1 the proprietor of the 
town erected a stone house, in which Knox & Gallagher opened a store. 
Four years later they sold out to Hugh McAlister, who removed the 
goods to a new building and continued in the business until his death 
in 1844. The brick hotel was built by Mr. McAlister in 1816. An 
addition to the town was laid out by Peter Springer in 181 3, and a 
postoffice was established in 181 5, with Hugh McAlister as postmaster. 
In 1821 the name of the postoffice was changed to Calhounville, and 
remained so for about four years, with Michael Lauver as postmaster, 
but in 1825 the name was changed back to McAlisterville, Hugh Mc- 
Alister was reappointed postmaster, and held the office until his death. 
According to Rand & JilcNally's atlas the population in 1910 was 578. 
The village has a national bank, a hotel, good public school building, 
several neat church edifices, a number of stores, and is the chief trading 
center for a rich agricultural district. 

Oakland Mills received its name in 1830, when Dr. Thomas White- 
side built the mill at that point and gave it that name. Before the close 
of that year David McClure established a store near the mill, and at 
the same time was appointed postmaster. A settlement gradually grew 
up about the mill and store, a public school was established, other 
business enterprises came in, and in 1910 Oakland Mills had a popula- 
tion of 121. 

Cocolamus, located at the forks of the creek in the eastern part of 
the township, is located on the tract of land entered by John Gallagher 
in 1762. Gallagher sold to William McAlister, whose intention was 
to lay out a town, but for some reason it was not done. A fulling 
mill was built in 1814. a store was opened in 1862. a postoffice was 
established in 1865. Avith Abraham Haldeman as postmaster, a tannery 
was started, and Cocolamus became cjuite a pretentious little place. 
In 1884 the United Brethren put up a frame church near the village. 
The population in 1910 was 220. 

Fermanagh township was erected by the Cumberland county authori- 
ties either late in the year 1754 or early in 1755. The earliest mention 
of it is in a deed given by James Patterson to William Armstrong, on 
April 20, 1755, for "one hundred and fifty-five acres of land situated 
in Fermanagh township, near the Juniata river." ^^'hen it was at 
first created it included all that part of the new purchase lying north 


of the Juniata river and that part of Mifflin county south of the river 
extending to the Black Log mountain. It has been repeatedly reduced 
in size by the formation of other townships, until now only a small 
part of the original territory comprising it bears the name of Fer- 
managh. It is bounded on the north by ?»Iifflin count}', on the east 
by Fayette township, on the south by \\^alker, and on the west by Mil- 
ford, from which it is separated by the Juniata river. 

Among the first settlers were Alexander Lafiferty, James Purdy, 
Thomas McCormick, James Sharon, Joseph Wiley. John Watson, James 
Banks, the Darrs — Adam, George, John, Peter, and Philip — William 
Riddle, Christian Lintner, Jacob Kauffman, Azariah and John Reed, 
Robert Nelson, and W'illiam Henderson. Alexander Laf^erty took up 
the tract of land where the borough of INIifflintown is now located. 
James Purdy settled at Jericho, and in 1770 put up a grist-mill, the 
first in that locality. Two of his sons, Hugh and William, were killed 
at the time of General St. Clair's defeat, November 4. 1791. James 
Sharon's land descended to his sons, William and Hugh, and at Wil- 
liam Sharon's house was held the meeting, in 1776, to organize Captain 
John Hamilton's company of cavalry, in which Hugh McAlister was 
the first man to enlist. It was also at William Sharon's that the set- 
tlers met in 1780 to take steps for the protection of the frontier. An- 
drew Douglas, who was one of the first settlers on Lost Creek, was 
wounded while on the expedition to Kittanning with Colonel John Arm- 
strong in 1756. During the Revolution the house of Robert Nelson 
was a rendezvous for the friends of the American cause. From his 
private resources he raised funds to pay soldiers, which devotion to 
the cause finally placed him in such financial straits that he sold his farm 
near Cedar Springs and removed to Ohio. He married Martha, daugh- 
ter of James Purdy, and after their removal to Ohio their daughter 
Caroline became the wife of John Brough, who was at one time gov- 
ernor of that state. 

Fermanagh has always been an agricultural community. The bor- 
ough of Mifflintown is the only town or village of consequence within 
its borders. One of the earliest school houses in the township was 
built about 1800. The "Union" school house was built about 1810 by 
the subscription of the people living in the neighborhood. Some of the 
early teachers were James Cummings, William McCoy, John Purdy, 


and James Mathers. The Pine Grove school house was buih about 
1815. After the introduction of tlie pubhc school system the directors 
divided the township into six districts, and the public schools of the 
present compare favorably with those in other portions of the state. 

Greenwood township, when erected by the Cumberland county court 
in 1767, embraced all that part of Perry county east of the Juniata 
river and south of the mouth of the Cocolamus creek and the southern 
]3arts of the present townships of Greenwood and Susquehanna, in 
Juniata county. Li the latter county the boundary was marked b}- Alc- 
Kee's path and the little Cocolamus creek. At the June term of the [Mif- 
flin county court in 1791 a petition was presented, asking that a line be 
struck "from the mouth of Delaware run, at Juniata, by the planta- 
tions of William Thompson, Joseph Cookson. William Stewart, and 
Plugh McElroy, leaving William Thompson and Hugh McElroy to the 
westward, and Joseph Cookson and William Stewart to the eastward, 
and thence northwest to the Shade Mountain, and that the part of 
Fermanagh eastward of the line thus described may be struck ofi 
therefrom and annexed to Greenwood township." 

The court appointed Samuel Osborne and Samuel Curren to have 
the divisional line run in accordance with the prayer of the petitioners, 
and report to the next court. Li September following, on the petition 
of Hugh jNIcAlister and others, the line was clianged so as to allow 
the house of William Stewart to remain in Fermanagh township, but 
the remainder of the territory was added to Greenwood. Part of 
Fayette township was taken from Greenwood in 1834; another portion 
was taken to form Delaware in 1836, and in 1858 Monroe and Susque- 
hanna were cut off, leaving Greenwood in its present form. It is 
bounded on the north by Monroe, on the east by Susquehanna, on the 
south by Perry county, and on the west by the township of Delaware. 

About 1763 Edward McConnell warranted a tract of land and built 
a cabin where the Seven Star tavern was afterward located. His 
house was the first hewed log house in that section of the county. Three 
weeks after he took possession he was compelled to fly, with the other 
settlers in that section, to Carlisle on account of the Indian uprising. 
The following year he returned, accompanied by his brother Henry, 
who took up 122 acres adjoining. This was the beginning of what 
became known as the "Cocolamus Settlement." Other early settlers in 


Greenwood were Stephen Alarshall, Leonard Pfoutz, the W'ihs, the 
Dmims, Joseph Castle, William and Church Cox. William Cox started 
the first tannery in that section of the county. Joseph Castle was an 
Irishman by birth, and came to the Cocolamus settlement about 1778. 
In 1819 he was elected justice of the peace, and held the office for 
many years. 

The first school house in the township was built about 1788, on 
what was known as the Stroup farm, but little can be learned of its 
early history. In 1810 another house was built near the Seven Star 
tavern, which was built in 1818 by Peter Stroup. Shortly after the 
public school system was accepted in 1836 the township was divided 
into four districts. Greenwood is an agricultural township without 
towns or villages of any considerable size. Dimmsville reported a popu- 
lation of 78 in 191 o. It is located on the Cocolamus creek in the 
southern part of the township. 

Lack township was one of those created by the Cumberland county 
authorities on October 2^. 1754, when the court records show the fol- 
lowing entry : "And we do further erect the settlement called the 
Tuskerora Valey into a sepparate Township and nominate the same the 
Township of Lac, and we appoint John Johnston to act therein as con- 
stable for the remaining part of the current year." 

Many of the early settlers were driven out by the Indians, but most 
of the fugitives returned after the cessation of hostilities. The assess- 
ment for 1763 showed eighty taxpayers, only a few of whom resided 
within the present limits of the township. Those known to have lived 
there at that time were John Little, George iMcConnell, John Williams, 
and David Wallace, who owned 200 acres at a place called "Wallace- 
town." During the next five years Hugh Glenn took up 200 acres at 
the mouth of George's creek, John Gemmill located where Peru !Mills 
is now, Jonathan Kearsley and David IMagaw settled on George's creek, 
James Stone, John Harvey, Andrew Ferrier, \\'illiam Kirk, George 
and Thomas Woods, John Wilson, John Glenn, David Glenn, William 
Brice, John Brady, and a few others took up lands and established 

Lack has been reduced by the formation of other townships, but it 
is still the largest in the county. It is bounded on the north by Mifflin 
county, on the east by Tuscarora township, on the south by the 


counties of Perry and Franklin, and on the west by Cumberland 
county. Through the southern part the Tuscarora creek flows east- 
ward, and closely following the line of the stream is the Tuscarora 
Valley railroad, with stations in the township at Perulack, Ross Farm, 
Leonard's Grove, and Waterloo. The first three are small places, and 
the population of Waterloo in 1910 was but 70. A postoffice was estab- 
lished there in 1820, with William C. Kelly as postmaster. A wind- 
mill factory was started there many years ago. and for a time did a 
tiiriving business. William Campbell erected a building for an academy, 
but after being used for a school for a few years it was sold to the 
Presbyterian church for a parsonage. 

The village of Peru Mills, near the center of the township, is located 
on the tract of land warranted by John Gemmill in September, 1762. 
After several changes in ownership it became the property of John 
Ferrier, who erected a grist-mill there about 1790, or perhaps a few 
years before. Andrew Ferrier, the father of John and a partner in 
the mill, while attending court at Lewistown in 1792, slept in a bed the 
covers of which had been purchased by the hotel keeper at an auction 
in Philadelphia. It developed that the bed clothes were infected with 
yellow fever, which Ferrier contracted, and he and several others about 
the mills died. The mill subsequently passed to John Patterson, who 
put up a saw-mill in connection. A postoffice was established there in 
1850, and William H. Patterson was postmaster for about eight years, 
after which his brother John held the position for about thirty years. 
James Lyon was engaged in merchandising at Peru ]\Iills as early as 
1816. A large tannery was started there in 1846. and did a good busi- 
ness for several years, closing in 1872. The population of Peru Mills 
in 1 910 was 40. 

Mil ford township, lying directly across the Juniata river from Fer- 
managh and Walker, was erected by the court of Cumberland county 
in 1768. At the October term a petition was presented which set forth 
that "The township of Lack is \^ery Unconvenient for all the Town- 
ship Offices, it being of such an Extensive Length, viz. : of above 
Thirty miles. Which makes us pray your \\'orships to order a De- 
vision of s'd Township from Tuskerora Mountain, by James Gray's, 
to William Scot's, at the foot of Shade Mountain." etc. On November 
7, 1868, the court ordered the division to be made so as to leave James 


Gray and William Scott in Lack township, the lower part to be known 
as Mil ford township. The name adopted for the new township comes 
from the mill ford, or the ford at the mill. The township is irregular 
in form, the northern part running several miles farther west than the 
main body. It is shaped something like a pipe, the narrow strip run- 
ning up the Licking creek valley being the stem, and the top of the 
bowl the southern boundary line. It is bounded on the north by ]\Iif- 
flin county, on the east by the Juniata river, on the south by Turbett 
and Spruce Hill, and on the west by Beale township. Beale also forms 
the southern boundary of the '"pipe-stem,"" the western end of which 
is bounded by Tuscarora township. 

The assessment rolls of Lack township for the year 1763 showed 
the following landowners in what is now Alilford : James Armstrong, 
David Bell, James Calhoun, Robert Campbell, William Cunningham, 
Robert Crunkleton. John Collins, Robert Huston, William Irwin, John 
McClellan, Robert Robinson, John Wilson, and Thomas Wilson. Rob- 
ert Crunkelton and Robert Robinson were listed as "squatters," they 
having come into the territory before it was purchased from the 
Indians. John McClellan came from Franklin county, and settled 
on the bank of the Juniata where the borough of ^Mifflin now stands. 
His warrant, dated September 8, 1755. called for 515 acres. Two of 
his sons, John and Daniel, were soldiers in the Continental army in the 
Revolutionary war, and another son, Joseph, kept the ferry at Mif- 
fiin (then Patterson) for several years. John McClellan held a com- 
mission as lieutenant, and died while on the march to Quebec with 
Benedict Arnold in the fall of 1775. 

Those who signed the petition for a division of Lack township in 
1768 were: Thomas Beale, William Irwin, Robert Campbell, Clement 
Horrell. Robert Hogg, James Christy, John Beale, William Renison, 
Hugh Quigley, William Bell, William Christy, James Armstrong, David 
McNair, Jr., Charles Pollock, and Robert Littell, all of whom were then 
residents of Milford township. Others who settled at an earl}- date 
were Dennis Christy, Thomas Husbands, the Lyons family, Thomas 
]\Iaguire, John Blackburn, and John Johnson, who became widely known 
as "the white hunter."' 

In 1797 Valentine Carboy taught a school in an old house that was 
fitted up for the purpose. This was probably the first school taught in 


the township. Upon the adoption of the pubHc school system the di- 
rectors divided the township into seven districts. 

About 1 791 a forge was built on Licking creek, the pig iron being 
hauled from furnaces in Centre county or floated down the Juniata 
on rafts from Cromwell's furnace near Orbisonia. In the fall of 1797 
it was sold by the sheriff and purchased by Thomas Cromwell. No 
mention of it in the tax lists can be found after 1800. A paper mill was 
built on Licking creek, about seven miles from Mifflintown, in 1817 by 
Norton cS; Selheimer, and was in active operation until about 1830. The 
products were writing paper, print paper, and brown wrapping paper. 
A large tan factory was started a short distance down the creek from the 
paper mill in 1834 by Singmaster & Company. Power was furnished 
by constructing a large dam in Licking creek, the oak bark was taken 
from the adjacent mountains, and over five hundred cords were ground 
annually. A saw-mill was also built there, but in time the supply of 
bark ran out, and the tan-factory was abandoned. 

Milford township has two boroughs — Port Royal, near the south- 
east corner, and Mifilin (formerly Patterson), opposite Mifflintown. 
The Pennsylvania railroad runs along the northern border, through 
Denholm, ^Mifflin, and Port Royal, and the Tuscarora Valley railroad 
runs from Port Royal southwest through a portion of the township. 

Monroe township, originally a part of Fermanagh, was taken from 
Greenwood in 1858. In 1857 a petition was presented to the court, 
asking for the formation of two new townships from Greenwood, 
and the court ordered an election, at which the voters were to express 
their views on the subject. The election was held on January 15, 1858, 
and resulted in 216 votes being cast in favor of the division and only 
21 against it. The minority, however, filed exceptions on the grounds: 
1st, That there was no law authorizing the court to divide a township 
into three parts upon one commission ; 2nd, That the act of the assem- 
bly did not authorize a vote to be taken on the cjuestion of dividing 
one township into three ; 3d, That no authority existed for the creation 
of more than one township at a time. The court overruled the excep- 
tions, and ordered the division, when the question was taken to the 
supreme court, which affirmed the decision of the lower court. Green- 
wood was therefore divided into the townships of Monroe, Susque- 
hanna and Greenwood. 


^Monroe is triangular in form, the northern boundary being formed 
by Snyder county, the southern by Greenwood and Susquehanna town- 
ships, and the western by Delaware and Fayette. It is separated from 
Snyder county for the greater part of the distance by the ]\Iahantango 

Thomas IMcKee, an Indian trader, located at the mouth of the 
Mahantango some time before the lands of the Juniata valley were 
purchased from the natives. The early settlers that came after the 
purchase of 1754 ascended the Susquehanna river and the IMahantango 
creek. John Graybill, who settled across the creek from where Rich- 
field now stands, in 1772, is believed to have been the first actual settler 
within the limits of the township. He was soon followed by the 
Shellenbergers, Jacob Auker, Alichael Lauver, Thomas Hewes, Jacob 
Pyle, Joseph and Jacob Sellers, Caspar \\'istar, Aquilla Burchfield, 
Joseph Page, and the Swartz family. The descendants of some of 
these pioneers still live in Juniata county. 

Among the early settlers were a number of ]\Iennonites, and a church 
of that faith was organized before the close of the century. In 1800 
a log house of worship was built a short distance west of Richfield, and 
it was used both as a church and a school house until about 181 5. The 
first school in the township was taught in this house, but the name of 
the teacher seems to have been forgotten. In 1820 the Watts school 
house was built on the farm of Samuel ^^'atts, and five years later 
another was built not far from Evandale. After the introduction of the 
public school system in 1834 the township was divided into seven school 
districts. Edward Hayes, Hannah Caveny, and Emanuel Albright were 
the earliest teachers. 

The village of Richfield was laid out by Christian Graybill in 1818, 
and the first house was erected l)y Christian Zimmerman. For the 
first fifteen years the growth of the place was slow, Init in 1833 John 
Wallis opened a store, and a postoffice was established, with 'Mr. Wallis 
as postmaster. Prior to that time a store had been kept by a man 
named Clarkson at Auker's Mills, about a mile farther down the ;\Ia- 
hantango. A tavern was opened by Joseph Schnee, opposite Wallis' 
store. It was destroyed by fire in 1844. According to Rand & Mc- 
Nally's atlas the population of Richfield was 500 in 1910. It is the 
principal trading point for a rich agricultural district in that section 


of the county. It has a bank, some good stores, a pubHc school build- 
ing, neat churches, and cozy homes. 

Evandale, near the western line of the township, grew up about 
the store, which was opened by Isaac Haldeman in 1855. Before that 
time there had been a postoffice at Sellers' IMill, but it was removed to 
Haldeman's store, and Job Haldeman was appointed postmaster. A 
school house had been built there many years before. It is a typical 
country village, and in 1910 reported a population of 125. 

Spruce Hill, the last township in the county to be erected, was 
formed by the division of Turbett on September 10, 1858. When the 
petition came before the court, asking for the establishment of a new 
township, Joseph INIiddaugh, Isaac Kurtz, and David Bashore were 
appointed viewers. Their report recommended the new township, and 
it was confirmed by the court on the date above named. The territory 
comprising it was a part of Lack until 1768; then a part of Milford 
until 181 5, and from that time until its erection in 1858 it was included 
in Turbett township. 

In the early settlement of the country some of those who located in 
what is now Spruce Hill township were: Hugh Ouigley, Samuel 
Christy, John Sherrard. James Kenny, William Graham, William J\Ic- 
IMullen, Arthur Eccles. and William Stewart. The last named took out 
a warrant on February 3. 1755, for a tract of land along the Juniata 
river, but was killed by the Indians before the land was surveyed. His 
widow married John Williams, a noted hunter who was wounded at 
the battle of Brandywine, in the Revolution, and the tract taken up 
by Stewart was warranted to Williams in 1788. Northeast of the pres- 
ent village of Spruce Hill William Anderson became possessed of squat- 
ter rights on a tract of land including a spring, near which he built 
his cabin. He was appointed assessor of Lack township in October, 

1762, and took the first assessment the succeeding spring. On July 10, 

1763, he and his son Joseph, and a girl who lived with the family, were 
killed by a marauding band of Indians. The tragedy occurred in the 
evening, and the old man died with his Bible in his hand. It was sup- 
posed that he was about to engage in family worship when the attack 
was made. 

Spruce Hill is bounded on the north by Beatand Milford townships, 
on the east by Turbett, on the south by Perry county, and on the west 


by the township of Tuscarora. Tlie Tuscarora creek flows along the 
northern border, and south of it runs the Tuscarora \'alley railroad, 
with stations at Grahams. Spruce Hill, Esh. Pleasant \'iew and \\'arble. 
In the northwestern part is the village of McCoysville, which is the 
largest in the township, having a population of 142 in 1910. Near the 
western boundary is a station on tlie Tuscarora Valley railroad, called 
Fort Bigham, which is near the site of the old fort of that name, which 
was destroyed by the Indians on June 11, 1756. The postoffice at 
Pleasant View was formerly called Tuscarora \'alley. It was estab- 
lished about 1830. with James Milliken as postmaster. The population 
of Pleasant View was 100 in 1910. Spruce Hill, five miles from Port 
Royal, is a trading point for a considerable neighborhood, and in 1910 
reported a population of 58. The township derives its name from an 
elevation on the bank of the Tuscarora creek, which was covered with 
spruce trees at the time the township was formed. 

Susquehanna township was taken from Greenwood at the same time 
as Monroe, in 1858. and a full account of how the division was made 
may be found in the sketch of Monroe township above. It is the 
smallest township in the county, is bounded on the north by Monroe 
township and Snyder count}', on the east by the Susquehanna river, 
on the south by Perry county, and on the west by the township of 
Greenwood. The Mahantango creek forms a considerable portion of 
the northern boundary. Its largest tributaries in the township are 
Jobson's run and Kepner's run. 

Probably the first land warrant for any portion of what is now Sus- 
quehanna township was the one issued to Thomas McKee. on March 5, 
1755, for a tract on the river at the mouth of the Mahantango creek, 
where he had established a trading post some years before. A trail 
leading from that point to the interior was long known as '']\IcKee's 
path." Above IMcKee's Michael Whitmer took up a tract of 150 acres, 
and he is believed to have been the founder of the old stone mill, saw- 
mill, and distillery at that place. The first settlement back from the 
river was commenced in August, 1766. when James Gallagher warranted 
a tract of 211 acres near the southwest corner of the townshij). Other 
early settlers were Samuel Osborne. Martin Doctor. Henry Zellers, Laz- 
arus Wingert, Rudolph Schmelzer. Jacob Segrist, and Joshua Hunt. 

Oriental, in the northern part, is the only village of importance. A 


store was started there in 1855 by Amos Miller, who continued in busi- 
ness for about ten years, and a postoffice was established there before 
the Civil War. The population in 1910 was 130. On the Susquehanna 
river, in the southeast corner, was formerly a postoffice called Mahan- 
tango, but it was discontinued when the rural free delivery system was 

Turbett township was erected while Juniata was a part of Mifflin 
countv. At the August term of court in 181 5 a petition was presented, 
asking for a division of Milford township. Andrew Keiser, David 
Reynolds, and William P. Maclay were appointed viewers, and reported 
in favor of the division, which was confirmed at the November term. 
At that session Jonathan Walker was the presiding judge, and at his 
suggestion the record was made as follows : "Court confirm the said 
division and name the southern division 'Turbett,' after Colonel Thomas 
Turbett, under whom the President of this Court marched as a com- 
mon soldier against the Indians during the Revolution. He was brave, 
vigilant, and humane." 

AMien the first assessment was taken in 18 17 there were 145 resi- 
dent taxpavers and twenty-nine single freemen. Spruce Hill township 
was cut off from Turbett in 1858, leaving the latter in its present form. 
It is bounded on the north by Milford township, on the east by Walker 
and the Juniata river, on the south by Perry county, and on the west 
by Spruce Hill. East of Turbett and lying between the Perry county 
line and the Juniata river is a narrow strip of land once known as the 
"Happy Banks of Goshen," under which name it was patented to John 
Thompson, who lived near Vandyke station on the Pennsylvania rail- 
road. A road ran along the south side of the river, known as the 
Goshen road. This strip was formerly in Milford township, but was 
transferred to Fermanagh in 1791 and now forms that part of Walker 
and Delaware townships lying south of the Juniata. At Thompson's 
there was a shad fishery. 

On February 3, 1755, Captain W'illiam Patterson warranted 336 
acres opposite Mexico, where his father. Captain James Patterson, took 
up a large tract the next day. Here he built a block-house as a defence 
against the Indians. In January, 1768, with a posse of nineteen men, 
William Patterson marched to Middle creek, in what is now Snyder 
county, and arrested Frederick Stump and John Eisenhour for the 


killing of the "White !Mingo" and nine other Lidians. The prisoners 
were taken to the Carlisle jail, and Patterson was made a justice of the 
peace for making the arrest, the first man to hold that office west of 
the Tuscarora mountain. Other early settlers were Alexander Denni- 
son, Stacy Hepburn, Thomas Lowery, Charles Hunter, John McDowell, 
James and William Kenny, John Ivepner, Robert I\Ioore, John Ander- 
son, and David Littell. Captain James Patterson also warranted a tract 
of land where the Tuscarora station on the Pennsylvania railroad is 
now located. This tract included the "Roaring Spring," a large 
stream that issued from the crevices in the rock with such force as to 
cause a loud roaring sound. The spring was destroyed by the building 
of the railroad. Colonel Thomas Turbett, for whom the township was 
named, purchased James Kenny's land and in 1775 started the first tan- 
nery in what is now Juniata county. Captain \\"illiam ^Martin, who 
served in Armand's First Partisan Legion in the Revolutionary war, was 
a pioneer in Turbett township, where he died about 1822. 

As early as 1798 James Garner taught a school in a house near 
Kilmer's grave-yard, said to have been the first school house in the 
township. Jacob Buehler, David Powell and Benjamin Lane were 
also among the earliest teachers. There was in early days a school 
house in connection with the Lutheran church on Church hill. After 
the introduction of the public school system the township was divided 
into five districts, and houses erected in each by the public funds. 

Near the northeast corner is the borough of Port Royal, the largest 
town in the township. It is the terminus of the Tuscarora Valley 
railroad, which runs southwest, the stations in Turbett township being 
Old Port, Turbett, Freedom, and Grahams. Along the bank of the 
Juniata runs the main line of the Pennsylvania, with stations at Port 
Royal, Mexico, and Tuscarora. 

Tuscarora township was erected by the Mifflin county court in 1825. 
Early in the year a petition was received, asking for a division of 
Lack township, and Hugh Hart, John Graham, and Richard Doyle 
Avere appointed viewers. At the April term they reported in favor of 
the division on the following line : "Beginning at a stone heap at the 
Perry county line, on the northeast side of the gap of the Tuscarora 
mountain leading into Horse valley; thence north 25^ west through 
lands of Benjamin Wallace, John Wilson, Robert ]\Iagill, across said 


township (Lack) nine miles to the line of Wayne township, below the 
residence of Kerney in Black Log valley, in said county." 

Tuscarora is the second largest township in the county, being 
bounded on the north by Mifflin county, east by the townships of Mil- 
ford, Beale, and Spruce Hill, south by Perry county, and west by Lack 
township. The Tuscarora creek and its tributaries drain the township. 

Robert McKee, Samuel Bigham, and John Collins were the most 
prominent of those who warranted lands in 1755. In 1762 Jane Swan, 
widow of Thomas Swan, who was reported among the missing by 
Colonel John Armstrong after his expedition to Kittanning, warranted 
103 acres in 1762 and an additional sixty-eight acres the following 
March. The latter tract became known as the "Deep Spring Planta- 
tion." Few settlements of a permanent character were made until 
about 1767, owing to the hostility of the Indians. Among those who 
came in 1767 were Thomas Kerr, John Gray, John Potts, William 
Beale, Joseph Scott, Joseph Scott, and John Morrison. Stephen and 
Robert Porter had come into the township the preceding year, and in 
1768-69 the population was increased by the arrival of Alexander Potts, 
Daniel Campbell, Jonathan Taylor, Jane Campbell, and some others. 
William Arbuckle, Thomas ^Martin, Samuel Finley, James McLaughlin, 
John Hamilton, John and Samuel Martin had all taken up lands prior 
to the Revolution. After the Revolution the fertile valleys of Tusca- 
rora township received their share of the emigrants who came westward 
on the tide of emigration. 

One of the first schools was taught by James Butler near ]McCoys- 
ville in 1807. John Erskine taught near Reed's gap, and in 181 2 a 
man named Gardner opened a school near Anderson's fulling ]nill. It 
is said that he treated his pupils to whisky and sugar. After the public 
school system came in the township was divided into ten districts. 

The Tuscarora Valley railroad runs through the southern part of 
the township, with stations at Honey Grove, Heckman, and East Water- 
ford. Honey Grove was formerly called Bealetown, because David 
Beale erected a mill there at an early date and a settlement grew up 
around the mill. A postoffice was established in 1839, and Jesse Beale 
was the first postmaster. The name of the postoffice was Beale's Mills, 
but when Francis Snyder was appointed postmaster he objected to it on 
account of its similarity to Bell's ^lills, and set about having it changed. 


About that time a swarm of bees made a hive in a house belonging to 
A\'illiam A'an Swearingen, and this incident suggested the name of 
"Honey Grove," which was adopted by the postoffice department. The 
village had a population of 279 in 1910. 

East Waterford was laid out by Dr. Thomas Laughlin about 1796, 
but the sale of lots was slow for a time, and a lottery was devised for 
making them move faster. Each subscriber paid a certain amount, 
and the winners of lots were to pay an additional amount. In the head- 
ing to the subscription papers the town is described as being "situated 
on the leading road from McClelland's ferry, mouth of Tuscarora creek, 
and Carlisle, which leads to Path A'alley, Aughwick. and Burnt Cabins." 
The Tuscarora creek, on which the town stands, is described as "navi- 
gable in time of flood for a considerable burthen down to the Juniata 
river," etc. In 1884 the village, according to a description written at 
that time by Professor A. L. Guss, contained "a store, hotel, and twenty- 
seven d>velling houses. Several of its industries, past and present, are 
up the Mill run within the limits of Lack township." After the building 
of the Tuscarora \'alley railroad the place began to grow, and in 1910 
it had a population of 340. 

McCo}'sville, near the eastern Ijorder of the township, grew up about 
the mill built by Xeal McCoy in 1829. A postoffice was established in 
1837, with Joseph S. Laird as postmaster. A store and a hotel soon 
followed, and in a few years McCoysville became a neighborhood 
center. Like most rural hamlets, it has never grown to any considerable 
proportions. Its population in 1910 was 142. 

In the northwestern part is a little hamlet and postoffice called Reed's 
Gap. It is at the gap leading into the head of the Black Log valley, 
on a tract of land warranted by Robert Reed, hence the name. In 1869 
a postoffice was established here, and James Irwin was the first post- 
master. A few years later there were two stores, a blacksmith shop, 
several dwellings, etc. In 1910 the population was but 56. 

\\"alker township, situated in the central part of the county, was 
erected while Juniata was still a part of Mifflin county. In November, 
1821, a petition asking that a new township be created from Ferma- 
nagh was presented to the court. Daniel Christy. William AIcAlister, 
Jr., and David Walker were appointed viewers, and on January 19, 1822, 
made a report favoring the division of Fermanagh and recommending 


certain boundaries for the new township. At the April term following 
the report was confirmed, and the southern part of Fermanagh was 
erected into a new township called \A'alker. Its original area was 
reduced by the formation of Delaware township in 1836, since which 
time it has been bounded as follows : On the north by the townships 
of Fayette and Fermanagh, on the east by Delaware, on the south 
by Perry county, and on the west by the townships of Milford and 
Turbett, from which it is separated by the Juniata river. A portion 
of the township lies south of the Juniata in the narrow strip between 
the river and Perry county. 

In the report of Richard Peters, provincial secretary, in 1850, con- 
cerning the trespassers on the Indian lands, is the following statement : 

"About the year 1740 or 1741, one Frederick Star, a German, with 
two or three more of his countrymen, made some settlements at the 
above place, where we found W^illiam White, the Galloways, and 
Andrew Lycon, on Big Juniata, situate at the distance of twenty-five 
miles from the mouth thereof, and about ten miles north of the Blue 
Hills, a place much esteemed by the Indians for some of their best 
hunting-grounds, which ( settlers ) were discovered by the Delawares 
at Shamokin to the deputies of the Six Nations, as they came down 
to Philadelphia in 1743," etc. 

The distance from the mouth of the Juniata, coupled with the state- 
ments of Rupp and others that the settlement made by the Germans 
was on the north side of the Juniata, would bring the trespassers within 
the limits of the present Walker township. In response to the repeated 
complaints of the Indians the squatters were expelled and some of 
their cabins burned, though Peters, in the report above referred to, 
says : "It may be proper to add that the cabbins or log Houses which 
were burnt were of no considerable value, being such as Country People 
erect in a day or two, and cost only the charge of an entertainment." 

If the location of the squatters in Walker township is correct they 
were doubtless the first white men who attempted to establish them- 
selves in that section. On February 3, 1755, the first day the land 
office was open for business in the matter of granting land warrants 
for the new purchase, William White and John Lycon each took out 
warrants — the former for 200 and the latter for 323 acres — on the 
Juniata, adjoining the tract warranted on the next day by James 


Patterson where Mexico now stands. Patterson has generally been 
credited with being the first settler, but in view of the above facts it is 
quite probable that the honor belongs to Frederick Star and his asso- 
ciates. Patterson was one of the most prominent of the early settlers. 
In 1767 he built the first grist-mill and saw-mill east of the Juniata. 
During the latter years of the French and Indian war his house was 
used as base of supplies, and at one time, in the fall of 1756, a large 
quantity of flour was stored there for the use of troops on the fron- 

In the expulsion of the trespassers Andrew Lycon resisted arrest, 
for which his cabin was burned and he was taken to Carlisle and placed 
in jail. His name does not appear again in connection with the settle- 
ment of the Juniata valley, but on February 3, 1755, John Lycon (also 
written Lukens ) was granted ^2^ acres of land opposite the present 
Vandyke station. Other early settlers were Valentine Sterns, Jesse 
Jacobs, William Cochran, John Mitchell, Robert Tea, David Walker, 
Michael Funk, David Allen, Rev. Thomas Barton, and John Hamilton. 

David Walker was a native of County Antrim, Ireland, and dur- 
ing the Revolution served as a member of the company raised in what 
is now Juniata county and commanded by Captain Gibson. Some 
claim that the township was named for him and others contend 
that it was named for Jonathan Walker, who was for a 
number of years the president judge of the Mifflin county court. 
John Hamilton was captain of the cavalry company that was raised 
in 1776 and joined \\'ashington the next day after the battle of Tren- 
ton. In 1787 he removed to Harrisburg, and died there in August, 


In 18 1 2 Tobias Kreider laid out the town of New Mexico at the 

mouth of Doe run. John S. Blair opened a tavern there in 1820, after 
the turnpike was completed, and kept the place for many years. The 
first store in the village was opened by James Thompson in 1814, and, 
when the postoffice was established in 182 1, he was appointed postmaster. 
Hugh Knox was the first blacksmith, and in 1836 Charles Thompson 
built a foundry which continued in operation for about thirty years. 
The "New" was dropped from the name some years ago and the place is 
known simply as "Mexico," a station on the Pennsylvania on the oppo- 
site side of the river bearing the same name. The population of the 


village in 19 10 was 184. Other villages in the township are Van Wert, 
known at first as "Slabtown," in the eastern part, and Vandyke, a small 
station between Mexico and Thompsontown. About a mile below Mif- 
flintown, on the river, James Taylor laid out a town about 1789 which 
was known as Taylorstown and later as Mifflinburgh. The lots were in 
time returned to agricultural use and the town L only a vague memory. 

There are four boroughs in Juniata county: Mififlintown, Mifflin, 
Port Royal, and Thompsontown. Mifflintown, the county-seat and 
largest town in the county, is pleasantly situated on the left bank of 
the Juniata river, forty-nine miles from Harrisburg. The town site was 
warranted to Alexander Lafferty on September 8, 1755. After several 
changes in ownership it passed to John Harris in 1774. When the move- 
ment for the erection of Mifflin county commenced in 1788 a number of 
citizens, through a committee of three disinterested persons, selected 
Harris' plantation as the site of the county-seat. Before the question 
was finally settled Harris, iu /790, laid out a town and named it Mifflin- 
town, in honor of Governor Thomas Mifflin. The square now occupied 
by the court-house and jail was set apart by him for the county build- 
ings, and the fight to have the county-seat located there was kept up 
for years. Harris died on February 24. 1794, and did not see the reali- 
zation of his hopes, for Mifflintown did not become a county-seat until 
after the erection of Juniata county in 1831. 

When John Harris bought the land in 1774 there was a log house 
upon it south of the ravine, "at the intersection of the Cedar Spring road 
and Water street." Rev. Philip Fithian stopped with Harris the next 
year and described his house as "elegant, the windows in the parlor each 
containing twenty-four large lights of glass." This was the first house 
in ]\Iifflintown, but by whom it was built is not certain. Additions were 
made to it by Harris and in time it assumed the character described by 
Fithian. In 1791 the proprietor of the town designated a lot on Main 
street for a church and cemetery, in which he was the first person to be 

A slight impulse was given to the growth of the town by the open- 
ing of the canal in 1829, and after the erection of Juniata county the 
village took on new life. The first court-house was built in 1832. On 
December 19, 1832, a meeting was held to discuss the advisability of 
incorporating the town. A petition was prepared and signed by nearly 


all present, after which it was sent to the legislature. On March 6, 1833, 
Governor Wolfe approved the act incorporating the town. An election 
for ])orough officers was held a few days later and resulted in the choice 
of the following: James Frow, chief burgess; David Elder, assistant 
burgess; Joseph Cummings, Robert C. Gallagher, Andrew Parker, Amos 
Gustine, and James JMathers, councilmen ; Samuel Wright, constable. 
These officers met at the house of Joseph Cummings on ]\Iarch 18, 1833, 
and were sworn into office. 

The first physician in the town was Dr. Ezra Doty, a native of 
Sharon, Connecticut. Shortly after Mifflintown was founded he made 
a tour of Pennsylvania and stopped there for the night. One of the citi- 
zens was suddenly taken ill and the young doctor was called in. His 
patient recovered and the neighbors persuaded him to locate there. 

In 1792 Captain David Davidson located in Mifflintown. He had 
served in the Continental army during the Revolution. He built a hotel 
on Water street and named it the "General Greene House,'' which he 
kept for several years. This was the first hotel. Some years later 
the "Yellow House" was opened and conducted as a hotel until destroyed 
by fire, the daughter and stepdaughter of the proprietor perishing in the 
flames. The Mansion House, later the National Hotel, was built in 
1833. Other hotels came later, but in the spring of 1913, when the 
court refused to grant licenses for the sale of intoxicating liciuors, two 
of the largest houses closed. 

.\ postoffice was established early in the nineteenth century, and in 
t8o8 Captain Davidson was postmaster. In that year the Juniata Stage 
Company began running their stages through Mifflintown. The first 
newspapers, the Juniata Free Press and the Juniata Telegraph, were 
started in 1832. The first tannery was started by Jacob Wright, who 
came to Mifflintown from Chambersburg in 1794. Amos Doty, a 
brother of the doctor, started the second one about 1809. Among the 
pioneer merchants were Amos Gustine, James Knox, Robert C. Gallag- 
her, and S. & M. W. Abraham. The first bank was established in 1864. 

In August, 1795, in a petition for opening a road, mention is made 
of a "school house on Main street," which is the first information of 
such an institution in the town. Rev. Matthew Brown was one of the 
early teachers, but whether in this house or not is not known. In 181 5 
a subscription fund was started for the erection of a public school house 











and in Alay, 1816, the trustees — Rev. John Hutcheson, Benjamin Law, 
and William Bell — bought a lot on Third street and a stone house was 
built during that year. On November 4. 1S34, a meeting was held in 
the court-house, composed of delegates from the several townships, 
which decided to raise $3,500 for the purpose of establishing public 
schools, pursuant to the law passed at the preceding session of the legis- 
lature. The Mitflintown Academy was founded and incorporated in 

In 1910 the population of Alifflintown was 954. It has two national 
banks, a number of well-stocked stores, water-works, electric lighting 
system, neat residences, several commodious church buildings, and the 
general atmosphere is one of contentment and prosperity. 

Mit^in, directly across the Juniata river from Mifflintown, was until 
recently called Patterson, under which name it was laid out in 1849. 
The land where the borough stands was warranted to John ]\IcClellan in 
September, 1755, and the place was known as ]\IcClellan's ferry for a 
long time before the town was laid out. A tract of ground was given 
by the proprietors to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, which built 
repair shops there in 185 1. This gave the new town an impetus, a force 
of some seventy-five men being employed in the shops, and Patterson 
was for a time an active little place. In 1869 most of the machinery 
in the shops was removed to Altoona and two years later the round- 
house was demolished, which proved a check upon the prosperity. Fal- 
lon & Wright built a hotel called the Patterson House and had a con- 
tract with the railroad company that two trains daily were to stop there 
long enough for passengers to take meals. The hotel was kept by the 
Lusk brothers until 1854 and then by William Bell for about four years, 
after which it became merely a lunch room. 

Patterson was incorporated by an act of the legislature, approved 
March 17, 1853, and by the act of April i8th of the same year John 
J. Patterson, James North, and Joseph IMiddaugh were authorized to 
carry out the provisions of the incorporation act by holding an election 
for borough officers on the first Tuesday in Alay. Subsequently it was 
discovered that the tax on the act of incorporation had not been paid 
and the act was therefore inoperative and the election void. Bv the act 
of April 13, 1854, the election was legalized and the borough became a 
thing of fact. The writer has been unable to ascertain the results of 


that first election. The first school board was organized on May 23, 


On April i, 1880, a hook and ladder company was organized and 

provided itself with truck, ladders, buckets, Babcock fire extinguishers, 

etc. It was chartered on June 10, 1884, as the "Friendship Hook and 

Ladder Company," with about fifty members. A house was erected for 

the use of the company and on it was placed the bell formerly on the 

old court-house. 

James North was the first merchant. He opened his store in ]\Iay, 
1850, with a stock of goods valued at $250. Oles & Frank opened a 
store in 1853. Twenty-five years later the borough had seven dry-goods 
stores, a drug store, a hardware store, three hotels, a shoe store, and two 
coal and lumber yards. 

In the census of 1910 the name is still given as Patterson, but about 
that time the name of the postoffice was changed to jMifilin and the name 
of the borough was altered to correspond. In that year the population 
was 885. Mifflin has a bank, several good mercantile houses, hotels, etc., 
and is the principal railway station between Port Royal and Lewistown. 

Port Royal, situated at the mouth of the Tuscarora creek, three 
miles east of Mifflin, had its beginning more than a century ago. In 
June, 1792. John Campbell sold to Lawrence King 218 acres of land 
on Tuscarora creek, a short distance above the mouth. Some time be- 
tween that and the end of the century King laid out a town which was 
called "St. Tammany's Town." In April, 1815, Henry Groce laid out 
a town at the mouth of the creek and named it Perrysville in honor of 
Commodore Perry, whose fame was at that time being discussed by 
nearly everybody. In 1833, or about that time, a postoffice was estab- 
lished at St. Tammany's Town and the name of the office was made 
"Port Royal." AAHien the railroad was completed Perrysville was on 
the line of the railway and the business of St. Tammany's Town began 
to drift to the station. In 1847 the postoffice was removed there, but 
the name was not changed. In the meantime the town at the mouth of 
the creek had been incorporated on April 4, 1843, under the name of 
Perrysville. One name for the borough and another for the postoffice 
caused confusion, but it was not until 1874 that the name of Perrysville 
was dropped and the borough took the name of Port Royal. Since that 
time St. Tammanv's Town has been known as "Old Port." 


The first store in Port Royal (or Ferrysville) was kept by Benjamin 
Kepner in a stone house near the river. In April, 1829, the Perrysville 
Bridge Company was incorporated and the first bridge across the river 
was built two years later. It was broken down by the weight of a heavy 
snow-fall in 1839. A second bridge was built in 1842 and it was washed 
away by a flood in October, 1847. The third bridge was built in 1851. 
The first school was taught by John Gish in a house that stood on the 
river bank. On April 5, 1856, the borough was organized as a separate 
district and in 1870 a two-story brick school house was built. 

In 1910 the population of Port Royal was 535. It has a bank, sev- 
eral good stores, some manufacturing enterprises, churches of various 
denominations, and a number of neat residences. It is the terminus of 
the Tuscarora Valley railroad, which runs southwest up the valley 
through a rich agricultural district and is the means of bringing to the 
merchants of Port Royal a large country trade. 

Thompsontown grew up about the mill erected by John Kepner in 
1 77 1. William Thompson bought a part of the tract in 1785 and in 
1790 laid out the town. In the same year Michael Holman was licensed 
to keep a tavern, which was one of the first business enterprises estab- 
ylajixj-^ ^^^^^^- /^li^hSef Lichtenthaler came to the village in 1796 and opened 
a tavern. He also operated two distilleries until his death about 1810. 
John McGary was the first postmaster, the postoffice being kept in his 
tavern, and he was also the first justice of the peace. Other early busi- 
ness concerns were the tannery of James McLin, started about 1794, and 
the store of William Thompson, which was opened in iSoi. In 1809 
he put up a fulling mill and two distilleries and in 1812 added a carding 
machine to the fulling mill. He died about a year later. 

Miss Nancy McGary was the first school teacher. In 1833 the 
Thompsontown Academy was built by subscription and was used as a 
school house and church for several years. In 1838 the township of 
Delaware accepted the school law and the Thompsontown school was a 
part of the township system until the spring of 1868, when it was made 
an independent district. This was largely due to the fact that Thomp- 
sontown had been incorporated as a borough on December 4, 1867, with 
Thomas Patton as the first chief burgess. 

Lodges of various fraternal organizations are or have been in exist- 
ence in Thompsontown. The Odd Fellows' hall was built by a stock 


company, in connection with which the Postoffice Building Association 
was organized in October, 1865. In 1905 a bank was organized with a 
capital stock of $10,000. The population of the borough in 1910 was 


Besides the four boroughs, the postoffices of the county, with the 
population of each, are as follows: Academia, 186; Blacklog, 173; 
Bunkertown, 62 ; Cocolamus, 220 ; Doyle's Mills, 48 ; East Waterf ord, 
340; Evandale, 125; Honey Grove, 279; Kilmer, 26; McAlisterville, 
578; McCoysville, 142; Mexico, 184; Nook, 25; Oakland Mills, 121; 
Oriental, 130; Perulack, 27; Pleasant View, 100; Reed's Gap, 56; Rich- 
field, 500; Ross Farm, 22; Spruce Hill, 58; Vandyke, 34; Walnut, 150; 
Wistie, 30. There are two rural delivery routes from East Waterford, 
one from Honey Grove, two from McAlisterville, one from ]^Iifflin, three 
from MifHintown, one from Perulack, two from Port Royal, two from 
Richfield, one from Spruce Hill, and two from Thompsontown, making 
a total of seventeen in the county. 


Perry a Part of Cumberland County — Organic Act of 1820 — Boundaries as Fixed by 
the Law — Commission to Locate the County Seat — Ten Sites in the Contest — 
Protests — A New Commission — General Dissatisfaction — Meetings Held — A Third 
Commission — End of the Contest — Sale of Lots — The First Jail — Court-House 
and Additions Thereto — A New Jail — The Poor-House — Election Districts — Irreg- 
ular Outline of the County — Boundaries— Railroads — The Civil List. 

PERRY county embraces the southern part of the Indian purchase 
of July 6, 1854, and began its separate existence as a political 
organization under the provisions of the act of the Pennsylvania 
legislature approved March 22, 1820. Prior to the passage of that act 
all the territory now included within the limits of Perry county formed 
a part of the county of Cumberland. 

Section i of the act provided that "From and after the first day of 
September, 1820, all that part of Cumberland county lying north of the 
Blue mountain, beginning on the summit of the Blue mountain, where 
the Franklin county line crosses the same, and running thence along the 
summit thereof an eastwardly course to the river Susquehanna; thence 
up the west side of the same to the line of Mifflin county ; thence along 
the Mifflin county line to the Juniata river; thence along the summit of 
the Tuscarora mountains to the Franklin county line; thence along the 
Franklin county line to the place of beginning, be and the same is hereby 
declared to be erected into a separate county to be called Perry." 

It should be borne in mind that at the time Perry county was thus 
created the county of Juniata was part of Mifflin, and the Mifflin county 
line described in the above section is now the southern boundary of 

Section 9 authorized the governor to appoint, before the first day 
of September, when the act was to become effective, "three disinter- 
ested persons, not resident in the county of Cumberland or Perry, whose 



duty it shall be to select a proper and convenient site for a court-house, 
prison, and county offices, as near the center as circumstances shall admit, 
having regard to convenience of roads, territory, population, and ac- 
commodation of the people," etc. 

Pursuant to the provisions of this section. Governor Findlay ap- 
pointed William Beale, Jacob Buchner, and David Maclay, as commis- 
sioners, and immediately a spirited rivalry started among different locali- 
ties for the county seat. Ten contestants entered the race, viz : Landis- 
burg. Cedar Run (then in Toboyne but now in Madison township), 
Douglas' place near Greenpark, Elliottsburg, Captain William Power's 
place, Casper Lupfer's farm near the present town of New Bloomfield, 
George Barnett's place, Reider's Ferry (now Newport), a site on the 
south side of the Juniata river opposite Millerstown, and Clark's Ferry. 
Meetings were held in the interests of each of the proposed sites, and 
in some instances funds were raised by subscription for the purpose of 
defraying the expense of erecting public buildings. The Landisburg sub- 
scription list was signed by fifty-eight persons and aggregated $i.6io. 
Helfenstine and Cry, the chief promoters of the Cedar Run site, headed 
a list signed by thirty-one persons, promising to pay $2,907, and further 
agreed to raise the amount to $5,000 in the event their site was chosen. 
Casper Lupfer, in a communication to the commissioners, ofifered to 
donate a certain amount of land and to "execute a deed of conveyance to 
the commissioners of Perry county, or to any person or persons lawfully 
authorized to receive title for the site for the court-house, prison, and 
county offices, gratis and without any fee or reward whatever, to be for 
the only proper use, benefit, and behoof of the county of Perry forever." 

After two weeks spent in examining the various proposed sites, the 
commissioners, on August 17, 1820, announced their selection as the 
farm of Captain William Power, about two miles west of the present 
town of New Bloomfield. This action seemed to meet with general dis- 
approval. On August 26th a public meeting at Landisburg adopted a 
resolution protesting against the site selected, on the ground that it was 
"a place having no intersection of roads, no direct intercourse with 
adjacent counties, destitute of good water, good mills, or even good mill 

The contest was now reopened and the fight began in earnest. Dur- 
ing the fall and early winter a petition to the legislature asking for the 


appointment of another commission was circulated throughout the 
county and received a large number of signatures. In response to this 
petition the legislature passed an act on April 2, 182 1, directing the 
appointment of a new commission before May i, 1821, and provided 
that the final report of such commission should be in the hands of the 
governor not later than the first of June. The names of the commis- 
sioners appointed under this act cannot be ascertained, but it is known 
that they recommended Reider's Ferry (Newport) as a location for the 
county seat. As this point is several miles north and east of the center 
of the county, the choice aroused more dissatisfaction than did that of 
the first commission. Again the question was brought before the legis- 
lature and, on March 11, 1822, Governor Hiester approved an act in 
which Moses Rankin, of York county; James Hindman, of Chester 
county; Peter Frailey, of Schuylkill county; David FuUerton, of Frank- 
lin county, and James Agnew, of the county of Bedford, were named as 
commissioners, with instructions to select a site for a county seat and 
report by June i, 1822. 

These commissioners decided in favor of Landisburg, which is about 
as far from the center of the county as Reider's Ferry, but in the opposite 
direction. The selection, therefore, did not suit the people of the eastern 
part of the county. On June 5, 1822, only a few days after the report of 
the commission was made public, the citizens of the five eastern townships 
held a meeting at the house of John Koch, in what is now Juniata town- 
ship, to make formal protest. Frazer Montgomery, William Waugh, and 
John Harper were chosen as a committee to prepare an address to the 
people of the county showing why the action of the commissioners 
should be repudiated. The address was a rather lengthy one, but its 
burden was that Landisburg was within three miles of the Cumberland 
county line, and that the selection of such a place for a county seat was 
unjust to the county at large. No further agitation of the subject oc- 
curred until October 16, 1822, when a meeting of the citizens of Juniata 
and Buffalo townships was held at the house of Meredith Darlington 
for a general consideration of the county seat question. At this meeting 
a resolution favoring the first location — Captain Power's farm in the 
Limestone valley — was adopted and a petition was drawn up setting 
forth the facts that three commissions had been appointed under acts 
of the legislature; that the last commission had recommended the loca- 


tion of the county seat at Landisburg, and requested that the site chosen 
by the first commission be made the seat of justice. 

The action of this meeting stirred the other portions of the county to 
activity. On November i6th a meeting was held at Bark Tavern in 
Rye township, at which it was proposed that the citizens of the several 
townships each elect two delegates on December 7th, the delegates so 
selected to meet at the Bark Tavern on the loth to decide upon a location 
for a county seat and then circulate a petition asking the legislature to 
pass an act fixing the seat of justice upon the site thus selected. No 
record has been preserved of the meeting of the delegates on December 
loth, but when the legislature assembled shortly afterward ^Ir. Mitchell. 
a member of the house of representatives, introduced in that body a 
number of petitions, signed by some eight hundred citizens of the county, 
asking that the county seat be established upon the site selected by the 
first commission. After much discussion the proposition was finally 
defeated in the house on February 24, 1823, and a few days later the 
senate began the consideration of a bill authorizing the appointment of 
a fourth commission. This measure passed both branches of the legis- 
lature and was approved by the governor on March 31, 1823. Soon 
after that date Governor Hiester appointed Joseph Huston, of Fayette 
county: Dr. Phineas Jenks, of Bucks; Abner Leacock. of Beaver; Henry 
Sheets, of Alontgomery, and Cromwell Pearce, of Chester, as commis- 

Four of these commissioners met at the house of ^leredith Darlin-'- 
ton on \\'ednesda3', ]\Iay 28, 1823, Mr. Huston being absent. Owing 
to inclement weather nothing was done until the following Friday, when 
the commissioners visited Landisburg, after which they looked at other 
locations and ultimately decided in favor of George Barnett's farm, in 
Juniata township, about two miles east of the site selected by the first 
commission nearly three years before. Their report to this effect was 
made to the governor and. in January, 1824, was laid before the legisla- 
ture. Jacob Huggins, then the representative from Perry county, pre- 
sented several petitions asking for the confirmation of the re- 
port ; and also petitions from the advocates of Landisburg praving that 
the county seat might be located at that point. The report of the com- 
mission was finally confirmed by the legislature and, on April 12, 1824, 
George Barnett executed a deed conveying to the commissioners of 


Perry county a tract of nearly nine acres of land — the site chosen by the 
commission in May, 1823. Thus, after a contest of nearly four years, 
the seat of justice in Perry county was permanently established. 

Section 10 of the organic act which authorized the county commis- 
sioners to accept the title of the site chosen, also authorized them to 
"assess, levy, and collect money to build a court-house and prison." 
Section 16 provided that "all prisoners of Perry county shall be kept 
in the Cumberland county jail for the term of three years, or until the 
commissioners of Perry county shall have certified to the court that a 
jail is erected and approved by the court and grand jury.'' 

To carry out these provisions, so far as they related to the erection 
of a court-house and jail, the Perry county commissioners — Robert 
Elliott, Samuel Linn, and John Maxwell — advertised on May 17, 1824, 
that twenty-five lots on the public ground recently conveyed to the county 
by George Barnett would be sold at public outcry on Wednesday, June 
23d, following. What the results of that auction sale were the writer 
has been unable to learn, but on July 7, 1S24, the commissioners adver- 
tised for proposals for the erection of a stone jail, the dimensions of 
which were to be 32 by 50 feet, with walls two and a half feet in thick- 
ness, two stories in height, with four rooms on the lower floor and six 
on the upper. The contract for the erection of this jail was awarded to 
John Rice for $2,400, but when it was completed the following year the 
total cost was slightly in excess of $2,600. Soon after its completion 
the few Perry county prisoners were brought from the Cumberland 
county jail and confined within its walls. On October i, 1827, John 
Hippie was awarded a contract to build a stone wall inclosing the jail 
yard for $950. This wall was completed the following year. 

At the election in 1824 Robert Mitchell and Aljraham Bower suc- 
ceeded John Maxwell and Robert Elliott on the board of county com- 
missioners and on April 11, 1825, these gentlemen, with their colleague, 
Samuel Linn, advertised that they would receive proposals until August 
30th for the erection of a brick court-house forty-five feet square in 
the town of New Bloomfield which name had been conferred upon the 
new county seat. The contract was awarded to John Rice in September, 
but later it was decided to make the walls higher than originally intended 
and also add a cupola. The building was completed late in the year 
1826 at a cost of $4,240. 


Although the county seat was located at New Bloomfield in 1824, 
the business of the county was transacted at Landisburg for nearly three 
years after the selection of the location for a permanent seat of justice 
was made and confirmed. Sessions of the court were held there in a log 
house on Carlisle street, which was rented to the county by Allen Nesbit 
for fifty dollars a year. The county officers kept the offices in their re- 
spective residences. In March, 1827, the county offices were removed 
to the new court-house in New Bloomfield and the first session of court 
ever held there began on April 2, 1827. 

The court-house built in 1825-26 continued in use, w'ith some slight 
repairs, until 1868, when the grand jury and the court authorized the 
commissioners to make such alterations and additions as might be nec- 
essary to accommodate the increasing volume of county business. Luther 
M. Simons, an architect of Harrisburg. met with the commissioners on 
May 12, 1868, when he was employed to make plans for the rearrange- 
ment of the interior and an addition to the north end of the building. 
The basement of the Presbyterian church was secured for the offices of 
the register and prothonotary while the alterations were under way 
and the sessions of the court were held in the ]Methodist church. The 
entire work, including the tower clock, was a little over $25,000. For 
the purchase of the clock about $300 was subscribed by the citizens. 
In 1892 further changes and improvements were made in the court- 
house at a cost of about $20,000. A new addition was added to the 
north end, in which the offices of prothonotary and register occupy the 
first floor, the jury rooms and law library being on the second floor. 

With repairs at various times, the old jail erected in 1825 continued 
to serve the county as a prison for more than three-quarters of a cen- 
tury. Early in the spring of 1902 the commissioners advertised that 
they would receive proposals until noon of April 24, 1902, for the erec- 
tion of a new jail and sheriff's residence, according to plans and specifi- 
cations made by Charles M. Robinson, the building to be finished by 
November 15, 1902. When the bids were opened it was found that the 
firm of Dean & Havens were the lowest bidders and the contract was 
made with them for $26,000. Changes in the plans increased the cost 
to over $30,000 and delayed the work so that the building was not ready 
for occupancy until about January i, 1903. Perry county now has a 
modern jail, sanitary in its arrangements and modern in every particular. 


At the time Perry county was created the Cumberland county poor- 
house happened to fall within the limits of the new county. The organic 
act made provision for this condition of affairs in Section 19, which set 
forth that "the poor-house establishment shall be conducted as hereto- 
fore for the term of four years from and after the passage of this act, 
and at the expiration of the four years the commissioners of Cumber- 
land county shall remove their paupers into their own county." 

The poor-house had its origin on April 12, 1810, when the directors 
of the house of employment of Cumberland county purchased of Adam 
Bernheisel 112 acres of land in Tyrone township for a poor-farm. The 
following October contracts were entered into with Robert Cree, George 
Libey, and Thomas Redding for the erection of a building for $3,980. 
As already stated, this poor-house became the property of Perry county 
in 1820, but the Cumberland county paupers were kept there until about 
1826. The old brick residence erected by Adam Bernheisel in 1806 was 
used as a dwelling by the steward. In 1839 the poor-house was de- 
stroyed by fire and a new one was erected by Samuel Shuman, which 
continued in use until the present building was erected in 187 1. It is a 
four-story brick building of about seventy rooms, with brick partitions 
and iron stairways, being made as nearly fire-proof as possible, and cost 
about $60,000. George Hackett was the first steward after the poor- 
house became the property of Perry county and J. B. Trostle was the 
first steward in the present building. 

In accordance with a resolution adopted by the Continental Congress 
on May 15, 1776, the provincial council the following month divided the 
several counties of Pennsylvania into election districts. The third dis- 
trict of Cumberland county was made to consist of the townships of 
Tyrone, Toboyne, Rye, Milford, Greenwood, Fermanagh, Lack, Armagh, 
and Derry, with the voting place at the house of Robert Campbell, in 
the Tuscarora valley. This district as thus constituted embraced all the 
present counties of Mifflin, Juniata, and Perry. Robert Campbell lived 
on Licking creek, in what is now Juniata county, and some of the inhabi- 
tants would have to travel from thirty to forty miles to cast their ballots 
on election day. By the act of September 13, 1785, Cumberland was 
divided into four districts and two others were added under the act of 
September 10, 1787. Other changes were made from time to time and 
when Perry county was erected in 1820 election districts and voting 


places were designated as follows : Toboyne township, at Henry Zim- 
merman's; Tyrone, at the school house in Landisburg; Saville, the school 
house at North Ickesburg'; Buffalo, at Frederick Deal's house; East 
Greenwood, at Henry Raymon's ; West Greenwood, at \\'. Wood's house, 
Tvlillcrtown; Juniata, also at Wood's; Rye, at the Elmon school house in 
Petersburg. As new townships were erected each was made to consti- 
tute an election district, and, as population increased, some of the town- 
ships were divided into two or more election districts. The incorpora- 
tion of boroughs likewise led to the establishment of new districts. 

Like most of the counties in the mountainous regions of central 
Pennsylvania, Perry county is of irregular outline. Its greatest length 
from the Susquehanna river, at the northeastern corner, to the Franklin 
county line, is over forty miles, and its average width is about fifteen 
miles. The county is bounded on the north and northwest by the county 
of Juniata; on the east by the Susquehanna, which separates it from 
Dauphin county; on the southeast by the summit of the Blue mountain, 
which forms the boundary line between it and Cumberland county; and 
on the west by the county of Franklin. Agriculture is the leading occu- 
pation of the people and some of the finest farms in the Juniata region 
are to be found in Perry county, notably in Sherman's, Kennedy's, and 
the Buffalo valleys, where some of the earliest settlements made within 
the district included in this history were established. The Juniata river 
enters the county from the west near ]\Iillerstown and flows a south- 
easterh' course to Duncannon. where it empties into the Susquehanna. 
Perry county has about fifty-five miles of railroad. The main line of 
the Pennsylvania follows the course of the Juniata river; the Susque- 
hanna River & \\'estern runs from Duncannon to Bloomfield Junction, 
where it connects with the Newport & Sherman's \"alley railroad, which 
runs from Newport to New Germantown. 

Some 3-ears ago Silas ^^'right, at one time superintendent of the 
Perry county public schools, compiled a list of the county ofiicials from 
the organization of the county to 1884. That list is here reproduced and 
to it is added the civil list of the county from 1884 to 1912, as taken 
from the public records. The year given after each ofiicial's name is 
the one in which he was elected or entered upon his duties. 

Sheriffs — Daniel Stambaugh. 1820; Jesse Miller, 1823: John Hippie, 
1826 ; Josiah Roddy, 1829 : William Lackey. 1832 ; M. Stambaugh, 1835 ; 


Joseph Shuler, 1S38; Alexander Magee, 1841 ; Henry Cooper, 1844; 
Hugh Campbell, 1847; Samuel Huggins, 1850; Benjamin F. Miller, 
1853; James Woods, 1856; Benjamin F. Miller, 1859; John Sheibly, 
1862; John F. Miller, 1865; Jeremiah Rinehart, 1868; D. M. Rhinesmith, 
1871; J. W. Williamson, 1874; James A. Gray, 1877; John W. Beers. 
1880; Henry C. Shearer, 1883; Jerome B. Lahr, 1886; George AI. Ritter, 
1889; Joseph A. Rice, 1892; Charles L. Johnson, 1894; William LI. 
Kough, 1898; Charles L. Johnson, 1901 ; Abram L. Long, 1904; E. T. 
Charles, 1907 (reelected in 19 10). 

Protlwnotarics—W'iWiam B. Mitchell. 1820; Henry Miller, 1821; 
William B. Mitchell, 1824; George Stroup, 1829; John Boden, 1835; 
Alexander Topley, 1839; Joseph Miller, 1845; Peter Orwan, 1848 (died 
in office and John A. Baker appointed for the remainder of the term) ; 
James L. Diven, 1851; David Mickey, 1857; James G. Turbett, i860; 
John C. Lindsey, 1863; David Mickey, 1864: Charles H. Smiley, 1867; 
James J. Sponenberger. 1870; David Mickey, 1S76: Alexander Grosh, 
1882; Jacob E. Bonsell, 1885 ; Samuel S. Willard, 1891 : J. W. Stephens, 
1897 (reelected in 1900, but died before the close of his second term 
and his son, G. Warren Stephens, was appointed to the vacancy), G. 
Warren Stephens, 1902 (reelected in 1905 and died in office, Grafton 
Junkin being appointed) ; George B. Shull, 1906 (reelected in 1909 and 
the second term prolonged one year by constitutional amendment making 
all county officers elected for four-year terms). 

Registers and Recorders — Benjamin Leas, 1820; A. Fulweiler, ; 

Jacob Frith, 1824; John McKeehan, 1830; Jeremiah Madden; 1836; 
John Souder, 1839; George W. Crane, 1845: Robert Kelley, 185 1 ; John 
Campbell, 1854; George Spohr. 1857; Samuel Roth, i860; William 
Grier, 1863; Thomas J. Sheibly, 1869; Joseph S. Smith, 1872; George 
S. Briner, 1875; Josiah \\'. Rice, 1881 ; Joseph S. Smith. 1884; Nathan- 
iel Adams, 1887; James W. McKee, 1893; Jacob C. Lightner, 1899; 
Charles L. Darlington, 1905; Charles L. De Pugh, 191 1. 

