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Full text of "History of the Junior Order United American Mechanics of the United States of North America"

n; 



HISTORY 

OF THE 

JUNIOR ORDER UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 




OLD CONCORD SCHOOL HOUSE, THE BIRTH-PLACE OF THE Jr. O. U. A. M. 
GERMANTOWN (PHILADELPHIA). MAY 17, 1853 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



JUNIOR ORDER UNITED AMERICAN 
MECHANICS 



OF THE 



UNITED STATES OF NORTH AMERICA 



BY 

The Rev. M. D. LICHLITER 

PAST STATE COUNCILOR OF PENNSYLVANIA. AND NATIONAL CHAPLAIN 




PHILADELPHIA 

Press of j. B. lippincott company 

IQOQ 



Copyright, 1908 

By 

Rev. M. D. Lichlitek 






\Q to 



TO MY WIFE 
MARY FLORENCE 

THIS VOLUME IS MOST AFFECTIONATELY 
DEDICATED 



A FOREWORD 



THERE was a time when an important part of a book was 
the preface, in which the author set forth his ideas and 
gave the raison d' e'tre of the publication. In this instance the 
work itself shall give the reason for the following pages. 

Fifty-five years ago to-day the Junior Order of United Ameri- 
can Mechanics had its birth; and with the exception of a brief 
record by National Secretary Edw. S. Deemer, issued in 1896, in 
connection with another publication, entitled " American Land- 
marks," no comprehensive history of the Order has been compiled, 
hence the demand for a fuller account of the origin, rise, progress, 
work and success of this great American organization. To meet 
this demand, and to place in detail the evolution of the Jr. 
0. U. A. M., is our purpose in sending forth upon the sea of litera- 
ture this volume. 

It has been our aim not to say hard things of anyone, even of 
those who once were in the Junior fold, and if there has been good 
things to say of our brethren — well we have said them, not in a 
spirit of flattery, but believing the words due them ; as well as firmly 
believing that 'postmortem love is worthless, that if there are good 
things to say of others, to speak them when the ears can hear 
and the hearts can feel and that they may know before they go 
down to the silence of the tomb that their work has been appreci- 
ated. Hence if we have not been able to say anything commend- 
able personally concerning those who have endeavored to wreck the 
organization in the years of its strife, we have restrained from 
saying anything to the contrary, feeling all the while with 
Stevenson : 

" There's so much bad in the best of us, 
And so much good in the worst of us, 
That it hardly behooves any of us 
To speak about the rest of us." 



viii FOREWORD 

How far this history will stand the test of criticism, is not 
for the writer to determine. To know is one thing; to do is quite 
another. And it may be observed of writing, as of good blood, 
that it is much easier to say what it is composed of than to compose 
it. It has cost the writer more time and pains to abridge these 
pages than to write them; therefore in submitting this volume to 
the Order, it is with the consciousness that we have clone the best 
we could. 



fa.&.&cJ&U 



Hakrisbubg, Pa., May 17, 1908. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



IN the compilation of data as contained in this volume, the author 
gratefully acknowledges the assistance rendered and the cour- 
teous consideration of those whose names follow. Along general 
lines, we give due credit to " Deemer's History of the Junior 
0. U. A. M.", " Scharfs and Westcott's History of Philadelphia," 
" Hotchkin's History of Germantown," " Kernan's History of the 
National Orphans' Home," and to the "Proceedings of the X.-i 
tional Council" and the "Proceedings" of the various State 
Councils. 

We wish, in this connection, to express appreciation of the 
brotherly consideration given and cheering words spoken, by the 
following brethren: Past National Councilor Brother W. E. 
Faison, editor of The American, for loan of plates and cuts and 
other useful data, and by whose courteous counsel we were greatly 
assisted; National Councilor, Brother H. C. Schaertzer, and 
Brother W. L. S. Gilcreast, Junior Past National Councilor, for 
encouragement extended; Senior Past State Councilor Brother 
John W. Calver, for early data concerning the Order; Past Na- 
tional Councilor Brother Thos. C. Appleby, for facts associated 
with Delaware's early history; Past National Councilors, Brothers 
A. L. Cray and Dr. J. L. Cooper, for kind words and helpful data; 
Brother Stephen Collins, Secretary-Manager Funeral Benefit De- 
partment and Beneficiary Degree, for loan of full set of Proceedings 
of the National Council, as well as rendering other valuable assist- 
ance; Brothers Smith W. Bennett, Esq., Chief Counsel, Archie D. 
Wilkin, Esq., of the National Law Committee, and B. D. Hutchi- 
son, Esq., attorney for the National Council, for data relative to 
the legal status concerning the litigation in the Order; Brother 
Z. P. Smith, formerly of The American, for expressions of apprecia- 
tion of our efforts and for the loan of plates and cuts to be incor- 
porated in the volume ; Brother Jesse Taylor, formerly Secretary of 
the National Legislative Committee, for important documents rela- 
tive to legislation; Brothers F. W. Pierson, D. B. McDonald, A. L. 
Cray, A. H. Leslie and Hilary E. Howse, Trustees of the National 
Orphans' Home, for loan of plates; Past State Councilor F. <!. 
Hawley, of Connecticut ; National Vice-Councilor H. L. W. Taylor, 
of Tennessee; N. 0. Cobb, State Council Treasurer of Massachu- 
setts; Ben]. F. Wertz, K. S. No. 781, of Pennsylvania; Harry E. 

ix 



x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Dailey, R. S. of Champion Council, No. 2, of Ohio; Past State 
Councilor W. S. Schenck, of Washington; State Councilor J. W. 
Cheshire, of New York; H. W. Way, State Council Secretary of 
New York; L. A. Fankhauser, R. S. of Freedom Council, No. 63, 
of Ohio; and Dr. W. H. Painter, of Harrisburg, Pa., for documents 
and helpful information. 

The author is especially indebted and takes this opportunity 
of expressing his gratitude and appreciation to the following State 
Council Secretaries, for very helpful assistance extended by the loan 
of State Council Proceedings and Records and furnishing much 
useful information in preparing data for history of State Councils : 
Formerly National Secretary E. S. Deemer; G.W.Ford, State Coun- 
cil Secretary of Pennsylvania; Past National Councilor J. G. A. 
Richter, State Council Secretary of Ohio; Brent Shriver, State 
Council Secretary of West Virginia ; M. M. Woods, as State Council 
Secretary of Massachusetts and as National Secretary, 1907; Sam.F. 
Vance, State Council Secretary of North Carolina; Chas. A. Davis, 
State Council Secretary of Maryland; A. E. White, State Council 
Secretary of Vermont; James Needier, State Council Secretary of 
Indiana ; Carle H. Reeves, State Council Secretary of Washington ; 
R. F. Hamilton, State Council Secretary of Oklahoma (Indian 
Territory) ; Herman Paine, State Council Secretary of California; 
John W. Drummond, State Council Secretary of Tennessee ; A. W. 
Barrus, State Council Secretary of Rhode Island; W. J. Moreland, 
State Council Secretary of Delaware ; Herbert Smith, State Council 
Secretary of Maine ; J. S. Wilson, State Council Secretary of South 
Carolina; 0. Chacey, State Council Secretary of Kansas; Past 
State Councilor J. A. Riehl, of Colorado, also State Council Secre- 
tary ; State Councilor Jeffrey, of Vermont ; E. R. Dillingham, State 
Council Secretary, of Georgia; Rev. R. D. Harding, Past State 
Councilor, of Kentucky; Geo. B. Nesbitt, and H. H. Eddy, Past 
State Councilor of Colorado. 



CONTENTS 



I. GENERAL HISTORY 

PAGE 

1. Inception and Origin 1 

Native Americans 2 

The Philadelphia Riots 3 

Who was George Shiffler? 3 

Order United American Mechanics 10 

2. Institution and Birthplace 14 

The Original Charter 14 

Relationship Between the O. U. A. M. and Jr. O. U. A. M 15 

Letter of Edw. S. Deemer to the State Council, 0. U. A. M 20 

Birthplace 22 

Battle of Germantown 23 

Concord Schoolhouse — Chew House 25 

Washington Council, No. 1 26 

Letter of Past National Councilor J. W. Calver 30 

" A Noteworthy Event " 33 

3. Name — Significance — Proposed Changes 35 

Original Purpose of the Order 35 

Proposed Changes of Name 37 

4. Objects — Changes of Fifty Years 47 

First Objects 48 

Proposed Changes 48 

Objects of the Order ( 1908) 57 

5. The Ritual 58 

The Importance of a Good Ritual 58 

Changes of Ritual, Ante- National Council 59 

Ritual Legislation in National Council 60 

6. National Orphans' Home 84 

Original Resolution 84 

The Report of the Committee on Orphans' Home 86 

The Establishment of the Home 89 

The Location of the Home 96 

Opening of the Home 98 

The Construction of the Home (Cottage No. 1 ) 100 

How Conducted . 1°J 

Cottage No. 2 ( Construction) 105 

The Crisis of the National Orphans' Home 107 

The Jr. O. U. A. M. National Orphans' Home Ass'n, Allegheny 

Co., Pa 1° 8 

Heroism of the Order HI 

Financial Condition of the Home 112 

Discipline of the Home 115 

xi 



xii CONTENTS 

PAQB 

7. The Conflict at the Crossing of the Centuries 121 

The Beginnings of the Conflict 121 

The Beginning of Factionalism 125 

The Revolt 127 

The Era of Misrepresentation 130 

The Parting of the Ways (Dist. of Columbia in Insubordination) . . 134 

The Suspension of the State Council of Pennsylvania 137 

The Trial of the State Council in Pennsylvania 139 

Derry Council vs. State Council of Pennsylvania and National 

Council 141 

Decision of Judge Weiss 147 

Session of the National Council of 1900 148 

The Secession of Pennsylvania 153 

The Final Parting of the Ways 157 

Arbitration Scorned 159 

The Loyal State Council of Pa. Sustained by the National 

Judiciary 160 

Pennsylvania Purged 162 

The National Council Sustained by the Supreme Court 166 

The State Council of Pennsylvania Sustained in the Civil Court. . 169 
Suits of State Council of Pennsylvania vs. Duquesne Council and 

James G. Blaine Council 177 

Wilmer Crow vs. Capital City Council 181 

New Jersey Withdraws from the National Council 182 

The State Council Charter of New Jersey Revoked 185 

The Decision of the Court of Chancery of New Jersey 187 

The State Council of New York Insubordinate 189 

A New State Council of New York Instituted 192 

Virginia Leaves the National Council 194 

Quo Warranto Proceedings Against Funeral Benefit Department. . 199 
Final Results of Arbitration 201 



II. HISTORY OF LEGISLATION 

1. National Legislation 206 

Concerning Naturalization and Restrictive Immigration 207 

Naturalization Law of 1906 208 

The First Movement Toward Immigration Legislation by the 

Order 210 

The National Council on the Subject of Immigration 211 

The National Legislative Committee 213 

The Stone Immigration Bill 216 

The McCall-Corliss-Lodge Immigration Bill 219 

The Lodge-Danford Immigration Measure 223 

The Work of the National Legislative Committee (1897-1898) .. 225 

Era of Inactivity on Subject of Immigration 229 

The Shattuc-Penrose Immigration Bill 230 

House Bill No. 17,941 and Senate Bill No. 4,403, of 1905-1907 . . 232 

Miscellaneous National Legislation Advocated 239 

Proposed National Education Legislation 239 

The Establishment of a National University Suggested 240 



CONTENTS xiii 

PAQB 

Amendments to the National Constitution 241 

Protest Against Church Building at West Point 242 

Flag Legislation 242 

Legislation against Sectarian Appropriations 243 

History of Indian School Appropriations 245 

2. State Legislation 248 

Wisconsin 248 

Colorado 250 

New Jersey 251 

Ohio 252 

Kentucky 253 

Delaware 254 

Indiana 254 

Maryland 255 

3. Special Note on Pennsylvania Legislation 256 

The Riverside School Case 256 

The Gallitzin School Garb Case 257 

Decision of the Lower Court against the Jr. 0. U. A. M 259 

The Decision of the Supreme Court 261 

The Minority Report of Judge Williams 263 

The Smith Religious Garb Bill 265 

Farr's Compulsory Educational Measure 271 

Other Pennsylvania Legislation 273 

The Focht Bill 274 

The Alien Tax Bill 274 

Still More Pennsylvania Legislation 275 

III. HISTORY OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL 

1. Sessions of the National Council 280 

Institution of the National Council at Philadelphia 281 

Wilmington, Delaware, 1870 283 

Camden, New Jersey, 1871 283 

Baltimore, Maryland, 1872 285 

Wilmington, Delaware, 1873 286 

New York City, 1874 288 

Boston, Massachusetts, 1875 289 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1876 291 

Dayton, Ohio, 1877 293 

Baltimore, Maryland, 1878 294 

New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1 879 297 

Richmond, Virginia, 1880 300 

Haverhill, Massachusetts, 1881 301 

New York City, New York, 1882 303 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1883 306 

Georgetown, District of Columbia, 1884 307 

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 1885 308 

Richmond, Virginia, 1886 309 

Baltimore, Maryland, 1887 310 

New York City, New York, 1888 312 

Haverhill, Massachusetts, 1889 314 



xiv CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Chicago, Illinois, 1890. ." 317 

Cleveland, Ohio, 1891 319 

Atlantic City, New Jersey, 1892 322 

Detroit, Michigan, 1893 325 

Asheville, North Carolina, 1894 330 

Omaha, Nebraska, 1895 336 

Denver, Colorado, 1896 340 

Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 1897 346 

Louisville, Kentucky, 1898 351 

Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1899 358 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1900 364 

Buffalo, New York, 1901 372 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1902 376 

San Francisco, California, 1903 383 

St. Louis, Missouri, 1904 394 

Nashville, Tennessee, 1905 400 

Boston, Masaehusetts, 1907 404 



IV. HISTORY OF STATE COUNCILS 

1. Synopsis of Proceedings of State Councils 421 

Alabama 422 

Arkansas 425 

California 426 

Colorado 433 

Connecticut 436 

Delaware 438 

District of Columbia 453 

Florida 454 

Georgia 455 

Illinois 458 

Indiana 461 

Kansas 470 

Kentucky 471 

Maine 475 

Maryland 481 

Massachusetts 602 

Michigan 515 

Mississippi 516 

Missouri 517 

New Hampshire 520 

New York 522 

North Carolina 532 

Ohio 545 

Oklahoma (Indian Territory) 583 

Oregon 590 

Pennsylvania 591 

Rhode Island 637 

South Carolina 642 

Tennessee 648 

Texas • 652 



CONTENTS xv 

PAGE 

Vermont 655 

Virginia 662 

Washington 664 

West Virginia 672 

Wisconsin 679 

Where State Councils Do Not Now Exist 681 

Arizona 682 

Idaho 682 

Iowa 683 

Louisiana 684 

Minnesota '. 685 

Montana 686 

Nevada 689 

New Jersey 689 

New Mexico 691 

South Dakota 691 

Utah 692 

Wyoming 693 



V. WHO IS WHO IN THE ORDER 

Chas. P. Haupt 695 

John W. Calver 696 

Edward S. Deemer 698 

Henry C. Schaertzer 700 

W. L. S. Gilcreast 702 

H. L. W. Taylor 703 

Chas Reimer 705 

Martin M. Woods 706 

Stephen Collins 707 

Chas. Lawrence 709 

J. H. Zimmerman 710 

Rev. John R. Boblits 712 

Geo. B. Nesbitt 713 

Amos L. Cray 714 

D. B. McDonald 715 

A. H. Leslie 716 

Frank W. Pierson 717 

H. E. Howse 718 

W- E. Faison 719 

Robert Ogle 720 

James Cranston 721 

John G. A. Richter 723 

Joseph Powell 724 

Smith W. Bennett 726 

A. D. Wilkin 728 

Harry S. Barry 730 

Alex. M. DeHaven 730 

J. L. Cooper, M.D 732 

Roger J. Armstrong 734 

Thomas C. Appleby 734 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

E. R. Dillingham 735 

Geo. A. Gowan 736 

H. L. Wenner, M.D 738 

Jesse Taylor 739 

John J. Weitzel 741 

Rev. James G. Miller 743 

John W. Paul 745 

Chas H. Kurtz 745 

John Montayne 746 

G. Howell Arthur 746 

F. A. Buschman 747 

Herman Paine 749 

Prof. C. W. Reeves 750 

Robert Franklin Hamilton 750 

Arthur W. Barrus 751 

Sam F. Vance 752 

Clarence B. Johnson 753 

B. Frank Myers 754 

I. V. Robbins 755 

Cyrus S. Weiss 757 

State Councilor Jeffrey 758 

Arthur E. White 759 

Claud J. King '. . 760 

William E. Giddings 760 

Chas. W. Coffran 761 

Bion F. Humphrey 761 

Edward F. Starkey 762 

Charles Edwin Harris 763 

Erwin M. Massey 763 

E. W. Sellers 764 

Chas. S. Crall 765 

W. S. Schenck 766 

John C. Stewart 767 

Frank M. Cody 769 

Perry A. Shanor 769 

Herbert Smith ■ 770 

George R. Bowley 771 

S. H. Miller 772 

William M. Thompson 772 

James Needier 773 

James Foust 774 

W. A. Pollard 775 

Dr. William H. Painter 775 

George W. Arold 776 

J. Frank Sweet 777 

Carl H. Reeves 777 

J. A. Riehl 778 

L. C. Shannon '. 778 

E. L. S. Bouton 779 

Rev. R. D. Harding 780 

Brent Shriver 781 

Charles S. Davis 781 



CONTENTS xvii 

PAOB 

Frank E. Anderson 782 

J. M. Riddle 7s:i 

Elmer E. Freidline 784 

F. E. Canan 784 

H. H. Eddy 785 

M. P. Dickeson, M.D : 786 

Geo. S. Ford 787 

Jno. G. Fry 788 

Robert A. Magill 78!) 

Z. Taylor Wobensmith 790 

S. E. Steventon 700 

Rev. M. D. Lichliter 7!)1 

VI. IN MEMORIAM 

Gideon D. Harmar 794 

George B. Bowers 795 

J. Adam Sohl 796 

Fred J. Shaler 797 

Lerov N. Van Horn 799 

A. G. Martin 800 

John R. Marlin 801 

Harry Stites, M.D 802 

Geo. W. Kreamer 803 

Frank T. Weckerly 804 

Chas. W. Geissel 804 

Eugene H. Hammann 804 

J. F. Koehnline 805 

S. C. Weadley 805 

Harry A. Keil 806 

John P. Winower 806 

Dr. Martin H. Williams 807 

Wm. R. Stroh 807 

Lewis H. Vogt 807 

Harry C. Krausz 808 

C. L. Dusang 80S 

C. C. Cook 809 

H. L. Sparks 809 

J. C. Shearing 810 

S. N. Mullin 810 

George E. Coleman 811 

Abner B. Pyles 811 

W. O. Staples 811 

Melville Thompson 812 

John A. Ehret 812 

J. E. McCarty 813 

William W. Hall 813 

A. E. Burkitt 813 

W. A. Gordon 813 

Robert L. Lindsay • ■ • 814 

Geo. M. Louck 814 

Hazel P. Renzenbrink 815 



HISTORY 

OF THE 

Junior Order United American Mechanics 



I. GENERAL HISTORY 



CHAPTER I 
i. INCEPTION AND ORIGIN 

GREAT events in history as well as great men, can be traced 
to small beginnings. The gigantic steam power of the 
age with its countless activities on land and sea, found its inceptive 
thought in the brain of young Watts, which was stimulated into 
action, so the story goes, by the very common phenomenon of the 
movement of the tea-kettle lid through the pressure of steam. Le- 
gend though it may be, yet it illustrates the idea advanced. The 
falling of an apple from a tree gave to the mind of Newton the 
idea and through him to the world the theory of gravitation. It 
is claimed that the cutting of a name on the bark of a tree gave to 
Gutenberg the idea and to the world the developed thought of the 
mightiest invention of all the ages. When the young monk nailed 
the ninety-five theses on the door of the village cathedral, it seemed 
a trivial thing, yet the hammer-strokes that fastened the paper 
thereon awakened a slumbering world, and Martin Luther and the 
Reformation have found a place among the greatest of men and 
mightiest of movements. When the volley at Concord Bridge was 
fired April 19, 1775, a volley, that is said, was " heard the world 
around," it meant more than the beginning of a long struggle 
associated with suffering and privations of the severest character; 
it meant the Declaration of Independence and the founding of a 
Eepublic, the first experiment of constitutional government the 
world had ever seen. 

If it is true, therefore, that the "great is seen in the small" 
as Macauley says, it is equally true of the inceptive thought that 



2 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

brought into existence the Junior Order United American Mechan- 
ics, for it was a pistol shot that stirred the American heart and gave 
to the Kepublic this noble patriotic organization. 

There stands in one of the cemeteries of Philadelphia a 
monument, blackened and worn by the hand of Time. Upon the 
side is sculptured the representation of a young man, reeling, as 
if struck down by the hand of a foe, while about his body are en- 
twined the folds of the American flag. To the observer there 
comes the thought of a soldier and a soldier's tomb; but on 
approaching the monumental stone, he will read the following 
inscription : 

PHILADELPHIA, 1844 
GEORGE SHIFFLER 

SHOT DOWN BY THE HAND OF A FOEEIGN ASSASSIN AT A MEETING OF 
CITIZENS HELD IN DEFENSE OF THE BIBLE 
IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

The reading of the epitaph brings to mind the story of the 
Philadelphia riots of 1844. 

NATIVE AMERICANS 

For years prior to 1837, there existed much feeling, politically, 
against certain classes of adopted citizens, and it was suspected that 
those in authority in city, State and nation were endeavoring to 
make the subject of political rewards one of nationality rather than 
of merit. This feeling was intensified on the part of native born citi- 
zens by the action of Eoman Catholics claiming certain privileges 
from the public schools, especially that the reading of the Bible, ac- 
cording to King James' version, be not permitted in the schoolroom. 
This attitude of the Eoman Catholic church and the prominence 
of naturalized foreigners in politics, gave rise to the Native Ameri- 
can Association, the first meeting of which was held at Germantown, 
in 1837, which resulted in the adoption of a Preamble and Consti- 
tution at a subsequent meeting, in which was the following 
paragraph : 

" While at the same time we invite the stranger, worn down by 
oppression at home, to come and share with us the blessings of our native 
land, here find an asylum for his distress, and partake of the plenty a 
kind Providence has so bountifully given us, we deny his right (any for- 
eigner who may hereafter arrive in our country) to have voice in legislative 
halls, his eligibility to office under any circumstances, and we ask a repeal 
of that naturalization law, which it must be apparent to every reflecting 
mind, to every son of America, has now become an evil." 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 3 

The Native American Association thus formed received but 
little support and made slow progress until 1843, when Associations 
were formed in various wards of Philadelphia, and grew so rapidly 
that by the early part of 1844, Associations had been organized 
in nearly every section of the city. The drastic doctrines adopted 
in 1837, that foreigners should not be allowed suffrage no matter 
how long they remained, was modified in 1844, at which time the 
following code of Principles were adopted : 

" First. We maintain that the naturalization laws should be so 
altered as to require of all foreigners who may hereafter arrive in this 
country, a residence of twenty-one years before granting them the privilege 
of elective franchise; but at the same time we distinctly declare that it 
is not our intention to interfere with the vested rights of any citizen, 
or lay any obstruction in the way of foreigners obtaining a livelihood, or 
acquiring property in this country; but on the contrary, we would grant 
them the right to purchase, hold, and transfer property, and to enjoy and 
participate in all the benefits of our country (except that of voting or 
holding office) as soon as they declare their intention to become citizens. 

" Second. We maintain that the Bible, without note or comment, is 
not sectarian; that it is the fountain-head of morality and all good gov- 
ernment, and should be used in our public schools as a reading book. 

" Third. We are opposed to union of Church and State in any and 
every form. 

"Fourth. We hold that Native Americans only should be appointed 
to office and to legislate, administer and execute the laws of the country." 

THE PHILADELPHIA RIOTS OF 1844 

On May 3, 1844, a meeting was being held in an open lot in 
what was then known as Kensington, now a part of Philadelphia, 
and was attended by 300 or more persons, the object of which was 
to organize an Association of Native Americans. While a speaker 
was addressing the assemblage, a mob of foreigners, mostly Irish, 
made an attack on the meeting, using clubs and stones, dispersing 
the crowd, whereupon they demolished the platform on which the 
speakers had stood. The people connected with the meeting, how- 
ever, rallied and repaired to a place nearby, and after passing reso- 
lutions condemnatory of the outrage perpetrated upon them, ad- 
journed to meet at the same place from which they had been driven, 
on Monday, May 6, in the afternoon. On the day named a fair 
sized audience gathered and the proceedings were unmolested for 
half an hour. At this juncture an Irishman, by name of John 
O'Neill, drove a cart filled with dirt into the open lot where the 
meeting was being held and dumped its contents in the midst of 
the gathering. This caused great indignation ; but the meeting 
proceeded until the audience were driven to shelter by a rain-storm. 



4 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

Having sought refuge in what was known as " Nanny Goat Market," 
the proceedings preparatory to forming an Association of Native 
Americans, were continued. After the storm had abated and on 
returning to the open lot the foreigners, having increased in num- 
bers, again began to annoy the assemblage, which resulted in a 
fierce quarrel, whereupon a pistol was fired into the crowd by some 
one in the attacking party. Opposite the place where the meeting 
was being held stood the building of the " Hibernia Hose Co.", and 
immediately following the firing of the shot, which must have been 
a signal, a gun was fired from the hose house, and other shots were 
fired from adjoining buildings. The riot now became a real battle. 
Some of the adherents of the Native Americans procured guns and 
returned the fire, and, following Indian tactics, shot from ambush. 

It was during this combat that George Shiftier, a lad of eigh- 
teen years, was mortally wounded and died soon after. It was 
claimed at the time, by members of the Native American Asso- 
ciation, that young Shiftier, when shot, was defending the American 
flag from an Irishman who was trying to carry it away. That 
this fact is presumably true seems apparent, from the position of 
the represented form on Shiffler's monument, as above referred to. 
The death of Shiffler made him a hero with the Native American 
Party. The scene that brought about his death was painted on 
their banners and carried in their processions as a reminder of 
foreign interference with free speech and the public schools. A 
hose company was formed and named for him and continued doing 
service until the Volunteer Fire Company was superceded by the 
paid fire company in 1871. 

During the riot, eleven others were wounded, all Americans, 
but everyone recovered. This was the beginning of what is com- 
monly known as " The Philadelphia Riots of 1844." The excite- 
ment became intense and hand-bills were posted calling for a meet- 
ing of the citizens the next afternoon in the State House yard, 
having at the bottom of the posters the significant sentence : 

"Let Every Man Come Prepared to Defend Himself" 

The meeting was a large one as well as tumultuous. Several 
short addresses were made and the following resolutions were 
adopted : 

"Resolved, That the proceedings of the Irish inhabitants of the 
district of Kensington on Monday afternoon is the surest evidence that 
can be given, that our views on the naturalization laws are correct, and 
that foreigners in the short space of five years are incapable of entering 
into the spirit of our institutions. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 5 

•■ Resolved, That we consider the r>ilil<> in the public schools as neces- 
sary for a faithful course of instruction therein, and we arc determined 
to maintain it there in spite of the efforts of naturalized and unnaturalized 
foreigners to eject it therefrom. 

"Resolved, That this meeting believes that the recently successful 
efforts of the friends of the Bible in Kensington was t he exciting cause 
which resulted in the murderous scenes of the 6th inst." 

After the passage of the above resolutions, a motion was made 
that the meeting adjourn to meet in Kensington on the following 
Thursday, which was lost. Another motion to meet next day met 
the same fate. A motion was made to meet at once at the scene of 
the previous day's conflict. This carried and an irregular proces- 
sion was formed and moved to the spot where Shiftier fell. While 
the meeting was going on, a volley of musketry was fired into the 
crowd from the Hibernia Hose House. Notwithstanding the 
posters and papers had suggested to the citizens to turn out at the 
afternoon meeting fully armed, not a single weapon was carried 
by the native born citizens. This battle proved more bloody than 
the one the day previous, as John Wesley Rhinedollar, Louis Greble, 
Charles Stillwell and Matthew Hammett were shot dead on the spot, 
while John Lescher and Joseph Coxe were mortally wounded and 
subsequently died, and several were more or less injured. Exas- 
perated and being unarmed, the citizens set fire to the Hose House, 
which was consumed and about thirty other buildings were swept 
with the flames, including the "Nanny Goat Market/' 

By this time the blood of the Philadelphians was " boiling " 
and the spirit of radical as well as sectarian hatred seized the less 
law abiding who, with the blood of their fellow-citizens crying unto 
them from the ground for vengeance, sought out the dwellings where 
it was supposed the foreign element lived and set them on fire. So 
great was the danger of indiscriminate burnings, that native born 
citizens displayed American flags from their windows to indicate 
that they were not foreigners. The hatred towards Roman Catho- 
lics became more intense as the crowd increased, and it was not 
long until the Roman Catholic church, St. Michael's, was set on fire, 
and with other Catholic buildings, all were consumed by the relent- 
less flames. 

The two military companies thai had been called out were 
powerless to stem the tide of riot and ruin, whereupon Generals 
George Cadwalader and Robert Patterson, at the head of the First 
Brigade of Militia, reached the scene of carnage and intimidated the 
rioters at one point, but other parts of the city being left unguarded, 
the work of destruction went on and St. Augustine's Roman Catho- 



6 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

lie church and other adjoining Catholic buildings were burned to 
the ground. 

The presence of the military and the efforts of the city authori- 
ties brought a cessation of retaliatory measures emanating from 
the Native Americans, and in a few days all further danger seemed 
passed. While, however, the riotous proceedings were put down, 
still the feeling that stirred the entire city was most bitter. A 
manifesto was drawn up by a number of citizens and presented to 
the Governor of the State, thanking him, the military and the city 
authorities for the measures used to suppress the' disturbance. 
This communication reflected somewhat upon the Native American 
Party and intensified the bitter feeling existing ; while at the same 
time the Grand Jury, in their presentment, favored the Native 
Americans; hence there was crimination and recrimination by the 
enemies and friends of the Roman Catholics who were blamed as 
being the immediate cause of the riots and bloodshed. 

It is not a surprise, therefore, that the Native American Party, 
which up to this time attracted but little of public attention, should 
leap into prominence, while thousands united with the organization, 
attracted by its motto : " America for Americans." 

There were, however, two classes of citizens that united with 
the Native American Association : Those who were prompted by 
sectarian prejudice, and those who were not. Sometime after the 
excitement of the May riots had passed, these two elements of the 
Native Americans disagreed and separated, the former party being 
called by the slang term, " Mountain Sweets." However, to such 
an extent did the enthusiasm rise after the riots, that the Native 
American Party resolved on celebrating the Fourth of July of 
same } r ear with a monster demonstration. The Associations entered 
into the project with great zest, and it is claimed that never in the 
former history of Philadelphia and not until 1884 was there ever 
seen in the city such a party procession. 

But the end of the tragic story had not yet been reached. 
Other events, like the Independence Day procession and demonstra- 
tion, followed to be reminders of the bloody scenes of May previous. 
Some one claimed that on the Nation's natal day, while the Native 
Americans were parading the streets, devotees of Eome were drill- 
ing with arms in one of their churches and the excited throngs 
were bent on finding out whether the rumor was true or not; and 
on entering the church, a supply of loaded muskets, axes, pistols, 
powder, etc., were found. Enraged by the discovery, the people 
determined on burning the church, but the military and civil 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 7 

authorities interfered and saved the edifice. But the spirit of riot 
had not been extinguished; only subdued. Crowds thronged the 
main thoroughfares, whereupon the sheriff ordered the people to 
disperse to their homes. This, however, proved ineffectual and 
some in the crowd, of more violent spirit, replied tauntingly, where- 
upon General Cadwalader ordered the artillery company to open 
fire on the mass of people. As the field piece was being levelled, 
preparatory to obey orders, Mr. Charles Naylor, a lawyer and a 
former member of Congress, sprang in front of the cannon's mouth, 
exclaiming, " No, don't fire ! Don't fire." The humane impulse 
of Naylor saved the lives of many innocent people who were, as 
in all throngs, attracted by curiosity. General Cadwalader ordered 
the arrest of Naylor who was placed under military custody. 

Quiet having been restored, the military, with the exception 
of the " Hibernia Greens," a company made up of Irish and 
Catholics, and one or two other companies, were removed. But it 
was a short-sighted blunder on the part of the military authorities 
to permit an alien company to remain on guard over the church 
property, above referred to, as the fury of the populace increased 
and again the church was attacked. Cool-headed men, however, 
arrested the flow of blood and subdued the anger of the crowd, by 
having Mr. Naylor released from military guard. As if the mili- 
tary authorities courted violence, by their blundering and suicidal 
policy, they removed all the military from the church except the 
much-hated " Hibernia Greens." Their remaining on guard re- 
vived the pent-up indignation of the people and again the rougher 
element of the native born population gathered about the church. 
Acceding to the better element of citizens, the Irish Catholic Com- 
pany was removed. After their withdrawal the crowds were bent 
on entering the church, but the leaders of the Native American 
Party plead with them to desist declaring that they (the Native 
Americans) were in charge of the building. The people, however, 
entered the church, and to their credit and heeding the sturdy pro- 
test of the Native Americans, no damage to property was done, and 
after satisfying their curiosity, retired quietly to their homes. This 
was on Sunday, and had the Committee of Native Americans, one 
hundred in number, been left in charge of the church property, the 
story of the Philadelphia riots of 1844 would have been ended. 
It was the old story of the military intermeddling, when all danger 
was passed and quiet restored. 

While the Committee of Native Americans were stemming the 
tide at the church, the bell on Independence Hall was rung, calling 



8 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

out the military. Having formed in front of Independence Hall, 
the military companies marched to the church and demanded the 
custody of the building from the Committee of Native Americans. 
The presence of the military, and it being Sunday, attracted throngs 
of people who followed the soldiers. The crowd was not a " mob " 
and was peaceable and orderly, with the exception of here and there 
one who would hurl an insult at the military. The sequel was that 
a collision took place and one of the soldiers was hit with a stone. 
The command to fire was given, whereupon a bloody combat ensued, 
and many on both sides were killed and wounded. However, the 
military proved the stronger force, and ere the morning of July 5, 
1844 came, the " Eiots of 1844 " were over. 

As a result of these unfortunate disturbances, the Native 
American Party became a strong political factor in the campaign 
of that year, having elected several members of the Legislature and 
two members of Congress. In every campaign they figured con- 
spicuously, especially in Philadelphia, until 1848, when the Party 
ceased to be of any prominence in State or National politics. The 
split in the party, as noted elsewhere, into two bodies, viz. : Pure 
Native Americans, and " Mountain Sweets," or Sectarian Native 
Americans, was the beginning of the end of a movement that 
had much to do in the birth of the Order of United American 
Mechanics, and the subsequent organization of the Junior Order 
United American Mechanics. 

who was george shiffler? 

But a passing reference has been made to this young man, the 
first victim of the " Philadelphia Eiots." More than twenty years 
after his death when Edw. S. Deemer was State Councilor of Penn- 
sylvania, Brother John D. Goff organized a Council and proposed 
to name it George Shiftier. Brother Deemer informed him that 
<Shiffler was not such a person for whom to name a Council. 
Brother Goff changed his mind and named the Council Ellsworth. 
Twenty more years passed ere the subject was brought to the atten- 
tion of Brother Deemer — this time by an article in The Junior 
American Mechanic over the signature of " Loquax," suggesting 
that George Shiftier was a proper person to name a Council for, 
and named Evan G. Badger and Harry Peterman as authority, 
they being members of what was known as Shiftier Guards. Badger 
claimed that he had no knowledge of said Shiftier and Peterman, at 
Deemer's request, sought information concerning his character, etc. 

The result of the search for information, which was 43 years 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 9 

after the death of Shiffler, was as follows: A young man of meager 
education, whose schoolhouse was the Fire Company's headquar- 
ters, of no promise of marked ability, and a member of a gang of 
toughs and sluggers, and as was the fashion in those days, to con- 
gregate around some favorite hose house to help inn (ho machine 
and help do the fighting. 

The person who gave the above information, in substance, 
learned that Shiftier lived at the time of his death in the vicinity 
of Second and George Streets; that his mother was a market 
woman, his father being dead ; that the Shiftier Hose Company was 
named for him for no other purpose than to reprcscul an idea. 

From one who was there at the time of Shiffler's death, after 
forty-three years, had the following recollection: 

" The Native American meeting at which the said Shiffler was killed, 
along with three others, was held in the center of a large un-American 
population, and it was held with the expectation that there would be 
trouble. The platform was of regulation style with the American iiag 
tacked all around it to hide the knot-holes in the fourth-class lumber. 
When the Papes tried to level the platform, the flag had to go first. Now 
right up front was a gang of youngsters, among whom was George Shinier, 
and several more of the Hyenas (name applied to those connected with 
the Independent Hose Co.) to protect the speakers from violence, and 
ready and willing enough to do it, and other crowds of like sluggers. 
Now when the fight started the flag was torn from the platform, the said 
George Shiffler got the flag, and they say tried to nail it fast again, and 
he was killed with it in his possession. Likewise was Khinedollar and two 
others, but the other three had no flags, and why should not they live 
in the minds of Americans as well as he. It is all bosh about his having 
any more love of country, but his love of a free fight was what took him 
there and he being killed with an American flag in his possession did not 
make him a better man than his previous life shows him to have been." 

One of the "Hyenas," forty-three years after, has this to say: 

" George Shiffler was a blacksmith's apprentice and like a great many 
of us in those days, worked when we felt like it, and if there was any 
likelihood of there being a run or a fight, there was no work, and tliere 
was quite a few 7 , I can tell you, but I do not think that it would help 
any Order or organization to commemorate his memory outside of a Fire 
Company or single association." 

In view of the reputation of the said Shiffler, Brother Deemer's 
suggestion prevented a Council in Pittsburg being named for him, 
the originators calling it General Marion. Again in same year 
(1887) some members of Washington Council, No. 1, organized a 
Council and thought of naming it for Shiffler, but on ascertaining 
the facts, as above stated, they changed their minds and called it 



10 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

Winona. It is claimed that the organizer of Gen. George G. Meade 
Council, No. 50, had thought of naming it for Shiftier, but gave 
it the present honorable name instead. Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 
however, organized a Council and named it Geo. Shiftier Council, 
No. 177, which is still a strong Council and is composed of some 
of the representative citizens of the city, showing that the name 
has not been deleterious to its success and standing. A somewhat 
acrimonious correspondence relative to the naming of this Council, 
between Secretary Deemer and some applicants for the new Council, 
was published in the proceedings of the State Council of Pennsyl- 
vania. Information gathered by Past National Councilor Calver, 
Past State Councilor G. Howell Arthur and Geo. H. Harris, at 
the time of the controversy, brought out the corroboration of the 
fact that George Shiftier was a rough-and-ready kind of a fellow, 
open for a free-for-all fight when opportunity presented itself. 

However, the manner of his being taken off and the circum- 
stances surrounding the whole unhappy affair, and he being the 
first to fall, naturally " covered a multitude of sins " in the eyes 
of the Native American Party. George Shiftier may be all that is 
claimed he was, no uncommon thing in those days, a "slugger," 
yet he may have been as patriotic and loved the flag of his country 
as much as any member of the Native American Association who 
attended that meeting; and it may also be true that he was there, 
moved by the same patriotic impulses that lead others to assemble 
at the place where the fatal shooting occurred. Whatever lie was 
or was not, one thing is sure, he was considered as representing an 
idea and a -principle when he fell, as the result of an alien bullet. 

ORDER UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 

If it is true that we can trace the inceptive spirit that finally 
gave rise to the Junior Order United American Mechanics, to the 
foul blow of an alien that struck to the ground George Shiftier, it 
is equally true that the origin, as an organization, can be traced 
indirectly to the Order United American Mechanics, commonly 
known as the " Senior Order," to distinguish it from the " Junior 
Order." To what extent the Senior Order, as an organization, is 
to be credited with the founding of the Junior Order will be dis- 
cussed in another chapter; still the fact cannot be gainsaid, that 
certain members of the 0. U. A. M. had some part in the formative 
history of the Jr. 0. U. A. M. It is, therefore, befitting that we 
embody in these annals of our Order some historical data pertain- 
ing to the older organization. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 11 

With this end in view, the writer, in a letter, asked Brother 
John Servor, N. C. Secretary, 0. U. A. M., to kindly furnish books, 
facts and data in his possession relating to the early history of the 
Senior Order. Although the request was accompanied by postage, 
and with the assurance that all expenses, if any there be, would be 
met, it is with regret that we are compelled to state, that even the 
courtesy of an acknowledgment to the communication was not re- 
ceived. Fortunately, we found in Brother H. 0. Holstein, S. C. 
Secretary of Pennsylvania, a most courteous gentleman, who kindly 
offered his services and time to "cull" from the records of his 
organization such facts that would be of interest. This, however, 
the writer would not permit him to do, and from two ponderous 
" Minute Books," which Brother Holstein placed in our possession, 
we spent many pleasant hours recounting the story of the struggles, 
successes and work of an organization teaching the same sublime 
Principles, and as noble and patriotic as our own. 

FIRST MEETING 

The Minutes of the first meeting, that brought into existence 
the 0. U. A. M., are given in full : 

" Philadelphia, July 8th, 1845. 

" At a meeting of Mechanics held this evening at the Jefferson 
Temperance Hall, Mr. Luther Chapin was called to the Chair. On motion, 
Mr. Richard G. Howell was appointed Secretary. 

" The object of the meeting was stated by the President to be for 
the formation of a Secret Society for the protection of American Mechanics. 
The subject was then laid open for discussion, when, on motion, Resolved, 
That a committee of one or more from each Trade be appointed for the 
purpose of drafting Resolutions expressive of the sense of the meeting, 
whereupon, the following named Gentlemen were appointed to constitute 
said Committee: 

Tucker — Carpenter, Smulling — Shipsmith, 

Briggs— Gunsmith, Lane — Blacksmith, 

White — Cedar Cooper." 

At an adjourned meeting, one week later, July 15, the above 
Committee submitted the following objects, which were adopts I : 

" That we form a Society to be called the American Mechanics 
Union, whose objects shall be: 

1. To assist each other in obtaining employment. 

2. To assist each other in business by patronizing each other in 

preference to foreigners. 

3. To assist the unfortunate in obtaining employment suitable to 

their afflictions. 



12 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

4. To establish a cemetery for deceased members of the Society. 
.">. To establish a funeral fund. 

6. For the establishment of a fund for the relief of widows and 
orphans of deceased members." 

From the above Objects, it is apparent that the first inception 
of the Society was for the protection of mechanics and workingmen 
alone, and for a time none but operative mechanics and workingmen 
were admitted to its membership; but the great principles involved 
in its existence caused a departure from that plan, and the Order 
has for years existed and exists to-day, as an Order of speculative 
mechanics recognizing everyone possessed of birth requirements, 
whether they work with hand or brain. 

At a subsequent meeting the title of the Society was adopted 
as follows : 

" Resolved, That the title of the Society be known as the association 
of United American Mechanics of the United States." 

The officers consisted of President, Vice-President, Eecording 
Secretary, Assistant Secretary, Treasurer, Inside Guard, Outside 
Guard, and Corresponding Secretary. A few weeks subsequently 
the titles of the first two officers were changed to Councilor and 
Vice- Councilor, and the term " Association " to " Council." The 
first President or Councilor was Ethan G. Briggs. 

The name of the first Council was Experiment Council, No. 1. 
Enterprise Council, No. 2, and Perseverance Council, No. 3, soon 
followed, whereupon, oh November 13, 1S45, nine delegates, three 
from each Council, met at the house of John S. Sansom for the 
purpose of forming a State Council. After adopting the same 
Constitution that governed the Subordinate Councils and drawing 
lots as to the respective terms of the Eepresentatives to the State 
Council, the State Council, 0. TJ. A. M., of Pennsylvania, was duly 
constituted, and William Sharpless was elected President. Sub- 
sequently the term President and Vice-President were changed to 
harmonize with the terms in the Subordinate Councils, Councilor 
and Vice-Councilor. The offices of Conductor and Warden were 
created in the first year of the Order's history. Within nine months 
after the institution of Experiment Council, five other Councils 
were instituted, viz. : Enterprise, No. ,2, Perseverance, No. 3, Re- 
liance, No. 4, Washington, No. 5, and Pennsylvania, No. 6. 

(An unfortunate break occurs here in the Minutes for three 
years; in the meantime the National Council had been instituted 
and the State Council had increased largely, there having been 
more than ninety Councils organized in various parts of the state. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS IS 

The terms "Conductor" and "Warden" m the State Body bad 
been changed to "Inductor" and " Protector." Ivlitor.) 

It is not the purpose here I" recite the history of the 
0. U. A. M., only to refer to its beginnings as an Order. Suffice 
it to say, that a perusal of the very carefully recorded Minutes 
showed that in the early years of the State Council, that body had 
its troubles and vicissitudes, in dealing with insubordinate Councils 
and insubordinate members. In the '50s there was some sectional 
prejudice aroused over the preponderance of Councils in Philadel 
phia, and in 1851 a circular was sent out by a joint Committee of 
two country Councils asking for a meeting to take into consideration 
the practicability of petitioning the National Council for a separate 
State Council to be known as the " State Council of Middle Penn- 
sylvania," and making Philadelphia the " State Council of Phila- 
delphia." The charges made by the country Councils were, that 
there was an unequal division of the Widow's and Orphan's fund, 
claiming that Philadelphia paid two dollars to the relief of the 
brothers' widows to one dollar paid to relief of country widows. 
The project, however, came to naught, although a number of Coun- 
cils seceded. 

As stated elsewhere, the Order was composed entirely of opera- 
tive mechanics the first years of its existence, but it became evident 
to the leaders of the organization that its purpose should be of a 
higher nature and its scope broader, hence, at the session of the 
National Council held in 1851, the constitution was so changed 
that professional men, those who worked with brain, should be 
eligible to membership, if they met the requirements of birth, etc. 
While this change gave pretty general satisfaction, still a few coun- 
cils vigorously opposed the change. One Council went so far as 
to send a protest to the State Council of Pennsylvania, claiming 
that the Order would be seriously injured by opening the doors 
to others than mechanics, saying, " That if the National Council 
persists in enforcing these laws, we would respectfully solicit the 
proper officers to take possession of our charter, as we do not feel 
willing, as republicans, to submit to laws so tyrannical." 

In short, the 0. TJ. A. M. is a Patriotic, Social, Fraternal and 
Beneficial Order, believes in upholding the Public Schools and 
stands flat-footed on the immigration question; in fact, it stands 
for all that the Jr. 0. TJ. A. M. teaches and, though less aggressive, 
it promulgates the doctrines of true Americanism. At tho close 
of the year, June 30, 1852, the Senior Order had 68 Councils and 
4,233 members. 



CHAPTER II 
2. INSTITUTION AND BIRTHPLACE 

WE now turn from the Inception and Origin of the Order, 
to its institution as an organization, and to the sacred 
surroundings of its opening life. 

So intense was the American spirit cherished, that at the close 
of June 30, 1852, as referred to in last chapter, the 0. U. A. M. 
had more than 4,000 members. The Constitution, by action of 
their National Council, having been amended so as to admit others 
than mechanics, many were impressed with the great possibilities 
that were presented to the Order. Seeing this and deeply interested 
in the promulgation of the principles of the organization, two mem- 
bers of Reliance Council, No. 40, viz. : Gideon D. Harmar and 
Elliott Smith, aided by Wm. M. Weckerly, S. C. Secretary, con- 
ceived the idea of forming an organization of the youth from the 
ages of 16 to 21, to act as a " feeder " for Eelianee Council in 
particular and the Order in general. Acting upon their own im- 
pulse and receiving recognition from some of their fellow-members, 
these three brothers instituted Washington Council, No. 1, Junior 
Order United American Mechanics, in due form, in the upper room 
of Concord Schoolhouse, Germantown, now a part of Philadelphia, 
May 17, 1853. 

Upon entering the hall where the Council holds its meetings, 
the visitor is attracted to an antique frame hanging on the wall con- 
taining a yellow parchment — the Original Charter of Washington 
Council, No. 1, and attached thereto are the names of the first 
Charter members of the first Council of the Order. This interest- 
ing relic reads as follows : 

ORIGINAL CHARTER 

TJonesty, Industry and Sobriety — Washington Council, No. 1, of the 
Junior Order of United American Mechanics, State of Pennsylvania. 
Instituted May 17th, 1853. 

We, the undersigned youth, Americans by birth, have viewed the 
disadvantages under which Americans labor from the effects of foreign 
combination and foreign competition, and from past experiences and present 
appearances of the future, instead of the evils abating, there is a certainty 
of their increasing, and as we are not eligible to membership in the Order 
of United American Mechanics until we arrive at the age of 21 years. 

14. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 15 

therefore form ourselves into an association to prepare the youth of 
American birth for membership in the American Orders when they arrive 
at the proper age, to which is added the praise-worthy duty of aiding 
our fellow-brothers in distress; therefore, for the purpose of advancing 
such objects and carrying out such principles as shall best promote the 
interest and secure the happiness of ourselves and countrymen, we pledge 
hereby ourselves, as Americans, to use every fair and honorable means 
consistent with our sacred duties, and in accordance with the parental 
voice of the Father of our Country, " beware of foreign influence." 

George Keyser, Isaiah Duverse, 

Isaiah B. Scott, Chas. Waters, 

Henry Smith, Samuel J. Colli day, 

Daniel Pastorious, John P. Heffner, 

Philip H. Kloneqar, Chas. P. Haupt, 

Chas. Kleaver, Henry Gravenstein. 

Of the above list of charter members, but one remains (1908), 
still a member of the Mother Council, P. N". C. Brother Chas. P. 
Haupt, to whom the honor of the highest office in the Order was 
given by action of the National Council. That there were a larger 
number than those on the Original Charter admitted at the time 
the Council was instituted, is presumably true, as it is inferred 
from Brother Haupt's " Eecollections " in Deemer's History, that 
the Charter was not granted until a few months after the institution 
of the Council, when some who had joined had dropped out, hence 
the twelve names above quoted should be considered as constituting 
the first Council of the Order. 

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE 0. U. A. M. AND THE JR. 0. U. A. M. 

The question arises, " What part, if any, had the 0. U. A. M., 
as an organization, in the formation and founding of the Jr. 0. U. 
A. M. ? For years the writer, when engaged in delivering addresses 
in the interest of the Order, was very careful to impress upon the 
members of the organization and the public in general, that the 
Jr. 0. U. A. M. was the child of the O.U.A. M.; that to the latter 
organization it owed its life as well as sustenance and strength 
in the formative years of its history. Not until we read the state- 
ments of Brother Deemer in his History, did we doubt the relia- 
bility of our own statements so frequently made. No one in the 
Order is as capable of giving a true version of the disputed fact 
as Brother Deemer. Being on the field at the time and having 
early connected himself with both organizations, and so long an 
officer in the Junior Order, he is perfectly competent to give the 
exact status of the relationship that existed between the two Orders. 



16 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

Brother Deemer, after giving the account of the institution 
of Washington Council, and the part taken in its organization by 
the three brothers above named, says : 

'• While we have shown beyond controversy thai the O. U. A. M. did 
not bring us into being, it is equally true that the first resolve and first 
action received its impulse in the encouraging words of Gideon D. Harmar 
and Elliott Smith, of Reliance Council, and even with this encouragement, 
it is possible that it might all have come to naught, had it not been 
that Wm. M. Weckerly, the State Council Secretary of the O. U. A. M., 
came to their assistance and prepared for them the Ritual, Constitution 
and By-Laws for their government." 

Again, Brother Deemer says : 

" While giving due credit to the Senior Order for the assistance 
rendered, the fact must be stated, that the help came from individuals, 
rather than from the Order itself. That body failed to appreciate the 
spirit of Young America, and the Senior who ridiculed the ' boys,' not 
only provoked their indignation, but in too many cases the entire Order 
received censure and its members were given little credit for their 
assistance." 

Brother Deemer at the time he was making the investigations 
relative to the part the 0. U. A. M. had in the organization of the 
Junior Order, stated that he had made diligent efforts to ascertain 
the facts, and quotes the following from a letter received from 
former State Council Secretary, Wm. M. Weckerly, under date 
of December 12, 1892 : 

" Reliance Council, No. 40, 0. U. A. M., had no hand in the organiza- 
tion of the Order." 

This statement of one who ought to know is corroborated by 
the Secretary of Beliance Council, No. 40, who informed Brother 
Deemer that he and the Secretary of Washington Council, No. 1, 
Jr. 0. U. A. M., examined the records of Beliance Council at the 
time of the institution of Washington Council, No. 1, and failed 
to find any reference at all to the subject. 

But some one may say : " Your statements and claims as to the 
relationship of the two Orders in its institution is largely from the 
Junior standpoint. What say the records of the 0. U. A. M. ? " 

With the end in view of getting the facts from both sides, as 
stated before, we were fortunate in getting the original records of 
the 0. TJ. A. M., which contained the Minutes of the State Council 
from its institution up to 1868, recorded in two large volumes by 
the various Secretaries of that body. It was with a keen interest 
that we turned to the Minutes of the quarterly and special meetings 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 17 

of the State Body in the years 1852 and 1853. Wm. M. Weckerly, 
so closely associated with the founding of the Junior Order by the 
institution of Washington Council, and who prepared for the new 
organization the Ritual, Constitution and By-laws, was the State 
Council Secretary of the 0. U. A. M. He was the first S. C. Secre- 
tary to submit to the State Council a report of his official acts 
during the quarter, at the same time giving an account of the con- 
dition of the Order in the state. Believing that the purpose of 
forming the Junior Order would have been brought to the attention 
of Brother Weckerly, in fact, we are assured that it was, it was 
natural to suppose that in his report to the State Council some 
statement would have been made as to the movement contemplated. 
Impressed with this conviction, we turned to the Minutes of the 
quarterly session of April, 1853, but found no reference to the 
subject in the State Secretary's report. Naturally it would be 
supposed that at the next quarterly meeting, which was the annual 
meeting of the State Body, that reference would be made by the 
Secretary in his report relative to the institution of the Junior 
Order, on May 17, preceding, which, as anticipated by its founders, 
would add many members to the Senior Order ; but not a word is 
found in, the carefulty prepared and nicely written record of that 
session concerning this interesting event in which he had taken 
so prominent a part. And for nearly seven years, in the numerous 
sessions of the State Body, the S. C. Secretary made his reports, 
and also as National Secretary made an annual report of that body 
to the State Council, not a reference as to the existence of Wash- 
ington Council, No. 1, Jr. 0. U. A. M., was made either by himself, 
the Board of Officers or any Representative, as far as the records 
are concerned. 

What does it mean? What explanation can be given for the 
silence of seven long years on the subject? The only conclusion 
we can arrive at is, that the institution of Washington Council, 
Jr. 0. TL A. M. did not meet with the approbation of the 0. U. A. M. 
as a body, and those who had been intimately associated with its 
organization were familiar with this feeling, hence did not press 
the matter to the attention of either the State or National Council, 
for fear of exciting criticism and being subjected to ridicule. It 
is certainly clear that the opinion expressed by Brother Deemer and 
others who were contemporary with the times, is correct, that the 
0. U. A. M., as an Order, had nothing to do with the organization 
and institution of Washington Council, No. 1, Jr. 0. IT. A. M.. 



18 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

neither had it any connection with the new organization for several 
years subsequent. 

After seven years of rebellion in the Order, mutual concessions 
were made, and in 1859, the larger number of the insubordinate 
Councils returned to the State and National bodies of the 
0. U. A. M., whereupon an era of prosperity dawned on the organ- 
ization and the Order became more aggressive. To such an extent 
did the Order advance, that by June 30, 1860, there were 80 Coun- 
cils and 9,310 members. The amount in the treasuries of the Coun- 
cils of the State was $69,777.14. The Widow's and Orphan's Fund 
had $5,227.46%. The State Council of Pennsylvania had 170 
widows and 498 orphans under its care. We do not have the stand- 
ing of the National Body at that time. 

THE FIRST RECORDED ATTEMPT AT RECOGNITION OF THE JUNIORS 
BY THE O. U. A. M. 

It was about this time that the O. U. A. M. of Pennsylvania 
took notice of the Jr. 0. TJ. A. M. At the quarterly meeting of 
the State Council, April 15, 1859, the following resolution was 
adopted : 

"Resolved, That a committee be appointed to report a plan by which 
we can make known to the Mechanics and Workingmen, who are not 
members of the Order, its Objects and Principles, and engage their 
cooperation in our cause by becoming members of the Order." 

At the quarterly session, October 21, same year, the Committee 
submitted its report. After recounting the purpose for which they 
had been appointed, added: 

" Your Committee beg leave to state they have examined the impor- 
tant subject entrusted to their charge, and after due deliberation and a 
free interchange of sentiment, present the following with a favorable 
recommendation : 

" 1. The establishment of a Junior Order of the United American 
Mechanics. 

" The Committee feel satisfied that an organization of young men 
(say from the ages of 14 to 21 years), may be established under the 
supervision of our Order, which may be made to exercise a powerful 
influence upon the morals of the youth of this community. The ritual, 
decorations and degrees of such an Order should be so arranged as to 
make them encourage virtuous habits and a desire for improvement in 
intelligence, refinement and usefulness. . . . 

" We can imagine no movement which will be more creditable to our 
Order, nor any calculated to extend its popularity and influence more 
than the establishment of such a Junior Order, if it be properly managed." 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 19 

The report, as partly given above, was, on motion, received, but 
no action thereon was taken. The State Council, it is evident , did 
not see the force of the Committee's recommendation. In the 
meantime seven other Junior Councils were instituted and the 
State Council of Pennsylvania was launched, still there was no rec- 
ognition, officially, of the new organization by the Seniors. The 
next mention in the records of the 0. U. A. M. of the Jr. 0. U. A. M. 
was at a quarterly session of the State Body, held in October, 1860, 
when a request of Diligent Council, No 42, was read asking for a 
dispensation to initiate members of the Jr. 0. U. A. M., when they 
arrive at the age of 21 years, for the sum of $2.00. In the consid- 
eration of the request, a motion to grant the same was ruled out 
of order, and the Chair was sustained in an appeal taken from 
his decision. 

The Junior organization, alone and unaided, officially, by the 
older Order, struggled on amidst the great depletion of its rank- 
by the Civil War until 1862, when, at a session of their State 
Council, July 15, the faet was brought to the attention of the 
Senior State Body. At this session, a Memorial from Ellsworth 
Council, No. 14, Jr. 0. IT. A. M., was read in which the following 
propositions were presented : 

"Resolved, That the Representatives of this Council he authorized 
to lay before the State Council of our Order the following propositions: 

"1. That the State Council send an address to the State Council 
of the Senior Order, asking them to recognize us officially as the 
Jr. 0. U. A. M. and that they be requested to alter their regulations so as 
to admit members of the Junior Order in their Subordinate Councils for 
onedialf the initiation fee; provided, however, that such member lias 
been so one year. 

"2. That our private work be revised, and that part relating t<> 
members being obliged to join the Senior Order be omitted, so that persons 
joining our organization under twenty-one years of age ran remain in 
our Order after they have arrived at the age entitling them to enter the 
Senior Order, which they can enter at their pleasure." 

In the consideration of the above propositions, the second one 
was amended, on motion of Brother Deemcr, and made to read: 

"That if the Senior Order refuse to recognize us, the whole matter 
is then referred to the Committee of Forms." 

The proposition was so referred. 

As per action of the State Council, State Council Secretary 
Deemer sent the above proposition (No. 1) to the State Council, 
0. U. A.M., under date of July 16, 1862, which was road at their 
State meeting July 18. 



20 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 



LETTER OF EDW. S. DEEMER TO THE STATE COUNCIL, 0. U. A. M. 

Accompanying the proposition, Brother Deemer, by way of 
stirring up the remembrance of the 0. TJ. A. M., expressed himself 
at length upon the failure of the Senior Order in not officially 
recognizing the Junior Order. The communication contains so 
many facts of interest that we have quoted the letter from the 
written records of the Senior State Council. 

After presenting the proposition referred to, Brother Deemer 
adds: 

" In carrying out the provisions of the above proposition, we have 
only to draw your attention to the following facts. The Junior 
0. U. A. M. was instituted by the organization of Washington Council. 
No. 1, of Germantown, on the 17th of May, 1853, under the auspices of the 
0. U. A. M. 

"The objects of the organization were expressed as the following: 

' 1. To assist Americans in obtaining employment. 

' 2. To encourage Americans in business. 

' 3. To establish a sick and funeral fund. 

' 4. To prepare the youth of America to become members of the 
O. U. A. M. and other American Orders when they arrive at the proper 
age. 

'5. To use such means when able as will prevent the present system 
of emigration of foreign paupers to our land.' 

" In addition to these objects, our members have been obligated as 
follows, on being initiated: 'I further promise that in conformity with 
the fourth object of this Order, I will, when I arrive at the age of 21 
years, offer myself a candidate for membership in a legally constituted 
Council of the' O. U. A. M.' 

" It was further expressed in the organization of Washington Council, 
that this Council should act as State Council of the Order until six 
Councils were organized, and under its jurisdiction, when each should 
be requested to send three representatives to organize a State Council. 

,l This Council stood solitary and alone, comparatively unknown, from 
the time of its organization until the close of 1859, when Relief Council, 
0. U. A. M. instituted the Order in the city proper, by the organization 
on the 3rd of December, of Relief Council, No. 2. Eagle, No. 9, followed 
by the organization of Eagle, No. 3, on the 11th of January, 1860. From 
this time forward our cause has been upward and onward ; and on the 
13th of March (18G0), the State Council of Penna., Junior O. U. A. M. 
was organized in the Town Hall, Germantown, by the Representatives of 
eight Councils. Since then, although some of our Councils have been 
well assisted by Councils of the Senior Order, our State Council has 
never been recognized in any manner whatever. 

" Our Order had scarcely been in operation ten months, during which 
time it had increased to 13 Councils and nearly 900 members, when this 
wicked and unholy Rebellion broke forth, and our members, true to their 
obligation and principles, enlisted in defence of our flag, and, on a rough 
estimate, it is calculated that between 400 and 500 of our members have 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 21 

offered their lives a willing sacrifice on the altar of their Country. There 
is scarcely a Council but has been a loser in killed, wounded, and missing 
by the recent battles near Richmond. As the majority of the Councils 
have resolved as far as lay in their power, to pay the funeral benefits 
of those who die in battle, it has now come to the alternative, of us either 
being recognized by the Senior Order, or the reorganization of our Order, 
and the so changing of our objects that members will be offered an induce- 
ment to remain with us, after attaining the age of twenty-one year-. 
We believe that our recognition by you, and the adoption of a resolution 
admitting members of our Order for one-half your regular initiation fee, 
will be of far more advantage to you than you may imagine. 

"Think for a moment, that at the time of our organization, most 
of us were about 18 years of age, and without doubt this year will give 
you quite a number of new members, if such a resolution be adopted, 
but if not. they will be lost, for it is impossible in these times of uncer- 
tainty to pay funeral expenses and also $3.00 on the admission of each 
member to the Senior Order. Kensington Council, No. 5, of the Juniors 
is the most successful, pecuniary, of any in our Order, being worth over 
$250.00; of this $175.00 is invested in this hall, and yet if four of their 
members were to be killed in battle, or 25 wished to join the Senior Order 
the next three months they would be bankrupt. This is only cited as an 
example. There are three other Councils worth over $100.00 each, and 
yet by the present plan of paying by each member of $3.00 on joining 
your Order and the casualities of war, the first of January of 1863 may 
find the Junior Order one of the things of the past. For all of the mem- 
bers we have sent into your I >rder, we have received nothing in return, 
each Council being dependent for its propositions on the exertions of its 
own members. 

"We are not content that our Order should be for the day; that 
we should strive and build an Order of from 1,000 to 2,000 members and 
then lose them all in two or three years by their admission to your 
Councils. We love our organization and desire to see it successful. We 
believe that if your body would establish some connecting link between 
the two Orders it would be of mutual advantage. What this connecting 
link shall be we leave to your superior judgment, and more experience 
in these matters to determine, but any communication, or suggestion you 
may see fit to make, either through your Secretary or by a Committee, 
will be cheerfully and respectfully considered." 

The communication of Brother Deemer was received by the 
State Council 0. TJ. A. M., and, on motion, referred to a Special 
Committee, which, at the quarterly meeting of their State Council, 
October 16, same year, submitted the following: 

" We have given the address a full and due consideration. Your 
Committee believe after due deliberation that this appeal must be met 
sooner or later; and by meeting it now. it may save us, as an Order, a 
great trouble hereafter. Your Committee would offer the following reso- 
lutions and asked to be discharged: 

" Resolved, That the State Council of Penna. O. U. A. M., hereby 
recognizes the Jr. O.U. A. M. as an organization, whose objects are 
synonymous with our own, and worthy the considei-ation and earnest 



22 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

attention of our sons, and all young men of this city and State, and all 
Subordinate Councils are hereby requested to use their efforts toward the 
establishment of this order, especially in the interior of our State. 

" Resolved, That we, the Representatives forming the State Council 
hereby pledge ourselves to use our influence in our respective Councils, 
toward the success of the object set forth in the foregoing resolution." 

The State Council adopted the report of the Committee and 
for the first time gave official recognition to the Junior Order. 
As far as the records show of either organization, nothing more was 
said and done for a time, and it is presumed that an era of good 
feeling prevailed for several years. That the Senior Order gave 
encouragement to the Junior Order following this official action is 
apparent from a paragraph in Brother Deemer's report to his State 
Council, when State Councilor, April 16, 1869 : 

" I am also largely indebted to the officers of the Senior Order for 
many favors far too numerous to mention. I rejoice in the reaction which 
has taken place in the 0. U. A. M., in our favor. Let us show that we 
appreciate their zeal in our behalf, and on arriving at our majority, 
offer ourselves for membership among them. Where all have done so 
nobly, to name a few would be unjust, so I tender to the entire Order our 
thanks for their cooperation, and hope that it will be transmitted to my 
successor." 

BIRTHPLACE 

May 17, 1853, the time, and Concord Schoolhouse the place of 
the institution of the Jr. 0. U. A. M., has found an indelible imprint 
upon the mind of the entire Order. Fanieul Hall, Boston, where 
the Adamses, James Otis and Joseph Warren first sounded the 
slogan for Liberty, and Independence Hall, Philadelphia, where 
the final act was consummated that gave Freedom to an oppressed 
people, are relics sacred to every American. To the members of 
the Jr. 0. U. A. 1L, old Concord Schoolhouse is a sacred spot, not 
only because the Order was born there, but of the hallowed associa- 
tions of the Bevolutionary struggle that lingers around the place. 

From " Hotehkin's History of Germantown," published in 
1889, and " Scharf's and Westcott's History of Philadelphia," some 
facts are taken bearing on the early annals associated with this 
building and surroundings. The building is a two-story stone 
structure, having cut on the gable end, indicating the date of its 
construction, the figures " 1775." 

There is still in existence the first record-book of the school 
conducted in this famous old building. The title is, " Proceedings 
of the Order and Management of the School and Building, the 
Concord Schoolhouse at the upper end of Germantown, 1775." 
Then comes the following: 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 23 

"Be it remembered, that whereas a number of inhabitants of the 
upper end of Germantown taking into consideration the distance and 
particular inconvenience of sending their children to the lower school 
(in the Academy), and seeing the number of children is increasing, and 
the rooms rented for school in the neighborhood mostly be too small and 
inconvenient. When the building of a schoolhouse was proposed by sub- 
scription, a number of the inhabitants met on the 24, of March, 177."), 
to promote the building and erection of a convenient schoolhouse, and 
establishing an English school in that part of the town. The plan of 
the house and spot of ground were unanimously agreed upon, being that 
part of the burying ground lot at the upper end of Germantown formerly 
intended for that purpose by one Paul Wolf, the original grantor of said 
burying ground lot, and Jacob Engle, Peter Keyser, Peter Seibert and 
Jacob Knorr were unanimously chosen managers, by whom it was com- 
pleted by the latter end of October, and was opened and kept by John 
Grimes, schoolmaster." 

Then follows a list of the contributors toward the erection of 
the building amounting to "245 pounds, 1 shilling, and 2 pence." 
A note follows that " the Continental that came to nothing, 2 pence. 
Real amount, 243 pounds, 1 shilling, and 2 pence." 

The original grantor of the lot that had been intended for 
burying purposes, in the oldest documents was spelled " Paul 
Wulff." In 1724 a stone wall was built in front of where the 
schoolhouse stands, as well as along the entire burying ground Lot. 
All subscribers to the wall fund were to have the right of burial 
within the grounds, which went by the name of " Upper German- 
town Burying Ground." The wall was constructed by Dirch John- 
son and John Frederick Ax, at a cost of 40 pounds, 8 shillings and 
6 pence. A new wall was built in 1776, which remains intact as 
when built. Dr. Keyser says : " In the latter part of the eighteenth 
century, a stone schoolhouse was built in a triangular lot adjoining 
this (burying ground) ground, on the southwest line, which was 
called Concord Schoolhouse. From the proximity of this house to 
the ground, it came to be called the Concord Burying Ground, 
which name it popularly held many years." 

THE BATTLE OF GERMAN TOWN 

The story of Concord Schoolhouse not only relates to the 
Jr. 0. U. A. M., but it forms a part of the story of the struggle for 
Independence, as around it and in close proximity, was fought one 
of the bloodiest battles of the Revolution, known in history as tli<' 
"Battle of Germantown"; hence, it became, very appropriately, 
the birthplace of an organization that has Love of Country a- its 
chief corner-stone, Patriotism its life blood, and reveres him who 



24 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

led the American army in battle — Washington, the Order's patron 
saint. Although well planned and finely executed, the attack 
on the British lines was a failure. Though personally endangering 
himself, Washington bore his defeat with remarkable patience, cour- 
age and a sublime trust in God, attributing his loss of the battle 
to a dense fog that enveloped Germantown that October morning 
(October 4), 1877. Even one historian, who believed in the " God 
of Battles " and in the " Lord of Hosts," claimed that the defeat 
of Washington was Providential, since had the American army 
been victorious, Washington would have been overpowered by Lord 
Howe. " History," says one, " is God's footsteps marching through 
time." Possibly God did send down that fog to bring about defeat, 
for the story of Valley Forge might never have been written, out 
of which the patriots with bleeding feet marched to final conquest. 
Thomas MacKellar's Memorial Ode, read at the dedication of 
the monument erected to the Soldier's and Sailors of the Civil 
War, in Germantown, is no more true of the brave men who fell 
in the defence of the flag of the fathers than of the fathers them- 
selves : 

" Heroic deeds 

Are the immortal seeds — 

Nourished by the blood and tears 

That grow the fruit of liberty 
And conscience free 

Through time's unresisting years. 

" Not they 
Of 1777 who fell on this bloody field; 
Not they who shout are conquerors alone, 
For they who fell before the day is won 
Are also victors, and the laureled crown 
Fitly adorns the warrior smitten down; 

No martyr dies 

A fruitless sacrifice." 

Hard as it may seem to say that God would so over-rule that 
the awful winter of Valley Forge should have been experienced 
when patriots reddened the pure white snow with lacerated feet, 
while gaunt hunger stood as spector at the doors of the comfortless 
cabins, yet has not God in other ages shut out the sun and plunged 
his heroes into the midnight that the morn might come the brighter 
and more glorious ? Luther on his way to danger and sure destruc- 
tion, by friendly hands, was assailed and shut up two years in his 
" own house " in order that he might translate the Word of God to 
be the commentary in the great work of his life when the morning 
of the Eeformation arose out of the long night of despotism. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 25 

John 1 lun van, shut up in Bedford prison, no doubt dwelt upon 
the injustice and wrong of his incarceration, but from that prison 
cell he saw " Christian " leaving the " City of Destruction " and 
wend his way, beset by dangers, pitfalls and temptations, until 
finally he sees the " Celestial City " open its gate and the traveller 
enters in; and to the world was given a book, next to the Bible, 
that has stirred more souls and warmed more hearts than all the 
books of the world put together. Is it not possible, then, that God 
permitted the dark winter of doubt, fear and suffering at Valley 
Forge that the great heart of Washington could get in closer touch 
with the Lord of Hosts with a mightier grip of faith so that out of 
it should come the dawn of renewed confidence, and with it the 
glorious morning, preceding the more glorious noon-tide and the 
final triumph at Yorktown. 

The battle of Germantown is of the past. The armies that 
faced each other that terrible day are in the dust. But one monu- 
ment of that struggle, yea, the common center of the battle remains 
as a reminder of that bloody morning — the " Chew House," which, 
as Lossing says, " is the most noted and attractive relic of the 
Revolution." The visitor to the birthplace of our Order, itself 
a part of the field of battle, and the grounds surrounding it being 
redolent with patriotic blood, should not fail to visit the " fort at 
Germantown " as it was called at the time of the battle. The 
house is built of stone, the masonry being so complete that American 
cannon could make no impression on its walls. It is two-story, 
with attic, and of large dimensions as all the old-time mansions of 
wealthy people were, and many marks made by American bullets 
can be distinguished as reminders of the fierce contest when many 
patriots fell in their unavailable effort to dislodge the enemy. 

CONCORD SCHOOLHOUSE — CHEW HOUSE — TWO MONUMENTS OF BEAU- 
TIFUL GERMANTOWN 

Long may they stand to be the Mecca of patriots. As we 
tread the sacred soil where our fathers fought, how great the change. 
They fought for liberty and a brighter future ; we bask in the 
noon-tide splendor of their brightiest anticipations. Like Moses 
on shining Pisgah, they looked forward to a rich inheritance; we 
have entered in — the corn, the wine, the oil are ours. Theirs was 
the song of the sower treading in the furrow; ours is the jubilee 
of the reaper with the music of the waving harvest in his hearing. 
They looked onward with expectant gaze to future blessings; we 
look backward over the winding path of destiny, at Red Seas and 



%6 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

Jorclans whose obedient waters parted at their coming, showing 
that naught can hinder the onward march of those who step to the 
" drum beat of Providence." 

WASHINGTON COUNCIL, NO. 1 

The institution of the first Council has already been referred 
to. Brother Deemer several years ago made special effort's to obtain 
historical data associated with Washington Council, No. 1, and to 
him the writer, as well as the Order at large, is indebted for the 
facts that are already history. Eeference has been made at the 
opening of this chapter to the three prominent factors in the insti- 
tution of the first Council of the Order — Bros. Wm. M. Weckerly, 
Gideon D. Harmar and Elliott Smith, the former, State Council 
Secretary of the 0. U. A. M., and the latter two members of Ee- 
liance Council, No. 40. These three without any official action of 
the 0. U. A. M., or Eeliance Council, organized Washington Coun- 
cil and launched it forth into the great family of secret societies. 

The first year of the Council's history was somewhat discourag- 
ing, and there came a time when it was proposed to disband The 
cohesive power of the Order was not as strong as it is now, hence 
there were no great underlying principles then to hold the member- 
ship together as at the present time, being purely beneficial and 
protective, the purposes being local. 

With a view of obtaining the recollections of those who were 
contemporary with the organization of the Junior 0. U. A. M., 
several letters were written requesting some facts associated with the 
" beginnings of the Order." One of these letters was addressed 
to Bro. P. N. C. Chas. P. Haupt, the only original charter member 
living who is still a member of the Order, as well as of the Council. 
A very courteous reply came to our communication under date of 
July 16, 1906, in which he stated that " I am at all times willing 
to do anything for the Order or its members, but I cannot give any 
more of the facts than I gave when I wrote the history that Bro. 
Deemer had adopted as a true account of the origin of the Order 
which you speak of." 

The history referred to by Bro. Haupt, which was given in 
Deemer's History, and later was published in The American, is as 
follows : 

"It is almost 40 years (1892) since the organization of Washington 
Council, No. 1, Jr. 0. U. A. M., but I will give you, from memory, all the 
facts I can. 

" Washington Council was started in May, 1853, in the Council 
Chamber of Reliance Council, No. 40, in the second story of the old 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 27 

Concord Schoolhouse, an old building of Revolutionary fame, on .Main 
street, above Washington Avenue, Germantown. 

"The leading spirits were two zealous members of Reliance Council, 
Gideon D. Harmar and Elliott Smith, who spent much time in trying 
to get the American youth in line. I can recall the names of the young 
men who first met for the purpose of starting the Council, viz.: 

"Geo. Keyser. lsaiali B. Scott, (lias. Waters, Isaiah B. Dewees, 
Henry Smith, Peter Stroup, Philip Klonegar, (has. Cleaver, Daniel Pas- 
torious, Jno. J. Hell'ner, Samuel Colladay, Henry Gravenstine, Jackson 
Rupley, Chas. P. Haupt. 

" Daniel Pastorious was selected as our first Councilor. He was 
a lineal descendant of Francis Daniel Pastorious, the founder of German- 
town, under William Penn. They were all Germantown boys with one 
exception, that being Philip Klonegar, who was from the city. I think 
his father was a member of the Senior Order, a printer by trade, and he 
printed our ritual. 

" The first parade we participated in was soon after we started. 
It was a parade of the Senior Order at Norristown, Pa., and we who were 
invited to participate with them, remember the occasion well. We had 
no time to order regalia, so we bought linen and got our sisters and 
mothers to cut and make them. They looked very neat — the collars were 
bound with red and blue ribbons. We took some eighteen members with 
us, and made an excellent impression. 

" After a few months we got in pretty good shape and had a charter 
drawn up, and as many had dropped out, we had those remaining have 
their names put in the charter (which you have). Soon after we got 
the charter drawn up we received several good members in the persons 
of Jacob Pullinger, Heisler Scholl, .Marshall C. Hong, John Flue and 
others who names I cannot now recall. 

" We thought we must have a new flag, so we appointed a committee 
for that purpose, and started out among our friends of Reliance Council. 
We secured some forty dollars, which got us a nice silk flag and an 
eagle. We bought them at Wm. Mintzer's (now Clarence A. Hart), on 
Third Street, he being a big man at that time in that line of business. 
The old flag is now in the possession of Washington Council, and is much 
revered. 

"Soon after we moved our quarters, along with Reliance Council, 
to Town Hall, it just being finished. We tried to get members, but it 
was uphill work, and we got discouraged. At last we determined to 
disband. Our old friends, Harmar and Smith, used their endeavors with 
other Councils of the Order, to start new Councils, but did not succeed, 
and we actually met one night with a list of the proportionate amount 
due each member, when Isaiah B. Scott, half-dead with consumption, made 
a strong appeal to try a little longer, and Elliott Smith, coming upon 
the scene, with his strong appeal, we tore up the paper and did try, and 
you now see the great result arising therefrom. 

" The next move we made was to Maxwell's Hall, on Rittenhouse 
Street, when I soon after became twenty-one years of age, and joined 
Reliance Council. I was the first Junior who went into the Senior Order, 
and was followed by Geo. Keyser, Jacob Pullinger, Heisler Scholl and 
John Flue, all joining while I was still a member of Washington Council. 
Of the charter members, the following have since died: Geo. Keyser, 



28 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

Henry Smith, Henry Gravenstine, Chas. Waters, Isaiah B. Dewees, Isaiah 
.Scott and Chas. Cleaver. 

" As to the first officers, Daniel Pastorious only met with us a few 
times, and I think we organized under the charter as follows: 

"Councilor, Henry Smith; Financial Secretary, Chas. Cleaver; 
Recording Secretary, Samuel Colladay; Treasurer, C. P. Haupt. 

" The other officers I cannot remember. I was Treasurer from the 
start of the Order and served six months after I joined the Senior Order, 
which was in July, 1855." 

Brother P. S. C. Jno. K. Fanshawe, in an address before the 
Council, in May, 1891, in speaking of his connection with Wash- 
ington Council, says : 

" Being young, vigorous and in full sympathy with the general 
purposes of the society, it was not long before I was among those in 
the lead. The idea soon developed that it would be well to enlarge the 
scope of its operations by the formation of other Councils. I spent many 
an hour with Bro. Gaul in making the preliminary arrangements for 
the organization of Relief Council, No. 2, of the Juniors; Eagle Council, 
No. 3, followed at once. Then followed five others, when a State Council 
was considered advisable and necessary.' The State Council was organized 
at Germantown, and I was honored in being selected the first State 
Councilor. 

" The organizations of the first Councils were under my administra- 
tion as Councilor of Washington Council, and as the first State Councilor. 
I have no time to refer to personal reminiscences, but to call to mind 
the services of Bro. Calver and Bro. Keyser, and many others who were 
then aglow with ardor in their work. Some have gone into the Great 
Unknown and some remain. The history of the Order seems to be divided 
into two epochs. In the first are associated my contemporaries and myself; 
in the second are those of the present; binding and riveting these two 
into one are Bros. Deemer, Calver and others, who are active represen- 
tatives of both periods." 

Following the outbreak of the Civil War, and owing to the 
large number of its members going to the front, the Council was 
compelled to suspend its meetings, and it was not until March 31, 
1865, that the State Council granted the Council a new charter. 
The charter had thirty-five names and P. S. C. Jno. E. Fanshawe 
is the only charter member now on the roll of the Council. 

Although the " Mother of Councils," still Washington Council 
has asked and received but few honors in the way of National and 
State offices. Besides Bro. Fanshawe, one other, Bro. A. P. Keyser, 
was a State Council officer of rank, being the first Junior Past 
State Councilor of Pennsylvania. Bros. L. A. Harmar and Hob- 
son served as Representatives to the National Council, and Bros. 
Jno. S. Harmar and Chas. Stutz held the position of State Council 
Sentinel and Warden, respectively. The work of the Council, 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 29 

however, was of a different character. As it started in the begin- 
ning on actual organization, it continued in that line of work, 
organizing Councils and aiding in the building up of the Order, 
not only in Philadelphia, but throughout the state. The new 
Councils formed in Germantown all received their foundation prin- 
ciples from No. 1, and owe to her much of the success that has 
attended them. In the earlier years it was the custom of the 
Council to attend the State Council sessions by large delegations, 
thus giving inspiration to that body. 

The Council has taken hold of every movement that had in it 
the good of the Order, whether at large or in its immediate locality. 
When parades were prevalent in the Order, Washington Council 
figured largely in them, even when but a few months old, the 
" boys " attended with the Seniors one of the parades near Phila- 
delphia. She sent in 1889 a large delegation to the parade at 
Harrisburg, a distance of one hundred and twenty miles, and the 
year following a strong delegation went to Pittsburg, a distance of 
three hundred and fifty miles. 

Although Washington Council has given largely of her mem- 
bership to the formation of other Councils in that section of the 
city, doubtless more than a dozen having been organized, and at the 
same time a large number of suspended members have been gathered 
by her " children," still she stands second in number in the state, 
having at last report, 519 members, with an invested capital of 
$24,000. Her meetings are characterized by the old-time enthus- 
iasm, and none can visit the Council without feeling the influence 
and power that still burns around her camp-fire. The character 
of her membership is of the best. Some of the very best citizens 
of Germantown are enrolled on her register. 

Out of respect for the Council as well as a courtesy shown, the 
National Council, at its session in Louisville, Ky., in 1898, did a 
noble act by bestowing upon one of her honored and esteemed 
members, and the only surviving original charter member living. 
a member of the Order, the honors of Past National Councilor. I 
refer to Brother Chas. P. Haupt, whose " Eecollections " are to be 
found above. 

Another member of the Order known from the Great Lakes 
to the Gulf, and from the " land of the rising sun to the land whose 
face is kissed by its departing rays,'' was a member for a time 
of Washington Council, and who aided in the formation of the 
several Councils that made the institution of the State Council 
of Pennsylvania a possibility. I refer to our greatly beloved Senior 



30 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

Past National Councilor, Brother John W. Calver, who subsequently 
organized Eagle Council, No. 3, of which he is still a member. 

To Brother Calver one of our communications was addressed, 
requesting some of his " Becollections " associated with the " Be- 
ginnings of the Order," and it is with pleasure that we are able to 
place upon the pages of history some of the facts of the early years 
of the Order, as they present themselves at the present time to 
Brother Calver. The following is the very courteous response to 
our letter: 

LETTER OF PAST NATIONAL COUNCILOR JOHN W. CALVER 

" When I was between fifteen and sixteen years of age. I went to 
learn my trade and lived with an uncle at Germantown. I made the 
acquaintance of a fellow-apprentice who was a member of Washington 
Council, No. 1, Jr. 0. U. A. M., and many of our associates were Juniors, 
so I heard a good deal about the Council and my interest was awakened 
in it. Shortly after my going to Germantown, Reliance Council of the 
Senior Order, dedicated a hall and there was quite a parade. Wash- 
ington Council, No. 1, followed Reliance Council in the procession and 
attracted much attention, there being about 40 members in line, that 
being its entire strength. 

" I was sixteen years of age in August and was initiated into Wash- 
ington Council at its first meeting in September, 1859. The Council met 
only twice a month in the Town Hall, in a room on the upper floor, 
which was rented to lodges. The laws of Washington Council provided 
that it should have power to grant charters to other Councils, and act 
as a State Council until seven Councils should be organized, when Repre- 
sentatives should be elected by each Council to meet and form a State 
Council. 

" At the time I joined the Council, the subject of organizing other 
Councils was being considered, and I remember that there were parties 
in Norristown who wanted information on the subject. While the mem- 
bers were discussing the matter of organizing a Council, a letter was 
received from the above named place, asking if a Council could not be 
instituted and the candidates initiated through the mail. This propo- 
sition was seriously debated, but finally the Council decided that as the 
Putual was a secret work, that we could not send it through the mail, 
nor could we properly instruct the Norristown parties in that way, and 
it was thought impossible to send our officers to organize the Council. 
(Norristown is about 20 miles from Philadelphia.) 

" During the fall of 1859, several Councils of the Senior Order 
sent committees to the meetings of Washington Council to confer about 
starting Junior Councils to be under its supervision and to act as feeders 
for the Senior Councils. As the result of these conferences, several 
Junior Councils were organized, the first being Relief Council, No. 2, on 
December 5, 1859, with nearly 100 applicants present for initiation. I 
was present as an officer of No. 1, Warden, I think, and took part in the 
work. The candidates were divided into three or four squads, and intro- 
duced that way, because the room in American Mechanics Hall at Fourth 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 81 

and George Streets was not large enough to initiate all the candidates 
at one time. It was after midnight when the work of organization 
was finished and a few of us who remained until the work waa done were 
compelled to walk home to Germantown, a distance of more than Bis 
miles; pretty tired you may be sine. 

"Eagle Council, No. :i. Diligent, No. I. Kensington, No. •">, Resolu- 
tion, No. 6, and Harry Clay, No. 7, were organized in succession -onii 
after Relief Council, and as an officer of No. 1, I was present on each 
occasion, and they certainly were great events in the history of No. 1. 
Our members thought they were doing a great work in attending on 
these different occasions, and as the means of communication between 
Philadelphia and Germantown was not like it is now, and the cars did 
not run after 11.30 p.m., the organization work had to he hurried or 
else we had to walk home, which happened more than once. 

" Resolution Council, No. 6, was organized at Frankford, Philadel- 
phia, and it was necessary to take the horse cars into the city proper, 
then take another to Frankford which is oast of Germantown. and about 
as far from the center of Philadelphia where we changed cars as was 
Germantown. When we were through with the organization of No. 6, 
there was no way to ride home, so those of us that did the work had 
to walk back to Germantown, some 7 or 8 miles, part of it over very 
rough roads and it was after 2 a.m. before we got to our homes. 

"As soon as Harry Clay Council, No. 7, had been organized, each 
Council elected Representatives to meet in Town Hall, Germantown. to 
form a State Council of the State of Pennsylvania. Independent Council, 
No. 8, was organized a day or two before the State Council and was 
represented on that occasion. 

"The laws of Washington Council provided that its officers should 
be elected quarterly, and that only Past Councilors should lie eligible as 
Representatives to the State Council. I was Councilor of No. 1. I think. 
at the time the State Council was organized, hence was not eligible for 
Representative. There were a number of us members of No. 1 who formed 
a curb-stone committee outside of the Town Hall and interviewed every- 
one that came out of the meeting trying to find out what was being dune 
on the inside. 

"At the first election in Washington Council after the organization 
of the State Council, I was elected Representative to the State Body, 
and was reelected each term until I became State Councilor. The meet- 
ings of the State Council were quarterly for many years, and in the 
evenings, two or three hours being sufficient to transact all the business; 
at times we were so short of business, that motion- were made to be voted 
down, and parliamentary tactics, such as we could pick up, were indulged 
in to furnish an excuse for our meetings. Some of the meetings were 
busy and exciting enough, especially when No. 5 would send a Represen- 
tative who was a "kicker" and came to stir things up, then the meetings 
would get lively. 

"Our Order kept growing until Ellsworth Council. No. 14, was 
organized at about the beginning of the Civil War in 1861, when a great 
many members answered the call of President Lincoln and enlisted in 
our country's service, some of them never to return. Ellsworth Council 
organized into a military company and were enlisted into the govern- 
ment's service. All our Councils suffered because their members enlisted, 



32 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

so that a number of them were compelled to suspend meetings, No. 1 
being among the number. 

" Early in 1862 my uncle moved into the center of the city when 
I found it not an easy thing to attend all of the meetings of No. 1, 
because, as an apprentice, I did not have much spending money and 
walking was not always easy; but with my old friend, John W. Paul, 
I attended the meetings of Relief, No. 2, which was having a great strug- 
gle, and sometimes could not get a quorum, and after No. 1 suspended 
its meetings I was granted a card by the State Council and joined No. 2. 
Brother Paul and I, with several others, worked hard to build up No. 2. 
We used to spend hours at night and on Sundays hunting for candidates, 
sometimes approaching young fellows whom we thought would make good 
Juniors, yet were strangers to us. After a good deal of work we suc- 
ceeded in building up the Council. 

" The State Council continued to meet pretty regularly during all 
of the Civil War, and towards its close the body often considered the 
subject of how to build up our Order again. As our members whose time 
of enlistment had expired or for other reasons were released from service, 
some of them again became active in their Councils. At one of the 
sessions of the State Council I made a motion that two Representatives 
from each Council be appointed to form a convention with a view to 
reorganize all Councils that still were suspending their meetings. This 
convention held several meetings, when finally it was proposed that we 
volunteer to form committees each agreeing to reorganize one Council. 
I agreed to take up Eagle, No. 3, and hunted up Theodore Rose who had 
returned home from the army, and we started in and after considerable 
hard work, succeeded in reorganizing the Council, and to please those I 
had secured as members, I drew my card from No. 2 and deposited it 
in Eagle Council, No. 3, where I since have continued. There was a joke 
in the Order at the time, that I was going all through the organization, 
but that it grew so fast that I could not keep up. 

" After the close of the war, mainly through the efforts of Brother 
E. S. Deemer, assisted by some others, the Order grew very rapidly. 
Councils were reorganized in different parts of the state, in New Jersey 
and Delaware, and those who went to organize Councils had the privi- 
lege of doing the work and generally paying their own expenses, as the 
income of the State Council was small, and the only recompense was 
the fun they got out of their trips. We often had funny experiences. 

" After State Councils had been organized in New Jersey and Dela- 
ware, the three states sent Representatives to form a National Council. 
At that time I was elected National Councilor and Brother Deemer 
National Secretary. In making laws for the government of the National 
Council, the first term was three months, at the end of which I was 
reelected National Councilor and served the full term of one year. 
Brother Deemer was reelected National Secretary, and has been continued 
in that position ever since. During the early days of the National 
Council, one day was sufficient to transact all the business, and give 
plenty of time to the Representatives to enjoy themselves during the noon 
recess. 

" I have enjoyed many pleasant times attending the sessions of the 
State Council of Pennsylvania and the National Council, and have met 
many brothers whose friendship I appreciate, and believe I have been 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 88 

repaid for the time given in the service of the Order. One of the trips 
made in organizing Councils of the Order that has ever remained fresh 
in my memory, was to Baltimore, with Brother Deemer, to organize 
Baltimore Council, No. 1. On reaching the city, we were met by Brother 
J. Adam Sohl and a number of others who were to form the Council, and 
after going to our hotel, we were taken to an oyster house where we were 
filled with oysters in the various styles that only Baltimore can furnish. 
After that we went to the hall and instituted the Council, following which 
we were again taken to an oyster house and filled with oysters. We did 
not get to our hotel until nearly 2 a.m. We went to bed, but having 
eaten so many oysters, I could not sleep, so I got up and walked the 
floor for some time before I could rest. When we left Philadelphia we 
had agreed to indxilge in a peck of Baltimore's steamed oysters, and 
when we returned we felt as if we had eaten several bushels of them. 

" Many of the active members of our Order who have been doing 
such good work, and some of them have had great difficulties to encounter, 
in the past 25 years, yet I doubt if they have ever fully realized what 
had to be encountered by us old members who were the pioneers in building 
up the Jr. 0. U. A. M. ; and though it was composed of boys in its early 
days, they worked and built up an organization which, I think, has 
proved to have done good work and has been of service to the country." 

A very interesting event took place in the hall of Washington 
Council, No. 1, on the evening of April 26, 1895, and we let 
Brother Deemer recite it as taken from his report to the National 
Council at its session held same year : 

" A NOTEWORTHY EVENT 

" On Friday evening, April 26th, an event of unusual importance 
took place in Washington Council, No. 1, of Pennsylvania, it being the 
readmission of Brother Charles P. Haupt to membership therein. This was 
followed on the night of the loth of May by Winona Council, No. 63, 
receiving to membership Brothers Jacob Keyser and Samuel Colladay. 
Why the admission of these three brothers is deemed to be of sufficient 
importance to be alluded to in a report to the National Council, is 
explained in the fact that these three brothers were of the original num- 
ber who had instituted the Junior Order of United American Mechanics 
on the 17th of May, 1853. At the expiration of forty-two years they 
returned to the fold, but the occasion was far different. The Concord 
Schoolhouse was within a stone throw, but the handful that gathered 
together on the occasion had grown until now it has taken root in forty 
states, and comprises a membership of over one hundred and fifty thou- 
sand. That it was deemed an occasion of more than ordinary interest is 
evidenced from the fact that Washington Council designated Past National 
Councilor John W. Calver, initiated September, 1859, to receive Brother 
Haupt, while Winona conferred the honor upon myself, initiated February 
22, 1860, to receive Brothers Keyser and Colladay. 

" What their emotions were can be better imagined than described." 

The name of Gideon D. Harmar has been referred to as one of 
the principal factors in the creation of the Jr. 0. U. A. M. and the 

3 



34 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

institution of Washington Council, No. 1. For nearly fifty years 
this patriot and brother lived to see the infant organization which 
he helped create become a full-grown and powerful body of nearly 
200,000 members, distributed throughout more than forty states 
and territories of the Union. His death occurred in 1900, upon 
which Washington Council, No. 1, at a meeting held on Monday 
evening, April 30, 1900, adopted the following resolutions and pre- 
sented same at the meeting of the National Council, held same 
year in Philadelphia, which body set apart a memorial page to his 
memory : 

" Whereas, In view of the loss that the community has sustained 
by the death of Gideon D. Harmar, and the still heavier loss by those 
nearest and dearest to him. Therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That it is but a jiist tribute to the memory of tbe 
departed to say that in regretting his removal from our midst, we mourn 
for one who was in every way worthy of our respect and regard. 

" Resolved — That in the death of Gideon D. Harmar, Washington 
Council, No. 1, Junior Order United American Mechanics, and our beloved 
Order, lament the loss of a friend in whose brain originated the idea of 
our Order, and to whose active efforts Washington Council, No. 1, Junior 
Order United American Mechanics, owes its very existence. 

" Resolved — That we tenderly condole with the family of the deceased 
in the hour of trial and affliction, and devoutly commend them to the 
keeping of Him who is a husband to the widow and a father to the 
fatherless. 

" Resolved — That these resolutions be spread upon the records of 
this Council, a copy thereof be transmitted to the family of the deceased, 
published in the local papers, and one sent to the National Council, 
Junior Order United American Mechanics, and to the State Council of 
Pennsylvania. 

" Robert S. Williams, Councilor. 

" Charles W. Layer, Recording Secretary." 



CHAPTER III 
3. NAME— SIGNIFICANCE— PROPOSED CHANGES 

ORIGINAL PURPOSE OF THE ORDER 

WE have come down for more than half a century, as an Order. 
with a name, that to some extent is prescriptive, and at 
present is a misnomer. That the Junior Order United American 
Mechanics was true to name in its origin, none can gainsay; that 
it now represents purposes, aims and objects not associated with its 
opening life, all admit. 

To such an extent did immigration of aliens affect the mechani- 
cal and labor interests of the country sixty to seventy years ago, 
that American mechanics and workingmen felt that their only 
safety was in organization. In the filling of positions in the 
various trades, there was a tendency, as now, of employers ignor- 
ing native labor in favor of foreign labor. To check this trend 
of favoritism, mechanics, representing the trades in Philadelphia, 
formed an organization among themselves for their protection, and 
gave it the name of Order of United American Mechanics of the 
United States. This organization, as elsewhere stated, was founded 
July 8, 1845, and its objects expressed were entirely for mutual 
help by encouraging each other in business and assisting one another 
in securing employment. Hence, in its origin, operative mechanics 
only and men who toiled with the hands were eligible to member- 
ship in the Order, and then only when they had arrived at the 
21st birthday. As already referred to in another chapter, the 
"bo} r s" were organized into an association in 1853, with similar 
objects and aims as the 0. U. A. M., and were called " Junior " 
0. U. A. M. An additional object, however, was framed for the 
new organization, as follows : 

" To prepare the youth of America to become members of the 
O. U. A. M. when they arrive at the proper age." 

It is clear then that the original intention of the founder- of 
the Junior Order was, that it should be an organization for " lx»ys " 
onty, as well as a labor organization. That it should be no more 
than a " Sunday School " where the " catechism " should be studied 
before entering the "high church" of the 0. U. A. M. For years 
the Jr. 0. U. A. M. was distinctly a junior as well as a labor organ- 
ization, and rightfully bore its name. The State Council of Penn- 
sylvania, in 1870, adopted resolutions treating on the labor question, 

35 



36 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

and in 1871, the same body adopted resolutions on the same subject, 
the preamble of which reads : 

" Whereas, We recognize that the question of labor is one in which 
we are particularly interested."' 

With such proscriptive features, it was apparent to the leaders 
of the Order that the Jr. 0. U. A. M. would be handicapped in its 
work. Coupled with the indifference of the 0. TJ. A. M. towards 
the Order and their failure to give more than a passive recognition 
of the purposes of the organization, the Juniors were early im- 
pressed that the only course to pursue was to become independent, 
and efforts in both the State Council of Pennsylvania and the Na- 
tional Council were made to strike out the Fifth Object entirely, 
which required the Juniors to unite with the 0. U. A. M. when they 
arrived at the age of 21. At the session of the State Council of 
Pennsylvania, held July 21, 1870, a resolution to strike out the 
Fifth Object was indefinitely postponed. The first blow, however, 
was struck at the session of the State Council of Pennsylvania, in 
1871, when a resolution, as follows, was carried : 

" Resolved, That it be left to the option of each Council whether 
members of the O. U. A. M. shall be admitted to the session." 

Instructions were given by same body to her Representatives 
to the National Council at various times in the seventies to ask the 
National Body to increase the age limit for eligibility to member- 
ship, as well as to strike out the Fifth Object. Agitation was kept 
up relative to the subject until 1878, when the National Councilor, 
in his report, recommended the striking out of the Fifth Object, 
which was accomplished at the following session in 1879 by a vote 
of 16 to 15, and the action was reasserted by the National Body at 
its session at Haverhill, Mass., in 1881, by a vote of 22 to 9, when 
the ties that existed between the two Orders were completely severed, 
and the " Junior " in reality was no more. The word " Mechanic," 
as well as the word " Junior," was true to name until 1883, when 
the National Council, at its session in Philadelphia, struck from 
the Ritual the words " American Mechanics and Workingmen," 
and inserted " American people." This was the beginning of a new 
era in the Order, when the ties from the older organization were 
sundered, and when others than mechanics and workingmen could 
unite with the organization. 

The name, therefore, as it stands to-day, is a misnomer — that 
is, it does not represent what we are as an organization. But 
after all, what of it. It is not the mere phraseology we are after ; 
it is the significance of it. In other words, it is what we are that 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 37 

should be scrutinized, vjhat we have done and are still doing under 
the caption of the name we love so well. Other organizations are 
as much misnomers as ours, yet no one thinks of criticizing them 
because of that fact. Masonry is known the world over. For 
ages, long before King Solomon built the Temple at Jerusalem, 
Masonry was true to name — it was a body of masons — builders 
of temples and castles. But every one knows that Masonry is not 
that to-day; but is speculative and borrows the terms and tools 
allied with masons to represent more noble and glorious purposes 
of molding and fashioning, through symbols, human character. 
" Odd Fellows " are not " odd," no odder than other men, yet the 
name given them in derision has proven such a talisman of power 
for good, in visiting the sick, helping the distressed, burying the 
dead and caring for the widow and orphan, that the world would 
think it an " odd " thing to change their name. 

Hence we should not become impatient, for the nation will 
soon overlook our seeming misnomer and only look at the practical 
work we are doing and at the results of that work, in the mainten- 
ance of the public schools, the upholding of the Bible therein, the 
restriction of undesirable immigration and the hearty support we 
give our Orphans' Home. What we are and who we are, is taught 
in our creed — " Principles, not men," with love of country as our 
chief corner stone, and " Virtue, Liberty and Patriotism " as our 
glorious motto, a band of patriots, lovers of the flag and all it 
represents. 

PROPOSED CHANGES OF NAME 

A recapitulation of the proposed changes of name from time 
to time offered in the highest legislative body of the Order may 
be of interest to the readers of this history. 

The first move made relative to change of name, was at the 
National session held at Philadelphia, in 1876. The Kepresenta- 
tives from New Jersey, by instruction of their State Council, sub- 
mitted the following : 

"Resolved, That the name of the Order be changed by striking out 
" Junior " and inserting something more appropriate." 

The resolution, however, was laid on the table. 

The Kepresentatives of Massachusetts, carrying out the in- 
structions of their State Council, at same session, offered the 
following : 

" Resolved, That the initial word ' Junior ' in the title of the Order 
be stricken out and the word ' Independent ' inserted." 



38 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

The resolution met the same fate as the preceding one. 

No further reference to change of name was made until the 
session of the National Council that met at Haverhill, Mass., in 
1881, at which time the following was submitted : 

"Resolved, That we strike out the name of our Order (Junior United 
American Mechanics) and adopt the following name instead: 'Independent 
Order of Americans.' " 

The resolution was referred to the Committee on Revision of 
the Order. 



The Committee on the Revision of the Order having been 
appointed at the session of 1881, all matters pertaining to change 
of objects, name or Ritual were referred to them, which Committee, 
through the Secretary, Brother Deemer, submitted their approval 
or disapproval of any proposed change referred to them. Relative 
to the change of name to " Independent Order of Americans," the 
Secretary of the Committee wrote the opinion, disapproving the 
change which, after being acted upon in the Committee of the 
Whole was concurred in by the National Body. The opinion sub- 
mitted by Brother Deemer, on behalf of the Committee, was as 
follows : 

" I do not endorse this change, nor favor any change in the name 
of our Order. How many are there in this body who would wish to change 
their names ? There are, of course, times when a man has very good reason 
for changing it, when, for instance, a fortune is to be gained by it, but we 
cannot see why any man with an untarnished name would wish to change 
it. Our name has been upon our banners for nearly 30 years, and nothing 
has been done to disgrace it. . . . 

" The name proposed, is particularly objectionable. The ' Order of 
United Americans ' was a political organization, intensely proscriptive, 
and its similarity to the proposed one would cause us to be confounded 
with them. Then, too, the word ' Independent,' while particularly appro- 
priate to Fourth of July orations, is contrary to facts and experience. 
No nation, no family, no person is independent. We are dependent upon 
each other for life, health and the pursuit of happiness. Then, too, it 
savors and suggests a split, a quarrel or division. . . . While I am 
opposed to change of name, I should take more kindly to the American 
Legion than any other, and yet I am not prepared to vote for that." 

A suggestion was made to the Committee to change the name 
to American Legion, which was disapproved. 

Chas. D. Kidd, Jr., and Robert Carson offered the following 
resolution at the session of the National Council in 1884, which 
was held at Georgetown, D. C. : 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 39 

" Believing that the time has come when our Order no longer con- 
sists of mechanics entirely, but of citizens of all occupations and classes; 
and further, that our present name is a serious obstacle to our further 
progress, we would offer the following: 

"Resolved, That the name of the Order be changed; the same to be 
submitted to a vote of the entire Order on the last meeting night of 
September, 1884." 

By a vote of 4 ayes to 22 nays the National Council refused 
to adopt the resolution. 

At the session of the National Body in 1885, held at Harris- 
burg, Pa., two State Councils, through their Representatives, ex- 
pressed their sentiments relative to a change of name. One was 
from Ohio, and was as follows : 

"The State Council of Ohio desires to express it- sentiments regard- 
ing the change of name of our Order. 

" We believe that the words ' Junior ' and ' Mechanics ' are unsuited 
for such an Order as ours, and by conveying false impressions regarding 
our objects, which seriously retard our growth, 

" We, therefore, earnestly request the National Council to pass a reso- 
lution which will submit the matter to a general vote of the Order." 

The other expression was in the form of a communication from 
members of the New Jersey delegation, expressing the wishes of 
their State Council, which was as follows : 

" By direction of the State Council of New Jersey, we recommend 
that the name of the Order (Junior Order United American Mechanics) 
be stricken out and insert the name of ' American Legion ' instead." 

In consideration of the question, the point of order was raised 
that the last recommendation being in the form of an amendment 
to the Constitution of the National Council, must have the signa- 
tures of the members from two different states. The National 
Councilor decided the point of order well taken; whereupon, the 
following was substituted, in conformity with the law, and was 
signed by members of the National Body from New Jersey and 
Delaware : 

"We offer the following amendment to Art. 1, Constitution of the 
National Council: 

"Strike out all between the word 'as' on first line to the word 
'it' on fourth line, and insert the following as the name of this body, 
' American Legion.' " 

By a vote of 16 to 9, the amendment was not adopted. 



The friends of a change of name fared no better at the annual 

session of the National Body, winch was held at Richmond, Ya.. in 



40 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

1886. A resolution from the State Council of New Jersey was pre- 
sented and was as follows : 

" By direction of the State Council of New Jersey we submit the 
following : 

" Resolved, That the name Jr. O. U. A. M. be stricken out." 

A motion to adopt was defeated by a vote of ayes, 10, nays, 21. 



