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Full text of "History of La Crosse County, Wisconsin : containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources : an extensive and minute sketch of its cities, towns and villages-their improvements, industries, manufactories, churches, schools and societies : its war record, biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers : the whole preceeded by a history of Wisconsin, statistics of the state, and an abstract of its laws and constitution and the constitution of the United States"

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Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 

H I S T O R "1^ 


La Crosse County, 






(' II 1 (• A (; U : 

W E S T E i; N [IIS T ( ) 11 1 (] A L C iJ M P A N Y 



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"T^T has been the purp'ise of the Publishers to condense into the convenient form of a single 

volume the scattert'l frugmcnts of iocil hi-tory and to give as an aid to the coming 
searcher after historical truth a systematic recital of events in their relations to the labor of 
creating and developing La Crosse County. The labor bestowed upon this vork has been 
patiently performed ; it is for the jvublic to determine the degree of success attained. 

The elaborate and highly interesting article on the Press, from the pen of Mr. Charles 
Seymour, is one of the most valuable portions of the book. Therein has a skilled writer drawn 
a clear-cut analysis of a noted character befire the country, and. although himself a political 
and opponent of the man, Mr. Seymour lias evinced a moral courage that is admirable; 
he has dared to see and define the good qualities, as well as the mental attributes, of a nature 
which is worthy of the attention of psychologists. The success of Mark M. T'omeroy must be 
acknowdedged one of the noted journalistic phenomena of this generation; and the facts 
recorded in Mr. Seymour's sketch will supply the l.istorian of the war-period with most sug- 
gestive and significant data from which to draw conclusions. The La Crosse Driiiorrat was a 
representative of an element in th" national life which history cannot ignore; and he who writes 
must turn to La Crosse for a desc:iptir;n of that human instrumentality which wa-^ the startling 
embodiment of an idea. 

In general terms, thanks are expressed to the Clergy, the Press, the Pioneers and the 
Public, for cordial co-operation in the compihition of this book. 

That the History of La Crosse (Jounty as here presented may be satisfactory to ail — a 
Sentiment, we confess, that is bold, m view of the freedom and diversity of opinion — is the 
sincere prayer of 

TiiK rri;i.i>m:u,>. 
Sei'TK-MUKK, 1S8L 



?t A.l 

:;.v..n.l AiliniiihlrHtk 
Tliir.J Adriufustrati... 
Fourth Artiuini-tnilio 
Fiflh Ailniiui-lr.ili..n. 
Sixth A.liuilLi-tr.itioii 
Sfveiith All 



Couinu rce .itij ilauuticttir 

Djiry Pro.hicts , 

P..i-k liad Beef. 


Tobaccu — Cranberries.. 

.^(ration I'. , 

War i.f ;;...•.■.,...; ComunnceJ 60 

i:i!;hth .\:riiui--tl-ition 76 

N'inth A.iniiniFti-»ti.ju M - 

;?ljiTisiice I'J" Vc'.iinte'.rs 90 ; 

Tenth AJmii,Ulr:i;iHn 92; 

r Siiperiliteniiellts US Water Pu« 

■ge Sketches US Jlaimtactii 

ileOulkiM I'.O Cmclusiun 

lemiesailci Seminaries 151 The Public Dn 

oiercial Schools 151 1 

as I 

Tv>elf;h A ;.u.iii=t<tttion 04 ; 

ThirreeiithA.iaiinistralioa _... 07 

S" .\Jnii]iistr, 99 

Fifteenth Administr.irion IM 

.-i.x!.-eu(h A.lmiui.-tr.uiMT, I.-) 

■1,. :;rHphy and Geolo-y lln 

The Arch.Tan Age 112 

Paleoinic Time— Silurian Age 11.' 

Devonian Age 119 

Glacial Period l:0 

lintaI..loKy 121 

r.-.s, Shiubd an.l Vines 12S 


Cld and Silver 

Brick CUv!! 

Cement Kock 

Limestone— Glass Sand 

ivjt— Building Stones 


Chicago, Xihvankee A St. Paul.. 

""hicSoA Nortlnvestern , 

I Central , 

Geographical Poaition 

Physical Features 




Riin Character 




Climatolugical Chancres fivn 

in the St.;te 

Inll.ience „f .Vi..ti.jnalities...-. 
lation' — Food — Educ;ili" 





of lli: 


l^rge Anil 

uals — Tioie of thei 

r Dis 


Peculiar! til 
rational .... 

sof the Bird Faun 


liri^inal Sebo.d Cude 

A^iLition fur Free Scho.jls 
School System under St 


School Fund Income 

State Uui^er-ily , 

Agrioillural College Schools....: 

\\ . t W,,consin ISO 

Milwaukee, Lake Shore i Western ISO 

Green Bav i Minne.sota 181 

Wisconsin Vallev ISl 1 

Sh-bovg^in ± Fu'nddu Lac ISl 

Miuen.l Point 182 A r,.rt.ige 1S2 ' 

Norlh \M,roi.-in, 18:i 

Prairie dii Chi.n i .'vicGregor IS;', 

Chll.p"«.i Falls & Weatern \\.i 

Gaugi' 18;; 

Ratio of Sickness, Ft. Howard and Wi 


Education of the Blind 

Institute of D-af and Dumb 

Industrial School for Boys 



' Ifanking... 


te Hospital for the In.-ane -I- 

Xorthern Hcspital for the Insane _! . 

CityofJlihvaukee ■.;4.; 

Health Resorts J41 

Change of Diseases 2ic. 

Pulmonary Diseases 24-i 

P..pulation, 1J75, of Townships. Aipha- 

beticallv Arraiiired bv Couutiea 

Poi.iilatiou bv Cou'lities 

Xalivily by Conn tie:- 




II of Children. 

out of Morto 
A- . ..-in. nt an.U:oll.■. 
A■.^.<n:■ntof Ta\es.. 
IML. of i:^. lung., or I 

a.rr.nvrd 5Ion.-v 

<npit;d Punishment.. 
iolle.t,.,n ..fTa.xes.... 



Page. I 

•.-:!; Flections and Ge 

2?4 ' Fxeinplious 

2715 1 Fenie, , 

-74 , F.rni- of Convey 

ifct Ijuidlord and T-nanl.. 

of Mo 


r. and Surveys 

of Poor ; 

ions to Persons PurcListng Iks.ks 

:■!' lli.;ln- .vsaiej Bridges 27" Siu_-. =1 

.7 Hours of Labor 27;'- by Siil scription 

rs j Ini-resl 277 Title of Keiil Propertv by Descent. 

rii I liil...\ica:ing Li.piotx 271 Wei-ht-saad Mni.sures 

ii Ju Igiaents 2S4 Wills 

10 ' Juti-diction of Courts 277 Wolf Scalps 

3ii.sci:i.i, »M;ors. 

■ .f Wisconsin for Governor and 1 

Population of the S;ato.. 




G-olnt-lral Fr.rmati.'n of 

The Future.! lacp 

AtMiti..r,iil N,,le~..n the 

Pclltical H-iundAri^i 

Toppgi,i|l'iral Fcaliir"!!. 


Tne Winiie 

RpKion SiOiTU" First Milnlcr 

313 I N-w .\rrivfil. , 

tiire.1 I'sTe 314 1 Thu rh inut^r of the Settlers 

3i:. TliA First RHft 3.Vi 

3Ifi The Fir^t Post OiTice 3.>» ' 

... 317 t Slormen Notes _ 354 

ID The Ayf^nc- of .<ch .ols-TrnTel to Plnck 

... 310 ' R:vrr 35t 

Paob- I 

... 3.S1 ' County S.hcKiU 

... :^i I Xonhwi-9tern Horlicult 
... 3.^,3 : La (.■r..e«e County Bible 

■<<■ Cunty .Agricultural Society 441 

■ I.» Cro, 

uf l.a 

The Fii 
I The Fu 

.Marriage 3.'iS ' The In.iian Scare 

h 3-.<i I The Foote Forcerie,.... 

i; •xi !.j Pr.^iIie du Chien :;t.^' ■ \ Chiv'-or of Fir,t Tbil 

Fourth of July 3r.4 1 Kl»ilMKrE>rF.a and Pi 

lmrrovement« 3*;B h-iit!m:i Myrick.. 

Beginning- of .Settlement 33i) f-iotii 

Mr. Cwii--' rita. Ki ] The Firjl Birth 3';3 | 

Col. Slvrick's \ii,.f:r .tij ] Career tf Hon. Timothy Burns 3i;il J 

Gen. SlMov'i Letter 334 A S-irri;>; Kv.nt _ .. 3T1 I 

The Bejoiucierof Mr. Cojn5 3:!4 .\ Fr^^liel 372 i 

Letter from the Departrasnt of the In- Firs: Lan^i Sale 374 I 

tenor .3.3.1 | Removal of the Indians 374 ! 

Col. Jlvrick's Final .\n3wer S3ii The Cam-ron-EUis Tragedy 37S j 

Mr. Fol-iUi'a Tp-timenv 336 ! India-i '"lence 378 

Bnin«,n'« Riiollenion 337 I La Croa^e in li-.i'i :;S3 i 

Sliiiii.^- .5etL'en.. HI, »,.d ililitaiy Pt>eta_... 3.a i The First F.lof-nient 3»3 I 

Nathan Myrlcf. Arrival- _ _.. 3.39 | The Year of Reil Prngre<= 386 

A Dan^eruiu Jvumey.. .340 I Orgar.irjitim of La Croe-e County 389 

Myrirk'a Adventure with an Indian. 341 | The Seat 3ai ! 

The Setlleiiient of the Mail; Lar.d .»> I The K:.-t^ar'i-on Homiciile 3;i.t 

The Fir5t Survey 345 I The JiatTord SliO'tioi; 305 

Death of li'Cora'a Son 345 i The Mu.-der of David Dartt ■iV'i | 

The Mormon Invasion M" (;ro»:h cf t:ie Village _ 1 

Artvancinp Clvilizati.m .34S I Th- I nited .itat-s Laiid Office 4u3 i 

M»j. Hatch's Kxj.loit 347 j Kvidence? of Ptocress 4i4 ■ 

Mjrick's FirstHjuee.. :;4S I HfCci.V. K.,!t«r 41! ! 

Later Land Clainu 34") | Court Wju^ 41-1 

Pione«r Hardships 350 Poor H jUie 4J'J i 



Kev. l;. ,j.a.ia W. Re 



Orrin L. >mith 




Ale.xander .McMillan.. 


Hun.-an P. Mcjliliaa. 



John S Simontou 



Kthan Roler'..- 

4i.» ; 

Judge Cvrus K '..■■'-■'. 


Theodore R..d...f 

.. . 4«7 ' 

Wilhani W.Ci... V , 



La Croese City 474 

The Firat Visitors _. 475 I 

Bu«in(«in I51.1 4:i6 | 

City O'hcers 49.S ' 

City Uill .-.01 

Police Iicpartnient 5ill 

Fire Ii"l.irtmeot 501 

The Water Supply .V>4 

CityS,i.leji 5"7 I 

City Parks _ .V)7 1 

Pos't Ofli.:es 5..T 

Ousloni HODse S'":. I 

Board of Trade .'."9 I 

Oak Grove Cemetery 512 I 

Schools .514 

Kinder.rarten Scho<d .'21 I 

La Crosse Busiuosa College 521 | 

Fip-t C, 



••1 Elevatcre 

■<■■] Pul.lio Buildings! 

•a I Gas Works , 

-.1 ! Telejihoiie i,..scha 
'■.'J f Manufacttin-s 


pM;:i-t S.t.Uth School... 

Fir-i- Melhoilist FpiT. ral Church r,>:.t^ I Brew.-ries 

North LaCrtsse M. K. Church 6C'.l ' P..rk P.acking 

Ger.nan M. t. Church 56;J I M.isonic 

Chn-t's Fpistf.pal Cl.ur.rh .'.To I. O O. F 

St. Pauls 1-iiiersaiist 1 horch .^71 (irand Lod^' if A. ". V. W. of Wisc-msi 

German Lutheran Sch -! 571 AncientOrder United Workmen 

German Lutheran Soci.-tv 572 j Kni;;hts of Pvthias 



I Luthe Church.. 

.i72i Knight, of 11.; 
.■.72 1 Koy.ll Area 

Thi Pn 

The j:ev. Mirhsel lie 

57.5 i Ten.,.* 

lipirU of lU 7-iraeJ. 

The La Cre>--...e /int..>rrU 

The I.aCio-de .ValiomU CtviixriK 

The L» Cr.Jsse [flrjieniifnl lirpulUran 

Pr-88 11. lus. to lj-..ii_ 

>Urk M Pomeroy ai.l the La Cross 


The Iji Crnsse A>; uh/Kon's Attitude.. 
The later Juumalistie Fnterprisea 

Crne.e C.'Ui.ty Bible 
;-.. Bar Association... 
an I Banking 

cion ..f Honor 

Lihniry .\s..Mjciation.. 

580 I Bands 6n9 

5jS l!ar 

52'J ' l; .!..!."..'.. 
} La Crosse Slieet I^aiiways,n*....i 

,5.'.4 ! Kiver Itileii-sts 

5.'.6i The Luiet.r Interests.. .. 

I Turkish llatl.i 

lichl and OninibiLs Lin 


..:■ ; Wh..|r>ale li-.i 


t .-1 

s It 



, , 


Ml 1 

r s - 


I «.s 

• Ik 

t S-.ilem 


vn of lie.rns 


- 1 (It;;. Record.. 
I Toanof Lliiala.ska,... 
"I Societies 



OuirchM 716 717 

Knur nHnq.)r 711- 

Kurly Svltlnmsnt 719 

S.h.K.Is 721 

I'ost omce 72r 

Mills 7J1 

Villa<(- of finncor. 723 ' 

Bangor's Bfginnlng 72:1 

OSicial Keronl.. 
m ofGrHPnnflJ,. 
tarly Settlcnien 

Pout Office*.. 
Oai. ial Reco 
«n uf -IVwluii 

al Recurd 730 



f^inipl""!! l-rA] Hamilton. 

Karmincton 850 | Holland..., 

Greenlleld 8G1 Unalaika.- 

I Shelby 

Map .if La Crcsse 


Birihi-ve \ lew uf La Crosse.... 


La Cr.iSM- County Court Hou-e 

U,.»i-lence of M M. ^lanville... 

K-»i.lence of Slons Andei^i.n .,l.-n<-e or P. .s. Davi.Uon..... 

R...i,lence of C. L. Colnian .. . 

C. L. Colman's Mill and Lnnjti 

r Yard 

I)a?i.laou's P«.al Yard and Li:ii 

I'.T Mills... 

John Paul's S..v>-llill 

X. B. Hulway s .Saw-Mill 


ece. , Kr^.man A Co.'i Fk.nrin .-Mills 

11 Willianj Ll^tnlal^,^ Violor Mills 

iii \V W Car^ill « Bros. H. >.,i,.r 

1!) Gil^»' Block ,PobtOll;i-f Building; 

J77 Cameron House. W. D. Kox. proprietor,. 