Treasurers — William Power, 1820; R. H. McClelland, 1823; George 
Stroup, 1827: John Wilson, 1830; Robert Kelley, 1832; David Lupfer, 
1835 ; David Deardorff, 1838; William Lackey, 1841 ; Henry Rice, 1844; 
David Lupfer, 1847; Jonas Ickes, 1849; George Spohr. 1851 ; Thomas 
Clark, 1853; John R." Shuler. 1855; H. D. Woodruff. 1857; David J. 
Rice, 1859; John H. Sheibly, 1861 ; James McElheny, 1863; Samuel 


Smith, 1865; James McElhen}-, 1867; William Tressler, 1869; Isaac 
N. Shatto, 1871 ; George W. Spohr, 1873 ; John R. Boden, 1875 ; William 
Rice, 1878; John P. Steel, 1881 ; William A. Lightner, 1884; Thomas 
J. Clark, 1887; John W. Kell, 1890; L. H. C. Flickinger, 1893; H. C. 
Gantt, 1896; Wilson D. Messimer, 1899; Lawrence F. Smith, 1902; 
D. C. Kell, 1905; Lawrence F. Smith, 1908; Robert A. McClm-e, 191 1. 
County Commissioners — Upon the organization of the county in 1820 
a full board of three commissioners was elected. After that, with few 
exceptions, as will be seen in the list, one commissioner was elected every 
year until the adoption of the state constitution of 1874, since which 
time a full board has been elected every three years. In 1820. Thomas 
Adams, Jacob Huggins, Robert Mitchell; 1821, Robert Elliott; 1822, 
Samuel Linn; 1823, John ilaxwell; 1826, Abraham Adams, John Owen, 
Abraham Bower; 1827, George Mitchell; 1828, Solomon Bower; 1829, 
John Junkin; 1830, Jacob Kumbler; 1831, Alexander Branyan; 1832, 
Frederick Orwan; 1833, Jacob Kumler; 1834, George Beaver, Andrew 
Shuman; 1835, Cadwalader Jones; 1836, George Beaver; 1837, C. 
Wright, J. Zimmerman; 1838, William ^\'hite; 1839, AI. Donnelly; 
1840, G. Charles, Sr. ; 1841, Robert Adams; 1S42, Robert Kelley; 1843, 
T. P. Cochran, Isaac Kirkpatrick; 1844, \\"illiam jNIeminger; 1845, 
Nicholas Herich ; 1846, John Patterson; 1847, George Fitzell ; 184S, 
Thomas Adams; 1849, Jacob Sheibly; 1850, Fenlow McCowen; 185 1, 
Charles C. Brandt; 1852, George Stroup; 1853, John Mej'ers; 1854, 
William Power; 1855, Jacob Bixler; 1856, Lawrence Gross; 1857, James 
B. Cooper; 1858, Thomas Campbell; 1859. Henry P. Grubb; i860, 
Henry Foulk ; 1861, William Rough; 1862, William Wright; 1863, J. 
Kochenderfer ; 1864, Perry Kreamer; 1865, John Wright; 1866, William 
Hays; 1867, George S. Briner; 1868, John Stephens; 1869. Zachariah 
Rice; 1870, J. A. Lineweaver; 1871. W. B. Stambaugh; 1872, George 
W. Bretz; 1S73, William Brooks; 1874. Joseph Ulsh; 1875. J- ^^'esley 
Gantt, Solomon Bower, George Campbell; 1878, J. Weslev Gantt; 
1881, Samuel Bauer. James B. Black, Daniel Sheaffer; 1884, Ulrich H. 
Rumbach. Edward Hull, Aaron Shreffer; 1887, Silas W. Snyder, John 
Martin, George W. Burd; 1890, William B. Gray, William Kumler, Wil- 
son D. Adams; 1893, Josiah Clay, D. P. Lightner. Isaiah Mitchell; 1896, 
Aaron Shrefifer, A. K. Bryner, William B. Gutshall; 1899, Thomas F. 
Martin, James Rhinesmith, Jacob Fleisher; 1902, ^^"illiam R. Dunn, 


J. K. Adair, Abraham Bistline; 1905, J. B. Jackson, W. H. Leonard, 
John S. Bitner; 1908, Clark M. Bower, RlcClellan Woods, WiUiam H. 
Smith; 191 1, R. R. Beers, Jonathan Snyder, William H. Lyter. 

Directors of the Poor — This office was established in Perry county in 
1839 and since then it has been lilled as follows: John Tressler, 1839; 
Samuel Hench, 1840: Jacob Bixler, 1841; John Ritter, 1843; Jacob 
Sheibley, 1844; Charles Wright, 1846; Peter Hench, 1847; Robert 
Hackett, 1848; Thomas Black, 1849; Moses Uttley, 1850; George TitzeU, 
185 1 ; Henry Lackey, 1852; Samuel Arnold, 1853; Samuel Milligan, 
1854; James McClure, 1855; William Kerr, 1856; Henry Rhinesmith, 
1857; Jacob Bernheisel, 1858; John Gensler, 1859; William KeU, i860; 
John Stephens, 1861 ; John Ritter, 1862; John Weldon, 1863; John 
Arnold, 1864; Peter Shaffer, 1865; John Dunn, 1866; George Hoo- 
baugh, 1867; John Flickmger, 1868; John Newcomer, 1869; John S. 
Ritter, 1870; John Patterson, 1871 ; Samuel Dunkelberger, 1872; Wil- 
liam J. Graham, 1873; John Swartz, 1874; Abraham Long, 1875; Sam- 
uel Sigler, 1876; Benjamin F. Becton, 1877; George C. Snyder, 1879; 
Isaac T. Hollenbaugh, 1880; Benjamin Bistline, 1881 ; Amos S. Green, 
1882; John Acker, 1883; Joseph Flickinger, 1884; John Garman, 1885; 
John Wilt, 1886; John Freeland, 1887; Jacob W. Wagner, 1888; John 
Swartz, 1889; John Freeland, 1890; George I. Rice, 1891 ; Benjamin H. 
Inhoff, 1892; George D. Taylor, 1893; John Wilt, 1894: Darius J. 
Long, 1895; George D. Taylor, 1896: James S. Peck, 1897; Darius J. 
Long, 1898; I. B. Free, 1899; Z. M. Dock, 1900; D. M. Hench, 1901; 
I. B. Free, 1902 ; Z. M. Dock, 1903 ; D. M. Hench, 1904 ; James A. 
Wright, 1905; S. S. Orris, 1906; Samuel M. Rice, 1907; James A. 
Wright, 1908; W. A. Lightner, 1909; S. S. Orris, 191 1. 

Surveyors — Prior to 1850 this office was filled by appointment. Those 
who have been elected since that date are as follows : James Woods, 
1850-53; James B. Hackett, 1856; Samuel Arnold, 1859; David Rife, 
1862; M. B. Hallman, 1865-68; Samuel H. Galbraith, 1871 ; James Bell, 
1874; David Mitchell, 1877; John Rynard. 1880; ^^^ J. Stewart, Jr., 
1883; \^'illiam A. Meminger, 1886; Silas Wright, 1889; James A. 
Wright, 1892; Silas Wright, 1895 (reelected in 1898, 1901, and 1904) ; 
J. L. L. Buck, 1907; Gard L. Palm, 191 1. 

Coroners — JNIichael Steever, 1841 ; Jonas Ickes, 1845; Jacob Steel, 
1846; John McKenzie, 1847; James R. Gilmore, 1848; William L. 


Stephens. 1851 ; James R. Gilmore, 1853; John Bretz, 1854; James H. 
Case, 1855; Philip Ebert, 1859; Joseph Eby, i860; Patrick McMorris, 
1861; Jacob M. Miller, 1862; B. P. Hooke, 1863; James Crawford, 
1864; Samuel Stiles, 1865; James B. Eby, 1866; Cyrus M. Clemson, 
1867; Joseph Swartz, 1870; George N. Reuter, 1871 ; George \V. Eppley, 
1872; George \V. Zinn, 1873; Samuel Stiles, 1879; Andrew Traver, 
1882: George Schrom, 1885: George A. Ickes, 1888: J. H. Bleistein, 
1889; C. E. Gregg, 1893; W. S. Groninger, 1896; W. R. Brothers, 1899; 
H. M. Smiley, 1901 ; George W. Gault, 191 1. 

State Senators — Jesse Aliller, 1830; William B. Anderson, 1S44; 
Robert C. Stewart. 1846; Joseph Bailey. 1851; Henry Fetter, 1857; 
C. J. T. Alclntire, 1868; Charles H. Smiley. The above were all resi- 
dents of Perry county, which were the only senators included in ]\Ir. 
Wright's list. Since 1881 the senators who have represented the district 
of which Perry county forms a part have been as follows : Charles H. 
Smiley, 1884; Joseph RI. Woods. 1888 (reelected in 1892); William 
Hertzler, 1896; James W. AIcKee, 1900: William H. ]\Ianbeck. 1904 
(served two terms) ; Franklin Martin. 1912. 

Represcntatwcs — John Fry, 1820; F. M. Wadsworth. 1821 ; Jacob 
Huggins. 1823; Jesse Miller. 1826; \V. M. Power, 1828: James Black, 
1830: John Johnston, 1832; F. Rinehart. 1834: \\'illiam Clark. 1837; 
\\'illiam B. Anderson. 1838: George Beaver. 1842; Thomas O'Bryan, 
1843: Eleazer Owen, 1846; John Souder. 1847: David Stewart, 1850; 
David Sheaver, 1852 ; Thomas Adams, 1854 : Kirk Haines, 1855 : Charles 
C. Brandt, 1857; John Power. 1859; William Lowther, 1861 ; Jesse 
Kennedy, 1862; John A. INIagee, 1863; Charles A. Barnett. 1864: G. A. 
Shuman. 1865; John Shively. 1868: D. B. 3vlilliken, 1870: Joseph Shu- 
ler, 1872: J. H. Sheibly. 1874: G. N. Reuter. 1874: D. H. Sheibly. 1876; 
M. B. Holman, 1878: William H. Sponsler, 1882; J. R. Flickinger. 1886; 
William R. Swartz. 1888: Joseph W. Buckwalter. 1892: J. H. Seidel, 
1896; John S. Arnold, 1900: Samuel B. Sheller. Jr., 1902; John D. 
Snyder. 1906: W. X. Kahler. 1908: Lewis E. Donnally. 1910-1912. 

Representatives were elected annually until the adoption of the con- 
stitution of 1874. after which they have been elected biennially. \\'here 
a number of years elapse between the dates following the names, it is 
evidence of one or more reelections. as in the cases of \\'. H. Sponsler, 
William R. Swartz. and J. H. Seidel. each of whom served two terms. 



First Townships in the New Purchase — Present Townships — Buffalo — Carroll — Centre 
— Greenwood — Howe — Jackson — Juniata — Liverpool — Madison — Miller — Oliver — 
Penn — Rye — Savilie — Spring — Toboyne — Tuscarora — Tyrone — Watts — Wheatrteld — • 
The Principal Villages — The Nine Boroughs — New Bloomfield — Blain — Duncannon 
— Landisburg — Liverpool — JNIarysville — Millerstown — Newport — New Buffalo — The 
Town of Shermansdale — Postoffices — Rural Routes. 

COXCERXIXG the formation of townships in the new purchase 
by the Cumberland county authorities on October 23, 1754, 
the records of the court contain the following statement: "And 
we do further erect the settlements called Sherman's valley and Bufolo's 
creek into a separate township and nominate the same the township of 
Tyrone, and we appoint John Scott X. Linton to act as Constable therein 
for the remaining part of the current year." 

Xo definite boundaries were fixed, the township being large enough 
to include the settlements named. Tyrone township as thus created 
included all that portion of the present county of Perry lying west 
of the Juniata river. The same territory now comprehends fifteen town- 
ships and there are five east of the river, making a total of twenty town- 
ships in the county, viz : Buffalo, Carroll, Centre, Greenwood, Howe, 
Jackson, Juniata, Liverpool, Madison, Miller, Oliver, Penn, Rye, Savilie, 
Spring, Toboyne, Tuscarora, Tyrone, Watts, and W'heatfield. 

Buffalo township, lying between the Juniata and Susquehanna rivers 
in the eastern part of the county, was formed in October, 1799, when a 
petition, signed by numerous citizens of Greenwood township living 
south of Buffalo hill, was presented to the court asking for a new town- 
ship. At that time Greenwood township embraced all that part of the 
county lying between the Juniata and Susquehanna rivers and the peti- 
tion set forth "That the said tract of country was nearly equally divided 
by the said Buffalo Hill, which begins at the Juniata, about one mile 



below Wild Cat Run, and continues to the Susquehanna, below the house 
of David Derickson, and praying the court that that part of said town- 
ship of Greenwood contained between the rivers Juniata and Susque- 
hanna and lying south of the Buffalo Hill may be erected into a new 

At the same session the court granted the petition and ordered the 
division as requested, that part north of Buffalo Hill to remain as 
Greenwood and the portion south of the said hill to be known as Buffalo 
township. Since its erection the township has been much reduced in 
size by the formation of Howe and \\'atts townships. It is bounded 
on the northwest by Greenwood and Liverpool townships : on the north- 
east and east by the Susquehanna river, which separates it from Dauphin 
county ; on the south by Watts township ; and on the west by Howe to\\-n- 
ship and the Juniata river, across which lies the township of Miller. 

Bucke's valley lies between Berry mountain on the north and the 
Half Falls hills on the south. It extends through Howe and Buffalo 
townships from the Juniata to the Susquehanna and is about two miles 
in width. Between Berry mountain and the Buffalo hill is a cove or 
basin known as Hunter's valley. It was in these valleys that the first 
settlements were made. About 1773 Reuben Earl, Alartin W'aln, Samuel 
Rankin, George Albright, and John Law took up lands along the Sus- 
quehanna, in the lower end of Bucke's ^-alley. Farther up the valley 
were Jacob Bucke, Nicholas Liddick, and Henry Alspach, who located 
about the same time. John Rutherford had taken up 320 acres near 
George Albright's place some five years before, but it is not certain that 
he ever lived there. Samuel Rankin subsequently sold his land and, 
after several changes in ownership, it became the property of William 
^Montgomery, from whom Montgomery's Ferry takes its name. Other 
pioneers were John Purviance, Zachariah Spangler, George Fetterman, 
Andrew Berryhill, and John Taylor. The last named took up 208 acres 
of land in August, 1789, near the Susquehanna, at the end of the Half 
Falls hills. It is said that the notorious renegade, Simon Girty, once 
lived for some time in a cave near the river, on the Taylor place, while 
watching the white people who had taken refuge at Fort Halifax on 
the opposite side of the river in Dauphin county. The place is still 
known by some as "Girty's Notch." 

\A'hen Perry county was organized in 1820, the first assessment 


showed eighty-three freeholders, seven saw-mills, two grist-mills, and 
three distilleries in what is now Buffalo township. Michael Krouse, 
William Montgomery, Thomas Hulings, and Jacob Baughman were 
assessed on ferries, and Robert Baskins' heirs on a fulling-mill. 

The oldest school of which anything can be learned was kept in a 
log cabin on Richard Beard's place at the base of the Half Falls hills. It 
was built early in the nineteenth century and some of the early teachers 
here were George Baird, James Denniston, Benjamin Elliott, and Mary 
McMullen. Some years later a school house was built at Bucke's grave- 
yard, where Joseph Foster, David Mitchell, Ann McGinnis, and Samuel 
Stephens were among the pioneer teachers. In Hunter's valley was 
another old school house, a rough log structure with a slab roof, and 
here was kept a subscription school which was patronized by some ten or 
a dozen families living in the vicinity. After the passage of the act of 
April, 1834, by which the state inaugurated the public school system, 
a meeting of citizens of Butfalo township was held on December 6, 
1834, when a vote was taken on the question of accepting or rejecting 
the new system. It may sound strange at this late date to record the fact 
that out of forty-seven votes cast only one was in favor of the law 
and the appropriations it carried with it. That vote evidently did not 
prove final, for in 1840 the public school funds of the township were 
used in building school houses and no teachers were employed that year. 
In 19 12 there were five teachers employed in the township. 

Carroll township, in the southern part of the county, was established 
in 1834. In April of that year there was presented to the court a petition 
signed by 168 citizens, showing that they labored "under great incon- 
veniences for want of a new township, to be composed as follows, that 
is to say : Beginning at Sterrett's Gap ; thence through Rye township, 
along the great road leading to Clark's Ferry, to a certain field of Henry 
Sender's ; thence to a saw-mill belonging to the heirs of Robert ^^'allace 
in ^\'heatfield township : thence along the great road leading to Bloom- 
field, until it intersects the division line of the townships of Wheatfield 
and Centre: thence along the said line to a corner of Centre township; 
thence along said line to a point from whence a south course to the 
Cumberland line at Long's Gap : thence down the Cumberland line to 
the place of beginning." 

In response to this petition the court appointed John Johnston, 


James Black, and Robert Elliott as viewers. On the 5th of November 
following they made their report, recommending the formation of a 
new township, with the boundaries as described by the petitioners. The 
court confirmed the report and the new township was named Carroll. 
It is bounded on the north by Centre township ; on the east by Rye and 
Wheatfield ; on the south by Cumberland county, and on the west by 
Spring township. Sherman's creek flows through the southwestern part 
and the Blue mountain separates the township from Cumberland county. 
Its area is about fifty square miles. 

Sterrett's Gap, mentioned in the petition, was originally known as 
Croghan's Gap, who passed over the old Indian trail leading through 
it as early as 1747. In the spring of 1795 two brothers named Sterrett 
took up land in that neighborhood and the place came to be known as 
Sterrett's Gap. A tavern was kept there at an early date by a man 
named Buller. 

The land office began issuing warrants for lands in the New Purchase 
on February 3, 1755, and on that day William Smiley took out a war- 
rant for 241 acres lying along the Sherman's creek and including part 
of the present village of Shermansdale. George Smiley, on the same 
day, warranted 212 acres, and on April 7, 1755, William West warranted 
322 acres, part of which now lies in Spring township. On June 5, 1762, 
Francis took up a long, narrow tract adjoining that of William West and 
running along Sherman's creek for nearly a mile. These men were the 
pioneers of Carroll township. The Smileys were at one time the largest 
landowners in the township and the family has been closely identified 
with the history of Perry county from the beginning of settlement. 

About 1763 John Rankin located at Canderman's gap in the Kita- 
tinny hills; Israel Jacobs settled on Fishing creek in 1766, and two years 
later John Jacobs also settled in that locality. Several land warrants 
were issued in 1767. Among them was one for 150 acres opposite 
William Smiley's to John Downey; one to William ]\IcKee for 300 
acres; one to Obediah Garwood for 125 acres, and one to Mary Ramsey 
for 211 acres. A large part of the last named tract is now in ^^'heat- 
field township. Thomas Smiley, Robert Bunting, and Rev. William 
Thompson were among those who took up lands in 1768, and the next 
year came Andrew Boyd and James Sharron, after whom Sharron's Gap 
was named. 


Second Lieutenant Samuel \\'hittaker and Ensign George Smiley 
both enlisted in Captain Frederick Watts's company that entered the 
Continental army in 1777. Some of the latter's descendants still reside 
in Perry county. 

After the Revolution the settlement of the township was more rapid. 
Among those who came between 1776 and 1800 were Andrew Porter, 
Matthew Henderson, David Lindsay, the Sterretts, William Wallace, 
Hugh Ferguson, John and Thomas White, Enoch Lewis, Stephen Dun- 
can, John Moore, John Lawshe, Ephraim Blain, George West, and Wil- 
liam Rogers. All the lands in the township were not taken up, however, 
until after the beginning of the nineteenth century, for as late as Sep- 
tember 2-j. 18 12, Thomas Mehaffie received a warrant for 120 acres in 
the western part. 

Thomas Sutch came into Carroll before 1775 and took up land 
about two and a half miles west of Shermansdale. Some time between 
1775 and 1780 a log school house was Iniilt on his farm, v\^hich is believed 
to have been the first school house in the township. In the early days 
it was also used as a house of worship. With some repairs this house 
was used until 1850, when a new school house took its place. Another 
early temple of education was the "Smiley school house" on the bank 
of Sherman's creek. It was a log house, with a clapboard roof, and 
took its name from the owner of the land upon which it was situated. 
On each side of the building one log was left out and the space covered 
with oiled paper to admit the light, window glass in those days being 
a luxury that few could afford. In 19 12 there were ten teachers em- 
ployed in the public schools of the township. 

Centre township was first proposed in November, 1830, when a 
petition came before the Perry county court asking for the erection of 
a new township from parts of Juniata, Wheatfield, Saville, and Tyrone. 
James Black, Robert Elliott, and W'illiam Wilson were appointed view- 
ers, and, on April 7, 1831, they made a report which was in part as 
follows : "We are of the opinion that a new township is necessary for 
the convenience of the inhabitants and that the prayer of the petitioners 
ought to be granted : that we have designated in the same plot or draft 
the lines or boundaries of the new township prepared to be erected by 
natural boundaries and courses and distances, all of which will fully 
appear by the annexed plot or draft." 


On August 4, 183 1, the report of the viewers was confirmed by the 
court and the township was named Centre, because of its central location 
in the county. Since its formation it has been reduced by the erection 
of Carroll, Oliver, Miller, and Spring townships. It is bounded on the 
northwest by the townships of Saville and Juniata ; on the east by Oliver 
and Miller : and on the south and southeast by Carroll and Wheatfield. 
At the time it was created it contained 361 taxpayers, one grist-mill and 
four saw-mills. New Bloomfield, the county seat, is near the center of 
the township. The Susquehanna River & \\'estern railroad runs through 
the southern part and the Newport & Sherman's Valley line is farther 

One of the first settlers, if not the first, was William Stewart, a 
native of Ireland, who came from his native land with his parents in 
1752. The following year he settled in what is now Centre township, 
but he, along with other scpiatters on the Indian lands, was driven off 
by the natives in 1756. On October 29, 1765, he received a warrant 
for 150 acres, where he settled in 1753, which land was a part of the 
Bark Tavern tract. This tavern was first kept by Jacob Fritz early in 
the nineteenth century. He was elected register and recorder in 1823 
and was succeeded by John Fritz as "mine host" of the Bark Tavern. A 
new tavern was built in 1830. 

On February 4, 1755, James Cowen took out a warrant for 100 acres 
near the present town of New Bloomfield, and in March James Dixon 
came into the township. Several years later Cowen took up a tract of 
294 acres, on which the western part of New Bloomfield is now located. 
Settlement was seriously retarded by the French and Indian war and 
for several years few people had the temerity to venture far out on the 
frontier in search of homes. In June, 1762, John Darlington warranted 
345 acres and some of his family still reside in the county. On April 
2, 1763, William Power took up 125 acres and later became the largest 
landowner in the county. Late in the year 1766 James McConaghy was 
granted a tract of 300 acres in the northern part of the township and 
south of his land James McCoughly took up 107 acres. ]\IcConaghy's 
land later came into the possession of ^^^illiam Power and upon it the 
old Juniata furnace was built in 1808. Robert Hamilton took up 330 
acres in 1767 and the same year the names of Joseph and Michael Mar- 
shall appear on the assessment rolls of Cumberland county, the former 


holding 100 acres and the latter 200, though they did not obtain title to 
their lands until May, 1769. 

In 1767 Thomas Barnett, a native of Germany, was assessed on fifty 
acres of land at what is known as "The Cove," in the present township of 
Penn. In 17S5 he took out a warrant for 400 acres at the Cove and 
also one for 480 acres where the present borough of New Bloomfield 
now stands. He died on April 14, 1814, leaving two sons, Frederick 
and George. The former took the tract at the Cove and the latter the 
one at New Bloomfield. When the county was organized in 1S20 and 
the county seat was located on his farm three years later, he donated to 
the county the land upon which the public buildings are situated. 

Immediately following the Revolution there was a tide of emigration 
"westward. Among those who came into Centre township were the Lup- 
fers, Robert Heirst, Adam Stack, Anthony Shatto, John Clouser, Robert 
McClay, Francis McCown, and Matthew McBride. The last named war- 
ranted some land about 1780 and in January, 1786, purchased 150 acres 
of Rev. Hugh Magill, upon which he established a blacksmith shop and 
distillery. Later he put in a tilt-hammer and began the manufacture of 
sickles, which was kept up until about 1830. 

The first school house in the township of which any authentic in- 
formation can be obtained was on the Barnett farm, not far from the 
old mill race and on the road to Duncannon. It was a log house and 
was used for school purposes until about 1838, when a new building 
was erected in New Bloomfield. In 1912 there were eight public schools 
in the township, exclusive of those in New Bloomfield. 

The Juniata furnace, mentioned above, was built Ijy William Power 
and David Watts in 1808. It was purchased by Charles Postlev & Son 
in May, 1833, together with 3,500 acres of land, and the name was 
changed to the Juniata Iron Works. It was then operated by different 
parties until 1855, when a cyclone destroyed the office and foundry and 
the land has since been divided into farms. In April. 1837, John Ever- 
hart, Jacob Loy, and John Kough purchased several hundred acres of 
land in Centre township, including the tract warranted by Anthony Shat- 
to in 1797, upon which they erected the Perry furnace and under the 
firm name of Loy, Everhart & Company began the manufacture of stoves 
and hollow-ware. They failed about ten years later and the furnace was 
soon afterward abandoned. 


Greenwood township, originally a part of Fermanagh, was erected in 
July, 1767, when the boundaries were defined as follows: "Beginning at 
McKee's path on the Susquehanna river : thence down the said river 
to the mouth of the Juniata river; thence up the Juniata river to the 
mouth of Cockalanius ; thence up the same to the crossing of ^IcKee's 
path ; thence by the said path to the place of beginning." 

McKee's path began at the mouth of the Mahantango creek and ran 
southwest. Along the line of this path was subsequently opened a public 
highway, the western terminus of which was at Thompsontown, in 
Juniata county. The township was named for Joseph Greenwood, who 
resided in the territory now comprising the township as early as 1763. 

The assessment rolls for 1768, the year following the erection of the 
township, showed the following landowners : Thomas Allen, Peter Ash, 
Robert Brightwell, Nathaniel Barber, Henry Bentley, John Bingam, 
Hawkins Boon, William Collins. Robert Crane, Craft Coast, Philip 
Donally, Thomas Desar, Francis Ellis. Andrew Every, Richard Irwin, 
William English, IMatthew English, David English, Joshua Elder. John 
Pfoutz, Joseph Greenwood, John George, Marcus Hewlin, Philip Hover, 
Abraham Jones, William Loudon, Everhart Leedich, Stophel Munce, 
William McLeavy, James McCoy, John ]\IcBride, John ^Montgomery, 
Alexander McKee, Edward Physick, Samuel Purviance, George Ross, 
Jacob Secrist, John Sturgeon, Andrew Ulsh. and Frederick \Ya\\. These 
men, who owned over 8,000 acres of land, were the pioneers of Green- 
wood township. David English was the largest landowner, having 1,100 

As early as July 28, 1739, Thomas Kirton, of Speen, England, re- 
ceived a grant of 500 acres of land located within the limits of the 
present Perry county, by order of James Tilghmam, secretary of the land 
office. This was the first grant of land in the county. Fifty acres of 
this land — a tract called "The Rose in the Garden" — was surveyed in 
November, 1774, for John Pfoutz, who had become the assignee of Kir- 
ton. It is Pfoutz's valley where John Pfoutz took out a warrant for 
329 acres on February 3, 1755. On the same day he also took out a 
warrant for 142 acres in Liverpool township along the river. 

Near the mouth of the Cocolamus creek \\"illiam Patterson built 
a mill at an early date (exact date not known). The earliest mention of 
this mill in the records was in 1771, when the road was opened from 


John Gallagher's to Baskins' ferry, "past William Patterson's mill." 
Jones says the mill was destroyed by a flood. It was the first mill in 
what is now Greenwood township. William Stawl and Frederick Harter 
built grist-mills early in the nineteenth century, and about the same time 
George Hoffman built a fulling mill, which changed owners several times 
but continued in operation until about 1883. 

Among the old inhabitants of the township was Benjamin Bonsall, 
a veteran of the Revolution, who died in 1845, aged eighty-nine years. 
He was a descendant of one of the oldest Pennsylvania families, the 
first members of which came over in 1682 and settled in Delaware county. 

The first account of the schools in the township that is available is 
that contained in the report of the county superintendent, A. R. Height, 
in 1856, when he reports nine schools in operation and a tax levied for 
school purposes to the amount of $748. It is known that a school house 
was erected near St. jMichael's Lutheran church prior to 1770, but noth- 
ing can be learned of its early history. In 1912 there were seven public 

Several changes have been made in the boundaries of Greenwood 
township since it was first erected. Buffalo was cut off in 1799 and 
Liverpool was taken off the eastern end in 1823. Part of Juniata town- 
ship was added to Greenwood in 1854 and five years later the township 
was reduced to its present size by the erection of Tuscarora. It is 
bounded on the north by Juniata county : on the east by Liverpool town- 
ship; on the south by the townships of Howe and Buffalo, and on the 
west by the Juniata river, which separates it from Oliver and Tuscarora 
townships. Its area is about twenty-five square miles. 

Howe township, one of the smallest in the county, was originally a 
part of Greenwood and later of Oliver. It \vas erected in response to 
a petition presented to the court in i860, when viewers were appointed 
and at the April term in 1861 the court took action as follows : "Decree 
of the Court, in the matter of dividing Oliver township, and now, 6th of 
April, 1861, the court order and decree that the township of Oliver be 
divided into two parts agreeably to the report of the viewers. That part 
west of the river to retain the name of Oliver and the part east of the 
river to be called Howe township." 

Its area is not quite ten square miles and, Ijeing of comparatively mod- 
ern origin, it has but little history. It is bounded on the north by Green- 


wood township : on the east by Buffalo ; on the soutli and west by the 
Juniata river, whicli separates it from the townships of Miller and Oliver. 
There were three teachers employed in the public schools in 19 12. 

Robert Brison received a warrant for 200 acres of land in this town- 
ship dated June 2, 1762, and the next day William McElroy took up 
277 acre's. These two men were the first landowners in Howe. Other 
early settlers were John Sturgeon, Thomas Elliott, Samuel Martin, An- 
drew Lee, Jacob Awl, John Welch, and William Howe, for whom the 
township was named. When the turnpike was built through the town- 
ship and the stage line was established three taverns were opened in what 
is now Howe township, viz : Fahter's Falls Tavern, Fetterman's Ferry 
Tavern, and the Red Hill Tavern. The last named was a famous stop- 
ping place when the old Conestoga wagons were engaged in hauling 
freight westward. Near Fetterman's Ferry Tavern, Jacob Miller built 
"a two-story potter shop, with an excellent kiln and kiln-house," which 
he sold at public auction on June 3, 1857. 

Jackson township, situated in the western part of the county, was 
erected in 1844, the greater part of its territory being taken from To- 
boyne. At the November term in 1843 the court received a petition 
asking for the formation of a new township. Viewers were appointed 
and on August 8, 1844, two of them — Jacob Bernheisel and W. B. An- 
derson — reported in favor of granting the prayer of the petitioners. 
They recommended the following boundaries for the new township : 

"Beginning at the county line on top of the Tuscarora mountain; 
thence south 30 degrees east, nine miles one hundred and twenty perches 
through mountain land of Peter Shively, John Baker, Daniel Kern, 
Jacob Kreamer, Peter Smith, John Long, and others to the Cumberland 
countv line ; thence along the said county line on the top of the Blue 
mountain to the Madison township line ; thence along the said township 
line to the top of the Tuscarora mountain and Juniata county line; thence 
along the countv line and on top of Tuscarora mountain to the place of 

As thus constituted Jackson township extends entirely across the 
county, being bounded on the north by Juniata county ; on the east by 
Madison township : on the south by Cumberland county ; and on the 
west by the township of Toboyne. Sherman's creek flows eastward 
through the central part and some of the best farms in the county are 


located in the valley of this stream in Jackson township, where the soil 
is of the strong, limestone variety and yields large crops. Some of the 
earliest settlements in Perry county were made in this part of the valley 
due, no doubt, to the fertility of the soil. A number of land warrants 
wei» issued in 1755, several of them on the first day the land otifice was 
open for business, indicating that prospective settlers were on the alert 
to acquire title to the lands. Among those who took up lands in that 
year were Robert Pollock, Ludwig Laird, and William Croncleton. 
James and Ross Mitchell also located in the township before the close 
of the year. 

James, Ephraim, William, and Alexander Blain were also early set- 
tlers and gave name to the borough of Blain, the only incorporated town 
in the township. William Blain was captain of the fourth company of 
Colonel Frederick Watts's battalion in the Revolutionary war and James 
Blain was second lieutenant in the same company. During the decade 
following the opening of the land office in 1755, a large number of set- 
tlers came into what is now Jackson township. Among them were Alex- 
ander Morrow, William Huston, John Montgomery, Anthony Morrison, 
John Whiting, Adam Boal, John Watt, William Hartman, John Wilt, 
Andrew Moore, Peter Grove, James Adams, Thomas Hamilton, William 
Dobson, the Robinsons, and Allen Xesbitt who was an ensign in Captain 
William Blain's company in the Revolution. Descendants of some of 
these pioneers still live in the county and some of them have held public 
positions of responsibility. 

Soon after the Revolution David Diehl and Philip Christian took out 
warrants for lands in Henry's valley "across Bower's mountain" and 
Alexander Rodgers settled south of Sherman's creek on a tract of 274 
acres in 1789. A large steam tannery was erected in Henry's valley in 
1850 by L J. McFarland. 

One of the earliest school houses in the township was on what is 
known as Church hill in the borough of Blain. It was built before the 
beginning of the last century and William Smiley was one of the early 
teachers. As early as 1790 there was a log school house on what was 
later the Michael Dromgold farm and another early school house was on 
George Wentz's place. Dr. J. R. Flickinger tells the following incident 
of how James ]\IcCulloch, one of the early teachers in the last named 
house, manipulated his pupils to secure a drink of whiskey for himself. 


"A wedding party was expected to pass the school house on a certain 
day, and when they were reported to be coming by the boy stationed on 
the outside, the teacher took all his pupils to the roadside and stationed 
them in a row on both sides of the road, and when the wedding party 
passed through the ranks the teacher required them to make a profound 
obeisance to the bride and groom. The result happened as the shrewd 
teacher had expected, and the happy groom treated him to the contents 
of his flask." 

There were seven public schools in the township in 1912, exclusive of 
the schools in the borough of Blain. The school houses were located at 
Red Corner, Mount Pleasant, Red Hill, Adams" Grove, Bull Run, Man- 
assa and Cold Spring. 

Juniata township is located near the center of the county and is 
bounded by Tuscarora on the north ; Oliver on the east ; Centre on the 
south, and Saville on the west. It is about seven miles in length from 
east to west and three miles wide, having an area of about twenty-five 
square miles. Buffalo creek runs through it from west to east and the 
Little Buffalo marks the southern Ijorder. The records of the January 
term of the Alifflin county court show that there were presented "Two 
petitions signed by a great number of the inhabitants of Rye township, 
setting forth that they labor under many and great disadvantages by 
reason of the great extent of such township, and praying the court that 
the said township may be divided by a line along the top of ]Mahanoy 
Mountain from the line of Tyrone township to the Juniata river," etc., 
whereupon the court ordered the division and conferred the name of 
"Juniata" on the upper part, or the new township thus created. 

A heavy growth of timber once covered this part of Perry county 
and the assessment rolls for 1795 show that there were then twelve 
sawmills in the township. Other industries were two grist-mills, two 
tan-yards and two distilleries, both operated by George Hildebrand. 
After the timber was cut off farms were developed. The most promi- 
nent feature is Middle ridge, along the summit of which runs the 
"Ridge Road" from Newport westward through a fine agricultural dis- 
trict. North and south of the ridge the land is undulating, but most of it 
is easy of cultivation. The small streams from Middle ridge and Hominy 
ridge flow into the Buffalo and those south of Middle ridge to the Little 
Buffalo, so that the township is well watered. 


One of the early settlers was Alexander Stephens, a native of Eng- 
land, who came to this country as a soldier under General Braddock and 
after the disastrous defeat of July, 1755. came to Perry county and in 
1766 settled near the mouth of the Juniata river. He married Catherine, 
daughter of James Baskins, of Baskins' ferry, but her father refused to 
recognize the marriage and they settled about five miles up the river. 
During the Revolutionary war Stephens held a captain's commission in 
the Continental service and after the war was over settled near Duncan- 
non. His son, Andrew B. Stephens, born near Duncannon in 1783, was 
the father of Alexander H. Stephens, who became vice-president of the 
Confederate States at the time of the rebellion. 

The little hamlet of Alilford (formerly Jonestown) stands on a tract 
of land that was warranted to \\'illiam Parkinson on June 17, 1755. 
Robert Brown came from England about 1740 and twenty years later 
settled near Newport. On April 6, 1763. he took up an adjoining tract 
of land on Big Buffalo creek and the same year Edward Elliott secured 
title to a tract of land where ^Markelsville now stands. These men were 
among the earliest landowners in the township. On April 3, 1769. John 
Peden took up a tract of land called "Down Patrick"' adjoining Elliott's 
place, which was known as "Pretty ]iIeadow." In his will dated August 
i> 1775' is the provision that, in case his child should die, his wife, 
IMartha Peden, "shall have that plantation lying in Sherman's alley, 
known as 'Down Patrick.' she to pay twenty pounds to the other execu- 
tor, to be put to use for the support of a minister in Donegal." 

In the early days there were two noted taverns in what is now Juniata" 
township. The White Ball Tavern was on the summit of Middle ridge, 
on the road from Sunbury to Carlisle. In 18 12 it was kept by Philip 
Clouser, who owned a large body of land in the immediate vicinity. The 
tavern went out of business about 1835. Farther south, on the Little 
Buffalo creek, was the Blue Ball Tavern, kept by John Koch. Several 
shooting-matches were held at this tavern and some of the best marks- 
men on the frontier met there to try their skill with the rifle. Messengers 
were kept stationed here in 18 12 ready to mount and carry communica- 
tions to the army at Niagara. A horn at the foot of ^liddle ridge sum- 
moned the messengers to be ready, the dispatches were then forwarded 
to Reider's ferry, where the ferry-boat was in waiting and the courier 
was soon on his wav northward. 


Liverpool township, which occupies the northeastern corner of Perry 
county, was formed from Greenwood in 1823. At the December term 
of court in 1822 a number of citizens came forward with a petition set- 
ting forth that "the township of Greenwood is so extensive in its bound- 
aries that it is inconvenient for the inhabitants thereof to attend to town- 
ship business," etc. Meredith Darhngton, George Elhott and George 
Monroe were appointed viewers, but their report, if one was made, has 
disappeared. No further mention of a new township is found in the rec- 
ords until September 5, 1823, when David Dechert (or Deckard) was 
appointed constable of Liverpool township. This was the first township 
erected within the limits of Perry county after that county was organ- 
ized. The name was taken from the town of Liverpool, which had been 
founded in the fall of 1808. 

On March 3, 1755, John Pfoutz took up 142 acres in a long narrow 
strip lying along the Susquehanna river at the end of Buffalo mountain, 
a little below the present borough of Liverpool. A few years later 
(1762) Alexander McKee warranted 290 acres just south of Pfoutz. 
John and Jacol) Huggins located north of Liverpool and John Staily 
owned the land on which the borough is now situated. Other earlv or 
prominent settlers were the Earners, David Stewart, Anthony Rhoades, 
Thomas Gallagher and Peter Williamson. 

An old school house, long known as the "hen-roost," was built at an 
early date and was the oldest school house in the township. It stood near 
Christ's Lutheran church on the road leading from Liverpool to Millers- 
town, about four miles from the former. Anotlier school house, called 
Stollenberger's, stood near Earner's church. Among the early teachers 
in these two houses were John Buchanan, John C. Lindsay, who served a 
term as prothonotary. George Grubb and Abner Knight. In 1912 there 
were seven public schools in the township. 

About 1827 or 1828, while the canal was under construction, the 
Catholics purchased a small plot of ground from John Huggins, west of 
Liverpool, upon which a small chapel was built and a cemetery estab- 
lished for the interment of any Catholics employed on the canal. 

Liverpool township is bounded on the north and east by the Susque- 
hanna river, which separates it from Dauphin county, on the south by 
Buffalo township and on the west by Greenwood. 

Madison township was formed in 1836 from territory taken from the 


townships of Sa\'ille, Toboyne and Tyrone. In response to a petition 
signed by some thirty citizens, the court, early in 1835, appointed Samuel 
Darlington, William West and x\lexander ]\Iagee as viewers. Their re- 
port was presented to the court on August 25, 1835, with the word "Ma- 
rion" marked on the draft of the new township. A remonstrance of cer- 
tain interested parties caused the court to suspend action and on Novem- 
ber 5, 1835, a new set of viewers was appointed. On July 8, 1836, they 
reported in favor of new township with the following boundaries : 

"Beginning at the line between Toboyne and Tyrone townships, near 
William Miller's mill ; thence adopting the line made by the first view 
and taking in a small part of Tyrone and a part of Saville township, 
north 30>>4° due west seven miles and fourteen perches to a pine on 
the Juniata county line on the top of Tuscarora oSIountain ; thence 
along said line and along the top of said mountain to Bailie's Narrows; 
thence by Toboyne township 31° east eight miles and 180 perches to 
a stone-heap on the top of the Blue Mountain on the Cumberland 
county line (throwing off a space of one mile and eighty-four perches 
in breadth to the township of Toboyne, more than had been done by 
the former view ) ; thence along said line to the intersection of the line 
between the townships of Toboyne and Tyrone: thence along the said 
division line to the place of beginning, which is hereby designated as 
a new township." 

The clause in parentheses brought the western line of the new town- 
ship that much farther east than the one recommended by the first view, 
thus removing the objections of the remonstrators. The name ]\Iarion 
was also suggested by the second set of viewers, but the death of ex- 
President ]\Iadison having occurred the preceding month the court, 
upon confirming the report on August i, 1836, changed the name to 
Madison. It extends from the Juniata county line on the north to Cum- 
berland county on the south : is bounded by the townships of Saville and 
Tyrone on the east and Jackson on the west. Its area is about sixty 
square miles. 

Within the limits of this township stood the old Robison fort, built 
by the Robison brothers about 1755. It was on the line of the traders' 
path from Harris' ferry westward and was a rallying point for the set- 
tlers in time of danger. Besides the Robisons, other early settlers 
were Alexander Roddy, who was a squatter upon the Indian lands before 
the purchase of 1754. James Thoni, the Woolcombers, who were massa- 


cred by the Indians in 1756. William Officer, Roger Clarke, John Byers, 
Hugh Alexander, James Wilson, John Hamilton, Alexander Logan, John 
and Robert Potts and William Anderson, from whom the village of An- 
dersonburg took its name. 

Andersonburg was formerly known as Zimmerman from the old 
Zimmerman hotel there. The first store in the village was in an old 
log building called the "Barracks." William B. Anderson was the first 
merchant and was succeeded by Bryner & Ernest. Andersonburg is a 
station on the Newport & Sherman's Valley railroad and in 19 10 reported 
a population of 180. Farther northeast on the same line of railway is 
Cisna Run with a population of 95. It was formerly known as Cedar 
Spring. John Reed started a store at this point in 1830. Cisna Run 
once aspired to be the county seat of Perry county. 

In Liberty valley, in the mirthern part of the township, was Thomas 
jNIitchell's sleeping place, mentioned by John Harris in his table of dis- 
tances from Harrisburg to Logstowai in 1754. ^Mitchell was an Indian 
trader as early as 1748, and is supposed to have had a cabin at this place 
for the accommodation of traders and travelers. 

School houses were built at Sandy Hill. Centre and Clark's at an 
early date. The exact location of the Sandy Hill house cannot be ascer- 
tained with certainty, nor can the date when it was built, Ijut it was 
erected before the beginning of the nineteenth century and stood some- 
where near the "old camp ground." Jonas Thatcher \vas one of the early 
teachers. The school house at Clark's also has a history running so far 
back that it is veiled in obscurity. In 19 12 there were twelve public 
schools in Madison township. 

Postoffices were established at Kistler, at the intersection of the Ickes- 
burg and Blain and Bealtown roads, and at Bixler's mills in 1884, but 
with the introduction of the rural free delivery both were discontinued. 
Kistler is a village of eighty inhabitants in 1910 and Bixler reported a 
population of 180. 

Miller is a small township occupying the great bend in the Juniata 
river, which forms the eastern boundary. On the north it is bounded by 
Oliver township and on the south by Wheatfield. Centre forms a small 
portion of the boundary on the west. It was created by an act of the 
legislature on March 11, 1852, and was named after David ]Miller 
by Joseph Bailey. 


The earliest settlers in this township were John Gilmore, Andrew 
Stephens, Robert Sturgeon, John Anderson, William Ramsey, Samuel 
Martin, Samuel Galbraith, Robert and John Woodburn. The Wood- 
burns located at the north foot of Dick's hill, where they established the 
old Woodburn tavern, which was a famous stopping place on the road 
from Clark's ferry westward. 

In 1912 there were three public schools in Aliller township — Pine 
Grove, Mahanoy and Bailey's. The last named is at the station of 
Bailey, on the Pennsylvania railroad, which runs along the eastern border 
of the township. It was named for Joseph Bailey, a prominent citizen 
and at one time the owner of the Caroline furnace, which was erected 
by John D. Creigh in 1836. 

Oliver township, lying along the western side of the Juniata river, ex- 
tends from Tuscarora on the north to Miller on the south and is bounded 
on the west by the townships of Juniata and Centre. .\t the January 
term of court in 1836 a petition was presented asking for a new town- 
ship to be formed from territory taken from Buffalo, Juniata and Centre, 
and recommending the following boundaries : 

"Beginning at the Juniata river at the line between Centre and 
Wheatfield townships; thence across the Juniata river at the line to 
Buffalo township; thence up the said river to the house of James 
Shield, including the same; thence in a northern course to Thomas 
Boyd's, including his house; along the line of said Boyd and Swift 
north, till they intersect the line between Buffalo and Greenwood town- 
ships; thence along the said line to the Juniata river; thence up the 
same to the Rope Ferry ; thence across the Juniata river to the house 
of Abraham Reider, including the same; thence a through course to 
the house of Samuel Murray, including the same; thence a straight 
line to the house of Peter Wertz, including the same ; thence a straight 
southerly line to the house of John Bressler and including the same; 
thence a south course to the top of Limestone Ridge in Centre town- 
ship; thence an easterly course to a saw-mill known as 'Stengle's old 
saw-miir ; thence the same course till it intersects the line between 
Wheatfield and Penn townships; thence along s.-^id line to the place 
of beginning." 

The report of the viewers was approved by the court on November 
II, 1837, and the township was then named Oliver, after Oliver Hazard 
Perrv, tlie naval hero in the battle on Lake Erie in the War of 1812. 


Among those who entered lands in the township prior to iSoo were 
\\'illiam DarHngton, John and David Enghsh, William West and a few 
others. One of David English's warrants called for fifty-two acres on 
the Juniata river "for a fishery." He also took out warrants for the land 
upon which the borough of Newport now stands. Some years before 
the Revolution John Mitchell came from Ireland to Lancaster county. 
His departure from his native land was rather sudden, owing to the fact 
that, in a moment of passion, he "caned" a member of Parliament for 
what he considered a violation of a pledge. In 1780 he held the rank 
of colonel in the Cumberland county militia. He died at an advanced age 
and his remains were buried in the old Poplar Hill cemetery in Oliver 

The first school in the township was taught in 1812 by Josiah English 
in a small house on what was afterward known as the Josiah Fickes place. 
The first public school house was erected at Mount Fairview in 1839. In 
1912 there were six school districts. 

The Pennsylvania railroad follows the Juniata river along the east- 
ern border and the Newport & Sherman's A^alley railroad runs westward,- 
these two lines affording ample transportation to all sections of the 

Penn township, near the southeastern corner of the county, is triangu- 
lar in form and is bounded on the north by ^^'heatfield township : on the 
east by the Juniata and Susquehanna rivers : on the south by Rye town- 
ship, and a little of the western boundary at the apex of the triangle is 
formed bv Carroll. It was taken from Rye by order of the court in 
1826. The first settlement made in this part of Perry county was that 
made by John Harris about 1732 and was located near the present rail- 
road station called Aqueduct. About 1753 several persons came up 
the Susquehanna and settled along the Juniata river on both sides, and 
on Duncan's island, which now forms part of ^^'atts township. Among 
those who located in Penn township were James Baskins, Cornelius Ache- 
son, and Francis Ellis. James Baskins was the founder of the historic 
Baskins' ferry at the foot of Haldeman island, about which the settle- 
ment known as Baskinsville grew up in course of time. Samuel Goudy 
warranted 215 acres of land in August, 1766, but afterward sold it to 
John Clark, who established Clark's ferry and also built a tavern there. 
It was a fording place called by the Indians Oueenaskowakee and was 




on the old stage road. The tavern became a well-known stopping place 
after the Juniata Stage Company began operations in 1808. 

Above James Baskins' place were the Barren Hills, where William 
Baskins took up 300 acres in 1766. Other early settlers were Isaac Jones, 
James Dugan, Richard Coulter, Benjamin Abraham, Andrew Berryhill, 
Robert Nicholson, David Hackett, Joseph Watkins, William Clark, David 
Stout, and a number of others, all of whom came before the Revolution. 
After that war came Alexander Rutherford, John Shearman, Joseph 
Kirkpatrick, Michael Simpson, David and William Ogle, John and Adam 
Fry, John Gresh, William McQuaid, and Adam Harbison. 

An act of the legislature in 1797 designated the Union school house 
at Petersburg (now Duncannon) as a voting place. This is the earliest 
authentic mention of a school house in Penn township. It was used 
for school purposes until about 1840, when it was torn down and a frame 
building erected in its place. Another early school house was the one 
near Young's mill, where Joseph Mclntire was one of the pioneer 
teachers. Exclusive of the borough of Duncannon there were ten 
teachers employed in the public schools in 1912. Four of these were in 
the Lower Duncannon high school and six were in the district schools. 

Before the Revolution James Patton built a dam across Sherman's 
creek near its mouth to furnish power for his saw-mill. Complaint was 
made that this dam was an obstruction to navigation, and, on February 
6, 1773, the legislature passed an act requiring him "to make a space 
twenty feet in breadth near the middle of the dam and two feet lower 
than the rest, and lay a platform of stone and timber at least six feet 
down the stream, to form the slope for the easy and safe passage of 
boats, rafts, or canoes." As Sherman's creek is not now considered 
navigable, this old law is something of a curiosity. 

Rye township occupies the extreme southeastern corner of the county 
and was erected in 1766. A petition came before the Cumberland 
county court in January, 1766, asking that the lower end of Tyrone 
township be cut off and a new one erected therein. At the March term 
following the court issued the following order : "Upon petition of Sev- 
erall of the Inhabitants of Tyrone Township to this Court, Setting forth 
that Said Township is too large, it is adjudged and ordered by the said 
Court, that from the North Mountain to the Tuskarora ^Mountain by Mr. 
West's, and from that to Darlington's and to Strack the Tuskarora 


about William Xoble's be the line, and the name of the Lower be called 
Rye Township." 

The assessment rolls for 1766, the }ear the township was erected, 
show sixty landowners, holding about 7,000 acres. Samuel Hunter and 
AVilliam Richardson were assessed on saw-mills. In 1802 there were 
twelve saw-mills, four grist-mills, and one distillery. The original area 
has been greatly reduced by the formation of Juniata, Wheatfield, Penn, 
Carroll, Centre, and Miller townships, leaving the Rye township of the 
present day a narrow strip lying between Cove mountain and the Cum- 
berland county line and extending from the Susquehanna river westward 
to Carroll township. Its area is about twenty-four scjuare miles. 

On September 8, 1755. Samuel Hunter took a warrant for a large 
tract of land at the mouth of Fishing creek, where Marysville is now 
located. This tract extended about two miles along the Susquehanna and 
about three miles up the Fishing creek valley. At the mouth of the 
creek he put up a saw-mill and subsequently entered other lands adjoin- 
ing his first tract. He was the first man to locate land within the present 
limits of the township. Settlement was slow for several years. After 
the Revolution came Robert Wallace, Thomas Buchanan, William Mc- 
Farlane. Robert Whitehill. David Ralston, Henry Robison, William 
Davis, Robert Allen, John Nicholson, Nicholas Wolfe and his son-in- 
law John Bowman, and a number of others, most of whom settled along 
the river or in the Fishing creek valley. Wolfe and Bowman were 
interested in building mills. As early as 1798 Bowman had a saw-mill, 
grist-mill, and carding machine on Fishing creek, just above Hunter's 
lands. Later a distillery was established in connection. 

The first school house in the township was on the old Valley road 
down Fishing creek. It was built before 1800 and, like most of tlje 
pioneer school houses, was of logs, rudely furnished and poorly lighted. 
Another old school house was about fourteen miles above Marysville 
on the old road. Isaac Gray, Samuel Coble, and Barbara Miller were 
among the early teachers. Barabara Miller was a widow and was the 
mother of Stephen IMiller, who became governor of Minnesota. In 1912 
there were five school districts. 

On the Susquehanna river, at the eastern end of the township, is 
the borough of Marysville, the second largest town in Perry county. 
About six miles west of Marysville is the little hamlet of Keystone, and 


four miles west of Keystone is Grier's Point. Both are small places and 
the only villages in the township. 

Saville township was taken from Tyrone in 1817, three years before 
Perry county was erected. John Darlington and David Grove were ap- 
pointed viewers at the April term of court in that year. They made 
their report in June, recommending the erection of a new township, and 
that "the limestone ridge, along which the division line runs the whole 
distance from east to west, is the natural and proper division of said 
township." The report was confirmed at the November term, when 
the name of Saville was given to the new township. With the excep- 
tion of a portion of the west side, which became a part of Madison in 
1836, Saville has retained its original territory. It is about seven miles 
in length from east to west and six miles wide, containing about forty 
square miles. The principal stream is Buffalo creek. 

Among the early settlers were Thomas Elliott, William Waddell, 
Robert and James Irvine, David McClure, Thomas Patton, David Sam- 
ple, William McMeen, Colonel Thomas Hartley, Robert Kearney, Alex- 
ander Sanderson, Peter Hartman, Zachariah Rice, William Linn, Patrick 
Duffield, Frederick Shull, Michael Loy, John Black, William Marshall, 
the Weiblys, Kinkeads, Shumans, and some others, all of whom came 
before the close of the eighteenth century. Colonel Thomas Hartley was 
an officer in the Continental army in the Revolution and after the estab- 
lishment of the United States government was a member of Congress 
for twelve years. For his military services he received a large grant of 
land in Union county, but in the spring of 1786 he became a landowner 
in Saville township. 

In 1820, the year Perry county was created, the assessment showed 
that there were 194 taxpayers in Saville. There were then four stores, 
five saw-mills, five grist-mills, five distilleries, one fulling mill, seven 
blacksmith shops, four wagon makers, one tan-yard, and three cooper 
shops in the township and other trades were also represented. 

The first school house was near the old Ickes mill and was in exist- 
ence as early as 1785. John Bolton, Thomas Meldrum, George Wil- 
liams, and Thomas Stevenson were some of the early teachers. A hotly 
contested election was held in 1835 to decide whether the township 
should adopt the public school system. The system was accepted, but 
the next year the people voted against it. when the directors appealed to 


the state to know whether a tax levied for school purposes could be col- 
lected. It was decided by the state department that a meeting of the 
people had no power, under the school laws, to control the action of a 
board of directors. In 1912 there were twelve school districts. 

The village of Ickesburg, a little north of the center of the town- 
ship, was laid out in 1818 by Nicholas Ickes, who had a saw-mill and 
distillery there. A postoffice was established there in 1820, with William 
Elliott as postmaster. The next year a tannery was built by Taylor & 
Parshall, and a foundry was established in 1835. Edward Miller was 
one of the pioneer hotel keepers. The population of the village in 19 10 
was 430. Eschol, a small village near the southeast corner, grew up 
around the old Shuman church and mill. A postoffice was established 
at the upper Shuman mill at an early date, but was removed to the village 
and named Eschol, with John D. Baker as postmaster. In 1912 the 
population was 95. 

Spring township, in the southern part of the county, was established 
in 1849. The records concerning its erection are not to be found, but 
from the best authority at hand it appears that a petition came before 
the court in January, 1848, and James Black, Richard Adams, and 
William B. Anderson were appointed viewers. Adams and Black made 
a report in favor of the division of Tyrone and suggested "Lawrence" 
as a name for the new township. In August the report was confirmed, 
notwithstanding some 200 citizens remonstrated, and the township was 
named Spring. In November Black and Adams were again appointed 
by the court "to view and alter the line between Spring and Centre 
townships, so as to include Abraham Kistler and David Stambaugh in 
Spring township," and in April, 1849, they reported that such change 
was necessary, which was confirmed by the court. The area is about 
thirty square miles. It is bounded on the north by Saville ; on the east 
by Centre and Carroll; on the south by Cumberland county, and on the 
west by the township of Tyrone. Sherman's creek flows through the 
central part and the Newport & Sherman's Valley railroad crosses the 
northern portion. 

In 1750, when the provincial authorities ordered the expulsion of 
squatters from the Indian lands. Secretary Peters reported that he 
found on Sherman's creek, "about six miles over the Blue Mountain, 
James Parker, Thomas Parker, Owen ?\IcKeib, John ]\IcClare, Richard 


Kirkpatrick, James Murray, John Scott, Henry Gass, John Cowan, 
Simon Girtee (Girty), and John Kilough, who had settled lands and 
erected Cabins or log Houses thereon." These men, who were at that 
time convicted of trespass, were the first white men to locate in what 
is now Spring township. After the purchase of 1754, the first land 
warrants were issued to John Sanderson and Samuel Fisher, who took 
up lands near Elliottsburg. Some of those evicted in 1750 came back 
and perfected their titles and other early settlers were Thomas Fisher, 
Edward Irvin, James Aldricks, Abraham Smith, David Robb, John 
Waggoner, from whom Waggoner's gap takes its name, David Beard, 
Henry Spark, and the Gibsons. The old Westover mill was built by 
Anne West Gibson about 1780 and was one of the first in the county. 
John, Samuel, Jonathan, and Thomas Ross were also among the 
pioneers, taking up lands on both sides of Sherman's creek. 

About 1780 Henry Spark built a school house on his farm and 
opened a school with himself as the teacher. A log school house was 
built in the Pisgah valley in 1798. Another early school house was 
West's, about half a mile west of Gibson's rock. In 1912 there were 
nine public schools in the township. John Bannister Gibson, at one time 
chief justice of the Pennsylvania supreme court, was born in this town- 
ship and first went to school at the West school house. 

Elliottsburg, a station on the Newport & Sherman's Valley railroad, 
received its name from George Elliott in 1828, when a postotftce was 
established there with Henry C. Hackett as postmaster. A tavern had 
l^een opened there two years before. Peter Bernheisel was the first 
merchant. Elliottsburg was one of the aspirants for county seat honors 
when the county was erected in 1820, eight years before it assumed its 
present name. The population in 19 10 was 150. It is the only village 
of consequence in the township. 

Toboyne township was taken from Tyrone by the following action 
of the Cumberland county court at the March term in 1763: "Upon 
application of some of the Inhabitants of Tyrone Township to this 
court, setting forth that said township is too Large, it is adjudged by 
the said Court that Alexander Roddy's Mill Runn be the line, and the 
name of the Upper, Toboyne, Alexander Logan being in Toboyne 

Its area was reduced by the formation of Madison in 1836 and 


Jackson in 1S44, but it is still one of the largest in the county, having 
an area of about seventy-five square miles. It occupies the extreme 
western end of the county; is bounded on the north by Juniata county; 
on the east by Jackson township; on the south by Cumberland county, 
and on the west b}- the county of Franklin. 

The earliest settlers in this part of Perry county were John Wilson, 
Joseph McClintock, John Rhea, John Glass, John Jordan, John Clenden- 
nin, who was killed by the Indians, and John Watt. In 1767, the oldest 
record available, there were forty-two landowners in the township, 
which at that time included Jackson and Madison. Jacob Grove was 
assessed on a grist-mill and saw-mill, the only ones in the township. 
In 1800 Samuel Leaman built a mill on the tract of land warranted by 
John Watt in 1755. 

About 1805 a school house was built on the farm owned by David 
Hollenbaugh ; another was situated near Joshua Rowe's, and a third 
was not far from Long's mill. A school house had been built some years 
before at New Germantown. On ]\Iarch 28, 1814, the legislature passed 
an act containing the provision that "The land officers to make a title 
clear of purchase money and fees to trustees for schools to be estab- 
lished in the township of Toboyne for a piece of land," etc. In 1912 
there were eight public schools. 

When Colonel Frederick Watts' battalion was organized in 1777, 
a majority of the men came from Perry county and a large number were 
from Toboyne township. William Plain, wlio lived in that part after- 
ward cut off to form Jackson township, was captain of the Fourth com- 
pany, and Thomas Clark commanded the Eighth company. In Captain 
David Moreland's company in the War of 18 12 there were about twenty 
men from Toboyne. 

New Germantown, the only important village in the township, is 
situated on Sherman's creek, near the eastern border. It was laid out 
by Solomon Sheibley about 1820 and was named after Germantown, 
near Philadelphia. At that time the business enterprises consisted of a 
shoemaker's shop, a blacksmith shop, a hatter, a carpenter, and Jacob 
Kreamer's mill. Prior to 1820 the place was known as Limestone 
Spring. One of the first taverns was the "Old Stone Castle," kept ]jy 
David Koutz until 1831, when he left the town. The village was seri- 
ously damaged by a fire in March, 1876, and in the fall of 1885 J. E. 


Rumple's store was destroyed by fire. In 1844 New Germantown was 
incorporated as a borough, but the citizens faihng to attend to the 
roads, the charter was tai<en away in 1847. It is the terminus of the 
Newport & Sherman's Valley railroad and in 1910 reported a population 
of 250. It is the principal trading and shipping point for the western 
part of the county. 

Tuscarora township, in the northern tier, is bounded on the north 
by Juniata county : on the east by the Juniata river, across which lies 
Greenwood township; on the south by the townships of Oliver and 
Juniata, and on the west by Saville. Its greatest length is about eleven 
miles, the average width is three miles, and the area about thirty-one 
square miles. Tuscarora was erected in a different manner from most 
of the townships. In response to a petition, the court in October, 1858, 
ordered an election to be held, at which the people were to vote on the 
question of forming a new township. The election was held on the 
last day of November, the return was filed with the court, and on 
January 3, 1859, the following decree was issued : 

"Whereupon, the clerk of the Court of Quarter Sessions having 
laid the within return before the court, it is ordered and decreed that 
a new township be erected agreeably to the lines marked out by the 
commissioners, whose report is filed, and that the said township be 
named 'Tuscarora,' and, farther, the court do order and decree that 
the place of holding elections shall be at the house of Michael Donnally, 
at Donnally's Alills, and do appoint Jacob Yohn, Judge, and James 
H. Deavor and David Leonard, Inspectors, to hold the spring elections 
for the present year, and also appoint John S. Kerr, constable." 

Soon after the lands in the Juniata valley were opened to settle- 
ment, a number of persons located in what is now Tuscarora township. 
Among them were Robert Larimer, Lewis Gronow, Robert Campbell, 
Thomas Craig, James and John Black, Robert Cochran, Samuel Atlee, 
Henry and William Bull. James and Matthew Loudon, John Murray, 
Robert McCrary, William and John Miller, Philip and Peter Jones, Wil- 
liam White, \\'illiam Brown, and a number of others, descendants of 
some of whom still reside in the county. 

What was known as the Bull school house was originally a carpen- 
ter shop. The Narrows school house, on the road leading from Rac- 
coon valley to Buckwheat valley, was built some time prior to 1780. 


Another old school house, known as the Oakland, was located in the 
Buckwheat valley. There were seven school districts in the township 
in 1912. Bull's Hill graveyard had its beginning about 1780, when a 
man was frozen to death while trying to cross the Tuscarora mountain 
and was buried at this place. 

About 1853 one Andrew J. Smolnicker bought at sheriff's sale some 
300 or 400 acres of land near the top of the mountain, on which he 
put up a frame building twenty by forty feet for a residence and 
church of the new sect he had founded, which was called the "Peace 
Union." He wrote a book setting forth his creed, but his death a few 
years later left the movement without a leader and the church went 

Millerstown station, on the Pennsylvania railroad, opposite Millers- 
town, and Donnally's Mills are the only villages of importance. Henry 
Bull built a grist-mill at the latter place at an early date and a small 
settlement sprang up about the mill. Later he sold the mill to Michael 
Donnally and in time the place became known as Donnally's Mills. The 
population was 104 in 1910. It is the principal trading point for the 
people living in the Raccoon valley. 

Tyrone township once included all that part of Perry county lying 
west of the Juniata river and has been called "the mother of townships, 
fourteen new ones having been created from its original territory. It 
is now bounded on the north by Saville; on the east by Spring; on the 
south and southwest by Cumberland county, and on the west by the 
township of Madison. Sherman's creek flows through the central por- 
tion and the Newport & Sherman's Valley railroad crosses the northern 

As Tyrone originally embraced such a large district, many of the 
earh'- settlers are mentioned in connection with other townships, in 
which they were located after such townships were erected. A number 
of squatters settled in Sherman's valley before the land was purchased 
from the Indians. James Kennedy, John and Joseph Scott, Thomas 
Wilson, and several others were there in 1753 and took out land war- 
rants as soon as possible after the region was opened to settlement. 
Andrew Montour received a warrant for 143 acres between the little 
stream known as Montour's run and Sherman's creek. This place after- 
ward became the property of Abraham Landis, Montour having left 


the country soon after settlers began coming in. A mill was erected on 
the tract by Jeremiah Rice in 1786. Conrad Weiser, the Indian inter- 
preter, stopped at Montour's in 1754, while on his way to Aughwick 
to hold a treaty. 