The subject of change of name came up at the sessions of the 
National Council in 1887 and 1888. At the former session, held 
at Baltimore, Mar} r land, the following, signed by the Representa- 
tives of Ohio and New York, was submitted : 

" We, the Representatives of the States of Ohio and New York, do 
offer the following resolution, That these words of Sec. 1, Art. 1, of the 
National Council Constitution, ' Junior Order United American Mechanics ' 
be stricken out and insert the following, ' United Sons of America.' " 

The resolution having been laid over, it came up for consider- 
ation at the session of 1888, at which time a substitute was offered 
to insert " United Order of Americans," instead of the above pro- 
posed change. Both the substitute and the original proposition 
failed of concurrence in the final action on the part of the National 
Body. The necessity for a change of name seemed, in the minds 
of some members of the National Council, very apparent, hence 
another proposal was submitted at the latter session, and laid 
over until next meeting. It was as follows : 

Section 1. " We respectfully otter the following amendment to 
Article 1, National Council Constitution : Strike out the words ' Junior 
Order United American Mechanics,' and insert ' Independent Order of 
United Americans.' " 



The National Council that met at Haverhill, Mass., in 1889, 
gave considerable attention to the subject of " Change of Name." 
Brother Deemer, in his report to the National Body, has this to say : 

" The member who is alive to the sentiments of the Order at large, 
cannot be ignorant of the fact that sentiment in favor of changing the 
name of the Order is spreading every year. The oldest of us remember 
when it could number but a corporal's guard in this body, and we have 
seen it increase until the sentiment is permeating the entire Order. 
Pennsylvania has always opposed the change, but at this session her 
Representatives come instructed to favor submitting to the Order at large, 
a limited number of names for choice ; and unless other States have changed 
their views, which is hardly probable, this will secure the passage of a 
resolution looking to a change. Let us approach the consideration of the 
subject fully realizing our responsibility, and with an eye single to the 
good of the Order, discuss it calmly, considerately and thoughtfully." 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 41 

The Representatives of Pennsylvania, as alluded to by Brother 
Deemer. submitted the following: 

" In pursuance of the instructions from the State Council of Pennsyl- 
vania, we offer the following resolution: That the question of changing 
the name of our Order be submitted to the entire membership of the Order, 
to be decided by a vote taken in every Council in the United States, the 
name to be chosen from a list proposed in the National Council and sub- 
mitted to each Subordinate Council." 

Following the adoption of the above resolution, a Committee 
was appointed to prepare a list of names, as proposed, and submit 
to the National Body, which was subsequently done, as per the 
following report: 

" Your Committee on Change of Name of the Order, refer the fol- 
lowing for action: 

Jr. O. U. A. M. 

Native American Patriots. 

P. O. Native Americans. 

Order Loyal Americans. 

Independent Order United Americans. 

The Order of the United States. 

The Order of the American Republic. 

American Legion. 

" While we submit this large number of names, the committee are 
unanimous in favor of the last named, ' American Legion,' and would 
recommend that this name be laid before the organization for a vote." 

A motion to accept the report and adopt it was made, but had 
no second. G. Howell Arthur moved to postpone further consid- 
eration of the subject and take up the amendment laid over from 
last session, to strike out Jr. 0. U. A. M. and insert " Independent 
Order of United Americans," which was not agreed to. Upon a 
reconsideration of the vote, the motion of Brother Arthur was 
agreed to. A motion was then made to adopt the proposed amend- 
ment, whereupon, Brother Marlin moved that the consideration of 
the amendment be postponed, and the name of Order of United 
Americans, together with the remaining names suggested, be 
referred to the Order for a vote, was defeated by ayes 20, nays 27. 
Brother Arthur then moved to strike out of the proposed amend- 
ment " Independent Order of United Americans " and insert " The 
American Legion "; which, by a vote of 35 to 6 was agreed to and 
the action of the National Council was submitted to the vote of 
the Order in October following. 



42 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

The National Body met in the City of Chicago, 111., in 1890, 
at which time the Committee appointed to count the vote of the 
Subordinate Councils relative to a Change of Name, made their 
report. The result of the vote was overwhelmingly against the 
proposition, as per the following report: 

"Resolved, That in view of the fact of the vote on change of name 
to American Legion being almost unanimous against, that this Committee 
considered it unnecessary to count the vote, as the figures from a majority 
of the Councils have already been published in the Journals of the Order." 

The report was not accepted, whereupon, the tabulated vote was 
submitted as follows: 

POE AGAINST 

Pennsylvania 520 9,036 

Ohio 368 686 

Massachusetts 32 192 

New Jersey 340 805 

Washington 7 18 

New York 118 

Wisconsin 9 7 

Illinois 25 

Indiana 1 14 

Virginia 9 331 

West Virginia 40 132 

Alabama 15 

Missouri 20 2 

Delaware 13 2 

North Carolina 1 21 

New Hampshire 24 99 

Maryland 30 360 

Total, 1,625 11,732 

This very large vote against a change of name, however, did 
not daunt its supporters in the National Body, for another resolu- 
tion on the same subject was at once presented and read as follows : 

" Strike out the words ' Junior Order United American Mechanics ' 
and insert the words ' Order United Americans.' " 

The resolution was adopted and referred to the Subordinate 
Councils for a vote. 



The name " Order United Americans/' as per resolution 
adopted at the last session, was submitted to the Subordinate Coun- 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 43 

cils and the result of the vote thereon was reported to the National 
Council which met at Cleveland, Ohio, 1891. The tabulated report, 
by states, is as follows: 

FOR AGAINST 

Pennsylvania 3,777 8,409 

Ohio 1,389 938 

New Jersey 956 704 

West Virginia 89 78 

Virginia . . 110 785 

Illinois 559 5 

Maryland 80 362 

Massachusetts 164 80 

New York 69 44 

Indiana 24 1 

Florida 10 

New Hampshire 20 95 

Louisiana 20 

Missouri 8 

Delaware 15 3 

Wisconsin 78 3 

Texas 22 2 

Washington 70 17 

Total, 7,406 11,580 

Notwithstanding the defeat of the resolution, it was reintro- 
duced, adopted by a vote of 37 to 13, and again sent back to the 
Subordinate Councils. 

The National Council for the year 1892 was held at Atlantic 
City, and the report on the vote on Change of Name was submitted 
to the body by the Committee appointed to count the vote. The 
vote in the Subordinate Councils had been taken somewhat different 
than the previous year, the membership being asked to express by 
their vote preference for the old name or the new one suggested. 
After throwing out nearly 4,000 votes that were irregular or imper- 
fect, the vote stood as follows : 

In favor of retaining old name 14,324 

In favor of Order United Americans 6,673 

The question of Change of Name was not brought up before 
the National Body, following the defeat of the proposition by the 
Order in 1891, until 189G, when the Representatives of the State 
of Massachusetts, by instructions of their State Council, presented 



44 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

a memorial on the question at the session of the National Body, held 
at Denver, Colo. The Memorial was as follows: 

" Whereas, The word ' Junior ' in the title of the ' Junior Order of 
American Mechanics ' having been adopted when this Order was the sub- 
ordinate branch of the Order United American Mechanics, popularly known 
as the Seniors, and retained when this Order became a separate organiza- 
tion; and 

" Whereas, The word ' Junior,' while it really means younger, is 
also indicative in the popular mind of a condition of subordination and 
dependence, which idea is sedulously cultivated by many who are opposed 
to this order; and 

" Whereas, This order has the largest membership of the native 
American orders, and is the only one with an organization in every State 
in the Union; therefore be it 

" Resolved, That the time has come to strike out the word ' Junior ' 
from our title and insert in place of it some word expressive of the fact 
that this order is a national one and independent of any other, and stands 
first in point of membership of all native American orders; and 

" Resolved, That the Representatives of the State Council of Massa- 
chusetts to the National Convention be, and hereby are instructed to use 
every honest and honorable method possible to secure this result, and that 
a copy of these resolutions be sent to the National Board of Officers and to 
the publications indorsed by this order, and all State Councils be urged to 
take some action in regard to striking out the word ' Junior ' and substi- 
tuting therefor some word illustrative of the fact that this is the only 
National Order of American Mechanics." 

The National Council refused to approve the resolutions. 



At the session of the National Council, held at Minneapolis, 
Minn., in June, 1899, after the new code of laws had been adopted, 
the following was submitted : 

" To the National Council, Jr. 0. U. A. M., in Session in Minneapolis, 
June 22, 1899. 

" Whereas there has been adopted at the present session a new 
Constitution and code of laws for the government of said Order; and 

" Whereas by Article XVI of said Constitution provision is made 
for amendments thereto; 

" Now, therefore, in conformity with said Article XVI we hereby 
propose an amendment to said Constitution by changing the name thereof 
from ' The Junior Order of United American Mechanics ' to ' United Ameri- 
cans/ and we ask that such action be taken by this body upon said pro- 
posal as may be consonant with its laws and Constitution. 

" H. H. Eddy, Colorado, 

" Smith W. Bennett, Ohio." 

In accordance with the requirements of Article XVI of the 
Revised Constitution, the yeas and nays were called and the same 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 45 

was agreed to; whereupon, subsequently, during the session the 
following resolution was presented by Brother Smith W. Bennett, 
of Ohio : 

" Whereas, There has been submitted at the present session of the 
National Council a proposed amendment to the Constitution of said Order 
to amend the name of the same, as stated in said Resolution, and 

" Whereas, Said amendment must be submitted to a vote of the 
several State Councils before becoming operative as an amendment; and it 
being considered necessary to have a change made in the Charter of said 
Order if said amendment should carry and be adopted, 

" Now Therefore, It is Ordered and Resolved, By said National Council 
Jr. O. U. A. M., that the Board of Officers, be and they are hereby authorized, 
to take such steps, and incur such expense, as may be necessary in their 
opinion, to secure the accomplishment of such objects. And they are 
further authorized and empowered to secure a copyright of the name 
of the Jr. 0. U. A. M. and United Americans, if they consider it necessary 
so to do, and if the same has not been done." 



In conformity with the action of the National Body, the sub- 
ject of Change of Name was sent to the Secretaries of the various 
State Councils for State Council action thereon. Eight State 
Councils took action on same, when a letter from the National 
Councilor, as published below, stopped further action by the re- 
mainder of the State Councils. Of the State Councils that took 
action, two, Indiana and Missouri, voted to change name to 
" United Americans," while the District of Columbia, Illinois, 
Maine, New York, Oregon and West Virginia voted against the 
proposed change. 

The letter referred to above was as follows: 

" It has just been brought to my attention that there is an organiza- 
tion known as the ' Order of United Americans ' with headquarters in the 
city of Philadelphia, which was instituted February 19, 1895, and incor- 
porated by a charter granted January 6, 1896. 

" The officers of this organization have announced their purpose to 
resist legally on the advice of their attorneys, any attempt on the part 
of the Junior Order United American Mechanics to change their name to 
' United Americans,' in accordance with the amendment adopted at Minne- 
apolis, and which has been referred to the various State Councils for their 
adoption or rejection. 

" The National Councilor has been legally advised that if this amend- 
ment is adopted by the State Councils, it will be impossible for the Board 
of Officers to make it effective, for the reAson that the courts of Pennsyl- 
vania (under whose jurisdiction the National Council is incorporated) 
will undoubtedly refuse to grant an amendment to our present charter, 
authorizing the change of name to be made, and also to grant a new charter 
under the name of ' United Americans,' because of the ' Order of United 
Americans ' having already secured a charter. 



46 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

" In view of this uncertainty, and the threatened legal complications, 
the National Councilor is of the opinion that the best course to be pursued 
would be for the State Councils to defer action on the amendment, and let 
the National Council take the matter up at its next session. 

" Will you please lay this letter before your State Council at its 
coming session for their information and action, and oblige 
" Fraternally yours, 

" Charles Reimeb, 
" National Councilor." 

With the session of the National Council of 1900, when the 
above action of the National Councilor was approved, the subject 
of " Change of Name " was " laid on the shelf," so far as the 
National Council is concerned. It is pretty evident, if all the 
State Councils had voted on the question at the time designated, 
a majority of them would have voted against the change proposed ; 
and while in two particulars, " Junior " and " Mechanics," the 
name is a misnomer, still to-day there is such a love for the dear 
old name that it is a question whether any proposed change would 
not go down in a more overwhelming defeat than when the subject 
was before the Order in previous years. 

And why should there be a change? For years the writer 
was an earnest advocate for a change, and when State Councilor 
of his State, Pennsylvania, in 1897, one of our recommendations 
was, that the Kepresentatives to the National Body be instructed 
to support a resolution asking for a change of name, but the recom- 
mendation was not concurred in by the State Body. To-day, how- 
ever, our views on the subject, by force of circumstances, are 
changed. The insurrection in the Order, when the pirates within 
tried to scuttle the old ship, has endeared us to the old name. 
Under its banner we have fought our battles and won our cause, 
and in brighter colors, reflecting precious memories, the dear name 
stands out more beautiful and attractive than ever. 



CHAPTER IV 
4. OBJECTS— CHANGES OF FIFTY YEARS 

ATEEE has roots, trunk, branches and fruit. The perfection 
of the fruit necessarily depends upon the sustenance given 
the branches by the life-giving vigor that finds its way from the 
roots deep down in the earth. The deeper the roots, the healthier 
the tree and consequently the more fruitful the branches. 

The roots of the Junior Order United American Mechanics, 
deep down in the great American heart, is its motto, " Love of 
Country"; the trunk, the Order itself; the three spreading 
branches, — Virtue, Liberty, Patriotism; and the fruit of this 
American tree, are its Objects and Principles, the plucking of 
which brings happiness and joy to thousands and vigor and strength 
to American manhood. 

The Junior Order organization is composed of native-born 
Americans whose object is to maintain the laws and Constitution 
of our country; to preserve inviolate, civil and religious liberty; 
to improve the moral, intellectual and social rights of its members, 
and to maintain the institutions of our Kepublic. 

While not a church, the Order teaches the highest morality, 
and believes in sound Christian principles. These we conceive to 
be an open Bible both for the home and the public school ; entire 
separation of church and state; representative and constitutional 
form of government; popular and free education in the public 
schools, with liberty of speech, press and conscience. 

We believe in the right of private opinions, that right knowl- 
edge for the people promotes the establishment and conduces to the 
perpetuation of good government ; that the schools are necessary to 
general intelligence and essential to the safety of the Union, and 
that such schools should be free from ecclesiastical bias and control. 
We claim that allegiance is due the government which extends to 
and cares for our lives, liberty, honor, peace, happiness- and pros- 
perity ; that it is the duty of the citizen to defend the constitutional 
authorities of his country against corrupt, hostile and alien in- 
fluences as well as armed assailants, to the end that the priceless 
heritage of civil and religious liberty now enjoyed, as handed down 
by our forefathers, may be transmitted unimpaired to posterity. 

47 



48 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

To propagate and defend these principles, as well as to assist 
one another, to visit the sick and relieve the distressed, care for 
and educate the orphan, and at the same time to encourage virtue 
and to uphold our free institutions and defend our flag, as an 
organization, the members of the Junior Order United American 
Mechanics are bound together as a brotherhood by a solemn coven- 
ant made around one common altar. 

FIRST OBJECTS 

The first Objects of the Order were framed as follows: 

1. "To assist Americans in obtaining employment. 

2. " To encourage Americans in business. 

3. " To establish a sick and funeral fund. 

4. " To prepare the youth of America to become members of the 
Order of United American Mechanics and other American Orders when 
they arrive at the proper age. 

5. "To use such means, when able, as will prevent the present 
system of immigration of foreign paupers to our land." 

At sometime during the early history of the Order, and by 
some authority, of which we have no data, there must have been a 
change or transposition of the Objects, as first adopted, as the 
only one upon which there was contention in the subsequent years 
of the organization, was what was known at the institution of the 
Order as the Fourth Object, but subsequently, as stated, was 
changed to the Fifth Object. This Object was the " bone of conten- 
tion " for years until it was entirely stricken out, as the following 
pages will show. 

PROPOSED CHANGES 

The first effort, of which there is any record, to change or 
remold the Objects of the Order, was at the session of the State 
Council of Pennsylvania (the Supreme head of the Order), April 
15, 1862, when a motion was carried that a Committee of one from 
each Council be appointed to consider the propriety of altering and 
remodeling the Order (presumably the Objects) so that members 
could remain in the organization after they were 21 years of age. 

At a subsequent meeting of the State Body, the Committee 
reported that they had the whole of the forms written out but not 
yet connected together, and asked to be continued. The report was 
accepted, but the Committee was discharged, and the first attempt 
to change the Fifth Object, as well as a reorganization of the entire 
Order, failed. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 49 

No further attempt was made to change the Objects until, al 
a meeting of the State Council of Pennsylvania, January 17, 1870, 
the following resolution was offered : 

"Resolved, That the Fifth Object of this Order, which reads as 
follows: 'To prepare the youth of America to become members of the 
0. U. A. M. when they arrive at the proper age,' be stricken out entirely." 

In consideration of the question, action thereon was indefinitely 
postponed. 

At the session of the National Council, held at Wilmington, 
Delaware, in 1873, the following clauses were offered to be incor- 
porated as Objects of the Order : 

1. "To maintain the reading of the Bible in the public schools. 

2. " To oppose union of church and state, and the appropriating of 
monies for sectarian purposes." 

Also a resolution to strike out the Fifth Object was presented, 
which, with the proposed Objects presented were, under the law, 
laid over until the next session. However, the following session 
did not find the members of the National Body favorable to either 
the proposed Objects or the striking out of the Fifth Object, as 
both propositions were indefinitely postponed. At a special meet- 
ing of the National Council, held February 22, 1875, the resolu- 
tion to strike out the Fifth Object was renewed and laid over. 



No one was more earnest in his efforts to have the Fifth 
Object stricken out than our late brother, Past National Councilor 
Harry Stites. In his report to the National Council at Philadel- 
phia, July 6, 1876, he has this to say : 

" I would earnestly recommend to this National body, that the Fifth 
Object of the Order be stricken out. I do not do this with any ill feeling 
towards the Senior Order; but 1 do it because I consider it a burden to 
our Order, and by removing it we will be able to interest a great many 
parties over the age of twenty-one and induce them to join our Order, 
while at the present time they do not feel like uniting with us." 

The Committee to whom the report of the National Councilor 
was submitted, recommended that action be taken on the proposi- 
tion of the presiding officer. During the consideration of the 
question, the National Body declared that it could not consider the 
subject, and it was recommitted to the Committee and that they 
proceed according to the Constitution. Subsequently, the Com- 
4 



50 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

mittee reported back to the National Body, with an amendment to 
the National Councilor's recommendation, as follows: 

" We suggest that the National Secretary be instructed to transmit 
a copy of the proposed alteration to each member of this body, as pro- 
vided in Sec. 2, Art. 2, of the National Council Constitution." 

The suggestion was agreed to. 



The question of striking out the Fifth Object came up as 
usual at the session of 1877, at the annual meeting of the National 
Body, held at Dayton, Ohio. In the consideration of the subject, 
on final action being taken, it was defeated by one vote, there being 
10 in favor of striking out the Object and 11 against. The reso- 
lution to strike it out was reintroduced by P. S. C. Adams, of New 
Jersey, and again laid over in accordance with law. 



The question was again brought before the National Council 
in 1878, when National Councilor Geo. W. Ilgenfritz submitted it 
as one of his recommendations. Subsequently a resolution to that 
effect was presented, and again the matter was laid over for another 
year. 

When the National Council met at New Brunswick, N. J., in 
1879, the members of the body were ready for more decisive action 
on the question, of striking out the Fifth Object. The resolution 
submitted at last session was brought before the National Body, 
whereupon, Brother Calver moved that consideration thereof be 
postponed until the next session, which was defeated by a vote of 
13 to 16. The question coming to a final test, by a vote of 16 
ayes to 15 nays, the Object was stricken out, so far as National 
Council action was concerned, and the preliminary proceedings 
were started looking towards the sundering of the ties that held the 
two Orders together. In accordance with the Constitution, the 
following was adopted: 

" Resolved, That said question be submitted to the membership of 
the Order for vote thereon at the first meeting of each Council in the 
month of October next, and the result thereon be forwarded to the National 
Secretary under seal prior to November 1." 



The National Council met at Bichmond, Virginia, June 15, 
1880. The question of striking out the Fifth Object, as per reso- 
lution of the last session of the National Body, had been submitted 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 51 

to the Subordinate Councils, with the following tabulated result, 
which was submitted to this session by the Committee appointed to 
count the vote : 

FOR AGAINST 

Pennsylvania 444 975 

New Jersey 239 108 

Maryland 97 11 

New York 103 23 

Delaware 30 

Ohio 76 29 

Massachusetts 42 1 

Vermont 24 

The above tabulated vote resulted in 1,061 votes in favor of 
striking out the Fifth Object, and 1,147 against the proposition, or 
a majority of 86, thereby not sustaining the action of the National 
Council. Owing to irregularities, the Committee did not count 
90 votes cast in favor of the resolution and 140 that were cast 
against it. Immediately after the result of the vote had been 
announced, P. S. C. Adams, of New Jersey, offered the following: 

" Resolved, That we strike out the Fifth Object of our Order." 

This, under the rules, was laid over until next session. 
The following, also, was presented and laid over: 

" In the First Object of our Order, strike out ' American youth ' 
and substitute ' Americans '." 

An additional Object, to be known as the Sixth Object, was 
proposed and also laid over. It was as follow? : 

" To maintain the public school system of the United States of 
America, to prevent sectarian interference therewith, and uphold the 
reading of the Holy Bible therein." 



At the session of the National Council in 1881, which was held 
at Haverhill, Mass., the question again came up relative to striking 
out the Fifth Object. In the consideration of the subject, a motion 
was made to refer the matter to the Committee on the Revision 
of the Order, which failed. A direct vote then was taken, when, 
for the second time, and by a more pronounced majority than was 
given two years previous, the National Body declared itself in favor 
of striking out the Object, the vote being 22 in favor and 9 against, 
the total vote being precisely the same as in 1879, when it was 
16 to 15 in favor. The question was again sent back to the Sub- 
ordinate Councils for their concurrence or non-concurrence. 



52 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

The other change in Object and the additional Object as sug- 
gested at the last session, were each considered. The striking out 
of the words " American youth " from the First Object and insert- 
ing the word " Americans," was adopted and the same was referred 
to the Subordinate Councils. The new Object, to be known as the 
Sixth Object, which read as follows : 

" To maintain the public school system of the United States of 
America, to prevent sectarian interference therewith and uphold the read- 
ing of the Holy Bible therein," 

was amended by striking out all after the word " therewith," and 
inserting the word " and " after the word " America," so as to 
read: 

" To maintain the public school system of the United States of 
America, and to prevent sectarian interference therewith." 

After being adopted, the new Object took the same course as 
the others by being referred to the Subordinate Councils. 



The National Council of 1882 met in New York City, at which 
time the action of the Subordinate Councils relative to the proposed 
changes, etc., of the Objects of the Order, was reported. The fol- 
lowing report by the Committee appointed to count the vote on the 
various propositions, was submitted : 

1. To Amend First Object. Striking out " American youth " 
and inserting " Americans," the vote was 1,747 in favor of striking 
out and inserting and 958 against the proposition, making a major- 
ity of 787 in favor of the amendment. 

2. The Sixth Object. " To maintain the public school system 
of the United States of America, and prevent sectarian interference 
therewith." The vote on the new Object was 2,180 in favor of 
adopting it and 480 against, being a majority of 1,700 in favor 
of the proposition, thereby adding another Object to the code of 
Principles. 

3. To Strike out the Fifth Object. " To prepare the youth of 
America to become members of the 0. U. A. M., when they arrive 
at the proper age." The Committee reported a majority of 568 
in favor of striking out the Object entirely by a vote of 1,636 in 
favor of the proposition, and 1,068 against. 

Thus, after years of discussion and unrest, the last and really 
only bond of union between the Senior and Junior Orders was 
severed, and from henceforth, as an independent organization, the 
Junior Order United American Mechanics has gone forth to do 
the great work for which it was instituted. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 53 

The strange procedure of the National Body in 1881 in strik- 
ing out of the proposed new Sixth Ohject the words " and uphold 
the reading of the Holy Bible therein," was re-enacted at this ses- 
sion. Brother Deemer, as Secretary of the Committee on the Re- 
vision of the Order, referring to the action of the year previous, 
stated that the obligation by which the Past Councilor's Degree 
was conferred, as found in the Ritual of the American Legion, or 
Commanderies thereof, had the words, " and uphold the reading 
of the Holy Bible therein," and there were those in the National 
Body who refused to take the Degree on account of this part of the 
obligation, and requested that it be also stricken out as it had been 
in the new Object. In the Committee of the Whole the subject 
was discussed, Brother Deemer among others opposed the striking 
out of the words from the obligation, but a motion to strike out 
carried and when reported back to the National Body, the action 
of the Committee was sustained by a vote of 15 to 9. 

At this same session, Past National Councilor S. H. Cram 
submitted a suggestion relative to the advisability of creating a new 
Object on the subject of Insurance, but the same was disapproved. 

Following the action of the National Council, as approved by 
the vote of the Subordinate Councils, the Objects of the Order were 
arranged as follows : 

First. To maintain and promote the interests of Americans, and 
shield them from the depressing effects of foreign competition. 

Second. To assist Americans in obtaining employment. 

Third. To encourage Americans in business. 

Fourth. To establish a sick and funeral fund. 

Fifth. To maintain the Public School System of the United States 
of America, and to prevent sectarian interference therewith. 



The striking out of the words " and uphold the reading of 
the Holy Bible therein " from the proposed new Object during its 
consideration, and which was ratified by the action of the Subor- 
dinate Councils, met with dissatisfaction upon the part of many 
in the National Body, whereupon, at the session of 1883, held at 
Philadelphia, the following was offered: 

"Amend Objects of the Order, by adding the following to the Fifth 
Object: 'and uphold the reading of the Holy Bible therein'." 

Under the law, the amendment was laid over until next session. 

At the meeting of the National Council, held at Georgetown, 
D. C, 1884, the above amendment was adopted and the same was 
referred to the Subordinate Councils for ratification. 



54 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

The Committee appointed to count the vote taken on the pro- 
posed amendment to the Fifth Object relative to the reading of the 
Bible in the public schools, reported to the National Body, at its 
meeting at Harrisburg, Pa., in 1885. The following was the total 
vote: 

In favor of amendment 1,694 

Not in favor 793 

thereby adopting the amendment by a majority of 901. The Object 
then read as follows : 

Fifth. '" To maintain the Public School System of the United States 
of America, prevent sectarian interference therewith, and uphold the 
reading of the Holy Bible therein." 

Eight years rolled around, 1885-1893, before the subject of 
change of Objects came up for consideration in the National Body. 
At the session held the latter year in Detroit, Mich., P. S. C, F. A. 
Buschman, of Maryland, offered the following amendment: 

" To strike out the words ' and shield them from the depressing 
effects of foreign competition,' from the First Object, so that it shall 
read as follows: 

' First. To maintain and promote the interests of Americans.' " 

A new Object was proposed by Brother Buschman to be known 
as the Sixth Object, viz. : 

" To oppose the union of church and state, and the appropriations 
of public monies for sectarian purposes." 

So far as the records show no action was taken upon the above 
by the National Council, except that they were referred to the Law 
Committee, and it is presumed that Committee disapproved the 
same. 



By instructions of their State Council, the Eepresentatives of 
Pennsylvania at the session of the National Council in 1894, pre- 
sented the following, to be incorporated in the Principles of the 
Order, or made one of the Objects, but no action thereon was taken : 

" We believe that each brother should own his own home, and will 
encourage and assist all in rightfully procuring the same." 



When the National Body met at Omaha, Neb., in 1895, the 
following peculiar amendment to the First Object was proposed, 
but failed in passage. The part in italics was the proposed amend- 
ment : 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 55 

"To maintain and promote the interests of Ajmericans and shield 

them from the depressing effects of foreign immigration; but nothing in 
this declaration shall be construed as sanctioning the political ostracism 
of any man of foreign birth who is loyal to the principles of our Order, 
and competent to discharge the duties of the office to which he aspires." 



At the Denver session in 1896, the following were offered as 
amendments to the Objects of the Order, and laid over: 

1. "To establish and erect an Orphans' Home as a home for the 
orphans of the deceased members of the Order, and to maintain the same." 

2. To combine the Second and Third Objects, as follows: 

"To assist Americans in obtaining employment and to encourage 
them in business." 

3. To make the Fourth Object the Third. 

4. To add as the Fourth Object: 

" To establish a home for orphans of deceased members," so as to 
read: 

Fourth. " To establish a Sick and Funeral Fund, and to establish 
a home for Orphans of deceased members." 



The above amendments having been referred to the Law Com- 
mittee, that Committee reported at the Pittsburg session, in 1897. 
The new Object relative to the Orphans' Home was approved by 
the Committee, and the same was adopted by the National Body, 
and the proposition was sent to the Subordinate Councils. Action 
on the other amendments was indefinitely postponed. 



The new Object relative to the Orphans' Home, to be known 
as the Sixth Object, was ratified by the vote of the membership, 
as per report of Committee, at the session of the National Council 
held at Louisville, Ky., 1898. The vote was as follows: 

Number of acceptable votes cast, for 19,140 

Number of acceptable votes cast, against 16,224 

Majority in favor 2,910 

The states voting against the new Object were: 

FOB AGAINST 

Pennsylvania 4,908 7,825 

New York 275 1,117 

New Jersey 526 4,948 

Ohio, the home of the Orphan's Home, rolled up 3,714 in favor 
and had only 79 votes against the proposition. 

When the members of the National Council met in annual 
session at Minneapolis, Minn., in June, 1899, they were presented 



56 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

with an entire new code of laws, a new Constitution, as well as a 
remodeled Declaration of Principles and Objects of the Order. The 
Objects, as reported by the Committee, and approved by the Na- 
tional Body, were as follows: 

1. "To maintain and promote the interests of Americans and 
shield them from the depressing effects of unrestricted immigration; to 
assist them in obtaining employment and encourage them in business. 

2. " To establish an Insurance Branch and a Sick and Funeral 
fund. 

3. " To uphold the American Public School System, to prevent inter- 
ference therewith, and to encourage the reading of the Holy Bible in 
the schools thereof. 

4. " To promote and maintain a National Orphans' Home." 



Following the adoption of the Objects of the Order at Minne- 
apolis, no further change was proposed until the session of the 
National Body at St. Louis, Mo., in 1904, when a resolution was 
offered to amend the Second Object so that it would read as 
follows : 

2. " To provide for the creation of a fund or funds for the payment 
of benefits in case of sickness, disability or death of its members, to 
members, their legal dependents or representatives, and to issue certifi- 
cates of membership for same." 

The resolution was approved as to form by the Law Committee 
and was adopted by the National Council by a vote of 122 to 1. 
The following resolution was then adopted : 

"Be it Resolved, by the National Council, Junior Order of United 
American Mechanics, that the change in the Objects of the Order be 
submitted to the membership of the Order for their approval, said approval 
to be acted upon on the first meeting of the Subordinate Council in the 
month of August, and that the National Secretary is hereby authorized 
to take the necessary steps to carry into effect this resolution." 

The following letter from the Law Committee accompanied the 

above resolution : 

St. Louis, Mo., June 22, 1904. 

" Edward S. Deemer, Secretary National Council, Junior 0. U. A. M. 
" Dear Bro. Deemer. — 
" The Committee on Law is of the opinion that the resolution chang- 
ing the ' Objects of Order,' while submitted to a vote of the membership 
to comply with Judge Audenried's decision, and as required by the old 
Constitution prior to Minneapolis meeting, should also be submitted to 
a vote of the State Councils under Article XVI, of the Constitution." 



At the session of the National Council in 1905, which met 
at Nashville, Tenn., the Committee to count the vote of the Sub- 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 57 

ordinate Councils, reported that a total of 16,880 votes had been 
cast; but owing to irregularities, the legal vote was computed at 
12,023. Of these, 8,554 were in favor of the change of Objects 
and 3,4G9 were opposed to the change. 

The vote by State Councils, as per resolution adopted at the 
last session, showed that every State Council voted in favor of the 
change with the exception of Ohio, which, as per action of its State 
Body, protested against the proposed change, claiming that the pro- 
cedure was not in harmony with law. The vote by State Councils 
stood 60 in favor and 6 against. According to the Constitution, 
each State Council is entitled to cast as many votes as she has 
Representatives in the National Body. 

After the changes of fifty years, beginning with five Objects, 
then adding another, the Order now has four, and are as follows : 

OBJECTS OF THE ORDER 

First. To maintain and promote the interests of Americans, and 
shield them from the depressing effects of unrestricted immigration; to 
assist them in obtaining employment, and to encourage them in business. 

Second. To provide for the creation of a fund or funds for the 
payment of benefits in case of sickness, disability or death of its members, 
their legal dependents or representatives, and to issue certificates of 
membership for the same. 

Third. To uphold the American Free Public School System; to pre- 
vent any interference therewith, and to encourage the reading of the 
Holy Bible therein. 

Fourth. To promote and maintain a National Orphans' Home 



CHAPTER V 
5. THE RITUAL 

THE IMPORTANCE OF A GOOD RITUAL 

THE human body is made up of bones, muscles, nerves, organs, 
all clothed with flesh, and the whole covered with skin. 
Though systematically arranged, beautiful in form, it would be but 
a helpless, useless mass without blood, which is the life; as the 
inspired penman puts it, " For the life thereof is the blood thereof." 

The Eitual of an organization is the " blood thereof," there- 
fore should be the " life thereof " ; and if the organization declines 
and dies, the cause, very largely, is due to a lifeless Eitual, or a 
lifeless and indifferent exemplification of the ritualistic ceremonies. 

That which places Free Masonry the highest in the family of 
secret fraternities, is its Eitual. From the first to the highest de- 
gree, none tire of the work, and nightly the members sit quietly 
for hours listening to the exemplification of its ancient and sublime 
ceremonies, illustrated by symbols and veiled in allegory, and go 
away more deeply impressed each time they hear and see it. Other 
Orders with three or more degrees, requiring as many exemplifica- 
tions at stated times, have flourished and maintained their hold 
upon a community, while all over this land are scattered the wrecks 
of hundreds of defunct Councils of the Junior Order United Ameri- 
can Mechanics. 

Why these wrecks? Why have thousands of intelligent men, 
the best of citizens, " dropped out " of the Order, who at the same 
time maintain their membership in kindred organizations? Why 
have men who once crossed the threshold of our Council halls, 
passed out on the night of their initiation never to return thereto ? 
The answer is found in our Eitual. A single degree, often indif- 
ferently and wretchedly conferred, has driven more members from 
the Junior Order than all other causes combined; and to-day we 
are still legislating and " resolving " on the subject, as our fathers 
have been doing for the past forty years, and we are very little 
nearer the ritualistic standard than when we began agitating the 
question of a " change of Eitual." 

The views of the writer can be no more clearly presented than 
in a recommendation to the State Council of Pennsylvania, when 
State Councilor, in 1897, for a three degree Eitual, which was 
adopted : 

58 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 59 

"That the State Council, through its National Representatives, 
request the National Council to consider the practicability of adopting a 
three degree Ritual. 

" A one degree ritual organization cannot long ilourish as it should 
in a nation of such marked intelligence as ours. The idea of indoctrinating 
a candidate in one evening with ceremonies less than an hour long and 
with ritualistic services often poorly and indifferently rendered, is pre- 
posterous, and the lack of proper inculcation of historical and patriotic 
truth will prejudice intelligent secret-order men against our organization. 
Other Orders with three or more degree rituals grow and prosper more 
steadily and the work is more binding. Those who have passed through 
the ceremonies of these organizations know that the first degree creates 
in the heart of the novice a desire to unravel the second mystery; and when 
at last he is within the inner chamber of mysteries, he is fully imbued with 
the beauty and teachings of the Order, and is established in its principles. 

" Patriotism is a growth, not a sentiment, and if our Ritual were 
more thorough in its work, and its lessons more inspiring, our organiza- 
tion would rest on a firmer foundation and our influence would be more 
powerfully felt." 

CHANGES OF RITUAL, ANTE-NATIONAL COUNCIL 

But this chapter is not to be devoted to " airing " the views 
of the writer on the question of Ritual, but rather to give a con- 
nected historical review of the subject, referring to the suggested 
changes and subsequent revisions of the .Ritual in the highest legis- 
lative body of the Order. While under another head the changes 
proposed and adopted are referred to, still in the writer's opinion, 
it was thought best to arrange, under one or more chapters, a fuller 
detailed account, so the reader of the Order's history may follow 
more closely the connectional outline of the subject. 

It was said at one of the sessions of the National Body, when 
the subject of the Ritual was under consideration, " The members 
of the Junior Order are ritualistically mad." Whether true or not, 
it is a fact that the agitation on the subject, annually, has been 
the rule, and the Order is still " at sea " on the question and the 
matter is now (1907) in the hands of a Committee to report to the 
National Council at its biennial session to be held at Detroit in 
1909. ' 

The first Ritual of the Order was prepared by Wra. M. Weck- 
erly, State Council Secretary of the 0. U. A. M., and was similar 
to that used by the " Senior Order/' except with such changes made 
necessary for the new organization, and the same was used by 
Washington Council, No. 1, and for a few years under the direction 
of the State Council of Pennsylvania. 

At a session of the State Council, held October 16, 1860, a 



60 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

form for obligating representatives to the State Body was adopted ; 
but it was merely a form to which each representative attached his 
signature. At a subsequent quarterly session a form of procedure 
at funerals was adopted, requiring the American flag to be placed 
on the casket and the members to wear red, white and blue rosettes, 
covered with crape, on the left breast. An amendment, however, 
was added that a hymn should be sung at the grave. 

In the first Ritual of the Order, there was a clause relating to 
" Capitation Tax/' which was stricken out of the obligation at a 
special meeting of the State Council of Pennsylvania, held June 6, 
1864. 

At the same session of the State Council of Pennsylvania, the 
Committee on Forms reported progress on formulating a Funeral 
Charge and Ode, suggesting that " each member of the Order to 
try their hand on it." The same Committee, however, in the ses- 
sion of 1865, submitted a Funeral Charge and Ode, and the same 
was adopted. 

The custom of blindfolding candidates at initiation while 
taking the obligation was made a requirement by act of the State 
Council of Pennsylvania at the quarterly meeting held June, 1865. 

NATIONAL COUNCIL LEGISLATION 

At the first regular meeting of the National Council, after its 
institution, February 10, 1870, Brother John D. Goff, on behalf 
of the State Council of Pennsylvania, presented a draft of De- 
grees for degree work, but the same was not accepted. At the same 
session, however, Brother Edw. S. Deemer submitted a draft of 
three degrees, which were adopted, and were referred to a commit- 
tee to revise. At the meeting of the National Body on May 20, same 
year, the Committee reported back a three degree Ritual, and it was 
adopted as the degrees of the Order. At the same session a resolu- 
tion was adopted offering $25.00 for the best Ritual for Subor- 
dinate Councils, the competitors to come from either the Senior or 
Junior organization. Also, the Committee on Ritual was directed 
to submit at the next session a draft of a National and State Council 
Ritual. 

The Committee on Ritual at the session of 1871, relative to the 
above request, stated that as the finances of the National Body would 
not justify the expense, and, further, as no form had been presented, 
the Committee recommended that no action be taken at present, 
which was agreed to. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 61 

At the session of the National Body, held at Baltimore, Mary- 
land, in 1872, a resolution was adopted annulling the requirement, 
during the initiatory ceremonies, for a candidate and the officer 
to kneel while taking the obligation and to be obligated standing. 

At the same session the Committee on Ritual was instructed 
to make a thorough revision of the Degrees and Subordinate Council 
Ritual, with a view of embodying the two in one, so as to dispense 
with the Degree Ritual. A resolution, also, was presented and 
agreed to, authorizing the Committee on Ritual to prepare, or have 
prepared, a form for receiving the officers of the State and National 
Councils, and for Councils when visiting sister Councils in a body. 
To the same Committee was referred the request to change the 
grip of the Order. 

The session of the National Council in 1873 was held at Wil- 
mington, Delaware, at which time the Committee on Ritual reported 
on the above subjects. As to the advisability of consolidating the 
Degree Ritual with the Ritual of Subordinate Councils, a favorable 
report was submitted to the National Council by the Committee, 
whereupon, the National Body went into the Committee of the 
Whole for the consideration of the subject. When the Committee 
arose, it reported back to the National Council the recommendation 
that the First and Second Degrees, as amended, be adopted, and 
the Third Degree be referred back to the Committee on Ritual to 
make certain desired changes. 

At the same session, Representative Messenger, of Delaware, 
presented a Ritual for State Councils, which was referred to the 
Committee on Ritual to be reported back before the close of the 
session. Being unable to give the subject due consideration, for 
want of time, the Committee was directed to report at the next 
session. 

At an adjourned meeting of the National Body, same year, in 
September, no action was taken on the Third Degree, owing to the 
resignations of Brothers Deemer, Calver and Hayes, occasioned by 
a set of resolutions having been adopted censuring the National 
Secretary for refusing to grant a charter for a Council in Virginia 
to be named after Robert E. Lee. The charge, as stated elsewhere, 
was untrue, and a subsequent session rescinded the unwarranted 
resolution. 



At a regular session of the National Body, held in 1874, an 
effort was made to adopt the Third Degree in the Ritual, but the 



62 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

National Council was not satisfied with the draft presented, and the 
subject was recommitted to the Committee on Ritual. 

At a special session, held February 22, 1875, the Third Degree, 
as submitted, was considered, and, after its exemplification by State 
Councilor F. M. Cody, of Pennsylvania, it was finally adopted. 

Two important decisions, relative to the Ritual, were made at 
this session, viz. : 

1. That everything in the Ritual, with the exception of the printer's 
card, is a part of the Ritual. 

2. That no Council can do away with any part of the Ritual except- 
ing the singing of the Odes. 



The National Council, at its session held at Boston, Mass., in 
1875, refused to adopt the following resolution : 

" Resolved, That whenever or wherever a change in the Ritual is 
contemplated, before compelling Councils to work under it, it shall be first 
submitted to the Subordinate Councils for their approval or disapproval." 



National Councilor Harry Stites, in his report to the National 
Council, held at Philadelphia, Pa., in 1876, relative to the Ritual, 
says : 

" I also recommend that the condition of our Ritual be considered, 
as there seems to be a considerable amount of dissatisfaction resting 
against it at the present time." 

The recommendation, however, was laid on the table. 

On motion, a Committee of five was appointed to consider the 
advisability of revising the Ritual, and to report during the session. 
Subsequently, the Committee reported as follows : 

" We, your Committee to whom was referred the matter of revising 
the Ritual, would report that we recommend the consolidation of the three 
degrees into one." 

The recommendation, however, was not concurred in by the 
National Body. At the same time the Representatives of Mary- 
land offered the following: 

" Whereas, Having viewed the disadvantages we labor under from 
want of a State Council Ritual, therefore, be it 

" Resolved, That a Committee on Ritual, if one be appointed, be 
empowered to draw up a suitable State .Council Ritual for the proper 
working of State Councils, and have the same issued in proper form." 

This was amended by inserting Ritual for National Council. 
To same Committee was referred a resolution to have framed 
a suitable prayer for Subordinate Councils. Subsequently, in the 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 63 

session, the Committee reported as follows, the same being con- 
curred in by the National Council : 

" We, your Committee to whom was referred the matter of having 
a prayer inserted in the Ritual, would report, that we do not consider the 
matter advisable." 

But the chapter on Ritual revision was not yet ended. Still 
another resolution was offered by Brothers DeHaven and Stites, 
of Pennsjdvania, which was agreed to, as follows: 

" Whereas, Our present Ritual is being complained of by a large 
number of members of our Order, both on account of the length and also 
of the errors in printing, therefore, be it 

" Resolved, That a Committee of five be appointed to revise our 
Ritual, and that said Committee be instructed to report at the next 
session." 



Three Rituals were presented at the session of the National 
Council that was held at Dayton, Ohio, in 1877. One from P. S. C. 
DeHaven, of Pennsylvania, one from P. S. C. Sharer, of same state, 
and one from the State Council of Indiana. The National Secre- 
tary read each Ritual in open session and all were referred to a 
committee to report later. Three of the Committee reported in 
favor of Ritual No. 3, while the other two members recommended 
the " Indiana Ritual." The majority report, however, was adopted. 
Brother Deemer then moved that Ritual No. 3 be referred to a 
Special Committee with instructions to insert therein the opening 
ceremony of the " Indiana Ritual," and the " camp scene " of the 
Ritual then in use, which was unanimously adopted. 



At the session of the National Body in 1878, the National 
Councilor submitted as one of his recommendations, " adopting a 
good and substantial Ritual." The Special Committee on Ritual, 
noted above, submitted the following report, which was agreed to: 

" We, your Committee on Ritual, would report that we have attended 
to the duty assigned us, and present the Ritual as directed, with the excep- 
tion of preparing a State Council Ritual, which we expected would be 
offered by some one of the National Representatives." 

The National Council then went into the Committee of the 
Whole to consider the Ritual proposed. The Committee amended 
the Ritual submitted, first, by inserting the opening ceremony 
prepared by Brother G. Howell Arthur in lieu of the form in the 
" Indiana Ritual," as recommended at the last session ; and second, 
that the reading of the Bible be made compulsory and the prayer 
optional. When the Committee arose and reported back to the 



64 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

National Body the results of their consideration, other changes 
were made, the most important of which was the striking out the 
use of the gown and cowl, and the Order of Business. With these 
changes agreed to, the question recurring on the adoption of the 
Ritual, as amended, the ayes and nays were called, and by a majority 
of one only out of a vote of 33, the form was adopted, and a reso- 
lution that the Ritual go into effect January 1, 1879, was agreed to. 
Judging from the calls made for the ayes and nays during 
the consideration of the Ritual, and in its final adoption by a vote 
of 17 to 16, it is pretty evident that the new Ritual was not satis- 
factory to a large number of the National Council. That this dis- 
satisfaction was deep-seated, is apparent from the following 
resolution : 

" Resolved, That the Ritual just adopted, be published as an initia- 
tory, and that a Committee be appointed to draft three additional degrees 
and report at the next session." 

To this resolution were the names of 14 of the 16 members 
who had voted against the adoption of the new Ritual and one 
who had voted in the affirmative. The resolution was adopted, 
with the proviso that those who had signed it should compose the 
Committee. 

At the same session Brother Penrose, of Pennsylvania, pre- 
sented a form of obligation for National Representatives on being 
admitted to the National Body, which was adopted. 

The " American Legion," a Past Councilor's Association, 
which had been approved at the last session of the National Body, 
presented a Past Councilor's Degree Ritual for Philadelphia Com- 
mandery, No. 1, and it was approved. 



The National Council at its session at New Brunswick, New 
Jersey, in 1879, received the report of the Committee of Fifteen 
on Ritual, which was as follows : 

" Whereas, At the last session of this body, there was a Committee 
appointed to draft the additional degrees, and 

" Whereas, Said Committee was so large that it could not act with 
any speed; therefore, be it 

" Resolved, That the said Committee be discharged and a similar 
Committee, consisting of five members, be appointed for the purpose." 

The resolution was adopted. 



(For two sessions of the National Council, 1880 and 1881, 
the " cry of the Ritual was not heard in the land," with a single 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 65 

exception, of an ineffectual effort to strike from the Ritual the 
words "this includes the whole motto of the Senior Order.") 



The National Council at its session in New York City, in 1882. 
went into the Committee of the Whole to consider the report of the 
Committee on Revision of the Order, on certain suggestions pre- 
sented hy Past National Councilor S. H. Crum, which were as 
follows : 

" Change the Ritual, making three degrees — Subordinate, State, and 
National, all to be conferred by the Subordinate Councils; a fee to be paid 
to the State Council for all State Council Degrees conferred, and the 
State Council to pay the National Council a fee for all National Degrees 
conferred." 

As might be supposed, the Committee of the Whole disapproved 
the suggestions and the National Body concurred in their action. 
Two resolutions relative to the Ritual were presented: 

1. "Resolved, That the Board of Officers of this National Council 
be instructed to advertise for a form of public installation, and that the 
sum of $25.00 be awarded to the author of the best form presented. The 
Board of Officers to act as the judges with the privilege of rejecting any 
and all forms." 

With the exception of striking out " Board of Officers " and 
inserting " National Council," the resolution was adopted. 

2. " Resolved, That the Board of Officers advertise in the Junior 
American Mechanic or otherwise, and request the members of the National 
Council to prepare and present to them a form to be known as the National 
Council Degree, to contain only an opening and closing, an obligation, 
countersign and pass. Such form to be presented to this National Council 
at its session for approval. If approved, then all business of this National 
Council shall be done in said degree." 

The resolution was agreed to. 



As per resolution of last session, several forms for Public 
Installation of Officers were submitted to the National Council at 
its annual session in 1883, held at Philadelphia, and were referred 
to a Committee, which, during the session, reported in favor of 
one of the forms with certain changes. The Committee added : 

" But your Committee think that the National Council should not 
be too hasty in the adoption of any form of Ritual, and would suggest 
that the action on Ritual for Public Installation be laid over until next 

session." 

The suggestion was concurred in. 
5 



66 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

The National Council, therefore, that met at Georgetown,D.C, 
in 1884, resumed the consideration of the question of Ritual, 
whereupon, a motion to postpone action for another session was 
made, for which a substitute was proposed to accept Form 2 and 
pay $25.00 to its author, which was agreed to. After making 
several changes in the draft, a motion was offered to adopt, where- 
upon, the ayes and nays were called, resulting in 2 yeas and 20 
nays, hence the form of Public Installation was not adopted. A 
motion, however, was made, and it was agreed to, that Form 2, 
at first agreed upon, be referred back to the Committee for changes, 
as per amendments made. 

(The corrected form was submitted to the National Body in 
1885, and failed of adoption by a vote of 20 nays and 3 yeas.) 



(The session of the National Body, held in 1886, passed without 
any reference to or resolutions for proposed revision of the Ritual.) 



The subject of Ritual was brought before the National Body in 
1887, at its session held at Baltimore, Md., by the presentation of 
a Degree Ritual by Brother Arnold, of Ohio, in consideration of 
which, the following record was made: 

" P. S. C. Sibbs, of Pa., moved that in consideration of the fact that 
this Ritual provides for Degrees, which have been tried and did not give 
satisfaction, that the further consideration of the subject be dismissed, 
which was agreed to." 

At the same session the words " right or wrong, but still our 
country," as used by the Councilor in explaining the Principles of 
the Order to the candidate, were stricken from the Ritual. An 
effort, however, was made at the session of 1888 to restore the 
words, but failed. 

The National Council, at its session in 1888, held at New York 
City, acted upon the Declaration of Principles, submitted by Na- 
tional Secretary Edw. S. Deemer, which were adopted by a vote of 
19 ayes to 18 nays. Subsequently in the session, on motion of 
National Treasurer Brother Sohl, the vote by which the same were 
adopted, was reconsidered, and the question being stated, the ayes 
and nays were called, resulting, ayes 16, nays 26, so the motion 
was not agreed to. 



CHAPTER VI 
THE RITUAL (Concluded) 

THE records of the National Council at its annual session, held 
at Haverhill, Mass., in 1889, give but three references to 
the subject of Eitual. In the " note " on page 19 of the Kitual, 
the first clause was stricken out, and in lieu thereof, the following 
charge from the Councilor was inserted : 

" Bro. Conductor: You will retire with the Candidate and prepare 
him for the lesson of Patriotism." 

On motion of Brother Evans, of Pennsylvania, the obligation 
for members of the Senior Order was stricken from the Kitual. 

The following resolution was adopted : 

" Resolved, That a Committee of three be appointed to prepare and 
present to the National Council at its next session, a series of short 
addresses, neither of them to occupy more than five minutes in delivery, and 
to be appropriate to and in commemoration of the following events, viz. : 

" ' February 22. Washington's Birthday.' 

" ' April 30. The Adoption of the Constitution of the United States 

and Washington's Inauguration.' 
" ' May 17. The Anniversary of the Founding of the Order.' 
" ' June 14. The Adoption of the National Emblem.' 
" ' July 4. The Declaration of Independence.' 

" Said addresses, if adopted, to be delivered by the Jr. P. C. in Sub- 
ordinate Councils as the first item under the head of Good of the Order, 
and at meetings which shall be nearest to the several dates; and with the 
understanding that said address can be dispensed with at any meeting 
by a two-third vote of the members present." 



The subject of Eitual was considered at the session of the 
National Body, at its meeting of 1890, at Chicago, 111., first, in a 
Memorial, largely signed by prominent Representatives, as follows: 

" Whereas, Our beloved Order has been and is now rapidly increas- 
ing in membership and brings to our ranks the experience and intelligence 
of the country, and 

" Whereas, Our present Ritual does not seem adequate to the present 
needs of our Order, therefore, be it 

" Resolved, That the National Councilor be empowered to appoint a 
Committee of five for the purpose of preparing a new Ritual, to be sub- 
mitted to the National Council at the earliest date consistent, with the 
best attainable results." 

The Memorial was adopted, and the following strong Commit- 

67 



68 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

tee was appointed : Brothers J. G. A. Kichter, J. H. Zimmerman 
and Geo. 0. Roberts, of Ohio, Jas. Cranston and H. L. Williams, 
of Pennsylvania. 

The following resolution was offered and referred to the Com- 
mittee on Revision of the Ritual : 

" Resolved, That a Committee be appointed to draft and prepare 
a hand-book of ceremonies, which shall contain: 

1. A program of ceremonies for flag presentations. 

2. A program of ceremonies for laying corner-stones. 

3. A program of ceremonies for dedicating buildings. 

And in which hand-book may also be included the funeral ceremony." 

On motion, to the same Committee was referred the duty of 
preparing a Ritual for the opening and closing of the National and 
State Councils, installation of officers in public and reception of 
members by card. 

As was expected from its make-up, the Committee on the Re- 
vision of the Ritual, at the session of 1891, held at Cleveland, Ohio, 
submitted a report full of suggestions, and had adopted a form of 
Ritual, but the one who was to write it had failed to submit the 
same. 

The Committee had received quite a number of suggestions 
which were submitted to the National Council and by that body 
were turned over to a new Committee. The following were some 
of the suggestions: 

1. From James S. Patton, of Monongahela, Pa., that the mili- 
tary scene be amplified, and a form accompanied the suggestion. 

2. From Jas. Cranston, of Pittsburg, Pa., providing a charge 
to be delivered by the Councilor upon reinstating a brother. 

3. P. S. C, F. J. Shaler, of Chicago, 111., suggesting that soft 
music be played during certain parts of the ceremonies. 

4. From a brother in McKeesport, Pa., Superintendent of 
Public Schools, whose letter was mislaid and the name forgotten, 
came the suggestion of a three degree Ritual, in two forms, ampli- 
fied and condensed, councils to be allowed to use either form, but 
to urge the amplified or long form. 

(The name of the brother referred to was Perry A. Shanor, 
so well known in the Order, and who, subsequently, served as 
National Councilor.) 

5. From P. S. C, H. L. Williams, of Pennsylvania, who 
submitted the following unique form of a three degree Ritual, 
representing, allegorically, the history of our country: 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 69 

1. " The first degree to represent the perambulations and sufferings 
of the Pilgrims from the commencement of their persecutions by the Church 
of England until their arrival at Plymouth Rock. 

2. " The second degree to represent the history of those people from 
Plymouth Rock to the commencement of the Revolution. 

3. " The third degree to represent the Revolutionary War and the 
scene to close with the proclaiming of Independence on July 4, 1770." 

The Committee stated that they had adopted the suggestions 
of Brother Williams and had requested him to suhmit a skeleton 
of such a Ritual, but he had failed to do so. 

The Secretary of the Committee, Brother Zimmerman, among 
other things, said : 

" Since the meeting of the Committee in Pittsburg, Pa., as Secretary, 
I have received numerous correspondence from members of the Order, 
advocating extremes in both ways. The shortest Ritual asked for is simply 
a short obligation and the signing of the obligation book, while the other 
extreme asks for a Ritual that shall contain degrees as follows: 
1, 2, 3 — Initiation. 

5 — To be entitled to any office in Subordinate Council. 
6 — To be entitled to Assistant Recording Secretary. 
8 — To be entitled to Vice-Councilor. 
10 — To be entitled to Councilor. 
13 — To be entitled to Junior Past Councilor. 
15 — To be entitled to State Council Representative or Deputy State 

Councilor. 
25 — To be entitled to admission to State Council. 
100— To be entitled to admission to National Council. 
The 25th to be given by the State Council, and the 100th by the National 
Council. The fees of each degree to be regulated by law, except that given 
by the National Council. This fee to be $25.00, and the money thus 
obtained to be used for a banquet." 

Other suggestions were made, such as asking that the Ritual 
be made as solemn as possible, and that Sunday services be made 
obligatory upon Councils, at least once a month. The suggestions 
and material gathered b} r the Committee were referred to a new 
Committee. 

A Special Committee reported a volumiuous form of Public 
Installation of Officers in Subordinate Councils which, however, 
was recommitted to same committee. 

The plan of the Council room to be used in the " camp scene " 
was, on motion, adopted. Also an Order of Business for the Na- 
tional Council was submitted and approved. ■ 

The Declaration of Principles submitted by Brother Deemer 
at the New York session in 1888, being rearranged and adopted 
at the Chicago session in 1890, and as printed in the Proceedings, 
were approved at this session. 



70 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

The Committee on Eitual reported at the session of the Na- 
tional Body at its meeting in 1892, relative to the form of Public 
Installation submitted to them at the last session, stating that in 
their opinion it was of too great a length to be of any service to 
the Order, whereupon the whole matter was recommitted to the 
Committee. 

A form of Memorial Service, pursuant to instructions of the 
State Council of Pennsylvania, was submitted by her Representa- 
tives. The form proposed was on the line of the Memorial Service 
of the G. A. R., to meet in the cemetery, annually, and with befitting 
exercises, strew flowers upon the graves of the departed members 
of the Order. The same was referred to the Committee on the 
State of the Order, as well as the address of Brother Shanor, deliv- 
ered at Uniontown, Pa., at the Memorial Service held during the 
session of the State Council. Subsequently, the Committee re- 
ported in favor of adopting the address of Brother Shanor as the 
form, which, after necessary changes, was adopted. 

A new Eitual was submitted to the body by the Committee 
on Ritual, and after some changes were made, it was adopted as the 
Ritual of the Order. This is the Ritual, with few minor changes, 
in use to-day (1907) and was prepared by Brother Deemer. A 
form of prayer for Subordinate Councils was submitted and 
adopted. Also a resolution to have the Ritual bound in cloth, 
was agreed to. 

The discussion of the Ritual at the National session held at 
Detroit, Mich., in 1893, formed the greater portion of the reports 
of the Board of Officers and the time of the National Council. 
The new Ritual adopted at the last session had created some dis- 
satisfaction in certain sections owing to the introduction of a new 
feature and character, now eliminated. To such an extent had the 
criticism been expressed that a certain Council in Pennsylvania 
organized an opposition to the Ritual and caused circulars to be 
sent out in which was cited the objectionable character and feature, 
thus making the Council amenable to the law of the Order, whereby 
its charter was suspended. 

National Councilor Brother Cranston, in his report, had this 
to say relative to the new Ritual : 

" It was not a surprise to any person with a slight knowledge of 
human nature, that some opposition to the new Ritual has been mani- 
fested; but, I am happy to say, it is not general. . . . The character 
introduced in the new Ritual is so unimportant that it could be dispensed 
with if there are many who think it objectionable." 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 71 

National Secretary Brother Deemer had the following to say: 

"In some localities it (the Ritual) has been well received, and 
in others severely condemned. Whether the majority of the members favor 
it, or whether they are opposed to it, I cannot say. People are always 
more prone to censure than to praise, consequently the opposition has 
made more noise, if it is not the greater number. . . . There is con- 
stantly a demand for something new. As a general thing those who make 
the demand never introduce anything themselves, but are the first to 
condemn the production of others." 

The introduction of the objectionable character was the cause 
of a spirited controversy in the National Body, some claiming that 
it was not approved when the Eitual containing it was adopted. 
The National Secretary, in his report, made it clear that the " char- 
acter " referred to was approved, and in order to arrange the new 
feature and secure uniformity in exemplifying the work, a few 
minor changes had to be made in the printed form. The objec- 
tionable character was eliminated. 

The closing paragraph of the Declaration of Principles, adopted 
at a previous session, especially the clause, " In the strictest sense 
we are a national political organization," etc., came in for sharp 
criticism at this session. How the clause came to be inserted, as 
well as the entire paragraph, into the Declaration of Principles at 
the Chicago session was fully explained by the National Secretary. 
From Brother Deemer's statement, it seems that the Declara- 
tion of Principles had been published in the press of the Order, 
and the State Council of Pennsylvania incorporated the code as a 
report from the Committee on Kesolutions, and then added the 
paragraph referred to above. By some cause the printer got the 
added paragraph merged with the form adopted at Chicago, and 
in that form it was approved at the Cleveland session the year 
following. Bef erring to the matter, Brother Deemer says: 

" I do not think anyone has been especially to blame, neither do I 
think it was the work of design. It was innocently done." 

The National Body agreed with the recommendation of the 
Committee that the Declaration of Principles, as printed, be a part 
of the Order. The Bitual proper was placed in the hands of the 
Committee to connect the work because of the disarrangement made 
by the elimination of the objectionable character. The Committee 
recommended further changes, and the Bitual was recommitted 
to them to report at the next session. 



The National Council of 1894, met at Asheville, N. C. The 
Committee on Bitual, pursuant to instructions given at last session, 



72 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

submitted changes and revisions that seemed necessary for the 
general improvement of the ritualistic services of the Order with- 
out altering the sentiments or plan of the work. The "camp 
scene" was revised by Captain William Awl, of Pittsburg, Pa., 
whom many remember as a prominent military character, and the 
results of his work made that part of the initiatory ceremouies 
much more realistic than they had formerly been. 

The Committee on Forms and Ceremonies, at same session, 
submitted their report, by presenting three exhibits, viz. : 

Exhibit A. Memorial Service or Council of Sorrow. 

Exhibit B. Flag Presentation and School Dedication. 

Exhibit C. Ceremony for Corner-Stone Laying of Public Schools. 

The Council of Sorrow was exemplified in the deaths of three 
members of the National Council in a very impressive manner. 
Following the Memorial Service, the Council of Sorrow was adopted. 
Exhibits B and C were referred to the Board of Officers, and if 
approved by them, it was understood the same were adopted. The 
Committee on Forms, however, were continued to prepare a service 
for Memorial Day. 

The subject of Eitual revision in one way or another came 
up for consideration at the meeting of the National Body at 
Omaha, Neb., in 1895. The National Councilor recommended that 
certain alterations be made in the Eitual in order that it could be 
more clearly understood. He referred to the various ways of clos- 
ing a Council in repeating the " F. 0/', showing lack of unity of 
procedure. The National Councilor also recommended: 

"That a Committee be appointed early in the session to prepare a 
suitable form of installation for the Chaplain and report the same before 
the adjournment of this body." 

The recommendation was adopted with the amendment so as 
to read, " and report at the next session." 

The " Business Sign " of the Order was found to be in vio- 
lation of an act of Congress passed in 1891, whereupon, the govern- 
ment authorities seized all the dies and signs in the office of the 
National Secretary, and the manufacture and exhibition of same 
was discontinued. Owing to this violation of law, the National 
Body struck out of the Eitual all reference to the " business sign." 



At the Denver session in 1896, the Committee on Eitual sub- 
mitted a form of Installation of National and State Council Chap- 
lain, but the matter was referred to the Board of Officers ; and it is 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 73 

a strange coincidence, that was the last the Order heard of the 
subject until 1905, at the Nashville session, when the writer, ai 
the suggestion of the National Councilor, Brother Faison, sub- 
mitted a form, which was adopted. 

A proposition was presented for two higher degrees to be 
incorporated in the Eitual, but the same was disapproved. 

A resolution was presented to abolish the " F. 0." in the 
closing ceremonies of Subordinate Councils and readopt the closing 
form under the last preceding Eitual ; but the matter was laid over. 
A resolution was offered to prepare a suitable Ritual for use of 
State Councils and report at the next session. The matter was re- 
ferred to the National Secretary. A resolution to provide for a 
three degree Ritual was presented and, on motion, was laid over. 



The National Body in 1897 met at Pittsburg, Pa. On the 
subject of Ritual, the following resolution was submitted and 
adopted : 

" Resolved, That in the opinion of the National Council, Jr. O. U. 
A. M., the highest interests of the Order demand a revision of the Ritual 
of the Order, and in view of this we request that a Ritual Committee, of 
three, be appointed to report at our next meeting such a revised Ritual." 

Also the following was read and referred to the Committee 
on Ritual : 

" Resolved, That a Committee be appointed to prepare a suitable 
up-to-date Funeral Ceremony of our Order, and present it at our next 
annual session." 

From the State Council of Wisconsin came the request: 

" To provide a Second Degree, which would be more instructive and 
elevating than the one commonly known as the ' Oriental Degree,' and take 
steps to prohibit Councils from using the latter in connection with and 
in the name of the Order." 

The resolution was referred to the Committee on Ritual, as 
were the following: 

1. " Resolved, That the National Council, now in session, do grant 
unto the State and Subordinate Councils a permanent password for the 
outside door. . 

" Resolved, That the National Councilor select a Committee of three 
to present three words, from which one word shall be selected by a vote 
of the Councils, to be used for a permanent password at the inside door. 

2. " Resolved, That our Ritual Committee be requested and instructed 
to prepare a business sign that is not an infringement on the United States 
government, and report the same back at our next session." 



74 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

3. " The members of Washington Council, No. 1, of Wardner, Idaho, 
submitted an Ode, requesting that it be adopted as the Ode of the Order 
and the same was referred to the Committee on Ritual. 

4. " A Form and Ceremony of State Council Visitation," adopted by 
the State Council of the District of Columbia, was submitted, and took 
the same course with the others. 

5. " In> view of the fact that our Ritual contains no article against 
partisanship in our Public Schools, I move you that the Ritual be so 
amended as to teach against partisan as well as sectarian interference in 
our Public School System." 

The last named was offered by Walter Beck, of Pennsylvania, 
and to consider these subjects, the National Councilor announced 
as the Eitual Committee : National Eepresentative Reeves, of Wash- 
ington, P. S. C. Buschman, of Maryland, and P. S. C. Reynolds, of 
Illinois. 



The several subjects referred to the Ritual Committee at the 
session of 1897, were considered by that Committee, and the follow- 
ing resume of their deliberations was submitted to the National 
Council, at its meeting held at Louisville, Kentucky, in the month 
of June, 1898 : 

1. " After the adoption of the resolution authorizing the appointment 
of the Committee, some resolutions were referred to the Committee whieh 
quite changed the conditions of the work assigned them. At once the 
question was raised as to increasing the number of degrees. In harmony 
with that idea the State Council of Pennsylvania passed resolutions asking 
for a three-degree Ritual, and many individuals and subordinate Councils 
wrote us to the same effect, and some have furnished material and, in one 
instance at least, a full three-degree Ritual has been prepared and sub- 
mitted. 

" Not feeling that it is within our province to decide this question, 
we refer it to the National Council for their action and, in case a three- 
degree Ritual or entire new Ritual is agreed upon, suggesting that the 
Committee be authorized to offer a certain amount as a premium for the 
best Ritual. 

2. " As to Funeral Ceremony, we have received no definite suggestions 
of change and do not at present recommend any change. 

3. " We recommend the adoption of the following as a Business Sign : 
A female figure holding, extended in the right hand, a pair of balances 
and beneath it, the words — ' Justice and Fair Dealing.' 

4. " As to the matter of a Permanent Password, the Committee has 
no recommendation to make. » 

5. " We recommend that the Freeman's Oath be omitted, except in 
the initiatory ceremony, so as to avoid a repetition. 

6. " In regard to the resolution with reference to the use of the 
word ' Partisan ' in connection with the word ' Sectarian,' we recommend 
the use of the word suggested. 

7. " In accordance with the request of the National Representatives 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 75 

of Pennsylvania, we recommend that the word ' Socialism ' be omitted 
from the Ritual and also from the Declaration of Principles." 

8. Relative to " Form of Ceremony for Receiving National Council 
and State Officers," the Committee, with some changes, recommended the 
form presented by the State Council of District of Columbia at last session. 

9. A form for the installation of the Chaplain was submitted. 

10. An opening and closing ceremony for State Councils was pre- 
sented to the Committee by National Secretary Deemer, and by them 
submitted to the National Body with a favorable recommendation. 

In consideration of the report of the Committee, the same was 
taken up seriatum, as follows : 

1. On motion of Brother Stephen Collins, the Committee was 
requested to prepare a one-degree Ritual. A motion to strike out 
" one " and insert " three " was offered by Brother Bichter, of 
Ohio, whereupon, Brother Collins moved as a substitute, that the 
Ritual Committee be instructed to prepare and present at the next 
session two Rituals, one of three degrees and one of one degree, 
which was agreed to. 

2. Recommendation relative to Funeral Ceremony was 
approved. 

3. As to " Business Sign," the matter was referred back to 
the Committee. 

4. Recommendation relative to Permanent Password was 
approved. 

5-10. The recommendations of the Committee on Ritual were 
severally adopted. 

As per action of the National Body at its session held at Louis- 
ville, in 1898, the Committee on Ritual presented the following 
as their report, to the National Council which held its session at 
Minneapolis, Minn., in 1899: 

" Minneapolis, June 21, 1899. 

" To the Officers and Members of the National Council, Jr. 0. U. A. M. 
" Dear Sirs and Brothers. — 

" The undersigned members of the Ritual Committee respectfully 
submit their report: 

" That in accordance with the instructions of the last National Coun- 
cil, they advertised in the various official organs of the National Council, 
at divers times, the announcement of their desire to have prepared a one- 
and three-degree Ritual by members of the Order, as well as a suggestion 
to have a Ritual prepared embracing both the one- and three-degree features, 
and that a suitable premium would be paid to the brother or brothers 
whose Ritual would be appoved by the National Council. That they have 
since received one two-degree Ritual and two three-degree Rituals, but no 
one-degree Ritual. That after a careful examination of the Rituals ottered, 



76 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

your committee were of the opinion that none of the Rituals submitted 
would meet the requirements of the National Council, but that the three- 
degree Rituals prepared by P. S. C, Rev. M. D. Lichliter, of Pennsylvania, 
and National Representative F. F. Hopkins, of Washington, contained many 
admirable portions, and with the assistance of these two rituals, they 
prepared a compilation of the best features of these two Rituals, which are 
embraced in the three-degree Ritual and installation ceremonies now sub- 
mitted by your committee for your consideration. 

" They further report that the Ritual prepared and submitted by 
S. C. Secretary W. L. Boyden, of the District of Columbia, was a well 
executed and complete work in every particular, but the committee cannot 
recommend its adoption by our National Council. 

" That your committee recommend the three-degree Ritual herewith 
accompanying this report as satisfactory, and that if the National Council 
desires to have a one-degree Ritual, they can use the present Ritual, or the 
committee will prepare an abbreviated version of the First and Second 
Degrees in the Ritual herewith submitted. 

" As the committee announced in their notices that a premium would 
be paid to the successful author of the Ritual adopted by the National 
Council, in the event of the National Council approving the accompanying 
Ritual, your committee would recommend that a premium of $60 should 
be awarded to Brother Lichliter and a premium of $40 to Brother Hopkins, 
the joint authors of this Ritual. They would also recommend the payment 
of the sum of $20 to Brother Boyden in recognition of the laborious work 
performed by him in preparing the Ritual submitted by him. In the event 
of a three- and a one-degree Ritual being adopted by this National Council, 
they would recommend that each subordinate Council have the option of 
using either. „ Chakles f . Reeves , 

" Wm. H. Hanna, 

" F. A. BUSCHMAN, 

" Ritual Committee." 

A regular session of the National Council was held on the 
evening of the second day, to witness the exemplification of the 
three-degree Ritual, as recommended by the Committee. While, 
to a large portion of the National Body, the Eitual, as exemplified, 
with some suggested changes, was satisfactory, it was evident that 
some of the Eepresentatives from the older states, prominently, 
Penns)dvania, Maryland and Delaware, were opposed to a three- 
degree Ritual — in fact, opposed in any respect to a revision of the 
present Ritual, hence, the subject was " shelved." 

P. N. C. Shanor moved that the three-degree Ritual be adopted. 
This was amended by motion of Representative Edkins, of Penn- 
sylvania, " that it go into effect January 1, 1900." National Rep- 
resentative Watkins, of Maryland, moved, as a substitute for all 
that was before the body, that the report be received, which was 
agreed to. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 77 

Subsequently in the session, the following Proposal for a 
Statute was offered by Brother Eeeves, of Washington, which was 
referred to the Ritual Committee with instructions to prepare a 
Bill under the new law : 

"A PROPOSAL 

" FOR A STATUTE RESPECTING RITUAL 

" Be it enacted by the National Council Junior Order United American 
Mechanics. 

" Section 1. That this National Council adopt the Three-Degree 
Ritual as presented by the committee, with the proviso that it be referred 
back to the compilers for revision and that they prepare from the Three- 
Degree Ritual a One-Degree Ritual, subject to the approval of the Board 
of Officers and that it be left optional for Councils to use either form. 

" Section 2. This law shall take effect and be in force immediately 
upon its passage." 

The report of the Committee on Ritual was favorable for the 
above Statute, but again those who were not favorable to a three- 
degree Ritual, especially to the one presented, " side-tracked " the 
subject by adopting the following substitute : 

" That the proposed law be so amended as to continue the Com- 
mittee for another year, that they offer $500 for a Ritual, open to competi- 
tion, by members of the Order, the premium to be given for the accepted 
Ritual." 

The substitute was agreed to, and the ritual question was 
" laid on the shelf/' and there it still rests (1907). 



In the meantime, the " Conflict at the Crossing of the Centur- 
ies " had opened, the " smoke of battle " was on, and the Order was 
in the throes of rebellion. The session of the National Council 
for 1000 was held at Philadelphia, which had before it the one 
supreme object and purpose, that of self-preservation from the 
attacks of the " insurgents," hence the subject of the Ritual was 
a " side issue." The Ritual Committee, however, made their re- 
port, perfectly consistent with the existing state of things, and 
was as follows, the same being agreed to by the National Body: 

" Philadelphia, Pa., June 21, 1900. 

" To the Officers and Members of the National Council, Jr. O. U. A. M., 

V. S. A. 

" Dear Sirs and Brothers. — 

" The undersigned, members of the special committee of Ritual, 
appointed by resolution adopted at last annual session of the National 
Council at Minneapolis, respectfully submit this as their report. 

" That owing to the dissensions existing in the organization during 
the past year, and the uncertainty of a sufficient amount of funds being 



78 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

on hand with which to pay the prize of five hundred dollars offered by 
said resolution, your committee did not deem it advisable to pass an 
opinion upon the merits, or to recommend the adoption of any proposed 
rituals offered, and your committee further report that as there appears 
to be an almost unanimous sentiment throughout the organization for a 
new and better ritual than the one now in use, and would for that reason 
recommend that a special committee on Ritual be continued for another 

y ear - "A. D. Wilkin, 

" H. C. SCHAERTZER, 
" F. A. BUSCHMAN." 

Nevertheless, the question of Ritual was kept before the body 
by resolution and proposal for statutes as follows: 

1. "Resolved, That the Committee on Ritual be, and are hereby in- 
structed and directed to revise and amend our Funeral Ritual so as to make 
it comport with the dignity and standing of this National Body." 

2. Proposal for a Statute. " To change the Ritual by inserting 
therein, the Freeman's Oath in the closing ceremonies." 

3. Proposal for a Statute. " That the Declaration of Principles be 
so amended as to read: ' We recognize the Bible as the foundation of both 
moral and civil law, and believe that it should be read in our public schools, 
not to teach sectarianism, but moral excellence." 

In the consideration -of Proposal for a Statute, No. 3, it was 
adopted by 153 to 0. 

The Committee on Ritual, to whom had been referred Nos. 1 
and 2, reported the following, which, however, was laid over for 
one year: 

" To the Officers and Members of the National Council, Jr. 0. U. A. M., 
U. 8. A. 

" Dear Sirs and Brothers. — 
" Your Standing Committee on Ritual beg leave to report upon matters 
referred to them as follows : 

" First. In regard to the Proposal for a Statute, to restore the 
Freeman's Oath in the closing ceremonies, we recommend that the Free- 
man's Oath be used in the closing ceremony where it has not previously 
been used in the same meeting in the initiatory work. 

" We recommend that a special committee on Ritual be appointed for 
the coming year, who shall offer such premium for a Ritual that shall 
be acceptable to the National Council as may be determined upon by the 
Board of Officers and the Finance Committee. 

" We further recommend that the resolution in regard to the new 
Funeral Ceremony be referred to this committee. 

" F. F. Hopkins, 
" E. W. Sellers, 
"S. J. Theisen, 
" C. L. Voris, 
" J. G. A. Richter, 

" Committee." 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 79 

The National Council that met at Buffalo, N. Y., in L901, 
"resolved," "recommended" and still hesitated on the question 
of Eitual. The now laws had created a Committee on Ritual, to 
be appointed for the session only. Five members of the National 
Body composed said Committee. At the Buffalo session this Com- 
mittee reported as follows: 

"Buffalo, N. Y., June 20th, 1901. 

" To the Officers and Members of the National Council, Jr. 0. U. A. M. 
" Dear Sirs and Brothers. — 
"Your Standing Committee on Ritual beg leave to make the follow- 
ing report: 

" Whereas, A large number of Councils now in open insubordination 
to the Supreme Law of the Order are continuing the work of the organiza- 
tion by initiating candidates, etc., in accordance with the ceremonies, words, 
signs and grips as exemplified in our present Ritual, and securing sur- 
reptitiously the passwords thereby securing admission to the body of the 
loyal Councils; and 

" Whereas, There is a general feeling among the members of our 
Order that our present Ritual does not comport with the dignity and 
standing of this the greatest of all patriotic organizations, and through 
Representatives to this National Council there has come to your Committee 
a request for a Three-Degree Ritual; 

" Therefore, We very respectfully recommend : 

" First. That in view of the fact of the existence of a large number 
of Councils now in open rebellion to the National Council that are bearing 
the name and using the Ritual and ceremonies of the Order, that this 
National Council authorize the preparation of a new Ritual. 

" Second. We recommend that this National Council authorize the 
preparation of a Three-Degree Ritual with a modified form of the same. 

" Third. And we further recommend if, by the action of this National 
Council a new Ritual is authorized to be prepared, that a special Com- 
mittee on Ritual composed of three members be appointed by the National 
Board of Officers to formulate said Ritual, and present the same to the 
next session of the National Council. 

" M. D. Lichliter, 
" R. F. Hamilton, 
'• J. Frank Pate, 
" H. H. Billany, 
"G. W. Payne, 

"Committee on Ritual." 

A motion to adopt the recommendation of the Committee 
relative to a new Ritual was made, which, however, was amended, 
that the same be referred to the Board of Officers with authority 
to appoint some one to write a Eitual suitable to them and the 
same tc be reported at the next session. It was, of course, a back- 



80 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

handed slap at a three-degree Ritual, and as no compensation was 
suggested, it was the opinion of all friends of a new Ritual that 
the subject was " shelved " for two years at least. 



The session of 1902, held at Milwaukee, Wis., found the mem- 
bers of the National Body still " at sea " on the question of Ritual. 
As was expected, in view of the resolution referred to the Board of 
Officers at the previous session, no action was taken by the Board 
relative to a new Ritual. National Councilor, Brother A. L. Cray, 
had the following to say in his report: 

" I am sorry to inform you that we are still without a new Ritual ; 
nothing in this line will be submitted. My earnest desire was that we 
might have a new Ritual to submit at this session for your consideration. 
I have been prompted in this earnestness from the fact, that our present 
Ritual is in the possession and use of those formerly members of the Order, 
but now out, and as a further safeguard against imposition of this class 
of persons, there should be a change, and a better Ritual compiled that our 
Order may have the best." 

The following recommendation was appended to the report: 

" I would recommend that there be appointed a suitable person to 
prepare a new Ritual, to be presented at the next meeting of this National 
Council for adoption." 

The recommendation was referred to the Ritual Committee. 
The following recommendation submitted by the Board of Officers, 
took the same course: 

" That an appropriate amount be fixed by the National Council to 
be, by the Board of Officers, expended in securing the services of a com- 
petent person to prepare a new Ritual." 

The Committee on Ritual reported relative to the above recom- 
mendations, as follows : 

" Your Committee to Avhom was referred Recommendation 3 of the 
National Councilor, relative to the appointment of a committee of one to 
prepare a Ritual of the Order to be presented at the next session of this body, 
respectfully recommend the disapproval of the same, and suggest that a Com- 
mittee of three be appointed with full power to arrange for the prepara- 
tion of a three-degree Ritual, said Committee to act as a Board of Review 
in the compilation of said Ritual which shall be presented at the next 
session of the National Council for exemplification." 

In the consideration of the report of the Committee, the 
National Council disapproved the same, and approved the recom- 
mendation of the National Councilor, without any stipulated 
amount appropriated or named for the preparation of said Ritual ; 
and once again the subject was " laid on the shelf." 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 81 

The only reference made to the Ritual at the. session of tlio 
.National Body at San Francisco, Cal., in 1903, was by the National 
Councilor, Brother Bowers, in his report which was as follows : 

"NEW RITUAL. 

" At the last session of the National Council, the recommendation 
of the then National Councilor. Bro. Cray that " a suitable person be 
appointed to prepare a new Ritual, to be presented at the next session of 
this National Council, for adoption," was adopted. The National Council 
did not indicate by whom this person should be appointed, nor did it make 
any appropriation for compensation for the services of the appointee. In 
connection with this subject, I received the following letter: " 

The letter referred to was from Rev. Geo. W. Gallagher of 
Lockport, N. Y., who had been requested to write a three-degree 
Ritual and had written the National Secretary as to the conditions 
governing the preparation of the work. The communication being 
turned over to the National Councilor, he entered into correspond- 
ence with Brother Gallagher concerning the subject, asking for sug- 
gestions relative thereto, and the amount of compensation expected. 
To this communication no reply was received. 



• Nothing relative to a new Ritual was submitted at the session 
of the National Council, at its meeting at St. Louis in 1904. The 
Ritual Committee, however, submitted the following, which was 
agreed to : 

" We, your Commitee on Ritual, would respectfully report, that 
after mature consideration of the matter placed in our hands, would 
recommend that the National Councilor appoint a Committee of three 
members, who shall formulate a suitable obligation and charge, to be 
incorporated in our State Council Ritual, also appending thereto an order 
of business and rules of order to govern our State Councils in their delib- 
erations. When same has been framed, it shall be forwarded to our 
National Board of Officers for their approval, and when approved, by said 
Board, shall be in full force and effect. We also recommend they be printed 
and a copy sent each Council. ([ T „ ^ 

"R. F. Hamilton, 
" R. Atmae Smith, 
" C. C. Newman, 
" N. B. Moose, 

" Committee on Ritual." 

The following resolution was referred to the Committee on 
State Council Ritual: 

" Be it Resolved, by the National Council, Junior Order of United 
American Mechanics, that a special committee of three be appointed for 
6 



82 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

the purpose of preparing a new Funeral Ceremony, and that said com- 
mittee be instructed to present their draft to the next meeting of this 
National Council. „ Q M HuNT; 

" Geo. A. Gowan, 
" H. L. W. Taylor, 
" H. E. Howse." 

Agreeable to the action of the National Council and to carry 
out the purposes of the recommendation and resolution as above 
stated, the National Councilor appointed as Special Committee on 
Ritual, Rev. M. D. Lichliter, of Pennsylvania, L. L. Hill, of Ken- 
tucky, and W. J. Nesbit, of Alabama. 

A resolution requesting the Ritual Committee to prepare a 
closing prayer for Subordinate Councils was laid on the table. 



The National Council of 1905 met in the beautiful Southland 
City of Nashville, Tennessee. The Special Committee on Ritual, 
pursuant to the instructions of the National Council and the sug- 
gestions of the National Councilor, submitted their report, and the 
various forms of ritualistic service presented were adopted, which 
were designated as follows: 

First. Funeral Ceremony. 

Second. Opening Ceremonies— State Council. 

Third. Closing Ceremonies — State Council. 

Fourth. State Council Degree. 

Fifth. Form Installation for State Council Chaplain. 

Sixth. Rules of Order — State Council. 

A resolution asking for a three-degree Ritual was referred to 
the Committee on Ritual and read as follows : 

" Be it Resolved, by the National Council, Junior O. U. A. M., that the 
National Councilor be, and is hereby authorized to appoint a Committee 
of (3) members who shall formulate a suitable three-degree Ritual, con- 
sisting of long and short forms to be used by Subordinate Councils; the 
conferring of the long or short form to be at the option of the Subordinate 
Council." 

The National Body concurred in the recommendation of the 
Committee that such a Committee be appointed. The Special Com- 
mittee appointed consisted of A. M. DeHaven, of Pennsylvania; 
C. H. Wolfes, of West Virginia, and Geo. A. Davis, of Maryland. 

Another resolution was offered asking for a three-degree 
Ritual, stipulating the compensation for an acceptable Ritual to 
be $500. The resolution was disapproved. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 83 

The Special Committee on Ritual, as referred to, submitted 
their report at the first Biennial Session of the National Council, 
which was held at Boston, Massachusetts, June 18-20, 1907. As 
everyone expected, the Committee had no Ritual to submit to the 
National Body for their consideration, owing to the fact that no 
compensation had been assured by the National Council at its meet- 
ing at Nashville, two years previous, hence the Committee were 
powerless and therefore unable to offer any inducements for the 
preparation of a suitable Ritual. The Committee, however, recom- 
mended the appointment of another committee, with authority to 
offer $500 for the best Ritual that might be presented. 

In consideration of the Committee's report, quite an animated 
discussion of the subject of a Ritual took place, the purport of 
which was, that no Ritual commensurate with the dignity and stand- 
ing of the Junior Order could be prepared for the price named ; 
that other organizations had given much larger amounts for suit- 
able ritualistic ceremonies. As the result of the discussion, the 
recommendation of the Committee for the appointment of a Special 
Committee on Ritual was adopted, with an amendment, which was 
accepted by the Committee, that the offer for a suitable Ritual be 
made $2,000. 

The writer has for years been an ardent advocate for a new 
Ritual, believing the one in use has " seen its day," having served 
its purpose, and that thousands of members have been lost to the 
organization because of inadequate and unsatisfactory ritualistic 
ceremonies. Such an Order as the Jr. O. U. A. M., with principles 
so grand and sublime, should have ritualistic ceremonies that would 
stir the American heart when conferred upon a candidate, and it is 
confidently anticipated by the friends of a new Ritual, that when 
the National Council convenes at Detroit, in 1909, that a Ritual will 
be submitted and adopted. The Committee appointed by the 
National Councilor is composed of the following brethren: Brothers 
Norman Munson, of Maryland, W. F. Grubbs, of Georgia, and 
O. Chacey, of Kansas. 



CHAPTER VII 
6. THE NATIONAL ORPHANS' HOME 

THE ORIGINAL RESOLUTION 

THE Fourth Object of the Junior 0. U. A. M. reads : " To pro- 
mote and maintain a National Orphans' home." No other 
Society or Association maintains a National Orphans' Home. 
Other Orders have their Orphans' Homes, and nobly do they provide 
for them, but they are local in character, many of them not even 
having any official supervision only so far as it is supplied by local 
authority. Ours is a National Orphans' Home — national in its 
scope and maintenance, an intregal part of the whole Order, and the 
entire strength of the organization from every section of the Union 
is thrown into this one channel. 

The Objects of the Jr. 0. U. A. M. are four in number— four 
pillars on which the superstructure rests. The first looks to the 
dangers that threaten us as a nation and suggests the safeguards. 
The second links the membership with the dearest purposes of life — 
the care of their families in the darker hours of human existence. 
The third brings men in touch with the uplifting and ennobling in- 
fluences of popular education, the sheet-anchor of our Eepublic. 
These are great and noble purposes for which the Order stands; 
but they are nothing more than the moon reflecting the golden rays 
of the greater orb — the Fourth Object, the " darling " Object of the 
Junior organization. Nothing touches the heart-side of humanity 
so tenderly as the little ones thrown upon a cold and selfish world ; 
and nothing reveals the Christ-life so clearly as the purpose of the 
Order in caring for them. 

The full history of the National Orphans' Home, at Tiffin, 
Ohio, cannot be told. It is true we can give the historic facts and 
details connected with the founding and achievements of the Home ; 
but no one can unfold the real story that is graven on the fleshy 
tablets of the hearts of those who have been brought in closer 
relation with the Institution. 

It is to be presumed, that among the many thousands of mem- 
bers of the Junior Order, there were those who had thought of an 
Orphans' Home, and even may have given expression of their 
thought to others, but no official stamp was put upon it. They 
were familiar with other organizations that were giving the helping 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 85 

hand to the little ones of their fraternal Family, and wondered why 

some one hud not come to the front with the suggestion and plan 
of an Orphans' Home for the Junior Order. That some one did 
come forth and the National Orphans' Home is but the finished 
creation of a developed thought. 

To the State Council of Ohio is due the honor of bringing the 
subject of an Orphans' Home to the attention of the NTational 
Council; but it is fair to state that to a humble worker in the ranks 
is due the credit of suggesting the thought of a Home, and to a 
Subordinate Council we owe our thanks for first giving the 
thought and suggestion official action. As far as our investigation 
goes, as given by Brother Kernan, it is quite clear that to Brother 
Charles Lawrence, at the time a member of Freedom Council, 
No. 63, of Mansfield, Ohio, belongs the credit of suggesting the 
idea of an Orphans' Home, by offering in his Council in 1891 a 
resolution asking the Representatives to the State Council to bring 
before that body the feasibility of creating a " Widows' and 
Orphans' Home." This was the inceptive thought, and the matter 
was submitted to the State Council of Ohio, the same year, by 
Brother Lawrence. 

The resolution submitted to the State Council, known as the 
" Original Orphans' Home Resolution," is as follows : 

" Findlay, Omo, May 13, 1891. 
" To the Officers and Members of the State Council of Ohio, Jr. 0. U. A. M. 
" Dear Sirs and Brothers. — 

•* Whereas, We believe that the education and protection of the 
orphan children of deceased Brothers should be one of the principal 
objects of our Order, and that the founding and maintenance of a college 
where the higher branches of education shall be taught, and the principles 
of American Patriotism and Virtue shall prevail, be it 

" Resolved, That our Representatives to the National Council be 
instructed to present this resolution to that body and that they use their 
best efforts for its adoption. tt CjrABLES Lawrence." 

It was left to Brother J. H. Zimmerman, of Plain City, Ohio, 
to take the initiatory, and so fully imbued was lie with the noble 
purpose, that he threw his whole soul into the movement and 
work and justly earned the title, " Father of the Orphans' Home." 
Acting upon the Lawrence resolution, the State Council of Ohio 
placed its approval upon record by passing a resolution instructing 
the Representatives to the National Council to bring the matter 
before that body. 



86 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

In conformity with the above resolution, the Representatives 
to the National Council from Ohio, at the session of that body 
held at Cleveland, Ohio, June 18, 1891, offered the following: 

" Under the present condition and laws of our Order when a member 
unites with us we greet him with the right hand of fellowship, and pledge 
ourselves to be earnest friends with him during his membership, to nurse 
and tenderly care for him during sickness or adversities, and should he 
die a certain amount of money shall be paid his widow and children, 
should he leave any. When this is done we consider our obligation to 
the deceased brother to have ceased, and no attention is paid to the fact 
that his death may have caused a widow and orphan children, in indigent 
circumstances, to be thrown upon the cold charities of the world. The widow 
is compelled to shift for herself while the children are scattered and 
either allowed to grow up in ignorance or, as is sometimes the case, 
proselyted into and reared by that known enemy to our freedom and free 
institutions — the parochial school. As a result our offspring are reared 
and educated to tear down what we are trying to build up, to become 
un-American and endeavor to cause the downfall and destruction of the 
free government under which they were given birth. 

" This evil should be counteracted, and believing the Junior Order 
United American Mechanics is fully able to take care of itself and the 
orphans of its members, we would recommend the establishing of an 
orphans' home, where member's widows could spend the remainder of 
their days in comfort, and their children would be so educated as to be 
true American men and women when they arrive at maturity. If the home 
should be placed on a farm of good land it would, to a great extent, be 
self-supporting. The details of such arrangement we leave to the National 
Council, further, that if such a home should be provided, it should 
at all times be under the immediate control of the National Council or 
a Board of Managers appointed by and subservient to the National 
Council. 

" In view of the foregoing, we, the Representatives of Ohio, by direc- 
tion of our State Council, offer the following: 

"Resolved, That this National Council take some preliminary steps 
toward providing a home for the orphans of deceased members." 

On motion of Brother Elbert, of New Jersey, the proposition 
was referred to a Special Committee to report at the next session. 
The Committee consisted of Brothers Elbert, Anderson, DeLancey, 
Zimmerman and Stroh. The Committee, however, at the next 
session had no report to make owing to the absence of the Secretary, 
Brother Zimmerman. The Committee was continued. 

THE FIRST REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON ORPHANS' HOME 

It was at the National session, held at Detroit, Mich., 1893, 
that the Committee got down to real business in the presentation 
of an exhaustive report consisting of fifty-three pages of manuscript 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 87 

and thirteen drawings. The report, with all the plans and draw- 
ings submitted, was the work of Brother J. H. Zimmerman, Secre- 
tary of the Committee, whose devotion to duty should be appreciated 
by every Junior in the land. 

In relation to the object of the Home, Brother Zimmerman 
refers to the original purpose of creating a " Widows' and Orphans' 
Home"; that there would be objections in making it a refuge for 
widows, etc., and adds : 

" The one great object of the Home, to my mind, is to care for the 
orphans, and so rear and educate them that they will be honorable, intelli- 
gent American citizens." 

The Secretary of the Committee then refers to the location 
for the Home in which he offers some suggestions: 

" The location which I would favor would be a farm or tract of land 
containing, at least, 150 acres of choice, tillable land, and far more atten- 
tion should be paid the natural productiveness of the soil than to any 
other thing." 

Speaking of several sites that had been brought to his attention 
that in his judgment would be desirable locations, he continues : 

" I have no doubt, but that when the time comes, and we shall be 
ready to receive proposals, that we will be tendered a farm free in con- 
sideration of our locating the Home upon it. Not only this, but a bonus 
in cash may also accompany it as a further inducement, but I claim that 
any inducement or bonus that may be offered us should not cause us to 
forget or overlook the natural productiveness and advantages of the 
farm offered." 

In the general description of the plan for the Home, two plans 
were submitted, with accompanying drawings: The first, was the 
Main Building Plan, and the other the Cottage or Village Plan. 
Referring to the first plan, drawings were submitted showing, as 
the name of the building was called, Main Building, but one large 
building, five stories in height, costing, as per estimate, $40,000, 
and a schoolhouse and chapel as a separate building costing, 
approximately, $11,000. 

The second plan presented was the Cottage or Village Plan 
which, to Brother Zimmerman's mind, possessed many advantages 
over the first plan. It consisted of a number of cottages grouped in 
a circle around a park, there being a street in front of the cottages 
surrounding the park, and two streets leading thereto, on which the 
group of buildings would begin. 



S8 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

The reason- flic latter plan was favored by Brother Zimmerman 
were summarized as follows : 

1. It will lit our pocket-books in the beginning. 

2. Its capacity can be more conveniently increased as the needs of 
the Order may require. 

3. In case of fire it is not probable that the entire Home would be 
destroyed, as might be the result in the case of the main building. 

4. The Home would be more beautiful and homelike and would not 
have the appearance of a " reformatory " or " house of refuge." 

5. The village plan is modern and in keeping with the times. 

Following the report of Brother Zimmerman made to the 
Committee, the Committee submitted the following to the National 
Body, giving to Brother Zimmerman the proper acknowledgment 
for the work accomplished: 

"First. That the entire report be printed and circulated among the 
membership, in order that all may become acquainted with this laudable 
undertaking. 

" Second. That your Committee recommends the adoption of the 
second or Village Plan herein recommended by Bro. Zimmerman. 

" Third. We recommend that during the ensuing year the Committee 
be instructed to receive by correspondence any proposal that may be 
offered by any council or councils, as to what aid the Committee might 
expect of them in case the proposed Home should be located in their 
immediate vicinity; said proposal to be submitted to the National Council 
at its next meeting." 

This report was signed by four of the Committee, viz.: Geo 
W. Elbert, W. Pi. Stroh, J. H. Zimmerman and D. F. Anderson, 
Curtis DeLancy, the other member not being present at the session. 
The report was accepted by the National Body and the preliminary 
steps had been taken toward the erection of the present Home at 
Tiffin, Ohio. 

From the report of the Committee to the National Council, 
held at Asheville, N. C, in 1894, we learn that the year previous 
had been full of hard work for Brother Zimmerman, with the 
assistance of National Secretary Deemer. Pursuant to the action 
of last session, 2,500 copies of the report of the Committee had been 
printed, correspondence invited, and pledges asked toward the 
erection of the Home. The Committee reported to the Asheville 
session, that under the supervision of Brother Zimmerman, the work 
of education along the line of the Orphans' Home had gone on 
through the press of the Order and by correspondence, and that 
there was an awakening upon the subject. While the Committee 
did not receive the amount of pledges they had hoped for, yet they 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 89 

were encouraged and asked that the Committee be continued, with 
instructions to push the work as rapidly as possible: and at the 
same time to make the matter of location the business of the next 
session of the National Body. 

The amount pledged was as follows: 

Pennsylvania $2,350.00 

Ohio 7G8.00 

New Jersey 406.50 

West Virginia 25.00 

Maryland 25.00 

Indiana 27.50 

Illinois 51.00 

P. S. C. Creighton 15.00 

Miscellaneous 35.00 

Total $3,703.00 

Circulars sent out 1,911 

Answers received 312 

Councils promised to aid 256 

Councils unable to promise 55 

Councils disapproved of the idea 1 

The report of the Committee was optimistic, however, and 
they felt that once the location was settled, that the Order would 
come to the help of the Home. The report and recommendations 
of the Committee were received and adopted, and the Committee 
continued, Brother J. W. Calver having been appointed on the 
Committee. 

THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE HOME 

The period between the sessions of 1894 and 1895, so far as 
the Orphans' Home project is concerned, was marked with mighty 
purposes, while with the Committee it was intensely strenuous. 
Hitherto the work had been largely theoretical, simply stepping- 
stones to grander possibilities ; but now the Committee had entered 
the realm of the practical, and were in position, at the session of 
1895, to present to the National Body something tangible. 

Early in the year the Committee met at Pittsburg, Pa., where 
plans were inaugurated looking toward the selection of a location 
for the Home. Pursuant to instructions, the Secretary of the 
Committee advertised for proposals for the location of the Institu- 
tion until January 1, 1895. In order to give two of the places 
more time to fully present their claims, the time for receiving pro- 
posals was extended to February 23, 1895. In the meantime, 
National Councilor, Brother Richter issued a call to the entire 



90 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

Order asking for a donation of fifty cents per capita from the 
membership to aid in the construction of the Home. Thus, on two 
separate and distinct lines the work proceeded, viz.: Procuring a 
location for the Eome and means to build it. 

The following places, with propositions attached, were pre- 
sented to the Committee, viz. : 

1. The Pomona Land Company at Brigantine Junction, near Atlantic 
City, N. J., agreed to sell 40 acres at less than $300 per acre. 

2. The Brumbaugh Brothers of Pipersville, Pa., proposed selling 
their farm of 250 acres, near Altoona, Blair County, for $15,000. 

3. Liberty, Mo., offered the following inducement, and presented the 
following reasons why the Home should be located near that place: $1,000 
bonus. 

a. Because this is a geographical center. 

b. Because of its railroad facilities. Kansas City is only 15 miles 

distant. 

c. Educational facilities. Three colleges, one public school, and one 

high school. 

d. We have just received the Independent Order of Odd Fellows' 

Home for Missouri. 

e. The fertility of the soil. 

4. Gettysburg,' Pa., through Battlefield Council, No. 717. The 
inducements held out was mainly the importance of the location from a 
historic standpoint. No bonus was offered. 

5. Asheville, N. C, through Asheville Council, No. 6, proposed that 
beautiful spot for the Home. No other inducement was offered, excepting 
the natural scenic surroundings of the locality, and the healthfulness of 
the place. 

6. Bellwood, Pa., through National Representative, C. E. Steel, was 
proposed, " very good site " being offered. 

7. Boiling Springs, near Carlisle, Pa., through Carlisle Council, No. 
574. The merits of the site proposed were fully presented by the Com- 
mittee, in a long letter to the Secretary of the Orphans' Home Committee. 
The site proposed consisted of a farm of 122 acres, situated in the famous 
Cumberland Valley, very fertile and well located as to getting to and 
from. The water supply came from the Boiling Springs, a spring of 
pure water the output of which was 2200 cubic feet per hour. No bonus 
was ofTered in the original proposal. 

8. Springfield, Ohio, was presented, but not very earnestly pressed 
as they had already three Homes. "We are not very anxious for the 
Home, as it is an expense all the time. There will be visitors here all 
the time and they must lie cared for." 

9. Colorado Springs, Colo., while not making a special proposal, 
wrote for information, relative to the Eome, etc., but no further action 
was taken by their Committee. 

10. Youngstown, Ohio, was proposed by the Board of Commerce, and 
a farm of 100 acres and a bonus of $10,000 offered. 

11. Allentown, Pa., through Allen Council, No. 753, made a formal 
offer to give $100 if the Home was located near their city, or $50 if 
located in Pennsylvania. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 91 

12. Maueh chunk. Pa., through Brother W. R. Stroh, member of 

the Orplnins' Home Committee. Five different sites, four of them con- 
sisting of 35 acres each, and one of 60 acres, wore offered with a bonus 
of $10,000. The merits of Maueh Chunk were fully presented by the 
Committee, as healthful and attractive, styling the place as the ''Switzer- 
land of America." 

13. In an elaborate report, Tiffin, Ohio, through Young America 
Council. No. 130, was proposed as the location of the Home and 11 loca- 
tions and offers were submitted. With justifiable pride the Committee 
presented, as prefatory, the following: 

" The project has taken deep hold of our membership, and the people 
in general of our city, and we, in this substantial manner, give evidence 
to our feeling. We are proud that the Home is an Ohio idea, for Obio is 
foremost in every sphere of endeavor." 

Referring to the claims of Pennsylvania to the Home in view of her 
great membership, nearly one-half in the Order, the Committee add: 

"It is true our membership is not equal to Pennsylvania's; but 
remember, if the Home is located in Ohio, each brother has pledged himself 
to give an extra dollar in addition to the fifty cent call made by our 
honored National Councilor, so that Ohio will be close to Pennsylvania in 
donations to the building fund." 

Speaking of the fertility of Seneca county, the character of the 
City of Tiffin, the fact that it is easy of access, the Committee presented 
the following sites and offers: 

1. One hundred acres and $13,000, or 125 acres and $11,000. This 

proposal was changed to 155 acres and no bonus. 

2. A farm of 207 acres, 175 of which was bottom land. 

3. One hundred and sixty acres and $10,000. 

4. One hundred and fifty acres, with gas and oil on farm. 

5. One hundred and fifty acres and $5,000. 

6. One hundred and fifty acres and $10,000. 

7. One hundred and sixty acres and $7,000. 

8. One hundred and sixty acres and $5,000. 

9. One hundred and fifty acres and $5,000. 

10. One hundred and fifty acres and $5,000. 

11. One hundred and eighty acres and $2,500. 

12. Twenty-five thousand in cash and Committee to select their own 

location. 

To consider the above locations and hear representatives for 
same, the Committee on Orphans' Home met at the Monongahela 
House, Pittsburg, Pa., February 23, 1895. All the Committee 
excepting Brother DeLancy, of New Hampshire, were present, and 
Past State Councilor Stephen Collins of Pennsylvania, Past State 
Councilor F. J. Shaler, of Illinois, and National Councilor J. (!. A. 
Richter were asked to sit with the Committee. The rules of the 
Committee were as follows: 

1. Debate before the Committee unlimited; but a city or proposal 
once finished shall remain finished, and shall not again be opened, except 
by unanimous consent of the Committee. 



92 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

2. All representatives of the same city will be admitted; but not 
the representatives of two <>r more cities at the same time. 

3. Reporters invited to be present during the receiving of proposals. 

4. Bro. Stroh to act as press committee and take care of reporters. 

The Secretary proceeded to read the proposals as referred to 
above, but no one was present to represent any of them until that 
of No. 7 w;is reached, Boiling- Springs, Pa., whereupon, Dr. C. E. 
Wogan and linn. M. A. Emerick appeared in behalf of this location. 
They were authorized to offer a farm free consisting of 122 acres 
which would cost $20,000. 

The committee from Youngstown represented the claims of 
that locality, offering a farm of 100 acres* and $10,000. Mauch 
Chunk Avas represented and offers, as per Proposal 12, were sub- 
mitted. The Committee from Young America Council, No. 136, 
of Tiffin, Ohio, then presented their propositions as given above, 
and Dr. H. L. Wenner, a member of Young America Council, 
and State Councilor of Ohio, was their spokesman, and in a most 
earnest and enthusiastic manner did he represent the claims of 
Tiffin. The Doctor from the beginning was in thorough sympathy 
with the proposed Home, and the Order owes much to him for the 
assistance rendered the first years of the Institution, when it not 
only needed moral, but financial support as well. 

The Committee decided to reject all proposals, except those of 
Boiling Springs, Pa., and Tiffin, Ohio, and hold them under advise- 
ment until the meeting of the National Council. 

The Committee was not able to report very much money 
raised, owing to the fact that there was a hesitancy about pledging 
any amount until the matter of location was settled. The Com- 
mittee having failed to decide between Boiling Springs, Pa., and 
Tiffin, Ohio, there sprang up a rivalry between these two places 
to secure the prize. Boiling Springs took the initiative by appeal- 
ing for outside aid, and under the approval of the Board of Officers 
of Pennsylvania, Carlisle Council, No. 574, sent circulars to all 
Councils in the state. The State Council of Ohio, in session at 
Mansfield, in May, met this movement by rallying the Councils 
of the state to the aid of Y"oung America Council, No. 136, and 
the following result, in pledges, was reported: 

Pennsylvania Councils will give for Boiling Springs. $200.00 

" " Tiffin Nothing-. 

Ohio Councils will give for Boiling Springs $ 40.00 

" Tiffin 2,810.50 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 93 

A further conditional pledge which the Committee received, 
was from State Councilor Dr. H. L. Wenner offering, in the name 
of the State Board of Officers, one dollar per capita for the State 
of Ohio, providing the Home was located at Tiffin. 