577 La Cross.' Steam Boiler Work? 

o'Jo Pioneer J-'oundrr.JohuJaniesA Go , proj 

.595 G. U. JIuutagues Steam Marble Works 

i;..ii J.ihn Gund Brewine Couipaiiv 

60S C. A J. Mi.lo-U Brewerr 

612 iJavii, Medary i Piatt's' Tannery 


.. 619 

Residence of John Paul 

.. 621 

Residence of A. 11. Davi^ 

.. 62-2 

La 1. National Bank 

.- 6:;7 

Mons Anderson's Building 

_ 629 

Charles B S..|l.ert's Store 

.. 634 

iJavisi ^i-i:r. , l;v 

B. 635 

Lloy.l,-. -:. , .. ■ -■ r,. ,.= 

.. 6n 

ResiJ,--.'- ■ -. ■■ r,^... 

.. 64;i 

Ke-iJ-i •■ .: ,• ^. '■;.:! ,11 

.. 64.5 

.Rtsi.'.jnc- ..I Ii, Ii >;. 'I, Man ... 

.. 6lr. 

Residence of Charles B. SoU.erg. 

Staple Shadj stock Farm 




Milt in Barlow 3'J7 ! George Farnani 41VJ j R s Mc.\rtliur 

C. S. Benton 361 j Ceorge Hov\ard .5ti5 : >lonroe Paliu-r .... 

II. Cramer 433 John M. Levy 451 Th..-odDre HodolfV. 

W. W. Croshy ;-,4;l j c. K. L.jrd 3u7 Geor-eScharpf ... 

I John Whol.lon 

orge Kdwardd „ 415 ! 

^_,^ j /vI^C -" — ^ -^ ^ W^^j:^'^} .'tL.'>J.-.f--J^- iL,^iJrK4Lr <^>J,1. 

■V" A" H .V o 




The first explorers of the valleys of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi and its tributaries, 
seem not to have noticed, to any considerable extent, the existence within these vast areas oi 
monuments of an extinct race. Gradually, however, as the tide of emigration broke through the 
barriers of the Alleghanies and spread in a widely extended flow over what are now the States of 
the Northwest, these prehistoric vestiges attracted more and more the attention of the curious 
and the learned, until, at the present time, almost every person is presumed to have some general 
knowledge, not only of their existence, but of some of their striking peculiarities. Unfortunately, 
these signs of a long since departed people are fast disappearing by the never ceasing operations 
of the elements, and the constant encroachments of civilization. The earliest notices of the 
animal and vegetable kingdom of this region are to be found in its rocks; but Wisconsin's earli- 
est records of men can oniy be traced in here and there a crumbling earth-work, in the fragment 
of a skeleton, or in a few stone and copper implements — dim and shadowy relics of their 

The ancient dwellers in these valleys, whose history is lost in the lapse of ages, are desig- 
nated, usually, as the Mound-Builder? ; not that building mounds was probably their distinctive 
employment, but that such artificial elevations of the earth are, to a great extent, the only evi- 
dences remaining of their actual occupation of the country. .As to the origin of these people, 
all knowledge must, possibly, continue to rest \\[>on conjecture alone. Nor were the habitations 
of this race confined to the territory o-f which Wisconsin now forms a part. .\t one time, they 
must h.ave been located in many ulterior regions. The earth-works, tumuli, or "mounds," as they 
are generally designated, are usually symmetrically raised and often inclosed in mathematical 
figures, such as the square, the octagon, and the circle, with long lines of circumvallation. 
Besides these earth-works, there are pits dug in the solid rock; rubbish heaps formed in the 
prosecution of mining operations; and a variety of implements and utensils, wrought in copper 
or stone, or moulded in clay. W hence came the inhabitants who left these evidences to succeen- 
ing generations .' In other words, who were tiie Mound-Builders.' Did they migrate from the 
Old World, or is their origin to be sought for elsewhere.' And as to their manners and customs 
and civilization — what of these things.' Was the race finally swept from the New World to gi\e 
place to Red men, or was it the one from which the latter descended .' These momentous ques- 
tions are left for the ethnologist, the archsologist, and the antiquarian of the future to answer — 
if they can. 

20 HISTORY OF ^^sco^'SIN. 

Inclosures and mounds of the prehistoric people, it is generally believed, constituted but 
parts of one system ; the former being, in the main, intended for purposes of defense or religion; 
the latter, for sacrifice, for temple sites, for burial places, or for observatories. In selecting sites 
for many of these earth-works, the Mound-Builders appear to have been influenced by motives 
which prompt civilized men to choose localities for their great marts; hence, Cincinnati, St. 
Louis, Chicago, MiUvaukee and other cities of the West are founded on ruins of pre-e.\istino' 
structures. River terraces and river bottoms seem to have been the favorite places for these 
earth-works. In such localities, the natural advantages of the country could be made available 
with much less trouble than in portions of the country lying at a distance from water-courses. 
In Wisconsin, therefore, as in other parts, the same general idea of selecting points contiguous 
to the principal natural thoroughfares is found to have prevailed with the Mound-Builders; for 
their works are seen in the basin of the Fox river of the Illinois, in that of Rock river and its 
branches, in the valley of Fox river of Green bay, in that of the Wisconsin, as well as near 
the waters of the Mississippi. 

While a few circumvallations and immense mounds, such as are common to certain other 
portions of the United Srates, are discoverable in Wisconsin, yet by far the largest number of 
earthwork-, have one peculiarity not observable, except in a few instances, outside the State. 
This characteristic is a \ery striking one The fact is revealed that they are imitative in form- 
resembling beasts, reptiles, birds, fish, man. All these, for convenience, are usually classed 
under tlie general name of "animal mounds," although some arc in the similitude of trees, some 
of war clubs, others of tobacco pi[)es. Generally, these figures are in groups, though sometimes 
they are seen alone. For what purpose these earth-works were heaped up — they rise above the 
surface two, four, and sometimes six feet— -or what particular uses they were intended to subserve, 
is unknown. It is, however, safe to affirm that they had some significance. A number resemble 
the bear; a few, the buffalo; others, the raccoon. Lizards, turtles, and even tadpoles, are out- 
lined in the forms of some. The war eagle, and the war club has each its representative. All 
this, of course, could not have been a mere happening — the work of chance. The sizes of these 
mounds are as various as their forms. One near Cassville, in Grant county, very complete in 
its representation of an animal, supposed to be of the elephant species, was found, upon measure- 
ment, to have a total length of one hundred and thirty-five feet. Another in Sauk county, quite 
perfect in its resemblance to the form of a man, was of equal length — a veritable colossus; 
prone, it is true, and soon to disappear, if it has not already been destroyed, by ravages of a 
superior civilization. 

In portions of Wisconsin, as well as in a few places outside the State, are found earth-works 
of another kind, but quite as remarkable as the "animal mounds," which, from their supposed 
use, have been styled "garden beds." Tlu-y are ridges, or beds, about six inches in height and 
four feet in width, ranged, with niu, h apparent method, in parallel rows, sometimes rectangular 
in shape, sometimes of various but regular and symmetrical curves, and occupying fields of from 
ten to a hundred acres. 

The Mound-Kuilders have left many relics, besides their earthworks, to attest their presence 
in Wibconsin in a-es j a^t. Scattered widely are found htone and copjier axes, spear-heads, and 
arrow-lu'.icls, aKo various other inipleincnt.s — evidently their handiwork. As these articles are 
frequently discovered many feet beneath the surface, it argues a high antiquity for the artificers-. 
Whether they h.ul the skill to nir.uld their copper implements is doubtful. Such as plainly show 
the work of hammering, indicate an art beyond that possessed by the Red men who peopled 
America upon its first discovery- by Europeans. In a few instances, fragments of human skulls 
have been found so well preserved as to en.ible a conqjarison to be drawn between the crania of 


this ancient race and those of modern ones ; the results, however, of these comparisons throw 
little, if any, light upon "the dark backward and abysm" of mound-building times. 

The evidences of an extinct people of superior intelligence is very strikingly exhibited in 
the ancient copper mines of the Lake Superior region. Here are to be found excavations in the 
solid rock; heaps of rubble and dirt ; copper utensils fashioned into knives, chisels, and spear 
and arrow-heads; stone hammers; wooden bowls and shovels; props and levers for raising and 
•supporting the mass copper; and ladders for ascending and descending the pits. These mines 
■were probably worked by people not only inhabiting what is now the State of Wisconsin, but 
territory farther to the southward. The copper was here obtained, it is believed, which has been 
found in many places, even as far away as the northern shore of the Gulf of Mexico, wrought 
into various implements and utensils. But there are no traces in Wisconsin of a " copper age " 
succeeding a " stone age," discernible in any prehistoric relics. They all refer alike to one 
age — the indefinite past; to one people — the Mound-Builders. 


When, as early, it is believed, as 1634, civilized man first set foot upon the territory now 
included within the boundaries of Wisconsin, he discovered, to his surprise, tliat upon this wide 
area met and mingled clans of two distinct and wide-spread families — the Algonquins and 
Sioux. The tribes of the former, moving westward, checked the advance of the latter in their 
excursions eastward. As yet there had been no representatives of the Huron-Iroquois seen west 
of Lake Michigan — the members of this great family, at that date dwelling in safety in the 
extensive regions northward and southward of the Erie and Ontario lakes. .-Vlready had the 
French secured a foot-hold in the extensive valley of the St. Lawrence ; and, naturally enough, 
the chain of the Great Lakes led their explorers to the mouth of Green bay, and up that water- 
course and its principal tributary. Fox river, to the Wisconsin, an affluent of the Mississipjii. 
On the right, in ascending this bay, was seen, for the first time, a nation of Indians, lighter in 
complexion than neighboring tribes, and remarkably well formed, now well known as the 

This nation is of Algonquin stock, but their dialect differed so much from the surrounding 
tribes of the same family, it having strange guttural sounds and accents, as well as peculiar inflec- 
tions of verbs and other parts of speech, tiiat, for a long time, they were supposed to have a 
distinct language. Their traditions point to an emigration from the East at some remote 
period. When first visited by the French missionaries, these Indians subsisted largely upon wild 
rice, from wluch they took their name. The harvest time of this grain was in the month of 
September. It grew spontaneously in little streams with slimy bottoms, and in marshy places. 
Tiie harvesters went in their canoes across these watery fields, shaking the ears right and left as 
they advanced, the grain falling easily, if ripe, into the bark receptacle beneath. To clear it 
from chaff and strip it of a pellicle inclosing it, they put it to dry on a wooden lattice above a 
small fire, which was kept up for several da)-s. When the rice was well dried, it was placed 
in a skin of the form of a bag, which was then forced into a hole, itiade on puTpose, itj tlw 
ground. They then tread it out so long and so well, that the grain being freed from the chaff, 
was easily winnowed. After this, it was [)uundcd to meal, or left uni)0unded, and boiled in 
water seasoned with grease. It thus became a very palatable diet. It must not he inferred that 
this was the only food of the Menomonees; they were ade[)ts in fishing, and hunted with skill 
the game which abounded in the forests. 

For many years after their discovery, the Menomonees had their homes and hunting 


grounds upon, or adjacent to, tiie Menomonee river. Finally, after the lapse of a century and a: 
quarter, down to 1760, when the French yielded to the English all claims to the country, the 
territory of the Menomonees had sliifted somewhat to the westward and southward, and their 
principal village \vas found at the iiead of Green bay, while a smaller one was still in existence 
at the mouth of their favorite stream. So slight, however, had been this change, that the country 
of no other of tiie surrounding tribes had been encroached upon by the movement. 

Tn 1634, the Menomonees probably took part in a treaty with a representative of the French, 
«-ho had thus early ventured so far into the wilds of the lake regions. More than a score of 
years elapsed before the tribe was agam visited by white men, — that is to say, there are no 
authentic accounts of earlier visitations. In 1600, Father Rene Menard had penetrated the Lake- 
Superior country as far, at least, as Kewenaw, in what is now the northern part of Michigan, 
whence some of his French companions probab'y passed down the Menomonee river to the 
waters of Green bay the following year; but no record of the Indians, through whose territory 
they passed, was made by these voyagers. Ten years more — 1670 — brouglit to the .Menomonees 
(who doubtless already been visited by French fur-traders) F"ather Claudius Allouez, to win 
them to Christianity. He had previously founded a mission upon the bay of Chegoimegon, now 
Chaquamegon, or Ashland ba\ , an arm of Lake Su[ierior, within the present State of Wisconsin, 
in charge of which, at that date, was Father James Marquette. Proceeding from tlie " Sault" on 
the third of November, Alloue/, early in December, 1669, reached the mouth of Green bay, where, 
on the third, in an Indian village of Sacs, Pottawattamies, Fo.xes and Winnebagoes, contain ing about 
six hundred souls, he celebrated the holy mass for the first time upon this new field of his labors,. 
— eight Frenchmen, traders with the Indians, whom the missionary found there upon his arrival, 
taking part in the devotions. His first Christian work with the .Menomonees was performed in 
May of the ne.xt year. Alloue?: found tliis tribe a feeble one, almost exterminated by war. He 
spent but little time with them, embarking, on the twentieth of that month, after a visit to some 
Pottawattamies and Winnebagoes, ''with a Frenchman and a savage to go to Sainte Mary of the. 
Sault." His place was filled by Father Louis .Vndre, who, not long after, erected a cabin upon 
the Menomonee river, which, with one at a village where his predecessor had already raised the 
st.-indard of the cross, was soon burned by the savages; but the missionary, living almost con- 
stantly in his canoe, continued for some time to labor with the Menomonees and surroundinir 
tribes. The efforts of Andre were rewarded with some conversions among the former; for Mar- 
quette, who visited them in 1673, found many good Christians among them. 

The record of ninety years of French domination in Wisconsin — beginning in June, 1671, 
and ending in October, 1761 — brings to light but litilc ui' interest so as the Menomonees are 
concerned. Gradually they e\teniled their intercourse with the white fur traders. Gradually 
and with few interrujnions (one in 1728, and one in 1747 of a serious character) they were 
drawn under the banner of France, joining with that government in its wars with the Iroquois* 
in its contests, in 1712, 1729, 1730, and 1751, witii the Fo.xes ; and. subsequentlv, in its conflicts 
witii the English. 