In 19 1 2 there were ten public schools in Tyrone township. The 
first school house known to have been within the present limits of the 
township was built in 1794 near the Lebanon church at Loysville. Prob- 
ably the next was built at Landisburg, and another stood near the old 
Patterson mill. There was also a school house in the Kennedy valley at 
an early date. 

Loysville and Greenpark are the flourishing villages. Part of Loys- 
ville was laid out by the poor directors in 1840 and named Andesville. 
A postoffice by that name was established there about two years later, 
but subsec|uently both the postoffice and village were named Loysville, 
in honor of Michael Loy. The other part of the town was laid out 
about the Lutheran church, on what was known as the McClure farm. 
Michael Kepner, Andrew Welch, and Robert Dunbar opened a store 
here in 1830. Loysville is a station on the Newport & Sherman's Val- 
ley railroad, about nine miles southwest from New Bloomfield, and in 
1910 had a population of 500. 

In Greenpark the first house was built by William Reed, about 1834. 
In 1857 Martin Mootzer and John Bernheisel opened a store and Jacob 
Bernheisel & Sons started a machine shop. Greenpark is on the line 
of the Newport & Sherman's Valley railroad, seven miles from New 
Bloomfield. The population was 178 in 1910. 

Watts township, occupying the point of land between the Juniata and 
Susquehanna rivers and including Duncan's and Haldeman's islands, 
is one of the smallest in the county. It is bounded on the north by 
Buffalo; on the east and south by the Susquehanna river; and on the 
west by the Juniata, across which lies the townships of Miller, Wheat- 
field, and Penn. 

Marcus Hulings settled at the mouth of the Juniata in 1753. Three 
years later he was driven off by the Indians. After the cessation of 
hostilities he returned and obtained a warrant for 200 acres at the 
junction of the two rivers. He also warranted another tract farther 
up the Susquehanna. He died in 1788 and his son Thomas succeeded 
to the estate. Other early settlers were John Eshelman, Frederick 


Watts, Robert Ferguson, Benjamin Walker, and Joseph Nagle. The 
names of Stophel Munce, George Etzmiller, Francis EUis, Samuel Neaves 
and John ^Miller appear in the early records as landowners, and some of 
them may have lived in the township. 

The Pennsylvania canal ran through this township and the Pennsyl- 
vania railroad now follows the Juniata river on the opposite side. The 
township was named for David Watts, who presided over the court at 
the time the township was erected in 1849. 

The first school house was built on what was known as the "Church 
Lands." It was without a floor and it is said to have settled so much 
that the teacher could not stand erect in it, when it was rebuilt. In 
1912 there were three public schools — McAllister's, Centre, and Liv- 
ingston's. The schools of New Bufifalo, the only borough in the town- 
ship, are not included in the above. 

\\'heatfield township was erected on January 5, 1S26, in response 
to a petition filed with the court in May, 1824. Several unsuccessful 
attempts had been made prior to that time to divide Rye township, from 
which the territory of Wheatfield was taken. At the time it was created 
it contained 298 taxpayers, but it has since been reduced in size by the 
formation of Miller, Centre, Penn, and Carroll. Since these townships 
have been cut off Wheatfield is bounded on the north by Miller, east 
by the Juniata river, south by Penn, and west by Carroll. It is ten miles 
long and three miles wide, having an area of thirty square miles. 

Frederick Watts, a native of Wales, was one of the early settlers. 
He was born in June, 1719, married in his native land Jane, daughter 
of David Murray, Marquis of Tullibardine, who esjioused the cause of 
Charles, the Pretender, and after the battle of Culloden became an 
exile. Watts came with his family to America about 1760 and two years 
later warranted 331 acres fronting on the Juniata in what is now 
Wheatfield township. Levi Owen, also a Welshman, settled in Wheat- 
field in the spring of 1767. Arnold Van Fossen, Robert Ramsey. John 
Smith, who entered in 1788 the tract where the Montabello furnace 
was afterward built, Benjamin Abram, and William Baskins were among 
the pioneer landowners. The Montabello furnace was built about 1834 
and the Fio forge, on Sherman's creek, was built in 1827. The former 
was destroyed by fire in 1875 and the latter was abandoned after a flood 
destroyed the dam in 1846. A large tract lying between Sherman's 




creek and Fine hill was bought by Peter Billow in 18 12. Here the old 
Billow tavern, a well known stopping place for many years, was opened 
by the proprietor, who also started a distillery. 

About iSio a school house was built on Levi Owen's place and was 
used for school purposes for about ten years. Wheatfield accepted the 
school law in 1835 and in 1912 there were seven districts. 

In Perry county there are nine incorporated boroughs — Blain, Dun- 
cannon, Landisburg, Liverpool, Marysville, Millerstown, New Bloom- 
field, New Buffalo, and Newport. 

New Bloomfield, the county seat, is pleasantly located near the cen- 
ter of the county and had its beginning in 1823, when the site was 
selected as the seat of justice. There is a story that when the site 
was selected on June i, 1823, the clover was in full bloom and this gave 
name to the town. Another account says that Mrs. George Barnett, 
whose husband donated the ground to the county, was given the privilege 
of naming the town. She suggested "Bloomfield," but, when the ob- 
jection was made that there were so many towns of that name, she pro- 
posed "New Bloomfield," which name was adopted. Robert Kelly was 
employed by the commissioners to lay out the town and a square was 
set apart at the intersection of IMain and Carlisle streets for the court- 
house. Opposite the court-house was the market-house lot, but no 
market-house has ever been built. David Lupfer bought a lot just north 
of the court-house and erected thereon a two-story brick building for a 
hotel, the first in the town. A postoftice was established in May, 1825, 
with Jonas Ickes as the postmaster. According to the Perry Forester, 
in August, 1826, Bloomfield contained "eighteen snug and comfortable 
buildings, some of which are large and commodious, besides from 12 
to 15 stables." 

At the time the site was selected as the county seat there was not 
a single building upon it. In 1829 there were "29 dwellings, 21 shops 
and offices, court-house and jail. 4 stores, 5 taverns, i printing office, 
2 shoemaker shops, 2 tailor shops, 2 tanneries, a saddler, a tinner, a 
hatter, 2 blacksmith shops, 2 or 3 carpenters, more than half a dozen 
lawyers and half as many doctors." 

On November 25, 1830. the citizens of the town met to consider 
the question of incorporation. A petition was presented to the legisla- 
ture and an act was passed by which New Bloomfield became an in- 


corporated borough on March 14, 1831. The first election was held 
four days later, when Alexander Magee was elected burgess. 

The first newspaper was the Perry Forester, which began its career 
at Landisburg in 1820 under the ownership and management of Alex- 
ander Magee and H. W. Peterson. The latter retired and, in April, 
1S29, Mr. Magee removed the office to the county seat. The first school 
house was a small brick building, erected about 1829 on a lot donated 
by George Barnett on the north side of High street and the second was 
on McClure street. The Bloomfield Seminary Avas opened by Robert 
Finley in the fall of 1837 and the Bloomfield Academy was incorporated 
in April, 1838. In 19 12 there were four teachers employed in the public 
schools of the borough. The Methodist church was organized in 1829 
and the first building was erected in 1831. The first Presbyterian 
church was built in 1835, the Reformed church in 1857, and the Luth- 
eran church the same year. 

In the fall of 1893 ^ company was formed, with a capital of $15,000 
and A. R. Johnson as president, for the purpose of supplying the bor- 
ough with water. The source of supply is at Garland Springs, one 
and a fourth miles west of the town and New Bloomfield has a plenti- 
ful supply of pure water for all purposes. In 1898 the Joshua S. Leiby 
Company, of Newport, secured a franchise for putting in an electric 
lighting plant, and the spring of the following year saw New Bloom- 
field lighted by electricity. The plant is controlled by the Prairie Elec- 
tric Light, Heat and Power Company. 

The borough has a national bank, several manufacturing enterprises, 
among which are a knitting mill and a shirt factory, several good stores, 
two hotels, etc. It is connected with Duncannon Ijy the Susquehanna 
River & Western railroad, and in 19 10 had a population of 762. 

Blain is the outgrowth of a settlement that grew up about the mill 
erected by James Blain in 1778. The mill was purchased by William 
Douglass early in the nineteenth century and a postoffice was established 
there under the name of Douglass' Mill. In 1846 the town was regu- 
larly laid out and the name of the postofiice was changed to Blain. 
The first store was opened by Anthony Black. Blain was incorporated 
on November 3, 1877, and the first election was held in February, 1878. 
It is located on the Newport & Sherman's Valley railroad, twenty miles 
west of New Bloomfield, and is said to occupy the prettiest site in the 



county. Before the building of the railroad it was connected with New- 
port by a stage hne. Blain has a bank, a number of good stores, some 
cozy residences, a graded school employing two teachers, churches of 
different denominations, a hotel, etc. The population in 1910 was 326. 

Duncannon, formerl}' called Petersburg, is located in the eastern 
part of the county on the Susquehanna river and the main line of the 
Pennsylvania railroad, and is the eastern terminus of the Susquehanna 
River & Western railwa}-. It was laid out by Christian Miller in 1792 
and three years later there were eighteen lot-owners. Robert Stewart 
was one of the pioneer merchants and the first hotel was erected 
about 1794. John Chisholm built a grist-mill about 1810. The Dun- 
cannon Iron \\'orks were established in 1827 by Stephen A. Duncan and 
John D. Mahon. In 1873 a rolling mill and nail factory were started, 
the latter with a capacity of 800 kegs a week. In 1865 the name was 
changed from Petersburg to Duncannon, under which name it was in- 
corporated. It has two national banks, a number of manufacturing en- 
terprises, well stocked mercantile houses, good hotels, modern public 
school building in which eight teachers were employed in 19 12, lodges 
of the leading fraternal organizations, etc. The population in 1910 
was 1,474. 

Landisburg, ten miles southwest of New Bloomfield, was laid out 
by Abraham Landis in 1793. An attempt was made to dispose of the 
lots by lottery, but it appears to have been unsuccessful and they were 
then sold in the usual way. The oldest deed on record is dated Decem- 
ber I, 1795, when George 'W'olf bought a lot and set up in business as a 
wheelwright, ^^l^en Perry county was erected in 1820, the countv 
business was transacted and courts were held at Landisburg until the 
court-house at New Bloomfield was completed. The first hotel was the 
Bigler House, kept by Jacob Bigler. William Power was one of the 
early merchants. Landisburg was incorporated on December 23, 183 1, 
but the early records have not been preserved. It has a bank, a good 
public school building in which two teachers were employed in 19 12, 
several stores, churches of different faiths, and in 1910 reported a 
population of 252. 

Liverpool, situated in the eastern end of the county on the Susque- 
hanna river, was laid out by John Huggins in October, 1808, and Avas 
incorporated as a borough in 1832. Samuel Haas had laid out a town 


adjoining Liverpool in 1818. but at the time of the incorporation it 
was taken into the borough. Haas" town bore the high-sounding name 
of "Northern Liberties." In 1835 an engine house was-built on the 
market square, but it was destroyed by fire in 1873. Thomas Gallagher 
was the first merchant and John Huggins kept the first hotel. Among 
the early industries were the distillery of George Thorp, the tannery of 
John Speece and Rohrbach's foundry. The first school house was a log 
structure about twenty-five feet square, afterward weather-boarded and 
painted. Four teachers were employed in the borough schools in 1912. 
A newspaper called the Mercury was started by John Huggins in July, 
182 1, and ran for about five years, when it was merged into the Perry 
County Democrat. Liverpool has a national bank, some well-stocked 
stores, a money order postofiice, several neat houses of worship, etc. 
The population in 1910 was 596. 

Marysville, the second largest town in the county, is in the extreme 
southeast corner on the Susquehanna ri\er and the main line of the 
Pennsylvania railroad. It was laid out by Theophilus Fenn in 1861 
and was incorporated on April 12, 1866. Five houses had been built on 
the site in i860. Samuel Hunter had a saw-mill here many years before. 
Near the west end of the railroad bridge once stood an old house which 
was the headcjuarters of a band of horse thieves. IMarysville has a 
national bank, several churches, well-improved streets, nine teachers in 
the public schools, a number of manufacturing establishments, good 
hotels, electric light system and water works, and in 1910 reported a 
population, of 1.693, ^^ increase of 230 during the preceding decade. 
The borough is the terminus of a branch of the Philadelphia & Reading 
railway system. 

JNIillerstown was laid out in 1780 by David ]\Iiller. The old Ferry 
Hotel had been built two years before and was probably the first house 
on the site of the town. The L^nion Hotel was built in 1800 by John 
Wood. The same year Joshua North started a tannery. A school house 
was built in 1808 and continued in use until 1856, when a new one was 
erected. The borough now employs three teachers in the new graded 
school building. ]\Iillerstown has a bank, the usual quota of stores, 
shops, and churches, lodges of various orders, and in 1910 had a popu- 
lation of 549. Across the Juniata river is Millerstown Station, on the 
Pennsylvania railroad. A bridge was first built here in 1839. 


Newport (formerly Reiderville) was laid out by Paul, John, and 
Daniel Reider, whose father had purchased the site from David English 
in 1789 and left it to his sons by a will dated August 6, 1804. When 
I'erry county was erected in 1820 the name was changed to Newport 
and an effort was made to have the county seat located there. It was in- 
corporated in 1840 and in 19 10 it was the largest town in the county, 
having a population of 2,009, 'i" increase of 266 over the census of 
1900. Newport has a national bank, good hotels, first-class mercantile 
establishments, several manufacturing concerns, neat churches, fine pub- 
lic school buildings, in which ten teachers were employed in 1912; im- 
jiroved streets, waterworks, electric lights, sewers, etc. It is the eastern 
terminus of the Newport & Sherman's \'alley railroad and is on the 
main line of the Pennsylvania railroad twenty-seven miles west of 

New Buffalo, on the Susquehanna river, about seven miles above 
Duncannon, was laid out by Jacob Baughman some years before Perry 
county was created and was at first called Baughman's Town. It was 
incorporated on April 8, 1848, and John Shaffer was the first burgess. 
A school house was built in 1834 and was used for forty years, when 
a two-story brick building was erected. Jacob Baughman was the first 
hotel keeper and he also operated a grist-mill and distillery. A man 
named Kepner was the first merchant. Before he started in business the 
inhabitants went across the Susquehanna in canoes to Halifax, Dauphin 
county, for their supplies. The population of New Buffalo in 1910 was 
135. It is the smallest borough in the county. 

Shermansdale, although not an incorporated borough, is one of the 
flourishing towns. It is located on Sherman's creek, about eight miles 
south of New Bloomfield, which is the most convenient railroad station. 
A tavern was built near the village at an early date and was kept by 
Thomas Norton. The name Shermansdale was given to the postoffice 
when it was established in 1850. Daniel Gallatin was the first merchant. 
The population in 1910 was 572. 

In addition to the boroughs and villages already mentioned in this 
chapter, the postoffices of Perry county are : Alinda, Centre, Logania, 
Mannsville, Markelsville, Montgomery's Ferry, Nekoda, Pfoutz Valley, 
Saville, Walsingham, and Wila. There are twenty-six rural free deliv- 
erv routes in the countv, to wit : One from Andersonburg, one from 


Blain, four from Duncannon, one from Elliottsburg. two from Landis- 
burg, two from Liverpool, two from Loj'sville, one from Marysville, 
four from Millerstown, three from New Bloomfield, three from New- 
port, and two from Shermansdale. 



Pennsylvania Always Patriotic — Conditions in the Early Part of the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury — The Ohio Company — French Opposition — They Build Forts in Pennsylvania 
— Washington's Expedition — General Braddock's Defeat — Indian Troubles in the 
Juniata Valley — Forts Patterson, Granville and Shirley — Indian Raids in the Valley 
— Destruction of Fort Granville — Armstrong's Expedition — The Pontiac War^ 
The Revolution — Committee of Correspondence and Safety — Meeting of Deputies — 
United Action — First Continental Congress — Provincial Convention of 1775 — Com- 
mittee of Safety — Call for Troops — Thompson's Battalion — Roster of Juniata Com- 
panies — Washington's Opinion of the "Riflemen" — Organization of the Militia — 
Whigs and Tories — Weston's Tory Expedition — Jacob Hare — Frontier Forts — War 
of 1812 — Volunteers from the Juniata — Perry's Victory — Heroism of Metlin and 
Tool — Pennsylvania's Record. 

UNHAPPILY, the story of human progress is one of war, cruelty 
and bloodshed. Through the application of the theory that 
"the fittest survive," the weaker or inferior races have been 
vanquished by the stronger ones and their lands taken from them. 
Long and bloody contests have been waged by civilized nations for the 
territory thus wrested from savage peoples. Sometimes, as in the Revo- 
lutionary war, the people have rebelled against the oppression of a royal 
ruler, and, in a few instances, wars have been fought to uplift humanity. 
It has been said that war brings an element of patriotism that cannot be 
developed in times of peace. Whether or not this be true, the people of 
Pennsvlvania have never been charged with a lack of patriotism or 
lovaltv to their race, their government or its institutions. Since the 
first settlement of the province they have taken part in every conflict 
fought upon American soil. As pioneers they pushed their way into 
the wilderness, the trusty rifle being always within reach to defend 
their families and homes against the tomahawk and scalping-knife of 
the red man. They were among the first of the American colonists to 
protest against the tyranny of the mother country, and her sons served 
with honor and distinction in the War for Independence. In the War 



of 1812 they fought against British oppression. They upheld the gov- 
ernment of the United States in the War with Mexico, and in the great 
Civil war of 1861-65; and in the Spanish-American war they demon- 
strated that they were willing to make sacrifices for the cause of liberty 
and a better civilization for the downtrodden. 

Prior to the middle of the eighteenth century the population of 
central and western Pennsylvania was so sparse that the few people 
inhabiting those remote districts — at that time the western frontier — 
were not called upon to play any considerable part in the wars with the 
Indians. A few white traders or adventurers were killed by the savages, 
but no organized military force was found necessary until the time of 
the French and Indian war. That conflict had its origin in the very 
beginning of colonization in North America. The English settlements 
were made along the Atlantic coast, only a few penetrating beyond the 
Alleghany mountains. On the other hand, French settlements were 
founded along the St. Lawrence river, in Canada, and at ^Mobile and 
New Orleans near the Gulf of Mexico. To connect the French settle- 
ments of the north with those of the south a chain of some sixty forts 
Avas established through the broad valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi 
rivers, which region was claimed by La Salle in 1682 for France under 
the name of Louisiana. As the English pushed their settlements farther 
and farther to the westward they encountered this line of French forts 
and a contest was inevitable. The French foresaw this and during the 
thirty years of peace which followed the treaty of Utrecht in 1713 
prepared for the struggle, which was precipitated by the organization of 
the Ohio Company in 1748. This was a land company projected by 
English and Virginia speculators and had for its object the settlement 
and colonization of the country west of the Alleghanies — lands which 
really belonged to Pennsylvania, but which Virginia claimed under 
her charter. 

Immediately upon learning of the organization of this company and 
that surveyors had been sent into the region west of the mountains, 
the French authorities ordered a number of forts to be built closer to 
the western line of the English settlements. One of these forts was 
located at Presque Isle (now Erie), another at Venango, near the pres- 
ent city of Franklin, Pennsylvania, and the French assumed the aggres- 
sive by destroying an English post on the Miami river. Early in 1754 


the Ohio Company began the erection of a fort at the junction of the 
Allegheny and Monongahela rivers, where the city of Pittsburgh now 
stands, and the Virginia legislature voted men and money to guard 
the English posts in the disputed territory. The little detachment at 
the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela was driven off by a 
French force, which then built a fort there and named it Fort Du Quesne, 
after the governor of Canada. George Washington, who was in com- 
mand of the Virginians, and who, it is said, fired the first shot in the 
skirmish at Fort Du Quesne, fell back some distance and built Fort Ne- 
cessity, which he was compelled to surrender to a superior force on 
July 4, 1754, but not until he received the promise that he and his men 
should be allowed to return home. 

As yet there had been no formal declaration of war between the two 
nations, but both England and France hurried additional troops and 
munitions of war to America. Among the colonists the English out- 
numbered the French about ten to one. To offset this inequality, the 
latter, as far as possible, formed alliances with the Indian tribes. This 
was not a difficult thing to do, as the French were traders rather than 
actual settlers and interfered but little with the Indian hunting grounds, 
while the English felled the forests and built permanent habitations, thus 
driving away the game. It is because of this alliance that the conflict 
is known in history as the French and Indian war. 

In 1755 General Edward Braddock was sent over from England as 
commander-in-chief. Four campaigns were planned for that year — one 
against Louisburg, which guarded the approach to the St. Lawrence 
river; one against Crown Point, on Lake Champlain; one against the 
French post at Niagara ; and the fourth against Fort Du Quesne. The 
last named was led by Braddock in person. Although warned against 
Indian methods of fighting, he conducted his campaign according to 
the custom of civilized nations, and, on July 9, 1755, he fell into an 
ambuscade on the Monongahela river, not far from the fort. The 
English regulars were completely routed, Braddock was mortally 
wounded, most of his supplies fell into the hands of the enemy, and, 
had it not been for the skillful retreat conducted by Washington, the 
army would have been utterly annihilated. 

After the defeat of General Braddock the Indians grew bolder in 
their depredations upon the settlements of the western frontier. Some 


of them, particularly the western Delawares, whose lands had been 
taken from them by the treaty of July 6, 1754, and who had received 
no part of the purchase price paid to the Six Nations, had only been 
awaiting a favorable opportunity to drive off the settlers who had pene- 
trated into the country west of the Susquehanna river. In May, 1755, 
a small party invaded the Kishacoquillas valley, robbed some of the 
settlers there and drove others away, but immediately after the defeat 
the western Delawares and Shawanese boldly allied themselves with the 
French, crossed the mountains and began the commission of atrocities 
along the southern border of Pennsylvania. On October 16, 1755, a 
considerable body of them ravaged the settlements on Penn's creek, in 
what is now Snyder county. 

These outrages called attention to the defenseless condition of the 
frontier and spurred the provincial authorities to action. It was decided 
to erect a line of forts across the province from a point near the Dela- 
ware Water Gap to the Maryland line just north of the town of Cum- 
berland. In pursuance of this plan, on December 17, 1755, the follow- 
ing order was issued to Captain George Croghan : 

"Sir: — You are desired to proceed to Cumberland County and fix 
on proper places for erecting three stockades, viz. : One back of Pat- 
terson's, one upon Kishecoquillas, and one near Sideling Hill; each 
of them fifty feet square, with Block House on two of the corners, 
and a Barracks within, capable of lodging fifty men. You are also 
desired to agree with some proper Person or Persons to oversee the 
workmen at each Place, who shall be allowed such Wages as you 
shall agree to give, not exceeding one Dollar per day; and the work- 
men shall be allowed at the rate of six Dollars per month and their 
Provisions, till the work is finished." 

This order was signed by Benjamin Franklin, Joseph Fox, Joseph 
Hughs, and Evan Morgan. 

For the fort "back of Patterson's," which was to be called Pomfret 
Castle, a site was selected on the Mahantango creek, near the present 
town of Richfield, but Professor Guss says "it is doubtful whether any 
work was ever done on it." In 1751 James Patterson, with five or six 
others, settled near the present town of ilexico, Juniata county, where 
he built a log house which was "used as a place of shelter and defense, 
and which became known as Fort Patterson." Some time later his son, 


William Patterson, built and fitted up a house for defense on the op- 
posite side of the river and this was also called Fort Patterson, which 
has been the cause of some confusion among historians. 

Instead of erecting the second fort at the mouth of the Kishaco- 
cjuillas. Captain Croghan went about a mile up the river, where he 
selected a site near a fine spring. The spring was destroyed about 1829 
by the construction of the Pennsylvania canal. Its destruction and the 
lapse of time makes it a somewhat difficult matter to ascertain the exact 
location. Some years ago a committee of Lewistown citizens undertook 
an investigation to determine the site of the old fort. The report of 
that committee, written by George R. Fr3'singer, of the Lewistown 
Gazette, states that, after a careful examination of all the evidence, 
documentary or otherwise, it was decided that the fort stood on the 
river bank near the mouth of a ravine on the farm owned by Sylvester 
Brought. In 1906 James M. Yeager was elected to represent Mifflin 
county in the lower house of legislature and at the ensuing session, when 
a bill providing for monuments or markers on sites of old forts was 
presented, succeeded in having Fort Granville added to the list of these 
historic old works. 

Fort Shirley, the next in the chain of fortifications, was on Augh- 
wick creek, within the corporate limits of the present borough of Shir- 
leysburg. Lytle's History of Huntingdon County says: "It was a log 
fort of considerable strength and size, standing on the edge of the 
jalateau sovith of Fort Run and west of the road entering Shirleysburg 
from Mount Union." The report of the state commission (1896) to 
locate the frontier forts of Pennsylvania fixes the site of Fort Shirley 
"on an elevated plot of ground where now stands the Shirleysburg Fe- 
male Seminary." Governor Morris spent the greater part of December, 
1755, and January, 1756, on the frontier. On January 29, 1756, he 
wrote to the governors of Maryland and Virginia, Colonel George Wash- 
ington and General William Shirley, expressing satisfaction with the 
forts and stating that they would be finished in about ten days. In his 
letter to General Shirley he said : "About twenty miles northward of 
Fort Lytellton, at a place called Aughwick, another fort is Erected, 
somewhat larger than Fort Lytellton, which I have taken the Liberty to 
Honour with the name of Fort Shirley. This stands near the great 
Path used by the Indians and Indian Traders to and from the Ohio, and 


consequently the easiest way of access for tlie Indians into the settle- 
ments of this Province." 

All the forts were finished and garrisoned early in 1756. There 
were also at that time several private forts in the Juniata valley, the 
most important of which were probably Fort Bigham and Fort Robison. 
Fort Bigham (sometimes called Bingham) was erected by Samuel 
Bigham in 1749. It was located on his farm in the Tuscarora valley, 
about eleven miles from Port Royal, a short distance east of the road 
leading to East \\'aterford and about twenty rods from the Tuscarora 
Valley railroad. Historians describe it as a "strong blockhouse and 
stockade." Fort Robison (also called Robinson or Robeson), a "block- 
house surrounded by a stockade," was built in 1755 by the Robison 
brothers on the farm of George Robison, near the mouth of Buffalo 
creek in what is now Perry county. It was on the line of the traders' 
path from Harris' ferry westward and "was easy of access from every 

Early in 1756 a small party of Delaware Indians from Shamokin 
came into the Juniata valley, killed I\Irs. Hugh Micheltree, Edward Nich- 
olas and his son, and carried seven persons into captivity. Part of the 
same band went into Sherman's valley, where they massacred the fam- 
ilies of William Sheridan and a man named French, thirteen in number. 
In March Captain James Patterson led a scouting party toward Shamo- 
kin and on the 20th fell in with a party of Indians on Middle creek 
(Snyder count^'), "killed and scalped one and put the rest to flight." 
\\'ith the return of spring the Indians became more active in their hos- 
tilities. On June 11, 1756, Fort Bigham was attacked and burned, all 
its inmates being killed or captured. The following month a marauding 
party entered Sherman's valley, where they killed a Mrs. Robison and 
carried away her son Hugh as a prisoner. On July 22nd about sixty 
savages made a demonstration in front of Fort Granville. One man, 
who was outside of the stockade, was slightly wounded, but succeeded 
in gaining the shelter of the fort. The Indians then divided into small 
parties and began committing depredations against the settlers. 

On July 30th Captain Edward ^^'ard, commandant at Fort Granville, 
took part of the garrison and went to the Tuscarora \alle\- to guard the 
settlers while they harvested their grain, leaving Lieutenant Edward 
Armstrong in command at the fort. By that time the enemy's force in the 


valley was estimated at about 150 men, one-third French and the re- 
mainder Delaware and Shawnee warriors under the command of Chiefs 
Shingas and Captain Jacob, the whole detachment being under the com- 
mand of a French officer. Shortly after the departure of Captain Ward 
(the exact date is uncertain) this force attacked Fort Granville, but were 
met by a heroic resistance. After several unsuccessful assaults, the 
Indians, under cover of the ravine, managed to approach near enough 
to set fire to the stockade. The flames soon ate a large hole in the de- 
fenses, through which the savages fired upon the defenders. While 
trying to extinguish the fire Lieutenant Armstrong was killed, one sol- 
dier was also killed and three others wounded. A demand was then 
made for the surrender of the fort, the assailants promising to spare 
the lives of all within. John Turner, one of the garrison, thereupon 
opened the gates and the savages fairly swarmed into the fort. Twenty- 
two men, three women, and several children were taken prisoners and 
forced to carry the plunder to the Indian headquarters at Kittanning, 
where all were subject to the most cruel treatment and Turner, the 
man who had admitted the savage Ijesiegers to the fort, was burned at 
the stake. 

The Indian atrocities, which culminated in the capture of Fort Gran- 
ville, impelled the provincial government to adopt more vigorous mea- 
sures for the protection of the frontier. x\ccordingly a large force was 
fitted out for an invasion of the Indian country and placed under the 
command of Colonel John Armstrong. The companies of Captains 
Ward, ?^Iercer, Hamilton, and Patterson, from the forts west of the 
Susquehanna, with such volunteers as could be enlisted, rendezvoused 
at Fort Shirley and marched from there on August 30, 1756, against 
the Indian stronghold at Kittanning. At daybreak on September 8th the 
attack was made with such vigor that within a short time the thirty huts 
or lodges of the Indians were burned and a large number of the savages 
killed, while the rest fled in dismay in all directions. Colonel Armstrong 
reached Fort Littleton six days later, from which point is dated his 
official report giving his losses as 17 killed, 13 wounded and 19 missing. 
Nearly all those wounded recovered and all but one or two of the miss- 
ing finally returned to their homes. 

Colonel Armstrong's severe chastisement had the effect of causing 
some of the Delawares to withdraw from the alliance with the French, 


but Captain Jacob's band and some others continued their forays into 
the white settlements until the treaty of peace in 1758. On October 
15' 1756, the governor notified the council at Philadelphia that he ordered 
the evacuation of Fort Shirley "not because the dangers against which 
it was intended to guard had passed away, but because they had increased 
to such an extent that it could no longer be relied upon as a protection." 
Some of the settlers in the Juniata valley had left their homes before 
that time, and after the evacuation of the only fort left for their defense 
others fled to the more thickly settled districts along the Susquehanna, 
where they remained until after peace was restored. 

Five years later, in 1763, the Ottawa chief, Pontiac, organized his 
famous conspiracy of all the tribes he could persuade to join in a 
movement to invade the white settlements, just when the settlers were 
busy with their harvest, and with fire and sword exterminate the pale- 
faces. While the conspiracy did not attain to the proportions that 
Pontiac hoped and desired, there was an uprising in many localities in 
July, 1763. On the loth of that month a band of hostile Indians ap- 
peared in the Tuscarora valley, killed William White and all his family 
except one boy, who escaped when he heard the first shots fired, com- 
mitted murders at Robert Campbell's and \\^illiam Anderson's, burned 
John Graham's house and destroyed considerable property. Again the 
settlers fled in terror from their frontier homes and sought shelter at 
Carlisle, Bedford, Shippensburg, and other places. A letter from Car- 
lisle dated August 14, 1763. to a minister in Philadelphia stated that 
over seven hundred families in Cumberland county, most of them from 
the Juniata valley, had abandoned their homes on account of the Indian 


From the time of the Pontiac war the inhabitants of the Juniata 
valley were permitted to dwell in peace until the oppressive acts of the 
English Parliament, sanctioned by King George III., drove the American 
colonists to revolt. Pennsylvania was prompt in entering her protest 
against the unjust laws and edicts of the mother country. More than 
two years before the adoption of the Declaration of Independence a 
"Committee of Correspondence and Safety" was organized in the city 
of Philadelphia. In June, 1774, this committee sent out communica- 


tions to citizens in each of the several comities advising them that "on 
account of the Indian disturbances, the Governor has found it necessary 
to call the Assembly to meet in their legislative capacity on Monday, 
July 18," recommending the appointment of committees in the various 
counties, and requesting that "the whole or a part of the committee 
appointed or to be appointed from your county, will meet the commit- 
tees from the other counties at Philadelphia on Friday, the 15th day of 
July, in order to assist in framing instructions and preparing such mat- 
ters as may be proper to recommend to our representatives at their 
meeting on the Monday following." 

Huntingdon county was at that time a part of Bedford and the 
counties of Mifflin, Juniata, and Perry constituted a portion of the 
county of Cumberland. At a meeting of "freeholders and freemen" 
held at Carlisle on July 12, 1774, James Wilson, Robert Magaw, and 
William Irvine were chosen to represent Cumberland county in the 
meeting of deputies at Philadelphia, and George Woods represented 
Bedford county. When the deputies met at Carpenter's hall, in Phila- 
delphia, on the 15th, Thomas Willing was chosen chairman and Charles 
Thompson secretary. A series of resolutions were unanimously adopted, 
the principal features of which were as follows : Acknowledging true 
and faithful allegiance to King George III. ; declaring deepest distress 
and anxiety over the unhappy differences between Great Britain and 
the colonies ; that "the idea of an unconstitutional independence of the 
parent state is utterly abhorrent to our principles" ; that the power to 
bind the people of the colonies by statutes in all cases whatsoever and 
the act of Parliament in closing the port of Boston were unconstitu- 
tional, and "that there is an absolute necessity that a Congress of depu- 
ties from the several colonies be immediately assembled to consult to- 
gether and form a general plan of conduct to be observed by all the 
colonies, for the purpose of procuring relief for our suffering brethren, 
obtaining redress of our grievances, preventing future dissensions, firmly 
establishing our rights, and restoring harmony between Great Britain 
and her Colonies on a constitutional foundation." 

The resolutions were referred to the assembly, with the request "to 
appoint a proper number of persons to attend a Congress of Deputies 
from the several Colonies, at such time and place as may be agreed 
upon, to effect one general plan of conduct for attaining the important 


ends mentioned in the ninth resolve." In response to the request of 
the deputies the assembly appointed Joseph Galloway (speaker), Daniel 
Rhoads, Thomas Mifflin, John Morton, Charles Humphreys, George 
Ross, Edward Biddle, and John Dickinson "as delegates from Pennsyl- 
vania to the Congress to be held in Philadelphia in September." Thus it 
was that Pennsylvania took the initiative in a movement that two years 
later culminated in the colonies declaring themselves free and inde- 

On January 23, 1775, a provincial convention assembled in Phila- 
delphia and continued in session for six days. Cumberland county 
was represented by James Wilson and Robert Magaw, but Bedford 
county sent no delegate. Again the people of Pennsylvania, through 
their delegates, spoke in no uncertain terms regarding the relations with 
the mother country, the convention adopting resolutions in favor of 
restricting trade with England and the manufacture of various articles 
at home. 

At the session in May, 1775, the Continental Congress resolved to 
recruit an army, of which Pennsylvania's quota was 4,300 men. The 
assembly promptly recommended to the commissioners of the several 
counties of the province, "as they regarded the freedom, welfare, and 
safety of their country, tt) provide arms and accoutrements for this 
force," and directed the officers of the military associations "to select 
a number of minute men, equal to the number of arms which can be 
procured, who shall hold themselves in readiness to march at the short- 
est notice to any quarter, in case of emergency," etc. To assist in 
carrying out these measures, a Committee of Safety, consisting of 
twenty-five persons, was appointed on June 30. 1775. On this commit- 
tee Cumberland county was represented by John Montgomery and Bed- 
ford by Bernard Dougherty. The committee organized on the 3d of 
July by the election of Benjamin Franklin as president and William 
Garrett, secretary. About two weeks before the appointment of the 
committee (June 14, 1775) Congress directed that eight companies of 
expert riflemen should be organized and equipped for the purpose of 
joining the army near Boston. Two of these companies were assigned 
to Virginia, two to Maryland, and the remaining six to Pennsylvania. 
On the 22nd Pennsylvania was directed to "raise two more companies, 
making eight in all, which were to be formed into a battalion." Linn 


says: "Within ten days after the news of the battle of Bunker Hill 
had reached the Province of Pennsylvania, her first rifle regiment was 
officered and completed, many of the eight companies numbering one 
hundred men. It was commanded by Colonel William Thompson, of 
Cumberland county. The companies were severally under the command 
of Captains James Chambers, Robert Cluggage, Michael Doudle, Wil- 
liam Hendricks, John Lowdon, James Ross, Matthew Smith, and George 

Lancaster county subsequently added another company, which in- 
creased the battalion to nine companies. Captain Cluggage's company 
was enlisted chiefly in Bedford county, a number of the men coming 
from that part which now comprises the county of Huntingdon. The 
roster of this company was as follows : 

Captain, Robert Cluggage; First Lieutenant, John Holliday; Second 
Lieutenant, Robert McKenzie; Third Lieutenant, Benjamin Burd; 
Sergeants, James Holliday, Daniel Stoy, Oierinus Meriner, David 
Wright ; Corporals, Angus McDonald, Joseph McKenzie, William Lee, 
Aquila White; Drummer, Timothy Sullivan; Privates, Adam An- 
derson, Philip Beckey, John Bowman, Thaddeus Broughdon, Thomas 
Brown, George Bruner, John Campbell, Thomas Casek, Stephen 
Cessna, Patrick Clark, Philip Conner, James Carrowan, Joshua 
Craig, John Crips, Alexander Crugen, Thomas Cunningham, James 
Curran, John Davis, Cornelius Dilling, William Donelin, Mat- 
thew Dougherty, Lawrence Dowling, Daniel Franks, George Free- 
man, Amariah Garrett, Daniel Gemberland, Reuben Gillespy, Rich- 
ard Hardister, Conrad Hanning, Francis Jamison, Andrew Johnston, 
Matthias Judry, John Kelly, Peter King, James Knight, William Laird, 
Charles Lenning, Robert Leonard, John Lesley, Henry McCartney, Dan- 
iel McClain, John McCune, John McDonald, Patrick McDonald, Thomas 
McFarlane, Thomas Magee, Daniel Mangum, Michael Miller, Robert 
Piatt, John Pitts, Samuel Plumb, Martin Reynolds, Daniel Rhoads, 
Philip Ritchie, Thomas Shehan, Francis Shives, Alexander Simonton, 
Emanuel Smith, Henry Smith, Daniel Stoy, John Stuart, Jonathan Tay- 
lor, John Thompson, James Turmoil, Andrew Tweed, James Vanzant, 
Daniel Vanderslice, Thomas Vaughn, Alexander Wilson, George Whit- 
man, Samuel Woodward, Samuel Wallace, Solomon W^alker, James 
\\'arford, and Thomas Ward. 


Robert McKenzie died on February 12, 1776, and Benjamin Burd 
was promoted to second lieutenant. On September 25, 1776, Congress 
appointed Captain James Ross to the position of major and Captain 
Cluggage, learning that a junior captain had been promoted over him, 
resigned on the 6th of October. Following is the roster of Captain 
Hendrick's company : 

Captain, William Hendricks ; First Lieutenant, John McClellan ; 
Second Lieutenant, Francis Nichols; Third Lieutenant, George Francis; 
Sergeants, Thomas Gibson, Henry Crone, Joseph Greer, and William 
McCoy ; Privates, Edward Agnew, George Albright, Thomas Anderson, 
John Blair, Philip Boker, Alexander Burns, Peter Burns, William Burns, 
John Campbell, Daniel Carlisle, Roger Casey, Joseph Caskey, John 
Chambers, Thomas Cooke, John Corswill, John Cove, John Craig, Mat- 
thew Cummings, Arthur Eckles, Peter Frainer, Francis Furlow, John 
Gardner, William Gommel, Daniel Graham. James Greer, Thomas Greer, 
John Hardy, John Henderson, Elijah Herdy, James Hogge, James In- 
load, Dennis Kelley, William Kirkpatrick. David Lamb, Thomas Lesley, 
John Lorain, Richard Lynch, Daniel McClellan, Richard McClure, Henry 
McCormick, Henry McEwen, Archibald McFarlane, Barnabas Mc- 
Guire, John McLin. John McCurdy, Jacob Mason, Philip Maxwell, 
George Morrison, George Morrow, Edward Morton, Thomas Murdoch, 
Daniel North, Daniel O'Hara, W^illiam O'Hara. John Ray. James Reed, 
George Rinehart, Edward Rodden, William Shannon, William Smith, 
William Snell, Robert Steel, Abraham Swaggerty, Hugh Sweeney, 
Edward Sweeny, Matthew Taylor, Henry Turpentine. Thomas Wither- 
of, Joseph Wright, and Michael Young. 

The members of this company were all from Cumlierland county, 
most of them from that section now comprising the comities of Mifflin, 
Juniata, and Perry. It left Carlisle on July 15, 1775, went into camp at 
Cambridge on August 8th, where it was assigned to Colonel Thompson's 
command, but on the 5th of September was ordered to join General 
Benedict Arnold on the expedition against Quebec. Lieutenant John 
IMcClellan died on November 3, 1775, while on the march through the 
wilderness ; Captain Hendricks was killed in the assault on the palace 
gate at Quebec, January i, 1776, when most of the men belonging to 
the company were captured. Some of them were exchanged the follow- 
ing autumn, but others were held prisoners until the spring of 1777. The 


greater portion of them reentered the service and remained in the army 
until the close of the war. 

Colonel Thompson's battalion reached Boston about the last of Au- 
gust, 1775, and was stationed first on Prospect Hill, later on Cobble 
Hill. It was designated the Second regiment (after January i, 1776, the 
First regiment) "of the army of the United Colonies, commanded by 
His Excellency George Washington, Esquire, general and commander- 
in-chief." Thacher's Military Journal of the Revolution thus describes 
the men of the battalion : "They are remarkably stout and hardy men, 
many of them exceeding six feet in height. They are dressed in rifle 
shirts and round hats. These men are remarkable for the accuracy of 
their aim, striking a mark with great certainty at two hundred yards' 
distance. At a review, a company of them, while on a quick advance, 
fired their balls into objects of seven inch diameter, at a distance of two- 
hundred and fifty yards. They are now stationed on our lines and their 
shot have frequently proved fatal to British officers and soldiers who 
exposed themselves to view, even at more than doul)le the distance of 
common musket shot." 

Such was the character of the soldiers furnished by the Juniata 
valley to the Continental army in the War of Independence. The esti- 
mation in which these frontiersmen were held by General Washington 
is shown by his letter from New York to the president of the Continental 
Congress, under date of April 22, 1776, in which he said : "The time for 
which the riflemen enlisted will expire on the ist of July next, and, as 
the loss of such a valuable and brave body of men will be of great injury 
to the service, I would submit it to the consideration of Congress whether 
it would not be best to adopt some method to induce them to continue. 
They are, indeed, a very useful corps, but I need not mention this as 
their importance is already known to the Congress." 

On July I, 1776, the first term of enlistment having expired, the 
riflemen reenlisted for two years, which was later changed to "during the 
war," and the organization was then designated as the First regiment of 
the Pennsylvania line in the Continental service. 

Colonel William Irvine was commissioned in January, 1776, as com- 
mander of the Sixth Pennsylvania battalion. In Captain Robert Adams' 
company of that battalion William Bratton, a resident of what is now 
Alifflin county, was first lieutenant. Later he became captain of a com- 


pail}', most of the members of which came from the territory now in- 
cluded in the counties of JVIifitlin, Juniata, and Perry. Following is the 
roster of the company : 

Captain, William Bratton ; Lieutenant, Thomas McCoy ; Ensign, 
William Armstrong; Sergeants, Amos Chapman, Thomas Giles, and 
Timothy O'Neal; Drummer, Edward Steen; Fifer, John Waun ; Pri- 
vates, John Beatty, William Carman, Patrick Carter, John Daily, Daniel 
Dunnivan, Edward Edgarton, James Elliott, Henr\r German, Thomas 
Giles, Michael Gilmore. David Hall, Francis Henry, James Higgins, 
Fergus Lee, Peter Lloyd. Richard Lowden. Gilbert McCay, Neal AIc- 
Cay, Patrick McDonald. John McGeghan, John ^IcKean, Peter ^lartin, 
F""ergus Moore, John Prent, William Redstone, Peter Rooney, John 
Ryan, Patrick Shockey, James Simonton, Thomas Simonton, and John 

The battalion was reorganized at Carlisle on ^March 15, 1777, when 
the men reenlisted for three years and the organization became the Sev- 
enth Pennsylvania regiment of the Continental line. The men compos- 
ing it were paid off and discharged at Carlisle in April, 1781. Captain 
Bratton was wounded at the battle of Germantown and a township of 
Mifflin county is named in his honor. 

A resolution was adopted by the Continental Congress on July 18, 
1775, recommending that "all able-bodied, effective men between the 
sixteen and fifty years of age should immediately form themseh'es into 
companies of militia, to consist of one captain, two lieutenants, one en- 
sign, four sergeants, four corporals, one clerk, one drummer, one fifer, 
and about sixty-eight privates : the companies to be formed into regi- 
ments or battalions, officered with a colonel, lieutenant-colonel, two ma- 
jors, and an adjutant or quartermaster; all officers above the rank of 
captain to be appointed by the provincial authorities." 

Pursuant to this recommendation, that portion of Cumberland county 
which now forms the county of Perry furnished the greater portion of 
the Seventh battalion, Cumberland county militia, commanded by Colonel 
Frederick Watts. Colonel Watts was born in \\'^ales in 17 19. came to 
America about 1760 and two years later located in what is now ^^'heat- 
field township. Perry county, his farm bordering on the Juniata river. 
He died there on October 3. 1795. His battalion consisted of eight com- 
panies, commanded by Captains James Fisher, James Power, ^\'illiam 


Sanderson, William Blain, Frederick Taylor, Edward Graham, John 
Buchanan, and Thomas Clark. Samuel Ross was lieutenant-colonel of 
the battalion, and David Mitchell was major. No complete roster of the 
organization can be found, but it is known that the command consisted 
of forty-five officers and 465 enlisted men. The battalion, or a part of 
it, "went on a tour of duty early in 1776," the records showing that 
an order was issued "for money to be sent to Colonel Frederick Watts, 
to be used for defraying the expense of forwarding his men to camp," 
etc. He was present and was captured at the surrender of Fort Wash- 
ington, November 16, 1776, but was soon afterward exchanged and 
returned home. 

In addition to the Juniata valley men in the above mentioned organi- 
zations, there were a number from the valley in various other commands. 
In fact, the territory included in the four counties treated in this work 
were represented in almost every regiment of the Pennsylvania line. As 
late as 1820 there were thirty-two pensioners of the Revolution residing 
within the limits of Huntingdon county: a number of veterans settled in 
Mifflin county after the war; nineteen were residents of Perry county 
some vears after the independence of the United States became an estab- 
lished fact, and there were fourteen pensioners living in Juniata county 
in 1840, one of them, Emanuel Ebbs, of Fayette township, being at that 
time one hundred and six years of age. John Graham, Avho was one of 
the seventeen men who came out with General Anthony Wayne from 
the attack on Stony Point, settled on a farm in Wayne township, Mifflin 
county, and there passed the remainder of his life. Thomas Brown, a 
\'eteran of Perry county, provided in his will "for the reading of the 
Declaration of Independence over his open grave, after which a minister 
was to pray for him and his beloved country." 

During the Revolution no regular English troops invaded the Juniata 
valley but the fact that so many of the settlers had left their homes to 
battle for the cause of liberty awakened fears that the British would 
incite the Indians to attack the weakened frontier. Then there were the 
Tories. The terms U'liig and Tory were introduced at the time the port 
of Boston was closed by an act of the British Parliament, the former 
being applied to those who sympathized with the Boston people and op- 
posed the act of Parliament and the latter to describe those who upheld 
Great Britain in her efforts to subjugate the colonies. Lytle says : "That 


part of Bedford which now constitutes Huntingdon county was the 
center of tory strength and activity. The disaffected element was scat- 
tered over all parts of it but existed principally at Huntingdon, on Stone 
creek, Shaver's creek, the Raystown Branch and the Aughwick, and in 
Canoe, Woodcock and Hare's valleys." 

No serious trouble occurred on the frontier until the spring of 1778. 
The Tories in the vicinity mentioned by Lytle conceived the idea of 
gathering a large force of Tories and Indians at Kittanning, from which 
jjoint they \\'ould march eastward through the Cumberland and Juniata 
valleys, killing and plundering the inhabitants along the line of march, 
sparing only those families that displayed the Tory flag. Secret meet- 
ings were held at the house of the Tory leader, John ^^'eston, in Canoe 
valley west of Water Street. Jacob Hare, whose home was near Maple- 
ton, and a man named jNIcKee, from Amberson valley, were active in 
promoting the expedition. Late in April some thirty-tive men assembled 
at Weston's house and started for Ivittanning. The fate of the enterprise 
is well told in a letter from Colonel John Piper, of Bedford, to the 
supreme executive council, under date of May 4, 1778. "They came 
up," says Colonel Piper, "with a body of Indians near or at the Kittan- 
nings, and in conferring with them, they, the Indians, suspecting some 
design in the white people, on w'ch one of their Chiefs shot one \Veston, 
who was the Ring-leader of the Tories, and scalped him before the Rest, 
and immediateh' (as if Divine Providence, ever attentive to Baffle and 
defeat the Schemes and Measures of wicked Men) the rest fled and dis- 

A company of loyal citizens followed the Weston party and succeeded 
in capturing five of the Tories, who were lodged in jail at Bedford. 
Those who escaped never returned to the Juniata valley. Some went to 
Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh), whence they went south and were later joined 
by their families. In his flight Jacob Hare stopped for the night with 
a Tory friend near the village of Concord. Learning of his identity, the 
neighbors surrounded the house and took him into custody. After dis- 
cussing various methods of punishment it was finally decided to cut off 
his ears and turn him loose. Professor Guss says that "William Dar- 
lington, taking a case-knife with a hacked blade, executed the sentence 
by sawing off both his ears close to his head." The failure of the Weston 
expedition ended the fears of a Tory invasion, but from the Indians 


there was always imminent danger. As a means of protection a number 
of forts were established along the border. 

An old French map of 1758 shows "Fort Standen Stone." where the 
city of Huntingdon is now located, but the existence of a military post 
there at that time is extremely problematical. The commission appointed 
by the state to locate the frontier forts says that Fort Standing Stone 
was built in 1762, at the mouth of the creek of the same name, near the 
junction of Penn and Second streets in the borough of Huntingdon. 
13efore it was finished the Pontiac war so frightened the settlers that 
they fled to Carlisle. At the beginning of the Revolution the fort was 
rebuilt on a more elaborate scale and it was "the only reliable place of 
refuge for the people residing as far west as the Allegheny mountains." 

Fort Anderson, built in 1778, was situated on Shaver's creek near the 
mouth, "directly across the creek from Petersburg along the road leading 
to Alexandria." It was named for Samuel Anderson, who was regarded 
as the most active and energetic man in the Shaver's creek settlement 
during the Revolution. 

Fort Hartsog (or Hartsock's fort) was built about 1778 for the de- 
fense of the settlers in the Woodcock valley. It stood not far from 
Marklesburg, "on the brow of a hill about 150 feet east of the road from 
Marklesburg to Huntingdon. 

McAlvey's fort, also built about 1778, was a blockhouse which 
stood on a bluff overlooking the Standing Stone creek in the northeast- 
ern corner of Huntingdon county and not far from the present village 
of that name. It was named for Captain William McAlevy, one of the 
first settlers in that region and one of the most active patriots at the time 
of the Revolutionary war. 

Another frontier fort was Alexander McCormick's house near Neff's 
]\Iills. \Mien rumors of an Indian uprising grew rife in the spring of 
1778, the people of Stone valley determined to build a fort and Mr. Mc- 
Cormick agreed to permit his house to be used for that purpose. It was 
accordingly put in a state of defense, the walls pierced by loopholes, etc., 
and formed the principal rallying point for the settlement. 

Crum's fort, supposed to have been built about the same time as Mc- 
Cormick's, was located a short distance northeast of Manor Hill and 
formed another place of refuge for the people of Stone valley. But 
little can be learned of this fort. 


Fort Lytle, whose history is also somewhat obscure, was situated in 
what is now Porter township, Huntingdon county, and formed the prin- 
cipal defense for the inhabitants of the Hartslog valley. 

Fort Lowry, three miles southwest of Water Street, and Fort Rob- 
erdeau in Sinking valley, although in Blair county, were important posts 
in protecting the Juniata valley from Indian forays. Both were built in 
1778. General Daniel Roberdeau, then a member of Congress, obtained 
a leave of absence to visit the valley for the purpose of mining lead ore 
for the Continental army. To protect his workmen a stockade was 
built, which was called Fort Roberdeau. Lead ore could not be found 
in sufficient quantities to justify the mining operations, but the stockade 
remained and was used by the settlers as a place of refuge. 

Few of these frontier forts were built by provincial authority or 
furnished with regular garrisons. They were merely places of shelter 
erected by the settlers themselves, but they served the purpose of holding 
the Indians in abeyance and lessening the danger of invasion. 

The surrender of General Cornwallis' army of more than 7,000 men 
at Yorktown, October 19, 1781, practically ended the Revolutionary war. 
Preliminary articles of peace between Great Britain and the American 
colonies were agreed to on November 30, 1782, and by the treaty of 
Paris, which was concluded on September 3, 1783, Great Britain ac- 
knowledged the independence of the United States of America. Then, 
with the exception of a little excitement over the "Whiskey Insurrec- 
tion" in 1794, the people of the Juniata valley were not disturbed by 
"war's rude alarums" until 

THE WAR OF l8l2 

The immediate cause of the War of 1812 — the second war with 
Great Britain — grew out of England's policy of searching .American 
ships and impressing seamen under the plea that they were British sub- 
jects. For }ears the United States protested against the so-called "right 
of search," but the protests were ignored. Although war was not for- 
mally declared by Congress until June 18, 1812, President INIadison had 
before that time taken steps to place the country upon a war footing. In 
181 1 Congress was convened a month earlier than usual and promptly 
responded to the measures adopted by the President by authorizing a call 
for 100,000 volunteers, Pennsylvania's cjuota being fixed for 14,000 


men. On May 12, 1812, Governor Simon Snyder issued a call for 
14,000 militia. In his proclamation he expressed the hope that the state 
would volunteer her quota, and Egle says: "Such was the enthusiasm 
of the hour that in response to the governor's call three times as many 
troops tendered their services as were required. The disappointment 
of some was so great that money was freely offered to secure a place 
among those accepted by the authorities." 

At that time the counties of Huntingdon, Mifflin and Centre consti- 
tuted the Eleventh militia district, the quota of which under the call 
was 686 men. Juniata county was then a part of Mifflin, and Perry was 
a part of Cumberland. On May 4, 1812, eight days before Governor 
Snyder issued his call, and more than a month before the formal declara- 
tion of war. Captain Robert Allison's company, the "Huntingdon Vol- 
unteers," voted unanimously "to tender their services to the president in 
the then impending war with Great Britain." 

Notwithstanding troops were called for in May, no companies left 
the Juniata valley until the following September. According to an old 
diary of Captain iVllison. his company consisted of forty-one privates, 
with the following officers : Captain, Robert Allison ; First Lieutenant, 
Jacob Miller; Second Lieutenant, Henry Swoope; Ensign, Samuel 
Swoope; First Sergeant, Henry Miller. Captain Allison received his 
commission on August 22, 1812, and on September 7th the company left 
Huntingdon for Buffalo, where it arrived on October 2d, "after a march 
of 331 miles without tents." At Buffalo it was attached to a New York 
regiment commanded by a Colonel McClure, whom Captain Allison 
refers to as "an Irish Democrat from New York and a very clever man." 

On Tune 9- 1812, Moses Canan, captain of a company called the 
"Juniata Volunteers," a light infantry organization at Alexandria and 
attached to the One Hundred and Nineteenth regiment, tendered his 
companv to the governor. Shortly afterward Captain Isaac Vande- 
vander, commander of a company of riflemen at McConnellstown, Hunt- 
ingdon county, and Jacob Vanderbelt, captain of a rifle company in the 
same countv, offered the services of their respective companies. In gen- 
eral orders dated August 25th and September 5th, Governor Snyder 
accepted these companies, and on September nth they left Alexandria 
for ]\leadville, where they joined other commands bound for Niagara. 

Captain John McGarry's company of fifty-nine men, from that part 


of Mifflin county which is now Juniata, left Mifflintown on September 8, 
1812, for Meadville. This company belonged to the First brigade of the 
Eleventh militia division. The next day the "Thompsontown Blues" 
started for the front. In the Long Narrows they were met by a number 
of Lewistown citizens and Captain Milliken's Troop of Horse and es- 
corted to the county seat, where their reception amounted to an ovation. 
On the morning of the loth they continued their march toward Mead- 
ville and at Pottersville were met by a company from Aaronsburg, Cen- 
tre county. No roster or muster roll of these companies can be found in 
the Pennsylvania Archives. 

The following call was published in the Juniata Gazette (now the 
Lewistown Gazette) of September 11, 1812: "The members of Cap- 
tain Milliken's Troop of Horse are requested to meet at the house of 
Alexander Reed on Saturday, the 19th inst. All those persons desirous 
of serving their country are earnestly invited to come forward and join 
the troop." 

No roster of Captain Milliken's company has been preserved, but it 
is known that it went to Meadville and from there to Buffalo with a 
number of other commands from the Juniata valley. The term of ser- 
vice of these first companies must have been rather short, as the Juniata 
Gazette of December 25, 1812, announces the return unhurt ( !) of all 
those who had marched from Mifflin county to the border. 

In the military operations about Niagara during the summer and 
fall of 18 12 the American troops were at iirst under the command of 
General Van Rensselaer. The conduct of the New York militia at 
Oueenstown and other places so discouraged him that he resigned his 
command and was succeeded by General Alexander Smyth. It was not 
long before Smyth was charged with incompetency, disloyalty and cow- 
ardice and a mutiny broke out among the soldiers, in which the Penn- 
sylvania militia was especially active. Within three months Smyth was 
removed, but when the Juniata boys returned home in December they had 
rather unpleasant stories to tell of their military service. Linn's "Annals 
of the Buffalo Valley" says : "They give different accounts of the pro- 
ceedings at Black Rock, but all say that they came off without being 
discharged, and all agree that General Smythe has acted the part of a 

The unfortunate experience of the first volunteers, together with the 


removal of the seat of war farther from the interior, had a tendency to 
abate the mihtary enthusiasm, so that when a caU was made for more 
troops in 1S13 the response was not as prompt as in the preceding year. 
A number of companies were raised by draft, two of them from Hunt- 
ingdon county. The officers of the first of these two companies were : 
Wilham iVIorris, captain; Daniel Weaver, first lieutenant; William Is- 
grigg, second lieutenant; Cornelius Crum, third lieutenant; William 
Love, ensign; Alexander Cresswell, Henry Newingham, John Stratton, 
Joseph Metzbaugh, William Wilson, John Brotherland, and Joseph Esk- 
ley, sergeants. Lieutenant Crum resigned on June 5th, when Ensign 
Love was promoted to the vacancy, and on the same date Alexander 
Cresswell was made orderly sergeant. The muster roll of this company 
shows eighty-one privates. The other drafted company from Hunting- 
don county was officered as follows: Captain, Edmund Tipton; First 
Lieutenant, John McCabe; Second Lieutenant, Isaac Vantrees; Third 
Lieutenant, John Cox ; Fourth Lieutenant, Christian Deulinger ; Ensign, 
Patrick Madden ; Sergeants, John Calderwood, Benjamin McCune, Jesse 
Moore, Peter Hewit, Jacob Shafer. Seventy-seven privates were en- 
rolled in this company. 

Captain Matthew Rodgers' company, of Mifflin county, was mus- 
tered into the United States service on May 5, 1813, and served to Sep- 
tember 17, 1813, in the regiment commanded by Colonel Reese Hill. 
This company consisted of eighty-seven privates and the following offi- 
cers : Captain, Matthew Rodgers ; First Lieutenant, James Crisswell ; 
Second Lieutenant, John McCoy; Third Lieutenant, Michael Holman; 
Ensign, Robert U. Elliott; Sergeants, W^illiam Butler, Samuel McKil- 
lips, James Dunn, Samuel Edmiston, William Robb, and Samuel Craw- 
ford. There were also a drummer, a fifer, and four corporals. 

When Commodore Perry, late in July, called for volunteers to serve 
on board his fleet on Lake Erie, sixteen men from Captain Rodgers' 
company answered the call. They were Ensign Elliott, Corporal Rich- 
ard Fear, Fielding Alford, John Adams, William Allen, William Henry, 
Henry Hoyt, Neal Leyman, Alexander Metlin, James Mitchell, John 
Rice (said to have been the last survivor of Perry's force), James Sims, 
Daniel Swisher, Samuel Sweezy, William Shuler and Jacob Tool. 

The story of Perry's victory has been told and retold in historv, but 
it is not generally known that two INIififiin county boys rowed the boat 


that carried Commodore Perry from one ship to another wliile the battle 
was raging. Alexander iletlin and Jacob Tool were from the ferry at 
Mifflintown, where they had developed considerable skill in rowing. 
\\'hen the Lawrence was disabled the two young men were called upon 
to row their intrepid commander to the Niagara and succeeded in per- 
forming the hazardous feat under a heavy fire from the British guns. 
One shot struck the little boat, tearing a great hole in its side, but Perry 
whipped off his coat and stopped the leak, thus enabling them to reach 
the Niagara in safety. Had it not been for the expert manner in which 
Metlin and Tool handled their oars the famous despatch — "We have 
met the enemy and they are ours" — might never have been written. Nor 
is it generally known that James Sims, another Juniata county volunteer, 
was the first man to board the British vessel. Queen Charlotte, after her 
surrender, receiving therefor the reward of five hundred dollars. 

In the winter of 1813-14 a company was organized in r^Iifflin county 
by Captain Andrew Bratton, but no record of its service can be found. 
A letter from James Trimble, dated at the oftice of the secretary of the 
commonwealth, January 2, 1814, to Captain Bratton, refers to the organ- 
ization as a "company of volunteer riflemen." and states that at that time 
the state's quota was full. The letter further states that "Before com- 
missions can be obtained it should appear that the company has been 
organized and the officers elected in conformity with the fourth section 
of the Militia law," etc. 

Several companies were recruited along the Juniata river in 18 14. 
Early in that year Governor Snyder called for a force of 1,000 militia 
to aid in protecting the northern border against invasion from Canada. 
Most of this force came from the counties of Cumberland, Franklin, 
York, and Adams, the greater part of one company being made up in 
that part of Cumberland which now forms the county of Perry. Of 
this company David Moreland was captain; Robert Thompson, first 
lieutenant ; John Neiper, second lieutenant : Amos Cadwallader. ensign ; 
John Steigleman, Richard Rodger, and George Stroch, sergeants ; David 
Beems and John ^slyers, musicians. Thirteen men from Perry county 
were enrolled in Captain James Piper's company. The entire force of 
militia rendezvoused at Carlisle whence it marched via Pittsljurgh to 
Black Rock Fort (Buffalo), and later took part in the battle of Chip- 


When the news reached Perry county that the city of Washington 
had been burned by tlie British Dr. John Creigh enrohed a company in 
two days. This company, known as the "Landisburg Infantry," com- 
pleted its organization on September 6, 1814, with John Creigh as cap- 
tain; Henry Lightner, first Heutenant; Isaiah Carl, second lieutenant; 
and fifty-one privates. It was accepted by the governor and was "given 
the second post of honor in the Pennsylvania Line." 

Besides the companies above mentioned there were a number of 
Juniata valley men in other organizations. Dr. Alexander Dean, of 
Huntingdon county, was surgeon in the Second Pennsylvania regiment. 
Dr. Joseph Henderson, of Mifflin county, was a member of the Twenty- 
second regiment and was engaged in the recruiting service in Philadel- 
phia in the fall of 1812, with the rank of lieutenant. In the spring of 
1813 he took his troops to Sackett's Harbor, and in the fall of that year 
was promoted to the rank of captain. 

Throughout the war the record of Pennsylvania was one of which 
her people may well be proud. Although the British never set foot upon 
her soil, she had at one time more men in the field than any other state, 
and she furnished more money than any other state to carry on the war. 
When the New York militia under General Van Rensselaer refused to 
cross the line into Canada, on the pretext that they were not obliged to 
leave their own state, General Tannehill came up with a brigade of 2,000 
Pennsylvanians, who did not hesitate, but promptly marched across the 
border into the enemy's country. In this gallant record the troops from 
the Juniata valley bore an honorable and conspicuous part. 