This magnificent offer from the Board of Officers of Ohio, 
added to the offer of land, money and other considerations by 
Young America Council, No. 136, of Tiffin, Ohio, made the total 
sum pledged from the old Buckeye State of Fifty-five Thousand 
Five Hundred Dollars, with no other consideration than that 
the Home be located at Tiffin. Magnificent generosity! All hail 
to the Buckeye State to whose princely offerings others have been 
added from that time until the present. 

We have referred to the one who gave the first suggestion of 
a Home for orphans, and to the Council that placed upon record the 
first resolution looking toward the establishment of such a Home. 
But it is asked, Who contributed the first dollar toward the Insti- 
tution ? The report of the Committee on Orphans' Home answered 
the question, viz. : Susquehanna Council, No. 73, of Maryland, 
contributed one dollar December 18, 1894. 

The Committee on Orphans' Home submitted the following 
recommendations at the Omaha Session of 1895 : 

" 1. We recommend that a Home for Widows and Orphans of our 
Order, as contemplated, be established. 

" 2. We recommend that said Home be established at, or near the 
city of Tiffin, Ohio, and that the Committee be empowered to make selec- 
tion from the various locations offered, receive deed for the conveyance 
of the property in the name of the National Council, Junior Order United 
American Mechanics of the United States of America, and enter upon 
and take possession of the same in the name of the National Council, 
Junior Order United American Mechanics, as aforesaid, as soon as the 
Committee has procured the assurance that it will receive and command 
the sum of thirty thousand dollars, to be paid within two years. 

"3. That this National Council set apart the first week in April to 
be known as ' Orphans' Home Week,' during which week, all Subordinate 
Councils of the Order be requested to hold entertainments, festivals, fairs, 
etc., for the benefit of the Home, and that the National Councilor be 
instructed each year, to issue a proclamation, calling the attention of the 
membership throughout the United States to the proper observance of this 
festival week. 

" 4. That the appeal of Brother National Councilor, J. G. A. Richter, 
asking for a donation of fifty cents per capita from the entire membership 
of the Order, to the support of the Home be renewed by the Board of 
Officers of the National Council, and that the Board be instructed to 



94 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

officially bring this matter before the attention of the Hoard of Officers 
of the various State Councils with as little delay as possible." 

These recommendations were signed by the Committee, viz.: 

(J. W. Elbert, W. R. Steoh, 

J. 11. Zimmerman, J. W. Calver. 

In the consideration of the recommendations before the Na- 
tional Body, the subject was discussed with animation and the ayes 
and nays were frequently called. In the consideration of the first 
recommendation, mi motion of Brother A. D. Wilkin, of Pennsyl- 
vania, it was carried by a vote of llfi ayes to 35 nays. 

The National Council then took up the second recommenda- 
tion, as to the location of the Home, whereupon, H. W. Buser, of 
Pennsylvania, moved to strike out all after " Junior Order United 
American Mechanics " and insert a provision that it be referred to 
the vote of the members of the Order for their approval or dis- 
approval. The point of order was raised by Brother Wilkin that 
the amendment was not in order, which was so decided by the 
National Councilor, from which decision an appeal was taken, but 
the National Councilor was sustained. 

It was quite clear that there was an element in the National 
Council that was opposed to the proposed location, as per recom- 
mendation of the Committee, and every form of parliamentary tac- 
tics w r as brought forward to defeat the recommendation. Buser 
then changed his amendment to read "Vote cast," but Brother 
Wilkin again raised the point of order that the amendment was not 
germane, which point also the National Councilor decided well 
taken. Buser then changed his amendment again so as to read, 
" Approval of the majority vote of Subordinate Councils." Finally 
the amendment was made to read as follows: 

" Provided that the Orphans' Home Committee be continued for 
another year, and that the action of the National Council in deciding to 
erect a Widow's and Orphans' Home be submitted to the Subordinate 
members of the Order for approval or disapproval: said vote to be taken 
on the first meeting night in September, 1805. and if a majority of the 
votes cast be in favor of such action, as shown by the returns computed 
by the Board of Officers, at a meeting held on September 16, the Committee 
shall proceed to accept the offer, and the National Secretary shall prepare 
the necessary papers to take the vote." 

The amendment being stated, the ayes and nays were called, 
whereupon 70 voted in favor of the amendment and 85 against, so 
the motion to amend was not agreed to. Upon the question being 
stated, "Shall the main question be put?" the ayes were 89 and 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 95 

the nays 58. The question recurring on the original motion of 
Brother Wilkin to adopt the second recommendation, the ayes were 
102 and the nays 51. Recommendations 3 and 4 were then agreed 
to. Thus by a substantial majority the Home was established, 
and the location for it, Tiffin, Ohio. In a study of the vote on the 
question, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia were opposed to the 
establishment of the Home as well as the local ion of the same. 
while Penns}dvania split about even. On the question of location, 
New Jersey split half, although on the question of establishing 
the Home, she voted solidly in favor. 

Subsequently, in the session, the Committee on Orphans' 
Home offered the following recommendation to be added to their 
original report: 

" That the Committee on Orphans' Home are hereby requested to 
take no action in regard to the establishment of a Home for Widows 
until directed by the National Council." 

The recommendation was asrreed to. 






CHAPTER VIII 
NATIONAL ORPHANS' HOME (Concluded) 

SITE OF THE HOME 

THE first epoch of the Orphans' Home — its establishment — was 
ended, and we now enter upon its second epoch, the location 
of site and opening of the Home and its subsequent achievements. 

The report of the Committee on Orphans' Home to the Na- 
tional Council at its meeting, June 18, 1896, held at Denver, Colo., 
tells the story: 

" Jn pursuance of a call by the Chairman, Brother G. W. Elbert, the 
Committee met at Tiffin, Ohio, October 3, 1S95, for the purpose of making 
a selection from the various farms offered by Young America Council, 
No. 136, of Tiffin, for the permanent location of the proposed Orphans' 
Home. The members of the Committee present were Brothers Elbert, 
Calver and Zimmerman. Headquarters were established in Room 39 of 
the Empire House, and at 7.30 a.m. the Committee started in carriages 
on a tour of inspection. We were accompanied by Brothers Dr. H. L. 
Wenner, P. A. Bradley and F. A. Mabery, and during the forenoon visited 
and inspected the farms of Dr. Isaac Kagy, C. D. Lease, Frees Heirs, and 
H. A. Waggoner, when the party returned to the hotel for dinner. At 1.15 
p.m. the party was again in the carriages, and during the afternoon visited 
farms known as the Neikirk & Cramer, A. Buskirk, Michael Kellar, John 
Baker, Leroy Michaels and the Bretz-Kellar farm, familiarly known as 
the ' Park Farm.' 

" Immediately after supper Brother Elbert called the Committee to 
order in executive session in Room 39, when the advantages and disad- 
vantages of the several farms offered were considered until 7.30 p.m., 
when the local committee was admitted and allowed a hearing. The local 
committee retired at 8 o'clock, and after further consideration, the Secre- 
tary was ordered to issue the following: 

" ' To Dr. H. L. Wenner, Chairman, Committee on Orphans' Home, Young 
America Council, No. 136, Junior 0. U. A. M., Tiffin, Ohio.' 
" ' Dear Brother. — ' 
" ' At a meeting of the Committee of the National Council, Junior 
O. U. A. M., to establish an Orphans' Home at or near the city of Tiffin, 
Ohio, we beg leave to hereby inform you that said committee has per- 
sonally visited and inspected the various farms offered, and by a unanimous 
vote of the members present we have chosen the Bretz-Kellar farm, just 
north of Riverview Park.' 

" ' Trusting our selection will be for the mutual benefit of your 
Council and the Order at large, we are ' 

" 'Yours fraternally,' " ( ' signed ' ) 

"*G. W. Elbert,' 
"'J. W. Calver,' 
96 " ' J. H. Zimmerman '." 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 97 

It has long since become apparent, even to those who in the 
beginning were prejudiced to the location, that no better selection 
could have been made. The farm chosen consists of 177 acres of 
as fertile land as can be found anvwhere, situated on the banks 
of the Sandusky River and convenient to the city of Tiffin. The 
most important outside feature connected with this location and one 
that entered somewhat in the selection of same, is the Park adjoin- 
ing, the free use of which has been accorded the children of the 
Home. This magnanimous privilege granted, thus affording a 
playground, meant and still means thousands of dollars to the 
Home, as without that privilege the Trustees of the Home would 
have been compelled to provide a playground on their own land 
which would have been costly, not only in material and work, but 
in preoccupying valuable land. 

In speaking of the munificent contribution towards this noble 
purpose of Young America Council, ISTo. 136 in particular, and 
of the State of Ohio in general, the Committee submitted the 
following : 

" This magnificent location of farm is given to the Order absolutely 
free. It don't cost us a single penny, but it does cost Young America 
Council, No. 136, of Tiffin, Ohio, the sum of twenty-nine thousand five 
hundred dollars, spot cash, and the Council then deeds it over to us ' for 
and in consideration that we take it.' What an enormous donation this 
is for a single Council that is not yet five years old. 

" Brothers, listen a few moments until we tell you of the greatness 
of Tiffin and the State of Ohio in regards to the Home. In the first place, 
Young America Council, No. 136, gives us the Riverview Farm, at an 
average cost to them of nearly seventy dollars per capita, and then many 
make additional donations. Think a moment, seventy dollars per capita! 
Members outside of Ohio are only asked for fifty cents. We can summarize 
as follows: 

" Young America Council, No. 136 $29,500.00 

Park privileges, material, convenience, etc., esti- 
mated 10,000.00 

State Council of Ohio 15,500.00 

Subordinate Councils of Ohio 2,816.50 

Ohio's total gift to the Order $57,816.50 " 

(" Ohio's total gift means an average of per capita donation 
of three dollars and seventy-three cents, or more than seven times 
as much as is asked from members outside- the Buckeye State") 

At the same time the Committee on Orphans' Home had 
selected the location, the Secretary was authorized to send out to 
all the Councils of the Order a circular letter containing twelve 



98 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

question?, among which were: How much each Council would 
pledge and send in money previous to March 1, 1896? How many 
children there were ready to be sent to the Home? Whether the 
Council was in favor of a parade when the Committee was ready 
to take possession of the Home and how many members would 
attend ? 

Outside of Ohio, 398 Councils were heard from, 232 of which 
pledged themselves to pay to the Committee previous to the time 
stated, $9,495.60. In addition 22 Councils by letter and not by 
regular blanks, pledged $850.85, making the total pledged outside 
of Ohio, of $10,276.45. 

In reference to the number of children of deceased brothers 
ready to be sent to the Home, 31 Councils gave notice that they 
would make application for admission of 150 children, and 17 
Councils gave notice by letter, and not by blank, that they had 52 
children ready to send, making a total number of children reported 
ready for admission to the Home of 202. 

In the matter of having a public demonstration at the time 
the Committee took formal possession of the Home, 301 Councils 
favored the suggestion, 80 objected and 17 failed to make choice. 
These were from Councils outside of Ohio, and the number pledged 
to take part in such a demonstration was 8,235 which, with those 
pledged from Ohio, made a grand total of 13,591. 

An important meeting of the Committee on Orphans' Home 
was held at Philadelphia, Pa., March 19 and 20, 1896. The deed 
for one of the farms was turned over to the Committee, and arrange- 
ments were made to have the deed of the other tract by April 15, 
in order that the Organization could come into entire possession. 
At this meeting plans for buildings and the laying out of the 
grounds were examined, and the Committee selected those of 
Charles Ernest & Co., of Tiffin, Ohio. The plans consisted of 
eighty-two drawings, beginning with a contour map, a bird's-eye 
view of the Home when completed and floor plans and perspectives 
of all buildings contemplated. The Committee selected three de- 
signs for cottages, and finally agreed to take Cottage C as the first 
one to construct. 

THE OrENING OF THE HOME 

It was impressed upon the Committee that there should be a 
representative on the ground, and that the Home should be started 
as soon as possible. With this end in view, the Committee elected 
the Secretary, Brother J. H. Zimmerman, Superintendent of the 



-• -r- — "' 





UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 99 

Home for a term of five years, at a salary of $750 the first year. 
Rules, forty in number, for the government of the Home were 
adopted. 

In conformity with the action of the Committee, the Superin- 
tendent took charge of the farm and occupied the two-story frame 
building in the month of April, 1896, and there, on August 18, 
same year, was received the first orphans, four in number. Farm- 
ing operations were inaugurated by the Superintendent, a farmer 
employed and fifty acres of corn was planted and three acres in 
potatoes. The contract for Cottage No. 1 was given out and work 
thereon was started early in August. The response to the appeals 
for funds for the Home, netted $13,072.32, which was turned 
over to the National Secretary, by Secretary-Superintendent. 
Brother Zimmerman. 

In harmony with the principles of the Order, Brother J. W. 
Calver presented the Home with " Old Glory," and the same was 
unfurled from the original building, with appropriate ceremonies, 
May 1, 1896, Dr. Wenner and others making addresses, the cere- 
monies opening and closing with prayer. 

With the adoption of the report of the Committee on Orphans' 
Home by the National Body at Denver, the Order was pledged to 
its support and maintenance, and that which many thought was 
but a " dream " in the mind of Brother Zimmerman, was now a 
reality. Even the National Secretary, Brother Deemer, in his 
report to this session admits that he was pessimistic. The follow- 
ing quotation from his report expresses the feeling of many in the 
early years of the Orphans' Home project: 

" Very feAv of us, I ween, had any idea that the proposition would 
ever reach a tangible form. The reports of the Committee on Orphans' 
Home were made annually and very few of lis had any idea that it would 
ever reach the dignity of a deed for nearly thirty thousand dollars' worth 
of property. While many of us were looking upon the matter as a fancy, 
the one in whose brain the subject was conceived was deadly in earnest, 
and one year ago he presented to this body an offer which could not be 
refused, and so to-day, our Order stands pledged to the erection of an 
Orphans' Home in the city of Tiffin." 

Brother Deemer, however, alluded to the difficulties in the way 
of the Home and the legal questions that had to be met, owing 
to the fact that the courts had decided that " no assessment could 
be made for any purpose not clearly expressed in our laws." In 
harmony with the suggestion of the National Secretary, the title 
" Orphans' Home Committee " was stricken out and a set of 



100 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

resolutions creating a " Board of Trustees " consisting of five mem- 
bers, and powers bestowed upon them, was adopted by the National 
Council. By virtue of this action, the National Councilor ap- 
pointed the following Board of Trustees: 

G. W. Elbert, of New Jersey, W. E. Stroh, of Pennsylvania, 

J. W. Calver, of Pennsylvania, Amos L. Cray, of Indiana, 

Dr. H. L. Wenner, of Ohio. 

Brother Stroh having resigned during the year, Brother W. D. 
Butterfield, of Michigan, was appointed in his place. 

COTTAGE NO. 1 

The Board of Trustees of the Orphans' Home in July, 1896, 
closed the contract for the erection of Cottage No. 1, Cuthbert 
& Stewart, of Tiffin, Ohio, being the contractors. Work upon the 
building was commenced early in August and the corner-stone was 
laid September 2, 1896. 

The ceremonies attending the laying of the corner-stone were 
of an enthusiastic character, and were under the direction of Young 
America Council, No. 136, of Tiffin. There was present a large 
audience, and many of the surrounding Councils were represented. 
The orator of the day was a member of Freedom Council, No. 63, 
of Mansfield, Ohio, Hon. W. S. Kerr. It is spoken of by those 
who attended the ceremonies as a most impressive occasion, the 
memories of which linger pleasantly with all who were present. 

On August IS, 1896, the first children were admitted to the 
Home, four in number, from one family, viz. : Luella Vanarsdale. 
aged 12 years; Edward T. Vanarsdale, aged 9 years; Geo. T. 
Vanarsdale, aged 8 years, and Frank W. Vanarsdale, aged 6 years, 
all received from Wanamie Council, No. 549, of Wanamie, Penn- 
sylvania. These children occupied the post of honor during the 
ceremonies, sitting by the side of Superintendent Zimmerman and 
his wife. 

It was while the exercises were in progress, that a most affect- 
ing incident occurred. A telegram called the Superintendent to 
the depot to receive the second installment of children for the 
Home. Their names were Jennie E. Stone, aged 8 years, Hannah 
M. Schwindt, aged 8 years, and Bertha Schwindt, aged 10 years, 
all sent by Major Wm. H. Jennings Council, No. 367, Shenandoah, 
Pa. Just as Brother Kerr had concluded his oration, Brother 
Zimmerman, with the above named new arrivals, walked up the 
steps and took seats on the platform, each of the little girls carry- 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 101 

ing a doll in her arms. The band played " Home, Sweet Home/' 
whereupon the little ones began to weep, when out of sympathy 
and love for the orphans, there was not an eye in that audience 
of patriots that did not moisten. 

So rapidly did the work on the building progress, that by 
February 1, 1897, the little but much crowded family from the 
original cottage were moved in, and on February 12, appropriate 
dedicatory exercises were held under the auspices of Young Amer- 
ica Council, No. 136. At this service, the principal oration was 
made by Dr. L. A. Perce, State Councilor of Ohio, while short 
addresses were made by Brothers Eev. E. E. Swords, Rev. F. L. 
Sigmund, Dr. H. L. Wenner, Superintendent J. H. Zimmerman 
and the matron, Miss Annie C. Hoge. Into this building Brother 
Zimmerman took from the old building which had been the tem- 
porary Home, nineteen children, which number with the Superin- 
tendent's own family and help, made twenty-eight persons in all. 

The building, with furniture, cost $9,505.69, and was intended 
to accommodate forty children, but by the time the National Body 
met at Pittsburg, June, 1897, there were thirty-eight children 
in the Home. 

The report of the Trustees of the Home to the National Coun- 
cil held at Pittsburg, was very encouraging and showed that the 
membership was earnestly striving to maintain it. The Superinten- 
dent gave the best of satisfaction in the management of the farm, 
and in a detailed report, showed every item of expense and the 
value of everything belonging to the Home. The total receipts 
from all sources, since the last report, was $12,094.92. 

In addition to Cottage No. 1, the Trustees erected an electric 
light and water station, at a cost of $2,370.89. An ice house also 
was constructed, besides many minor improvements about the farm, 
putting it under better cultivation. 

Two years previous to the session of the National Council at 
Pittsburg, the National Body decided to establish a Home, and the 
location was fixed at Tiffin. Fifteen months previous the Commit- 
tee on Orphans' Home took possession of the property, and installed 
a Superintendent. On June 1, 1897, the Board of Trustees "took 
stock," and the result of the Order's investment far exceeded the 
most sanguine expectation. It will be gratifying to every Junior, 
even at this day, to know the summary. It is as follows : 



102 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

Cottage No. 1 $9,505.69 

Furniture and clothing 1,044.71 

Office inventory 305.11 

Superintendent's residence 779.06 

Light and water station 2.370.89 

Dry goods on hand '. 30.92 

Farming tools and implements 909.95 

Live stock 2,039.00 

Blacksmith shop and quarry 853.47 

Garden tools 35.45 

Total $17,874.25 

Add to this the value of farm (cost value) 29,500.00 

Grand total $47,374.25 

On this property, valued at nearly $50,000, there was not at 
that time one cent of indebtedness, while the Treasurer's report 
showed on hand, $2,533.75. The Superintendent's report showed 
that the acreage sown for the year's harvest was as follows : Wheat, 
201/2 acres; corn, 20 acres; rye, 5 acres; oats, 23 acres; potatoes, 
3 1 /. acres; garden truck, 3 acres; timothy and clover to mow, 25 
acres. 

The National Council in 1898 met in the city of Louisville, 
Kentucky. During the year the foundations of the Orphans' 
Home were made stronger by the adoption of the Sixth Object, viz. : 
'• To establish and erect an Orphans' Home for the orphans of our 
deceased members of the Order, and maintain the same." The 
Object having gone to the Subordinate Councils for their vote, the 
result was announced at this session. The vote stood 19,140 in 
favor of the Object and 16,224 against. 

THE NATIONAL ORPHANS' HOME UPHELD BY NATIONAL 
COUNCILORS 

None were more enthusiastic for the progress of the Home 
than those who occupied the position of National Councilor. Two 
years previous, the then National Councilor, Brother P. A. Shanor, 
in urging the Councils to rally to the support of the Home, ex- 
presses himself in the following brilliant manner: 

" The establishment of a National Orphans' Home was the most 
sublime and worthy conception of the National Council. It found its 
birth in the unselfish and generous conviction that the Order owed a 
duty to the children of its deceased members; that the bonds of fraternity 
were not severed at death, but that they should continue to be entwined 
around the loved ones of those of our brothers who had been called to 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 103 

the other shore, protecting, defending, comforting and caring for them 
at times when other resources failed. 

"No nobler work could enlist the efforts and engage the powers of 
any brotherhood. To care for the living is to honor the dead. To protect 
and care for his orphan is to put evergreen upon the grave of the departed 
brother. To raise his boy a true American is the greatest memorial that 
can be erected to the memory of the patriot who has been called hence. 

" It is, and ever should be, a labor of love. It should engage our 
highest powers, and enlist our most active sympathies. To scatter sun- 
shine along the path of our orphans will illumine our own lives. Their 
joy will be reflected in us, and we will reap gladness from their happiness." 

No less earnest was National Councilor, Brother Jos. Powell, 
who, during the year past urged the members of the Order to do 
their duty in voting for the Sixth Object, and issued a proclama- 
tion to all the Councils to that effect. In that proclamation, 
Brother Powell has the following to say : 

" We should not only consider it a solemn duty devolving upon each 
of us, but it should be held as a rare privilege to vote for the adoption 
of an object which shall rescue from a turbulent sea the little ones, who 
may be drifting, God knows whither, and place them in the lighthouse — 
our Orphans' Home. 

" The adoption of this most sacred object will lead to the moulding 
by our noble Order, of the minds of the future statesmen and ' great 
women,' who will point to the great Junior Order United American 
Mechanics as their benefactor, and thus, as they take their places among 
our country's workers, will our Order become very closely allied to the 
government, and thus will the Orphans' Home become the solid rock on 
which we stand, and thus, will it become the great centre about which 
will cluster our other great achievements." 

Could there be anything in human language more brilliant 
than from the " Demosthenes of the Order," Dr. J. L. Cooper, 
six years later, when National Councilor, in his appeal to the 
membership to give an evening or a day to helping the Home: 

" Fort Worth, Texas, April 1, 1904. 

" To all Members of the Junior Order United American Mechanics. 
" Dear Sirs and Brothers. — 
" I beg to greet you again in Virtue, Liberty and Patriotism. This 
beautiful spring morning seems to be the " Avant-Courier," emerald- 
gemmed and floral-decked herald of spring's first entree, as she weaves 
winter's cold winding sheet about her, and places, with rapt tenderness, 
the first fair garlands upon her icy tomb. The sparkling sunbeams of 
this April morning are now caressing in love the fragrant foliage of the 
tangled wildwood. And thus the swaying of Nature's grand organ peal, 
swells through the aisle of the forest sanctuary, and the violet, the daisy 
and the dewdrop, smiling from her bosom, peep through earth's bright 
vernal veil. As we gaze in rapt admiration upon this glorious prospect — 
the tall trees rejoicing in their strength ; the green slopes of the valleys 



104 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

which constitute the grand banquet halls of Nature; the sweet, thrilling 
song of the feathered tribe; the hum of the busy bee; the bursting of 
the bud with its sweet perfume ; the cheering rays of the glorious sunshine ; 
the babbling of the brook as it sends over laughing pebbles wavelets of 
rippling silver, all moving, as it were, like some vast panorama before 
us, the spontaneous utterance of the soul is, ' How beautiful is Earth, 
how true to Nature is her God.' 

" As we muse upon the munificence displayed by Him who ' Doeth 
all things well,' upon ourselves, our homes, our friends and our country, 
a spirit of love and gratitude should flow from our souls in exclamations 
of love and praise. And while thus we bathe in the rapturous glories of 
the springtime, I felt that we ought to be willing to give one day or 
one evening in a labor of love, toward helping our orphan children at 
our splendid Home in Tiffin. 

" I know we are living in busy times. I know that the magnitude 
and grandeur of man's successful undertakings, which are constantly 
recurring to our view, strike us with awe in contemplation. I know that 
each day brings something more for wonder and amazement; that each 
year is pregnant with new inventions, and each more wonderful that the 
last. I know, too, that each swelling billow of time flings out upon its 
frothy crest some new originality; that we stand ever in expectation, 
watching each successive roll; that Progress is a greedy monster, whose 
appetite is insatiable, always sweeping the whole, still asking for more, 
with curious eyes peering into the unknown future, ever demanding new 
creations. 

" Amidst the whirlpool of daily excitement, permit me to suggest 
and recommend: 

" That every Subordinate Council in the National Jurisdiction do 
something during the month of May, either by giving some appropriate 
entertainment, or by voluntary contributions at your regular meetings 
raise subscriptions for, and forward same to our Orphans' Home." 

In the report of the Board of Trustees of the Orphans' Home 
to the National Council at Louisville, they stated that during the 
year, the Superintendent, Brother J. H. Zimmerman, the " father 
of the Home," had resigned, and Past National Councilor, Rev. 
Jno. Pi. Boblits, had been elected to fill the position. Finding that 
more room was needed, the Trustees contracted for Cottage No. 2, 
and work began in its construction early in the year. The thanks 
of the Order are due Dr. H. L. Wenner for making it possible 
to erect Cottage No. 2, by personally advancing money and endors- 
ing notes and aiding in many ways the Institution. 

Luella Vanarsdale, known as No. 1, the first child to be ad- 
mitted to the home, died October 19, 1898. She was buried on the 
Home farm. 

The Trustees in their report to the National Council at Min- 
neapolis, Minn., in 1899, stated that there had been another change 
in the office of Superintendent, Brother Boblits having resigned 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 105 

in September, 1898, and Truman W. Varian was elected in his 
place, November 18, same year. In the meantime the president 
of the Board, Brother Elbert, assumed charge of the Home. Cot- 
tage No. 2 was completed during the year and was filled up at 
once with children, there being in the Home April 30, 1899, eighty- 
four orphans. The maintenance of the Home, for five months 
under Brother Varian's administration, for food, clothing, general 
expenses, etc., the average number of children being seventy-eight, 
was $5,586.36, a per capita of $71.62, or $171.89 per annum. 

The inventory, including Cottage No. 1, valued at $10,000, 
Cottage No. 2, valued at $14,000, the farm valued at $25,000, was 
placed by the Trustees at $62,877.20. 

COTTAGE NO. 2 

Cottage No. 2, known as the "boy's cottage," was completed 
in 1898 at a cost of about $15,000, and consists of kitchen, dining- 
room and fan room in basement. On first floor are the reception 
room, school room, boys' private bin-room and library; on second 
floor is the dormitory, superintendent's and family rooms, boys', 
matron's and teachers', toilet and bath, and store room ; on the third 
floor is the large boys' dormitory and the sleeping apartments for 
the employees of the Home. 

This building, like Cottage No. 1, is built of brick and fin- 
ished in yellow pine, and contains twenty-four rooms. Past Na- 
tional Councilor John W. Calver had the honor of laying the corner- 
stone of this structure in the presence of National Councilor Jos. 
Powell. 

We will let Brother C. H. Kernan, the present Superintendent 
of the Home, describe further this building, and the manner of how 
the Home is conducted. We quote from Brother Kernan's article 
published in The American, Home Edition, in 1905, the same being 
taken from a pamphlet giving a history of the Home, prepared by 
Brother Kernan : 

" In 1903 the Board of Trustees decided to add on to Cottage No. 
2 for the purpose of increasing the dormitory space, and to furnish a 
large swimming pool and better sanitary conditions in wash and toilet 
rooms. They were the more able to carry this decision into effect by the 
generosity of Ohio Juniors, who made a very liberal donation to the Home 
during their State Session in Tiffin, Ohio. A building to conform in 
style with the rest of the building was added; the lower floor contains a 
large swimming pool 15x20 laid up in cement, wash room and toilet 
rooms. The first floor is used for school rooms; the second floor contains 



106 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

twenty-four iron beds, and the top floor contains one hundred and five 
yellow pine lockers for the boys' Sunday clothes. The whole building is 
finished in yellow pine, and not only adds to the main building in appear- 
ance, but it has been built at the cost of $3,900, a very reasonable price 
in Tiffin, and makes it possible to conform to those sanitary rules necessary 
in similar institutions. 



"Another improvement has been made in Cottage No. 2 that has 
added to the beauty of the building, and has also had a far-reaching effect 
on the morals in the Home. 

" In the room where the toilet and bath rooms had been, in the front 
of the building is now a magnificent library, containing 1,500 volumes of 
choice and selected literature. This is known as the Maryland Room and 
Library, and it is so called, because the entire room, books and book- 
cases, were furnished by the Maryland Juniors. 

DINING-ROOM 

" From the library we come back into the hall and pass down to 
the dining-room containing twelve long tables. Children and employes 
eat in the same room. You will pardon us for calling attention to the 
table settings. One of the rules laid down emphatically to each Superin- 
tendent is to make the Home as much like a private home as possible. 
The Superintendent and matron must be father and mother, and in no 
place can the elements of culture be so quickly instilled objectively than 
in the furnishings and care of the dining-room. In so large a family the 
discipline must be more rigidly enforced than in a small family. The 
element of time enters largely into the management of a Home, and for 
that reason there must be methods for passing to and from the dining- 
room that would not be necessary in a small family, in this way freedom 
of action is limited; but only in this way. The greatest freedom, con- 
sistent with order and the good of all, is given to the children. I trust 
you will pardon this digression to explain one of the peculiarities of our 
Home that has so great an influence on the welfare of our children. 

" From the dining-room you pass into the kitchen through a large 
hallway, which you cannot see in the picture. In this hallway are doors 
leading into the milk room and storeroom. Thirty gallons of milk are 
supplied and used daily by the children, and over one hundred loaves of 
bread are consumed, together with the other food. You can see what 
we have each day by looking at a bill of fare for the past week. 

DORMITORY 

" From the dining-room we pass up stairs in the rear of the building 
to the boys' dormitory. In the picture you see only half of the dormi- 
tory, but since that was taken the partition passing through the centre 
has been removed and now there is one large room, forty by sixty, con- 
taining fifty single beds. The work in this room is done entirely by 
the boys, and I am sure you will agree with me that a boy is none the 
worse because he has been taught to sweep a fioor or make a bed. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 107 



CLOTHING 

" The care of the clothes is always a serious question in a family 
the size of ours, and the greatest strictness and regularity must be insisted 
upon to get the best results. You notice in the sides of the room, in tlie 
dormitory, bins arranged so that each boy has a bin for his clothes. Each 
boy is taught to care for his school suit. The suits are numbered, and 
when he removes his school or Sunday suit it must be folded properly 
and put in his bin. His work is thoroughly inspected, and any negligence 
on his part is reported promptly. Each boy is entitled to three suits 
of clothes — a Sunday suit, school suit, and play suit. The underclothing 
will be spoken of later when we come to the bath-room. 

GRAMMAR DEPARTMENT 

" On the same floor with the dormitory is the office and private 
sleeping rooms. Then on the third floor, as mentioned before, are sleeping- 
rooms. Passing down to the first floor again, we come to the grammar 
department. In this picture you see the entire school assembled for their 
morning exercise. The children are in the act of saluting the flag. They 
use the following words (a color guard of four boys has brought in the 
American flag), the children at the proper signal, say: 'I give my head, 
my heart, to God and my country: one country, one language, one flag.' 
After the salute to the flag comes singing, reading the Scriptures, prayer, 
another song, and at 8.30 the school work for the day begins. I should 
like to pause and speak to you about these children, for, after all, they 
only are of importance. Here you find representatives from many states 
— Pennsylvania, Ohio, Colorado, New York, Virginia, North Carolina, 
Kentucky, Tennessee, New Jersey, Maryland, and Indiana. But we must 
pass on to other objects not so interesting." 

THE CRISIS OF THE NATIONAL ORPHAN'S HOME 

The crisis through which the Order passed during the period 
that intervened between the meeting of the National Body at Min- 
neapolis, Minn., and the meeting in Philadelphia, Pa., in June 
of 1900, was a trying one for the Orphans' Home. Having 
assumed a debt of $18,000 prior to the meeting at Minneapolis, 
and owing to the rebellion in the Order immediately following 
the above named meeting whereby the Home was deprived of the 
per capita tax of the insurgent membership, the Board of Trustees 
were greatly embarrassed in conducting the affairs of the Insti- 
tution. Yet a clause in their report to the session of the National 
Body in 1900 should thrill every heart : " We have not been com- 
pelled to turn away from the Home any child entrusted to our 
care or refuse admittance to any who applied, for want of resources 
with which to provide for them." 

Notwithstanding the adverse conditions under which the Trus- 
tees had to work, progress was made and several needed improve- 



108 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

ments secured, such as heating plants in both cottages, boilers, 
pumps, and range in kitchen, amounting to about $4,000, making 
a net increase in valuation over previous year of $3,935, or a total 
valuation of $66,812.20. 

The loyal Councils, however, came to the rescue of their Home, 
and hearkened to the appeal sent out for assistance and thousands 
of dollars poured into the treasury. It was only needed to strike 
the rock of unselfish devotion in the great heart of the Order, to 
cause a stream of love and mercy to flow to gladden the dear little 
ones under the organization's care. One Council, Harry Clay, 
No. 7, of Philadelphia, Pa., responded nobly to the call for help 
in the Home's critical hour, by loaning the National Council for 
the Home, the sum of $3,000, without interest. 

Another change of superintendent was made during this 
period, Truman W. Varian resigning in October, 1899, and 
Brother George B. Nesbitt, of Welcome Council, No. 134, of Pitts- 
burg, Pa., being elected in his place. Mrs. Nesbitt was elected 
matron at the same time. Past National Councilor, Brother Jos. 
Powell, owing to ill health, resigned as Secretary of the Board and 
Brother R. D. Bowland, of Maryland, was elected to fill the vacancy. 
It is said, " Death loves a shining mark." This was surely true, 
as Brother John K. Marlin, a member of the Board from Penn- 
sylvania, a most ardent worker, a loyal Junior and a true-blue 
patriot, " ceased to work and live." 

Brother Nesbitt entered upon his duties as. Superintendent of 
the Home when it was passing through its crucial hour. Lack 
of funds and the constant demands for payment of bills, with a 
debt of $18,000 when he assumed charge, confronted the new Super- 
intendent, hut heroically he and his devoted wife met the situation, 
giving unstintedly their services and attention to the Order's 
wards, so that when they handed in their resignations as super- 
intendent and matron during the National Council year of 1901- 
1902, the debt on the Home had been reduced to $4,000 and the 
Institution had become a permanent fixture that neither rebellion 
in the Order or doubts and fears could shake. 

THE JE. O. IJ. A. M. NATIONAL ORPHANS' HOME ASSOCIATION OF 
ALLEGHENY (PA.) COUNTY 

One great need of the Home, to which attention had been 
called in a previous report, was a greenhouse. This appeal met 
with a hearty response upon the part of the Juniors of Western 
Pennsylvania. Early in the summer of 1898, Mr. Dunnavant, 



•••* 




ORIGINAL ORPHANS' HOME PICNIC COMMITTEE 
Allegheny County, Pa. 




GREENHOUSE ERECTED BY ALLEGHENY COUNTY (PA.) 
PICNIC ASSOCIATION 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 109 

of the Lake Erie Railroad, suggested to the writer, who at thai 
time resided in Pittsburg and was Junior Past State Councilor, 
the idea of arranging a picnic along the line of the road he repre- 
sented to be under the auspices of the Junior Order. As our time 
was taken up with other duties we directed him to see Brothers 
Stephen Collins, Geo. B. Nesbitt and F. J. Shaler, assuring him 
of our hearty cooperation in such a project. The above named 
brothers gave the matter favorable consideration, whereupon a 
committee was constituted consisting of six persons known as the 
original " Orphans' Home Picnic Committee," viz. : Stephen Col- 
lins, George B. Nesbitt, Fred. J. Shaler, C. J. Cleland, Harry R. 
Peck and the writer (See Plate, which was taken on Decora- 
tion Day at the first picnic held, the writer being unable to attend 
owing to an engagement previously arranged to make a Memorial 
Address) . 

This committee arranged for the holding of the picnic at 
Ashtabula Harbor, Ohio, on Memorial Day of the year above 
named and invited the members of the Order to participate, which 
was a success. The writer in view of his position as Junior Past 
State Councilor was recognized as the Chairman of said committee. 
In justice to the other members of the committee (Brother Nesbitt, 
Past State Councilors Collins and F. J. Shaler), I must say that 
they did the work, assuming the major portion of the labor and 
responsibility; being faithfully assisted by Bros. Peck and Cleland. 
The proceeds of the picnic were given the Home, a portion of it 
through Sam. Harper Council that was furnishing the reception 
room of one of the cottages and the balance direct to aid in the 
maintenance of the Institution. 

Gratified with the success that attended the picnic, the Com- 
mittee, through Brother Nesbitt, invited a few of the leading Juniors 
representing eight Councils to come together and take into consid- 
eration the question of continuing the picnics and thereby secure 
a fund towards erecting the much desired greenhouse. As the 
result of this meeting on April 1, 1899, a call was made to the 
Councils of Western Pennsylvania to send representatives to a 
prearranged meeting, and fifty Councils responded to the call, 
whereupon an organization was formed with the title " The 
Orphans' Home Picnic Committee," with the following officers: 
President, George B. Nesbitt, No. 134; Vice-President, C. J. Cle- 
land, No. 38; Secretary, Thomas Jelly, No. 107; Treasurer, James 
K. Diven, No. 245. 

The picnic for the year was held July 22, 1899, at Cascade 



110 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

Park, New Castle, Pa., and notwithstanding the inclement day, it 
was a success. Not being able on account of the rain to carry out 
fully the plans of the committee, an adjourned outing was held 
at Kennywood Park, City of Pittsburg, on August 28, 1899, the 
day the Tenth Pennsylvania Eegiment returned from the Philip- 
pines. The result of these two events brought into the treasury 
the sum of $1,086.27 clear of all expenses. With this money the 
greenhouse was erected and $125 given for the installation of a 
refrigerator into the Home. The greenhouse was built at a cost 
of $935.00 and its dimensions are 20 by 50 feet. (See Plate.) 

By looking at the cut it is not difficult to distinguish that 
" Nestor of Juniorism/' Brother Stephen Collins, whose heart on 
the occasion when the picture was taken was as light and happy 
as the little orphans that stand immediately in front of him. By 
his side stands the Superintendent of the Home at that time. 
Brother George B. Nesbitt. In referring to this generous gift of 
the Western Pennsylvania Juniors, Brother Kernan says : 

" One of the factors that lead to the general good health of the 
children is the fact that we are able to give them green stuff during the 
winter. Several years ago the Juniors of Allegheny Co., Pa., erected this 
greenhouse at a cost of nearly $1,000. It not only furnishes food during the 
winter months, but it is the nursery for all the flowers that may be seen 
on the lawn during the summer months. Moreover, under the instruction 
of a competent gardener, several boys are learning a useful trade. I find, 
by referring to the monthly reports, that it has furnished, during the 
year, six hundred and twenty-eight dollars." 

Early in the year 1900 it was decided to form a permanent 
organization, whereupon a committee on by-laws and permanent 
organization was appointed which committee reported May 19, 
1900, and the name for the organization adopted was " The Jr. 
O. TJ. A. M. National Orphans' Home Association of Allegheny 
County," and when the National Council met in June of same 
year, the permission to use the name of the Order was granted by 
the National Body. 

The picnic of 1900 was again held at Cascade Park, and 
$844.63 was realized. On August 3, 1901, a most successful picnic 
was held at Youngstown, Ohio, netting $1,026.78, $700 of which 
was placed in the fund towards an industrial school the Associa- 
tion had in view of erecting. To meet a balance owed by the Home 
on a piano, $65 was paid by the Association. In 1902, the picnic 
was held at Eock Springs Park, Chester, W. Va., and was pre- 
eminently a success both in attendance and financially, there being 
about 6,000 present and $1,477.33, net, was realized. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS HI 

Suffice it to say, that each year the Association held its picnic, 
generally largely attended, the banner year being L906, when 9.000 
were in attendance and the sum of $3,159-62 was netted. The 
Industrial School Building was constructed and equipped and 
placed in operation, which will be a means of not only giving the 
children of the Home a trade, but will be a source of income to 
the Institution as forecasted by the Superintendent of the Home, 
Brother Kernan. The structure is of brick, two stories, with attic 
and basement, finished in yellow pine, and is equipped with the 
most improved machinery and is valued at $11,500. 

The total receipts of the Association from 1809 to 1906 has 
been $11,206.41, and the total contributions to the Home has boon 
$9,406.24, of which $8,405.24 was for the Industrial School. 

While we are speaking of special gifts to the Home, we noto 
that of the Gymnasium, a present from the Juniors of Cincinnati 
and the Daughters of America, a very appropriate gift to the In- 
stitution. The Juniors of Baltimore presented a library of 2,000 
volumes which are kept in what is known as the Maryland Boom. 
to which there has been contributions from other sections. The 
Beception Boom was furnished by Sam Harper Council, No. 503, 
of Bennsylvania. The New York Juniors constructed a Laundry 
and are now equipping same, the entire cost being about $3,000. 
Other projects are under way that will add much to the utility and 
comforts of the Home. 

THE HEROISM OF THE ORDER 

The heavy indebtedness that rested upon the Homo, owing to 
the failure of insurgent Councils to pay the Home tax, prompted 
the National Council to do and -the Subordinate Councils to nobly 
and uncomplainingly respond to a heroic act, that of levying, 
by statute, a special tax of fifteen cents upon the membership, 
besides the regular Home tax of ten cents for mnintommoo. The 
following was the statute: 

"Section 1. There is hereby levied for the use ami benefit of the 
Orphans' Home a special Orphans' Home tax of fifteen cents per capita 
upon the membership of the Order for the fiscal year 1900-1001. Tho 
said tax to be levied and collected in the same manner as the regular 
annual Home tax, and in addition thereto, 

" Section 2. The return of said tax is hereby appropriated for the 
aforesaid purpose, and shall be paid out in the same manner provided in 
the case of the regular tax, and under the appropriation item of the 
general appropriation bill." 



112 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

This Proposal for a Statute was negatived in the Committee 
of the Good of the Order, submitting, however, in lieu thereof, a 
recommendation that the Law Committee draft a proposal empow- 
ering and authorizing the proper officers to negotiate a loan in 
such an amount as may be necessary to meet the needs of the 
Home and to give such obligations and security as may be required. 
The National Council, however, adopted the bill as proposed by Dr. 
II. L. Wenner, of Ohio, instead of the Eecommendation of the Com- 
mittee on the Good of the Order, by a vote of 144 to 8. Previous 
to this action the following resolution was adopted: 

" That the Board of Officers of the National Council is hereby 
authorized to take such action as may be necessary to refund the present 
indebtedness of the National Orphans' Home." 

In conformity with the above resolution, in August of the fiscal 
year 1900-1901, National Councilor Brother C. F. Peeves and 
National Vice- Councilor Brother A. L. Cray met at Tiffin, Ohio, 
and negotiated in a very satisfactory manner a loan covering the 
indebtedness of $18,000. In the meantime the special tax was 
levied and collected, as per action of the National Council, and 
the report of the Trustees of the Home to the National Body 
at its meeting at Buffalo, N. Y., June, 1901, showed that $23,100 
had been received, including tax for current expenses. Fourteen 
thousand dollars had been paid on the indebtedness, leaving $4,000 
still unpaid. Including maintenance, etc., the total amount paid 
out by the Trustees for the year 1900-1901 was $33,381^.62. 

The Trustees stated that there was in contemplation the erec- 
tion of an Industrial School where the children could train them- 
selves for useful trades, and for that purpose the Allegheny County 
(Pa.) Orphans' Home Association had agreed to furnish $800. 
Subsequently, as stated, the Association constructed and equipped 
the School. The inventory showed a valuation of $69,902. On 
this there was a debt at this time of $4,000. 

THE HOME FREE FROM ENCUMBRANCE 

A very comprehensive and painstaking report was presented 
by the Trustees to the National Body at its meeting held in Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin, 1902. The report opens with the gratifying 
statement : 

" It is with a feeling of pride and satisfaction that we, the Board 
of Trustees of the National Orphans' Home, after nearly a year of earnest 
endeavors, are able to present to you in annual convention assembled, 
this grand institution of ours absolutely free and unencumbered." 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 113 

The Board gave a careful study relative to the management of 
the Home and recommended many changes, etc. A change in the 
superintendent was made during the year, and Brother Charles 
H. Kernan, of Orient, N. Y., State Vice-Councilor of his state, 
and the present most efficient Manager of the Home was elected 
to fill the position. The Home discipline was placed under a 
different system, and instead of sending the children to the public 
schools at Tiffin, at considerable expense, a school was established 
at the Home and taught by the Superintendent and his assistants. 
According to the Superintendent's report, twenty-five children 
had been admitted to the Home while twelve had retired, and one, 
Lydia Brown, of Larimer Council, Larimer, Pa., had died, leaving 
the number of children in the Home May 1, 1902, of 104. 

The first real reverse that befell the Home was in the destruc- 
tion by fire, caused by lightning, of the farm buildings with three 
horses and all the grain and hay on the night of June 14, 1902. 
While there was some insurance on the buildings and their con- 
tents, still not enough to fully cover the loss. Notwithstanding this 
reverse and disappointment, the fiscal year 1902-1903 was, in the 
main, a satisfactory year with the Home. The superintendency 
of Brother Kernan gave most general satisfaction, and under his 
wise and thorough discipline, the management of the Institution 
was carried on very successfully. 

A circumstance arose during the year which brought the Board 
face to face with a matter of sympathy or duty. National Coun- 
cilor, Brother Geo. B. Bowers, presented a sad case from his home 
town of Altoona, Pa., asking the Board to accept two little chil- 
dren of a Junior who had been killed, and left a widow and several 
children with nothing to live on. The Council of which the 
brother had been a member, however, was insurgent, although the 
majority were loyal, still the few who run the Council had turned 
the same over to the enemy. Brother Bowers believed that if 
the Board would admit the two youngest children, that it would 
have such an effect upon the Council that the members would soon 
be back in the fold. The question was very carefully and candidly 
considered by the Board, and while the majority would gladly have 
yielded to the impulse of sympathy, yet from a sense of duty, as 
well as law, and fearing such a grant would be a very dangerous 
precedent, the Board had to deny the request which all must admit 
was wise. 

As an evidence of carefulness on the part of the Superinten- 
dent, a summary of the receipts of farm, both cash and that used 



ill HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

in the Home, and the expenditures in producing same, the follow- 
ing report of farm and garden will be of interest for fiscal year, 
1902-1903: 

RECEIPTS 

Cash from farm $792.83 

Cash from garden 267.54 

Farm products 2,079.90 

Dairy 1,624.22 

Garden products 361.00 

Hennery 52.29 

Total receipts $5,177.78 

EXPENDITURES 

Salaries for farm $1,456.18 

Salaries, garden 390.00 

Garden expenses 142.22 

Farm expenses 641.21 

Total expenses $2,629.61 

Cost of keeping cattle $1,344.10 

Balance to credit of farm $1,203.07 



The fiscal year 1904-1905, as per report of the Board of 
Trustees, to the Thirty-seventh Annual Session of the National 
Council, at its meeting at Nashville, Tennessee, in June of 1905, 
showed the same earnest efforts of the Board and Superintendent 
in the management of the Home. The Order certainly must con- 
gratulate itself that it has at the head of the Home one who has 
given the best satisfaction and has placed the Institution on a high 
plane, both in discipline and work achieved. When it came to the 
question of reelecting Brother Kernan and his estimable wife 
Superintendent and matron of the Home, there was not a dissent- 
ing vote. At the same time the Order should keep in loving re- 
membrance the five devoted brothers who represent the National 
Council in the supervision of the Orders Home for their little 
ones. These men are not chosen by the National Board of Officers 
because of some political or personal preferment, but to the con- 
trary, because of their fitness and qualifications for the duties of 
Trustees. These men have sacrificed time and money to serve the 
Order, and the organization should appreciate their zealous and 
disinterested services. The following brothers at this time con- 
stituted the Board : F. W. Pierson, A. H. Leslie, A. L. Cray, D. B. 
Mr-Donald and H. L. W. Taylor. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 115 

On May 1, 1905, there were in the Home, MS children, of 

whom 104 were hoys and 44 girls. 



DISCIPLINE OF THE HOME 

Reference to the discipline of the Home under the present 
management has been made in the foregoing. The annual messages 
of the Board of Trustees to the National Body contain words of 
commendation of the manner in which Brother Kernan directs his 
large Junior family of boys and girls. In addition to their testi- 
mony must be placed the statements of those who have had the 
opportunity of visiting the Home and mingling with the children 
and observing their demeanor. We will let Brother Kernan tell 
us how he does it: 

"The parents in their own home find it imperative at times to 
use the rod. But the times when it is necessary to use corporal punishment 
are rare. There are various reasons why children are disobedient— some 
of these reasons the child is not responsible for. They existed before he 
was born. Therefore, the rod must be used with judgment. So far as 
it is possible, the rod is a thing of the past at the Home. The marking 
system prevails. A misdemeanor counts as a mark against the child— 
a certain number during the week deprives the child of his liberty during 
part of the Saturday holiday, and also cuts him off from dainties fur- 
nished to the children during the week. A complete record is kept of 
each child's deportment for the year, and monthly reports are furnished 
to the fraternal papers of the standings of all children whose average 
will place them on the honor roll. To capture this honor requires a mark 
of 95 per cent, in deportment and an average of 90 per cent, in studies. 
The principles of the Order that support this institution arc Virtue] 
Liberty and Patriotism, and these principles are instilled by precept and 
example, to the end that we give' back to the world men and women 
.grounded in the principles of righteousness, not as it applies to private, 
but to public life. 

"No sectarianism is allowed at the Home; when a child enters the 
authorities learn the faith of his parents and assume that if they had 
lived they would bring their children up in that faith. Every child must 
attend church and Sunday-school at his own church in the' city, and I 
cannot refrain here from thanking the people of Tiffin for their uniform 
love, interest and watchfulness over the spiritual welfare of our little 
ones." 

The daily program, and the bill of fare for a week, as given 
on the following pages, is sufficient to show that the Home at Tiffin 
is not a poorhouse, or an " orphanage " merely, but a " home " in 
the truest sense of the word. 



116 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 



DAILY PROGRAM 

6.00 a.m. — Rising bell. 

6.25 a.m. — Morning prayers. 

6.30 a.m.— Breakfast. 

7.00 to 8.00 a.m. — Cottage work done. 

8.00 to 8.20 a.m. — Preparation for school. 

8.20 a.m.— School bell. 

8.20 to 8.30 a.m. — 'Morning exercise. 

S.30 to 11.15 a.m. — Morning session. 
11.30 a.m. — Dinner. 
12.00 m. to 1.00 p.m.— Play. 

1.00 to 3.30 p.m. — Afternoon session. 

3.30 to 5.00 p.m.— Play. 

5.00 p.m. — Supper whistle. 

5.00 to 5.30 P.M. — Preparation for supper. 

5.30 p.m. — Supper. 

5.30 to 6.30 p.m.— Play. 

6.30 to 7.30 p.m.— Study hour. 

7.30 to 8.30 p.m. — Reading and quiet games. 

8.30 p.m. — Retiring bell. 

9.00 P.M. — Lights out. 

DAILY PROGRAM IN KINDERGARTEN 

Lord's Prayer. 

Singing. 

Stick laying. 

Counting corn and beans, etc. 

Stringing straws and paper. 



INTERMISSION 



Paper folding. 
Paper cutting. 



Physical culture. 

Kindergarten parquetry. 

Sewing outlines, coloring pictures, etc. 

Story. 

RILL OF FARE APRIL 5TH TO llTlI 

B — Breakfast; D — Dinner; S — Supper. 

Sunday — B.: Oatmeal and toast, coffee, fruit. D. : Roast, gravy, 
potatoes, dressing. S. : Cocoa, cake, cheese. 

Monday — B.: Omelet, coffee, bread and butter. D. : Bean soup, pota- 
toes, cold slaw. S. : Hot biscuit, tea, syrup. 

Tuesday — B. : Oatmeal and toast, coffee, apples. D.: Wieners, pota- 
toes, pudding. S.: Beans, apricots, tea. 

Wednesday — B.: Fried potatoes, toast, coffee. D.: Potatoes, stewed 
meat, gravy, onions. S. : Baked potatoes, cake and tea. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 117 

Thursday — 13.: Oatmeal and toast, coffee. D. : Potatoes, boiled cab 
bage, pie. S.: Puce, prunes, tea. 

Friday — B.: Fried mush, syrup, coffee. 1).: Bologna, potatoes, let- 
tuce. S. : Scalloped potatoes, jelly, tea. 

Saturday — B.: Oatmeal and toast, coffee. O.: Potatoes, vegetable 
soup, crackers. S. : Beans, pickles, tea. 

Bread and butter served every meal; milk served as often as 
possible. 

THE STANDING OF THE HOME, 1907 

Since compiling the story of the National Orphans' Home, as 
above given, the session of the National Council for 1907 has been 
held at the City of Boston, Mass., to which body the Trustees of the 
Home have submitted their report, which, as with previous reports, 
is full of cheer and a subject for congratulation. 

The only improvements made during the two years were the 
completion and equipment of the Industrial School by the Alle- 
gheny County (Pa.) Juniors and the Laundry by the New York 
Juniors, reference to which has been made. The most important 
change made was in moving the original cottage closer to the farm 
buildings to take the place of the farmhouse burned in 1899. This 
brings the farmer and his assistants near the barn and out-buildings 
where the stock are housed and fed. 

The finances of the Home were reported in very excellent 
condition : 

Received for General Fund, two years $53,574.92 

Expenditures from General Fund, two years 51,924.60 

$1,650.32 
Receipts and appropriations of National Council 

for Building Fund 7,061.63 

Total on hand May 1, 1907 $8,251.80 

Received for Endowment Fund $585.78 

It will certainly be gratifying to the Order to note the follow- 
ing Inventory made May 1, 1907 : 

INVENTORY OF PROPERTY 

may, 1907 

Farm of 176 acres of land at $150 $26,400.00 

Cottage No. 1 and heating plant 11,800.00 

Cottage No. 2 and heating plant 19,500.00 

Water tower, barns, granary, poultry and hay 

houses . '. 5,000.00 



118 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

Boiler house and machinery $4,000.00 

Root cella r 200.00 

Furnishings for Cottages Nos. 1 and 2 5,000.00 

Play house and apparatus 900.00 

Chill room 400.00 

Stone crusher 400.00 

Six work horses 700.00 

Farm house 1,200.00 

Sixteen milch cows, bulls and five calves 725.00 

Blacksmith shop, tools, hose house, etc 200.00 

Thirty-six hens and four turkeys 18.00 

Farming implements, binder, mower, etc 1,350.00 

Stock in greenhouse 100.00 

Books and library furnishings 575.00 

Sixteen brood sows, one boar, sixteen shoats, 

twenty-seven pigs 285.00 

Industrial school and equipment 11,500.00 

Twelve tons of hay 120.00 

Four tons straw 16.00 

Three hundred bushels corn ] 35.00 

Forty bushel oats 14.00 

Seven hundred and fifty bushels wheat 729.00 

Total valuation $91,267.00 

The Superintendent's report shows the following: 

Number of children reported May 1st, 1905 148 

Number of children admitted during 1905-1907 87 

Total 235 

Number of children released 1905-1907 38 

Total number of children May 1st, 1907 197 

Total number boys 137 

Total number girls 60 

197 

It is worthy of note that notwithstanding the Trustees reported 
the Home in a crowded condition two years previous, that during 
the two years intervening there has been no serious illness among 
the children and no outbreak of any contagious disease in the Insti- 
tution. It is the proud boast of the Trustees and Superintendent, 
that "up to the present time no child has been refused admittance 
who was properly qualified to enter." 

The receipts of the farm, dairy, garden, etc., as well as expenses 
for operating the same for the years 1905-1907, were as follows: 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 



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120 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

The Trustees of the Home (1907-1909) are the following 
well-known members of the Order whose sketches appear in another 
place: Brothers D. B. McDonald, of Ohio, President; A. L. Cray, 
of Indiana, Secretary; F. W. Pierson, of Delaware, Treasurer; 
A. H. Leslie, of Pennsylvania, and H. E. Howse, of Tennessee. 



CHAPTER IX 

7. THE CONFLICT AT THE CROSSING 
OF THE CENTURIES 

FOR forty-seven years the Junior Order of United American 
Mechanics had made its way meeting and overcoming obstacles 
that were checking the growth of the young fraternity. With the 
opening of the last decade of the nineteenth century, the Order en- 
tered upon an era of wonderful prosperity, wherein the thousands 
swelled into the tens of thousands, until in the halls of Congress, 
in State legislatures and in thousands of school districts, the 
Jr. 0. U. A. M., as an organization, was an acknowledged power. 
But with this great advance of the Order there came jealousies, 
rivalries and contentions and a struggle for leadership, until finally 
it culminated in the revolt of 1899. 

In approaching this subject, it is with hesitancy, fearing that 
in presenting it in this connection, being loyal to the mandates 
of the National Council, the writer may be misunderstood. How- 
ever, in discussing this unfortunate epoch of the organization, it is 
not our purpose to say hard things of any one, but to give, as far 
as we are able and conversant with the facts, a true and unbiased 
account of the separation and the causes leading thereto, as well 
as to recount the struggles of the Order in the courts of the land 
and the final triumph in maintaining and upholding the greatest 
patriotic association to be found in any nation. 

THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CONFLICT 

In seeking for the causes that led to the insurrection, it is 
necessary to go back some years before the outbreak in 1899, to 
the session of the National Council at Asheville, North Carolina, 
in 1894. Factional lines, however, had been sharply drawn pre- 
vious to this session in some of the State Councils, especially in 
Pennsylvania, where the unprecedented growth of the Order had 
brought the membership up to 87,000; whereupon, a coterie of 
ambitious leaders saw in this vast host a power to secure complete 
control of the National Body, hence at the session of the State 
Council of Pennsylvania in 1893, the dominant faction inaugurated 
the policy to obtain and thereby hold the supremacy of the higher 
body, and the majority of the Representatives attended the Ashe- 
ville session Avith that end in view. 



122 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

The great success of Brother Stephen Collins, of Pennsyl- 
vania, when State Councilor, and the wonderful enthusiasm 
that swept the state like a forest fire, brought into the ranks of 
the Order many young men who were ambitious to pose as leaders. 
Being always ready to encourage worthy brothers, Brother Collins 
recognized them and gave them preferment in the offices and honors 
at his disposal. Fearing, however, the great popularity of Brother 
Collins and jealous of his leadership, in his absence from the 
state as National Organizer, many of those he had favored and 
recognized formed an anti- Collins " faction " and secured suprem- 
acy in the State Council. Having assumed the leadership of the 
State Council of Pennsylvania, these designing brothers thirsted 
for greater glory and power, therefore, as stated, went to Asheville 
to advocate legislation to better carry out their purposes and plans. 

The reflex influence of this desire for supremacy in the Na- 
tional Council showed itself in the Board of Officers of the National 
Body in the appointment of the National Legislative Committee, 
the National Councilor claiming the prerogative of appointing three 
out of the five members. Early in the year following the session 
of the National Council of 1893, the National Councilor did not 
claim that prerogative, but in a letter to the National Vice- 
Councilor, he named two members and asked him to name two 
and the Junior Past National Councilor to name one. This letter 
was under date of July 22, 1893. Subsequently, under date of 
August 15, 1893, in an official communication to the National 
Secretary, the National Councilor named three of the Committee, 
from which action the other members of the Board dissented. 
The difficulty, however, was adjusted as originally outlined, but 
it revealed the fact that some outside influence had been brought 
to bear upon the National Councilor to change his purpose from 
appointing two members of the Committee to appointing three, 
in order that the factional lines on the Committee might be drawn 
in harmony with the dominant party in Pennsylvania and other 
states. 

As stated above, the purpose of the majority of the Eepresen- 
tatives and Past National and State Councilors from Pennsylvania 
and other larger states, at Asheville, was to increase the ratio 
of representation in order to give those states a preponderance 
of representation in the National Body, hence the ratio of represen- 
tation was changed, giving to each state five Representatives where 
the membership did not exceed 5,000, and an additional Represen- 
tative for every additional 3,000 members, or a majority fraction 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 123 

thereof. This legislation was a grave mistake on the part of the 
National Council, as it had the tendency to place the National 
Body under the control of the larger states that had plenty of funds 
to send large delegations, both in Representatives and Past State 
Councilors. It might be stated in this connection that to a large 
extent those who in subsequent years were loyal, were opposed 
to the increased ratio of representation. By this increased ratio, 
Pennsylvania increased her representation in the National Council 
from 12 to 31; and with her large number of Past National 
and Past State officers, her voting strength was about 40 in the 
National Body. 

Owing to the great success of Brother Collins as National 
Organizer and being possessed of remarkable traits of leadership, 
there was formed in the National Body a cabal to antagonize him, 
which brought to his support staunch friends from the West and 
South where his great work had been accomplished. Hence the two 
parties in the National Council at the Asheville session struggled 
for supremacy, both nearly equal in strength, each party scor- 
ing a victory, the one electing the National Vice-Councilor, and 
the other securing the place of the next meeting of the bod)' — 
Omaha, Nebraska. 

With a divided victory, both parties of the National Body 
lined up for the contest at Omaha in 1895. While the session 
was animated, both in discussion and dilatory tactics, the one 
element elected their National Vice-Councilor and selected the 
place of the next meeting, which was Denver, Colorado. Un- 
daunted by defeat, the element that favored the increased represen- 
tation at Asheville made the Denver session the battleground for 
supremacy. The session w T as the most strenuous in the history of 
the National Body, and inch by inch each party contended on all 
controversial issues and party questions. Scarcely had the session 
opened when the " battle of the giants " began and the lines were 
sharply drawn. Dilatory motions, numerous demands for roll- 
call and division of the question was a marked feature upon the 
part of the minority party, and as the session continued the bitter- 
ness of feeling became more intense. Referring to this session 
in another place in this volume, we quote in this connection, the 
following: 

" It was at this meeting of the National Council, that the famous 
' all night ' session was held. The two elements of the National Body were 
very nearly equal in numerical strength, while in debate and parliamentary 
strategy, both sides possessed men of intellect, ability and leadership. 



124 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

The contest waged all through the night, the minority making motions to 
adjourn while the administration forces had one supreme object in view, 
to save the Orphan's Home and preserve the institution. The majority 
party refused to adjourn, although ten times had the motion been made and 
ten times it had been rejected. The purpose of the dominant party was to 
act on all important questions before there should be a break in the solid 
phalanx of the ' Old Guard,' and when that was accomplished, at 4 a.m., 
the majority party agreed to adjourn until 1.10 p.m. same day." 

The results of the session was a " drawn battle/' the adminis- 
tration party retaining the officers of the National Council, while 
the minority secured the place of the next meeting — Pittsburg, Pa. 

Previous to the opening of the National Council at Pitts- 
burg, factional feeling ran very high. The opponents of the ad- 
ministration who, to a large extent, subsequently, were allied with 
the revolt, had gloried in the victory at Denver in the selection 
of Pittsburg as the place of meeting of the National Body of 1897, 
believing, with the presence of a large number of Past National 
and Past State Councilors from the larger Eastern states, they 
would win in the selection of officers and in shaping the policy of the 
Order. The administration people, however, were alert and saga- 
cious and rallied their forces, and on the first roll-call in which 
party lines were drawn, the administration won by a decisive ma- 
jority and the remainder of the session passed without much 
opposition. 

Some show of opposition was made by the minority party at 
Louisville, Kentucky, at the session of 1898, but without effect, 
as the administration was fortified by a strong working majority. 
Soured and piqued by defeat the minority, through their leaders, 
were loud in their complaints of " bossism " upon the part of the 
majority, the leaders of which came in for their full share of 
criticism. In the " heat of battle " many bitter words were spoken 
and much harsh feeling was engendered in the supreme ambition 
to either secure or retain supremacy in the National Body. 

Although one of the majority and always voting and working 
with the administration, yet, viewed from the present standpoint 
in reviewing the years of factional strife prior -to the revolt in 1899, 
in candor the writer must frankly admit that there were faults on 
both sides. That the minority were more at fault in the contro- 
versy is plain; that they were intemperate in speech and revolu- 
tionary in action cannot be gainsaid. Members of the same frater- 
nity, having pledged themselves at the same altar to support the 
National Council and uphold the sublime principles of the Order, 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 125 

their act of rebellion was culpable, uncalled for and unreasonable. 
On the part of the administration there was the exuberance of re- 
peated victories which, it is possible, and altogether probable, made 
them somewhat dictatorial and led their leaders to say and do things 
that now they may wish had not been said or done. One has said, 
" To err is human " ; and being human, errors were made in those 
years of bitter controversies; yet with all that the minority may 
have felt, thought or imagined, there was no cause to give them the 
right to rebel against the Supreme Legislative body of the Order. 

It has been stated that this unhappy strife that fulminated 
in open revolt in 1899 was a fight for leadership. That is prob- 
ably true. But what would an organization be without leaders? 
Wherever men assemble, wherever associations of men are formed 
for any purpose, some one there must be to whom the many can 
look for guidance in shaping the policy of the society In nation, 
state, church and society, leaders are found and leaders there 
must be. It is unjust to say: " Had the leaders of both sides been 
put out, the rebellion in the Order never would have been." These 
leaders may have made mistakes; we are sure those on the part of 
the " insurgents " did grievously err, and some on the part of the 
administration no doubt were a little too radical, yet had not these 
leaders been in the van, others would have been, and it is alto- 
gether probable that if those from the " rank and file " who are 
loudest in their criticism of the men who, in the hour of the 
Order's peril, " stood by their guns," had been in their places that 
they would have been as much at fault as they claim the leaders 
of our Order were. The writer has been close to the leaders 
of the administration or loyal party ever since 1893, and is familiar 
with the years of strife that led up to the revolt in the Order. 
Judging them by the standard of common justice and equity, we 
must affirm that no truer, better men ever guided an organization 
than they, and to-day they are esteemed, loved and respected by 
the great body of Juniors for whose cause they so nobly stood. 

THE BEGINNING OF FACTIONALISM 

In all candor and fairness the writer has been prompted to 
make the above brief reference to the causes that led to the 
revolt of 1899. Since penning these words our attention has 
been directed to the enlarged statement made by State Council 
Secretary, Brother Deemer, in the proceedings of the State Council 
of Pennsylvania for the session of 1900, under the title of " Why 
I am a Loyalist." No one in the organization knows more 



126 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

of the " beginnings " of the strife in the Order than Brother 
Deemer. He saw the rise of the organization, kept steadily with it 
from its inception and stood with sad. heart at the " parting of 
the ways " wherein friendly and brotherly associations of a life- 
time were sundered. He dwelt in particular with the conditions 
in his own state, which will be noted elsewhere, and the inconsist- 
encies of the insurgents; then takes up the National Council and 
relates some very stubborn facts, corroborating what we have 
averred, that the beginning of the strife, born in factionalism, had 
its inception in 1893. Brother Deemer prefaced his references by 
a statement that all who have associated with him know to be true : 
" In my whole career as an officer and member, I have avoided factions 
and insisted on my right to think and vote as pleased me. For this 
reason I will be found on both sides at almost every session of the National 
Council or the State Council of Pennsylvania." 

Bef erring to the National Council, Brother Deemer says : 
"Prior to 1893 there were no factions in the National Council. 
There were candidates for the several offices, but when the election was 
over it left no sore spots, and' all mingled together as before. At this 
session a prominent Past State Councilor of New Jersey said to me: 
' There's Steve Collins instituting State Councils in the far west ; why in 
a few years he will control the National Council, because no person knows 
these people but he,' and so it began. In his opinion the Order had better 
stand still than this man gain prestige by his work as an organizer. This 
was the beginning of faction, and the new laws reported by the Law 
Committee, Shaler, Peck and McFarland, were referred to the first factional 
committee, Elbert, Putter and Buser." 

The " hue and cry " of the malcontents for years was the 
office of the Secretary of the National Legislative Committee and 
the salary of $1,200 per year attached thereto. The brother who 
for years had acceptably filled that position came in for intense 
criticism and abuse. Yet, as Brother Deemer stated, that commit- 
tee was the creature of the afterward insurgent element of the 
National Council and recommended by a committee who subse- 
quently became insurgents. Brother H. J. Deily was made the 
first Secretary and received for his duties $1,200 per year, and no 
rmo over said that he did not earn it, which he evidently did. 
Brother Collins who succeeded him, earned his money as well. 

Another imaginary cause that was used by the insurgents to 
inflame the minds of the brotherhood against the Supreme Body 
was the high per capita tax and the heavy expenses to carry on the 
National Council. Again Brother Deemer made plain the fallacy 
of the charges by quoting the indisputable facts from the records 
of the National Council. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 127 

During the term of Brother C. W. Tyler, as National Coun- 
cilor, 1895-1896, the per capita tax was placed at the low rate of 
eight cents, which was entirely insufficient to meet the expenses of 
the year which amounted to thirty-six thousand and eight dollars 
and fifty-seven cents, notwithstanding the fact that the Finance 
Committee made up of adherents of Brother Tyler's, had only 
estimated the expenses for the year as twenty-five thousand, four 
hundred dollars. To meet the extra expense, eight thousand dol- 
lars was taken from the reserve of $14,401 on hand at the begin- 
ning of the term, leaving only $6,503.19 on hand when Brother 
Tyl er yielded up the office to his successor. The National Secretary 
then adds: 

" This is no reflection on N. C. Tyler, but inasmuch as the insurgents 
are continually holding up the fact of the per capita tax being but eight 
cents under his term, it is well to know the whole truth about the matter." 

As a result of the experience of Tyler's term, the Finance 
Committee at the session of the National Body in 1896, placed the 
estimated expenses at $32,000. In comparison with this, Brother 
Deemer showed that at the session of the National Council that met 
in Philadelphia in 1900, the Finance Committee submitted the 
estimated expenses for the ensuing year, at $30,000, in which was 
included the item of $10,000 for mileage, never before included 
in the estimated expenses of the Finance Committee. Brother 
Deemer resumes his observations : 

" It seems to me, therefore, that any unprejudiced mind would see 
that the National Council is not composed of robbers and sharks, but that 
they have shown a more economical administration of affairs in the 
National Council than the insurgents. 

" I have dated all the factional disturbances to the Detroit session 
of 1893. I claim that under the administration of N. C. Kibbe, the politics 
of the Order were reduced to a science. Past National and Past State 
Councilors were appointed on committees for their votes, and for the first 
time in the history of the Order, just before the sessions, inquiry was 
made as to who could not attend, their resignations were requested and 
others appointed in their stead." 

THE REVOLT 

The session of the National Council held at Minneapolis. 
Minnesota, June 20-23, 1899, stands forth in the history of tho 
Order as the most conspicuous of any held before or since. That 
which makes this session so prominent in the annals of the organ- 
ization is, that as a result of its advanced legislation, making cer- 
tain features thereof a pretext, there came the " parting of the 



128 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

ways " in the Order and the inauguration of the foulest conspiracy 
ever hatched in the hearts of designing men to destroy the noblest 
patriotic organization ever formed in the republic. 

According to an article in the Constitution, prior to this ses- 
sion, every five years there might be revision of the Constitution and 
Laws, and in conformity to that rule the year 1899 was the time such 
revision should take place. In view of this and with a desire to 
see the Order take higher ground, National Councilor Joseph 
Powell, at the previous session held at Louisville, in his report, 
says: 

" We have in the government of our Order, too much law by decision 
and resolution, rather than by statutes. In my opinion we should adopt a 
Constitution and a set of statutes, create a judiciary and relieve the 
executive of this function, and thus make the government of our Order 
more in harmony with the American system." 

This view of the National Councilor was favorably considered 
by the adoption of the following: 

" That the executive and judicial branches of our Order be sepa- 
rated, and a judiciary be created." 

In compliance with this action, the Committee on Law at the 
Minneapolis session submitted an entire revision of the National 
Council Constitution and National Council Laws, following the 
plan of the United States system of government, the Executive, 
Legislative and the Judicial, as we have it to-day. After full and 
frank discussion in the Committee of the Whole, in which many 
took part, the new Constitution and Laws were agreed upon, and 
when reported back to the National Body the same were adopted. 
Several radical changes, however, from the old code of laws were 
made, prominent among which was the change of ratio of repre- 
sentation in the National Council, by which change the repre- 
sentation of each state was cut down, as for instance, Penn- 
sylvania's delegation was reduced from 29 to 11. By this change 
each state was entitled to three Eepresentatives with one additional 
Eepresentative for each 10,000 members or a majority fraction 
thereof. In addition to this, the National Council resolved to pay 
the mileage and per diem to all Eepresentatives, this having pre- 
viously been paid by the State Councils. 

Another important act of legislation adopted was to provide, 
as far as possible, for a distinctive representative body, and that all 
Past State Councilors subsequent to 1901, were by that action to be 
denied a voice and vote in the National Body. According to 
the new laws, proposed amendments to the Objects and of 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 129 

the name of the Order need onlv be submitted to the State Councils 
for concurrence instead of to the Subordinate Councils, as under 
the former rulings. Relative to the changes in the Objects of the 
Order, those made at this session were largely in phraseology. The 
word " sectarian " in one of the objects was eliminated. In the 
Object that read : " To uphold the reading of the Holy Bible in the 
Public Schools," " uphold " was changed to " encourage." Those 
and some other minor changes made, reducing the number of Objects 
from 6 to 4, the first three being incorporated in one, did not meet 
the approval of the minority faction, and with the pretext that the 
legislation enacted was illegal, because the session of the National 
Council was held outside the State of Pennsylvania, they took 
the first steps to secede from the National Body, or rather to place 
themselves in insubordination to its mandates, by refusing to honor, 
in their several State Councils, the per capita tax levied by the 
Supreme Body. 

Notwithstanding the disgruntled members of the National 
Body were present and participated in the work of the session where 
these great changes were made, and many of them made without 
protest, yet ere the session had closed the " mutterings of the 
coming storm " were heard in the hotel corridors, and the move- 
ment looking toward rebellion was inaugurated in a caucus of 
the dissenting members from Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New 
York, District of Columbia and Virginia, and a subsequent meeting 
was arranged to be held at Trenton, New Jersey. 

While the change in ratio of representation was distasteful to 
the anti-administration people, yet that which incurred their great- 
est displeasure and had in it a seeming possibility of forfeiting 
every hope of supremacy, was the provision that the mileage and per 
diem should be paid the National Representatives by the National 
Council instead of by the State Councils, as previously was done. 
By the latter method only the older states with good treasuries 
could afford to send all of their Representatives to the National 
Council, while many of the weaker and far distant states could 
send but one or two, and often none, which gave to the older 
and richer states all the advantages of the National Council meet- 
ings; and as the larger number of the anti-administration members 
of the body belonged to these states, and by marshalling their Past 
State Councilors, many of whom were sent at the expense of the 
State Councils, they had hoped to again obtain the ascendancy 
in the National Body. But by one swoop of legislation, in the pay- 
ing of the expenses of all delegates, whereby the smaller and weaker 
9 



130 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

states could be fully represented, which states were largely admin- 
istration supporters, the doom of the one-time autocrats of the 
organization seemed sealed, hence the revolt of 1899. 

THE ERA OF MISREPRESENTATION 

Having taken preliminary steps towards rebellion, certain 
members of the National Body left the Minneapolis session with the 
determined purpose of disrupting the organization and defying the 
edicts and mandates of the National Council. Around these gath- 
ered, in their home states, a motley crowd of malcontents, loud in 
their villification of the National Council's deliberations and the 
administration leaders. By voice and pen in the councils of the 
various states affected, and in the columns of the press, where 
opportunity was granted, the grossest exaggerations and basest 
fabrications were disseminated until, like wild-fire, the spirit of 
insurrection stirred the hearts of thousands and inflamed their 
minds with rankest secession. Deceived and misled by these pre- 
varicators, with fiery speeches and vicious and misleading press 
articles, it is not a matter of surprise that many Councils unfurled 
the black flag of treason and refused to submit to the authority 
of the Supreme Body. As a sample of the misrepresentations pub- 
lished in the secular press, the following is noted, taken from the 
Beading (Pa.) Telegram shortly after the Minneapolis session: 

" A gentleman who is prominent in the Councils of the Order said 
that the entire trouble was a scheme, in which the Western members were 
endeavoring that the Supreme Council should secure possession of the 
$50,000 surplus funeral benefit fund which has been mainly contributed 
by the East. . . . The Supreme Council is desirous of getting hold of 
the surplus to control themselves." 

Every one familiar with the Funeral Benefit Association of 
the United States, with headquarters at Philadelphia, which, 
throughout the insurrection, furnished at least moral support 
to carry on the revolt, know that it never had any official relation 
with either the State Council of Pennsylvania or the National 
Body, and was independent of each, hence the baselessness of the 
statement is clearly shown. Here is another, taken from the 
Wilkes-Barre (Pa.) Times: 

" Mr says the only qualification to become a member of 

the Order is to believe in the Supreme Being and to have been born in 
this country, but that an attempt had been made to strike out the last 
qualification and give every citizen the privilege of joining." 

It is scarcely necessary to state that the effort to change the 
qualifications for membership so as to admit foreign-born citizens 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 



131 



was never made nor even contemplated. Yet this "hoax" un- 
published in several papers in the anthracite coal regions of Penn- 
sylvania. 

The anti-administration people were very much "put out" 
by the reduction in the number of the Objects of the Order from 
six to four, and the few changes in phraseology. To clearly slmw 
the utter inconsistency of this item of grievance as presented in 
exaggerated form by voice and pen, we insert, in parallel columns 
the two codes of Objects: 



Prior to session of 1899 they 
read as follows: 

first. — To maintain and promote 
the interests of Americans, and 
shield them from the depressing 
effects of foreign competition. 

Second. — To assist Americans in 
obtaining employment. 

Third. — To encourage Americans 
in business. 

Fourth. — To establish a sick and 
Funeral Fund. 

Fifth. — To maintain the Public 
School system of the United 
States of America, and to pre- 
vent sectarian interference 
therewith, and uphold the read- 
ing of the Holy Bible therein. 

Sixth. — To establish or erect an 
Orphans' Home, as a home for 
the orphans of deceased mem- 
bers, and maintain the same. 



As amended at the Minne- 
apolis session: 

First. — To maintain and promote 
the interests of Americans, and 
shield them from the depressing 
effects of unrestricted immigra- 
tion; to assist them in obtain- 
ing employment, and to encour- 
age them in business. 

Second. — To establish an insur- 
ance branch and a sick and 
funeral fund. 

Third,. — To uphold the American 
Public School System; to pre- 
vent interference therewith, and 
to encourage the reading of the 
Holy Bible therein. 

Fourth. — To promote and main- 
tain a National Orphans' Home. 



To an intelligent man the force of this grievance "dissolves 
itself in thin air." Why should there be three Objects where ont 
will cover all three much better as amended; then it reads gram- 
matically and euphoniously. The Beneficiary Degree was de- 
manded by thousands and almost . unanimously adopted. Acting 
under legal advice, it was placed as an Object in the code. The term 
" foreign competition " was eliminated from the First Object and 
" unrestricted immigration " inserted in lieu thereof ; yet what a 
" howl " was made over the change. Every one knows that the 
former term was misleading. It was taken from the Seniors a I 
the time of the founding of the Juniors and at that time suited 



132 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

their case. They then were mechanics, of American birth, 
banded together to protect themselves from foreign-born mechanics 
working in the shops and who had an organization of their own 
to antagonize native-born workingmen. To-day, under present 
conditions, it does not suit the Order. In some sections of the 
country where the Order is not well known, the former term was 
generally accepted as declaring for high tariff, and in a Free Trade 
section it was hard to explain the term suitably. The term " unre- 
stricted immigration " certainly explains our true position much 
better. One fiery insurgent, in addressing a council, stated that 
the elimination of the word " sectarian " was " cowardly." It is 
anything else. Formerly we were pledged to prevent only sec- 
tarian influence. As we have it now it shows that we are opposed 
to any and all interference, both sectarian and political. 

THE RATIO OF REPRESENTATION 

Of all the changes made at this famous session, the one most 
condemned was the change in representation and the paying of 
mileage and per diem of all Representatives. This ratio of repre- 
sentation they claimed was " unfair " and " unjust " as well as 
" inequitable " to the larger states, as it was " taxation without 
representation " ; that Pennsylvania, for instance, paid nearly one- 
third of the expenses yet had only 11 Representatives to represent 
75,000 members, while in 20 other states with less than one-third 
the membership of Pennsylvania, they would have 60 or more 
Representatives. This discrimination they claimed was " uncon- 
stitutional " " unwarranted " and a " high-handed arbitrary " 
action, and in consequence of such proceedings, they claimed the 
right to refuse to levy the National Council tax, which act rendered 
such State Councils insubordinate. 

Notwithstanding a great " furore " was created over this action 
of the Minneapolis session, yet the same " unjust " and " unfair " 
condition of things had existed prior to this time, still nothing 
was said. Scanning the records of the National Council, we find 
in its earlier history, that the representation of the states in the 
National Body were equal, yet Pennsylvania always had the bulk 
of the membership and met the larger portion of the expenses. We 
turn to the Richmond session held in 1886, and find there were 
six states represented, each with five Representatives, representing 
a membership of 15,182 ; of this number Pennsylvania had 11,534, 
or 76 per cent, of the total membership, with but 17 per cent, of 
representation; and this "unfair" and "unjust" and " inequita- 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 133 

ble " representation had already continued fifteen years. Coming 
down to the Cleveland session, held m 1891, we find Pennsylvania 
with 16 Representatives and a membership of 56,566, while New 
York, which joined in the cry of "unjust," " unfair" and '* in- 
equitable" after the session of 1899, had but 3 12 members, yet had 
five National Representatives, and the nine other states then 
represented, had 50 National Representatives for a total member- 
ship of 15,214. At the Asheville session in 1894, the basis of 
representation was made five from each state for the first 5,000 
members, and one additional for each additional 3,000, or a major- 
ity fraction thereof. This gave Pennsylvania 31 Representatives, 
and every state entitled to a State Council, five each. 

The change of representation made at Minneapolis gave Penn- 
sylvania, with a smaller membership than she had at Asheville 
five years hefore, 11 Representatives, and to each of the smaller 
states three Representatives instead of five as formerly. A little 
figuring will show that in percentage, the ratio of representation 
of 1899 is about as it was in 1894. The change of representation 
made at Asheville in 1894 was a political scheme, as referred to in 
another place, and was never popular only so far as it served the 
purposes of the old-time dynasty. 

We have thus briefly referred to the few misrepresentations 
that were used to inflame the minds of the members of the Order 
directly following the session of 1899, to show how inconsistent the 
attitude of the insurgents was. Having fashioned the Constitu- 
tion of the Order after the Constitution of the United States, and 
these very same malcontents being parties to it, what arrogancy 
it was on their part to cry " unconstitutional/' " unjust," " unfair " 
and " inequitable," when every one knew that in the Upper House 
of the United States Congress, New York and Pennsylvania with 
their millions of population have no more representation than little 
Delaware and Rhode Island. No one hears complaints from the 
Knights of Pythias or the I. O. O. F. about their representation. 
The K. of P. has the same basis of representation as ours, yea, they 
go farther and stop with five Representatives, no difference how 
many members a state may have. A few years ago in seven of their 
State lodges they had 235,000 members with 32 Grand Represen- 
tatives; in 47 State lodges they had 232,000 members with 101 
Grand Representatives. The I. O. O. F. is still worse, as Pennsyl- 
vania a few years ago had 106,000 members and the Territory of 
Wyoming had but 1,000 members, yet each state had tivo Grand 
Representatives. 



134 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

l Mi; PARTING OF THE WAYS 

District of Columbia 

In conformity with the purposes formed by the leaders of the 
insurgents, that which was considered a threat became a fact, and 
the decree went forth that each State Council under the control of 
the . anti-administration people should defy the mandates of the 
Supreme Bod}', by refusing to levy upon the Subordinate Councils 
the National Council tax, until such times as by special or regular 
session the National Body should favorably consider the alleged 
grievances, which will be noted in their proper place. 

The first State Council to promulgate this incendiary order or 
decree was the District of Columbia, at its meeting, held at Wash- 
ington, D. C, Aiigust 14, 1899. Having refused to honor the 
National Council tax, therefore disobeying its mandates, National 
Councilor Charles Beimer, preferred charges against the State 
Council for insubordination, and suspended its charter, pending 
trial. Subsequently, the trial took place before the National Judi- 
ciary, the Court consisting of H. H. Eddy, Chief Supreme Judge, 
Harry S. Barry and W. L. S. Gilcreast, Supreme Judges. 

In a lengthy opinion, the Judiciary gave a resume of the pro- 
ceedings of the trial and their decision. The only question at issue 
was the "right of a State Council to decline to pay the National 
Council the revenue due it by the refusal to levy the per capita 
tax enacted by the National Council in annual meeting, or to other- 
wise provide for the collection or payment of said tax to the Na- 
tional Secretary by the proper officers of said State Council." The 
State Council, in its defense, submitted fifteen specific grievances 
growing out of the action of the National Council at the Minne- 
apolis session. The Court decided thirteen of the grievances mere 
criticisms upon the action of said session, or mere questionings 
of the wisdom of the judgment of said National Council by the 
enactment of certain laws. Consideration was given to the other 
two alleged grievances. The one was the forming of an endow- 
ment rank or insurance association, thereby making the Order 
an insurance company rather than a patriotic organization. The 
other grievance considered was " The unconstitutionality of the 
new and radical laws, they not having been ratified by the State 
Councils." 

In analyzing and summing up the pleadings of the defendant 
State Council, in justification of their act of the violation of the 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 1S5 

fundamental laws of the Order, the Judiciary Court announced the 
following opinion : 

"The power of taxation is a prerogative of Government. A refusal 
to pay taxes lawfully imposed threatens, and if sulliciently general and 
persistent, insures the destruction of government. 

" Under the Supreme Law of the Order the power to levy or provide 
for the tax necessary for the support of the National Council is lodged 
exclusively with the said National Council. To concede the right or the 
power of any other and necessarily subordinate body to refuse to collect 
and pay over the tax so levied or provided for would be destructive of the 
entire plan of the Order. 

" By a refusal to supplement the lawful act of the National Council 
in enacting a tax for its maintenance, the State Council failed to perform 
an express and ministerial duty. Were this otherwise, there would be an 
end to the National Government. The State Council failing to perform 
this duty, it must be competent for the National government, through its 
proper department, in this case the Judiciary, to defend and preserve 
itself. 

" The State Council of the District of Columbia should come into 
Court with clean hands when seeking redress for alleged grievances. This 
it clearly has not done. Our Order teaches obedience to law, imposes upon 
its members regular and lawful procedure and condemns insubordination 
and rebellion." 

By order of the Judiciary, the relations between the State 
Council and the National Body were resumed, with the further order 
that the proper officers of said State Council collect and pay over 
to the proper officer of the National Council by January 15, 1900, 
all per capita tax due said National Council ; and that in the event 
of the failure or refusal to pay over said per capita tax or abide 
by or perform the orders set forth, then the charter shall be re- 
voked. This decision was rendered on the twenty-third day of 
November, 1899, the trial having taken place on the eighteenth 
of the month preceding. Having failed to comply with the order 
of the Court, the National Councilor, on January 27, 1900, issued 
a decree revoking the charter of the State Council. 

Following the revocation of the State Council charter, the 
said State Council continued to act and operate as a body, where- 
upon the duly authorized officers of the National Council filed a bill 
in the Court of Chancery against the dissolved State Council, en- 
joining it from acting and operating as a body in and by the name 
of the Jr. 0. U. A. M. Testimony was taken before an Examiner 
in Chancery, but numerous delays of one character or another 
occurred, and when seemingly ready for trial before the Court, 
Justice Bradley before whom the case was to be heard, died, thus 
again delaying the issue. 



136 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

Without further reference to subsequent action of the Courts, 
at the present writing (1906) the matter in the District of Columbia 
is statu quo, the two sets of Councils holding their meetings as 
usual and going by the name of Jr. 0. IT. A. M., one set under the 
direction of the Supreme Body of the Order and the other and 
larger number acting independently, each initiating members as if 
nothing had ever happened. 

In these earlier years of the controversy, the branch of the 
Order's government that had more to do with the issues involved, 
not only in Pennsylvania, but in all the disaffected states, was the 
National Judiciary that had been created by the adoption of the 
new Constitution and By-laws at Minneapolis in 1899. The first 
National Judiciary appointed was composed of men of high stand- 
ard and fully qualified to sit in this court of last resort. The most 
intricate and perplexing problems were brought before this tribunal 
which were weighed so carefully that its decisions and opinions 
were affirmed in every instance by both the lower and higher courts, 
so far as they interpreted the fundamental laws of the organization. 
Eminent jurists spoke in words of highest praise of this tribunal 
and as Judge Audenried declared it was higher than the civil 
court in the adjudication of the causes pertaining to the Jr. 
0. U. A. M. 

The National Judiciary sitting at this critical period of the 
Order's history was composed of the following brothers: H. H. 
Eddy, of Colorado, Supreme Chief Judge, W. L. S. Gilcreast, of 
Massachusetts, and H. S. Barry, of Maryland, Chief Judges. At 
the organization of the Court at its first sitting, Geo. F. Lounds- 
bury, of Colorado, was appointed Recorder. It might be added that 
A. D. Wilkin was one of the Chief Judges appointed, but subse- 
quently resigned in order to act as Counsel for the National Coun- 
cilor in the various suits pending, and Brother Gilcreast was 
appointed in his stead. 



CHAPTER X 

THE CONFLICT AT THE CROSSING OF 
THE CENTURIES (Continued) 

Pennsylvania 

WHILE New Jersey, New York, the District of Columbia, 
Virginia, as well as Pennsylvania, were affected by the 
revolt, the latter state was considered the battle-ground in the con- 
flict. Here the Order had its " Bull Eun " ; here also it had its 
" Appomattox.'' Owing, therefore, to the prominence of Penn- 
sylvania in the fight, in the courts of which state were decided the 
questions that upheld the Order throughout the United States 
thereby setting at naught the efforts to disrupt the organization, 
this chapter largely will be devoted to the Keystone State in pre- 
senting as concisely as possible a connected outline of the struggle 
from the Scranton session of the State Council to the final cul- 
mination of the conspiracy. 

SUSPENSION OF THE STATE COUNCIL OF PENNSYLVANIA 

The period from the close of the National Council at Minne- 
apolis to the meeting of the State Council of Pennsylvania, Sep- 
tember 19, 1899, at Scranton, was utilized with more than the 
accustomed zeal on the part of the anti-administration people, in 
inspiring the membership with a spirit of revolt by the publication 
in the press of the basest fabrications and promulgating on the 
floor of the Council chambers the grossest exaggerations relative to 
the proceedings of the Minneapolis session of the Supreme Body. 
With minds violently inflamed with resentment towards the admin- 
istration leaders of the National Body, the Representatives- of the 
Councils of the state assembled at Scranton ready to follow the 
insurgent leaders in any action they should suggest. More than 
500 members answered to roll-call on the morning of the 19th of 
September, and the proceedings of the session were carried on in 
the usual way, the officers having been elected for the ensuing year. 
Nothing of an exciting nature occurred until the second day of the 
session, when, in the consideration of the Report of the Finance 
Committee, the storm broke forth in relentless fury. Whep it 
came to ratifying the National Council per capita tax of 15 cents, 
the anti-administration element precipitated the revolt by opposing 

i37 



138 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

the levying and paymenl of said tax, until such time as the National 
Body would redress the alleged wrongs perpetrated upon the Order, 
by rescinding all legislation enacted at Minneapolis to which they, 
the insurgents, objected. The procedure that culminated so seri- 
ously to the State Council, was as follows: A motion was made 
to approve the recommendation of the Finance Committee to appro- 
priate $11,500 for the payment of the National Council per capita 
tax. This was voted down by a vote of 326 to 177. Later a motion 
was made that the State Council Secretary be instructed to pay the 
National Council per capita tax when due. This was tabled. The 
State Councilor would not entertain a motion that the State Coun- 
cil would not pay the National Council tax, nor would he entertain 
a motion to fix the State per capita tax at any amount less than 15 
cents. 

On the afternoon of the second day the anti-administration 
people carried a motion levying 9 cents for the specified purpose of 
paying the expenses of the State Council as per the appropriations 
previously made; this was followed by a motion to levy a tax of 
15 cents to pay the National Council per capita tax, which, was 
lost; but an aye and nay vote was demanded. This was taken on 
Thursday morning, the third day, and resulted in its defeat by a 
vote of yeas 182, nays 324. This was practically the third and 
positive refusal to pay the National Council per capita tax, which 
was clearly an act of insubordination to the will of the National 
Body, and was rankest rebellion. 

In anticipation of the conspiracy aimed at the National Body, 
National Councilor Charles Beimer, Junior Past National Councilor 
Frank W. Pierson and Deputy National Councilor Bobert Ogle, 
as representatives of the National Council, were in attendance 
at the session, and when the final vote was taken, as above noted, 
the declaration of the suspension of the State Council, by the Na- 
tional Councilor, was made by Deputy National Councilor Bobert 
Ogle, as follows: 

" You are hereby notified that I have preferred charges of insubordina- 
tion against the State Council of Pennsylvania before the National Judi- 
ciary, and pending the trial of said charges, hereby declare the charter of 
the said State Council of Pennsylvania suspended." 

The writer will not, to his latest hour, forget that day. Confi- 
dent they were in the right, because they were upholding the man- 
dates of the Supreme Body, the loyal minority stood resolute and 
unmoved amid the " rule or ruin " majority. In the Chair sat that 
prince among us, the lamented George B. Bowers, gentle and 



UNTTED AMERICAN MECHANICS 139 

generous, who, seeing the crisis, in one of the mosj impassioned 
appeals that a man could make, plead with the brothers to avert 
the blow that was sure to fall upon the Slate Body did they con- 
tinue to resist unto insubordination, by acting within reason. One 
would have supposed that such an appeal, so full of pathos and 
patriotism, that the most stubborn heart would have melted and 
the determined opposition so manifest would have been broken. 
But the effect upon that body of revolutionists was of an opposite 
character. When the State Councilor had concluded, several of the 
most violent of the insurgent leaders leaped to their feet, running 
down the aisles of the hall, flourishing their arms and shrieking 
Tor recognition, and with language most abusive condemned the 
noble and considerate State Councilor, and tauntingly and sarcas- 
tically dared the National Councilor, who was present, to suspend 
the State Council. The die, however, was cast; the power of appeal 
had no effect with men determined on disruption of the organiza- 
tion, hence there was nothing left but to suspend the State Council, 
and by one act 77,000 members were without a State head. 

As the loyal minority, the State Councilor, State Vice-Coun- 
cilor, State Council Secretary, with all the other officers of the body, 
taking with them the charter, records and all other property of the 
State Council, with saddened hearts, quietly passed from the hall, 
pandemonium ensued. An attempt was made by the insurgents 
to organize a rump convention, which failed, and shame-faced the 
astounded majority left for their homes conscious of having pulled 
their own house down upon themselves. Within an hour after the 
suspension of the State Council, scores who had allied themselves 
with the majority saw their mistake, but it was too late. They were 
told by their leaders that there was no danger of suspension, that 
the National Councilor would not dare take such an extreme step, 
and following them instead of those who were loyal, they, by their 
own free will brought upon themselves the culminating act. 

THE TRIAL OF THE STATE COUNCIL OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Pursuant to the charges made against the State Council of 
Pennsylvania by the National Councilor for " insubordination, re- 
bellion, attempting to disrupt and destroy the Order, and violation 
of obligations and laws of the Order," the same were determined 
before the National Judiciary at a meeting of the Court held No- 
vember 15, 1899. The Board of Officers of Pennsylvania were 
represented by their attorney, Alex. M. DeHaven, and made answer 
to the charges preferred by the National Councilor. In the answers 



140 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

submitted, the respondents gave a resume of the proceedings of the 
Scranton session that lead up to the culminating act of insubordina- 
tion by the will of the majority, and the subsequent suspension of 
the State Council. The respondents averred that they were "not 
in their own proper persons guilty of any act, matter, cause or 
thing, whereby they, the ' Board of Officers/ are guilty of the 
charges." They also averred that it was not their belief " that it is 
the true intent and spirit of the majority of the Councils of the 
Order, that any act of insubordination would be ratified or 
approved, if properly submitted to those duly authorized to act." 

The fifth clause of the respondent's answer contained the fol- 
lowing averment, which indicates, what was the general opinion 
with the loyalists at the time, as to the real motive for the rebellion : 

" Your respondents further answer and say that from the various 
writings, publications and inuendoes, which were made prior to the said 
session of the State Council of Pennsylvania, they have been led to believe 
that the action formulated at said session was premeditated and deliberate 
and not in the spirit of brotherly love which always characterized sessions 
of the Order, and that the reasonableness, fairness and regularity of said 
per capita tax was not a cause in itself, which led a majority of the 
members of said session to vote as they did, but that behind this action 
there existed more sinister and cogent reasons prompted by feelings not 
germane to the icelfare and future prosperity of the Order, and that the 
amount of the per capita tax teas but a cloak to reach an end." 

The sixth clause refers to the reasonableness of the per capita 
tax and the willingness of the respondents to pay same, and adds : 

" If the amount thereof, as alleged by some, is excessive, unjust and 
unreasonable, that question must be raised in another form and not in 
the State Council of Pennsylvania, and at least not in the manner and 
form in which it was raised at the session held in Scranton on Sept. 19, 
and they further allege that the mere fact that more members voted not 
to pay the said per capita tax, than those who voted for it, is not an 
expression of the true will of the Order at large, because a majority vote 
is often reached upon a hypothesis, which is false from its very foundation, 
and that a majority interest when departing from the rules, regulations 
and constitution of the Order makes no binding authority upon the minority 
and that minority if within the precepts of the constitution and the law, 
is the true expression of the majority itself, and would be clearly recog- 
nized in the Courts of this Commonwealth, and the majority vote cast at 
said session is no more expression of and binding upon the Order, than if 
that same majority had by the same vote directed all the funds in the 
treasuries of the Order to be dissipated for objects unauthorized by the 
constitution and by-laws of the Order." 

As an evidence of the relentless determination of the insurgent 
majority not to to be reasonable in the controversy, at the Scranton 
session the State Councilor suggested that any alleged grievances 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 141 

they had should be submitted to the next session of the National 
Council, and that he would entertain a motion instructing the 
National Eepresentatives to endeavor to secure redress therefrom; 
but no such motion was made. Previous to the hearing before 
the National Judiciary, the State Board of Officers sent a letter to 
the Councils of the state notifying them of the sitting of the Court 
and requested them to formulate any grievances they might have 
or urge as a justification for the action of the State Council at 
Scranton in refusing to pay the per capita tax, and that they might 
appear or be represented before the Judiciary, but no grievances 
were either sent or presented in person or by representative. A 
request was made of Mr. Pike, attorney for the insurgent body, to 
be present and present a list of grievances, but the chief counsel for 
the revolting body refused to furnish such list. 

The Judiciary, in rendering their decision, stated the general 
and axiomatic truth, that "the power of taxation was an essential 
prerogative of government," etc., as quoted in full in their decision 
rendered in the case of the District of Columbia. (See page 135. ) 
The suspension of the charter of the State Council having expired 
by the terms of the proclamation, the Court directed that on or 
before the 10th day of January, 1900, the amount of per capita tax 
due the National Council should be paid to the proper authorities, 
and at the same time ordered that the State Council officers pro- 
ceed to notify all councils of the per capita tax due for Nationnl 
Council expenses, and in failure thereof to pay said tax, they were 
to be dealt with in accordance with the law of the Order. And it 
was further ordered that in the event of the State Council failing 
or refusing to remit said tax or otherwise disobeying the decree 
of the Court, the State Council charter shall be revoked. It is 
scarcely necessary to state that the decree of the Judiciary was 
obeyed by the regularly constituted authorities of the State Council. 

DERRY COUNCIL, NO, 40, VERSUS STATE COUNCIL OF PENNSYLVANIA, 
AND THE NATIONAL COUNCIL 

One of the fundamental principles of the organization where 
redress for alleged grievances is desired is to employ all means 
and every agency within the Order to right the wrongs before resort- 
ing to the courts of justice. This principle very early in the con- 
troversy was violated by the insurgents who, before all other means 
had been tried and exhausted, cited the National Council and the 
State Council of Pennsylvania before the courts, thereby not only 
placing these bodies in jeopardy, but in an embarrassing position 



142 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

before the general public, causing great harm and retarding for 
years the growth of the Order. 

In conformity with the decree of the Judiciary, the State 
Council officers made the usual demand of the Subordinate Councils 
of the State that they remit the per capita tax, National, Orphans' 
Home and State. Alleging that the demand for the National 
Council tax was illegal, Derry Council, No. 40, acting by and under 
authority of the counsel of the insurgent element, went into the 
Dauphin County Court asking for a preliminary injunction re- 
straining the State Council and National Council from collecting 
said National Council per capita tax from the Councils of Penn- 
sylvania. The application for a preliminary injunction was made 
on December 20, 1899, which the Court would not grant, but fixed 
December 28, as the date for a hearing on the application for such 
injunction. By mutual agreement this hearing was postponed 
until January 4, 1900, at which time the hearing took place before 
Judge Weiss. Hon. John E. Fox and W. A. Pike appeared as coun- 
sel for the plaintiff, and Hon. W. U. Hensel, Alex. M. DeHaven 
and A. D. Wilkin appeared for the respondents. The National 
and State Councils were well represented at the hearing, there be- 
ing present, Brothers Eeimer, Bowers, Pierson, Ogle, Deemer, 
Barry, Collins, Painter, Lutz and Lichliter. Quite a number of 
the insurgent leaders were in attendance, giving " moral support " 
to their cause, while H. Wells Buser sat at the counsel table " coach- 
ing " their attorneys who seemed quite unfamiliar with the case. 
The counsel for the respondents were prepared to go into a final 
hearing, but the counsel for the plaintiff asked for more time. 

Entering upon the case for a preliminary injunction, counsel 
for the plaintiff was unable to cite to the Court any precedents in 
favor of such a prayer; while upon the other hand, Mr. Hensel, 
counsel for the respondents, cited a large number of precedents and 
Supreme Court decisions supporting his contention that the plain- 
tiff was not entitled to the relief sought. Apparently this was the 
view of the Court, for the preliminary injunction was refused and 
the 20th of January, 1900, was fixed for the final hearing. 

The bill in equity consisted of twenty-two specifications, some 
of them, however, explanatory, in which there was agreement on the 
part of both plaintiff and defendants. 

1. The claim relative to the incorporation of Derry Council, No. 40, 
the respondents admitted. 

2. The institution and incorporation of flip State Cnunril of Pennsyl- 
vania, as stated in this paragraph, was also admitted by the respondents. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 143 

3. The same was also true of the third paragraph which related to 
the incorporation of the National Council. 

4. The fourth paragraph of bill recited the provisions of Article VI, 
Section 2, of the Constitution of the National Council relative to the col- 
lection and payment of per capita tax as decided by the National Body, as 
found in the Constitution and National Council Laws prior to the session 
of 1899. The respondents admitted this part of the bill, but averred that 
the Order was now working under the Constitution and Laws as adopted 
at Minneapolis, Minnesota, June, 1899, which superseded those under which 
the National Body worked, and that said laws were now and were at the 
time of the drawing up of t he plaintiff's bill, the supreme, national, valid. 
and subsisting laws of the Order. 

5." The provision of the article and section in the State Council Con- 
stitution providing how Subordinate Councils were to pay to the State 
Council their per capita tax and the penalty for failing to do so, as cited 
in this item of the bill, was admitted by the respondents, but they averred, 
however, that said provisions had no relevancy whatever to the obligations 
of the State Council, or of members of the Order to the National Council. 

6. Both plaintiff and respondents agreed to this item wherein it stated 
that under the charter granted to the National Council by one of the courts 
of Philadelphia, " The business of the corporation is to be conducted in 
the City of Philadelphia." 

7. The burden of this paragraph was that the National Council, " in 
violation of the express provisions of paragraph 3, of the said charter of 
the National Council aforesaid, did not meet in annual session in the year 
1899, in the City of Philadelphia, nor was it decided by the National 
Council in the City of Philadelphia in the year 1899 tchat amount of per 
capita tax each State Council should pay to the National Council." 

The respondents admitted the averment as stated in this paragraph, 
but denied that such meeting of the National Council and the fixing of 
the per capita tax was in violation of the charter, because the meeting 
took place without the City of Philadelphia and State of Pennsylvania or 
that the levying of the per capita tax was illegal because of such place of 
meeting. The respondents further averred that the place of meeting of the 
National Council, which was a representative body made up of represen- 
tatives of the Order from many states of the Union, had been for years 
fixed by a majority vote of the National Body, in accordance with the 
laws governing the Organization, and by such vote and in accordance with 
established laws, Minneapolis, Minnesota, had been fixed as the place of 
meeting for 1899. " That in the proceedings to fix this place of meeting 
the delegates from Pennsylvania had participated and concurred in the 
selection of Minneapolis as the place of meeting. That at said meeting 
the business transacted ivas not the corporate business contemplated by 
the articles and conditions of its charter." 

The respondents denied further that all the business of the National 
Council was done outside of Philadelphia and the State of Pennsylvania. 
They averred that the regular routine business of the Order was transacted 
from time to time and from month to month in the City of Philadelphia, 
where the main office is located, and the office had been nowhere else 
since the incorporation of the National Council. The respondents still 
further denied that the resolution deciding the per capita tax was not 
such a business that could be transacted outside of the State of Pennsyl- 



144 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

vania; and they still further averred and declared that H. Wells Buser, 
one of the complainants and plaintiffs, " icas a party to and aided to 
secure the regulation that the annual sessions of the National Council 
should be held in such places as the majority of the members of the session 
should appoint, as provided in Article III (page 40), of the by-laws of 
said association in force prior to June, 1899; and in accordance with which 
Minneapolis was lawfully and regularly chosen as the place of meeting 
in June, 1899." 

8. Paragraph eight recited the facts already a part of record, relative 
to meeting of the State Council in the city of Scranton; that the State 
body did reject a motion to pay the National Council per capita tax of 
15 cents or to order a levy for same; and that it was not agreed upon in 
said State Council to fix any amount of per capita tax, and before such 
action could be taken the National Councilor suspended the State Council 
and it Avas adjourned without date and there had been no session since. 

The respondents admitted the statements in this item of the bill, 
but averred that after the failure of passing the resolution to pay the 
National Council tax, a motion to reconsider the vote thereon was taken 
and failed, " ichich action by the said State Council was final and con- 
clusive and determinate of the refusal of said State Council to fix or levy 
said per capita tax; wherefore it is denied that before any action was 
taken by the said State Council with regard to the raising of the per 
capita tax, the National Councilor suspended the charter of the State 
Council ; and they aver that the charter of said State Council was sus- 
pended by the National Councilor after the said State Council had refused, 
by vote, to reconsider the motion to pay said per capita tax." 