The French post, at what is now C.reen R.iy, county, Wisconsin, was, aloni^ with the 
residue of the western forts, s'.irrendercd tn t!ic British in 176J, although actual possession of the 
former was not taken until the Fall of the next year. The land on whicii the fort stood was 
cL.imed by the Menomonees. Here, at that d.itr, was their upper and princi;KiI villa. -c, the 
i'lvcr one being at the mouth of the .Men muMue nvcr. These Indians soon liocame reconciled 
ti) the English occupation of their territory, notwithstanding the machinations of French traders 
who endeavored to prejudice them ag.iinst the new comers. The Menomonees, at this time. 
were very much reduced, having, but a short time iirevious, lost three hundred of their warriors 


•bv t'le small po^, and most of tneir chiefs in the late war in which they had been engaged by the 
then French commander there, against the English. They were glad to substitute English for 
French traders ■ as they could purchase supplies of them at one half the price they had previously 
-naid II was not long before the sincerity of the Menomonees was put to the test. Pontiac s 
War of 1 763 broke out, and the post of Mackinaw was captured. The garrison, however, at Green 
b,v was not only not attacked by the savages, but, escorted by the Menomonees and other tribes, 
<:rossed Lake Michigan in safetv to the village of L'Arbre Croche ; thence making their way to 
Montreal The Menomonees continued tiieir friendship to the English, joining with them 
^c^ainst the Colonies during the RevoUitmn, and fighting on the same side during the war of 


When in July, 1S16, an American force arrived at Green bay to take possession of the 
countrv the Menomonees were found m their village near by, very peaceably inclmed. The 
-commarlder of the troops asked permission of their chief to build a fort. '" .My Brother!" was 
•the response, " how can we oppose your locating a council-fire among us ? \ ou are too strong 
■for us Even if we wanted to oppose you we have scarcely got powder and ball to make the 
attempt One favor we ask is, that our French brothers shall not be disturbed. You can choose 
any place you please for your fort, and we shall not object." No trouble had been anticipated 
•from the Menomonees, and the expectations of the government of the United States m that 
rec-ard were fully realized. What added much to the friendship now springing up between the 
Menomonees and the Americans was the fact that the ne.xt year— 1S17— the annual contribution, 
^vhich for manv years had been made by the British, consisting of a shirt, leggins, breech-clout 
and blanket for each member or the tribe, and for each family a copper kettle, knives, axes, guns 
■and ammunition, was withheld by them. 

It was found by the Americans, upon their occupation of the Menomonee territory, that 
someofthe women' of that tribe were married to traders and boatmen who had settled at t',e 
head of the bay, there being no white women in that region. Many of these were Canadians of 
French extraction; hence the anxiety that they should be well treated, which was expressed by 
the Menomonees upon the arrival of the American force. At this period there was a consider- 
able trade carried on with these Indians at Prairie du Chien, as many of them frequently win- 
tered on the Mississippi. The first regular treaty with this tribe was " made and concluded" on 
the thirtieth day of March, 1S17, "by and between William Clark, Ninian Edwards, and 
Au-uste Chouteau, commissioners on the part and behalf of the United States of America, of the 
one^art," and the chiefs and warriors, deputed by the Menomonees, of the other part. By the 
terms of this compact all injuries were to be forgiven and forgotten ; perpetual peace established; 
lands, heretofore ceded to other governments, confirmed to the United States ; all prisoners to be 
delivered up ; and the tribe placed under the protection of the United States, " and of no other 
nation, power, or ^overeign, whatsoever." The Menomonees were now fully and fairly, and for 
the first time, entitled to be known as " American Indians," in contradistinction to the term 
which had been so long used as descriptive of their former allegiance—" British Indians." 

The territory of th^e Menomonees, when the tribe was taken fully under the wins; of the Gen- 
eral Government, had become greatly extended. It was bounded on the north by the dividing 
rid<^e between the waters llowing into Lake Superior and those flowing south into Cireen bay and 
the°Mississippi; on the, by L.tke Michigan; on the south, by the Milwaukee river, and on 
the west by the Mississippi and Black rivers. This was their territory; though they were pr.^. - 
tically restricted to the occupation of the western shore of Lake Michigan, lying between tl.c 
mouth of Green bay on the north and the Milwaukee river on the south, and to a somewhat 
indefinite area west! Their general claim as l.Ue as iS.'S, was north to the Chip 

L'wa countrv : 


east to Green bay and Lake Michigan ; south to the Milwaukee river, and west to Black river. 
And what is most surprising is that the feeble tribe of 1761 had now, in less than three quarters 
of a century, become a powerful nation, numbering between three and four thousand. 

The Menomonee territory, as late as 1S31, still preserved its large proportions. Its eastern 
division was bounded by the Milwaukee river, the shore of Lake Michigan, Green bay, Fo.x 
river, and Winnebago lake; its western division, by the ^V'iscon3in and Chippewa rivers on the 
west; Fox river on the south ; Green bay on the east, and the high lands whence flow the streams 
into Lake Superior, on the north. This year, however, it was shorn of a valuable and large part 
by the tribe ceding to the United States all the eastern division, estimated at two and one half 
million acres. The following year, the Menomonees aided the General Government in the Black 
Hawk war. 

That the Menomonees might, as much as possible, be weaned from t'.ieir wandering habits, 
their permanent home was designated to be a large tract lying north of Fo.x river and east of 
Wolf river. Their territory farllier west, was reserved for their hunting grounds until such time 
as the General Government should desire to purchase it. In 1S3C, another portion, amounting to 
(our million acres, lying between Green bay on the east and Wolf river on the west, -was dis- 
posed of to the United States, besides a strip three miles in width from near the portage north, 
on each side of the Wisconsin river and forty-eight miles long — still leaving them in peace- 
able possession of a country about one hundred and twenty miles long, and about eighty 

Finally, in 1S4S, the Menomonees sold all their lands in Wisconsin to the General Govern- 
ment, preparatory to their movement to a reservation beyond tlie Mississippi cf si.x hundred 
thousand acres ; but the latter tract was afterv\'ard re-ceded to the United States; for, notwith- 
standing there were treaty stipulations for the removal of the tribe to that tract, there were 
cibstacles in the way of their speedy migration, resulting, finally, in their being permitted to remain 
in Wisconsin. Lands, to the amount of twelve townships, were granted them for their permanent 
homes, on the upper Wolf river, in what is now Shawano and Oconto counties — a portion, but 
a very small one, of what was once their extensive possessions. To this reservation they removed 
in October, 1S52. Thus are the Menomonees, the only one of the original tribes of Wisconsin 
who, as a whole, have a local habitation within its limits. This tribe refused to join the Sioux in 
their outbreak in 1S61, and several of their warriors served as volunteers in the United States 
army during the late civil war. 

It is now over two centuries since the civilized world began to gain knowledge of the e.xist- 
ence, in the far ^Vest, of a tribe of Indians known as the — that is, vien of the sea; 
])ointing, possibly, to tluir early migration from the shores of the Mexican gulf, or the Pacific. 
The territory now included within the limits of \\'isconsin, and so much of the State of Michigan 
as lies north of Green bay. Lake Michigan, tiie Straits of Mackinaw and Lake Huron were, in 
early times, inhabited by several tribes of the .-Vlgonquin race, forming a barrier to the Dakotas, 
or Sioux, who had advanced eastward to the Mississippi. But the Winnebagocs, although one of 
the tribes belonging to the family of the latter, had passed the great river, at some unknown 
period, and settled upon the head waters of Green hay. Here, this "sea-tribe," as early, it is 
believed, as 1634, was visited by an agent of and a treaty concluded with them. The tribe 
.ifierward called themselves Hochungara, or Ochunkoraw, but were styled by the Sioux, Hotanke, 
or Sturgeon. Nothing more is heard of the Oucnibigout/, or Winnebegouk (as the ^Vinnebagoes 
A'cre early called by the Jesuit missionaries, and tl.e .\lgonquin tribes, meaning men from the 
f:tid or salt water, translated by the French, Puants) for the next thirty-fne ve.irs, although 
".here is no doubt that the tribe had been visited meanwhile by adventurous Frenrhnien, when on 
the second of December, 1669, some of that nation were noted at a Sac (Sauk or Saukis) village 
on Green bay, by Father .MIouez. 


^s early .t least as ,670, the French were actively engaged among the Winnebagoes trading^ 

.. We found affi " says one of the Jesuit missionaries, who arrived among thern m September of 

.h t /: '' - '-o^nd Iffairs there m a pretty bad posture, and the minds of ^>^e -vages much 

nnred a ainst the French, who were there trading ; iU-treatmg tnem m deeds and ^^ords, pillag- 

nrandcarrvi" away their merchandise in sp.e of them, and conductmg themselves toward 

,ng and carryin, . y indi-nities. The cause of this disorder," adds the mis- 

'1 .0 trade Ind particularly from the soldiers, from whom they pretended to have received 
Cv^oV; afd in^-rs." It islhus made certain that the arms of France were earned into 
thP territory of the Winnebagoes over two hundred years ago. 

The Fox river of Green bav was found at that date a difficult stream to navigate. Two 
u n 1-H the river in 16-0 had "three or four leagues of rapids to contend with, 

^r^thlvh^d^rwed 'o da 's ^r ev-- from the head of the b.ay, "more difficult than those 
whentheyhadadNam.ed onea > 3 flints, over which " they had to walk with 

:S Z ::7:^^^^: :;: "o •• ILp and so cutUng, that one ha. aU the trouble in t^ 
t a to 1 old one's self steady against the great rushing of the waters." At the falls they ound 

1 Lth^t thTs v"es honored; "never failing, in passing, to make him some sacrifice of 
obacco '; - -, or^paintings, or other things, to thank him th;U. by his assistance they had in 
ascend ;"avoided the dangers of the waterfalls which are in this stream ; or else, if they had to 
ascend to prav him to aid them in this perilous navigation." The devout missionaries caused 
theTdol " to be lifted up by the strength of arm, and cast into the depths of the nver, to appear 
no more " to the idolatrous savages. , . ,, • „„., 

The mission of St. Francis Xavier, founded in December, 1669, by Allouez, was a roving one 
among the tribes inhabiting the shores of Green Day and the interior country watered by the Fox 
Hver and its tributaries, for about two years, when its first mission-house was erected at .hat . 
now Depere, Brown county. This chapel was soon after destroyed by hre, but was rebuilt 

'" ' The Winnebacvoes, by this time, had not only received considerable spiritual instruction from 
the Tesuit fathers, but had obtained quite an insight into the mysteries of trading and 
with white men; for, following the footsteps of the missionaries, and sometimes preceding the.n, 
were the ubiquitous French fur traders. It is impossible to determine precisely what territory 
was occupied by the Winnebagoes at this early date, farther than that they lived near the head 

\7.recr trade with the French upon the St. Lawrence was not carried on by the Winne- 
bagoes to any great extent until the beginning of the eighteenth centur)-. As early as 1679, 
an^advance party of La Salle had collected a large store of furs at the mouth of Green ba>, 
doubtless in a traffic with this tribe and others contiguous to the.n; generally, hoNvcver, the 
surrounding nations sold their peltries to the (^llawas, who disposed of them in turn, to the 
French The commencement of the eighteenth century found the Winnebagoes firm y m 
alliance with France, and in peace with the dre.rded Iroquios. In I7i.>, the nation numbered 
six hundred. They were afterward found to have moved up Fox river locating upon W inne- 
bago lake, which stream and lake were their ancient seat, and from which they had been drnen 
either bv fear or the prowess of more i>owerful tribes of the West or South-.vest. Their inter- 
course widi the French was gradually extended and generally pe.iceful, though not always so. 
joining with them, as did the Menomonees, m their wars the Iroquois, and subsequently in 
their confiicts with the English, which finally ended in 1760. 

When the British, in October, 1761, took possession of the French post, at the head of 



Green bay, the ^Vinne!>al^oes were fovind to iiuiuher one hundred and tifty warriors only ; their 
nearest village being at the lower end of \V'inncL)ag(j lake. Tiiey had in all not less than three 
towns. Their country, at this period, included not only that lake, but all the streams flowing 
into it, especially Fox river; at'terward extended to tlie Wisconsin and Rock rivers. They 
readily changed their course of trade — asking now of the commandant at the fort for English 
traders to be sent among them. In the Indian outbreak under Pontiac in 1763, they joined 
with the Menomonces and other tribes t.> befriend the British garrison at the head of the bay, 
assisting in conducting them to a place of safety. They continued their friendship to the English 
daring the Revolution, by joining with tliem against the colonies, and were active in the Indian 
war of 1790-4, taking [urt in the attack on Fort Recovery, upon the Maumee, in the present 
State of Ohio, in 1793. They fought also on the side of the British in the war of 1812-15, 
aiding, in 1S14, to reduce Prairie du Chien. They were then estimated at 4,500. When, in 
1816, the government of the Ignited States ~ent troops to take possession of the Green bay 
country, by establishing a garrison there, some trouble was anticipated from these Indians, who, 
at that date, had the reputation of being a bold and warlike tribe. A deputation t"rom the nation 
came down Fox river and remonstrated with tlie American commandant at what • .s thought 
to be an intrusion. The^ were desirous of knowing why a fort was to be establisiitd so near 
them. The reply was that, although the troops were armed for war if necessary, their purpose 
was peace. Their res[ionse was an old one ; " If your object is [(eace, you have too many men; 
if war, you have too few." However, the display of a number of cannon which had not yet been 
mounted, satisfied the Winneliagoes that the .\merican.-> were masters of the"situation, and the 
deputation gave the garrison no farther trouble. On the 3d of June, 1S16, at St. Louis, the tribe 
made a treaty of peace and friendshii; witii t!ie General Government; but they continued to levy 
tribute on all white people who passed up Fox river. English annuities also kept up a bad 
feeling. At this time, a porti(jn of the tril)e was living upon the Wisconsin river, away from the 
rest of the nation, which still seated upon the waters flowing into Cireen bay. In 1S20 
they had five villages on Winnebago lake and fourteen on Rock river. In 1S25, the claim of 
the 'Winnebagoes was an extensive one, so far as territory was concerned. Its southeast 
boundary stretched away from the source of Rock river to within forty miles of its mouth, in 
Illinois, where they had a village. On the west it extended to the heads of the small streams 
flowing into the Mississipiii. To the northward, it reached Black river and the upper Wis- 
consin, in other words, to the Ghippewa territory, but did not extend across Fox river, althou'^h 
they contended for the whole of W'inneb.igo lake. In 1S29, a large part of their territorv in 
southwest \Msconsin, lying between Sugar river and the Mississippi, and extending to the Wis- 
consin river, was sold to the General Government; and, three years later all the residue lyinc 
south and east of the Wisconsin and the Fox river of Green bay ; the Winnebago prophet havino- 
before that date su[iported the Sacs in their hostility. Finally, in the brief language of the treaty 
lietween this tribe (which had bei ome un>cttlcd and wasteful) and the United States, of the first 
of November, iS37,"The Winnebago Nation of Indians " ceded to the General Government 
'• all their lands east of the Mis-,issi[Mii," Xot an acre was reserved. And the Indians agreed 
that, within eight month-, from tliat tl.ite, they would move west of " the great river." This 
arrangement, however, was not carried out fully. In 1S42, there were only 756 at Turkey river, 
low.i, their new home, wiili as many in Wisconsin, and sm.iller bands e' ev. here. .-Ml had become 
lawless, and roving. Some removed in 134S; while a party to the number of over eight hun- 
dred left the State a, late as 1073. The [-re-icn: liome of tlie tribe is in .Nebra:,ka, where they 
have a reservation north (if and adjacent to the Om.ihas, containing over one hundred thousand 
acres. However, since their first removal beyond the !Mississip[)i, the)- have several times 



■thanged their place of abode. Their number, all told, is less than twenty-five hundred. 