The War with r\Iexico — Call for Troops — Juniata Valley Companies Accepted — Juni- 
ata Guards — Captain Irwin — Lieutenant !McCoy — Wayne Guards — Perry County 
Troops — Battles in Which They Participated — The Civil War — Attack on Fort 
Sumter — Excitement — Call for Volunteers — Logan Guards First to Reach Wash- 
ington — Sketches of the Regiments — Companies and Their Commissioned Officers — 
Emergency Troops — Shade Gap and Mount Union Campaign — Spanish-American 
War — The Maine — President McKinley's Proclamation — Fifth Pennsylvania Regi- 

WAR with Mexico was declared by Congress on May 13, 1846. 
Previous to that date General Taylor had marched to the 
frontier with the "Army of Occupation" and the battles of 
Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma had been fought. In declaring war 
Congress authorized the president "to employ the militia, naval and 
military forces of the United States, and to call for and accept the ser- 
vices of 50,000 volunteers." In pursuance of this authority the presi- 
dent made a requisition upon the governor of Pennsylvania for six 
regiments of volunteer infantry "to be held in readiness to serve for 
twelve months, unless sooner discharged." Within a month more than 
ninety companies — enough for nine regiments — had tendered their ser- 
vices to the governor. Two of these companies were from Huntingdon 
county, viz : The \\'arrior"s I\Iark Fencibles — Captain, James Bell ; 
First Lieutenant, James Thompson ; Second Lieutenant, James A. Gano ; 
and eighty-two non-commissioned officers and privates. The Williams- 
burg Blues — Captain, Thomas K. Fluke; First Lieutenant, James M. 
Kinkead ; Second Lieutenant, Alexander McKamey ; seventy-six non- 
commissioned officers and privates. 

Xot until November did an order come from the war department for 
the mustering in of any troops. Then an order was received for one 
regiment, and on December 15, 1846, the First infantry was organized 
at Pittsburgh, though none of the companies from the Juniata valley 



were accepted. As the regiment, commanded by Colonel Wynkoop, 
passed through Mifflin county by canal boat on its way to the seat of 
war, several citizens joined the organization. Among them were J. H. 
Ross, George W. Hesser, William Stackpole, Jacob Hoseywantle, and 
a man named Bymaster, and Dr. John C. Reynolds, of McVeytown. 
Dr. Reynolds was appointed surgeon of the regiment. 

At the request of the president the Second Pennsylvania regiment 
was organized and mustered in at Pittsburgh on January 5, 1847. This 
regiment was commanded by Colonel Roberts and was composed of 
companies from Philadelphia, Reading, ^lauch Chunk. Harrisburg, Dan- 
ville, Pittsburgh, and the counties of Cambria, AVestmoreland, and Fay- 
ette. Later John W. Geary succeeded Colonel Roberts in command. 

As very few of the old volunteer companies that were so prompt to 
offer their services had been accepted a number of young men in Mifflin 
county conceived the idea of organizing a new company for the express 
purpose of serving in Mexico. This idea resulted in the formation of the 
"Juniata Guards," most of the members of which company were from 
Lewistown and McVeytown. William H. Irwin was chosen captain and 
Thomas F. AlcCoy, first lieutenant. Scarcely had the company been 
organized when information was received that the government would 
not accept any more volunteer troops, but under a recent act of Congress 
would add ten regiments to the regular army. Captain Irwin and 
Lieutenant McCoy at once set out for Washington, where they met 
President Polk, and were appointed officers in the Eleventh United 
States infantry, Irwin as captain and McCoy as first lieutenant. Upon 
their return to Mifflin county a number of the Juniata Guards refused to 
enter the service as regulars, and about thirty days were spent in secur- 
ing new men to take their places. The quota was finally filled, however, 
and on March 25, 1847, the company embarked on canal boats for Pitts- 
burgh. Most of the men were from the vicinity of McVeytown, and 
when the company reached that place a halt was made to say farewell to 
friends and relatives. Captain Irwin was presented with a sword. 
Lieutenant McCoy with a regulation sword, and Alajor Criswell with a 
dress sword and sash. 

On the last day of March the company reached Pittsburgh, where 
it embarked on April 3d on the steamboat "Germantown," with two 
other companies of the same regiment, and arrived at New Orleans on the 


I2th. There they took passage on the transport "America"' for Brazos, 
near the mouth of the Rio Grande, where they arrived on the 22d. Soon 
after the Juniata Guards were ordered to Vera Cruz, embarked on the 
ship "Meteor," and anchored near the castle of San Juan de Ulloa in the 
harbor of Vera Cruz, on June 2, 1847. Six days later the company 
marched with General Cadwallader's command for the interior, and it 
received its baptism of fire at the National bridge on June nth, where 
it received honorable mention for brave conduct and lost one man killed 
and one wounded. General Cadwallader reached Jalapa on the 15th, 
where he joined the force under Colonel Shields, composed partly of 
the Second Pennsylvania, and then marched for Puebla to join General 
Scott's army, having fretjuent skirmishes on the way. 

At Puebla the company — now Company D, Eleventh L'nited States 
infantry — was attached to Cadwallader's brigade, Pillow's division, with 
which it marched for the City of Mexico. It formed part of the force 
under Captain Robert E. Lee, then a member of General Scott's staff 
and later a distinguished general in the Confederate army, in the recon- 
noissance of the enemy's position at Contreras, where it distinguished 
itself for gallant conduct in action. From that time until the close of 
the war the company was in every action in which its regiment partici- 
pated. On June 4, 1848, it left the City of Mexico, arrived on the 29th 
at Vera Cruz, where it embarked for New Orleans. From there, with 
the regiment, it sailed for New York and was mustered out at Fort 
Hamilton, near that city, on August 16, 1848. Ten days later the 
survivors of the old Juniata Guards were given a public reception and 
sumptuous dinner in the court-house at Lewistown. During its eighteen 
months of service the company lost twenty-five of its members by death, 
some killed in battle, but more dying of disease in a strange climate. 

Captain Irwin was a native of Mifflin county, a lawyer by profes- 
sion, practicing his profession in Lewistown both before and after the 
Mexican war. Not long after that war he was appointed adjutant- 
general of the State of Pennsylvania and later took an active part in 
politics as a Whig. When the Civil war broke out in 1861, he was com- 
missioned colonel of the Seventh Pennsylvania regiment by Governor 
Curtin and, after the three months' service of that regiment was ended, 
he became colonel of the Forty-ninth, a three-years' regiment. He was 
with General McClellan in the campaign up the Virginia peninsula in 


1862; was severely wounded near Fredericksburg in April, 1863, and 
the following October resigned his commission and retired from the 
army. Subsequently he was brevetted brigadier-general "for gallant 
and meritorious services during the war." Some years after the war 
he removed to the State of Indiana, where he engaged in mining opera- 
tions and railroad enterprises. He then took up his residence in Louis- 
ville, Kentucky, and died in that city on January 17, 1886. 

Thomas F. McCoy, who went out as first lieutenant of the Juniata 
Guards, was also a native of Mifflin count}' and up to manhood lived at 
McVeytown, where as a young man he was editor and publisher of the 
Village Herald, an independent newspaper. After the Mexican war 
he returned to his old home and, in 1850, was elected prothonotary of 
Mifflin county. He then studied law and in 1857 was admitted to the 
bar. .\t the beginning of the Civil war he tendered his services to 
Governor Curtin, who appointed him deputy C]uartermaster-general. In 
August, 1862, preferring more active service, he resigned this position 
and was commissioned colonel of the One Hundred and Seventh regi- 
ment, Pennsylvania veteran volunteers. He assumed command of the 
regiment at Cedar mountain and served with the Army of the Potomac 
until the end of the war, taking part in more than twenty l.iattles and the 
nine months' siege of Petersburg. He was captured at the Weldon rail- 
road, but succeeded in making his escape and rejoined his regiment. 
At the close of the war he received the brevet rank of brigadier-general, 
his commission bearing date of the battle of Five Forks, where he 
handled his regiment in such a way as to draw forth the commendations 
of his superior officers. When mustered out on July 13, 1865, he re- 
tiu"ned to Lewistown, where he died at an advanced age. 

On May 19, 1847, the Wayne Guards, ninety-four strong, was mus- 
tered in at Pittsburgh, with the following officers : James Caldwell, cap- 
tain ; Dr. A. INIcAmey, first lieutenant ; Dr. C. Bowers, second lieutenant ; 
Joiin A. Doyle, third lieutenant ; George Filey, J. L. Madison, William 
Westhoven. and W. A. McMonigle. sergeants : A. W. Clarkson, C. B. 
Wilson, Jacob Shade, and J. L. Kidd, corporals. This company was 
recruited in the upper end of Mifflin and the southeastern part of Hunt- 
ingdon counties. With Captain Taylor's company, from Bedford, the 
Wayne Guards left Pittsburgh by steamboat for New Orleans, from 
which point they proceeded to Vera Cruz, where they joined General 


Franklin Pierce, afterward president, for the march to Puebla. At 
Puebla the two companies were assigned to the Second Pennsyh'ania, 
the Wayne Guards becoming Company M. The regiment formed a part 
of General Quitman's division and took part in the battles of Contreras, 
Cherubusco, ilolino del Rev, San Pasqual, and the storming of the Belen 
Gate at the City of JNIexico. It was also at Chapultepec, where Captain 
Caldwell was mortally wounded, dying five days after the fight. It was 
the first regiment to enter the City of Mexico after the surrender. In 
May, 1848, it returned to Vera Cruz, thence to New Orleans, and thence 
up the Mississippi and Ohio rivers to Pittsburgh, where it was mustered 
out on July 29, 1848. 

Perry county furnished a lieutenant, Michael Stever, and sixty-six 
privates for service in the War with ISIexico. These men had nearly 
all belonged to the Bloomfield Light Infantry and the Landisburg 
Guards before enlisting for service in Mexico, but for some reason they 
were not accredited to the county as a separate organization. They took 
part in the engagements at Buena Vista, Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Con- 
treras, Cherubusco, Molino del Rev, and Chapultepec. 


For half a century or more prior to i860 the slavery question had 
been one of commanding interest in all parts of the L^nited States. 
The Missouri Compromise of 1820 and the Compromise Act of 1850, 
known as the "Omnibus Bill," sought to settle the question, but like 
Banquo's ghost it would not down. The election of Abraham Lincoln 
to the presidency in i860 was regarded by the slaveholders of the South 
as inimical to their interests and eleven slaveholding states carried out 
their oft-repeated threat to withdraw from the Union. In the interim 
between the election of Lincoln in November, i860, and his inauguration 
on ]March 4, 1861, preparations for war were carried on in the seceding 
states with great vigor. The North, while awake to the situation in a 
measure, clung to the theory that the difficulty could be overcome with- 
out an appeal to arms. As early as January 17. 1861, a meeting was 
held at Huntingdon, at which resolutions denouncing secession and 
pledging support to the constitution of the L'nited States were adopted. 
On the 28th of the same month the ^lifflin County Dragoons, a military 


compan}- of the Kishacoquillas valley, tendered their services to the gov- 
ernor in case of war. It is beHeved that this was the first company in 
the United States to take such action. 

At half past four o'clock on the morning of April 12, 1861, the first 
shot of the great Civil war went crashing against the solid walls of 
Fort Sumter, in Charleston harbor. It was fired by Edmund Ruffin, 
a gray-haired Virginian and a personal and political friend of John C. 
Calhoun. The telegraph flashed the news over the country and, on 
the 15th, President Lincoln issued his call for 75,000 troops to suppress 
the rebellion. One of the first companies in the State of Pennsylvania 
to respond was the Logan Guards, of Lewistown, the services of which 
had been tendered to the governor in advance of the call by its captain, 
John B. Selheimer. A telegram from Governor Andrew Curtin on 
the morning of April 17th. accepting the company, was received by Cap- 
tain Selheimer, with orders to report at Harrisburg as soon as possible. 
At that time the company could muster but twenty-six members, but a 
recruiting office was opened and in one hour the strength was increased 
to 106 men ready to march to the front. Early on the morning of the 
17th the compan}- arrived in Harrisburg, where it was joined by four 
other companies — 530 men in all — and the next day the entire detach- 
ment set out for Washington. At daybreak on the morning of the 19th 
the first sergeant of the Logan Guards handed the morning report of 
the company to Adjutant-General Thomas, who remarked that it was 
the first official volunteer report received. The greater part of the three 
months' term of service was spent at Fort ^\'ashington, fourteen miles 
below the city, on the Maryland side of the Potomac. \Maen the Twenty- 
fifth regiment was organized the Logan Guards became Company E, the 
color company. Captain Selheimer being made lieutenant-colonel of the 
regiment. After his promotion the officers of the company were as 
follows: Thomas M. Hulings, captain; F. R. Sterrett, first lieutenant; 
R. \\\ Patton, second lieutenant. 

Among the privates of this famous company at the beginning of the 
war were Brigadier-General William H. Irwin, who commanded a 
brigade in General Franklin's corps at the battle of Antietam ; Brevet 
Brigadier-General William G. Mitchell, chief of stafi^ under General 
Hancock ; Brevet Brigadier-General J. A. Matthews, who commanded 
the Second brigade, Hartranft's division. Ninth corps; and Thomas M. 


Hulings, who was afterward made colonel of the Forty-ninth Pennsyl- 
vania and was killed at Spottsylvania. 

In the Second regiment, Company D was recruited in Perry county, 
with H. D. Woodruff as captain ; J. H. Crist, first lieutenant ; C. K. 
Brenneman, second lieutenant. There were also fourteen Perry county 
boys in another company. The Second was a three months' regiment, 
mustered in on April 21, 1861, under command of Colonel Frederick G. 
Stumbaugh. Its service was in Alaryland and Virginia, but it was not 
called into action, and was mustered out at Harrisburg on July 26, 

Company D, Fifth regiment, was recruited in Huntingdon county 
and was officered as follows: Benjamin F. Miller, captain; George F. 
McCabe, first lieutenant ; James D. Campbell, second lieutenant. The 
regiment was mustered in at Camp Curtin, Harrisburg, April 21, 1861, 
for a term of three months, with R. P. McDowell as colonel. Two com- 
panies were engaged in guarding steamboats through the Chesapeake 
and Delaware canal, after which the entire regiment was ordered to 
Annapolis Junction to repel an attack. The attack was not made and 
it was ordered to Washington on April 27th. On June 3, 1861, it was 
assigned to the brigade commanded by Brigadier-General Irwin Mc- 
Dowell and remained with that command until ordered back to Harris- 
burg, where it was mustered out on the 25th of July. 

On April 22. 1861, the Seventh regiment was mustered in at Camp 
Curtin, under command of Colonel William H. Irwin, who was then 
serving as a private with the Logan Guards. Company I was recruited 
at Lewistown, Mifflin county, with Henry A. Zollinger as captain; 
William H. McClelland as first lieutenant ; and James Couch as second 
lieutenant. The regiment left Camp Curtin on the 23d for Chambers- 
burg, where it was met by Colonel Irwin. Late in May it was assigned 
to the Third brigade. First division, and served with the command in 
Maryland and X'irginia until July 22d, when it was ordered to Harris- 
burg for muster out, its three months' term having expired. 

The Tenth regiment was mustered in at Camp Curtin on April 26, 
1 86 1, for three months, under command of Colonel Sulli\an A. !Mere- 
dith. Company I was recruited in Huntingdon county and was officered 
by Henry L. McConnell, captain ; William Linton, first lieutenant ; Mar- 
tin V. B. Harding, second lieutenant. It was immediately ordered to 


Virginia and was assigned to the Third Ijrigade, First division, and 
was engaged in skirmishes with the enemy on June 24th and July 3d. It 
was mustered out at Harrisburg on the last day of July. 

A few JNIifflin county men were in the Tenth regiment and in Com- 
pany B, Eleventh regiment, which was mustered in on the same day as 
the Tenth, there were a number of ■Mifflin county men. The Eleventh 
was commanded by Colonel Pharon Jarrett and was ordered to Virginia 
soon after the muster in. It served in the brigades of Generals Negley 
and Abercrombie, Sixth division, and was actively engaged at Falling 
Waters, Maryland, on the 2nd of July. It was then on duty at Martins- 
burg, Charlestown, and Harper's Ferry, Virginia, and Sandy Hook, 
Maryland, until it was ordered home. It was mustered out on the last 
day of July, but was soon afterward reorganized as a three years' 

l"he Fourteenth regiment (three months') was mustered in at Camp 
Curtin in the latter part of April, 1861, under command of Colonel John 
\V. Johnston. A large part of Company I came from Huntingdon 
county. The officers of this company were : Alexander Bobb, captain ; 
J. C. Saunders, first lieutenant : John H. Sypher, second lieutenant. 
There were also c|uite a number of Juniata county men in the regiment. 
It was on duty in Maryland and Virginia during its term of service, 
Init was at no time actively engaged. It was mustered out at Carlisle 
on August 7, 1 86 1. 

In the Fifteenth regiment (three months') there was one company 
partly made up in Mifflin and Juniata counties and Company H was 
composed chiefly of Huntingdon county men, though it was credited to 
Cambria county. Of this company Joseph Johnson was captain ; Michael 
McNally, first lieutenant : William H. Simpson, second lieutenant. The 
history of this organization is practically the same as that of the Four- 
teenth regiment. 

During the summer of 1861 the Twenty-eighth regiment was raised 
and it was mustered in for three years about the middle of August. Its 
first colonel was John W. Geary, who was promoted to brigadier-general 
and after the war served two terms as governor of Pennsylvania. It 
was through his efforts and largely at his personal expense that the 
regiment was organized. The Twenty-eighth was of unusual size, hav- 
ing fifteen companies, one of which — Company O — was raised in Hunt- 


ingdon county. This company was mustered in on August 17, 1S61, 
with George F. ]\IcCabe as captain : J. Addison ]\Ioore, first heutenant ; 
A. H. \\'. Creigh, second heutenant. On October 28, 1862, the members 
of the company, with few exceptions, were transferred to the One Hun- 
dred and Forty-seventh regiment, the organization remaining intact 
as Company B. 

In the Thirty-fourth regiment (the Fifth Reserve) Huntingdon 
county furnished two companies — the Huntingdon Infantry, which was 
made Company G, and the Scott Infantry, which became Company I. 
Of the former Andrew S. Harrison was captain: John E. \\'olfe, first 
Heutenant; J. A. Willoughby, second Heutenant. Of the latter Frank 
Zentmyer Avas the captain : Robert B. Frazer, first Heutenant : J. A. Mc- 
Pherran. second Heutenant. The regiment was mustered in at Camp 
Curtin on June 20, 1861, for three years, under command of Colonel 
John I. Gregg, who resigned the next day to accept a captaincy in the 
Sixth United States cavalrv, and was succeeded by Colonel Seneca G. 
Simmons. After several months in camp and routine duty, with short 
marches to different points around ^A'ashington, the regiment joined 
General ^IcClellan for the Peninsular campaign. It was engaged at 
Llechanicsville, distinguished itself at the battle of Gaines' JMiH, and was 
in nearly all the actions during the Seven Days' battles. Later it was 
at the Second Bull Run, South ^Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, 
Gettvsburg, and the campaign in the spring of 1864 beginning with the 
battle of the Wilderness. On June i, 1864, it left the service and pro- 
ceeded to Harrisburg, where it was mustered out. 

Company B, Thirty-sixth regiment (Seventh Reserves) was re- 
cruited in Perry county and was mustered in with the regiinent at 
AA'ashington, D. C, July 27, 1861, with John Jameson as captain: 
George K. Schall, first lieutenant : W. H. Dieffenbach, second lieutenant. 
The service of this regiment was almost identical with that of the 
Thirtv-fourth. It was mustered out at Philadelphia, June 16, 1864. A 
large number of its members were captured at the battle of the Wilder- 

In the Forty-first regiment of the line (the Twelfth Reserves), 
Companv I came from Huntingdon county. The regiment was mustered 
in on August 10, 1861, at Camp Curtin, with John H. Taggart as col- 
onel. The officers of Company I were : James C. Baker, captain : Perry 


Etchison, first lieutenant; Samuel J. Cloyd, second lieutenant. On Au- 
gust 20th the regiment was assigned to the Third brigade of the Re- 
serves and was with General McClellan in the Peninsular campaign, par- 
ticipating in the battle at Ellerson's Mill, the Seven Days" battles, and 
numerous minor engagements. Later it was at Antietam, Gettysburg, 
and the principal actions in which the Army of the Potomac was en- 
gaged. It was mustered out at Harrisburg on June 11, 1864. 

The Forty-second, also known as the "Bucktails,"' and the "Kane 
Rifle Regiment," was recruited in the spring of 1861 and was mustered 
in about the middle of June, under command of Colonel Charles J. 
Biddle. It was the original intention to include only skilled marksmen 
in the membership and the regiment was recruited chiefly in the lumber- 
ing districts of the state. Company B came from Perry county, with 
Langhorn Wistar as captain; John A. Gulp, first lieutenant; Joel R. 
Sparr, second lieutenant. There were also a number of men from IMif- 
flin and Juniata counties in the Bucktails. The regiment took part in the 
battles of Dranesville, Mechanicsville, Gaines' Mill, the Seven Days', 
South ^Mountain, Antietam, Gettysburg, the various engagements of the 
Mine Run campaign, the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Xorth Anna river, 
Bethesda Church, where it fought its last battle on May 30, 1864, orders 
being received on June ist to move to Harrisburg for muster out. 
The men were mustered out and discharged ten days later. 

■Mifflin county furnished Company C and Juniata county Company 
A for the Forty-fourth regiment, otherwise known as the First cavalry. 
At the time the regiment was mustered in on September i, 1861, Com- 
pany A was officered as follows : John K. Robinson, captain : James R. 
Kelley, first lieutenant; David H. Wilson, second lieutenant. John P. 
Taylor, afterward promoted to lieutenant-colonel, was captain of Com- 
pany C; William ]\Iann. first lieutenant; John \\\ Nelson, second lieu- 
tenant. Under command of Colonel George D. Bayard the Forty-fourth 
joined McCall's division at Tenallytown, Maryland, soon after it was 
mustered in. Its first engagement was at Dranesville and on the open- 
ing of the campaign in the spring of 1862 it joined General IMcClellan 
for the march up the Virginia peninsula. Upon reaching the Pamunkey 
river it was recalled and sent to the Shenandoah Valley against Stone- 
wall Jackson. There the men were almost constantly in the saddle, 
taking part in the engagements at Front Royal, Cross Keys, Port Re- 


public, and performing scout and picket duty. It was then with General 
Pope at Cedar Alountain, where it rendered valuable service. As the 
Army of the Potomac retreated toward Washington, the First Pennsyl- 
vania cavalry formed part of the rear guard and was frequently en- 
gaged with the enemy. It fought at the Second Bull Run, Fredericks- 
burg, Sheperdstown, in the Aline Run campaign, at New Hope Church, 
and in a number of lesser actions during the year 1863, and in the sprmg 
of 1864 it took an active part in the campaign from the Rapidan to the 
James until ordered to Philadelphia, where it was mustered out on Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

In the Forty-fifth regiment, commanded by Colonel Thomas Welch, 
Company C was recruited in JNIifflin county. The officers of this com- 
pany were : William G. Bigelow, captain ; Jesse W. Horton, first lieu- 
tenant ; Isaac Steely, second lieutenant. The regiment was mustered in 
on October 21, 1861, and two days later started for Washington, where 
it was assigned to Howard's brigade, Casey's division. From December, 
1 86 1, to July, 1862, it was on duty around Charleston, South Carolina. 
It was then in the vicinity of Fortress ]\Ionroe for about a month, when it 
was attached to the First brigade, First division. Ninth Corps, with 
which it took part in the actions at South Mountain, Antietam, Freder- 
icksburg, and some others, and in May, 1S63, was ordered to Mississippi. 
There it assisted in the capture of Vicksburg, after which it was sent 
to Tennessee and was in the fight with General Longstreet's forces at 
Knoxville in November. Early in 1864 it was ordered to Virginia and 
served with the Army of the Potomac until mustered out on July 17, 
1865. Before joining this regiment the company from Mifflin county 
was known as the Belleville Fencibles. 

On September i, 1861, the Forty-sixth regiment was mustered in 
at Camp Curtin, under command of Colonel Joseph F. Knipe. In this 
reo-iment Company A was made up in Alifflin county and a part of Com- 
pany D in Perry. The officers of Company A at the time of muster 
in were : Joseph A. Matthews, captain ; Henry A. Eisenbise, first lieu- 
tenant; William B. Weber, second lieutenant. A large number of the 
members of this company had previously been with the Logan Guards 
in the three months' service. Soon after being mustered in the regiment 
joined the army under General Banks on the upper Potomac and was 
assigned to Crawford's brigade, Williams' division. The following 


spring it was transferred to General Pope's army, with which it was 
engaged at Cedar Mountain and other places. It was under General 
Hooker at the battle of Antietam, took part in the battle of Fredericks- 
burg in December, 1862, and after that battle it was made part of the 
Second brigade, First division. Twelfth corps, commanded by General 
Slocum. In 1863 it was at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg and later in 
the year was sent to Tennessee. In 1864 it was with General Sherman 
in the Atlanta campaign and afterward in the famous march to the sea. 
It was mustered out at Alexandria, Virginia. July 16, 1865. 

The Forty-seventh regiment was organized in August and Septem- 
ber, 1 86 1, the companies being mustered in at different dates, and about 
September 20th left the state for Washington, under command of Col- 
onel Tilghman H. Good. Companies D and H were recruited in Perry 
county and a considerable portion of Company C came from Juniata 
county. The officers of Company D were : Henry D. Woodruff', cap- 
tain ; Samuel S. Auchmutz, first lieutenant ; George Stroop, second lieu- 
tenant. Company H was officered by Janres Kacey, captain ; William W. 
Geety, first lieutenant: C. K. Brenneman, second lieutenant. William 
Reese, of Juniata county, was second lieutenant of Company C at the 
time of muster in and later was promoted to first lieutenant. This regi- 
ment remained near Washington until January 23, 1862, when it was 
ordered to the south and took part in General Brannan's expedition to 
Key \\>st. It was then in South Carolina and Florida until Felsruary, 
1864, when it was ordered to join General Banks in Louisiana. After 
the Red River campaign it returned to Virginia and served under Sheri- 
dan in the Shenandoah valley. It remained in Virginia until after Lee's 
surrender, took part in the grand review at \\^ashington in May, 1865, 
and then went to Charleston. South Carolina, where it remained until 
January 3, 1866, when it embarked for New York. It was mustered 
out at Philadelphia six days later. 

The Forty-ninth might be called a Juniata valley regiment. Part 
of Company A was recruited in Perry county; Companies C and D. in 
Huntingdon; Companies E and H and part of K, in Mifflin; and Com- 
pany I. in Juniata. Company A was officered by men outside of Perry 
county. Company C, John B. Miles, captain; F. M. Wombacher, first 
lieutenant; A. G. Dickey, second lieutenant. Company D, James D. 
Campbell, captain; John H. ^^'estbrook, first lieutenant; Benjamin H. 


Downing, second lieutenant. Company E. H. A. Zollinger, captain; 
L. H. Pinkerton, first lieutenant; Edwin E. Zigler, second lieutenant. 
Company H, Ralph L. ISIaclay, captain ; William G. Mitchell, first lieu- 
tenant; Abraham T. Hillands, second lieutenant. Company I, Calvin 
De Witt, captain; R. ^l. McClelland, first lieutenant; David B. Spano- 
gle, second lieutenant. Company K, Mathias Niece, captain ; John R. 
Keim, first lieutenant; Thomas F. Xiece, second lieutenant. The regi- 
mental organization was completed early in September, 1861, and on 
the 22nd left Camp Curtin for \\"ashington under command of Colonel 
William H. Irwin. It took part in the Peninsular campaign of 1S62, 
under General George B. McClellan and later was with General Pope 
in Virginia. In 1863, as part of the Third brigade. First division, Sixth 
corps, it was with General Hooker on the Chancellorsville campaign, took 
part. in the battle of Gettysburg and the pursuit of Lee's army and was 
in the ^Mine Run campaign. Among the battles in which it was engaged 
in 1864 were Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor, and Winchester, and its last 
fight was at Sailor's Creek, April 3, 1865. 

In the Fifty-first regiment there were a few men from ]\Iifflin and 
Juniata counties and in the Fifty-second a large part of Company C 
was recruited in ]Mifflin county. Both these regiments served with the 
Army of the Potomac and their history does not differ materially from 
that of the Forty-ninth. In the Fifty-third, Company C was raised in 
Huntingdon county and Company I in Juniata. Of Company C, John 
H. ^^'introde was captain; Robert !McXamara, first lieutenant; John 
McLaughlin, second lieutenant. Company I was officered by Henry S. 
Dimm as captain ; Isaac T. Cross, first lieutenant ; Henry Speice, second 
lieutenant. Under command of Colonel John R. Brooke the regiment 
left Camp Curtin on November 7, 1861, for Washington and soon after 
its arrival there crossed over to Alexandria, Virginia, where it was as- 
signed to General French's brigade. It was with [McClellan on the Penin- 
sular campaign; was with the same commander at Antietam, where it 
made a brilliant charge and gained an important position. In 1863 it 
was at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg and the various other movements 
of the Army of the Potomac, and participated in the final campaign 
that ended in Lee's surrender at Appomattox on April 9, 1865. Then, 
after participating in the grand review at ^\'ashington, it was mustered 
out on June 30, 1865. 


Several regiments were then organized in other parts of the state 
and the Juniata valley was not represented in another until the Seventy- 
seventh, in which Huntingdon county furnished Company C, there 
were a few men from Juniata county, and Perry county furnished the 
regimental band. Company C was otScered by ]\Iichael McNally, cap- 
tain; Joseph J. Lawson, first lieutenant; Samuel L Davis, second lieu- 
tenant. The regiment was rendezvoused at Camp Wilkins, Pittsburgh, 
where it was mustered in about the middle of October, 1861, with Fred- 
erick S. Stumbaugh as colonel. On the iSth it left Pittsburgh on steam- 
ers and went down the Ohio river to Louisville, Kentucky, as part 
of Xegley's brigade. At Xashville, Tennessee, it was attached to Wood's 
brigade, McCook's division, Army of the Ohio. It took part in the 
second day's fighting at Shiloh and the subsecjuent march to Corinth, 
after which it moved back to Kentucky with General Buell. It was then 
in Tennessee, taking part in the battles of Stone's river, the Tullahoma, 
and Chickamauga. In 1S64 it w^as with Sherman on the Atlanta cam- 
paign, taking part in many of the engagements, and after the fall of At- 
lanta returned to Nashville with General George H. Thomas. It was 
in the decisive battle of Xashville, December 15, 1S64, and joined in 
the pursuit of Hood's shattered army into Alabama. In June, 1865, it 
was ordered south and served in Louisiana and Texas until the close 
of the year, when it was ordered home. It was mustered out at Phila- 
delphia, January 16, 1866. 

The Seventy-eighth regiment was organized at Camp Orr, near 
Kittanning, in the fall of 1861, under command of Colonel William 
Sirwell. Company C was recruited in ^lifflin county, with A. B. Sel- 
heimer as captain; John S. [McEwen, first lieutenant; Samuel Eisenbise, 
second lieutenant. In Company D were a few men from Perr}' county. 
The Mifflin county company did not go out with the regiment in 1S61, 
but was recruited in January and February, 1865. 

In the Seventy-ninth regiment there were a few men from ]\Iifflin 
and Perry counties and one musician in the regimental band was a Perry 
county man. 

Company K, Eighty-third regiment, contained a number of men 
from Perry county; John Deitrick being first lieutenant, and four of 
the sergeants were Perry county boys. 

The Ninety-second, also designated the Ninth cavalry, was organ- 


ized at Camp Cameron, Harrisburg, in the fall of 1861, ^vith Edward 
C. Williams as colonel. Company A was recruited in Perry county, with 
Griffith Jones, captain ; Charles \\'ebster, first lieutenant : Thomas D. 
Griffiths, second lieutenant. A few Perry county men were in Com- 
pany i\I, but the greater part of that company came from Huntingdon 
county. George \\'. Patterson was captain; O. B. [NlcXight, first lieu- 
tenant; Isaac C. Temple, second lieutenant. There were also Perry 
county men in Companies B, G, H, and L. On November 20, 1861, 
the regiment left for Louisville, Kentucky, and during the winter and 
spring was frequently engaged with the guerrillas under General Mor- 
gan. It was in the battles of Richmond and Perryville, Kentucky, after 
which it was engaged in scout duty in eastern Tennessee along the line 
of the Virginia & Tennessee railroad, burning the railroad bridges, etc. 
It was next under General Rosecrans in Tennessee, took part in the 
pursuit of ]\Iorgan in his famous raid in 1863, and during the following- 
winter was constantly on duty in East Tennessee. The greater part 
of the summer of 1864 was spent in Tennessee fighting \Mieeler's 
cavalry at various points, and, after the fall of Atlanta, it was ordered 
to join General Sherman's army for the march to the sea. It was 
frequently engaged in the campaign through the Carolinas early in 
1865 and was mustered out on the i8th of July in that }-ear. 

The One Htmdred and First regiment was raised in the western 
part of the state in the fall of 1861 and was commanded at first by 
Colonel Joseph H. \\'ilson. It was with McClellan in i86j and was 
then ordered to North Carolina. Sickness and loss in battle reduced its 
membership until it was necessary to add eight new companies for the 
organization. Two of these — Company A and Company E — were re- 
cruited in Juniata county. The former was officered b\' Levi INIusser, 
captain; Henry P. Owens, first lieutenant: John T. ^letlin, second lieu- 
tenant. Company E was officered by Cornelius ^IcClellan, captain : 
Benjamin Geipe, first lieutenant ; Joseph A^an Ormer, second lieutenant. 
As the new companies were not mustered in until March, 1865, they 
saw but little actual service. They were mustered out with the regiment 
at Newbern, North Carolina, June 25, 1865. 

Companv F and part of Company B, One Hundred and Fourth regi- 
ment, were recruited in Perry county. Joel F. Fredericks was captain 
of Company F; David C. Orris, first lieutenant; A\'illiam Flickinger, 


second lieutenant. Early in November, 1861, the regiment reported for 
duty with 1,135 officers and men, and was ordered to W'ashington. It 
was with McClellan in 1862; sailed for Beaufort, South Carolina, in 
December of that year; in April, 1863, started for Charleston to assist 
in the attack on that Confederate stronghold, but the attack was over 
before it arrived. It was then engaged in duty in South Carolina and 
Florida until the following August, when it was ordered to Virginia 
and attached to the Army of the Potomac. Its history from that time 
is about the same as that of other regiments engaged aljout Petersburg 
and Richmond, and on August 25, 1865, it was mustered out of 

There were a few men from each of the four counties included in 
this work in the One Hundred and Sixth regiment, and part of Company 
B of the One Hundred and Seventh was recruited in Perry county. 
Company F of the One Hundred and Seventh was raised in Lliftlin 
county and was mustered in with E. W. H. Eisenbise as captain; John 
F. Williams, first lieutenant ; William H. Scott, second lieutenant. There 
were also a number of Juniata county men in this regiment, which was 
organized in March, 1862, with Thomas A. Zeigle, a veteran of the 
Mexican war, as colonel. He died on July 15, 18G2. and was succeeded 
in command by Colonel Thomas F. AlcCoy, also a veteran of the Mexi- 
can war. The regiment was first under fire at the battle of Cedar ^foun- 
tain, after which it fought in the Second Bull Run, at South Mountain, 
Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and numerous 
slight engagements, remaining with the Army of the Potomac until 
Lee's surrender. It was mustered out on July 13, 1865. 

Company B, One Hundred and Tenth regiment. Colonel William D. 
Lewis commanding, was raised in Huntingdon county. Seth Benner 
was captain of the company at the time of muster in; Daniel Henkle, 
first lieutenant ; Benjamin F. Bare, second lieutenant. The regiment 
was mustered into the L'nited States service in December, 1861, and on 
January 2, 1862, reached Hagerstown, Maryland, where it was assigned 
to Tyler's brigade. It was in a skirmish at Port Republic and at the 
battle of Cedar Mountain, but during the Antietam campaign was at 
Washington. At Gettysburg it was commanded by Colonel Jones, and 
from that time to the close of the war its history is identical with the 
other regiments of the Army of the Potomac. It was mustered out on 


June 28, 1865. In Company D, Captain Samuel L. Huyett, there were 
several men from Huntingdon county. 

In the One Hundred and Thirteenth regiment Company F was raised 
in Juniata county and Company I in Aliftlin and Juniata, with a few 
men from L'nion. The officers of Company F were: William Bell, 
captain ; David B. Jenkins, first lieutenant ; David A. Irwin, second lieu- 
tenant. Edson Gerry was captain of Company I ; Abraham Lang, first 
lieutenant; Albert G. Bonsall, second lieutenant. This regiment was 
organized in the late fall of 1861, with William Frishmuth as colonel. 
It was, in the campaigns in Virginia and ]\Iaryland in 1862; was at 
Gettysburg the following July, and performed valiant duty in the final 
campaign that ended with Lee's surrender. It was mustered out on 
July 20, 1S65. 

Huntingdon county was well represented in the One Hundred and 
Twentj'-fifth regiment, which was raised in July and August, 1862, and 
mustered in for nine months. It was mustered in at Camp Curtin on 
August 16, 1S62, with Jacob Higgins as colonel. Of the four Hunting- 
don county companies. Company C was officered by \\^illiam \Y. Wallace 
as captain; William B. Ziegler, first lieutenant; William F. !McPherran, 
second lieutenant. Company F, John J. Lawrence, captain; William C. 
Wagoner, first lieutenant ; J. F. N. Householder, second lieutenant. Cap- 
tain LaAvrence was afterward promoted to major. Company H, Henry 
H. Gregg, captain ; John Flenner, first lieutenant ; Samuel F. Stewart, 
second lieutenant. Company I, William F. Thomas, captain ; George 
Thomas, first lieutenant; John D. Fee, second lieutenant. After the 
battle of Antietam, where it received its baptism of fire, the regiment 
was stationed about Harper's Ferry until November, 1862, when it 
moved with the Twelfth corps to Fredericksburg, but did not arrive in 
time to take part in the battle. It took part in the famous "Mud March," 
being engaged in several skirmishes with the enemy, and on May 18, 
1863, was mustered out at Harrisburg. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-sixth, also a nine months' regiment, 
■was raised about the same time as the preceding regiment, being mustered 
in at Camp Curtin on August 10, 1862. Companies F and I were re- 
cruited in Juniata county. John P. Wharton was captain of Company 
F; R. P. McWilliams, first lieutenant; James C. Bonsall, second lieu- 
tenant. Company I was officered by Amos H. Martin, captain; William 


W. Davis, first lieutenant; Lewis Degen, second lieutenant. Five days 
after it was mustered in the regiment moved to the front and was 
assigned to Tyler's brigade, Humphrey's division, Fifth corps, com- 
manded by General Fitz John Porter. It arrived too late to take part 
in the battle of Antietam, but distinguished itself in the battle of Fred- 
ericksburg, December 13, 1S62, by a furious charge upon the enemy 
behind the historic stone wall, where seventy-seven of its members were 
killed and wounded, Captain Wharton being one of the latter. The 
following spring it was with Hooker at Chancellorsville and the minor 
engagements of that movement, and was mustered out at Harrisburg 
on I\Iay 20, 1863. 

In a third nine months' regiment — the One Hundred and Thirty- 
first — Mifflin county furnished Companies D, H, and K. Of Company 
D, David A. ]\IcManigal was captain; David B. Wilson, first lieutenant; 
D. D. Muthersbaugh, second lieutenant. Company H, Benjamin F. 
Keefer, captain; Robert S. Maxwell, first lieutenant; W. H. Shoemaker, 
second lieutenant. Company K, Joseph S. Waream, captain ; Grant T. 
Waters, first lieutenant; David B. W^eber, second lieutenant. Under 
command of Colonel Peter Allabach, the regiment left the state on 
August 15, 1S62, and for some time was engaged in picket duty about 
Fairfax Court House. As part of Humphrey's division, it moved to 
Antietam, but did not arrive on the field in time to take part in the 
battle. Its service from that time was the same as that of the One 
Hundred and Twenty-sixth. It was mustered out at Harrisburg, ]\Iay 
23, 1863. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-third regiment (nine months') con- 
tained three companies from Perry county, viz. : G, H, and I. The 
officers of these companies were as follows: Company G, F. B. Speak- 
man, captain (promoted to colonel on August 21, 1862) ; William H. 
Sheibley, first lieutenant; Joel F. Fredericks, second lieutenant. Com- 
pany H, David L. Tressler, captain ; Henry Keck, first lieutenant ; Hiram 
A. Sleighter, second lieutenant. Company I, Albert B. Demaree, cap- 
tain; Hiram Fertig, first lieutenant; Samuel R. Deach, second lieutenant. 
Except in a few minor movements, the service of this regiment was 
the same as the other nine months' organizations. It was mustered 
out at Harrisburg by companies. May 21 to 26, 1863. 

In the One Hundred and Forty-ninth regiment, Company I came 


from Huntingdon county and in the regiment were a few Perry coimty 
men. Company I was officered at the time of the muster in as fol- 
lows : Captain, George ^\'. Speer ; first lieutenant, Henry C. \\'eaver ; 
second lieutenant, D. C. ]\L Appleby. This was the first regiment or- 
ganized for a "Bucktail Brigade" — which was to be organized on the 
name and fame of the original Bucktail regiment — but before the bri- 
gade organization could be completed the regiment was ordered to the 
front, under command of Colonel Roy Stone. After the engagements 
at South Mountain and Antietam it was at Washington until February, 
1863, when it joined General Burnside's army on the Rappahannock. 
It fought at Chancellorsville. Gettysburg, and in many of the severe 
fights of the campaign of 1864 against Richmond. In December, 1864, 
it was sent to Elmira, New York, to guard Confederate prisoners 
and remained there until mustered out on June 24, 1865. 

There were a few men from Perry and Juniata counties in the One 
Hundred and Fiftieth, and Company D of the One Hundred and Fifty- 
first was recruited in Juniata county. Of this company George F. ^Ic- 
Farland was captain; George S. ]\Iills, first lieutenant; Benjamin F. 
Oliver, second lieutenant. The regiment was mustered in for nine 
months and left Harrisburg on November 26, 1862, for \\'ashington. 
During the winter it was on picket duty and engaged in watching guer- 
rilla movements in \'irginia until February, when it was attached to the 
First brigade, Doubleday's division, Reynold's corps, with which it took 
part in the battle of Chancellorsville. Captain ]\IcFarland had been 
promoted to lieutenant-colonel in November, 1862, and commanded the 
regiment at Gettysburg, where General Doubleday says "they won an 
imperishable fame." Its losses in that battle were 68 killed, 199 
wounded and 100 missing — three-fourths of the number who went into 
the fight. It was mustered otit at Harrisburg on July 27, 1863. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-second (Third heavy artillery) con- 
tained a number of men from Mifflin and Juniata counties, but they were 
credited elsewhere. Perry county furnished some members of the One 
Hundred and Fifty-eighth under the same conditions. 

Company F, One Hundred and Sixty-first (Sixteenth cavalry), was 
raised in Juniata county and Company ^l in ^lifflin. Of the former 
John K. Robison was captain ; Henry H. Wilson, first lieutenant : \\"il- 
liam H. Billmeyer, second lieutenant. Company M was officered by 


John Stroup, captain; Ira R. Alexander, first lieutenant; Charles W. 
Jones, second lieutenant. Commanded by Colonel John I. Gregg, the 
regiment left the state on the last day of November, 1862, for Wash- 
ington and soon afterward went into camp at Bladensburg, ^Maryland. 
In January, 1863, it was assigned to Averill's brigade and the remain- 
der of the winter was passed in picket duty. It was active in the spring 
campaign that culminated in the battle of Chancellorsville and after that 
disaster was attached to General Pleasonton's cavalry division. It har- 
assed Lee's army in its northward march in 1863 and took a small part 
in the battle of Gettysburg. The remainder of the year 1863 was spent 
in Virginia, where the Sixteenth cavalry was frequently engaged, and 
in the spring of 1864 joined the Army of the Potomac for the advance 
on Richmond. It is difficult to follow all the movements of a cavalry 
regiment, but the Sixteenth Pennsylvania was generally where it was 
needed at the right time during the entire siege of Petersburg. It 
fought at Trevillian Station, Hawes' Shop, Deep Run, Poplar Spring 
Church, Hatcher's Run, Dinwiddle Court House, Five Forks, and Sail- 
or's Creek. After Lee's surrender it was sent to North Carolina to 
assist General Sherman and later was ordered to Lynchburg to guard 
stores there. It was mustered out on August 7, 1865. 

Perry county furnished Company I, One Hundred and Sixty-second 
regiment (Seventeenth cavalry), which was organized in the fall of 
1S62. John B. ^McAllister was captain of Company I; Andrew D. 
Vanling, first lieutenant : Lewis W. Orman, second lieutenant. Captain 
McAllister was made lieutenant-colonel soon after the regiment was 
organized. It was ordered to V'irginia on November 25, 1862, and 
during the winter was broken up into detachments for scout and picket 
duty. In the Chancellorsville campaign the Perry^ county company was 
on escort duty with General Aleade. The Sixteenth, as part of General 
Buford's command, was one of the first regiments to become engaged 
at the battle of Gettysburg, and all through the late summer and fall 
of that year it was active in watching Lee's movements and skirmishing 
with the enemy. In the summer of 1S64 it was with Sheridan in the 
Shenandoah and followed that intrepid cavalry commander until the 
surrender at Appomattox. 

Perry county furnished a few men for the One Hundred and Sixty- 
sixth regiment and Juniata county contributed Company F to the One 


Hundred and Seventy-first, which was dratted from the mihtia for nine 
months' service. The officers of this company were: WiUiam H. ilc- 
Clellan, captain; Frederick S. Schwahn, first Heutenant; David Geib. 
second Heutenant. Late in November, 1862, the regiment was ordered 
to Suffolk, Virginia, where it was for a time attached to General Ferry's 
division, but about a month later it was sent to Newbern, North Caro- 
lina, where it passed the winter. In June. 1863, it was ordered back to 
Virginia and after the battle of Gettysburg was for a few days at Har- 
per's Ferry, moving thence, via Boonesboro, Maryland, to Frederick 
City. On August 3d it was ordered to Harrisburg and there mustered 
out a few days later. 

Perry county furnished some men for the One Hundred and Sev- 
enty-second and practically all of Company E, One Hundred and Sev- 
enty-third regiment (nine months' drafted militia). The officers of this 
company were : Henry Charles, captain ; Isaac D. Dunkel, first lieuten- 
ant; Samuel Reen, second lieutenant. On November 30, 1862, this regi- 
ment, commanded by Colonel Daniel Nagle, left Harrisburg for Nor- 
folk, Virginia, where it was emplo3'ed on guard duty until the following 
Ma}', after which it did provost duty until July. It was then ordered 
to ^^"ashington and from there into Maryland to assist in the pursuit 
of Lee's army, then retreating from Gettysburg. Then, after guarding 
the Orange & Alexandria railroad mitil August 13th, it was ordered 
to Harrisburg, where it was mustered out on the i8th. 

Company M, One Hundred and Eightieth regiment, was raised in 
Huntingdon county with the following officers : Captain, Samuel L. 
Huyett : first lieutenant, Roland C. Allen ; second lieutenant, Edward 
Brady. This regiment, also known as the Nineteenth cavalry, was re- 
cruited under orders from the war department, dated June 2, 1863, 
by Colonel Alexander Cummings, who became its commander. Soon 
after it was mustered in it was ordered to Tennessee and attached to 
the cavalry division of General B. H. Grierson. It took part in the 
celebrated raid along the Mississippi Central railroad and was in nu- 
merous engagements with the Confederate cavalry under Forrest. At 
the battle of Nashville in December, 1864, it formed part of General 
Wilson's cavalry command and was active in the pursuit of Hood's army 
into Alabama. In February, 1865, it was reduced to a battalion and 
ordered to New Orleans, where it was mustered out on May 14, 1866. 


The One Hundred and Eighty-first (Twentieth cavalry) was re- 
cruited in the summer of 1863 and mustered in for a term of six months. 
Company E was recruited chiefly in Mii^in county, and Perry county 
also contributed a number of her sons to the organization. Joseph T. 
Rothrock was captain of Company E; Samuel Montgomery, first lieu- 
tenant ; Andrew W. Decker, second lieutenant. It was ordered to Mary- 
land immediately upon being mustered in, under command of Colonel 
John E. Wyncoop, and assisted in moving trains. The several compa- 
nies were then on detached duty for a time, when seven of them were 
united and late in November defeated a portion of General Imboden's 
forces, taking a number of prisoners. It was mustered out on January 
7, 1864, and was cjuickly reorganized for the three years' service. 

In the One Hundred and Eighty-fourth regiment, organized in the 
spring of 1864, there were a number of men from Mifflin county, espe- 
cially in Companies D and H, and the lieutenant-colonel, Charles Kleck- 
ner, was from Perry county. 

Companies A and K, One Hundred and Eighty-fifth regiment (the 
Twenty-second cavalr}-). were recruited in Huntingdon county. Morti- 
mer Morrow was captain of Company A : John H. Boring, first lieu- 
tenant ; Eugene Dougherty, second lieutenant. The regiment was or- 
ganized in camp near Chambersburg by uniting the Ringgold cavalry 
battalion with five companies that had been raised for the six months' 
service in July, 1863, and was under command of Colonel Jacob Hig- 
gins. The Ringgold battalion entered the service in 1862, but the Hunt- 
ingdon county companies were not added until the organization of the 
regiment in February, 1864. Mifflin county furnished a detachment and 
Juniata and Perry counties were also represented. It was ordered to 
Virginia, where it was attached to General Averill's command. Among 
the engagements in which it participated were Darkesville, Bunker Hill, 
Buckleytown, Martinsburg, Opequan, Fisher's Hill, 3.Iount A^ernon 
Forge, and Cedar Creek. About one-half the regiment was mustered out 
in April, 1865, and in June the remnant was consolidated with the 
Eighteenth cavalry, forming the Third Provisional cavalry, which Avas 
mustered out on October 31, 1865. 

In Companies D and K, One Hundred and Eighty-seventh regiment, 
there were twenty-si.x Perry county men, and Huntingdon county fur- 
nished Company B to the One Hundred and Ninety-second, which was 


called out on July 12, 1864, for one hundred days, under command of 
Colonel William B. Thomas. The officers of Company B were : Wil- 
liam F. Johnston, captain ; Alfred Tyhurst, first lieutenant ; Henry Hoff- 
man, second lieutenant. Company H also contained a large number of 
Huntingdon county men; the officers of this company were : Thomas ]\L 
Leester, captain ; John F. Snyder, first lieutenant ; [Mart Cunningham, 
second lieutenant. This regiment was originally the Twentieth militia, 
which had been called out for a short time in 1862, and again in 1863, 
just before the battle of Gettysburg, to aid in repelling the invaders. 

The One Hundred and Xinety-fourth, also a one hundred days' regi- 
ment, was organized at Camp Curtin in July, 1864. under command of 
Colonel James Xagle. Company H was recruited in ^Mifflin county 
with George W. Staats as captain ; John W. Kartner, first lieutenant ; 
Francis S. Haeseler. second lieutenant. During its term of service the 
regiment served by detachments, performing provost duty in the camps 
about Baltimore. It was mustered out at Harrisburg on Xovember 6, 

A detachment of Aliftlin county men served in the One Hundred and 
Xinety-fifth regiment, which was organized as a one hundred days" 
regiment in July, 1864, but at the expiration of that term was reorgan- 
ized and continued in service until January 31, 1866. 

The Two Hundred and First regiment (one year's service) was 
organized at Camp Curtin on August 29, 1864, under command of Col- 
onel F. A. Awl. In this regiment there were a number of Perry county 
men, recruited at Duncannon. It was occupied in guard and provost 
duty until May 21, 1865, when it was mustered out. 

Company B, Two Hundred and Second regiment, was recruited in 
Juniata county and was mustered in with the regiment at Camp Cur- 
tin on September 3, 1864, for one year. Lewis Degan was the captain; 
William X^. Sterrett, first lieutenant ; Abner S. Bear, second lieutenant. 
In the same regiment Huntingdon county furnished Company K, with 
A. Wilson Decker as captain : John S. Morrison, first lieutenant : Peter 
Shaver, second lieutenant. The regiment, commanded by Colonel 
Charles Albright, was in Virginia nearly the entire period of its enlist- 
ment, but saw no fighting except occasional skirmishes with guerrillas. 
It was mustered out at Harrisburg, August 3, 1865. 

In the Two Hundred and Fifth Regiment, Company D was recruited 


in Huntingdon county and Companies F and K in Mifflin county. The 
officers of Company D were: Thomas B. Reed, captain; Jonas B. 
Shoultz, first Heutenant: Davis H. Geissinger, second Heutenant. Of 
Company F, Jacob F. Hamaker, captain; John Swan, first Heutenant; 
Henry Printz, second Heutenant. Company K was officered by F. B. 
]\[cClenahan, captain ; Samuel Haffly, first Heutenant ; Jacob Kohler, sec- 
ond Heutenant. The regiment was mustered in at Camp Curtin on Sep- 
tember 2, 1864, for one year, with Joseph A. Matthews as colonel. 
Three days later it moved for the front and, after a short time in the 
\\'ashington defenses, was sent to City Point, Virginia, as an escort 
to some 1,300 drafted men. About a month later it was attached to 
General Hartranft's provisional brigade of the Ninth corps and was 
under fire for the first time at the recapture of Fort Stedman, March 
25, 1865. It was again heavily engaged on April 2nd, when the first 
assault was made on the inner line of works at Petersburg. It remained 
on duty in Virginia until ordered home about the first of June, and was 
mustered out on June 2, 1865. 

Four Perry county companies — E, F, G, and I — were recruited for 
the Two Hundred and Eighth regiment, which was organized on Sep- 
tember 12, 1864, and mustered in for one year, under command of 
Colonel Alfred B. ]\IcCalmont. The officers of these companies were as 
follows: Company E, F. M. McKeehan. captain; John T. Mehaffie. 
first lieutenant ; Solomon T. Buck, second lieutenant. Company F, Gard 
C. Palm, captain ; Henry Schreffler, first lieutenant ; Francis A. Campbell, 
second lieutenant. Company G, Benjamin F. Miller, captain; William 
A. Zinn, first lieutenant; William Fosselman,_ second lieutenant. Com- 
pany I, James H. Marshall, captain; Isaac D. Dunkel, first lieutenant; 
John D. Neilson, second lieutenant. The regiment left Harrisburg the 
dav after it was organized for the James river, where it was attached 
to Potter's brigade, but a little later it was made a part of the First bri- 
gade. Third division. Ninth corps, commanded by General Hartranft. 
It was engaged at Fort Stedman, capturing 300 prisoners, and was in 
the final assault on the Petersburg works. On June i, 1865, the recruits 
were transferred to the Fifty-first regiment and the other members were 
mustered out. 

Mifflin countv contributed Companies H and I to the Two Hundred 
and Tenth regiment, which was recruited in the late summer and fall 


of 1864 for one year's service. John R. Miller was captain of Company 
H ; William P. Miller, first lieutenant ; J. ^^^ Muthersbough, second lieu- 
tenant. Of Company I, Perry J. Tate was captain; James H. Foster, 
first lieutenant; Charles J. Sefton, second lieutenant. Under command 
of Colonel William Sergeant, the regiment left Harrisburg for the front 
at Petersburg, immediately after it was mustered in. It was in action 
at Hatcher's Run. the Weldon Railroad, Dabney's Mills. Gravelly Run, 
and was present at Lee's surrender at Appomattox. It was mustered out 
on May 30, 1865. 

Martin L. Littlefield, first lieutenant, and thirteen men from Juniata 
county were in Company G, Two Hundred and Thirteenth regiment, or- 
ganized in March, 1865, under command of Colonel John A. Gorgas. 
It served only about fort}' days, although mustered in for one year, 
until the war was declared at an end. but it remained in the \Vashington 
defenses until November iS, 1865, when it was mustered out of 

What were known as the "Emergency Troops" were called out in 
1862 and 1863 by Governor Curtin to repel the Confederate invasions 
of Maryland and Pennsylvania. In the Third emergency regiment Com- 
pany E was from Juniata county. Companies F and G from Huntingdon, 
and men from the valley counties were in some of the other companies. 
Mifflin county furnished two companies — A and C — to the Fourth 
emergency regiment, and in the Sixth, Perry county furnished Compa- 
nies D and I. 

When it was rumored in the summer of 1863 that the Confederates 
contemplated the destruction of the Pennsylvania railroad in the vicinity 
of Mount Union, the Eighteenth militia was called out to protect the 
road. Companies I and K, commanded respectively by Captain William 
C. Laird and Captain John Deitrick, were from Juniata county; Compa- 
nies D and E, commanded by Captain A. C. Simpson and Simon P. 
Wolverton, were from Mifflin and Snyder counties. Independent com- 
panies were also organized in Mifflin county under command of Cap- 
tains A. B. Selheimer, James E. Johnston, William Mann, J. T. Roth- 
rock, and David B. Weber. Captain Johnston's company garrisoned the 
block-house at Mount Union and defended the roads to the southward, 
and Captain Mann's company served as mounted scouts in Fulton county. 
This is known as the "Shade Gap and Mount L'nion campaign." 


Throughout the entire war the state of Pennsylvania was prompt to 
respond to every call for volunteers, and in no section of the state was 
the response more prompt than in the Juniata valley. Nor were there 
any soldiers in the field that made a more enviable record for valor. 
These brave men have been remembered by the people of the counties 
from which they volunteered by the erection of soldiers' monuments and 
the decoration of their graves on the 30th of every May. They gave 
some of their best years during the vigor of their manhood in preserv- 
ing the Union the forefathers established and gave to their posterity a 
united country. When the war ended the survivors returned to their 
homes, shops, and fields and again took up the labors that were inter- 
rupted by the "call to arms." The country has nothing of which it 
should be more proud than its citizen soldiery. While the "Boys in 
Blue" were battling for their country, the people at home were not idle. 
Sanitary commissions and relief organizations were formed and these 
sent needed supplies to the hospitals or contributed aid to the soldiers' 


During the year 1897 and the early part of 1898 the condition of 
afi'airs on the island of Cuba was a subject of intense interest in the 
United States. Legislatures passed resolutions asking the Federal gov- 
ernment to intervene in behalf of the suffering Cubans. In his message 
to Congress in 1897 President McKinley stated that the question had 
received his "most anxious and earnest consideration." On February 
15, 1898, the United States battleship "Maine" was blown up as she lay 
at anchor in the harbor of Havana, and this incident increased the ex- 
citement to fever heat. On April 20, 1898, Congress adopted a resolu- 
tion authorizing the president "to use the army and navy of the United 
States to compel Spain to abandon her sovereignty over Cuba." Three 
days later the president issued a proclamation referring to the authority 
thus conferred upon him and said that, "by virtue of the power vested in 
me by the Constitution and the laws, and deeming sufficient reason to 
exist, I have thought fit to call forth, and hereby do call forth, volunteers 
to the aggregate number of 125,000, in order to carry into effect the pur- 
pose of the said resolution ; the same to be apportioned, as far as prac- 
ticable, among the several states and territories and the District of Co- 


lumbia, according to population, and to serve for two years, unless sooner 

Congress formally declared war on April 25, 1S9S, and the same 
day the secretary of war notified Governor Hastings, of Pennsylvania, 
that the quota of his state was ten regiments of infantry and four bat- 
teries of artillery. Immediately the mobilization of the National Guard 
at Mount Gretna was commenced and, on the 2Sth, the entire division 
was ready for duty. True to her history and traditions, the old Key- 
stone State was quick to answer her country's call. 

The Fifth regiment contained two companies from the Juniata val- 
ley, viz. : Company A, of Huntingdon county, and Company G, of Alif- 
ilin. The officers of Company A were: John S. Bare, captain: John C. 
Dunkle, first lieutenant : Emanuel E. Eck, second lieutenant. Louis N. 
Slagle was captain of the [Mitflin county company; James S. Stackpole 
was first lieutenant, and \\'iniam P. Schell, second lieutenant. A few 
Juniata county men were in Company G and some of Alifflin county's 
sons were in Company E, as well as in the Sixth regiment. The Fifth 
regiment was mustered into the L'nited States service on ]\Iay 11, 1898, 
with Theodore Burchfield, of Altoona, as colonel, and Rufus C. Elder, 
of Lewistown, as lieutenant-colonel. On the 17th it started for Chicka- 
mauga, Georgia, where it remained in camp until August. In July it 
was recruited to a full regiment of twelve companies, 106 men to each 
company, and was assigned to the First brigade. Third division. First 
army corps. On August 22nd the regiment was ordered to Lexington, 
Kentucky, and went into Camp Hamilton. On September 17th the men 
were granted a thirty days' furlough and never returned to camp, as 
the war was of short duration and there was no further need of their 
services. The regiment was mustered out on November 7, iSgS. 

During their brief term of service the Juniata valley boys had no 
opportunity of demonstrating what they would have done in the presence 
of the enemy. But many of them were "worthy sons of honored sires," 
whose fathers upheld the Lnion in the "dark days of '61," and whose 
more remote ancestors followed Washington through the struggle for 
independence, hence there is little doubt that had the opportunitv been 
given them they would have rendered a good account of themselves. 



Indian Trails — General Braddock's Road — Tiiscarora Path — First Public Highways — 
Turnpikes — Early Stage Routes — Post Riders — Larger Streams Declared Highways 
— "Arks" — Internal Improvements under State Supervision — Canal Companies 
Chartered — Pennsylvania Canal — First Railroad — Projected Lines — Pennsylvania 
Railroad — Huntingdon & Broad Top — East Broad Top — Lewisburg & Tyrone — 
Mifflin & Centre — Sunbury & Lewistown — Failures — Susquehanna River & Western 
— Newport & Sherman's Valley — Tuscarora Valley — Kishacoquillas Valley — Good 
Roads Movement— State Roads— A Century and a Half of Progress. 

WHEX the untutored savage — X'ature's eldest child — desired to 
move from one place to another, he followed the lines of least 
resistance and, moving over the easiest ground, made a sinuous 
pathway through the wilds of the unbroken forest. Others followed the 
route until that sinuous pathway, with all its devious windings, became 
a recognized thoroughfare. Long before the coming of the white man, 
central and western Pennsylvania were ramified by Indian trails, many 
of which have become the highways, or even the railway routes, of 

In early days the Juniata valley was one of the leading pathways 
between the Atlantic seaboard and the Ohio valley. An Indian trail 
followed the windings of the river, and over this trail the Delaware 
Indians passed in 1742 on their way to attend a council at Philadelphia. 
Earlv traders and militar}- scouting expeditions used it, and, when the 
first settlers sought homes along the Juniata, they followed the trail 
that had been used by the natives probably for centuries. Governor 
Morris described this path as "only a horse-way through woods and 
over mountains, not passable with any carriage." In 1755 the trail was 
improved by Colonel James Burd for the passage of General Braddock's 
armv on the way to Fort Duquesne. where the cit)- of Pittsburgh now 
stands. At the October term of the Cumberland county court in 1769 
a petition was received from the settlers along the trail, asking that it 

^77 . : 


be made a bridle path from Aughwick (now Shirleysburg, Huntingdon 
county) to the mouth of the Kishacoquillas creek. Whether or not that 
petition was granted is not known, but in subsequent years the trail was 
improved from time to time by order of the court until it developed 
into the historic stage and mail route between Philadelphia and Pitts- 
burgh. The line of the old trail is now closely followed for many miles 
by the Pennsylvania railroad, one of the great trunk lines connecting the 
East and West. 

Another noted Indian pathway was that used by the Tuscarora In- 
dians after their removal to New York. A small settlement of the tribe 
remained in the Tuscarora valley, in what is now Juniata county, and this 
settlement was used as a stopping place by the northern and southern 
portions of the tribe on their visits to each other. The trail ran from 
the county of the Five Nations in New York down the Susquehanna 
river to a point near the present city of Sunbury, where it turned to the 
southwest, passing near Richfield and crossing the Juniata near where 
Port Royal now stands. After crossing the river it led up the Tuscarora 
valley, entered the Path valley not far from the present village of Con- 
cord, Franklin county, and crossed the Potomac near Harper's Ferry, 
Virginia. This trail, which was known as the "Tuscarora Path," gave 
name to what is still known as Path valley. From Port Royal a branch 
led up the Licking creek valley to Lewistown, and after the Braddock 
expedition in 1755 was known as the Fort Granville road. 

A much used Indian trail entered Huntingdon county not far from 
the present village of Blair's Mills, passed up the Trough Spring branch 
of the Tuscarora creek through Shade gap, then followed the Black 
Log valley northward to the creek of that name at the gap east of Orbi- 
sonia. From there it ran through Shirleysburg and crossed the Juniata 
a little above the present borough of ]\Iount Union. It then followed 
the north side of the Juniata to the lower end of Cypress island (in the 
borough of Huntingdon), where it crossed to the south side of the river 
and continued on that side over \\'arrior's ridge to where Alexandria 
now stands. Here it again crossed to the north side of the river, then 
ran, via Water Street and Canoe valley, to Frankstown and Hollidays- 
burg and crossed the Allegheny mountains near Kittanning Point. A 
branch left the main trail at Black Log, passed the three springs near 
the borough of that name, crossed the Huntingdon county line at Side- 


ling Hill gap, and then, running past Bedford, crossed the Allegheny 
mountains some distance southwest of the main trail. 