9. This item of the bill referred to the vested powers of the National 
Council relative to granting charters, etc., and that when a State Council 
has been chartered it shall have full authority over the Subordinate Coun- 
cils within its jurisdiction. 

This provision under the constitution prior to the session of 1899, 
was admitted by the respondents, but averred that said provision had been 
superseded in part and supplanted by the Constitution and National Laws 
adopted at Minneapolis in which the following powers are vested in the 
National Council : " To grant charters to State Councils, and to provide 
by law for the issue, revocation, suspension, restoration and reissue of 
such charters." 

10. This paragraph recited a section of the laws of the National 
Council as follows: "A law shall not be binding on a State or Subordinate 
Council under the jurisdiction of the National Council or a Subordinate 
Council under the jurisdiction of a State Council until such State or 
Subordinate Council has received an official copy of such law, signed by 
the proper officer and the seal of the superior body attached, or such other 
manner designated as official by the proper authorities." 

The respondents admitted that there was such a law prior to June, 
1899, but averred that there is no such law nor regulation of the Order 
now in existence, nor was there at the time the plaintiffs formulated 
their bill. 

11. Under this item the complainant averred that at no time had the 
State Council since the Minneapolis session received an official copy of 
the proceedings and laws of said session. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 145 

This statement the respondents denied emphatically, averring that 
such proceedings and laws had been printed and distributed and that a 
copy had been exhibited at the Scranton session; that the procedure of said 
session was in accordance with said laws as well as nominations of National 
Representatives to the National Body were made as provided by the new 
laws in the early part of the session, and not at the end of the session as 
under the old laws; and moreover a motitfn had been made to lay over the 
consideration of the new laws until the per capita tax should be consid- 
ered, all of which showed, the respondents say, that there was a complete 
knowledge of the National Laws by the said State and Subordinate Councils. 

12. This section of the bill complains " that at no time since the 
meeting in annual session in Minneapolis, in the year 1899, as aforesaid, 
has the State Council aforesaid, nor the plaintiff in any wise ratified, 
adopted, approved or accepted the acts and proceedings of the said National 
Council as the acts and proceedings of the said State Council nor the acts 
and proceedings of the plaintiff." 

This count in the bill the respondents denied, averring " that from 
the adoption of said Constitution and National Laws at Minneapolis, 
June, 1899, they became operative and binding on the State Council of 
Pennsylvania and on the plaintiff, and required no formal action, ratifica- 
tion, adoption or acceptance by either the State Council or plaintiff, and 
that they are binding upon them as the Supreme Law of said Order." 

13. The thirteenth count in the bill was a copy of the decree of the 
Judiciary relative to the collection of the National Council per capita 
tax, and the penalty in the event of failure or refusal to so do. 

This count was admitted by the respondents. 

14. The complaint in this count was, that the Secretary of the State 
Council, in conformity with the order of the Judiciary, had sent statement 
of per capita tax due from the Councils, in which was included the semi- 
annual tax for National Council purposes. 

This count was also admitted by the respondents. 

15. This paragraph gave in full the decree of the Judiciary, com- 
plaining that an attempt was being made to carry out its provisions, and 
in the failure of the payment of said National Council tax, the charter of 
said State Council would be revoked. 

The respondents admitted the allegation. 

16. This count of the bill read: "That the complainant does not 
object to the payment of and does intend to pay the per capita tax due the 
State Council, to wit, 5 cents, and the per capita tax due to the Orphans' 
Home, to wit, 5 cents, but avers that the National Judiciary does not have 
any legal existence, having been first formed and created at the annual 
session of the National Council held in Minneapolis, in Minnesota, on June 
20th, etc., 1S99, outside of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and that 
its order therefore is illegal and not binding upon the State Council, its 
officers or complainant." 

In answer to this complaint, the respondents replied, to wit: "They 
are not informed, and they neither admit or deny that the complainant 
does not object to the payment of and it has intended to pay the per capita 
tax due the State Council, to wit, five cents, and the per capita tax 
due to the Orphans' Home, to wit, five cents; and they demand proof of 
the same. But they deny that the National Judiciary docs not have any 
legal existence, and aver that it has legal existence and was lawful Iv 



146 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

formed, and that its order is legal and binding upon the State Council, its 
officers and complainant." 

17. This count claimed that the Secretary of the State Council had 
no authority to " make the order or demand the per capita tax due the 
National Council," for the reason that the order of the Judiciary was 
illegal and that the State Council at Scranton had not agreed to its 
payment. 

The allegations in this item of bill was denied by the respondents, 
they claiming that the order of the Judiciary was legal, and that the 
notices sent by the State Council Secretary was done in accordance with 
his duty as an officer of said State Council. 

18. The complainant averred that they had not in any way ratified, 
accepted or adopted the proceedings, laws, etc., of the Minneapolis session, 
nor recognized the legal existence of the National Judiciary. 

This was also denied by the respondents, averring that Derry Council, 
not having withdrawn from the Order, had ratified, accepted and adopted 
said laws and proceedings, and at the same time had recognized the legal 
existence of the National Judiciary. 

19. This count averred that the complainant had been informed that 
one of the respondents, the State Council of Pennsylvania, through its 
proper officers, were negotiating a loan to pay said per capita tax, and in 
the event of which the complainant would be compelled to assist in the 
payment of same. 

This allegation was denied by the respondents. 

20. The plaintiff in this count averred, that it feared that the penalty 
for refusing to pay per capita tax would be imposed upon it unjustly. 

In their answer, the respondents averred that they had no knowledge 
of the allegation as claimed in plaintiff's bill; that they are advised that 
same is not relevant in the present proceedings and afford no ground for 
equitable relief to plaintiff, and that they demand proof of same. 

21. This item of plaintiff's bill, gave a copy of the minutes of Derry 
Council, at a meeting held, reciting the action of the National Judiciary, 
as herebefore cited, claiming same illegal, etc., and a copy of the resolution 
of said Council authorizing the proceedings for action in the Dauphin 
County Court to restrain the State and National Councils from carrying 
out the decree of said Judiciary. 

The same answer as in the 20th count, was given by the respondents. 

22. The complainant further averred that it had no adequate remedy, 
therefore prayed for equitable relief as follows: 

1. That the regular constituted officers of the State Council of 
Pennsylvania (naming them), "be restricted from levying and collecting 
from your complainant the said per capita tax for the National Council, 
to wit, 7y 3 cents." 

2. That the Board of Officers, other officers, and Finance Committee 
of the said State Council, " be restrained from borrowing money on the 
credit of the State Council to pay said per capita tax to the said National 
Council. 

3. " That the acts and proceedings of the National Council in its 
annual session held at Minneapolis, on June 20-22, 1899, and the code of 
laws adopted thereat, be declared illegal, invalid and null and void. 

4. " That the order of the National Judiciary to the State Council 
Secretary, the State Councilor, the State Council Finance Committee and 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 147 

the State Council Treasurer of the State Council of Pennsylvania, be 
declared illegal, invalid and null and void. 

5. "That the order and decree of the National Judiciary revoking 
the State Council charter of Pennsylvania, on failure to pay said per 
capita tax by the 10th day of January, A.D., 1900, shall be declared illegal, 
invalid and null and void. 

6. " That all of the other orders and decrees and proceedings of the 
National Judiciary be declared illegal, invalid and null and void. 

7. "That the said National Council shall be restrained from holding 
its annual sessions and transacting and conducting its business outside 
the County of Philadelphia, contrary to the provisions of its said charter. 

8. " General relief." 

The respondents denied that the plaintiff had no adequate relief and 
averred that they have proper remedy at law, and further averred that the 
plaintiff disclosed in the bill of complaint no subject whatever for equit- 
able relief, and disclaimed the necessity of intervention in a Court of 
Equity. 

DECISION OF JUDGE WEISS 

Notwithstanding the weakness of the argument of the plaintiff, 
in the bill of complaint, and the stronger demurrer filed against 
same, the Court sustained Derry Council in its contention that the 
laws enacted at Minneapolis session were illegal, and granted a 
permanent injunction restraining the State Council of Pennsylvania 
from levying and collecting the National Council per capita tax 
from the plaintiff or otherwise interfering with the Council, dis- 
ciplinary or otherwise. 

Without entering into a detailed quotation of the decision, it 
is simply necessary to state that the decision of Judge Weiss was 
based upon the fact, that the National Council having been incor- 
porated under the laws of Pennsylvania, and the place where its cor- 
porate business could properly be transacted, being Philadelphia, 
that the meeting at Minneapolis and the business there transacted 
ivas illegal because held outside the State of Pennsylvania, hence 
in the opinion of the Court, it was manifestly intended by the cor- 
porators of the National Body that the general meeting of the Body 
should be held within the boundary of the State and probably at 
the place (Philadelphia) designated in the certificate of corporation. 
On this phase of the controversy, the Judge said : 

" To characterize the Constitution and code of laws of the National 
Council by no higher title than by-laws for which they may have been 
intended as a substitute, it would seem to follow that changes in the 
governing charter by which the franchises of a corporation are operated 
and directed must be made by the corporation within the confines of the 
incorporating state. Especially oupht this view to obtain when it is con- 
sidered that at Minneapolis all constitutions, laws, decisions and rulings 
theretofore existing and made were hj the National Council annulled and 



148 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

a new, though perhaps better system of ordinances or principles for the 
government of the Order inaugurated or created. 

" The view we have taken of the case renders it unnecessary to con- 
sider the other questions raised by the bill and answer, and it was only upon 
full consideration that a conclusion was reached respecting the invalidity 
of the proceedings and enactments of the National Council of Minneapolis. 
The right to levy the tax contemplated by the National Council when sitting 
in the proper jurisdiction is another, and, it may be a different question." 

In discussing the proceedings and acts of the Minneapolis 
session where great changes were made in the Constitution and 
Laws, many superseding those in former code, especially the article 
as to prescribing the sources of raising the revenue for the National 
Council, the Court claimed that it was not necessary to ascertain 
whether it had the power to do so, and added : 

" What concerns the view we take of the case is not so much the 
right to do what was done, as the acts which were done. We are not inter- 
preting the provisions of the section of the article, nor those of the chapter 
in question. Our conclusion is that the act related to a change in the 
fundamental law and was a corporate act." 

Hence the burden of the Court's opinion was that a corporation 
created by or under the laws of the state cannot meet in another 
state and create or recreate an organic and fundamental law by 
which its corporate existence is governed and perpetuated. And, 
therefore, it was his opinion that the enactments at Minneapolis 
were corporate acts strictly called. 

SESSION OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF 1900 

While under the caption " History of the National Council," 
the procedure of this session will more properly find its place, still 
in order to keep the thread of the controversy chronologically intact, 
it is necessary in this connection to refer to this session, being 
equally important, in its bearing on the entire struggle, as the 
Minneapolis session. 

Judge Weiss having granted the injunction restraining the 
State Council of Pennsylvania from levying and collecting the Na- 
tional Council per capita tax, because in the opinion of the Court 
the Minneapolis session of the National Council was not legal, 
having been held without the State of Pennsylvania, it was made 
necessary to change the place of meeting of the National Body from 
Detroit, where it had been fixed by vote of the body at Minneapolis, 
to Philadelphia. In view of the situation, the National Councilor 
issued the following proclamation: 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 149 

" PROCLAMATION. 

" Baltimore, Md., March 28, 1900. 

" To the State Councils, Subordinate Councils and Members of the Junior 

Order United American Mechanics of the United States of North 

America. — Greeting : 

" Dear Sirs and Brothers. — 

" Whereas, Controversies have existed within the Order since the 
Minneapolis session of the National Council, questioning the right of the 
National Council to enforce its laws and to levy and collect a reasonable 
per capita tax for its maintenance and support; and, 

" Whereas, Deny Council, No. 40, of Hummelstown, Pa., brought 
suit in the Dauphin County Court of Pennsylvania to enjoin the collection 
of said tax from said Derry Council ; and, 

" Whereas, Said court ruled that the levy of said tax was illegal by 
reason of said session of the National Council having been held beyond 
the boundaries of the State of Pennsylvania, and upon that single point 
restrained the collection of the said tax from said Council ; and, 

" Whereas, An appeal from said decree has been perfected in the 
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, pending which all the issues involved 
in said suit remain undetermined, leaving unimpeded the legitimate work 
of the organization under the laws passed at the annual session of the 
National Council at Minneapolis, June, 1899: 

" Therefore be it known, That the next place of meeting of the 
National Council is hereby changed from Detroit, Mich., to Philadelphia, 
Pa., and that said session is hereby called to convene on the nineteenth 
day of June, 1900. 

" Yours fraternally, in V., L. and P., 

" Charles Pieimer, 
[seal.] "National Councilor." 

Early in the year the National Councilor had been requested 
by certain of the dissatisfied element of the National Council to 
call an extra session of the National Body to consider the grievances 
they had to present. This the National Councilor declined to do, 
but assured them of his willingness to lay before the regular session 
of the National Body such grievances as they wished brought to the 
attention of its members. In connection with this offer, in a spirit 
of the most kindly conciliation, lie invited them to attend the 
National Council at Philadelphia, and in person, present their griev- 
ances, although none of the dissenting members of the insurgent 
states were entitled to admission to the body; and in his report to 
the body, earnestly urged that they be granted admission, if they 
presented themselves at the seat of the National Council. 

Apropos to this generous spirit of the National Councilor, the 
Committee on Credentials, consisting of Brothers Dr. R. At mar 
Smith, J. A. Tarpley and Rev. M. D. Lichliter, submitted the fol- 
lowing supplementary report : 



150 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

" Your Committee on Credentials beg leave to report that the follow- 
ing names of Representatives to the National Council are from the State 
Councils which, according to our laws, are not in good standing, but aa 
they claim to have grievances and wish to lay their claims before the 
National Council, the Supreme Head of the Order, we beg leave to report 
that we recommend their admission to the National Council, realizing at 
the same time that their admission is irregular, yet in the spirit of con- 
ciliation, we recommend their admission." 

With the exception of a few from New York, and they by the 
way were loyal, none of the dissenting members put in appearance, 
but they did send a protest against the holding of the session at 
all, claiming that its call was illegal and without warrant of law. 
Amazing inconsistency ! Having by their own action, through the 
Courts, declared that the holding of the National Council outside 
the State of Pennsylvania was illegal, and then when the National 
Councilor did what it was alleged came under the corporate act, 
call the National Council to meet within the State of Pennsylvania, 
and to be on the safe side, if the opinion of the Court was correct, 
in the City of Philadelphia, these same disturbers, with the intent 
to destroy what they had built up, protested against the meeting of 
the body. 

The following general protest was sent to the National Coun- 
cil, signed by all of the disaffected members, formerly members 
of the body: 

" Philadelphia, Pa., June 19, 1900. 

" To the Officers and Members of the National Council, Jr. 0. U. A. M., 
V. 8. A. 

" Dear Sirs and Brothers. — ■ 

" Whereas, This session of the National Council of the Junior Order 
United American Mechanics, is in our opinion, an illegal one in that the 
call for the same is without warrant in law; therefore, be it 

" Resolved, That all and every one of the States represented in the 
present fight against the grievances existing in and emanating from the 
said National Council do hereby protest against the holding of the said 
session in the City of Philadelphia, in the State of Pennsylvania, on June 
19, 1900, or any other date subsequent thereto. 
" Yours fraternally, 
" Benj. A. Fairranks, H. F. Hummer, 

H. C. Dennis, Frank K. Muta, 

Wilson Husk, William Giffard, 

F. H. Haight, F. A. Long, 

W. B. LaRue, Alrert J. Crane, 

W. B. Stephens, 
National Representatives of New Jersey." 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 151 

" William H. Miers, Frank H. Lewis, 

Emmor Applegarth, Albert J. Smith, 

Robert Carson, C. T. Fisler, 

John Tichenor, Fergus A. Dennis, 

F. G. Sterling, L. L- Hansell, 

Joseph L. Moore, John C. Hayes, 
James G. Hayes, 

Past State Councilors of New Jersey." 

" William H. Meseroll, H. A. Kibbe, 

William P. Hayes, 
Past National Councilors of New Jersey." 

" F. E. Parker, 
Past State Councilor of New York." 

" W. V. Edkins, Albert F. Lang, 

Gustav Bacharach, Joseph S. Rice, 

Charles T. Preston, Joseph E. Menges, 

T. H. Baird Patterson, A. E. Pickering, 

Wilmer Crow, 
National Representatives of Pennsylvania." 

" H. J. Deily, William T. Kerk. 

Robert W. Crane, H. Wells Buser, 

C. N. Raymond, 

Past State Councilors of Pennsylvania." 

" Evan G. Badger, W. R. Stroh, 

Past National Councilors of Pennsylvania." 

"E. C. Garrison, A. L. Bradley, 

W. D. Hill, 
National Representatives of Virginia." 

" E. T. Keeton, Davis Bottom, 

Thomas B. Ivey, 
Past State Councilors of Virginia." 

" C. W. Tyler, 
Past National Councilor of Virginia." 

" Thomas S. Sergeon, J- E. Bromwell, 

C. M. Bigelow, William L. Boyden, 

National Representatives of District of Columbia." 

" J. Harry Cunningham, John D. Schofield, Jr., 

Frank S. Neikirk, 
Past State Councilors of District of Columbia." 

Along with the protests also came the list of grievances, and 
as a sample we insert one in this connection : 



152 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

" Philadelphia, Pa., June 19, 1900. 

" To the Officers and Members of the National Council, Jr. 0. U. A. SI., 

0. S. A. 

" At a meeting of ' The Past Councilors' and Active Workers' Asso- 
ciation,' of the Junior Order United American Mechancs, of the eastern 
district of Pennsylvania, held Tuesday, June 12, 1900, the following 
preamble and resolution was adopted: 

" Whereas, The action of the National Council of the Junior Order 
United American Mechanics for some years past has resulted in the enact- 
ment, from time to time, of laws, burdens on various State and Subordinate 
Councils of the Order, resulting in a code of laws being adopted at a 
session of the National Council held at Minneapolis, Minn., June, 1899, 
so inequitable and so un-American that the majority of the Representa- 
tives to the State Council of Pennsylvania, in annual session assembled, 
protesting against the ratification of said laws deemed it their duty to 
refrain from voting a per capita tax for the uses of the said National 
Council, resulting by arbitrary action of the National Councilor, in the 
suspension of the said State Council of Pennsylvania from performing its 
usual functions, which action has resulted in the serious impairment. of 
the Order in the State of Pennsylvania; and, 

" Whereas, It has become apparent that if the Order is to regain the 
high standard and lofty position it had attained through years of unsel- 
fish labor for the upbuilding of American principles that radical changes 
must be made in the laws of the Organization; therefore, be it 

" Resolved, That this Association renewing its pledges of ' Love of 
Liberty ' and ' Regard for our Order,' and as forcibly protesting against 
the ' Enslavement of mankind ' by unjust rule and power, respectfully 
petition the National Council to redress our grievances, and to so amend 
•the laws as to conform to 'Equity and Justice,' to wit: 

" First — Bo enact, That all laws adopted at the Minneapolis session 
and all acts growing out of same, shall be absolutely abolished. 

" Second — So enact, That the laws in force prior to June, 1899, shall 
be so amended as to conform to the demands of present conditions, among 
others — So enact, That all States shall have just and equitable represen- 
tation in the National Council, based on actual membership and per capita 
taxation. 

" Third — So enact, That none but duly elected and accredited Repre- 
sentatives can at any time serve on any committee of the National Council. 

" Fourth — So enact, That the positions of National Secretary and 
State Secretary shall become entirely separate and distinct, and at no 
time shall these offices be filled by one and the same person at the same time. 

" Fifth — So enact, As to abolish the positions of National Organizer 
and Special Organizer. 

" Sixth — So enact, As to abolish salary to Secretary of National 
Legislative Committee. 

" Seventh — So enact, As to abolish all appropriations to any and all 
periodicals and publications. 

" Eighth — So enact, That at all times the per capita tax shall be as 
low, as is equitable, to an economical administration of the affairs of 
the Order. 

" Ninth — So enact, That the National Council shall at all times be 
purely a representative body and of limited powers. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 153 

" Tenth — So enact, As to abolish all unnecessary committees of the 
National Council. 

" Eleventh — Favorable action on all of above seems, to this body, to 
be absolutely necessary if the betterment of condition of the Order is 
deemed, on your part, as desirable. 

" There are other matters of importance, which we trust will receive 
your consideration, to specify we would suggest that all charges pending 
against individual members of the Order, growing out of the existing 
differences should at once be withdrawn, as another instance, we would 
respectfully suggest that care should be used in construction of Subor- 
dinate Councils password, in order that same should not be misconstrued 
as intended to be, to say the least, suggestive. 

" Yours in V., L. and P., 

" Edward Wilson, " President." 

As to the business proper of this session, that appears else- 
where; suffice it to say, that the writer attended the session and 
was deeply impressed with the spirit of conciliation and concession 
manifested in the body. Everybody bore " olive branches," and 
the National Council unalterably committed itself to reconciliation 
and peace. Every protest that was read was given due and honest 
consideration and every demand was granted, excepting those that 
were manifestly unreasonable and impracticable, and as far as the 
dignity and honor of the National Council would allow, everything 
that could be done was accomplished. Yet, as the sequel shows, 
all the remedial legislation and generous extension of the " olive 
branch " to the offended brethren went for naught. 

THE SECESSION IN PENNSYLVANIA 

As stated above, Judge Weiss in the opinion filed with his 
decree, affirmed the averment of Derry Council that the Minne- 
apolis session of the National Body was illegal because held outside 
the State of Pennsylvania, but at the same time clearly intimated 
that the only course for the National Council to pursue was to meet 
in Philadelphia and ratify former legislation. This had been done. 
As referred to above, the National Council followed the decision 
of the Dauphin county court, met in Philadelphia, ratified all for- 
mer legislation, especially that enacted at Minneapolis, and no mat- 
ter what would be the final decision in the Supreme Court, to which 
tribunal an appeal from Judge Weiss' decision had been taken, the 
legality of the Philadelphia session could not be questioned. 

With a sense of shame and humiliation we approach one of the 
most disgraceful scenes witnessed during the conspiracy, exhibiting 
some of the lowest and most disreputable tactics possible, a fitting 
culmination to an unfortunate controversy, the insurgent's special 



154 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

session of the State Council of Pennsylvania at Lancaster. The 
call for a special session of the State Council had been made by 
fifty councils and the summons had been borne in person to the 
State Councilor by P. N. Councilor Evan G. Badger, one of the 
leaders of the insurgent forces. The demand was honored and 
June 26, 1900, was the time set for the special or adjourned ses- 
sion. The Credential Committee was authorized to accept all cre- 
dentials, if properly made out, and give the Eepresentatives the 
password irrespective of whether the council had paid the per 
capita tax or not. 

Now comes one of the dishonorable acts on the part of the 
insurgents. A deputy sheriff of Dauphin county, at the suggestion 
of the insurgent leaders, put in appearance and met the State 
Council officers and proceeded to serve upon each a writ ordering 
them to appear at court in Dauphin county at 10 a.m. the next day 
to show cause why they should not be held in contempt of court. 
It was apparent at first glance that it was a disreputable trick to 
get the State Council officers away from the City of Lancaster on 
the day and at the very hour that had been set for the special 
session, in order to capture the State Body and conduct the business 
at their " own sweet will." By this despicable procedure the loyal 
State officers were placed between " two horns of a dilemma." 
Loyalty to the National Council demanded of them the enforcement 
of the Supreme law, and failure to appear at the Dauphin county 
court would subject them to contempt of court, and possibly, place 
them behind prison bars. Legal advice was sought and it was de- 
cided to postpone the special session in order to appear at court, 
and the following notice was posted upon the door of the hall where 
the meeting was to have taken place: 

" On June 25, at the instance of Derry Council, No. 40, Jr. 0. U. A. M., 
by its trustees, H. Wells Buser, George Spidle and William Carmany, 
process was issued from the court of Dauphin county, summoning the 
State Officers and the State Secretary to appear in their proper persons 
before the said court in Harrisburg, on Tuesday, June 26, 1900, at 10 a.m. 

" Therefore, we, the Board of Officers, find it necessary and do hereby 
postpone the special session of the State Council Jr. O. U. A. M., called 
for June 26, 1900, until September 17, 1900, at Philadelphia, at 10 a.m." 

The notice was signed by George B. Bowers, State Councilor; 
Charles S. Crall, State Vice-Councilor; M. P. Dickeson, Junior 
Past State Councilor, and Edw. S. Deemer, State Council Secretary. 

There were at least two hundred Eepresentatives in attendance 
from Councils that had not honored the demand of the State Coun- 
cils officers by payment of the National Council per capita tax 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 155 

wearing badges with the word " Insurgent " printed in large letters 
thereon, which distinction the}' seemed proud to own. At the time 
set for the meeting of the State Body, a motley crowd gathered be- 
fore the hall where the meeting had been called, and seeing the 
notice on the door, James W. McCleary, of the insurgent body, read 
in a very loud voice said notice, declaring that their faction had 
nothing to do in citing the Board of Officers to appear at Harris- 
burg. This statement, of course, no loyalist credited. A " curb- 
stone " convention was organized with the selection of D. G-. Evans 
as its presiding officer, whereupon the insurgent body adjourned to 
their previously arranged place of meeting where the session was 
continued and concluded. 

Among the first enactments of the rump body was the prefer- 
ring of charges against the regular State Council officers for 
" Violating the trust of the members of this State in misrepresent- 
ing the State Council and committing it to long and expensive liti- 
gation in collusion with the National officers, in an effort to intimi- 
date and coerce the Subordinate Councils in Pennsylvania." Yet, 
as every intelligent member knows, it was the insurgents that cited 
the State Council before the Courts, and were and have been since, 
the cause of the great expense entailed upon the Councils of the 
Order. It is unnecessary to state that the State officers were not 
disturbed by this citation as they gave no attention to it. 

An amusing " stage play " took place directly after the organ- 
ization of the " rump convention " which indicated that every move 
made by the insurgents was " cut and dried " before the meeting, 
when, with a show of great importance, there was presented to the 
body a charier under which they were to transact business. This 
charter, the gullible Representatives were informed, was a certified 
copy of the original charter taken from the records at Harrisburg; 
and strange to say many of the Representatives thought they were 
doing business legally, when, as any one knows, for $2.50 a certi- 
fied copy of any charter ever issued can be procured. This was 
but a sample of many things done in the attempt to delude their 
followers. 

These sticklers for economy presented an amendment to the 
law to pay all Representatives four cents a mile and $2.00 a day, 
which it was decided must lay over until the next " rump conven- 
tion." The amendment only meant 25 cents additional per capita 
tax to meet an estimated cost of $18,000 annually. The following 
resolution almost unanimously adopted was a fitting climax to the 
proceedings. 



156 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

. . . " Be it hereby Resolved, That the State Council of Pennsyl- 
vania, Jr. 0. U. A. M., severs all relation, connection and affiliation of 
whatsoever nature or hind now or heretofore existing by and between it 
and the National Council, Jr. 0. U. A. H., of the United States of America, 
to take effect immediately upon the passage of this resolution and that 
the State Council Secretary be instructed to notify the said National 
Council of said action." 

Thus the second act in the tragedy of the " Crossing of the 
Centuries " took place ; one more act yet to come, and then the 
" curtain falls/' so far as Pennsylvania is concerned, and the organ- 
ization that kept legislators upon the anxious seat, that brought 
Governors face to face with patriotic sentiment and aroused a 
sluggish Congress to action, was rent in twain and became a by- 
word in the family of secret fraternities. 

Having severed their connection with the National Council, 
as they supposed, by their resolution of secession, and acting under 
the laws of the State Council they claimed to govern, having elected 
and installed their State officers, they proceeded to " rule " and 
" govern " the same. Notwithstanding their action in severing 
all connection with the National Body, yet they did a despicable 
thing by sending broadcast the National Council password indis- 
criminately, regardless whether Councils had paid their per capita 
tax or not; and worse still, the password was stuck between the 
leaves of the proceedings of their " rump convention " and mailed 
as third class matter. 

In due time the hearing before the Dauphin county court of 
the State officers for contempt was held and the rule dismissed, 
but the costs were placed upon the State Council. In an official 
communication to the Subordinate Councils of the state, following 
the Lancaster fiasco, the loyal State officers had, in part, this to 
say: 

" Disunion and disorder has been their password and guiding star. 
The first act directed by them at that gathering was a resolution of seces- 
sion. The motion that passed, at least the entire subsequent proceedings 
became as of an outside, alien and independent body, and the property, 
objects, franchises, paraphernalia, assets, and name of the Order reverted 
to those who keep in line with the true intent and purposes of the charter 
and objects of the Order, and the powers and decrees of the courts of the 
State will be invoked, if necessary, to enforce those rights in the interest 
of the Order. 

" The mere will of a majority could no more change the original 
purposes than if that same majority had divided the funds of the Order 
among themselves. Majorities must ever respect the fundamental law 
which brings into being the Order itself; and when they depart from that, 
they cease to represent the Order, and be binding upon it. The same men 
who boast of the powers of the State Council, deny that power in the 
National Council, thus proving the falsity of their argument and faith." 



CHAPTER XI 

THE CONFLICT AT THE CROSSING OF 
THE CENTURIES (Continued) 

Pennsylvania ( Concluded ) 

IT may appear to the members of the Order without the juris- 
diction of Pennsylvania, that too much space is being given 
this subject so far as the above named state is concerned. This 
apparent criticism, however, dissolves when it is considered that the 
arena in the great struggle was Pennsylvania. Here the prelim- 
inary steps were taken in actual rebellion ; here first the courts were 
resorted to in the attempt to disrupt and destroy. 

Then again, more prominence is given Pennsylvania in the 
strife from the fact that here in the Supreme Court of the Com- 
monwealth was decided the life and perpetuity of the Order itself, 
not only for Pennsylvania, but for the entire galaxy of Common- 
wealths. Here was the battlefield where the insurrection reached 
"high-water mark," from thence to go down to ignominious 
defeat. 

THE FINAL PARTING OF THE WAYS 

September 17, 1900, found the State Council in special ses- 
sion in the City of Philadelphia. The unfinished business of the 
Scranton session was disposed of, officers installed and the ad' 
journed session came to a close in a day. The seceding body of the 
State Council was not present at this session, as they claimed that 
all the business of said session had been transacted at their " rump 
convention " at Lancaster. They filed their usual protests, how- 
ever, addressing the State officers as " assuming to act," etc., de- 
claring the special call as illegal and as an "usurpation of the 
rights, powers, privileges and franchises of the State Council of 
Pennsylvania," and closing with the threat that "whoever take- 
part therein does so at his peril." 

At the opening of the regular session of the State Council, 
the day following, at same place, the two elements of the State 
Council came together with a clash. No sooner had the State 
Councilor assumed his station and called the State Council to order, 
that S. D. Woods, the insurgent State Vice-Councilor, advanced 
to the platform and made the following demand : 

i57 



158 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

" I demand my right and privilege to perform my duty as State 
Vice-Councilor of the State of Pennsylvania, .Junior 0. U. A. M., and in 
the absence of the State Councilor to open the session of the State Council 
of Pennsylvania, and preside over the same." 

Still under the decree of the injunction of the Dauphin 
county court, the Supreme Court not having rendered its decision, 
and everything remaining statu quo, the Kepresentatives of both 
loyal and insurgent Councils were entitled to admission to the State 
Council. 

The State Councilor refused the demand of Woods and pro- 
ceeded to open the session in regular form. The insurgents being 
in the majority, were prepared to push their demands to the last 
ditch and acted accordingly. The minutes of the Scranton session 
were approved, but the minutes of the special meeting of the day 
previous were not approved ; whereupon, on motion of Jas. W. 
McCreary, the minutes of the Lancaster " rump session " 
were read and adopted, including the resolution of secession by 
the insurgent majority. This high-handed proceeding was the 
third and final act in the drama, and the parting of the ways be- 
came a fact by the reading of the following request by Brother 
Perry A. Gibson, of the loyal body : 

" According to the papers and records offered, filed and adopted at 
the State Council session, held at Odd Fellows' Temple in the City of 
Philadelphia on this September 18, 1900, makes it manifest that two 
State Councils of the Junior 0. U. A. M. do now exist in this State, and 
as but one legal and loyal State Council can exist, therefore all those 
members holding allegiance to the National Council, and to save harm 
to the proper rights, name and franchises of the State and National 
Council of the Junior 0. U. A. M., do now request all those who do not 
so claim to withdraw therefrom, otherwise those claiming do hereby 
adjourn to another place in this building for the transaction of such 
business as may be offered, and to finish the business of the State Council." 

The request made for the insurgent element to retire was re- 
ceived with jeers and cries of derision unworthy of men ; whereupon 
the State Councilor requested that the loyal body retire to another 
room, which was obeyed, and silently, yet confidently, knowing that 
they Avere in the right, the loyal minority passed out of the hall to 
the other room in the same building and concluded the business of 
the session without further interruption. 

Both bodies transacted their business simultaneously and each 
claimed to be the true State Council. As an evidence that there 
was a desire for reconciliation even at this juncture of the struggle 
upon the part of the loyalists, a committee on arbitration was 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 159 

appointed to confer with a similar committee from the seceding 
body, the joint committee to arrange a subsequent meeting to con- 
sider peace proposals, or arrange an equitable adjustment of the 
controversy. 

ARBITRATION SCORNED 

Following in their order the various steps in the great con- 
troversy, the meeting of the Arbitration Committee of both bodies 
of Pennsylvania comes next. This joint meeting took place Sep- 
tember 29, 1900, and was composed of ten persons from each body. 
As was the case in every subsequent effort at arbitration in either 
State or National Council, this meeting proved a failure, if not 
farcical. As had been arranged, each committee had its spokesman ; 
upon the part of the loyalists, Alex. M. DeHaven, Esq., was selected, 
while the insurgent committee named James M. Crawford, Esq. 
These two entered into a colloquy, which, upon the part of Brother 
DeHaven, was eminently fair, honorable and conciliatory ; but upon 
the part of Crawford was entirely the opposite. 

In the effort to arrive at some amicable adjustment of the 
difficulty, Brother DeHaven assumed that neither side should waive 
its right as to which was the legal body, but that in the consider- 
ation of a compromise, the joint committee should determine which 
of the officers elected by both bodies shall continue as the result of 
such compromise, provided such adjustment could be made. To 
this suggestion the representatives of the insurgent faction emphati- 
cally disclaimed any compromise as they would demand that the 
officers of their body shall be the officers of the State Council, and 
upon this point they would insist. And further, when that point 
was settled, they would insist that they be given physical possession 
of all property belonging to the so-named loyal State Council. In 
short, they demanded an unconditional surrender of all offices, 
property and funds of the loyal State Council. 

Brother DeHaven suggested that they discuss some other ques- 
tions connected with the controversy, but Crawford would not agree, 
saying: 

" Unless you agree to recognize our body as the State Council of 
Pennsylvania, and agree to recognize our officers as the legally elected 
officers of the State Council of Pennsylvania, toe will refuse to consider 
any other question." 

Brother DeHaven then made to the other side the most fair and 
equitable proposal that man could make to man, that to settle the 
difference between the two bodies, and therefore stop litigation, they 



160 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

would agree, as the representatives of the so-called loyal faction, 
to divide equally between the two sides the offices of the State 
Council. 

This proposition was flatly and emphatically refused, and the 
efforts at arbitration had come to an end. 

THE STATE COUNCIL OF PENNSYLVANIA SUSTAINED BY THE 
NATIONAL JUDICIARY 

The demoralization that took place in the state in consequence 
of two existing State Councils and two sets of State officers, can 
better be imagined than described. Man} 7, of the Councils, having 
taken a neutral position in the controversy, were in a dilemma 
and knew not which authority to recognize ; and, indeed, some that 
were loyal gave up hope of an adjustment of the difficulties and 
lost heart. In the meantime the insurgents, by press and tongue, 
hurled the vilest vituperations upon both the State and National 
officers, sending broadcast erroneous and grossly misleading publi- 
cations and circulars, and making on the floor of the Subordinate 
Councils the most violent and incendiary speeches. 

The Supreme Court of the state having reversed the lower 
tribunal, thereby declaring the Minneapolis session and its enact- 
ments, Constitution and Laws legal, which will be noted later, the 
officers of the State Council preferred charges before the National 
Judiciary against the alleged officers of the disloyal body, assuming 
to be doing business under the charter of the organization, and 
against certain other members of said disloyal body for insub- 
ordination, etc. A hearing was had on the charges before the 
Judiciary, in the City of Philadelphia, December 17, 1900. The 
plaintiffs, in presenting the case, simply gave a statement of facts 
relative to the entire trouble from the Scranton session in 1899, 
including the special session alleged to have been held at Lancaster 
in June of 1900, where the resolution of secession was passed, to 
the final break at the Philadelphia session in September same year, 
where two bodies of the State Council were put in operation. 

The National Judiciary discovered in the case at court two 
distinct questions: 1. The title to the offices of and the legality of 
the two contending bodies, each claiming to be the State Council 
of Pennsylvania. 2. The guilt or innocence of a number of the 
defendants as per the following Charge (No. 2) with specifications 
attached : 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 161 

CHARGES 

1. "That the said defendants, jointly and severally, have disputed 
and contested the authority of the National Council and its officers, con- 
stitution and laws, by resorting to the civil courts of the land for the 
redressing of alleged grievances growing out of membership in the 
Order, without exhausting the remedies in the tribunals of the Order, 
and have, by publication and. circulars inimical to the welfare and per- 
petuity thereof, endeavored to disrupt the Order and to bring it into 
ridicule and contempt. 

2. " That the said defendants have, on divers occasions, commencing 
in the year 1899, and thence hitherto and up to the present time, in 
conjunction with other persons, violated their obligations to and in the 
Order, and have been guilty of offenses against the Order as follows: 

SPECIFICATIONS 

"(a) By neglecting and refusing to obey the Supreme Law of the 
Order, the constitution, and the law of the State Council ; 

"(b) By endeavoring to disrupt the Order by the passage of a 
resolution of secession at the so-called session held at Lancaster on June 
26, 1900; 

"(c) By refusing to recognize and obey the said proclamation of 
Charles F. Reeves, the National Councilor, under date of October 15, 
1900, a copy of which is hereunto attached and marked ' Exhibit B,' as 
aforesaid ; 

"(d) By the publication and spreading of various newspapers, peri- 
odicals and circulars among the members of the Order, in the attempt 
to bring discredit upon the Order, and to bring the National Council 
thereof into disrepute, a copy of one of the said circulars is hereunto 
attached, and marked ' Exhibit C ; ' 

"(e) The said Pike, Woods, Heckman, Mench and Badger by holding 
themselves out to be the officers of the State Council of Pennsylvania. 

"(f) By making certain incendiary addresses and remarks in the 
various gatherings and also in the Subordinate Councils of the state, 
particularly in the City of Scranton, on or about September 18 and 19, 
1899, and the City of Lancaster, on or about June 25 and 26, 1900, and 
in Philadelphia, on or about September 17, 18 and 19, 1900; and at divers 
other places within the State of Pennsylvania. 

" That the said defendants, particularly the said Charles N. Ray- 
mond, James W. McCleary, William T. Kerr, Edward Wilson, James M. 
Crawford, C. A. Westerman, William Gundaker, John King, S. R. Kepner. 
W. A. Reese, Henry Markus, H. Wells Buser, Wilmer Crow and Harry B. 
Finch, have attempted the nullification of the authority of the National 
Council and its officers to properly manage and control the said Order, 
and have brought insubordination and rebellion within the same, and have 
incited Councils and members of the Order to commit the same and similar 
offenses." 

Relative to the status of the two contending bodies, the Court 
rendered its opinion and issued its decree on the 19th following the 
hearing, declaring the body commonly known as the " loyal organ- 
ization " as the legal State Council and its officers as duly elected 



162 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

and installed and legally authorized to administer the laws of said 
body, and decreed that the officers of the insurgent body be " en- 
joined and forbidden from assuming or attempting to exercise the 
functions, discharge the duties or enjoy the prerogatives of or per- 
taining to the said offices." 

PENNSYLVANIA PURGED 

When the second charge was taken up there was a determined 
resistance upon the part of the defendants. The question of juris- 
diction was raised at the opening of the case, the defendants aver- 
ring that the State Judiciary not the National should hear the case. 
This objection was met by the Court in its opinions, holding that 
at the time the suit was ordered there was no State Judiciary; 
and if it had been organized, it could not have tried the question 
of its own status. The Court also declared that the case being 
one that involved violations of the Supreme Law of the Order, that 
it conferred upon the National Judiciary the discretion of taking 
original jurisdiction. 

The contention of the counsel for the defendants was based 
on a clause in the National Constitution : " The National Judiciary 
shall have original and appellate but not exclusive jurisdiction," 
etc. The Court, however, made it clear that the National Judiciary 
was the proper tribunal, and the trial proceeded. 

Charge 1. The opinion of the Court relative to this allega- 
tion was, that at the time the suit of Derry Council was brought, the 
only instance where the means within the Order were not exhausted, 
the law forbade a member from resorting to the civil courts to seek 
redress for alleged grievances; but no provision of the law existed 
at the time making it an offense for a body to so do, hence the 
charge was dismissed. 

Charge 2. Specification (a) being too broad in its scope and 
uncertain in its character, was dismissed. 

Specification (b) was considered a more serious question with 
the Court. Some of the defendants admitted signing the resolu- 
tion of secession; others offered no objection to the genuineness of 
the printed signatures, while two of the accused declined to admit 
the authenticity of the signatures because of the absence of the 
original copy. A demand was made by the plaintiffs upon the 
alleged Secretary of the insurgent body for the document, which 
was declined. There was no doubt of the guilt of ten of the de- 
fendants on this count since they admitted the fact; but the two 
who declined to admit, in the absence of the original copy, the 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 163 

authenticity of their signatures, there was a question for considera- 
tion. The Court, however, was ahle to arrive at a conclusion, which 
opinion not only affected this but other specifications in the bill of 
complaint. The opinion of the Court on this point was as follows : 

" We conclude, therefore, that defendants Wilson and Westerman 
were, by existing circumstances, put to denial of signature and proof of 
same. Failing to meet the issue, they must be held to have signed the 
instrument. We have no hesitation in declaring the proper rule in the 
Order's law in this and similar cases to be that the admission in evidence 
of a properly authenticated official or an alleged official printed document, 
carries with it the printed signatures thereto, and puts one who would 
deny the genuineness thereof, to the proof. 

" The reasoning and rule thus applied to the resolution of secession 
is likewise applicable to the printed circulars, proclamations and other 
documents in evidence in this case." 

Relative to the resolution of secession itself, the Court had this 
to say: 

" We now pass to the consideration of the meaning, character, and 
effect upon the defendants signing it, of the resolution itself. The signing 
and introduction of this resolution was an act done with an obvious pur- 
pose. Those defendants who signed and introduced the resolution, pre- 
sumptively gave heed to its every word, line and phrase; considered its 
purpose, weighed the result. We must believe that the signers intended 
to accomplish just what the resolution purported to do. Of this purpose 
the language of the resolution itself leaves no doubt. The act, gauged 
by the intention behind it, cannot be construed into obedience of supreme 
law; cannot be construed into anything but an intended refusal to obey, 
not only one of the supreme laws, but every supreme law; cannot be con- 
strued into anything else than an act of insubordination." 

The contention of the attorneys of the defendants relative to 
this act of rebellion, indicates not only bad taste and lack of pro- 
fessional dignity, but that they and their clients were heartily 
ashamed of the despicable procedure at Lancaster. We simply note 
the feAv points of their defense : It was urged by one of the counsel 
that the session at Lancaster was a "special session " called for 
special objects, and that the one relating to the resolution of seces- 
sion was not one of the objects in the call, hence the resolution was 
" illegal and nugatory." The weakness of such an argument is 
apparent to one not even a lawyer. 

Another of the counsel for defendants contended : " Nor was 
it an expression of hostility to the National Council. It was simply 
a protest against the illegal act of the National Council, etc." To 
characterize a resolution of rebellion as a protest was certainly a 
" joke " the learned gentleman was trying to " crack " at the 
expense of the Court. 



164 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

The next argument (?) in the contention of another of the 
counsel, even more than the others, was pitiable if not humorous. 
The Court was moved to say : " It remains to still another of the 
counsel for defendants in his argument in their behalf, to out- 
Herod Herod."It was this outburst of legal ability that moved even 
the solemn and dignified Court to turn away with a smile: 

" There is no law preventing a man from introducing a resolution 
of withdrawal from the National Council. The charge contained in 
paragraph (b) goes to the good faith of him or them who introduce such 
resolution. Any man, actuated by a desire to do that which is for the good 
of the Order, who introduces a resolution like that referred to, does so 
in good faith, and cannot be charged with an attempt to disrupt the 
Order. ' Disrupting ' the Order implies bad faith or sinister motives, and 
the burden of proof is upon complainants to show that Edward Wilson 
was prompted in being one of the signers to the resolution by such bad 
faith or sinister motives." 

It is not strange that the Court was constrained to depart 
from its usual decorum on the presentation of such a plea, and 
say: 

" It is at all times our intention to clothe with dignity, and treat 
with courtesy, arguments of counsel. In this case it is not easy to do 
so. That the question of good faith with respect to the signing and 
introduction of a resolution, the very essence of which is to destroy every 
tie that knits together the component parts of an organism, which, being 
joined together, constitute ' The Order,' should be raised by counsel as a 
matter of proper defense, cannot but create a doubt in our mind as to 
the good faith of him raising it." 

As for six of the defendants, this specification was dismissed. 

Specification (c) was passed by the Court with a brief opinion, 
holding that " unquestionably " the " proclamation of the National 
Councilor was founded upon and proclaimed correct views as to 
the true status of the contending bodies." However, the specifica- 
tion was dismissed, the Court basing its opinion upon the fact that 
there being an apparent willingness on the part of the rival body 
set up to adjudicate the rival claims, to adjudge them guilty would 
be "repugnant to the scheme of government of our Order." 

Specification (d) was not contested to a very great extent by 
the defendants, but in a lengthy and most careful opinion, the 
Court presented the facts and exposed the culpability of the men 
who, out of malice prepense, endeavored to disrupt the Order. The 
provision of the law relied upon by the complainants for the con- 
viction of the defendants, is as follows : 

" Any member of the Order who shall . . . publicly attack or 
scandalize the National Council, the National Judiciary, ... or the 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 165 

members of any of these bodies, shall be guilty of an offense against the 
Order, and upon a trial and conviction, may be reprimanded, suspended 
indefinitely, or be expelled from the Order." 

It may be interesting to the Order at this day to have a sample 
of the scurrillous stuff that was published by the insurgent 
" sheets " upon which, in part, was based the specification. Here 
are a few: 

" This activity on the part of our Councils and members is a most 
hopeful sign for the ' 324,' who are contending for justice and fair treat 
ment against the arrogant, despotic high-handed work of the National 
Council. 

" The proceedings at Minneapolis ( the National Council ) , were 
simply the end of a long train of abuses and usurpations, having for their 
object the reduction of the Eastern States under absolute despotism, and 
the foisting of an office holding oligarchy upon our Order. 

" It makes little difference whether the National Council restores or 
revokes its paper charter; we can live without that body and save money. 
. . . Let us stand resolutely opposed to the tyrannies, infamies and out- 
rages of the National Council." 

In another article occurs the following characterization of the 
N ational Judiciary in session, printed in glaring headlines : 

" A gigantic farce. A burlesque of justice. A comedy on legal 
proceedings. The National Council Judiciary goes through the form of 
hearing the case of Charles Keimer, National Councilor, vs. the State 
Council of Pennsylvania." 

In an editorial the following occurs : 

" And when this fact dawned upon the national administration they 
immediately set out to stifle and choke to death the will of the assembled 
representatives, and hatched up the conspiracy that ended in the farcical 
presentation of charges of insubordination." 

Another assault was made upon the National Judiciary in the 
following terms : 

" Probably our view of this method of determining disputed ques- 
tions, ... or alleged violation of law, is somewhat jaundiced, but if 
so, it is no doubt due to an exhibition given by the National Judiciary in 
Philadelphia when they affected to try the State Council of Pennsylvania 
on charges preferred by the National Council. We pray there may never 
be such another exhibition in our Order as occurred there, and we don't 
desire to be mean or sarcastic either, when we assert that for an all-'round 
exhibition of cant, hypocrisy, dignified jugglery and farcical results this 
alleged court takes the prize." 

A fear that we shall be charged with being prolix, compels 
us to desist giving a resume of the exhaustive opinion of the 
National Judiciary rendered upon this count of the charges. 



166 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

But suffice it to say, it was given in terse and unmistakable terms 
denouncing the odious methods employed to scandalize the National 
Council and its officers. The absurdities of their claims was shown 
and the characterization of the " ways and means committee " was 
the climax of an opinion that scarcely finds a parallel in the courts 
of law. It was as follows: 

" This committee, in its personnel, were not only representatives of 
those in rebellion, but in a marked degree were leaders in a movement to 
coerce, cripple or destroy the National Council, and thus disrupt the Order. 
There is no defense that can be advanced in their behalf, and at the trial 
none was seriously attempted. Conceding the existence of grievances of 
the most grievous sort, the absurd, short-sighted, malicious and destructive 
method adopted to right them, deprived the effort of any virtue that it 
might otherwise have possessed, and put those making it beyond the pale 
of consideration." 

After dismissing the remainder of the specifications, the Court 
summed up its findings and issued its decree with penalties affixed 
declaring that " Defendants Wilmer Crow, Evan G. Badger, James 
M. Crawford, S. B. Mench, William T. Kerr, C. N. Eaymond and 
James W. McCleary shall be expelled from the Order. ... It 
is further ordered and decreed that Defendants Edward Wilson, 
C. A. Westerman, William Gundaker, John King, S. R. Kepner, 
W. A. Reese and Henry Markus shall be, by the State Councilor of 
Pennsylvania, or by his duly accredited deputy, reprimanded at a 
regular meeting of the Council of which respectively, they may 
be members, etc." 

THE MINNEAPOLIS SESSION SUSTAINED BY THE 
SUPREME COURT 

It is presumed that nothing in the whole line of procedure 
during the controversy in the Order came with such surprising and 
depressing effect upon the loyalists, and at the same time brought 
shouts of ecstacies from the insurrectionists, as the decision of 
Judge Weiss, noted elsewhere, in suit of Derry Council, No. 40 (Pa.), 
versus the National Council and the State Council of Pennsylvania, 
by which the respondents were restrained by a permanent injunc- 
tion from carrying out the provisions of the National Body as 
enacted at Minneapolis in June of 1899. Counsel for the National 
and State Councils having appealed from the decision of the lower 
court to the highest tribunal in the State of Pennsylvania, that 
Court of last resort, on the 8th day of October, 1900, reversed 
the decree of Judge Weiss, dismissing the bill in equity and placing 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 167 

all costs upon the original plaintiffs — nominally Derry Council — 
but really the insurgents of the different states, who had to pay the 
bill. It was a sweeping victory for the Order and its announce- 
ment sent a thrill of delight and joy throughout every jurisdiction 
controlled by the Supreme Body. ' It being an important docu- 
ment, the salient features of the decision should find a place here. 

The injunction was awarded solely on the ground that the 
action of the Minneapolis session in levying the per capita tax 
upon the State Council was null and void because, in the judg- 
ment of the lower court, it was a corporate act by the body which 
had been incorporated in the State of Pennsylvania, hence the said 
body had no power to do a corporate act beyond the limits of the 
Commonwealth that had created it. 

The Supreme Court admitted the general proposition of the 
lower court that a corporation can have no legal existence beyond 
the bounds of the sovereignty that gave it life, but took exceptions 
to the opinion of the said lower tribunal, that the National Council 
was such a corporate body as should be subject to the general rule 
relating to place of the existence of a corporation and the limits 
within which all strictly corporate acts must be performed. Re- 
ferring to the incorporation of the National Council in the Court 
of Common Pleas No. 3, of Philadelphia, Pa., on April 10, 1893, 
under the provisions of the act of April 21, 1874, as being a cor- 
poration designed by the statutes as " not for profit," and the pur- 
poses of the Order as an incorporated society as named in the 
Objects (naming them) the Supreme Justice who wrote the opin- 
ion, says : 

" It exists as a great family to help and protect its members. It 
is of a social and not of a business character. It has no capital stock, 
and the making of money is not its object. Its aims and membership, 
as declared by its charter, are national, confined to no state or locality. 
A majority of its members and Councils are non-residents of Pennsyl- 
vania. Must such an Order, such an incorporated body, as diffusive as 
the limits of the nation, exist and act within the borders of the sovereignty 
that created it; or should it, a purely beneficial organization with its 
broad aims and objects and its brotherhood extending from ocean to ocean, 
be permitted, from time to time to act at such places beyond this com- 
monwealth as may be selected for the manifest convenience and welfare 
of its members? If the reason for the general rule requiring a corporation 
to perform its corporate acts within the state or sovereignty that gave 
it life, extend to this Order, it was properly enforced by the court below; 
but, if they do not apply, the rule itself should not, Cessante ratione 
legis cessat ipso lex. These reasons must be, as in any ultra vires act 
by a corporation: 



168 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

' 1. The interest of the public that the corporation shall not trans- 
cend the powers granted. 

' 2. The interests of the stockholders that the capital shall not be 
subjected to the risk of enterprises not contemplated by the charter and 
therefore not authorized by the stockholders in subscribing for the stock. 

' 3. The obligation of every one entering into a contract with the 
corporation to take notice of the legal limits of its powers.' " 

The contention of Judge Weiss in the lower court that a cor- 
porate body must transact its corporate business within the juris- 
diction which created it, was given a different coloring in the decis- 
ion of the higher court. After citing a case the Court continued 
quoting from said opinion: 

" The reason of the rule ' does not lie in the imaginative notion that 
a corporation must dwell in the place of its creation and cannot migrate 
to another sovereignty, but rather in the hardship and fraud it might 
entail on shareholders to permit corporate meetings to be held outside 
the state. Accordingly there seems to be no reason for holding invalid 
acts done at corporate meetings assembled without the state if all the 
shareholders acquiesce in the holding of such meetings.' " 

Continuing upon the point at issue, the Court further stated: 

" In levying the tax it can not be pretended that this Order tran- 
scended any corporate powers granted; and the public which cannot 
fairly be said to have any interest in the powers possessed by this family 
Order, most certainly had none as to where they were exercised. It 
could make no manner of difference to the public whether the tax was 
levied in Philadelphia or Minneapolis. The public were not affected. The 
Order did not deal with them but only with its own members, its own 
private family. It had no stockholders to be subjected to risks, hardships 
or fraud, and it did not undertake to enter into any contract. Its rela- 
tions with this complaining Council (Derry) had already been estab- 
lished and presumably existed for years. The levying of the tax was 
simply providing a revenue for the continued existence of the organization 
of which these complainants were component parts. No reason there- 
fore exists for the application to the case before us of the release to cor- 
porate acts beyond the limits of the state creating the body and the 
appellant justly asks us to except them from it. Any other view would 
impel us to the conclusion that all religious, literary, patriotic or bene- 
ficial societies of a national character, scope or origin, which have been 
incorporated by the court, by acts of the general assembly, or since 1874, 
under the general corporation laws of Pennsylvania, were incapable of 
holding their meetings, transacting their business and adopting rules and 
laws at places outside the state." 

Here follows a long list of denominations having been incor- 
porated in Pennsylvania, yet hold, at their pleasure, meetings of 
their supreme bodies outside the state. The Court then added: 

" They have without question by any one, changed their places of 
meeting and acted in their corporate capacity from year to year without 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 169 

regard to state lines or to the precise place of their incorporation. It 
would be a ruthless exercise of judicial power as well as a stretch of 
judicial authority to declare all of their acts and proceedings beyond our 
borders null and void, at the instance of some complaining or aggrieved 
member or congregation who excepts to a new mode of paying dues, 
because adopted outside the state. In levying the tax at Minneapolis no 
law of Minnesota was violated and no statute of our own commonwealth 
was contravened. Neither state is complaining, no power of the cor- 
poration was transcended and for the reasons given, Derry Council cannol 
complain that the National Council beyond our borders did what it certainly 
could have done within them, for the continuance of its existence." 

Following these somewhat general principles in the opinion, 
the Court took up the Constitution, Laws, etc., as enacted at Min- 
neapolis, in order, by a closer scrutiny, to ascertain whether the 
National Council had transcended its powers as a corporate body 
meeting without the jurisdiction creating it. After a careful 
analysis of the powers conferred upon the National Council by its 
Constitution and Laws, and its right and power to levy a per capita 
tax upon the membership of the Order to be collected through the 
constituted authorities of the organization — the State Council 
Secretaries of the several jurisdictions — the Court continues : 

" In the case under consideration it seems clear that a majority of 
Pennsylvania State Council refused to levy this tax and by their refusal 
became insubordinate to the supreme authority of the Order and resisted 
the enforcement of the Supreme Laws . . . Under the broad terms quoted 
from the Constitution and laws of the Order it does not appear that the 
National Council is powerless to enforce its decrees when the State 
Council revolts against its authority. The members of the Order hold 
a relation to the National Council and after it is given power to levy 
per capita tax and general authority to provide for its maintenance it 
cannot be said to exercise such authority only at the will of the State 
Councils. Neither the rate of taxation nor the aggregate amount of tax 
levied is determined by the State Council." 

THE STATE COUNCIL OF PENNSYLVANIA SUSTAINED IN THE 
CIVIL COURT 

Following the decision of the National Judiciary, the officers 
of the " insurgent " State Council cited the officers of the " loyal " 
State Council into the Courts of Philadelphia, on a Quo Warranto 
Proceeding, averring that said officers of the so-called loyal State 
Council were illegally exercising or attempting to exercise the 
offices, franchises, rights, duties, powers and prerogatives of the 
respective officers of the corporate body of the state, and asked the 
Court to restrain them from so doing. 

Answer to the allegations were made by the officers of the 



170 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

loyal State Council in due time, and which were denied by the 
plaintiffs, to which the respondents made a rejoinder, whereupon 
an examiner was appointed and the case was subsequently argued, 
and, after embarrassing delays, Judge Audenried rendered his opin- 
ion denying the allegations and prayer of the relators, and declar- 
ing the so-called loyal State Council of Pennsylvania the legal 
State body, and its officers the legal representatives of the Order, 
duly elected and installed. The opinion was rendered May 10, 
1904. 

It is not the purpose of the author to publish the voluminous 
proceedings before the court or to give the opinion of the learned 
Judge in his able decision, but simply to give a few excerpts there- 
from. It is not to be understood as being in the spirit of criticism 
of the counsel on either side, quoting Judge Audenried, when we 
state that the delay in the final adjudication of the case was largely 
due to the mass of irrelevant and immaterial questions raised. The 
Judge upon this point, said : 

" The pleadings in the cause are voluminous. Both sides seem to 
have been at pains to multiply issues of fact rather than to reach that 
true end of all pleadings, the affirmance by one party and the denial by 
the other of a single proposition. . . . We may note in passing, that many 
of them (requests of counsel on both sides for findings of law and fact) 
relate to matters, in our judgment, seem to be more interesting to the 
warring factions of the Junior Order of United American Mechanics than 
relevant to the question raised by these proceedings." 

After a restatement of facts of the organization, institution 
and incorporation of the State Council of Pennsylvania and the Na- 
tional Council, the purpose of their respective organizations, and 
the meeting of the State Council at Philadelphia of 1900 and the 
effort to adopt, as well as adopting the resolution of secession at the 
Lancaster rump special session, Judge Audenried says : 

" The meeting of these delegates ( at Lancaster ) was not a meeting 
of the State Council. The delegates attended it in their individual and 
not in their representative capacity. Their proceedings were not the 
acts of the State Council, and the minutes thereof had no place upon 
the record of that body. Under this perfectly correct view of the matter, 
the State Councilor ruled that the motion to approve and adopt those 
minutes was out of order, but an appeal from his decision was taken and 
was sustained by the delegates. 

" This action of the majority present at the meeting was undoubtedly 
unconstitutional and revolutionary. The enthusiasm shown by them on 
the vote sustaining the appeal, and the threats and menaces then indulged 
in made it quite clear that it was idle to expect an adherence to the ordi- 
nary principles of logic and justice. We do not say that the forms of 
parliamentary usage were departed from by the majority on this occa- 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 171 

sion, but these forms were perverted to carry out an attempt at an act 
suicidal and logically inconceivable, — secession from the National Council. 
One organic part of a body politic was to sever its relations with another." 

The strongest point in this masterly opinion, and one that, in 
its scope, is far-reaching, was the recognition of the National 
Judiciary as the Court of last resort in the Order; that, as a 
tribunal to adjudicate matters and grievances within the organiza- 
tion, it has greater power and possesses higher authority than the 
Court of Law, and it was on this principle that the Court based 
its opinion. Fully satisfied, from the evidence submitted, that the 
Judiciary Department of the Order was legally and properly con- 
stituted, the Court goes on to say: 

" The law conclusively presumes that every member of such a society 
as that with which we are concerned in the present case knows the obliga- 
tions resulting from its charter, its by-laws and its rules. They express 
the terms of his contract of membership. If by its rules a society, whether 
incorporated or unincorporated, has appointed a certain judicatory for 
the decision of controversies between its members in relation to its officers, 
or in respect to the right of membership, its judgment is to be regarded 
as conclusive. If courts of justice should substitute, in the place of such 
a tribunal, their own judgment, this would be to make a new contract for 
the parties different from the one they made for themselves. Where the 
contract of membership provides that a certain judicatory shall declare 
what is just in controversies between the members of the association 
involving society rights the courts cannot interfere. They do not sit to 
hear appeals from umpires, or referees so constituted. They will not 
inquire into what has passed in rem judicata in the regular course of pro- 
ceedings before the latter, provided that they have exercised their powers 
fairly and in good faith. This proposition is established by numerous 
decisions, and while most of them relate to questions of motion or expul- 
sion from membership, they lay the principle down very broadly, and the 
reasons on which it is based cover also such questions as are now before 
us." 

Acting under and by this principle, the only question at issue, 
in the judgment of the eminent jurist, was, whether, in the case 
before the National Judiciary at Philadelphia where the commonly 
called " loyal " body was declared the true State Council, every- 
thing was regularly and judicatorily established, and whether the 
opinion in said case was made in good faith. 

Reviewing the entire proceedings by which the National Judi- 
ciary was established as well as the case above referred to, the 
Court further says : 

" If these proceedings were regular and if the National Judiciary 
was lawfully established for the determination of such questions as those 
which have arisen between the parties to this case, it is plain that under 



172 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

the general principles to which we have referred above, the decision by 
that body must be recognized by this Court and followed in the deter- 
mination of the case before us." 

It is worthy to note, in this connection, the opinion of the 
Cou»t relative to the establishment of the Judiciary, a feature of 
the Order so bitterly criticized at the time. The Judge has this 
to say: 

" Strictly speaking, we are not concerned at present with any part 
of the new or amended constitution save that portion dealing with the 
establishment of the National Judiciary; but we may say that a careful 
examination of the whole instrument has convinced us that the changes 
made in the constitution as it stood prior to 1899, are only not unreason- 
able, but on the whole, very beneficial. The crude and clumsy work of 
lay hands has given place to a carefully conceived and xoell expressed code 
prepared by a skilful draughtsman." 

" The provisions of Article IX, by which was established a tribunal 
for the settlement of questions arising within the Order are especially 
to be commended. They amount to nothing more than a reasonable and 
excellent amplification of the provisions of the old constitution, by which 
the National Council was charged with the responsibility of settling such 
matters but was left no guide as to how or by what process that end was 
to be accomplished. The Article in question supplies that information." 

The Court was frank enough to express its opinion relative to 
the whimsicalities that, to a too great degree, characterized the 
membership of the Order, especially for a decade or more. The 
comment was made in the discussion of the Judiciary Branch of 
the Order: 

" It will be observed that this Article establishes a tribunal, defines 
its jurisdiction, fixes its procedure and practice, and in all respects fairly 
and fully meets what would seem to be the needs of an association of 
nearly 200,000 members scattered over the whole of the United States, 
and, if we may judge from the evidence before us, inclined rather to 
internecine strife over technicalities and the struggle for office than the 
carrying out of the purposes of their organization" 

The opinion of the Court was surprisingly brief when it is 
considered that besides the mass of exhibits in the shape of consti- 
tutions, annual reports, minutes, etc., the report of the Examiner 
consisted of more than 700 pages of testimony. The wheat was 
sifted from the chaff, however, of this voluminous mass by counsel 
on both sides submitting to the Court requests for findings of law 
and fact. The relators asked for 32 findings on questions of fact, 
while the defendants asked for 53. On points of law, the relators 
demanded 17 findings, while the defendants demanded 28. 

Outside of the main ruling, which directed that judgment be 
entered in favor of the defendants and against the relators based 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 173 

on the validity and powers of the Judiciary Branch of the Order, 
two rulings if not three, as to questions of fact and law, are of 
interest. The first had reference to the power or rights and privi- 
leges of the " caucus." The twenty-ninth request of the relators 
for the finding of fact reads: 

" That a meeting or a caucus was held by certain members of the 
National Council at some time or place in the City of Minneapolis during 
the session of the. National Council, at which meeting or caucus the chair- 
man of the meeting who prepared the code of laws changed and modified 
the said report in many material aspects before the same was ever pre- 
sented to the National Council." 

The finding of the Court on this question was as follows: 

" We refuse to find as herein requested. A caucus of certain mem- 
bers of the National Council was held in June, 1899, prior to the Minne- 
apolis meeting of that body, at which the proposed amendments were 
discussed, and it was there agreed that at the meeting of the Council the 
members of the caucus loould endeavor to secure the modification of 
certain of the amendments to the constitution that were to be reported. 

" In this we see nothing irregular or improper." 

The statement made in this question of fact is erroneous. No 
such caucus was held before or during the meeting of the National 
Body. The twelfth request of the relators as to finding of law 
reads : 

" That the National Council was without power to change the Objects 
of the Order without a vote of the individual membership of the Order.'' 

This proposition was affirmed by the Court. 

In the main ruling, the Court had this to say : 

" It has been suggested that the attempt of the National Council 
without authority, to alter the ' Objects of the Order ' as expressed in 
the constitution, and the appropriation of the society's money to the 
carrying on of a life insurance business, puts that body in a ' state of 
insurrection against the Order ' and deprives it of its powers of govern- 
ment. To our mind, however, this argument is without logical bearing 
on the question involved in the case before us. If the National Council 
lacks, as we think it does lack, the power to change the ' Objects of the 
Order,' its attempt to do so amounts to nothing, except it be regarded 
as a preliminary step to its submission of the question of making such a 
change to a vote of the membership at large. It certainly had no effect 
to disband the National Council, to eliminate it from its place in the 
organization or to abrogate its powers of government." 

One of the requests of the respondents for finding of fact, 
referred to the adoption of the new laws at Minneapolis as in ac- 
cordance with the constitution and practices of the Order, "and 



174 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

that the said laws are a material improvement and advantage over 
the old laws, etc." 

The ruling of the Court was : 

" We iind the facts to be as herein stated, except as to the change 
made in the ' Objects of the Order.' That change was not made in accord- 
ance with the constitution and practice of the Order, but was irregular 
and wholly void, unless it be ratified by a majority vote of the members 
at-large." 

The third point was relative to the famous resolution of seces- 
sion passed at Lancaster by the so-called " insurgents." In sev- 
eral requests bearing upon this point or findings of facts as well 
as of law, the respondents endeavored to impress upon the honor- 
able Court the fact that this act of secession was a complete sever- 
ance from the National Council, thereby placing those having 
connection with it without the Order, and at the same time it 
amounted to insubordination, in fact came near a conspiracy, and 
that their purpose and intent was the disruption of the Order. 

These several requests the Court refused to affirm, stating that 
" we do not regard the Lancaster resolution as effective to sever the 
connection of anybody with the Order." 

In another place in the ruling on this same point, raised in 
different form, the Court reaffirmed its opinion as to the authority 
of the Judiciary as the Court of last resort : 

" Before the relators can be read out of the Order or declared to 
be disqualified for office, they must be tried and convicted on charges reg- 
ularly preferred against them under the laws of the Order in the Order's 
lawfully established tribunal." 

Much criticism was aroused in some of the states over the ex- 
pense this case entailed on the National Body, the claim being ad- 
vanced that it was merely local in character. We are pleased to 
quote Brother Deemer on this point: 

" The report of the Board of Officers will give you the decision in the 
Pennsylvania Quo Warranto case. It is useless for me to occupy your 
time or use printer's ink in commenting upon this case. Its importance 
must be recognized by all. There is, however, one phase of the matter 
to which I wish to call attention. Members of other states have alluded 
to this case as a local one, and one in which the Order at large had no 
interest, and it has been objected that the National Council should pay 
the expenses of the litigation. I would ask whether there is any more 
reason why it should be responsible for the expenses in New York, New 
Jersey, Virginia and the District of Columbia than for Pennsylvania. 
The truth is that the causes which led to this insurrection were foreign 
to any grievances existing in these states. In the State of Pennsylvania 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 175 

a loyalist was elected to the position of State Vice-Councilor at the same 
time that the State Council refused to pay the per capita tax to this body. 

" The truth is that these states became the battle-ground just as 
truly as did Massachusetts with its battle of Bunker Hill, or Virginia 
with its Yorktown, or Pennsylvania with its Gettysburg. 

" There was no local trouble in Pennsylvania, and had the officers 
identified themselves with the insurgents, and repudiated this National 
Council, there would have been no trouble in that state unless brought 
by this body, and it should be remembered that the case just decided in 
the City of Philadelphia was not a local one, but one affecting this 
National Council and worth more to us than all that it has cost." 

CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS RELATIVE TO PENNSYLVANIA 

We can only refer briefly to a few additional observations con- 
cerning Pennsylvania, as to the unfortunate controversy that stirred 
the state from end to end. The bitterness of the strife can scarcely 
be realized only by those who were in the " thick of the fight." 
The bonds of brotherhood were ruthlessly sundered, in many in- 
stances, between those who previously were fast friends, because of 
the contention, and intimate and fraternal associations were forever 
broken. Following the decree by which the Order was purged of 
the " ring-leaders " in the strife, there seemed to be manifested 
a more violent determination upon the part of the malcontents to 
widen the breach and disrupt as far as possible the grand old 
organization. 

The Councils to which the persons, who were ordered expelled, 
belonged, having refused to carry out the decree of the Judiciary 
and expel same, the State Councilor suspended the charters of 
said Councils and preferred charges against them before the State 
Judiciary, on July 27, 1901. Charges were also preferred against 
more than 100 Councils for failing to honor the demand to pay the 
National Council per capita tax. In due time all the above cited 
cases were regularly tried and, with two exceptions, those councils 
which refused to carry out the decree of the Judiciary to expel 
the members thereof found guilty of insubordination, had their 
charters forfeited, as well as 113 Councils for failing to meet their 
obligations to the National Body. 

The delay resulting from the long-drawn out litigation, espe- 
cially the case in the Philadelphia court as to the true State Coun- 
cil, intensified the unrest and doubt even among those who were 
loyal, and gave to those who were disloyal time and opportunity to 
still continue their campaign of villification and misrepresentation. 
In the meantime the insurgent element organized a new body, hav- 
ing no supreme head or national authority, and called themselves 



176 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

'' Independent Order of Americans," which, at this writing, April, 
1907, is still the same headless organization, drifting like a rudder- 
less ship, # purposeless and alone, without pilot or engineer. 

As with the National Council, so with the State Council of 
Pennsylvania, every effort toward arbitration and conciliation has 
been made by the loyalists, willing to arbitrate and adjust the 
salient points in dispute, even going out of the way to be more than 
fair, but to no purpose. The National Council, acting in harmony 
with the conciliatory proposals of the loyal State Councils, made, 
not only to the Pennsylvania insurgents, but to all others in every 
state where rebellion was rife, the most liberal and generous offer, 
only to be despised and trampled, as it were, under unhallowed feet. 
The proposition of the Supreme Body was, that by the payment 
of the National Council per capita tax and the National Orphans' 
Home tax, which were due at the time of the suspension of the 
respective State and Subordinate Councils' charters, the said 
Councils would he restored to membership. What more generous 
and equitable proposition could have been made? It gave to the 
disloyal element freedom from the penalties for their treasonable 
course as well as punishment therefor, and conferred upon them 
all the rights and privileges of membership in the Order they had 
so persistently tried to destroy. However, but a small number of 
Councils in the various states accepted the proposition. Let no 
one say that the loyalists have not been conciliatory and fair 
all through the controversy. To say that they have not, in the 
face of all that was done, is presuming upon the truth and at 
variance with facts. 

For four long years, nearly, the State Council of Pennsylvania 
waited outside the bar of the Civil Courts to know its destiny. 
Hope would rise then fall as to promise of speedy determination, 
yet the faith of the faithful never wavered, though the "lane was 
long," that vindication would come; and it did come, blessed be 
God, in the triumphant decision of Judge Audenried, May 10, 1904. 
What a thrill went through the great heart of the brotherhood not 
only in Pennsylvania, but throughout the union of states from the 
Lakes to the Gulf, and from the rough surges of the Atlantic to the 
calmer waters of the Pacific. Hope almost dead in many a heart 
sprang up bright-eyed, and with purer patriotism and a nobler 
purpose the loyalists pushed to the front holding out the cordial 
hand, answering to the throbs of a warmer heart, inviting back into 
the fold those who had stood aloof until the status of the contend- 
ing State Councils was decided. As the result of this decision, 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 177 

scores of neutral Councils returned, or rather acknowledged the 
loyal Body, and thousands of members were again enrolled upon 
the records of the Order. Tiring of their company, insurgent 
Councils returned to the fellowship of the Junior brotherhood, and 
more are coming as we write these cheering lines. So marked 
was the effect of the decision, that by December 31, 1904, record- 
ing to the report of the State Council Secretary, fifty-seven Councils 
had been reinstated, bringing to the State Body 6,714 members, 
making a net increase for the year of 10,227 members. 

SUITS Or STATE COUNCIL OF PENNSYLVANIA VS. DUQUESNE COUNCIL, 
NO. 110, AND JAMES G. BLAINE COUNCIL, NO. 766 

The latest phase of litigation affecting Pennsylvania was 
decided, so far as the lower Courts are concerned, November 23, 
1906, by Judge Over, in the Pittsburg Orphans' Court, and August 
27, 1907, by Judge Audenried, in Common Pleas Court, No. 4, 
Philadelphia. The State Council of Pennsylvania brought action 
against Duquesne Council, No. 110, and James G. Blaine Council, 
No. 766, connected with the Order of Independent Americans, to 
secure possesion of the funds of said Councils, they being test 
cases. Judge Over dismissed the suit, his opinion, in part, being 
as follows: 

" The purpose of the fund was to relieve members of Duquesne 
Council, who were in distress by reason of sickness, or their families by 
reason of a member's death. The State organization has no fund of this 
character, nor any law providing for the distribution of the fund, and 
it does not appear that it could execute this purpose if the fund were 
paid to it. If, then, the fund be paid to the plaintiff, it holds it as trustee 
for unknown beneficiaries; it cannot ascertain them; the purposes of the 
trust could not be fulfilled, and it would hold the fund in perpetuity. 
On the other hand, the defendants, acting in good faith, paid out the trust 
fund in dispute to the persons and for the purposes for which it was 
contributed. Surely, in view of these facts, a Court of Equity would not 
enforce a forfeiture of the trust fund, and thus defeat the purposes of 
the trust. 

" The funds of said Council are a sick and funeral benefit fund, 
accumulated by voluntary contributions of the members thereof, and to 
which only members of said Council have contributed or can contribute and 
of which only members of their designated beneficiaries are, or can be, bene- 
ficiaries, and are held by trustees elected by the contributors thereof. 
And the fund is, under the laws of the said Order, left to the control 
and discretionary management and disposition of said defendant Council. 

" The plaintiff has not shown or named any beneficiary of the trust 
alleged in plaintiff's bill, or any beneficiary of the said trust fund in 



178 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

hands of defendant Council, except the members of defendant Council, 
plaintiff has not shown any diversion of said trust fund or any threatened 
diversion of the same." 

Judge Audenried, however, in a very able decision, rendered 
as per date above noted, takes an entire opposite view of the con- 
troversy from Judge Over, and decided in favor of the plaintiff, 
the State Council of Pennsylvania. The text of the opinion, how- 
ever, is too long to quote, but a few excerpts follow to indicate the 
trend. 

The question of the property in contention, in the opinion of 
the Court, resolved itself into two classes: First, money, para- 
phernalia and other property in the hands of said Council and its 
authorized custodians at the time the charter of the Council was 
revoked, January 6, 1903. Second, money and other property 
received by said Council subsequent to the revocation of its charter. 
In answer to the first question, the Court was clear and explicit 
in its opinion claiming that all money and property belonged to 
the State Council at the time the charter was revoked. After citing 
at length the provisions of the Constitution and the By-laws of the 
Order relative to the collection of money by Councils and the pur- 
poses for which it is collected, etc., the eminent jurist said : 

" The reasonable construction of these various provisions is that the 
contributions received from the members by way of dues constitute a 
fund impressed with a trust that it shall not be used by the subordinate 
Council by which it has been received, except: first, to pay the per capita 
taxes assessed by the National Council against the Subordinate Council; 
second, to pay the per capita taxes assessed by the State Council against 
the Subordinate Council; third, to pay benefits to sick and disabled mem- 
bers in good standing in the Order; and fourth, to pay funeral benefits 
on the death of members in good standing. Any surplus may be applied 
\o such other purposes as the Subordinate Council may deem judicious, 
but after the revocation of the warrant or charter of a Subordinate Coun- 
cil this power ceases. A Council exists only by virtue of a warrant or 
charter issued in accordance with the National Laws. After the revo- 
cation of the warrant under which a Council was formed, so far as 
concerns the Order, its members and its powers, it is as if there were 
no such body, and, of course, those who formerly composed it may no 
longer act together in the quasi corporate capacity theretofore accorded 
to them. There can therefore, in such a case, no longer be a purpose 
' deemed judicious ' by the Council. 

" Our conclusion upon this branch of our inquiry is that the money, 
paraphernalia and property of every kind in the hands of the James G. 
Blaine Council, No. 766, or in the hands of the officers or trustees for its 
purposes and under its control, at the time of the revocation of its warrant 
on January 6, 1903, constituted a Trust Fund for the purpose of paying 
the taxes assessed on said Council prior to that date by the National 
Council and by the State Council and for the further purpose of paying, 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 179 

in accordance with Sections 2 and 3 of Article 10, of the Subordinate 
Council Constitution, sick benefits to members of the Junior Order United 
American Mechanics formerly associated together under the name of the 
James G. Blaine Council, No. 766, and continuing to be of good standing 
in the Order, and funeral benefits, on the death of such members, to their 
representatives. 

" The next question arising is, why should not the money, para- 
phernalia and other property in the hands of James G. Blaine Council, 
No. 766, or its officers or trustees, remain where they were on January 
6, 1903? The answer to this question is found in the proposition that, 
so far as concerns the Junior Order United American Mechanics, that 
Council no longer is in existence. The laws of the Order contemplates 
the existence of a Subordinate Council as a necessary condition to the 
continuance of its right to hold property of any kind for any purpose." 

The next point considered by the Court was the question 
whether James G. Blaine Council was no longer existent. It was 
contended by the defendant that the adjudication of the State 
Judiciary that revoked the charter of said Council was invalid and 
of no effect, and prayed the Court to so declare. The basis of the 
defendant's plea was threefold, viz. : 1. The State Judiciary was 
not a legally established tribunal. 2. The proceedings in the case 
were defective and irregular. 3. The tax that the Council refused 
to pay was unlawful. 

The first objection raised by the defendant was a thread-bare 
plea, claiming that the laws enacted at Minneapolis had no binding 
force because the National Council amended the National Constitu- 
tion by changing the so-called " Objects of the Order," thereby 
exceeding its powers, hence the tribunal known as the State Judi- 
ciary did not exist because the National Council exceeded its powers 
in the re-statement of the Objects of the Order in somewhat differ- 
ent words, adding thereto a new Object by the establishment of an 
Insurance Branch. The plaintiff, however, conceded the point that 
the National Council did exceed its powers and that so far as the 
change of the Objects were concerned it was nugatory and inopera- 
tive (subsequently the change of the Objects was submitted to 
the membership and thereby made operative). With this conces- 
sion the Court concurred, hitherto having so decided; but in as 
clear opinion as ever was rendered during the entire controversy in 
the Order, the Court showed the utter fallacy of the objection : 

" It by no means follows from these facts, however, that the attempt 
of the National Council to change the objects or purposes for which 
the Order had been established, operated to destroy the Order's frame of 
government and to disband its membership. In our judgment no greater 
effect can possibly be ascribed to this effort of the National Council than 
would be ascribed to a piece of unconstitutional legislation in which a 



180 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

State Legislature might indulge. The enactment of an unconstitutional 
law amounts to nothing. It is as if no legislative action had been taken. 
The General Assembly might, if it pleased, pass a bill declaring that it 
thereby amended the Constitution, but no result would follow. The Con- 
stitution would remain just as it was adopted by the people. The existing 
laws of the Commonwealth would continue to be enforced by its executive 
officers. The courts of the Commonwealth would sit as required by law. 
The General Assembly would continue its work, and the members of that 
body who had voted for the bill that violated the Constitution would 
not be disturbed in their places until their terms ended and, perhaps, not 
even then. Nobody would for one moment think that the bonds of govern- 
ment were broken, that the. Commonwealth had collapsed, that the town- 
ships or counties of the state were left to wander about in space at their 
own volition, or that the reign of law had ended. Why a contrary rule 
should apply to the case of the Junior Order United American Mechanics 
it is impossible to conceive. The alteration of the ' Objects of the Order ' 
was a thing too high for the National Council to effect. It could not 
be accomplished except by the consent of the majority of the members 
of the Order. Until their acquiescence was obtained, the tampering of 
the National Council with that part of the fundamental compact did not 
change it. In other respects, however, the National Council could and 
did alter the Constitution. Where this was the case, their enactments 
were operative and effective. Where the former laws of the Order were 
not inconsistent with these changes, those laws continued in operation, 
and with them any new laws constitutionally enacted by either the 
National Council or the State Council. Insofar, therefore, as the State 
Judiciary depends for its existence on the proposition that the laws of 
the Order were abrogated and annulled and the Order disbanded by the 
attempted alteration of its ' Objects ' by the National Council, its status, 
rights and powers cannot be successfully questioned." 

The Court treated the other two objections in like manner, 
denying the argument presented by the counsel for the defendant, 
and decided that the punishment inflicted on the said Council by 
the State Judiciary was legally imposed, that it was a proper 
punishment under the existing laws of the Order, therefore James 
G. Blaine Council ceased to exist, so far as any rights in the 
Jr. 0. IT. A. M. was concerned, on January 6, 1903. The Court 
further declared that the money in the hands of said Council when 
its charter was revoked was simply a trust fund, and that the 
effect of the revocation of the warrant of the Council on said prop- 
erty was merely to substitute the State Council of Pennsylvania in 
its place as succeeding trustee of the fund. All property, para- 
phernalia, etc., at the same time reverted to the State Council. 

Judge Audenried, however, decided that all money and property 
acquired by the said Council after the revocation of its charter 
did not belong to the State Council of Pennsylvania, as the said 
Council did not exist subsequent to the revocation, and so far as 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 181 

the State Council was concerned, it was a disbanded council and the 
plaintiff had no right to its property secured after its charter had 
been revoked. The jurist then concluded his opinion : 

" The contributors of this money had manifestly no end in view 
but their own private purposes when they paid it to the defendant cor- 
poration. The money they paid is held for them by the defendant upon 
whatever trust was agreed upon between it and them; and with that 
money the plaintiff has no concern either as beneficial owner or as suc- 
ceeding trustee." 

WILMER CROW VS. CAPITAL CITY COUNCIL 

Wilmer Crow, who was expelled from Capital City Council 
by order of the National Judiciary, resisted the decree by petition- 
ing the Court of Common Pleas of Dauphin County, Pa., for a 
mandamus upon the aforesaid Council to restore him to member- 
ship. The cause was heard before the Court without a jury, which 
resulted in a judgment for the plaintiff and that a peremptory writ 
of mandamus be issued, from which judgment the defendant 
Council, through its counsel, A. D. Wilkin, Esq., took an appeal 
to the Superior Court of the state. The case was heard before 
that tribunal, and in an opinion by Judge Orlady, the lower Court 
was reversed and the writ of mandamus lifted. 

After citing the causes that brought about the expulsion of 
the said Crow, he having violated the Supreme Laws of the Order, 
and failing to appear before the National Judiciary, and when 
found guilty not taking advantage of the provisions of the laws 
of the Order in asking a rehearing, the Court not only affirmed 
the right of the Order to exercise strict disciplinary authority over 
its members, but the power of the Order's Court of last resort, 
the National Judiciary, to decide all controversies between mem- 
bers of the grand or subordinate Councils. The learned jurist 
then adds: 

" The decision of such courts of last resort must be accepted and 
obeyed as representing what is best for the organization. In interpreting 
the rules and regulations prescribed by their laws, the civil courts are 
always inclined to sustain them, and mere informality in the proceedings 
for removal will not justify interference by mandamus when it is evident 
that there was just grounds for expulsion and that the accused has been 
acting in hostility to the organization." 

In substance the Court held that Crow had been accorded a 
full and fair hearing, the proceedings of the National Judiciary 
being regular and conducted in " good faith," and the proper find- 
ings and judgment had been entered therefore denying that there 
was any ground for a mandamus. 



CHAPTER XII 

THE CONFLICT AT THE CROSSING OF 
THE CENTURIES (Concluded) 

New Jersey Withdraws from the National Council 

y WENTY-TWO members of the National Council, composing 
1 the delegation from New Jersey, answered to roll-call at 
Minneapolis June 20, 1899. With one exception, Brother W. J. 
Smythe, the delegation was generally a unit in their opposition 
to the measures adopted at the session, and the preliminary sug- 
gestion of revolt came from a member of the delegation. Follow- 
ing the adoption of the new laws, two statutes were adopted, one 
relative to certain amendments concerning the National Orphans' 
Home and the other as to loaning $5,000 to the Board of Control 
of the Beneficiary Degree. The records show that New Jersey 
" sulked in the camp " as to the first bill, but two, Rollinson and 
Smythe, voting aye, while the remainder of the delegation refused 
to vote at all. On bill No. 2, Smythe voted aye, while 10 of the 
balance of the delegation voted nay. 

Filled with bitter resentment towards the administration and 
wholly disliking the legislation enacted, the brothers from New 
Jersey left the session with the determination to rebel against the 
mandates of the National Council. Before leaving, however, a 
caucus of the malcontents was held, where plans were formulated 
looking towards resistance to the National Council, and a meeting 
was arranged to be held in the City of Trenton, New Jersey, to 
promulgate their treasonable designs. To such an extent were 
the purposes of the dissatisfied members of the National Body a 
settled fact, that in the corridor of the hotel, one of the New Jersey 
Past State Councilors confided to the writer, or rather uttered the 
threat, that they would put the National Council " out of business " 
by having Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Virginia and the 
District of Columbia withdraw their support from the National 
Body. 

Following the meeting held in Trenton, some time subsequent 
to the National session at Minneapolis, circulars, incendiary in 
their character, signed by Pike, of Pennsylvania; Miers, of New 
Jersey; Keeton, of Virginia; Boyden, of the District of Columbia, 
and Parker, of New York, were sent broadcast throughout the dis- 
182 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 183 

affected states villifying the National Council and asking the 
Councils to instruct their Representatives to the State Council to 
vote against the payment of any further National Council tax, and 
to refuse to recognize or accept the new laws. About the same 
time there came forth a nondescript " sheet," with no name of 
either publisher or editor printed thereon, known as the " New 
Jersey Junior American Mechanic — Pennsylvania Edition," which 
paper added much to the spread of rebellious sentiments by the 
publication of the basest fabrications and bitterest innuendoes. To 
what extent the members of New Jersey were responsible for the 
existence of the paper and the gross misrepresentations it con- 
tained, we are unable to state, but it brought woe to certain mem- 
bers from Pennsylvania who, because of their part in the publica- 
tion of articles in same, were expelled from the Order. 

The State Council of New Jersey met in annual session, the 
thirty-first, at Trenton, October 25, 1899, at which time the State 
Body carried out the same procedure that characterized the action 
of the State Council of Pennsylvania the month previous, by 
adopting the following recommendations as submitted by the Board 
of Officers: 

1. " That this State Council refuse to accept or recognize in any 
manner the laws adopted by the National Council at Minneapolis session 
or any other acts of said session. 

2. " That the Board of Officers be instructed to refuse to pay any 
per capita tax whatever to the National Council until it has rescinded its 
illegally adopted and objectionable laws. Furthermore, that we demand 
fair and full representation in the National Council according to our 
membership and taxation. 

3. " That the Board of Officers be instructed to engage legal counsel, 
if in their judgment it is deemed best for the protection of our interests 
in the Order, and to authorize the taking of such legal proceedings as may 
be necessary for the protection of the State Council, each Subordinate 
Council and any member thereof, against any interference whatever by 
the National Council or its officers." 

Previous to the meeting of the State Council, National Coun- 
cilor Charles Reimer instructed the Deputy National Councilor 
for New Jersey, Albert Robinson, of Allentown, N. J., to refuse 
to install the officers of said State Council in the event of any in- 
subordinate act on the part of the State Council by refusal or 
failure to comply with the Supreme Law. The same instructions 
had been given the Deputies for Pennsylvania and Virginia, and 
were complied with; but very unexpectedly, the Deputy for New 
Jersey resigned his office, and, as the National Councilor puts it, 
" and at such a time as to lead me to believe that he did so for 



184 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

the purpose of preventing the National Council from being repre- 
sented at the session of the State Council which was held on the 
25th of October." 

On the receipt of the resignation of the Deputy, which was 
on the morning of the day the State Council of New Jersey con- 
vened, the National Councilor appointed Past State Councilor 
J. T. Bitter, of Maryland, in his place; but as he could not attend 
until the next day, October 26, the Deputy, upon his arrival at 
Trenton, learned that the State Council had adjourned sine die 
the night before, having been in session but a single day. One 
section of the letter in which was contained the resignation of Kob- 
inson, is significant: 

" I regret the conditions which make this step necessary. It is one 
thing to urge upon the members of the State Council the policy of sub- 
mitting temporarily to unfair laws that deprive us of our rightful repre- 
sentation; it is another to be a party to inflicting penalties upon those 
who, feeling that ' taxation without representation is tyranny,' propose to 
withhold taxation until their wrongs are righted." 

Having committed an act of insubordination, the National 
Councilor preferred charges against the State Council of New 
Jersey, and mailed same in registered letter to William H. Miers, 
State Council Secretary, but that officer refused to receive the 
letter, whereupon the National Councilor appointed Brother Robert 
Ogle, Special Deputy National Councilor, and instructed him to 
deliver said letter, with the copy of charges, in person to the State 
Council Secretary, which he did. 

Prior to the sitting of the National Judiciary to hear the case, 
another session of the State Council of New Jersey was held, Octo- 
ber 24, 1900, in the City of Trenton, at which time the State Coun- 
cil added to the charge of insubordination and rebellion that of 
attempting to accomplish rebellion, as per the following recom- 
mendations submitted by the " Committee on National Council " : 

" First. That all relations alleged to exist between the State Council 
of New Jersey, Jr. 0. U. A. M., and the National Council be and the same 
are hereby terminated. 

" Second. That the laws known as the General Laws and the National 
Constitution, now in our books of laws, or in any way emanating from 
the National Council, be and the same are hereby declared null and void and 
stricken out; furthermore, all clauses or words in the State Council Con- 
stitution, State Council By-Laws, Rules of Order, Subordinate Council 
Constitution, Subordinate Council By-Laws, that in any way or manner 
refer to said General Laws, National Constitution or National Council, be 
and the same are hereby declared null and void and stricken out of said 
laws. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 185 

"Third. That all clau.se> or words in the Ritual or Private Work 
of the Order, that in any manner or way refer to the National Council, 
be and the same are hereby stricken out of said Ritual or Private Work, 
and no longer to be used in the work of said Order. 

" Fourth. That the incoming Board of Otlicers be instructed to engage 
legal counsel, if in their judgment it be deemed best for the protection 
of our interests in the Order, and to authorize the taking of such legal 
proceedings as may be necessary for the protection of this State Council, 
each and every Subordinate Council, and every member thereof, against 
any interference whatever by the National CouncW, or its officers or agents. 

"Fifth. That the incoming Board of Ofiicers have full power to 
secure such legislation at the next session of the Legislature of New Jersey 
as may be necessary for the better protection of the Order in this State, 
if such may be required. 

" Sixth. That the incoming Board of Officers be and the same are 
hereby instructed to prepare a set of laws for the government of the Order 
in this State, strictly in accordance with our Charter from the Legislature 
of New Jersey and the Statute Laws of this State, with the assistance of 
their attorneys, that there may be no mistake or laws proposed or adopted 
that are in conflict with provisions of our Charter or Laws of New Jersey. 

" That they have the same printed, and a copy sent to each member 
of this body and two copies to each Council ; and if in their judgment 
it is deemed best, to call a special session to act on these. Provided, That 
the laws shall be sent out as above thirty days before the special or 
annual session. 

" Seventh. That the incoming Board of Officers be authorized to 
enter into a compact with the Boards of Officers of New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, Virginia and District of Columbia, for the protection and advance- 
ment of the Order, and such other States as are willing to join with us 
and States named above." 

STATE COUNCIL CHARTER OF NEW JERSEY REVOKED 

The service of an amended petition to include the action of 
the State Council of 1900, having been duly made upon the defen- 
dant, a special sitting of the National Judiciary was held at the 
City of Trenton, December 8, 1900, to consider the charges. 
Brother A. D. Wilkin appeared for the petitioners, but the de- 
fendant State Officers of New Jersey treated the Court with con- 
tempt by not making an appearance. The hearing took place based 
on the actions of the two sessions of the State Council, as above 
quoted, and the printed proceedings of same. 

The contention of the State Council was, that the act of in- 
corporation obtained by it and held by it from the State of New 
Jersey, conferred the power upon those in whose possession it 
might be, of abrogating at will the contract existing between it 
and the National Council, thereby cutting the tie that bound the 
two, absolving the members of the said State Council and all it 
represented. 



186 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

This position of the State Council, in the opinion of the 
National Judiciary was considered untenable. In support of this 
conclusion, the Court gave a resume of the historical status of the 
Order, showing that from the organization of Washington Council, 
No. 1, of Pennsylvania, in 1853, to the institution of the National 
Council in 1869, each in turn, including the State Council of Penn- 
sylvania, was Supreme, the latter organization being composed of 
three State Councils, viz. : Pennsylvania, Delaware and New Jer- 
sey, and in the organization of the National Council, the Court 
held that each of the State Councils surrendered to the National 
Body all of the powers possessed by them in whatsoever kind or 
description, and then received back from the Supreme Body such 
prerogatives and powers as it then and thereafter possessed. 

To show that there is no reservation of power in a State 
Council, but a grant of power to it by the National Council when 
organized, a clause in the charter granted to a State Council was 
cited, which is as follows : 

" By virtue of a charter granted by the National Council, of the 

United States of North America, it is the Legislative head of the Order in 

with power to make its own constitution and laws and those of 

subordinate Councils under its jurisdiction, provided they conform to the 

laws of the National Council." 

Continuing their opinion, the National Judiciary contended 
that 

" It is an universally accepted dictum of the Courts of our land, 
that they will not interfere in the internal affairs of associations, similar 
in character and purpose to our own, unless in some way civil law be 
offended or the rights of members, under civil or association law be violated. 

" If the Courts of our land hold the ground upon which we lawfully 
stand to be sacred from them, then there seems to be no good reason 
why Legislatures should be permitted to lawfully trespass upon it. If, 
however, it be lawful for Legislatures to do what the Courts hold to be 
an impropriety or an impossibility for them to do, then there remains 
one safeguard, which even Legislatures cannot override — the obligations 
of a contract— rendered inviolable, as these are by the highest organic law." 

Judgment having been found in favor of the petitioner, the 
Court ordered that the properly authorized officers of said State 
Council pay all per capita tax due the National Council by the 15th 
of January, 1901 ; and, further, that the said State Council on or 
before same date, shall reassemble in special session, and rescind 
all and every action taken by it to erect the State Council of New 
Jersey into a body independent of and superior to the National 
Council of the Order, the body which created it; and that after 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 187 

rescinding such actions as referred to and making provision to pay 
the per capita tax, no other business shall be enacted at said special 
session. It was further ordered, that in the event of the State 
Council failing to obey the decree of said Judiciary, its charter 
shall be revoked. This opinion was rendered December 13, 1900. 
The decree, however, was not obeyed, and on January 17, 1901, 
the National Councilor proclaimed that the charter of said State 
Council was revoked. 

DECISION OF COURT OF CHANCERY 

The next move in the " checker-board " of litigation apper- 
taining to New Jersey, was in the Court of Chancery, in which 
tribunal the National Council was represented by Hon. Barton B. 
Hutchinson and Charles L. Corbin, Esqs. The bill was filed April 
17, 1901, before Vice-Chancellor Pitney, who advised an order re- 
quiring the defendant State Council to show cause, on May 6, 
why an injunction should not be issued according to the prayer 
of the complainant, restraining the officers of said defendant State 
Council from making any payment or disposition of the monies 
collected in 1899, to any person or persons but the complainant. 
The cause, however, was removed to the United States Court, and 
the rule was not brought to a hearing. After some delay, the 
cause was remanded to the Court of Chancery, and by an order 
dated January 2, 1902, the cause was referred to Vice-Chancellor 
Pitney. The defendants made a motion that so much of the order 
that restrained them from paying the monies to any other than the 
National Council, be set aside, and on tins motion a hearing 
was had before the Chancellor, the Vice-Chancellor being otherwise 
engaged. However, before the decision as to setting aside the order 
was rendered, a full hearing was had on the entire case before the 
full court. Subsequently the Chancellor rendered his decision 
relative to the motion, which was denied. 

The case proper was hotly contested and Vice-Chancellor Pit- 
ney, on January 23, 1903, rendered the decision, which was against 
the National Council, Justice Dixon, however, dissenting. A brief 
reference to the cause and the points of the decision are given 
below : 

It was alleged by the complainant that the defendant State 
Council had, in 1899, levied and collected the usual National Coun- 
cil per capita tax, but had withheld same, therefore having in trust 
certain amount of money due the National Council. The defen- 
dant denied that it had levied a tax for that purpose. However it 



188 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

admitted that it had levied a per capita tax in October, 1899, but 
that it had thrown off its allegiance to, and dissolved its connection 
with the National Council before it levied any tax on the members 
of the Subordinate Councils of the state. It was shown by the 
complainant that the defendant State Council had, in 1898, levied 
a per capita tax of 40 cents, 25 cents of which had been paid to the 
National Council, and this was admitted by the defendant. It was 
also shown from the proceedings of the State Council of New Jer- 
sey for 1899 that it had levied the same amount, as per the fol- 
lowing resolution: 

" State Council Secretary Miers moved that the per capita tax for 
the ensuing year be the same as last year — forty cents per member, payable 
semi-annually; one-half in January, 1900, and the balance in July, 1900; 
which was agreed to." 

From this the plaintiff in the case claimed that the amount 
being the same as levied the previous year, especially when worded 
" the same as last year, 40 cents per member," had the effect of 
embodying in it the same details that were embodied in the resolu- 
tion adopted in 1898 and that the monies collected in 1899 were 
impressed with the same trust as those levied in 1898. This was, 
therefore, the main question at issue, whether the monies collected 
as per levy in 1899, were impressed with a trust in favor of the 
National Council. 

The defendant averred that considering the whole situation, 
the rebellious attitude and the rebellious resolutions passed by the 
State Council, the assumption that the National Council expenses 
would be much larger so that the 40 cents levied would not have 
met the demand, etc., was presumption enough that the tax levied 
was not for the purpose and with the view of paying the usual 
National Council tax. 

In rendering the decision of the Court the Vice- Chancellor, 
in every point, favored the contention of the defendant. On the 
main point, the Court had this to say : 

" In considering this question it must be borne in mind that the 
relation between the parties is purely a voluntary one. The constitution 
of the National Council provides for the collection of a tax in the manner 
hereinbefore stated; but it is hardly necessary to remark that it has no 
power to enforce it. . . . Any member may withdraw at any time. 
The adhesive power which holds these several bodies together is the sup- 
posed benefit (referring to the membership in the Subordinate Councils and 
their relation to the State Council) first to the individual members by 
reason of their membership; then the Subordinate Council by reason of its 
connection with the State Council; and then the State Council by reason 
of the benefit supposed to be derived by its connection with the National 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 189 

Council. The relation, indeed, between them is quasi contractual; but 1 
can find no warrant anywhere in the case, nor in the law applicable thereto, 
for the notion that the National Council could bring an action at law 
against any State Council and recover damages for its refusal to collect 
any tax which the National Council mag impose. Whatever right of that 
sort exists is unenforceable by legal action; and hence the complainant 
was compelled to put its case upon the ground of a trust for money had 
and received." 

The Court, after stating thai a State Council in assessing and 

collecting the per capita tax for the expressed purpose of meeting 

the demands of the National Council becomes an agent or trustee 

for said National Body, continues: 

"It is not enough to warrant a recovery that the State Council has 
collected moneys by tax, for the simple reason that it has occasion to use 
money for its own purposes. And the mere fact that it has money in the 
treasury, from whatever source, does not create a liability, either at law 
or in equity, to pay it over to the National Council. It must, as I have 
said, be levied and collected expressly for the purpose of meeting that 
tax." 

The Court, in conclusion, claimed that the National Council 
had failed to make out its case establishing the fact that the money 
collected by the State Council was a trust; neither did it make it 
clear that the money collected in 1899 was intended to include and 
did include the National per capita tax, hence dismissed the bill. 

The National Council appealed the case to the Court of Errors 
and Appeals, which tribunal, on January 23, 1904, rendered its 
decision, simply affirming the decision of the Court of Chancery. 

THE STATE COUNCIL OF NEW YORK INSUBORDINATE 

The same insubordinate spirit that existed in the other states 
heretofore referred to, was manifested in the State of New York, 
but in a somewhat different manner. New York furnished a few 
very rabid leaders in the beginning of the strife, and they were 
conspicuously active as well as prominent in their endeavors to 
disrupt the Order ; but to-day they are inconspicuous, forgotten and 
"unsung." Other members, however, of both the National and 
State Councils, although they had for years been working and vot- 
ing with the anti-administration people, and at the same time were 
not in sympathy with the action of the Minneapolis session, were 
not disposed to rule and vote themselves out of the Order by any 
insubordinate act, but in the sessions of their State Council, follow- 
ing the break of 1899, stood resolutely for regularity and obedience 
to the mandates of the National Body, believing, with all true 



190 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

Juniors, that the place to settle grievances was within the Order, 
and that if the Minneapolis session had erred, the proper place to 
rectify the wrongs was in a special or regular meeting of the same 
body. Among those who were loyal might be named, Brothers 
W. C. Anderson, Charles A. Jaggar, Ira W. Jinkins, of the National 
Council, and Brothers 0. L. Forrester, Jas. W. Cheshire and Jas. 
C. Brower, of the State Body. 

The first act of disobedience to the mandates of the National 
Council was shown at the State Council meeting, held in the City of 
Lockport, N. Y., September 4, 1899, at which session the following 
resolution was unanimously adopted : 

" That the question of paying the per capita tax to the National 
Council be submitted to the members of the Order in the State, the various 
Councils vote upon the same at the last meeting in January, 1900, the 
official action to be decided by the majority vote of the members." 

In view of said action, National Councilor Brother Charles F. 
Reeves formulated charges against the State Council for wilfully 
failing to comply with the enactment of the National Council to 
levy and collect the National Council per capita tax and pay same 
over to the National Secretary. A special sitting of the National 
Judiciary was ordered for December 8, 1889, with Judges Eddy and 
Gilcreast sitting, Judge Barry not sitting because of being in attend- 
ance at the State Council as D. N. C, — A. D. Wilkins, Esq., ap- 
pearing for the National Councilor. The defendants not appearing, 
the trial proceeded without them. 

The National Judiciary, in its opinion, relative to the reso- 
lution, as above stated, had this to say of this unusual proceeding : 

" For this action of the State Council of New York, there was no 
warrant in the Laws of the Order, State or National, as these laws existed 
prior to the Minneapolis session, or as adopted at said session. When 
once the votes of the Councils of the jurisdiction had been received by 
the State Council Officers, such vote could be taken by them as nothing 
more than an expression of opinion or desire on the part of the member- 
ship within the jurisdiction of New York." 

The counsel for the National Council placed before the 
Judicatory tribunal the proceedings of the session of the New 
York State Council held at the City of Rome, September 3, 1900, 
in which the following recommendation was made by Brother 
W. C. Anderson, one of the National Representatives: 

" I, therefore, recommend that in consideration of the duty we owe 
the author of our existence under whose supervision we have passed through 
years of prosperity, being privileged to aid in advancing our principles 
into every state in the Union, and in the interest of a united organization, 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 191 

we affirm our allegiance to the National Council, Jr. O. U. A. M. of the 
United States of America, and direct our Board of Officers to pay to the 
National Council the amount of per capita tax due that body for the 
year 1899, and all other indebtedness for which the State Council is or 
may become liable." 

This recommendation seems to have been the minority report 
of a committee appointed on the subject, as Brother Forrester 
moved "that the minority report of National Representative 
William C. Anderson be adopted and the recommendation be con- 
curred in." This motion was ruled out of order on the ground 
that the matter having been referred to the membership, and by a 
large majority they had voted not to pay the per capita tax, the 
State Council could not override the action of the Order at large 
without referring the question back again to the Subordinate 
Councils. The point of order was raised, that the State Council 
was a member of the National Council, and that the vote taken 
did not sever the relationship of the members from the National 
Council, which was decided not well taken by the presiding officer. 
From this decision, Brother Anderson took an appeal which, on 
being discussed, and it being understood that a vote thereon should 
determine the question involved, the result was that the State 
Councilor's decision was sustained by a vote of 112 to 94, which 
vote defeated the minority report, or Brother Anderson's recom- 
mendation. 

The Court took what evidence it had, the printed proceedings, 
and based its opinion upon this extraordinary and unprecedented 
action, stating that while there was no proof that the State Council 
had sought to sever its relations with the National Body, or to set 
itself up within the jurisdiction of the state as superior to the 
National Council, yet it was clear that " they have wandered dan- 
gerously near that line." It was clear to the Court that the State 
Body had refused to pay the per capita tax. 