\Vhen the territorv, now constituting the northern portion of Wisconsin, became very 
generallv known to the civili/.ed inh.abitants of the eastern part of the United States, it was 
found to be occupied by Indians called the Chipi'kwas. Their hunting-grounds extended south 
from Lake Superior to the heads of the Menomouee, the Wisconsin and Chippewa rivers; also 
farther eastward and westward. .\t an early day they were engaged in a war with the Sioux— 
a war indeed, which was long continued. The Ciiippewas, however, persistently maintamed 
their position — still occupying the same region when the General Government extended its 
jurisdiction over the whole country south of the Great Lakes and west to the Mississippi. 

By treaties with tlie Chippewas at different periods, down to the year 1827, the General Gov- 
ernment had recognized them as the owners of about one quarter of what is now the entire 
State. The same policy was pursued toward this tribe as with neighboring ones, in the purchase 
of their lands by the United States. Gradually they parted with their extensive possessions, until, 
in 1S42, the last acre within what is now Wisconsin was disposed of. It was the intention of the 
General Government to remove the several bands of the Chippewas who had thus ceded their 
lands to a tract reserved for them beyond the Mississippi; but this determination was afterward 
changed so as to allow them to remain upon certain reservations within the limits of their old- 
time hunting grounds. These reservations they continue to occupy. They are located in Bay- 
field, .\shland, Chippewa and Lincoln counties. The clans are known, respectively, as the Red 
•Cliff band, the Bad River band, the Lac Courte Oreille band, and the Lac de Flambeau band. 

Of all the tribes inhabiting what is now Wisconsin when its territory was first visited by 
white men, the S.iCS (Sauks or Saukies) and Foxes (Outagamies) are, in history, the most noted. 
'They are of the Algonquin family, and are first mentioned in 1665, by Father Allouez, but as 
•separate tribes. Afterward, however, because of the identity of their language, and their asso- 
ciations, they were and still are considered as one nation. In December, 1669, Allouez found 
upon the shores of Green bay a village of Sacs, occupied also by members of other tribes; and 
■early in 1670 he visited a village of the same Indians located upon the Fox river of Green bay, 
at a distance of four leagues from its mouth. Here a device of these Indians for catching fish 
arrested the attention of the missionary. " From one side of the river to the other," he writes, 
"they made a barricade, planting great stakes, two fathoms from the water, in such a manner 
that there is, as it were, a bridge above for the fishes, who by the aid of a little bow-net, easily 
take sturgeons and all other kinds of fish which this pier stops, although the water does not 
cease to flow between the stakes." When the Jesuit father first obtained, five years previous, a 
knowledge of this tribe, they were represented as s.ivage above all others, great in numbers, and 
without any permanent dwelling place. The Foxes were of two stocks: one calling themselves 
Outagamies or Fo.xes, whence onr English name ; the other, Mus(]Makink, or men of red clay, 
the name now used by the tribe. They lived in e.irly times with their kindred the Sacs east of 
Detroit, and as some say near the St. Lawrence. They were driven west, and settled at Saginaw, 
a name derived from the Sacs. Thence they were forced by the Iro(]uois to Green bay; but 
Were compelled to leave that place and settle on Fox river. 

-Mlouez, on the twenty-fourth of .Ajjril, 1670, arrived at a vilIaE;e of the Foxes, situated on 
Wolf river, a northern tributary of tlie Fox. "Tlie nation," lie declares, "is renowned for 
being numerous ; they have more than four hundred men bearing arms ; the number of women 
and cliildren is greater, on account of polygamy whiuh exi-ts among them — eacii man having 
commonly four wives, some of them six, and olliers as high as ten." The missionary tound that 
tlie Foxes had retreated to those parts to escape the persecutions of the Iroquois, .\llouer. 
•established among these Indians his mission of St. Mark, rejoicing in the fart that in less than 


two years he had baptized "sixty children and some adults." The Foxes, at the summons of De 
la Barre, in 16S4, sent warriors against the Five Nations. They also took part in Denonville's 
more serious campaign ; but soon after became hostile to the French. As early as 169.3, thev plundered several on their way to trade with the Sioux, alleging that they were carrying arms 
and ammunition to their ancient enemies — frequently causing them to make portages to the 
southward in crossing from Lake Michigan to the ^[ississippi. Afterward they became recon- 
ciled to the French; but the reconciliation was of short duration. In 17 12, Fort Detroit, then 
defended by only a handful of men, was attacked by them in conjunction with the Mascou- 
tens and Kickapoos. However, in the end, by calling in friendly Indians, the garrison not only 
protected themselves but were enabled to act on the offensi\e, destroying the greater part of the 
besieging force. 

The nation continued their ill will to the French. The consequence was that their territory 
in 1 7 16 had been invaded and they were reduced to sue for peace. But their friendship was not 
of long continuance. In 17 iS, the Foxes numbered five hundred men and " abounded in women 
and children." They are spoken of at that date as being very industrious, raising large quantities 
of Indian corn. In 172S, another e.xpedition was sent against them by the French. Meanwhile 
the Menomonees had also become hostile; so, too, the Sacs, who were now the allies of the 
Foxes. 1'he result of the enterprise wa^, an attack -upon and the defeat of a number of 
Menomonees; the burning of the wigwams of the Winnebagos (after passing the deserted village 
of the Sacs upon the Fox river), that tribe, also, at this date being hostile ; and the destruction 
of the fields of the Foxes. They were again attacked in their own country by the French, in 
1730, and defeated. In 1734, both the Sacs and Foxes came in conflict with the same foe; but 
this time the French were not as successful as on previous expeditions. In 1736, the Sacs and 
Foxes were "connected with the government of Canada; " but it is certain they were far from 
being friendly to the French. 

The conflict between France and Great Britain commencing in 1754, found the Sacs and 
Foxes allied with the former power, against the English, although not long previous to this time 
they were the bitter enemies of the French. At the close of tiiat contest so disastrous to the 
interests of France in Xorth America, these tribes readily gave in their adhesion to the con- 
querors, asking that English traders might be sent them. The two nations, then about equally 
divided, numbered, in 1761, about seven hundred warriors. Xeither of the tribes took part in 
Pontiac's war, but they befriended the English. The Sacs had migrated farther to the west- 
ward ; but the Foxes — at least a portion of them — still remained upon the waters of the river of 
Green bay, which perpetuates their name. A few years later, however, and the former were 
occupants of the upper ^\■isconsin ; also, to a considerable distance below the portage, where 
their chief town was located. Further down the same stream was the upper village of the 
Foxes, while their lower one was situated near its mouth at tlie site of the present city of Prairie 
du Chien. .\t this date, 1766, the northern portion of what is now Wisconsin, including all that 
part watered by the streams flowing north into Lake Superior, was the home of the Chippewas. 
The country around nearly the whole of Green bay was the hunting ground of the Menomonees. 
The territory of Winnebago lake and Fox river was the seat of the Winnehagoes. The region 
of the Wisconsin river was tiie dwelling place of the Sacs and Foxes. 

During the war of the Revolution, the Sacs and Foxes continued the firm friends of the 
English. At the commencement of the nineteenth century, only a small part of their territory 
was included in wiiat is now Wisconsin, and tiiat was in the extreme southwest. In 1S04, they 
ceded this to the L-nited States; so that they no longer were owners of any lands within tliis 
State. From that date, therefore, these allied tribes can not be considered as belonging to the 


Indian nations of Wisconsin. A striking episode in their subsequent history - the Black Hawk 
War— comes in, notwithstanding, as a part, incidentally, of the annals of the State. 

Deservin- a place m a notice of the Indian tribes of Wisconsin is the nation known as the 
POTTAWATT .MIES. As earlv as 1639, they were the neighbors of the Winnebagoes upon Green 
bav They were still upon its southern shore, in two villages, in 1670 ; and ten years suDsequent 
to 'that date they occupied, at least in one village the same region. At the expiration of the 
first quarter of the eighteenth century, a part only of the nation were m that vicinity— upon the 
islands at the mouth of the bav. These islands were then known as the Pottawattamie islands, 
and considered as the ancient abode of these Indians. Already had a large portion of this tribe 
emigrated southward, one band resting on the St. Joseph of Lake Michigan, the other near Detroit. 
One peculiarity of this tribe — at least of such as resided in what is now Wisconsin- was their 
intimate association with neighboring bands. When, in 1669, a village of the Pottawattamies, 
located upon the southeast shore of Green bay, was visited by Allouez, he found with them Sacs 
and Foxes and Winnebagoes. So. also, when, many years subsequent to that date, a band of 
these Indians were located at Milwaukee, with them were Ottawas and Chippewas. Tliese 
" united tribes " claimed all the lands of their respective tribes and of other nations, giving tne 
United States, when possession taken of the western country by the General Government, 
no little trouble. Finally, bv a treaty, held at Chicago in 1833, their claims, such as they were, 
to lands along the western shore of Lake Michigan, within the present State of Wisconsin, 
extending westward to Rock river, were purchased by the United States, with permission to 
retain possession three years longer of their ceded lands, after which time this " united nation 
of Chippewas, Ottawas and Pottawattamies " began to disappear, and soon were no longer seen m 
southeastern Wisconsin or in other portions of the State. 

Besides the five tribes — Menomonees, Winnebagoes, Chippewas, Sacs and Foxes, and 
Pottawattamies — many others, whole or in part, have, since the territory now constituting the 
State was fir-^t visited by white men, been occupants of its territory. Of these, some are only 
known as having once lived in what is now Wisconsin; others — such as the Hurons, Illinois, 
Kickapoos, Mascouteris, Miamis, Noquets, Ott.awas and Siou.x, are recognized as Indians once 
dwelling in this region; yet so transitory has been their occupation, or so little is known of their 
history, that they scarcely can be claimed as belonging to the State. 

Commencing in 1S22, and continuing at intervals through some of the following years, was 
the migration to Wisconsin from the State of New York of the remains or portions of four tribes : 
the Oneidas, Stockbridges, Munsees and Brothertowns. The Oneidas finally located west of 
Green Bay, where they still reside. Their reservation contains over 60,000 acres, and lies 
wholly within the present counties of Brown and Outagamie. The Stockbridges and Munsees, 
who first located above Green F.ay, on the east side of Fox river, afterward moved to the east 
side of Winnebago hike. Thev now occupy a reservation joining the southwest township of the 
Menomenee reservation, in Shawano county, and are fast becoming citizens. The Brothertowns 
first located on the east side of Fox river, but subsequently moved to the east side of ^\ innebago 
lake,' where, in 1S39, they broke up their tribal relations and became citizens of Wisconsin 


When, in 1634. the first white man set foot upon any portion of the territory now consti- 
tutin.' the 'state of Wisconsin, the whole country was, of course, a wilderness. Its inhabitants, 
the aboriginal Red men, were thinly but widely scattered over all the country. John Nicolet, 
a Frenchman, who had been in Canada since 1618, and had spent several years among the 


Indians, was the first of civilized men to unlock the mystery of its situation and people. French 
authorities upon the St. Lawrence sent him as an ambassador to the Winnebagoes, of whom he 
had heard strange stories. On his outward voyage he vibited the Hurons — allies of the French 
— a tribe seated upon the eastern side of ihe lake which bears their name, and Nicolet was 
empowered to negotiate a peace with them. '' When he approached the Winnebago town, he sent 
some of his Indian attendants to announce his coming, put on a robe of damask, and advanced 
to meet the expectant crowd with a pistol in each hand. The squaws and children fled, scream- 
ing that it was a manito, or spirit, armed with thunder and lightning ; but the chiefs and warriors 
regaled him with so bountiful a hospitality, that a hundred and twenty beavers were devoured at 
a single feast." Such was the advent of the daring Frenchman into what is now the State of 

" Upon the borders of C.reen bay," wrote the Jesuit, Paul le Jeune,in 1640, " are the Meno- 
monees; still fartlier on, the \\ innebagocs, a bedentary jieople, and very numerous. Some 
Frenchmen," he continues, " call them the ' Nation of the Stinkards,' because the Algonquin 
■word Winipeg signifies ' stinking water.' Now they thus call the water of the sea; therefore, 
these people call themselves ' Winnebagoes,' because they came from the shores of a sea of which 
we have no knowledge; consequently we must not call them the ' Nation of Stinkards,' but the 
' Nation of the Sea.' " From these Men of the Sea, Nicolet passed westward, ascended Fox 
river of Green Bay, until nigh the portage to the Wisconsin, down which stream he could have 
floated easily to the Mississippi, the "great water" of his guides, which he mistook for the 
sea. This adventurous Frenchman, when so near re-discovering the river which has given 
immortality to De Soto, turned his face to the eastward; retraced his steps to Green bay, and 
finally returned in safety to Quebec. This was the first exploration of what is now Wisconsin — 
only fourteen years after the landing of the Pilgrims ujion the wild shores of New England. 

Wisconsin, for tw enty-four years after its discovery, was let"t to its savage inhabitants. At 
len<-'th, in 163S, two daring fur traders penetrated to Lake Superior, and wintered there. They 
probably set foot upon wint is now Wisconsin soil, as they made several trips among the sur- 
rounding tribes. They saw, among other things, at six days' journey beyond the lake, toward 
the southwest, Indians that the Iroquois had dm en from their homes upon the eastern shores of 
Lake Huron. These Frencliiricn heard of the ferocious Sioux, and of a great river— not the sea, 
as Nicolet had supposed — on which they dwelt. Tiiis was the Mississippi; and to these traders 
is the world indebted for a knowledge of its existence; as Le Soto's discovery was never used, 
and soon became well-nigh, if not entirely, forgotten. From these upper countries, in the Sum- 
mer of 1660, the two returned to (Quebec, with three hundred Indians in sixty canoes, laden with 
peltry. Thi-. was, indeed, the dawn — though exceedingly faint — of what is now the commerce of 
the great Northwest. Nineteen years after llasr.ed a more brilliant light; for, in 1679, the 
"Griffin," hulen with fur^, left one of the inlands at the mouth of Green bay, on its return — 
spreading her sails for Ni.igar.i, but never more to be heard of. 