In 1 76 1 the Cumberland county court ordered a road to be laid out 
from Carlisle to Sherman's valley. This is the earliest official mention 
of a highway in the Indian purchase of 1754. Viewers were appointed 
and, in January, 1762, recommended that a road be opened through the 
lands of Francis West and others "from Carlisle across the mountain 
and through Sherman's valley to Alexander Logan's, and from thence 
to the Gap in the Tuscarora Mountain, leading to Aughwick and Juneata 
as the nearest and best way from the head of Sherman's valley to Car- 

The greater portion of this route is in Perry and Huntingdon coun- 
ties. The report of the viewers was confirmed by the court and the 
road ordered opened, but about all that was done was to remove the 
timber from a strip wide enough to permit the passage of vehicles. In 
the spring of 1767 a number of petitions for the opening of roads were 
presented to the court. Among these were, one for a road from Baskins' 
ferry, on the Susquehanna, to Andrew Stephens' ferry on the Juniata, 
and one from Sherman's valley to the Kishacoquillas valley. The latter 
was submitted to viewers, who reported in May, 1768, in favor of "a 
carriage road from the Sherman's valley road, beginning two and three- 
quarter miles from Croghan's (now Sterrett's) gap, running through 
Rye township and across the Juniata at the mouth of Sugar run, into 
Fermanagh township, and thence through the same and Derry town- 
ship, up the north side of the Juniata into the Kishacoquillas valley." 
This was the first road in Juniata and Mifflin counties. 

During the next three years several petitions were presented asking 
for the opening of roads in various parts of the "New Purchase." 
Among these were, one for a road from John Furgus' place, in Sher- 
man's valley, to the Juniata river, below William Patterson's ; one from 
James Gallaher's, on the Juniata river to Baskins' ferry; and one from 
Logan's gap, in Armagh township, to Penn's valley. The road from 
Gallaher's to Baskins' ferry was confirmed as a bridle path at the April 
term in 1771, but no further record can be found to show the fate of 
the other petitions. 

At the January sessions in 1772, the Bedford county court appointed 
viewers for a road "leading from the Standing Stone or Hart's Log, 


by Boquet"s spring and up Woodcock valle\' to the crossing of Yellow 
creek, and from thence to join the great road near Bloody Run." Xo 
report was made by the viewers and new ones were appointed, who like- 
wise failed to report. A third set of viewers also failed to report and, in 
April, 1774, John Piper, Richard Long, John Mitchell, Samuel Ander- 
son, and James Little were appointed. They laid out a road and made 
report the following July. One branch of this road ran from a point 
near the mouth of the Standing Stone creek to Boquet's spring (Mc- 
Connellstown) and the other from Water Street narrows, on the Franks- 
town branch of the Juniata, to intersect the first at Boquet's spring. 
This was one of the first roads in Huntingdon county. 

Another early road in that county was one built in 1774 from Silver's 
ford, on the Juniata river, to intersect the road at Burnt Cabins. It was 
thirty-three feet wide and started from the Juniata about a mile above 
the mouth of Aughwick creek, ran past Roljert Cluggage's mill and 
crossed Aughwick creek north of old Fort Shirley. 

During the Revolution little attention was paid to road building, but 
upon the return of peace a number of highways were projected and 
some of them opened into roads which are still in use. Among these 
were roads from the Raystown branch to Fort Littleton and Garard's 
mill, below RlcConnellstown ; one known as the "Grafiius road," which 
left the Hart's Log road near Pulpit Rocks and led to the settlements 
on the river above Petersburg: and "Thompson's road" in the Plank 
valley. A public road from Huntingdon to Three Springs, via Cassville, 
was laid out in 1790, and one from Huntingdon to McCormick's mill 
the same }-ear. 

Farther down the Juniata valley roads were btiilt "from Hamilton's 
mill, on Lost creek, to Miller's tavern, near the ferry that leads to 
Carlisle from Juniata" : from Enoch Anderson's mill on the Juniata to 
Robert Nelson's and thence to George Pyle's, on the line of Northum- 
berland county: from David Miller's ferry on the Juniata to John Gra- 
bill's mill on Mahantango creek, and one from Lewistown to intersect 
the one running from Beaver Dam township to the Northumberland 
countv line. A road was laid out in September, 1890, from Lewistown 
to Drake's ferry, via Brightfield's run and Holliday's mill. The same 
year a road was laid out from "Run Gap in the Tuscarora mountain, 
thence by Thomas Turbutt's tan-yard, the nearest and best way to 


Joseph McClelland's ferry." INIcClelland's ferry was where Mifflintown 
now stands. Many more roads were petitioned for, but the records do 
not show that they were built until years afterward, and some of them 

Early in the nineteenth century agitation was started in favor of 
turnpikes. In March, 1807, the legislature passed an act incorporating 
a company to build a turnpike from Harrisburg to Lewistown. The 
act was passed in response to a petition asking for a charter to construct 
a turnpike from Harrisburg to Pittsburgh along the Juniata river. 
Among the incorporators of the Harrisburg and Lewistown section 
were John Xorris, David Davidson, John Bratton, \\'illiam Thompson, 
Ezra Doty, James Knox, George McClelland, and John Brown, of Mif- 
flin county. Under the same act the Lewistown & Huntingdon Turnpike 
Company was organized and the road between those two points was 
completed in 1818. The east end was not completed until 1825. 

In 1808 a company was organized to run a line of stages from 
Harrisburg to Alexandria. A circular was issued on April 14, 1808, 
announcing that the first stage would start on May 3d from Berryhill's 
tavern, in Harrisburg, and rim via Clark's ferry, Millerstown, Thompson- 
town, ^Mifflintown, Lewistown, Waynesburg, and Huntingdon, to Alex- 
andria. Stages on this line ran once a week, leaving Harrisburg on 
Tuesdays and Alexandria on Saturdays. The fare was six cents a mile, 
fourteen pounds of baggage free, 150 pounds of baggage to be equal to 
a passenger. The first stage-coach, called the "Experiment," arrived 
at Huntingdon on the evening of May 5, 1808, and at Alexandria the 
dav following. In 1828 the line was extended to Pittsburgh and the 
mails were carried by the company three times a week. The next year 
the proprietors made arrangements with the government to carry mails 
daily. Upon the completion of the canal the stages were discontinued. 

On January 3, 1813, in response to a petition of Judge ^^■illiam 
Brown and other citizens of Mifflin county, an act was passed incorpo- 
rating a company to build a turnpike from the court-house in Lewistown 
to Alexander Reed's house in the Kishacoquillas valley. Books were 
opened in October of that year, the stock was subscribed, the road built 
and is still in use. 

Before the introduction of the turnpike and stage-coach the mails 
were carried by post-riders to all the pioneer postoffices in the interior. 


In fair weather post-riders made the trip from Harrisburg to Hunting- 
don in four days. In 1853 Zachariah Rice estabhshed a daily stage 
from Landisburg to Newport, via Loysville, Greenpark, and Bloom- 
field, and a tri-weekly stage to Germantown. His sons, Samuel, Jesse, 
James, Henry, William, Joseph and Zachariah, all became stage drivers 
on these lines and, after the death of the founder in 1880, succeeded 
to the business. A line had been started from Clark's ferry to Landis- 
burg by Robert Clark, about 1829, but after a short time it was aban- 

Before the construction of roads in the Juniata valley at public ex- 
pense, the larger streams were utilized as highways. By the act of 
March 9, 1771, the Juniata was declared a public highway as far as 
Bedford and Frankstown and a number of other streams were declared 
to be open for the purposes of navigation, etc. James Wright, George 
Ross, Thomas Minshall, John Louden, Alexander Lowrey, William Mc- 
Clay, Samuel Hunter, Jr., William Patterson, Robert Callender, Charles 
Steward, Reuben Haines, Thomas Holt and William Richardson were 
appointed commissioners for clearing the streams and making them 
navigable. No appropriations were made to defray expenses, but the 
commissioners were authorized to receive any sums "given, granted or 
subscribed," etc. Besides the Juniata, the Susquehanna, Bald Eagle, 
and Penn's creeks, and a few other streams were included in the pro- 
visions of the act. While the people would have no doubt been pleased 
to have seen the streams improved at the public expense, they were 
imwilling to donate any considerable amount for the purpose, hence the 
benefits derived from the law were comparatively slight. 

Nevertheless, the Juniata came to be a thoroughfare for navigation 
in 1796, when the first "ark" went down that stream to the Susquehanna. 
It was built by a German named Kryder, at his mill above Huntingdon, 
and loaded with 300 barrels of flour. The ark has been described as "a 
large, strongly-built and high-sided flatboat in almost universal use on 
the rivers of Pennsylvania — particularly the Susquehanna and its tribu- 
taries — for the transportation of all kinds of produce down the streams 
to market." The arks were never brought back up the river, but were 
sold for whatever they would bring at the point where the cargo was 
discharged. The descent of the Juniata was always made at a time when 
there was a good stage of water in the river. Each ark was managed 


by a crew of from three to five men and some of them were large enough 
to carry twenty or twenty-five tons of freight. Some days they would 
float down the river at the rate of six or eight miles an hour and they 
continued in use until superseded by the canal boat. 

During the administration of Governor Hiester, from 1820 to 1823, 
the great question before the people of central and western Pennsyl- 
vania was the construction of some channel of communication to the 
West. The legislature of 182 1 chartered numerous canal and turnpike 
companies and authorized the state to subscribe for stock in the same, 
but little real good was accomplished by such companies. On March 27, 
1824, the legislature passed an act providing for the appointment of 
commissioners to promote the internal improvement of the state. Three 
commissioners were instructed to explore a route for a canal from Har- 
risburg to Pittsburgh, via the Juniata and Conemaugh rivers. A survey 
was made and, after several laws had been enacted and repealed, the act 
of February 25, 1826, authorized the board of commissioners "to locate 
and contract for making a canal and locks, and other works necessary 
thereto, from the river Swatara, at or near Middletown, to or near a 
point on the east side of the river Susquehanna, opposite the mouth of 
the river Juniata, and from Pittsburgh to the mouth of the Kiskimin- 

This arrangement left a wide gap between the Susquehanna and 
Allegheny rivers without artificial means of transportation and was not 
satisfactory to the people of the Juniata valley. Consequently the act 
of February 25, 1826, was repealed and that of April 11, 1825, re- 
enacted. This act provided for five commissioners who were authorized 
"to examine routes from Philadelphia through Chester and Lancaster 
counties, then by the West Branch of the Susquehanna and from the 
mouth of the Juniata to Pittsburgh." 

Under the provisions of this the "Pennsylvania Canal" was con- 
structed. Ground was broken at Harrisburg on July 4, 1826. An office 
was opened at Millerstown and James Clarke was made superintendent 
of the Juniata division. In May, 1828, Colonel Clinton was engaged 
in taking levels and locating the canal near Huntingdon. In September 
of that year the canal commissioners met at Harrisburg, heard the re- 
ports of the engineers, selected the route, and directed that contracts be 
made for the construction of the canal from Lewistown to Huntingdon, 


a distance of forty-five miles. On August 27, 1829, the first boat went 
up the canal from Harrisburg and on September 22nd the water was let 
into the first level at Lewistown. The first packet-boat — the Juniata — 
arrived at Lewistown on October 29, 1829, having on board a number 
of ladies and gentlemen from down the river. The boat was met at the 
Narrows by a large number of people from Lewistown, accompanied 
by a band, who got aboard and returned to Lewistown, where a dinner 
was served. The next year the canal was completed to Huntingdon, 
regular packet lines for both freight and passengers were established and 
the canal continued in successful operation for twenty years. In round 
numbers the cost of this canal was 88,325,000. the cost of the Juniata 
division being $3,521,000. John A. Shulze, who was elected governor in 
1823, opposed the loan of Si, 000, 000, but he yielded to the popular 
clamor for public improvement and before the close of his administra- 
tion in 1829 about $6,000,000 had been borrowed. 

In 1 83 1 the entire line of public works from Philadelphia to Pitts- 
burgh — 126 miles of railroad and about 290 miles of canal — had been 
completed and several branch canals constructed at a cost of something 
like $35,000,000. The Pennsylvania Canal, which was heralded as the 
greatest public improvement of its day. and which was for twenty years 
the chief avenue of transportation for the rich Juniata valley, is now 
only a memory. It served its purpose well, but an age of progress de- 
manded something better and it gave way to the railroad. 

In ^lay, 1827, a railroad nine miles in length was completed and put 
in operation between [Nlauch Chunk and the coal mines. At that time 
this was the longest railroad in America and the only one in Pennsyl- 
vania, with the exception of a short wooden track railway at some stone 
cjuarries in Delaware county. The general plan of internal improvements 
inaugurated during the administration of Governor Shulze was to make 
the main canals constitute the great arteries of a transportation system, 
with Ijranches to all parts of the state. Communication by water was 
not always feasible and several lines of railroad were proposed to run 
northward and southAvard from points on the Pennsylvania canal to 
interior cities. 

The first railroad to be projected within the territory included in 
this history was the Philipsburg & Juniata, which was incorporated 
by act of March 16, 1830, to run "from the Pennsylvania canal, at or 


near the mouth of the Little Juniata, below Alexandria, in Hunting- 
don county, thence up the Little Jnniata and Little Bald Eagle creeks 
and through Emigh's Gap. to the coal mines in the neighborhood of 
Philipsburg, in Centre county." A survey of the route was made in 
1833, but the road was never built. The region it was designed to bene- 
fit is now supplied by branches of the great Pennsylvania railway sys- 
tem. The Huntingdon & Chambersburg Railroad Company was in- 
corporated on June 16, 1836, and the Huntingdon & HoUidaysburg Rail- 
road Company was granted a charter by the legislature on July 2, 1839, 
though neither of the lines contemplated were ever built. 

In the meantime several projects for the construction of a continuous 
line of railroad from the Delaware river to the Ohio were put forward, 
but nothing definite was accomplished in that direction until April 13, 

1846, when Governor Shunk approved an act incorporating the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company. Some years before that the legislature 
had granted the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company a right of way 
through Pennsylvania from Cumberland, ^Maryland, to Pittsburgh, but 
the company had not done anything toward the construction of a road, 
and in the act incorporating the Pennsylvania Company was a provision 
that, if $3,000,000 stock should be subscribed, $1,000,000 paid in and 
fifteen miles of road at each terminus put under contract by July 30, 

1847, the privilege granted to the Baltimore & Ohio Company should 
become null and void. This provision served as a stimuUis to the new 
company. A board of directors was elected on [March 30, 1847, ^vhen 
Samuel V. JMerrick was chosen president of the company, and before 
the rec|uired time eighteen miles were under contract at the eastern end 
and fifteen at the western. On August 2t,. 1849, the first train (a lum- 
ber train) arrived at Lewistown and a week later a large party of rail- 
road men and prominent citizens came up to that town from Harrisburg. 
Regular trains began running on the first of September. On November 
3d an advertisement appeared in the Lewistown Gazette announcing that 
"Freight trains now run twice a week between Lewistown and Philadel- 
phia, as follows, viz. : Leaving Lewistown on Wednesdays and Satur- 
days, and Philadelphia on Mondays and Thursdays." 

In Huntingdon county the first surveys were made in the summer 
of 1847 ^"d contracts for the grading and masonry were let in the spring 
of 1848. The first train arrived at Huntingdon on June 6, 1850. The 


event is thus described by Lytle : "It consisted of five or six trucks 
drawn by the locomotive 'Henry Clay." In a few days afterwards it 
proceeded westward, the road being in running order to the AUegheny 
mountains. The excitement with which it was greeted probably ex- 
ceeded that on the arrival of the first canal boat. Its approach had been 
heralded throughout the country for miles on both sides of the railroad, 
and as it was a trial trip, the train necessarily running slowly, the people 
had time to reach the railroad and witness the novel sight. In fact, the 
engine announced itself by shrill whistles that surprised even the moun- 
tains through which they echoed. But there was disappointment. The 
idea had become general that trains never ran with less speed than 
lightning, and to see that one coming at the rate of three or four miles 
per hour was not what had been expected. It was not }-et time for the 
express or the limited mail." 

On June 7, 1850, regular trains commenced running between Hunt- 
ingdon and Philadelphia. An extra freight train had been added in 
the preceding December between Lewistown and Philadelphia and the 
first passenger time schedule was published at that time. In April, 1850, 
two daily passenger trains were announced and freight trains daily, ex- 
cept Sunday. 

Late in the year 1852 trains ran all the way from Philadelphia to 
Pittsburgh via the portage, with its ten inclined planes, and on February 
15, 1854, the road was finished. Let the reader's imagination carry 
him back three score or more years, to a time when the Pennsylvania 
railroad consisted of a single track : with freight trains running three 
times a week and two passenger trains a day; with locomotives of the 
old wood-burning type, having huge funnel-shaped smokestacks, and 
compare that road with the Pennsylvania railroad of the present, when 
monster locomotives haul trains of from fifty to eighty loaded cars over 
the great four-track system every few minutes, and from fifteen to 
twenty passenger trains daily rush with the speed of the wind across the 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Then he will realize that progress has 
been made in the transportation facilities of the country. 

On January 11, 1847, David Blair, then representative from Hunt- 
ingdon county, introduced a bill entitled "An Act to incorporate the 
Huntingdon & Broad Top Railroad and Coal Company." It passed 
both branches of the legislature, but was vetoed by Governor Shunk,. 


who objected to the provision allowing the company to hold 5,000 acres 
of land and also that it did not make the stockholders individually liable 
for the debts of the company. At the session of 1848 Alexander King, 
of Bedford county, presented a bill in the state senate to incorporate a 
company under the same name as that proposed by Mr. Blair, but the 
house struck out the words "and coal" and the bill became a law. Xo 
organization was effected under that act and, on May 6, 1852, another 
was passed incorporating the Huntingdon & Broad Top Railroad and 
Coal Company. Contracts for the grading of the road-bed were made 
in July, 1853, and on August 13, 1855, trains commenced running be- 
tween Huntingdon and Marklesburg. Bedford was designated as the 
southern terminus of the road, but when the line was completed to 
Mount Dallas, eight miles from Bedford, the company became financially 
embarrassed, work was suspended, and the remaining eight miles were 
not finished until the building of the Bedford & Bridgeport railroad some 
years later. It was by means of this road that the supply of coal in the 
Broad Top field was brought in touch with the market. The road is 
now operated in connection with the Pennsylvania. 

As early as 1848 a movement was started for the building of a rail- 
road from IMount L'nion to the Broad Top coal district, and on February 
28th of that year a meeting was held at Scottsville, at which a committee 
of sixteen citizens was appointed to present the matter to the legislature. 
This committee performed its work so well that on March 28, 184S, an 
act was passed incorporating the Drake's Ferry & East Broad Top Rail- 
road Company. No effort was made to build a road under the charter 
thus obtained and, on April 16, 1856, an act was passed under which 
the East Broad Top Railroad and Coal Company was organized. For 
some reason work was not commenced until the fall of 1872 and the 
road was completed to Robertsdale in November, 1874. Robertsdale 
remained the southern terminus of the road for some time, when it was 
extended to Woodvale. near the Bedford county line. This road has 
been an important factor in the development of the coal and iron deposits 
in the southern part of Huntingdon county. 

A company known as the Lewisburg. Centre & Spruce Creek Rail- 
road Company was incorporated on April 12, 1853. Three 3-ears later 
a survey was made, but nothing further was done for some time. In 
the original charter Spruce Creek was named as the southern terminus, 


where the road would connect with the main hne of the Pennsylvania. 
By a supplementary act the company was given the privilege of changing 
it to Tyrone. The latter place was selected and grading through Hunt- 
ingdon county was done in 1873. ^Vork was then suspended for want 
of funds, owing to the panic of that year, and in 1880 the name was 
changed to Lewisburg & Tyrone railroad. A section of the road from 
Tyrone to Pennsylvania Furnace was finished in the fall of that year and 
the entire line was opened about five years later. It is now operated by 
the Pennsylvania Company. 

The ^lifflin & Centre County Railroad Company was incorporated 
on April 2, 1S60, with a capital stock of $250,000 and authority to build 
a railroad from Lewistown to Alilesburg. or some point near the latter 
place. The following ■March the Pennsylvania Company was given the 
power to assist railroads auxiliary to its own and through this means 
funds were obtained for the construction of the road. In 1864 it was 
completed to Milroy, twelve miles north of Lewistown, where it ter- 
minates. It is now a part of the Pennsylvania system. 

What is now the Sunbury division of the Pennsylvania railroad had 
its origin in a company called the Middle Creek Railroad Company, 
which was incorporated on J^Iarch 23, 1865, with the right to build a 
railroad from some point on the Pennsylvania railroad, at or near Lewis- 
town, to the Susquehanna river at or between Port Treverton and North- 
umberland. The road was in operation in 1868. It runs northeast from 
Lewistown, up the Jack's creek valley, and connects with the Erie divi- 
sion of the Pennsylvania at Selingsgrove Junction, in Northumberland 
county. By an act of the legislature, approved February 17, 1870, the 
name was changed to the Sunbury & Lewistown Railroad Company, 
under which it continued until taken over by the Pennsylvania. 

Several companies have formed and incorporated at various times 
for the construction of short lines of railroad, but most of them ended 
in failure. The Duncannon, Bloomfield & Broad Top Railroad Company 
was incorporated in April, 1866, with an authorized capital of $1,000,000, 
for the purpose of constructing a road from some point on the Pennsyl- 
vania, near Duncannon, to the Broad Top mountain, in Bedford county 
passing through New Bloomfield, the county seat of Perry county. 
A supplementary act reduced the capital stock to $750,000, only about 
one-tenth of which was subscribed and the project was abandoned. 


On April 3, 187J, the Duncannon, Bloomfield & Loysville Railroad 
Company received a charter to build a line of railway between the points 
named. The capital stock was fixed at 2,000 shares of fifty dollars 
each. A survey was made some years later and about 1887 a new 
company was formed to which the charter rights were transferred. Some 
grading was done that year, but the floods wrought so much damage that 
work was suspended for about two years, when it was resumed and the 
road completed about 1892. It is now known as the Susquehanna River 
& Western. At Duncannon it connects with the Pennsylvania railroad 
and the western terminus is about two and a half miles west of Xev/ 
Bloomfield, where it connects with the Newport & Sherman's Valley 

By an act of the legislature, approved April 10, 1873, a charter was 
granted to a company of Perry county citizens to build a narrow gauge 
railroad from Newport up the Sherman's valley. The authorized capital 
stock was $25,000, but the company was given the privilege of borrow- 
ing money with which to construct the road, issuing bonds therefor. 
Several years elapsed before the road was constructed and it was not 
until about 1892 that trains were running regularly between Newport and 
New Germantown, which is the western terminus. 

The Tuscarora Valley Railroad Company was incorporated by act 
of the general assembly on March 5, 1872, with a capital stock of 400,- 
000 shares of fifty dollars each. Under the charter the company was 
authorized to construct a line of railway from any point on the Penn- 
sylvania railroad in Juniata county through the Tuscarora valley to the 
line of either Huntingdon or Franklin county, with lateral branches, etc. 
After numerous delays and drawbacks the road was completed about 
1891, from Port Royal, up the Tuscarora creek, to Blair's Mills, in 
Huntingdon county. 

Another short line of railroad built by local capital is the Kishaco- 
quillas Valley railroad, which connects with the Pennsylvania railroad 
and extends southward up the Kishacoquillas valley to Belleville, a dis- 
tance of ten miles. Right of way for this line was obtained in 1892-93 
and the road was completed a few years later. Compared with some 
of the great trunk lines, these local roads would be considered insignifi- 
cant, but each one of them has been of great importance to the farmers 
in the fertile valley through which they pass by giving them an outlet to 


markets for the products of their farms. The stockholders in these small 
companies have not been actuated so much by the hope of dividends as 
by the desire to aid in developing the resources of the Juniata valley. 

A few years ago agitation in favor of good roads was commenced 
in nearly every state of the Union. Pennsylvania, not to be behind her 
sister commonwealths, established a state highway department by the 
act of JNIay 31, 191 1. At the head of this department is an official known 
as the highway commissioner, with two assistants, and a competent corps 
of engineers to direct the construction of modern roads. The act pro- 
vides that all roads taken over from the county authorities shall be known 
as "state roads" and designates about 300 lines of highway in the state 
to be thus placed under the control of the state highway department. A 
number of these roads are in the region embraced in this work, the most 
important being as follows : 

No. 28, Middleburg to Lewistown; No. 29, Lewistown to Belle- 
fonte; No. 30, Harrisburg to New Bloomfield; No. 31, New Bloomfield 
to ^lifflintown; No. 32, Mifflintown to Lewistown; No. 33, Lewistown 
to Huntingdon; No. 45, Chambersburg to ]\Iifflintown; No. 46, Bedford 
to Huntingdon; No. 55, Huntingdon to Hollidaysburg ; No. 56, Hunt- 
ingdon to Bellefonte; No. 57, Huntingdon to Clearfield; No. 121, Hunt- 
ingdon to Chambersburg; No. 192, McConnellsburg to Lewistown; No. 
193, McConnellsburg to ]Mifflintown ; No. 194, Mifflintown to Sunljury. 

No. 32, between Lewistown and MifHintown, is nearly completed 
at this writing (May, 1913) and several other roads in the Juniata 
district are under construction. All are being built according to the most 
approved methods, and a few years more will find Pennsjdvania well 
provided with an excellent system of highways. The cost of this class 
of roads is considerable, but a well-built road will last for years and the 
money expended in its construction will be found to be a good invest- 
ment. Less than two centuries ago the weary traveler through this 
valley led his pack horse by devious windings through the primeval for- 
est. His pack could contain only a few hundred pounds of the actual 
necessities for use or consumption on his journey. After the pack-horse 
came the Conestoga wagon, drawn by six or eight horses and carrying 
perhaps two tons of freight. The canal came, flourished for a brief 
period, and passed into history, superseded by the railroad. Over one 
of the modern state roads the farmer can haul as much produce with 


two horses as the old Conestoga wagon carried when drawn by six, and 
the improved railway with its present-day equipment can rush that pro- 
duce to market so that the farmer will not have to wait for days or 
perhaps weeks for his returns as in the days of the canal boat. Verily, 
this is an age of progress. 



Public Finances — Bonded Indebtedness of the Counties — Banks — Trust Companies — 
General Condition of Financial Institutions — The Iron Industry' — Early Furnaces 
and Forges — Duncannon Iron Works — Logan Iron and Steel Company — Standard 
Steel Works — Mann's Axe Factory — Shoe Factory — Car Works — J. C. Blair Com- 
panj' — Silk Mills — Glass Sand — Coal Mining — Water Power and Electricity — Agri- 
cultural Societies and Fairs — Farmers' Institutes. 

WITH few exceptions, it has been the good fortune of each of 
the four counties embraced in this work to have its pubhc 
funds handled by men who have been both honest and capable. 
A few petty defalcations or irregularities have occurred at times, but 
none of these has been of sufficient importance seriously to interfere 
with the administration of civil affairs or retard the progress of public 
and private enterprise. The result is that the public credit has remained 
unimpaired and the finances of each county are in wholesome condition, 
as the subjoined figures, taken from the county auditor's reports for 
19 12, will show. 

In Huntingdon county the amount of outstanding bonds at the close 
of the year 1912 was 875,000, to which should be added the unpaid 
orders, amounting to $1,375-95, making a total indebtedness of S76,- 
375.95. To offset this, the income for the year, including the balance 
in the hands of the treasurer at the close of 191 1, was $124,724.30 and 
the disbursements were 8112,385.78, leaving a balance in the treasury 
of $12,338.52. At the same time there were outstanding balances in the 
hands of collectors aggregating 815,725.63. Deducting these balance^ 
from the total debt shows the net indebtedness of the county to ^e 
$48,311.80. In addition to the cash balance and outstanding ta>es 
should be added as assets the value of public property — the court-hou'-e, 
jail, etc. — which is over $100,000, giving the county practically thiee 
dollars in assets for every dollar of liabilities. 



Mifflin county shows even better financial condition. At the close 
of the year 1912 the bonds outstanding amounted to $55,000, unpaid 
orders, $1,517.71; due county officers, $247.20, a total indebtedness of 
$56,764.91. On the other hand, there was a cash balance of $28,590.01 
in the treasury and outstanding taxes amounting to $27,510.68, which, 
if applied to the payment of the debt, would leave only $664.22 of actual 
indebtedness. The real estate owned by tlie county was estimated by 
the auditors to be worth $77,000. 

Juniata county reported a bonded debt of $32,881.80 and outstanding 
orders of only $10.60. At the close of the year 1912 there was a cash 
balance in the treasury of $10,782.30 and outstanding revenues in the 
hands of collectors aggregating $6,468.05, leaving a net debt of $15,- 
642.10, with an annual income of $60,000 in round figures and property 
worth at least $40,000. 

Perry county's income for the year 1912 was. in round numbers, 
$132,000, and at the close of the year her outstanding bonds amounted 
to $37,625. With an inconsequential floating debt and moderate ex- 
penditures, with public property worth approximately $100,000, it may 
be seen that the county's financial standing is of the best. In fact, the 
bonds of all these counties have always found ready sale in the market 
and have been regarded as among the "gilt-edged" securities of the 

On April 16, 1813. fifteen men of Huntingdon, headed by John 
Canan, William Orbison, and John Henderson, organized a partnership 
and on November 16, 1813, opened the Huntingdon Bank, with \\'illiam 
Orbison as president. This was the first bank in the Juniata valley. 
It continued in business for nearly twenty years, when its affairs were 
wound up and Huntingdon was then without a bank for nearly a quar- 
ter of a century. Under the act of March 21, 1814, the Huntingdon 
Bank was made a bank of issue, and during the days of state bank cur- 
rencv, when so much of the currency in circulation was at a discount, its 
notes were always worth one hundred cents on the dollar. 

The Juniata Bank of Pennsylvania was opened at Lewistown in 
181 5, with \A'illiam Armstrong as cashier. It continued in business until 
I S3 5, when it failed, and in 1841 David Candor was appointed seques- 
trator of its assets, with instructions to wind up its business with the best 
possible advantage to all concerned. 


A charter was granted to the Bank of Lewistown by the act of April 
14, 1S35, with an authorized capital of $200,000. Joseph ]\Iilliken was 
made president and John Forster, cashier. A building was erected in 
1S36 and in December, 1837, the bank suspended payment and was 
never revived. 

A branch of the Bank of Lancaster was established in Lewistown 
in August, 1849, under the charge of William Russell. The bank was 
opened in the building which had been built a few years before for the 
Bank of Lewistown, and, in November, 'Mr. Russell, by authority of 
the state, burned the remaining bills of the Bank of Lewistown. Early 
in 185 1 the Bank of Lancaster failed and Mr. Russell then engaged in 
the banking business on his own account. The bank he establishetl is 
still in existence as a private banking institution and is the oldest bank 
in the valley. 

On July 7, 1854, Bell, Garretson & Company opened the second 
bank in Huntingdon at the northwest corner of Fourth and Penn streets. 
On July 22, 1863, 't became the First National Bank of Huntingdon, 
with James ]\L Bell as president and George W. Garretson as cashier. 
The capital stock of this bank is $100,000. In 1910 it reported a surplus 
of nearly $140,000 and deposits of over $1,000,000. It is located at 
505 Penn street, and among its directors are some of the best known 
business men of Huntingdon. 

^^'ilat is now the Mifflin County National Bank had its beginning 
on ^March 26, i860, when the legislature passed an act giving it a char- 
ter and authorizing a capital of $100,000. The organization of the bank 
was not fully completed until September 17, 1861, when E. L. Benedict 
was chosen president and a few days later Robert H. \\'ilson was elected 
cashier. On September 22, 1S65, it received a charter and was reorgan- 
ized as the Alifflin County National Bank, under which name it still 
continues to do business at the corner of ^Market and Brown streets. 
Its capital stock is $100,0000, surplus nearly as much, and deposits of 
over half a million. 

The first bank in ]\Iifflintown was a private concern which was estab- 
lished by Doty, Parker & Company in August, 1864. In 1879 E. S. 
Doty retired from the firm and the business was conducted by Parker & 
Company for several years, when the affairs of the bank were liquidated. 

In 1S67 the Juniata A'alley Bank was opened in Mifflintown with 


twenty stockholders and a cash capital of $41,000. Joseph Pomeroy 
was the first president and F. S. Jacobs the first cashier. It continued 
as a private bank for about twenty years, when it was merged into the 
Juniata Valley National, with a capital stock of $60,000 and deposits of 
over $500,000. The First National of Mifflintown was organized in 
1865 with a capital of $50,000. It now has a surplus of $40,000 or more 
and deposits of over $500,000. 

The Perry County Bank was established by Sponsler, Junkin & Com- 
pany in 1866 and opened for business on September 20th in the office 
of the Perry County jNIutual Fire Insurance Company. In the spring 
of 1868 it removed into a building of its own, where it continued in 
business for a number of years. The writer has been unable to learn 
what became of this bank, but the only bank in New Bloomfield in 19 13 
was the First National, which was organized in 1898, with a capital 
of $50,000. In 19 10 its surplus was about $40,000 and its deposits 
approximately $300,000. 

Other banks organized in 1866 were the L'^nion National, of Hunt- 
ingdon, and the Newport Deposit Bank. The former was originally the 
private banking house of John Bare & Company, -but was converted into 
a national bank on July 20, 1869. Its capital stock is $50,000; surplus, 
$65,000; and deposits nearly $500,000. 

In 1867 the Juniata A'alley Bank, of ^lifflintown, established a branch 
at Port Royal, with Samuel Buck as cashier. A branch of the same 
institution was opened at Newport in September, 1873. These branches 
were discontinued with the parent bank, and the Newport Deposit Bank 
has also passed out of existence. The only banks in these two boroughs 
in 1913 were the Port Royal Bank and the Citizens' National, of New- 
port. The former was organized in 1894 with a capital of $50,000 
and now has deposits of about $250,000. The Citizens' National was 
organized in 1905 and has a capital stock of $50,000, with deposits of 
about $200,000. 

The Central Banking Company of JNIount Union was organized in 
1878 and continued as a private banking house until about 191 1, when 
it was changed to a national bank. The First National, of Mount Union, 
was established in 1902 with a capital of $25,000, and has deposits of 
about $200,000. 

E. L. Benedict retired from the presidency of the Mifilin County 


National on January 10, 1871, and soon afterward opened a private 
bank which he conducted until his death in 1879, when the business was 
closed up by his executors. Ten years later, November 15. 1881, the 
Huntingdon Bank, also a private institution, was opened and is still 
doing- business. 

Six banks were established in the valley counties during the decade 
beginning with the year 1890. In that year the Duncannon National 
opened for business with a capital stock of $65,000. Ten years later 
it reported a surplus of $77,000 and deposits of $200,000. The Reeds- 
ville National was established in 1891, with a capital of $50,000. In 
19 10 its surplus was $50,000 and its deposits about $180,000. The 
Orbisonia Bank, a private institution, was opened in 1892; the Port 
Royal Bank, above mentioned, in 1894: the Tuscarora Bank, of Blair's 
Mills, in 1898; and the First National of New Bloomfield, already 

With the general prosperity and industrial activity that prevailed 
throughout the country during the closing years of the last and the 
opening years of the present century, there came a demand for increased 
banking facilities, as well as the opportunity to conduct the business 
upon a sound basis with every prospect of success. These conditions 
led to the establishment of new banks everywhere. In the valley coun- 
ties, during the decade beginning with the year 1900, nineteen banks 
and two trust companies were opened. 

In 1900 three banks were established in ]\Iifflin county, -s'iz. : the Citi- 
zens' National, of Lewistown, the Belleville National, and the Belleville 
Deposit Bank. The last named has since been converted into a national 
bank. The capital stock of the Citizens' National is $50,000, its sur- 
plus about $25,000, and its deposits over a quarter of a million. The 
Belleville National was incorporated with a capital of $25,000, has 
accumulated a surplus of $35,000, and has deposits approximating $200,- 
000. The capital of the Belleville Deposit Bank is $50,000, but no fig- 
ures regarding its surplus and deposits could be obtained at the time this 
volume went to press. 

Two banks were organized in Huntingdon county in 1902 — the First 
National of Mount Union, already described, and the Standing Stone 
National of Huntingdon. The latter in 1910 reported a capital stock 
of $50,000, a surplus of $25,000, and deposits of $300,000, It is lo- 


cated at 412 Penn street and numbers among its stockholders some of 
Huntingdon's most substantial citizens. 

In 1903 the First National Bank of Marysville and the Bank of 
Landisburg opened their doors for the transaction of business. The 
former has a capital of $25,000 and carries deposits of about $100,000. 
The latter is a private institution with a capital of $25,000 and deposits 
of nearly $300,000. A branch of this bank was established at Blain 
in 1904 and is known as the Bank of Blain. 

The First National Bank of Millerstown was opened in 1904 with 
a capital stock of $25,000. Six years later it reported a surplus of 
$6,000 and deposits of $125,000. The Farmers' Bank of Millerstown 
was opened in December, 1878, with Perry Kreamer as president and 
William S. Rickapaugh as cashier, but after running for six years closed 
on December 21, 1878. 

Newport, Petersburg, and Thompsontown were the locations of the 
three new banks opened in 1905. The First National of Newport has 
been previously mentioned. The Petersljurg and Thompsontown banks 
are both private institutions, the former, known as the Shaver's Creek 
Bank, having a capital of $25,000, and the latter, called the Farmers' 
Bank, a capital of $10,000. 

Only one bank was organized in the year 1906 — the First National 
Bank of Liverpool, Perry county. It has a capital stock of $25,000, 
and in 1910 reported a surplus of $8,000, with deposits of about $40,000. 

The year 1907 witnessed the establishment of four new Isanks and 
two trust companies, viz. : The People's National of Duncannon, the 
Milroy Banking Company, the jNIcVeytown National, the Richfield Bank, 
the Lewistown Trust Company, and the Grange Trust Company of 
Huntingdon. The People's National of Duncannon began business with 
a capital stock of $25,000 and in 1910 reported deposits of over $100,- 
000. The ^lilroy Banking Company is a private institution, of which 
no detailed information is available. The McVeytown National is the 
outgrowth of Moore, Mc\\'illiams & Company's Iiank, which was opened 
in the spring of 1872. It was made a national bank in 1907, with a 
capital of $25,000 and three years later had over $200,000 on deposit. 
The capital stock of the Richfield Bank is $10,000 and its deposits in 
19 10 amounted to about $65,000. 

The Lewistown Trust Company and the Grange Trust Company 


were organized under the laws of Pennsylvania, with power to conduct 
a banking business. The formed has a capital stock of $125,000 and 
in 1910 carried deposits of about $150,000. It occupies a handsome new 
building at the corner of Market and Brown streets. The Grange Trust 
Company, located at 425 Penn street, Huntingdon, has a capital of 
$125,000 and three years after its organization had deposits of about 

In 190S the First National Bank of Orbisonia was organized with a 
capital of $25,000 and its deposits in 1910 reached $120,000. The 
Farmers" National Bank of ]McAlisterviIle was organized in 1909. 

According to a late bankers" directory there are thirty-five banking 
institutions in Huntingdon, ]\Iifflin, Juniata .and Perry counties, with 
a combined capital of $1,500,000, in round numbers, and deposits of 
approximately $8,000,000. Compared with some of the great banks 
in the large cities, these figures may seem small, but the local banks well 
serve the purpose for which they were organized and carry sufficient 
capital to transact the business that comes within their respective fields. 
As a rule, their management is along conservative lines and they com- 
mand the confidence of their patrons. 

For about forty years after the settlement of the Juniata valley 
was begun, agriculture was the chief occupation of the people, and it 
is still the leading industry. Next to it came the mining, smelting, and 
manufacture of iron. About 1784 Cromwell, Ashman & Ridgley erected 
the first furnace west of the Susquehanna river. It stood within the 
present borough of Orbisonia and was known as the Bedford furnace, 
after the name of the county in which it was then located. It used 
charcoal and had a capacity of about thirteen tons per Aveek, fossil ores, 
from which the metal was easily extracted, being the only variety 
smelted. The proprietors owned several thousand acres of ore-bearing 
land and transacted their business under the name of the Bedford 

The reduction of ore into pig iron created a demand for some means 
of converting the pig metal into wrought iron. To meet this demand 
Bartholomew & Dorsey, in 1794, built the Baree forge on the Little 
Juniata, nine miles west of Huntingdon, where they purchased a large 
tract of land. Subsequently a furnace was erected near the forge. 

About 1795 Anshutz & Gloninger built the Huntingdon furnace, 


about three miles from the mouth of Spruce creek. Their business 
proved to be profitable and the same firm built several forges along 
Spruce creek, as well as iron works elsewhere in the Juniata valley. 
They were succeeded by G. & J. H. Shoenberger, who carried on the 
business for many years. 

Next in order of date was the furnace long known as the "Old Rock- 
hill Furnace," which was erected in 183 1 by Diven & Morrison. Mr. 
Diven's death occurred soon afterward and he was succeeded by Thomas 
T. Cromwell. Some years later the firm was succeeded by Ford & Bell, 
who continued to operate the furnace for about ten years. 

Two years later the Greenwood and Winchester furnaces were blown 
in. The former, situated in the northeastern part of the county, was 
built by Patton & Norris. A new stack was built in i860, doubling 
the capacity, and some years later the plant passed into the possession 
of the Logan Iron and Steel Company. The Winchester furnace was 
built by Bracken & Stitt and occupied the old site of the carding and 
fulling mill a short distance below the Rockhill furnace. It changed 
ownership several times and was finally absorbed by the Rockhill Iron 
and Coal Company. 

Harris' Pittsburgh Directory for the year 1837 gives a list of six- 
teen furnaces, twenty-four forges, and one rolling mill in the Juniata 
iron district. Of these, fifteen of the furnaces, eighteen of the forges, 
and the rolling mill (Hatfield's) were in Huntingdon county. The 
largest producer of iron at the present time is the Rockhill Iron and 
Coal Company, which was chartered by the legislature of 1872 with a 
capital of $2,000,000 and the power to own land in Huntingdon and 
several adjoining counties. Three years later the company owned nearly 
20,000 acres in Huntingdon county and its immense plant at Orbisonia, 
costing about $125,000, was in full operation, and carrying on an exten- 
sive business. 

In ]\Iifflin county. Freedom forge was built in 1795 by \\'illiam 
Brown, on the site now occupied by the Logan Iron and Steel Works 
at Burnham. A few years later it passed into the hands of Miller, 
JNIartin & Company, which erected a furnace in connection, but after 
about a year this firm dissolved and the property passed to John Brown 
& Company. A new furnace was built in 1825, increasing the weekly 
■capacity to fifteen tons, and in 1834 the forge was rebuilt. After several 


changes in ownership this plant became the propert)- of the Logan Iron 
and Steel Company in 187 1. 

In 1797 \\"illiam Lewis, of Berks county, and Thomas Holt took the 
preliminary steps for the establishment of a furnace in what is now 
Granville township, Mififlin county, by the purchase of a large tract of 
land on the Juniata river and Brightfield's run. There is some discrep- 
ancy in the statements as to when the Hope furnace was actually estab- 
lished, but perhaps the best authority is the assessment rolls of Derry 
township for 1798, wherein General Lewis is assessed on 430 acres 
of land and mentioned as an "iron-master," which would indicate that 
the furnace was then in operation. In 1830 the plant was sold to David 
W. Hulings, who operated it until 1846. It was then in the hands of 
various lessees until i860, when it was abandoned. 

^Marion furnace, located in upper !Milroy, was built in 1828 by Reed, 
Thompson and ililliken and began business with a capacity of about 
thirty tons weekly. L'nder different owners and lessees it was conducted 
until 1838. 

Charles Brooks & Company established the Brookland furnace in 
Oliver township in 1835. Ore was hauled by six-horse teams from the 
Big valley. In 1840 the furnace was leased to [Michael Crisswell & 
Company, who, three years later, built the Ellen forge a little below the 
site of the old Samuel Holliday mill. After a year or two both furnace 
and forge were leased to R. Allen & Company, which suspended in the 
winter of 1848-49. On April 5, 1849. the plant was sold to H. X. 
Burroughs, of Philadelphia, who leased it to Huntington, Robinson & 
Company, and this firm established a rolling mill in 1856. The expense 
of hauling ore was so great that the works could not be operated with 
profit and in 1861 the Brookland furnace, with its kindred industries, 
went out of existence. 

The [Matilda furnace, situated on the Juniata river, opposite [Mount 
L'nion, was built in 1837 by Cottrell. Caldwell & Drake. Isaac Rogers 
also had an interest in the enterprise. These men operated the furnace 
until about 1851. when it was sold to John and Peter Haldeman. L'p 
to that time the furnace used charcoal and the power was derived from 
a little mountain stream. The Haldemans installed a steam engine to 
do away with the overshot wheel and began the use of anthracite in- 
stead of charcoal. After about two years they gave up the enterprise 


and the works lay idle for several years, when it was bought by Wash- 
ington Righter. From the close of the Civil war to its final abandon- 
ment in 1884 it was operated by at least three different parties. 

In 1S42 Long Brothers established the Logan Foundry at Lewis- 
town and in 1846 built the Duncan furnace. By 1853 they had disposed 
of both foundry and furnace and ten years later the foundry became 
the property of D. Bearly & Sons and the furnace passed to the Gla- 
morgan Iron Company, which was organized in 1863. The Duncan 
furnace had a weekly capacity of 120 tons. It was operated by the 
Glamorgan Company for about a quarter of a century, when both fur- 
nace and company went out of business. 

In Perry county the oldest furnace of which there is any reliable 
account was the Juniata, which was built by William Power and David 
Watts in 1808. It was located on a small tributary of Buffalo creek, 
in Centre township, and was operated by dift'erent parties until about 
1838, when it went out of blast. The old buildings were destroyed by a 
storm in 1855. Four years before it was built William Lewis, the 
founder of the Hope furnace, established what was known as the Mount 
Vernon forge on Cocolamus creek, in Greenwood township, but no 
history of this concern can be obtained. 

The Oak Grove furnace was originally called the Charlotte furnace. 
It was put in blast on December 4, 1827, having been built in that year 
by Adam and John Hays. About two years later the firm became Hays 
& McClure and the name was changed to Oak Grove. It continued in 
business until 1843. 

What is now the Duncannon Iron W'orks had its beginning in 1828, 
when Duncan & ]Mahon erected a forge at the junction of the Susque- 
hanna river and Juniata creek and soon afterward purchased about 1,200 
acres of land in the immediate vicinity. Duncan & ]\Iahon continued to 
operate the forge until about 1832, when it was leased to John John- 
ston & Company. In the spring of 1836 the forge, with about 6,000 
acres of land, passed to Fisher & Morgan, who operated the forge for a 
short time, when it was torn down and a rolling mill 60 by 100 feet was 
built in its place. In 1840 a nail factory was added, with a capacity of 
20,000 kegs annually. A severe flood in Sherman's creek on March 
14, 1846, carried away the dam and part of the rolling mill, but both 
were rebuilt in a short time. An anthracite furnace was put up in 


1853 and was subsequently rebuilt, increasing the capacity to 15,000 
tons per annum. A second flood in the spring of 1S60 swept away the 
dam and from that time the works have been operated by steam. The 
firm suffered a considerable loss in i860 when the nail mills were de- 
stroyed by fire. They were rebuilt during the year and the capacity 
doubled by the installation of new machines. On February i, 1861, 
Fisher, Morgan & Company sold the property to the Duncannon Iron 
Company, incorporated, under which management it is still conducted. 

Fio forge was built in the loop of Sherman's creek, near the line of 
Penn and Wheatfield townships, Perry county, in 1828. The proprietors. 
Downing & Davis, sold the property to Lindley & Speck before the 
forge was completed, and in 1841 it became the property of Jackson, 
Yocum & Kough, who operated it until a flood carried out the dam in 
March, 1846, after which the works were abandoned. 

In June, 1834, Lindley, Downing & Fisher purchased a tract of land 
in \\'heatfield and Miller townships and erected thereon the Montabello 
furnace, which was soon afterward sold to Fisher, Morgan & Company. 
The latter firm operated it in connection with the Duncannon Iron 
Works until 1S46, when it was discontinued. 

About a mile and a half south of Duncannon. \^'illiam ]\lcllvaine 
& Sons, of Philadelphia, purchased several hundred acres of land in 
1863 and erected thereon the Cove forge. It went into blast in Sep- 
tember, 1865. with si.x fires, the blast being run by water power and a 
Sexton hammer run by steam. The firm also made charcoal on their 
lands for use in the furnace and the business was successfully carried on 
for several years before it became unprofitable and was closed. 

The Marshall furnace, in Oliver township. Perry county, was built 
in 1 87 1 by Egle, Phillips & Company, and the Logan Iron and Steel 
Company was organized at Lewistown. The latter concern purchased 
the property of the Freedom Iron and Steel Company, which had been 
established in 1866, and which erected the Emma furnace in 1868, a 
short distance above the old Freedom furnace of 1795. In November, 
1871, the Logan Iron and Steel Company, under the presidency of 
John M. Kennedy, of Philadelphia, began the manufacture of both pig 
and bar iron by the charcoal process. The rolling mill and bar mill 
were at that time on what is known as the island, but in 1882 a new roll- 
ing mill was built on the west side of Kishacoquillas creek and upon 


its completion the old works were leased to the Standard Steel Com- 

The manufacture of steel at this point was commenced in 1868 by 
the Freedom Iron and Steel Company, by the Bessemer process, but after 
a few months the experiment was abandoned. When the plant was sold 
to the Logan Company in 1871, much of the machinery was sold to the 
Joliet Steel Company, of Illinois, which sold part of it to William 
Butcher, of Philadelphia, who began the manufacture of steel tires. 
After about three years Mr. Butcher became financially embarrassed 
and the works were operated for a short time by his creditors, when 
the Standard Company was organized and took over the concern. With- 
in the last decade the works have been greatly enlarged and several 
hundred men are now employed in the manufacture of locomotive driv- 
ing tires, trucks, tender and coach wheel tires, forged and rolled steel 
wheels, tool steel, steel and iron forgings and castings, steel crusher 
rolls, etc. Although the company has always been practically a part 
of the Baldwin Locomotive Works of Philadelphia, it is incorporated 
as a separate institution, with a capitalization of $7,000,000. Its plant 
is equipped with the most modern appliances and is the largest manu- 
facturing enterprise in the Juniata valley. Branch offices are main- 
tained in several cities of the country, but the main office is in Phila- 

In 1835 William Mann began the manufacture of axes on a small 
scale in a little stone shop on Kishacoquillas creek, in what now bears 
the name of Mann's Narrows. The building in which he began had 
been erected some years before by a man named Spangler and used 
for the manufacture of gun barrels. At first Mr. ]Mann did his work 
with the assistance of one helper and the product was but six axes 
a day. As the quality of his axes became known to lumbermen the 
demand increased, his works were enlarged, skilled workmen were em- 
ployed and the output went up to about 1,400 axes daily. After the 
death of the founder in 1855, his sons continued in the business. The 
plant is now located at Yeagertown and is known as the J. H. Mann 
axe factory. The Mann Edge Tool Company has its plant in Lewis- 

In 1870 H. S. Wharton established a shoe factory in Huntingdon 
and two years later added a tannery. This concern, known as the Key- 


stone Boot, Shoe and Leather ^Manufacturing Company, soon occupied 
a well-equipped plant at the corner of Penn and Sixteenth streets, and 
during the forty years or more of its career has done a prosperous busi- 

The Huntingdon Car Works and ^lachine Shops were established 
in 1872 by Orbison & Company on the west side of Penn street, between 
Seventeenth and Eighteenth, occupying about five acres of ground. 
The first buildings were a wood-working department 70 by 160 feet, an 
erecting shop 60 by 165 feet, a machine and blacksmith shop 46 liy 173 
feet, and an engine house 26 by ^2 feet. As the business grew larger, 
better buildings have been erected. The company manufactures cars 
and car-wheels and does a large amount of repair work on various 
kinds of machinery. 

Other Huntingdon manufactories are turning out iron wares, sewer 
pipes, etc., but perhaps the business that has done more than any other 
to advertise Huntingdon to the outside world is the J. C. Blair Com- 
pany, manufacturing stationers. John C. Blair, the founder of the busi- 
ness, was the first man in the world to pttt up stationery in the form of 
tablets, to which he soon after added the decorated covers. He began 
in 1878 in a small store room at 422 Penn street, which was abandoned 
in 1 88 1 for the old Presbyterian clnirch. Three years later a five-story 
brick building was erected at Sixth and Allegheny streets, and in i88g 
an eight-story building was put up and in ^lay, 1891, the business was 
incorporated. The company employs about 250 people and its annual 
product reaches about $1,000,000, the Blair tablets going all over the 

A recent industry of the Juniata valley that is attracting consider- 
able attention is the Suskana Silk Works of Lewistown, which were 
established in 1909. The plant at this point is one of a chain of six 
mills in the LTnited States, the others being in New York City, two at 
Sunbury, Pennsylvania, Marion, Ohio, and Jersey Shore, Pennsylvania. 
The business was originally established in Germany about 1784 and 
this branch of the silk manufacturing industry is controlled by the 
Schniewind famil}', which also has eight mills in Germany. The Lewis- 
town mills are built on the most modern principles and employ, when 
running at their full capacity, about 500 persons. 

Lack of space prevents a detailed account of every manufacturing 


establishment in the valley. In addition to those already given there 
are a number of smaller but successful industries scattered through the 
four counties. Belleville has a foundry and machine shop and a carpet 
factory. Besides the Duncannon Iron Works, that borough has estab- 
lishments turning out hosiery, shirts, flour, dairy products, etc. There 
is a foundry at Liverpool ; sand and ocher mills at McVeytown ; two 
large silica brick plants at Mount Union; a bending works and spoke 
factory, knitting mills and shirt factory at New Bloomfield; a silica 
sand works and creamery at Newton Hamilton ; foundries and wood- 
working mills at Lewistown, Huntingdon and other places, and a num- 
ber of flour mills at various other points. At Newport there are iron 
furnaces, hosiery mills, a large tannery, planing mills, and a tanning 
extract works which uses thousands of cords of oak wood annually. The 
headquarters of the extract company are at Cincinnati, Ohio. The re- 
port of the state factory inspector for the year 1910 shows that inspec- 
tions were made of manufacturing concerns in the Juniata valley as 
follows : 

Number of Number 

establishments of operatives 

Huntingdon county 37 2.277 

Mifflin " 44 3,920 

Juniata " 6 186 

Perry " IS 412 

Total 102 6,795 

Of the 102 plants inspected ii were iron works, iS were devoted 
to the textile industries and the remainder were of a miscellaneous char- 
acter — tanneries, bakeries, wood-working establishments, etc. — and of 
the 6,795 employees 1,067 '^vere women and girls, employed chiefly 
in the knitting mills. 

One of the important industries of Huntingdon and ]\Iifflin counties 
is the manufacture or preparation of glass sand. This business orig- 
inated in 1 868, when Wirt, Davis &: Ross began taking sand from a 
hill a short distance northwest of McVeytown. The first car-load was 
shipped to Pittsburgh, where it was pronounced of excellent quality for 
the manufacture of glass, and in 1870 Bradley & Dull began operations 
on a more extensive scale. In 1876 John McGuir<" leased a small tract 
of land near McVeytown and opened a sand mine. i\ year or two later 


he disposed of it to a man named ^Miller and in i8So it was purchased 
b}" Dull & Wilson, who four years later had increased their shipments to 
about 6,000 cars annually. Investigations developed the fact that there 
were rich deposits of sand at other places along the river and in a few 
years a number of works were in active operation. For the last few 
years the business has been practically controlled by the Pennsylvania 
Glass Sand Company, with general offices in Lewistown and mines at 
McVeytown. Vineyard, Alapleton, and elsewhere. The Pennsylvania 
Pulverizing Company, which is closely allied to the sand company, has 
extensiv.e works at the Juniata mines, near McVeytown, where the sand 
is finely pulverized for the use of potters and in enameling tile, etc. 

The first attempts to utilize the coal deposits in the Broad Top fields 
were made about the beginning of the nineteenth century. Strange as 
it may seem to those of the present generation, the owners of the coal 
lands entertained the idea that the coal was a fertilizer, and in 1807 
Samuel Riddle, who owned large tracts of the coal-bearing land, offered 
to furnish it free to farmers who might desire to make experiments 
with it. The next spring he announced that the coal, finely ground, 
would be furnished to farmers at the rate of two shillings and sixpence 
per bushel and gave the following directions for its use: "The coal 
should be ground or beaten into a fine powder, and applied at the rate 
of a handful to each hill of Indian corn immediately after hilling, and 
upon grass at the rate of two or three bushels to the acre. . . . The 
sulphuric acid contained in the Stone Coal is said to destroy the Turnip 
fly and to banish the cut worm and other destructive insects from the 
Gardens and Fields upon which it has been sown. Farmers and others 
will confer a favor upon the subscriber by making trial of the coal 
for this purpose and communicating the result of their experiments." 

After the failure of the coal as a fertilizer, no further efforts were 
made to develop the deposits until after the middle of the century. In 
1856 the output of the mines was about 42,000 tons, ^^'ith the comple- 
tion of the Huntingdon & Broad Top railroad the production increased 
and in 1870 was over 300.000 tons. Four years later the East Broad 
Top railroad tapped the fields and since then the amount of coal shipped 
from this field has steadily increased, until in 1912 it was over 3.400,000 
tons. In Huntingdon county, the largest single producer is the Rock- 
hill Iron and Coal Company, which in the year mentioned shipped nearly 


420,000 tons. Other large concerns are the Broad Top Coal and Min- 
eral Company and the Huntingdon Coal Company. Of the coal from 
this field it has been said that it makes "a bright, open, tenacious, and 
strong coke. The only other coals that approach it in this respect are 
the Connellsville, in Fayette county, and the Bennington, on the crest 
of the Allegheny mountains." An analysis shows that the Broad Top 
coal contains a larger percentage of fixed carbon, a lower percentage 
of ash and volatile matter and, therefore, a larger percentage of coke 
than any other coal in the state. 

Within recent years considerable attention has been given to the 
development of the water power in the Juniata river and its tributaries, 
the power thus developed being used for the generation and transmis- 
sion of electricity to the surrounding towns and cities, where it is used 
both for lighting purposes and the operation of motors in manufacturing 
establishmeiats. The Wilson Electric Company brings its current of 
electricity from Alexandria, a distance of seven miles, to Huntingdon, 
where it is used b}- a number of manufacturers for both light and power. 
About 1907 the Juniata Water Power Company built a large dam in 
the Juniata two miles above Huntingdon and furnishes the power for 
the operation of the street railway system of that borough. This com- 
pany has a capacity of about 5,000 horse power. The Raystown Water 
Power Company was organized in 1905 and chartered by the state on 
March 30, 1906, with a capital of $750,000. Its water power plant is 
located on the Raystown Branch, about seven miles from Huntingdon, 
and has a capacity of 3,900 horse power. It is now furnishing current 
to Huntingdon, Mapleton, Carlim, Williamsburg, and a few other points, 
and a force of men are constantly employed on new construction, ex- 
tending the lines, etc. The use of electricity as a power has been so 
much reduced in cost by these water power companies that only three of 
the manufacturing concerns in Huntingdon were using steam in 1910, 
according to the census reports. 

While much of the surface in the district embraced in this work 
is hilly and not adapted to cultivation, agriculture is still the leading- 
occupation. Much of the soil is of a strong limestone character and 
yields abundant crops of the cereals, grasses, and vegetables that are 
usually grown successfully in this latitude. Since the beginning of the 
present century many of the farmers have become interested in fruit 


growing and the result is a number of thrifty young orchards, which 
promise to become profitable investments in the near future. 

On April i6, 1S28, a number of citizens of Huntingdon county met 
at the court-house and organized an agricultural society, with John 
Patton as president; John Blair, vice-president; ^latthew D. Gregg and 
Jacob Miller, secretaries. At a meeting on August 15, 1828, a consti- 
tution was adopted, in which the name of the society was given as the 
Huntingdon County Agricultural and [Manufacturing Society. Xo rec- 
ord of this organization can be found after January 14, 1829. 

A second agricultural society was projected at a meeting on Xovem- 
ber 15, 1854, and was permanently organized on the 9th of the following 
January by the election of Jonathan ]\Ic\\'illiams, president: a vice- 
president from each township of the county; J. S. Barr and J. S. Isett, 
recording secretaries; John Gemmill, corresponding secretary; James 
Givin, treasurer ; Theodore H. Cremer, librarian. The society was in- 
corporated at the August term of the court in 1871 and during the next 
twenty years a number of fairs were held, the premium list frequently 
running over Si. 000. In the report of the state department of agricul- 
ture of 1910 no mention is made of the Huntingdon county society in 
the list of agricultural societies in Pennsylvania, and it has evidently 
lapsed into a state of inactivity. 

An agricultural society was formed in INIitiflin county in the first half 
of the nineteenth century, but after a few years it was disbanded. On 
November 19, 1874, the Mifflin County Fair Association was organized 
with a capital of $6,000. Twenty-one acres of ground were purchased 
from William R. Graham, a short distance east of Lewistown, and 
during the summer of 1875 the tract was fenced, a half-mile track con- 
structed, two buildings, each 40 by 60 feet, were erected, as well as a 
grandstand facing the race track, and the first fair was held in the fall 
of that year. Fairs were held annually until 1879, when a general lack 
of interest caused the society to disband. On the last day of the farm- 
ers' institute in December, 1912. the ]\Iifflin County Horticultural and 
Agricultural Association was organized with M. M. Naginey, president ; 
H. H. Laub, Jr., secretary; W. J. McNitt, treasurer. It is the purpose 
of this society to give annual exhibits of horticultural and agricultural 
products of the county, but without going to the expense of maintaining 
a fair ground, at least for some years. 


The first agricultural society in Juniata county was organized on 
February 26, 1852, with John Beale, president, and Lewis Burchfield, 
secretary. For several years it held fairs at Mifiliintown and Perry- 
ville, alternately, and, on December 10, 1859, it was incorporated. Soon 
after the incorporation the society purchased a tract of ground at Port 
Royal, built a half-mile race track, and erected buildings costing over $1,- 
000. Here fairs have since been held. In 1910 the society numbered 113 
members, with Charles D. Frankhouse, president ; James N. Groninger, 
secretary: both residents of Port Royal. The fair that year was at- 
tended by about 40.000 people. The society received in 19 10 the sum 
of $838 from the state and paid out over $1,000 in premiums. 

An organization called the Riverside Park and Agricultural Associa- 
tion was organized at Patterson in ]\Iay. 1874, but it was of a local 
nature, pertaining to Mifflintown and the immediate vicinity. A fair 
ground of fourteen acres, about half a mile down the river from Mifflin- 
town, was leased of Ezra S. Parker and several thousand dollars were 
spent in the construction of a race track and the erection of buildings. 
The first fair was held in September, 1874, and fairs were held annually 
thereafter until 1883, when the grounds were turned over to the owner 
and the society disbanded. 

The writer has been unable to learn the early history of the Perry 
Countv Agricultural Society, but it has been in existence for many 
years. According to the report of the state department of agriculture 
for 1910, the society numbered 324 memljers, with T. H. Butturf, presi- 
dent : J. C. F. Stephens, secretary. Both these officials are residents of 
Newport, where the fair grounds of the society are situated. On these 
grounds are a number of buildings for the display of agricultural prod- 
ucts, a half-mile race track, and all the appurtenances of a well ordered 
fair ground. In 1910 the society received from the state $715.75 and 
paid out in premiums about $1,200. 

Manv of the valley farmers are regular attendants upon the farmers' 
institutes and are applying the information thus gained to their work 
upon their farms. In 19 10 institutes were held in Huntingdon county 
at Shirlevsburg, McAlevy's Fort, Alexandria, and Warriors Mark; in 
Mifflin county at Mc\^eytown and Milroy; in Juniata at McAlisterville 
and East Waterford : and in Perry at Newport, Roseglen, and Landis- 
burg. The attendance at these institutes was as follows : Hunting- 


don, 2,489; Mifflin, 1,531; Juniata, 1,726; Perry, 1,610. Through the 
medium of these institutes over 8,000 farmers have been brought into 
contact with the best thought of scientific agriculturists, and the result 
is seen in the improved methods that are being adopted by the farmers 
and the greater yield of their fields. The institute managers of the dif- 
ferent counties are : Huntingdon, G. G. Hutchinson, Warriors Mark ; 
Mifflin, M. M. Naginey, Milroy; Juniata, Matthew Rodgers, Mexico; 
Perry, A. T. Holman, Millerstown. J. H. Peachy, of Belleville, Mif- 
flin county, is one of the institute lecturers. Another lecturer from the 
valley district is Mrs. Sarah B. F. Ziegler, of Duncannon. 


Establishment of a Judiciary System — Early Courts — Judicial Districts Created — 
Prominent Members of the Bar — Judge Taylor — Lists of Judges and District At- 
torneys in the Several Counties — Land Lawyers — John Bannister Gibson — Bar As- 
sociations — The Medical Profession — Character and Hardships of the Country 
Doctor — Pioneer Physicians — Medical Societies — The Doctor as a Citizen. 

IN the establishment of a judiciary system in Pennsylvania all judges 
were appointed by the governor and held their offices for life or 
during good behavior. This system prevailed until 185 1. In 
1850 an amendment was made to the state constitution providing for 
an elective judiciary and on April 15, 185 1, the general assembly passed 
an act giving full force to the amendment. Under this s}-stem the pres- 
ident judges are elected for ten years and the associate judges for five 
years. The office of district attorney was also made elective in 1850. 
Prior to that time the duties of this office had been discharged by an 
official appointed by the governor and known as a deputy attorney-gen- 
eral, or prosecuting attorney. Their appointment was made in an in- 
formal manner and the attorneys-general of the state kept no record of 
such appointments, hence it is impossible to give a list of those who filled 
the position prior to 1850. 