After reciting the procedure of the State Council in their 
action of referring the question to the membership whether to pay 
the National Council tax or not, and it appearing that the majority 
of the members had voted not to pay same, therefore assuming that 
it was impossible for tbe State Board of Officers to have paid it even 
had they desired, the Court concluded its opinion by saying : 

"As suggested above, both the conclusion of the State Board of Offi- 
cers and of the State Council, was invalid and without foundation, because 
the submission of the question to the Councils being without warrant of 
law the result of that submission must of necessity have been without force 
or effect." 



192 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

By order of the Court, the State Council was suspended, pend- 
ing the payment of the National Council per capita tax by the 18th 
day of January, 1901. In the event of failure to pay same, the 
State Council charter was to be revoked; whereupon, on account 
of not obeying the order, the National Councilor on January 21, 
1901, declared the charter revoked. 

A NEW STATE COUNCIL OF NEW YORK INSTITUTED 

On February 12, 190], a new State Council of New York was 
instituted, with Brother 0. E. Forrester as State Councilor and 
George W. Shaefer as State Council Secretary. On March 5, fol- 
lowing, Lewis F. Page, alleging that he was the secretary of a cor- 
poration known as the State Council of the Junior Order of 
United American Mechanics of the State of New York, asked of the 
Court an injunction, restraining the officers of the new State 
Council from using the name " Junior Order of United American 
Mechanics," as well as the terms " State Councilor," " State Coun- 
cil Secretary," etc. The question of making the injunction per- 
manent was argued April 1, 1901, which was denied by the Court, 
the order dissolving the temporary injunction which had rested 
upon the officers of the new State Council, being signed June 27, 
1901. 

On the 10th day of July following, the National Councilor, 
Brother A. L. Cray, in virtue of the powers vested in him, de- 
manded from the State Council officers of the old State Council, 
all papers, books, funds, private work and all property of whatever 
nature, as well as the charter, the same to be turned over to John 
Bullwinkel, Esq., one of the attorneys for the National Council in 
the case. 

In this connection, it might be stated, that the methods of 
the insurgent leaders, Singer, Page, Parker, et al., were equally as 
unwarranted as those which characterized the insurgent outfit in 
Pennsylvania. They sent out misleading circulars to the Councils 
in the state, calling the new State Council a " rump association," 
directing that all communications from said " so-called State 
Council " be destroyed and all dispensations, etc., be sent to Page. 

Following the dissolving of the injunction, as above referred 
to, the State Councilor of the new State Council went into Court 
and began, what is known as a " cross action," to restrain the 
" Singer, Page and Parker Association " from using the words 
" Junior Order of United American Mechanics," or the initials, 
" Jr. O. U. A. M.", which, after many delays was granted, tern- 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 193 

porarily, December 4, 1901, and the two cases at issue were placed 
upon the court calendar. 

The case of the " insurgent " State Council against the 
" loyal " State Council of New York, to restrain or enjoin the lat- 
ter body or its officers from the use of the name of the Order, either 
in full or by initials, came up for argument in the Court of New 
York City before Judge Steckler, November 6, 1902, and occupied 
nine days. It was the longest case in the whole list of causes tried 
during this controversy in the various states, so far as the time 
taken in its argument is concerned, and was hotly contested by the 
counsel on both sides. 

The gist of the contention maintained by the plaintiff was, 
that the revision of the Constitution and General Laws at Minne- 
apolis in 1899, were inoperative; first, that the members of the 
Order were not properly notified of the amendments; and second, 
that they were not passed by a two-thirds majority ; and as the per 
capita tax was based on one or more of the amendments, such tax 
was unauthorized, hence the State Council of New York could not 
be required to levy or pay same. The plaintiff further claimed in 
its argument, that its charter had not been revoked, from the fact 
the judgment of revocation was entered 'prematurely , having been 
entered nine days after the date fixed for trial, instead of ten days 
from date of trial as provided by the laws of the Order. 

Relative to these points of contention, the Court in its decision, 
had this to say: 

" I do not think that in this action for the specific relief which is 
asked the plaintiff can avail itself of the objection that the amendments 
of the Constitution are inoperative. It does not appear that the represen- 
tatives of the plaintiff at the Minneapolis convention objected to the 
methods of proposing amendments or that they claimed that the amend- 
ments were not carried by a two-thirds vote. Such objections if made at 
the time, if tenable, have been obviated. Nor does the fact that the judg- 
ment of revocation was entered prematurely aid the plaintiff; for even if 
such premature entry was not a mere irregularity the defect would not of 
itself better plaintiff's standing in a court of equity." 

After a careful review of the whole case, the relations the State 
Council bears to the National Council, as based on the laws of the 
Order, the Court declared that the new State Council was the sole 
representative of the National Council of the Junior Order of 
United American Mechanics in the State of New York. The 
Court further declared : 

" That there is no proof that any person has been deceived or mislead 
into joining the defendant organization; that there is no proof that the 
plaintiff has sustained any loss by reason of the existence of the defendant. 

J 3 



194 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

" That the words Junior Order of United American Mechanics and the 
word and initials Junior 0. U. A. M., and the abbreviation and initials 
Jr. 0. U. A. M. have been used by the National Council, the State Councils 
in the various states dependent upon the National Council, and by Sub- 
ordinate Councils in the State of New York, loyal to the National Council 
from 1853 to the present time and they still continue to use the same. 

" That the plaintiff is or has been any part of the National Coun- 
cil since the revocation of its charter as aforesaid; that the defendant 
has proved that it is acting under the National Council since the revoca- 
tion of said charter of plaintiff, and that as between the plaintiff and 
defendant herein, the defendant has a prior right to the use of the title 
New York State Council Junior Order United American Mechanics and the 
word and initials Junior O. U. A. M. and the abbreviation and initials Jr. 
0. U. A. M. 

" That under these circumstances the fact that the plaintiff is incor- 
porated does not entitle it to the relief prayed for in the complaint." 

The case of the National Council versus the insurgent State 
Council of New York has not been pressed and, therefore, stands 
statu quo. 

VIRGINIA LEAVES THE NATIONAL COUNCIL 

The procedure leading up to the culminating act of insub- 
ordination by the State Council of Virginia was somewhat different 
than that followed by the other states; but in the main, each 
jurisdiction was guilt} r of one supreme act of insubordination, that 
of refusing to lev} r , collect or pay the National Council per capita 
tax, as per enactment of the famous Minneapolis session. With 
Virginia, the tax had been collected but withheld. 

Eelative to the issue at controversy in Virginia, the following 
statement of facts is appended : 

At the session of the State Council of Virginia, held at Cape 
Charles City, October 17, 1899, the following resolution was 
adopted : 

" That we withhold further tax to the National Council, until the 
National Council shall legally adjust the grievances, and give us repre- 
sentation based upon membership and taxation." 

On November 15, following, the Executive Board of the State 
Council sent a copy of the above resolution to the Subordinate 
Councils of the state, accompanied by a circular in which were 
the following observations : 

" This is considered a very conservative action, and we believe does 
not constitute an act of insubordination; we are further of the opinion that 
the action of this state will do much towards the adjustment of the differ- 
ences existing in the National Council and the correction of the grievances 
complained of. . . . 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 195 

" There is no reason to fear a disruption in the Order and nothing 
is further from the desires of your Executive Board, or any member of the 
State Council. . . . All that we ask is justice, pure and simple, and 
upon the assurance of this, your State Council will then be — as it is now 
and always has been — a loyal branch of the Order." 

In view of the situation existing, National Councilor Reimer 
wrote to the Executive Board of the State Council of Virginia, in 
which communication, among other things, he said : 

" Now as to withholding payment of taxes, the per capita tax, col- 
lected by the State Council of Virginia, from the Subordinate Councils, 
is, among other purposes, to enable it to maintain its standing and proper 
relations with the National Council. The State Council having collected 
this tax for the purposes named, has no legal right to withhold that portion 
legally belonging to the National Council, from the National Council, and 
the resolution adopted to do so is illegal and its adoption unlawful and 
in my opinion, your Board should at once arrange for the lawful disposi- 
tion of the National Council per capita tax, which it has already collected 
from the Subordinate Councils and which was payable October 15, and 
which was withheld without authority by your Board on that date, two 
days before the date of your State Council Session." 

To this communication of the National Councilor, there came 
an answer, December 20, 1899, signed by one Floyd A. Hudgins, 
claiming to be the State Councilor of the State Council of Virginia 
and Chairman of the Executive Board, which is as follows : 

" I beg to state that this matter of withholding tax was the action 
of the State Council in session assembled, and it is my opinion that we 
have no right to order the per capita tax paid, and if we had such a right, 
we would not exercise it against the majority present at our last session, 
which was held in the city of Cape Charles." 

February 1, 1900, the National Councilor filed charges against 
the State Council of Virginia, the purport of which were, attempted 
nullification of the authority of the National Council and its offi- 
cers in its refusal to pay over to the National Council its tax 
due and which had been collected, and on general principles, insub- 
ordination and rebellion. 

A hearing before the National Judiciary, however, was not 
pressed, as the National Councilor entertained hopes that good 
judgment would prevail among the Virginia brethren and that the}' 
would see their mistake and rectify it and maintain their allegiance 
with the National Body. To such an extent did this spirit of con- 
ciliation manifest itself on the part of the National Councilor, 
Brother Reimer, that on the approach of the meeting of the Na- 
tional Council, under date of June 5, 1900, he addressed the follow- 



196 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

ing communication to the State Council Secretary of Virginia, 
Thomas B. Ivey: 

" The State Council of Virginia having refused to pay the National 
Council per capita tax on the alleged ground that certain grievances had 
been imposed upon it by the National Council, permit me to say that in 
order to insure the proper presentation of these grievances and that they 
may receive the proper consideration, the State Council of Virginia should 
send its representatives to the Philadelphia session of the National Council 
to present these grievances to that body for consideration and action at 
that time. 

" Although, by its refusal to pay the National Council per capita 
tax, the Virginia State Council is not entitled to representation, it is my 
opinion that its representatives should, nevertheless, be granted admission 
and I will urge that the National Council grant them this privilege, and 
I believe that body will do so." 

Brother Reimer carried out his promise, and in his report, 
urged the National Council to admit any who might wish to present 
grievances, and to that end the Credential Committee in its report, 
recommended that the Representatives from Virginia be admitted. 
None, however, presented themselves; and it is a matter of record 
in the official proceedings of the State Council of Virginia, that 
the Executive Board, after having considered the National Coun- 
cilor's generous invitation, decided not to accept and directed their 
Representatives to remain away from the session. 

At the session of the State Council in 1900, held October 16, 
a resolution to pay the National Council per capita tax was tabled. 
In the meantime, without authority of the State Council, some 
members of the Order in the state asked and obtained a statutory 
charter of incorporation from the Legislature of the state, under 
the name of the " State Council of Virginia, Junior Order of the 
United American Mechanics of the State of Virginia," which 
charter was approved and adopted at a special session of the State 
Council held March 14, 1900, by a vote of yeas 86, nays 17, and 
under this charter it was sought to reorganize the State Council 
of Virginia in the State of Virginia, which, in fact, was accom- 
plished by a motion to declare the officers of the State Council 
elected under this charter, which motion passed unanimously, 
thereby setting up the State Council of Virginia as an independent 
organization as well as supreme within the state, at the same 
time adopted its own Constitution, and substantially accepted the 
Declaration of Principles of 1894, with the exception of the 
clause, " In the strictest sense we are a national political organ- 
ization," etc. 

This act brought about a dissolution of the relations existing 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 197 

between Virginia and the National Council, whereupon, an 
amended petition was filed to the cause already in the hands of the 
National Judiciary for violating the laws of the National Council 
and the usages of the Order in adopting a Constitution incompatible 
with its lawful allegiance to the Supreme Body. The cause based 
on these charges was tried before the Judicatory tribunal of the 
Order, on December 6, 1900, Messrs. A. D. Wilkin and John C. 
Weckert, Esqs., appearing for the petitioner, but no appearance 
was made on behalf of the defendant. 

The cause at Court resolved itself into two questions at issue : 

First. The right of a State Council to decline to pay over to 
the National Council tax due the latter. 

Second. The question of insubordination or rebellion involved 
in the action of a State Council whereby it assumes to erect itself 
into a condition of independency or superiority, by obtaining a 
corporation from the state. 

On the first question at issue the Court declared itself as 

follows : 

" Under the supreme law of the Order, the power to levy or provide 
for tax necessary for the support of the National Council, is lodged exclu- 
sively in the National Council. To concede the right or the power of 
another and necessarily subordinate body to refuse to collect and pay over 
the tax so levied or provided for, would be destructive of the entire plan 
of the government of the Order." 

From the fact that the State Council of Virginia had collected 
the tax and refused to pay it over, but actually paid it bach to the 
Subordinate Councils, which was unlawful and a wilful action upon 
their part, the Court found the State Council clearly guilty of 
insubordination. 

On the second question, in the procurement of an incorporation 
from the Legislature of Virginia by which the State Council con- 
sidered itself independent and superior to the National Council, 
and by certain terms in the text of the state charter sought to 
reorganize the State Council on that basis, the Court decided the 
State Council guilty of not only insubordination but of acts of 
rebellion. 

The usual decree was ordered by the Court of revocation of the 
charter, if the per capita tax was not paid within a certain time, 
and a special session of the State Council called to rescind its for- 
mer insubordinate actions. Neither of the decrees were obeyed, 
whereupon the charter was revoked by the National Councilor 
January 12, 1901. 



198 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

THE LOYAL STATE COUNCIL OF VIRGINIA ORGANIZED 

In the meantime, and after the trial of said State Council oE 
Virginia, and the forfeiture of its charter for disobedience of the 
decrees of the National Judiciary, a new (loyal) State Council, 
with 24 Councils and 3,540 members, was instituted March 2, 1901. 
The officers of the old State Council, claiming that their body was 
independent of the National Council because of its incorporation 
under the laws of the State of Virginia, filed a bill in Equity in 
the Chancery Court of the state praying the Court to decree " That 
the new State Council be declared illegal, and the insurgent's char- 
ter valid " ; and at the same time to enjoin the loyalists from contin- 
uing to use the name State Council of Virginia, Jr. 0. U. A. M., 
" or any other name of like import " ; and for carrying out the 
objects of said State Council, or in any way from carrying out the 
purposes of the organization. This issue was filed in the Court 
sometime in 1901. To this bill, the National Council, by its attor- 
neys, John C. Weckert and C. V. Meredith, Esqs., filed an answer 
in the nature of a " cross-bill," wherein the new State Council is 
alleged to be the head of the Order in the state praying the Court 
to so decree, and also to restrain the old State Council in the same 
manner as set forth in the prayer of its officers. 

The case went to trial in due time, but the Court decided 
against the National Council. The Court declined to pass upon 
the question as to the validity of the Minneapolis Constitution, or 
the effect of the revolt upon the Order, but based its decree entirely 
upon the ground that the statute of Virginia incorporating the 
old State Council of Virginia with the rights and powers therein 
given, was a constitutional and valid act. That the said statute 
made the old State Council under the new and statutory charter 
the supreme head of the Junior Order in Virginia. 

Not satisfied with the judicial construction of the trial court, 
the National Council took an appeal to the Supreme Court of 
Virginia. In due time a hearing was had before that tribunal and 
the case argued by both sides and a decree was handed down affirm- 
ing the decision of the lower Court. 

The Supreme Court of Virginia, in deciding against the 
National Council, based its opinion upon the proposition that a 
state had the power by legislature, or otherwise, to exclude a for- 
eign corporation from doing business therein. That the National 
Council being a foreign corporation, having been created under 
the laws of Pennsylvania, the State of Virginia by a special act 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 199 

passed, had full authority to exclude it from its jurisdiction. The 
case was carried to the Supreme Court of the United States by the 
National Council, and, after a full resume of the case before that 
tribunal, the Court decided against the National Body, November 
9, 1906. 

QUO WARRANTO PROCEEDINGS AGAINST TITE FUNERAL BENEFIT 
DEPARTMENT AND BENEFICIARY DEGREE 

But brief reference can be made to the above issue before the 
Attorney-General of Pennsylvania and in the courts of said state. 
The Funeral Benefit Association of the United States, commonly 
known as the " Philadelphia Association," cited the officers of the 
National Council and Beneficiary Degree before the courts, thereby 
entailing great expense, in litigation, upon the National Body. The 
above named Association was entirely under the control of the in- 
surgents and had much to do in carrying on the rebellion within 
the Order; and even agents and circulars were sent to the loyal, 
but in some instances disaffected states, scattering the firebrands 
of disloyalty, as well as to the sessions of the National Council to 
sow the seed of discontent and rebellion there. However, their cul • 
pable purposes to again split the National Body came to an igno- 
minious end at the Milwaukee session in 1902; however, to be 
resumed at the session of the National Council held at Boston, 
Mass., June, 1907. 

The issue above referred to was a suggestion before the 
Attorney-General of the State of Pennsylvania for a writ of Quo 
Warranto to inquire into the right of the Beneficiary Degree — a 
Colorado corporation — to do business in Pennsylvania. The pur- 
pose of appearing before the Attorney-General was to secure the 
use of the name of the Commonwealth to start proceedings. After 
a full hearing the Assistant Attorney-General granted the prayer 
of the petitioners, as far as the Beneficiary Degree was concerned, 
but not the National Council, and the cause was cited to be heard 
in one of the Philadelphia courts. 

Eealizing the invalidity of the Colorado Charter, it was sur- 
rendered, which it was thought would end the case. However, the 
attorneys for the petitioners filed an amendment to the writ requir- 
ing the National Council to show by what right and authority it 
exercised the powers in carrying on an Insurance business through 
the Funeral Benefit Department and Beneficiary Degree, etc., which 
they claimed was not in harmony with the original provisions of 



200 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

the Order, as per charter granted by the corporate act of the State 
of Pennsylvania; and in the manner it was now being conducted, 
it was " impracticable, extremely expensive and unsafe, and that 
the officers thereof made false statements to the Insurance Com- 
missioner of the state." 

All these allegations were denied by the attorneys for the 
National Council, and after a hearing before Hon. H. L. Carson, 
the then Attorney-General, the amendment was disallowed. Prior 
to this, however, a " cross action " was filed by the National Coun- 
cil before the Attorney- General for a similar suggestion of Quo 
Warranto inquiring into the right of the " Philadelphia Associa- 
tion " to do business in Pennsylvania, which was granted, and 
the cause was assigned to the Court of Common Pleas, No. 4, 
Philadelphia. 

Answers were filed in both cases before the Court by the attor- 
neys for plaintiffs and defendants, and when the hearing came 
up the attorneys agreed to drop both cases and the litigation along 
this line came to an end, entailing an expense upon the Funeral 
Benefit Department and the Beneficiary Degree of about $3,000, 
all brought about by the Philadelphia Association. 

CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS 

Not only the Junior Order, but every fraternal and secret 
beneficial association in the United States has followed with deep 
interest the litigation in which the Jr. O. U. A. M. has had to do 
since 1899. While the Junior Order has been rent by factional 
strife and many thousands of dollars have been spent in suits and 
counter-suits, much good has resulted, in that legal precedents have 
been established and judicial determination given of fraternal laws, 
which clarify the atmosphere and settle many vexed questions aris- 
ing in judicial jurisprudence affecting the government and opera- 
tions of all secret fraternal organizations. 

One very prominent feature has been brought out by the liti- 
gation, especially in Virginia and New Jersey, that is the affirma- 
tion of States Rights as against National control, so far as the 
Jr. 0. U. A. M. is concerned ; hence, for this reason, the power to 
enforce the authority of the National Council and to secure recog- 
nition of its supremacy, has been watched very closely by every 
organization because of the precedents to be established affecting 
the validity of existing laws and methods of government in all 
fraternal beneficial associations. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 201 

THE FINAL RESULTS OF ARBITRATION 

Beference to "peace proposals," "arbitration committees," 
"olive branches," etc., have been frequently made in the brief 
sketch of this deplorable controversy, not only in this section, but 
in other portions of the work ; but one final appeal was made which 
culminated, as all other efforts had, in total failure. 

At the session of the National Council, held at Milwaukee, 
Wis., in 1902, there was a strong sentiment in favor of making 
peace with the disloyal element almost at any price. To such 
proposals there was no objection, only so far as not in any way to 
sacrifice the dignity of the National Council by surrendering the 
ground so hardly fought for and handing the Order over to those 
whose sole policy from the beginning was " rule or ruin." 

In harmony with the " peace proposal " sentiments, a resolu- 
tion was presented recommending the appointment of J. G. A. 
Eichter, of Ohio ; Geo. A. Gowan, of Tennessee ; Roger J. Armstrong, 
of Missouri; Geo. A. Davis, of Maryland, and John Kee, of West 
Virginia, as an Arbitration Committee to act on behalf of the 
National Council, in order to settle the differences that existed 
in the several states. The purport of the resolution read as follows : 

"And our said Committee is hereby authorized to meet a like Com- 
mittee which may be appointed from the ranks of the said ' insurgents ' 
and to agree with them upon terms under which the said factions, in 
whole or in part, shall be received back into the Order and re-vested with 
the rights and privileges of membership under the authority and juris- 
diction of this National Council. And our said Committee shall have full 
power to act in the premises as they may deem best for the interest of 
the National Council and the Order at large." (Italics ours.) 

The delegating of unlimited power into the hands of a single 
Committee did not meet with the approval of those who had been 
in the forefront of the battle, hence a substitute was offered by 
Past State Councilor W. C. Anderson, of New York, which was 
unanimously adopted. The substitute was as follows : 

" Whereas, This body has been informed that the great bulk of the 
former membership of our Order, who have withdrawn from the organiza- 
tion, the same are desirous of reuniting with this body; 

" Resolved, That a Committee of three be appointed to confer with 
a similar number of the former membership and report the result of their 
conference at the next session of the National Council." 

The substitute, as stated, was adopted, with the amendment 
that the Committee consist of Brothers J. G. A. Eichter, J. W. 
Calver and A. L. Cray. 



202 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

In pursuance of the appointment of the above named Com- 
mittee, the National Board of Officers communicated to the leaders 
of the insurgent element the action of the National Council and 
requested the appointment of a like number to meet the loyal 
Committee, and suggested to them the naming of the place and 
time for such meeting as outlined in the resolution. To this com- 
munication came a response, a portion of which is as follows: 

" Action taken on Saturday last regarding the communication resulted 
in the appointment of a Committee for the purpose of receiving any pro- 
posals the National Council Jr. 0. V. A. M., U. 8. A., may have to make 
through its Committee. (Italics ours.) We waive all reference to the 
mis-statements in the communication of September 3 (Junior Past National 
Councilor A. L. Cray, Chairman of Arbitration Committee), except to say 
that the members of the Jr. O. U. A. M., called insurgents, in the said 
insurgent states, have never expressed directly or by implication, any 
anxiety to meet the National Committee or a committee thereof." 

This communication was signed by Fergus A. Dennis, E. T. 
Keeton, Lewis F. Page, Wm. A. Pike, W. L. Boyden, Committee. 
The spirit that breathed through this communication to the Na- 
tional Committee was far from conciliatory, which demonstrated 
itself more fully in the progress of the negotiations as noted below. 

The place and time of the meeting of the joint committee 
having been fixed at Philadelphia, January 30, 1903, the same went 
into session at the time stated. Since the insurgents had chosen 
five persons to serve on their Committee, the National Council 
Board of Officers added two more to the Committee of the National 
Council, viz., Brothers Robert Ogle, of Maryland, and H. H. Bil- 
lany, of Delaware, with which Committee the National Councilor 
requested Alex. M. DeHaven, Esq., of Pennsylvania, to act as the 
attorney for the National Council. The insurgent Committee ob- 
jected to the adding of Brothers Ogle and Billany to the Commit- 
tee of the National Council, also forbidding Brother DeHaven to 
act as attorney for the Committee. With the Committee of the 
National Council, as originally appointed, the conference of the 
joint committee was opened when it was ascertained that the in- 
surgent Committee had no proposals at all to make looking toward 
an adjudication of the differences involved. Whereupon the Na- 
tional Council Committee made the following proposition : 

" That you come back into the Order ; pay all per capita tax due, and 
that you obey the laws of the National Council, and discontinue all liti- 
gation." 

To this proposition came the answer : 

" We cannot accept this." 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 203 

The insurgent Committee then submitted the following propo- 
sitions : 

1. "Will the National Council make itself a purely representative 
body? Will you recommend that the National Council take such action? 

2. " Will the National Council give to each state the right of absolute 
self-control? Will you recommend that the National Council do this? 

3. " State what claim, if any, the National Council will make for 
payment by the alleged insurgent states of per capita tax levied since 
1899." 

To these propositions the National Council Committee replied : 

1. " We are willing to report to the National Council the question 
you ask. 

2. " We are willing to recommend that the National Council shall 
be composed of Representatives, Past National Councilors, and Past State 
Councilors who obtained that honor prior to July 1, 1901, believing a 
retroactive law would not stand. 

3. " We are willing to recommend to the National Council that they 
make a liberal adjustment of the per capita tax." 

No definite conclusion having been reached, the conference 
adjourned. Subsequently the insurgent Committee asked for an- 
other meeting, which was agreed upon, and Pittsburg, Pa., May 2, 
1903, was fixed as the place and time for the conference. 

On the reassembling of the joint committee, the insurgent 
Committee submitted the following propositions : 

" Taking into consideration all the differences existing between the 
National Council and the several State Councils and jurisdictions called 
insurgents having been suspended, and at this time not of nor with the 
National Council, it is made apparent. 

" First. That representation in and to the National Council be based 
upon the membership of each state, and that the National Council be 
composed of National Representatives and Past National Councilors. No 
Past State Councilor or Past National Representative to have a voice or 
vote in the National Council, and all committees to be composed of members 
of the National Council only. Only members of the National Council 
shall be eligible for office. 

" Second. That all claims for per capita tax or any other assessment 
against State Councils, Subordinate Councils, or individual members made 
or levied at or since the Minneapolis session, shall be waived and sur- 
rendered and declared void. 

" Third. That all existing litigation and suits in Court shall be 
abandoned at once. 

" Fourth. That all decrees made by the so-called National judiciary 
of the National Council against any State Council, Subordinate Council, 
or individual member, or any charges now pending against any State 
Council, Subordinate Council, or individual member, shall be abrogated and 
for nothing holden and declared void. 

" Fifth. All disputes in any state, party to this proposal, and all 
disputes in any jurisdiction belonging to the National Council to be settled 



204 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

by the State Council of each state or jurisdiction, without the intervention 
or interference of the National Council. 

" Sixth. That a new National Council shall be organized by the repre- 
sentatives and Past National Councilors provided for in item No. 1 of this 
proposal, a new set of laws adopted and new officers elected; said National 
Council to have limited power only, and each State Council or jurisdiction 
to be a sovereign body in itself. 

" Seventh. The plan to bring about the above result is as follows : 

"1. The National Council which shall convene in San Francisco, 
May 20th, and to which body this proposal will come, will fix a place 
and time for the meeting, provided for in item No. 6; the place to be a 
central one and the time, between the 1st of November and the 15th 
of December next. 

"2. That the National Council shall notify the so-called insurgent 
states and Councils of its action in connection with this proposal by its 
official notice to William L. Boyden, No. 433 Third Street, N. W., Washing- 
ton, D. C, secretary of the Arbitration Committee of the so-called insur- 
gent states and Councils, within thirty (30) days after the said session of 
the National Council shall have convened at San Francisco. 

"3. At the coming annual session of the respective alleged insurgent 
State Councils, every Council whether known as loyalist or insurgent, 
shall be entitled to the usual representation in the respective states. At 
the said session the representatives elected to and attending said session 
shall reorganize the State Councils therein, and shall elect officers and 
National representatives. All National representatives from each and 
every state or jurisdiction in the Order, shall be elected by their state 
bodies, either at a regular annual session or at a special session called for 
that purpose at least twenty (20) days prior to the time fixed for the 
meeting of the National Council, as provided for in item No. 2 of this plan. 
Each state body shall be entitled to one National representative for the 
first One Thousand (1000) of its membership, and one for each additional 
Three Thousand (3000) members or majority fraction thereof. 

"Provided, that no alleged State Council with less than five (5) 
Subordinate Councils on December 31, 1902, shall be entitled to repre- 

sentation - "Fergus A. Dennis, 

" Dated May 1, 1903. " Wm. A. Pike, 

" Lewis F. Page, 
"E. T. Keeton, 
"Wm. L. Boyden." 

The National Council Committee submitted the following: 

" In accordance with your suggestions, we have examined your propo- 
sitions and we offer for your consideration the following changes or 
amendments to the propositions submitted to us this day: 

" First. In Section First, fourth line, after the words ' Past National 
Councilors,' add 'AND SUCH PAST STATE COUNCILORS AS SHALL 
HAVE OBTAINED THAT HONOR PRIOR TO JULY 1, 1901.' 

" Second. That all insurgent states and Councils shall pay to the 
National Council all per capita tax due by them up to the time of the 
suspension of their charters. 

" Third. We except State of Pennsylvania. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 205 

"Fifth. In the fifth item of the fourth line, strike out all after the 
word 'jurisdiction,' and insert 'SUBJECT TO AN APPEAL TO THE 
NATIONAL COUNCIL.' 

" Sixth. After the word ' Council ' in the fourth line, add ' TO BE 
THE SUPREME HEAD OF THE ORDER WITH REASONABLE JURIS- 
DICTION OVER STATE AND SUBORDINATE COUNCILS." 

Changes were suggested on representation and then the whole 
matter with the above amendments were submitted on the reas- 
sembling of the joint committee, when the insurgent Committee, 
through its chairman, stated that their propositions was their ulti- 
matum, whereupon the conference adjourned with nothing accom- 
plished. 

To any unbiased mind the propositions of the insurgent 
Committee were unreasonable, inequitable and unfair; while those 
of the National Council Committee were conciliatory, preeminently 
conservative and remarkably lenient. 

The report of the National Committee was received and 
accepted at the session of the National Body, held at San Francisco, 
Cal., whereupon the following offer of settlement to be sent the 
insurgent Councils, was adopted: 

" Whereas, A report of the Arbitration Committee which was 
appointed at the last session of this National Council is this day pre- 
sented, and action thereon is desired. 

" And Whereas, It is believed that the laws of the Order form a 
sufficient and equitable basis for an adjustment of any differences that 
may exist. 

" And Whereas, It is believed that some of the insurgent State 
Councils and Subordinate Councils thereof desire to be reinstated in the 
Order. Therefore, be it resolved by the National Council in Annual Session 
assembled: 

" 1. That the propositions submitted by the insurgent representatives 
or Committee thereof, as the basis of settlement of the differences of the 
Order, and which is alleged to be their ultimatum, are impracticable and 
unreasonable in the manner and form as presented, are hereby rejected and 
refused, as we believe that the laws now in force and the decisions thereon 
form a sufficient and equitable basis for an adjustment of. any and all 
honest differences which might exist. 

" 2. That a Subordinate Council of any state which is now identi- 
fied with the insurgent State Council of any state, may be reinstated and 
thereafter recognized by the loyal State Councilor (where a State Council 
exists), and where no State Council exists, then to this National Council 
(or the Board of Officers thereof), upon the payment of the per capita tax 
which was due and payable to the National Council at the time of 
forfeiture or suspension of the charter of such insurgent State or Sub- 
ordinate Council, by the decrees of the National or State Judiciary respect- 
ively, and of the good faith and form of any such application the respective 
loyal State Council and the Board of Officers of this National Council 
when applied to, shall be the sole and absolute judge." 



HISTORY OF LEGISLATION 



CHAPTER XIII 
i. NATIONAL LEGISLATION 

THIS and subsequent chapters deal with one of the most 
prominent features of this work. Originally the organization 
had nothing to do with politics or legislation; but, as the country 
advanced and became more widely known among the nations of the 
earth, new perils were manifested in the body politic, and it was 
self-evident that the Order, to rise to its great mission, must deal 
with great and vital issues confronting our marvellously increasing 
civilization. Hence, it was not of accidental purpose that some years 
ago there were embodied in the Declaration of Principles, the words 
which caused such a " tempest in a teapot " in the Order — " We 
are a national political organization" etc., as the subsequent history 
of the Order has clearly demonstrated that while we are not par- 
tisan, we are to all intents and purposes political, and it is needless 
for any one to deny the statement. We have entered the portals 
of Congress through our Committees ; we have " bearded the lion " 
(the Speaker) in his "den"; we have occupied the lobby and 
smoking rooms of not only Congress, but of State Legislatures and 
" button-holed " politicians, and we have entered the arena of politi- 
cal campaigns and worked and electioneered for those whom we sup- 
posed would aid us in carrying out the objects and principles of our 
Order, and at the same time labored to defeat those we knew were 
antagonistic to our sentiments. It is amusing to see the " look of 
terror " that sweeps across the countenance of some of our members 
when a speaker in the Council room "talks politics." What is 
there in the word " politics " that creates such consternation ? 
What says the lexicographer : 

" The branch of civics that treats of principles of civil government 
and the conduct of state affairs; the administration of public affairs in the 
interest of peace, prosperity and safety of the state; statecraft; political sci- 
ence; in a wide sense embracing the science of government and civil polity." 

Says Eev. E. Hitchcock in his Treasury of Truth : 

" I regard politics, also, or the principles by which nations should 
be governed and regulated, as only a branch of ethics ; or, rather, as a 
special application of the principles of morality and religion." 
206 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 207 

Standing upon this lofty plane of ethical economics, the Order 
of Junior Mechanics is and has been for years a " national political 
organization," and the outline of legislation compiled within these 
pages justifies the statement and claim. 

NATURALIZATION AND RESTRICTED IMMIGRATION 

In the convention of 1787, which framed the Constitution, 
and was the parent of naturalization laws in the United States, the 
question chiefly considered was relative to the admission of foreign- 
ers to citizenship. At that time only persons of European birth 
were contemplated. Asiatics and heathen were not within the pur- 
view. What we call dangerous classes did not then have an exist- 
ence. There were no nations of Europe " dumping " their objec- 
tionable characters upon our shores as now, as at that time all the 
lower strata of society were pressed into the army or sold to other 
nations, as was the case with the Hessians in the Eevolution. Yet 
with most favorable immigration, the statesmen in that convention 
were much divided in their opinion of the naturalization question. 
South Carolina voted solid against the admission of aliens as citi- 
zens. Pennsylvania was divided on the question. One of the 
powers conferred on Congress by this convention was " To estab- 
lish a uniform rule for naturalization." The first act passed under 
that authority was on March 16, 1790, requiring only two years 
residence, which enactment was not popular. An act passed in 
1795 was repealed in 1798. 

When the Republicans came into power with Jefferson as 
President, the naturalization laws were amended in 1802 to meet 
the better sentiment that prevailed, which was five years, but no 
attempt was made to make them uniform. The Federalists con- 
tended for a longer probationary period, even some were favorable to 
twenty-one years, and then to be ineligible to hold office. An 
effort was made in 1814 at the Hartford Convention to raise the 
period of naturalization to nine years, but no action was taken. 
The probationary period of five years, up to 1880, was satisfactory, 
in the main; but since then Europe has been unloading her refuse, 
her Anarchists, Communists, etc., so that the old naturalization laws 
were inadequate to meet the situation and the result was that many 
Avere permitted to become citizens who were totally unfit to use the 
franchise. 

"What would those statesmen in Washington's day think if they 
saw, what is actually a fact, a million of aliens a year arriving 
on our shores. Washington himself questioned the advisability of 



208 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

letting any more aliens come. Jefferson wished that " there was 
an ocean of fire between this country and Europe, so that it might 
be impossible for any more immigrants to come hither." While 
statesmen were theorizing on the question, the first act for restric- 
tion of immigration was passed by the State of New York, in 1824. 
The first law resulted from the abuse of free admission, yet in that 
year only 7,912 immigrants arrived in this country. Among' those 
that came were paupers and criminals shipped here by European 
governments, and the act required that the ship-masters give the 
name, birthplace, age and occupation of each immigrant, and a 
bond to secure the city against any public charges. From that 
time until 1862 Congress took no action on the immigration ques- 
tion, at which time the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed. Since 
then until 1903, Congress has passed eight acts of more or less im- 
portance, culminating in the act of 1903, which as one has said to 
be " up to the present time the most far-reaching measure of its 
kind in force in any country ; and the principles underlying it must 
serve as the foundation for all immigration restriction." How- 
ever, in 1882, the first general immigration law was passed which 
enlarged the list for exclusions and established a head tax. The 
Contract Labor Act was passed February 26, 1885, to prevent the 
importation of labor under the padrone or other similar systems. 
The next act was passed in 1891, to which we refer again in its 
proper connection. 

NATURALIZATION LAW OF 1906 

With the enactment of the law of 1802, in which the general 
features of the law of 1795 were reenacted, no definite effort was 
made to enact a uniform naturalization law to govern the admis- 
sion of aliens until the session of Congress, the 59th, in 1906, 
when, through the efforts of the National Legislative Committee, 
represented by its Secretary, Brother Jesse Taylor, the attention 
of Congress was called to the needs of a uniform Naturalization 
Law, and a bill, a most excellent one, was presented, which had 
many hearings before the House Committee on Immigration and 
was finally reported to the House on February 26, 1906. After 
a bitter fight on the floor of the House of Representatives, it passed 
that body June 5, 1906, the Senate on June 29, and went into 
effect on September 29, 1906. Brother Taylor, in a letter to the 
Order, says: 

" We cannot go into full detail in a letter, but we say that had not 
our Order conducted a campaign for Uniform Naturalization Laws, and 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 209 

kept a Representative in Washington, this bill would not have passed; we 
know whereof we speak, and speak the truth." 

It is not our purpose to recite the features of this bill. It 
makes it uniform throughout the states and territories, that no 
one can become a citizen until he has at least resided in this country 
-five years and can read or speak the English language, etc. He 
must make known his intention to become a citizen two years before 
his admission, and when he seeks citizenship, he must sign a paper 
to which he must make affidavit, and the same must be certified by 
competent witnesses. 

IMMIGRATION 

The earlier immigration of our country, as all know, was from 
the best element of the English, Celtic and Teutonic races, which 
became the " bone and sinew " of the New World. During the 
Colonial period, more than 100,000 Germans, it is said, passed 
through the ports and spread throughout the colonies. This immi- 
gration was checked during the Revolution, but revived during the 
Napoleonic wars, and between 1831 and 1840, the German immi- 
gration alone reached 152,000. So strong was the Teutonic move- 
ment westward, that there was a plan to buy Texas for a German 
colon}' - , but the enterprise failed. Following the Civil War, the 
tide of immigration, not only from Germany, but from Ireland, 
reached a high plane in numbers, and the United States welcomed 
the thousands that came. Mr. Lincoln, in his last Thanksgiving 
Proclamation said, that among many things to thank God for was 
the coming of the thousands of excellent men and women from other 
lands. In thirteen years, from 1881 to 1893 inclusive, 1,790,000 
Germans came, but when crowded out by the " baser sort," in 1900, 
Germany furnished but 18,000 of the vast horde that came to 
our land. 

It was the " Riots of 1877 " that, to a great measure, gave an 
impulse to Europe's " scum and filth," its motley mass of anarchists, 
Nihilists, Communists and paupers, to invade the land that " flowed 
with milk and honey." It was soon apparent to the leaders of our 
Order that an era of danger had been reached by our country from 
unrestricted immigration, and measures were taken to counteract 
the peril. Since 1890, when the Junior O. U. A. M. began to be 
prominently recognized, more than 7,500,000 immigrants have 
passed through the portals of our country, two-thirds of whom 
were " undesirable citizens " and should not have been permitted to 
enter. It is an interesting comparison for the practical statesman 

14 



210 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

to note the immigration of 1854 and the immigration of 1903, as to 
nationality and numbers from each country. In 1854, there emi- 
grated to America from England, 48,901 ; from Scotland, 4,605 ; 
from Ireland, 101,606; from France, 13,317; from Germany, 
215,000, and only two from Russia and 1,363 from Italy. Whereas, 
in 1903, 26,000 came from England, 6,117 from Scotland, 35,000 
from Ireland, 5,578 from France and 40,000 from Germany, while 
in the same year Russia " dumped " upon our shores a mighty army 
of 136,093 souls, and Italy 230,622 more. In 1854, not a single 
Hungarian emigrated to America, while in 1903, Austria-Hun- 
gary " vomited " upon our fair land 206,011 human beings. Since 
1821, when the first statistics were kept, until 1900, 21,265,723 
souls passed through our gates. Of this vast host, Italy 
furnished 1,589,219, Eussia 1,242,255 and Austria-Hungary, 
1,522,955. 

THE FIRST MOVEMENT FOR IMMIGRATION LEGISLATION IN 
THE ORDER 

The first movement in the Order in behalf of restricted immi- 
gration, originated in the State Council of Pennsylvania, at its 
session held in 1870, when the following resolution was adopted : 

" Whereas, There is a disposition among certain persons in this 
country to cheapen American labor, by the importation of Chinese to 
compete with the sons of toil; therefore, be it 

" Resolved, That the State Council of Pennsylvania, Junior 
O. U. A. M., do most strenuously oppose the same, and call upon all mem- 
bers of the Order to oppose the same by all honorable means in their 
power." 

Eleven years passed ere we hear a word on the subject of 
immigration emanating from the Order; and this time again from 
the State Council of Pennsylvania at its annual session of 1881. 
The foul blow that struck down President James A. Garfield, in- 
spired the presentation of two memorials, and if adopted, to be 
submitted to Congress, one on the naturalization of those foreign- 
born and the other praying for restricted immigration laws. 
The first memorial set forth the evils and injustice of the natural- 
ization laws that gave the right of franchise to a foreigner after 
five years' residence, and petitioned the legislative body of the land, 
the first of its kind coming from the Order, to change the statute 
by requiring twenty-one years' residence as a qualification for citi- 
zenship. The second memorial set forth the evils of unrestricted 
immigration and the dangers arising therefrom in the organiza- 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 211 

tions of foreigners in opposition to republican institutions, and 
asked Congress to enact laws that would better control the immi- 
gration problem by placing some restrictions thereon. It was also 
recommended in the first memorial, that not only twenty-one years' 
residence should qualify a foreigner for citizenship, but he should 
be required to read the Constitution of the United States in the 
English language. 

The Junior Order, however, at this time was not strongly pro- 
nounced upon the immigration question, as the subject stirred up 
a bitter opposition, not so much on the two important questions out- 
lined in the memorials, but the tinge of politics that appeared in Hie 
preamble referring to the unfortunate factional differences in the 
Republican Party which it was claimed was the indirect cause of 
the shooting of President Garfield. Politics in the Republican 
Party were at " boiling heat " at this period, and overlooking the 
crowning evil that was threatening our land, the brethren finally 
defeated the adoption of the memorials by a vote of ayes 42, nays 65. 

Again, in 1883, in annual session, the State Council of Penn- 
sylvania puts its veto on a similar memorial with the above. At 
this time Nihilism, Socialism and Fenianism were rampant in this 
country threatening the peace of society, while paupers and con- 
tract laborers were being imported in large numbers. A resolu- 
tion was offered that a committee of five be appointed to draft 
a memorial to Congress bringing these evils to their attention, and 
asking for legislation to restrain alien conspiracies and to pre- 
vent this country from being made the depository for the pauper 
and criminal classes of Europe. It seems the Order had not yet 
awakened to the dangers and needs of the hour or they would not 
have defeated such a resolution. 

THE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON THE SUBJECT OF IMMIGRATION 

It was not until the session of 1887, that the National Body 
voiced its sentiments on the question of immigration. A resolu- 
tion was presented by H. J. Deily and Walter Orange that a com- 
mittee of three be appointed to draw up a memorial to Congress 
praying for the enactment of laws "prohibiting the landing of 
immigrants embodying elements detrimental to the institutions on 
the preservation of which the perpetuity of our government de- 
pends." This resolution, happily, was adopted and the National 
Councilor appointed as the committee, Deily, Orange and Dc Haven. 
In the meantime the memorial was prepared, and attached thereto 



212 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

were 30,000 signatures and the same was placed in the hands of 
the proper officers of Congress. 

Along about 1890, there was organized in the city of Phila- 
delphia, Pa., what was known as " The American Defense Associa- 
tion," and about the same time an organization was formed in 
Pittsburg, same state, known as " The Advisory Association," both 
having the same object — the restriction of immigration — and both 
organizations were manned by members of the Order. Their work, 
however, was along different channels, obtaining signatures to 
petitions and stirring up sentiment upon the great and vital ques- 
tion, and calling the attention of Congress to a consideration of 
the needs of the hour. Congressman W. A. Stone, of Pennsylvania, 
himself a Junior, afterward Governor of the Commonwealth, cham- 
pioned the cause of the Junior Order in its first efforts to check 
the evils of unrestricted immigration, and nobly did he fight for 
our cause when the question was immensely unpopular in Con- 
gress. At first the statesmen who were associated with Col. Stone 
greeted his proposition with derision; but our champion was not 
deterred from his purpose, but backed by the great patriotic army 
of Juniors, he again and again pressed his bill, overcoming opposi- 
tion and prejudice until, as Chairman of the Immigration Commit- 
tee, he was able to bring before the House a bill that met with a 
fair approval and carried the day. Of this more hereafter. 

It may be safely stated, that since 1890 the Junior O. U. A. M., 
as an organization, has been in the forefront for remedial legisla- 
tion, in both state and nation, in harmony with its principles. 
While many of the efforts put forth by the Order failed in their 
purpose, still it is proper that a resume of what the organization 
tried to do should be preserved as well as what it did accomplish 
by the means of legislation. No other patriotic organization has 
had its State or National Legislative Committees to represent the 
body in the halls of State Legislatures and Congress in the interest 
of the public school, immigration and other vital issues that have 
arisen since 1890. 

THE AMERICAN" DEFENSE ASSOCIATION 

Eeference has been made above to the American Defense Asso- 
ciation of Philadelphia. This Association was organized in 1889 
at a convention called, at which two-thirds of the Councils of 
Philadelphia were represented, and the following objects were 
adopted : 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 213 

" 1. To cause to be introduced into the National Congress a bill 
restricting and regulating immigration, and to use all honorable means 
to secure its passage. 

" 2. To use every effort to secure the passage of a bill to amend 
the naturalization laws. 

" 3. To endeavor to secure the passage of a national educational 
bill. 

" 4. To endeavor to place upon the statute books a law reserving 
lands for American citizens, and to prevent alien non-residents from 
owning real estate in the United States. 

" 5. To advocate the passage of any and all bills before Congress 
which may tend to elevate and foster the American workman and general 
American principles. 

" 6. To send a committee to Washington to take charge of the interests 
of the Association involving all of the foregoing objects." 

The President of the Association was Brother Chas. Asmus, 
of No. 190, and the Secretary, who also represented the Associa- 
tion at Washington, was Past State Councilor H. J. Deily, of No. 
12. The above objects were endorsed at the session of the National 
Council in 1890. 

The American Defense Association continued its work under 
the endorsement of the National Body, but without any financial 
support given it officially, until the establishment of the National 
Legislative Committee, to which committee was entrusted all the 
work of legislation. However, the Association as well as the 
Advisory Association of Pittsburg worked independently in the 
interest of immigration and similar issues, and in justice to them, 
these two organizations deserve much credit for sentiment aroused 
and work done. 

THE NATIONAL LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE 

In the meantime there was a growing sentiment arising in the 
National Council for a more positive stand for legislation in the 
interests of better immigration laws and the public school system, 
and that the prosecution of such measures should be under the 
supervision of the National Body rather than by auxiliary associa- 
tions in the ranks of the Order, from which there was a possible 
detriment to the executive power in the future. With this thought 
in mind, at the session of the National Council in 1891, a resolu- 
tion was offered suggesting the creation of a National Legislative 
Committee, which was referred to a special committee to report at 
the next session. That Committee at Atlantic City, N. J., in 
1892, reported in favor of such Committee, which was adopted. 
This Committee, as originally created, was composed of the Na- 
tional Councilor, National Vice-Councilor, National Secretary, and 



214 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

one member of the Board of Officers from each state and one mem- 
ber from each state where there was no State Council. The first 
three officers comprised the Cabinet Committee to whom all pros- 
pective legislation had to be presented for approval. In connec- 
tion with the National Legislative Committee, there were auxiliary 
with it, State Legislative Committees created by State Councils. 
Two Committees were established to be elected by the National 
Legislative Committee, viz. : Executive and Correspondence and 
Press Committees, the former consisting of nine members and the 
latter of five. The first named committee formulated methods to 
promulgate legislation, and at the same time all prospective legis- 
lation had to be considered by said Committee before being handed 
over to the National Legislative Committee and from them to the 
Cabinet for final approval. The Press Committee was entrusted 
with the collection of papers and distribution of literature bearing 
upon the various subjects coming up for legislation. The object 
of this Committee is summed up in its fourth section, viz. : 

" It shall be the duty of the National Legislative Committee to 
proceed at once and by every honorable means endeavor to have legislation 
enacted in the National Congress and several Legislatures, controlling, 
restricting or prohibiting immigration, and also such National and State 
Legislation as will protect and promote the public school system and pre- 
vent sectarian interference therewith, and also to use every effort to have 
such statutes on the subject that exist, or may be enacted, properly 
enforced, and also to endeavor to secure the cooperation of all other 
American organizations in our objects." 

The National Legislative Committee was as follows: 

James Cranston, National Councilor, 

H. A. Kibbe, National Vice-Councilor, 

E. S. Deemer, National Secretary, 

A. L. Cray, State Council Secretary of Indiana, 

J. S. Reynolds, State Council Secretary of Illinois, 

E. L. Price, State Councilor of Iowa, 

Charles Reimer, State Council Treasurer of Maryland, 

G. II. Thomas, Junior Past State Councilor of Michigan, 

J. L. Collins, State Councilor of Missouri, 

A. M. Moulton, State Council Secretary of New Hampshire, 

J. T. Thacker, Junior Past State Councilor of North Carolina, 

J. C. Thompson, State Councilor of Nebraska, 

C. W. Lisle, State Vice-Councilor of New York, 

J. G. A. Richter, Junior Past State Councilor of Ohio, 

H. A. Heisler, Junior Past State Councilor of Pennsylvania, 

E. G. Howard, Junior Past State Councilor of Virginia, 

G. E. Boyd, State Councilor of Washing-ton, 

E. D. Lappert, State Councilor of West Virginia, 

H. A. Kinney, State Councilor of Wisconsin. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 215 

Pursuant to a call of the National Councilor, the Committee 
met at Pittsburg, Pa., January 2, 1893, ten members being present, 
and formulated methods of procedure provided in the Legislative 
Plan. The following Executive Committee was chosen : 

Past State Councilor H. J. Deily, of Pennsylvania, Chairman; 
Tast National Councilor Harry Stites and National Kepresentative 
P. A. Shanor, of Pennsylvania ; S. C, H. A. Kinney, of Wisconsin ; 
State Councilor W. N. Stevens and Junior Past State Councilor 
G. H. Thomas, of Michigan ; Junior Past State Councilor J. G. A. 
Ptichter, of Ohio; National Eepresentative A. J. Smith, of New 
Jersey. 

The Correspondence and Press Committee selected were as 
follows: 

Past State Councilor Stephen Collins, of Pennsylvania, Chair- 
man ; Howard Van Wyck, of Wisconsin ; E. A. Sellers, of Michigan ; 
Past State Councilor T. B. Ivey, of Virginia; National Represen- 
tative G. W. McFarland, of New Jersey. 

Fully comprehending the needs of the hour and in hearty sym- 
pathy with the newly created National Legislative Committee, the 
esteemed National Councilor Brother Cranston, in his report, has 
this to say: 

" Our Order lias reached such proportions that it is in a position 
to redeem its pledges. In its published Objects and Declaration of Prin- 
ciples, it announces it has certain ends to accomplish — that it exists for 
a purpose. In achieving its aims, there must be some systematic method 
pursued, some plan that will concentrate the strength of the organization 
upon any particular movement. Desultory, spasmodic work will not be 
successful, and I believe that in the legislative plan promulgated by this 
body, the desired elements exist. 

" The plan, however, must be observed in its entirety, and local 
movements, even though blameless in themselves, have a tendency to 
disintegration, to destruction of system, that makes them injurious. It 
should be thorougly understood that all must work together, as an army 
of soldiers go to battle, moving in unison under one plan and for one 
purpose. 

" Our members must realize that the day for sentiment regarding 
our objects is past. It is not theoretical but practical patriotism that 
the times demand. Speeches in the Council room will not restrict immi- 
gration, protect our public schools or advance American interests. The 
place to display our patriotism is at the polls. Political- patriotism is 
the kind of patriotism needed in this age. The Junior Order of United 
American Mechanics is a ' standing army,' whose duty is to guard Amer- 
ican institutions, and the ballot is its weapon. All we need, is to ' shoot 
straight '." 



216 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

The work of the National Legislative Committee was started 
in earnest by exerting its influence in securing the passage of the 
Chandler Immigration Bill, March 3, 1893. Thousands of signa- 
tures, estimated at 30,000, were obtained and forwarded to Senator 
Chandler, as well as hundreds of resolutions passed by the Sub- 
ordinate Councils, praying for the enactment of the proposed bill. 
The provisions of the act passed, in brief, are as follows : 

Requiring manifests and their verification; providing boards of 
special inquiry; and compelling steamship companies to post in offices 
of their agents copies of the United States immigration laws, and to 
call the attention of purchasers of tickets to them. 

One year's experience demonstrated the truthfulness of the 
saying, " large bodies move slowly," so far as the National Legisla- 
tive Committee was concerned. The National Council at its next 
session changed the complexion of the Committee, making the num- 
ber five, and the same were appointed by the National Board of 
Officers. After some controversy in the Board, the following were 
appointed the National Legislative Committee, following the ses- 
sion of the National Council of 1893 : 

H. J. Deo-y, J. S. Reynolds, 

Robert Carson, W. A. Gordon, 

P. A. Shanor. 

H. J. Deily subsequently resigned and Boger J. Armstrong 
was appointed in his place. 

THE STONE IMMIGKATION BILL 

Hon. William A. Stone, of Pennsylvania, also a member of 
the Order, introduced in the House of Representatives in 1893, 
what was known on the calendar as " H. B. Bill 5246," which 
received the hearty endorsement of the Order and was supported by 
the National Legislative Committee. It provided for Consular 
Inspection of immigrants, and consisted of but two sections. The 
first section of the bill reads as follows: 

" That no alien immigrant shall be admitted within the United 
States unless he or she shall exhibit to the United States inspectors of 
arriving immigrants at the place of admission a certificate signed by the 
United States consul or other authorized representative of the United 
States at the place nearest where said immigrant last resided, setting 
forth that the said consul or other United States representative has made 
an investigation concerning said immigrant and that said immigrant 
does not belong to the class or classes of alien immigrants excluded from 
admission into the United States under the provisions of the Act of 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 217 

Congress approved March third, 189], entitled 'An act in amendment to 
the various acts relative to immigration and the importation of aliens 
under contract or agreement to perform labor, its amendments or supple- 
ments,' or by any other law of the United States that now exists or may 
hereafter be passed. Said immigrant shall, in addition, conform to all 
present requirements of law. 

" It shall be the duty of the United States consuls and United States 
representatives in other countries to investigate and grant or withhold 
certificates, as shall be disclosed on investigation under the directions 
and instructions of the State Department, according to the laws of the 
United States aforesaid." 

The above bill was referred to the House Committee on Im- 
migration and Naturalization, of which representative Geissen- 
hainer, of New Jersey, was Chairman. Mr. Geissenhainer being 
unalterably opposed to the passage of any immigration measure 
satisfactory to the Order, Colonel Stone succeeded in having his 
bill taken from the above named Committee and referred to the 
Committee on Judiciary. The National Legislative Committee 
took active interest in the passage of the bill, and through their 
efforts, along with the Press Committee, much sentiment was 
aroused throughout the country, more than 2,000 newspapers hav- 
ing commented favorably upon the proposed bill, and in many cases 
gave the Order full credit for the work it was doing. Thousands 
of personal letters were written to Congressmen asking their support 
of the measure, while petitions and resolutions from Subordinate 
Councils were sent by the hundreds. Congressman Stone, who 
stood like a " Stone wall " against all opposition to the bill, worked 
ardently for the measure and, as the sequel shows, with success. 
Eecognizing the services of the Junior Order in the aid given him, 
he wrote to the Committee the following letter, dated June 8, 
1894: 

" I beg the privilege of acknowledging the valuable services of the 
National Legislative Committee of the Junior Order of United American 
Mechanics in support of House Bill 5246, to restrict immigration. 

" Whether the bill ever becomes a law or not, its passage has been 
greatly facilitated by the action of your committee. 

" It was necessary to educate the public upon this subject and to 
bring the attention of the people to it. I am in receipt of almost daily 
letters from nearly every part of the United States favoring the passage 
of the bill, written by people whose attention has been called to the 
matter by the labors of your committee. 

" I have been spoken to by a large number of Congressmen who 
received letters from their constituents urging the passage of the bill, 
and who said that they intended to support it; all this was brought about 
by your committee and by the efforts of other local organizations, and 
individual efforts of the Junior Order of United American Mechanics. . . ." 



218 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

Having succeeded in taking the bill from the Committee on 
Immigration, as stated, which Committee was under the influence 
of the steamship lobb} r , Congressman Stone had it referred to the 
Judiciary Committee, which Committee reported it out immediately 
and it was placed upon the calendar. Mr. Geissenhainer kept close 
watch on the bill for the purpose of fighting it in the House on 
final passage. Col. Stone, however, was on the alert and his quick 
wit saw how the " Eubicon could be crossed," and the New Jersey- 
man was beaten by strategy. It was in this wise : 

On the day assigned to the Judiciary Committee the bill 
was placed on the House calendar, and finding it far down on the 
list, Mr. Geissenhainer went over to the Senate to watch some 
exciting proceedings going on there. As soon as he had left the 
House, Mr. Stone had the bill called up out of place; but the New 
Jerseyman had left a scout to watch for any trick that might be 
played by the Pennsylvania champion of Immigration, and a page 
was dispatched immediately after Mr. Geissenhainer. Colonel 
Stone observed the proceeding and, to cut matters short, he said 
to the small number of members present that the bill was such a 
meritorious one and that he had so much confidence it would meet 
with universal commendation, that he would dispense with the 
speech he had intended to make and ask for immediate vote. Just 
as the vote was announced by the Clerk, declaring its passage, 
the New Jerseyman came rushing into the House to find himself 
outwitted by the wily Pennsylvanian. 

In this connection it might be stated, that when Mr. Geissen- 
hainer came up for reelection same year, the National Legislative 
Committee sent a representative into his district and worked up 
sentiment against him which resulted in his remaining at home. 
Yet some say the Order is not political. 

The Stone Bill, as passed by the House, was sent over to the 
Senate where it had " rough sailing." Senator Hill, backed by the 
steamship lobby, offered a substitute, known as the " Hill Anti- 
Anarchist Bill," in order to bury the Stone Bill, and it passed 
the Senate August 6, 1894. The substitute, however, subsequently 
was withdrawn and the original Stone Bill placed on the calendar 
and action thereon was postponed until the December session. 
In the short session of the Fifty-third Congress Senator Hill, 
Chairman of the Senate Committee on Immigration, refused to call 
up the bill, and Congress adjourned without any further action 
being taken thereon. 

In the meantime Hon. W. S. Linton prepared a bill for the 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 219 

restriction of immigration, which, in the estimation of the National 
Legislative Committee, was considered a more perfect measure than 
the Stone Bill, and approved it and had it introduced to Congress. 
The National Council of 1895, however, did not approve of this 
recommendation, and reendorsed the Stone Bill, and recommended 
its reintroduction to the Fifty-fourth Congress. Colonel Stone, 
in a letter to Past State Councilor F. J. Shaler, a member of the 
National Legislative Committee, gave his views on the matter quite 
freely. He expressed confidence that the House would again pass 
the bill, but feared the Senate and the Immigration Bureau which 
were hostile to the measure. He advocated taking up no other, 
though stronger and more drastic measure, as in his opinion the 
country was not yet ready for a more complete enactment, and 
that we had best take " half a loaf " than none at all. This senti- 
ment seemed to prevail, as the. people were being slowly educated 
to the needs of the hour and it was useless to force a stronger 
measure at the time. 

THE MCCALL-CORLISS AND LODGE BILLS ON IMMIGRATION 

Following the session of the National Council of 1895, Broth- 
ers A. D. Wilkin, Stephen Collins, F. J. Shaler, W. E. Orange 
and Robert Carson were appointed as the National Legislative Com- 
mittee, which subsequently was organized by the selection of A. D. 
Wilkin as Chairman and Stephen Collins as Secretary and Cor- 
respondence and Press Committee. The Committee at once en- 
tered upon a vigorous campaign in the interest of legislation, espe- 
cially on immigration. And while they urged the passage of the 
Stone Bill, as per endorsement of the National Body, their primary 
object to secure this result, still they did not lose sight of the fact 
that what the Order wanted was some enactment to restrict immi- 
gration irrespective of what particular bill that might be passed. 
When Congress convened there were introduced into the House of 
Bepresentatives three bills to restrict immigration, viz. : One by 
Congressman Stone, a reintroduction of the one that failed at the 
last session in the Senate, one by Mr. McCall and the other by 
Mr. Corliss. Notwithstanding the fact that the Chairman of the 
House Committee on Immigration, Mr. Bartholdt, was opposed to 
any legislation on the subject, all three bills were reported favorably 
by the Committee. The Senate had but one bill introduced into 
that body, that by Senator Lodge, and the same was reported favor- 
ably by the Senate Committee on Immigration, the Lodge Bill 
being the same as the McCall Bill in the House. 



220 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

In opposition to the passage of any bill restricting immigra- 
tion, were the steamship companies and, to some extent, the German 
element. To overcome this opposition that had millions at its 
back, the National Legislative Committee sent out 50,000 blank 
petitions for use in securing signatures to be sent to Congress ; and 
it was to be a wide-spread petition, the signers not to mention the 
name of the Order or place thereto the seal of the Council, but to 
sign as citizens of the United States, irrespective of nationality, 
race, party or church affiliations. This popular movement inaugur- 
ated by the Committee resulted in tens of thousands of signatures 
being attached to the petitions that were sent to the members of the 
House and Senate. 

Another fact that made the passage of any measure on immi- 
gration very doubtful, was the attitude of Hon. Thomas B. Eeed, 
Speaker of the House, who, arrogating to himself the arbitrary 
powers of a " Czar/' refused to permit the bills being placed upon 
the House calendar. Seeing defeat by longer delay, the Legislative 
Committee sent out a special appeal for members of the Order to 
write personal letters to Speaker Reed urging him to allow action 
to be taken on the bills before the House. As a result of this 
appeal there was a spontaneous outburst of letter-writing on the 
part of the members of the Order, and Speaker Reed was literally 
overwhelmed with letters, thousands coming in a day, until he 
could stand the pressure no longer. The communications from 
the brothers of the Order began arriving in his mail-box on May 6, 
and by the 15 th, he yielded to the powerful sentiment that had 
been put in motion and announced that he would recognize the 
demand of the friends of immigration and gave them two days, 
May 19 and 20, for consideration of the bills before them. On the 
20th, the vote was taken on the McCall Bill, which seemed to have 
the preference, and it passed by 195 to 26. The McCall Bill was 
so amended, however, as to include the Corliss Bill, and the text of 
the full bill is as follows: 

" That Section 1 of the act of March 3, 1893, an amendment of 
the immigration and contract labor acts, be and hereby is amended by 
adding to the classes of aliens thereby excluded from admission to the 
United States the following: All male persons between sixteen and sixty 
years of age who cannot both read and write the English language, or 
some other language. But no parent of a person now living in, or here- 
after admitted to this country shall be excluded because of his inability 
to read and write. 

" Section 2. That the provisions of the act of March 3, 1893, to facili- 
tate the enforcement of the immigration and contract labor laws, shall 
apply to the persons mentioned in Section 1 of this act. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 221 

" Section 3. That it shall be unlawful for any alien who resides or 
retains his home in a foreign country to enter the United States for 
the purpose of engaging in any mechanical trade or manual labor within 
the borders thereof while residing or retaining his home in a foreign 
country; Provided, That the Secretary of the Treasury may permit aliens 
to come into and enter this country for the purpose of teaching new arts 
or industries, under such rules and regulations as he may provide. 

" Section 4. That it shall be unlawful for any person, partnership, 
company or corporation knowingly to employ in any mechanical trade 
or manual labor in the United States any alien who resides or retains 
his home in a foreign country ; Provided, that the provisions of this act 
shall not apply to the employment of sailors, deck hands, or other em- 
ployees of vessels of the United States, or railroad train hands, such as 
conductors, engineers, brakemen, firemen and baggagemen, whose duties 
require them to pass over the frontier to reach the termini of their roads. 

" Section 5. That it shall be unlawful for any alien to enter the 
United States except subjects of the Dominion of Canada and other 
American countries, except at the place where the United States maintain 
an immigrant inspection board. 

" Section 6. That any violation of the provisions of this act shall be 
deemed a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of not exceeding five hundred 
dollars or imprisonment for the term of not exceeding one year, or both 
such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court. That all per- 
sons convicted under Section 3 of this act shall be deported to the country 
from whence they came. 

" Section 7. That this act shall take effect three months after its 
passage." 

It might be well to state that the excluded classes noted in the 
act of 1891 were as follows: 

" All idiots and insane persons, paupers or persons likely to become 
a public charge, those suffering from a loathsome or contagious disease, 
or a person convicted of a felony or other infamous crime, all dissolute 
women, a polygamist, or a person under contract (express or implied) 
to perform labor in the United States, or any person whose ticket or 
passage is paid for by another, except by a relative; also all Chinese 
laborers." 

The Stone Bill did not add any to these excluded classes, but 
only provided for examination to be made by United States con- 
suls at port of debarkation, instead of at the place of landing, 
which, had it been made a law would have materially reduced the 
number of immigrants. The bill that was passed in the House at 
this time, if properly enforced, had the intention of debarring the 
ignorant classes, fully 75 per cent. 

The McCall-Corliss Bill, or as it was termed in the Senate, 
" Lodge-Corliss Bill," was delayed in that body by the determined 
opposition of the powerful steamship lobby, but after being cham- 
pioned by Senators Lodge and Chandler, the bill finally passed the 



222 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

Senate in the closing hours of the Fifty-fourth Congress. Thia 
was a decisive victory for the Junior Order, as it was the culmina- 
tion of nearly seven years of hard work on the part of the National 
Legislative Committee; but the triumph was short-lived, as one 
single stroke of President Cleveland's veto-pen doomed the measure 
to ultimate defeat. While the House passed the bill over his veto, 
the Senate was unable to do so, and the bill was dead. Although 
discouraged by their defeat, but not disheartened, cast down but 
not dismayed, the National Legislative Committee, through its 
energetic Secretary, Brother Collins, again prepared for battle, and 
similar bills to that which had been defeated were introduced into 
the Senate and House at the extra session of Congress, March, 
1897, in the former by Senator Henry Cabot Lodge and in the latter 
body by Judge Lorenzo Danford. 



CHAPTER XIV 
NATIONAL LEGISLATION (Continued) 

THE LODGE-DANFORD IMMIGRATION BILL 

WITH William McKinley as President, and a good working 
majority in both branches of Congress, the opening of 
the Fifty-fifth Congress brought renewed enthusiasm to the mem- 
bers of the National Legislative Committee, who at once, as referred 
to in last chapter, took steps towards reaching the goal by secur- 
ing an adequate restrictive immigration law. With such a favor- 
able sentiment in both the House and Senate, the Committee 
hoped to secure the desired legislation as framed in the Lodge- 
Danford Bill before the expiration of the extra session of Congress 
that convened immediately after the inauguration of President Mc- 
Kinley, whose approval of any reasonable bill was assured. The 
greatest obstacle, however, to an immediate action upon the Dan- 
ford Bill was the continued hostile attitude of Speaker Reed, whose 
refusal to allow the bill to come up for consideration, held it in 
check. 

Added to this was the continued opposition of the steamship 
companies, and being aware of President McKinley's attitude 
towards the Lodge-Danford Bill, brought their greatest influence 
to bear upon the House. 

The Legislative Committee, on the alert for " breakers," re- 
quested the Councils to again petition the members of Congress, 
and at the same time write Speaker Reed personal letters urging 
immediate recognition of the bill in having it come up for 
action at the earliest period possible. The request of the Com- 
mittee was responded to in the usual enthusiastic as well as 
prompt manner, and thousands of letters were sent Mr. Eeed and 
petitions signed by nearly 100,000 poured into Congress. But 
Speaker Beed remained unmoved and the special session of Con- 
gress adjourned without even the appointment of a Committee 
on Immigration and Naturalization. The bill introduced at this 
session by Senator Lodge in the Senate and Judge Danford in the 
House, known as the " Lodge-Danford Bill," is as follows, with this 
difference that the Danford Bill contained several sections more than 
the Lodge Bill, but the two first and main sections were identical : 

223 



224 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 



" Establishing Additional Regulations Concerning Immigration into the 

United States. 

" Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled, That section one of 
the act of March third, eighteen hundred and ninety-one, in amendment 
of the Immigration and Contract Labor Acts, be, and hereby is, amended 
by adding to the classes of Aliens excluded from admission into the 
United States the following: 

" All persons physically capable and over sixteen years of age who 
cannot read and write the English language, or some other language; but 
a person not so able to read and write who is over fifty years of age and 
is the parent or grandparent of a qualified immigrant over twenty-one 
years of age and capable of supporting such parent or grandparent may 
accompany such immigrant, or such a parent or grandparent, may be 
sent for and come to join the family of a child or grandchild over twenty- 
one years of age similarly qualified and capable, and a wife or minor child 
not so able to read and write may accompany or be sent for and come 
to join the husband or parent similarly qualified and capable. 

" Section 2. For the purpose of testing the ability of the immigrant 
to read and write, as required by the foregoing section, the inspection 
officers shall be furnished with copies of the Constitution of the United 
States, printed or numbered on uniform pasteboard slips, each containing not 
less than twenty nor more than twenty-five words of said Constitution, 
printed in the various languages of the immigrants in double small pica 
type. These slips shall be kept in boxes made for that purpose, and so con- 
structed as to conceal the slips from view, each box to contain slips of but 
one language, and the immigrant may designate the language in which he 
prefers the test shall be made. Each immigrant shall be required to draw 
one of said slips from the box and read, and afterwards write in full view 
of the immigration officers the words printed thereon. Each slip shall be 
returned to the box immediately after the test is finished, and the con- 
tents of the box shall be shaken up by an inspection officer before another 
drawing is made. No immigrant failing to read and write out the slip 
thus drawn by him shall be admitted, but he shall be returned to the 
country from which he came, at the expense of the steamship or railroad 
company which brought him, as now provided by law. The inspection 
officers shall keep in each box at all times a full number of said printed 
pasteboard slips, and in the case of each excluded immigrant shall keep 
a certified memorandum of the number of the slip which the said immi- 
grant failed to read or copy out in writing. If in any case, from any 
unavoidable cause, the foregoing slips are not at hand for use, the inspec- 
tion officers shall carefully and thoroughly test the ability of the immi- 
grant to read and write, using the most appropriate and available means 
at their command; and shall state fully in writing the reasons why the 
slips are lacking, and describe the substitute method adopted for testing 
the ability of the immigrant." 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 223 

THE WORK OF THE NATIONAL LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE 

1807-1898 

The work of the National Legislative Committee, through its 
Secretary, Brother Collins, during the Fifty-fifth Congress, was the 
most strenuous in its history, and the opposition to the proposed 
legislation on immigration, especially in the House, was most power- 
ful and determined. With a President whose views were in har- 
mony with legislation along the lines suggested, and having a 
Chairman of the Committee on Immigration in both Senate and 
House, Senator Fairbanks and Judge -Danford, who were entirely 
in sympathy with restrictive legislation, the foreign element in the 
country, backed by the Eoman Catholic Church and various foreign 
societies within the United States, became alarmed at the great 
strength of the American sentiment on the subject of immigra- 
tion, arrayed themselves in solid phalanx against any change in the 
immigration law, and they had a faithful ally in the steamship 
lobby backed by millions of capital. 

At the opening of Congress in December, 1897, the National 
Legislative Committee, made up of the following brothers: A. D. 
Wilkin, Stephen Collins, Roger J. Armstrong, J. G. A. Eichter and 
M. D. Lichliter, met in the City of Washington and outlined the 
plan for the forthcoming campaign. The Committee spent a most 
delightful evening with Senator Fairbanks, Chairman of the Senate 
Committee on Immigration, at which time the details of the pro- 
posed legislation were discussed and considered and suggestions 
mutually exchanged. The writer has a clear recollection of that 
meeting held in Senator Fairbanks' own home and the very cordial 
greeting extended the Committee. The Senator stated that he was 
" new " at the business and somewhat " green " on the subject, as 
this was his first experience as Chairman of the Committee to con- 
sider the subject of immigration, and requested the Committee 
to give him an outline of the purposes of the Order we represented 
and what we wanted, and how he should proceed in the matter. 
Brother Collins, who was then the best posted man on the subject, 
gave the Senator a detailed plan and the scope of the purpose of the 
bill in question, to which the distinguished Senator listened with 
closest attention. 

The Senator was then asked for an expression of his views 
on the immigration problem, when, to the surprise as well as pleas- 
ure of the Committee, he drew from the drawer of his desk a care- 
fully prepared address which he read. Tt was a most clear exposi- 
'5 



226 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

tion of the question and showed that in the interim of Congress 
he had taken great pains to gather up all the arguments and facts 
available, so as to present to the Senate a strong defense of the 
bill he had championed. 

Senator Fairbanks lost no time in bringing the Lodge-Danford 
Bill to the attention of his Committee, from which it was early 
reported with a favorable recommendation. In the meantime,, at 
his request, the National Legislative Committee, through its Secre- 
tary, sent to the Councils an appeal for signatures to petitions 
for the passage of the bill. Within ten days after the appeal was 
mailed bushel basketsful of letters and petitions came pouring in 
upon Senator Fairbanks until it took several clerks to assort and 
distribute same. On January 17, 1898, the measure came up for 
consideration, and passed by a vote of 45 to 28. 

As an evidence of the appreciation for the most excellent work 
accomplished by the Legislative Committee and the Jr. 0. II. A. M., 
Senator Fairbanks addressed the following letter to the Secretary 
of the Committee: 

" Washington, D. C, May 14, 1898. 

"Stephen Collins, Esq., Secretary National Legislative Committee, Jr. 
0. U. A. M. 

" Dear Sir — 
" I have observed with interest and appreciation the work which 
the Jr. Order United American Mechanics has rendered in connection with 
the effort to restrict immigration to the United States. This effort has 
been to prohibit the admission of those elements which do not become 
acceptable and valuable citizens, and not to interrupt the coming of those 
of intelligence and good character. 

" Permit me to say that the public work of your organization in 
connection with the passage through the Senate of the recent bill for the 
restriction of illiterate immigration has been well directed and of the 
utmost importance. 

" Very respectfully, 

" C. W. Fairbanks." 

Equally complimentary was the letter of Judge Danford, 
Chairman of the House Committee on Immigration, an extract 
of which is here given : 

"I desire to say to the Jr. 0. U. A. M., through you (Stephen Col- 
lins) that while the Immigration Bill has not yet become a law, their 
grand work has not been in vain. An organization that can with short 
notice secure and send to their representatives in Congress petitions 
signed by nearly 100,000 American citizens from 39 States of the Union 
urging legislation to protect Americans and American institutions, that 
organization must and will eventually accomplish its purpose." 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 227 

The fight, however, against the passage of the bill was con- 
centrated in the House, where the steamship companies and all 
opponents of immigration legislation brought their heaviest guns 
to bear upon the measure. The " Immigration Protective League " 
of New York City, with Bourke Cockran, as President, exerted a 
great influence against the bill, especially arraying the foreign 
newspapers in the country in opposition to its passage. Secretary 
Senner, of the above league, procured the active cooperation of all 
the Roman Catholic secret societies against the bill, and in fact 
all German and Polish Catholics as well as non-German Catholics. 
However, the petitions and number of signatures sent by the 
Junior Order far exceeded those sent by Roman Catholic Societies. 
Brother Collins, in a most painstaking manner, gave the com- 
parison in his report to the National Council. This table showed 
that 1,466 petitions from the Order came from 39 states, containing 
78,771 signatures. While from 21 states there came from the 
various societies opposed to immigration, 374 protests containing 
22,819 names. This array of the German element against the 
passage of the bill alarmed the Congressmen from those states 
where the German vote was a factor in the election, and claiming 
to be in sympathy with the bill reported out of Judge DanforcFs 
Committee, yet they were " betwixt the devil and the deep sea," 
as to vote for it meant that they would be retired to private life 
at the coming election, hence they begged the leaders to postpone 
consideration of the measure until the December session, which 
was agreed to, and it was laid over, being on the Speaker's desk 
and could be called up at any time. 

Early in the December session Judge Danford was unsuccess- 
ful in getting his bill up for consideration; however, on the 1 lib 
of same month another effort was made, but the bill failed by just 
two votes, the vote being ayes 101, nays 103. The excitement and 
vast amount of legislation incident to Ihe Spanish-American War 
had much to do with the defeat of the measure, as it precluded 
legislation along other lines. The Committee did all in their 
power, but the weight of sentiment seemed against them and all 
proposed legislation along the line of restricted immigration. 
Other important work, however, was accomplished by the Com- 
mittee which will be referred to under another head, such as advo- 
cating the passage of a satisfactory Flag Bill and defeating nil 
appropriations of public money for sectarian schools. 



228 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

THE OBSTACLES THAT CONFRONTED THE NATIONAL LEGISLATIVE 

COMMITTEE 

Never in the history of any organization, seeking remedial 
legislation, did any committee representing same have such power- 
ful obstacles to surmount and such influences and odds to fight 
against as the National Legislative Committee of the Junior 
0. U. A. M. Lone-handed, without money, for eight years this 
Committee fought bravely and well the combined forces of the 
steamship companies with their millions of invested capital, as well 
as the Eoman Catholic and other alien influences that were brought 
against every restrictive immigration measure that was proposed. 
In addition to this, very frequently the Chairman of the respective 
Senate and House Committees on Immigration were antagonistic 
to the restriction of immigration, and their hostility barred the 
consideration or reporting of any bill presented on the subject. 
And the most formidable obstacle thrown in the way of such legis- 
lation, far more powerful than all others, was the intense hostile 
attitude of the various Speakers of the House of Representatives 
towards any legislation along the line for further restricting im- 
migration. Thomas B. Eeed and David B. Henderson, both, went 
out of their way, even so far as to dethrone parliamentary courtesy 
in not recognizing the Chairman of the Committee on Immigra- 
tion, though he would rise daily and address the Chair. Judge 
Danford personally begged recognition, and the Committee of the 
National Council plead with the autocrat Reed that the Committee 
on Rules be permitted to name a day for the consideration of their 
bill, but again and again to be peremptorily refused. And when 
at last recognition was accorded the Chairman or the gentleman 
in charge of the Order's bill, the Speaker found occasion to resign 
his Chair, and pass around among the members of the House, either 
ordering men not to vote for the bill or speaking very sarcastically 
of the proposed measure, thus defeating the purposes of the friends 
of restricted immigration. And, as will be referred to in detail, 
the Committee of 1905-7 had the same difficulty to contend with 
in the hostile attitude of Mr. Cannon, present Speaker (1907) .of 
the House of Representatives. 

The writer, being a member of the National Legislative Com- 
mittee, and part of the time its Chairman, was fully conversant 
with the powerful influences that were brought to bear against 
any proposed legislation for restrictive immigration. The criti- 
cisms that were hurled at the Secretary of the Committee, Brother 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 229 

Collins, that he was not ''earning his sail" and was " living off 
the Order/' etc., were unjust, unbrotherly and un-American, for 
no man in the Order did more to educate the brotherhood and the 
people at large on the subject of Immigration than Brother Collins. 
The years he was Secretary of the Committee and Correspondence 
and Press Committee, was a veritable " school " wherein the Order, 
members of Congress and leaders of the two great political parties 
were educated along the lines of proposed restrictive immigration 
legislation. Although not as much legislation was accomplished as 
was anticipated, still, like "bread cast upon the waters/ 5 the labors 
of those long, hard years, so full of discouragement, reappeared in 
the legislation of 1903, well supported by the then National Legis- 
lative Committee. 

ERA OF INACTIVITY ON SUBJECT OF IMMIGRATION 

The period embraced within the years of 1899-1901, in a meas- 
ure, are lost years, on the subject of immigration, so far as the 
Jr. 0. U. A. M. is concerned. The National Council as usual 
appointed its Legislative Committee and some effective work was 
accomplished by them along other lines, but the immigration prob- 
lem remained unsolved. Two causes will account for this inactiv- 
ity : First, the issues that were the outgrowth of the Spanish War, 
bringing to pmblic attention great questions incident thereto. The 
Philippine and Cuban and other great issues swallowed up all old 
issues, such as the immigration question, etc., their importance 
seemingly being paramount to all others. Hence in the Fifty-sixth 
Congress, while efforts to revive the Lodge Bill or the introduction 
of a similar bill was made by the National Legislative Committee, 
the attention of the statesmen was too much occupied with what 
they thought were weightier matters, therefore held aloof from the 
living issue that entered into the very woof and web of our body 
politic. 

Another and more direct cause of this era of inactivity on the 
part of the Order and its recognized Committee on legislation, was 
its own civil strife, wherein the guns were turned upon ourselves 
in those years of internecine hostility. While we were fighting 
among ourselves and the loyalists were contending for the very life 
of the Order in the Courts of the land, ships by the hundreds loaded 
to the gunwales, landed Europe's dynamos upon our shores by the 
hundreds of thousands, to become a danger and menace to the 
Republic. 

In the very brief report of the National Legislative Commit- 



230 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

tee to the JMational Council of 1900, the statement was made thai 
through their efforts all proposed appropriations for sectarian pur- 
poses were defeated, and to the Order belonged the credit for this 
great victory. The report concludes as follows : 

" This victory of principle is of itself of very great good to our 
organization. We have established a standing in the National Congress 
which will before long result in the passage of the immigration bills we 
desire, and we believe this will not be long delayed." 

THE SHATTUC-PENROSE IMMIGRATION BILL 

The National Legislative Committee, consisting of Brothers 
Ed. V. Fitzpatrick, P. A. Shanor and L. L. Hill, without means to 
keep a representative at Washington, were energetic in pressing 
an immigration bill in 1902 and having two bills presented, one 
in the Senate by Senator Penrose, who was Chairman of the Senate 
Committee on Immigration, and one introduced in the House by 
Eepresentative Shattuc, who was Chairman of the House Commit- 
tee on Immigration. Both bills were either amendatory of that in 
force or additional thereto. The House bill passed that body 
May 27, 1902, and finally passed the Senate February 27, 1903, 
and became a law March 3, 1903. The Legislative Committee tried 
hard to have inserted in the bill an educational test clause, and the 
amendment did carry in the House by 88 to 9 when it passed that 
body, notwithstanding it was opposed by Mr. Shattuc, and in that 
amended form it was messaged to the Senate. Eepresentative Shat- 
tuc appeared before the Senate Committee and most strenuously 
opposed the amendment and asked the Senate to eliminate it or it 
might defeat the bill on final passage. The amendment was not 
considered feasible and was eliminated and, with few minor changes, 
the Senate passed the House bill as it was originally introduced. 

Immigration critics claimed that it was a good bill, one going 
so far as to say that it was " up to the present time the most far- 
reaching measure of its kind in force in any country; and the 
principles underlying it must serve as the foundation for all 
immigration restriction." 

While the new law was somewhat better than any that had been 
enacted previously, still it was not what the Junior Order wanted, 
mainly because of the elimination of the educational test. The 
enactment, in the opinion of good judges, was more of a police 
regulation of immigration than a restriction of immigration, hence 
not up to standard. The main provisions of the act were: 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 231 

First. Head tax of $2. Second. Adding to that of former act addi- 
tional excluded classes, viz.: (1)) Idiots; (2) insane persons; (3) epi- 
leptics; (4) prostitutes; (5) paupers; (G) persons likely to become 
public charges; (7) professional beggars; (8) persons anlicted with 
loathsome or contagious diseases; (9) persons who have been convicted 
of felony or other crime or misdemeanor involving oral turpitude, not 
including those convicted of purely political oiFenses; (10) polygamists; 
(11) anarchists; (12) those deported within a year from date of appli- 
cation for admission as being under offers, solicitations, promises, or 
agreements to perforin labor or service of some kind therein; (13) any 
person whose tickets or passage is paid for with the money of another, 
or who is assisted to come, unless it is shown that such person does not 
belong to one of the excluded classes ; but any person in the United States 
may send for a relative or friend without putting the burden of proof 
upon the immigrant. 

Third. Criminal offenses against Immigration Acts, viz: (1) Im- 
porting any person for immoral purposes; (2) prepaying the transporta- 
tion or encouraging the migration of aliens under any offer, solicitation, 
promise or agreement, parol, or special, expressed or implied, made pre- 
vious to the importation of aliens, to perform labor in the United States; 
(3) encouraging the migration of aliens by promises of employment 
through advertisements in foreign countries; (4) encouraging immigra- 
tion on the part of owners of vessels and transportation companies by 
any means other than communications giving the sailing of vessels and 
terms of transportation; (5) bringing in or attempting to bring in any 
alien not duly admitted by an immigrant inspector or not lawfully entitled 
to enter the United States; (6) bringing in by any person other than 
railroad lines of any person afflicted with a loathsome or dangerous con- 
tagious disease; (7) allowing an alien to land from a vessel at any other 
time and place than that designated by the immigrant officer; (8) refus- 
ing or neglecting to return rejected aliens to the port from which they 
came or to pay their maintenance while on land; (9) refusing or neglecting 
to return aliens arrested within three years after entry as. being unlaw- 
ful throughout the United States; (10) knowingly or wilfully giving false 
testimony or swearing to any false statement affecting the right of an 
alien to land is made perjury; (11) assisting any anarchist to enter the 
United States or conspiring to allow, procure or permit any such person 
to enter; (12) failing to deliver manifests. 

Fourth. Rejection of the diseased aliens. Fifth. Manifests required 
of vessel-masters, with answers to 19 questions. Sixth. Examination of 
immigrants. Seventh. Detention and return of aliens. Eighth. Bonds 
and guaranties. 

From a cursory view of the above act, it would have been a 
pretty fair piece of legislation had Congress allowed the educa- 
tional test to remain. This feature of an immigration bill had 
been all along the urgent plea of the Junior Order, having been 
framed into the bill that passed the House of Bepresentatiw's, 
May 20, 1896, by a vote of 195 to 26; the Senate, December 17, 
1896, by a vote of 52 to 10. The conference report on same bill 



232 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

passed the House February 9, 1897, by a vote of 217 to 37; the 
Senate, February 17, 1897, by a vote of 34 to 31. This was the bill 
vetoed by President Cleveland two days before retiring from the 
Presidential Chair, but the House passed the bill over the veto 
March 3, 1897, by a vote of 193 to 37. In the Fifty-fifth Congress 
an educational test bill was passed by the Senate January 17, 1898, 
by a vote of 45 to 28. The House refused to take action. 

HOUSE BILL, NO. 17,941, AND SENATE BILL, NO. 4,403, 

1906-1907 

The question of Kestrictive Immigration came before the 
National Council at Nashville, in 1905, by a suggestive report of 
the National Legislative Committee, consisting of S. M. Hunt, 
John J. Weitzel and Geo. E. Bowley, as well as an item in the pro- 
posal for a statute submitted by the Finance Committee, appro- 
priating for the next two years, the sum of $5,000 for the purpose 
of inaugurating another campaign for remedial legislation on the 
line of Naturalization and Immigration. Strong resolutions were 
adopted, enthusiastic speeches made, and the representatives re- 
turned to their homes with the belief that ere the National Council 
would assemble at Boston, in 1907, there would be upon the statute 
books of the nation a good act on the subject. 

A representative National Legislative Committee was ap- 
pointed, consisting of Brothers Z. P. Smith, of North Carolina, 
A. D. Wilkin, of Pennsylvania, and Jesse Taylor, of Ohio. The 
Committee organized at once by electing Z. P. Smith, Chairman, 
and Jesse Taylor, Secretary. They immediately began laying plans 
for an aggressive campaign, not only enlisting the Junior Order 
in the work, but all organizations that would be benefited by the 
passage of a proper restrictive act. When Congress opened in 
December, 1905, the Committee established headquarters at the 
Cochran Hotel and the Secretary assumed charge. 

House Bill, No. 15,442, requiring Uniform Naturalization, 
was acted upon quickly and became a law, which has been referred 
to in another chapter. This enactment brought about through the 
energy of the Committee, even if nothing else had been accom- 
plished, was a signal victory for the Order. 

A large number of Immigration Bills were presented at the 
opening of Congress in the House and were referred to the appro- 
priate committee. These were carefully considered in Committee 
on Naturalization and Immigration, and on April 9, 1906, Mr. 
Gardner, of Massachusetts, in behalf of the Committee, reported, 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 233 

in lieu of all the bills that had been presented, a comprehensive 
measure known as House Bill, No. 17,981, "An Act in Regulate 
the Immigration of Aliens into the United States." 

This bill as presented repealed the immigration hill enacted 
in 1903, for the purpose of presenting all immigration enactments 
since 1902, in a convenient form. Ten sections of the former 
act were reinserted in this bill without any change whatever. Two 
sections were omitted, as they did not relate to the subject of immi- 
gration. Twenty-eight sections of the old act were changed in a 
greater or less degree, while seven sections were entirely new. 

The salient features of the original bill were as follows : ( 1 ) 
A five-dollar head tax; (2) an educational test; (3) a financial 
qualification; (4) an extension of the exclusive classes; (5) pro- 
visions permitting foreign inspection and facilitating distribution. 

The first section provided an important change from the act 
of 1903 by incorporating the requirement of a five-dollar head tax 
in the place of a two-dollar head tax. 

Section 2, added to the excluded classes the following: Imbe- 
ciles, feeble-minded, consumptives, those who at any time were 
insane, and, under certain circumstances, persons of poor physique. 

Section 3, strengthened the provision regarding prostitutes. 

The most important section, however, that was incorporated 
in the original bill, and one the Junior Order has been contending 
for and was recommended by President Eoosevelt in his message, 
was Section 38, known as the " Educational Test," which, in part, 
was as follows: 

" That no alien over sixteen years of age, physically capable of 
reading, shall be admitted to the United States until he has proved to 
the satisfaction of the proper inspection officers that he can read English 
or some other tongue, and the Secretary of Commerce and Labor is 
hereby authorized and directed to prescribe from time to time such 
methods and rules as he may think best for the purpose of testing the 
ability of such immigrants to read: Provided, that an admissible alien 
over sixteen years of age, or person now or hereafter in the United States 
of like age, may bring in or send for his wife, his mother, his affianced 
wife, or his father who is over fifty- five years of age, if they are otherwise 
admissible, whether they are able to read or not." 

Section 39 provided for the exclusion of an adult alien who 
had not $25 in his possession, every female alien and every male 
alien under the age of 16 years who was not in possession of $15 : 
but it provided that if the head of the family had $50, this should 
be considered a sufficient sum to provide for the whole family, 
except grown-up sons. 



234 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

The demand for an educational test has had a strong advocate 
in President Eoosevelt, who, in his message on December 3, 1901, 
said: 

" The second object of all proper immigration laws ought to be to 
secure by a careful and not merely perfunctory educational test some 
intelligent capacity to appreciate American institutions and act sanely 
as American citizens." 

In his message on December 2, 1902, the President said : 

" I again call your attention to the need of the passage of a proper 
immigration law covering the points outlined in my message to you at 
the first session of the present Congress; substantially such a bill has 
passed the House." 

Senate Bill, No. 4,403, which passed the Senate May 23, 1906, 
and was sent to a Committee of Conferees, in addition to the part 
of Section 38 of House Bill, quoted above, added the manner and 
method by which the test shall be carried out, as follows: 

" That for the purpose of testing the ability of immigrants to read, 
the inspection officers shall be furnished with copies of the Constitution 
of the United States, printed on uniform pasteboard slips, each containing 
not less than twenty-five words of said Constitution, printed in the 
various languages of the immigrants in double small pica type. Each 
immigrant may designate the language in which he prefers the test shall 
be made, and shall be required to read the words printed on a slip in such 
language. No two immigrants listed on the same manifest shall be tested 
with the same slip. An immigrant failing to read as above provided 
shall not be admitted, but shall be returned to the country from which 
he came at the expense of the steamship or railroad company which 
brought him: Provided, that all persons, whether able to read the English 
language or some other language or not able to do so, who shall enter 
the United States except at the seaports thereof, or at such other place 
or places as the Secretary of Commerce and Labor may from time to 
time designate, shall be adjudged to have entered the country unlawfully 
and shall be deported as by law provided." 

It might be added, that the Senate, without a dissenting vote, 
passed the bill, with the Educational Test and all, notwithstanding 
Senators Nelson and Gallinger are of foreign birth. 

With a good bill already passed the Senate and with a fair 
majority in the House to enact it into a law, yet the measure was 
strongly opposed by Speaker Cannon who was determined that it 
should not become a law, especially in the form it came from the 
Senate. He openly and secretly opposed remedial legislation along 
the line of immigration and refused to allow a fair test to be made 
in the House on the question, or give it any chance whatever for 
consideration. Representative Gardner, of Massachusetts, however* 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 235 

championed the bill and insisted that i( be given a day for consider- 
ation and a vote, and failing in this the friends of the bill circulated 
a call for a Eepubliean caucus to determine vrhethei the measure 
should or should not be taken up. The Speaker fearing the power 
of the caucus agreed to take the bill up under a rule, and on June 
25, 1906, the House adopted the following: 

"Resolved, That immediately upon the adoption of this order the 
House shall resolve itself into a Committee of the Whole House on the 
State of the Union for consideration of the bill (IS. 4403), ' To amend an 
Act entitled " An Act to regulate the immigration of aliens into the 
United States," approved March 3, 1903,' and in the Committee of the 
Whole the amendment in the nature of a substitute reported by the Com- 
mittee on Immigration and Naturalization shall be read through, after 
which Section 1 of the said amendment shall be considered for not longer 
than one hour, under the five-minute rule for amendments; and at the 
end of the consideration of Section 1, Section 38 shall in the same way 
be considered for not longer than two hours, with the provision that 
amendments pending at the end of two hours shall be voted on by the 
Committee; and immediately after the vote on the said specified amend- 
ments to Section 38, the Committee of the Whole shall rise and the Chair- 
man shall report the bill and substitute amendment, whereupon a vote 
shall be taken on the substitute and bill to the final passage, without 
intervening motion or repeal. General leave is given to print, to be 
confined to a discussion of the bill, within five legislative days from 
to-day." 

As is easily perceived, the rule was adopted to kill the bill. 
It enabled members to vote against the educational test and for a 
reduction of the head tax without a roll-call, thereby not being 
placed upon record so that their constituents might not know how 
they voted on the measure. 

Under this rule no amendment could be offered to either of 
the 43 sections of the bill except Section 1, which provided for a 
five-dollar head tax, and Section 38, which provided for the edu- 
cational test. But one hour was given to debate on Section 1, at 
the end of which time a motion was made to reduce the head tax 
to two dollars passed by a vote of 94 to 79. Debate on Section 38 
was limited to two hours, at the close of which Congressman 
Grosvenor moved to strike out the educational test and substitute 
for the Section the following : 

" That a commission is hereby created consisting of two Senators 
to be appointed by the President of the Senate and three members of the 
House of Representatives to be appointed by the Speaker of the House of 
Representatives and two citizen members to be appointed by the President 
of the United States. Said commission shall make full inquiry, examina- 
tion and investigation into the subject of immigration. 



236 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

" For the purpose of said inquiry, examination and investigation, 
said committee is authorized to send for persons and papers, make all 
necessary travel and. through the chairman of the Commission or any 
member thereof, to administer oaths and to examine witnesses and papers 
respecting all matters pertaining to the subject and to employ necessary 
clerical and other assistance. Said Commission shall report to Congress 
the conclusions reached by it and make such recommendations as in 
its judgment may seem proper. 

" Such sums of money as may be necessary for the said inquiry, 
examination and investigation are hereby authorized to be paid out of 
the 'Immigration Fund' on the certificate of the chairman of said Com- 
mission, including the expenses of Commissioners and a reasonable com- 
pensation to be fixed by the President of the United States for those 
members of the Commission who are not members of Congress." 

The motion to strike out the Section and adopt the substitute, 
was declared lost by the Chairman of the Committee of the Whole, 
on a viva voce vote, whereupon Mr. Bennett, of New York, de- 
manded a count vote by standing until counted, and the result was, 
yeas 123, nays 136. Mr. Bennett then demanded tellers. 

The Speaker was outspokenly opposed to the section of the 
measure containing the Educational Test and was the first to pass 
through the tellers. Being in favor of the Grosvenor substitute 
he exerted his influence for its adoption, and very largely through 
his personal efforts on the floor of the House the substitute was 
adopted by a vote of 129 to 116, thus eliminating the Educational 
Test from the bill and reducing the head-tax to $2, the same as 
in the old act. 

Immediately following this action of the House, the Speaker 
appointed Howell, Bennett and Huppert as conferees on the part 
of the House, and when the bill, as amended, was reported to the 
Senate on the following day, Senators Dillingham, Lodge and 
McLauren were appointed conferees on the part of the Senate, 
and the conferees met and adjourned to meet at the beginning 
of the second session of the Fifty-ninth Congress, which assembled 
on December 3, 1906. 

It should be stated, in this connection, that the House adopted 
the Litauer amendment, which reads as follows: 

"Provided, further, that an immigrant who proves that he is seek- 
ing admission to this country solely to avoid prosecution or punishment 
on religious or political grounds for an offense of a political character, 
or persecution involving danger of imprisonment, or danger to life or 
limb on account of religious belief, shall not be deported because of want 
of means or tne probability of his being unable to earn a livelihood." 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 237 

When the second session of the Fifty-ninth Congress assembled 
on December 3, 1906, the subject was not taken up by the conferees 
until January 10, 1907, and again on the 21st, 23d, and 28th. On 
the latter date it was ascertained that two of the House conferees 
would neither agree to Senate Bill No. 4,403, which included the 
Educational Test, nor would they sign a disagreeing report, there- 
by preventing all legislation on Immigration at this session of 
Congress, hence killing the bill entirely. 

A conference was then held with the President by some of the 
friends of the bill, who was urged to use his persuasion with 
Speaker Cannon to withdraw his objection to the Educational Test. 
The President found the Speaker immovable in his opposition and 
two of his conferees were ready to carry out the wishes of the 
Speaker. However, on February 1, an agreement was reached that 
the Senate conferees should recede from the Educational Test 
and the House would recede from the Litauer amendment and 
strengthen the bill by some minor changes and agree to report 
same. Four sessions were held by the conferees to complete their 
report, when, on suggestion of the President, an amendment was 
made to Section 1 relative to keeping out of the country Coolie 
labor, which prevented the conferees from reporting until the 13th 
of February. When the subject was taken up in the Senate 
whether to accept the conferee's report, objection was encountered 
from some of the Senators relative to an amendment of Section 2, 
concerning contract labor. Senator Bacon occupied several hours 
in discussing this phase of the report, who was followed by others, 
until it looked as if the opposition would " talk the bill to death." 
Not only Avas there opposition to the contract labor amendment, 
but also to the so-called Japanese amendment of the President's 
to Section 1, which called forth debate. After a futile effort to 
amend the report, the same went to vote and was agreed to, Febru- 
ary 16, 1907. On Monday morning, February 18, the report of the 
conferees was taken up in the House, and after some dilatory 
motions and a short debate, the same was agreed to by a. vote of 
193 in favor to 101 against. 

The measure as it was finally passed, differs somewhat from 
the original bill referred to in another place, owing to the amend- 
ments and changes made, hence it is well to give the important 
features of the statute as it now stands (1907) : 

" Increase of $2 in the head tax, making it $4, instead of $5 ; the 
prevention of the further importation of contract labor induced or solicited 
to migrate to Ibis country by offers or promises of .employment, or in 



238 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

consequence of agreements, oral, written, or printed, expressed or implied, 
to perform labor in this country of any kind, skilled or unskilled; the 
exclusion of imbeciles, feeble-minded persons, epileptics, persons who are 
found to be and certified by the examining surgeon as being mentally or 
physically defective, such mental or physical defect being of a nature which 
may affect the ability of such alien to earn a living (which latter pro- 
vision will exclude 25 per cent, of all immigrants if the President will 
place Americans on guard at our immigration stations) ; all children 
under sixteen years of age unaccompanied by one or both parents, and 
women for prostitution or other immoral purposes ; authorizes the Presi- 
dent to exclude all persons for entrance into the United States who come 
from any insular possessions or the Canal Zone to the detriment of labor 
conditions ; provides for increased penalties on steamship companies for 
violation of immigration laws ; authorizes an annual expenditure of 
S50,000 for the enforcement of contract labor laws ; authorizes the appoint- 
ment of a commission of three Senators, three Representatives and throe 
citizens to investigate the subject of immigration and make public their 
findings and recommendations ; authorizes the President to call an inter- 
national conference or send commissioners to foreign nations to con- 
sider the subject of immigration into the United States for the purpose 
of regulating it by an international agreement, and enlarges the air-space 
to be provided for the immigrants on ship board — in some cases by 80 per 
cent. — and strengthens the immigration laws in every particular." 



CHAPTER XV 
NATIONAL LEGISLATION (Concluded) 

THE work of the National Council, through its Legislative 
Committee, was not confined in the endeavor to secure reme- 
dial legislation on the line of restricted immigration. Other great 
issues came before the Committee for consideration and other bills 
of a national character were proposed in the United States Congress 
in which the Order was interested and to which proposed legis- 
lation the Committee gave its support. Much of the legislation 
proposed in State Legislatures was done either by the direction of 
the Committee or with its approval; thus from the National Con- 
gress down even to school precincts of the states and cities, was 
felt in a greater or less degree the influence of the National Legis- 
lative Committee. 

This and the subsequent chapter will be devoted to a brief 
resume of the most important measures of legislation proposed, 
both in the National Congress (not including immigration) and 
State Legislatures, as well as other issues intimately associated 
with the work of the Order, or through its regularly constituted 
committees. 

MISCELLANEOUS NATIONAL LEGISLATION ADVOCATED 

Before the creation of the National Legislative Committee, 
the American Defense Association, referred to in another chapter, 
took considerable interest in National legislation, and some time 
along about 1890-1892, through the Secretary of the Association, 
a bill was introduced in the United States Senate by Senator Blair, 
proposing National Education to meet the wants and needs of the 
masses of unschooled children. At that time it was estimated that 
there were 6,000,000 children of school ago in the United States 
not enrolled in the schools of the land, and for whom there was no 
accommodation whatever provided in existing school structures. 
To accommodate this vast army of illiterates would have required 
120,000 schoolhouses that did not exist. 

The purpose of the bill was the appropriation of money to the 
various states on the basis of illiteracy, in order to bring the 
country up to the average level of intelligence so that there should 
be something like a homogeneous condition of education, so far 



240 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

as the common branches of knowledge were concerned, in all parts 
of our domain. 

The bill did not raise any question of the right and power of 
the nation to educate where the state and parent alike neglected 
the child. It assumed that they would properly and sufficiently 
educate the child who was to be a citizen and a sovereign in and of 
both the nation and the state, subject only to the temporary inabil- 
ity of the local community to bear the burden which must be carried 
for the common good. The principle, however, involved and prac- 
tically asserted in the bill was that whenever, from any cause, 
whether it be the fault or misfortune of the parent or the state 
wherein he resided, the child of the Republic is deprived of the 
opportunity to learn to read and write the language of his country, 
that country, with the assent of the state and through the agencies 
of the commonwealth, should give temporary aid in money to 
secure for the child a common school education, upon the condi- 
tion that the state expends for the same purpose at least an equal 
amount. 

The bill, however, did not become a law. 

TO ESTABLISH A NATIONAL UNIVERSITY 

As an educational measure, the National Legislative Com- 
mittee was in hearty sympathy with the purpose and plan of this 
proposed institution, the bill having been offered in the House of 
Representatives by Mr. Hainer in 1895. The bill provided that 
there should be established in the District of Columbia, an educa- 
tional institution under the name of the " University of America," 
in which instruction in all the higher branches of learning should 
be given and where facilities could be furnished for literary and 
scientific research and investigation. The bill provided that the 
government of the University should be vested in a Board of 
Regents consisting of twenty members, to be appointed by the 
President, with the advice and consent of the Senate, of which 
Board the President of the United States was honorary president, 
ex officio, with the Vice-President, the Chief Justice of the United 
States Supreme Court, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, 
the Commissioner of Education and the Secretary of the Smithson- 
ian Institution also as ex officio members. 

In accordance with Section 8 of the bill, " no chair for instruc- 
tion, sectarian in religion or partisan in politics, shall be permitted 
in any form, and no sectarian or partisan test shall be allowed or 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 241 

required in the appointment of professors or in the selection of 
any officer of the University." 

The bill provided that each state, territory and congressional 
district should be entitled to an equal proportionate number of 
students, at least two from each congressional district, who were 
to be selected by competitive examination. The physical require- 
ments were very rigorous, none to be admitted unless physically 
sound, of robust constitution, good moral character and standing. 
Previous to the admission of a student, the provisions of the bill 
required a very binding oath of allegiance to the United States as 
follows : 

"I , do solemnly swear that I will support the 

Constitution of the United States and bear true allegiance to the National 
Government; that I will maintain and defend the sovereignty of the 
United States paramount to any and all allegiance, sovereignty, or fealty 
I may owe to my state, county, power, or country whatsoever, and that 
T will at all times obey the legal orders of my superior officers and the 
rules and regulations governing the University of America." 

The site for the proposed University was in " University 
Square," part of the land Washington in his will had devised for 
an American University. 

The bill died in the Fifty-fourth Congress ; but at the request 
of the National Legislative Committee, it was reintroduced in the 
Fifty-fifth Congress and all efforts available were concentrated 
on the measure. But the solons at Washington were not ready 
for such an enterprise. 

AMENDMENTS TO THE NATIONAL CONSTITUTION 

Two joint resolutions proposing amendments to the Federal 
Constitution as follows, were supported by the National Legislative 
Committee with the approval of the National Council: 

Article XVI. Neither Congress nor any state shall pass any law 
respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise 
thereof, or use the property or credit of the United States or of any state, 
or any money raised by taxation, or authorize either to be used, for the 
purpose of founding, maintaining or aiding, by appropriation, payment 
for service, expenses, or otherwise, any church, religious denomination, or 
religious society, or any institution, society, or undertaking, which is 
wholly or in part, under sectarian or ecclesiastical control." 