Following in the footitejis ol the fur trader-i came tl'.e Jesuit missionaries to Lake Supeiior : 
one of them. Lather Menard, as early as lOOo, reaciiing its s-iuthern shore as far to the westward, 
[irobably, a- Kewciiaw, in tlie I'teseiu State of Miel'.igan. Tnerc is no [.ositive evidence, however, 
that he or his Lrent ii comp.mions, visited any iKjrtiMii ..f what is now Wibconsin; although the next 
year, 1661, some of his a>^oriates probably passed down the Menomonee river to Green bay. 
Following Menard e.iine Claude .Mkjae.'. .uriv ing on the first day of t)ctober, i66s, at 
"Chagowamigong." cr " Chegoimegon," now Ciie(i'a.iinepon, or Ashland Pay. " at the bottom of 
■which," wn.le the mi->sinn.iry. ■" is -.ituated the villages of the savages, who there plant their 
fields of Indian corn, and lead a stationary life." by he erected a small chapelof bark — the 


first structure erected by civilized man in Wisconsin. At La Pointe, in the present Ashland 
county, he '.ished the mission of the Holy Ghost. 

The next Catholic mission in what is now Wisconsin was that of St. Francis Xavier, founded 
also by Allouez. Unon the second of December, 1669, he first attended to his priestly devotions 
upon the waters of Green bay. This mission, for the first two years of its existence, was a 
migratory one. The surrounding tribes were all visited, including the Pottawattamies, Menom- 
onees, Winnebagoes, and Sacs and Foxes. However, in 167 1, one hundred and five years before 
the Declaration of Independence, there was erected, at what is now Depere, Brown county, a 
chapel for the mission of St. Francis Xavier. Thus early did the Jesuit Fathers, in their plain 
garbs and unarmed, carry the cross to many of the benighted heathen occupying the country 
circumscribed by Lakes Michigan, Huron and Superior, and the "great river"— the Mississippi. 
French domination in Wisconsin d.ites from the year 1671, the very year in which it seems 
the indomitable LaSalle, upon his first expedition, passed the mouth of Green bay, but did not 
enter it. France then took formal possession of the whole of the country of the upper lakes. 
By this time, the commerce with the western tribes had so attached them to her interests that 
she determined to extend her power to the utmost limits— vague and indeterminate as they 
^.ere— of Canada. An agent— Daumont de St. Lusson— was dispatched to the distant tribes, 
proposing a congress of Indian nations at the Falls of Ste. Mary, between Lake Huron and Lake 
Superior. The invitation was extended far and near. The principal chiefs of Wisconsin tribes, 
gathered by Nicolas Perrot in Green bay, were present at the meeting. Then and there, with 
due ceremony, it was announced that the great Northwest was placed under the protection of 
the French government. And why not' She had discovered it — had to a certain extent 
explored it— had to a limited extent established commerce with it— and her missionaries had 
proclaimed the faith to the wonderin- savages. But none of her agents— none of the fur- 
traders— none of the miss"onaries— had yet reached the Mississippi, the "great river," concerning 
which so many marvels had been heard, although it is claimed that, in 1669, it had been seen 
by the intrepid La Salle. Rut the time for its discovery, or properly re-discovery, was at hand, if, 
indeed, it can be called, with propriety, a re-discovery, since its existence to the westward was 
already known to every white man particularly interested in matters appertaining to the North- 
west. Now, however, 'for the first time, its upper half was to be, to a certain extent, explored. 
For 'the first time, a white man was to behold its vast tribute, above the Illinois river, rolling 
onward toward the Mexican gulf. Who was that man ? His name was Louis Joliet; with him 
was Father James Marquette. 

Born at Quebec, in 1645, educated by the Jesuits, and first resolving to be a priest, then 
turning fur-tra"der, Joliet had, finally, been sent with an associate to explore the copper mines ot 
L.ike Superior. -He was a man of close and intelligent observation, and possessed considerable 
mathematical acquirements. At this time, 1673, he was a merchant, courageous, hardy, enter- 
prising. He was appointed by French authorities at Quebec to " discover " the Mississippi. He 
passed up the lakes to M.ickinaw, and found at Point St. Ignace. on the north side of the strait. 
Father James Marquette, who readily agreed to accompany him. Their outfit was very simple: 
two birch-bark canoes and a supply of smoked meat and Indian corn. They had a company of 
five men with them, beginning their voyage on the seventeenth of May, 1673. Passing the straits. 
they coasted the northern shores of Lake Michigan, moved up tireen bay and Fox river to the 
l.ortage. 'Ihcy crossed to the Wisconsin, down whicli they i^addled their frail canoes, unlii, <.n 
the- seventeenth of June, they entered— "' discovered "—the Mississippi. So tiie northern, the 
ra.tern and the western boundary of what is now Wisconsin had been reached at this date : 
therefore, it may be said that its territory had been explored sufficiently for the forminj; of a 


pretty correct idea of its c;eneral features as well as of its savage inhabitants. After dropping 
down the Mississippi many miles, Joliet and Marquette returned to Green bay, where the latter 
remained to recruit his exhausted strength, while Joliet descended to Quebec, to report his 
"discoveries" to his superiors. 

Then followed the expedition of LaSalle to the west, from the St. Lawrence, when, in 1679, 
he and Father Louis Hennepin coasted along the western shore of Lake Michigan, frequently 
landing ; then, the return of Henri de Tonty, one of LaSalle's party down the same coast to Green 
bay, in 16S0, from the Illinois; the return, also, the same year, of Hennepin, from up the Mis- 
sissippi, whither he had made his way from the Illinois, across what is now Wisconsin, by the 
Wisconsin and Fox rivers to Green bay, in company with DuLhut, or DuLuth, who, on his way 
down the " great river " from Lake Superior, had met the friar ; and then, the voyage, in 1683, from 
Lake Michigan to the Mississippi river, by the same route, of LeSueur, and his subsequent 
establishment at La Pointe, in what is now Ashland county, Wisconsin, followed several years 
after by a trip up the Mississippi. The act of Daumont de St. Lusson, at the Sault Sainte Mary, 
in 167 1, in taking possession of the country beyond Lake Michigan, not being regarded as suffi- 
ciently definite, Nicolas Perrot, in i6S9,at Green bay, again took possession of that territory, as 
well as of the valleys of the Fox and Wisconsin rivers, and extending the dominion of New 
France over the country on the Upper Mississippi, and "to other places more remote." The 
voyage of St. Cosme, in 1699, when he and his companions frequently landed on the west coast 
of Lake Michigan, upon what is now territory of Wisconsin, completed the explorations in the 
west for the seventeenth century. 

Following in t"he footsteps of early explorations, of self sacrificing attempts of the Jesuits to 
carry the cross to the wild tribes of the We-,t, of the fir^t visits of the lawless coureurs ,k bois, 
was the milltarv occupation — if such it can be called — of what is now Wisconsin by the French. 
The ninety years of domination liy France in this region were years of only nominal possession. 
The record of tliis occupation is made up of fact.-, concerning the Indian policy of the French 
rulers; their contests with the Sacs and Foxer,; their treaties, at various times, with different 
tribes ; their interest m, and protection of, the fur trade , and kindred subjects. The Indian 
tribes were, at most, only the allies of Fran( c. Postb — mere stockades without cannon, more (ox 
protection to fur-traders than for any other purpose — were erected upon the Mississippi at two 
points at least, upon what is now territory of Wi^ onsin. On the west bide of Fox river of 
Green bay, "half a league from ita mouth," was a French ])05t, .as early as 17JI, where resided, 
besides the commandant and an uncouth bqii.\d of soldiers, a Jesuit missionary; and near by 
were collected Indians of different tribes. Of course, the omnipresent fur-trader helped to 
augment the sum-total of it-; Th:-, po>t was, not long after, destroyed, but another 
was established there. When, however, I'r.mcc yielded her inchoate rights in the West to Great 
Britain — when, in 1761, the hitter took [Hj-,,esiion of t!;e country — tliere was not a French post 
within what is now Wisconsin. The "fort" near the iiead of G.reen bay, had been vacated for 
some vears ; it was found "rotten, the stockade read.y to f.-dl, and the houses without cover;" 
emblematic of the decay — the fist-cruiniiling and ;>eri^hing state — of French supremacy, at that 
date, in America. Wisconsin, when Fngland'.s control hegan, was little better than a howling 
wilderness. There was not within the broad limits of what is now the State, a single do/ia f.Jr 
settler, at the time the I-'rench Government yielded up its possession to the En^li->h ; that is to 
say, there were none accoriling to the present acceptation of the term "settlor." 

The military occupation of Wiscnnsin by the iJritish, after the Seven Year," War, was a brief 
one. La Bay — as the post at what is imw the city of I'ort H.iw.ird. [irown county, was called — 
was, on the twelfth of October, 1761. i.iken i>ossession of by English troofis, under Captain 
Bel four, of the F.igiuieth regiment. Two d.i) > after, otVuer dep.uted. leaving Lieutenant 


lames Gorrell, in command, with one sergeant, one corporal and fifteen privates^ There al.o 
rmainedlt the post a French interpreter and two English traders. The name of the fortmca- 
ir^f Chan" -d^o Fort Edu-ard Augustus. This post was abandoned by the commandant on 
Letventv first of June. 1763, on account of the breaking out of Pontiac's ^^ ar and the capture 
t Ifon at Maina^- by^t'he savages. The cause of this war was this: The tr.bes 
1 he danger which the downfall of the French interests in Canada was sure to brtng to them. 
-rTe band.d together under Ponttac to avert their ruin. The struggle was short but fierce 
full of "scenes of tragic interest, with marvels of suffering and v.ctssuude of heroism and endur- 
n e '■ but the white man conquered. The moving incidents in th.s bloody drama were enacted 
;„ the eastward of what is now Wisconsin, coming no nearer than Mackmaw which, as just 
mentioned, the captured; but it resulted in the evacuation ot us tcrntory by BnUsn 
uooprwh; never alter took possession of it, though they continued until r-96 a nominal 
military rule over it, after Mackinaw was again occupied by them. , r ,1 M 

Vn early Fren<;h Canadian trading station at the head of Green bay assumed finally the 
form'of a p rmanent settlement- the first one in Wiscorasin. To claim, however that any 
French Canadian is entitled to the honor of being the first permanent white settler is assuming 
Lr him more than the facts seem to warrant. Th. title of "' The Father and Founder o. U .- 

'^°"^";;:r^^Sa:;^s'^-:;::ne of the noted events in this region was the journey of Jonathan 
Carver who in 1766, passed up Fc. river to the portage, and descended the ^Msconsln to the 
Miss s;ippi ' He noticed the tumbling-down po,t at what is now Green Bay Brown cottnty 
"a. a few families living in the fort, and some French =ettlers, who cultivated the land 
opposite and appeared to live very comfortably. That was the whole extent of improvements 
^ wh T'is The organization of the Northwest Fur Company ; the passage o 
an act by the British Parliament by which the whole Northwest was included in the Province of 
Qu bee the joining of the Indians in this region with the British, against the Americans, in the 
Wa of the Revolution; the exploration of the lead region of the Upper Mississippi by ulian 
ubuoue the passa.^e of the ordinance of 17S7 ; the first settlement of the territory northwest 
f th7 Ri'v r Ohio; ^nd the Indian war which followed, are all incidents, during British occu- 
prt 01 of more or less interest for the student of Wisconsin history. He will find that, by the 
reaty 'of 17S3 and of 170., with Great Britain, all the inhabitants residing in this region were to 
bJ protecte'dly the United States in the full and peaceable possession ot their property . h h 
ri.'ht to remain in, or to withdraw from it, with their ettects, within one year. AH who did no 
We vere to be d cined American citizen^, allowed to enjoy all the privileges ot citizenship, . nd 
: ::d:r the protection of the General Government. He will al,o '-^ that ess ^ w . 
years was the whole time of actual military occupation of what 1= now \ bs Lii..,i 
soldiers and that English domination, which should have ended at the close ot the kcvo...- 
non, was arbitrarily cc^ntinued until the Summer of 1796, when tiie ^^^'^;Y'''l^\'^"-": 'l^ 
wer^ upon terrirorv circumscribed by Lakes Michigan and .^•apenor and the rn er, 
were delivered into the keeping of the United State. Thus the supreu.acy o> Great Britain over 
the Northwest was, after an actual continuance of th.rty-nve years, at an end 

Mthouoh the General Government did not get possession of the region northwest of the On.o. 
.hrouH,out its full extent, for thirteen years subsequent to its acquirement by the treaty of peace 
of ,783 with Great Britain, nevertheless, steps were taken, very soon, to obtain concessions from 
such of the colonies as had declared an ownership in any portion of it. None o the claiman s 
seemingly, had better rights than Virginia, who, by virtue of conquests, largely her own, of tl 
Illinois settlements and posts, extended her jurisdiction over that country, erecting into a count> 


so much of the region northwest of the Ohio, as had heen settled liy Virginians or might after- 
ward be settled by them. But as, previous to her yielding all rights to territory beyond that 
river, she liad not carried her arms into the region north of tlie Illinois or made settlements upon 
what is now the soil of Wisconsin, nor included any portion of it within the bounds of an orf^an- 
ized county, it follows that her dominion was not actually extended over any part of the area 
included within the present boundaries of this State; nor did she then claim jurisdiction north 
of the Illinois river, but on the other hand expressly disclaimed it. 

Virginia and all the other claimants finally ceded to the United States their rights, such as 
they were, beyond the Ohio, except two reservations of limited extent; and the General Govern- 
ment became the undisputed owner of the "Great West," without any internal claims to posses- 
sion save those of the Indians. .Meanwhile, the United States took measures to extend its juris- 
diction over the whole country by the passage of the famous ordinance of 17S7, which established 
a government over "the territory of the United States, northwest of the River Ohio." But tliis 
organic law was, of course, nugatory over that portion of the region occupied by the British, 
until their yielding possession in 1796, when, for the first time, Anglo-American rule commenced, 
though nominally, in what is now Wisconsin. By the ordinance just mentioned, "the United 
States, in congress assembled," declared that the territory northwest of the Ohio should, for the 
purposes of temporary government, be one district , subject, however, to be divided into districts, 
as future circumstances might, in the opinion of Congress, make it expedient. It was ordained 
that a governor, secretary and three judges should be appointed for the Territory; a general 
assembly was also provided for; and it was declared that religion, morality, and knowled'-'e, 
being necessary to good government and the hapjiiness of mankind, schools and the means of 
education should forever be encouraged. It was also ordained that there should be neither 
slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said Territory, "otherwise than in the punishment of 
crimes whereof the party shall have been duly convicted." Thus was established the first Magna 
Charta for the five great States since that tine formed out of "the territory northwest of the 
River Oliio," and the first rules and regulations for their government. 