When Huntingdon county, the oldest in the district included in this 
work, was established in 1787, Robert Galbraith was appointed president 
judge, receiving his commission as such on November jt^, 1787. Nearly 
four years elapsed before the first associate judges were appointed, 
the courts being held by the president judge and the justices of the 
county, or, in the absence of the president judge, by the justices alone. 
The first justices in Huntingdon were Thomas D. Smith, John Williams, 
Thomas McCune, and William Phillips, and these gentlemen, with Judge 
Galbraith, constituted the first court in the county. On August 17, 1791, 
four associate justices were commissioned. Following is a list of the 



judicial officials of the county, as nearly comijlete and authentic as it 
can be compiled from the records : 

Pn-sidcjit Judges — Robert Galbraith, 1787; Thomas Smith, 1791 ; 
James Riddle, 1794: Thomas Cooper, 1804; Jonathan Walker, 1S06; 
Charles Huston. 1818: Thomas Burnside, 1826; George W. Woodward, 
1841 ; Abraham S. Wilson, 1842; George Taylor, appointed in 1849, 
the first president judge to be elected in 1851 and reelected in 1861 ; 
John Dean, 1871 ; John H. Orvis, 1874; Adam Hoy, 1S83: Austin O. 
Furst, 1885; John G. Love (elected in 1894 and served but six months 
when a change in the district left Huntingdon county without a presi- 
dent judge. A\'illiam iL Williamson was appointed on June 24. 1895, 
and served until January, 1896, when he was succeeded by John AL 
Bailey, who was elected in Xovemljer, 1895) • Joseph ^L Woods, 1903. 
Judge ^^'oods was first appointed on October 27, 1903, to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of Judge Bailey, and in November, 1904, he was 
elected for a full term of ten years. 

Bv the act of April 13, 1791, the state was divided into five judicial 
districts, in each of which was established a court of common pleas, con- 
sisting of a president judge and not fewer than three nor more than 
four associate judges in each county. The Fourth district was com- 
posed of Cumberland. Franklin. Bedford, Huntingdon and ]\Iifflin coun- 
ties. In Huntingdon county the following is the list of 

Associate Judges— David Stewart, Robert Galbraith, John Canan. 
Benjamin Elliott, commissioned August 17, 1791, and Hugh Davidson, 
November 4, 1791 ; William Steel, 1804; Joseph JNIcCune, 1810: Joseph 
Adams, 1826; John Ker, 1838: James Gwin, 1843; John Stewart, 184O; 
Jonathan ]\IcWilliams, 185 1; Jonathan ]\IcWiIliams and Thomas F. 
Stewart, elected in 1851 : B. F. Patton and John Brewster, 1S56: Wil- 
liam B. Leas, i860; B. F. Patton. 1861 : Anthony J. Beaver, 1865 : David 
Clarkson, 1866 (Beaver and Clarkson both elected for a second term) ; 
Adam Heeter, 1875; GrafTus ]\Iiller, 1880: George W. Johnson, 1881 ; 
Charles R. McCarthy, 1885; Wilson O. Watson, 1890: William J. Geis- 
singer, 1893; W. H. Benson. 1897: E. O. Rogers. 1898: W. E. Lightner, 
1907; Harris Richardson, 1908. 

District Attorneys — J. Sewell Stewart. 1850; Theodore H. Cremer, 
1856: Samuel T. Brown, 1859: J. H. O. Corbin. 1862; James D. Camp- 
beU, 1864: K. Allen Lovell. 1866; ISIilton S. Lytle. 1869; H. C. Madden, 


1872; J. C. Jackson, 1875; George B. Orlady, 1881 ; Charles G. Brown, 
1887; W. J. Forbes, 1890; Hayes H. Waite, 1893; H. B. Dunn, 1896; 
Richard Wilhamson, 1902; Charles G. Brewster, 1908. 

Of the president judges of the county, Walker, Huston, Burnside, 
Woodward and Taylor were especially distinguished for their legal 
learning and ability. Judge Taylor served longer on the bench than any 
other president judge. He was born in Chester county, Pennsylvania, 
November 12, 1812, and never attended school after he was thirteen 
years of age. Being a student by nature, he educated himself and when 
a young man came to Huntingdon county, where he found employment 
as a teacher in Dublin township. Later he was employed in the office of 
the county prothonotary and in 1834 he began the study of law under 
Andrew P. W^ilson. In April, 1836. he was admitted to the bar and 
soon afterward formed a partnership with John G. Miles, under the 
firm name of Miles & Taylor. In 1849, \vhen the legislature changed 
the judicial districts of the state, erecting the counties of Huntingdon, 
Blair and Cambria into the Twent^'-fourth district, the members of the 
bar in Huntingdon and Blair counties were almost unanimous in recom- 
mending Mr. Taylor for the president judgeship of the district. He 
was appointed by Governor Johnson in April, 1849, and in 185 1 was 
elected for the full term of ten }'ears. He was reelected in 1861 and in 
October, 1871, only a short time before the close of his second term, he 
was stricken with paralysis while presiding at the regular term of the 
Blair county court. He was brought to his home in Huntingdon and 
died there on November 14, 1S71, after a service of nearly twenty-three 
years upon the bench. The bar of the district passed resolutions of 
respect and attended the funeral in a body. Concerning his judicial 
qualifications and character. Colonel \\'illiam Dorris, a member of the 
Huntingdon bar, said : "As a man of sound judgment, a close, logical, 
and profound thinker, and a clear and forcible writer he had no superior, 
and perhaps few equals, in the judiciary of the Commonwealth. His 
charges and opinions have been pronounced, Ijy competent judges, not 
inferior to the best similar judicial productions that have been carried 
before the Supreme Court of the State during the last quarter of a 

When IMiiflin county was erected in 1789, Section 4 of the organic 
act provided that : "The justices of the peace commissioned at the time 


of passing this act, and residing within the bounds and hmits of the 
said county, herein and hereby erected and constituted, shall be justices 
of the peace for the said county during the time for which they were so 
commissioned ; and they, or any three of them, shall and may hold 
courts of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace. And the justices of 
the Common Pleas in like manner commissioned and residing, or any 
three or more of them, shall and may hold courts of Common Pleas in 
the said county during the time they were so commissioned," etc. 

The act further provided that the justices of the supreme court, the 
courts of oyer and terminer and general gaol delivery of the state should 
have the same jurisdiction in MilSin as in the other counties of the 
state, and that the sessions of the court of common pleas should begin 
on the second Tuesdays in December, March, June and September of 
each year. The first court was held at the house of Arthur Buchanan 
on December 8, 1789, with William Brown as president judge, William 
Bell, James Burns and William McCoy as associate judges. Little 
was done at this session except to organize the court and admit to prac- 
tice three lawyers — James Hamilton, Thomas Duncan, of Carlisle, and 
George Fisher. Duncan was afterward a justice of the supreme court. 
The courts of the county continued in this manner until after the 
passage of the act of April 13, 1791, the last session being held in Sep- 
tember of that year. After that the courts of Mifflin were the same as 
those of other counties, composed of a president judge and associate 
judges. Following is a list of the judges of the county : 

President Judges — William Brown, 1789; Thomas Smith, 1791; 
James Riddle, 1795; Jonathan Walker, 1806; Charles Huston, 1818; 
Thomas Burnside, 1826; George W. Woodward, 1841 ; Abraham S. 
Wilson, 1842; Samuel S. Woods, 1861 ; Joseph C. Bucher, 1871 (re- 
elected in 1881); Harold ]\I. McClure, 1891 ; John M. Bailey, 1894; 
Joseph ]M. Woods, 1904. 

In the above list it will be noticed that the president judges from 
1791 to 1842 are the same as those of Huntingdon county. A little later 
Huntingdon county was taken from the district, leaving it composed 
of Mifflin and Union counties. Another change was in 1895, when 
Huntingdon and Mifflin were again thrown together and the judges 
from that time to 19 13 have been the same. 

Associate Judges — William Brown, 1791; Samuel Bryson, 1791; 


James Armstrong, 1791; Thomas Beale, 1791; John Oliver, 1793; 
Joseph Edmiston, 1800; David Beale, 1800; David Reynolds, 1828; 
James Crisswell, 1837; William McCoy, 1839; Samuel P. Lilley, 1841 ; 
Joseph Kyle, 1843; Charles Ritz, 1847; Samuel Alexander, 1848; 
Thomas W. Moore, 1851; John Henry, 1851; James Parker, 1856; 
Cyrus Stine, 1856; James Turner, 1861 ; Elijah Morrison, 1861 ; Eph- 
raim Banks, 1866; William Ross, 1866; Augustus Troxel, 1871 ;, George 
Weiler, 1871 ; Samuel Belford, 1877; Reed Sample, 1877; John Davis, 
1879; William McMonegle, 1882; Jacob Kohler, 1885 ; Thomas J. Frow, 
1886; Hiram Rodgers, 1886; Samuel Killian, 1889; Samuel J. Brisbin, 
1891 ; Hezekiah C. Vanzand, 1894; Joseph A. Werts, 1896; William A. 
Wilson, 1899; W. P. Mendenhall, 1901 ; Joseph C. Brehman, 1903; 
Forest Swyers, 1905; Gruber H. Bell, 1908; J. R. McCoy, 191 1. 

District Attorneys — Joseph Alexander, 1850; William J. Jacobs, 
1853; Andrew Reed, 1856; Thomas M. Hulings, 1859; Thomas INI. 
L^ttley, 1862; James S. Rakerd, 1868; Horace J. Culbertson, 1871 ; 
William H. Strohm, 1874; Rufus C. Elder, 1877; Joseph M. Woods, 
1880; Allison W. Porter, 1883; M. :\I. McLaughlin, 1889; Allison W. 
Porter, 1892; Howard O. Lantz, 1895; A. Reed Hayes, 1898; Fred. 
W. Culbertson, 1901 ; John T. Wilson, 1904; J. C. Houser, 1907; 
Howard W. Aikin, 191 1. 

It is a fact worthy of more than passing notice that nearly all of the 
president judges in this district rose to judicial positions of greater 
eminence. Jonathan Walker, who was born in Cumberland county 
and while still in his minority served in the Continental army in the 
Revolution, was appointed the first judge of the United States court 
for the western district of Pennsylvania, which was created by act of 
Congress on April 20, 1818. Charles Huston, who succeeded Judge 
Walker as president judge of the district, was a native of Bucks county, 
Pennsylvania, and the son of Scotch-Irish parents. He was educated 
at Dickinson College, studied law with Thomas Duncan and began 
practice at Bellefonte in 1807. In April, 1826, he was appointed one 
of the justices of the supreme court and served as a member of that 
tribunal until 1845. Thomas Burnside, a native of County Tyrone, 
Ireland, came to Pennsylvania in 1792, when he was ten years of age. 
He studied law with Robert Paxter, of Philadelphia, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1804. In 181 1 he was elected to the state senate, and in 


1816 was appointed president judge of the Luzerne district. In 1823 he 
was again elected to the state senate, and, upon the resignation of Judge 
Huston in 1826, was appointed president judge of the Fourth district 
and held the office until 1841, when he became president judge of the 
Seventh district. On January i, 1845, he was appointed one of the 
judges of the supreme court and held that position until his death in 
March, 1851. George W. Woodward also served as one of the supreme 
court judges, taking his place in May, 1852, when he was appointed to 
the vacancy caused by the death of Richard Coulter. He was afterward 
elected for the full term of fifteen years and retired from the bench 
in December, 1867. 

Juniata county was erected by the act of March 2, 1831, and the 
first court met in the Presb_\'terian church at Mifflintown on December 
5, 183 1, with Calvin Blythe as president judge and Benjamin Kepner and 
Daniel Christy as associate judges. It will be remembered that Juniata 
county was taken from Mifflin, which belonged to the Fourth judicial 
district. Thomas Burnside, at that time president judge of the district, 
believing that his jurisdiction did not extend to the new county of 
Juniata, declined to hold the courts. Judge Blythe. who had previously 
represented the legislative district with which Juniata county was con- 
nected, and, while in the legislature, formed the acquaintance of Gover- 
nor Shulze, who appointed him secretary of state and after the expira- 
tion of his term in that office he was appointed president judge of the 
district composed of Lebanon, Dauphin and Schuylkill counties. While 
in the legislature he sympathized with the people of Juniata in their 
efforts to secure the formation of a new county and, upon the refusal 
of Judge Burnside, he consented to hold court there, and did so from 
183 1 to September, 1835, although the county was not in his district. 
Following are the lists of the president and associate judges and dis- 
trict attorneys of Juniata county : 

President Judges — Calvin Blythe, 183 1; John Reed, 1835; Samuel 
Hepburn, 1839; Frederick Watts, 1849: James H. Graham, 1851 (two 
terms) ; Benjamin F. Junkin, 1871 : Charles A. Barnett, 1881 ; Jeremiah 
Lyons, 1891 ; James W'. Shull, 1901 ; William N. Seibert, 191 1. 

Associate Judges — Benjamin Kepner and Daniel Christy, 183 1 ; John 
Beale and W^illiam McAlister, 1842 : James R. Morrison and James 
Frow, 1847: John Dimm and John Crozier, 185 1 ; David Banks and 


Evard Oles, 1856; Joseph Pomeroy and Lewis Burchlield, 1861 ; Thomas 
J. jNIiUiken and Samuel Watts, 1866; John Koons and Jonathan W'eiser, 
1871 ; Xoah A. Elder and Francis Bartley, 1876; Jacob Smith and Cyrus 
M. Hench, 1881 ; John :Mc}*Ieen and J. K. Patterson, 1886; Josiah PL 
Barton and J. P. Wickersham, 1891 ; W. N. Sterrett and William Swartz, 
1896; James JM. Nelson and Howard Kirk, 1901 ; Jerome C. Shelley and 
R. E. Groninger, 1906; Zenas W. Gilson and William E. Harley, 191 1. 

District Attorneys — No authentic list of the district attorneys prior 
to 1887 could be obtained by the writer. Since then the men who have 
held this office have been as follows: F. ]M. Pennell, 1887; J. H. Neely, 
1890; Wilberforce Schweyer, 1893; Charles B. Crawford, 1896; George 
L. Hower, 1899; Andrew Banks, 1903 (reelected in 1905) ; Wilberforce 
Schweyer, 1908: C. N. Graybill, 191 1. 

Judge Blvthe, the first president judge, became a resident of ;\Iif- 
flintown and practiced his profession there for some time. It is said 
that he walked from Sunbury to IMifflintown, his trunk following on a 
wagon drawn by an ox-team. Another story told of him is that, while 
serving as a soldier in the War of 1812, when Colonel Bull was killed 
at the battle of Chippewa, young Blythe mounted the unfortunate com- 
mander's horse and took charge of the regiment, showing such bravery 
and military skill that he led the troops to victory. 

Few men had a greater capacity for hard work than Judge Frederick 
Watts. After serving as president judge until the election of Judge 
Graham, in 185 1. he built up a large practice. When state reporter 
he did not gi\-e up his private business, attending to the interests of his 
clients during the day and the duties of reporter during the evenings, 
frequently working until a late hour and then snatching a few hours' 
sleep on a lounge at his office. Ten volumes of the state reports bear his 
name. He was for some time the United States commissioner of agri- 
culture, where he performed his duties with the same indefatigable in- 
dustry and conscientious care. 

At the time Perry county was erected, by the act of March 22, 1820, 
there was not a single lawyer resident in the county. The first session 
of court was held the following December, in a log house at Landisburg, 
and at this term John D. Creigh and Frederick M. Wadsworth were 
admitted to practice. The president judge was John Reed, originally 
from Westmoreland county, but at that time the president judge of the 


district to which Perry county was attached by the organic act. The 
associate judges were W. B. Anderson and Jeremiah Madden. 

Much of the htigation of that period was over land titles or surveys 
and there were several members of the old Carlisle bar who were fam- 
ous as "land lawj'ers." Among them were David W^atts, Thomas Dun- 
can and Andrew Carothers, who practiced in every court as far as the 
Allegheny mountains, especially in the land cases. These disputes grew 
out of the belief that the Tuscarora, Shade and Blue mountains con- 
tained rich deposits of coal, because they were similar in appearance to 
the ranges in the Schuylkill region, where coal had been found. Says 
Judge Junkin: "It (coal) could not exist in this formation, because 
more than two miles below the coal measures. Still, owners of war- 
rants fought about over-lapping surveys and conflicting lines with as 
much spirit as if acres of diamonds were at stake. And the lawyers 
knew no better either, and hence they fought these barren battles with 
such zeal and skill that it resulted in building up a land system in Penn- 
sylvania which, when understood, is perfectly harmonious in all its 

These "land lawyers" were among the earliest practitioners in the 
Perry county courts, but in time they were supplanted b}' men of a 
younger generation, equal in legal learning and oratorical aljility. AA'ith 
the knowledge that no minerals of value were to be found in the moun- 
tains, a large part of the litigation over titles and surveys ceased, and 
the younger lawyers came to occupy more prominent positions at the 

Following are the lists of judges and district attorneys who have 
presided over or been connected with the courts of Perry count}- : 

President Judges — John Reed, 18^0: Samuel Hepburn, 1839; Fred- 
erick Watts, 1849; James H. Graham, 1851 (two ten-year terms) ; Ben- 
jamin F. Junkin, 1871 ; Charles A. Barnett, 1881 ; Jeremiah Lyons, 1891 ; 
James N. ShuU, 1901 ; \A'i!liam N. Seibert, 191 1. 

Associate Judges — W. B. Anderson and Jeremiah ]\Iadden, 1S20; 
John Junkin, 1832 (served for nearly twenty years) : Robert Elliott, 
1836; James Black, 1842; G. Blattenberger, 1844; John A. Baker. 1849: 
John Rice, 1851 ; Jesse Beaver, 1852: George Stroop, 1852; J. ^Martin 
Motzer, 1854; John Reifsnyder, 1856; David Shaver, 1859; Philip 
Ebert, 1861; Isaac Lefevre, 1862; Jacob Sheibley, 1864: John A. Baker,- 


1867; George Stroop, 1869; John A. Baker, 1872; John Bear, 1874; 
Samuel Noss, 1877; WiUiam Grier, 1879; Wilham Gladden, 1882; 
Joseph B. Garber, 1884: Samuel Woods, 1886; Henry Rhinesmith, 18S9; 
James Everhart, 1891 ; John L. Kline, 1894; George M. Stroup. 1896; 
Isaac Beam, 1899; John Fleisher, 1901 ; Jacob Johnston, 1904; George 
Patterson, 1906; Lucius C. Wox, 1909; William Bernheisel, 191 1. 

District Attorneys — Benjamin F. Junkin, 1850; Charles T. j\lc- 
Intire, 1853; John B, JNIcAlister, 1856; F. Rush Roddy, 1859; Ephraim 
C. Long, 1862; Lewis Pattee, 1866; Benjamin P. ]McIntyre, 1869; Jacob 
Bailey, 1872; J. C. McAlister, 1875; J. C. Wallace. 1878; James W. 
Shull, 1881; Richard H. Stewart, 1884; J. C. JMcAlister, 1887; Lewis 
Potter, 1890: Luke Baker, 1S93; W. H. Kell, 1896; James M. Sharon, 
1899; James J\I. AIcKee, 1902; Walter ^\'. Rice, 1908 (reelected in 

It will be noticed that the president judges of Perr}- and Juniata 
counties have been the same since 1835. the two counties having been in 
the same judicial district since that date. 

One of the most prominent men who ever occupied a seat on the 
supreme bench of Penns}"lvania was born in Perry county. John Ban- 
nister Gibson, a son of Colonel George Gibson, who served in the Con- 
tinental army during the Revolution and who was killed at the time of 
General St. Clair's defeat in 1791, was born near the palisades known 
as "Gibson's Rock," on the banks of Sherman's creek, in the year 1781. 
At the age of nineteen he graduated at Dickinson College, after which 
he studied law and was admitted. In 1810 he was a member of the 
state legislature. On June 27, 1816, he was appointed a judge of the 
Pennsylvania supreme court by Governor Snyder to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of Hugh H. Brackenridge, whose death occurred 
the day before. At the time of his appointment Judge Gibson was presi- 
dent judge of the district including Lycoming county. He remained on 
the supreme bench until his death, which occurred on May 3, 1853, and 
for a considerable portion of his service held the position of chief jus- 
tice. It has been said that his opinions "are marvels of perspicuity, sen- 
lentiousness, and accurate diction," received as authority, not onlv by 
the courts of this country, but also those of Great Britain. 

The Huntingdon County Bar Association was organized on Sep- 
tember 14, 1886, with thirty-four charter members and the following 


officers: President, John ^l. Bailey; vice-president, T. W. !Myton; 
secretary, H. B. Dunn ; treasurer, ^[. ]\L AlcXeil. The president and 
secretary of the association, in connection with E. S. AIcMurtrie, George 
B. Orlady, P. M. Lytle, J. R. Simpson, and D. Caldwell, constituted a 
board of managers. On September 20, 1S86, the organization was con- 
firmed by the court and the first meeting for the transaction of business 
was on the nth of October. During the twenty-seven years of its ex- 
istence the association has built up a fine library, raised the standard 
of qualifications for admission to the bar of the county, and has en- 
deavored to cultivate a more fraternal spirit among lawyers. In 19 13 
the officers were : J. R. Simpson, president : R. A. Orbison, vice-presi- 
dent ; J. S. ^^'oods, secretary ; Chester D. Fetterhoof , treasurer. The 
annual meetings of the society are held on the third Tuesday of January. 
In Mifflin county the members of the bar were freciuently called to- 
gether to discuss measures affecting the welfare of the courts and the 
legal profession, but no regular bar association was organized until 
]\Iay 21, 1 90 1. At a subsequent meeting a constitution was adopted, to 
take effect on August i, 1902, and at the same meeting D. \\'. Woods 
was elected president; T. \[. Uttley, vice-president; AI. ]M. McLaughlin, 
secretary ; Rufus C. Elder, treasurer. Xo change has been made in 
the official roster since the organization of the association, except that 
in the death of D. \V. Woods the association was left without a presi- 
dent, and since that time T. M. L'ttley has discharged the duties of the 
office. The annual meetings of the association are held on the fourth 
Monday of January. In 1913 there were thirteen members in good 


The "Countr}- Doctor" has been eulogized in song and story, and 
probably no man in a new country is more deserving of eulogy. Before 
roads were opened through the trackless forest or over the mountains 
of the Juniata valley, the physician was in the frontier settlements, not 
so much for the hope of immediately accumulating wealth as to aid in 
developing the resources of the region. A^'ith his "pill-bags" thrown 
across his saddle he frequently rode through the wild woods in the dark- 
est night in order to answer the call of the afflicted, often knowing that 
his fee would be slow in coming, if it came at all. ^lonev was scarce 


and the doctor often accepted in payment for his services such produce 
of the frontier farm as the pioneer husbandman could offer. In this 
way he managed to obtain food for himself and family and for the 
faithful horse upon which he must depend to answer the calls for his 
professional services. Compared with the modern specialist he might 
be considered the merest tyro in the science of medicine, but the settlers 
knew him and had confidence in his skill. And it is possible that, were 
the eminent specialist compelled to practice his profession under the 
same conditions, the country doctor might prove the better man. His 
medicines were few and not always easily obtained. In such cases he 
was generally resourceful enough to accept some simple "old woman's 
remedy" that would give the patient relief until better treatment could be 
brought to bear. If he was not profoundly learned in a knowledge of 
medicine, he knew a little of every branch of the subject, and what he 
lacked in college training he endeavored to supply with common sense. 
Consecjuently he was honored and respected and was a welcome visitor 
to the frontier homes in times of health as well as in times of sickness, 
a true friend. 

In one of the old histories of Huntingdon county mention is made 
of a Dr. Smith, who was in the Hartslog valley as early as 1767, but 
little can be learned concerning him or his W(jrk. Jonathan Priestly, 
assessor, in his return of the property in what is now the borough of 
Huntingdon, gives the names of James Nesbit and George Wilson as 
physicians. Dr. Jonathan H. Dorsey was another early physician of 
Huntingdon. He married ~\Iary. daughter of Robert Henderson and 
a granddaughter of Benjamin Elliott, the first sheriiif of the county. 
John Henderson was one of the prominent physicians of Huntingdon at 
an early date and was the first president of the Union Medical Society, 
which was organized in 1825. A Dr. Loughran located at Shirleysburg 
early in the nineteenth century, but remained there only a short time. 
He was succeeded by Dr. J. G. Lightner, who settled there in 1821. 
Other pioneer physicians of Huntingdon county were Doctors Moore, 
Eby, Long, Baird, and Flickinger. A little later came Dr. J. A. Shade, 
Dr. Jesse Wright, Dr. John Gemmill, Dr. J. H. Wintrode, and Dr. J. R. 

Probably the first physician in Mifflin county to acquire a permanent 
residence and reputation was a Dr. Buck, who located in 1794 where the 


Coleman House now stands on ^Market street. A few years later he 
removed to Perry county, and Dr. John Creigh took his place in Lewis- 
town. Subsequently he removed to Landisburg, where he practiced his 
profession until a short time before his death. Dr. William \\'atson 
settled in Lewistown about the same time as Dr. Creigh, and practiced 
there until 1806, when he went to Bedford. Joseph B. Ard began prac- 
tice in Lewistown about the time Dr. W'atson left and continued there 
until about 1850. He died in Philadelphia in 1S61. About 1810 Dr. 
Elijah Davis located at McVeytown and Doctors Roswell and Southard 
Doty settled about the same time in Lewistown. Other pioneer doctors 
of Mifflin county were Joseph Henderson, who located at Brown's ]\Iills 
about the close of the \\'ar of 1812 ; Edward B. Patterson, at Lewistown 
about the same time; John Parshall, James M. Connell, Frank Swartz, 
Lewis Horning, Samuel Smith, Alexander Johnson, Augustus C. Ehren- 
feld, and Thomas Van Valzah. 

Some of those of a later date were: Alexander JNIcLeod, Christian 
Swartz, H. C. Wampler, William Jones, James Culbertson, Charles 
Bower, L. G. Snowden, Samuel ^laclay, Benjamin Berry, and George 
V. JMitchell. Of these, Dr. Snowden practiced in i\Ic\'eytown, Dr. 
Berry in ]^Iilroy, Dr. Bower in Newton Hamilton, and Dr. Mitchell in 
Belleville, where he had been preceded by Doctors Cook, Westhoven, 
and Bigelow. 

In Juniata county the first physician of whom there is any authentic 
account was Dr. Ezra Doty, who settled at Mifflintown about 1791. 
He came from Connecticut and was an elder brother of Roswell and 
Southard Doty, who practiced in Lewistown. Dr. John Bryson, a son 
of Judge Samuel Bryson, studied medicine under Dr. Ezra Doty and 
commenced practice in ]\Iifflintown in 1807. Five years later he went 
to Pittsburgh, where he continued in the profession until his death. The 
Crawfords — David, Samuel B., E. Darwin, James \^^ and David ■M. — 
were among the most noted of Juniata county's phj^sicians during the 
first half of the nineteenth century. Other physicians of prominence 
during the same period were James Frow, John Harris, Joseph Kelly, 
JNIichael Shellenberger, John Green, Thomas Whiteside, J. W. Eeale, 
Philo Hamlin, W'illiam Elder, John Irwin, Henry Harshbarger, George 
I. Cuddv, J. W. Pearce, and Samuel Floyd, located at various points in 
the county. Among the homeopathic physicians of this county may be 


mentioned Dr. Rheinhold, Dr. Frederick Long, Dr. William Smith, Dr. 
B. F. Book and Dr. Lewis P. Willig. 

Perry county's pioneer physician was probably Dr. Henry Bucke, 
who located at Millerstown about 1S05, or perhaps a year or two before 
that time. Dr. Samuel Mealy succeeded him about the close of the \Var 
of 1812. Dr. John W. Armstrong was engaged in practice at Duncan- 
non as early as 18 18 and remained there for about six years, when he 
went to Liverpool, being the first physician to settle in that place. Some 
years later he went to Bellefonte and finally located at Princeton, New 
Jersey, where he died in 1870. He was a grandson of that Colonel 
John Armstrong who led the expedition against the Indians at Kittan- 
ning in 1756, later served as a member of the Provincial Congress, and 
rose to the rank of major-general in the Continental army. At the bat- 
tle of the Brandywine he was in command of the Pennsylvania line, 
and one of his sons Avas an aide-de-camp on the staff of General Gates. 

Dr. Isaac Snowden, who located at Millerstown about 1826, was a 
son of Rev. Nathaniel R. Snowden, who was at one time a professor in 
Dickinson College, at Carlisle. He received his preparatory education 
in that institution and graduated in medicine at the Lhiiversity of Penn- 
s)'Ivania. Shortly after receiving his degree he was appointed surgeon 
in the L'nited States army and was with General Andrew Jackson in the 
war with the Seminole Indians in Florida. In 1823 he retired from the 
army and after practicing a short time in Mifflin county and at Williams- 
port settled at Millerstown. Some years afterward he took up his 
residence at Hogestown, Cumberland county, where he practiced until 
his death in June, 1850. 

Other physicians who practiced in Perry county before the middle 
of the nineteenth centur}' were : John Irwin, Samuel Stites, and John 
M. Laird, at Millerstown ; James H. Case, William Cummin, Thomas 
G. Morris, John Wright, and Dr. Fitzpatrick, at Liverpool ; Joseph 
Speck, Philip Ebert. and A. J. W^erner, at Duncannon : John Creigh. 
John Parshali, James T. Oliver, and Samuel A. Moore, at Landisburg, 
Dr. Isaac Lefevre, at Loysville: Lewis Heck, G. W. Graydon. and Dr. 
Rogers, at Marysville ; Frederick Klineyoung, at Shermansdale ; Jonas 
Ickes, Thomas Simonton, and a Dr. Black, at Ickesburg; Frederick 
Oberholzer (also a Lutheran minister), at New Germantown: John 
Eckert and Dr. Ward, in Milford township; John H. Doling, T. L. 


Cathcart, and Dr. Vanderslice, at New Bloomfield. Dr. Jonas Ickes 
was the first physician in New Bloomfield, having located there in 1825, 
soon after the place was designated as the county seat. Dr. Joseph 
Speck and Dr. John ]\I. Laird also practiced for a time in New Bloom- 

Dr. Thomas Van Valzah, mentioned above in connection with the 
physicians of Mifflin county, was born in Union county, December 27,, 
1793, and was a surgeon in the army during the War of 1S12, when 
only twenty years of age. In 1818 he graduated at the University of 
Pennsylvania and began practice at Lewisburg, Union county. From 
1837 to 1842 he practiced at Freeport, Illinois, then returned to Penn- 
sylvania and located at Lewistown, where he followed his profession 
until his death in Alay, 1870, having been engaged in active practice for 
nearly sixty years. He was especially skilled as a surgeon and was the 
third man to perform what is known as the "high operation" for lithot- 

On November i, 1825, a number of physicians from Huntingdon, 
Mifflin and Center counties met at the residence of Alexander Ennis, in 
Barree township, Huntingdon county, to consider the c^uestion of or- 
ganizing a medical society. The meeting lasted two days and on the 
second day the L'nion Aledical Society was organized with Dr. John 
Henderson as president ; Daniel Dobbins and Joseph B. Ard, vice-presi- 
dents ; Constantius Curtin, corresponding secretary ; James Coffey, re- 
cording secretary ; Jonathan H. Dorsey, treasurer. Physicians in good 
standing in the profession and residents of either of the three counties 
were eligible for membership and for a time the future was full iif 
promise for this first association of physicians in the Juniata valley. 
The second meeting of the society was held at Lewistown, begirming on 
November 6, 1826, and the third was held at Huntingdon in November, 
1827. At the Huntingdon meeting Dr. Ezra Doty, of Mifflintown, was 
elected president of the society, which is the last record of its transac- 

No further attempt was made to form a medical society among the 
physicians of this region until in 1845, when some of the Mifflin county 
doctors got together and organized the Alifflin County Medical Society. 
Dr. Joseph B. Ard, who had been one of the first vice-presidents of the 
Union [Medical Society twenty years before, was elected president; Dr. 


Thomas Van Valzah alid Dr. Joseph Henderson, vice-presidents; Dr. 
T. A. W'orrall, corresponding secretary ; Dr. C. Cameron, recording 
secretary : Dr. James Culbertson, general secretary, and seven members 
in addition to the above officers. Six members were added at the next 
meeting, after which the society seems to have lapsed into a state of 

A medical society was organized in Huntington county on August 
14, 1849, l^i-it all record of it except the date of its organization has 
disappeared. Not even the oldest physician in the county can tell who 
were the officers or what the society accomplished. The present Hunt- 
ingdon County Medical Society — termed a reorganization of the former 
one — was formed on April 9, 1872, with the following officers: Dr. 
John McCulloch, president ; Drs. J. A. Shade and J. H. Wintrode, first 
and second vice-presidents, respectively : Dr. A. B. Brumbaugh, secre- 
tary; Dr. Henry Orlady, treasurer. For about three years the society 
prospered, but from 1876 to 1S80 very little interest was manifested 
in its work. During that period two men— Dr. D. P. Miller and Dr. 
A. B. Brumbaugh — deserve great credit for their work in holding the 
society together by paying the state dues, etc. About 1880 a numljer 
of new members came in and since that time the society has been active 
in promoting good feeling among the ph}-sicians of the county and 
stimulating the interest in their professional work. Dr. D. P. jNIiller, 
now living retired in Huntingdon, is the only physician now living 
who assisted in the organization of the society in 1872, though Dr. 
G. \\'. C. James, of Orbisonia, retired, is the oldest living physician 
in the county and is an honorary meml.ier of the society. Membership 
in this society includes membership in the Medical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania and subscription to the Pennsylvania Medical Journal. Stated 
meetings are held on the second Thursday of each month. The officers 
for 1913 were: Dr. F. L. Schum, president: Dr. J. M. Steel, vice- 
president: Dr. J. M. Beck, secretary: Dr. G. G. Harman, treasurer; 
Dr. J. 'SI. Keichline, Jr., reporter: Drs. W. J. Campbell, R. H. Moore 
and R. ]\I}-ers, censors. The membership reported in 1913 was thirty- 

The present Mifflin County IMedical Society was organized on i\Iarch 
4, 1874, at the office of Dr. Charles S. Hurllnit, in Lewistown, with nine 
members. Officers elected at that meeting were : Abraham Harsh- 


berger, president ; T. H. Van \^alzah, vice-president ; George V. Mitchell, 
secretary: Abraham Rothrock, treasurer. For some time the society 
held meetings quarterly, but in recent years the meetings have been 
held on the first Thursday of each month, at such hour and place as 
may be designated by the president. Annual dues are three dollars, 
vi'hich includes the Pennsylvania Medical Journal. In 1913 there were 
thirty-two members in good standing and the following were then the 
officers of the society: C. H. Brisbin, president: T. H. Smith, first 
vice-president: C. J. Stambaugh, second vice-president: J. A. C. Clark- 
son, secretary: A. S. Harshberger, treasurer: F. A. Rupp, reporter: 
S. W. Swigart, W. H. Parcels and V. I. McKim, censors. 

Juniata county has the youngest and smallest medical society of any 
of the four valley counties. It was organized in 1907, and in 1913 
numbered eleven members, with the following officers : W. H. Banks, 
of Miftlintown, president : Herman F. Willard, of [Mexico, first vice- 
president: William H. Haines, of Thompsontown, second vice-president; 
Brady F. Long, of ]MifiIintown, secretary : Isaac G. Headings, of Mc- 
Alisterville, treasurer. The fact that this county society has been 
organized only six years and numbers but eleven members is no reflec- 
tion upon the character of the Juniata county physicians, most of whom 
have as high professional standing as those of other counties. [Member- 
ship in this society carries with it the same advantages, in the way of 
affiliation with the State Medical Society and subscription to the Pennsyl- 
vania [Medical Journal, as in other county organizations. 

The Perry County [Medical Society is one of the oldest in the state. 
On November 19, 1847, eight physicians met at ]\Iillerstown, as the 
result of an understanding with most of the practicing physicians of 
the county, and organized by electing James H. Case, of Liverpool, 
president: A. C. Stees, of Millerstown. vice-president: B. F. Grosh, 
of Andersonburg, and T. Stilwell, of [Millerstown, secretaries : and Dr. 
J. E. Singer, of Newport, treasurer. In the constitution adopted at 
that time the official name of the society was given as "The [Medical 
Society of Perry County,"' and the object defined to be "the advance- 
ment of medical knowledge, the elevation of professional character, the 
protection of the interests of its members, and the promotion of all 
means to relieve suffering, to improve the public health and protect the 
life of the community." The constitution was approved by the State 


^ledical Society and since then official relations have been maintained 
Avith both the state organization and the American Medical Association. 
At one time the membership numl^ered seventy, but in 1913 there were 
but seventeen reported in good standing. The officers for 1913 were: 
E. Kenneth Wolff, Ickesburg, president ; William T. ]\Iorrow, Loysville, 
first vice-president; Benjamin F. Beale, second vice-president; A. R. 
Johnson, New Bloomfield, secretary; W. Homer Hoopes, treasurer. 

As a rule, the physicians along the Blue Juniata have been, and those 
of the present generation are, men of public spirit and progressive ideas 
outside of their profession. They have taken a commendable interest 
in every movement for the general welfare ; have been associated with 
the organization of agricultural societies, banks, etc. ; most of them 
have been affiliated with the leading fraternal orders and the church 
work of the valley, and in other ways have used their rights of citizen- 
ship to promote the interests of their fellow-men. 


Character of the Early Schools — The Pioneer School House — Itinerant Teachers — 
Ideas of Discipline — The Pauper School Law — Private Academies — School for 
Soldiers' Orphans — Juniata Vallej- Normal — Free School System Inaugurated — 
Sources of Revenue — School Statistics — ^Juniata College — Apprentices' Literar>- So- 
ciet}- of Lewistown — Lewistown Librar>- — The Press — Early Newspapers — Alexan- 
der K. McCIure — Present Day Papers — Perry Count}' Historical Society. 

OXE of the early needs of the pioneers who settled in the Juniata 
valley was some means of educating their children. !Many of 
the parents had only limited education and the constant de- 
mands of frontier life made effective teaching in the home circle an 
impossibilit}'. The settlers had no public school fund, there were no 
school houses equipped with libraries and other aids as in the present 
day. well qualified teachers were exceedingly scarce, roving bands of 
Indians were not infrequent visitors to the settlements, and j^et, in 
spite of all these conditions, the people made honest and sincere efforts 
to give their children sufficient schooling to help them along over "the 
thorny road of life."' The first schools were taught in abandoned 
cabins or rooms of dwellings given up for the purpose and were often 
secured and fitted up by the teacher when he secured his subscribers. 
Sometimes the resident minister, if there was one in the neighbor- 
hood, acted as teacher, but more frequently the "school-master" was 
some itinerant Irishman, who paused in the settlement long enough to 
teach school for a "quarter" in order to raise the means for continuing 
his journey. 

As the population increased, buildings were erected by the coopera- 
tion of the settlers in a given neighborhood and set apart as school 
houses, though religious services Avere often held in them on days when 
there was no school in session. These early school houses were crude 
afifairs, built of logs, with a clapboard roof and often no floor but the 
mother earth. On each side of the house one log would be left out 



and the space covered with oiled paper to exclude the cold and admit 
the light, window glass being in that day too expensive a luxury to 
provide glass windows for school houses that were used for only a 
short season in each year. To provide seats for the scholars small logs 
would be split in halves, the inner surface smoothed with the "draw- 
knife," the half sapling would tlien be supported on pins driven into 
auger holes bored at the proper angle to hold the seat stead}-. At one 
end of the school room was a huge fireplace, capable of taking in sticks 
of wood four or five feet in length. On cold days the scholars sitting- 
near the fire would become too hot, while those in the rear of the room 
would be suffering with cold. To alleviate this condition constant 
changes would be made. A pupil would receive permission to go to 
the fire, and as soon as he became "warm through" he would return 
to a seat in the rear and another would take his place. 

The branches taught were spelling, reading, writing and arithmetic. 
Steel pens had not yet come into general use and one of the Cjualifica- 
tions of the teacher was to be able to make a pen out of a quill. Ink 
was frequently made at home by boiling the bark of the maple tree 
until the strength was extracted and then adding to the decoction a 
sufficient quantity of copperas to give the desired color. Copy-books 
were usually of home-made construction — a few sheets of foolscap paper 
covered with a sheet of heavy wrapping paper and sewed together. At 
the head of the page the teacher would write a line and the scholar 
would then fill the page, endeavoring to imitate in all its details the 
handwriting of the teacher. The next teacher might have an entirely 
different style of chirography and the pupil would have to unlearn much 
that he had learned in order to copy the new master's writing. Black- 
boards were practically unknown, the scholars doing their "sums" on 
slates. Even the slate pencils of commerce were rare, and it was no 
unusual sight to see a group of school-boys searching through a bank 
of slate or soap-stone for a piece soft enough for a pencil that would 
not "scratch." 

W^ith both teacher and patrons the idea seemed to prevail that if 
the rod was spared the child would be spoiled. Consequently the dis- 
cipline in those early schools was of the most despotic character, the 
slightest offense on the part of the pupil being punished by a whipping. 
And yet, notwithstanding all these drawbacks, some of the great men 


of the country received their early training in these rude and imperfect 

One of the first laws passed by the Pennsylvania legislature for 
the promotion of education was that of 1808, providing for the educa- 
tion of poor children at the expense of the county. \Maile the intentions 
of the legislators were good, and the law was meant to prove of great 
benefit to the commonwealth by giving the children of the most indigent 
citizens an opportunity to qualify themselves for the duties of citizen- 
ship, all who accepted its benefits were stigmatized as paupers and the 
law finally became known as the "Pauper School Law." 

Henry Beeson, who represented Fayette county in the legislature 
of 1825, introduced a bill providing for a system of free schools, but 
it failed to pass. It was widely discussed, however, both by the press 
and the public, and it contained the germ that nine years later developed 
into the free school system of Pennsylvania. 

In the meantime the people, desirous of obtaining better educational 
facilities than were afforded by the low grade subscription schools, 
became interested in the establishment of academies. The oldest institu- 
tion of this character in the Juniata valley was the Lewistown Academy, 
which was chartered by the act of ]\Iarch 11, 1815, for the purpose 
of educating the youth "in the useful arts, sciences and literature," and 
the act provided that five poor children were to be admitted to the 
school free for a term not to exceed two years. The first board of 
trustees was named in the act, and the first election of trustees was 
held on the first Alonday of April, 18 16. For several years the school 
was taught in rented quarters, wherever suitable rooms could be ob- 
tained, but the act of April 10, 1826, authorized the trustees to erect 
an academy building "in or near Lewistown." A lot was secured on 
Third street, near Brown, and the first term of school in the new 
structure was opened in the fall of 1828. About twenty years ago 
the old building was taken down and the Presbyterian Sunday school 
chapel now occupies the site. 

The Huntingdon Academy was incorporated by act of the legislature 
on ^March 19, 18 16. the state giving $2,000 to the institution. It con- 
tinued to receive aid from the state for a number of years. The 
trustees purchased the Dean Hotel property at the southeast corner of 
Second and Allegheny streets, where the school was conducted for 


many years. Two lots were then purchased on the northeast corner 
of Fourth and Church streets and a building erected thereon in 1844. 
A larger and better appointed Ijuilding was erected in 1874, but after 
the establishment of the high school the attendance at the academy 
declined and the property was sold, the building being converted into 
an apartment for residences. 

In 1837 the legislature granted a charter to the Tuscarora Academy, 
in Juniata county. Two years before that Rev. ]\IcKnight Williamson 
had opened a school, in which he taught the higher branches, and in 
1837 his class numbered about fifteen students. His work stimulated 
the interest in education and led to the establishment of the academy, 
which was opened in 1839, with David Wilson as principal. For many 
years the institution prospered, but the improvement in the public schools 
from year to year made such inroads upon the attendance that it sank 
to a position of minor importance in the educational field. The lauild- 
ing is now used for the Beale township high school. 

Robert Finley came from Connecticut to New Bloomfield in 1S37 
and opened a Latin school in a room of Jonas Ickes' tavern, his first 
class numbering six members. In the fall of that year he secured the 
indorsement of several of the leading citizens and advertised a high 
school, to open on '"the first Wednesday of February next." The school 
opened at the appointed time in a building known as the "Barracks," 
and the same winter a petition was presented to the legislature asking 
for a charter for the New Bloomfield Academy. Accordingly, on April 
13, 1838, an act was passed incorporating the institution, naming the 
first board of trustees and authorizing the state treasurer to pay to the 
board of trustees $2,000, "to be used toward the erection of suitable 
buildings and purchasing a necessary library, mathematical, geographical 
or philosophical apparatus for the use of the academy, on condition that 
$1,000 have been contributed for the purpose or purposes named." 

The first term opened on May 21, 1838, with Robert Finley as 
principal. After some disagreement as to the location, the academy was 
finally placed at the north end of Carlisle street, where four acres of 
ground were purchased from George Barnett. On March i, 1839, the 
board advertised for proposals for the erection of a "house of brick 
or stone, to be thirty feet by sixty feet from out to out and twenty-three 
feet high frcmi top of foundation, to have a cupola and also a portico 


or vestibule in front of steps." This building was completed and 
occupied in 1840. In response to a petition, the legislature passed an 
act on April 4, 1852, directing the trustees to sell the school to the 
county, and the following December the property was conveyed to the 
county commissioners. Trouble arose over a legacy of $400 left the 
institution by Fenlow jMcCown and the recommendation of the grand 
jury that a new building be erected for the better accommodation of 
the pupils, the commissioners refusing to erect the building or allow 
others to build on the grounds. By the act of April 3, 1855, the 
academy was ordered to be sold. In April. 1856, it was purchased by 
Rev. John B. Straw and R. G. Stephens, with a conditiim that the 
property should always be used for a high and normal school. In 19 12 
the academy was in charge of D. C. W'illard as principal, assisted by 
a corps of competent instructors in the various branches. 

A Bovs' Academy and a Female Seminary were established at 
Shirlevsburg at an early date and for a number of years each received 
a generous patronage, due in a great measure to the fact that the penple 
of Shirley township were opposed to the introduction of the free school 
system. After all the other townships in Huntingdon county had 
accepted the common schools and provided for their support according 
to law. Shirley came into the fold and commenced the work of estalilish- 
ing free schools. As the patronage of the public schools increased 
that of the private institutions declined, and the academy and seminary 
at Shirleysburg finally passed out of existence. 

JMilnwood Academy, located at Shade Gap, Huntingdon county, was 
founded in 1849 '^y f^^*^'- J- '^^^ ^IcGinnes, the Presbyterian minister 
at that place. It soon became a popular school and enjoyed a prosperous 
career for about a quarter of a century. It was abandoned about 1871. 

Mountain Seminary was incorporated in 185 1 and buildings were 
erected by a stock company. Rev. Israel Ward was the first principal. 
Financial difficulties arose and in 1855 the property was sold at sheriff's 
sale. About two years later the property was purchased by Prof. L. G. 
Grier and the school was reopened. Associated with Professor Grier 
-,vas Miss N. J. Davis, a graduate of the noted school at Mount Holyoke, 
Massachusetts, and the new management soon had the school (in the 
highway to prosperity. Xew buildings were erected, steam heat pro- 
vided, a green house built on the premises, etc. This institution is 


located at Birmingham, Huntingdon county, and is a popular finishing 
school for young ladies. 

In the fall of the same year (1851) the Cassville Seminary was 
founded by Rev. Zane Bland, George W. Speer and David Clarkson, 
who secured subscriptions to the fund and an association of stock- 
holders was formed late in the year. The following 3-ear buildings 
were erected and the school started off with flattering prospects. The 
school was under the supervision of the ]\Iethodist church and a term 
was taught in the church building while the seminary buildings were 
under construction. At one time the attendance numbered about 125 
students. Then came a decline, due to various causes, and about the 
beginning of the Civil War the school was closed. 

Airy View Academy was opened at Port Royal in the fall of 1S52 
by David Wilson and David Laughlin. The latter was the first county 
superintendent of the Juniata county public schools. This school con- 
tinued as a priyate institution until about 1908, when it was turned over 
to the Port Royal school board and is now the borough high school. 

An academy was established at ]\IcAlisterville in 1855 and a three- 
story brick building was erected at a cost of about $3,000. Rev. 
Philander Camp, Presbyterian minister, was the first principal. George 
F. McFarland purchased the property from the stockholders in 185S, 
enlarged the building, employed some good teachers and conducted the 
school until 1862, when he and several of his students and teachers 
organized a military company, which was assigned to the One Hundred 
and Fifty-first Pennsylvania Regiment, of which Professor McFarland 
was made lieutenant-colonel. He was wounded at the battle of Gettys- 
burg and in the fall of that year reopened the academy as a school for 
soldiers' orphans. It was one of the three schools that visited the 
legislature in JNIarch, 1866, and influenced the members of the assembly 
to abandon the pauper bill and to continue the appropriations for the 
support of the free schools. The students also took part in the cere- 
monv connected with the reception of the laattle-flags at Philadelphia 
on July 4, 1866. A new building was erected that year. On January 
I, 1876, the control of the school passed to Jacob Smith, who had been 
its steward for a number of years. Then came various changes in the 
management until about 1908. when it passed under the control of the 
Fayette township school board for the centralization of some of the 


district schools and also a township high school. Four teachers are now- 
employed in the building. 

In the spring of 1855 "^^'ashington Academy" was opened in the 
old school house on the hill at ]MarkelsvilIe, with Rev. A. R. Height 
as principal. George Alarkel erected a two-story frame house for the 
school in 1867. Mr. Alarkel was the most generous supporter of the 
school and after his death it was discontinued, the building being con- 
verted into dwellings. 

Rev. T. B. Bucher opened a school on April 8, 1856, in the base- 
ment of the Reformed church at Landisburg and gave it the name of 
"JMount Dempsey Academy." It continued in operation under various 
principals until in 1864, when it was closed permanently. 

The Juniata \'alley Normal School was opened at Newport on April 
8, 1867, under the principalship of Silas \\'right. who became the 
principal of the Soldiers' Orphans School the following year, and the 
normal passed out of existence. Other private schools were the 
"Susquehanna Institute," conducted for some time by Professor Bartlett 
and Rev. \\". B. Craig in the basement of the United Presbyterian church 
at Duncannon; "Sherman's ^'alle^• Institute," at Andersonburg, and the 
"Charity School." in ^Madison township. Perry county. 

Pennsylvania's public school system was inaugurated under the pro- 
visions of an act of the legislature, approved by Governor \\'olfe on 
April I. 1834. In the establishment of the free schools the state had 
no land grant of one section or two sections in each Congressional town- 
ship, as did the states that were admitted into the Union after the 
formation of the Federal government. All her revenues for educational 
purposes have to be raised by local taxation and appropriations from 
the state to the several counties in proportion to the school population. 
According to the report of the state superintendent of public instruction 
for the vear 191 1. the total receipts of the four counties in the Juniata 
valley were as follows : 

From State 

Local Taxes Appropriation 

Huntingdon §104.324.43 $51,784.68 

Mifflin 77.452.97 34.279.10 

Juniata 38.522.81 24.467.15 

Perry 54.349.01 33.669.20 

Total $274,649.22 $144,200.13 



The grand total from all sources was $418,849-35, of which 
$264,508.64 was expended for teachers' salaries and the remainder for 
the erection and repair of buildings, fuel, text-books, supplies, etc. 

Further statistical information 
following table : 


the schools is shown by the 



Huntingdon 262 

Mifflin 154 

Juniata Ill 

Perry 187 

Total 714 











Value of 








Since the report from which the above figures are taken was pub- 
lished several new buildings have been erected, so that the approximate 
value of school property in the four counties in 1913 is not far from 
$1,000,000. In the chapters relating to Township History will be found 
information concerning the early schools and the pioneer teachers in 
the different counties. 

Juniata College, the only institution devoted to higher education in 
the Juniata Valley, was opened on April 17, 1876, in a small room on 
\\'ashington street, West Huntingdon, with Jacob M. Zuck as principal 
and three students in attendance. Several efforts had been made previous 
to that time to revive the educational interests of the members of the 
Church of the Brethren (Dunkers), and the purpose of the school was 
to provide a place where the children of Dunker parents "might receive 
the benefits of an education distinguished by moral and religious prin- 
ciples as well as by good scholarship," though from the beginning the 
institution has been open to the members of every, or even no religious 
denomination. When the first catalogue was issued, in the spring of 
1878, the faculty consisted of seven instructors and 172 students were 

Professor Zuck's death occurred on May 10, 1879, and the name 
of "Brethren's Xormal College" was then adopted. The second cata- 
logue bears the names of James Ouinter as president and Prof. J. H. 
Brumbaugh as principal, and the faculty had been enlarged by the 
addition of two new instructors. "Founders' Hall" was erected in 


1878-79, intended to meet all the needs of a boarding school, but the 
growth of the college has necessitated changes in the original plans 
and the building is now the Administration Building, containing the 
chapel, the offices of the president and treasurer, and two recitation 
rooms. "Ladies' Hall" was built in 1890 and contains most of the 
dormitories for the female students. "Students' Hall" was erected in 
1895 and for a time the library occupied one-half the building, the re- 
mainder Ijeing given up to class rooms and laboratories. It is now 
used as a reading room, a biological laboratory, six class rooms, with 
the chemical laboratory in the basement and dormitories for young 
men on the third floor. "Oneida Hall" was completed in the spring 
of 1898. It contains the kitchen and pantries in the basement, the 
dining room on the first floor, and the second and third floors are fitted 
up as dormitories for girls. The athletic field was laid out in 1899 
and the gymnasium was built in 1901. The new library, for the erec- 
tion of which Andrew Carnegie donated about $15,000, was dedicated 
on April 17, 1907. The library contains about 30,000 volumes. 

The first charter of the school was received on November 18, 1878, 
and by an amended charter, received on September 14, 1S96, the in- 
stitution took the name of Juniata College. The institution comprises 
six departments, viz.: i. The College; 2. The Academy of College 
Preparatory; 3. The School of Education, a normal English course 
of four years; 4. The Bible School; 5. The School of Music; 6. The 
Business School. In 1912 the catalogue shows a faculty of twenty-nine 
members and an enrolment in all departments of 419 students. The 
campus of nine acres is beautifully situated in the northern part of the 
borough of Huntingdon, with which it is connected by a street railway. 
From the start the growth of Juniata College has been steady and 
substantial, and its future is one of promise. 

An attempt was made in the winter of 1800-01 to organize a library 
association in Lewistown and several shares were subscribed for that 
purpose. A meeting was called at Edward Williams' tavern for Feb- 
ruary 7, 1801, to organize the association, but if the organization was 
effected nothing can be learned of what it accomplished or when it went 
down. On January 7, 1870, a charter was granted to the Lewistown 
Librar}' Association and an organization was effected immediately after- 
ward. One thousand dollars were subscribed and invested in the pur- 


chase of books. The Hbrary was opened in the Bohner building, on 
East Alarket street, near Dorcas, and after several removals to different 
locations a permanent home was found in the Apprentices' Literary 
Society building on Third street, where it is still located. \\'illiam R. 
!McKee was the first librarian and the present incumbent of that position 
is Aliss Kate Swan. The association has a perpetual lease upon the 
quarters occupied l)y the library. 

The Apprentices" Literary Society, mentioned in the preceding para- 
graph, was organized on July 4, 1842, in the court-house, with five 
members, Henry J. Walters as president and Isaac W. Wiley as secre- 
tary. The object of the society was the improvement of the young men 
of Lewistown. At one time it numbered about forty active members, 
but in recent years the number has declined and active work has been 
discontinued since the building on Third street was leased to the Library 
Association. A few of the members still hold meetings in the building, 
the lease giving them that privilege, but al^out all the business that is 
ever transacted is the election of officers, and this is done merely for 
the purpose of complying with the terms of the charter and to hold 
the corporate power granted to the society. 

As a factor in education the press has played an important part in 
the dissemination of general information. The first newspaper in the 
Juniata Valley was started at ]\IiflIintown in 1794 and published about 
a year by Alichael Duffy, but the name of the paper has been lost. The 
Mifflin Gazette, of which little accurate information can be gleaned, 
began its career at Lewistown in 1796. According to an entry in the 
commissioners records for May 18, 1796, Joseph Charles, the publisher 
of the paper, was allowed a bill for "advertising the sale of unseated 
lands and the proposals for the building of the court-house." On July 
4, 1797, ]\Iichael Duffy issued the first numl:)er of the Huntingdon 
Courier and Weekly Advertiser from the office at the corner of 
Allegheny street and the public scjuare. It suspended in February, 1798, 
and in the fall of 1799 John R. Parrington began the publication of 
the Guardian of Liberty and Huntingdon Chronicle, which lived but a 
short time. 

Edward Cole and John Doyle commenced the publication of the 
Western Star at Lewistown on November 26, 1800. Doyle retired in 
January, 1801, and Cole continued the paper for about four years, 


when the office of publication was destroyed, but for what reason 
cannot now be ascertained. The Huntingdon Gazette and Weekly 
Advertiser appeared on February 12, 1801, imder the editorial manage- 
ment of John McGahan, a practical printer, who had been associated 
with Michael Duffy in the publication of the Huntingdon Courier four 
years before. It continued under different owners until 1839. 

The oldest paper in the valley is the Lewistown Gazette, which was 
started in 181 1 by William P. Elliott and James Dickson. About three 
years later Mr. Elliott retired and the paper was then successively owned 
by T. W. Alitchell, George W. Patton and William Ross until 1S33, 
when it was purchased by \^'illiam P. Elliott, one of the founders, who 
conducted it successfully for about two years, when his son, Richard 
S. Elliott, assumed the editorial management, although but eighteen years 
of age. The name was then changed to the Lewistown Gazette and 
Mifflin and Juniata Advertiser, the object no doulat having been to 
secure patronage in Juniata county, which had been erected a few years 
before. In 1839 the paper came into the possession of Henry Liebert, 
who changed the name to the Mifflin County Gazette and Farmers' and 
]\Iechanics' Journal. William Ross again became the owner in 1843 
and changed the name to the Lewistown Gazette, which it still retains. 
In October, 1846, the paper passed to George Frysinger, who sold it to 
David Over in March, 1865, but in the fall of the same year it became 
the property of Mr. Frysinger again. Ten years later the publishers 
were G. R. and W. M. Frysinger. The latter retired in 1876, when 
the paper was conducted by George Frysinger as editor and proprietor, 
with George R. Frysinger as local editor. On January i, 1884, the 
paper was sold to George F. and J. S. Stackpole, and upon the death 
of the latter George F. Stackpole became the sole proprietor. 

During the first half of the nineteenth century several newspaper 
ventures v.'ere launched in Huntingdon, but only one of the papers 
started in that time has survived. Among those that rose, flourished 
for a short time and then perished were the American Eagle, which 
began its career in 181 1; the Huntingdon Intelligencer was begun in 
September, 1813, by James Barbour and the name changed to the 
Republican in 1814, after which it ran to August, 1819, when it sus- 
pended : the Village Monitor existed for a short time, when the outfit 
was secured by another publisher, who started the Republican Advocate, 


which continued to 1839; Henry L. McConnell began the pubHcation 
of the Huntingdon Courier and Anti-Masonic Repubhcan in June, 1830, 
and after various changes it was consohdated with the Holhdaysburg 
Aurora in 1835 ; a German paper called the Huntingdon Bote, an anti- 
Masonic sheet, was started in 1834, but it was short -hved ; the old 
Courier outfit was purchased by A. W. Benedict & Company, who 
started the Huntingdon Journal in September, 1835, and continued it 
for several 3'ears. Still other and less fortunate papers were the 
Messenger, the Standing Stone Banner, Young America, the American 
and the \Vorkingmen's Advocate. The Huntingdon Globe, the only 
survivor of this period, was issued for the first time on November 
22, 1843, by L. G. JNIytinger and G. L. Gentzell. In July, 1844, the 
original partnership was dissolved and the publication was continued 
by Mr. Mytinger. 

In Juniata county the first newspaper, with the exception of Michael 
Dutfy's brief experiment in 1794, was the Mifflin Eagle, which was 
started by Andrew Gallagher in the spring of 1817. In 1826 the office 
was removed to Lewistown, where the paper was published under the 
same name for several years. The Mifflin Advocate made its appearance 
on September 8, 1820. published by David iNIcClure, but after a short 
time it suspended. After the removal of the Eagle to Lewistown there 
was no newspaper in the town until after the erection of the county 
of Juniata. On May 25, 183 1, Samuel McDowell and Charles Kelso 
issued the first number of the Juniata Telegraph and People's Advocate, 
which was succeeded by the Juniata Journal in 1835, with F. C. Merklein 
as publisher. The Juniata Free Press was started on June 22,, 183 1, 
by Samuel G. Nesbit, who sold it to Stephen Cummings in May, 1836. 
About a year later Cummings disposed of the material and George F. 
Humes began the publication of the Juniata Herald and Anti-Masonic 
Democrat, which suspended after a precarious existence of about eighteen 
months. The Telegraph, after various changes in name and owner- 
ship, was consolidated with the True Democrat, which was started by 
Greer & Harris in June, i860, the consolidation taking place on October 
3, 1867. 

The Juniata Sentinel, the oldest paper now in existence in the county, 
was started by Alexander K. McClure, who issued the first number on 
December 9, 1846. In March, 1852, the paper was sold to John J. 


Patterson, who after publishing it about a year sold it to Greer S: 
^IcCrum. During the next twenty years the paper changed owner- 
ship at least seven times until it became the property of B. F. Schweyer 
on June 8, 1S70. In the meantime William ^I. Allison & Company 
began the publication of the Juniata Republican on April 4, 1S66, and 
like many other journalistic enterprises in the valley it changed owners 
several times before it was consolidated with the Sentinel, the first 
number of the Juniata Sentinel and Republican making its appearance 
on October 22, 1873. Since the death of B. F. Schweyer in the spring 
of 1913, the paper has been published by his son, W'ilderforce Schweyer. 
Alexander K. McClure, the founder of the Juniata Sentinel, and 
who afterward became one of the best known journalists of the state, 
was born in Perry count)' on January 9, 1828, and at the time he 
entered upon his newspaper career was but nineteen years of age. \\'hile 
serving an apprenticeship with James ^Marshall in a tannery at Xew 
Bloomfield, he was in the habit of visiting the ofifice of the Perry 
Freeman, where he greedily read the exchanges and accjuired the ambi- 
tion to become a journalist. LTpon severing his connection with the 
Juniata Sentinel in 1852, he purchased a half interest in the Chambers- 
burg Repository. The next year he was nominated by the Whig state 
convention for the office of auditor-general by acclamation, but was 
defeated along with the rest of the ^^'hig ticket, the party being then 
in a hopeless minority in the state. He was one of the organizers of 
the Republican party in Pennsylvania, but when the Whigs of Franklin 
county formed a coalition with the Know Nothings in 1855 ^''^ refused 
to support such an alliance and sold his interest in the Repository. Xot 
long after that he was admitted to the bar, and in 1856 was a delegate 
to the national convention that nominated General John C. Fremont for 
the presidency. In i860 he was chairman of the Republican state 
committee and the same year occupied a seat in the Pennsylvania state 
senate. During the Civil war he was a staunch supporter of the L'nion 
and held close relations with both President Lincoln and Governor 
Curtin. But the call of the newspaper office was too strong to be 
resisted and in 1862 he purchased the Chambersburg Repository. In 
1872 he was one of the delegates to the convention which nominated 
Horace Greeley for the presidency and that year was again elected to 
the state senate. Two years later he was nominated for the mayoralty 


of Philadelphia and was defeated b}- a small majority. Not long after 
that he became editor of the Philadelphia Times, where he made a 
national reputation as a vigorous and talented writer. 

The first paper published in Perry county was the Perry Forester, 
which was started at Landisburg in 1820, soon after the county was 
organized, by Magee & Peterson. In April, 1829, the publication office 
was removed to New Bloomfield and the paper published there until 
February, 1836, when it was discontinued. On October 7, 1836, George 
Stroop and James E. Sample issued the first number of the Perry County 
Democrat, which succeeded to the good-will of the Forester. In 
January, 1854, the Democrat became the property of Stroop & ^lagee, 
the senior member of the firm being a son of Judge Stroop, one of 
the founders of the paper, and the junior member a son of Alexander 
Magee, one of the founders of the Forester. ]\Ir. Stroop retired in 
1858 and the paper passed to the possession of John A. Alagee. The 
Perry County Freeman was established in 1839 by John A. Bahn and 
it was in this paper that the contril^utions to the County Historical 
Society were published. The People's Advocate and Press, a paper 
which is still in existence, began its existence in New Bloomfield on 
June 29, 1853. In 1854 it supported the American party and when 
the Republican party was organized it became a consistent advocate 
of the principles of the new movement. 

Other Perry county papers were the Times, of New Bloomfield, 
which was published for several years by Frank Mortimer; the Perry 
County Standard, published by Samuel Schroch ; the Liverpool Mercury, 
which was removed to New Bloomfield and consolidated with the Demo- 
crat; and the Ledger, News and Gazette, of Newport. 