" Article XVII. No state shall grant the right of suffrage to any 
person not a citizen of the United States." 
16 



242 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

PROTEST AGAINST CHURCH BUILDING AT WEST POINT 

On January 8, 1898, Mr. Odell, of New York, introduced into 
the House of Representatives the following bill: 

" That the Secretary of War, in his discretion, may authorize the 
erection of a building for religious worship by any denomination, sect, 
or religion on the West Point Military Reservation : Provided, That such 
building will not interfere with the uses of said reservation for military 
purposes. Said building shall be erected without any expense whatever 
to the Government of the United States, and shall be removed from the 
reservation, or its location changed by the denomination, sect, or religious 
body erecting the same whenever, in the opinion of the Secretary of War, 
public or military necessity shall require it, and without compensation 
for such building or any other expense whatever to the Government." 

The mere reading of the proposed act does not strike the 
reader as very vicious legislation, as it gave to any and every sect 
the same privilege; but reading it from a retrospective standpoint, 
the " nigger in the woodpile " is perceived. Three years previous 
to this, application had been made to Mr. Lamont, the Secretary of 
War at that time, by certain Eoman Catholic priests for permission 
to erect a stone chapel at West Point, and the permission was 
granted and work thereon was started. Protests were filed against 
the erection of the building, claiming that the chapel owned by the 
Government at the Military Academy and in which religious ser- 
vices conducted by the chaplains of the IT. S. Army was sufficient 
for all purposes, and that no building should be erected by any 
sectarian body on Government property. An examination of the 
subject showed that the Secretary of War exceeded his authority 
and the permission was, therefore, countermanded. 

As the proposed law was purely a sectarian piece of strategy 
on the part of the Roman church to secure a building on the 
Reservation, the National Legislative Committee strenuously 
opposed it on the ground of a violation of the principles of the 
United States Constitution that demanded a separation of the 
Church and State, believing that pernicious results would flow 
from such legislation. 

FLAG LEGISLATION 

Quite a number of bills from time to time have been intro- 
duced into the United States Congress, having for their purpose the 
protection of the American Flag from mutilation and desecration. 
Being too radical and defective, some of these bills were not even 
considered in the Committee and fell by the way. In 189S, House 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 243 

Bill No. 5172 was introduced, entitled "An Act to Prevent the 
Desecration of the American Flag." The bill made it unlawful 
to display on the American Flag- any words, designs or figures, 
with the exception that the national or state regiments or Grand 
Army Posts should have the right to put on the flag the name 
and number of such post or regiment. The bill also provided that 
no representation of the flag shall be attached, imprinted or repre- 
sented upon any goods, wares, or merchandise, or any advertise- 
ment of the same. No trade-mark with a representation of the 
flag was permitted by the provisions of the proposed measure, and 
no representation of the flag was allowed upon letter heads, or 
envelopes, as used by so many Councils as well as other patriotic 
societies. 

The National Legislative Committee did not approve of the 
bill in its entirety, and claimed it was not adequately and fully 
drawn, from the fact that there was in it no provision to prevent 
the actual abuse of and insult to the flag by those who maliciously 
tear it down and mutilate it. To remedy this defect, the Commit- 
tee drew up a bill of its own and the same was introduced into the 
House by Mr. Dalzell, of Pennsylvania, under the title : " To 
Protect the American Flag from Insult and Desecration," and its 
provisions were as follows : 

" That it shall be unlawful for any person or persons to wilfully 
and maliciously take down, pollute, injure, or remove, or in any manner 
insult, damage, or destroy any American flag which now or hereafter may 
be put, erected, or placed on or in any private or public building or place, 
or on any private or public highway or grounds. Any violation of this 
act shall be punishable, on conviction, in either of the circuit or district 
courts of the United States or the Supreme Court of the District of 
Columbia or the courts of the Territories, within their respective juris- 
dictions by a fine of fifty dollars for each offence, or by imprisonment not 
exceeding six months, or both at the discretion of the court." 

The bill was considered a good one by those qualified to judge, 
but D. B. Henderson, Chairman of the Judiciary Committee, whose 
opposition to purely American principles was a noted feature of 
his public life in the United States Congress, refused to act upon 
the bill and report to the House on same. 

LEGISLATION AGAINST SECTARIAN APPROPRIATIONS 

Great credit belongs to the National Legislative Committee 
for its work in defeating in the United States Congress the appro- 
priating of monies for sectarian purposes. For years Roman 
Catholic institutions had been feeding from the public crib without 



244 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

any protest. Brother Collins at once took up the fight against 
such appropriation of money contrary to an expression of Con- 
gress previously made, and, while he had a hard battle, he even- 
tually won. 

The House in 1898 fortunately had a Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Appropriations for the District of Columbia, who was 
vigorously opposed to granting public money for sectarian purposes, 
General W. W. Grout, of Vermont. In reporting his appropriation 
bill for the District of Columbia, December 13, 1898, he omitted 
from the bill three sectarian institutions that had been asking for 
and receiving appropriations hitherto. In defense of his position 
for omitting the appropriations for said institutions, General Grout 
claimed that the Commissioners of the District did not desire two 
of the three to be made, while all were omitted " for the purpose 
of keeping faith with a declaration which Congress had made here- 
tofore, that these sectarian appropriatons should be dispensed 
with." The bill provoked a bitter discussion, all the Eomanists 
and Eomanists in principle among the Congressmen contended that 
the usual appropriations should be made to the said Catholic insti- 
tutions. The bill, however, passed the House as recommended by 
General Grout. 

The bill came up in the Senate on January 7, 1899, and was 
so amended as to appropriate several thousands of dollars to five 
Eoman Catholic institutions of the District of Columbia, viz. : 
" Church Orphanage Association of St. John's Parish," " The St. 
Anne's Infant Asylum," " House of the Good Shepherd," " St. 
Eose Industrial School " and " St. Joseph's Asylum." The House, 
led by General Grout, refused to concur in these amendments and 
the bill went into a Committee of Conference. On that Committee 
from the House, besides General Grout and Mr. Dockery, was Eep- 
resentative Bingham, of Philadelphia, upon whom great pressure 
was brought by the friends of Catholicism to vote in favor of re- 
taining the amendment. Brother Collins was on the alert, never 
asleep when the enemy was around, and at once asked the Councils 
of Philadelphia to petition General Bingham to stand firm for the 
sentiment of his constituency. The Councils promptly responded 
to the appeal and thousands of petitions and letters poured in upon 
Mr. Bingham until he was astounded at the spontaneous outburst 
of sentiment coming from his home city, and it is just to state 
that General Bingham, if he had any intention of voting in con- 
ference in favor of the amendment, saw " the handwriting on the 
wall " and voted to reject same. The bill was reported from the 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 245 

Committee of Conference to the House with the sectarian amend- 
ment stricken out and it came up for final passage. The writer 
sat in the gallery with the Secretary of the Committee and listened 
to the animated debate on the bill. David B. Henderson, the 
champion of the Roman Catholic Church, made a very bitter speech 
and complimented the Junior Order of United American Mechanics 
for their part in defeating the sectarian amendment, by denouncing 
" a secret society that works in the dark/' and blamed the defeat 
of the amendment on them. While the enemies of the organiza- 
tion blamed the National Legislative Committee, and the Order 
back of them, the friends of non-sectarian legislation gave to the 
Committee and Order the unqualified credit for the great victory 
obtained in the face of most powerful influences and opposition. 
As the writer was Chairman of the Legislative Committee, it is 
just to say in this connection, that to Brother Stephen Collins 
belongs all the credit for what work was done in the name of the 
Committee, as he was on the field and did not leave it until the gavel 
of the Speaker of the House of Bepresentatives announced the 
ending of another Congress. 

HISTORY OF INDIAN SCHOOL APPROPRIATIONS 

The same sentiment that had been awakened in opposition to 
appropriating money to sectarian institutions was also felt in the 
Indian Appropriations, which for years had gone to a very large 
extent into the coffers of Borne. The National Legislative Commit- 
tee also attacked this pernicious system and exposed the nefarious 
methods of the Catholic Church in securing public money for sec- 
tarian purposes, and the result was, Congress also awakened to the 
despicable business and forthwith changed the whole procedure 
of Indian Appropriations. For this work, members of Congress 
gave unstinted praise to the National Legislative Committee and 
the Order it represented. 

A little history of this " sectarian steal " will emphasize the 
good accomplished by our Committee on National Legislation. It 
is not the purpose of the writer to denounce the Roman Catholic 
Church as a system of religious belief, for the Constitution of the 
United States gives to every man the right to worship God accord- 
ing to the dictates of his own conscience; but to challenge the 
actions of the Roman Catholic political machine al Washington 
masquerading under the pretense of a church. 

The question of the education and Christianizathm of the 
American Indian, or what was left of the race, presented itself to 



246 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

the American statesmen along about 1877, in which year Congress 
appropriated $20,000 for their education. The appropriation was 
increased from year to year until in 1886 the amount appropriated 
was $600,000, and in 1889 it reached the enormous sum of $1,300,- 
000, and four years later $2,300,000 was appropriated by Congress. 
This vast sum of money was too much of a temptation to the 
Roman Catholic Church which at once sought to lay hands upon it 
and keep it under sectarian control. To this end, the Roman 
Catholic political machine established in the City of Washington 
a " Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions," as an organization to 
influence legislation and manipulate this great sum of money and 
turn it from the treasury into the coffers of Rome for Indian 
Sectarian Schools. The establishment of this " Bureau " was a 
well-thought out scheme, thoroughly organized and equipped with 
officers and clerks. During the term of President Cleveland, first 
term, from 1885 to 1889, the Roman church secured the appoint- 
ment of the Superintendent of Education, as well as the chief clerk, 
who had all the management of the details of Indian education in 
the office of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, both of whom 
were the tools of this Roman Catholic Political Bureau. This 
same " machine " secured the appointment of as many Indian 
agents as possible who were devotees of the Roman church. They 
secured Catholic teachers for these schools who, faithful to their 
early instruction, introduced into these government schools the 
Roman Catholic catechism and made that the basis of their instruc- 
tion to the untutored savage of the plains, making the schools as 
completely parochial schools as though they had been paid out of 
the church funds of the parent church for the propagation of 
Romanism. Then, like the fable of the Arab, the camel and the 
tent, having got the head inside, the same political machine pushed 
the whole body into the public crib, horns, cloven feet and all, and 
established their own schools among the Indians and secured appro- 
priations from Congress for their maintenance. In 1886 they 
secured $118,000 for this purpose, the next year $194,000, then 
$221,000, and when General Thomas J. Morgan, that gallant patriot 
who opposed the principle of taking public money for sectarian 
purposes, took hold of the Indian Affairs as Commissioner, the 
appropriation to Catholic schools alone amounted to $347,000. 
Unsatisfied with that, when General Morgan was appointed, the 
Roman Bureau asked for $400,000 and intimated that they would 
ask more largely as the years rolled on. In brief, from 1886 to 
1893, the Roman Catholic Church obtained from the public treas- 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 247 

ury, two million three hundred and sixty-six dollars for the support 
of their own Indian institutions. 

It should be stated in this connection, however, that Protestant 
denominations, with the exception of the Baptists, for the most 
part were receiving at the same time money from the government 
for the same purpose, amounting in seven years to $3,767,000. 
But to the credit of these Protestant denominations, when the 
sentiment was awakened in opposition to such sectarian use of 
the public money, every one of them refused any further appro- 
priation; but not so the Roman Catholic Church. When General 
Morgan protested against such use of the government money, the 
Roman Catholics began to upbraid him and took every means to 
thwart his plans in adopting and carrying out a new policy concern- 
ing the Indian schools. They even went so far as to lay the matter 
before President Harrison and asked him to remove the Indian 
Commissioner who would defy the behests of the Roman hierachy. 
After the Committee of Catholic prelates had made their statement, 
the President made the following brave reply: "Gentlemen, the 
reasons you state for the withdrawal of the Indian Commissioner 
are chiefly the reasons that prompted me to send in his name." 
Defeated in that line of attack, they pursued another course by 
attempting to destroy General Morgan's reputation, charging him 
with falsehood, tried to blacken his military record, and demanded, 
through the press of the country, his dismissal. They followed 
him to Congress to prevent his confirmation, he having acted for 
some time in the interim of Congress, and buttoned-holed members 
of the Senate, but they were again doomed to ignominious defeat. 

Following up the brave stand made by General Morgan, the 
National Legislative Committee took up the fight and pressed 
the battle to the very gates ; and as stated above, they won a decisive 
victory and forever put an end to sectarian appropriations of public 
money to the Indian schools. The Committee, in their argument, 
kept before the members of the Congress the one great, all-powerful 
principle written upon the pages of history, that the union of 
Church and State was hurtful alike to both; that the Republic 
had, in its infancy, entered upon a career of experiment in advance 
of human governments ; that the state without a king, the Church 
without a bishop by authority of the state, was one of the great 
characteristics of our civilization and one of the marks of the 
American Republic. And to the credit of the American statesmen, 
they heeded the appeal of our Committee and set a bar to further 
encroachments by the Roman Catholic political machine. 



CHAPTER XVI 
2. STATE LEGISLATION 

THE Jr. 0. U. A. M., as an organization, in several of the 
states, has been active in its support of helpful legislation in 
harmony with the Objects and Principles of the Order. Indirectly, 
the National Council has had a part, at least, in the proposed legis- 
lation in the several commonwealths, as all measures drafted or 
suggested for such legislation had to be approved by the National 
Legislative Committee, which Committee was always available and 
ready to assist State Committees when requested. In brief we will 
refer to certain measures proposed for State Legislation, giving 
fuller details to those acts that were national in their influence and 
of which legislation the Order is justly proud. 

WISCONSIN 

Bennett Compulsory Educational Law 

While antedating the active cooperation of the Order in legis- 
lation and prior to the creation of the National Legislative Com- 
mittee, the " Bennett Law," enacted in 1889, in the State of Wis- 
consin, and termed a compulsory educational act, had the " moral 
support " at least, of the organization, and was among the first 
measures of its kind to be adopted. The main provisions of the bill 
were as follows : 

" Section 1. Every parent or other person having under his control 
a child between the ages of seven and fourteen years shall annually 
cause such child to attend some public or private day school in the city, 
town or district in which he resides for a period not less than twelve 
weeks in each year, which number of weeks shall be fixed prior to the 
first day of September in each year by the board of education, etc. . . . 
provided that such boards shall not fix such compulsory period at more 
than twenty-four weeks. 

" Section 5. No school shall be regarded as a school, under this 
act, unless there shall be taught therein, as a part of the elementary edu- 
cation of children, reading, writing, arithmetic and United States history, 
in the English language." 

The principle as incorporated in the provisions of the Bennett 
law was right. It contained the germ of truth to which the 
majority of American people subscribe. Education was made one 
of the corner-stones of the Eepublic by its founders and time only 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 249 

has shown the wisdom of their actions. The law indicated no 
prejudice against any foreign language or opposition to it being 
taught, but simply asked and demanded thai a part of the educa- 
tion in the schools be in the English language. 

The enactment of this legislation aroused bitter antagonism in 
the state, especially among the German population, both Protestant 
and Catholic, and it became the issue in the election of said state, 
in which election the law was rescinded. 

The campaign which resulted in the defeat of the Bennett 
Law was one of vituperation and misrepresentation, in which the 
press of the entire country, especially that under the influence of 
the German and Catholic churches, took a prominent part. One 
paper called the enactment of the law as " coercion through the 
brutal power of the state exercised by the time-serving and ignorant 
politician and enforced by the clubs of a political constabulary." 

The real objection to the law was the requirement that the 
elementary branches should be taught in the English language. 
The German Catholic and Lutheran churches in Wisconsin are 
very strong and each support a large number of parochial schools. 
At that time the German language was almost exclusively taught in 
those schools, and, as a consequence, thousands of young men and 
women were growing up who did not know a single word of English. 
To such an extent was this exclusion of the English language 
carried that, as Governor Hoard, of that state said, court business 
in several of the counties could proceed only with the aid of an 
interpreter. The purpose of the Bennett Law was to correct this, 
not by proscribing German but by demanding enough teaching of 
English to enable every one to understand the language of the 
country in which he resided. 

It also was an erroneous statement, used as a campaign " fake,*' 
that the Bennett Law was a blow at the parochial school. It said 
nothing against parochial or private schools whatever, and only 
provided that at least for twelve weeks the English language shall 
be taught, and if this requirement was met by such schools, well 
and good, if not, then for three months at least the children must 
attend the public schools where the facility for such education could 
be secured. The law did not prevent said parochial or private 
schools from teaching what they pleased; they could teach Persian 
or Chinese if they chose, but for twelve weeks they must see that 
their children have instruction in the English language, and then 
for the rest of the year they could send them to whatever school they 



250 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

wished and teach them anything they wanted. Hence the incon- 
sistency of the opposition to the Bennett Law. 

The racial question predominated largely in the campaign, 
and there was aroused an intense race hatred. This feeling was 
greatly accelerated by the German press. Note the following 
from the Germania, the organ of the German Lutheran Church of 
Milwaukee: 

" But the victory in the election of April, is also a most wonder- 
ful victory of Germandom over narrow-hearted nativism. And . that 
Germandom went into this fight tolerably well united may be partly 
ascribed to the attacks made for several months past by the English 
(Democrat) press of our city (Milwaukee) against it. These attacks 
brought into line the large majority of Germans, rank and file." 

It was truly unfortunate that national prejudices were appealed 
to, that a distinctive German element was fostered and that Ameri- 
can laws were resisted on the ground of nationalism. Such an atti- 
tude by the Germans of Wisconsin was contrary to the spirit of 
republicanism, as well as a direct antagonism with the essence of 
the Constitution and of all the liberal institutions founded thereon. 
In short, it was an insidious, left-handed attack upon our system 
of public schools. 

On the day of the election that resulted in the defeat of said 
law, it is stated that the German clergy, both Protestant and 
Catholic, joined their forces. Catholic priests were busy the whole 
day getting their members to the polls. Some precincts, wholly 
Catholic, voted their entire strength against the bill. The Capu- 
chin Monks, 250 in number, marched in a body to the polls led by 
their father confessor. It was the first battle in defense of the 
English language and of compulsory education and aroused a strong 
sentiment in the Order all over the country, which resulted in the 
Order taking higher ground on the public school question that 
eventually brought about such excellent legislation, especially in 
Pennsylvania. 

Illinois and Iowa had compulsory educational laws framed 
after the Bennett Law, with the exception, that in Illinois, the term 
was at least sixteen iveeJcs for English teaching, and that geography 
be included. The same animosity was stirred in both states by the 
same German element as manifested in Wisconsin. 

COLORADO 

The Junior Order in Colorado along about 1895 to 1897 was 
quite active in its efforts to secure legislation in harmony with the 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 251 

teachings of the organization, and presented several drafts of bills 
to the National Legislative Committee for their approval. Some 
of the measures proposed, if 1 am not at fault in recollection, were 
enacted into law: but be that true or not, the point we desire to 
bring out is the intention that the members of the Order had in 
bringing before the General Assemblies such proposed legislation 
with which this patriotic society was in sympathy. As in the 
National Congress, many of these efforts put forth by State Legis- 
lative Committees failed, yet they were the means of bringing to 
the attention of the people at large the fact of what the organization 
was here for and the kind of work it was doing. 

The following bills, given only by title in this connection, 
were presented to the Legislature of Colorado: 

1. " An Act to Prescribe an Educational Qualification for Voters." 

The main provision of this bill was an additional qualification 
to that already prescribed by law, that the voter " shall be able to 
write his name and read, in the English language, any section of 
the Constitution of the United States, or of the State of Colorado." 

2. " To provide that School Trustees and Boards of Education in 
every school district of this state shall furnish free text-books and all 
necessary supplies to all scholars attending the public schools." 

3. " An Act providing for purchase and display of United States 
Hags in connection with the public schools." 

4. " An Act to prescribe qualifications of electors in elections for 
school directors held in any city in the state of over one hundred thou- 
sand inhabitants, or any city in this state operating under special charter, 
and to provide penalties for violation thereof." 

0. " An Act to prevent employment of any person not a citizen of 
the Unted States by any state, county, municipal officer or school director, 
state, county, or municipal body, board, city council or committee thereof, 
etc." 

NEW JERSEY 

Not to be behind Pennsylvania in the line of patriotic legisla- 
tion, New Jersey, through the State Council Legislative Commit- 
tee, in 1894, did more in a practical way in a few months time 
than was ever accomplished in any state in the same length of time. 
The National Councilor in his report to the National Council of 
that year refers to this legislation, and gave much of the credit to 
the energetic labors of Brother Charles L. Walters, a member of 
the General Assembly from Monmouth county. The three bills 
presented and which became laws, were as follows : 

1. To provide for the total proceeds of Riparian sales, grants and 
leases to go into the school fund which at the time amounted to $4,000,000. 



252 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

A former legislature had diverted a portion of the proceeds into other 
channels. 

2. A free text-book bill. 

3. To make it compulsory on school boards to provide flags and 
staffs for the public schools. 

In 1897, the following bill was introduced into the New Jersey 
Legislature, the same having been approved by the National Legis- 
lative Committee and the National Board of Officers: 

" That no person or persons shall hereafter be licensed to sell strong 
or spirituous liquors, wine, ale, or beer in any building for which a 
license does not exist at the time of the passage of this act which shall 
be on the same street or avenue and within two hundred feet of a building 
occujded exclusively as a church, charitable institution, or a public school- 
house. 

" The measurements shall be taken between the nearest points of 
the buildings used for such church, charitable institution, or public school- 
house, and the place for which an application for a license has been 
made."' 

An act was passed in the New Jersey Legislature in 1894, 
" To Encourage and Promote Patriotism/' which was amended 
by a bill, offered in the Legislature in 1898, at the request of the 
State Council Legislative Committee, approved by the National 
Legislative Committee, and was as follows : 

" In all the public schools of the State of New Jersey the last school 
day preceding the following holidays, viz : Decoration or Memorial Day. 
Fourth of July, and Thanksgiving Day, shall be devoted to the develop- 
ment and promotion of a higher spirit of patriotism by the observing of 
proper and appropriate exercises; also, that on the Friday preceding 
Washington's Birthday similar exercises shall be held celebrating Wash- 
ington's and Lincoln's Birthday. - ' 

There was also introduced in the same Legislature a bill for 
" An Act to Begulate the employment of Labor in State Municipal 
Corporations, or otherwise engaged in Public Works." 

OHIO 

The State Council Legislative Committee of Ohio, composed 
of Geo. Donaldson, Dr. S. 0. Giffin and John H. Arnold, was 
active in pushing to successful consummation in the Ohio Legis- 
lature, legislation in harmony with the principles of our Order. 
In the face of much opposition from the enemies of the Order 
and of American institutions, the following enactments were se- 
cured, given here only by title: 

1. "To Prevent the display of foreign flags on Public Buildings." 
Not a vote was cast against this measure in either the Senate or House. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 25S 

2. "To Provide for the Inspection of all Private Hospitals, Reforma- 
tory Homes, Homes of Detention, Private Asylums, and all Correctional 
or Reformatory Institutions in the State of Ohio." This bill passed in 
the Senate by 21 to 5 and in the House by a vote of 62 to 7. 

3. " To Provide for the Placing of the Flag upon all Schoolhouses." 

The Senate vote on this bill stood 19 in favor and none 
against; in the House the vote stood ayes 83, nays 3. 

In 1902, a bill was introduced into the Legislature known as 
" The Ohio Penitentiary Chaplain Bill," providing, along with 
other employees, "a Roman Catholic Chaplain approved by tin- 
Bishop of the Diocese of Columbus at a salary of $50 per month." 
The Legislative Committee protested and the proposed act was 
defeated. 

KENTUCKY 

In 1903, Bev. Thomas Hackett, a Roman Catholic priest, filed 
an injunction against the school trustees of the Brookville graded 
school district asking that they and the teachers of said school be 
restrained from the use of the English translation of the Bible 
known as " King James " or " Authorized Edition," and from 
opening the school with prayers and songs alleged to be denomi- 
national, therefore sectarian and in violation of the Constitution. 
The case was fought by the Junior Order and was heard before 
Judge James F. Harbeson, who, on December 3, 1903, rendered his 
decision dismissing the petition, and in said opinion said that 
the Bible was the foundation of all Christian Government, and that 
it was not sectarian. 

The case was carried to the Court of Appeals by the Catholic 
priest, which tribunal handed down its opinion, affirming the lower 
Court, as per the following review of the case: 

"The question presented on appeals were: First, does the offering 
of prayer upon opening of a public school make it a sectarian school 
within the meaning of Section 189 of the Constitution, and, second, is 
the Bible above-mentioned a sectarian book within the meaning of Section 
4368. Kentucky Statutes? The children of tlie appellant were members 
of the Roman Catholic Church. 

" The Court says that the Brookville school is in no sense a sectarian 
or denominational school; that Section 180 of the Constitution was aimed, 
not to regulate the curriculum of the common schools of the state, but 
to prevent the appropriation of public money to aid schools maintained 
by any church or sect of religionists ; that the evidence here shows that 
in the Brookville school worship of God is not compulsory, and children 
of appellant were not required to attend during the exercises complained 
of, nor to participate in them. 

"The Court, in part, says: 'The Constitutional Convention in fram- 
ing tin' organic law for all the people of the state musl be presumed to 



254 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

have used ordinary words, not according to the peculiar views of the few, 
but as generally used. The word " sectarian," from the connection which 
it is used, cannot be given the construction contended for by appellant, 
which seems to be that any form of prayer not authorized by a particular 
church is sectarian.' 

"The Court says that neither the ' King James ' edition, nor any 
edition of the Bible, is sectarian. That the adoption of any particular 
edition by one or more denominations as authentic, or by them asserted 
to be inspired, cannot make it a sectarian book." 

DELAWARE 

During the year of 1894, the Board of Officers of Delaware 
prepared and had introduced in the Legislature of the state the 
following bill, given here by title, which became a law : 

" An Act Providng for the purchasing and display of United 
States flags in connection with the public school buildings of the 
State." 

In 1895 a Compulsory Education measure was endorsed and 
introduced into the Legislature. 

By endorsement of the State Council, the Legislative Commit- 
tee presented to the Constitution Committee of the State of Dela- 
ware the following petition to be brought before the Constitutional 
Convention to convene the same year: 

" First. That in forming our new Constitution, it shall expressly 
declare and prohibit any moneys of this state or any of its counties 
being appropriated for sectarian purposes. 

" Second. That all public schools shall be opened by the reading 
of a portion from the Bible daily. 

" Third. That it shall be the imposed duty of all schools in this 
state, to see that the American flag, the Stars and Stripes, floats over 
every school." 

INDIANA 

In 1897 a bill for Compulsory Education was introduced into 
the Indiana Legislature through the efforts of the Order, which 
provided that all children between the ages of 8 and 15 shall attend 
the public schools for seven months of the year. 

In 1903 two bills were introduced through the efforts of the 
State Council Legislative Committee, viz. : 

1. Placing the American flag upon Public School Buildings. 

2. A Free Text-book Measure. 

Both bills were unfavorably reported by the Committee of the 
Legislature. 

In 1905, a Free Text-book Bill was again introduced by request 
of the Order, but, as with former bills, it died in the Committee. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 255 

MARYLAND 

In the year 1896, the State Council Legislative Committee 
of Maryland were active in pressing certain legislation before tho 
State Legislature, the principal proposed measures being as follows : 

1. To make it compulsory on the part of the School Commissioners 
of any school in the state to float from every schoolhouse the American 
ilag on public holidays and every day when school is in session ;it the 
expense of the state. 

2. To require the study of Civil Government in our Public Schools. 

3. That all children attending Public Schools be supplied with Text- 
books free. 

4. To require that School Commissioners be elected by popular vote, 
and to adopt such necessary legislation as will protect the Public Schools 
and teachers from political or sectarian influences. 

5. To permit the display only of the American flag upon the Public 
Buildings. 

All the above proposed measures failed of passage, with the 
exception of Nos. 3 and 4. 

During the State Council fiscal year of 1896-1897 the Legis- 
lative Committee gave attention to the schools where the flag was 
in a dilapidated condition and required that same be replaced with 
new ones; they also looked after those schools where the teachers 
failed to read the Bible in the schools. 

As an evidence of sincerity on the part of the Legislative 
Committee and the insincerity on the part of a few of the members 
of the legislative body who were members of the Order, the follow- 
ing incident occurred during the sitting of the Legislature of 1906: 

A bill was introduced asking for an appropriation of $50,000 
to be taken from the " Burnt District Funds " for the purpose of 
erecting a new building for St. Mary's Industrial School. The pro- 
posed legislation, purely sectarian, was opposed by the Order, 
through the Legislative Committee, but it passed by a bare consti- 
tutional majority, and became a law. Five members of the Order 
voted for the bill, thereby making it possible for the above named 
sum to go into the hands of the Eoman Catholic Church. 



CHAPTER XVII 

3. SPECIAL NOTE ON PENNSYLVANIA 
LEGISLATION 

THE " Keystone " state, the birthplace of the Order, along prac- 
tical lines of work, especially in legislation, deserves more than 
a passing notice, as it was in this state that legislation was enacted, 
which exerted an influence far beyond its boundary lines — prac- 
tically affecting the entire Union as well as the Order in every 
state, because great principles were involved in connection with the 
public school system of the Commonwealth. 

In 1894 the attention of the Order was called to the fact that 
in various parts of the state the Eoman Catholic Church was inter- 
jecting religious teaching into the public schools peculiar to their 
belief, and that " nuns " in the garb of the church were employed 
as teachers therein. How long this sectarian interference would 
have continued without protest is hard to tell; but a circumstance 
occurred that aroused the Jr. 0. U. A. M. and precipitated imme- 
diate action that resulted in great and final good to the public 
schools of the state and settled, as far as the Commonwealth was 
concerned, a great question concerning Eome's attitude towards 
our system of education. 

THE RIVERSIDE SCHOOL CASE 

Early in the year of 1894, the school directors of the Thirty- 
fourth ward, Pittsburg, Pa., entered into an arrangement with the 
priest of the Roman Catholic Church of same ward (who also was 
head of the parochial school) to transfer all of the children of the 
local parochial school into the public school building, which seemed 
to have some vacant rooms ; at the same time there were transferred 
five nuns of the Roman Catholic Church as teachers. These nuns 
were to remain until the close of the month when it was the under- 
standing that the local board of directors was to petition the Central 
Board of Education for more teachers to meet the increased number 
of scholars, when, if the request was granted, the " nuns " were to 
be employed at the expense of the school fund. The local Council 
of the Order, Welcome Council, No. 134, with such wide-awake 
patriots as Brothers C. F, Heselbarth, Geo. B. Nesbitt and Arthur 
256 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 257 

M. Fording at its head, would not stand for such high-handed pro- 
ceedings upon the part of the local school board, some of whom were 
Protestants, and called the attention of the then State Councilor, 
W. T. Kerr, who at once sought legal advice and went into the 
courts and asked that the nuns be enjoined from teaching while 
attired in the garb peculiar to their religious order, or while other- 
wise engaged in religious work. The request for an injunction 
aroused a bitter protest upon the part of the press that was in sym- 
pathy with Eoman Catholicism. 

Before a temporary injunction could be secured, the fight was 
carried before the Central Board of Education and the subject was 
so warmly agitated that that body fully endorsed the views of the 
Order in not permitting the nuns to teach, clothed in the garb of 
their church. 

Finding an aroused sentiment in the community against such 
a procedure, the priest gathered his flock together and with the 
nuns and all removed back to the parochial school building and 
continued in their old way. This was the beginning of a crusade 
against sectarianism in the public schools of the state and the 
State Councilor proceeded to "beard the lion" in his den in other 
sections of the Commonwealth and began, proceedings that ulti- 
mately defeated the machinations of Borne so far as the schools 
were concerned. 

THE GALLITZIN SCHOOL CASE 

The Gallitzin School Case was somewhat similar to the Kiver- 
side Case. The Board of School Directors of the town of Gallitzin, 
Cambria county, employed itinerant nuns from the Eoman Catholic 
Church, not residents of the town, as public school teachers, these 
" sisters " wearing at the same time the garb peculiar to the order 
of St. Joseph. They were charged with teaching the Roman Catho- 
lic catechism during and after school hours and instructing the 
children, Catholic as well as Protestant, to call them " sister " and 
the local priest, who was a constant visitor at the school, to be 
addressed as "father."- The members of the local Council of the 
Junior Order protested against having their children brought boldly 
under such sectarian teaching, and through State Councilor Kerr 
a temporary injunction was obtained which was followed by a five- 
day hearing in the county court to make the injunction permanent. 
As this case was such a prominent one and had in it a great prin- 
ciple involved, affecting the Order at large, some space will be given 
it that the members of the Order of the present day may have some 
idea of the vast import in the issue at stake. 
17 



258 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

The case at issue was heard before Judge Barker in the Cam- 
bria county court, beginning on May 3, 1894, the solicitors for 
plaintiffs being T. H. Baird Patterson, A. D. Wilkin and H. W. 
Storey, a preliminary injunction having been obtained on April 28. 
The Bill of Complaint consisted of 13 counts alleging that the 
appellees, the School Board of Gallitzin Borough, had employed six 
" sisters " of the Order of St. Joseph, connected with the Boman 
Catholic Church, to teach in the public schools of the said borough, 
and that they had been employed and payment made for services 
by their " church names " instead of their worldly names (in the 
case of the latter four were unknown) ; "that said teachers are all 
sectarian or religious sisters of the Order of the Sisterhood of 
St. Joseph, of said Church, and have taken vows whereby they have 
renounced the world and have given up worldly names and worldly 
interests, etc." 

It was averred that said teachers while in the perform a rice of 
their duties in the schoolroom wore the garb peculiar to their Order 
in the Roman Catholic Church, " which was an emblem, mark or 
insignia of the said Order and Church, consisting of such black 
dresses, white caps, white coronets, crucifixes, rosaries and waist 
cords, with tassels, as are peculiar with said religious Order." 

It was also averred that the said teacher's had announced cer- 
tain rules to the children requiring them to address said teachers 
as " sister " and call them by their religious names, and that by 
similar rules the local priest was encouraged to visit the school and 
hear recitations, look at the work of the pupils, individually, which 
said priest was to be addressed by the children as " father," the 
school rising on his entrance or retiring from the schoolroom, and 
when retiring to thank him for his visit, requesting him to come 
again. It was further averred in Bill of Complaint that the said 
teachers taught the catechism of the Roman Catholic Church before, 
during and after school hours, thereby unlawfully using the public 
school building for religious purposes. 

It was still further averred that owing to a distinctive rule of 
the Order of Sisterhood of St. Joseph, that said sisters were dis- 
qualified from teaching males over 14 years of age, hence the male 
children of said age and over were placed under a male teacher and 
by so doing the boys were improperly graded and classified. And 
by rules of same sisterhood certain branches of itudy, such as 
hygiene and physiology, could not be taught by said sisters, being 
disqualified by religious obligations, hence the children of said 
school were deprived of the advantages of said studies as required 
by the laws of the state. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 259 

In view of those averments, the plaintiffs declared that the 

employment of sectarian teachers was illegal, it being a transfor- 
mation of the public schools into sectarian schools, and the main- 
tenance and support of private sectarian schools out of the public 
school funds, which they claimed was in derogation of the rights 
of children, parents and taxpayers of the district, and in violation 
of the rights of conscience, and that the wearing of the garb and 
insignia peculiar to their religious creed had, in itself, irrespective 
of catechetical instruction, a tendency to teach sectarianism. 

The case was stubbornly contested by the appellees, five days 
being required for the hearing. Many witnesses were examined, 
quite a number of them being pupils of the school, and, as is natural 
in a case of this kind, there were evasions and much hear-say evi- 
dence. But it was sufficiently proven, in fact there was no denial, 
that the six teachers were " sisters " of the Sisterhood of St. Joseph 
and wore the garb peculiar to their Order. It was also proven 
that there was lack of grading or classification in the schools and 
that the children were asked to address their teachers as "sister." 
" it being more polite." The catechism was studied by some during 
school hours, but the recitations therein occurred before and after 
school hours and only Catholic children were asked to remain. 
While it was not shown that the "sisters" used any persuasion 
over Protestant children, still the testimony brought out the fact 
that they w r ere very considerate of them and less strict in discipline 
over them, in order to get their good graces and insiduously win 
their love and affection and thus, Rome-like, draw them toward 
the Catholic Church. It was also shown that the salary received 
by the nuns was turned over to the Eoman Catholic Church in 
accordance with the vows of poverty taken by them, which reads as 
follows : 

" The vow of poverty disqualifies them from having a right to any- 
thing, and, consequently, they cannot under any pretext whatever, give 
away or receive anything, without the permission of the Mother Superior. 
. . . To banish all ideas of property the Sisters of St. Joseph should 
not make use of the word mine when speaking of the things they use. 
Thus, instead of saying my dress, my room, my book, they should always 
say our book, our room, and our dress, and so of the rest." 

THE DECISION OF THE COURT AGAINST THE JR. O. U. A. M. 

Supplemented by an exhaustive opinion, Judge Barker decided 
in favor of the School Directors and the six nuns, therefore denying 
a perpetual injunction restraining the " sisters " from teach- 
ing in the aforenamed schools. 



260 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

After reviewing the case and carefully weighing the evidence, 
Judge Barker issued the following decree: 

"And now, August 20, 1894, this case having been previously heard 
and fully considered, it is ordered and decreed as follows: That the pre- 
liminary injunction heretofore granted be dissolved in so far as the same 
restrain the school district of Gallitzin borough, the School Directors of 
said district and their successors from employing the other defendants 
(the nuns) named in the bill, as teachers of said public schools under the 
certificates issued by the County Superintendent in their religious names, 
and permitting them to remain as such wearing the garb of the Order of 
the Sisterhood of St. Joseph, and in so far as it restrains the said teachers 
from acting in the capacity of teachers while wearing the garb of said 
Order. 

" And it is also dissolved in so far as it restrains the said teachers 
from permitting the pupils to address them by the title of ' sister ' or a 
visiting priest as ' father.' 

"And the said preliminary injunction is made perpetual in so far 
as it restrains the defendants from permitting the use of the catechisms of 
the Roman Catholic Church as books of instruction in said public school 
building at any time, whether during school hours or otherwise, and from 
using the said catechisms for said purposes therein, and from giving or 
permitting any religious sectarian instructions therein at any time, and 
from using or permitting the use of the public school property for any 
other than free common school education." 

The opinion of Judge Barker being quite lengthy, will not be 
noted here, only so far as to show the main ground on which the 
Judge based his reasons for denying the request for the injunction. 
In the absence of statutory enactments bearing especially on this 
point, the principal question was, Whether the School Directors 
violated the purpose of the Constitution in employing the nuns, 
and whether the " sisters " in the garb peculiar to their Order was 
in violation of the same constitutional enactment. The language 
of the Constitution bearing upon this question, which was pre- 
sented to the Court by the attorneys for the plaintiffs as the main 
point of their contention, reads as follows : 

"No money raised for the support of the public schools of the Com- 
monwealth shall be appropriated to or used for the support of any sectarian 
school." 

The question at issue, therefore, was one of judicial construc- 
tion of that language; whether or not it warranted the restraining 
order prayed for. Judge Barker, however, saw no violation of this 
principle of the Constitution in the employment of the nuns, bas- 
ing his opinion on the fact that it was not sufficiently proven that 
any religious instruction was given during school hours nor was 
there anything to show that there had been any religious exercises 
conducted during same time. On this and the main point he says : 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 26 1 

"We conclude as to this branch of the case, that in the absence of 
proof that religious sectarian instruction was imparted by them (the 
nuns) during school hours, or religious sectarian exercises engaged in, 
we cannot restrain by injunction members of the Order of Sisters of St. 
Joseph from teaching in the public school in the garb of their Order, aor 
the School Directors from employing or permitting them to act in that 
capacity." 

However, one point the Junior Order gained, and that was that 
the nuns were enjoined from using the school building either before 
or after school hours or at any time in imparting Catholic religious 
instruction to children of Catholic parents with or without the 
request of said parents, this being in the opinion of the Court as 
using school property for sectarian purposes. 

The prosecution of this case up to this point cost the Order 
$2,039. OG, the Councils having contributed, as per appeal of the 
State Board of Officers, $2,251.33. The case was at once appealed 
to the Supreme Court of the state, and ably argued, but the major- 
ity of that body affirmed the decision of the lower court, Justice 
Dean writing the opinion, the main portions of which are given 
below. Excerpts from Justice Williams, who dissented, which, in 
our opinion, appears more consistent with the real issue, are also 
given. 

DECISION OF SUPREME COURT — CASE OF NUNS TEACHING 
IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

As stated above, Justice Dean wrote the majority opinion on 
the appeal from the decision of Judge Barker in the above famous 
case that had such a far-reaching effect upon the Order and the 
public school system in the entire Union. Quoting the opinion 
of the lower court as above cited, the higher court adds the 
following : 

"This legal conclusion (Judge Barker's) is reached after a very 
able and impartial opinion in which the facts are reviewed, and the law 
on the case fully cited. The opinion is so convincing, that it seems to us, 
it must compel the assent of an unprejudiced mind, whether of layman or 
lawyer. In thus expressing our full accord with the learned President 
Judge of the court below, we intimate no opinion as to the wisdom or 
unwisdom of the action of the School Board in selecting Catholic teachers, 
members of an exclusively religious Order. In this matter was involved, 
solely, the exercise of discretion by the Board in the performance of an 
official duty, for which they alone are responsible; this discretion when it 
does not transgress the law, is not reviewable by this or any other court. 
When a teacher of good moral character applies for a school, and presents 
a certificate of qualification as to scholarship and aptness to teach, that 
is an end of official inquiry into the action of the Board in appointment, 
because the law makes no further inquisition up to this point." 






262 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

In the assignment of errors of the lower court before the 
higher tribunal, the attorneys for the Order made the following 
strong claim which the higher court misconstrued and therefore 
lost track of the real issue. 

" The Court erred in finding that the employment of the Sisters of 
St. Joseph as teachers in the public schools and their acting as such, while 
wearing the distinctive sectarian garb, crucifixes and rosaries of their 
Order and sect, could not be enjoined." 

Erroneously assuming that any effort had been made to exclude 
these teachers on account of their religion, and that the Junior 
Order claimed that their religious belief disqualified them as teach- 
ers, the learned judge of the higher tribunal, in reference to the 
above assignment of error, says : 

" Unquestionably these women were Catholics, strict adherents of 
that faith, believing fully in its distinctive creed and doctrines, but this 
does not disqualify them. Our Constitution negatives any assertion of 
incapacity or ineligibility to office because of religious belief. Article 1 
of the Bill of Rights declares, 'All men have a natural and indefeasible 
right to worship God according to the dictates of their conscience. . . . 
No human authority can in any case whatever control or interfere with the 
rights of conscience.' 

" If by law, any man or woman can be excluded from public office or 
employment because he or she is a Catholic, that is a palpable violation of 
the spirit of the Constitution; for there can be, in a democracy, no higher 
penalty imposed upon one holding to particular religious belief, than 
perpetual exclusion from the station because of it. Men may disqualify 
themselves by crime, but the state no longer disqualifies because of religious 
belief. We cannot now, even if we wanted to, in view of our law, both 
fundamental and statutory, go back a century or two to a darker age, 
and establish a religious test as a qualification for office. In this case the 
school board committed no unlawful act in selecting these Catholic women 
as teachers, because, by moral character and certified attainments, they 
were qualified, and their religion did not disqualify. The board may have 
found that because of their previous training and discipline they were 
specially qualified as teachers, just as Protestant school boards sometimes 
think the graduates of particular schools or colleges make the best teachers; 
but there is no proof that they were appointed because they were Catholics, 
in preference to others as well or better qualified, but not members of 
that church." 

The main question in this whole controversy, from which the 
courts seem to get away, and a question upon which a clear con- 
struction of law was asked, in its relation to the Constitution, was 
the question of the garb worn by these sisters while engaged in 
their public school work. That this peculiar apparel or insignia 
worn by these nuns was sectarian teaching, was the contention of 
the Order, but both lower and higher courts placed a different con- 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 263 

structi on upon the fact, with the exception of Justice Williams. 
The Court continues : 

" But it is further argued that if the appointment of these Cat hoi it- 
teachers was lawful, they ought to be enjoined from appearing in the 
school room in the habit of their Order. It may be conceded that the dress 
and crucifix impart at once knowledge to the pupil of their religious belief 
and society membership of the wearer. But is this, in any reasonable sense 
of the word sectarian teaching, which the law prohibits? The religious 
belief of many teachers all over the Commonwealth is indicated by their 
apparel. Quakers or Friends, Amish, Dunkards and other sects wear gar- 
ments which at once disclose their membership in a religious sect. . . . 
The dress is but the announcement of the fact that the wearer holds a 
particular religious belief. 

" Are the courts to decide that the cut of a man's coat, or the color 
of a woman's gown, is sectarian teaching, because they indicate sectarian 
belief? If so then they can be called to go further. The religion of the 
teacher being known, a pure and unselfish life, exhibiting itself in tender- 
ness to the young, and helpfulness for the suffering, necessarily tends to 
promote the religion of the man or woman who lives it. . . . There- 
fore, irreproachable conduct, to that degree, is sectarian teaching. But 
shall the education of the children of the Commonwealth be entrusted 
only to those men and women who are destitute of any religious belief?" 

Referring to the times past when it was frequently the case 
that ministers were selected for school teachers, and that they wore 
a distinctive clerical garb in the presence of Catholic children ; that 
when the office of County Superintendent was first created in 1854, 
in many counties preachers were selected for that office, and at the 
time of the writing of the opinion, the Superintendent of Public 
Instruction of the state was a Protestant preacher, the Court 
concludes : 

" In the 60 years of existence of our school system, this is the first 
time this Court has been asked to decide, as a matter of law, that it is 
sectarian teaching for a devout woman to appear in a schoolroom in a 
neat dress peculiar to a religious organization of a Church. We decline 
to do so; the law does not so say." 

THE MINORITY OPINION OF JUDGE WILLIAMS 

Basing our judgment, not from prejudice, but from a higher 
standard of what we conceive the meaning of the Constitution to 
be, we unhesitatingly accept the opinion of Judge Williams in plac- 
ing a clearer construction on the law than that of the majority of 
the Court. After assenting to the proposition that teachers should 
be selected for their fitness rather than their church affiliations, 
the learned jurist says: 



264 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

" The Constitution and laws of this state provide for open, free 
schools for all children of the proper age, that shall be secular in character, 
schools in which the conscience of the sectarian bias of both parents and 
children, shall be respected or at best not interfered with. Their purpose 
is to provide an elementary education that shall help fit the rising gen- 
eration for actual business and duties and privileges of citizenship. Is 
the public school in the borough of Gallitzin so conducted? 

" It is a school with eight apartments and has a separate teacher 
for each. The eight teachers are members of the same church or sect. 
This is unusual, but not unlawful. Six of the teachers are nuns of the 
Sisterhood of St. Joseph. They have renounced the world, their own 
domestic relations, and their family names. They have also renounced 
their property, their right to their own earnings, and the direction of 
their own lives, and bound themselves by stern vows to the work of their 
ecclesiastical superiors. They have ceased to be civilians and secular 
persons. They have become ecclesiastical persons, known by religious 
names, and devoted to religious work. 

" Among the methods by which their separation from the world is 
emphasized and their renunciation of self and subjection to the church is 
proclaimed, is the adoption of a distinctly religious dress. This is strik- 
ingly unlike the dress of their sex, whether Catholic or Protestant. Its 
use at all times and in all places is obligatory. They are forbidden to 
modify it. Wherever they go this garb proclaims their church, their Order 
and their separation from the secular world as plainly as a herald could 
do, if they were constantly attended by such a person. 

" The question presented on this state of facts is whether a school 
that is filled with religious or ecclesiastical persons as teachers, who come 
to the discharge of their daily duties wearing their ecclesiastical robes 
and hung about with the rosaries and other devises peculiar to their church 
and Order, is not necessarily dominated by sectarian influences and 
obnoxious to the spirit of the constitutional provisions and the school 
laws. 

" This is not a question about taste or fashion in dress, nor about 
color or cut of a teacher's clothing. If it were only this I would favor 
largest liberty. It is deeper and broader than this. It is a question over 
the true intent and spirit of our common school system as decided in the 
provisions referred to. If this is a proper administration of the school 
laws in Gallitzin, it would be equally so in every other school district of 
the state; and if every common school was presided over by ecclesiastics, 
in their distinctive ecclesiastical robes, supplying pupils with copies of 
their church catechism on application, and teaching it before and after 
school hours to all who choose to reman for that purpose, it seems to me 
very plain that the common schools tuould cease to be such and would 
become to all practical purposes parochial schools of the church whose 
ecclesiastics presided over them. Clergymen sometimes wear on the streets 
a coat or hat that affords some evidence of their profession, but they do 
not appear in churchly robes, when about their daily work, or in any 
garb that points out the church to which they belong or the creed to which 
they adhere. 

" But these six teachers in Gallitzin do just that. They wear and 
must wear, at all times, a prescribed, unchangeable ecclesiastical dress, 
which was plainly intended to proclaim their non-secular and religious 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 265 

character, their particular church and Order, and their separation from 

the world. They came into the schools not as common teachers or civilians, 
but as representatives of a particular Order in a particular church, whose 
lives have been dedicated to religious work under the direction of that 
church. Now, the point of the objection is not that their religion disquali- 
fies them. It does not. It is not that holding an ecclesiastical position 
or office disqualifies— for it does not. It is the introduction into the 
schools as teachers of persons who are by their striking and distinctive 
ecclesiastical robes necessarily and constantly asserting their membership 
in a particular church and religious Order within that church, and the 
subjection of their lives to the direction and control of its offices. . . . 

" The common schools cannot be used to exalt any given church or 
sect or to belittle or override it; but they should be, like our political 
institutions, free from ecclesiastical control and from sectarian tendencies. 
Is the public school at Gallitzin such an one? The Protestant children 
of that borough do not think so. Their parents do not think so, as appears 
most plainly in this litigation. The Directors evidently do not think so, 
for they repulsed the mothers, who came to them to beg that their children 
might be put in a department not presided over by one of these ecclesias- 
tical persons. The learned judge of the court below did not think so, foi 
he enjoined against the teaching of the catechism and all other sectarian 
instruction, but he left the ecclesiastics in charge. . . . They direct 
the studies and the deportment of the children under their charge as 
ecclesiastical persons. They cannot or will not attend teachers' institutes. 
They have no touch with those engaged in the same pursuits about 
them; they do not attend public examinations; but examined in the seclu- 
sion of the ' Mother House ' of their Order, after being selected by the 
' Sister Superior,' in compliance xoith the written request of the directors, 
they come to their work as a religious duty, and their wages pass, under 
the operations of their vows, into the treasury of the Order. 

" If a school so conducted is not dominated by sectarian influences, 
and under sectarian control, it is not easy to see how it could be." 

We have quoted largely from Justice Williams' opinion, and 
have italicised those portions that seem to be clearly consistent 
with the construction the Order placed upon the law. However, 
the State Board of Officers, through the State Legislative Com- 
mittee, with the approval of the National Legislative Committee, 
drew up a bill, known as " The Smith Eeligious Garb Bill " and 
had it presented at the next session of the Legislature. 

THE SMITH RELIGIOUS GARB BILL 

"AN ACT 

" To prevent the wearing in the public schools of this Commonwealth by 
any of the teachers thereof of any dress, insignia, marks or emblems 
indicating the fact that such teacher is an adherent or member of 
any religious order, sect or denomination, and imposing a fine upon 
the board of directors of any public school permitting the same. 



266 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

" Whereas, It is important that all appearances of sectarianism 

should be avoided in the administration of the public schools of this 

Commonwealth, 

" Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in General Assembly met, and 
it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, That no teacher in any 
public school of this Commonwealth shall wear in said school or whilst 
in the performance of his or her duty as such teacher any dress, mark, 
emblem or insignia indicating the fact that such teacher is a member or 
adherent of any religious order, sect or denomination. 

" Section 2. That in case of violation of the provisions of the first 
section of this act by any teacher employed in any of the public schools 
of this Commonwealth, notice of which having been previously given to the 
school board, employing such teacher, that it shall be the duty of such 
school board to permanently suspend such teacher for employment in such 
school, for the term of one year, and in case of a second offense by the 
same teacher, it shall be the duty of said school board to permanently 
disqualify such teacher from teaching in said school, and any public school 
director failing to comply with the provisions of this act, shall be guilty 
of a misdemeanor, and shall be punishable upon conviction of the first 
offense by a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars, and in case of a second 
conviction of the violation of the provisions of this act, the offending 
school director shall be punished by a fine not exceeding one hundred 
dollars, and shall be deprived of his or her office as a public school 
director. A person thus twice convicted shall not be eligible to appoint- 
ment or election as a director of any public school in this state within 
a period of five years from the date of his or her second conviction." 

The above bill was drafted by direction of the Junior Order 
and introduced into the House of Eepresentatives of Pennsylvania 
early in the session of 1895, by Hon. Eobert Smith, and after taking 
its course, there being several hearings before the Committee, where 
the bill was antagonized by its opponents ; and while some of the 
Eepresentatives were somewhat " shaky " on the subject, being 
placed between two fires, Catholic and anti-Catholic, being polit- 
ically opposed to the bill, the Junior Order made it clear to the 
hesitating Representatives that their constituency would call them 
to account for failure to perforin their duty, so when the bill 
came up for final vote, it carried by a sweeping majority, the vote 
being 151 to 26. It also passed the Senate by a good majority. 

The opponents of the measure followed the bill into the Execu- 
tive Department and used every persuasion to have Governor Hast- 
ings veto same. There was some fear that he could not withstand 
the pressure and the members of the Order awaited his decision with 
great interest. A public hearing, however, was arranged before 
his Excellency on June 2, 1895, at which time representatives of the 
Order and those in opposition presented the merits and demerits of 
the bill. At this hearing the Governor's official family were present, 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 26? 

some of whom it was known were not favorable to the proposed 
law. Among those present, friendly to the bill, was our genial, big- 
hearted friend and fellow-patriot, Brother Dr. W. H. Painter, of 
Harrisburg, Pa. 

Unfortunately, the legal representatives of the Order repre- 
senting the Board of Officers, who were present to speak in favor of 
the bill, failed to make a very favorable impression upon Governor 
Hastings and his cabinet, hence after the labored, and in a sense 
sarcastic speech of the legal gentleman on the opposition, the fate 
of the measure hung in a balance. At this juncture the Governor 
called upon Dr. Painter for anything he might want to add in 
defense of the bill. Brother Painter has always been an enthusiastic 
Junior, red-hot in defense of the fundamental principles of the 
Order and every time when an emergency comes he stands flat- 
footed and four-square on every question, even to the sacrifice of his 
business and practice. The Doctor did not take any urging, but 
" on the spur of the moment " he took up the great question at issue 
and, as has been remarked by those who were present, made the 
speech of the occasion. The writer some time after had occasion 
to call upon Governor Hastings, and in the course of the conversa- 
tion, the Governor brought up the question of the " Garb Bill " 
which he had signed, and remarked that nothing in his administra- 
tion had given him more satisfaction, upon which he would look 
with more pride, than his part in making the bill a law. He further 
stated that Dr. Painter's address in favor of the measure, more than 
anything else brought to him the conviction that the bill was meri- 
torious and should become an enactment on the statute books of 
the Commonwealth. In view of what the Governor expressed, we 
requested Brother Painter to write out as much as he could recall 
of that address, of which a synopsis might be given in this con- 
nection. He very kindly consented and we have, below, a portion 
of the speech delivered on the occasion. He was interrupted by 
those present, but the Doctor was ready to meet every question 
raised : 

DR. PAINTER'S ADDRESS 

"Most Excellent Governor and Gentlemen: When I came 1 had no 
idea of making any remarks on this subject, but was asked to accompany 
these gentlemen of the Order and show by my presence my attitude towards 
this issue before you; nor have I any authority to speak for the organiza- 
tion these gentlemen represent. But what I will say will be said as a 
humble citizen of this grand old State, a man of a family, with a wife and 
two little girls, and as a member of the Junior Order of United American 
Mechanics. 



268 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

" General Reeder, .Secretary of the Commonwealth : Your organiza- 
tion upholds the reading of the Bible in the public schools, does it not? 

" Dr. Painter : Yes sir. 

" General Reeder : Don't you think that teaches sectarianism ? 

"Dr. Painter: No, sir. I am surprised that a man, holding the 
position you now do, should ask of me, a humble citizen, a question of this 
kind. It is the comments upon the Bible which teaches sectarianism. 

" General Reeder : There are some people who do not believe in the 
New Testament, for instance, the Jews who send their children to the 
public school. Now do you think it wise, just and proper for a teacher 
to read continuously from the New Testament when there are Jewish 
children in the schools? 

"Dr. Painter: I do not think it would be wise, just and proper to 
do so, but to read occasionally from the New Testament. 

"General Reeder: On the other hand there are portions of the 
Bible which are not fit to be read in the hearing of children. Do you 
think it would be wise and proper for a teacher to read these passages 
in open school ? 

"Dr. Painter: No sir, 1 do not; but I would like to ask General 
Reeder a question. 

" General Reeder : All right. 

"Dr. Painter: How long would a teacher in your district teach 
school if he or she would read those passages you allude to in open school. 
Would you not consider them unfit to teach, and would you not have 
them removed? On the other hand, do you have those passages obliterated 
from your family Bible lying on the center table in your parlor? You 
have read those passages, and I have read them and the Governor has 
read them. Are we any the worse for reading them? 

" General Reeder : I don't know. 

"Assistant State Librarian, Mr. O'Reiley: Doctor, does not your 
Order believe and is it not your own personal opinion, that there are no 
patriotic Catholics? 

" Dr. Painter : No sir. A thought of that kind never entered my 
mind. There have been patriotic Catholics, and those who may doubt 
the statement should look up the record of the " Irish Brigade " at Gettys- 
burg; and there are patriotic Catholics to-day who have expressed to me 
the desire to see this Garb Bill become a law. But my dear sir, where 
it tests the patriotism of Catholics is where a custom like this confronts 
us, where apparently there is a conflict between Church and State when 
they will show that they are either good Catholics and good patriots or 
poor Catholics and poor patriots." 

At this point Dr. Painter protested against being further inter- 
rupted until he was through with his argument, and the Governor 
told him to proceed. 

" I need only to call your attention, in a casual way, as to why 
this bill was framed and is now before you. Early in the year 1894, in 
the Thirty-fourth ward of Pittsburg, a parochial school was moved into 
one of the public buildings in a body and nuns were elected as teachers 
in said school, which was brought to the attention of the Junior Order 
of United American Mechanics, whereupon legal proceedings were insti- 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 269 

tuted to restrain the Directors from so using the building and paying for 
sectarian purposes the sisters of the Catholic Church dressed in their 
garb peculiar to their distinctive Order. The local priest, however, would 
not stand a court proceeding, therefore removed his children back to the 
parochial school building. The attention of the State Councilor was then 
called to the situation at Gallitzin where the nuns, in their garb peculiar 
to the Order of Sisterhood of St. Joseph, were teachers in the public schools 
and the Catholic priest was a frequent visitor. When the priest came 
into the schoolroom the children were told to rise and say ' Good morning, 
father,' and on retiring to say ' Good day, father ; come again,' while the 
nuns asked that they be addressed as ' sister.' The officers of our Order 
proceeded in a legal way in the county court for a perpetual injunction 
restraining the nuns in their garb from teaching in the schools ; but owing 
to the absence of adequate legislation, the lower court refused the injunc- 
tion, whereupon the case was appealed to the Supreme Court, but the 
majority of that tribunal affirmed the court below. Following the sug- 
gestions of our legal advisors, a bill of a general character bearing on 
the subject was framed and was passed by the Legislature, which bill is 
now before you. 

" The Jr. 0. U. A. M. is an organization composed of those who have 
been born in America, and are banded together for the promotion of the 
cause of Virtue, Liberty and Patriotism. Mr. Seiffert, in his argument 
against this bill, has termed the Jr. O. U. A. M. and like patriotic organi- 
zations, ' brayers of patriotism ' so far as the majority of them at this 
day are concerned. I admit, in a sense, that we are ' brayers of patriotism,' 
a. 1 ? we have had no opportunity to show our zeal for our country in a 
practical way, since the majority of us were too young during the time 
of the Civil War to go to the front and no opportunity has since presented 
itself. But in defense of our Order, I would remark that when the Rebel- 
lion broke out there were but a few Councils in existence, but true to their 
pledge, almost to a man the members enlisted and virtually broke up the 
Councils, many of them suspending meetings until after the war when 
those who returned opened up business at the old stand. To-day we 
stand second in the state in numbers of any fraternal organization, the 
I. 0. O. F. standing first. Mr. Seiffert has said that if the country needed 
their services, the Junior Mechanics, being ' w r eighed in a balance ' would 
be ' found wanting.' I want to say right here and now, that you will 
never write ' mene, mene, tekel, uphaksin,' ' weighed in the balance and 
found wanting.' I have never had any military experience, but I believe 
that I might be able to face the cannon's mouth without fear should my 
country be in danger. 

" But in addition to our 'braying,' Mr. Governor, we are workers. 
Notwithstanding the ' braying ' of the gentleman from Lancaster during 
the session of the Legislature against this bill, it passed both branches 
with a phenomenal majority, and he is here to-day before you. And what 
will his 'braying' amount to? Just as much, 1 predict, as that animal 
amounts to that is noted for its braying: and as for you, Mr. Seiffert, I 
promise you at the next election the opportunity to stay at home by the 
largest majority any man in Lancaster county ever had against him. 
Mr. Seiffert says that he represents a constituency of 50,000 voters, which 
is an over-estimate, and well he knows it. I represent a constituency of 
500,000 voters. The phenomenal majority you received, Mr. Governor, a 



270 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

majority never reached by any Governor that preceded you and greater, 
possibly, than any shall receive in the future, unless the millennium 
comes, when all will be of one mind, was due to your patriotic declara- 
tions in York and Allegheny counties, when you raised a miniature school- 
house with a flag on top of it in one hand and the open Bible in the other, 
and raising them above your head, you exclaimed: 'Fellow-citizens of 
York County, fellow-citizens of Allegheny County, this is where I stand 
on the school question.' The result was the 250,000 majority you received. 
The Jr. O. U. A. M. and similar patriotic societies as well as all broad- 
minded men voted for you. And should this measure not become a law, 
these thousands of voters will rise up in unity and protest against tliis 
wrong that is being perpetrated upon a free people, and then employ all 
fair means to prevent sectarianism entering our public schools. 

" I claim, Mr. Governor, that a Catholic, Jew or Gentile, Methodist, 
Presbyterian or Lutheran, should have equal privileges. All are equal 
under our Constitution which is broad enough for us all, therefore I claim 
that a Protestant living in a strong Catholic community like Gallitzin, 
should have all the rights and privileges that a Catholic enjoys and the 
same should hold good in that community as in this state where a Methodist 
school-teacher insisted on holding revival services and having his pupils 
tell their experiences, which was restrained by legal proceedings insti- 
tuted by this Order. We claim that the situation at Gallitzin was equally 
wrong. 

" Now, Mr. Governor, and honorable gentlemen, if this Garb Bill 
becomes a law the nuns will not be allowed to teach school in their garb, 
but the Mennonites, Dunkards, Amish and Quakers will go on as before, 
notwithstanding Mr. Seiffert claims that this bill will restrain these people 
from teaching in the public school. There is a difference between a garb 
and a custom. You can recognize Mrs. Brown, Mennonite, from Mrs. 
Smith, Mennonite, as far as you can see them, but you can not recognize 
Sister Agnes from Sister Maria. There is just as much difference between 
a custom and a garb as there is in your way of wearing a necktie from 
other men — that is your style and this is mine. 

" As an organization, the Jr. O. U. A. M. is founded upon the Consti- 
tution that guarantees to every man the right to worship God according 
to the dictates of his own conscience, and wherever this principle is vio- 
lated against whatever sect or denomination, this patriotic Order will 
defend such sect or denomination and assist them in the exercise of their 
unalienable rights and privileges. 

" In conclusion, Mr. Governor, in behalf of this bill, I would say 
that it is general in character and was framed by one of the most learned 
constitutional lawyers in the country. It has been scrutinized by members 
of the House and Senate, and is now before you for your signature and 
I feel confident that you will exercise that wisdom which has characterized 
your administration in the past, ever looking to the greatest good to the 
greatest number so long as it is right." 

The anxiety arising from the threatened veto of the bill by 
Governor Hastings, led Past National Eepresentative 0. S. Weiss, 
the Nestor of Wilkes-Barre, a wide-awake Junior and a true-bin c 
patriot, to seek the aid of Colonel Ashcr Miner, of same city, Gen- 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 271 

cral Inspector of "Rifle Practice in the National Guard. Colonel 
Miner very readily agreed to exert his influence with the Governor 
and telegraphed the Executive to hold the bill until he could have 
a conference with him. The Colonel had the conference with the 
Governor, going to Harrisburg especially for the purpose, and the 
same day or day after the bill was signed. While no one knows 
how much Colonel Miner, not a Junior, had to do with the final 
decision of Governor Hastings, the Order very much appreciated 
the kindness of the Colonel for his willingness to assist in bringing 
about the desired statute. 

After a full consideration of the measure, Governor Hastings 
attached his signature to the bill June 27, 1895, whereupon that 
which had been so persistently fought for by the Order, became a 
law and ever since has been looked upon with a sense of patriotic 
pride by the fraternity. 

farr's compulsory education bill 

This important legislative enactment by the Pennsylvania 
Legislature at its session of 1895 and approved by the Governor, 
May 16, 1895, had for its title: 

" To provide for the attendance of children in the schools of this 
Commonwealth and making an enumeration of children for that purpose, 
also providing compensation for the assessors making the enumeration 
and providing penalties for violation of this act." 

The requirements of the act made it mandatory upon parents 
and others having children under their charge between the ages 
of 6 and 13 years to send them to school in which the common 
English branches were taught at least 16 weeks of the year, unless 
excused by satisfactory evidence that the child was mentally or 
physically incapacitated. The provision did not include children 
whose residence from the school was over two miles. For neglect 
to abide by the provisions of the bill, the penalty affixed was a fine 
of $2 for first offense and $5 for every subsequent offense. 

The third section of the bill, if found necessary, provided for 
" attendance officers " sometimes called " truant officers " whose 
duty was to see that the law was not violated and to apprehend 
truants and place them in their respective schools. The fourth 
section required the assessors in the spring registration to make a 
list of all the children between the ages of 6 and 13 years, giving 
their names, age and residence, etc. 

Similar bills had passed the legislature in 1891 and 1893, but 
in quite lengthy opinions, Governor Pattison refused to affix his 



272 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

signature to same. Governor Hastings at the time of the signing 
of this bill had this to add : 

" By giving my approval to this measure, there will appear upon our 
statute books for the first time in the history of this Commonwealth a 
compulsory educational law. The General Assembly in the sessions of 
1891 and 1893 passed a compulsory educational act somewhat similar to 
the present measure, each of which met with the Executive disapproval. 
There appears to be throughout the Commonwealth a general desire for 
such a law. I have not received a single protest from any citizen against 
this bill that I recall. The unanimity by which it was passed by the 
Legislature as well as the large number of requests made upon me to 
sign it, clearly indicates the general desire on the part of the people for 
a compulsory educational law. Under these conditions, I am convinced 
that I should not obtrude any individual judgment which I may have 
on the question of public policy. This measure provides for compulsory 
education in perhaps the least objectionable form to those who oppose it 
on principle, and offends as little against the personal rights of the citizen 
as possible. I, therefore, approve the bill, but, if by experience the expec- 
tations of the people are not realized, future legislation doubtless will 
meet their demands." 

The possibility of future legislation as referred to by the 
Governor was soon realized, as at the next session Eepresentative 
Thomas J. Ford, himself a Junior, offered amendments to the exist- 
ing act providing more stringent regulations. The amendments 
increased the age from 13 to 16 years and made certain exemptions, 
subjecting principals and teachers to certain penalties, conferring 
on the directors controlling power to designate schools for those 
who fail to attend school, to establish special schools for truants, etc. 

The writer at the time was the State Councilor of Pennsyl- 
vania, and had opportunity to come in touch with the members of 
the Legislature as well as Governor Hastings. Under date of June 
25, 1897, we wrote the Governor in behalf of the bill, and under 
date of July 12, a reply was sent from the Executive office stating 
that on that day the Governor had approved the measure. 

It was still found that the original act with its amendments 
did not solve the problems. Under the direction of the State Legis- 
lative Committee of which Brother Cyrus S. Weiss was Chairman, 
a new bill, more comprehensive in its character, was passed, the 
same act repealing the law of 1895 and the amendments of 1897. 
This bill was signed by Governor Stone July 11, 1901. 

During that great session of 1895 when the Junior Order was 
so much in evidence at the State Capital in the interest of legis- 
lation, having its Legislative Committee on the ground all the time, 
besides the passage of the Garb Bill and Compulsory Educational 
Bill, two other bills were passed. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 273 

1. The Nickell Anti-alien Bill. This bill provided that none 
but citizens of the United States should be employed in any capacity 
in the erection, enlargement or improvement of any public building 
or public work within the state. 

2. The Flag Bill. This act provided that no flag but the Stars 
and Stripes should be allowed to wave from any public building 
of the state and that no red flag representing anarchy should be 
carried in public processions. 

A bill was introduced in same Legislature by request of the 
Order requiring School Directors to purchase and have placed over 
all public school buildings in the state the American Flag to be 
made from American bunting, manufactured from American wool, 
grown by American workmen together with a flag staff made from 
American lumber, but the peculiar construction of the wording 
doomed it to defeat. 

A bill requiring taxation of aliens also was defeated. 

OTHER PENNSYLVANIA LEGISLATION 

At the session of the Legislature of 1897 several measures were 
introduced at the instance of the State Legislative Committee, some 
of which became laws. Among these were the following : 

1. An Act to Protect the American Flag from Insult and Degradation. 
This act applied to private and public buildings and highways and passed 
with but little opposition, and the same became a law. 

2. An Act to Provide and to Display the United States Flag in Con- 
nection with the Public School Buildings. 

As first drawn, the bill made the same mandatory, but at the 
suggestion of the Committee of the Legislature, the word " may " 
was substituted for " shall," believing that a patriotic people would 
live up to its provisions. 

3. To Extend the Minimum School Term to Seven Months. This 
meritorious legislation was, however, defeated by 92 ayes to 78 nays, there 
being less than a constitutional majority, 103. 

4. An effort was made to reduce the School appropriation from 
$5,500,000 to $5,000,000, but as State Councilor, we called the attention 
to the danger of the " cut " and through an energetic Legislative Com- 
mittee, having Brother A. H. Leslie as its Chairman, the purpose was 
defeated. 

5. As referred to before, amendments to the Compulsory Educa- 
tional Act of 1895 were made, making that measure more stringent and 
increasing the age of the child from 13 to 16 years, with other changes or 
additions to render the Act more effective. 

6. An Act relative to the Indebtedness of School Districts. This 
became a law. 

18 



274 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

7. Other acts as follows along the line of Education were supported 
by the Committee and became laws: (1) Aid to Free Libraries. (2) Free 
Kindergartens. (3) Abolishing independent School Districts. (4) Pro- 
tection of Schoolhouses, etc. (5) Providing for School and Building Tax. 
(6) Free Public Libraries. (7) Relating to Special School Tax. (8) 
Pupils to be allowed the use of School Books during Vacation. (9) Author- 
ization of 12,000 additional School Laws and Decisions. (10) Transpor- 
tation of Children to the School at the Expense of the District. (11) 
Authorizing the Employment of teachers in the Public Schools to teach 
Stenography and Typewriting. (12) To Decrease the number of School 
Directors in Wards and Boroughs. (13) Requiring Tax Collectors to 
make Monthly Returns of Tax. 

Besides the above acts that became laws in which the* Order 
was more or less active in having passed, two other meritorious 
acts were placed on the statute books of the state by the direct 
influence of this powerful organization that seemed to get what 
they asked for from the hands of the Legislature, of which body 
more than 50 were members of the Order. The first of these two 
bills was: 

THE FOCHT BILL 

The title of this bill was as follows : 

" Providing for the return of Paupers and indigent Insane persons 
not having a legal settlement within this Commonwealth to any state or 
country to which they belong." 

By a concurrent resolution, passed at the session of the Legis- 
lature in 1895, a Committee was appointed to investigate the public 
institutions of the state with a view of ascertaining the number of 
aliens quartered upon the Commonwealth. The report of this 
Committee was intensely startling and stirred the entire state, and 
at once the State Legislative Committee of the Order came in defense 
of the proposed legislation. In a report covering 700 closely type- 
written pages the story was told. In the summary, the Committee 
of the Legislature declared that there were fully 20,000 such aliens 
thrown upon the state, costing the Commonwealth over one million 
five hundred thousand dollars, per annum. 

This bill was passed by both branches of the Legislature with- 
out a dissenting vote, and became a law by the signature of Gover- 
nor Hastings June 22, 1897. 

THE ALIEN TAX BILL 

The title of this act was as follows : 

" Regulating the employment of foreign-born unnaturalized male 
persons over 21 years of age and providing a tax on the employers of 
such persons and prescribing a penalty for violation of the provisions of 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 275 

said act, and directing the manner of collecting the same and providing 
that the amount of such tax may be deducted from the wages of persons 
affected by the provisions thereof." 

This bill was introduced by Hon. G. W. Campbell, an enthu- 
siastic Junior, and passed by a large majority and became a law, 
but was, subsequently, declared unconstitutional by the Courts. 

Being the chief executive of the Order of the state in that 
memorable year when so much legislation along the lines of the or- 
ganization was obtained, as above referred to, not a single bill (with 
one exception) " fathered " by the Junior Order being defeated 
either in the Legislative body or by the veto of the Governor, the 
writer has a sense of self-congratulation over the results occurring 
under his administration. But it must not be supposed that in any 
sense we take to ourselves the credit for these signal victories 
achieved for the glory of the Order ; not by any means. The Order 
was specially fortunate in having a Legislative Committee, by our 
appointment, of such high character and wide influence. It con- 
sisted of Brothers A. H. Leslie, now P. S. C, and one of the Board 
of Trustees of the National Orphans' Home, P. S. C. Frank Cody, 
P. S. C. S. C. Weadley, W. S. Doebler and George Eow. It was 
this able Committee, without the spending of hundreds of dollars 
for "sundries" and keeping "open house," that characterized the 
work of the Committee of two years previous, that secured to the 
state and the Order legislation that has been a credit and a blessing 
to the Commonwealth. 

STILL MORE PENNSYLVANIA LEGISLATION 

The Legislative Committee of the State Council in the session 
of the Legislature of 1899, supported the following bills, all in the 
interest of one of the cherished Objects of the Order, that of popu- 
lar education, and every one passed both branches of the General 
Assembly and were approved by Governor Stone: • 

1. To Extend the Minimum School Term to Seven Months. 

2. To empower the Boards of School Directors of townships to exer- 
cise the powers of Boards of Health, to make rules and regulations to 
Prevent the spread of Contagious Diseases, etc. 

3. To Amend an act for the Regulation of the Common Schools as to 
Distributing the School Appropriations to the Common Schools. 

4. To Provide for the payment of School Directors for attending the 
Biennial Convention for the Election of County Superintendent, etc. 

5. To Provide for the Appointment of a Free Library Commission. 



The Order in the state was represented at the session of the 
General Assembly that convened January 1, 1901, by an exceedingly 



276 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

strong and enthusiastic Legislative Committee, viz., Past National 
Representative Cyrus S. Weiss, P. S. C. Dr. M. P. Dickeson and 
Hon. Perry A. Gibson, formerly State Senator. This Committee 
was early on the ground with several measures to be introduced into 
the Legislature, and to aid any other measures that were in harmony 
with the Objects and Principles of the Order. The Committee was 
assisted by an auxiliary committee, composed of Hon. George J. 
Hartman, of Wm. A. Byars Council, Hon. Chas. F. Heselbarth, of 
Welcome Council, members of the General Assembly, and A. D. 
Wilkin, Esq., Dr. W. H. Painter and Eev. M. D. Lichliter, the last 
three brothers having their homes at the time in the Capital City. 
Two very dangerous bills were introduced into the Legislature 
calculated to injure all secret societies which, with representatives 
of other secret Orders, was fought " to the Queen's taste " in the 
Committee in several hearings in which contest the State Legisla- 
tive Committee of the Junior Order had a prominent part and 
handled the opposition " without gloves." The following were the 
titles of the obnoxious bills which were " scotched " and finally 
killed in the Committee: The Henderson Bill to Investigate Secret 
Societies, and the bill to Eegulate Secret Societies. 

The following bills, given only by title, were supported by the 
Legislative Committee of the Order and all passed the Legislature 
and were approved by Governor Stone: 

1. A Compulsory Educational Law providing for the attendance of 
children in the public schools. This act took the place of the former act 
which was imperfect and provided a better method of carrying out the law, 
providing a forfeiture of the State Appropriation if the provisions of said 
bill were not carried out. 

2. Relating to the Study and Practice of Physical Culture in the 
Public Schools. 

3. To Amend an Act relative to the Establishment of Kindergartens. 

4. Making an appropriation for the Public Schools of the State. 

5. To amend an Act to Provide a more just and equitable method of 
Educational Qualifications of School Teachers, to entitle them to a Cer- 
tificate and providing that no certificate be granted any one who is in the 
habit of habitually using, as a beverage, intoxicating liquors or who 
habitually takes Opium. 

6. For the Co-operation of School Districts and Cities of the Third 
Class in the Establishment of Libraries. 

7. Authorizing the Condemnation of Real Estate for the use of 
State Normal Schools. 

8. An Act for the Establishment of Free Libraries in the Public 
Schools, in Cities of the First and Second Class. 

9. The Establishment of Free Libraries in the School Districts with 
exception of Cities of First and Second Class. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 277 

10. Relating to Night Schools for the Manual Training of Children 
above the age of Twelve Years. 

11. To Provide for the Centralization of Township Schools and to 
Provide High Schools. 

12. An Act to Acquire Ground for a Public Park at Valley Forge. 

An effort was made to repeal the Minimum School Term Act 
of 1899. The Legislative Committee was quite active in defeating 
the purposes of those opposed to the Act and after a stiff fight, the 
bill to repeal was killed by a motion to indefinitely postpone action 
thereon. 

The Committee protested against the granting of appropria- 
tions for Sectarian Institutions, all of them Hospitals, but with 
partial success, the Governor cutting the amount appropriated in 
seven instances. 

Brother Cyrus S.Weiss again was Chairman of the State Legis- 
lative Committee during the Legislature of 1903, with whom 
was associated Brothers Geo. B. Nesbitt and Wm. C. Graham. 
Some very efficient legislation was secured largely through the 
influence of the Legislative Committee. They protested against 
the appropriation of money to two Eoman Catholic Institutions 
for boys, in which none but Catholics were permitted to enter, and 
their protests were heeded. The following, backed by the Com- 
mittee, passed the Assembly and became laws: 

1. An Act Regulating the Salary of School Teachers making the 
Minimum Salary $35.00. 

2. Making an Appropriation of $74,000 to the Commissioners of 
Valley Forge Park. 

3. Making it a Misdemeanor to Unlawfully Use or Wear any Insignia 
or Button of any Association, Society, or Trade's Union. 

The most important measure enacted into law was the increase 
of salary for school teachers, making the minimum $35.00 a month. 
The opposition to the bill upon the part of the Senate where it 
was antagonized by the farmer or Granger element of the state 
gave the Legislative Committee considerable anxiety, but by per- 
sistent appeal on the part of the members of the Committee, aided 
by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Dr. N. C. Schaeffer, 
the meritorious measure finally became a law. While the Chairman 
of the Committee, Brother Weiss, had charge of the campaign from 
his home, Brother Nesbitt, the Secretary, was frequently on the 
ground at Harrisburg keeping in close touch wtih the bill, and 
in its critical hour did much in bringing about a favorable con- 



278 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

sideration of the measure. As a mark of appreciation of the 
splendid work accomplished by the Committee in the interest of 
the public schools, unsolicited, Dr. Schaeffer sent to the Secretary 
the following communication: 

" Harrisbubg, Pa., April 9, 1903. 

" Mr. George B. Nesbitt, Sec'y State Legislative Committee Jr. 0. U. A. M. 
" Dear Friend. — 

" It gives me pleasure to bear testimony to the important service 
rendered by your Committee on Legislation to the cause of education 
during the session of the legislature now drawing to a close. By your 
efficient help bills have passed the House and Senate, regulating the mini- 
mum salary of teachers, furnishing instruction to teachers at Summer 
Assemblies, etc. Moreover, I realize your important services in preventing 
harmful legislation. Please convey to the members of your organization 
my thanks for their efficient help in securing legislation which will mark 
a new era in our public schools. 
" With best wishes, I am 

" Very truly yours, 

" Nathan C. Schaeffer, 
" State Superintendent of Public Instruction." 



Still again in the session of the Legislature of 1905, the " Sage 
of Wyoming," Brother Weiss, was in charge of the Legislative Com- 
mittee and once again marshalled his forces in behalf of Public 
School interests. His associates on the Committee were Brothers 
F. A. Kopp and Prof. A. M. Van Tine, the latter being Secretary 
of the Committee who gave much attention to the various measures 
introduced in the Legislature. 

The following bills were supported by the Legislative Com- 
mittee and became laws : 

1. Permitting children living in Districts where there is no high 
school, to attend in another district nearest their home. 

2. A supplement to an act to sell and convey any school property 
that has become dilapidated or useless for school purposes, and to provide 
for the distribution of the funds accruing from such sale. 

3. To provide a system of humane education, to include kind treat- 
ment of birds and animals, in our public schools. 

4. Amendment to an Act relative to the payment of Assessors. 

5. To amend the Act for Compulsory Education, section 1, providing 
that certificate of age and ability to read and write the English language 
intelligently be issued by the Superintendent of schools, Notary Public, 
Justice of the Peace or any other person duly authorized to administer 
oaths, in cities and boroughs, and by the Secretary of the School Board 
in rural districts. 

6. An Act for the purpose of governing the construction of public 
buildings that the health, sight, and comfort of all pupils may be properly 
protected. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 279 

7. To provide for the control, administration and support of the 
common schools in school districts of the first class. 

8. An Act regulating Child Labor which was intended to strengthen 
the Compulsory Educational Law. 

9. To provide regulations for certain kinds of labor and safety 
appliances for employees, etc. 

10. For the erection of a Home or a school for indigent orphans to 
be called the Thaddeus Stevens Industrial and Reform School, in which 
certain branches shall be taught. 

Two measures had been suggested by the State Council at the 
instance of Prof. Van Tine, and the Legislative Committee was 
instructed to have them introduced in the Legislature, and bills 
were drafted to that end. One of the bills was to make 18 years 
the minimum age for a teacher in the public schools of the state. 
Before the bill was introduced, as the result of a conference held, 
the minimum age was put at 17. Brother Chas. F. Heselbarth 
introduced the bill, had it reported favorably from the Committee 
and it passed the House without a dissenting vote, but was killed 
in the Senate Committee on Education. 

The other measure proposed was the marking of historical 
points by some suitable tablet or stone, but it was found that there 
was a disposition to ignore the measure until options could be 
secured on such sites, hence nothing more was done to bring the 
matter to the attention of the Legislature. 



The State Council was represented at the legislative session of 
the General Assembly of 1907 by an equally able Legislative Com- 
mittee, viz. : Past State Councilor B. Frank Myers, National Rep- 
resentative John H. Eby and H. G. T. Miller. More than a score 
of bills along the line of the principles of the Order were cham- 
pioned by the Committee and were placed upon the statute books 
of the state, the most important of which were the following : 

1. To establish schools for adults, including foreigners. 

2. Making the minimum salary for school teachers $40.00 per month. 

3. To establish free libraries in the several school districts. 

4. To provide for an equitable distribution of the school appro- 
priation. 

5. Important amendments to the compulsory education act. 

6. The acquisition of additional ground for Valley Forge Park. 

Great as these acts were, and others that want of space will 
not permit, still the great achievement of the Legislative Com- 
mittee towards which they bent every effort, was the bill raising 
the appropriation for the public schools of the state for two years 
from eleven million to fifteen million dollars, — $4,000,000 increase 
for popular education. 



I. HISTORY OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL 



CHAPTER XVIII 
i. SESSIONS OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL 

PRIOR to the Revolution, the American colonies, while they 
were dependencies of the British crown, were independent 
of each other, there being no alliance or confederacy among them. 
The Legislature of one could not make laws for another, nor confer 
privileges to be enjoyed by another. When the Revolution broke 
out in the colonies, in order to make resistance to the claims of 
Great Britain more formidable as well as successful, harmony and 
unity of action and operations under some supreme head was abso- 
lutely necessary. Acting upon this conviction, the Continental 
Congress was called, which, during the progress of the war, was 
de facto the Supreme Head or National Government. 

But it was obvious to reflecting minds that the union thus 
formed was but of a temporary nature and could be dissolved at 
any time by any one of the states; whereupon, Articles of Con- 
federation were agreed upon in 1777. This Confederation, when 
adopted in 1781, was seen to contain many defects, and it was 
clear to American statesmen that the Congress of the states was 
not a supreme body; not even having power to levy and collect 
taxes, that duty belonging to the separate states. The result of 
this defect soon penetrated the Confederacy and nearly brought 
ruin to the fruits of a long and bloody war. That the union of 
states would dissolve of its own accord, through jealousies, if this 
condition of government would be continued, was apparent to the 
statesmen of that day, hence steps were taken to prevent their 
dissolution. A call was sent out, through Congress, to the thirteen 
states for a Constitutional Convention, whereupon delegates were 
elected by the several states, and the Convention convened in 1787. 
The greatest men of the American states sat in that Convention, 
and after weeks of discussion, the American Constitution was 
framed and sent to the several states for adoption, and when nine 
states had ratified it, the first Constitutional Government the world 
ever saw was launched. This Constitution became the supreme 
law of the Republic and Congress the supreme legislative body. 
280 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 281 

The first Council of the Jr. 0. U. A. M. was instituted, as else- 
where stated, in 1853, and according to a provision in its charter, 
Washington Council, No. 1, of Pennsylvania, was the Supreme 
Head of the Order until 1860, when by the union of other Councils, 
the State Council of Pennsylvania was formed. The State Council 
of Pennsylvania, for years, was the Supreme Head of the Order, 
until State Councils were organized in New Jersey and Delaware, 
when, de facto, there was no supreme head — no bond of union — 
each state legislating after its own fashion. As in the Colonial 
government, it was clearly apparent to the leaders of the Order 
that there could be no unity or harmony between the different State 
Councils, hence delegates were sent by the three State Councils, 
above named, and in Philadelphia, September 30, 1869, was created 
the National Council, Junior Order United American Mechanics 
of the United States of North America, which became and has 
continued down the years, and was declared by the Supreme Court 
of Pennsylvania to be the Supreme Head of the Order, having the 
right to grant charters for State Councils, levy per capita tax, make 
laws and legislate for the entire Order throughout the jurisdiction 
of the United States. 

INSTITUTION OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL 

The following delegates met in Philadelphia, Sept. 30, 1869 : 

Pennsylvania: Edward S. Deemeb, John W. Calveb, John D. Goff, 
Jas. P. P. Bkown and G. W. R. Carteret. 

New Jersey: Jos. H. Shinn, Ogden Laning, John H. Gress and C. 
Westcott. 

Delaware: Wm. H. Killiam, John P. Edwards, William Crossley, 
F. Ball and J. Scanlon. 

The Convention was called to order by Wm. H. Killiam, of 
Delaware, whereupon, Jos. H. Shinn, of New Jersey, was selected to 
act as Secretary. The first order of business was the appointment 
of a Committee on Constitution, with Brother John W. Calver as 
Chairman, which Committee, after a short consultation, reported 
in favor of the Constitution of the 0. U. A. M., with such amend- 
ments so as to adapt it to the new organization, which was adopted. 

The following officers were elected : 

National Councilor — John W. Calver, of Pennsylvania, 
National Vice-Councilor — John H. Gress, of New Jersey, 
National Secretary — Edw. S. Deemer, of Pennsylvania, 
National Treasurer — J. P. Edwards, of Delaware, 
National Marshal — John D. Goff, of Pennsylvania, 
National Protector — Jas. P. P. Brown, of Pennsylvania. 
National Doorkeeper — C. Westcott, of New Jersey. 



282 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

Brothers Calver and Deemer were elected by acclamation, a 
high tribute paid to two of the most active and conspicuous members 
of the fraternity. 

The first bill, and the only one in this preliminary meeting, 
referred to the Finance Committee, was for rent of hall, viz.: 
One dollar. Surely those were the days of small things — financially. 

A special session of the National Council was held November 
23, same year, eight members being present. 

Those who have been following the history of the Order from 
its inception, in the previous chapters, will recall our allusions to 
the indifference of the Senior Order toward the Junior Order, that 
it was individual members of the older Order that brought the new 
organization into existence and fostered and cherished it, and not 
the Order as a whole. This has been questioned by members of 
the 0. TJ. A. M., it being claimed that their organization was the 
" mother " of the new born child. While it is true, as referred to 
in another place, that at the earnest appeal of the State Council, 
Jr. 0. TJ. A. M., in 1862, the Senior Order did recognize the Junior 
organization as teaching the same principles as their own and should 
be encouraged, still there never was any official supervision exer- 
cised over the Juniors by the Seniors, as is evident from the fol- 
lowing motion offered at this special session of the National Body, 
quoted from the records: 

" Bro. Laning, of New Jersey, moved that a Committee of three 
be appointed to lay before the National Council, Order of United Amer- 
ican Mechanics, our claims to their support and assistance, with a view 
to placing our entire Order under their supervision." 

This proves, if it proves anything, that the Junior Order was 
not under the direct official supervision of the Senior Order, neither 
did it have the support it should have had, when it was the original 
purpose of the Junior Order to prepare the " youth of America " 
for membership in the 0. U. A. M. " when they arrive at the proper 
age." The Fourth Object of the Order, as adopted at the institu- 
tion of Washington Council reads as follows: 

" To prepare the youth of America to become members of the O. U. 
A. M., and other American Orders, when they arrive at proper age." 

The " proper age ,} referred to in the Object was 21 years, at 
which time a person was eligible to join the Senior Order. The 
motion alluded to above, however, was, after a long discussion, 
defeated and indicates that the leaders of our Order at that time 
were men of an independent stamp of mind who were not in favor 
of " wearing the collar " or begging support from the Senior Order. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 283 

WILMINGTON, DEL., 1870 

The first regular session of the National Council was held at 
Wilmington, Del., February 10, 1870, with but eight members 
present. 

A draft of a three degree Ritual was presented by the National 
Secretary, Brother Deemer, which was unanimously adopted, after 
rejecting a draft presented by request of the State Council of 
Pennsylvania. All the officers elected at the institution of the 
National Council, with the exception of National Doorkeeper, were 
reelected by acclamation, whereupon, the body adjourned to meet in 
special session on the third Friday of May. 

Pursuant to the adjournment resolution, the National Body 
met in Philadelphia, May 20, with National Councilor John W. 
Calver in the Chair. Fifteen members were in attendance. The 
name of Brother Chas. H. Kurtz, so favorably known to the mem- 
bers of the National Council as one of the Committee on Finance, 
had a place on the roll from Pennsylvania. 

It reflects credit upon the membership of the National Council, 
that from the first regular meeting the Supreme Kuler of the 
Universe was recognized in having the sessions opened with prayer, 
Brother John D. Goff, at this meeting, having performed the de- 
votional exercises. 

The first item of business transacted at the special session was 
the adoption of the three-degree Eitual, as revised, as the degrees 
of the Order. Following the adoption of the Degree Ritual, a 
resolution was offered, first of a long line of resolutions bearing on 
the same subject, that a new Ritual for Subordinate Councils be 
prepared, offering, as a prize, $25 to any member, either Senior 
or Junior, for the best Ritual submitted. 



CAMDEN, n. J., 1871 

Camden, N. J., entertained the National Body in annual ses- 
sion, February 9, 1871. Brother Calver, National Councilor, pre- 
sided, and eighteen .members were present. During the year the 
State Council of Maryland had been instituted and was represented 
at this meeting. Brother J. Adam Sohl, for so many years the 
esteemed and faithful National Treasurer, was present as one of 
the Representatives of Maryland. Councils had been organized 
also in West Virginia and New York; in fact, the year previous, 
some good work had been accomplished in the latter state. 



284 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

In accordance with a provision of the National Council Con- 
stitution, tne National Councilor and National Secretary were re- 
quired to submit a report of their work during the year, which, 
when presented, was referred to a Committee who subsequently re- 
ported back to the body their approval or disapproval of the sug- 
gestions, recommendations and work of the above named officers. 
The custom of referring these reports to a Committee was in vogue 
for many years. It was also the custom for some years for the 
National Council to install its officers in the midst of the session 
instead of at the close, as it is now done, and the new officers 
assumed their places and positions for the remainder of the meet- 
ing. The custom of calling the roll at the afternoon, and evening 
sessions, if held, as well as the morning, was the rule for many years. 

During the year the National Vice-Councilor, John H. Gress, 
had been expelled from the Order. In conformity with the author- 
ity reposed in him, the National Councilor appointed in his place 
Ogden Laning, of New Jersey. 

The State Council of Pennsylvania, through its Eepresenta- 
tives, submitted a resolution asking that the General Laws, under 
the head of Eligibility to Membership, be so amended as to strike 
out the words " sixteen years of age or over.'"' Against this resolu- 
tion a protest from Conestoga Council, No. 22, of same state, 
was read, claiming that it would create discord between the Junior 
and Senior Orders. To this protest an answer was filed by the 
Representatives of Pennsylvania, denying the allegations made in 
the " protest." Among the statements made in the " answer," the 
following shows the feelings then existing in the Junior Order : 

" We cheerfully bear witness to the many Councils which have been 
organized in our State (Penna.) by Councils or members of the Senior 
Order, but we also assert, without fear of contradiction, that they do not 
receive that fostering care to which they are entitled, and that many have 
been started by the Senior Order, and then left to shift for themselves. 
We do not believe that if the National Council should heed the petition 
of the State Council of Pennsylvania, that it would create a wider breach 
than now exists." 

In the consideration of the petition, a motion to limit the age 
of applicants to 25 years was not agreed to; also one to postpone 
action on the question for 10 years was lost by a tie vote. The 
question recurring on the original resolution, by a vote of 9 nays 
to 7 yeas, the amendment to the General Laws was not agreed to. 
A motion to amend the General Laws on Eligibility to Membership, 
by striking out the word " white " so that other races might apply 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 285 

for membership in the Order, met a like defeat, there being but 
three in favor and 14 against. 

The National Secretary submitted a new Eitual, which, after 
some changes made in the Committee of the Whole, was adopted. 
As per resolution of last session, offering $25 for best Ritual, 
Brother Deemer was made the recipient of that amount. 

The badge of the Order, consisting of the square and compass, 
arm and hammer, encircled by a shield, was agreed upon. 

Of the principal officers elected, the following was the result: 

National Councilor — Ogden Laning, of New Jersey, 
National Vice-Councilor — John T. Cowl, of West Virginia, 
National Secretary — Edw. S. Deemer, of Pennsylvania, 
National Treasurer — Nathan Penrose, of Pennsylvania. 



BALTIMORE, MD., 1872 

The Third Annual Session of the National Council was held 
at Baltimore, Maryland, February 8, 1873, Brother Ogden Laning, 
National Councilor, presiding. Twenty members were present, rep- 
resenting Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland and West 
Virginia, a State Council in the latter state having been instituted 
during the year. Connecticut, with one Council, came under the 
jurisdiction of the National Council since the last session. The 
National Secretary reported 124 Councils and 8,317 members. 

But little business was transacted at this session. A motion 
to annul the requirement in the ritualistic ceremonies whereby the 
candidate should kneel while taking the obligation, was passed. 
The time of the meeting of the National Council was changed from 
February to June, to go into effect after the year 1872. Several 
resolutions with reference to a revision of the Eitual and the draft- 
ing of certain features to be added thereto were passed and referred 
to the Committee on Eitual. 

The following officers were elected: 

National Councilor — John T. Cowl, of West Virginia, 
National Vice-Councilor — Jos. Smiley, of Maryland, 
National Secretary — Edw. S. Deemer, of Pennslvania, 
National Treasurer — Nathan Penrose, of Pennsylvania, 
National Marshal — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 
National Protector — Jno. H. Vanhorn, of New Jersey, 
National Doorkeeper — John W. Morris, of West Virginia. 



286 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

WILMINGTON, DEL., 1873 

For the second time the National Council met at Wilmington, 
Del., in its Fourth Annual Session, June 12, 1873, this being the 
month fixed at the last session for the meeting of the body. 

The right of the Board of Officers of a State Council, in the 
interim, to appoint a Bepresentative to the National Council to fill 
a vacancy, was denied by the National Councilor, from which an 
appeal was taken, and by a vote of 10 to 7 the decision of the 
National Councilor was not sustained. By resolution, it was de- 
clared to be the sense of the National Council that vacancies can be 
filled by the State Board of Officers, which rule has been followed 
ever since. 

The report of the National Secretary indicated a lack of in- 
terest in certain sections of the jurisdiction. West Virginia, of 
which the National Councilor, Jno. T. Cowl, who was not in attend- 
ance, was a member, had not reported to the National Secretary 
nor sent any communication whatever. Only three State Councils, 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland had submitted their re- 
ports, although it is just to state that the law did not require the 
reports until the meeting of the National Body, hence it is to be 
presumed that other State Councils submitted their reports at the 
session. During the year the State Council of Ohio had been in- 
stituted, and a Council had been organized in each of three new 
states, viz. : Virginia, Michigan and Kentucky'. A charter for the 
State Council of New York was also granted. 

Eitual legislation occupied a large portion of the time of the 
session. As per instructions of the last session, the Committee 
on Eitual reported in favor of a Consolidated Eitual of the Subor- 
dinate and Degree Councils' Eituals, in consideration of which, the 
National Council went into the Committee of the Whole. After 
making certain amendments, the Committee reported back to the 
body the first two degrees, as amended, and referred the Third 
Degree back to the Committee on Eitual for further changes. No 
further reference to this Degree is found in the proceedings of the 
session. A Eitual for State Councils was submitted by Bepresenta- 
tive Messenger, of Delaware, but no action was taken thereon. 

Two additional clauses to be incorporated as Objects of the 
Order were presented by Chas. E. Voorhees, which, under the law, 
were laid over. They were as follows: 

1. To maintain the reading of the Bible in the public schools. 

2. To oppose a union of Church and State, and the appropriation of 
money for sectarian purposes. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 28? 

The spirit of unrest relative to the relations existing between 
the Senior and Junior Orders manifested itself in the presentation 
of two resolutions, which, under the law, were laid over, viz. : 
1. To strike out " twenty-one '" and insert " twenty -five." 2. To 
strike out the Fifth Object entirely. 

The National Councilor, John T. Cowl, not being present, his 
office was declared vacant in consequence of the State Council of 
West Virginia not reporting to the National Council; whereupon 
an election was had, when Brother Jos. Smiley, of Maryland, was 
elected National Councilor and Brother Thos. C. Appleby, of Dela- 
ware, was elected National Vice-Councilor, and both officers served 
in their respective positions the remainder of the session. 

For the ensuing year, the following officers were elected and 
installed : 

National Councilor — Thos. C. Appleby, of Delaware, 
National Vice-Councilor — Chas. E. Voorhees, of Pennsylvania, 
National Secretary — Edw. S. Deemer, of Pennsylvania, 
National Treasurer — Nathan Penrose, of Pennsylvania, 
National Marshal — Chas. Balevre, of New Jersey, 
National Protector — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 
National Doorkeeper — J. J. Williams, of Pennsylvania. 

An adjourned session of the National Council was held in 
Philadelphia, September 23, same year. At this session a very bit- 
ter and unwarranted attack was made on National Secretary Deemer 
by National Vice-Councilor Chas. E. Voorhees, in a draft of six- 
resolutions drawn up and presented to the National Body. The 
Preamble stated that Brother Deemer had received an application 
from Virginia for a charter for a council to be named Lee Council, 
No. 2, and that he had, as National Secretary, refused the appli- 
cation. Then followed the resolutions declaring the action of the 
National Secretary as " illegal and unauthorized, impolitic and 
inexpedient, and prompted only by the narrowest of political 
prejudice." 

The spirit that prompted the resolutions was certainly far 
from fraternal ; in fact, it was base. Pending the discussion of the 
resolutions, Brother Deemer denounced the statements as set forth 
in the Preamble as false in every respect, denying that he had 
received an application for a charter for a Council to be called 
Lee Council, hence could not have refused it. He stated further 
that a request for a blank application had been granted, and that 
in sending it he had given his personal opinion that no charter 



288 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

would be granted to a Council to be called after Gen. Robert E. Lee, 
and that this opinion was concurred in by the National Councilor. 
The ayes and nays were called upon the adoption of the reso- 
lutions of censure, which resulted in 11 voting to censure the 
National Secretary and 7 voting in the negative. It is proper, in 
this connection, to state that the resolutions of censure were re- 
scinded at the next session of the National Body, to which reference 
will be made. 



NEW YORK, 1874 

The National Council convened in New York City, June 11, 
1874, it being the Fifth Annual Session. National Councilor Thos. 
C. Appleby occupied the Chair. Six states were represented and 
twenty-one members were in attendance. New York and Massa- 
chusetts were among the states represented, State Councils having 
been organized during the year. The session was a short one, last- 
ing but one day, and but little business of any importance was 
transacted. 

By resolution, the National Council agreed to pay the mileage 
of the officers in attendance at the annual sessions at the rate of 
three cents per mile. The State Council of Pennsylvania, through 
its Eepresentatives, presented a resolution disapproving the action 
of the National Council at its last session in censuring Brother 
Deemer, and asked that the same be rescinded, which, by a vote of 
14 to 6 was agreed to. This was followed by a motion to expunge 
from the records the resolution of censure which was also agreed to. 

The resolution carried over from last session to strike out the 
Fifth Object was considered. A motion to indefinitely postpone 
was carried. The resolution to incorporate the two additional 
Objects, as stated in proceedings of previous session, was then 
considered, and met a similar fate. The National Council was not 
ready to adopt the Third Degree for the Eitual and it was recom- 
mitted to the Committee on Ritual. 

The officers elected for the ensuing year were as follows : 

National Councilor — Chas. E. Voorhees, of Pennsylvania, 
National Vice-Councilor — H. S. Corwin, of New York, 
National Secretary — Edw. S. Deemer, of Pennsylvania, 
National Treasurer — Nathan Penrose, of Pennsylvania, 
National Marshal — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 
National Protector — W. P. Hayes, of New Jersey, 
National Doorkeeper — Chas. T. Daily, of Massachusetts. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 289 

A special session of the National Body was held in Philadelphia, 
February 22, 1875, to consider the subject of a new Ritual and to 
elect a National Councilor. National Councilor Chas. E. Vorhees 
had been removed as a Representative by action of the State Council 
of his state, Pennsylvania, for violating the instructions of the 
State Body in refusing to vote to rescind the resolutions, of which 
he was the author, whereby Brother Deemer was censured by the 
National Body. Failing to attend to his duties as National Coun- 
cilor, his office was declared vacant, and, on motion, National Vice- 
Councilor H. S. Corwin was elected National Councilor and Harry 
Stites, of Pennsylvania, was elected National Vice-Councilor. 
Brother Corwin not being present, Brother Stites presided in his 
stead. 

The new Ritual, as presented by the Committee on Ritual, 
was exemplified by Brother Frank Cody, State Councilor of Penn- 
sylvania, and after some changes, was adopted. 

The old question of striking out the Fifth Object was again 
introduced and, under the rule, was laid over. 



BOSTON, MASS., 1875 

The Centennial of the Battle of Bunker Hill very naturally 
led the National Council to hold its annual session of 1875 in the 
City of Boston, Mass. The session opened in due form with 
National Councilor H. S. Corwin in the Chair on the morning of 
the 17th of June, the anniversary of the battle, and then adjourned 
until the next day in order that the members of the National Body 
could attend the centennial exercises. 

Under the inspiration of the occasion, and in the presence of 
such, hallowed associations of a century, the National Council could 
not have met at a more appropriate place to transact its business, 
having as its purpose, as an organization, the perpetuation of the 
principles for which Samuel Adams and James Otis plead in 
Faneuil Hall, and the " Minute Men " of New England fought for 
on Bunker Hill. The session, however, was poorly attended, there 
being but twelve members present at the first roll-call. Four states 
were represented, Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey and Massa- 
chusetts. 

While the financial depression had paralyzed the country, yet 
from the reports of the National Officers, the Order had held its 
own. The conduct of National Councilor Chas. E. Voorhees, al- 
though elected unanimously, was reprehensible. From the begin- 
19 



290 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

ning of his administration he gave no attention to his official 
duties, and thus the Order was handicapped largely during the 
year. An application for a State Council came from the State of 
Indiana and the same was forwarded to Voorhees. He paid no 
attention to it and the result was the disbanding of the Councils 
of that state in disgust, with one exception. The facts of that 
unfortunate episode beginning with the censuring of the National 
Secretar}' have been related above. We will let Brother Deemer 
close the incident : 

" The course pursued by the writer and advocate of the resolutions 
of September, 1873, is condemnatory upon his honor, zeal and fidelity. 
As this National Council has purged itself of his influence, and his State 
Council has repudiated him as an unworthy Representative, we leave 
him." 

In accordance with the new laws, the officers of the National 
Council, known as National Marshal, National Protector, and 
National Doorkeeper, were changed to the titles they bear to-day, 
viz. : National Conductor, National Warden, and National Sentinel. 

Preliminary plans were made at this session to fittingly cele- 
brate the Centennial of Independence at Philadelphia the following 
year and a Committee was appointed to have the matter in charge. 
An invitation was received from the 0. TJ. A. M. to participate with 
their Order in a parade in honor of the Centennial, to be held 
July 8, 1876, and the same was accepted. A communication from 
the Washington Monument Association, appealing for funds to 
complete the Washington Monument at Washington, D. C, met 
with favorable consideration by the National Body, and a Com- 
was appointed to draft an appeal and send to the Councils asking 
aid for the noble purpose. 

The election of officers resulted as follows : 

National Councilor — Harry Stites, of Pennsylvania, 
National Vice-Councilor — Wm. P. Hayes, of New Jersey, 
National Secretary — Edw. S. Deemer, of Pennsylvania, 
National Treasurer — Nathan Penrose, of Pennsylvania, 
National Conductor — Eug. Alderdice, of Maryland, 
National Warden — G. P. Hadley, of Massachusetts, 
National Sentinel — S. W. Kirkbride, of New York. 