Under this act of Congress, .Arthur St. Clair was appointed governor of the Northwestern 
Territory, as it was called, and Samuel H. Parsons, James .M. Varnum, and John Armstrong, 
judges,— the latter not accepting the office, John Cleves Symmes was appointed in his place. 
Winthrop Sargeant was ajipointed secretary. At dit'ferent periods, counties were erected to 
include various jiortions of the Territory. By the governor's proclamation of the 15th of 
August, 1796, one was formed to include the whole of tlie present area of Northern Ohio, west of 
jJTIe.ycland ; also, all of what is now the State of Indiana, north of a line drawn from Fort Wayne 
'■■ ■■•est-northerly to the southern part of Lake Michigan;" the whole of the present State ol' 
Mi-'higan, except its extreme northwest corner on Lake Superior; a small corner in the north- 
-• ■ i. |>art of what is now Illinois, including Ciiicago; and so much of tiie present State of Wis- 
. ca-iin as is watered by the streams ilowing into Lake Michigan, which of course included an 
i-A'tjn.^ire portion, taking in man\- of it.i ca^tern and interior countie:> as now constituted. This 
vast county was named Wayne. So the I'rw settlers then at the head of Green bay had their 
local h.ibitations, constructively at least, in '" Wayne county. Northwestern Territory." It was 
just at tliat date that Great Britain vacated the western posts, and the L'nited States took quiet 
po.sess on of them. But the we-tern jiurtion of wliat is now Wisconsin, mcluding all its territory 
w.itered by streams fiowing northward into Lake Superior, and westward and southwestward into 
the Mis^ibM[)].i, as yet without any county organization ; as the county of St. Clair, including 
the Illinois country to the southward, reached no f.irther north than the mouth of Little Macki- 
naw creek, wlicrc it empties into the Kiver Iliinois, in what is now the State of Illinois. The 



•M.vv of Pans," which was in force under French domination in Canada, and which by the 
British Parliament in .774, had been continued in force under English supremacy, was sfll the 
l^w of the land " west of Lake Michigan, practically at least. r .u t- ► ^ 

From and after the fourth day of July, iSoo, ail that part of the territory of the Ln.ted 
^tues northwest of the Ohio river, which lay to the westward of a line be^mning upon that 
vreim opposite to the mouth of Kentucky river and running thence to what is now Fort 
Recovery in Mercer countv, Ohio ; thence north until it intersected the territorial line between 
the United States and Canada, was, for the purposes of temporary government constituted a 
separate territory called Indiana. It included not only the whole of the present State of Illinois 
and nearly all of what is n-nv Indiana, but more than half of the State of Michigan as now 
defined, also a considerable part of the present Minnesota, and the^.-l.ole o. what is now ^^ is- 

""^The seat of government was established at "Saint Vincennes on the Wabash," nowthe city 
of Vincennes, Indiana. To this extensive area was added "from and after the admission of 
Ohio into the Union, all the territory west of that State, and east of the eastern boundary Ime of 
the Territory of Indiana as originally established; so that now all the territory of the United 
States, northwest of the River Ohio," was, excepting the State of Ohio, included in Indiana Per 
ritory On the thirtieth day of Jane, 1S05. so much of Indiana Perntory as lay to the north of 
a liuedrawn east from the southerly bend or e.xtreme of Lake Michigan to la.e Lne, and east 
of a line drawn from the same bend through the middle of the first mentioned lake to its north- 
ern extremity, and thence due north to the northern boundary of the United States, was for the 
' purpose of temporarv Government, constituted a separate Territory called Michigan. Of course 
no part of the present ^State of Wisconsin was included therein ; but the whole remained in 
Territory of Indiana until the second day of March, 1809, when all that part of the last men- 
tioned Territory which lay west of the Wabash river, and a direct line drawn from that stream 
and " Post Vincennes," due north to the territorial line betweer^ the United States and Can.iaa 
was by an act approved on the third of February previous, constituted a separate Territory, cal.ed 
iLLi'xois Meanwhile jurisdiction had been extended by the authorities of Indiana Territory 
over' the'country lying west of Lake Michigan, to the extent, at least, of appointing a justice of 
the peace for each of the settlements of Green Pay and Prairie du Chien. .1 of what is i,ow 
Wisconsin was transferred to the Territory of Illinois, upon the organization of the latter except 
a small portion lying east of the meridian line drawn through Vincennes, which remained a par. 
of Indiana Territory. This fraction included nearly the whole area between Green bay and 

'"'^^Whef i°n"s,6, Indiana became a State, " the territory of the United States northwest of tlie 
River Ohio '• contained, besides Ohio and Indiana, the Territories of Illinois and Michigan.only ; 
so the narrow strip, formerly a part of Indiana Territory, lying east of a hue drawn due nort:- 
from Vincennes, and we.t of the western boundary line of Michigan Territory, belonged to luu 
ihcr, and was left wit'iout anv organization. However, upon the admission of Ilhnois into t.,o 
Union, in iSiS, all '"the territory of the United States, northwest of the River Ohio, lying we^^t 
'•f Michi-an Territory and north of the States of Indiana and llhno.s, was attached to and maue 
a part of^Michigan Territory ; by which act the whole of the present State of Wisconsin came 
under the jurisdiction of the latter. During the existence of the Territory of Illinois, a kind .„ 
jurisdiction was had over the two settlements in what is now Wisconsin- rather more ideal th ui 

real, iiowever. ■ • , 1 j- • 

In .Sj4, Congress greatly increased the limits of the Territory of Michigan, by adding to ,r. 
lor judicial purposes, a large extent of country west of the Mississippi- reaching south as far ..s 


the present boundary line lietween the present States of Iowa and 'Missouri; north, to the terri- 
torial line between the United States and Canada; and west, to the Missouri and White Earth 
rivers. It so continued down to the fourth of July, 1S36. 

A retrosperti\-e glance at the history of this region for forty years previous to the last men- 
tioned year, including the tini: which elapsed after the surrender of the western posts, in 1796, 
by the British, discloses many facts of interest and importance. 

The Anglo-Americans, not long after the region of country west of Lake Michigan became 
a part of Indiana Territory, began now and then to cast an eye, either through the opening of 
the Great Lakes or the Mississippi, upon its rolling rivers, its outspread prairies, and its dense 
forests, and to covet the goodly land ; but the settlers at Green Bay and Prairie du Chien were 
mostly French Canadians at this date, although a few were Americans. The General Govern- 
ment, however, began to take measures preparatory to its occupation, by purchasing, in 1804, a 
tract in what is now the southwest portion of the State, of the Indians, and by holding the various 
tribes to a strict account for any murders committed by them on American citizens passing 
through their territories or trading with them. Comparative peace reigned in the incipient settle- 
ments at the head of Green bay and at the mouth of the Wisconsin, which was changed by the 
breaking out of the war of 1S12, with Great Britain. 

The English early succeeded in securing the Wisconsin Indian tribes as their allies in this 
war; and the taking of Mackinaw by the British in July, 1812, virtually put the latter in posses- 
sion of what is now the eastern portion of the State. Early in 1S14, the government authorities 
of the United States caused to be fitted out at St. Louis a large boat, having on board all the 
men that could be mustered and spared from the lower country, and sent up the Mississippi to 
protect the upper region and the few settlers therein. The troops landed at Prairie du Chien, 
and immediately proceeded to fortify. Not long after, Colonel McKay, of the British army, 
crossing the country by course of the Fox and Wisconsin rivers, with over five hundred British 
and Indians, received the surrender of the whole force. The officers and men were paroled and 
sent down the river. This was the only battle fought upon Wtsconsin soil during the last war 
with England. The post at Prairie du Chien was left in command of a captain with two compa- 
nies from Mackinaw. He remained there until after the peace of 1S15, when the place was 
evacuated by the British. 

When it became generally to the Indian tribes in what is now Wisconsin, that the 
contest between tlie United States and Great Britain was at an end, they generally expressed 
themselves as ready and willing to make treaties with the General Government — eager, in fact, 
to establish frienrl!)- relations with the power they had so recent!)- been hostile to. This was, 
therefore, a favorable mnnieiit for taking actual possession of the country between the Missis- 
sippi and Lake Michigan ; and United States troops were suou ordered to occupy tiie two prom- 
inent jioints between Green Bay and Prairie du Cliien. At the former place was erected Fort 
Howard; at the latter Fort Crawford. At Green Bay, half a hundred (or less) French Cana- 
dians cultivated the soil; at Prairie du Chien, there were not more than thirty houses, mostly 
occupied by traders, while on the prairie outside the village, a number of farms were cultivated. 
Such was Wisconsin v.iien, at the clo^e of tlic last with Great Britain, it began in earnest to 
be occupied by .Vnierican^. The latter were i'^^w in number, but in 1S18, they began to feel, now 
that the country wa^ attached to Michigan Territory and the laws of the United States were 
extended over them, that they were not altogether beyond the protection of a government of their 
own, iiotuitlistandi:ig they were surrounded by s-iva^je triljes. Their happiness was increased 
U[)On the erection, by proclamation of Lewis Cass, governor of the Territory oi Michigan, of 
three Territorial counties : Michilimackinae, Brown and Crawt'ord. Their establishment dates 


the twenty-sixth of October, iSiS. The county of Michilimackinac not only included all of the 
present State of Wisconsin lying north of a line drawn due west from near the head of the Little 
Noqiict bay, but territory east and west of it, so as to reach from Lake Huron to the Missis- 
sip[)i river. Its county seat was established "at the Borough of Michilimackinac." The wliole 
.irea in Michigan Territory south of the county of Michilimackinac and west of Lake Michigan 
formed the two counties of IJrown and Crawford: the former to include the area east of a line 
drawn due north and south through the middle of the portage between the I"o.\ river of Green 
bav and the Wisconsin ; the latter to include the whole region west of that line. Prairie du 
Chien was designated as the county seat of Crawford; Green Bay, of Brown county. On the 
:2d of December, i8j6, a county named Chippewa was formed from the northern portions of 
Michilimackinac, including the southern shores of Lake Superior throughout its entire length, 
and extending from the straits leading from that lake into Lake Huron, west to the western 
boundary line of Michigan Territory, with the county seat " at such point in the vicinity of the 
Sault de Ste. Marie, as a majority of the county commissioners to be appointed shall designate." 
Embraced within this county, — its southern boundary being the parallel 46^ 31' north latitude, — 
was all the territory of the present State of Wisconsin now bordering on Lake Superior. 

Immediately upon the erection of Brown and Crawford counties, they were organized, and 
their offices filled by appointment of the governor. County courts were established, consisting 
of one chief and two associate justices, either of whom formed a quorum. They were required 
10 hold one term of court annually in their respective counties. These county courts had origi- 
nal and exclusive jurisdiction in all civil cases, both in law and equity, where the matter in dis- 
pute e.xceeded the jurisdiction of a justice of the peace, and did not e.xceed the value of one 
thousand dollars. T'hey had, however, no juribdiction in ejectment. They had exclusive cog- 
nizance of all offenses the punishment whereof was not capital, and the same power to issue 
remedial and other process, writs of error and mandamus excepted, that the supreme court had 
at Detroit. Appeals from justices of the peace were made to the county courts. 

The establishing of Indian agencies by the General Government; the holding of treaties 
with some of the Indian tribes; the adjustment of land claims at Green Bay and Prairie du 
Cliien ; the appointment of jjostmasters at these two points, were all indications of a proper 
interest being taken by the llnited States in the affairs of the country. But a drawback to this 
region, was the fact that, in all civil cases of over a thousand dollars, and in criminal cases that 
were capital, as well as in actions of ejectinent, and in the allowance of writs of error, and man- 
damus, recourse must be had to the supreme court at Detroit; the latter place being the seat of 
government of Micl.igan Territory. However, in January, 1S23, an act of congress provided 
tor a district court, and for the ajjpointment of a judge, for the counties of Brown, Crawford, 
and Michilimackinac. This court had concurrent jurisdiction, civil and criminal, with the 
supreme court of tiie Territory, in most cases, subject, however, to have its decisions taken to the 
latter tribunal by a writ of error. 'I'he law provided for holding one term of court in each year, 
in each of the counties named in the act ; so, at last, there was to be an administration of justice 
at home, and the people were to be relieved from all military arbitrations, which frequently had 
been imposed upon them. James Duane Doty was appointed judge of this court at its organiza- 
tion. A May term cif the court was held in Pr.ilrie du Chien; a June term in lireen Bav; a 
July term in " the Borough of Michilimackinac," in each year. In I1S24, Henry S. Baird. ol 
Drown county, was appointed district attorney. Doty held the office of judge until May, 1S3;, 
uhen he was succeeded by David Irvin. This court continued until 1S36, when it was abrogated 
by the organization of the Territory of Wisconsin. 

For a long time it had been known that there were lead mines in what is now the south- 


western portion of the State; but it was not until tlic year 1S25, and the two following years, that 
very general attention was attracted to them, whicli eventuated in the settlement of different 
places in that region, by Americans, who came to dig lor lead ore. This rapid increase of 
settlers awakened the jealousy of the \\"innebago Indians, at what they deemed an unauthorized 
intrusion upon tlieir lands, which, with other causes operating unfavorably upon their minds, 
aroused them in June, i^:^;, to open acts of hostility. Murders became fretpient. Finally, 'the 
militia of Praiiie du Chicn were called out. On the twenty-ninth of August, Brigadier-General 
Henry Atkinson, of the United States army, with a strong force of regulars, ascended the Wis- 
consin river to put an end to any further spread of Winnebago disturbances. He was joined on 
the first of September, by one hundred and thirty Galena volunteers, mounted, and. under com- 
mand of General Henry Dodge. 'I'he ^Vinnebagoes were awed into submission. Thus ended 
the " \Vinnebago War." It was followed by the erection at the portage of Fort Winnebago, by 
the United States. 