Remington's Newspaper Annual for 19 10 gives the following list 
of newspapers in the four counties embraced in this work : In Hunt- 
ingdon — the Huntingdon Globe, the Grange News (monthly), the New 
Era (daily and weekly), the News (semi-weekly), the Mapleton Item, 
the Mount Union Republican (semi-weekly), the Mount Union Times, 
and the Orbisonia Dispatch. In ^lifilin — the Belleville Times, the Lewis- 
town Gazette, the Lewistown Democrat, the Lewistown Sentinel (daily), 
the McVeytown Journal, and the Newton Hamilton Herald. In Juniata 
— the Mifflintown Herald, the Mifilintown Sentinel, the Mifilintown 
Tribune, the Port Royal Times, and the Thompsontown Globe. In 


Perry — the Duncannon Record, the Liverpool Sun, the Marysville 
Journal, the Perry County Democrat, the People's Advocate and Press, 
the Newport News, and the Newport Ledger. All the papers included 
in this list are published weekly unless otherwise indicated. 

One educational influence of a local character that deserves mention 
in this connection was the Perry County Historical Society. It grew out 
of the old Philomathean Literary Society of the New Bloomfield 
Academy and its history begins with the meeting of November 12, 1880, 
when it was decided to add to the exercises of the society the reading 
of papers bearing on local history. John A. Baker, at that time editor 
and proprietor of the Perry County Freeman, tendered the use of his 
columns for the weekly publication of such papers as might be approved 
by the society, and on January 14, 1881, a resolution was adopted to 
the effect that "The historical department of the society embrace the 
work of gathering the history of Perry county." The historical com- 
mittee consisted of W. H. Sponsler, J. R. Flickinger, C. W. Baker, 
J. C. Wallis, Rev. A. H. Spangler and Rev. John Edgar. It was soon 
seen that the work entailed upon this committee was too arduous for the 
number of members and on March 25, 1881, the following were added : 
Wilson Lupfer, J. W. Beers, A. B. Grosh, J. W. McKee, George Rouse, 
C. W. Rhinesmith, William Orr and R. H. Stewart. At the same 
meeting the following resolution was adopted : 'Tt shall be the duty 
of the chairman of the said committee, as soon as shall be deemed 
convenient, to assemble the committee and resolve it into sub-committees, 
assigning to such committees respectively such districts, townships or 
historical epochs as shall by such committee be deemed advisable." 

For a few months the interest in the work was keen and a number 
of historical articles were published in the Freeman. These papers 
dealt with the natural features of the county, its division into town- 
ships, its industries, sketches of its pioneers and old families, churches, 
schools, etc. But after a short time the interest waned, apathy settled 
upon the society and the work was abandoned. 



General Remarks — Presbyterians — First Missionaries — Catholics — Methodist Episcopal 
Church — Negro Churches — Methodist Protestant — Lutherans — Reformed Church 
Baptists — German Baptists, or Brethren — Mennonites — United Brethren — Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church — Church of God, or Winebrennarians — Evangelical Asso- 
ciation — Reformed Church of America. 

TO present in detail a history of each of the numerous churches 
in the four counties of Huntingdon, Mifflin, Juniata and Perry 
would require a good-sized volume in itself, even if the neces- 
sary information could be gathered for the compilation of such a 
history, which, in many instances, it is utterly impossible to do. Pastors 
come and go, bearing away with them knowledge of many unrecorded 
incidents of their ministrations, church records are not alwa3-s kept as 
clearly as they should be, many of the old "minute "books" have been 
lost through accident or negligence, the original members of the con- 
gregations have passed to their final reward, and there is left no source 
from which to draw reliable information regarding" the trials and 
struggles of the pioneer Christians. 

It is therefore not the purpose of this work to enter into the subject 
minutely, but to present to .the reader such facts as will enable him 
to form some general idea of the religious progress of the people through 
the century and a half since the first white men came into the Juniata 
valley. In presenting this topic, the object has been to present the 
different denominations as nearly as possible in the order of their com- 
ing, with a due regard for those numerically the strongest, and the con- 
gregations of each in chronological sequence. In this method, the 
denomination that must occupy the first place is the 


Among the first settlers were a number of this faith and one of 
their earliest concerns was to secure the services of clergymen to 

. . 343 


minister to their spiritual needs. As early as 1760 the settlers in Sher- 
man's valley made application to the Donegal Presbytery for preachers, 
and missionaries were sent to them. In 1766 three churches were 
organized — Dick's Gap, four miles east of New Bloomtield ; Centre, 
near Landisburg; and Upper or Toboyne, not far from the present 
borough of Blain. In that year Rev. Charles Eeatty and Rev. George 
Duffield were appointed by the synod of New York and Philadelphia 
to visit the frontier inhabitants, and on Alonday, August iSth, they 
left Carlisle for Sherman's valley. The next day Air. Beatty preached 
at Centre, which he describes in his journal as "a place in the woods, 
designed for building a house for worship." Continuing their journey, 
Air. Duffield preached on the 21st "at a place where the people had 
begun to build a house for worship before the late war, but by accident 
it was burned." This was at Academia, where the Lower Tuscarora 
church was built not long after Mr. Beatty's visit. 

After preaching "in the woods, two miles on the north side of the 
Juniata," on Friday, the 2Jnd, Air. Beatty and his companion passed 
the night at James Patterson's, where the town of Alexico is now 
situated. It was in this neighborhood that the Cedar Spring church 
was organized, and in Alarch, 1767, James Patterson and John Purdy 
went to the land office and obtained a tract known as the "glebe lands" 
for the use of the church. 

At Patterson's the missionaries separated. Duffield going to the Path 
valley and Beatty to "the new settlements up the river Juniata." On 
the 25th he was at Thomas Holt's, near old Fort Granville. On the 
28th he crossed the Juniata "at the mouth of the Aughweek river" and 
followed up that stream on his way to Fort Littleton. 

Among the ministers who served these earl_\- churches during the 
latter part of the eighteenth century were Hugh Alagill, William and 
John Linn, John Hoge, Henderson, Cooper, Caldwell, Speer, AIcLane 
and John Coulter, the last named preaching his first sermon at the Lower 
Tuscarora church on New Year's day, 1800. 

In 1774 a sermon was preached at the house of Robert Brotherton, 
near the present village of Allensville, Alifflin county, Init the name of 
the preacher appears to have been lost. This was the Ijeginning of the 
West Kishacoquillas church. The next year Rev. Philip V. Fithian, 
a son-in-law of Rev. Charles Eeatty, visited the Kishacoquillas valley 


as a missionary and preached for the congregation at Allensville. A 
tent was first used as a place of worship, but a log house was built a 
few years later and used until 1826, when it was replaced by a brick 
structure. In i860 a brick building was erected at Belleville at a cost 
of about $4,000 and the congregation removed to that place. The old 
church at Allensville was sold soon after this change was made. Rev. 
James Johnston was pastor from 1784 to 1796, when he was succeeded 
b}' Rev. ^Villiam Kennedy, who remained until 1822. The East 
Kishacoquillas Presbyterian church was organized at an early date, not 
exactly known, and was located at Kellyville. ]\Ir. Johnston was also 
pastor of this church for several years. 

The Presbyterian church at Shermansdale first appears in the records 
of the Presbytery in 1778 as "Sherman's Creek Church," Rev. Hugh 
Magill, pastor. It was united with the New Bloomfield congregation 
in 1856. The site is now marked by an old grave-yard, in which it is 
said the first white man to die in Perry county is buried. 

In 1785 Rev. Matthew Stephens settled in Bratton township, Mitiflin 
county, and was the first resident minister in charge of a congregation. 
He preached at Waynesburg (now ]\Ic\'"eytown), Lewistown and other 
places in the county until about 1796. 

On July 6, 1789, the Presbyterians in and around Huntingdon 
organized a church and issued a call to Rev. James Johnston for half 
of his services. On October 7, 1789, he agreed to comply with their 
recpest and services were held in different buildings until the court-house 
was finished, when they were held there. Then the Presbyterians, 
Lutherans and Episcopalians united in the erection of a brick church 
at the northeast corner of Fourth and Church streets, but the different 
denominations could not agree, and in 1826 the sheriff sold the interests 
of the Presbyterians and Episcopalians to Henry Miller. The next year 
the Presbyterians bought a lot on the west side of Fourth street, between 
Church and Mifflin, and the corner-stone of a new building was laid 
on August 13, 1828. This house stood until 1844, when it was replaced 
by a larger one, which in turn was superseded by the present building 
in 1876. 

Rev. James Johnston held services in the Hartslog valley, in Hunt- 
ingdon county, soon after he became associated with the church in the 
Kishacoquillas valley, and about 1786 a log church was built. It was 


without any means of heating until 1795, but the people would wrap 
themselves up and attend services even on the coldest days, while the 
minister would deliver his discourse with his overcoat on in order to 
keep warm. 

A Presbyterian church was organized at Lewistown in 1790, though 
services had been held there for several years prior to that date by Rev. 
Matthew Stephens, who was succeeded by Rev. James Simpson. About 
1820 a lot was purchased on the corner of Third and Brown streets 
and a stone house was erected there. It was taken down in 1855 and 
a brick church was built in its stead. The third building on this lot 
was completed in 1910 at a cost of about $45,000. The church fronts 
on Brown street and fronting on Third street is a beautiful little build- 
ing used as a Sunday school chapel. 

On "Shaver's Creek Manor," in Huntingdon county, a piece of 
ground was set apart in 1790 for a Presbyterian church and grave-yard 
and on February 2^,, 1805, the "Presbyterian Church of Shaver's Creek 
Manor" was incorporated. About 1844 a church was established in 
Jackson township, where most of the members lived, but the old church 
was kept up for years afterward. Rev. James Crisswell, of the West 
Kishacoquillas church, was one of the early ministers. This church 
is not mentioned in the history of the Huntingdon Presbytery. 

"The Church at the mouth of the Juniata," as it was first known, 
had its beginning in 1793, but being too near the Sherman's Creek 
church the congregation moved their place of worship to "Boyd's," 
two miles farther west. This church was the predecessor of the 
Presbvterian church of Duncannon, which was organized about the 
beginnfng of the nineteenth century, with Rev. James Brady as the first 
pastor. Services were held in private residences until about 1804, when 
a log church was built on an eminence at the mouth of the Juniata. A 
larger and more modern church took the place of the old log edifice 
some years later and the congregation is still in a prosperous condition. 

Lost Creek church was organized by people who formerly belonged 
to the Cedar Spring congregation, and who withdrew in 1796 to form 
the new church. In 1797 a log house of worship was built on ground 
donated bv David Bole and Hugh McAlister. No regular pastor was 
engaged until the fall of 1801, when Rev. Matthew Brown came to 
the church, but services had been held in the meantime by such ministers 


as could be induced to minister to the wants of the new church. About 
the same time that this church was organized a movement was started 
in Mifflintown for the erection of a Presbyterian church there. In the 
fall of 1795 subscriptions were secured amounting to about $2,500 and 
a building was erected soon afterward. Upon the establishment of the 
Lost Creek and Mifflintown churches, the one at Cedar Spring was 
abandoned, the glebe lands were sold and the proceeds divided between 
the new congregations. The present church in Mifflintown, at the north- 
east corner of the public square, is a handsome brick edifice, erected 
in 1886. 

During the year 1800 Presbyterian congregations Avere organized 
at Shirleysburg and in Dublin township, Huntingdon county. At the 
latter place a log house was built the same year, but the church at 
Shirleysburg was not built until 1830. Revs. James Johnston, Samuel 
Woods and John Peebles were some of the early ministers. 

The McVeytown church was regularly organized in 1814, when 
John McVey conveyed to the trustees of the congregation a half an 
acre of land for the use of the church. A small stone building was 
erected the next year. Services had been held at this place by Rev. 
^Matthew Stephens, James Simpson and others before that time. In 
1833 the old church building was torn down and a more commodious 
one erected. 

Rev. James M. Olmstead came into the Juniata Valley early in 1S23 
and in April organized the church at Old Buffalo, where services had 
been irregularly held for a number of years by Rev. John Linn and 
others. A log house was built that year and used until about 1850, 
when it was abandoned and a new one erected at Ickesburg. 

On June 7, 1825, thirty-two persons, members of the old Centre 
church, withdrew from that congregation and organized the Landisburg 
Presbyterian church, with Rev. James M. McClintock as pastor. Ser- 
vices were held in the school house for about five years, when a church 
was built. 

On the line between Union and Brown townships, Miiiflin county, 
the LTnited Presbyterians and the East Kishacoquillas congregation 
erected what was known as the "Centre Church" in 1830. The former 
denomination finally gave up their organization and the East 
Kishacoquillas church came into control. The same year (1830) a 


Presbyterian church was organized at Alexandria, Huntingdon county. 
Not long after that a union was effected with the Hartslog congregation 
and in 185 1 a handsome brick church was erected at a cost of over 

Early in 183 1 the Presbyterians living in New Bloomfield and 
the immediate vicinity organized a church and services were at first 
held in the court-house by Rev. John Niblock. The same year a lot 
was purchased at the corner of High and Carlisle streets, and after 
several vexatious delays the church was dedicated in 1835. It was 
used until 1870, when it was removed and the present structure was 
erected at a cost of about $7,500. 

In jMilroy the Presbyterians departed from the usual custom by 
first building a house for worship and then organizing a congregation. 
A neat frame structure was put up in 1833 and on August 13, 1834, 
the congregation, consisting of 105 members, was regularly organized 
by a committee from the Huntingdon Presbytery. Rev. James Xourse 
was the first pastor. In 185S this congregation erected a brick building 
for a mission at Siglerville. From May, 1858, to September, 1883, 
the pastor of the Milroy church was Rev. J. W. White. Toward the 
latter part of his administration he changed his views regarding certain 
doctrines of the Presbyterian creed and he withdrew from the church. 
His former congregation, with many others, united in a request for 
him to remain and preach the gospel as he interpreted it. Accord- 
ingly the Milroy church became known as the "Free Church of Milroy 
and Siglerville," Mr. \\'hite remaining as the pastor and increasing 
the membership from 160 to nearly 400. Rev. J. C. W'ilhelm, who 
withdrew from the Huntingdon Presbytery at the same time, assisted 
I\Ir. White in this work. Mr. \\'hite died at the Presbyterian Hospital 
in Philadelphia, April 11, 1901. He continued as pastor up to a few 
months before his death, and the church is now known as the "\Miite 

On IMay 16, 1835, the Birmingham Presbyterian church was 
organized with Rev. Samuel Hill as pastor. Services were held in the 
old stone school house until 1837, when a church was built. This 
house was outgrown in time and a new one was erected in 1869. 

A Presbyterian congregation was organized at Newton Hamilton 
in the spring of 1838 by Revs. John Peebles and J. W. \\'oods, acting 


under authority of the Huntingdon Presbytery, and Rev. Benjamin 
Carroll was installed as pastor. A small frame church was erected that 
year and used until 1838, when it was replaced by a larger house of 

In 1845 ^ev. B. E. Collins began holding meetings for the Pres- 
byterians of Mount Union and in 1849 ^ church was erected. It was 
a small frame house, but large enough to meet the needs of the small 
congregation which gathered there. The church was regularly organized 
in May, 1865, and the present house of worship was built in 1882. 

On May i. 1S46, John Wiley and his wife conveyed to the trustees 
of the Presljyterian congregation in Newport a lot for a church. }vleet- 
ings had been held before that time in private dwellings, vacant store 
rooms and the school house. The corner stone of the church was laid 
on May 12, 1846, and the building was dedicated on May 23, 1847. A 
new edifice was erected in 1885. 

In Huntingdon county Presbyterian churches were established at 
Shade Gap in 1848 by Rev. J. F. ]McGinnes, and at Shaver's creek 
bridge, in West township, and Spruce creek in 1850. 

At Port Royal the first sermon of any kind was preached by Rev. 
Charles Beatty in 1766, but the first Presbyterians in this vicinity at- 
tended the Lower Tuscarora church. Later services were held in the 
school houses in the Lower Tuscarora valley until a small church was 
built. By an arrangement with the Lutherans this house was used by 
the two congregations on alternate Sundays until the Presbyterians 
became strong enough to build a better house. In 1852 a brick church 
was erected at a cost of about $6,500. Four years later the roof was 
badly damaged by a storm, but it was soon repaired. The house was 
enlarged in 1880 and further additions have been made since that time. 
Rev. William Y. Brown was the first pastor. 

At Petersburg a congregation was formed and a church erected 
about 1834. The house was first used by what was called the Bethel 
congregation, organized in 1850 in the church at Shaver's creek bridge. 
Subsequently the name was changed to the Petersburg Presbyterian 

A congregation of only six members was organized at ^^lapleton 
in the early part of 1861 by Rev. B. E. Collins, and a brick house of 
worship was erected the same year. During the war the church made 


but little progress, but the six faithful members were like the leaven 
the woman hid in the meal, for the JMapleton church has been pros- 
perous ever since the close of the war. 

In 1850 what was known as the "Union Church"' was built at Spruce 
Creek and was intended to be free to all denominations. Presbyterian 
ministers held a revival there in the winter of 1S70-71 and on April 9, 
1870, fifty-one members met and organized the Lower Spruce Creek 
church. A neat brick house was erected on ground belonging to E. B. 
Isett, on the east side of the turnpike. 

One of the newest Presbyterian churches in the valley is that of 
Burnham, which was organized about the beginning of the present 
century. A neat and substantial house of worship, costing about $9,000, 
was dedicated in January, ,1903. 

The United Presbyterians of Standing Stone valley organized about 
1 80 1, as an off-shoot of the Associate Presbyterians of Huntingdon. 
In 1858 a separate charge was established, under Rev. J. M. Adair, and 
in 1869 a church was built. The United Presbyterian church of Mc- 
Coysville, Juniata county, was built in 1871, and the one at ^Mexico in 
1877. Ii'' 1907 this denomination organized a church at Highland Park, 
a suburb of Lewistown. Services were held for a time in the hose 
house, but later a church was built at the corner of Sixth street and 
Electric avenue. 


were the next denomination to send missionaries into the Juniata Valley. 
Jesuit priests were in the Black Log valley before 1770. and on August 
I, 1794, Dr. William Smith, the founder of Huntingdon, deeded to 
Right Rev. John Carroll, Bishop of Baltimore, a tract of ground at 
the northeast corner of Church and Second streets for a church. A 
small log chapel was built soon afterward and was used until 1828, 
when the brick church was erected at the corner of Sixth and Washing- 
ton streets. This church (the Holy Trinity) is still standing, though it 
has been repaired and remodeled to meet the demands of the growing 
congregation and it is still the only Catholic church in the borough. 

About 1800 a Catholic church was established on Shade creek, in 
Cromwell township, Huntingdon county, and called St. Mary's. While 
the Pennsylvania canal was under construction a number of Catholics 


came into the Juniata Valley as workmen upon the canal and services 
were held at different places along the line. As Lewistown was a central 
point, Right Rev. Henry Conwell, Bishop of Philadelphia, deemed it 
advisable to establish there a permanent church. Accordingly, on April 
14, 1S28, he purchased the lot at the northwest corner of Dorcas and 
Third streets, on which a chapel and parsonage were soon afterward 
erected. The little church was under the charge of the Pittsburgh 
diocese until i8r)8, when the Harrisburg diocese was formed and Lewis- 
town came within the new district. L'p to that time the church had 
been supplied from Huntingdon and Bellefonte. but after the estal^lish- 
ment of the Harrisburg diocese steps were taken to improve the con- 
ditions at Lewistown. The chapel was supplanted by the present brick 
building in 1870 and two years later Father T. J. Fleming was placed 
in charge as resident priest. In 1913 the membership of the church 
was about three hundred, with Rev. John ]\Ielchor in charge. Some 
years ago a mission was established at Burnham and a chapel there was 
dedicated in the spring of 1908. 

In 1855 Father Hayden, of Stonerstown, Bedford county, visited 
the few Catholic families living in the vicinity of the present borough 
of Dudley and held services. A year or so later a small frame chapel 
was erected, whicli in time was replaced by a larger and more pretentious 
edifice. The church was destroyed by fire in 1871, but a new one was 
soon afterward erected at a cost of about $8,000. 


Some time during the year 1795 a Methodist minister came to 
Shirleysburg and held services in the house of Isaac Sharrer. A class 
was formed soon after that and about the beginning of the nineteenth 
century a congregation was organized. The first house of worship was 
built about 18 10 and in 1843 ^ brick church was erected. It was 
destroyed by fire after a short time and the present building was put 
up in 1877. 

In the town of Huntingdon, the first Methodist services were held 
at the house of Rebecca Tanner and the first society was organized 
in 1797. The first house of worship was built in 1802 at the northwest 
corner of Fifth and Churcii streets. It was of logs, like most of the 
earlv churches, but with repairs and additions it continued in use until 


1856, when a new house was built. A third building was erected about 
1893. but it was burned a few years ago and the present magnilicent 
structure at the corner of Fifth and Mifflin streets was dedicated in 
19 10. The West Huntingdon chapel, on Fifteenth street between Aloore 
and ]\Iifflin streets, was built in 1875, and is now known as the Second 
Methodist Episcopal Church of Huntingdon. 

A congregation was organized in the Trough creek valley, in the 
northern part of Tod township, Huntingdon county, in 1798 and a 
log church was built there before the close of the century. A new 
church was built in 1861. Another early Methodist church in Tod 
township is Asbury chapel, which was built about 1801. 

About the Ijeginning of the nineteenth century, Rebecca Duncan, 
who lived on Duncan's island at the mouth of the Juniata, opened her 
house for the entertainment of IVIethodist missionaries and ser\-ices were 
held there. Later she persuaded the trustees of the school district to 
add a second story to the school house at her expense, and this room 
she donated to the church as a house of worship. Regular services 
were held there until the great flood of February, 1865, when the house 
was washed away. In the meantime a congregation had been organized 
in Duncannon in 1809, the first services being held at the residence of 
Abraham Young. This church was one of four in the same circuit, 
the others being Liverpool, Shermansdale and Pfoutz A'alley. The 
first house of worship for the Duncannon church was built in 1S27, 
a larger one in 1840, and the present one in i8Sj. 

The first Methodist society in Lewistown was organized in 1815. 
Charles Hardy, who located there as early as 1791, was a ]\Iethodist 
and through his influence ministers of that faith visited the new town 
and the first services were held in the old log jail. Before the close 
of the \'ear 181 5 a small brick church was liuilt on Third street, between 
Brown and Dorcas. In 1830 a larger building was erected on the 
corner of Third and Dorcas, to which galleries were added in 1844 to 
accommodate the growing congregation. Further additions were made 
in 1867, but in time the building became too small and the present im- 
posing edifice was erected in 1910 at a cost of about $55,000. The 
church was part of the Aughwick circuit until 1833, when it was made 
a separate station. 

In 1S22 the few Methodists living along Laurel run began holding 


meetings in the school house. Their number increased, and in 1825 
a small church was built in Milroy. A larger and more commodious 
house was erected in 1846. The first pastor of the Laurel Run or 
Milroy church was Rev. Thomas McGee. About a year after the first 
services were held for this congregation a small society was formed at 
Yeagertown. The present church there was dedicated in 1903. 

The Methodist church of Newton Hamilton was organized in the 
spring of 1825 and a small frame house was built on the farm of 
Joshua Morrison. The construction of the canal four years later forced 
the removal of this building a short distance, where it was used by 
the congregation until 1840, when a new house was built in the village. 
The present brick building was erected in 1884. 

The Pine Grove church, in Juniata county, was organized about 1S20 
and services were held in the school house until 182S, when a stone 
church was built near the old town of Jericho. Among the early 
preachers here were Henry G. Fearing and Wesley Howe. The old 
church was entirely remodeled in 1857 and is still used by the con- 

The Perry Forester, of New Bloomfield, published a notice in the 
issue preceding June 18, 1829, that Rev. ]\Ir. Tarring, a 2\Iethodist 
minister, would preach in the court-house on the evening of the iSth 
"at early candle-light." Not long after that a society was organized, 
and in October following a lot was purchased on High street for a 
church. The building was completed in 183 1 and was used until 1866, 
when it was rebuilt under the charge of Rev. Franklin Gerhart. 

^Methodist churches were organized in 1830 at Newburg and Frank- 
linville, Huntingdon county, and at Blain, Perry county. At Newburg 
a frame house was built soon after the organization was effected. At 
Franklinville the society was the outgrowth of a class which had been 
organized some years before by the Matterns, Stonebrakers and other 
Methodist families living in the vicinity. The Blain church was 
organized through the efforts of David Aloreland and William Sheibley, 
who had opened their houses to itinerant ministers some vears before. 
The church Ijuilding was erected in 1855 and was remodeled in i88s, 
when a cupola and bell were added. The same year that these churches 
were formed (1830) the first Methodist sermon was preached in Alifflin- 
town by a minister named Kincaid. Five years later a building was 


erected which was used both as a school house and a place of worship 
until after the great storm of 1879, which did considerable damage to 
the structure. It was then repaired and remodeled and since then has 
been used by the congregation as a church. 

The I^IcVeytown JNIethodist church was organized in 1S32 and the 
following year a lot on Queen street was purchased and a brick house 
of worship erected thereon. In 1874 the building was enlarged and 
remodeled and is still used by the congregation. The same year that 
this societ}' was organized the Dry Valley 2\Iethodist church, at Kelly- 
ville, was also established. A building was partially erected in 1835 
and furnished with plain board seats. In this condition it was used 
for a number of years before it was plastered or provided with better 
furniture. In 1868 the present brick house was erected. 

McKendree chapel, in the southern part of Cromwell township, 
Huntingdon county, and ^Monroe chapel, two and a half miles north- 
west of Orbisonia, were both established in 1832. A house of worship 
was built for the latter congregation in 1838, but the McKendree chapel 
was not built until about 1844. 

For some years prior to 1833 the Methodists living in the vicinity 
of Warriors Mark had been attending church at Birmingham, where 
a church had Ijeen organized some years before and was then meeting 
in the school house. In 1833 a society was formed at Warrior's Mark 
and a small frame church erected. It was replaced by a new one in 
1873 ''t a cost of $2,500. The first house of worship was built by the 
Birmingham congregation in 1835 '^"'^1 ^^^^ present one in 1874. 

On October 19, 1836, James Black gave a deed for a lot to the 
trustees of the Methodist congregation, which had just been organized 
at Newport. Early in 1869 the church appointed a committee to sell 
the church erected in 1837, and on April 26 it reported the sale of the 
property to the Evangelical Association for $1,450, with the right to 
use the building until the following October. W^ork on a new house of 
worship was commenced and the new building was dedicated on January 
6, 1 87 1. It is one of the handsomest churches in Newport and cost 
about $15,000. 

Early in the nineteenth century the Crums. Chaneys, Wilsons and 
other Methodist families living near Manor Hill, Huntingdon county, 
organized a class and services were held at irregular intervals in a 


small brick house erected for the purpose. In 1837 the society ^vas 
fully organized and a larger house of worship was built the same year. 

A Methodist society was organized at Mount Union in 1838, but 
no definite information concerning its early history can be gathered. 
The present house of worship was built in 1873. 

At Millerstown the Methodist church was built in 1840, the con- 
gregation there being at that time a part of the Newport charge. Rev. 
Peter McEnnally was the first pastor to serve at ISIillerstown after the 
new church was erected. The same year that the Millerstown church 
was built a society was organized at Mill Creek, but no church was 
built there until 1852. 

Services in the town of New Buffalo were first held by the ^Methodists 
in a private house and later in a building erected for mercantile purposes. 
When the school house was built in 1834 the little congregation met 
there until 1841, when a church was erected by Rev. Joseph Parker. 
A revival was then held and about forty persons united with the church. 
The old building was completely remodeled — or rather rebuilt — in 1876. 
A year after the erection of the first church in New Buffalo a Methodist 
church was built at Ickesburg. 

Thomas T. Cromwell, the Martins, the Hockenburys and a few 
other Methodist families organized a class at Orbisonia soon after the 
beginning of the nineteenth century, but no regular church was built 
there until 1846. It was replaced by a larger and more modern structure 
a few years ago. 

In 1847 the Methodist church at Port Royal was built and it is the 
oldest church edifice in the borough. The same year a church was 
organized at Shade Gap and a class was formed in Penn township, 
Huntingdon county, by Rev. Robert Beers, though no church was built 
there until 1852. The church at East Waterford was built in the year 

On November 24, 185 1, James Bailey donated a piece of ground 
at the junction of the Greenwood Furnace and Back roads, in Brown 
township. ^Mifflin county, for a IMethodist church. The next year a neat 
frame house was put up and the first services were held in the "Mountain 
Chapel," as the new church was called, by Rev. William R. Mills, of 
the Milroy circuit. The Methodist church of Marklesburg was also 
organized in 185 1 and the church there was dedicated some time in 


the summer of 1852 by Rev. (afterward Bishop) Thomas Bowman. 
]\Iount Pleasant church, near Eagle foundry, was also built and dedicated 
in 1852. Other churches organized or dedicated in this year were 
those at Allenville and Lilleyville, the latter on the farm of Rev. S. P. 
Lilley, a local preacher. 

Bauman's chapel, in Smith's valley, about two miles from Cassville, 
was built in 1854, and the church at Mooresville the same year. Class 
meetings had been held by the Smith's valley congregation for some 
time prior to 1854 and services were held in the school house until 
the church was erected. The ]\Iooresville congregation first met in the 
log school house not far from Neff's Mills until the brick church was 
built at ]\Iooresville in 1854, as above stated. 

A Methodist church was built and dedicated in Horse valley, Perry 
county, in 1857. It stands on land donated by Benjamin Scyoc and is 
known as "Scyoc Chapel." About the same time a society was organized 
at Burnham. The present church edifice there was erected in 1907. 

A class was organized at Mapleton school house in 1859 and a 
regular pastor was supplied the next year. A church was built and 
dedicated in 1871. Coalmont was first supplied with a regular pastor 
in i860, a church was organized in 1874 and reorganized in 1881. 

Kemmerling chapel was built at Wagner in 1861 and was named 
for John Kemmerling, who was the prime mover in the organization 
of the congregation and the erection of the church. Rev. Samuel C. 
,Zmith was the first pastor. 

^^t Alexandria a ]\Iethodist society was organized early in the year 
1864 and was attached to the Petersburg circuit, which had been estab- 
lished a ihort time before the Civil war. A church edifice was soon 
afterward b-iilt, which was replaced by a larger one some years later, 
and this in tu^n was supplanted by the present building, which was 
erected in 1S76. 

In 1865 jMethc'i'^t' churches were built at Loysville, Ennisville and 
Greenwood Furnace. The church at Loysville was under the charge 
of Rev. F. B. Riddle, of the New Bloomfield circuit, who w-as an active 
factor in promoting the organization of the society. The Greenwood 
Furnace church, a substantial stone structure, was not dedicated until 
in 1867. 

The ^lethodist church of I\Iarys^•ille was organized in 1872, with 


fifteen members, and the following year a comfortable house of worship 
was erected at a cost of $2,400. 

Meetings were held by a few Methodists living in the vicinity of 
Reedsville as early as 1827, but no church was built there until 1875, 
when a frame house was erected at a cost of about $1,000 and the pulpit 
was supplied by Rev. Luther F. Smith, of the Milroy circuit. The 
present church edifice was built in 1907. 

In 1877 an imposing brick church, of Gothic design, was erected by 
the ]\Iethodist church of Liverpool, which congregation had been 
organized many years before. The cost of the building was about 

Wesley chapel, in Miller township, Huntingdon county, was dedi- 
cated on December 17, 1880, by Rev. E. J. Gray. An old house of 
worship had been built here about 1846 by Joseph Miller, but the con- 
gregation ran down for a time and had to be revived before the new 
'church was built. 

In 1903 a Methodist church was dedicated at Yeagertown and two 
years later the Highland Park church was organized. The latter held 
services in the hose house for some time, but later a building was erected 
through the generosity of Mrs. Elizabeth L. Rhodes, and the church is 
known as the "Rhodes Memorial Church." 

The Bethel African ^Methodist church of Lewistown was organized 
in 1816 by Rev. Richard Allen and Bishop AVhite, of the Protestant 
Episcopal church, and the former acted as pastor until 1831. In 1872 
a lot was purchased on \\'est Juniata street and a church erected at a 
cost of $1,800. Additions costing about $700 were made a few years 
later. The Wesley African Methodist Episcopal church was organized 
in 1872 and meets on West Third Street. Huntingdon also has two 
colored Methodist churches — the African ]\Iethodist Episcopal Zion 
church at the corner of Sixth and Moore streets and Pavne chapel. 

A Methodist Protestant church was organized at Shermansdale in 
1838 and a building was erected upon a lot donated by George Smiley. 
In 1844 a congregation of the same faith was organized in Cole's valley 
and held meetings in the school house for some time, but no church 
■was ever built. Another congregation of this faith met in the Harmony 
Grove school house. Huntingdon county, in 1853 and the church at 
Saltillo was organized in 1873. 



The first minister of this denomination to hold meetings west of 
the Susquehanna river was Rev. Mathias Guntzel, who came to Pfoutz 
Valley in 1789 and preached to the settlers in that locality for about 
seven years, though there is no record of any church organization having 
been made during that time. In 1796 a minister named Fisher held 
services in the old log jail at Lewistown, though several years passed 
before a regular organization was effected. On January 3, 18 14, the 
Lutheran and Reformed congregations bought a lot on West Third 
street and on July 29, 1824, the corner-stone of Zion's church was laid 
with appropriate ceremonies. On July 9, 1827, the two congregations 
were incorporated under the name of the Evangelical Lutheran and 
Reformed L^nited Church of Zion. The Lutheran membership steadily 
increased and the minutes of the church show that on October 20, 
1849, a resolution to build a new church was adopted. A lot at the 
corner of Third and ]\Iain streets was purchased on May 27, 1850, 
and the congregation was incorporated under the name of St. John's 
Evangelical Lutheran Church of Lewistown, the act vesting in the 
Lutheran church the right to the old property purchased by the two 
congregations twenty-five years before. The old church was sold for 
$400 and a new one built for $1,750. It was burned to the ground on 
the night of January 28, 1852, and another building was soon after 
erected in its place at a cost of $3,300, such portions of the old walls 
as were safe being used. This building was used until 1900, when the 
present church was erected. Prior to the building of the present house, 
a Sunday school chapel was built, the corner-stone of which was laid 
on October 7, 1892, and an extension was built to this chapel in 1911-12. 
The corner-stone of the extension is the same one that was in the old 
church that was built in 1824. The value of the property is estimated 
at $50,000. 

St. JNIichael's Lutheran church, at the old village of Liberty Hall, 
Perry county, was built in 1798 and is thus described by Focht in his 
"History of the Churches between the Mountains" : "This was a log 
structure about 35 by 45 feet in size. The logs and other timbers are 
said to have been of the best quality. Inside there are three galleries 
on three sides. The pulpit was high and supported by a post, and the 
seats had high and erect backs. For many years an organ occupied the 


gallery fronting the pulpit. This instrument was not played after 1820; 
it was all out of tune and went to ruin." This was really the first 
Lutheran church in the Juniata valley. It is said that meetings were 
held here as early as 1776. The old church above described stood until 
1847, when it was replaced by a new one, which was remodeled in 1885. 

St. Andrew's church, at Eshcol, was organized about 1801, and in 
1806 Rev. Frederick Oberhauser began holding regular services at St. 
Andrew's, Ickesburg, and other places in that section. In 183 1 a union 
was formed with the Shuman Reformed church and a church was erected 
for the use of both congregations. 

On January 10, 1801, James Adams deeded two acres of ground at 
Blain for a Lutheran church and graveyard, and upon this tract the Zion 
church was erected in 1816. The building was of stone, 45 by 50 feet 
in size, with a gallery on three sides, and Rev. John W. Heim was the 
first pastor. The cost was about $5,000. A parsonage was built in i860. 

There was a house of worship of some kind at Church Hill, in Tur- 
bett township, Juniata county, as early as 1802. On January i, 1803, 
Jacob Rice conveyed one and a half acres to the trustees of the "German 
Lutheran Church of the Tuscarora valley," and the church was known as 
"Rice's Church." It is said to be the oldest German church west of 
the river. In 1855 the congregation removed to Port Royal and erected 
a new home at a cost of about $5,000. 

The year 1804 witnessed the organization of several Lutheran 
churches in the Juniata valley. Three or four years before that time 
Rev. John G. Butler ^v'isited the town of Huntingdon and held services 
for the few Lutheran families there and the church was organized in 
1804 by Rev. Frederick Haas, who remained with the congregation for 
about twelve years, near the end of which time a small brick church was 
built. After :Mr. Haas left in 1816 the people became listless and the 
church went down. In 1838 it was reorganized by a minister named 
Osterloh, who endeavored to exclude everybody but Germans, but the 
plan failed to work and again the congregation lapsed into inactivity. 
In 1853 Rev. P. JNI. Rightmyer began to hold services in Huntingdon, 
and through his efforts a new church was built in 1854. The congre- 
gation, known as St. James' Evangelical Lutheran church, is now lo- 
cated at the corner of Sixth and Mifflin streets in a comfortable house 
of worship, built in 1876. 


A church was organized in Penn township, Huntingdon county, in 
1804, by Mr. Haas and the present building there was dedicated on 
July 30, 1871 ; a congregation in Cassville was organized the same year 
with ten members and at first worshipped in the school house until 
1826. when a log church was Ijuilt. which was replaced by one of brick 
in 1857: and a church was built in Watts township, Perry county, near 
the Half Falls mountain gap. 

Services were held at Alifflintown by Mathias Guntzel. Conrad Wal- 
ter, and others about the beginning of the nineteenth century, and in 
1800 John Harris' heirs donated a lot for a church. A societ}' was or- 
ganized by Rev. George Heim in 1809. and two years later a log house 
was built. This church, now the JN'Iessiah, was first known as St. Alary's. 
A brick church was erected in 1838, and the present church at the south- 
east corner of the public square was completed about 1890. It is one 
of the largest and best appointed churches in the borougli. 

Another Lutheran church organized in 1S09 was St. Peter's, at 
Landisburg. In December, 1815, the Lutheran and Reformed congre- 
gations joined together for the purpose of building a church and the 
corner-stone was laid on April 15, 1816. It was torn down in 1857 
and the brick building erected in its stead. 

St. John's or Niemond's church was built near John Xiemond's 
residence, in Monroe township, Juniata county, in 181 1. Rev. William 
J. Heim was pastor until about 1833, after which the pulpit was sup- 
plied by ministers from Richfield or Liverpool. 

In 1819 a stone house was built at Shaffersville. which was used 
jointly by the Lutheran and Reformed churches. After that there were 
no new congregations formed nor no new houses erected until 1828, 
when a Lutheran church was built at Liverpool. In 183 1 it was weather- 
boarded and painted, and a steeple and bell were added. In 1882 a 
new brick church was erected at a cost of about $5,400, including the 
lot upon which the building stands. A church was also built at AUens- 
ville in this year (some say in 1827) and the first pastor was a minister 
named Stroh. This was the first Lutheran church in the Kishacofpullas 

St. John's Evangelical Lutheran church of ]\Iechanicsville was or- 
ganized in 1834 as All Souls' church, with Rev. Charles Heyl as pastor. 
The corner-stone of the first edifice was laid on August 2, 1834, and 


the house was of brick. 35 by 45 feet in size. On June 12, 1880, the 
corner-stone of the present building was laid and the church was dedi- 
cated on December 12. 1880. It is considerably larger than its prede- 
cessor and cost about $8,000. The same year (1834) a lot was pur- 
chased in McAlisterville and in 1835 a church was built. A German 
minister named Elsenmoyer had come to McAlisterville in 1830, preach- 
ing in the German language, the meetings being held in the old school- 
house. In 1876 a new brick church was liuilt on the site of the old one. 

The ]\Iount Pisgah church, at Shermansdale, was built in 1842 on a 
lot donated by Abraham Jacobs. It was a frame structure and was 
dedicated on September 24, 1842. Meetings had been held in this 
locality as early as 1780, and for several years the little congregation 
met in Reiber's schoolhouse or attended St. Peter's church in Spring 
township. Rev. Jacob Kempfer was the first pastor after the church 
was built. The congregation at Mount Pisgah was regularly organized 
in 1839 and the next year the Buffalo Union church, two miles west of 
Ickesburg. was established. The building erected in that year was used 
by both the Lutheran and Reformed congregations until 1880, when 
the latter built a new brick church. 

St. John's church, near ]^Iarkelsville. was also built in 1840. but was 
not dedicated until April, 1841. Rev. John W. Heim had been holding 
meetings in the school house for some time before the erection of the 
church. A new brick building was erected in 1859-60. 

The first Lutheran families in the vicinity of Duncannon had to go 
about eight miles to New Buflialo to attend services. A congregation 
was organized at Duncannon in November, 1842, and Rev. Andrew 
Berg began his pastoral laljors. holding services in the ]\Iethodist church 
once a month. On May 19. 1844, the corner-stone of the stone church 
was laid and the building was dedicated on the loth of November fol- 
lowing. In June, 1885, the old building was torn down and the present 
building was erected on the site at a cost of about $2,600. 

What is known as the Ludolph church, at Elliottsburg, Perry county, 
was dedicated in November, 1842, and received its name from the fact 
that it was built upon land belonging to Ludolph Sparks. Services had 
been held in the school house for about three years before the church 
was built. This edifice was used by both the Lutherans and Reformed 
church until 1869, when the former denc:)mination built a new church. 


Emmanuel's Lutheran church at Thompsontown was built in 1843 
and the society here was in the charge with ]\IcAlisterville. The next 
year Lutheran churches were established at Liverpool and Newport. 
Christ's church, at Liverpool, was erected before the congregation was 
organized. Meetings had been held here for a number of years before 
the church was erected and in the early part of the year 1847 I^ev. Wil- 
liam \\'eaver completed the organization and then served as pastor for 
about four years. At Newport Rev. John W. Heim began holding 
meetings about 1830 and the congregation was organized on January 
14, 1844. Soon afterward an arrangement was made with the Re- 
formed and Presbyterian congregations for the erection of a "union" 
church, which was dedicated on ]\Iay 23, 1847. The Reformed congre- 
gation sold their interest after a short time, and in 1873 the Lutherans 
sold their interest to the Presbyterians. A new church edifice was then 
erected by the Lutherans at a cost of $10,000 and fitted with a pipe 
organ, the first in the Synod of Central Pennsylvania. 

St. David's church, about five miles southwest of Duncannon, was 
organized at the Fio Forge school house early in 1845 ^^3' ^s^'- L. T. 
Williams. Before the close of the year a frame house, known as the 
union meeting-house, was completed. Other denominations assisted in 
its erection, hence the name, but to the Lutherans it was known as 
St. David's. 

Li 1848 Samuel Barr donated a lot at Lilleyville to the trustees of 
the Lutheran and German Reformed congregation and the corner-stone 
of a building was laid on November 3. 1849. The building was dedi- 
cated on June 16, 1851, and Rev. J. P. Shindel was installed as pastor 
of the Lutherans. This is known as "Samuel's church," so called for 
the man who donated the site. It was the second Lutheran church to 
be erected in Decatur township, the first having been commenced on 
Jack's creek, near Soradoville, in 1820, by the Lutheran and German 
Reformed congregations, but strife arose before the building was com- 
pleted, and not until 1837 was a house of worship finished. It is known 
as the Stroup church, and after a few years passed entirely to the 

Another church that was organized in 1848 is St. James, of New- 
burg, Huntingdon county, which was organized by Rev. J. N. Burket. 
^vho came to that neighborhood as a missionarv. On November 20, 


1859, the church was reorganized and a frame building was erected 
in 1867. 

An Evangelical Lutheran congregation was organized in the Stand- 
ing Stone valley and a church was dedicated on November 7, 1849, a 
short distance northeast of AIcAlevy's Fort, where a church of the same 
faith had been established some five or six years before. 

St. Samuel's church, at ]\Iarkelsville. was first organized in the Rac- 
coon valley, but was removed to Markelsville and reorganized in March, 
1850, by Rev. William Weaver. The corner-stone of a frame church 
was laid on September 26, 1851, and the building was finished before 
the close of the year. Willow Grove church, near Lack, Juniata county, 
was also organized in 1850. Some years later it was turned over to 
the Methodists. 

A Lutheran church with a seating capacity of about 400 was built at 
Yeagertown in 185 1, with Rev. Charles ^I. Klink as pastor, but the 
organization was not fully perfected until 1854. In the latter year a 
brick edifice was erected for the Lutheran congregation at Vandyke. 

In 1855 St. Paul's Lutheran church was organized at Andersonburg 
by Rev. Reuben W'eiser, the members having formerly belonged to the 
churches at Blain and Loysville. The corner-stone of a brick edifice was 
laid on May 27, 1855, and the building was dedicated on December 22nd, 
of the same year. This church is on the road leading from New Bloom- 
field to Blain, about five miles west of Loysville. 

In 1857 the Lutherans living at ^Milroy and in the immediate vicinity 
bought the old ^lethodist church and fitted it up as a place of wor- 
ship. It was used until August 25, 1872, when the present church was 
dedicated. Mount Zion church, at Landisburg, was built in 1857, or 
was commenced in that year. It was not dedicated until Alay 30, 1858, 
when Rev. Philip Willard was installed as pastor. The building cost 
about $2,400. 

In 1858 Blount Zion church, in Henderson township, Huntingdon 
■county, was organized. For years prior to that time the Lutherans liv- 
ing in the vicinity of Mill Creek had been attending church at Belleville 
or McAlevy's fort. In 1858 they leased the old Baptist church at Mill 
Creek and organized a congregation. In 1874 the churches at Mill 
Creek, McAlevy's Fort and !Mount Zion, in Henderson township, were 
amited as one congregation. 


The Licking Creek Lutheran church was organized by persons who 
had formerly belonged at Mifflintown and a building was erected for 
the new congregation in 186 1, with Rev. R. H. Fletcher as pastor. Its 
official name is St. Stephen's, but it is generally called the Licking Creek 

Water Street church was organized early in the nineteenth century. 
In 1868 a number of members of this congregation who lived near 
Petersburg withdrew and organized the Evangelical Lutheran church 
in that borough. The same year a neat frame house was erected at a 
cost of $2,000. 

The Lutheran church at Marysville was organized in 1870, with 
twenty-five members, and the church at Reedsville was organized in 
1890. There is also a Lutheran church at Burnham. 


As early as 1798 a few settlers of this faith had located in the Canoe 
and Sinking valleys, in Huntingdon county, and Rev. John D. Aura<idt 
came to them as a minister. A small congregation was organized and 
Keller chapel was built. About 18 19 it was succeeded by a stone church. 
Members of this denomination settled in Perry county also at an early 
date, and in 1798 they united with the Lutherans in the erection of the 
old log structure known as the Union Church, its site now being within 
the borough limits of New Bloomfield. The old house was torn down 
in 1857 and the lot divided, the Reformed church taking the eastern 
half. The corner-stone of Trinity Reformed church was laid on Sep- 
tember 30. 1856, and the building was dedicated on September 20, 1857, 
when Rev. Samuel C. Kuhn was pastor. 

Zion Reformed church, at Blain. was organized in 1798 by a min- 
ister named Koutz and a church was built in connection with the 
Lutherans in 1816. The history of this church is given in connection 
with the Lutherans. 

The first house of worship in Lewistown was erected by the Asso- 
ciate Reformed church, but the history of the congregation seems to 
have been lost. The building stood on the south side of Third street, 
between Brown and Dorcas streets. About 1847 it was sold to the 
Baptists, who returned it to the original owners after a few years, when 
it was sold to James Burns, who converted it into dwellings. 


About 1806 the first Reformed sermon was preached in Huntingdon 
and the first church of this faith was organized there in 1S15. It was 
reorganized in July, 1845, and a church was erected on the corner of 
Sixth and Church streets about 1858, where the congregation still wor- 

Christ's church, in Alexandria, was established in 181 7 and a house 
of worship was built, which was used by both the Lutheran and Re- 
formed congregations for a number of years. Rev. J. D. Aurandt was 
the first pastor of the Reformed church at this place. A new church was 
built in 1847. 

At Loysville Rev. Jacob Scholl organized a congregation about 18 19 
and served as pastor until 1841, when he was succeeded by Rev. Charles 
Leinbach. This congregation met in the same house as the Lutherans. 
About a year after this congregation was organized a Reformed church 
was built at Soradoville, an account of which is given in connection with 
the Lutherans. 

Christ's Reformed church, at Newport, was organized by Rev. Jacob 
Scholl, the first regular pastor, in 1820. The congregation owned a 
one-third interest in the old Union church, the other interests being 
owned by the Lutherans and Presbyterians. In 1S69 the Reformed 
people sold their interest to the other denominations and built a new 
house of worship at a cost of about $7,000. A parsonage was built 
in 1874, at a cost of about $3,000. The Sunday school was organized 
soon after the new church was completed. 

Rev. Jonathan Zeiler organized a congregation at McConnellstown 
in 1834 and a handsome brick church was erected in 1847. -'^ church 
was established at Marklesburg in 1842 and the succeeding year Zion 
church was organized by Rev. Theobald Fouse, the exact date of the 
organization being October 28, 1843. This church was about three- 
fourths of a mile from Marklesburg and it was not long until the two 
congregations were consolidated. 

Trinity Reformed church, in Landisburg, was organized in 1850, 
most of the members coming from the old Lebanon church at Loysville. 
Rev. Jacob Scholl was the first pastor. Soon after the church was organ- 
ized a house of worship was erected on Carlisle street, where the con- 
gregation still holds its services. Two years after the organization of 
this church the St. James Reformed and Lutheran church was estab- 


lished in Susquehanna township, Juniata county, and a small clnirch was 
built on Jobson's run, near the southwest corner of the township. 

Reformed churches were established at Duncannon and Alarysville 
in 1868. ]\Iost of the members of the Duncannon came from the old St. 
David congregation. The house that had been erected by the United 
Presbyterians was purchased and with some changes still constitutes the 
place of worship. At ]Marysville the name of Trinity Reformed church 
■was adopted and in 1870 a church was erected at a cost of $4,500. It 
has been described as "a fine frame structure of the Gothic style of 
architecture, with a cupola and a spire." 

St. John's, at Elliottsburg, had its beginning in 1872, when a lot was 
purchased from William Sheibley, and the corner-stone of the church 
edifice was laid on ^lay 19, 1872. The church was dedicated on October 
13, 1872, and Rev. E. V. Gerhardt was the first pastor. The church 
building cost $2,950. 

Trinity Reformed church, at Sandy Hill, Perry county, was organ- 
ized on September 14, 1873, and worshiped in the school house until 
the church could be built. The building was dedicated on January 3, 


Trinity Reformed church, at Lewistown, was organized in 1901, 

and a handsome house of worship has been built on Oak street, between 

A'alley and Logan streets. 


Probably the first Baptist society in the Juniata valley was the one 
organized in what is now Cass township. Huntingdon county. It was 
established in the latter part of the eighteenth century, but the exact 
date is not certain, and was called the Huntingdon Baptist church, indi- 
cating that it was the first in the county. The Baptists at ^lill Creek 
were holding meetings as earl}' as 1790 and an organization was effected 
before 1800. In that year a small log meeting house was erected, which 
was replaced by a new one in 1835 and the old house was sold to the 
Lutherans. A third house of worship was built in 1857. 

On June 9, 1794, a lot of one acre was conveyed by \\'illiam Patton 
to the trustees of "the Baptist congregation of jMilford township (Jun- 
iata county), to erect a house of worship." This was known as the 
Spruce Hill church. A small log house was built, but was abandoned in 


a few years, the members going to strengthen another congregation on 
Licking creek, near the old forge. 

An Old School Baptist congregation was organized in Springfield 
township, Huntingdon county, in 1800, but little can be learned of its 
history. A number of Welsh Baptists organized a church at an earl}^ 
date near the present borough of Dudley, but it has long been extinct. 

The church at Birmingham was organized in 1822 by Rev. Richard 
Proudfoot, who had been holding meetings in that section for some time 
before that date. About 1826 a church was erected and it prospered for 
a number of years. After the completion of the railroad the business 
that formerly came to Birmingham w-as diverted to other places, and as 
the town declined the church went down until it was finally abandoned 
in 1862. 

Rev. Samuel Lane, a Baptist minister "of more than ordinary energy 
and public spirit," established a church at Saltillo early in the nineteenth 
century, but it appears that no record of the congregation has been pre- 
served, either as to the date of its organization or its abandonment. 

The Shaver's Creek Baptist church was organized in 1833, with 
fourteen members, as a result of the labors of Rev. Richard Proudfoot, 
who was the first pastor. A church was built near Fairfield in 183S. 

The First Baptist Church of Lewistown was organized on Septem- 
ber 21, 1840, with eleven members. Rev. Alexander Gamble was the 
first pastor, but he remained only a short time, when he was succeeded 
by Rev. David Williams, who gave the new church one-fourth of his 
time. The church was incorporated on January i, 1849. Some time 
before that the property of the Associate Reformed congregation. Third 
street, had been purchased, but the society was not able to pay for it 
and it was returned to the original owners. It was rented by the Bap- 
tists until the spring of 1854, after which services were held in the 
Lutheran church. During the Civil war the society almost lost its or- 
ganization, but in 1 87 1 Rev. W. Z. Coulter became pastor and the 
church was revived. Ten years later a lot was purchased on the north 
side of Third street, between Brown and Dorcas, and the present church 
edifice was dedicated, free of debt, on December 16, 1883. The building- 
was rebuilt and enlarged in 1902. 

A Baptist society was organized at Lockport, or Three Locks, in 
1840, and was served by the preacher from Lewistown. Meetings were 


held in the ^Methodist church and John Ickes' store until 184J, when a 
lot was bought from Robert Hope and a church edifice was erected. 

During the decade from 1830 to 1840 several Baptist ministers 
visited the scattered members of that faith living in the valleys of Hunt- 
ingdon county, and in 1842 the Stone Creek Baptist church was organ- 
ized, with Rev. ^^^ M. Jones as pastor. On August 30, 1842, the First 
Baptist Church of Huntingdon was regularly organized, though services 
had been held prior to that time by Revs. \V. M. Jones, Richard Proud- 
foot and others. The next year the congregation was taken into fellow- 
ship with the Centre Baptist Association. Aleetings were held in the 
old court-house and the old L'nited Presbyterian church on Alifflin street. 
In Januar}', 1850, Rev. David ^^'illiams became pastor and soon after a 
small church was erected on Washington street, between Eighth and 
Ninth, The church was incorporated on November 20. 1865. In 1874 
the lot where the present church stands, on the corner of Sixth and 
2\Iifflin streets, was purchased and the building was erected in 1876. It 
has since been remodeled and enlarged to meet the reciuirements of the 



This denomination, also called Dunkers or Dunkards, marks its be- 
ginning in the Juniata valley with the organization of the Aughwick 
Church of the Brethren, which was organized in 1802, with six mem- 
bers — Christian Long. Daniel and Peter Secrist and their wives. No 
further record of organizations of this faith can be found until 1841, 
when a church known as the "Good-will German Baptist ]\Ieeting-house" 
was built in Fayette township, Juniata county. Prior to that date meet- 
ings had been held at David Shellenberger's house and at other houses 
in the neighborhood. Mr. Shellenberger, who was something of a local 
preacher, was active in the establishment of the church. Solomon Kauff- 
man, Andrew Bashore and Solomon Sieber were among the early 
preachers at the Good-will church. 

Rev. John Shinefelt began holding meetings about James Creek, 
Huntingdon county, some time between 1840 and 1850. In 1858 the 
James Creek church of the Brethren was organized, and two years later 
a new house of worship was built near Marklesburg and not far from 
the line of the Huntingdon & Broad Top railroad. 


In i860 the Brethren of Marklesburg organized a congregation and 
soon afterward erected a house of worsliip. Among the early ministers 
here were Revs. John Shinefelt, Christian Hoover, John Martin, John 
Hoover and George Brumbaugh. Elder Isaac Brumbaugh, who died on 
November 4, 1871, is still remembered as an earnest and faithful worker. 

The Free Spring German Baptist church, located near \'an Wert, 
Juniata county, was organized about i860, and a brick edifice was 
erected in 1861. Twenty years later the congregation numbered about 
three hundred members, and the church is still in a prosperous condi- 
tion. Rev. Solomon Sieber was pastor here for many years. 

In 1874 a congregation was organized in the southwestern part of 
Huntingdon county, and it is known as the Raystown Branch Church 
of the Brethren. The following year the few German Baptists living 
in the vicinity of Richfield, Juniata county, bought the old brick school 
house and fitted it up for a church. It was for some time under the 
same pastoral charge as the Good-will church mentioned above. In 
1876 a new house was built on Coffee run for the use of the James 
Creek congregation. Two years later, in 1878, some of the members 
withdrew from this church for the purpose of organizing one in Hunt- 
ingdon. Among them were some of the Brumbaughs and others promi- 
nent in the work of Juniata College, which was then in its infancy. 
Services were at first held in the college chapel. In 1909 a beautiful 
and commodious edifice was erected near the college. Here the students 
of the college attend services. 

A congregation of German Baptists was organized in Lewistown in 
1897, and a year or two later a neat church edifice was erected on 
Shaw avenue, between Spruce and Pine streets. 


This peculiar sect was founded in the year 1536 by ]\Ienno Simonis, 
who had formerly been a Catholic priest. For many years the new de- 
nomination was persecuted by practically every nation of Europe, and 
when William Penn became the proprietor of Pennsylvania he offered 
them an asylum. The first Mennonites came to America in 1683 and 
settled at Germantown, from which point they gradually moved west- 
ward. Some years later a branch called the Reformed Alennonite So- 
ciety left the original organization, claiming that it had departed from 


the teachings of the founder, and in the seventeenth century another 
branch was formed, calhng themselves the Amish. after Jacob Amen, 
the founder, a ]\Iennonite preacher in Switzerland. The first ^lennonite 
society in the Juniata valley was formed in ilonroe township, Juniata 
county, before the close of the eighteenth century. In 1800 a log meet- 
ing-house was built, which was used both as a church and a school house 
until about 181 5, when the school was discontinued. The house was 
then used for religious meetings until 1868, when a brick house was 
erected near Richfield. Shortly after the Civil war a ^Nlennonite society 
was organized near East Salem, and what is known as the Delaware 
meeting-house was built there in 1870. Rev. Jacob Graybill was one 
of the first preachers. Lytle writes of a ^lennonite congregation that 
worshiped at the Union church in Penn township. Huntingdon county, 
which he says embraced "a small but highly respectable membership," 
but he does not give the date of its organization. Early in the nineteenth 
century a number of Amish settled in the Kishacocjuillas valley. They 
do not build many churches, their principal meeting-houses being the 
Locust Grove church and the one at MattaAvana. 


The first church of this denomination in the Juniata valley of which 
any definite knowledge can be gained was established in Perry county, 
on the road leading from New Bloomfield to Duncannon, in 1S14. with 
Rev. John Snyder as pastor. The house built in that year was a Union 
church, which was used by the ^Methodists as well as the United Brethren. 
In 1840 a congregation was organized at Richfield and united with the 
Evangelical and IMethodist churches in the erection of a church near 
Auker's mill on the Alahantango creek. This house was used until 1874, 
when the United Brethren built a brick structure at Richfield. In 1842 
Rev. John Snyder held services in a church which had just been erected 
near Sherniansdale. ^Meetings had been held in private houses in this 
vicinity as early as 1835. The year 1840 witnessed a great revival 
among the United Brethren and the Sherniansdale congregation was or- 
ganized in that year. In 1878 a new house of worship and parsonage 
were built in Sherniansdale. 

On January i, 1845, '^ church of this denomination was dedicated 
in ^^'avne township. ^Nlifllin count}-, about three miles southwest of ilc- 


Ve3'town, where a small congregation had been organized the year 
before. This church has never been very strong and has undergone 
many struggles to maintain its organization. 

The church at Warriors Mark was organized in 1S50 by Rev. R. G. 
Rankin. Services were held in the school house for several years, but 
in i860 Bethesda chapel was dedicated. At Duncannon a United 
Brethren church was built in 1851, with Rev. William Raber as pastor. 
In 1858 the Orbisonia church was built and George W. Scott installed 
as the first pastor. Before that time meetings had been held here by 
Rev. R. G. Rankin. J. W. Bonebrake, William Shepherd and others. 
The same year a congregation was organized in the northern part of 
Cass township, Huntingdon county, and a church building was erected 
in 1868 near the village of Calvin. 

The first meetings of this denomination in Marysville were held in 
1866. Before the close of that year a congregation was organized and 
a few years later a house of worship was erected. In 1882 the house 
was struck by lightning, which led to thorough repairs being made, and 
the building as thus improved is still in use. 

In 1869 a few members of this faith began holding meetings in the 
basement of the Presbyterian church at Mount Union, with Rev. J. R. 
Shearer as their preacher. Within a few months a congregation was 
organized, and on January 7. 1872. the church building was dedicated. 
At Birmingham the United Brethren church was erected in 1S71, the 
congregation having been organized the year before. 

Fourteen persons belonging to the United Brethren denomination 
began holding meetings at private residences in the borough of Hunt- 
ingdon in 1871. Later in the year a small house of worship was 
erected at the northwest corner of Twelfth and ]MifiIin streets, where 
the services are still held. Rev. Martin P. Doyle was one of the early 
pastors of this church and did much to start it on the highway to pros- 
perity and a useful career. 


This denomination has never been very strong in the Juniata val- 
ley, and from the meager data at hand regarding its earlv history it 
is difficult to determine where the first congregation was organized. In 
1820 Rev. Charles Snowden preached in the old court-house at Lewis- 


town, and about the same time the initiative steps were taken toward 
the organization of a church in Huntingdon. In the spring of 1823 
Rev. Norman Nash was sent out from Philadelphia to organize the 
parish at Lewistown, which was done, and the same year application 
was made to the legislature for a charter of incorporation, which was 
granted on January 2, 1824. Soon after the incorporation a lot was 
secured on South Main street and a chapel erected. The parsonage 
adjoining the church was the gift of Elias W. Hale"s daughters. This 
church is known as St. Mark's and the property is now valued at $10,000. 
In the meantime the Episcopalians of Huntingdon united with the 
Presbyterians and Lutherans in the erection of a house of worship at 
the corner of Fourth and Church streets, which must have been built 
about 1820, as in 1826 the interest of the Episcopal church was sold by 
the sheriff upon failure of the different denominations to agree as to 
the adjustment of the church debt. A little later the Episcopal con- 
gregation secured a lot opposite the present court-house on Penn street, 
where they erected St. John's Protestant Episcopal church, in or about 


About 1824 the few Episcopalians living in the vicinity of Thomp- 
sontown invited a minister named Baker to hold meetings there. His 
work bore fruit in the organization of a congregation and in 1828 the 
stone church edifice at Thompsontown was erected. Rev. Charles Snow- 
den was one of the early pastors of this church. After several vears 
of struggle the church was discontinued, and in 1840 the building be- 
came the property of the United Presbyterians. 

Trinity Episcopal church, at the old village of Locke's Mills. M{i- 
flin county, was dedicated on October 28, 1848. Three years before 
that time services began in the Beatty school house. The church con- 
tinued until about 1863. when it was abandoned as a place of worship 
and the members transferred their affiliations to St. INIark's at Lewis- 

In Newport the first Episcopal services were held at the residence 
of Mrs. Bechtel on March 28, 1875. A Sunday school was organized 
that spring, with ten pupils. A year later it numbered about 125, and 
in that year a congregation was regularly organized. About a year 
later an Episcopal mission was organized at Orbisonia by Bishop Howe. 
Services were at first held in the Ignited Brethren church and later in 


the Presbyterian, until the congregation became strong enough to build 
one for themselves. 


This denomination is also known as the Winebrennarians, from its 
founder. Rev. John W'inebrenner, who preached at Landisburg on April 
10, 1 82 1, the first sermon of this faith in the Juniata valley. In 1828 
Rev. Henry Wingert, of Landisburg, began preaching and in 1832 a 
regular church was organized. Services were held in the school house 
until 1836, when Mr. Wingert erected a small chapel at his own ex- 
pense. In 1842 a brick house was built and it gave way to the present 
one in 1873. 

In 1833 a congregation was organized by Rev. Archibald Young 
at the house of John Soule, near Lebo. Perry county. Services were 
held in dwellings and school houses until about 1850. when a small 
church was built on land donated by Mr. Soule. This church was 
named Bethel, but is also known as the Oak Grove church. In 1878 
a new house was erected upon the site of the old one. 

The first meetings of this denomination were held at Marysville in 
1850, but no church was organized until 1866. In 1869 a neat frame 
house was built at a cost of $2,500. 

Thomas Ashton built a small chapel in Springfield township, Hunt- 
ingdon county, in 1855, in which services were held by such ministers 
as could be secured. A regular congregation was organized some years 
later, though little can be learned of its history. The year following 
the erection of Ashton's chapel. Bethel church, with a small graveyard 
adjoining, was built on the road leading from Newport to Millerstown, 
about a mile from the former town. 

Seventeen persons of this faith began holding meetings at a little 
hamlet called Beavertown, Huntingdon county, in 1867. For a short 
time they met in the school house, but in 1868 a small church was built. 
Beavertown does not appear on modern maps, and the exact location 
of this church is largely a matter of conjecture, none being able to iden- 
tify its exact site. 