CHAPTER XIX 
SESSIONS OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL (Continued) 

PHILADELPHIA, JULY, 1876 

PHILADELPHIA, in 1876, was the Mecca for patriots. Not 
only did the millions visit the Exposition, but the sacred 
landmarks as well. Along with the great hosts of Freedom's sons, 
came the little band of Juniors to hold their annual session, begin- 
ning July 6, the date having been changed in order that the Repre- 
sentatives might share in the parade of the Order on July 8. 
Brother Stites presided over the session, which was attended by a 
large representation. One, who ever since has been a prominent 
factor in the National Body, was present for the first time, as a 
Eepresentative from Maryland — Brother Robert Ogle — a manly 
man and a true brother. Among those present were two honored 
Past State Councilors of Pennsylvania, Brothers DeHaven and 
Frank Cody. 

National Councilor Harry Stites, not only celebrated the Cen- 
tennial in a patriotic way by presiding over the National Council, 
but he also celebrated the Anniversary of Independence by taking 
unto himself a wife, and an appropriate resolution of congratulation 
was adopted in honor of his marriage. (By way of coincidence, the 
writer also celebrated the Centennial in the same manner, spending 
his honeymoon in the Centennial City, having witnessed the monster 
parade on July 4.) The reports for the past year showed that the 
Order had been very much retarded by the " hard times " and many 
members were unable to keep themselves in good standing in their 
respective Councils. The Order had been resuscitated in Indiana 
and a State Council had been organized. 

The agitation on Ritual was a marked feature of the session, 
as well as a change of name and the elimination of the Fifth 
Object. The National Councilor recommended a revision of the 
Ritual, while a resolution was offered asking that a Committee be 
appointed to take into consideration the advisability of a revision 
and report back to the body. Subsequently the Committee sub- 
mitted its report, recommending the consolidation of the three 
degrees into one. The recommendation was not agreed to. The 
Representatives from Maryland presented a resolution asking that 
the Committee on Ritual be empowered to draft a suitable State 

291 



292 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

Council Eitual ; also to embody in the Eitual a suitable prayer for 
Subordinate Councils. Subsequently, the Committee reported rela- 
tive to the last request, that in their opinion, it was not desirable. 
The chapter on Eitual was not yet ended. Bros. DeHaven and 
Stites, of Pennsylvania, offered the following, which was agreed to : 

" Whereas, Our present Ritual is being complained of by a large 
number of members of our Order, both on account of its length and also 
of the errors in printing; therefore be it 

" Resolved, That a Committee of five be appointed to revise our 
Ritual, and that said Committee be instructed to report at our next 
session." 

A resolution to strike out of the name of the Order the word 
" Junior " and. insert " something more appropriate," was tabled. 
The same fate met another resolution, that the word. " Junior " be 
stricken out and the word " Independent " be inserted. 

The National Councilor, in his report, recommended that the 
Fifth Object be stricken out, which the Committee to whom the 
report had been referred, reported in favor of the recommendation ; 
but not being in proper form, it was recommitted, whereupon, the 
Committee, in accordance with the law, recommended that the Sec- 
retary transmit to each member of the National Body a copy of the 
proposed change, which was agreed to. 

The Committee on Centennial Parade made its report. 
Brother G. Howell Arthur, so well known for a decade as the 
popular Eeading Clerk in the National Council, as well as the 
painstaking Secretary of the Finance Committee, was the Grand 
Marshal to lead the Junior division, while National Councilor 
Harry Stites marshaled the National Council as a body. The 
parade was a success, 3,000 men being in line, although it was the 
hottest day of one of the hottest seasons on record. 

The election of officers resulted as follows : 

National Councilor — Wm. P. Hayes, of New Jersey, 
National Vice-Councilor — Geo. W. Ilgenfritz, of Indiana, 
National Secretary — Edw. S. Deemer, of Pennsylvania, 
National Treasurer — Thos. H. H. Messenger, of Delaware, 
National Conductor — W. A. Martin, of Ohio, 
National Warden — W. Eug. Alderdice, of Maryland, 
National Sentinel — S. W. Kirkbride, of New Jersey. 

The election of the Treasurer caused some friction in the 
National Body, he having been elected by 14 votes to 13 for the 
former Treasurer, Brother Penrose. A protest was filed by P. S. C. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 293 

Sibbs, of Pennsylvania, against the installation of the Treasurer- 
elect, from the fact that 27 voters were cast while it was claimed 
that only 25 persons were eligible to vote. A new election was de- 
clared, whereupon, Messenger received 21 votes and Penrose 14, 
making a total of 34. However, not having qualified himself for 
the office in not furnishing security, as required by law, Messenger 
did not assume the duties of his office. 



DAYTON, OHIO, 1877 

Dayton, Ohio, was the place, and July 2 and 3, 1877, the time 
of the meeting of the Eight Annual Session of the National Coun- 
cil, with 22 members in attendance. 

The National Councilor reported the disbanding of the State 
Council of New York; he also referred to the suspension of the 
Junior American Mechanic, the official organ of the Order. 

Three Eituals were presented and read, viz. : One from P. S. C. 
DeHaven of Pennsylvania, one from P. S. C. Sharer, of same state, 
and one from and by instructions of the State Council of Indiana, 
all of which were referred to a Committee of five. Subsequently, 
during the session, a majority of the Committee, reported in favor 
of one of the Eituals, marked " No. 3," while the minority favored 
the " Indiana Eitual.'' The difficulty, however, was settled by a 
compromise motion referring to a Special Committee Eitual 
" No. 3," with the recommendation that the opening ceremony 
as found in the " Indiana Eitual " and the " camp scene " of the 
present Eitual be inserted. Thus ended the chapter on Eitual for 
the session. 

The question, now almost annually raised, to strike out the 
Fifth Object, was defeated by a vote of 11 to 10, the National 
Councilor-elect having been excused from voting. 

The National Council adjourned, after electing and installing 
the following officers: 

National Councilor — Geo. W. Ilgenfritz, of Indiana, 
National Vice-Councilor — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 
National Secretary — Edw. S. Deemer, of Pennsylvania, 
National Treasurer — Wm. P. Hayes, of New Jersey, 
National Conductor — Wm. T. Whitworth, of Delaware, 
National Warden — Jas. E. Bowen, of Maryland, 
National Sentinel — H. Wells Buser, of Pennsylvania. 



294 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

BALTIMORE, MD., 1878 

The Ninth Annual Session of the National Council convened 
at Baltimore, Md., June 18, 1878, with more than thirty members 
present. National Councilor Ilgenfritz reported the reorganization 
of New York State Council, and submitted several " bones of con- 
tention " by way of recommendations, among which were the strik- 
ing out of the Fifth Object, adopting a "good and substantial 
Kitual," and the appointment of a Committee, out of courtesy, to 
meet with a Committee of the Senior Order relative to the consoli- 
dation of the two Orders, although, personally he was opposed to 
consolidation. 

For the second time in its brief history, the National Council 
had trouble with its presiding officer. The National Secretary, in 
his report, presented certain communications from the State Coun- 
cil Secretary of Indiana, Philip Weiner, relative to the conduct of 
National Councilor Geo. W. Ilgenfritz, a member of the State Coun- 
cil of Indiana, charging him with the embezzlement of the funds 
of the Order, interfering with the administration of the State 
Council of his state and thereby breaking up the Order in that 
jurisdiction. The same communications stated that Ilgenfritz had 
been expelled from the State Council of Indiana. 

The National Secretary, at the time he received the above 
communications, it being in the month of February, referred the 
same to National Vice-Councilor Brother Sohl, who decided to await 
further developments as to the manner of the expulsion of the 
National Councilor, whether it was by the action of the Board of 
Officers of Indiana, or the State Council. Subsequent inquiry 
convinced the National Secretary that the expulsion was illegal 
and no further action was taken. A letter from the State Council 
Secretary, pro tern, of Indiana, dated June 12, stated that at a 
special meeting of the State Council the National Councilor had 
been suspended for one year, and to remain suspended until he had 
refunded certain moneys it was alleged he had taken. The same 
communication stated that the State Council Secretary, Philip 
Weiner, had also been suspended, the time being six months, for 
" over-stepping his authority as State Council Secretary." How- 
ever, it developed, on inquiry, that the notice of the suspension of 
the above named officers was premature, as it was but the report of 
the Committee in the cases, action upon which was deferred one 
week, in accordance with law. 

In the meantime, however, the Committee having in their 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 295 

hands the report of the National Secretary, submitted to the Na- 
tional Body their opinion that the charges against the National 
Councilor were sufficient to warrant the State Council of Indiana 
to suspend him. While the question was under consideration, the 
following telegram from the State Vice-Councilor of Indiana was 
read: 

" Sentence passed upon G. W. Ilgenfritz and P. Weiner to-night." 

At this juncture in the proceedings, National Vice-Councilor 
Sohl, who was the presiding officer, ruled the point of order well 
taken, which had been raised, that as the National Councilor was 
suspended and there being no appeal, no further consideration 
of the question was necessary as G. W. Ilgenfritz was no longer a 
member of the National Body. An appeal was taken from the 
decision of the Chair, but subsequently was withdrawn. 

A resolution was presented which read as follows: 

" Resolved, That no member of the 0. U. A. M. be allowed to visit 
any Council of the Jr. O. U. A. M., unless they are members of the Junior 
Order." 

It might be well to state to the modern Junior, that from the 
organization of the Junior Order, and for many years after, the 
members of the Senior Order were admitted to the Councils of the 
Junior Order, at first without being obligated, but subsequently 
they were required to take an obligation. Many found fault with 
this " open door policy/' and quite frequently in the State Council 
of Pennsylvania there had been expressions of disapproval. In the 
consideration of the above resolution, much discussion took place 
and, in the final action, the ayes were 14 and the nays 20, thereby 
defeating the resolution. 

In view of the discontent existing, the State Council of Penn- 
sylvania, 0. U. A. M., at its session in 1877, drew up a set of reso- 
lutions and the same were presented to the National Body of the 
Senior Order asking that a Committee be appointed to confer with 
a similar Committee of the Junior Order looking toward a union 
of the two Orders. 

The preamble read as follows: 

" Whereas, It is in contemplation at the next session of the 
National Council of the Jr. 0. U. A. M., to so alter their laws by striking 
out the restrictive rule, thus separating the two Orders so far apart 
that they will be two distinct Orders, and 

" Whereas, It is of the utmost importance that the two Orders be 
united, that they can work together more effectually in promoting the 



296 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

welfare of Americans, and in accomplishing the great ends for which the 
Orders were instituted, so that we can present to the world one of the 
grandest Orders that has ever existed." 

The National Council of the Senior Order having concurred 
in the request of the State Council of Pennsylvania, the same was 
submitted to the National Body. In consideration of the communi- 
cation, by a vote of 19 to 14, a Committee was appointed to meet 
a similar Committee of the Senior Order. The Committee con- 
sisted of P.N. C. J. W. Calver, P. N. C. Hayes and National Vice- 
Councilor Sohl. 

A Past Councilor's Association, known as the " American 
Legion," having been organized in Philadelphia, the obect of which 
was to create greater interest in the Order, was approved by the 
National Body. Subsequently, a Past Councilor's Degree was 
adopted by the National Council for the use of the " Legion," 
operating under the name of " Commandery." 

The Special Committee on Bitual, appointed at last session, to 
incorporate certain features into the new Eitual, submitted their 
report, whereupon, the National Council went into the Committee 
of the Whole for its consideration, with P. S. O, H. L. Williams, of 
Pennsylvania, in the Chair. The Committee amended the Eitual 
presented by inserting the opening ceremony prepared by Brother 
G. Howell Arthur instead of the one in the " Indiana Eitual," as 
recommended at the last session, and also further amended it by 
making the reading of the Bible compulsory in the Subordinate 
Councils and the prayer optional. Eeporting back to the National 
Body the Eitual, as amended, that body further amended it by 
striking out the gown and cowl that were required to be worn and 
the Order of Business, whereupon, by a vote of 17 to 16 the new 
Eitual was adopted. 

The Eitual, however, was not satisfactory to a large number 
of the National Council, which was apparent from the small major- 
ity by which it was finally adopted. During its consideration, there 
was a strong opposition, and the ayes and nays were frequently 
called upon the various features. In view of this dissatisfaction, 
14 of the 16 who voted in the negative and one who voted aye, the 
Chairman of the Committee of the Whole, presented the following 
resolution : 

"Resolved, That the Ritual just adopted be published as an initia- 
tory, and that a Committee be appointed to draft three additional degrees 
and report at the next session." 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 297 

The resolution was adopted and, on motion, the signers were 
constituted that Committee. Signs for the new Eitual were 
adopted as well as an obligation for representatives and Past State 
Councilors to be admitted to the National Council. 

A resolution to strike out the Fifth Object of the Order was 
introduced and laid over. 

The officers for the ensuing year were elected as follow 

National Councilor — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 
National Vice-Councilor — H. W. Lewis, of Ohio, 
National Secretary — Edw. S. Deemer, of Pennsylvania, 
National Treasurer — Wm. P. Hayes, of New Jersey, 
National Conductor — Standford McKeeby, of New York, 
National Warden — J. M. Baker, of Indiana, 
National Sentinel — Geo. P. Monck, of Delaware. 

"This being the quarter-centennial year of the Order, it may be 
interesting to the brotherhood to know the standing of the organi- 
zation at that time. The depression that followed the great finan- 
cial crash of 1873 wrought materially against the progress of the 
Order, many Councils having succumbed to the pressure. The 
statistical report of the National Secretary showed the following : 

NO. OF NO. OF 

COUNCILS MEMBERS 

Pennsylvania 80 5,335 

New Jersey 24 1,380 

Maryland 6 305 

Massachusetts 4 117 

Ohio 3 202 

Delaware 3 95 

Indiana 3 

The total number of Councils was 123 and the membership 
7,-184, being a decrease of 23 Councils and 1,971 members. 



NEW BRUNSWICK, N. J., 1879 

New Brunswick, N. J., entertained the Tenth Annual Session 
of the National Body, June 17 and 18, 1879, 31 members being 
present. From the reports of the officers we learn that the retro- 
grade movement of the Order had been checked and a small increase 
was shown. The Order in Virginia, during the year, had been 
reorganized, and into one new state, Vermont, the principles of the 
Order had been planted. The amount of moneys coming into the 
National Treasury was quite small at that time as compared with 
the present. The report showed that only $451.60 had been re- 



298 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

ceived from all sources, of which, $324 was for per capita tax. 
The National Secretary's salary was but $75 a year. When we 
consider the many years of faithful service Brother Deemer gave 
to the Order for such a compensation, surely no one to-day (1906) 
should begrudge him the sum paid at the present time. 

The subject of the unification and consolidation of the Senior 
and Junior Orders was a marked feature of this session. The 
Committee of the two Orders agreed upon a plan of union which is 
here inserted as a whole: 

" We the undersigned members of the joint Committee, appointed 
by the National Councils of the O. U. A. M. and the Junior Order of the 
O. U. A. M., do most respectfully and fraternally agree to the following 
proposition for the purpose of effecting a closer and firmer union between 
the two Orders, viz: Abolish the National Council of both Orders, and 
also the State Councils of both Orders in those States where the two 
Orders exist. Form a National Council and State Council from the two 
Orders, giving the Past Councilors of the Junior Order and the ex-Coun- 
cilors of the O. U. A. M. equal privileges in the formation of the said 
National and State Councils. Recognize the present Past Councilors, 
Past State and Past National Councilors of the Junior Order, to be on 
equal standing and entitled to the same rights and privileges of the ex- 
Councilors, ex-State and ex-National Councilors of the O. U. A. M. After 
the National and State Councils are formed in accordance with the above, 
the Order to be known as the Order of United American Mechanics and 
to consist of two branches, the members of the Senior branch to have the 
right to visit Councils of the Junior branch under obligation of secrecy, 
and in like manner the members of the Junior branch to have the right 
to visit Councils of the Senior branch. 

" The Senior branch of the Order to initiate members at the age 
of 21 years and over, and the Junior branch members not over 21 years 
of age. 

" The Junior and Senior branches then to be allowed representation 
in the State Councils, and each to have the same privilege as regards 
representation in the National Council." 

In the consideration of the above report, the National Coun- 
cil, by a vote of 16 to 14, refused to agree to a resolution to disagree 
with the action of the Committee and that they be discharged from 
further consideration of the subject. A motion to accept the 
report and that the Committee be continued was carried by a vote 
of 15 to 10. 

The resolution laid over from last session to strike out the 
Fifth Object was brought before the National Body. A motion 
to lay the matter over until the next session was defeated by a vote 
of 13 to 16. A motion to adopt the resolution was then entertained 
and the subject discussed, whereupon, on an aye and nay vote, 16 
to 15, the Object that so long had been a " bone of contention," 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 299 

was stricken out and the first real break with the Senior Order 
had culminated, so far as the act of the National Council was 
concerned. National Secretary Brother Deemer then offered the 
following : 

Whereas, This National Council has voted to strike out the Fifth 
Object of our Order, and 

" Whereas, Art. II, Sec. 2, of the Constitution of this body, requires 
that said action must be submitted to a vote of the members of our 
Order, therefore, be it 

" Resolved, That said question be submitted to the members of the 
Order for vote thereon, at the first meeting of each Council in the month 
of October next, and the result thereon be forwarded to the National Sec- 
retary under seal prior to November 1." 

In recognition of the services of the National Secretary, 
Brother Deemer, who from the beginning had served the Order in 
an official capacity, the following resolution was unanimously 
adopted : 

" Whereas, Edw. S. Deemer has, for a period of ten years, faithfully 
served this body as Secretary, and 

" Whereas, He has in so many instances rendered invaluable services 
to the Order at large by trying to plant its banner and principles wherever 
his time and influence could avail; therefore, be it 

" Resolved, That in view of these services this body confers upon 
him the honors of Past National Councilor." 

The Special Committee on Bitual consisting of 15 members, 
appointed at the the last session, reported that the number of 
the Committee being too large to act with any speed, asked that they 
be discharged and a similar Committee of five members be ap- 
pointed, which was agreed to and said Committee was appointed 
by the National Councilor. 

In the election of officers, Brother H. W. Lewis, of Ohio, 
though not present, was elected National Councilor, Brother A. D. 
DeHaven, of Pennsylvania, was elected National Vice-Councilor, 
and Bros. Deemer and Hayes were reelected National Secretary and 
Treasurer, respectively. Following the election, a letter from 
Brother Lewis was received resigning as National Vice-Councilor, 
whereupon, the National Vice-Councilor-elect, Brother DeHaven, 
was elected to that position in place of Brother Lewis and installed. 
Brother DeHaven then declined the office of National Vice-Councilor 
for the ensuing year to which he had been elected the day previous, 
and another election was held to fill the vacancies of both National 
Councilor and National Vice-Councilor for the ensuing year, the 
result of which Brother DeHaven was unanimously elected National 



300 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

Councilor while Brother S. H. Crum, of New Jersey, was placed 
in the Chair of National Vice-Councilor. 

The other officers were as follows : 

National Conductor — George H. Greenman, of Massachusetts, 
National Warden — Jno. J. Tuers, of New York, 
National Sentinel — R. T. Franck, of Maryland. 



RICHMOND, VA., 1880 

Richmond, Virginia, again had the honor of entertaining the 
National Council at its Eleventh Annual gathering, June 15, 16 
and 17, 1880. Twenty-one members were present representing a 
total membership of 7,394, as per report of the National Secretary. 

The most important business of the session was the counting 
of the vote of Subordinate Councils upon the striking out of the 
Fifth Object of the Order. The result of the count showed that 
the Order at large refused to concur in the action of the National 
Body of a year ago, therefore defeating the proposition, delaying it 
for two years. The vote by states was as follows : 

FOR AGAINST 

Pennsylvania 144 975 

New Jersey 239 108 

Maryland 97 11 

New York 103 23 

Delaware 36 — 

Ohio 76 29 

Massachusetts 42 1 

Vermont 24 — 

resulting in 1,061 in favor of striking out the Object and 1,147 
against the proposition, a majority of 8G. 

Immediately after the announcement of the result of the vote, 
the old question of striking out the Object was renewed by P. S. C. 
Adams, of New Jersey, in the following resolution : 

" Resolved, That we strike out the ' Fifth Object ' of our Order. 
" In the First Object of our Order strike out ' American Youth ' and 
substitute ' Americans." 

A draft of an additional Object was submitted, to be known as 
the Sixth Object, and read as follows : 

" To maintain the Public School System of the United States of 
America, to prevent sectarian interference therewith, and uphold the 
reading of the Holy Bible therein." 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 301 

Under the law, the above resolutions were laid over until tho 
next session for consideration. 

A motion to strike out of the Ritual the words " this includes 
the whole motto of the Senior Order," was lost. 

The Committee on Conference relative to the consolidation of 
the two Orders, continued from the last session, reported that no 
further meetings of the joint Committee had been held, neither 
had they heard from the Committee of the Senior Order, therefore 
asked to be discharged, which request was granted. 

The question of Life Insurance to be under the supervision 
of the Order had been considered at the last session, whereupon a 
Committee was appointed to formulate a code of laws, and report 
as to the advisability of incorporating the new feature in the 
organization. The Committee approved the plan and submitted 
a code of laws which were, with some changes, adopted, and, as 
per amended motion, were submitted to the Subordinate Councils 
for a vote thereon. 

Officers for the ensuing year were elected as follows : 

National Councilor — S. H. Crum, of New Jersey, 
National Vice-Councilor — Robert Ogle, of Maryland, 
National Secretary — Edw. S. Deemer, of Pennsylvania, 
National Treasurer — Wm. P. Hayes, of New Jersey, 
National Conductor — Geo. H. Bartlett, of Massachusetts, 
National Warden — W. H. Meseroll, of New Jersey, 
National Sentinel — N. H. Kemp, of Maryland. 



HAVERHILL, MASS., 1881 

The Twelfth Annual Session of the National Council con- 
vened at Haverhill, Mass., June 20, 1881, and continued in session 
three days, with 29 members in attendance. The reports of the 
officers, as found in the proceedings, did not indicate any general 
advance in the Order, while in some sections, as Delaware and 
Indiana, the Order had died out, with the exception of one Council 
in the former state. However, a small increase was made in nearly 
every state, aggregating 328 members over the membership of one 
year previous. One new state came under the banner of the 
Order — Tennessee, with one Council. 

The report of the Committee to count the vote of the Subor- 
dinate Councils relative to the Insurance Plan, as adopted at the 



302 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

last session, showed that the proposition was defeated by a small 
majority on the face of the returns. The Committee, however, 
were impressed that presumptive fraud, as well as gross irregulari- 
ties, showed themselves on the face of the returns, and after casting 
out the irregular votes, claimed that the Plan had a majority of 
36 in favor of its adoption. But it was the opinion of the Com- 
mittee that another vote should be taken, which was agreed to. 

A resolution to strike out the name of the Order and substi- 
tute " Independent Order of Americans," was referred to the Com- 
mittee on Eevision of the Order," a new Committee adopted by the 
National Council, as per recommendation of the National Councilor. 

The question as to striking out the Fifth Object of the Order, 
laid over from last session, was brought up for consideration. 
A motion to refer same to the Committee on the Eevision of the 
Order was not agreed to. A motion to strike out was then made, 
and on an aye and nay vote, the National Body for the second time 
declared itself in favor of striking out the Object, there being 22 
in favor and 9 not in favor. The matter was again referred back 
to the Subordinate Councils for ratification or rejection. 

The proposition offered at the last session to amend the First 
Object by striking out " American Youth " and insert "Americans," 
was also agreed to. Favorable action was also taken on the pro- 
posed Sixth Object : 

" To maintain the Public School System of the United States of 
America, to prevent sectarian interference therewith, and uphold the read- 
ing of the Holy Bible therein," 

with the exception of all after the words " therewith," and the 
insertion of the word " and " after the word " America," which 
amendments were agreed to. Both proposed changes were also 
referred to the Subordinate Councils for their vote in September. 

It is apparent that by striking out the words " and uphold the 
reading of the Holy Bible therein " from the original resolution, 
that the Juniors of 1881 were not as enthusiastic in having the 
Bible read in the public schools as were the Native Americans in 
1844, who adopted as one object in their code of principles the 
following : 

" We maintain that the Bible, without comment, is not sectarian ; 
that it is the fountain-head of morality and all good government, and 
should be used in the public schools as a reading-book." 

The following were elected to serve in their respective positions 
for the year to come : 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 303 

National Councilor — Robert Ogle, of Maryland, 

National Vice-Councilor — Geo. H. Greenman, of Massachusetts, 

National Secretary — Edw. S. Deemer, of Pennsylvania, 

National Treasurer — Wm. P. Hayes, of New Jersey, 

National Conductor — Jas. Stewart, of New York, 

National Warden — N. H. Kemp, of Maryland, 

National Sentinel — Geo. W. Elbert, of New Jersey. 

The generous hospitality accorded the National Council by 
Enterprise Council, No. 1, of Haverhill, will linger with pleasant 
memories as long as there lives a member who attended the session. 
One afternoon a carriage-ride was given the members of the Na- 
tional Body to the birthplace of Whittier, and other objects of 
interest. A day's excursion on the Merrimac and the ocean was a 
part of the program, with a banquet at Eagle Island as a fitting 
close to the entertainment extended by the brethren of Haverhill. 
One who has for years been a factor in New England Juniorism — 
Bro. A. L. Chase — was a member of the Eeception Committee. 



NEW YORK, 1882 

It required three days — June 20-22, 1882 — for the National 
Council to transact its business at the Thirteenth Annual Session, 
held in New York City. Forty members were in attendance, the 
largest number of any previous session. 

From the officer's report it was shown that the American 
Legion was prospering, there being 14 Commanderies already or- 
ganized and doing a good work. Our esteemed Brother Ogle, Na- 
tional Councilor, submitted to the National Body an exceptionally 
well prepared report. His pathetic reference to the death of 
President Garfield was very befitting, and certainly must have 
struck a responsive chord in every heart. Since the National Coun- 
cil at St. Louis in 1901 decided to meet biennially, it is fair to 
state that Brother Ogle, at this session, 22 years before, recom- 
mended biennial sessions, which recommendation, however, was not 
adopted. The report of the National Secretary showed a continued 
increase in membership, there being 9,500 members. 

At the last session National Councilor S. H. Crum submitted 
a recommendation asking for a Committee to be appointed, 

" To prepare a plan for a revision of the Order, and that they report 
to the National Councilor sixty days before the next session, and he have 
a general outline of the plan printed, and a copy forwarded to each mem- 
ber of this Council at least thirty days before the session." 



304 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

The recommendation having been approved and a Committee 
appointed in conformity therewith, all subjects relating to changes 
in the Order, either of name, Objects, Eitual and laws, were re- 
ferred to said Committee, as well as suggestions of changes desired 
from anyone in the jurisdiction. 

National Secretary Deemer, as Chairman of Committee on 
Revision of the Order, submitted his report on the subjects referred 
to the Committee, and at the same time gave his reasons for his 
approval or disapproval of any proposed change in the economy 
of the Order. 

Relative to striking out the name of the Order and inserting 
" Independent Order of Americans," laid over from last session, 
Brother Deemer disapproved the proposed change, giving his reason 
therefor, which can be found under chapter, " Name — Signifi- 
cance^ — Proposed Changes." The National Council, in the Com- 
mittee of the Whole, agreed to not change the name, which action 
was concurred in by the National Body. 

P. N. C. Crum submitted to the Committee the following pro- 
posed changes and additional features : 

1. Change the name to American Legion. 

2. Change the Ritual, making three degrees — Subordinate, State, 
and National — all to be conferred by the Subordinate Councils; a fee to 
be paid to the State Council for all State and National degrees conferred, 
and the State Council to pay a fee to the National Council for all National 
degrees conferred. 

3. Make the age of admission 18 to 45. 

4. Adopt an insurance plan as one of the Objects of the Order. 

In the Committee of the Whole, all the above suggestions were 
disapproved and the National Body concurred. 

The Committee to count the vote of the Subordinate Councils 
on the various questions referred to them made their report as 
below : 

1. To amend the First Object, by striking out " American 
Youth " and insert " Americans," the vote was 1,745 in favor of 
the change and 958 against, making a majority in favor of the 
amendment of 787. 

2. The Sixth Object. 

" To maintain the Public School System of the United States of 
America, and to prevent sectarian interference therewith." 

The vote in favor of this proposition was 2,180 ; against, 480, 
making a majority in favor of 1,700. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 305 

3. To strike out the Fifth Object. 

" To prepare the youth of America to become members of tbe 
0. U. A.M. when they arrive at the proper age." 

The vote in favor of striking out was 1,036; against, 1,068, 
making a majority in favor of striking out the Object of 568. 
Thus, after years of unrest and agitation, the Jr. 0. U. A. M. be- 
came, in a true sense, an independent organization, and from (his 
time the Order, no longer handicapped by the Fifth Object, took 
on new life and within a few years became a power in the land. 

4. The Insurance feature, however, met with defeat by a vote 
of 1,264 to 1,468, or a majority of 204 against the plan proposed. 
The defeat of this proposition brought into existence the Funeral 
Benefit Association, with headquarters at Philadelphia, an organ- 
ization independent of the National Council or any State Council, 
or rather, a voluntary association of Subordinate Councils, and was 
organized July 1, 1882, with G. Howell Arthur as President and 
Edw. S. Deemer as Secretary. Ten cents per member was col- 
lected from Councils having membership in the Association and 
$250 w r as paid on the death of a member. 

Two resolutions bearing on the Kitual were presented and 
agreed to. One had reference to the preparation of a form for 
public installation, and offered $25 for the best form. The other 
resolution was for the preparation of a National Council Degree. 

The election of officers resulted as follows : 

National Councilor — Geo. H. Greenman, of Massachusetts, 
National Vice-Councilor — Evan G. Badger, of Pennsylvania, 
National Secretary — Edw. S. Deemer, of Pennsylvania, 
National Treasurer — Wm. P. Hayes, of New Jersey, 
National Conductor — Harry Krausz, of Maryland, 
National Warden — J. M. F. Perkins, of Massachusetts, 
National Sentinel — Geo. Coles, of New York. 



CHAPTER XX 
SESSIONS OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL (Continued) 

PHILADELPHIA, 1883 

THE Fourteenth Annual Session of the National Council was 
held in the City of Philadelphia, June 19-21, 1883. Be- 
tween 30 and 40 members were present, representing six states, 
viz.: Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, New York, Massa- 
chusetts and Ohio, and, including Councils under the jurisdiction 
of the National Council, about 140 Councils and 11,686 members. 

Several forms for the Public Installation of Officers were 
submitted and referred to the Committee on Ritual. Subsequently, 
the Committee reported in favor of one form, with certain changes 
and additions, but suggested that the National Council should not 
be too hasty in the adoption of any Ritual for Public Installation, 
and recommended that action thereon be laid over until next 
session, which recommendation was agreed to. 

The National Councilor, Brother Geo. H. Greenman, sug- 
gested in his report the propriety of " engaging a competent per- 
son " to extend the Order in localities where the organization 
does not exist. This was the initiatory recommendation looking 
toward the appointment of a National Organizer, but the National 
Body did not approve the recommendation. 

Representative Elbert, of New Jersey, offered the following 
amendment which, under the rule, was laid over : 

" Amend Objects of the Order by adding the following to the 
Fifth Object: ' And uphold the reading of the Holy Bible therein/ " 

The reader of this history will recall that at the last session 
of the National Body, the Fifth Object was stricken out and the new 
Sixth Object adopted at same session became the Fifth Object. 

But little business of general importance was transacted at 
this session. Two or three items might be noted: 

1. The obligation of Senior members was stricken from the 
Ritual. 

2. An amendment that the words " American Mechanics and 
Workingmen " be stricken from the charter and the word " Ameri- 
cans " be substituted. 

306 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 307 

In the election of officers, the following were named : 

National Councilor — Evan G. Badger, of Pennsylvania, 

National Vice-Councilor — W. H. Meseroll, of New .Jersey, 

National Secretary — Edw. S. Deemer, of Pennsylvania, 

National Treasurer — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 

National Conductor — (.'has. D. Kidd, Jr., of Ohio, 

National Warden — Jos. P. Wills, of Massachusetts, 

National Sentinel — Jno. E. Armstrong, of Pennsylvania. 

Beginning with this session, and for more than 20 years, as 
Treasurer of the National Body, Brother J. Adam Sohl was to give 
the National Council his valuable and conscientious services. For 
many years already he had been a conspicuous factor in the highest 
legislative body of the Order, having been honored at one session 
as its presiding officer. 

The first State Councilor of Pennsylvania in 1860, in fact the 
first State Councilor of the Order, Brother Jno. E. Fanshawe, was 
present and addressed the National Council. Brother Fanshawe, 
as noted in another chapter, was Councilor of Washington Council, 
No. 1, when the additional Councils were formed that made up 
the State Council of Pennsylvania. 



GEORGETOWN", D. C, 1884 

For the fifteenth time the National Body met in annual 
session, and. the place of its meeting was Georgetown, within the 
District of Columbia, June 19 and 20, 1884, with less than 30 mem- 
bers present. The report of the National Secretary showed 142 
Councils and 12,190 members. 

The first item of business, after the report of the officers, 
was the consideration of the amendment to the Fifth Object, " and 
uphold the reading of the Holy Bible therein." The amendment 
was approved and the question of ratification was placed before 
the Subordinate Councils. 

The question of a form for the Public Installation of Officers 
was considered, whereupon, a motion was made to postpone further 
action for one year. A substitute, however, was offered that the 
National Council accept Form No. 2 and pay the author $25, and 
the same was agreed to. After corrections and alterations were 
made, a motion to adopt, as amended, was defeated by a vote of 
2 ayes and 23 nays. A motion to reconsider, however, was carried 
by an aye and nay vote of 17 to 10, and Form No. ? was referred 
back to the author for corrections. 



308 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

Again the change of name was brought before the National 
Body in the following resolution which, however, was not adopted, 
there being but 4 in favor of a change and 22 against : 

" Believing that the time lias come when our Order no longer con- 
sists of mechanics entirely, but of citizens of all occupations and classes 
and further, that our present name is a serious obstacle to our further 
progress, we would offer the following: 

"Resolved, That the name of the Order be changed; the same to 
be submitted to a vote of the entire Order on the last meeting night in 
September, 1884." 

The session closed with the installation of the following 

officers : 

National Councilor — W. H. Meseroll, of New Jersey, 

National Vice-Councilor — Harry Krausz, of Maryland, 

National Secretary — Edw. S. Deemer, of Pennsylvania, 

National Treasurer — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 

National Conductor — D. B. Conaway, of Pennsylvania, 

National Warden — Geo. W. Elbert, of New Jersey, 

National Sentinel — Geo. W. Hofseas, of New Jersey. 



HARRISBURG, PA., 1885 

The National Council met in Sixteenth Annual Session, June 
16, 1885, in the City of Harrisburg, Pa., his Excellency, Eobert E. 
Pattison, Governor of the Commonwealth, in an eloquent address, 
welcomed the National Body to the State of Pennsylvania. 

The report of the Secretary showed continued increase in 
Councils and members, there being at the ending of the calendar 
year, December 31, 1884, 156 Councils and 13,567 members. The 
Councils were reported as worth $155,109.66. They paid out 
for benefits the previous year, $26,521. No report from Massa- 
chusetts was received, the State Council having disbanded owing 
to one of the Councils withdrawing from the Order, as the result 
of a hasty action on the unofficial returns of the vote relative to 
the amendment of the Fifth Object, in incorporating the reading 
of the Holy Bible in the public schools. 

The Committee to count the vote on the amendment to the 
Fifth Object reported that 1,694 had been cast in favor of the 
amendment and 783 against, thereby adopting the amendment by 
a majority of 901. The Fifth Object, as amended, was made to 
read as follows : 

'•' To uphold the Public School System in the United States of 
America, and prevent sectarian interference therewith, and uphold the 
raiding of the Holy Bible therein." 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 309 

The old and hackneyed theme of change of name was again 
introduced, first, by a communication from the State Council of 
Ohio, expressive of its wishes, and second, from the members of 
the State Council of New Jersey, asking for an amendment by 
which " American Legion " could be substituted for the present 
name. The National Body again expressed its sentiments against 
any change in defeating the proposition by a vote of ayes 9, nays 16. 

The following was submitted by the members of the National 
Council from Pennsylvania: 

" By instruction from the State Council of Pennsylvania, we offer 
the following: Strike out from Sec. 1, Art. XI, General Laws, the word 
' White.' " 

Again the National Council recorded its vote against the 
proposition by a vote of 8 ayes to 17 nays. The form of Public 
Installation, which had been referred back to its author for cor- 
rections, was considered, but failed of adoption by a vote of 3 ayes 
to 22 nays. 

Officers for the ensuing year were elected and installed as 

follows : 

National Councilor — Harry Krausz, of Maryland, 

National Vice-Councilor — Harry C. Hinchman, of Pennsylvania, 

National Secretary — Edw. S. Deemer, of Pennsylvania, 

National Treasurer — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 

National Conductor — Geo. W. Hofseas, of New Jersey, 

National Warden — Jas. T. Disney, of Maryland, 

National Sentinel — Win. R. Stroh, of Pennsylvania. 



RICHMOND, VA., 1886 

On June 15, 1886, the National Body met in the historic City 
of Richmond, Va., it being the Seventeenth Annual Session. 
Thirty members were in attendance, representing the following 
states: Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, New York, Ohio 
and Virginia, the latter having had a State Council instituted since 
the last session. The Governor of the State, General Fitzhugh 
Lee, whose courage and loyalty in the Spanish-American War is 
readily recalled by every Junior and patriot, extended to the mem- 
bers of the National Council, on the part of the State of Virginia, 
a most hearty welcome. Subsequently, by arrangement, the Na- 
tional Council, as a body, called upon the Governor at his mansion 
and were most royally received. 

Up to this time the " Proceedings " of the National Counci 1 
had been published in serial form in the Junior American Mechanic 



310 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

the so-called official organ of the Order. In conformity with the 
recommendation of the National Councilor, the Proceedings were 
ordered to be printed in pamphlet form, and 500 copies were issued. 

The report of the National Secretary showed that the receipts 
of the year were $-106.95 ; that the State Council of Delaware had 
ceased to exist ; that there were but six State Councils in the Union 
and but one Council under the jurisdiction of the National Coun- 
cil, viz.: Massachusetts, Enterprise, No. 1; that there were 171 
Councils in the Order comprising a membership of 15,299, being a 
gain of 1,932 over the previous year. Brother Deemer, with much 
care, presented the plan of The Junior Mechanic Funeral Benefit 
Association, then about four years old, and The American Bene- 
ficial Association, the latter plan having been submitted by Wm. H. 
Miers, the aim of which was to pay a sick brother one dollar a day 
during the continuation of his sickness. Both plans were endorsed 
by the National Body. 

The election of officers was practically unanimous, there being 
but one contest, that of National Vice-Councilor. The new code 
of laws adopted created an additional office of Sentinel, making 
two, Inside and Outside Sentinels. The officers for the ensuing 
year were as follows : 

National Councilor — Harry C. Hinchinan, of Pennsylvania, 
National Vice-Councilor — Geo. W. Elbert, of New Jersey, 
National Secretary — Edw. S. Deemer, of Pennsylvania, 
National Treasurer — J. Adam Sold, of Maryland, 
National Conductor — W. J. Morristy, of New York, 
National Warden — Chas. M. Angle, of Virginia, 
National Inside Sentinel — W. E. Newell, of Ohio, 
National Outside Sentinel — John R. Marlin, of Pennsylvania. 

Other items of business acted upon were the following : 

A resolution emanating from the State Council of New Jersey, 
to strike out the name of the Order, met its usual fate — death. 

A form of prayer for the opening of Council meetings was 
submitted by Geo. W. Elbert, quite lengthy, which was adopted, 
providing, however, that the use of same be optional. 

A revised code of laws was adopted. 



BALTIMORE, MD., 1887 

From thirty to forty members of the National Council met 
in annual session in the City of Baltimore, Maryland, June 21 and 
22, 1887. A marked feature of this meeting was the address of 
welcome extended to the members of the National Body by Brother 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 311 

F. A. Buschuian, then State Councilor of Maryland. The address, 
which found a place in the Proceedings, most certainly deserves a 
place in the archives of the fraternity; and if space in this volume 
was not so limited, the author would gladly publish it in full, 
or portions therefrom. Beautiful in rhetoric, unique in its refer- 
ences to each state, and so apt in quotations, the address stands 
as a gem in oratory. It is with pleasure, that at this writing (Sep- 
tember, 1907,) Brother Buschman is still with us, as earnest and 
active a patriot as ever, and has honored the National Council 
with his presence at many of its sessions. 

The year previous, according to the reports of the National 
officers, had been one of great advance, so far as an increase in 
membership was concerned, there being a gain of nearly 5,000, 
making a total membership of nearly 20,000. The year, however, 
did not show any additional State Councils organized, while but two 
Councils were under the jurisdiction of the National Body, Massa- 
chusetts, with No. 1, at Haverhill, and one at Omaha, Nebraska, 
instituted during the year. In suggesting plans by which the Order 
might be extended, National Secretary Edw. S. Deemer, spoke 
of the advisability of sending an organizer into the field, if one 
capable could be found. He also referred to the plan adopted 
by the State Council of Pennsylvania, that of giving a premium of 
$20 to the organizer of a Council, and the plan had added 40 Coun- 
cils to the Order in the state, and he recommended that the 
National Body offer a premium of $25 for every council instituted, 
and when three councils in a state (where there was no State 
Council), were organized, let there be a State Council created. The 
Committee to whom was referred the report of the National Secre- 
tary, approved the recommendation relative to granting premiums, 
but disapproved the institution of a State Council with but three 
Councils. Tiie report of the Committee was concurred in by the 
National Bodf. 

A Special Committee from the National Council, O. U.A.M., 
the object of which was to seek closer relationship between the two 
Orders, presented the following resolution : 

" Resolved, That the committee in tendering the most fraternal 
greeting of the National Council, O. U. A.M., to the National Council, 
Jr. O. U. A. M., in their Session assembled, in Baltimore, Md., present also 
assurances of the most fraternal feelings on the part of the National 
Council ; that they deplore the alienation of relations now existing between 
the two Orders, and earnestly hope that measures may be adopted by 
which this unfortunate state of things may at the earliest possible future 
be removed." 



312 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

The report of the Committee was received, and at their request, 
a similar Committee was appointed to confer with the Committee 
of the Senior Order, consisting of Brothers John W. Calver, J. 
Adam Sohl and Eobert Carson. 

A resolution offered by the representatives of New York and 
Ohio, that the name " Jr. 0. U. A. M." be stricken out and insert 
" United Sons of America," was laid over. 

A new Eitual was presented, but as it provided Degrees, the 
National Council, by motion, dispensed with any further consid- 
eration of the question. A motion, however, to strike out of the 
Eitual the words " right or wrong, but still our country," was 
adopted. 

The custom of presenting the retiring National Councilor 
with a gold emblem was, by resolution, adopted at this session. 

The movement that was to place the Jr. 0. U. A. M. in the 
forefront of the battle for restricted immigration, had its birth 
in this session. As per resolution offered, a committee, con- 
sisting of H. J. Deily and A. D. DeHaven, of Pennsylvania, and 
Walter E. Orange, of Virginia, were appointed to draw up a Memor- 
ial to Congress praying for the enactment of stricter laws and 
their enforcement relative to immigration. Frcm this time, in a 
greater or less degree, the Order was committed to this feature of 
its work. 

As the result of the election, the following officers were in- 
stalled for the ensuing year: 

National Councilor — Geo. W. Elbert, of New Jersey, 

National Vice-Councilor — Walter E. Orange, of Virginia, 

National Secretary — Edw. S. Deerner, of Pennsylvania (Five years). 

National Treasurer — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 

National Conductor — G. W. Adams, of New York, 

National Warden — W. H. Klusman, of Ohio, 

National Inside Sentinel — Geo. L. Hoffman, of Pennsylvania, 

National Outside Sentinel — John R. Marl in, of Pennsylvania. 

In conformity with the action of the National Body at this 
session, amending the section of the Constitution relating to the 
elective officers of the National Council, the office of National 
Secretary was made for a term of five years. 



NEW TOEK, N. T., 1888 

The Twentieth Annual Session of the National Council was 
held in New Y^ork City, June 19 and 20, 1888. The attendance 
was the largest of any previous session, and the reports of the 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 313 

officers showed a marked increase in interest throughout the Order 
as well as in new iields occupied. The National Councilor in his 
report stated: 

" To-day our Order is planted from Plymouth Rock to the Golden 
Gate of the Pacific." 

During the year the State Council of Massachusetts resumed 
business and was represented at the session. The Order secured 
a foothold in several states and Councils were organized in North 
Carolina, New Hampshire, Texas, Indiana, West Virginia, Cali- 
fornia, Illinois and Delaware, although in some of the above named 
states. Councils formerly existed but were permitted to die, Dela- 
ware and Indiana having had State Councils. State Councilor Geo. 
W. Elbert had visited several states during the year, instilling 
new life into the older Councils and instituting new Councils, 
among which were Wills Point Council, No. 1, Texas, and Man- 
zanita Council, No. 1, at Petaluma, California. Brother Elbert 
spoke in the highest terms of the character of the membership of 
these two Councils. 

The National Secretary reported 19 Councils as being under 
the jurisdiction of the National Council, a gain of 17 since the last 
session, " an event without precedent in our Order." Brother 
Deemer spoke of the wonderful increase made in Pennsylvania, 
stating that there were 250 Councils and 30,000 members alone 
in that state. While much credit for the advance in the Order 
belongs to Brother Elbert, however, it is due to state that the times 
were prosperous, with a strong American sentiment abroad, which 
had much to do with the progress made. While the tabulated 
statement, made up December 31, 1887, did not indicate the great 
increase made in Pennsylvania, yet it was the opinion of the Na- 
tional Secretary, that at the time of the meeting of the National 
Body there were nearly 37,000 members in the entire Order. A 
large advance was shown in the per capita tax, for many years 
termed " Percentage," there being $1,847.78 paid into the treasury, 
of which amount, Pennsylvania furnished $1,469.52. 

- The Committee to confer with a similar Committee of the 
O. TJ. A. M. reported that there was a meeting of the joint commit- 
tee, and " after careful deliberation and interchange of opinions, 
lasting several hours, we concluded, whilst consoli elation was not 
possible, we thought, a more fraternal relation between the two 
Orders would be desirable." By virtue of an appointment of the 
National Council, O. TJ. A. M., Dr. Piper presented the fraternal 
greetings of the Senior Order to the National Body. 



314 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

The National Secretary submitted a " Declaration of Prin- 
ciples/' declaring the Jr. 0. U. A. M. " a patriotic, secret, bene- 
ficial association, with love of country for its chief cornerstone " ; 
that it was not a labor organization nor political, neither was it 
sectarian, but accorded to every man the liberty to worship God 
according to the dictates of his conscience. The " Declaration," 
however, was adopted by a bare majority, the vote being ayes 19, 
nays 18. 

It was agreed by the National Body, that in addition to the 
questions asked of a candidate in the ante-room by tbe Jr. P. C, 
the following be included : 

" Do you promise to maintain the Public School System of the 
United States of America, and prevent sectarian interference therewith, 
and uphold the reading of the Holy Bible therein." 

The question of change of name, laid over from last session, 
substituting " United Sons of America " for " Jr. 0. U. A. M.", 
was defeated after a motion to insert " Order of United Americans " 
instead. The " change of name " seems to have been " in the 
air," as immediately following the failure of the above proposition, 
another resolution was offered and laid over for a year under the 
rule, that the National Constitution be so changed as to strike out 
the words " Junior Order of United American Mechanics " and in- 
sert " Independent Order of United Americans." 

The officers elected were as follows: 

National Councilor — Walter E. Orange, of Virginia, 

National Vice-Councilor — Wm. H. Stroh, of Pennsylvania, 

National Treasurer — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 

National Conductor — Geo. W. Hofseas, of New Jersey, 

National Warden — M. Zeb. Percival, of Virginia, 

National Inside Sentinel — Jno. S. Carson, of New Hampshire, 

National Outside Sentinel — H. H. Bair, of Pennsylvania. 



HAVERHILL, MASS., 1889 

The National Council, for the second time, convened at Haver - 
bill, Massachusetts, June 18, 1S89, with 46 members in attendance. 
Entering upon the third decade of its history, the National Body 
was on the threshold of an era of marvelous growth as well as of 
great achievements. The names of many brothers are found in 
the Proceedings of this session, who, for two epochs or decades 
had been in the forefront of the Order, and many of them to con- 
tinue as factors in the future history of the organization. Among 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 315 

those might be named: Brothers Calver, Deemer, Arthur and Sibbs, 
a quartette from Pennsjdvania who were present at the Twenty- 
first Annual Session, the first two being at the First Session, who, 
with Brother Arthur, were present at the Thirty-seventh Annual 
Session at Nashville, Tenn., in 1905. The roll-call showed that 
others were present at this session who either had been or were 
active in the work of the Order and were to become conspicuous 
figures, and are still with us, faithful and enthusiastic as ever, 
although eighteen years have passed, viz. : Chase, of Massachusetts ; 
Buschman, of Maryland; Bichter, of Ohio; Shaler, of Illinois, but 
now of Pennsylvania ; McCully, W. C. Evans, P. S. C. H. L. 
Williams and Dr. W. H. Painter, of Pennsylvania. 

It must have given Brother Deemer great satisfaction to sub- 
mit his annual report. The year previous had shown great advance 
all along the line, especially in Pennsylvania. Beferring to his 
tabulated report, closing, however, December 31, the year preced- 
ing, the National Secretary says: 

" This is a grand showing. Every state but one ( New York ) 
shows a gratifying increase in members and finances. . . . We have 
increased over 12,000 members, over 100 Councils, and expended about 
$90,000 for benefits and relief." 

Much of the success in the newer states was attributed to the 
premium of $25 paid for all new Councils organized. The amount 
of premiums paid to organizers in New York, Massachusetts, Ohio 
and Virginia, alone was $1,400. Beferring to the marvelous 
growth in his own state, Pennsylvania, Brother Deemer adds : 

" The membership there on the 31st of December was 33,709, being 
about 2,000 stronger than the entire Order was one year ago. At our 
last session she reported 198 Councils, to-day she has chartered 339, of 
which over 330 are in good standing, and meeting as required by law. 
The organization in this state has become a power, and I believe a power 
for good. With 40,000 membership at the present time, she commands 
the attention of the state." 

The question of " change of name " came up before this meet- 
ing of the National Body with a strong reinforcement — that of the 
Bepresentatives of Pennsylvania, by instructions of their State 
Council. Brother Deemer refers to the sentiment favoring a 
change of name that had so grown that the Order was permeated 
with it. He spoke of his own state having always opposed a 
change, but at this session the question would be submitted and 
supported by her delegates. In conformity with 'these instructions 
the following was read, signed by ten members of the Pennsylvania 
delegation : 



316 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

" In pursuance of instructions from the State Council of Pennsyl- 
vania, we offer the following resolution: That the question of changing 
the name of the Order be submitted to the entire membership of .the 
Order, to be decide by a vote taken in every Council in the United States; 
the name to be chosen from a list prepared in the National Council and 
submitted to each Subordinate Council." 

The resolution was adopted and a Committee was appointed 
to submit a list of names in conformity therewith. Subsequently, 
the Committee, consisting of Brothers A. L. Solomon, Robert Car- 
son and F. A. Buschman, submitted the following as their report: 

"Your Committee on change of name refer the following for action: 

Jr. O. U. A. M. 

Native American Patriots. 

P. 0. Native Americans. 

Order Loyal Americans. 

Independent Order United Americans. 

The Order of the United States. 

The Order of the American Republic. 

American Legion. 

" While we submit this large number of names, the Committee are 
unanimous for the last named, ' American Legion,' and would recommend 
that this name be laid before the organization for a vote." 

After refusing to adopt the amendment laid over to substitute 
" Independent Order of United Americans " for the present name, 
and also refusing to submit the list as prepared by the Committee", 
to the Order at large, the National Body, by a vote of 35 to 6, 
adopted the recommendation of the Committee, submitting to the 
Subordinate Councils the name of " American Legion " for their 
vote. 

P. S. C. Williams, of Massachusetts, presented a resolution 
requesting a committee to prepare five-minutes addresses upon the 
subjects named below in commemoration of the events appertaining 
thereto : 

" February 22 — Washington's Birthday. 

" April 30 — The adoption of the Constitution of the United States, 
and Washington's Inauguration. 

" May 17— The Anniversary of the Founding of the Order. 
" June 14 — The Adoption of our National Emblem. 
" July 4 — The Declaration of Independence." 

The purpose of these addresses, if adopted, was for the Junior 
Past Councilor in Subordinate Councils to deliver them under the 
" Good of the Order " at meetings which shall be held nearest the 
several dates named. The resolution was adopted. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 317 

The officers for the ensuing year were elected as follows: 
National Councilor — Wm. R. Stroh, of Pennsylvania, 
National Vice-Councilor — Geo. H. Bartlett, of Massachusetts, 
National Treasurer — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 
National Conductor — Jno. P. Branin, of Ohio, 
National Warden — John V. Gillaspy, of Pennsylvania, 
National Inside Sentinel — Phil. A. Shaffer, of West Virginia, 
National Outside Sentinel — Jno. W. Kull, of New Jersey. 



CHICAGO, ILL., 1890 

For the first time in its history, the National Council met in 
the Greater West — the metropolis of that vast empire — Chicago, 
Illinois, June 17-19, 1890. The session was crowded with business 
and enthusiasm ran high. The remarkable advancement made by 
the Order was intensely gratifying and the brethren composing 
the National Body, " seeing eye to eye," were earnest in their efforts 
to make the work of the organization still more effective. During 
the year charters had been granted for the institution of State 
Councils in Washington, New Hampshire, Alabama and Illinois. 
In the latter state, under the direction of Brother F. J. Shaler, 
great advance had been made, from 32 members to over 500. The 
banner of the Order had been unfurled in some new states since 
the last session, viz. : Missouri, Wisconsin and Florida. 

Brother Deemer, National Secretary, reported an increase in 
Councils of 198 and of members 14,271. He then adds: 

"Is not this a grand showing? Bear in mind that it is nearly six 
months old, and also that very material progress has been made since that 
time. Pennsylvania has credit for but 394 Councils, while to-day she has 
nearly 470. Ohio is credited with but 59 Councils, while she has over 
100. Our total membership is over 60,000. Since last July, 135 Councils 
have been organized in Pennsylvania, and it is possible before the session 
of the State Council (September) that it may reach 150." 

The tabulated vote on substituting " American Legion " for 
" Junior Order United American Mechanics," as reported by the 
Committee appointed to count the vote of the Subordinate Coun- 
cils, showed that the proposition was overwhelmingly defeated, 
the vote standing 1,625 in favor of a change of name and 11,732 
against. The votes by states is given elsewhere. This decisive 
sentiment against change of name, however, did not prevent an- 
other resolution being offered, this time the proposition was to 
substitute " Order of United Americans." The resolution was 
adopted, and again the Order at large was asked to vote once more 
on the subject, in October. 



318 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

The thread-bare subject of a new Eitual was again introduced 
by way of a resolution, signed by 14 members, asking the National 
Councilor to appoint a committee of five to prepare a Eitual and 
to be submitted to the National Body " at the earliest date con- 
sistent, with best attainable results." The Committee selected was 
Bros. Eichter, Zimmerman, Eoberts, of Ohio, Cranston and Wil- 
liams, of Pennsylvania. At the same time a committee was ap- 
pointed to formulate a Eitual for the opening and closing of Na- 
tional and State Councils, installation of officers in public, and for 
the reception of members by card. 

The session was attended by nearly 50 members, and was 
replete with interest. The preparations for and advertisement of 
the coming of the National Council entailed an expense of more 
than $500, which amount was paid by the National Body. Roll- 
call revealed the names of several brothers well known in the annals 
of the Order, among whom were Harry E. Peck, I. V. Eobbins, 
James Cranston, Harry A. Kiel, of Pennsylvania, J. H. Zimmer- 
man, " father of the Orphans' Home," and L. N. Van Horn, of 
Ohio, and Eoger J. Armstrong, of Missouri. 

An effort to strike out the word " white " in a section of the 
law, in order that other races than the white race could be admitted 
to membership, was defeated by a vote 8 to 35. An important 
amendment to the National Constitution was adopted as follows : 

"That the Finance Committee be appointed from the city in which 
the National Secretary resides, and with their report give an estimate of 
expenses and receipts for the ensuing year, and with the per capita tax 
for the ensuing year." 

The result of the election of officers was as follows: 

National Councilor — Geo. H. Bartlett, of Massachusetts, 
National Vice-Councilor — Jno. P. Boblits, of Maryland, 
National Treasurer — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 
National Conductor — Wm. H. Painter, of Pennsylvania, 
National Warden — Geo. W. Hofseas, of New Jersey, 
National Inside Sentinel — A. H. Barber, of Wisconsin, 
National Outside Sentinel — J. D. Pearce, of Alabama. 



CHAPTER XXI 
SESSIONS OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL (Continued) 

CLEVELAND, OHIO, 1891 

THE rapid progress of the Order made the Twenty-third Annual 
Session of the National Council at Cleveland, Ohio, June 
16-18, 1891, a very busy one. Fifty members were in attendance, 
representing eleven State Councils, and two representing states still 
under the jurisdiction of the National Body, one of the latter 
being our genial, big-hearted brother from the Southland, Dr. J. L. 
Cooper, of Texas. The roll-call brought to notice for the first 
time the names of two brothers well known to many who have 
attended the National sessions these latter years — W. L. James, of 
Maryland, and W. S. Schenck, of the State of Washington. The 
Order was planted in some new states, viz. : Maine, Iowa and 
Michigan. The reports of Deputy National Councilors showed 
great advancement in some sections. Ohio had gained 50 Councils 
during the year. Illinois, under the efficient direction of Deputy 
National Councilor F. J. Shaler, increased from 10 Councils and 
500 members to 28 Councils and 2,000 members, an increase of 300 
per cent. Pennsylvania on December 31, 1890, had 532 Councils 
and about 57,000 members. The six months since the report was 
tabulated, witnessed a still more phenomenal advance in the old 
" Keystone State/' which will be noted in the proper place. That 
old wheel-horse of Pennsylvania Juniorism, " General " Stephen 
Collins, was in the saddle and through his efforts and the enthusi- 
asm he aroused, a wave of patriotism swept the state, until it reached 
nearly every county and hamlet, and between 200 and 300 Councils 
were instituted and thousands of members were enrolled under the 
banner of our Order during his term as State Councilor (1890-91). 
In the writer's home city (Pittsburg) the Order was a power, 
men of prominence in city and state, ministers, physicians, lawyers 
and men in charge of the educational institutions sought admission 
to the Councils of the organization ; indeed the same was true in 
every part of the state. It was the writer's privilege under Brother 
Collins' direction to address public meetings attended by from 600 
to 1,000 people, all intent on hearing discussed the Objects and 
Principles of the Order. 

319 



820 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

The tabulated statement of the National Secretary, ending 
December 31, 1890, gave the following showing by states: 

NO. OF COUNCILS MEMBERS 

Pennsylvania 532 50,566 

Ohio 135 8,576 

New Jersey 84 • 7,330 

Virginia 34 2,738 

Maryland 20 2,104 

• West Virginia 26 1,188 

Illinois 24 1,183 

Massachusetts 16 1,020 

New Hampshire 7 429 

New York 8 342 

Washington 7 304 

Including with the above tabulation of membership, the mem- 
bers of Councils still under the supervision of the National Coun- 
cil, the entire membership was 82,605, with 919 Councils in good 
standing, or a gain over the preceding year of more than 300 Coun- 
cils and over 26,000 members. It is interesting to note that the 
gain in ten years was 111+ Councils and in members 15,01+8. 

It is interesting also to note the comparison in finances for 
1880 and 1890: 

1880 1890 

Received by Subordinate Councils. $42,642.93 $520,869.61 

Amount paid for Benefits 9,708.31 186,069.95 

In Treasuries of Sub. Councils... 77,142.36 559,887.34 

The total receipts of the National Council for the year was 
$9,3-13.82, of which $8,000.98 was for per capita tax. 

The National Secretary suggested that the " American De- 
fense Association," an organization working in the interest of re- 
stricted immigration, be endorsed by the National Council, which 
recommendation was approved. He referred to the Preamble of 
the Order in which there had been no change since the institution 
of AVashington Council in 1853, and suggested that the Declaration 
of Principles adopted at Chicago the year previous be made the 
Preamble, in which recommendation the National Body concurred. 
Eelative to a change in the Charter, the following was recommended 
by Brother Deemer: 

" I would take out the train of cars at the top, and insert a school- 
house with the flag flying from its peak, and upon the tiling at the 
bottom, I would put an altar, upon which is to lie the Bible, American 
Flag and the Constitution of the United States." 

The National Council approved the suggestion. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 321 

The subject of " Ritual " had its usual place in the business of 
the session ; but it is more fully presented in the chapter on Ritual. 
In conformity with the resolution offered at a former session, a form 
for Public Installation of Officers was submitted, but not being 
satisfactory, it was recommitted to the Committee. The Commit- 
tee on Ritual did not submit a new Ritual, but presented several 
suggestions that had been made to them by members of the Order. 
It was resolved, however, that there should be attached to the book 
of Ritual a plan of the Council room to be used in the " camp 
scene." 

On the subject of " change of name," referred to the Subor- 
dinate Councils for their vote, the Committee appointed to tabu- 
late the vote reported that the proposition to change the name to 
"Order United Americans" was defeated by a vote of 11,586 to 
7,446. Undaunted by this failure, a large number of the members 
of the body again presented a resolution asking for a change of 
name, substituting the name that had been defeated, and it was 
adopted by 37 ayes to 13 nays. 

Three important subjects were considered at this session, each 
in its own way to exert a powerful influence throughout the nation 
and to become potent factors in the progress of the Order. The 
first of these mighty forces to be put in motion was the adoption of 
a recommendation to send an Organizer into the field, and levying 
of a special tax of six cents per capita to defray the expenses of 
6ame. 

Another matter that in the years to follow was to bring the 
Order in closer touch with the several states, as well as the Union 
at large, was the presentation of the form and duties of the Na- 
tional Legislative Committee. The subject, however, was submitted 
to a Special Committee. 

A third subject, of all the three the most important, came 
before the National Body in the form of a brief resolution, pre- 
ceded, however, by a lengthy preamble, and read as follows: 

" Resolved, That this National Council take some pre- 
liminary steps towards providing a home for the orphans of 
deceased members." 

This resolution was presented by the Representatives of Ohio, 
by direction of their State Council. The brother who drew up 
the resolution, and who bears the cognomen, "father of the Or- 
phans' Home," was J. H. Zimmerman, of Plain City, Ohio, through 
whose persistent watering of the seed-truth just sown in patriotic 



S22 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

soil, the Order was to see the great banyan-tree of protection for 
our orphans spread until, under the broad sheltering wings of our 
National Orphans' Home, at Tiffin, Ohio, our dear wards have 
found a " home " indeed as well as help and protection. 

This was a glorious day for our Order. In the City of 
Cleveland, State of Ohio, on June 18, 1891, was inaugurated a 
movement that will be immortal in its influence and power; and 
as the slightest motion in the ocean will not cease until from shore 
to shore the vast volume of water is stirred, so here was started a 
heart-throb that is destined to roll on down the centuries that will 
not stop until the last wave shall dash its silvery spray upon the 
banks of the Celestial. 

After the installation of the following officers, the National 
Council adjourned : 

National Councilor — Jno. R. Boblits, of Maryland, 
National Vice-Councilor — James Cranston, of Pennsylvania, 
National Treasurer — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 
National Conductor — H. H. Bair, of Pennsylvania, 
National Warden— John D. Hall, of West Virginia, 
National Inside Sentinel — Dr. J. L. Cooper, of Texas, 
National Outside Sentinel — G. W. McFarland, of New Jersey. 



ATLANTIC CITY, N. J., 1892 

After a year of wonderful advancement, and the many ques- 
tions arising as to the dissemination of the principles of the Order, 
made the Twenty-fourth Session of the National Council at At- 
lantic City, N. J., June 21-24, 1892, the most important session 
held since the institution of the National Body. Kev. J. E. Bob- 
lits, as National Councilor, and James Cranston, as National Vice- 
Councilor, occupied their respective Chairs with credit to the 
fraternity. 

More than 60 members responded to roll-call, representing 
fifteen State Councils. One, who in the years to come was des- 
tined to be a most conspicuous figure in the organization, and 
whose work already as an organizer had been of such a character 
as to indicate that he was a leader of men, for the first time answered 
to his name. It is scarcely necessary to state his name in this con- 
nection, as he is known from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from 
the Great Lakes to the Gulf — Brother Stephen Collins. In the 
subsequent history of the Order, Brother Collins' life runs as a 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 328 

thread woven in the woof of the organization; and while no one ir 
the Order has heen criticized more than he, yet all must admit that 
no one has worked harder and sacrificed more for the advancement 
of the Order than Brother Collins. To-day, as Secretary-Manager 
of the Beneficiary Degree and Funeral Benefit Department, he is 
directing these important features of the organization with closest 
economy and on the strictest business basis. 

The writer has some very pleasant recollections of this session. 
The Supreme Commandery of the Uniform Eank, as a body, was in 
attendance to take part in the parade, having gone in special train 
via Washington, D. C, from Pittsburg, Pa. It was our pleasure 
as well as honor to represent the Supreme Commandery in present- 
ing to the National Council a set of resolutions, beautifully en- 
grossed and framed, in recognition of the courtesy of the National 
Council's action at a previous session in recognizing and endorsing 
the Uniform Eank. The writer recalls how deeplv he was im- 
pressed with the appearance and personnel of the National Body, 
as well as the well-chosen response of Brother F. A. Buschman in 
receiving, in behalf of the National Council, the resolutions. We 
also recall the great parade, in honor of the National Body, and the 
long, hot tramp and the many who "fell by the way " and returned 
to their hotel by the street cars. 

Two new committees were designated at this session, viz. : 
Distribution Committee and Committee on the State of the Order. 
The duties required of the first was to distribute all recommen- 
dations, resolutions, suggestions, etc., to the proper committees 
for their consideration ; while the duties of the second were to re- 
port on all subjects having special reference to the " Good of the 
Order." 

Four State Councils were organized during the year, viz. : 
Indiana (reorganized) by Brother Eobert Ogle; Michigan and 
Iowa, by Brother Stephen Collins ; and North Carolina, by Special 
Deputy Ivey. Two new states came under the jurisdiction of the 
National Council, Kentucky and Oklahoma. 

While the report of Councils and membership, under date of 
December 31, 1891, showed 1,260 Councils and 107,991 members, 
still the increase had gone on so rapidly, that at the time of the 
session of the National Body there were over 1,500 Councils and 
about 110,000 members. The total receipts of the National Coun- 
cil were $16,308.23, while the disbursements were only $14,052.51, 
leaving a balance of $6,328.12. 



324 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

Several important matters were brought before the body and 
adopted, among which were the following : 

1. " Resolved, That the National Councilor, National Vice-Councilor 
and Junior Past National Councilor, compose the National Board of 
Officers." 

Previous to this the Board of Officers consisted of the first 
two of the above officers and the National Secretary. 

2. All officers and members of Standing and Special Com- 
mittees to be allowed their expenses, traveling and hotel, for such 
time as the National Council is in session. 

3. That the reports of the Board of Officers, the National Sec- 
retary, National Treasurer and Finance Committee, be printed 
prior to the meeting of the National Council and distributed at the 
opening of the first session of the body. 

4. The adoption of the report of the Special Committee recom- 
mending a National Legislative Committee, outlining its duties, 
etc. This Committee subsequently became a power in the organ- 
ization in shaping legislation, especially upon the subject of Immi- 
gration. 

5. The creation of a new Committee, known as the " Trans- 
portation Committee." 

The National Council refused to adopt the following sugges- 
tions and recommendations: 

1. To strike out in Article on Eligibility to Membership, the 
word " white." 

2. To accede to the request of the Councils of the District of 
Columbia to rescind a previous action of the body in placing them 
under the jurisdiction of the State Council of Virginia and grant 
them a charter for a State Council. 

3. To endorse the Daughters of America. 

Suggestions were made relative to three subjects, that in subse- 
quent years, were to be favorably considered : 

1. The payment of the expenses of the "Representatives to the 
National Council by the National Body. 

2. That no Past National and Past State Councilor shall have 
a voice in the National Council or their respective State Councils, 
providing that the enactment should not be retroactive m any way. 

3. Representation of each State Council of 5,000 members 
or less to be five Representatives and to serve five years. 

The report of Brother Stephen Collins, as National Organizer 
for a part of the year, indicated most efficient work in Michigan 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 325 

and Iowa. In the former state, after three months' work, nine 
Councils were organized and a State Council instituted. In Iowa, 
after six weeks' effort, seven Councils were planted and a State 
Council created. 

The following officers were elected : 

National Councilor — James Cranston, of Pennsylvania, 

National Vice-Councilor — H. A. Kibbe, of New Jersey, 

National Secretary — Edw. S. Deeemer, of Pennsylvania (Five years). 

National Treasurer — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 

National Conductor — F. Schaefer, of New York, 

National Warden — H. P. Fuller, of Massachusetts, 

National Inside Sentinel — F. J. Stockwell, of Iowa, 

National Outside Sentinel — S. C. Anderson, of Washington. 



DETROIT, MICHIGAN, 1893 

The Twenty-fifth Annual Session of the National Council was 
held in the City of Detroit, Mich., June 20-23, 1893, there being 
21 states represented by 90 members. The reports showed an 
increase of 273 Councils and of members 23,789. The total, ending 
the fiscal year, December 31, 1892, was, in Councils, 1,533; in mem- 
bers, 131,280. 

THE NATIONAL ORGANIZER 

Much credit is due Brother Stephen Collins, National Organ- 
izer, for the unprecedented advance of the Order during the year. 
From his report to the National Body, only a few facts can be 
inserted in this connection, showing the strenuous life he led 
in his widespread labors in the Far West. 

Entering the State of Nebraska, at Omaha, Brother Collins 
began at once to lay the foundations of the Order in that city. It 
was July 2, 1892, when he entered Nebraska ; by August 1, he had 
six Councils organized, and on August 5, he instituted the State 
Council of Nebraska. Doing some preliminary work in Iowa and 
Missouri, the National Organizer proceeded to Wisconsin, strength- 
ening the Councils in that jurisdiction, then returning to Missouri 
he instituted the State Council of that state on November 25, 1892. 
During the next two months Brother Collins visited Kansas and 
Colorado, organizing councils, and subsequently instituted State 
Councils in each state. Crossing the Rocky Mountains to the 
Pacific slope, he spent some time in the States of Washington, Ore- 
gon and California, instituting new Councils and encouraging old 
ones, everywhere sowing the seed-truths of the Order. 



326 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

In short, Brother Collins during the year instituted five State 
Councils and thirty-eight Subordinate Councils in eight different 
states, besides doing much general work. For fifteen months he 
had been in the field, as organizer, he organized 110 Councils and 
brought into the Organization thereby 5,000 members. 

The highest compliments were paid Brother Collins and his 
work by the National Councilor and National Secretary, and when, 
at the close of the session, the National Councilor announced his 
reappointment as National Organizer, it was received with applause 
and congratulatory addresses. 

REPORTS OF THE NATIONAL OFFICERS 

While the reports of National Councilor Cranston and National 
Secretary Deemer were voluminous, nevertheless, they were com- 
prehensive and intensely interesting. Both of these officers took 
high ground on certain questions, and placed themselves in the fore- 
front along all lines of practical patriotism. The adoption of the 
Declaration of Principles at a previous session, the new Ritual, 
as well as the work of the National Legislative Committee, had 
aroused in many quarters a storm of criticism, the claim being ad- 
vanced that the Junior Order was a political organization as well 
as sectarian. The closing paragraph of the Declaration of Prin- 
ciples, which read, " In the strictest sense we are a national politi- 
cal organization," etc., and a clause in the Ritual that seemed to 
sympathize with this declaration, as well as the introduction of a 
character in the initiatory ceremony, gave rise to the protest, claim- 
ing that these were inconsistent with the Objects and Principles of 
the Order, and asked that the objectionable features be eliminated. 
Reference to this controversy, however, has been given fully under 
the chapter of Ritual. 

"With this controversy in view, Brother Cranston, in his report 
as National Councilor, upheld the methods that were being adopted 
in carrying out the purposes and aims of the Order. Among the 
many excellent things suggested in his report, the following indi- 
cates the high ground on which he stood upon the controversial 
issues : 

" Our members must realize that the day for sentiment regarding 
our objects is past. It is not theoretical but practical patriotism that 
the times demand. Speeches in the Council-room will not restrict immi- 
gration, protect our public schools or advance American interests. The 
place to display our patriotism is at the polls. Political patriotism is 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 327 

the kind of patriotism needed in this age. The Junior Order United 
American Mechanics is a 'standing army' whose duty is to guard Amer- 
ican institutions, and the ballot is its weapon. All we need is to ' shoot 
straight.' " 

(Subsequently in the session, the objectionable character re- 
ferred to in the initiation was eliminated, but the so-called political 
clause in both the Declaration of Principles and the Obligation, were 
retained and all protests relative thereto were disapproved.) 

Under the caption, " Memorial at Washington's Birthplace," 
the National Councilor said : 

" During January of the year, my attention was directed by Rev. 
Brother M. D. Lichliter, a patriotic minister of McKeesport, Pa., to the 
fact that the site of the birthplace of Washington was unmarked, and 
it was sviggested that the Order take steps to erect a monumental stone." 

Following the above suggestion, the National Councilor entered 
into correspondence with Governor Kinney, of Virginia, Robert J. 
Washington, grand-son of Col. Wm. Augustine Washington, and 
others, and learned that an appropriation to erect a memorial had 
been made by Congress ten years before, but the amount was not 
sufficient to complete the project. The whole matter was placed 
by the National Councilor in the hands of Brother J. K. Emge, 
editor of The American, who carried on the correspondence and 
finally got Congressmen Jones, of Virginia, Hon. Wm. A. Stone 
and Hon. John Dalzell, of Pennsylvania, interested, who succeeded 
in having a bill passed unanimously, February 22, 1893, providing 
for additional appropriation. It might be well to state that the 
credit for the passage of the bill was given the Order by Congress. 

As a sentinel, true and faithful, with an eye on the perils con- 
fronting the Republic, Brother Cranston, in his Thanksgiving 
Proclamation threw out the red-signal light of danger by calling 
attention to the speech of Judge Dunne, delivered at the Catholic 
Columbian celebration at Philadelphia, and suggested that the 
minister selected or invited to preach to the members of the Order, 
be made acquainted with the sentiments of Catholicism's mouth- 
piece. The portion of the speech especially at variance with the 
Principles of the Order were these: 

" The great boast of this country is independence and impartial 
justice, but the goddess of justice should hide her face in shame when 
she considers the manner in which the Catholics are treated here. The 
public schools are, to be sure, the mainspring of the country's welfare, 
but why should they be upheld in such a partial manner? What right has 



328 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

the government to set up a pernicious system of education and force 
13,000,000 of its people into it, when their conscience rebel against it? 
It is a shame that such should be the case. 

" The government should help support the parochial schools, as we 
help support the public schools. ... In Baltimore, Md., the public 
schools are corrupting the childhood of the city, and have been exposed 
by a recent writer, who will do the same for other cities. A rottenness 
of administration exists which must be changed or the schools will not 
last." 

THE NEW LAWS 

The consideration of a new code of laws and amendments, 
presented by the Law Committee, occupied several sessions of the 
Committee of the Whole, and the discussions relative to their 
adoption were animating. After several attempts to arrange a 
revised code of laws, but without success, the Committee asked to be 
relieved and that the further consideration of the laws be deferred 
until the next session. By a vote of 46 to 35, the request of the 
Committee of the Whole was granted. 

REPORT OF THE NATIONAL LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE 

The report of this newly created Committee indicated much 
activity along the lines for which it was created, in seeking legis- 
lation upon the important questions involving the perpetuation of 
the fundamental principles of our common country. Following 
the plan approved by the Cabinet of the Legislative Committee, the 
Sub-Committee endorsed the Chandler Immigration Bill in the 
National Congress, and the Councils of the entire Order poured 
thousands of petitions into Congress praying for the enactment of 
a restrictive immigration measure. Under the direction of the 
Legislative Committee, a call for a " Patriotic Congress " was sent 
to the various patriotic organizations of the country to consider 
questions of vital importance to the Eepublic. The proposed Con- 
vention was set for October 10, 1893. 9 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL ORPHANS' HOME 

Under the caption " National Orphans' Home," will be found 
fuller presentation of the Institution, hence, in order to preserve 
a chronological connection, only a brief reference to the annual 
reports of the Committee will follow here. As this was the first 
report of the Committee, since its appointment, two years previous, 
it is copied in full, and is as follows: 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 329 

"Detroit. Mich., June 20th, 1893. 

" To the N. C, N. V. C, Officers and Members of the National Council, 
Jr. O.V.A. M. 

" Dear Sirs and Brothers. — 

" Your Committee appointed to consider and report upon the con- 
struction of a Home for Widows and Orphans of deceased members, beg 
leave to make the report as follows: 

" The work of the Committee has been most thoroughly and intelli- 
gently performed by Bro. J. II. Zimmerman, of Plain City, Ohio, who is 
a member of the Committee, and he has presented to your Committee, in 
meeting assembled, a complete and elaborate report, consisting of fifty 
pages of manuscript and thirteen drawings. 

" Upon considering the report offered to the Committee by Bro. 
Zimmerman, we have, by unanimous consent, endorsed the same, and 
would recommend as follows: 

" First. That the entire report be printed and circulated among 
the membership, in order that all may become acquainted with this laud- 
able undertaking. 

" Second. That your Committee recommends the adoption by this 
National Council of the second or village plan recommended by Bro. 
Zimmerman. 

" Third. We recommend that during the ensuing year the the Com- 
mittee be instructed to receive by correspondence any proposal inat may 
be offered by any Council or Councils, as to what aid the Committee 
might expect of them in case the proposed Home should be located in 
their immediate vicinity; said proposal to be submitted to the National 
Council at its next meeting. 

" Respectfully submitted in V. L. & P., 

" Geo. W. Elbert, 
" W. R. Stroh, 
" J. H. Zimmerman, 
" D. F. Anderson." 

The report was adopted. 

Other items of business were transacted at this session as 
follows : 

1. A form for the Public Installation of Officers was adopted. 

2. By a vote of 31 nays to 21 yeas the National Body refused 
to concur with the report of the Committee to endorse the Daughters 
of America. 

The following proposed amendments of the Objects of the 
Order were presented and laid over under the rules : 

1. To strike out from the First Object the words " and shield 
them from the depressing effects of foreign competition." 

2. To create a new Object to be known as the Sixth Object, 
as follows: 

" To oppose the union of Church and State, and the appropriation 
of public moneys for sectarian purposes." 



330 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

Among the Eepresentatives in attendance at this session, and 
who were, subsequently, to be conspicuous in the work and history 
of the National Body, were Brothers P. A. Shanor, afterwards Na- 
tional Councilor; A. D. Wilkin, for years a member of either the 
Law Committee or National Legislative Committee; Z. T. Woben- 
smith, subsequently State Councilor of Pennsylvania, and J. K. 
Emge, editor of The American, all of Pennsylvania. The roll-call 
also revealed the presence for the first time of our genial warm- 
hearted patriot, P. N. O, A. L. Cray, of Indiana, at that time a 
Eepresentative of his State Council. 

The National Council closed with the following officers elected 
and installed: 

National Councilor — H. A. Kibbe, of New Jersey, 
National Vice-Councilor — J. G. A. Richter, of Ohio, 
National Treasurer — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 
National Conductor — A. L. Solomon, of Pennsylvania, 
National Warden — H. W. Cole, of Michigan, 
National Inside Sentinel — Dr. J. L. Cooper, of Texas, 
National Outside Sentinel — A. L. Chase, of Massachusetts. 



ASHEVILLE, N.C., 1894 

The Twent}'-sixth Annual Session of the National Body con- 
vened at Asheville, North Carolina, June 19, 1894, and lasted four 
days. About 90 members were in attendance, among whom were 
some who have, since that time, aided largely in shaping the present 
policy of the Order and are well known within the circle of the 
National Council, viz. : Brothers Joseph Powell, of Colorado, subse- 
quently National Councilor; F. W. Pierson, of Delaware, also to 
serve in after years as the presiding officer of the body; W. 
Staples, of Connecticut; E. B. Dillingham, of Georgia; A. G. 
Bainbridge, of Minnesota; G. A. Davis, of Maryland, and F. C. 
Borden, of Missouri. 

The reports of the Board of Officers and National Secretary, 
showed some increase, but not to the extent as the previous two 
years, owing to the depression that was affecting the business and 
labor interests of the entire country. In the face of this, however, 
the Order had been planted in seven new states, and through the 
efficient labors of the National Organizer — Brother Stephen Col- 
lins — five State Councils had been instituted, viz. : California, Ore- 
gon, Texas, Kentucky and Georgia, making in all 27 State Councils, 
representing 1,763 Councils and a membership of 142,459, exclus- 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 331 

ive of Councils under the immediate jurisdiction of the National 
Council, being a gain of 137 Councils and 6,994 members. Penn- 
sylvania had reached its "high water-mark"" with nearly 1,000 
Councils and 87,000 members. 

THE COMING CONFLICT 

The mutterings of the coming storm that was to burst forth 
from the black cloud of internal dissension at the " Crossing of 
the Centuries/' was heard at this session. The first outbreak of 
factional strife was in the Board of Officers over the appointment 
of the National Legislative Committee, National Councilor H. A. 
Kibbe, claiming the prerogative of choosing three of the five mem- 
bers. The controversy, however, was settled in his choosing two, 
the National Vice-Councilor selecting two, and the Junior Past 
National Councilor choosing one member. 

REPRESENTATION 

The purpose of a few leaders of the then dominant faction in 
some of the older states, principally Pennsylvania, to gain complete 
control of the political machinery of the National Council, led to 
the enactment of an amendment to the Article relative to ratio 
of membership in the National Body. This ratio gave to each state 
five representatives where the membership did not exceed 5,000, 
and an additional Eepresentative for every additional 3,000 mem- 
bers or a majority fraction thereof. This was a grave mistake on 
the part of the National Council, as it had the tendency to place 
the National Body in the control of the larger states, which had 
plenty of money to send a large delegation as well as being largely 
represented by Past State Councilors. 

From a sense of justice, it is well to state, that the increased 
ratio of representation was opposed, to a large extent, by those who, 
in the years of strife, composed the loyal element of the organ- 
ization. 

The marvelous achievements of Brother Stephen Collins as 
National Organizer, and being possessed of natural traits of leader- 
ship, aroused a spirit of jealousy on the part of some members of 
the National Body, whereupon, there was formed a cabal in the 
body to antagonize him which brought to his support staunch 
friends, especially in the Western states and a few of the Southern 
states, where his great work had been accomplished. Hence, the 
two parties in the National Council at this session struggled for 



332 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

supremacy and the lines were sharply drawn, each party scoring 
a victory, the one electing the National Vice-Councilor, and the 
other securing the place for the next meeting — Omaha, Nebraska. 

THE NATIONAL ORGANIZER 

The creation of the position of National Organizer had never 
met with universal approval, and the opinions as to the success of 
the one who had served in that capacity, were somewhat at vari- 
ance, while the criticisms were quite frequent, the latter, however, 
arising from personal reasons rather than from facts. 

National Secretary Brother Deemer, in his report, gave a 
resume of the whole subject. Commenting on the question of Na- 
tional Organizer, he said: 

" I was never much of an enthusiast upon the question of a National 
Organizer, but I must confess that the work accomplished has far ex- 
ceeded my expectations." 

Referring to his report to the session of the National Body 
in 1887, in which he speaks of the measures that should be adopted 
whereby the Order could be advanced, which at that time had 19,816 
members, Brother Deemer quotes : 

" ' There are some of our members who believe that this object can 
be attained best by the selection of an organizer, which will involve 
great expense to this body; far greater than any return that we could 
reasonably hope for. An organizer to go out in our interests must be 
possessed of extraordinary capacities. He must be possessed of a certain 
amount of assurance which would preserve him from discouragements, 
which would be a protection from the slurs of those among whom he 
would be thrown, that it was a matter of dollars and cents to him; and 
if after working with all zeal and accomplished little, to return home, 
knowing that among our own membership ihere would be those who 
would charge that he had a fine thing of it; that he had spent $2,000, 
and there was nothing comparatively to show for it. 

" ' Now,' adds the National Secretary, ' while I am neither a prophet 
or the son of one, I do not think I could have foretold the future any 
better if I had been endowed with prophetic powers.' " 

Previous to this, however, in 1883 the suggestive thought had 
been advanced by National Councilor Geo. H. Greenman of the 
practicability of engaging a " competent person " to go into locali- 
ties where the Order did not exist. 

Those who at that time of our history (1894) were prom- 
inently associated with the Order, can recall the unjust and pre- 
eminently unfair criticism hurled at the National Organizer, com- 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 333 

ing especially from those who in after years were the arch-leaders 
in the "insurrection," and to-day are no longer members of the 
Order. 

Brother Deemer then gave a resume of the work and cost of 
the organizers. Since the creation of the position of National 
Organizer, in 1891, a total amount of $18,969.02 had been raised 
by special tax levied, while the total disbursements were $13,485.92, 
leaving a balance on hand of $5,483.10 in the Organizer's Fund. 

Brother Robert Ogle was the first National Organizer, holding 
the office five months, in which time he organized three Councils 
and reorganized the State Council of Indiana, for which he received 
in salary and expenses the sum of $1,288.33. 

From February, 1892, to June 1, 1894, Brother Stephen Col- 
lins filled the position of National Organizer, with results as 
follows : 

" Nine Subordinate Councils and the State Council of Michigan. 
" Six Subordinate Councils and the State Council of Iowa. 
" Five Subordinate Councils and the State Council of Nebraska. 
" Eight Subordinate Councils and the State Council of Missouri. 
" Four Subordinate Councils and the State Council of Wisconsin. 
" Nine Subordinate Councils and the State Council of Kansas. 
" Seven Subordinate Councils and the State Council of Colorado. 
" Eight Subordinate Councils and the State Council of California. 
" Four Subordinate Councils and the State Council of Texas. 
" One Subordinate Council and the State Council of Georgia. 
" Seven Subordinate Councils and the State Council of Oregon. 
" Four Subordinate Councils of Minnesota. 
" Two Subordinate Councils of Arizona. 
" Two Subordinate Councils of Tennessee. 
" One Subordinate Council of Washington. 

The results of Brother Collins' work for two years and about 
three months was Seventy-seven Subordinate Councils and Eleven 
State Councils, for which he received in salary and expenses the 
sum of $8,026.21. 

The National Secretary's reports show that on December 31, 
1894, the above states reported and paid tax on 5,626 members and 
on December 31, 1895, reported and paid tax on 11,348 members. 
The reports of the Finance Committee show that the National 
Council had received from these states in cash up to December 
31, 1905. 

For Charter fees $1,730.00 

For per capita tax 1,521.(5 I 

Total revenue $3,251.64 

For supplies 1,155.05 



334 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

The report of the National Organizer to this body, embodied 
a resume of the field over which he had travelled during the year — 
Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Oregon, California, Arizona, Texas, 
Tennessee and Georgia — and the work accomplished. Yet with all 
that and in face of the work done, the Finance Committee sub- 
mitted the following recommendation : 

" We recommend that the organizing tax be discontinued and 
the present balance in the organizing fund be merged with the 
general fund." 

Evan G. Badger and Harry Heisler, then members of the 
Committee on Finance, are no longer members of the organization. 

RITUAL 

The Committee on Eitual presented its report, having been 
assigned the duty of rearranging and improving the general con- 
tents of the Eitual without altering the sentiments or plan of the 
work. A new " camp scene " was presented, or rather the old one 
revised by Captain Wm. M. Awl, of Pittsburg, Pa., and the same 
was exemplified and adopted. Other ritualistic ceremonies and 
forms were submitted, acted upon and adopted. 

NATIONAL ORPHANS' HOME 

The Committee on National Orphans' Home submitted its 
report. The previous year had been utilized in the dissemination 
of information, distributing the report of the Committee of the 
preceding year and mailing circulars to Councils requesting pledges 
of support in the establishment of the Home. In response to the 
appeal, 312 Councils out of 1,911 pledged $3,703.55, while 256 
Councils acknowledged receiving the circular but made no pledge, 
and one Council disapproved the idea. 

The Committee recommended that the question of location 
should be settled at the next session. 

A new Object was submitted for consideration, but no action 
was taken thereon. It was as follows : 

" We believe that each brother should own his own home, and will 
encourage and assist all in rightfully procuring the same." 

The following amendment to Section 1, Law 1, General Laws 
relative to Eligibility to Membership, was offered, and agreed to 
by a vote of 33 to 28 : 

"Provided that no person who is engaged in active wholesaling or 
retailing alcoholic or spiritous liquors as a beverage shall be received to 
membership." 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 335 

The old question of eligibility to membership of any one with 
other racial blood in him outside of " white," came up for discus- 
sion in the way of a question, " whether a person with any African 
blood in him was ineligible to membership." On motion of Brother 
Collins, it was decided that an applicant with any African blood in 
him was ineligible to membership. 

The Councils in the District of Columbia had been under the 
jurisdiction of the State Council of Virginia, but the sentiment 
among the Councils of the District favored separation, whereupon 
they petitioned the National Body to repeal the laws whereby the 
District of Columbia was made geographically a part of Virginia 
and that a State Council charter be granted them. The request 
was honored. 

After a spirited contest for the officers of the National Council, 
the following were elected: 

National Councilor — J. G. A. Richter, of Ohio, 
National Vice-Councilor — C. W. Tyler, of Virginia, 
National Treasurer — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 
National Conductor — G. W. Nutz, of Delaware, 
National Warden — Fiery Toms, of Indiana, 
National Inside Sentinel — G. H. Burnham, of North Carolina, 
National Outside Sentinel — H. W. Cole, of Michigan, 
National Chaplain — Rev. J. R. Boblits, of Maryland. 

For the first time in the history of the National Body, a Na- 
tional Chaplain was elected, the office having been created at this 
session. 



CHAPTER XXII 
SESSIONS OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL (Continued) 

OMAHA, NEB., 1895 

THE City of Omaha, Nebraska, entertained the National Body, 
June 18-21, 1895. The increased representation, as per 
adoption at last session, made the attendance at the session the 
largest in the history of the National Council there being 157 
present at first roll-call, 42 of whom were from Pennsylvania, 32 
Representatives and 10 Past National and Past' State Councilors. 
Among those present who are favorably known and have been 
prominent in the deliberations of the National Council, were Broth- 
ers H. C. Schaertzer, the present National Councilor (1907) ; 
" Judge " H. S. Barry, Dr. H. L. Wenner and Prof. C. F. Peeves, 
afterwards National Councilor. 

The session was a lively one, judging from the numerous 
calls for the previous question, as well as for the ayes and nays — 
eleven times were the latter demanded. 

The reports of the Officers showed a gratifying increase in the 
Order, notwithstanding the stringency of the times. State Coun- 
cils had been instituted in the District of Columbia, Tennessee, 
South Carolina and Minnesota, making 30 State Councils in all. 
During the year Councils were organized in Maine, Idaho, Missis- 
sippi, Montana and Wyoming, making 10 states under the jurisdic- 
tion of the National Council. The statistical report, ending Decem- 
ber 31, 1894, showed 1,980 Councils and a membership of 153,269, 
a gain of 201 Councils and 9,365 members. This report did not 
include Iowa and Texas. The greatest gain was in Maryland, the 
increase being 33 Councils and 4,100 members. 

Owing to the unfortunate conditions in New York, represen- 
tation to the National Body was denied on account of the State 
Council failing to remit the per capita tax, and thereby was fined. 
In a long statement made to the National Council, the officers 
of the State Council explained their inability to meet their obliga- 
tions because of an empty treasury. They laid part of the blame 
for this condition of affairs to the National Council itself for 
sending organizers into the state whose work was so superficial 
as to leave the State Council a loser in the end. 

336 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 337 

A decision by the National Councilor on a very important mat- 
ter was approved by the National Body, declaring that an applicant 
with one-eighth Indian blood was ineligible to membership, and 
any one having blood in him of any other race than the white race 
could not be admitted. This question, however, had been settled 
at the last session, but it was not heeded, hence the decision. 

A recommendation of the National Councilor that a committee 
be appointed to prepare a suitable form of installation for the 
National Chaplain and report before the close of the session, was 
amended so as to read " report at the next session." 

The Business Sign in Eitual was stricken out owing to the 
fact that it was in violation of an act of Congress passed at the 
session of 1891, the government authorities having, during the year, 
seized the dies and all signs in the office of the National Secretary. 

The subject of an appropriation for periodicals produced a 
vigorous debate, while calls for the previous question and the ayes 
and nays were the order of the day. Buser and Raymond, of 
Pennsylvania, former members of the Order, were the most con- 
spicuous in retarding the business of the body by dilatory tactics. 

REPORT OF THE NATIONAL LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE 

The report of the Legislative Committee was an exhaustive 
one, and indicated that vigorous efforts had been put forth, not only 
in the National Congress, but in many of the states to enact laws 
in harmony with the principles of the Order. The Stone Immigra- 
tion Bill, requiring consular inspection of immigrants, was en- 
dorsed by the Committee at Washington, and the " Smith Religious 
Garb Bill " in Penns3dvania, as well as bills in various states for 
Compulsory Education, providing that the flag be displayed from 
public school buildings, and to prevent the defacing of the flag, 
were endorsed and encouraged by the Committee. A full synopsis 
of the legislative enactments, however, is found in another chapter 
under its appropriate head. The Committee consisted of F. J. 
Shaler, Robert Carson, W. E. Orange, R. J. Armstrong and H. J. 
Deily. 

REPORT OF THE NATIONAL ORGANIZER 

Walter E. Orange, National Organizer for about nine months 
of the year, submitted his report. Notwithstanding the disadvan- 
tages under which he worked, his labors were fairly successful, 
resulting in the organization of 27 Councils and the institution 
of 4 State Councils, viz. : Tennessee, South Carolina, Connecticut 
and Ehode Island. 



338 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON ORPHANS' HOME 

The preeminent feature of the session was the report of the 
Committee on Orphans' Home, and the action of the National Body 
thereon. The year had been a strenuous one for the Committee, 
their work having been conducted along two different lines, both 
separate and distinct, viz. : Procuring a location for the Home 
and the money to build it. The plan outlined by the Committee 
early in the year was to invite proposals from various sections for 
the location of the Home and the inducements offered, the contest 
to close January 1, 1895. On account of two places not having had 
sufficient time to present their claims, the period was extended to 
February 23, 1895, at which time a meeting was held at Pittsburg, 
Pa., to consider the proposals and give all parties an opportunity to 
appear in person and represent their respective localities. Thir- 
teen places were presented, some of them by several proposals, as 
follows : 

Brigantine J auction, N. J.; Pipersville, Pa.; Liberty, Mo.; 
Gettysburg, Pa. ; Boiling Springs, Pa. ; Asheville, N. C. ; Bellwood, 
Pa. ; Springfield, Ohio ; Colorado Springs, Colo. ; Youngstown, 
Ohio ; Allentown, Pa. ; Mauch Chunk, Pa., and Tiffin, Ohio. 

A complete account of the meeting has been given elsewhere, 
but suffice it say in this connection, that the Committee rejected 
all proposals, except those of Boiling Springs, Pa., and Tiffin, 
Ohio, which places were visited by members of the Committee prior 
to the meeting of the National Council. Subsequently, however, 
the Committee agreed to submit to the National Body four recom- 
mendations, two of which are here given : 

"1. We recommend that a home for Widows and Orphans of our 
Order as contemplated, be established. 

"2. We recommend that said Home be established at or near Tiffin, 
Ohio, and that the Committee be empowered to make selection from the 
various locations offered, receive deed for the conveyance of the property 
in the name of the National Council, Junior Order United American 
Mechanics of the United States of America, and enter upon and take 
possession of the same in the name of the National Council, Junior Order 
United American Mechanics, as aforesaid, as soon as the Committee has 
procured assurance that it will receive and can command the sum of 
thirty thousand dollars, to be paid to it within two years." 

The discussion upon these two recommendations was animated 
and the passage or adoption of same was hotly contested. There 
was a fairly strong sentiment against the establishment of a Home 
at all, and upon the vote being taken on Eecommendation No. 1, 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 889 

the ayes were 116, nays 35. Representatives from 24 states voted 
in favor of the proposition to establish an Orphans' Home, and 
representatives from six states voted against the proposition, four 
of the latter divided their vote, and only two, Massachusetts and 
Rhode Island, were a unit in their opposition. 

In the consideration of Recommendation No. 2, an effort was 
made to amend same by having the proposition as to location sub- 
mitted to a vote of the membership. The vote to amend was ayes 
70, nays 85. On the main question being put, the vote stood 
ayes, 102; nays, 51. Subsequently, before the close of the ses- 
sion, the Committee on Orphans' Home submitted the following 
as a part of their report, and the same was agreed to : 

" That the Committee on Orphans' Home are hereby requested to take 
no action in regard to the establishment of a Home for Widows until 
directed by the National Council." 

Other matters of more than general interest came before the 
National Body, among which were the following: 

1. The Representatives from Virginia submitted a resolution 
that the portrait of Hon. Thaddeus Stevens be eliminated from the 
charter. It is scarcely necessary to record that the proposition 
was not agreed to by the National Body. 

2. A Council in the District of Columbia wanted " to know if 
this Council can speak of a sectarian body that are opposed, and 
are working against the Fifth Object of our Order and call them 
by name of Roman Catholic, when speaking under ' Good of the 
Order/ " 

" In Article XIII of the Constitution it reads that ' subjects of a 
sectarian or partisan character shall not be introduced into any meeting 
of this Council.' 

"We are convinced that the said article conflicts with the Fifth 
Object of our Order, and think that w r e should speak upon the subject of 
the Roman Catholic Church interfering with the public school system. 
and other affairs detrimental to this Order and the welfare of this 
country." 

Past State Councilor H. S. Barry, of Maryland, moved to 
answer "yes." Upon a division being called, the vote stood 27 
for and 54 against. National Secretary Deemer then moved to 
answer : 

" That the members of our Order have the right to speak of the 
enemies of the public schools whenever, and wherever, or in whatever form 
they may appear." 

This motion was agreed to. 



340 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

3. A resolution that a committee be appointed to formulate 
plans for the consolidation of the Jr. 0. TJ. A. M., 0. TJ. A. M., and 
the P. 0. S. of A., was, on motion, laid on the table. 

4. A resolution to amend the First Object was laid over under 
the rules. The proposed amendment is given in italics : 

" To maintain and promote the interests of Americans, and shield 
them from the depressing effects of foreign competition; but nothing in 
this declaration should be construed as sanctioning the political ostracism 
of any man of foreign birth who is loyal to the principles of our Order, 
and competent to discharge the duties of the office to which he aspires." 

The National Officers for the ensuing year were elected as 
follows : 

National Councilor — C. W. Tyler, of Virginia, 
National Vice-Councilor — P. A. Shanor, of Pennsylvania, 
National Treasurer — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 
National Conductor — Dr. J. L. Cooper, of Texas, 
National Warden — W. A. Howard, of Nebraska, 
National Inside Sentinel — J. L. Ingram, of Missouri, 
National Outside Sentinel — J. W. Pittinger, of Indiana, 
National Chaplain — Rev. J. R. Boblits, of Maryland. 

At the time of the regular election of officers, Dr. H. E. Little- 
field, of Oregon, was elected National Chaplain over Eev. J. R 
Boblits by a vote of 81 to 66. Subsequently, Dr. Littlefield de- 
clined the office, whereupon, Brother Boblits was elected. The elec- 
tion was sharply contested, party lines having been closely drawn. 
Brother Shanor was elected National Vice-Councilor by a vote of 
89 to 66 for his competitor, Brother Z. T. Wobensmith. The pur- 
pose of one party was to make the place of meeting in the East in 
order to secure the attendance of as many Past State Councilors 
as possible from the older and larger states, and at the same time 
to reduce the number of Bepresentatives from the Western states, 
owing to the lack of means to send them to the National Council, 
from which section the opposite party were the strongest in the 
National Body. The result, however, of the election for place of 
meeting, was with the West, Denver having received 82 votes 
to Providence, Rhode Island, 68. 



DENVER, COLO., 3896 

In the beautiful Western City of Denver, Colo., in June of 
1896, was held the Twenty-eighth Annual Session of the National 
Council, N. C, C. W. Tyler, presiding, assisted by N. V. C, P. A. 
Shanor. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 341 

This session is noted as the most strenuous in I la- history <>i 
the National Body, and the two elements composing it fought inch 
by inch on all disputed issues and party questions. There had 
been friction in the Board of Officers during the year and a bitter 
controversy between the National Councilor and Finance Com- 
mittee. So intensified was the existing feeling and so marked the 
line of difference between the opposing forces, that scarcely had the 
session opened when the "battle of the giants" began, and by 
dilatory motions, demands for roll-call and division of the ques- 
tion, on the part of the minority party, the session was prolonged 
and the bitterness of feeling became much more intense. 

The roll-call showed that 168 members were in attendance. 
The report of the National Councilor was quite lengthy, going into 
details by sections and states, and gave as the actual increase for 
the year, in Councils, 306 ; in membership, 15,699. This numeri- 
cal statement was based on the strength of the reports of the Deputy 
National Councilors up to the time the advanced reports went into 
the hands of the printer. The National Secretary, however, clos- 
ing the report at the end of the fiscal year, December 31, 1895, 
made the increase in Councils, 142, and in membership, 13,141. 
The total number of Councils, according to the National Secretary's 
report, was 2,131; membership, 166,833. The total amount of 
receipts oif Subordinate Councils was $1,277,643.33^ and the 
amount paid for sick benefits was $467,138.10. 

HISTORY OF THE ORDER 

The question of the " History of the Order " was considered at 
this session. During the year a publisher had arranged with 
Brother Deemer to edit a history of the organization, which was 
to be combined with " Landmarks of America " and published in 
one volume. A copy of the "History" was presented to the 
National Body with the request for its endorsement and adoption 
as the Official History of the Jr. 0. TJ. A. M., for ten years, sub- 
mitting the agreement to pay a royalty of ten cents per book sold, 
to the National Council. The whole matter, however, was referred 
to the National Board of Officers to make the best possible terms 
with the publisher. 

REPORT OF THE NATIONAL LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE 

The report of this important committee was a feature of the 
session, a brief reference of which, however, can only be given 
in this connection. The Committee consisted of A. D. Wilkin,. 



342 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

Chairman; Stephen Collins, Secretary; Robert Carson, W. E. 
Orange and F. J. Shaler. 

The " Stone Immigration Bill," which passed the House of 
Representatives the previous session of Congress, had failed of 
passage in the Senate and the same bill was presented by Con- 
gressman Stone, which had the support of the Order. Early in 
the year the Committee entered into a vigorous campaign and blank 
petitions were sent to all the Councils with the request that signa- 
tures be obtained and forwarded to Congress. These petitions were 
not only signed by members of the Order, but by every one irre- 
spective of race, nationality, party or church affiliation. " It is the 
people's cause/' was the key-note of the Committee. The name of 
the Order or the seal of the Council was not, under any circum- 
stances, allowed on the petition. " They should appear as coming 
from citizens of the United States," was the declaration of the 
Committee. 

THE RITUAL 

The Ritual Committee submitted a form for the installation 
of National and State Council Chaplain. The report was accepted 
and the subject matter referred to the Board of Officers, but, strange 
to say, the form for the installation of the Chaplain was not 
adopted, and for years that blank in our installation service has 
been a subject of criticism. However, at the session of the Na- 
tional Council at Nashville, Tenn., in 1905, a form was adopted. 

A proposition was submitted to the National Body suggesting 
two higher degrees in the Order, but it was disapproved. . 

Resolutions bearing on the Ritual were read and laid over: 

1. To abolish the F. 0. in the closing ceremony for Subordin- 
ate Councils. 

2. To provide a State Council Ritual. 

3. To provide for a three-degree Ritual. 

OBJECTS OF THE ORDER 

Amendments of the National Council Constitution relative to 
the Objects of the Order were presented, read and laid over, as 
follows : 

1. "To establish or erect an Orphans' Home as a home for 
the orphans of the deceased members of the Order, and maintain the 
same," to be known as the Sixth Object. 

2. To combine the Second and Third Objects as follows : " To 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 343 

assist Americans in obtaining employment and to encourage them 
in business." 

3. To make the Fourth Object the Third. 

4. To add to the Fourth Object: " To establish a home for the 
orphans of deceased members." 

NATIONAL ORPHANS' HOME 

The submission of the proposed object relative to the Orphans' 
Home was in conformity with the suggestion of the National Secre- 
tary, Brother Deemer. In his report to the National Body, speak- 
ing of the newly established Orphans' Home, he alluded to the dilli- 
culties in the way and the legal questions that had to be met, owing 
to the fact that the courts had decided that " no assessment could 
be made for any purpose not clearly expressed in our laws." 
Brother Deemer then adds: 

" As neither the care of the orphans nor the erection of an Orphans' 
Home is defined in our objects, nor in our laws, it is evident that the 
Home must be run entirely upon the voluntary system, or we must take 
the necessary steps to bring the institution within the scope of our work. 
An amendment to our charter will not meet the issue. It seems to me 
that it is necessary to create a new object, which must take the course 
laid down in our laws, after which the charter would have to be amended." 

That which to some had been but a dream, upon which many 
looked with skepticism, now was a veritable fact — the location and 
establishment of the Orphans' Home; hence the report of the 
Committee on Orphans' Home at this session was most interesting 
and far-reaching in its consequences. The full account of this 
" high-water mark " of Juniorism has already been given, there- 
fore, but a word here to keep up the connection with the subject. 

The Committee consisted of Past National Councilors J. W. 
Calver, G. W. Elbert, W. R. Stroh and Past State Councilor H. J. 
Deily.and J. H. Zimmerman. On October 3, 1895, this Committee 
met at Tiffin, Ohio, and selected the Bretz-Kellar farm, whereupon, 
an address was sent out to the Councils notifying them of the fact. 
One paragraph of that address should never be forgotten, as it 
refers to a most princely gift, without which it is scarcely possible 
to believe that an Orphans' Home would have been established. 
The paragraph is as follows : 

" This magnificent location of farm is given to the Order absolutely 
free. It don't cost us a single penny, but it does cost Young America 
Council, No. 136, of Tiffin, Ohio, the sum of Twenty-nine thousand, five 
hundred dollars, spot cash, and the Council then deeds it over to us ' for, 



344 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

and in consideration that we take it.' What an enormous donation this 
for a single Council, and a Council that is not yet five years old." 

The Committee had already selected Brother J. H. Zimmerman 
as " Superintendent and Overseer of the Home " for a term of live 
years at a salary of $750 for the first year. The frame building 
on the farm was fitted up as the temporary Home and the call 
went out for orphans. In the meantime the contract for Cottage 
No. 1 was let, and work thereon was begun. 