After the restoration of tranquillity, the United States proceeded by treaty with the Indians,, 
to secure the right to occupy the lead regions. This was in iSrS. The r.cxt year, the General 
Government purchased of the Winnebagoes, Southwestern Wisconsin, which i/ut an end to all 
trouble on account of mining operations. On the ninth of October, 1S29, a e.unty was formed, 
by the legislative council of the Territory of Michigan, comprising ail that part of Crawford 
county lying south of the Wisconsin river. This new county was called Iowa. The county 
seat was temporarily established at Mineral Point. Following this was a treaty in 1S31, with the 
Menomonces, for all their lands east of Green bay, Winnebago lake, and the Fo.\ and Milwaukee 

There was now a crisis at hand. The most prominent event to be recorded in the pre-Ter- 
ritorial annals of ^\'iscons;n is known as the Black Hawk This conflict of arms between 
the Sacs and Foxes and the United States arose from a controversy in regard to lands. By a 
treaty made at Fort Harmar, just across the River Muskingum from Marietta, Ohio, in January, 
17S9, the Pottawattamie and Sac tribes of Indians, among others, were received into the friend- 
ship of tlie General Goveinincnt, and .1 league of peace and unity established between the con- 
tracting parties On the third of Xovember, 1S04, a treaty at St. Louis stipulated that the 
united Sac and Fo.x trii)es should be received into the friendship of the United States,and also 
be nlaced under their [jrotection. The>e tribes also agreed to consider themselves under the pro- 
tection of the General Gi'vernment and of no other power whatsoever. .At this treaty lands were 
ceded which were circumscribed by a boundary beginning at a point on the Missouri river 
opposite the mouth of the Gasconade, and running thence in a direct cour^e so as to strike the 
River Jefferson at the distance of thirty miles from its mouth, and down that stream to the .Missis- 
s'p-ii. It tiien ran up tin- latter river to the mouth of the Wisconsin, and up that stream to a 
point t]iirty-si\ miles in a direct line fmin its mouth; thence by a straight course to a jjoint 
where the I'ox river of tiie Illinois leases the small lake then called Sakaegan, and from that 
point down the Fov to the Illinois, and down tlie latter ti) tlie Mississippi. The consideration for 
this cession was the ]iayinent of g i.^us to the value of two thousand two hundred and thirty-four 
dollars and fifiv cents, .md ,i yearly annuity of one thousand dollars — >ix hundred to be paid to 
t!ie Sacs and f'ur hundred to the Fo\e> — to be liquidated in goods valued at first cost. After- 
ward, Fort Madisiin was erected just ab^ve tlie I)cs .Moines rapids in the Mississippi, on the ter- 
ritorv ceded at t'le mentioned tre.ity. Then loll )\>ed the war with Great Britain, and the 
Sacs and l"o\es .,greed to take no part therein. However, a portion afterward joined the 
I'"n"li5h against the Americans along with other \Vestern tribes. At the restoration of peace the 
Sacs and Fo.xes held treaties with the United States. 'I'liere was a renewal of the treaty of 1S04. 


5>'ich in brief is a general outline of affairs, so far as those two tribes were concerned, down to the 
close of the last war with England. From this time, to the year 1830, several additional treaties 
were made with the Sacs and Foxes by the General Government : one in 1822, by which they relin- 
.juished their right to have the United States establish a trading house or factory at a convenient 
point at which the Indians could trade and save themselves from the imposition of traders, for 
which they were paid the sum of one thousand dollars in merchandise. Again, in 1S24, they 
sold to the General Government all their lands in Missouri, north of Missouri river, for v.-hich 
tliey received one thousand dollars the same year, and an annuity of one thousand dollars for ten 
years. In 1S30, they ceded to the United States a strip of land twenty miles wide from the Mis- 
sissippi to the Des Moines, on the north side of their territory. The time had now come for the 
two tribes to leave the eastern shore of the Mississippi and retire across the " great water." 
Keokuk, the Watchful Fo.\, erected his wigwam on the west side of the river, and was followed 
by a large part of the two tribes, liut a band headed by Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiah, or the 
]!lack Sparrow Hawk, commonly called Black Hawk, refused to leave their village near Rock 
Island. They contended that thev had not sold their town to the United States ; and, upon 
their return early in 1S31, from a hunt across the Mississippi, finding their village and fields in 
])ossesbion of the whites, they determined to repossess their homes at all hazards. This was 
looked upon, or called, an encroachment by the settlers; so the governor of Illinois took the 
responsibility of declaring the State invaded, and asked the United States to drive the refractory 
Indians beyond the Mississippi. The result was, the Indian village was destroyed by Illinois 
"volunteers. This and the threatened advance across the river by the United States commander, 
brought Black Hawk and his followers to terms. They sued for peace — agreeing to remain 
forever on the west side of the Mississippi. But this truce was of short duration. 

Early in the Spring of 1S32, Black Hawk having assembled his forces on the Mississippi, in 
the vicinity of the locality where Fort Madison had stood, crossed that stream and ascended 
Rock river. This was the signal for war. The governor of Illinois made a call for volunteers; 
.uid, in a brief space of time, eighteen hundred had assembled at Beardstown, Cass countv. 
'I'hey marched for the mouth of Rock river, where a council of war was held by their officers 
and Brigadier-General Henry Atkinson,' of the regular forces. The Indians were sent word by 
General Atkinson that they must return and recross the Mississippi, or they would be driven 
li.ick by force. "If you wish to fight us, come on," was the laconic but defiant reply of the Sac 
chief. When the attempt was made to compel these Indians to go back across the " great river," 
a collision occurred between the Illinois militia and Black Hawk's braves, resulting in the dis- 
(ouifiture of the former witli the loss of eleven men. Soon afterward the volunteers were dis- 
charged, and the first camjiaign of Black Hawk's War at an end. This was in Mav, 1832. 

In June following, a new force had been raised and put under the command of General 
.Atkinson, who commenced his march up Rork river. Before this, there had been a general 
"forting" in the lead region, including the whole country in Southwest Wisconsin, notwithstand- 
ing which, a number of settlers had been killed by the savages, mostly in Illinois. Squads of 
■volunteers, in two or three instances, had encountered the Indians; and in one with entire suc- 
'"'"^^ — upon the Pe<-atonica, in what is now Lafayette county, ^\'isco^sin — every savage (and 
ihere were seventeen of them) being killed. The loss of the volunteers was three killed and 
wounded. Atkinson's march up Rock river was attended with some skirmishing ; when, being 
ii'l'Tincd that Blai k Hawk and his force were at Lake Ko^hkonoiig. ir. the southwest corner of 
" is now JclTLrs(jn county, \Visconsin, he immediately moved thitlier with a portion of his 
army, where the whole force was ordered to concentrate. But the Sac chief with his people had 
flown. Colonels Henry Dodge and James I). Henry, with the forces under them, discovered the 


trail of the savages, leading in the direction of the Wisconsin river. It was evident that the 
retreating force uas large, and that it liad but recently passed. The pursuing troops hastened 
their march. On the twenty-first of July, i>i3:?, they arrived at the hills which skirt the left bank 
of that stream, in what is now Ro.xbury town (township), Dane county. Here was Black 
PTawk's whole force, including women and children, the aged and infirm, hastening by ever) 
effort to e-;cape al.^().^s tlie riser. Tut that tlii., might now be effected, it became necessary for 
that chief to uuke a firm stand, to cover the retreat. The Indians were in tlic bottom lands 
when the pursuing whites made their appearance upon the heights in their rear. Colonel Dodge 
occupied the front and sustained the first attack of the Indians. He was soon joined by Henrv 
with his i'orce, wiien tlie\- obtained a complete \ictory. The action commenced about five 
o'clock in the afternoon and ended at sunset. Tlie enemy, numbering not less than five hundred, 
sustained a loss of about sixty killed and a large number uounded. The loss of the Americans 
was one killed and eight wounded. This conflict has since been known as the battle of AVis- 
consin Heights. 

During the night following the battle, Black Hawk made his escape with his remaining force 
and people down the Wisconsin river. Tiie women and children made their way down stream 
in canoes, wliile the warriors marched on foot along the shore. The Indians were pursued in 
their fliglit, and were finally brought to a stand on the Mississippi river, near the rnouth of the 
Had .\xe, on the west boundary of what is now \'ernon county, Wisconsin. About two o'clock 
on the morning of the second of August, the line of march began to the scene of the last con- 
flict in the lUac k Hawk War. Dodge's command formed the advance, supported by regular 
troops, under Colonel Zachary Taylor, afterward president of the United States. Meanwhile an 
armed steamboat hid movetl up tlie .Mijsissi[ii)i and lay in front of tlie savages; so they were 
attacked on all sides by the e.xasj.erated .Americans. The battle lasted about two hours, and 
was a complete victory for the whites. Black Hawk fled, but was soon after captured. This 
ended the war. 

The survey of puiilic lands by the General Government; the locating and opening of land 
offices at Mineral Point and Green Bay; the erection of Milwaukee county from a part of 
Brown, to include all the territory bounded on the east and south by the east and south lines of 
the present State, on the north by uiiat is now the north boundary of Washington and Ozaukee 
counties and farther westward on the north of township numbered twelve, and on the west 
by the dividing line betueen i.mge^ eight and nine; and the changing of the eastern boundary 
of Iowa county to correspond with the western one of Milwaukee county; — are some of the 
important events following the clo:)e of the Blaek Hawk war. 'I'here was an immediate and 
rapid increase of immigration, not only in the mining region but in various other parts of what 
is now Wisconsin, more c-iiecially in that portion bordering on Lake Michigan. The interior 
was yet sparsely settled. Hy tlK act of June rS, 1S34, congress having attached to the Territory 
of Michigan, for judicial purposes, all the countrs "west of the Mississippi river, and north of 
the St.ite of Mi>souri," comprising the whole of what is now the State of Iowa, all of the present 
State of Minnesota west of the Mississippi river, and more than half of what is now the Terri- 
tory of Dakota, the legislative council <.( Mi, higan Territory extended her laws over the whole 
area, dividing it on tl-.e of September, 1.S34, l,y a line drawn due west from the lower end of 
Rock island to tl-.e Mis-.niri river iuto tuu counties: the country south of that line constituting 
the county of 1 "es .Momes ; r.ortli of tc.e hne, to be known as the county of I >ubu(iue. 'I his 
whole region west of tlie Mississippi was known as the Iowa district. Immediately after the 
treaty of iSj2 with the, an<t Foxes, the United States having come into ownership of a large 
tract in this district, several families crossed the Mississippi, and settled on the purchase, but as 


the time provided for the Indians to give possession was the first of June, 1833, these settlers 
were dispossessed by order of the General Government. So soon, however, as the Indians yielded 
possession, settlements began, but, from the date just mentioned until September, 183^, after the 
district was attached, for judicial purposes, to Michigan Territory, it was without any municipal 
Imw whatever. The organization of the counties of Dubuque and Des Moines on the sixth of 
that month, secured, of course a regular administration of justice. Before this time to facili- 

tate intercourse between the two remote military posts of Fort Howard at Green Bay, and Fort 
Crawford at Prairie du Chien, a military road was commenced to connect tlie two points; so, 
one improvement followed another. On the ist of January, 1S36, a session (the first one) of 
tlie seventh legislative council of Michigan Territory — that is, of so much of it as lay to the 
westward of Lake Michigan — was held at Green Bay, and a memorial adopted, asking Congress 
for the formation of a new Territory west of that lake; to include all of Michigan Territory not 
embraced in the proposed State of Michigan. Congress, as will now be shown, \ery soon com- 
plied with the request of the memorialists. 


The establishing of a separate and distinct Territory west of Lake Michigan, was the result 
of the prospective admission of Michigan into the Union (an event which took place not until 
the twenty-sixth of January, 1S37), as the population, in all the region outside of the boundaries 
determined upon by the people for that State, would otherwise be left without a government, or, 
at least, it would be necessary to change the capital of the old Michigan Territory farther to the 
westward ; so it was thought best to erect a new territory, to be called \\"i5Con^in (an Indian 
word signifying wild rushing water, or channel, so called from the principal eastern tributary of 
the Mississippi within its borders), which was done by an act of congress, ajiproved April 20, 
iSj6, to take effect from and after the third day of July following. The Territory was made to 
include all that is now embraced within the States of Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, and a part of 
the Territory of Dakota, more particularly de.scribed within boundaries commencing at the north- 
east corner of the State of Illinois, running thence through the middle of Lake Michigan to a 
point opposite the main channel of Green bay ; thence through that channel and the bay to the 
mouth of the Menomonee river ; thence up that stream to its head, which is nearest the lake of the 
Desert; thence to the middle of that lake; thence down the Montreal river to its mouth; thence 
with a direct line across Lake Su[)erior to where the territorial line of the L''nited States last touches 
the lake northwest; thence on the north, with the territorial line, to the White Earth ri\'er; on tlie 
west by a line drawn down the middle of the main channel of that stream to the Missouri river, 
and down the middle of the main channel of the last mentioned stream to the northwest corner of 
the State of Missouri; and thence with the boundaries of the States of Missouri and Illinois, as 
already fixed by act of congress, to the place or point of beginning. Its counties were Brown, 
Milwaukee, Iowa, Crawford. Dubuque, and Des .Moines, with a portion of Chippewa and Michili- 
mackinac left unorganized. Although, at this time, the State of Michigan was only engaged, so 
to speak, to tlie Union, to include the two peninsulas (many of its citizens preferring in lieu 
thereof the lower one only, with a small slice off the northern boundary of the State of Ohio as 
now constituted), yet the marriage ceremony was performed, as been stated, a few months 

The at t of congress establisiiing the Territorial government of Wisconsin was verv full and 
complete. It first determined its boundaries; then it declared all authoritv of the I'ovcrn- 
ment of Michigan over the new Territory should cease on the fourth day vt July, 1836, with a 


proper reservation of rights in favor of tlie Indians. It provided for subsequently dividing tnt 
Territory into one or more, should congress deem it wise so to do. It also declared that the 
executive power and authority m and over the Territory should be vested in a governor, at the same 
time defining his powers. It provided for the appointment of a secretary, stating what his duties 
should be. The legislative power was vested in the governor and legislative assembly, the latter 
to consist of a council and house of representatives, answering respectively to the senate and 
assembl}', as states are usually organized. There was a provision for taking the census of the 
several counties, and one giving the governor power to name the time, place, and manner of 
holding the first election, and to declare the number of members of the council and house of 
representatives to which each county should be entitled. He was also to determine where the 
first legislative assembly should meet, and a wise provision was that the latter should not be in 
session in anyone year more than seventy-five days. 

One section of the act declared who should be entitled to vote and hold office; another 
defined the extent of the powers of the legislature, and a third provided that all laws should be 
submitted to congress for their approval or rejection. There was a section designating what 
offices should be elective and what ones should be filled by the governor. There were others 
regulating the judiciary for the Territory and declaring what offices should be appointed by the 
United States, providing for their taking the proper oaths of office and regulating their salaries. 
One, perhaps the most important of all, declared that the Territory should be entitled to and enjoy 
all the rights, privileges, and advantages granted by the celebrated ordinance of 17S7. There 
■was also a provision for the election of a delegate to the house of representatives of the United 
States; and a declaration that all suits and indictments pending in the old courts should be con- 
tinued in the new ones. Fis'e thousand dollars were appropriated for a library for the accommo- 
datiou of the legislative assembly of the Territory and of its supreme court. 