In IMay, 1871. a few believers in the creed of this church secured 
the use of the Lower Duncannon school house and had Rev. J. M. 
Speece, of Shippensburg, preach to them. The following vear a con- 


gregation was organized, a lot was purchased on Lincoln street and 
Bethel church was erected. 

The church at Coalmont was organized in August, 1879, with Daniel 
Abbot as elder and John A. Hicks as deacon. The membership was 
only ten at the beginning, but this number increased, and in a few 
years a neat house of worship was built. 

At Hartman"s Mills, or Glenvale, Perry county, a Church of God 
was built in 1882 at a cost of $1,800, though meetings had for some 
time previous been held in dwellings or the school house. Rev. David 
Maxwell was one of the first ministers in this church. 


The first congregation of this denomination in the Juniata valley, so 
far as can be ascertained, was organized at Newport in 1843. ^^ i849 
they bought the old Methodist church, which was used until 187S, when 
the present brick house of worship was erected, at a cost of $2,500. 
Rev. D. W. Miller was the first regular pastor. 

In 1846 the Bethel church of the Evangelical Association was built 
in Rye township, Perry county, at a cost of $800. Salem church, in 
the same township, was built in 1856. Meetings were held in a log 
house about a mile up the valley from Alarysville as early as 1838, but 
this building was torn down in 1867, after Bethel and Salem churches 
had been established and the Emanuel Evangelical church had been 
built in Marysville in 1866. The last named building was erected on 
a lot donated by Theodore and Alargaretta Fenn and was dedicated on 
December 23, 1866. 

The church at Locust run, Juniata county, was built in 1861, though 
services had been held there for some time before the church was 
erected. The Stony Point church, in Madison township, Perry county, 
was built in 1863. Several young men of this congregation afterward 
became ministers. 

About 1 86 1 a small church, known as the Bethlehem Evangelical, 
was built in Greenwood township, Juniata county, on the road leading 
from Salem to the Seven Star tavern. It was at first under the charge 
of Rev. Mr. King, of the Thompsontown district, and at the time of its 
erection was the only church in the township. 

In Lewistown a society of this faith was organized in 1876 by Rev. 


Samuel Seibert, though meetings had been regularly held for about two 
years before that time. In 1882 a brick chapel was built on Logan 
street, opposite the Presbyterian cemetery, at a cost of $2,000. Some 
years later it was removed to make way for the present Grace United 
Evangelical church, which was erected at a cost of about $20,000. 

Evangelical churches were built in the New Lancaster valley, in 
Mifflin county, in 1872, and at Patterson (now Mifflin), Juniata county, 
in 1874, though little can be learned concerning them. 


In Huntingdon county there are a few congregations bearing this 
name. The first was organized at Orbisonia in 1858 by Rev. S. H. 
Reed; one was organized at Saltillo in 1880, in the old Union Hall, 
which was free to all denominations. A church was built at Orbisonia 
in 1876. There are perhaps others, but, as stated in the beginning of 
this chapter, it is almost impossible to obtain accurate information con- 
cerning many of the minor denominations or their small congregations. 
No doubt some church organizations have been unintentionally omitted 
from this chapter, merely because they have left no record of their 


The first Jewish congregation in the Juniata valley was organized 
at Lewistown and received a charter in January, 19 13. ^Meetings are 
held regularly on the top floor of the Woolner building, at the south- 
west corner of the Diamond. On June 15, 19 13, an association was 
formed for the purpose of building a synagogue. Of this association 
Henrv Schurman was chosen chairman and Charles Gershman secretary. 



Loysville Orphans' Home — Huntingdon Home for Orphans and Friendless Children — 
Lewistown Hospital — Blair Memorial Hospital — Masonic Bodies — Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows — Grand Army of the Republic — Veterans' Reunion Asso- 
ciation — Knights of Pythias — Patriotic Order Sons of America — American 
Mechanics — Miscellaneous Benevolent Societies. 

IF few eleemosynary institutions have been established within tiie 
district embraced in this work, it is not because the people of the 
Juniata valley are not charitably inclined, but rather for the reason 
that the necessity for the establishment of such institutions has never 
assumed an urgent character. In the chapters relating to county history 
will be found accounts of the county poor- farms and alms-houses. X'^ext 
to these official institutions perhaps the oldest charit}' that comes within 
the scope of this histor}- is the "Loysville Orphans' Home," which had 
its beginning as an academy in the basement of the Lebanon church at 
Loysville in 1853, with J. R. Titzell as principal. Two years later Col- 
onel John Tressler erected a three-story brick building for the use of 
the school, which continued with marked success until the beginning 
of the Civil war. At the close of the war the property passed to David 
Tressler, who turned it into a school for soldiers' orphans. In 1867 the 
building and twenty-seven acres of ground were purchased by the Luth- 
eran church and the name of the "Tressler Orphans' Home" was 
adopted. The buildings were soon afterward enlarged, the grounds 
beautified, and other improvements made to give the home the character 
of a permanent institution. 

The Huntingdon "Home for Orphans and Friendless Children" 
started with a humble movement to relieve the distress of a few families 
Ii\-ing in A\'est Huntingdon. A small house at the corner of Sixteenth 
and Mifflin streets was rented and the first inmate, a little sick girl, was 
carried into the home on the evening of }.Iarch i, 1881. ]\Iiss Carrie 



Miller was placed in charge, other children came in, and in April larger 
quarters were secured at the corner of Eighteenth and Moore streets. 
On Januar\- 8, 1883, the home was chartered and, after occupying rented 
buildings for several years, was located permanently at Eighteenth and 
Oneida streets. About that time, or a little later, a movement was started 
to raise an endowment fund of $25,000 and a large part of the amount 
had been subscribed in 191 3. The home is undenominational, each 
church in the city electing one member of the board of trustees. Since 
the establishment of the institution a large number of orphans or friend- 
less children have been placed with private families, where they can 
be properly reared and educated, and the "Huntingdon Idea," as this 
plan has been called, has commanded the attention of philanthropists in 
all parts of the country. 

On the evening of February 20, 1905, a public meeting was held in 
Lewistown to consider the question of establishing a public hospital. 
The need of such an institution had been recognized and discussed for 
several years prior to that time, but at this meeting the first definite steps 
were taken for the formation of a hospital association. Permanent offi- 
cers of the association were elected a little later and a charter was granted 
b)' the ISIifflin county court on May 15, 1905. Subscriptions were then 
solicited and before the close of the year enough had been pledged to 
warrant the adoption of plans for a building. A desirable site was se- 
cured on Highland avenue, just north of the borough line and the corner- 
stone was laid on November 17, 1906. The hospital was opened to the 
public on February 18, 1908, with Miss Anna Lenz as superintendent 
and some of the best physicians in Lewistown as members of the staff. 

The total cost of the building and equipment was approximately 
$60,000, of which the state appropriated $12,000 and the balance was 
raised by popular subscription and the issue of $18,000 in bonds. Dur- 
ing the first year 284 patients were treated, of whom 172 were free 
patients. In connection with the hospital association a Women's Aid 
Society was organized and it has done a great deal of valuable work in 
securing support for the institution. Committees have also been organ- 
ized at iMifflintown, ]\Ic\^eytown, Yeagertown, Belleville, Reedsville and 
Milroy with a view to furnishing rooms or wards in the hospital for 
the accommodation of patients from those places, or at least to aid in 
defraying the expense of treatment of patients. 


Not long after the hospital was opened it became evident that the 
accommodations for nurses were inadequate and a movement was started 
for the erection of a nurses' home. A site at the corner of Highland 
avenue and Fourth street, directly opposite the hospital grounds, was 
selected and the purchase was made as a memorial gift by G. K. and 
H. H. AlcClintic, the cost being $i,ooo, and the state appropriated 
$4,000 for the erection of the building, which was completed early in 
the year 1913. 

At Huntingdon is the J. C. Blair Memorial Hospital, erected to the 
memory of John Chalmers Blair, and, as the deed of gift states, "to be 
for the use of all, without preference as to religion or theory of medi- 
cine." The hospital is beautifully situated on an eminence bordering on 
Warm Springs avenue, near Thirteenth street. The total cost of the site 
and building, including furnishings, was $145,230, to which should be 
added the expense of beautifying the grounds, all of which was per- 
sonally provided and looked after by Mrs. Kate Fisher Blair. The cor- 
ner-stone of the hospital was laid on ^lay 31, 1910, by the Alasonic 
fraternity, and the building was formally opened on September 4, 191 1, 
for the reception of patients, with ]\Iiss Pena Schneider as superinten- 
dent. Between that time and June i. 19 12, the institution received 331 
patients, 57 of whom were persons injured in the wreck of a limited 
train on the Pennsylvania railroad at \\'arrior Ridge, near Huntingdon, 
on the morning of February 15, 1912. The Pennsylvania Railroad Com- 
pany was so well pleased with the treatment accorded these unfortunate 
passengers that it not only paid the hospital services, but also gave to 
the institution $2. 500, of which $2,000 was to be applied to the furnish- 
ing of a nurses' home. The State of Pennsylvania also made an annual 
appropriation of $6,000 for the home, the first of which was available 
on June i, 191 1. 

On December 4, 191 1. a training school for nurses was opened in 
connection with the hospital, the first class numbering six students. The 
curriculum recommended by the Pennsylvania state board of examiners 
for registration of nurses was adopted as the course of study, with such 
additions as the special needs of the institution might demand. 

The second annual report of the hospital, for the year ending 
on June i, 191 2, shows an endowment fund of $29,300.79, of which 
$25,000 was contributed by ^Irs. Blair. ^Membership in the Blair Memo- 





+ ADigiO- + 



rial Hospital Association is divided into three classes — life, perpetual, 
and annual. The first two are based upon the payment of $100 or more, 
which amounts are placed to the credit of the endowment account, and 
the annual membership is based upon the payment of $5.00 annually. 

Of the secret and benevolent organizations the jNIasonic fraternity is 
entitled to first place, by right of seniority. The first lodge of this order 
in the Juniata valley was organized at Huntingdon on July 23, 1792, 
with John Cadwallader, master; John Marshall, senior warden; William 
Kerr, junior warden. During the next five years about fifty members 
were admitted, but in 1806 the lodge, for some reason not known, was 
discontinued. It was revived under a warrant dated June 24, 1821, as 
Mount Moriah Lodge, No. 178, and continued in operation until the 
times of the anti-Masonic excitement, when it was disbanded and its 
charter was vacated by the grand lodge on February 6, 1837. A new 
warrant was issued for the revival of the lodge on September 5, 1854, 
but it never went into effect. The present Masonic lodge at Huntingdon 
— Mount Moriah, No. 300 — was constituted on November 26, 1857, 
with John A. Doyle, master; Graffus Miller, senior warden; John B. 
Givin, junior warden. The membership in 1912 was 193. 

Lodge No. 68 was established at Mifilintown under a warrant dated 
March 21, 1796, with Dr. Ezra Doty, master; Thomas Evans, senior 
warden; Robert Cooper, junior warden. Its charter was vacated on 
April 4, 18 14, and on June 6, 1825, Jackson Lodge, No. 203, was organ- 
ized at Miffiintown. A short time after that the anti-Masonic excite- 
ment broke out and after a few years of feeble existence the lodge was 
removed to Lewistown, where it is now known as Lewistown Lodge, No. 
203, the date of its reorganization as such being ]May 27, 1845. The 
first officers under this reorganization were : Francis McClure, master ; 
John R. Weekes, senior warden; Christian Ritz, junior warden. Meet- 
ings were first held in the stone building at the foot of Main street, then 
in the old Jacobs house, on Market street, later in the upper story of 
the Odd Fellows' building, and, finally, in the Alasonic Temple, which 
was built at the southeast corner of the public square in 1893. I" igi2 
the lodge reported a membership of 254. 

The next oldest ^Masonic lodge in the valley is Adams Lodge, No. 
319, of New Bloomfield, which was first organized as No. 76. at Landis- 
burg in 1825, but ceased to hold meetings in 1833. It was subsequently 


revived at New Bloomfield and reorganized under a warrant dated 
March i, 1858, with Irvine J. Crane, master; Charles J. T. Mclntire, 
senior warden; Alexander C. Klink, junior warden. This lodge reported 
seventy-five members in 19 12. 

Union Lodge, No. 324, at Mifflintown, was established under a war- 
rant dated September 6, 1858, with Jacob N. Dewees, master; William 
Dent, senior warden; F. ]\I. Mickey, junior warden, and nineteen charter 
members. On the night of December 31, 1870, the lodge room, with all 
its contents, including a library, was destroyed by fire, but a new meet- 
ing place was soon secured and ten years later the lodge had the reputa- 
tion of being one of the best in the state. The membership in 1912 
was 143. 

Lamberton Lodge. No. 371, at Thompsontown, and ]\Ic\^eytown 
Lodge, No. 376, were both organized in 1866. The warrant of the 
former was dated October 16, 1866, and the first officers were: George 
W. Rothrock, master ; John Deitrick, senior warden ; Jacob T. Emerick, 
junior warden. The lodge started with sixteen charter members and in 
1912 reported forty-one. The warrant of McVeytown Lodge was dated 
October 22, 1866, and the lodge was instituted on November i6th, with 
thirteen charter members, but the names of the first officers cannot be 
learned. The membership in 191 2 was 63. 

In 1867 Newport Lodge, No. 381, was organized with eight charter 
members, and two }-ears later Perry Lodge, No. 45S, was instituted at 
Marysville on December 27, 1869, with twelve charter members. In 
191 2 the membership of Newport Lodge was 99 and that of Perry 
Lodge was 108. 

The youngest ]\Iasonic lodge in the four counties embraced in this 
work is at Orbisonia and is known as Cromwell Lodge, No. 572. In 
1912 it reported a membership of eighty. A lodge was organized at 
Alexandria in December. 1800, but its warrant was vacated on April 4, 
1814. An effort was made to revive this lodge in 1823, but it was un- 

Royal Arch chapters have been established at Lewistown, Hunting- 
don and Newport. Lewistown has a Knights Templar commandery. 
No. 26, which was organized in June. 1S67, and Huntingdon Comman- 
dery, No. 65, was organized some years later, as the serial number indi- 


The oldest Odd Fellows' lodge of which any reliable account can be 
obtained was McVeytown Lodge, No. 123, which was instituted in 
1841, but was disbanded about two years later. The present lodge at 
McVeytown — Bright Star Lodge, No. 705 — was organized under a char- 
ter dated March 14, 1870. 

Lewistown Lodge, No. 97, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was 
chartered on August 19, 1844, with John Hamilton, noble grand; L. J. 
Liberty, vice-grand : A. W. Groft, secretary. A stock company was soon 
afterward organized and a lot at the southwest corner of 3.1arket and 
Dorcas streets was purchased, upon which was erected a brick building 
at a cost of $6,000. This building later became the property of the lodge, 
which still owns it. The Lewistown Encampment, No. 256, was organ- 
ized under a charter dated September 13, 1S81, and Bell Lodge (Re- 
bekah Degree) was chartered on May 12, 1884. 

Juniata Lodge, No. 117, located at Huntingdon, was first organized 
on June i, 1845. ^"d for ^ time held meetings in the hotel building at 
the corner of Seventh and Penn streets. J. B. Luden was the first noble 
grand. In I\Iay, 1857, the lodge surrendered its charter, but was reor- 
ganized on June 28, 1867, since which time it has been prosperous. 
Mount Hor Encampment, No. 180, was organized at Huntingdon on 
March 6, 1869. 

Newport Lodge, No. 102, was also organized in 1845, with eight 
charter members, its charter being dated March 18, 1845. ^lifilintown 
Lodge, No. 131, was chartered on October 20. 1845. with Tobias Kreider 
as the first noble grand. The first meetings were held in rented quarters 
until the Odd Fellows" hall was completed in May, 1851. It was de- 
stroyed in the great fire of December 31, 1870, but was rebuilt on the 
same site in 1872. 

Another Odd Fellows' lodge organized in 1845 was Mount Dempsey, 
No. 172, at Landisburg. The following year the lodge purchased what 
was known as the Stambaugh building, on Main street, and met there 
until in 1863, when the third floor of the Landisburg Hotel was leased 
for a lodge room. 

United Brothers Lodge, No. 176. was instituted on April 20, 1846, 
in West township, Huntingdon county, with John R. Hunter as noble 
grand, and on November 26, 1846, Evergreen Lodge, No. 205, was in- 
stituted at Duncannon (then Petersburg), with W. J. Stewart as noble 


grand. Perry Encampment, No. 100, was organized at Duncannon 
some years later. 

On January 15, 1848, Harts Log Lodge. No. 286, was organized at 
Alexandria, with John Huyett as noble grand. For several years the 
lodge prospered, but during the Civil war so many of its members en- 
listed in the army that in 1864 the charter was surrendered. In ]\Iarch, 
1872, the lodge was reorganized with H. Isenberg as noble grand. 

In 1849 Odd Fellows" lodges were organized at Thompsontown and 
New Bloomfield. The former, known as Sincerity Lodge, No. 357, was 
chartered on April 16, 1849, ^n<i instituted on May 30th, with E. D. 
Crawford as the first noble grand. In 1861 an Odd Fellows' Hall Asso- 
ciation was organized and a building was erected, the hall in which was 
dedicated in February. 1862. The New Bloomfield lodge is known as 
Mackinaw Lodge, No. 380, and received its charter on October i, 1849. 
A. C. Klink was the first noble grand. For about nine years meetings 
were held in the old bark-house on East McClure street, when a hall was 
fitted up in the AMggins building on the southeast corner of the public 
square. This building was burned on December 8. 1873, and the lodge 
secured the third floor of the Fenstermacher building for a lodge room. 

Aughwick Lodge, No. 472, was organized at Newton Hamilton in 
1852. in the upper story of the house afterward known as the ]\Iiller 
Hotel. Subsequently the property was purchased by the lodge, which 
met there until in 1867, when the place was sold to John B. ^Miller and 
the Odd Fellows' hall was built in 1869. 

Tuscarora Lodge, No. 556, was organized at Port Royal in 1859. 
and in 1875 purchased a site and erected a hall at a cost of about $2,000. 

On March 6. i860. Coalmont Lodge, No. 561. Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows, was instituted with nineteen charter memljers and Addi- 
son ]\Ioore as the first noble grand, A hall was erected liy the lodge in 

Lost Creek Lodge. No. 566, was chartered on 'Slay 18. i860, and 
held its meetings in Miffiintown until its quarters were destroyed by the 
fire of December 31, 1870. The charter was lost in that fire and the 
lodge received a new one dated January 6, 1871, and the following June 
secured permanent quarters in the Hollabaugh building. AA'illiam 'SI. 
Allison was the first noble grand of this lodge. 

]Mc^^'illiams Lodge, No. 702. was organized in 1863. A hall was 


built in 1873 ^""^ fi^'^ years later the lodge was disbanded. The building 
was burned in 18S0. 

An Odd Fellows' lodge was instituted at Broad Top City in 1865 
with eighteen charter members, S. G. Miller as noble grand, and J. B. 
Gussinger as vice-grand. A building was purchased by the lodge about 
six months after its organization. 

Marysville Lodge, No. 290, was instituted on November 19, 1866, 
with W. W. Jackson, noble grand; John S. Weaver, vice-grand; E. J. 
Mills, secretary, but the subsequent history of the lodge has not been 

Orbisonia Lodge, No. 640, was organized on August 21, 1S68, with 
D. S. Baker, noble grand, and May 20, 1870, McAlisterville Lodge, No. 
716, received its charter. D. B. McWilliams was the first noble grand of 
the latter, w^hich met over JMcAlister's store until about 1875, when an 
Odd Fellows' hall was erected. Another lodge organized in 1870 was 
Mount Hor, No. 736, which was instituted at Cassville on November 
2nd, with Andrew W. Decker as the first noble grand. This lodge oc- 
cupied rented quarters for about seven years, when a building was pur- 
chased for $600 and fitted up for an Odd Fellows" hall. 

Oak Hall Lodge, No. 783, was instituted at Petersburg, Huntingdon 
county, January 3, 1872, with sixteen charter members, and on April 
29, 1875, Milroy Lodge, No. 213, was instituted with A^'illiam Kays as 
the first noble grand. 

Shortly after the close of the Civil war in 1865 an organization 
called the Grand Army of the Republic was formed, the objects of which 
were to aid destittite soldiers and their families, collect and preserve his- 
toric relics of the war, etc. The lodges or societies of this order are 
called posts. The first post to be established in the Juniata valley was 
the Hulings Post, No 176, which was organized in the hall of the Ap- 
prentices' Literary Society at Lewistown on the evening of December 
10, 1868, with General John P. Taylor as commander. The post was 
named for Thomas M. Hulings, colonel of the Forty-ninth Pennsylvania 
Regiment, who was killed at Spottsylvania, May 10, 1864. The last 
meeting under the original charter was held on August 31, 1871, but 
in April, 1880, it was reorganized with a number of new members and 
since then has held meetings regularly. 

George Simpson Post, No. 44, was organized at Huntingdon in 1879 


as the successor of a post of the same name (No. 33) wliich had been 
organized in 1868, the reorganization taking place on December 13, 
1879. George Simpson, for whom this post was named, was the color- 
bearer of the One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Pennsylvania Regiment. 

In June, 1879, David H. Wilson Post, No. 134, was organized at 
Mifflintown, with Louis E. Atkinson as commander, and the first regular 
meeting was held on the loth of July following. Three years later the 
number of members was nearly 140, but many of the old veterans have 
answered the last roll call and there is only a remnant of the original 
post left. 

In 1880 Post No. 188 was organized at Marysville. with Alfred Corl 
as commander; William M. Allison Post, No. 196, was organized at 
Duncannon, the date of the organization being October 2, 1880, with 
forty-four members and Harvey Fisher as commander, and later in the 
same year Harry Corbin Post, No. 200, was established at r\Iapleton 
with twenty-one members. 

Isaac Rogers Post, No. 252. was organized at Orbisonia on ^lay 30, 
1882 (Memorial Day), with twenty-four charter members; Arnold Lo- 
baugh Post, No. 297, was established at Newport on January 13, 1883, 
with thirteen charter members: John Jones Post, No. 448, was insti- 
tuted at New Bloomfield on June 28, 1884, with a membership of twenty- 
four, and was named in honor of Sergeant John Jones, of the Ninth 
Pennsylvania cavalry, who was killed in North Carolina on ]\Iarch 10, 
1865; Thomas Stevenson Post, No. 482, was organized at ]\IcVeytown 
on June 21, 1885, with thirty-one members; and a post called Benjamin 
Benfert Post was established at Oriental, Juniata county, some time in 
the ■80s, but the exact date is uncertain. Its number was 316. 

Closely allied to the Grand Army of the Republic, though only local 
in its scope and character, was the Veterans" Reunion Association of 
Juniata county, which was organized at IMiftlintown on October 19, 1878, 
for the purpose of holding annual reunions of honorably discharged 
soldiers of the Union army. The first of these reunions was held on 
December 18, 1878. Colonel John K. Robinson was the first president 
of this association. Reunions were held annually for ten years or more, 
when the number of veterans began to grow fewer every year, the inter- 
est waned and the organization finally died for want of adequate support. 

Justus H. Rathbone, a government clerk in one of the departments 


at Washington, D. C, with four of his fellow clerks, organized the 
Knights of Pythias in that city a few years after the close of the Civil 
war. The first lodge of the order in the Juniata valley to receive a 
charter was Lewistown Lodge, No. 255, which was chartered on June 2, 
1870, and was organized in a hall in the Odd Fellows' building, where 
the meetings were afterward held. The writer has been unable to learn 
the fate of this lodge, but its charter was evidently surrendered, as 
Juniata Lodge, No. 270, organized on October 26, 1870, is the only 
Knights of Pythias Lodge in Lewistown. Its meetings are held on Sat- 
urday evenings in the Odd Fellows' building. The membership is 
about 300. 

Buehler Lodge, No. 269, Knights of Pythias, was instituted at Marys- 
ville on November 3, 1870, with a strong charter membership and W. A. 
Sheaffer as worthy chancellor. About five months later — April 8, 1871 
— Vaulteburg Lodge, No. 288, was instituted at Duncannon with thirty- 
one charter members, and a few months later Blue Cross Lodge, No. 
295, was established at Huntingdon. Cocolamus Lodge, No. 397, at 
Mifilintown, was chartered May 22, 1873, with ten charter members and 
William F. Snyder chancellor. The meetings of this lodge are held in 
the Odd Fellows' hall. 

Ongpatonga Tribe, Improved Order of Red Men, No. 6, was organ- 
ized at Lewistown on February 20, 1867; the Ongpatonga Haymakers 
were organized at the same place on March 10, 1889, and Ongpatonga 
Council Degree of Pocahontas, was organized on April 24, 1901. Iro- 
quois Tribe, No. 42, was organized at Mifilintown under a charter issued 
on "the 17th Sun of the Cold Moon," 187 1. Juskakaka Tribe, No. 96, 
was instituted at Duncannon on December 27, 1869, with eighteen charter 
members. A tribe had been established at Marysville some time before 
that, but its history has not been learned. Teton Tribe, located at Reeds- 
ville, was established in 1898. 

The order known as the Patriotic Sons of America has camps in 
several of the boroughs in the Juniata valley. The one at Marysville is 
probably the oldest, having been instituted on December 24, 1880: that 
at Lewistown was instituted on August 10, 1889, and the one at Hunt- 
ingdon about the same time. Yeagertown Camp was established in Oc- 
tober, 1906. 

Perry Council of American Mechanics, located at Duncannon, was 


one of the first lodges organized in that borough. It was instituted on 
July 2, 1847, in the basement of the Methodist church, with Roswell 
Shirtluff as councilor. After several years the council suspended, but 
was reorganized on January 10, 1859, and on December 26, 1863, its hall, 
in a building erected by the council, was dedicated. Silver Star Council, 
No. 129, was instituted at Huntingdon on May 30, 1881, with twenty- 
three charter members. This organization does not appear in the latest 
directory, but the date of its suspension is not known. 

The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks has lodges at Lewis- 
town and Huntingdon ; the Holy Temple Commandery, Knights of Mal- 
ta, was organized at Lewistown in 1888; Juniata Lodge of the National 
Protective Legion was instituted at Lewistown in August, 1906; the 
Knights of the Golden Eagle are represented by lodges at Huntingdon 
and Lewistown; the Knights of the Maccabees also have "Tents" in 
those boroughs ; the Fraternal Order of Eagles, the Loyal Order of 
Moose, the Foresters and the Woodmen have organizations at several 
points in the valley and many of these organizations own their own 
halls or club-houses. 

Family and Personal History 

Family and Personal History 

In Schiller's "Thirty Years' War" there is a refer- 
FRYSINGER ence to the territory of Freisinger, showing that there 
was princely blood in the family which bore the 
name; but this historical reference also shows that this is nothing of 
which to boast, since the ruler of the territory and his retainers were 
in arms against the champion of Protestantism, Gustavus Adolphus, by 
whose forces the petty province was completely wiped out. This was 
about 1632. A hundred years later the name was borne by a better 
breed. They espoused the cause of the Reformation, and, being exposed 
to persecution in the land of their birth, some of them came to America, 
seeking, like the Pilgrim Fathers, a land wherein they might find free- 
dom to worship God. 

About the year 1752 three brothers of the name of Freisinger came 
to this country in the good ship "Polly," presumably accompanied by 
their wives. In honor of the vessel which bore them in safety to this 
Western continent, the name Polly was given to a child born either on 
shipboard or soon after the arrival of the party in the land of their 
adoption. They all settled on the Conewago Creek, near the town of 
Hanover, in the county of York, and colony of Pennsylvania. 

One brother, Gottleib Frederick, subsequently removed to the colony 
of Virginia. He had one son who was a Lutheran preacher, and either 
this son or another conducted an academy in the Virginia domain. The 
entire freundschaft seem to have been piously inclined and well educated 
for that day. The family history is altogether lost sight of during the 
greatly disturbed period of the revolutionary war. In 1816 Peter, a 
son of Gottleib F., removed from Virginia to Ohio, settling in Cham- 
paign county. He had a large family of sons and daughters, and their 
progeny are to be found scattered throughout Champaign, Mercer and 
Van Wert counties, some of them occupying prominent professional 
and public positions. One of this line, the Rev. John Frysinger, was 
a well-known Methodist local preacher. 



Another of the original brothers, John, retnoved to Harrisburg, 
Pennsylvania, at an early date, the government census of heads of fam- 
ilies, taken in 1790, containing this record: "Dauphin County, Harris- 
burgh Town, John Frisinger ; 2 free white males of 16 years and upward ; 
no free white males under 16 years; 2 free white females; no slaves". 
Of his descendants we have still less information than of those of Gott- 
leib. In the vicinity of Lewisberry, York county, Pennsylvania, there 
are quite a number of the family name, a John Frysinger. presumably 
a son of the John who resided in Harrisburg in 1790, having settled 
there early in the nineteenth century. There are others probably of 
the same stock in the neighborhood of Spring Mills, York county, and 
still others in Dauphin county. 

The last of the original trio, though perhaps not in the order of age, 
Ludiwick. is also mentioned in the census of 1790 as follows: "York 
County. Dover Township, Ludiwick Frisinger; 2 free white males of 
16 years old and upward, including heads of families; 3 free white males 
under 16 years; 3 free white females, including heads of families; no 
slaves". This record shows that Ludiwick was the only one of the three 
brothers who remained in the Conewago Valley, and that his children 
were all reared there. One of the "3 free white males under 16 years'' 
was George Frysinger, born November 2, 1781. About 1805 he mar- 
ried Elizabeth Ritter. whose mother's maiden name was Magdalena 
Mott, and who emigrated from near Basle, Switzerland, while that 
region was being agitated b}- what is known as the "Seven Years" War" 
(1756-1764). There seems to have been something romantic connected 
with this lonely flight to America, as soon after the strife had ceased 
she was followed by Jacob Ritter, who was probably her affianced lover. 
Impoverished by the devastation of war, he was compelled to resort 
to what was a common custom in order to reach this country, allowing 
the captain of a vessel to sell his service for a limited time to pay his 
passage. He was thus bound to a family of Germantown, Pennsylvania, 
of the name of Chew, by whom he was still employed after his time as a 
"redemptioner" had expired. When the battle which has made that 
place famous took place, the Chew residence was in the line of artillery 
fire, and with the family he was compelled to take refuge in the cellar. 
At the close of the war of the revolution his circumstances had improved 
and iMagdalena Mott became his wife. 


George Frysinger, who married their daughter Elizabeth, became 
a resident of Hanover in early life, and soon took prominence as a 
citizen. He was a member of the first town council of that borough, 
organized in 1815. Previous to this, however, in 181 1, he was elected 
a member of the Pennsylvania legislature, and took an active part in 
the proceedings favoring the war with England, known as the war of 
1812. In that war, when the British attempted to take Baltimore, he 
joined a hastily improvised volunteer company, which, although not 
regularly enrolled nor attached to any particular command, participated 
in the battle of North Point. As soon as they got under fire the captain 
became demoralized and made a hasty retreat, calling on his men to 
follow, which they were disposed to do, as a whole regiment broke into 
a run ; but Lieutenant Frysinger rallied his wavering compatriots, and 
under him they did good service while the brief conflict lasted. In 
consequence of this meritorious conduct, he was afterward chosen cap- 
tain of another company regularly organized, but which, on account 
of the cessation of hostilities, saw but a short term of service as appears 
from the following record in "Pennsylvania Archives, Vol. XII, Second 
Series" (published in 1895) containing the "Muster Rolls of the Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers in the War of 1812-14, with Contemporary Papers 
and Documents, Vol. I," page 164: 

"Roll of Capt. George Frysinger's Company. — Receipt-roll of a com- 
pany of militia, commanded by Capt. George Frysinger, of the Third 
Regiment, First Brigade, performing a tour of duty under the command 
of Col. Lefever, who rendezvoused at Hanover, under the general order 
of the Governor, dated October 15, and 22, 1814. Commencement of 
service, November i ; expiration of service, December 5." 

As he gave the writer some personal incidents connected with one 
of the northern campaigns of the war, it is probable that he was one 
of the twelve men from Hanover and vicinity who responded to the first 
call for volunteers and joined the Army of the Northern Frontier, but 
the record of the names has not been found to date (1913). 

Mr. Frysinger carried on the business of building wagons of the 
"Conestoga" make, a favorite with the teamsters who moved most of 
the merchandise handled in that day. A gentleman of Baltimore city 
told the writer that his father purchased these wagons in lots from 
Mr. Frysinger, and that they were so well made that his customers were 


never disappointed in them. Some of them were used to convey heavy- 
loads from Baltimore to Pittsburgh. While his father profited by the 
builder's honesty and skill, this gentleman said that the children, of 
whom he was one, profited by his generosity, for with every consignment 
of wagons came a liberal consignment of nuts or fruits for the juveniles. 
The census record of "no slaves" indicates the aversion to slavery which 
the early ancestors of the family entertained, as they were well able to 
avail themselves of such service, and this feeling seems to have been 
inherited by their children. If not the principal agent in the community, 
George Frysinger sustained some connection with "the underground 
railroad,"' of which Hanover as a border town was a station, a very 
aged colored man many years ago having so informed the writer, at- 
tributing his own freedom to Mr. Frysinger's assistance. After many 
years of useful citizenship in Hanover, he removed to York, Pennsyl- 
vania, where he conducted a small business until enfeebled by age, and 
where, respected by all who knew him, he departed this life April 5, 
1870, in his eighty-ninth year, his wife having deceased May 21, 1852. 
They had four sons: Jesse, George, Jacob and William; and three 
daughters : Elizabeth, Polly and Matilda, the name Polly being still re- 
tained in memory of the vessel which brought the grandparents to this 

Jesse, the oldest of the sons, was born in Hanover, Pennsylvania, 
January 21, 1806, where he spent a long and useful life. For many 
years he served the public in the capacity of a magistrate, and so just 
were his decisions and so accurate his work as a scrivener that he ob- 
tained a reputation which few in such a position have won, being famil- 
iarly known in the community as "the Honest Squire." In 1827 he 
married Caroline Grumbine, and to them were born nine sons: Henry, 
Edward, Lewis, Charles, William, John, David, George and Jesse; and 
four daughters: Elenora, Amelia (who died in infancy), Sarah, and 
Emma (who died in her tenth year). Four sons became extensive to- 
bacco manufacturers, of whom Edward is still living in Lewistown, 
Pennsylvania, and Charles in York, Pennsylvania. Three became print- 
ers. William was for many years editor and publisher of a weekly 
paper in Brownstown, Indiana, where he died. David has for a quar- 
ter o^ a century or more been a trusted attache of the Harper establish- 
ment in New York. The venerable Henry Frysinger, who passed his 


eighty-second birthday anniversary October 9, 1912, is one of the oldest 
newspaper editors in Pennsylvania, having been in the profession since 
1S52, when he began the publication of a weekly paper in Hanover, 
Pennsylvania. He subsequently took charge of the Clinton Democrat 
at Lock Haven, Pennsylvania, and in 1854 purchased the True Democrat 
of Lewistown, Pennsylvania, which he conducted successfully for about 
twenty-five years. Since, September, 1879, he has owned and edited 
the Delazvare County Democrat, at Chester, Pennsylvania. He is the 
father of nine children. 

George Frysinger Jr., son of George Frysinger Sr., was born in 
Hanover, Pennsylvania, November 4, 181 1. He early developed a 
literary taste. Such was his fondness for books that before he was 
twenty-one he had read a thousand volumes, filling his retentive mem- 
ory with a rich store of information. In 1827 he entered the office 
of the Baltimore American, one of the oldest journals in the country, 
and obtained a thorough knowledge of the printing trade and business. 
While in Baltimore he became a member of Gratitude Lodge, No. 5, 
I. O. O. F., which, as its name indicates, was the fifth lodge of Odd 
Fellows organized in the United States. He was personally acquainted 
with Thomas Wildey, founder of the order. In 1832 he went to Wash- 
ington city, where he was employed in what was nominally the govern- 
ment printing office as a proofreader, an important and responsible posi- 
tion, as the mere misplacement of a comma in one of the congressional 
bills which passed through his hands might have afifected national legis- 
lation. Disabled by an accident, he returned to his native town, and 
in 1835 established the Hanover Herald. In 1841 he removed to Le- 
banon, Pennsylvania, and became the proprietor of the Courier, which 
he conducted until 1844, when he again went to Baltimore, entering into 
an engagement with Taylor & Company, publishers of The Western 
Continent, a high-class periodical edited by the talented Park Benjamin. 
This firm published the first edition of Dumas' "Three Guardsmen" 
issued in this country, the proofreading being entrusted to Mr. Fry- 
singer. In 1846 he purchased the Leivistown Gazette, and spent the 
remainder of his life in Central Pennsylvania. With the exception of 
one year, he published the Gasette until 1883, making nearly thirty- 
eight years of editorial work in Lewistown. Had all employers been 
as just and considerate as he there would be no labor troubles. Every 


week he gave his hands, usually five in number, a whole or half holiday. 
without lessening their pay. He was one of the most unselfish of men. 
almost impoverishing himself in helping others. Many poor families 
were the recipients of his bounty, and a number of young men received 
from him substantial aid to start them in life. He was a public-spirited 
citizen, serving four terms as chief burgess when there was virtually no 
salary attached to the ofiice, and acting as clerk to the county commis- 
sioners when the important period of the civil war demanded a man of 
his capacity in that position. Much higher and more remunerative offices 
were repeatedly tendered him, but he invariably declined them in favor 
of others. He was a lover of nature, and manifested a deep reverence for 
nature's God. What was said in the funeral oration of General Grant 
could with as much truthfulness be said of this man of equally retiring 
disposition : 

"He was taciturn concerning his religious faith and experience — 
not. however, from doubt and fear, but from mental characteristics. 
The keenest, closest, broadest of all observers, he was the most silent 
of men. He lived within himself. His thought-life was most intense; 
his memory and imagination were picture galleries of the world and 
libraries of treasured thought. He was a world to himself." 

On June i6, 1839. he married Sarah Susanna, daughter of Daniel 
and Maria Barnitz, of Hanover, Pennsylvania, who, as a model home- 
maker, proved an efficient helpmate. It is worthy of note that her father 
as well as his was a member of Hanover's first town council. She 
received a common school education in Hanover and was then sent to 
York, where better school advantages were to be had. While in the 
latter place, in the year 1825, she had the good fortune to see Lafayette 
as he rode in the long procession which passed through the principal 
streets of the town, witnessing the pageant from a window of the resi- 
dence of her granduncle, Charles A. Barnitz, afterward a member of 
the twenty-third congress. Mr. Frysinger's almost invariable rule to 
take a day's recreation every week and his temperate habits contributed 
to a long and enjoyable life. An incident illustrating his appreciation of 
outdoor recreation as well as his regard for veracity may not be out of 
place here. With his oldest son he was about setting out for a day's 
fishing, when a prominent lawyer hurriedly approached him and stated 
that he had an important legal document he wanted printed. "I cannot 


do it, Mr. W.," was the answer. "I promised my boy to give today to 
him, and I always keep my promises to my children". "I will give you 
double your price for the job," pleaded the lawyer, "it will be a great dis- 
appointment to me if you will not do it". "It would be a greater disap- 
pointment to my boy", said the father, "if I did not keep the promise I 
made him". And off they went, fishing rods in hand. The writer was 
that boy, and his whole life has been influenced by that incident. Such 
was the character of this unassuming man. He died December 14, 

1901, over ninety years of age, his companion following him July 15, 

1902, being over eighty-nine years old, their wedded life having extended 
through sixty-two years. They had three sons. The youngest, Charles, 
died in infancy at Lebanon, Pennsylvania. 

The oldest son, William Maslin, was born in Hanover, Pennsylvania, 
April 18, 1840. He received an academic education in Lewistown, and 
then learned printing in his father's office. Before he was twenty, he 
was offered a position in Sherman's book printing establishment in Phil- 
adelphia, which would have paid him $1,000 a year; but a call from 
the Methodist Episcopal church to enter its ministry coming at the same 
time, he chose the latter, receiving $100 for his first year's labor, which 
was mission work in York, Pennsylvania, and out of which grew what 
has become the second of five flourishing churches of the denomination 
in that city. In 1871 he received the degree of A. M. from Dickinson 
College, being at the time pastor of the chapel connected with that in- 
stitution. Subsequently he received the degree of D. D. from the same 
source. For seven years he conducted the M. E. Book Room at Harris- 
burg, Pennsylvania, editing the Conference News at the same time, and 
for seven years more was president of Centenary Biblical Institute (now 
Morgan College) of Baltimore. Then for five years he was editor of 
the Baltimore Methodist. In 1894 he again became "Preacher to the 
College" in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, remaining the full limit of five years. 
After serving two other important charges, Tyrone and Bloomsburg, 
in the Central Pennsylvania Conference, he ended his pastoral work and 
devoted a year to the secretaryship of the Conference Annuity Fund. 
In 1904 he retired from active work and is spending the evening of life 
in California, where he still preaches occasionally and performs some 
literary labors, having been fifty-three years (1860-1913) a minister of 
the gospel. 


The second son of George and Sarah S. Frysinger, was born in 
Lebanon, Pennsylvania, November 3, 1841, and was given the name of 
George Ritter. He was educated in Lewistown, where he spent nearly 
all his life. Like each of the males of the family, he was a printer "to 
the manner born." Following in his father's footsteps he spent some 
time in the government printing office at Washington, acted as foreman 
in a Baltimore newspaper office, and for many years has been connected 
with the Lewistown Gazette, either as publisher or special contributor. 
For several years he edited and published the Lezvistozvn Free Press. 
For some time he carried on the book and stationery business. He has 
never found anything to his taste unless flavored with printer's ink. 
He is known and consulted as the local historian of Mifflin county. In- 
heriting his father's love of nature, he has made an amateur study of 
natural history, contributing an article on the Robin to Lippincott's 
Magazine which was widely copied. His influence as an upright citizen 
and active Christian of the Lutheran persuasion is generally acknowl- 
edged. He was one of the three months' volunteers at the time of Lee's 
invasion of Pennsylvania in 1S63, and his regiment, although arriving 
on the scene too late to participate in the battle of Gettysburg, was put 
in charge of the field. While on duty there he contracted what was 
popularly known as "the battlefield fever," and for some time his life 
was despaired of, but the vitality inherited from a sturdy ancestry over- 
came the disease and prolonged his days. He still resides in Lewistown 
with the history of which he is probably more familiar than is any 
other member of the community. 

Jacob, son of George Frysinger Sr., also a native of Hanover, Penn- 
sylvania, born about 1818 (?), went to Baltimore, Maryland, as a 
young man, entering the establishment of one of the prominent mer- 
chants of that city. He subsequently married a daughter of the pro- 
prietor. Miss Agnes Caughy. They removed to Rock Island, Illinois, 
where he engaged in business for himself, and where, after a residence 
of more than fifty years, he died. He was the father of three 

AVilliam, son of George Frysinger Sr., was born in Hanover, Penn- 
sylvania, April 19, 1822. In early life he removed to York. His trade 
was that of printing, and for several years he was engaged in newspaper 
publishing. Subsequently he became a merchant, but eventually con- 


centrated his attention and business energy on carpet manufacturing, 
in which he acquired a good reputation and trade. His probity of char- 
acter, unassuming but large benevolence, and genial disposition, won the 
esteem of the entire community. For many years he was one of the 
most ardent members and liberal supporters of the First Methodist 
Episcopal Church, efifectively filling various official positions. In 1844 
he married Henrietta, daughter of John and Eve Stine of York, Penn- 
sylvania, a most happy union which extended through just half a cen- 
tury. His death occurred March 15, 1S94. and that of his wife in 1900. 
Their children were five in number: Francis, who succeeded him in 
business; Horatio, Lizzie E., Alice and Nettie. Alice married the Rev. 
W. W. Evans, D. D., and a son bears the honored family name of 

Elizabeth, daughter of George Frysinger Sr., was born in Hanover, 
Pennsylvania, about 1808 (?). She married Judge Horatio Price, of 
Westminster, ^Maryland. Their union proved one of great felicity, and 
both were held in the highest esteem throughout their long lives which 
were spent in the quiet enjoyments of domestic life. They had no 

Mary (Polly), daughter of George Frysinger Sr., was born in Han- 
over, Pennsylvania, in 1810. She married a Mr. Houck, of Jefferson, 
York county, Pennsylvania, by whom she had one child, Cordelia, who 
was married twice and left several children. Mrs. Houck also married 
twice, her second husband being a i\Ir. Werner, whom she outlived. 
She was of most gentle disposition, amiable, patient, charitable, a rare 
and lovable character. She died August 15, 1875, aged about sixty-five, 
at the residence of her daughter, near Baltimore city. 

Matilda, daughter of George Frysinger Sr., was also born in Han- 
over, Pennsylvania, November 27, 18 14. In 183 1 she married Francis 
Shriver, of Westminster, Maryland. Their home was ever one of 
plenty and generous hospitality, and was blessed with eleven children. 
Both were honored and useful members of the Methodist Protestant 
church. After years of great suffering, which she bore with remark- 
able patience and resignation, she died in great peace, January 27, 1884. 

While the family name is said to be a common one in Germany, it 
is doubtful if, aside from the pedigree of those here given, any number 
bearing it are to be found in this country. 


The literal significance of the name Freisinger in German is "Free 
Singer," and it was no doubt bestowed upon the first who bore it as title 
denoting both distinctive rank and native musical talent. That it in- 
dicated the latter is confirmed by the frequent recurrence of such 
talent as an hereditary quality in the line of succession. William, son 
of George Frysinger Sr., manifested this peculiarity as a child. At an 
early age he played any instrument put in his hands. As a lad he be- 
came a member of a brass band in Hanover, and created such a furore 
of enthusiasm by his performances on his first appearance in public, that 
some of the musicians mounted him on their shoulders and carried him 
through the streets, followed by a cheering crowd. While yet a mere 
boy he became leader of this same band. Although he excelled in the 
use of various instruments, his favorite was the flageolet, of which he 
became a master. Most of his family have exhibited remarkable musical 

A daughter of Henry Frysinger has achieved quite a reputation 
as a vocalist, and has sung upon the stage in this country and Europe ; 
and a granddaughter in Philadelphia is a notable pianist. Agnes, daugh- 
ter of Edward Frysinger, of Lewistown, Pennsylvania, and wife of 
Professor Norcross, of Williamsport, Dickinson Seminary, has attained 
more than local eminence as a pianist, performing the difticult compo- 
sitions of classical artists with ease and grace of expression, making 
her a favorite in high-class recitals wherever she is known. It may be 
said of George R. Frysinger that "his life flows on in endless song," 
as, on account of his musical bent, he has been retained in the choir 
of St. John's Lutheran Church, of Lewistown, Pennsylvania, for a 
greater part of his earthly sojourn. In appreciation of the services thus 
rendered, the congregation of said church in 1907 presented him a 
handsome gold watch bearing the following inscription: "In recogni- 
tion of 50 years" service as a member of St. John's Lutheran Choir, 
Lewistown, Pa., Sept., 1907." A son of the late Jesse Frysinger Jr. 
is an organist of superior merit, his public recitals attracting much favor- 
able attention and comment. He is also a composer of more than or- 
dinary ability. He is at the head of the University School of Music 
at Lincoln, Nebraska. An infant son of Frysinger Evans, a child of 
the fifth generation born in America, though but four years old (1913), 
is a musical prodigy. 


The history of this branch of the Greene family begins 
GREENE in Pennsylvania with Kenzie L. Greene, born in Hamp- 

stead, now Coxiestown, Maryland, in 1803, died in Or- 
bisonia, Pennsylvania, in August, 1896. He lost his parents when little 
more than an infant, and was left to the guardianship of William Lovell, 
who, when the lad was about six years of age, located in Huntingdon 
county, Pennsylvania. Mr. Lovell and his wife Margaret were kind and 
just to their ward, giving him the advantages of such schools as the 
neighborhood afiforded at that early day. He grew to manhood on the 
farm, but later learned surveying, becoming a well known expert in his 
profession, prospered and became the owner of considerable property 
in Huntingdon county, including a farm of two hundred acres in Clay 
township. When he first came to that township he settled in Trough 
Creek Valley, later moved to Three Springs, where he remained until 
ten years prior to his death, when he moved to Orbisonia, making his 
home with his daughter, Melissa, widow of Thomas C. Ashman. He 
was a man of more than ordinary mental ability, an extensive reader, 
and possessed of unusual practical common sense and judgment. He 
was left a widower the last fifteen years of his life, and lived practically 
retired during that period. He was a Republican in politics, well known 
in the county, and held many public offices of trust, including that of 
commissioner of Huntingdon county. He married Diana Hudson, of 
English descent, daughter of William H. and Linda (Doyle) Hudson. 
William H. Hudson was a large landowner, part of which he cleared 
and improved, and on which he erected a flouring and grist mill. He 
died aged seventy years, leaving three children : Nancy, married Moses 
Greenland, a wealthy resident of Huntingdon county; George, died at 
Three Springs, Pennsylvania, a farmer and hotelkeeper; Diana, of 
previous mention, wife of Kenzie L. Greene. Mrs. Greene died Febru- 
ary 28, 1881, the mother of nine children: i. Melissa, married Thomas 
C. Ashman, whom she survived, a resident of Orbisonia until her death 
in 1899. 2. Anion, died in childhood. 3. Carroll, died in childhood. 4. 
William H., died in childhood. 5. Margaret, married Elijah C. Houck 
and died in Cairo, Illinois, in 1869. 6. Priscilla, married Rev. David 
W. Hunter, a Baptist minister, whom she survives, a resident of Lewis- 
town, with her daughter Anna, wife of Albert B. Spanogle. She also 
had two sons, Edwin and Dr. John P. Hunter, the latter now deceased. 


7. Calvin, of whom further. 8. Ruth Ann, married Rev. James T. 
Bradford, and resides at Jersey Shore, Pennsyh-ania. 9. Dr. B. Frank- 
lin, a graduate of Jefferson :Medical College, Philadelphia, an eminent 
physician, who died at Three Springs, Pennsylvania, June 16, 1S74, leav- 
ing a son, Franklin H. Greene. 

(H) Calvin, son of Kenzie L. and Diana (Hudson) Greene, was 
born at Three Springs, Huntingdon county, Pennsylvania, February 19, 
1845, and now, after an active, useful life of successful effort, is living 
practically retired at Lewistown, Pennsvlvania. He obtained a eood 
elementary education in the public schools at Three Spings, supplemented 
by a three years' course in the higher branches at Shirleysburg Academy, 
under Professor J. B. Kidder, and a business course at Iron City Com- 
mercial College at Pittsburgh, whence he was graduated in 1865. He 
then taught two terms in Shirleysburg public school and then embarked 
on a business career, with little capital except a good education, health, 
high ideals, an excellent reputation for manly uprightness, and a stout 

He married at the age of twenty-four, and about a year later entered 
the employ of Leas & j\IcVitty, as bookkeeper at the Saltillo Tannery, 
Saltillo, Huntingdon county, Pennsylvania, (the junior partner, Mr. 
McVitty, was his father-in-law). Here he acquired his first knowledge 
of the tanning business, in which he later became so conspicuous a 
figure. He grasped every detail of the manufacture of leather, from 
the green hide to the finished product, and in 1873 was made manager 
of the Saltillo Tannery, and a partner in the firm, which continued busi- 
ness for the next twenty years as Leas, McVitty & Sons. The personnel 
of the new firm included the original partners of the old firm, William 
B. Leas and Samuel McVitty, with their sons, David P. Leas and 
Thomas Edward ]\IcVitty, and Calvin Greene. The only change was 
caused by the death of William B. Leas, whose interest ceased in 1884. 
Mr. Greene was a potent factor in the success of the firm and besides 
his interest in the prosperous Saltillo Tannery, he acquired in 1887 an 
interest in the North American Tannery at Lewistown, owned by the 
firm, Leas, McVitty & Greene. Of this plant ]\Ir. Greene had general 
supervision, visiting it every two weeks until the dissolution of the firm 
by mutual consent in 1893. The same firm obtained a charter from the 
state of Virginia for the Salem Tanning Company, capital stock two 



hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and from 1890 to 1893 operated a 
tannery, which they built at Salem, Roanoke county, Virginia. Of this 
company Mr. Greene was a director until 1893, when he sold his interest. 
He now had his capital unemployed, and desiring to concentrate it, pur- 
chased in 1893 the entire stock of the Saltillo Tannery, with its real 
estate, plant, and all pertaining thereto, and at once reorganized it as 
Calvin Greene & Son, taking in his son, Edward M. Greene, as partner. 
In 1895 he purchased the plant of the North American Tannery Com- 
pany at Lewistown and, leaving his son as manager of Saltillo plant, 
he moved his residence to Lewistown, and gave his attention to the tan- 
nery there. This plant, which he had formerly owned as a partner of 
Leas, IMcVitty & Greene, was substantially erected, the building of 
brick, with a good equipment for the manufacture of heavy sole leather, 
and during his management produced annually 1,225,000 pounds of 
chestnut and oak bark tanned sole leather. The capacity of Saltillo 
plant being seven hundred and eighty-two thousand pounds of the same 
quality and style of leather. In 1902 Mr. Greene disposed of the North 
American Tannery by sale to George H. Maxwell, of Titusville, Penn- 
sylvania. The Satillo Tannery was continued in operation until 1911, 
when the raw stock on hand was tanned and the plant closed, although 
still owned by Calvin Greene. Although practically retired from the 
tanning business, and entirely so from active management, he yet re- 
tains an interest in the Mount Union Tanning & Extract Company, at 
Mount LTnion, Pennsylvania. The company employs about one hundred 
men and operates two distinct plants, one tanning hides imported from 
South America, Mexico, Africa and China, producing 3,500,000 pounds 
of leather annually from seventy-five thousand hides; the other plant 
manufacturing a tanning extract from chestnut wood and bark, also 
from the marabolams nut, valonia and mangrove bark. This plant pro- 
duces annually fifteen thousand barrels of tanning extracts, which are 
shipped to all leather tanning centers of the United States and Canada. 
He is also a director in the Mann Edge Tool Company, an incor- 
porated company with a capital of two hundred and fifty thousand dol- 
lars, operating a plant at Lewistown and another at Mill Hall, Penn- 
sylvania. In 1893 Mr. Greene assisted in organizing the Union National 
Bank at Huntingdon and served as a director until prior to his removal 
to Lewistown. when he resigned, but still retains his interest as a stock- 


holder. In 1906 Mr. Greene and his son Edward, with others, organized 
the Lewistown Trust Company, of which he was elected the first presi- 
dent. He continued in this responsible position until 191 1, when he 
resigned, but retains a large stockholder's interest. He has a lively 
interest in the prosperity of his adopted town, of which he has been a 
valued citizen for over seventeen years (1913), and an active mem- 
ber of its board of trade, serving on the executive committee. Always 
devoted to the cause of education, he served for many years as trustee 
of Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, but in 1909 resigned, 
not through lack of interest, but feeling that younger shoulders should 
bear the burden. Mr. Greene's only business interests, outside his own 
state, have been in Texas, a state in which he has great faith. In 1904 
he was one of the organizers, subsequently director and treasurer, of the 
Belton & Temple Traction Company, operating in Bell county, Texas, 
between the towns of Belton and Temple. This company, a successful 
one, and bonded for $2,000,000, was operated by the original company 
until 191 1, when they sold to another company. Another Texas enter- 
prise in which both Mr. and Mrs. Greene are deeply interested, and of 
which he is president and treasurer, is the Pennsylvania Land and Irri- 
gation Company, with offices in Lewistown. This company owns 1.736 
acres in Hidalgo county, Texas, in the Rio Grande Valley, which is to 
be divided into small tracts and sold as fruit and produce farms. 

In political faith Mr. Greene is a Republican, holding many offices 
when residing in Saltillo, and serving three years as councilman in 
Lewistown. In religious belief he is a Baptist, is trustee and a deacon 
of the Lewistown congregation, also is one of the board of directors of 
the Pennsylvania State Baptist Missionary Society. Both his wife and 
family are communicants of the Baptist church. 

Calvin Greene married, December 24, 1869, Amanda J., daughter of 
Samuel and Esther (McKinstry) McVitty, and maternal granddaughter 
of Rodney and Margaret (McCammon) McKinstry, he was born in 
county Antrim, Ireland. Children of Rodney McKinstry : John, Samuel, 
Alexander, Elliott, James and Esther. Samuel McVitty, a wealthy tan- 
ner of Saltillo (as described), died March 14, 1891, aged seventy-six 
years. His wife, Esther, survived him until December 29, 1893. Chil- 
dren : Emeline, deceased, married Richard W. Hudson ; Thomas Ed- 
ward, married Phoebe Ouimby; Mary Ellen, drowned at the age of 


eighteen months ; John, died in childhood ; Amanda J., of previous men- 
tion ; AHce Belle, deceased, married Dr. W. S. Madden. 

Children of Calvin and Amanda J. Greene; i. Edward McVitty, 
educated at Bucknell University, junior member of Calvin Greene 
& Son, now president and manager of the Mount Union Tanning & 
Extract Company, previously described, of ]\Iount Union. Pennsylvania. 
He married Carrie W'ittemeyer, of Middleburg, Pennsylvania, and has 
sons, Edward and Waldo. 2. Nora May, graduate of Bucknell Insti- 
tute, second vice-president of the Lewistown Hospital Association and 
an active worker for church and charity. She resides with her parents. 
3. Ida Gertrude, graduate of Bucknell Institute, married G. K. Watson, 
and resides in Mercedes, Hidalgo county, Texas, in the Valley of the 
Rio Grande. 4. Esther McKinstry, educated at Bucknell Institute, mar- 
ried Hugh Hamilton and resides in Hope, Arkansas ; children : Hugh, 
John and Raymond. 5. Raymond, graduate of Bucknell University, 
class of 1902 ; member of Phi Kappa Psi, and of lodge, chapter and com- 
mandery of the Masonic order. He is now secretary and treasurer of 
the Mount Union Tanning & Extract Company. 6. Mary, born July 17, 
1883. died August i, 1883. 

The family residence of the Greenes is on Third street, Lewistown, 
near the Presbyterian church, and is a beautiful brick mansion erected 
by Calvin Greene in 1900. This record of a busy life would be incom- 
plete, did it fail to note the high esteem in which Mr. Greene is held in 
his community. His long life has been spent in the full blaze of pub- 
licity, in two communities, and from the almost penniless young man of 
1870, he has risen through honorable effort to affluence and a high posi- 
tion in the business world. His name is a synonym for uprightness and 
his character has proved, in its maturity, the promise of his youth. His 
friends are legion, and in this, the autumn of his life, should he care to 
cast a retrospective glance over the past half century of his career, the 
review can give him naught but satisfaction. His life has been a well- 
spent one and the success he has attained is fully deserved. 

This family, a noted one in the medical history 
HARSHBERGER of the Juniata Valley, descends from a German 
ancestry. The founder, a farmer, settled in Pot- 
ter township. Center county, at an early date, leaving a large family, 


many of the name yet living in the same locaUty or near where their 
ancestor first settled. 

(I) John Harshberger was born in Germany and came to the United 
States in the latter half of the eighteenth century. He became a farmer 
of Penns Valley, Center county, Pennsylvania, his farm lying in Potter 
township. There he lived until death honored and respected. He mar- 
ried and two of his sons, Abraham and Henry, became eminent physi- 
cians of Juniata and Mifflin counties. The latter, born February i8, 
1818, studied with his brother, Dr. Abraham, obtained his degree from 
Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, and practised at McAUister- 
ville, Pennsylvania, dying there January 28, 1883. 

(II) Dr. Abraham Harshberger, son of John Harshberger, was born 
in Penns Valley, Center county, Pennsylvania, December 12, 1810, died 
in Milroy, ^lifflin county, Pennsylvania, in 1893. He obtained a good 
preparatory education, read medicine with Dr. T. A. Worrall and Dr. 
William I. Wilson, of Potters Mills, in Lewistown, 1841 and 1842, and 
then entered Jefferson Medical College at Philadelphia, whence he was 
graduated M. D., class of 1844. He married, and established in practice 
in McAllisterville, Juniata county, Pennsylvania, remaining until 1855, 
when he moved to Port Royal in the same county. Here he practised 
until September, 1861, then gave up all his plans and ambitions to enter 
the service of his country. He enlisted in 1862 and was elected captain 
of Company I, 49th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry. He 
did not accompany his regiment to the front, but deciding he could be 
of greater usefulness as a physician than as a soldier, he was commis- 
sioned assistant surgeon of the 124th Regiment, Pennsylvania Infantry, 
August 2, 1862, was promoted surgeon December 5, 1862, transferred to 
the i66th Pennsylvania Regiment, and November 9, 1863, to the 149th 
Regiment, serving with the latter regiment until the war closed, being 
mustered out June 24, 1865. His regiments were a part of the Army 
of the Potomac and the doctor was under fire at Antietam, Hatcher's 
Run, Wilderness, Stony Creek Station, Petersburg, \\"eldon Railroad, 
Yellow Tavern and other engagements. After the war Dr. Harshberger 
returned to his home in Juniata county, but his three years of absence 
had given other physicians the field and on September 4, 1865, he moved 
to Milroy, ^lifflin county, and there continued in active, successful prac- 
tise until his death in 1893. 


Dr. Harshberger was a learned, successful physician and stood high 
in the medical fraternity. He was a member of the American Medical, 
Pennsylvania State Medical and Mifflin County Medical societies and 
kept pace with all medical thought and discovery, while his army ex- 
perience had given him a skill in surgery unequalled in the county. 
He was a member of the Presbyterian church, and with his wife, ren- 
dered useful Christian service. While a member of both the Masonic 
and Odd Fellow fraternities, his humanities extended to all men and 
his charity was not bounded by lodge or church lines. In politics he 
was a Republican, but he never accepted public office, his profession 
being to him all-in-all. 

He married in Penns Valley, Mary Ann McCoy, born there about 
1822, died in Milroy, Mifflin county, in 1881, daughter of Alexander 
and j\Iary (McDowell) McCoy, both born in Ireland, but married in 
Center county, Pennsylvania. They settled on a farm in Center county, 
which they owned and cultivated until death. Their children were: 
John, Frank, Mary Ann, Margaret and Hannah, the latter the wife of 
Henry H. Van Dyke. Children of Dr. Abraham Harshberger: i. 
Frances E., married Rev. John Butler, a missionary to China, both de- 
ceased. 2. Alexander Samuel, of whom further. 3. John, died aged four 
years. 4. Mary, died aged four years. 5. Annie C, died aged twenty 
years, unmarried. 6. Frank McCoy, a graduate lawyer, now engaged 
in the legal department of the Northern Pacific railroad, located at Ta- 
coma, Washington. 

(Ill) Dr. Alexander Samuel Harshberger, son of Dr. Abraham and 
JMary Ann (McCoy) Harshberger, was born at McAllisterville, Penn- 
sylvania, January 6, 1S50. He was educated at Airy View Academy, 
Port Royal, Pennsylvania, a graduate of the class of 1867, after which 
he read medicine with his father until March, 1869, when he entered 
the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, whence he 
was graduated M. D., class of 1870. For the first thirteen years of his 
professional life he practised in association with his honored father. Dr. 
Abraham Harshberger, gaining in actual sick-room practise and by asso- 
ciation with the veteran army surgeon a most valuable experience. In 
August, 1884. he moved to Lewistown, Pennsylvania, where he is firmly 
established in successful general medical and surgical practise. He is 
surgeon-in-chief and president of the board of directors of Lewistown 


Hospital, a position he has most capably filled ever since its erection in 
1907. He is a member of the American Medical, the Pennsylvania State 
and Mifflin County Medical societies, and also contributes occasional 
articles to the medical journals, treating of special or unusual cases 
that occur in his practice. For fifteen years he has been surgeon to the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company; has served on the state and local 
boards of health and in private practise is the oldest ph3-sician in Lewis- 

He has business interests outside his profession, including a direc- 
torship in the ]\Iann Edge Tool Company. In political belief he is a 
Republican and for sixteen years has served his borough as school 
director. He is a member of Lodge No. 203, Free and Accepted Ala- 
sons; Chapter No. 186, Royal Arch Masons; Commandery No. 26, 
Knights Templar; and Lodge No. 97, Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows and belongs to the beneficial order, Royal Arcanum. In religious 
faith he is a Presbyterian. 

Dr. Harshberger married, December 27, 1872, Alary Elizabeth 
Brown, born in Alifflin county, Pennsylvania, daughter of James M. 
Brown. Child: Annie G., born December 24, 1879, was educated in 
Lewistovvn public schools and is a graduate of Swarthmore Preparatory 
School. She married William W. Cunningham, who is cashier of the 
Citizen's National Bank of Lewistown. Pennsylvania, and they have a 
son, Alexander Samuel Cunningham. 

The Mitchells of this record descend from Henry 
MITCHELL Mitchell, of Alarsden Lane, Lancastershire, England, 

a carpenter by trade, who married Elizabeth Foulds. 
3rd mo., 6th, 1675. Both were members of the Society of Friends, and 
he was imprisoned for his religious conviction in 1685. On 12th mo., 16, 
1699, Marsden monthly meeting gave a certificate to Henry Alitchell, 
wife and four children. The}- sailed on the "Britannica" for Pennsyl- 
vania and after a voyage of fourteen weeks arrived in the Delaware, 
August 25, 1699. The vessel was overcrowded and there was a great 
deal of sickness on board, fifty-six dying at sea and twen