The report, as submitted by the Committee, was unanimously 
adopted, whereupon, on motion of Brother A. D. Wilkin, of Penn- 
sylvania, the term " Orphans' Home Committee " was discontinued 
and a " Board of Trustees," consisting of five members, was created 
to be known as " The Board of Trustees of the Orphans' Home 
of the Junior Order of United American Mechanics." 

REPORT OF THE NATIONAL ORGANIZER 

Brother Joseph Powell, subsequently National Councilor, was 
the National Organizer. Of all his predecessors, his was the hard- 
est lot of them all. While he did some good work in Montana, Ne- 
vada, Wyoming and Idaho, as new territory, comparatively, still the 
greater portion of his time was given to reconstruction work in 
states where the Order had previously been established, mainly 
Wisconsin and Iowa. Discord had entered the Order in these 
sections of the country while in the Northwest the anti-American 
opposition was retarding the progress of the organization. 

While Brother Powell did not organize as many Councils as 
he had hoped, owing to many unfortunate conditions that con- 
fronted him, still no one can say to the contrary, but that his 
term was full of hard, and in a large sense, discouraging work, 
for in performing the same, he traveled in miles equal to once 
around the globe. 

THE " NIGHT SESSION " 

It was at this meeting of the National Council that the famous 
" all night session " was held. The two elements of the National 
Body were very nearly equal in numerical strength, while in debate 
and parliamentary strategy, both sides possessed men of intellect, 
ability and leadership. The contest waged all through the night, 
the minority making motions to adjourn while the administra- 
tion forces had one supreme object, to save the Orphans' Home 
and preserve the institution. The majority party refused to 
adjourn, although ten times had the motion been made and ten 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 845 

times it had been rejected. The purpose of the dominant party 
was to act upon all important questions before there should be a 
break in the solid phalanx of the " Old Guard," and when that was 
accomplished, at 4 a.m., the majority party agreed to adjourn until 
1.10 p.m. same day. It was in the early morning hours of this 
strenuous session that the following officers were installed : 

National Councilor — P. A. Shanor, of Pennsylvania, 
National Vice-Councilor — Joseph Powell, of Colorado, 
National Treasurer — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 
National Conductor — W. S. Schenck, of Washington, 
National Warden — D. C. Gallahan, of Kansas, 
National Inside Sentinel — H. G. Smith, of Kentucky, 
National Outside Sentinel — E. R. Dillingham, of Georgia, 
National C haplain — Rev. H. A. Slaughter, of Missouri. 

From the present standpoint, the action of the majority in 
persistently holding their people during the long hours of that 
night, not even permitting them to go out for food, may be criti- 
cized. To what purpose this taxing of the physical as well as men- 
tal powers, it may be asked? Was it a desire for supremacy upou 
the part of the leaders? In a sense it may have been; but an 
analysis of the work done demonstrates that the purposes of the 
leaders of the majority were higher than mere supremacy; that 
they were actuated by loftier ideals, the ultimate good of the organ- 
ization. In justice to the majority, the " stayers," it can be said 
that had it not been for their persistency, the pride and boast 
of our Order, the Orphans' Home, might have passed as a mere 
dream, for it was in this all night session that the " sinews of war " 
were voted that made the Home a fact. The minority party had 
strongly opposed the Home, its establishment as well as location, 
and that which they could not prevent at the last session they en- 
deavored to embarrass and cripple at this session. Hence, they 
resorted to all parliamentary tactics they were capable of suggest- 
ing in order to defeat the plans for the maintenance of the Home 
already established. If by delaying of action on this important 
question they could catch the majority without their full force on 
the ground, or hold the session in order that some might weary and 
leave, was the hope of the minority in fighting for adjourn men I 
during this session until the morning, when, by "wire pulling/' 
they might gain a few members who could be found of a vacillat- 
ing character, and thus defeat the grandest proposition ever pre- 
sented to the National Body. In view of what was accomplished, 
the friends of our dear Home owe a vote of thanks to those tireless 



346 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

leaders who " held the fort " at Denver into the " wee small hours 
of the morning," for it was in those hours that the National 
Orphans' Home was placed upon a solid foundation. 



PITTSBURG, PA., 1897 

The Twenty-ninth Annual Session of the National Body at 
Pittsburg, Pa., June 15-18, 1897, was a remarkable meeting; 
doubtless never in the history of the body was it so royally enter- 
tained. The writer of these records, at the time, resided in Pitts- 
burg, and was the State Councilor of the state, and in virtue of 
that position, was Chairman of the General Committee on Enter- 
tainment to receive and entertain the members of the National 
Council. The writer recalls the hard work that was entailed, not 
so much of physical energy, but the mental strain that came to him 
in the administration of the office of Chairman, in keeping preju- 
dices and party feelings subdued and preserving harmony among 
his own people. 

The entertainment of various kinds prepared for the members 
of the National Body was sumptuous and on a large scale ; but the 
climax of the whole affair was the monster parade that took place 
in honor of the National Council — fully 10,000 Juniors being in 
line. It was not only a revelation to the members of the National 
Body, but an inspiration to witness such an army of marching 
patriots in a single city. Yet it is just to state, that other cities 
where the National Council had and has met, to the extent of their 
ability, gave as royal a welcome and reception to the body as Pitts- 
burg, the latter place having the natural advantage of preponder- 
ance of membership and means over any other city in the land, 
outside of Philadelphia. 

National Councilor Perry A. Shanor presided over the National 
Body with a master-hand. Tall, intellectual, of commanding ap- 
pearance, gentle, manly and courteous in spirit, Brother Shanor 
exhibited fine administrative ability, and by the fairness of his 
rulings and the dignity that he brought to the Chair of the National 
Councilor, he commanded the respect even of those who, politically, 
were opposed to him. He was ably assisted by National Vice- 
Councilor Joseph Powell. 

The roll-call showed that more than 200 members were in 
attendance, representing 36 states and territories. Some " mighty 
men of valor" attended this session, and, although, as I write 
(1906), nine years have rolled away, these "giants" of the Order 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 347 

are still in the van of the advancing hosts of patriots. I am 
constrained to name a few: Shanor, Powell, Deemer, Calver, 
Schenck, Dillingham, Cannon, Billany, Appleby, Pierson, Hamil- 
ton of Indian Territory, Cray, Reimer, Ogle, Buschman, Woods of 
Massachusetts, Gilcreast, Bainbridge, Armstrong, Knapp, Zimmer- 
man "father of the Orphans' Home," Dr. Wenner, Richter, Mc- 
Donald, Wobensmith, Wilkin, Collins, Weiss, Kurtz, Arthur, Cody, 
Shaler, Cranston, Jackson of Rhode Island, Cooper of Texas, Reeves, 
Sellers, Houghton, Borden, Davis, Barry, arid many others. 

REPORTS OF THE OFFICERS 

The reports of the officers of the body were replete with inter- 
esting facts, but space will permit of only a few. The National 
Councilor touched on several important questions, by way of sug- 
gestion. He urged legislation on the regulation of the political 
phase of the Order, recognizing the Order as unquestionably a 
political organization, yet warning the members thereof from being 
drawn into partisan participation, as an Order, that would be 
inconsistent with the objects of the organization and forbidden by 
its laws. 

National Vice-Councilor Powell suggested a revision of the 
Ritual " from a literary point of view or otherwise." As a sug- 
gestive thought, which became a fact in 1899, Brother Powell adds : 

" That our organic laws be so revised as to make them conform more 
harmoniously with our system of government, and such recognition be 
sought of our government as will make the Junior Order the equal, at 
least, of any secret organization." 

The report of the National Secretary was very gratifying, 
notwithstanding the unrest that was pervading the land, growing 
out of the issues of a strenuous campaign for President. In the 
face of these disturbing issues, Brother Deemer was able to report 
an increase of two State Councils, viz. : Alabama and Indian Terri- 
tory, 106 Subordinate Councils and 10,889 members, there being 
in all, 2,237 Councils in the entire jurisdiction and 177,732 
members. 

The royalties accruing from the sale of emblems, charts and the 
History of the Order was quite an item in the income of the body, 
amounting to $2,500, $1,600 and $200 respectively. The royalty 
from the History showed that 2,000 copies had been sold. 

The report of the Finance Committee gave quite a resum6 
of the controversy between the National Councilor and the Com- 



348 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

mittee, on bills, etc. Whether the controversy was more of a per- 
sonal matter on the part of the Committee than from purely busi- 
ness reasons, is hard to determine from the reading of the records ; 
but whatever was at the root of the controversy, it was unfortunate, 
and in some respects, unseemly. 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS 

Previous to the opening of the National session, factional 
feeling ran very high and promised a warm competition for the 
offices of the body. The opponents of the administration, who, 
very largely, subsequently, became the " insurgents," had gloried 
in the victory at Denver, in naming Pittsburg as the place for 
the session of 1897, believing, with the presence of a large number 
of Past State Councilors from the larger Eastern states, they would 
win in the selection of the officers and in shaping the policy of the 
Order. The administration party, however, were alert and saga- 
cious and rallied their forces, and on the first roll-call, in which 
party lines were drawn, the administration won; hence in the elec- 
tion of officers, there was no opposition and all were declared elected, 
the reading clerk casting the vote of the body. The following were 
elected : 

National Councilor — Joseph Powell, of Colorado, 

National Vice-Councilor — Frank W. Pierson, of Delaware, 

National Secretary — Edw. S. Deemer, of Pennsylvania, 

National Treasurer — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 

National Conductor — A. A. Eskey, of West Virginia, 

National Warden — A. L. Cray, of Indiana, 

National Inside Sentinel — Geo. W. Hobson, of Pennsylvania, 

National Outside Sentinel — D. B. Bowley, of California, 

National Chaplain — Rev. H. A. Slaughter, of Missouri. 

RESOLUTIONS 

1. A resolution to organize the colored race into a separate 
body, to which was attached a census enumeration of the native 
white and colored male population of the country for 1890, by 
states and territories, over 21 years of age, the total being native 
whites, 10,951,496; colored, 1,170,455, was offered, but was laid 
on the table : 

" Resolved, That the incoming Board of Officers are directed to apoint 
a Special Committee of five, who shall consider the advisability of the 
Order organizing, under its auspices, a separate Patriotic Order, with 
objects and principles similar to the Junior Order of United American 
Mechanics, and that this committee submit its report at the next session." 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 349 

2. Resolutions bearing on the Ritual *"ere presented. ( 1 ) 
For a committee to revise the Ritual. (2) The preparation of an 
"up-to-date" Funeral Ceremony. (3) The preparation of a Busi- 
ness Sign that would not be an infringement on the statute of 
the National government, and (4) The preparation of a 'second 
degree which would be more instructive and elevating than the one 
commonly known as the ' Oriental Degree.' " 

3. A resolution to prepare a " National black-list " and all 
members either suspended or expelled be placed thereon, was 
indefinitely postponed. 

REPORT OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES OF NATIONAL 
ORPHANS' HOME 

A detailed report of the Home was made by the Trustees. 
Seventeen pages of the Official Proceedings were filled with the 
cash receipts and cash donations of the Subordinate Councils and 
six pages with the special donations of clothing, provisions and 
miscellaneous supplies, while sixteen pages were given to the 
itemized expense account of the institution. 

During the year, Cottage No. 1 was constructed at a cost, 
including furniture, of $9,505.69. With impressive ceremonies 
and under the auspices of Young America Council, No. 136, of 
Tiffin, Ohio, the corner-stone was laid September 2, 1S96. The 
dedication of the building was conducted by the same Council, 
February 12, 1897, the principal address being given by Dr. L. A. 
Perce, State Councilor of Ohio. 

The first children, four in number, from Wanamie Council, 
No. 549, of Wanamie, Pa., were received into the Home August 
18, 1896. To those were added 34 others, making 38 received 
during the year. 

It is pleasant to note, that at the end of the year, by the 
management of a very efficient Board of Trustees and the inde- 
fatigible Superintendent, Brother J. H. Zimmerman, the inven- 
tory of the value of everything pertaining to the Home, exclusive 
of the land, showed $17,874.25. 

A very impressive feature of the session, and it was one of 
the happiest moments of Brother Calver's life, was his introduction 
to the National Body of three of the children from the Home, who 
entertained the National Council with songs and recitations. The 
face of our esteemed Senior Past National Councilor was all aglow 
with joy, when, amid the most hearty applause, he retired from 
the Council room with his wards, realizing that by their presence. 



350 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

the bonds of love for the Home were made stronger in the hearts 
of the members of the National Body. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON LAW 

A large number of changes in the General Laws and Consti- 
tution of the National Council were recommended by the Commit- 
tee on Law and much of the time of the body was taken in their 
consideration. The more important changes and amendments 
were as follows : 

1. To add to the Fourth Object the words " Orphans' Fund," which 
was adopted subject to the approval of the Subordinate Councils. 

2. Amending General Law 1, by a new section as follows: "Any 
member of this Order who shall, after August 1, 1897, engage or continue 
in the manufacture or wholesale or retail sale of alcohol, spirituous or 
malt liquors, to be used as a beverage, shall be tried on charges preferred 
in the Subordinate Council to which he belongs, and if found guilty, shall 
be expelled." 

3. Amendments to reduce and to equalize representation in the 
National Council were introduced but the same were indefinitely postponed. 

4. To amend Section 1, Art. IV, National Constitution, by striking 
out " and uphold the reading the Holy Bible therein," action on which, 
however, was indefinitely postponed. 

5. That the Board of Trustees of the Orphans' Home shall be con- 
sidered and was declared a regular constituted Committee, entitled to 
be paid their expenses as other committees of the National Council. 

REPORT OF THE NATIONAL LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE 

This Committee, consisting of Brothers A. D. Wilkin, Stephen 
Collins, Rev. W. G. Cassard, James Cranston and Robert Carson, 
was actively engaged, through its Secretary, Brother Collins, to 
" line up " Congress in the interest of legislation in harmony with 
the objects and principles of the Order. The Committee agreed to 
confine their efforts to have reintroduced certain bills which had 
died in the last Congress, and endeavor to secure their passage 
and press the Immigration Bill passed by the House in May, 1896, 
to a successful issue in the Senate. In the face of stupendous oppo- 
sition on the part of the steamship companies, aided by certain mem- 
bers of the House and Senate, the bill passed the higher body. 
It was the culmination of a vast amount of labor on the part of 
the Committee and the Order, covering several years, and the 
fraternity was filled with joy at their great victory ; when lo ! 
their joy was short-lived, owing to the swing of President Cleve- 
land's "veto axe". The House however, passed the bill over the 
President's veto, but it failed of passage in the Senate. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 351 

Other bills pressed by the Committee were: 

1. "No State shall grant the right of suffrage to any person not :i 
citizen of the United States." 

2. " Prohibiting any appropriations by the United States for sec- 
tarian purposes." 

3. " To establish a National University." 

4. " To prevent the desecration of the National Flag." 

The Committee also recommended to the several State Council 
Legislative Committees, certain bills, and asked that they be intro- 
duced into their respective State Legislatures. Some of these bills 
were the following: 

1. "To provide for the purchase and display of American flags In 
connection with the Public School buildings of the state." 

2. That text-books be furnished free by the state to the public 
schools. 

3. To compel parents to send their children, from eight to thirteen 
years, to the public schools, commonly known as the "Compulsory Educa- 
tion Act." 

The following resolution, signed by 54 members of the Na- 
tional Body, was presented and approved : 

" Whereas, Military training produces subordination, discipline, 
healthful and graceful bearing, as well as proper feelings of relative depen- 
dence on our fellow-men and of Patriotism for our Country and Flag; 

" Resolved, That we urge all practical steps to be taken as soon as 
possible, to introduce into our Public School System the United States 
Army tactics and drill, thus providing, with small expense, an army reserve 
of millions of men sufficientlv prepared for any call of our Countrv and 
Flag." 



LOUISVILLE, KEN., 1898 

Louisville, Kentucky, entertained the National Council at its 
Thirtieth Annual Session, June 21-24, 1898, National Councilor 
Joseph Powell presiding. There were in attendance 206 members 
representing 36 State Councils. 

The stirring events incident to the destruction of the Maine, 
in Havana Harbor, the declaration of war against Spain and the 
capture of Manila by Commodore Dewey, were fresh in the minds 
of the " boys " who met in this beautiful Southland city, and 
their patriotism was intensified. Brother Joseph Powell, the Na- 
tional Councilor, referring to these events, adds: 

" With such conditions prevailing let this, the Sovereign body of the 
greatest patriotic organization on the American Continent, rise equal to 
the occasion. Let us demonstrate to the world that our claims to pre-emi- 
nence are not mere nothings; but in stern reality. Let us remember the 
appropriate fitness of those of this body who have been summoned to the 



352 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

ranks beyond, and those others who have responded to the call of the 
Chieftain of our Nation." 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

Among the recommendations of the National Councilor were 
the following: 

1. That the executive and judicial branches of the Order be separated, 
and that a judiciary be created. 

2. That practical steps be taken to stop the controversy being waged 
as regards a Ladies' Auxiliary. 

3. That the emblem be so changed that there may not be such a 
striking resemblance to that of Masonry. 

4. That the Memorial service be rendered at this session. 

5. That Brother Chas. P. Haupt, of Washington Council, No. 1, of 
Pennsylvania, the only one of the original members of the Order now a 
member, be given the honors of Past National Councilor. 

LADIES' AUXILIARY 

The question of a Ladies' Auxiliary was discussed with much 
animation on the floor of the National Council. As referred to by 
the National Councilor, the subject had been one of bitter and 
acrimonious controversy through the press of the Order between 
the friends of the Daughters of Liberty and the Daughters of 
America ; and to such an extent had the " battle been waged " that 
its influence had a deleterious effect on the organizing work in 
new territory. The National Councilor suggested that the only 
hope of stopping the controversy was to organize or create a 
" Ladies' Degree," to be under the control of the National Council. 

Upon the floor of the National Council and in the lobby of 
the hotel headquarters, the friends of both organizations, referred 
to above, were equally anxious that their favored organization 
should be recognized as the auxiliary to the Junior Order. Various 
motions were offered, discussed and lost. A substitute was offered, 
that a draft of a Constitution and By-laws and a Ritual be prepared 
for an auxiliary organization, and any one of the two ladies' 
organizations that would adopt said Constitution, etc., may be 
recognized. This substitute, however, failed of passage. In the 
final test as to whether the National Council would endorse the 
Daughters of America as the auxiliary, the vote stood, yeas, 90; 
nays, 99. 

There are many, doubtless, who may not be aware of the fact, 
that the splendid system of government adopted at the Minneapolis 
session, under which the Order is now working, was suggested, 
officially, at least, by our esteemed Brother Past National Coun- 
cilor Joseph Powell at this session. Under the head of " The 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 353 

Law " in his report, following his opinion with a recommendation 
as given above, he says: 

" We have in the government of our Order, too much law by decision 
and resolution rather than by statute. In my mind we should adopt a 
Constitution and set of statutes, create a judiciary and relieve the execu- 
tive of its functions, and thus make the government of our Order more 
in harmony with the American System. Another great Order has done 
this, and what they can do, we oan do also." 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS 

The election of officers and the heated discussion that followed 
relative to the National Chaplain, occupied most of the time on 
the second day of the session. 

There was but one contest in the election of officers, that ol 
National Vice-Councilor. The result of the election was as follows : 

National Councilor — F. W. Pierson, of Delaware, 

National Vice-Councilor — Charles Reimer, of Maryland (by 149 votes 

to 57 for Fred E. Parker, of New York), 
National Treasurer — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 
National Conductor — H. G. Smith, of Kentucky, 
National Warden — A. D. Wilkin, of Pennsylvania, 
National Inside Sentinel — W. C. Pulcifer, of Michigan, 
National Outside Sentinel — William Noble, of Indian Territory, 
National Chaplain — George W. Hobson, of Pennsylvania. 

Immediately after the election, the following resolution was 
offered by Eobert Carson, of New Jersey, which precipitated a 
somewhat acrimonious debate: 

" Resolved, That it be the sense of this National Council that here- 
after no member, not a clergyman, shall be eligible to the office of Chaplain 
of the National Council." 

A motion to lay the whole matter on the table having been 
lost, P. N. C. Shanor raised the point of order, that the resolution 
imposed a qualification for eligibility not warranted by law, which 
the National Councilor declared well taken. An appeal having 
been taken from the decision of the presiding officer, the yeas and 
nays were called, whereupon, the decision of the National Coun- 
cilor was sustained by 133 yeas to 57 nays. 

The statistical report submitted by the National Secretary 
showed that there were nearly 2,300 Councils and 181,000 members, 
a gain of 31 Councils and 2,2(58 members since the last session. 

THE SIXTH OBJECT 

The Sixth Object of the Order, now the Fourth, adopted at 
the last session, had been scut to the Subordinate Councils for their 
23 



354 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

approval or rejection. The Committee to count the vote reported 
as follows: 

VOTE ON SIXTH OBJECT 

ALLOWED 

FOB AGAINST 

Alabama .' 62 1 

Arkansas 12 

California 334 19 

Colorado 665 1 

Connecticut '. 120 13 

Delaware 258 77 

District of Columbia 338 3 

Florida 34 

Georgia 80 

Idaho 15 

Illinois 103 6 

Indiana 311 

Indian Territory 52 43 

Iowa 57 

Kansas 68 

Kentucky 319 1 

Louisiana 8 

Maine 45 49 

Maryland 3,256 937 

Massachusetts 147 52 

Michigan 69 4 

Minnesota 160 

Missouri 318 79 

Montana 17 

Nebraska 40 

Nevada 21 2 

New Hampshire 12 35 

New Jersey 526 4,948 

New Mexico 27 

New York 275 1,117 

North Carolina 205 123 

Ohio 3,714 79 

Oregon 32 

Pennsylvania 4,908 7,825 

Rhode Island 91 13 

South Carolina 132 57 

South Dakota 9 

Tennessee 55 

Texas 59 

Vermont 43 57 

Virginia 827 523 

Washington 90 

West Virginia 1,178 157 

Wisconsin 16 3 

Wyoming 32 

Majority, 2,916. 19,140 16,224 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 855 



REJECTED 

FOR AGAINS 

Massachusetts 13 

Nebraska 75 

New Jersey . . 317 

New Hampshire !> 14 

New York 20 14 

Ohio 105 

Pennsylvania 107 234 

Texas 8 6 

Vermont . . 26 

Virginia 15 36 

West Virginia 27 23 



339 670 

The above vote presents some peculiar features. The Western 
and Southern states, with a comparative unanimity, voted in favor 
of the new Object, all having given a majority, while Pennsylvania, 
New York and New Jersey gave a large majority against the 
Object. Ohio, very naturally, gave a large majority in favor of 
its adoption. The large number of votes rejected by the commit- 
tee was for various reasons : No date, wrong date, no seal, no vote, 
but reported unanimously for or against, no seal and not reporting 
on proper blank. 

REPORT OF NATIONAL LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE 

This important committee, composed of A. D. Wilkin, Chair- 
man: Stephen Collins, Secretary; R. J. Armstrong, J. G. A. Rich- 
ter and M. D. Lichliter, was active, especially through its Secre- 
tary, in the interest of legislation bearing on the questions relating 
to the Order. Several matters occupied the attention of the Com- 
mittee: 

1. To Prevent the Desecration of the American Flag. The 
bill before Congress was not satisfactory to the Committee, but a 
draft of a bill prepared by them was attached to their report, for 
which the endorsement of the National Body was asked. 

2. The Committee protested against the passage of a bill per- 
mitting any religious sect to build houses of worship on Reserva- 
tions and at the military Academy at West Point. 

3. The Committee endorsed a bill to amend the Naturalization 
Laws in the interest of Americans and American citizenship. 

4. The most important work of the Committee was the quick 
passage, through Senator Fairbanks, of the " Lodge Bill " restrict- 
ing immigration. The writer recalls the courteous hearing accorded 



356 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

the Committee by Senator Fairbanks, Chairman of the Senate Com- 
mittee on Immigration, at his own home at the opening of Con- 
gress. The Senator requested the Secretary of the Committee to 
outline the views of the Order he represented, at the same time 
remarking, incidentally that he was " new " and " green " in the 
business. For a half an hour the merits of the question were pre- 
sented by Brother Collins, whereupon, the Senator drew from his 
desk a thoroughly prepared speech on the subject and read the 
same to the Committee showing that he had already qualified him- 
self for his new position. At his request the Secretary of the 
Committee mailed thousands of circulars and petitions to the Coun- 
cils, and so quick was the response of the Order, that in ten days 
petitions by the thousands came into the hands of Senator Fair- 
banks, a bushel basketful at a time, and in a very short time, 
to the surprise of every one, the bill passed the Senate by a large 
majority. 

The bill, however, met violent opposition in the House through 
the German element and steamship companies, whereupon, action 
thereon was deferred until the adjourned session in December. 
The whole subject is more fully treated in another place. To the 
Secretary of the Committee is due the success achieved in placing 
the question of immigration where it stood at the time of the 
National session. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE NATIONAL 
ORPHANS' HOME 

Marked advancement in the affairs of the Home had been 
made. Cottage No. 2 was nearing completion to meet the demands 
for the admission of children. The Councils of the Order were very 
generous in their gifts towards the maintenance of the Home, the 
expenses of which for the year were $12,000. The inventory of live 
stock, furniture, etc., amounted to $7,647.14. From the opening 
of the Home until the present, according to the report of the Trus- 
tees, eighty children had been admitted to the care of the institu- 
tion, leaving, after deducting those who had been removed or taken 
away, sixty-six. 

THE RITUAL 

The Committee on Ritual submitted an extended report, 
recommending several changes in the Eitual which are given more 
fully in another place. The same Committee submitted a form for 
the opening and closing of the State Council and an Order of 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 357 

Business, both prepared by Brother Deerner, and they were adopted. 
A form for the Installation of Chaplain was adopted, but so far 
as the writer knows, the same was never incorporated in the Form 
for the Installation of Officers. 

The contention for a three-degree Ritual was still in the 
foreground, the State Council of Pennsylvania, as per recommen- 
dation of its State Councilor, M. D. Lichliter, having requested 
the National Body to have such degrees formulated. In the consid- 
eration of the subject, it was referred back to the Kitual Committee 
with instructions to have such Ritual prepared, or two Rituals, one 
of three degrees and one of one degree. 

A resolution expressing thanks to Hon. W. A. Stone, a mem- 
ber of Congress for championing the cause of immigration and 
pledging him moral support in his canvass for the Governorship 
of Pennsylvania, was adopted. 

The report of the publisher of the History of the Order showed 
that from June 1, 1897, to April 30, 1898, 1,812 copies of the 
History had been sold, leaving to the National Council $181.20 
in royalty. 

As expressive of the patriotic emotions that stirred the hearts 
of the members of the National Body, the following was read and 
unanimously adopted: 

" Whereas, Our country has in the cause of humanity declared war 
against Spain, and the call has gone forth for volunteers to gather to the 
support of the flag. Therefore, be it 

" Resolved, That we heartily endorse the action of the President of 
the United States and its representatives in Congress assembled in thus 
resolving to drive from the Western Hemisphere the tyrant Spain. 

" Resolved, That we hereby pledge our loyal support to ' Our Country ' 
in this hour of need. 

" Resolved further, That we heartily endorse the appeal of our National 
Councilor, Joseph Powell, in his circular letter to the members of the 
Order under date of April 23, 1898. 

" G. Howell Arthur, " Jas. A. Miller, 

" Stephen Collins, " A. A. Jackson, 

" John R. Marlin, " Geo. W. Hobson, 

" A. D. Wilkin, " J. Russell Smith, 

" Cyrus S. Weiss, " M. D. Lichliter, 

" Sam'l S. Sibbs, " R. A. Maoill, 

" W. F. Knapp, '• Chas. H. Kurtz." 



CHAPTER XXIII 
SESSIONS OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL (Continued) 

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., 1899 

MINNEAPOLIS, Minn., was the gathering point for the 
Thirty-first Annual Session of the National Council, June 
20-23, 1S99, with National Councilor F. W. Pierson in the Chair, 
there being present at roll-call 185 members. 

In the annals of the Jr. 0. U. A. M., the Minneapolis session 
of the National Body, doubtless, stands forth as the most con- 
spicuous of any previously held or since, as from the results of the 
legislation enacted, there came the " parting of the ways " in the 
Order and the insurrection that very nearly destroyed the organ- 
ization ; at least crippled it for years. Here the Junior Order had 
reached its " high water-mark," only to be hurled back, temporarily, 
by internal strife that for awhile threatened the " old ship " as she 
tossed upon the " breakers " ; but with a hull constructed of the 
planks, Virtue, Liberty and Patriotism, and with good pilots at 
the helm and " battle scarred seaman " on deck, the craft gallantly 
rode the wild waves and passed through the storm, and to-day, with 
" Old Glory " streaming from her masthead, she sails in royal splen- 
dor upon a quiet sea. All honor to the leaders who stood by her in 
the tempest until she weathered the gale and rode forth in all her 
glory and power. 

The Credential Committee reported 37 states and territories 
entitled to representation in the National Body; but owing to lack 
of funds in some of the states, their Kepresentatives could not 
attend, hence only 29 states were represented at the session, 
While about 500 entitled to the privileges of the floor and a voice 
in the National Council, either as Kepresentatives or Past National 
and Past State Councilors, were reported eligible to admission, 
still only 185 of that number were in attendance. 

REPORTS OE OFFICERS 

The reports of the officers showed some advancement. The 
State Council of Arkansas had been instituted by the National 
Organizer, Brother Borden, who, during the year travelled 24,000 
miles in prosecuting his work. National Councilor Pierson, with 

358 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 359 

pardonable pride, spoke of the great progress made in his little 
state of Delaware where seven new Councils had been organized 
and 500 members initiated. 

The National Secretary reported a loss from last statement 
of 125 Councils, there being 2,104 in all. The gain in membership 
was 2,677, there being a total in the Order of 183,508, making- 
next the highest number ever reported in the National Body. As 
a matter of record for the close of the century, the following tabu- 
lation by states and territories is given: 

Alabama 275 Montana 117 

Arkansas 26 Nebraska 97 

California 1,545 Nevada 96 

Colorado 1,331 New Hampshire 1,054 

Connecticut 891 New Jersey 29,307 

Delaware 2,701 New Mexico 44 

Dist. of Columbia... 1,671 New York 7,934 

Florida 28 North Carolina 2,725 

Georgia 572 Ohio 13,977 

Idaho 55 Oregon 99 

Illinois 701 Pennsylvania 76,967 

Indiana 1,023 Rhode Island 398 

Indian Territory .... 618 South Carolina 548 

Iowa 147 South Dakota 30 

Kansas 205 Tennessee 824 

Kentucky 1,332 Texas 420 

Louisiana 56 Vermont 813 

Maine 471 Virginia 7,666 

Massachusetts 1,231 Washington 272 

Maryland 18,718 West Virginia 6,228 

Michigan 291 Wisconsin 185 

Minnesota 303 Wyoming 75 

Missouri 1,400 

The report also showed that the Councils of the entire juris- 
diction were worth nearly two million of dollars. An appendix 
gave the names of those of the Order who had gone to the front 
in the Spanish- American war; while the number reported was 
large, still it is quite clear that the report was incomplete, since 
no response came to the notice of the National Secretary from a 
great many Councils. 

THE NEW LAWS 

The most important legislation enacted at this session, and the 
most far reaching, and at the time thought to be most radical, was 
the adoption of a new Constitution and a code of laws for the 
organization. In his report to the National Body at Louisville, 
as noted in former chapter, National Councilor Brother Powell 
said : 



360 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

" We have in the government of our Order, too much law by decision 
and resolution, rather than by statutes. In my opinion we should adopt 
a Constitution and a set of statutes, create a judiciary and relieve the 
executive of this function, and thus make the government of our Order 
more in harmony with the American System." 

In harmony with this suggestion, the following recommen- 
dation of the National Councilor was adopted by the National 
Council : 

" That the executive and judicial branches of our Order be separated, 
and that a judiciary be created." 

In conformity with the above suggestion, the Law Committee, 
consisting of Bros. H. H. Eddy, J. A. Flint and F. W. Houghton, 
submitted an entire revision of the National Council Constitution 
and National Council Laws, following the plan of the United States 
system of government, the Executive, the Legislative and the Judi- 
cial, as we have it in the Order to-day (See page 414). 

In the consideration of the report of the Committee, the 
National Council went into the Committee of the Whole, and after 
sitting twice, arose and reported back to the National Body the 
results of their deliberations, whereupon, the revised Constitution 
and Laws were adopted. While the deliberations in the Committee 
of the Whole are not a part of record, yet it might be stated that 
the new laws were not agreed upon without a sharp contest. The 
element in the National Council not in harmony with the adminis- 
tration party, fought the laws bitterly, but their efforts proved un- 
availing, and after the most careful consideration of the revised 
code, section by section, in which the legal mind of Brother Smith W. 
Bennett, of Ohio, had full play in clearing up some of the intricate 
problems connected with the new laws and Constitution, they were 
accepted by a large vote of the Committee. History records some 
remarkable incidents of legal outbursts of jurists before courts ol 
justice, yet it is scarcely possible that these displays of quick wit 
and repartee could surpass those flashes of legal brilliancy that 
characterized Brother Bennett's replies to his opponents in the 
discussion of the revised code. 

THE BENEFICIARY DEGREE 

The Committee on Endowment Bank, appointed in conformity 
with a resolution adopted at Louisville in 1898, to investigate a 
suitable plan of insurance in connection with the Order, submitted 
their report and presented the following recommendations : 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 361 

"1. We recommend that the National Council establish an insurance 
branch in connection with our Order, which shall be known and desig- 
nated as the Beneficiary Degree. 

" 2. We recommend that the Beneficiary Degree be managed and 
controlled by the National Council, through duly elected officers to be 
known as the ' Board of Control '." 

In conformity with the recommendation of the Committee, 
a code of laws governing the Degree were submitted, which, after 
being considered in the Committee of the Whole, were adopted with- 
out amendment, by the National Body. The Committee was a 
very efficient one, viz.: Dr. J. L. Cooper, A. G. Bainbridge and 
Dr. K. Atmar Smith. 

NATIONAL LEGISLATION 

The Committee on Legislation consisted of the following: 
Rev. M. D. Lichliter, Chairman, H. H. Billany, 

Stephen Collins, Secretary, Koger J. Armstrong, 

James Cranston. 

Owing to the excitement growing out of the Spanish-American 
war and the opposition of many of the leaders of Congress to the 
consideration of the immigration question, nothing was done. 
Two efforts were made to bring the issue before the House of 
Representatives, but failed, the last vote, however, showed but two 
of a majority against it, the vote being ayes, 101 ; nays, 103. 

A bill was submitted by the Committee, entitled " To Protect 
the American Flag from Insult and Desecration." The bill, how- 
ever, was pigeon-holed by the Chairman of the House Judiciary 
Committee, D. B. Henderson, always an opponent of the Order and 
true Americanism. The Committee, however, in the name of the 
Order, were successful in defeating the amendments to appropriate 
moneys for sectarian purposes in the District of Columbia. 

RITUAL 

The Committee on Ritual reported at length on the subject 
referred to them. The sentiment of the National Body being in 
favor of a three-degree Ritual, with a modified form of the same, 
to be used optionally, the Committee submitted a composite three- 
degree Ritual, prepared by P. S. C, M. D. Lichliter,of Pennsylvania, 
and Representative F. F. Hopkins, of Washington, with the under- 
standing that if the National Council adopted the one submitted. 
and desired a modified, or one-degree Ritual, the Committee would 
prepare an abbreviated version of the First and Second Degrees 
to be used in connection with the Third or Patriotic Degree. 



362 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

The Ritual presented was exemplified by the Committee, and 
the report of same was received. Subsequently a proposal for a 
statute was offered by Brother C. F. Reeves, of Washington, Chair- 
man of Ritual Committee, that the three-degree Ritual, as pre- 
sented, be adopted, with the proviso, that it be referred back to the 
Committee for revision, as well as the preparation of a modified 
form of same. The Committee on Ritual reported favorably on 
the statute, and a motion to adopt was made, which was substituted 
by a motion to so amend as to continue the Committee for another 
year and that they offer $500 for a Ritual, open to competition by 
members of the Order. The substitute was adopted and thus was 
shelved the much-mooted question. 

ladies' degree 

The question of a Woman's Auxiliary had been a disturbing 
factor in the National Council. Friends of both the Daughters 
of America and Daughters of Liberty had for a few years past been 
knocking at the door of the National Council asking for recognition 
of their favorite Order. At the session in Louisville, the lobbies 
of the hotels were used to " button-hole " members of the 
National Council, while at the same time much bitter feeling was 
created. The sentiment of the National Council was that of 
neutrality on the question, as there were friends of both organiza- 
tions in the body, and it was thought inadvisable to recognize the 
one to the exclusion of the other. Hence it was thought advisable 
to take the " middle ground " and adopt a Ladies' Degree to be 
under the supervision of the National Body. Pursuant to the action 
of the Louisville session, the Committee appointed by the National 
Councilor, submitted to this session of the body a code of laws to 
govern such auxiliary. In the consideration of same, a motion to 
postpone indefinitely was defeated by a vote of 42 ayes to 45 nays. 
On motion, however, of Brother Smith W. Bennett, the report of 
the Committee was laid on the table. Subsequently, the following 
was presented, and was adopted by ayes, 89, nays, 68, and the same 
was referred to the State Councils for approval : 

" We hereby propose the following, to be known as Article 15, of the 
National Council Constitution: 

" The National Council may by law provide for a Woman's Auxiliary." 

The Trustees of the Orphans' Home in their report stated that 
Cottage No. 2 had been completed and other improvements made. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 363 

During the year another change in the Superintendency was made, 
Brother J. R. Boblits resigning and Truman W. Varian being 
elected in his place. The second death in the Home occurred dur- 
ing the year, that of Luella Vanarsdale, known as No. 1, she being 
the first one to be admitted to the institution. Her death occurred 
on October 19, 1898. 

The number of children in the Home April 30, 1899, was 84, 
being an increase of 18 during the year. The inventory of the 
Home showed a valuation of $62,877.20. 

Following the adoption of the revised Constitution, the first 
amendment to same was presented, having in view the change of 
name to " United Americans." As required by the new laws, the 
ayes and nays were called, there being 118 votes in favor of the 
proposed change and 21 against. The question was then referred 
to the several State Councils for approval or rejection. 

After a busy and strenuous session, during which time the 
" mutterings of the coming storm " were heard from the malcon- 
tents, the National Council came to a close with the following offi- 
cers for the ensuing year: 

National Councilor — Charles fteimer, of Maryland, 
National Vice-Councilor — Charles F. Reeves, of Washington, 
National Treasurer — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 
National Conductor — J. A. Shields, of Nebraska, 
National Warden — James A. Miller, of Pennsylvania, 
National Inside Sentinel — H. J. Shannen, of Georgia, 
National Outside Sentinel — E. W. Sellers, of Wisconsin, 
National Chaplain — Rev. C. A. G. Thomas, of North Carolina. 

We shall in this connection refrain from making any com- 
ments on the proceedings and ultimate results of the actions of 
this session, as we have more fully referred to the session as furnish- 
ing some of the alleged causes for the " split " in the organization. 
Suffice it to say, that in the controversy the most bitter animosity 
was engendered, and it is possible that the dominant party carried 
out their measures with too strong a hand, having a large majority 
of the body with them. Party spirit ran high, the blood coursed 
rapidly in the veins, and although sincere in their deliberations, 
it is pretty generally conceded now as time has cooled the ardor 
and quenched the fire of party strife, that if both sides were to pass 
through the same struggle to-day there would be a different result. 
How different the spirit now between the Blue and Gray more than 
two^score years after Appomattox, than it was then when brother 
against brother, each feeling that ho was in the right, fought eacli 
other to the death on the bloody battle-field. To-day the memories 



364 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

of the past are swallowed up in the patriotism of the present. 
The " hloody angle " on Gettysburg's gory field where the noble 
and brave Armisted reached the " high water-mark " of the Con- 
federacy and fell, surrounded by hundreds of as brave men as 
ever carried a musket or wielded a sword, there at that same spot, 
43 years after, the remnants of Pickett's undaunted legions and 
those of Pennsylvania's heroes who met them with sword and 
bayonet, held a reunion, at which time the widow of the brave 
Pickett, like a white dove of peace, was the most conspicuous guest 
of the " Boys in Blue " ; and there in the quiet of a September 
day the sword of Armisted that fell as a trophy to a Northerner, 
was relinquished and returned to the " Boys in Gray " who sur- 
vived that terrible day, as the followers of their devoted chieftain. 
Is it too much to anticipate that the bloodless chasm made 
at the Minneapolis session may yet be bridged by the planks of Vir- 
tue, Liberty and Patriotism, and some " glad day " the foemen, 
who, in 1899, crossed lances in party strife, may meet at the same 
city representing an army of 300,000 patriots, in a blessed reunion, 
speaking not of the past, only of its victories, and joining hand 
and heart in one solid phalanx for the battle of Armegeddon that 
is to be fought and won. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., 1900 

The Thirty-second Annual Session of the National Council, 
pursuant to the call of the National Councilor, was held in the 
City of Philadelphia, June 19-21, 1900, with National Councilor 
Charles Reimer in the Chair, assisted by N. V. C, C. P. Reeves. 

With the exception of the last session at Minneapolis, when 
the legislation enacted was to have a mightier influence than that 
of any previous session of the National Body, the session held at 
Philadelphia will go down in history as the most important in the 
annals of the Order. The organization was in the throes of 
rebellion, and was fighting for its very life against the most unreas- 
onable conspiracy ever concocted in any fraternal association; 
hence this National session stands out as conspicuously important, 
for here the National Council was enabled to ratify all that was done 
at Minneapolis, and to forever establish the body as the Supreme 
Head of the Junior Order of United American Mechanics of the 
United States of North America. 

As the subject has been more fully treated in another chapter, 
only a brief reference can be made in this connection to those 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 365 

stirring scenes in this critical hour of the Order, when the hearts 
of loyal men trembled for their beloved organization. 

The question having been raised by the " insurgents " that 
the Minneapolis session of the National Council was illegal, claim- 
ing that the charter did not permit the National Body to meet be- 
yond the boundaries of the State of Pennsylvania; and this position 
having been affirmed by the Dauphin County Court of Pennsylvania 
thereby jeopardizing all legislation of the Minneapolis session, 
in fact that of every session previous to 1899, held outside the 
state, the National Councilor issued a proclamation changing the 
meeting of the body from Detroit, Michigan to Philadelphia, Pa. 
In the meantime the attorneys for the National Council had ap- 
pealed from the opinion of the lower court to the Supreme Court 
of the state, thereby leaving all issues undetermined as well as 
unimpeded as promulgated at Minneapolis. 

Following the report of the Credential Committee, the first 
action of the National Council was the enactment of a statute, by 
a vote of 183 ayes and no nays, as follows: 

"A RESOLUTION 

" Title — Ratifying, Approving, and Confirming, all and every, the 
Proceedings, Acts, Resolutions, Elections, Laws, Decisions, Decrees, the 
Incorporation of the National Council, and Amendments thereto at any 
time heretofore made and done by this National Council. 

"Be it Resolved by the National Council, Junior Order United Amer- 
ican Mechanics, That, 

" Whereas, the Court of Common Pleas, in and for the County 
of Dauphin, on or about the tenth day of March, 1900, entered a decree 
in certain proceedings held therein at the suit of Derry Council vs. the 
State and National Councils, Junior Order United American Mechanics, 
declaring illegal and invalid, null and void, all acts and proceedings, 
ordinances and laws, had and enacted, at Minneapolis, by the National 
Council, Junior Order United American Mechanics of the United States 
of North America; and 

" Whereas, The sole ground for the decision and decree thus made 
was by reason of the adoption thereof at a session held beyond the State 
of Pennsylvania, and for no other reason; and 

" Whereas, Nearly all the sessions of the National Council have 
been held without objection or protest on the part of any one at places 
beyond the State of Pennsylvania : and 

" Whereas, It is the desire to remove any and all doubts of the 
legality of the actions of the National Council, and in an endeavor to 
comply with the mandates and decrees of said Court, and to remove 
any doubt as to the constitutionality of such laws, ordinances and acts, 
that the National Council in convention assembled at Philadelphia hereby 
adopts, ratifies, approves and publishes, all and every, of the proceed- 



366 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

ings, acts, election of officers, resolutions, laws, decisions, and decrees, at 
any time heretofore made or done by this National Council whenever 
and wherever assembled, whether in the State of Pennsylvania, City of 
Philadelphia, or at any other time or place, whether in general and 
special session, with the same force and effect as though the same were 
herein particularly, especially and at length set forth, including its 
incorporation by the Court of Common Pleas No. 3, of Philadelphia, on 
the tenth day of April, 1893, and the amendments thereto to the end 
and intent as though the same had been truly passed, made and adopted, 
at a session of the National Council held in the City of Philadelphia and 
State of Pennsylvania." 

We have deemed it best to present to the thousands of readers 
of this volume this valuable paper, which is worthy to be preserved 
in the archives of the Order. It is quite apparent that in the 
struggle for the life of the Jr. 0. U. A. M., that the organization 
was fortunate in having legal talent, both in and out the Order, 
of the highest character, and although the cost to maintain the 
legal battle for years was large, yet it was a necessity to employ 
the very best legal ability. 

Pending the consideration of the resolution, it was withdrawn 
and offered as a statute as noted above, and then reoffered as a 
resolution and passed unanimously, thus making the action doubly 
secure. 

Protests emanating from the " insurgents " of New Jersey, 
New York, District of Columbia, Virginia and Pennsylvania were 
presented to the National Body claiming that the call for the session 
at Philadelphia was illegal and contrary to law, and at the same 
time reciting their wrongs at the hands of the National Council. 
The following paper signed by the Representatives, Past National 
and State Councilors, representing the insurgent element of the 
states noted above, was read and referred to the Law Committee: 

" To the Officers and Members of tihe National Council, Jr. 0. U. A. M., 
U. S. A. 

" Greeting. — 

"Whereas, This session of the National Council of the Junior Order 
United American Mechanics, is in our opinion, an illegal one in that the 
call for the same is without warrant in law; therefore, be it 

" Resolved, That all and every one of the States represented in the 
fight against the grievances existing in and emanating from the said 
National Council do hereby protest against the holding of said session 
in the City of Philadelphia, in the State of Pennsylvania on June 19, 
1900, or any other day subsequent thereto." 

The Executive Committee of the said insurgent states, in 
two lengthy preambles and sets of resolutions, presented their 
grievances, stating, if redress was secureo 1 and a proper adjustment 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 367 

of the grievances named was made, that they were willing to resume 
relations with the National Body. The following were the griev- 
ances they wished adjusted to their way of thinking: 

"First. By abolishing all laws adopted at the session held at 
Minneapolis, Minn., in June, 1899, and all other acts growing out of the 
adoption of said laws. 

" Second. By amending the laws that were in force prior to June, 
1899, so as to give the five states and all other states just representation, 
according to membership and taxation. 

" Third. By discontinuing the appropriations to the so-called peri- 
odicals of the Order. 

" Fourth. By amending the laws so as to abolish the position of 
National Organizer; to discontinue the position of Special Organizers, 
except in case of absolute necessity, and then only those known to possess 
unquestioned ability and experience. 

"Fifth. By discontinuing a Secretary of the National Legislative 
Committee with a salary attached, and place the duty of said Secretary, 
upon the National Secretary, without additional pay. 

"Sixth. To appoint none but duly accredited National Representa- 
tives, upon any and all committees of the National Council. 

"Seventh. To reduce the per capita tax commensurate with intel- 
ligent and economical administration of the affairs of the Order. 

" Eighth. That the National Council shall be purely a representative 
body, and of absolute limited powers." 

The session was one of action more than of words. The 
absence of acrimonious controversy upon the floor of the National 
Council was owing to the fact that only the administration party, 
the " loyalists/' were represented, the malcontents having, by their 
own act placed themselves on the outside. The principal work of 
the session was the proposal of statutes and action on the same, 
amending certain sections of the National Constitution and Laws, 
as adopted at Minneapolis, where defects were discovered. In jus- 
tiee to the leaders of the administration party and as expressive 
of the spirit of conciliation shown, many of the amendments 
adopted were along the line of points suggested by the "insur- 
gents " in their list of grievances, as will be shown. Every effort to 
conciliate the offending members was made, and so far as it 
comported with the dignity and honor of the National Body, the 
" olive branch " was extended, but to no purpose, as the sequel 
shows. 

One of the grievances advanced by the seceding element 
against the dominant party was the fact of extravagance and the 
absence of the spirit of economy. In the spirit of conciliation, and 
as meaures of redress, the National Council enacted several statutes 
along the line of "economy," trusting the erring brethren would 



368 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

return when they observed the good intentions of the loyalists, 
but it had no effect upon them. As an " olive branch," the leaders 
of the dominant party suggested and enacted legislation that 
affected some of their closest friends, and yet the offending party 
did not return. Much that had been done at Minneapolis that 
was advanced as the cause of the insurrection, was undone at 
Philadelphia, yet harmony came not. The following statutes were 
enacted along the line of economy and harmony : 

1. Changing the ratio of representation of the National Coun- 
cil from three Eepresentatives from each State Council, with an 
additional Representative for every ten thousand members or a 
majority fraction thereof, to that of the present ratio of represen- 
tation, which is one Representative from each State Council where 
the membership is less than five hundred, etc., etc. 

2. Reducing the National Legislative Committee from five 
to three members. 

3. Eliminating entirely the Committee on Transportation. 

NATIONAL COUNCILOR'S REPORT 

The report of the National Councilor, Brother Charles Reimer, 
was an exhaustive resume of the issues confronting the organization ; 
while at the same time it was permeated with a kind and brotherly 
spirit towards those who had seceded, which indeed was a marked 
feature throughout his entire administration as an executive 
officer. 

During the year the National Councilor had received various 
communications from the aggrieved element asking him to call 
a special session of the National Council for the purpose of con- 
sidering the controversies existing, but he declined to act upon 
their request; at the same time, however, he very cordially agreed 
to lay before the Supreme Body any and all grievances they would 
submit, and requested them to send their Representatives to the 
session at Philadelphia to present their complaints. In comment- 
ing on the " olive branch " he had extended, Brother Reimer says : 

" Although they are not entitled to admission by the non-payment 
of the National Council per capita tax, it is my opinion they should, 
nevertheless, be granted admission, and I most respectfully urge that the 
National Council extend them the privilege." 

Knowing the spirit of conciliation that permeated that session, 
and the desire of the leaders for harmony in the ranks, it is just 
to state that had the Representatives of the offending and aggrieved 
element been sent to this session, though not legally entitled to 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 369 

admission, that the wishes of Brother Reimer would have been 
granted without a dissenting vote, and they could have had the 
floor to present their complaints. It might be proper in this con- 
nection to state that charges of insubordination had been preferred 
against the State Councils in insurrection and their charters sus- 
pended, pending a hearing before the National Judiciary. Hence, 
the hearty invitation of the National Councilor to the Representa- 
tives of those states to be present and to present their protest on 
the floor of the National Council, showed the broadest magnanimity 
on the part of Brother Reimer. 

As was to be expected, the statistical report showed heavy 
losses both in Councils and members, there being 1,664 Councils 
loyal to the National Body, and 143,077 members, making a loss 
in Councils of 500 and in membership of 43,645. The net gain, 
however, in the loyal states of members was 2,836. 

The storm that gathered about the Junior Order at this time, 
affected none so greatly as the two patriarchs of the organization, 
Brothers J. W. Calver and Edw. S. Deemer, who, from the infancy 
of the organization had been intimately associated with it, not only 
in their own State Council of Pennsylvania, but in the National 
Body, their membership in the latter body dating from its institu- 
tion. Referring to the issues of the present controversy, Brother 
Deemer had but little to say, but what he did say indicated a deep 
feeling gushing forth from a loyal heart, grieved by the situation. 
Concluding his report, he says : 

" I ask your serious and careful consideration of this condition of 
affairs. An active membership, and official position of over 40 years in 
this organization, I cannot but look upon it with fear and trembling. 
Shall the work of 40 years go for naught, or shall we not rather extend 
the olive branch and ascertain whether a spirit of compromise and con- 
ciliation will not be better, than to widen the breach until disunion is 
an accomplished fact." 

CHANGE OF NAME 

The amendment adopted at Minneapolis proposing change of 
name to " United Americans " having been sent to the various State 
Councils, had been recalled by the National Councilor and action 
thereon deferred until the meeting of the next session of the Na- 
tional Body. The reason for the recall of the proposed amend- 
ment grew out of the fact that the National Councilor's attention 
had been called to the existence of an organization known as " Order 
of United Americans," instituted February 19, 1895, and incor- 
porated in 1896, the officers of which organization had announced 

24 



370 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

their purpose of resisting the proposed amendment to change the 
name from Jr. 0. TJ. A. M. to the one suggested. However eight 
State Councils had already acted upon the proposition prior to the 
recall of the amendment. Two of the State Councils, Indiana and 
Missouri, had favored the change, while six, District of Columbia, 
Ilinois, Maine, New York, Oregon and West Virginia, voted against 
the proposed amendment. 

NATIONAL ORPHANS' HOME 

The Trustees of the National Orphans' Home, notwithstanding 
the dissensions in the Order, reported that the work of the Home, 
though somewhat crippled from lack of funds, was progressing, 
and that not a child had been turned away from the institution 
nor was any one refused admission thereto, notwithstanding children 
of rebellious Councils were in the Home, which Councils, with 
brazen audacity, had refused to pay their tax to help support the 
little ones of their own deceased members. Such children, with 
perfect consistency, could have been returned to the care of their 
home Councils, but a magnanimous Board of Trustees never gave 
thought to such an alternative, even when embarrassed financially. 

Some necessary improvements had been made during the year 
and a greenhouse, the gift of the Allegheny County (Pa.) Picnic 
Association, had been completed. The old farmhouse, a log build- 
ing, had been destroyed by fire as well as the washhouse standing 
nearby. 

The Home was to experience another change in Superinten- 
dency, T. W. Varian resigning and Brother Geo. B. Nesbitt, of 
Pittsburg, Pa., having been elected in his place. The Home met 
with a great loss in the death of one of its Trustees, John E. 
Marlin, of Pennsylvania, whose passing away was regretted, not 
only by his own State Council, but by the National Body. The re- 
port of Dr. Wenner, the Home physician, showed that there had 
been but few cases of illness and not a single death. The inventory 
of the institution showed a valuation of $65,770. The following 
crops were harvested from 57 acres: Wheat, 500 bushels; corn, 840 
bushels ; oats, 470 bushels ; potatoes, 330 bushels, and hay, 60 tons. 

Among the minor items of business considered in the National 
Council, the following may be named : 

1. The vote of State Councils to adopt a Woman's Auxiliary, 
as per amendment at the Minneapolis session, resulted in 14 voting 
in favor and 8 against. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 371 

2. During the year an agreement was entered into between 
the Board of Officers and the American Publishing Company of 
Pittsburg, Pa., by which The American was to be published under 
the direction of the National Council, which contract was con- 
curred in by the National Body, by a vote of 89 to 30. 

3. A resolution was offered and referred to the Committee on 
Ritual, with instructions to revise the Funeral Ceremony so as to 
make it comport with the dignity and standing of the National 
Body. 

4. A proposal for a statute was submitted to change the Ritual 
by inserting the Freeman's Oath, which was referred to the Com- 
mittee on Ritual. A favorable report having been returned, the 
National Body, by motion, laid the matter over one year. The; 
same action was taken on the resolution as above referred to. 

5. The following proposal for a statute was adopted by a vote 
of 153 to none against: "That the Declaration of Principles be 
amended so as to read : ' We recognize the Bible as the fountain 
of both moral and civil law, and believe that it should be read 
in our public schools, not to teach sectarianism, but moral excel- 
lence.' " 

6. The Special Committee on Ritual appointed at the last 
session submitted their report, stating that owing to the strife in the 
Order, and not having funds to offer the prize of $500 as allotted 
by previous session, for the best Ritual, deemed it inadvisable to 
ask for the preparation of a new Ritual, but recommended that a 
Special Committee be appointed for another year, expressing their 
opinion that a new Ritual was needed. The report was accepted, 
but the National Council disagreed with the recommendation of the 
Committee as to the appointment of a Special Committee, another 
evidence of the spirit of economy that prevailed in the National 
Body. 

7. As another evidence of curtailing expenses, a statute was 
adopted by a vote of 98 to 60, to provide biennial sessions of the 
National Council. Relative to the question of biennial sessions of 
1he National Council, it might be stated in this connection, that the 
amendment had been offered by Brothers Stephen Collins, of Penn- 
sylvania, and W. J. Davis, of Maryland, and in the vote subse- 
quently taken by State Councils 8 states, Colorado, Connecticut, 
Maine, Minn., Mass., Pennsylvania, South Carolina and Tennessee 
voted in favor of the amendment while 17 states voted against it, 
with 8 states not voting. At the St. Louis session Brother Collins 



372 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

offered a similar amendment which was incorporated in the report 
of the Committee on Law. This was adopted by ayes, 102, nays, 11. 
The proposed amendment was then submitted to the State Councils 
and was concurred in, only four voting against it, viz., Indiana, 
Ohio, Vermont and Washington. By the adoption of the amend- 
ment there is being saved to the Order fully $7,000 every alternate 
year, or 4 cents per capita. 

The report of mileage and per diem was as follows : 

Number of officers entitled to mileage and per diem. 10 

Number members of committees 28 

Number Representatives 120 

Amount mileage and per diem due officers $455.30 

Amount mileage and per diem due committees .... 1,227.75 
Amount mileage and per diem due Representatives. . 7,244.07 

Total $8,926.12 

The election of officers was the most peaceful and unanimous 

known in the history of the National Body, there not being a single 

contest. The officers were as follows: 

National Councilor — Charles F. Reeves, of Washington, 
i National Vice-Councilor — A. L. Cray, of Indiana, 
National Treasurer — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 
National Conductor — Geo. A. Gowan, of Tennessee, 
National Warden — C. O. Bohrer, of District of Columbia, 
National Inside Sentinel — John H. Noyes, of New Hampshire, 
National Outside Sentinel — A. A. Jackson, of Rhode Island, 
National Chaplain — Rev. C. A. G. Thomas, of North Carolina. 

BUFFALO, N. T., 1901 

The Pan-American Exposition was the inducement, from a 
financial standpoint, for the National Council to select Buffalo, 
N. Y., as the meeting place for the Thirty-third Session of the 
body, which was held June 18 and 19, 1901. One hundred and 
forty-three members were in attendance at roll-call. One " insur- 
gent," a P. N. Representative of Pennsylvania, had the audacity 
to remain in the hall when all not entitled to remain had been 
requested to retire. His retirement was then requested by the 
National Councilor. Other " insurgents " hovered about the hall 
for the purpose of alienating those in the National Body who had 
any sympathy with the movement that had divided the Order. 

The greater portion of the session was taken up in the consider- 
ation of the unfortunate conditions existing, arising from the dis- 
sensions in the organization. Much of the reports of the officers 
was along that line presenting the various phases of the controversy, 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 373 

while the report of the National Judiciary showed that the erring 
State Councils had been judicially dealt with. The reversal of the 
lower court by the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, declaring that 
the laws enacted at Minneapolis were valid, and that the National 
Council was Supreme, thrilled the entire organization, and proved 
decisively that the National Council was the Supreme Head of the 
Order in the United States of North America. The State Council 
charters of New York and Virginia had been revoked during the 
year, but new State Councils were at once organized in the same 
jurisdictions. 

Among the recommendations of National Councilor, Brother 
C. F. Reeves, were the following: 

" 1. I would recommend that the incoming Board of Officers be 
instructed to submit a plan for the editing and publishing of a journal 
in the interest of the Order by the National Council. 

" 2. I would recommend that the compensation of the Secretary of 
the National Legislative Committee be made $G00 and expenses, and com- 
pensation for any other services be determined by the National Board of 
officers. 

" 3. I would recommend that the term of the National Councilor 
be made at least two years, with a view to so arranging that he shall 
give all his time to supervising the work of the Order. 

" 4. If the National Board of Officers is to have any responsibility 
in the Orphans' Home affairs, I would recommend that hereafter the 
Board consist of the National Board of Officers, and two additional mem- 
bers elected by the National Council for a term of two years each. Or 
otherwise, that the Orphans' Home Board be elected by the National 
Council instead of being appointed by the National Board of Officers, as 
at present. 

Recommendation No. 1 was approved. Recommendation No. 
2 was made $900 by the action of the Committee on Finance, 
which was adopted by the body. Recommendation No. 3 was dis- 
approved. Recommendation No. 4 was referred to the Law Com- 
mittee. 

The exhibit of the National Secretary showed a still greater 
decrease in Councils and members from the report of the year 
previous. The reasons for this downward trend are well known 
to the organization. Rebellion had rent the Order and entire State 
Councils had been placed without the pale of the organization, while 
in Pennsylvania a large number of Subordinate Councils had had 
their charters revoked. Among the loyal Councils there was in 
some sections a " stand still " owing to the unrest in the fraternity, 
and even within the National Body there was arising strife, and two 
parties were again seeking the ascendancy. 

As the closing of the century, 1899, was next the " high 





428 


Arkansas 


252 




1,189 


Colorado 


935 




919 



374 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

water-mark " of the Order, numerically, the opening of the new 
century witnessed the " low water-mark " of the organization, as 
the result of the dissension, but with an upward rising of the tide. 
The following is the exhibit by states : 

Minnesota 150 

Missouri 932 

Montana 40 

New Hampshire 908 

North Carolina 4,511 

Delaware 3,361 Ohio 15,935 

Dist. of Columbia ... 337 Oregon 40 

Georgia 1,406 Pennsylvania 34,072 

Idaho 90 Rhode Island 497 

Indiana 1,369 South Carolina 773 

Indian Territory .... 219 Tennessee 1,922 

Kansas 145 Texas 200 

Kentucky 2,531 Vermont 674 

Louisiana 49 Virginia 2,659 

Maine 1,096 Washington 169 

Maryland 18,759 West Virginia 6,009 

Massachusetts 985 Wisconsin Ill 

Michigan 114 

The recapitulation and comparison with the report of previous 
year showed that there were 1,272 Councils, a loss of 388; member- 
ship, 103,783, a loss of 36,974. The aggregate loss was 45,188, 
but this number was reduced by the aggregate gains of the year 
amounting to 8,214, Ohio leading with 1,347 and Tennessee fol- 
lowing close with 1,163. The most stupendous loss over the report 
of 1899, was in value of Subordinate Councils amounting to about 
$1,000,000. 

The Trustees of the Orphans' Home reported disbursements of 
$33,000, while an inventory of the value of the Home showed 
$69,902. Fourteen children had been retired or graduated, 14 
admitted, leaving 92 in the institution. 

woman's auxiliary 

The contention as to a Woman's Auxiliary was still unsettled, 
notwithstanding a majority of the State Councils had approved of 
the creation of such a body. The subject was brought before the 
National Council for consideration by the following resolution : 

"Be it Resolved by the National Council, Junior Order of United 
American Mechanics, that the Daughters of America be and is hereby 
adopted as the official auxiliary of this Order." 

The Committee on the Good of the Order returned the resolu- 
tion with a negative recommendation " owing to the fact that cer- 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 375 

tain high officers of the above Association (Daughters of America) 
are not members in good standing in the Jr. 0. U. A. M." This 
was followed by another resolution, which was as follows: 

" Be it Resolved by the National Council, Jr. O. U. A. M., that the 
Daughters of America is hereby recognized as the auxiliary of this body, 
and further that all male members of the Daughters of America shall 
be members in good standing in the Jr. O. U. A. M." 

Past State Councilor Dr. Wenner, of Ohio, moved to approve 
and that it become effective when the Daughters of America purge 
themselves of all members disloyal to this body. The resolution, 
however, was laid on the table " until they do so purge themselves." 

This action was followed still further by a resolution, which 
was agreed to, " that as a further condition of acceptance " that the 
said Daughters of America should first amend their laws so as to 
conform to the General Laws of the Junior Order and yield con- 
trol and give obedience to the National Council. 

RITUAL 

The subject of Kitual came up in the form of a recommenda- 
tion, that a three-degree Eitual, with a modified form of same, be 
prepared, and that a Special Committee be appointed to formulate 
such Eitual. The recommendation was approved, with the amend- 
ment, that the matter be referred to the Board of Officers with the 
authority to select a competent person to write a Eitual acceptable 
to them. A motion subsequently made to reconsider the above 
action, however, failed. 

The session was largely taken up with the consideration of a 
code of laws for the Funeral Benefit Department, adopted at the 
session and the regulation of the Beneficiary Degree, and placing 
these two important features of the Order on a more solid basis. 
Brother Stephen Collins was appointed Secretary-Manager of both 
Departments. 

The mileage and per diem amounted to $6,211.55. 

The business of the session closed with the installation of the 
following officers : 

National Councilor — A. L. Cray, of Indiana, 

National Vice-Councilor — George B. Bowers, of Pennsylvania, 

National Treasurer — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 

National Conductor — D. B. McDonald, of Ohio, 

National Warden — W. H. Kelley, of Arkansas, 

National Inside Sentinel — A. B. Horney, of North Carolina, 

National Outside Sentinel — W. H. Wood, of Maine, 

National Chaplain — Rev. M. D. Lichliter, of Pennsylvania. 



CHAPTER XXIV 
SESSIONS OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL (Continued) 

MILWAUKEE, WIS., 1902 

HE Thirty-fourth Annual Session of the National Council, 
held in Milwaukee, Wis., June 17-19, 1902, was presided 
over by National Councilor A. L. Cray, there being 131 members 
present. 

The session was somewhat animated, and at times much bitter- 
ness was manifested owing to the spirit of antagonism that, unfor- 
tunately, had invaded the National Body to destroy its peace and 
harmony. The contest for officers was spirited, the forces being 
nearly equal. The " feeling " against the administration party 
was augmented by the " insurgents " sent to the seat of the Na- 
tional Council to scatter the fire-brands of dissension more widely 
throughout the Order, in the hope of dividing the loyal body and 
ultimately to place the reins of power in the hands of the seceding 
body. The purposes of the insurgent leaders, however, were de- 
feated and the administration party maintained its position in the 
conflict still raging in the organization. 

The " rank and file " of the organization, far removed from 
£he " smoke of battle," at this time were somewhat bitter in their 
denunciation of some of the leaders of the loyal wing of the organ- 
ization for so tenaciously maintaining the honor and dignity of the 
Supreme Head of the Order by not permitting a wholesale return 
of the disgruntled element without due contrition upon their part. 
Only those who were in the midst of the fray can realize what 
efforts, even within the National Body, were made to get the control 
of the organization, in order that the sympathizers within, abetted 
by the paid " agents " of the insurgents who were " hanging 
around " on the outside, might formulate concessions to the seceding 
element, that, judging from the sentiments expressed, would have 
been far from honorable, and would have undone all that had been 
achieved up to that time. Beaten by the courts and defeated on 
every hand, still the insurgent party were none the less determined 
to get control of the National Body, and had sent their " agents " 
to the dissatisfied states, stilZ loyal, to stir up opposition to the 
administration, and having made some headway, they followed up 
376 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 377 

their work at the National session, as above referred to, even 
lying on the steps of the stairway of the hall where the meeting 
was being held awaiting the result of the ballot in the election of the 
officers of the National Body. When the result was in favor of the 
administration, these "agents" skulked away like whipped wolves 
and never thereafter did they trouble the National Council with 
their presence until at the Boston session of 1907 when they were 
in evidence. Instead then of condemning the leaders of the organ- 
ization, they should be commended for " standing by their guns " 
when the Order was fighting for its existence. None were more 
desirous to receive back the disloyal element of the organization 
than they and the "olive branch" had been extended, but the 
leaders could not accede to the return of the insurgents as a body 
on their own terms, for those terms and conditions, as stipulated 
in their protests presented at the Philadelphia session, meant a 
drawn sword and an entire change of the policy of the organ- 
ization and the elimination of those who had stood for loyalty and 
the right. 

To-day as harmony prevails in the ranks of the loyalists, 
some of those even in the National Body who, during the earlier 
years of the controversy, opposed the policy of the administration 
now " see eye to eye " and some have admitted that they miscon- 
strued the purposes of those who were in the vanguard of the 
struggle. Leaders may make mistakes in the "heat of battle" 
when the blood is hot, and passion is stirred, yet it is just to state 
that the men who were conspicuously active in reshaping the organ- 
ization when rebellion within was rife, are now recognized in their 
true light and have the confidence of the brotherhood. 

The National Councilor, Brother Cray, in his report referred 
naturally to the existing conditions of the Order at this time. Dur- 
ing the year the insurgents had made an effort to obtain the names 
and addresses of the Secretaries of the Subordinate Councils for 
the purpose of still further widening the breach, if possible, 
throughout the jurisdiction by the distribution of false statements 
relative to the trouble in the organization. The National Coun- 
cilor, wide-awake to the plans of the insurgents, promptly notified 
the State Council Secretaries to refuse the request. 

Referring to the spirit that was being manifested in the loyal 
ranks, Brother Cray has this to say: 

" I am aware that most of the members of this National Council 
have heard of the results in the States of New York and New Jersey. 
The courts' findings have been favorable to us in both cases, and, notwith- 



378 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

standing the further fact, that in every single instance the cause of the 
loyalists have been upheld by the courts so far, there are members of 
our Order, and some who hold membership in this National Body, that seem 
to be willing to retrace or retard our progress along this line and make 
further concessions to those disloyal, when they must know that new suits 
or suit have been filed against us during the present year. Candidly does 
this look as though the extending of the ' Olive Branch,' as suggested by 
some, would ever bring the Order together again? Have we not tried it, 
and is not the result a matter fresh in the memory of all? 

" While I very much deplore the expenditure of our Order's finances 
for legal services, yet what else can we do? I invite those who can, to 
present a stable cure for the whole evil and affliction, and let us as brethren 
assist in the restoration of our Order in each and every state to a health- 
ful and loyal condition." 

The National Councilor submitted but four recommendations, 
one of which was as follows : 

" Third. I would recommend that there be appointed a suitable 
person to prepare a new Ritual, to be presented at the next session of 
the National Council for adoption." 

The recommendation, however, was referred to the Eitual Com- 
mittee, as was also a recommendation of the Board of Officers along 
same line, suggesting an appropriation sufficient to secure some 
competent person to prepare such Eitual. Subsequently, the Eitual 
Committee reported on the recommendations, disapproving the 
selection of one person to formulate Eitual, as per recommendation 
of the National Councilor, but in lieu thereof, suggested that a 
Special Committee of three be appointed with full power to pre- 
pare a three-degree Eitual or arrange for its preparation. In the 
consideration of the Committee's suggestion, it was disapproved 
by the National Body and the recommendation of the National 
Councilor was adopted. 

The Statistical report of the National Secretary was full of 
hope and encouragement. Since the last report there was a gain 
in Councils of 42 and in members 6,311, there being 1,314 Councils 
and 110,097 members. The value of Subordinate Councils in- 
creased $171,321.48. 

The report of the Orphans' Home was satisfactory, establishing 
the fact that the Trustees were business men, they having conducted 
the business affairs of the Home conscientiously and economically. 
Every dollar of debt had been paid and every penny of the expense 
of the institution had been met. 

Brother Charles H. Kernan had been selected Superintendent 
which, as subsequent events show, proved a very wise selection. 
Under his management the children of the Home were taught in the 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 379 

institution instead of sending them to the public schools located 
some distance away. Several minor innovations were inaugurated 
that were of advantage to the Home, among which were the system 
of accounting for all the products of the farm and the uniforming 
of the children. During the year the foundation of the Industrial 
School, to be furnished by the Allegheny (Pa.) County Orphans 3 
Home Association, was laid. The Superintendent's report showed 
that 25 children had been admitted to the Home, 12 retired and 
there was one death, leaving in the institution 104. The total 
inventory of valuation was placed at $70,216. 

BENEFICIARY DEGREE AND FUNERAL BENEFIT 
DEPARTMENT 

Under the efficient management of Brother Stephen Collins, 
Secretary-Manager, these two features of the Order made advance- 
ment, especially the Funeral Benefit Department, which had been 
in operation but eight months at the time the report was made. 
During the year 100 certificates had been written in the Beneficiary 
Degree, representing $119,500 in risks, making a total to date of 
502 certificates that had been written representing $604,000; and 
deducting the lapses, there remained 415 certificates representing 
$512,000. 

The report of the eight months of the Funeral Benefit De- 
partment surpassed by far the most sanguine expectations of its 
projectors. During that period 312 Councils had been enrolled, 
representing 32 states, making a membership in the Department 
of 21,152. Deaths occurring in the eight months numbered 41, 
upon which claims were paid amounting to $10,250, leaving a 
balance on hand as follows: Expense fund, $2,101.80; Special fund, 
$2,897.66, or a total of $4,999.46, which represented the cash assets 
of the Department. 

PEACE PROPOSALS 

There existed in the National Council a strong sentiment 
in favor of making peace with the insurgent element, even at a 
sacrifice of the dignity of the National Body and the surrendering 
of the ground upon which the Order had been fighting its battle 
for loyalty. In conformity with these " peace sentiments," the 
following was offered: 

" Be it Resolved, by the National Council Junior Order of United 
American Mechanics that, 

" Whereas, the Junior O. U. A. M. in divers States of the Union is 
to-day, and has for a long time been involved in dissentions within their 



380 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

ranks, culminating in numbers of law suits and other litigation vastly 
expensive to this National Council and damaging to the good name and 
status of the Order; 

" And Whereas, over 100,000 members of the Order are now outside 
the jurisdiction of this National Council, and are paying nothing towards 
the support of this body and receiving no recognition from the said National 
Council ; 

" In view of these facts, the National Council Junior O. U. A. M. 
hereby appoints J. G. A. Richter of Ohio, Geo. A. Gowan, of Tennessee, 
Roger Armstrong of Missouri, Geo. A. Davis of Maryland, and John Kee 
of West Virginia a Committee on Arbitration to act on behalf of this 
National Council in an effort to settle the differences now existing between 
the so-called ' Insurgents ' in the said several States. And our said Com- 
mittee is hereby authorized to meet a like Committee which may be 
appointed from the ranks of the said ' Insurgents ' and to agree with them 
upon terms under which the said factions, in whole or in part, shall be 
received back into the Order and re-vested with the rights and privileges 
of membership under the authority and jurisdiction of this National Coun- 
cil. And our said Committee shall have full power to act in the premises 
as they may deem best for the interest of this National Council and the 
Order at large. „ E H GoDFREY> 

" Chas. F. Reeves." 

In the consideration of the resolution, in which there was 
considerable discussion, the following substitute was submitted 
by P. S. C, W. C. Anderson, of New York: 

" Whereas, This body has been informed that the great bulk of the 
former membership of our Order, who have withdrawn from the organi- 
zation, the same are desirous of reuniting with us in a body; 

" Resolved, That a Committee of three be appointed to confer with 
a similar number of the former membership and report the result of their 
conference at the next annual session of the National Council." 

In the consideration of the substitute, it was unanimously 
adopted, with an amendment, that the Committee consist of 
Brothers J. G. A. Richter, J. W. Calver and A. L. Cray. 

ORGANIZING WORK 

Immediately after the close of the last session of the National 
Council, Brother Stephen Collins was appointed Manager of Or- 
ganizers, and with his usual zeal, he entered upon the plan of his 
campaign, saving weak Councils, holding the Order intact in states 
where rebellion was rampant and, where feasible, offsetting the 
unavoidable losses caused by the insurrection by forming new Coun- 
cils. A systematic campaign had been carried out and some good 
was accomplished, as evidenced by the substantial gains made. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 381 



A NATIONAL COUNCIL JOURNAL 

For years there had been a desire with a portion oP the mem- 
bers of the National Body to have an " Official Organ," instead of 
distributing certain portions of the appropriation for periodicals 
to the various papers published as private enterprises. Eecommen- 
dations of National Councilors again and again had kept this 
thought before the body, and the time seemed ripe to act upon the 
suggestion. In conformity therewith the following statute, with 
proposal attached, was submitted : 

"A PROPOSAL FOR A STATUTE 

" Title. — Authorising the acceptance of the proposition of the Ameri- 
can Publishing Co. and providing for the publication by the National 
Council, of a Journal of the Order. 

"Be it enacted by the National Council, Junior Order of United 
American Mechanics, that the proposition of the American Publishing 
Company, to turn over to the National Council the publication known as 
The American upon the terms therein stated, be accepted, and that the 
publication be placed under the charge of the National Council Secretary. 

" That the National Council Secretary be authorized to employ such 
assistance to assist him in the publication of the periodical as may be 
necessary. 

" That to the end of carrying out this acceptance of the proposition 
the National Board of Officers is authorized to enter into an agreement 
as set forth in said proposition. 

" To the N. C, N. V. C, Officers and Members of the National Council, 

Junior 0. U. A. M. 
" Brethren. — 

" Realizing the importance of having a Journal of the Order, which 
may inform the membership of what is transpiring in the organization, 
as well as the absolute necessity of combatting the misleading statements 
being published by the insurgents, which tend to create dissensions, if not 
to endanger the life of the National Council, and 

" Realizing that the question of appropriations to periodicals annually 
causes great dissatisfaction, we submit to you the following proposition: 

" We will turn over to the National Council free of charge, the 
newspaper known as The American, together with the subscription list, 
and advertising list, on conditions that the subscriptions shall be completed, 
and the advertising contracts be completed, and that we be allowed four 
columns of space out of the forty columns, for advertising purposes, for 
advertising the supplies of the ' American Publishing Company ' and at the 
direction of the National Council sever all connection with the editing and 
publishing of the periodical, so long as it is edited and published by tlie 
National Council, but should the National Council discontinue the publica- 
tion of the periodical, then it shall revert to the 'American Publishing ( '•>■' 
" Fraternally yours, 

" The American Publishing Co., 

" Stephen Collins, Sec. 



382 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

" Your Committee on the Good of the Order, to whom was referred 
the recommendation of the National Councilor that the National Council 
publish a Journal of the Order, beg to submit the following report: 

" That we have received a proposition from ' The American Publish- 
ing Co.,' which we submit with the annexed Proposal for a Statute. 

" W. F. Young, " Geo. A. Davis, 

" G. C. Mosek, " Frank M. Jones, 

" J. A. Tabplet, 
" Committee on the Good of the Order." 

The question of adoption of the statute and the acceptance 
of the proposal of The American Publishing Company, created a 
sharp discussion, but on an aye and nay vote the proposition of 
The American Publishing Company was accepted, and after amend- 
ing statute by inserting National Board of Officers for National 
Secretary, it was adopted by 70 ayes to 42 nays. 

Quite a number of proposals for statutes were offered, but the 
greater number were either disapproved by the Committee on the 
Good of the Order or defeated upon the floor of the National 
Council. One very peculiar proposal was offered by Brother Van 
Horn, of Ohio : 

" Be it enacted, by the National Council, Junior Order of United 
American Mechanics, that Section 1, Chapter I, Division V, be amended by 
adding, that all foreign-born male children coming to the United States 
with their parents at the age of two years, may be admitted to membership 
after arriving at the age of twenty-one years." 

It goes without saying, that the proposal was returned by the 
Committee with an unfavorable recommendation. 

A proposal for a statute to amend the section of the National 
Constitution relative to representation in the National Council to 
the effect that the various Boards and Standing Committees shall 
be elected by the National Council instead of being appointed by 
the Board of Officers, went the same way as the preceding. 

The following was approved : 

" Be it Resolved, by the National Council, Junior Order of United 
American Mechanics, that the National Councilor be requested to select 
the Thanksgiving Day selected by the President of the United States, as 
a day of thanksgiving of the Order. „ Jqhn w> ^^ 

" M. D. LlCHLITEE." 

The report of the Committee on Mileage and Per Diem was 
$5,964.55. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 383 

After a very strenuous session in which much Legislation was 
enacted that placed the Order on a firmer basis, the National Body 
adjourned under brighter skies than for three preceding sessions. 
The election of officers was warmly contested, even that of the 
National Secretary, who, with but two or three exceptions, had been 
previously reelected without opposition, had a contestant, Brother 
John A. Bliss, of Ohio, the vote standing, Deemer, 77; Bliss, 53. 
Dr. J. L. Cooper was elected National Vice-Councilor by a major- 
ity of three votes over Brother S. D. Hodgdon, of Missouri. The 
result of the election was as follows: 

National Councilor — George B. Bowers, of Pennsylvania, 
National Vice-Councilor — Dr. J. L. Cooper, of Texas, 
National Secretary — Edw. S. Deemer, of Pennsylvania, 
National Treasurer — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 
National Conductor — E. R. Dillingham, of Georgia, 
National Warden — C. L. Place, of Rhode Island, 
National Inside Sentinel — J. M. Douglass, of Wisconsin, 
National Outside Sentinel — A. E. White, of Vermont, 
National Chaplain — Rev. M. D. Lichliter, of Pennsylvania. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., 1903 

Some years previous an invitation to meet in annual session 
in the " Golden State," had been extended to the National Council 
by Manzanita Council, No. 1, of California, located at Petaluma, 
and other invitations had subsequently been extended from the 
Pacific Coast, but at no time had it been thought feasible to accept, 
until the session held at Milwaukee in 1902, the National Body, by 
a vote of 74 to 56, decided to hold their next meeting in San 
Francisco, California. 

CHANGE OF DATE OF MEETING 

The question of obtaining railroad rates made it necessary for 
'the National Board of Officers to change the date of the National 
Council meeting from June to May or August in order to secure 
the advantage of low rates through other organizations that were 
holding their meetings, either in San Francisco or Los Angeles, the 
General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the latter city in 
the month of May and the Grand Army of the Republic in the for- 
mer city in the month of August. In view of a possible change 
of date, the National Body at Milwaukee adopted the following 
statute, on motion of Brother John A. Bliss, of Ohio : 



384 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 



" A PROPOSAL FOR A STATUTE 

"Title. — To authorize Board of Officer* of tin \alional (Council to 
change the time of the next meeting of the National Council. 

" Be it enacted, by the National Council, Junior Order of United 
American Mechanics, that the National Council Board of Officers be, and 
they are hereby, authorized to change the time of the next meeting of the 
National Council in case it should be necessary or advisable so to do in 
order to take advantage of reductions that may be offered by the railroads, 
providing that in changing said time of meeting due notice of the same 
shall be made to the members of the National Council at least thirty days 
prior to the time thus fixed; provided, that the time thus fixed shall be 
within thirty days of the regular time of meeting." 

The question whether the Board of Officers had authority to 
change the date of the meeting of the National Council was dis- 
puted in some sections; and if they had that authority, it was 
claimed they could change the place of the meeting as well as the 
date. In meeting this statement and defending their right to 
change the date of the meeting, the National Board of Officers 
cited Article VII., Section 12, of the National Council Constitution 
which reads: 

" The regular meeting of the National Council shall be held on 
the third Tuesday in June of each and every year, at such place as shall 
be determined upon by the preceding regular meeting, unless in an emer- 
gency the same be changed as provided by law." 

"Section 17, Article VIII of the Constitution reads: 'In an emer- 
gency the Board of Officers may, upon causing due notice thereof to be 
given to the several State Council Secretaries, and Recording Secretaries 
of Councils under the jurisdiction of the National Council, change the 
time and place of holding the regular meeting of the National Council." 

The question presented itself, " What is an ' emergency ' ? " 
National Secretary Brother Deemer placed the following construc- 
tion upon the word : 

" An emergency is surely something that was not known and could 
not be seen at the time the body voted for the place of meeting, such as 
an epidemic in the town or a railroad strike of such proportions as to 
prevent us from reaching the place. It could not be the right of the 
Board of Officers to call the session in August, after the National Council 
had conferred the power upon the Board to change the time of meeting, 
provided it was not more than thirty days prior to, or succeeding the 
regular time in June. This permitted no discretion upon the Board of 
Officers. Fortunately for us, the Presbyterian General Assembly had 
arranged to meet in Los Angeles the latter part of May, and this enabled 
the Board of Officers to comply with the provision of the National Council, 
and give us the advantage of the cheapest rates ever made for a trip to 
San Francisco." 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 385 

No doubt, prompted by the fact that the exegencies of the case 
compelled the National Board of Officers to change the date of the 
meeting of the National Council, the Representatives of the State 
of Ohio took advantage of the situation to send to the National 
Board of Officers and the members of the National Body on March 
31, 1903, a communication reciting the probable cost of the meeting 
to be held at San Francisco, requesting each member to sign the 
following letter and send same to the National Secretary, provided 
he coincided with the views of the said National Eepresentativcs : 

" To the Board of Officers, National Council, Jr. 0. U. A. M. 
" Dear Sirs and Brothers. — 

" In view of the large expense which will be incurred by holding 
the session of the National Council at San Francisco, and the depleted 
condition of the treasury, the undersigned most respectfully requests that 
you change the place of meeting to some point where the expense will not 
exceed $6,000." 

National Councilor Geo. B. Bowers, on receipt of the communi- 
cation from the Eepresentativcs of Ohio, addressed the follow- 
ing opinion upon and construction of the Supreme Law of the 
Order, and sent it to the other members of the Board : 

" In my opinion the Board of Officers do not have the power to change 
the place of meeting, for the reason that the National Council at its last 
session in Milwaukee, were in possession of all the facts as stated in 
the circular hereto attached, dated, March 30, 1903. They knew the dis- 
tance to San Francisco, and the rate of mileage and per diem that would 
be paid. They were informed as to the number of members composing 
the National Council. They also knew what the current expenses would 
be, and that provision would have to be made for the maintenance of the 
National Orphans' Home. With this knowledge, and with a full day to 
deliberate the same after the places of meeting had been nominated, by a 
decided majority, the body elected to go to San Francisco this year. 
Whether that decision meets with my approval or not is not material. 
The fact remains that the National Council, by ballot, determined on meet- 
ing at San Francisco, and I know of no emergency contemplated by law, 
that would warrant the Board of Officers in changing the place. 1 have 
carefully considered the reading of the Supreme Law, as to what constitutes 
an emergency which would warrant the Board in changing the place of 
meeting, and I am irresistibly drawn to the conclusion that an emergency 
as contemplated by the law is not something that was seen, known and 
fully considered by the session, when it fixed the place of meeting, but is 
something that arises after the adjournment of the session, which the body 
could not foresee or know, and hence, was not considered by the body, when 
it passed judgment upon and determined upon the next place of meeting. 
If the body was prevented, by injunction from going to San Francisco or 
an epidemic of some contagious disease were to break out in San Francisco 
or something else of this character were to occur, I believe there would 

25 



386 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

be such an emergency as would warrant the Board in attempting to undo 
the action of the National Council in session, but I believe that the Board 
of Officers, who are creatures of the body, should not set up their judgment 
against the judgment of the body and attempt to undo and reverse the 
action of the body, which had created them. 

" It may have been unwise for the National Council to have selected 
San Francisco, but it was done with a full knowledge of the conditions 
and the expense attending the session at that point; there is no power 
as I read the law, in the Board of Officers to review this decision, and if 
a mistake has been made by the N. C, it and not the Board of Officers, 
should be responsible for that mistake. 

" I must therefore decline to attempt to change the place of meeting, 
as requested in the letter of the National Representatives from Ohio hereto 
attached, and if you concur with me in this judgment, the action of the 
Board is subject to appeal and review by the National Judiciary, who 
may decide that our interpretation of the law is wrong but without such 
a decision, I do not feel like attempting to reverse the decision of the 
National Council. Of course, I realize that the other members of the Board 
have power to reverse me in this matter. 

" In addition to the foregoing, I might say that comparatively few, 
i. e., less than one-third of the officers and members of the National Council 
have expressed any desire for a change. 

" I am also advised that in all probability before a majority of the 
members could be heard from and the letter sent around among the Board, 
it would be too late to send out the notice for the session, as required by 
law. 

" I would be glad to have your action on the foregoing, and your 
concurrence or disapproval of my position." 

The very clear construction of the term " emergency," as 
given above, and the construction of the vested rights conferred 
upon the Board of Officers by the laws of the Order, were concurred 
in by National Vice-Councilor Brother Cooper and Junior Past 
National Councilor Brother Cray. 

In the consideration of the change of time of the meeting, 
the inclination of the Board of Officers was to set the time in 
August; but on referring to the statute adopted at Milwaukee, 
which read : " Provided that the time thus fixed shall be within 
thirty days of the regular time of meeting," there was no alterna- 
tive but to meet in May, which change was officially made. 

We have given much space to the subject of " Change of Time 
of Meeting of the National Council," with the endeavor to satisf j 
all criticism that might arise even at this date why the place oj 
meeting was not changed as well as the time of meeting. We are 
in position to know, that had it been within the vested rights of the 
National Board of Officers to change the place of meeting in line 
with the spirit of the communication from the Representatives of 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 387 

Ohio, that the change would have been made, and the decision would 
have been concurred in by a large number of the leaders of the 
National Body. 

It is not within the province of these annals to speak of the 
delightful trip across the great plains and over the mighty moun- 
tain ranges of our country; suffice it to say, that after a week's 
ride, stopping at Denver, Colorado Springs, Pikes Peak, Garden 
of the Gods and Salt Lake City, the special train bearing a major- 
ity of the members of the National Body reached the " Golden 
Gate," May 19, and the Thirty-fifth Annual Session of the National 
Council convened on the 20th, with National Councilor George B. 
Bowers in the Chair, who presided over the body with gentleness of 
spirit and urbanity of manner, characteristics of his administra- 
tion, both as State Councilor of Pensylvania and National 
Councilor. 

Eoll-call showed that 118 members of the body were present; it 
also revealed the fact that many familiar faces were missing at 
this session, prominently among those were J. Adam Sohl, Na- 
tional Treasurer, prevented from being present on account of per- 
sonal illness, Brothers Eobert Ogle and Smith W. Bennett, kept 
away by business matters, and National Vice-Councilor Dr. J. L. 
Cooper, whose genial sm'iles and " glad hand " always made 
every one feel at home in his presence, was also detained through 
personal affliction. That he was bitterly disappointed as well as the 
members of the National Body, is clear by the following telegram : 

" Fort Worth, Texas, May 19, 1903. 

" Edw. S. Deemer, Sec'y, Lick Hotel, care National Council, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 
" Am in hospital with erysipelas following operation on middle ear. 
Impossible to travel. My heart is broken that I cannot be with you. May 
every ballot you take stand for a greater Junior Order. 

" J. L. Cooper, M. D." 

REPORTS OF TTTE OFFICERS OF THE 
NATIONAL COUNCIL 

In the various reports of the National Council Officers, a 
resume of the most important features of the Order for the year 
was given, much of which finds a place in other portions of this 
volume. A very brief reference here is given: 

1. The case in New York wherein the insurgent State Council 
was plaintiff and the loyal State Council et al., were defendants, 
was decided in favor of the defendants. 



388 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

2. The case of the two contending State Councils in Pennsyl- 
vania had been argued before the Common Pleas Court of Phila- 
delphia, and very voluminous testimony had been submitted, but 
no decision had been handed down. 

3. The Jr. F. B. Association of Philadelphia, controlled by 
insurgent leaders, cited before the Attorney-General of Pennsyl- 
vania the officers of the Beneficiary Degree and Funeral Benefit 
Department. The Attorney- General refused the writ, and by the 
surrendering of the Colorado Charter, under which the Beneficiary 
Degree was incorporated, the entire proceedings virtually ended. 

4. The National Councilor asked for a writ of Quo Warranto 
before the Attorney- General of Pennsylvania to inquire into the 
right of the Jr. A. M. F. B. Association to do business in Pennsyl- 
vania. The case had not as yet been decided by the courts of 
Philadelphia. 

5. In reference to the recommendation of the then National 
Councilor, Brother Cray adopted at the last session, that a " suit- 
able person be appointed to prepare a new Bitual," the National 
Councilor stated that the National Body did not indicate who was 
to appoint such " suitable person," nor did it make any appropria- 
tion for compensation for the services of such a person. 

6. The demand for the extending of the " olive branch " had 
been made so frequently that at the last session the members of the 
National Body yielded to the conservative or the so-called " peace " 
element of the National Council, and without any solicitation on the 
part of the insurgents, appointed an arbitration Committee of 
three to meet a similar Committee of the disloyal party, with the 
object of effecting a settlement of differences. The insurgents 
appointed a Committee of five to meet said loyal committee, and in 
the letter to the National Board of Officers fixing the time and place 
of such meeting the following was a part: 

" Action taken on Saturday last regarding the communication resulted 
in the appointment of a committee for the purpose of receiving any pro- 
posals the National Council, Jr. O. U. A. M., may have to make through its 
Committee. We waive all reference to the misstatements in the communi- 
cation of September 3 (Junior Past National Councilor, A. L. Cray, Chair- 
man of Arbitration Committee), except to say that the members of the 
Jr. 0. U. A. M., called insurgents, in the said insurgent states, have never 
expressed directly nor by implication, any anxiety to meet the National 
Committee or a committee thereof." 

This communication was signed by Fergus A. Dennis, E. T. 
Keeton, Lewis F. Page, Wm. A. Pike, W. L. Boyden, Committee. 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 389 

As the subject is treated more fully in another chapter, under the 
head " The Conflict at the Crossing of the Centuries," comment 
here is not necessary. 

7. Certain periodicals, purporting to be published in the inter- 
est of the Order, published during the year very abusive articles 
assailing the National Council and its officers. To such an extent 
did they pursue their villification of the leaders and work of the 
Order, that the National Councilor was under the necessity of noti- 
fying them to refrain from further libelous insertions. 

8. As per action of the National Body at its last session, the 
final adjustment of The American was consummated and R. Baur 
& Son, of Wilkes-Barre, Pa., were given the contract to print the 
paper and T. Walter Gelwicks, of Philadelphia, was selected to be 
editor at a salary of $400 a year. On a basis of 2,800 copies, the 
publishers agreed to furnish The American to the subscribers at 
$61 per issue, including postage. 

9. The statistical report showed the number of Councils to 
have been 1,382, and the membership 116,106, a gain of 68 Councils 
and 6,009 members. 

THE NATIONAL ORPHANS' HOME 

• The first real reverse met by the Home occurred on June 11, 
1902, when the three buildings used for housing the stock and stor- 
ing the grain of the farm were burned, having been struck by 
lightning, entailing a considerable loss. 

A battle between duty and sympathy and the establishment of 
a precedent came up before the Trustees. Application for admis- 
sion to the Home of two children of a deceased member of a disloyal 
Council was made through National Councilor Brother Bowers. 
Two members of the Board of Trustees, acting from a sense of 
sympathy, consented to admit them, but the majority of the Board 
felt that it would be in violation of the laws of the Order to grant 
the application, and at the same time be setting up a dangerous 
precedent. The Trustees found it necessary to refuse the appli- 
cation of a child of a criminal sentenced to prison for murder in the 
second degree, as the law only provided admission for minor chil- 
dren of deceased members. 

Twenty-five children were admitted to the Home during the 
year, one died and 15 released, making a total in the institution, 
April 1, 1903, of 111. The Trustees were Wm. C. Anderson, Presi- 
dent; E. D. Bowland, Secretary; Frank W. Pierson, Treasurer; 
Joseph Powell and D. B. McDonald. 



390 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 



FUNERAL BENEFIT DEPARTMENT 

This most excellent feature of the organization was becoming 
more and more popular, and under the management of Brother 
Stephen Collins, Secretary-Manager, made great advancement dur- 
ing the year, notwithstanding the vicious attack made upon it by 
the officials of the Jr. A. M. F. B. Association of Philadelphia, which 
dragged the Department as well as the Beneficiary Degree into the 
courts, causing the expenditure of much money to preserve its life. 
Referring to the above named Association, Brother Collins " hit 
the nail on the head " when he says : 

" This is the organization, which, through its officers, are more 
responsible than any other agency for the entire trouble in the organiza- 
tion. Without their official and moral support the insurrection in the East 
would not have existed longer than its incipiency. The officers of the 
Philadelphia Association, including all the Directors, are leaders in the 
insurrection in the National Council and the Order itself. This cannot 
be disputed, as the records show it to be a fact." 

As shown in another place, the hearing before the Attorney- 
General in the proceedings instituted by the Association of Phila- 
delphia, resulted favorably to the National Council and the Funeral 
Benefit Department. 

A recapitulation of the receipts and expenditures of the De- 
partment showed that over $60,000 had been received and $56,- 
205.48 expended, of which $50,250 was for 201 deaths, leaving a 
balance on hand, including previous balance, of $9,746.23. During 
the year 28,722 members were enrolled, 5,422 dropped from the 
rolls, leaving a membership April 30, 1903, of 44,452, a net gain 
of 23,300. Never in the history of the Jr. A. M. F. B. Association 
was such a record shown. 

THE BENEFICIARY DEGREE 

Under the management of Brother Collins, this branch of the 
Order showed some advancement, though in less degree than the 
Funeral Benefit Department. A net gain of 64 members was re- 
ported, and the surplus in the treasury was $5,389.95, about double 
that reported at last session. The number of certificates in force 
was 479, representing an insurance of $673,500. 

The incubus that held in check the progress of the Beneficiary 
Degree was the Colorado charter by which it was controlled, mak- 
ing its transactions questionable, owing to the bitter litigation waged 
against it. In the hearing before the Attorney- General of Penn- 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 391 

sylvania it was intimated by that official that while there could be 
no objection found with the operations of the Beneficiary Degree 
under the charter of the National Council, which was undoubtedly 
doing a legal business, that he (the Attorney-General) believed the 
Colorado charter to be, at least, objectionable. Acting upon this 
intimation and under the advice of the attorneys of the Order, the 
Colorado charter was cancelled. 

REPORT OF THE ARBITRATION COMMITTEE 

Incidentally, reference has already been made to this, and even 
in this connection it can but be briefly noted, as a full resume has 
been given under its proper head. 

In view of the fact that the insurgents had appointed five on 
their Committee, the National Board of Officers added to the loyal 
Committee Brothers Bobert Ogle, of Maryland, and H. H. Billany, 
of Delaware, to make an equal number. Since a majority of the 
insurgent Committee were members of the legal profession, the 
National Councilor asked Brother Alex. M. DeHaven to. represent 
the National Council as its attorney. 

The first joint meeting was arranged for Philadelphia, Janu- 
ary 30, 1903, at which time the insurgent Committee objected to 
the presence of Brothers Ogle and Billany, claiming that they were 
not legally members of the loyal Committee, and at the same time 
objected to Brother DeHaven and the stenographer. At the sug- 
gestion of Brother DeHaven, the original Committee, Brothers 
Cray, Eichter and Calver, acted as the representatives of the Na- 
tional Council, and they submitted the first proposition, which was 
as follows: 

" That you come back into the Order; pay all per capita tax due, and 
that you obey the laws of the National Council, and discontinue all liti- 
gation." 

To this reasonable proposition came the reply : 
"We cannot accept this." 

The insurgent Committee then presented propositions, which 
were nothing more than recommendations, to be presented at the 
next session of the National Council, which the loyal Committee 
agreed to do with slight modifications. This joint meeting, how- 
ever, was fruitless of results. 

Another meeting of the Committe was held at Pittsburg, Pa.. 
May 1, same year. At this meeting the insurgent Committee 
submitted a series of propositions, which, with sonic amendments, 



392 HISTORY OF THE JUNIOR ORDER 

were accepted by the loyal Committee, whereupon, a recess was 
taken. On the reassembling of the Joint Committee the insurgent 
Committee refused to accept the amendments suggested or de- 
manded by the loyal Committee, and declared, through its Chair- 
man, that the original propositions was their " ultimatum'' where- 
upon, the meeting or conference adjourned and no progress towards 
a settlement was made. 

During the controversy in the Order the insurgents contended 
in their litigation that one reason why the laws adopted at Minne- 
apolis were illegal was because they were not introduced in one ses- 
sion and voted on at the next as provided by Art. XXV of the old 
National Council Constitution which stated that the general laws 
should not be altered or amended oftener than five years unless by 
a two-thirds vote, etc. It was also provided that all proposed 
amendments should be submitted at one session, referred to the 
Committee on Law, which Committee made its report to the next 
session relative thereto. This was the procedure followed by the 
National Council. On motion of Brother Collins at Louisville, in 
1898, the general laws and the National Council Constitution, etc., 
were referred to the incoming Committee on Law for general revis- 
ion. (Proceedings, Louisville session, page 113.) 

THE JUNIOR AMERICAN MECHANICS' FUNERAL 
BENEFIT ASSOCIATION 

"Reference to this Association has been made in these pages, 
and what was known to every member of the National Body, said 
Association was the main factor in the insurrection, and gave at 
least moral support to the movement that had for its purpose the 
wrecking of the Junior Order. At the session of the National 
Council in 1884 a resolution was adopted recommending the Fu- 
neral Benefit Association to the membership, and although it was 
not in any way amenable to the National Council, yet it recognized 
in this resolution an endorsement. Fearing that the officers of the 
Association would endeavor to convey to the membership the idea 
that by this endorsement said Association was still in connection 
with the Order, a resolution was adopted at this session rescinding 
the former recommendation or endorsement, declaring that the 
Funeral Benefit Department of the Jr. 0. IT. A. M., created at Buf- 
falo, in 1901, was the only Association that was controlled by and 
amenable to the National Council. 

It is surpassingly strange that in the face of this well-known 
fact of the said Association being the citadel from which the battle 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS S9S 

against the National Council was being waged, while at the same 
time its officers and Directors were no longer members of the Order, 
that when the resolution to rescind the former action was consid- 
ered, and at the same time avowing that the Funeral Benefit De- 
partment was a part of the National Council, that on its final pas- 
sage, the ayes and nays were called and fifty-five members of the 
National Council voted against the resolution. The resolution 
however, was adopted by a vote of sixty-six. 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS 

Previous to taking the ballot for the officers for the ensuing 
year, the statement was made, that owing to the fact that the law 
required the National Councilor to hold office a full year, and that 
the same rule applied also to the National Vice-Councilor before 
he could be promoted to the Chair of the National Councilor, that 
the officers-elect could not be installed until the expiration of their 
terms. The following officers were then elected: 

National Councilor — Dr. J. L. Cooper, of Texas, 

National Vice-Councilor — W. E. Faison, of North Carolina, 

National Treasurer — J. Adam Sohl, of Maryland, 

National Conductor — Martin M. Woods, of Massachusetts, 

National Warden — Arthur E. Baisley, of Michigan, 

National Inside Sentinel — H. E. Schaertzer, of California, 

National Outside Sentinel — 0. B. Hopkins, of Virginia, 

National Chaplain — Rev. M. D. Lichliter, of Pennsylvania, 

Board of Control, Beneficiary Degree — E. R. Dillingham, of Georgia. 

The Committee on Credentials and Mileage and Per Diem 
reported the total mileage and per diem to be $14,882.58. 

The courtesies extended to the members of the National Body 
and the goodly number of ladies who accompanied the brothers 
was in harmony with the " glad hand " that is extended to visitors 
from the East by the citizens of the " Golden State." When not in 
session the members of the National Body and their ladies were 
shown the " sights " and in every way they were treated royally 
by the brethren of the Order. The excursion to San Jose, the 
carriage ride among the fruit orchards, and the banquet served by 
the local Council will remain as most delightful memories. The 
sixty-mile trolley ride under the auspices of the local Councils in 
Los Angeles, and the many little side-trips made in Southern Cali- 
fornia, will linger in our recollections to our latest day. 



CHAPTER XXV 
SESSIONS OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL (Concluded) 

ST. LOUIS, MO., 1904 

ALL eyes turned toward the " White City " in 1904, where was 
to be celebrated the centenary of the Louisiana Purchase, by 
a World's Fair. Very appropriately, therefore, the National Coun- 
cil decided to hold its Thirty-sixth Annual Session in the City of 
St. Louis, Mo., in the month of June, 1904. The session was pre- 
sided over by Dr. J. L. Cooper, National Councilor, and 129 mem- 
bers were in attendance. 

The hotel agreed upon for headquarters as well as place of 
meeting having failed to meet the conditions required, and at the 
same time not being at all desirable, the " Inside Inn " was selected 
as headquarters and the session opened in the assembly room of 
same. President Francis, of the Exposition, and Mayor Wells, 
of the City of St. Louis in befitting words extended the courtesies 
of the Exposition and City to the National Body, to which Dr. E. 
Atmar Smith, of South Carolina, responded on behalf of the 
National Council. Subsequently, the National Council fixed the 
Fraternity Building as the place of meeting and the session was 
continued and closed at that place. 

THE REPORT OF THE NATIONAL COUNCILOR 

For beauty of rhetoric, sublimity of diction, in which the past 
was presented, by way of comparison, with the glorious present, 
nothing in the history of the National Body ever excelled the In- 
troduction as given by Dr. Cooper as prefatory to his report. 
Would that space was not too limited that the entire " Preliminary " 
might be inserted in full, not so much for the beautiful language 
in which couched, but for the historic parallelisms presented, show- 
ing a wide knowledge and deep research into the annals of the 
ages. Suffice it, however, to note a few extracts as a sample of the 
Doctor's vein of thought: 

" A well-balanced exposition of the industries of the world must 
elicit the admiration and attract the attention of civilized people every- 
where. Through its influence how grand are the opportunities to promote 
fraternity among all nations, whose representations and whose displays 
will here meet in the friendly competition of a Christian civilization. 

394 



UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 395 

The opportunity is here presented our people to show to all the world our 
patriotism, our love for our Hag and our cherished institutions. And 
when we contemplate the displays of other nations, we may recall the 
fact that most of their governments have come down through the long 
vista of ages past, that their histories' page is seared with the barnacles 
of hoary centuries, while our country is yet in its infancy, and the howl 
of the coyote, the tread of the bison and the whoop of the savage has 
hardly died away, yet we look with profound satisfaction on the thinga 
that we have for the world to see. . . . 

" The principles of the great Order that we represent here to-day 
declare fealty to those of our American institutions out of which springs 
our present form of patriotic citizenship, and gives to the individual 
citizen that cherished personal liberty never known before. 

" For two centuries now American liberty has shed its rosy halo 
around the golden portals of patriotism, and stands to-day as a beacon 
light to all the nations of the earth. 

" How mighty has been the influence of these principles for which 
our great army of Juniors have been battling for half a century. Under 
our teachings of patriotism, love of country, public education, reading 
the Bible in the public schools, separation of Church and State, we have 
influenced with emphasis all the nations about us. 

" Under its teachings and by the force of its examples, the Italians 
have expelled their petty and arbitrary princelings, and united under a 
parliamentary government; the gloomy despotism of Spain has been dis- 
pelled by the representatives of the people and a free press; the great 
German race have demonstrated their power for empire and their ability 
to govern themselves; Norway and Sweden have thrown off the yoke of 
absolute monarchism and their people now have a voice in good govern- 
mental affairs; the sea-girt isle of Britain has been robed in patriotic 
light and is making her great pulsations beat to the m