For the new Territory, Henry Dodge was, on the 30'Lh of April, 1S36, by Andrew Jackson 
then President of the United States, commissioned go\ernor. John S. Horner was commissioned 
secretary; Charles Dunn, chief justice; David Irvin and William C. Frazer, associate judges; 
W. W. Chapman, attorney, and Francis Gehon, marshal. The machinery of a territorial "ov- 
ernment was thus tornicd, which was set in motion by these officers taking the prescribed oath of 
office. The next im;jortant step to be taken was to organize the Territorial legislature. The 
provisions of the organic act relative to the enumeration of the population of the Territorv were 
that previously to the first election, the governor should cause the ceusus of the inhabitants of 
the several counties to be taken by tiie several sheriffs, and that the latter should make returns of 
the same to the Executive. These figures gave to Des Moines county, 6,^57 ; loua county 
5,234; Dubiupie county, 4,27.^; Milwaukee county, :,S93; Brown countv, 3,706; Crawford 
county, S50. The entire population, therefore, of Wisconsin Territory in the summer of 1836, 
as given by the first cen.sus was, in precise numbers, twenty-two thousand two hundred and four- 
teen, of which the two countie.-, west of the Mississippi furnished nearly one half. The apportion- 
ment, after the census had been taken, made by the governor, gave to the different counties thir- 
teen councilmen and t«eiity-si\ representatives. Lrown county got two councilmen and three 
representatives; Crawford, two representatives, but no councilmen; Milwaukee, two councilmen 
and three representatives ; Iowa, Dubuque and Des Moines, each three councilmen ; but of repre- 
sentatives, Iowa got six; Dubuque, five, and Des Moines, seven. The election was held on the 
tenth of October, 1S36, exciting considerable interest, growing out, chiefl>, of local considera- 
tions. Tlie permanent location of the capital, tiie division of counties, and tlie location of county 
seats, were the principal questions intluencing the voters. There were elected from the county 
of Brown, Henry S. Baird and John P. .-Xrndt, members of the council; Ebenezer Childs, Albert 


•G Ellis and Alexander J. Irwin, members of the house of representatives ; from Milwaukee, 
the councilmen were Gilbert Knapp and Alanson Sweet ; representatives, William B.Sheldon, 
Madison W. Cornwall and Charles Durkee : from Iowa, councilmen, EbenezerBrigham, John B. 
Terry and James R. Vineyard; representatives, William Boyles, G. F. Smith, D. ^M. Parkinson, 
Thomas McKnight, T. Shanley and J. P. Cox : from Dubuque, councilmen, John Foley, Thomas 
McCraney and Thomas McKnight; representatives, Loring Wheeler, Hardin Nowlin, Hosea T. 
•Camp, P. H. Engle and Patrick Quigley: from Des Moines, councilmen, Jeremiah Smith, Jr., 
Joseph B. Teas and Arthur B. Inghram; representatives, Isaac Lefiler, Thomas Blair, Warren L. 
Jenkins, John Box, George W. Teas, Eli Reynolds and David R. Chance : from Crawford, repre- 
sentatives, James H. Lockwood and James B. Dallam. 

Belmont, in the present county of LaFayette, then in Iowa county, was, by the governor, 
appointed the place for the meeting of the legislature; he also fixed the time — the twenty-fifth 
of October. A quorum was in attendance in both branches at the time decided upon for their 
assembling, and the two houses were speedily organized by the election of Peter Hill Fngle, of 
Dubuque, speaker of the house, and Henry S. Baird, of Brown, president of the council. Each 
of the separate divisions of the government — the executive, the judicial, and the legislative — 
was now in working order, except that it remained for the legislature to divide the Territory into 
judicial districts, and make an assignment of the judges ; and for the governor to appoint a Ter- 
ritorial treasurer, auditor and attorney general. The act of congress establishing the Terri- 
tory required that it should be divided into three judicial districts. The counties of Crawford 
and Iowa were constitued by the legisLtture the first district, to whicli was assigned Chief Justice 
Dunn. The second district was composed of the counties of Des Moines and Dubuque; to it 
was assigned Associate Judge Irvin. The third district was formed of the counties of Brown 
and Milwaukee, to which was assigned Associate Judge Frazer. 

Governor Dodge, in his first message to the Territorial legislature, directed attention to the 
necessity for defining the jurisdiction and powers of the several courts, and recommended that 
congress should be memorialized to extend the right of pre-emption to actual settlers upon the 
public lands and to miners on mineral lands; also, to remove the obstructions in the rapids 
of the Upper Mississippi, to construct harbors and light-houses on Lake Michigan, to improve 
the navigation of Fox river and to survey the same from its mouth to Fort \\'innebago, to 
increase the amount of lands granted to the Territory for scliool piirjioses, and to organize and 
arm the militia for the protection of the frontier settlements. The first act passed by the legis- 
lature was one privileging members from arrest in certain cases and conferring on themselves 
power to punish parties for The second one established the three judicial districts 
and assigned the judges tliereto. C)ne was passed to borrow money to defray the expenses 
of the session ; others protecting aU lands donated to the Territory by the United States in aid 
of schools, and creating a common school fund. A memorial to congress was adopted request- 
ing authorization to sell the school-section in eacli township, and appropriate the money arising 
therefrom for increasing the fund for schools. 

During this session, five counties were "set off" west of the Mississippi river: Lee, Van 
liurci), Henry, Louisa, Muscatine, and Cook; and fiftt-en east of tli.u stream: Walworth, Racin.-. 
Jetfcrson, Dane. Portage, Dodge, Washington, Sheboygan, Fond du Lac, Calumet, Manitowoc, 
Marquette, Roi;k, Grant and Green. 

The principal question agitating the legislature at its first session was the location of tiie 
< aiutal. Already the people west of the .Mississippi were s[)eculating upon the establishment of 
J Territory on that side tlie river, prospects for whicl\ would be enhanced evidently, by placing 
the seat of government somewhat in a central position east of that stream, for Wisconsin 


Territory. Now, as Madison wus a pciint answering such requirements she triumphed over all 
com|ietitors ; and the latter numbered a dozen or more — including, among others, Fond du Lac, 
Milwaukee, Racine, Pielmont, Mineral Point, Green Bay, and Cassvilie. The struggle over this 
question was one of the most exciting ever witnessed in the Territorial legislature. Madison 
was fixed upon as the seat of governm^jnt, but it was provided that sessions of the legislature 
should be held at EurlinL'ton, in Des Moines county, until the fourth of March, 1S39, unless the 
public buildings in the new capital should be sooner completed. After an enactment that the 
legislature should thereafter meet on the first Monday of November of each year, both houses, 
on the ninth day of December, 1S36, adjourned si'u- </.■>. 

In the act of congress establishing the Territory of Wisconsin it was provided that a delegate 
to the house of representatives of the United States, to serve for the term of two years, should 
be elected by the voters qualified to elect niemliers of the legislative assembly , and that the 
first election should be held at such time and pLu;e or jilaces, and be conducted in such manner 
as the governor of the Territory should appoint and direct. In pursuance of this enactment. 
Governor Dodge directed that the election for delegate should be at the time and places 
appointed for the election of members of the legislative assembly — the loth of October, 1S36. 
The successful candidate for that offn-e was George W. Jones, of Sinsinawa Mound, Iowa 
county — in that f)ortion which was afterward ''set off " as Grant county. Jones, under the act 
of 1S19, had been elected a delegate for Michigan Territory, in October, 1S35, and took his 
seat at the ensuing session, in December of that year. I'.y the act of June 15, 1S36, the consti- 
tution and State government which the people of Michigan had formed for themselves was 
accepted, ratified and confirmed, and she was declared to be one of the United States of 
America, so that the term of two years I'or which Jones had been elected was cut short, as, in 
the nature of the case, his term could not survive the existence of the Territory he represented. 
But, as he was a candidate for election to represent the new Territory of Wisconsin in congress 
as a delegate, and was successful, he took his seat at the commencement of the second session of 
the twenty-fourth congress — December 12, 1S36, notwithstanding he had been elected only a 
little over two months. 

The first term of the supreme court of the Territory was held at Belmont on the Sth day of 
December. There v.-ere present, Charles Dunn, chief justice, and David Irvin, associate judge. 
John Catlin was appointed clerk, and Henry S. Baird having previously been commissioned 
attorney general for the Territory by Governor Dodge, appeared before the court and took the 
oath of ofiice. Causes in which the United States was party or interested were looked after by 
the United States attorney, who received his apjiointment from the president; while all cases 
in which the Territory was interested was attended to by the attorney general, whose commission 
was signed by the governor. The appointing of a crier and reporter and the admission of 
several attorneys to jtractice, completed the business for the term. The annual term appointed 
for the third Monday of July of the following year, .it .Madison, was not held; as no business for 
the action of the court had maturefl. 

.\t the time of the complete organization of the Territory of Wisconsin, when the whole 
machinery had been jnii fairly in motion, when its first legislature at its first session had, after 
passing forty-two laws and three joint resolutions, in forty-six days, adjourned; — at this time, 
the entire portion west of the MississipjM had, in round numbers, a population of only eleven 
thousand; while the spar.->ely settled mineral region, ti-.e military establishments — Fort Craw- 
ford, Fort Winnebago, and Fort Howard — and the settlements at or near them, with the villat^e 
of Milwaukee, constituted about all there ivas of the Territory east of that river, aggregating 
about twelve thousand inhabitants. There was no land in market, except a narrow strip alont^ 


the shore of Lake Michigan, and in the vicinity of Green bay. The residue of the country 
south and east of the Wisconsin and Fox rivers was open only to preemption by actual settlers. 
The Indian tribes still claimed a lari;e portion of the lands. On the north and as far west as 
the Red river of the north were located the Chippewas. The southern limits of their posses- 
sions were defined by a line drawn from a point on that stream in about latitude 46° 30' in a 
southeasterly direction to the head of Lake St. Croix; thence in the same general direction to 
what is now Stevens Point, in the present I'ortage county, Wisconsin ; thence nearly east to 
Wolf river; and thence in a direction nearly northeast to the Menomonee river. The whole 
country bounded by the Red river and Mississippi on the east; the parallel of about 43" of 
latitude on the south: the Missouri and \\''hite Earth river on the west; and the Territorial line 
on the north, was occupied by the Sioux. In the southwest part of the Territory, lying mostly 
south of latitude 43'-^ — in the country reaching to the Missouri State boundary line south, and 
to the Missouri river west — were the homes of the Pottawattamies, the lowas, and the Sacs and 
Foxes. Between the \\"isconsin river and the Mississippi, and extending north to the south 
line of the Chippewas was the territory of the Winnebagoes, East of the Winnebagoes in the 
country north of the Fox river of Green bay were located the Menomonees, their lands 
extending to Wolf river. Such was the general outline of Indian occupancy in Wisconsin 
Territory at its organization. A portion of the country east of ^Voh" river and north of Green 
bay and the Fox river; the whole of the area lying south of Green bay, Fox river and the 
Wisconsin; and a strip of territory immediately west of the Mississippi, about fifty miles in 
width, and extending from the Miri>ouri State line as far north as the northern boundary of the 
present State of Iowa, constituted the whole extent of country over which the Indians had 
no claim. 

The second session of the first legislative assembly of the Territory began at Burlington, 
now the county seat of r*es Moines county, low.n, on the 6th of November, 1S37. The governor, 
in his message, recommended a codification of the laws, the organization of the militia, and other 
measures of interest to the jicoplc. .\n act was passed j)roviding for taking another census, and 
one abolishing imprisonment for debt. By a joint resolution, congress was urged to make an 
appropriation of twenty thousand dollars in money, and two townships of land tor a '"University 
of the Territory of Wisconsin." The money was not appropriated, but the land was granted — 
forty-six thousand and eighty acres. This was the fundamental endowment of the present State 
university, at Madison. A bill was also passed to regulate the sale of school lands, and to 
prepare for organizing, regulating and pertecting schools. Another act, which passed the 
legislature at this session, proved an apple of discord to the people of the Territory. The 
measure was intended to provide ways and means whercbv to connect, by canals and slack- 
water, the waters of Lake Michigan with those of the Mississippi, by way of Rock river, the 
Catfish, the four lakes and the Wisconsin, by the incorporation of the Milwaukee and Rock 
river canal company. This company was given authority to apply to congress for an appro- 
jiriation in money or lands to aid in the construction of the work, which was to have its eastern 
outlet in the Milw.uikee ri\er, and to unite at its \\estern terminus with Rock river, near the 
present village of JetTerson, in Jef'erson county. The result was tliat a gr.uit of land of odd- 
nimibered sections in a strijj of territory five miles on each side of the line of the jiroposed canal 
was secured, and in July, i'"^39, over forty thousand acres were sold at the minimum jirice of 
two (hollars and fifty cents per acre. However, owing mainly to the fact tliat purchasers were 
compelled to pay double the government price for their lands — owing also to the circumstance 
of an antagonism growing up between the officers of the canal company and the Territorial 
iitficers intrusted with the disposition of the lands, and to conflicts between'the beneficiaries of 


the grant and some of the leading [joliticians of the time — the whole scheme proved a curse 
and a blight rather than a blessing, and eventuating, of course, in the total failure of the project. 
There had been much Territorial and State legislation concerning the matter ; but very little 
work, meanwhile, was done on tlie canal. It is only within the year 1875 that an apparent 
•quietus has been given to the subject, and legislative enactments forever put at rest. 

Fourteen counties v.-ere set off during tliis session of the legislature at Burlington — all 
■west of the Mississippi. They were Benton, Buchanan, Cedar, Clinton, Delaware, Fayette, 
Jackson, Johnson, Jones, Keokuk, Linn, Slaughter, Scott and Clayton. One hundred and five 
acts and tucntv joint resolutions were passed. On the 20th of January, 1838, both houses 
adjourned until the second Monday of June t'oUowing. 

The of the Territory having been taken in May, the special session of the first legis- 
lature commenced on the eleventh of June, iSjS, at Burlington, pursuant to adjournment, mainly 
for the purpose of making a new apportionment of members of the house. This was effected by 
•giving twelve members to the counties east of the Mississippi, and fourteen to those west of that 
stream, to be contingent, however, upon the division of the Territory, which measure was not 
•only then before congress, but had been actually passed by that bod\', though unknown to the 
Territorial legislature. The law made it incumbent on the governor, in the event of the Terri- 
tory being divided before the next general election, to make an apportionment for the part 
remaining, — enacting that the one made by the act of the legislature should, in that case, have 
no effect. Having provided that the ne.vt session should beheld at Madison, the legislative body 
.adjourned si/i^ die on the twenty-fifth of June, 1S3S, the public buildings at the new capital 
having been put under contract in April, previous. Up to this time, the officers of the Territory 
at large, appointed by the president of the United States at its organization, had remained 
unchanged, except that the secretary, John S. Horner, had been removed and his place given to 
William B. Slaughter, by appointment, dated February 16, 1S37. Now there were two other 
changes made. On the nineteenth of June, Edward James was commissioned marshal, and on 
the fifth of July, Moses M. Strong was commissioned attorney of the United States for the Ter- 
ritory. By an act of congress, approved June i;, 183S, to divide the Territory of \\'isconsin, 
and to establish a Territorial government west of the Mississippi, ic was provided that from and 
.after the third day of July following, all that jiart of Wisconsin Territory lying west of that river 
-and west of a line drawn due north from its headv.-aters or sources to the Territorial line, for the 
purposes of a Territorial government should be set apart and known by the name of Iowa. It 
was further enacted that the Territory of Wisconsin should thereafter extend westward only to 
the Mississippi. It will be seen therefore that all that portion of the present State of Minnesota, 
extending eastward from the Mississippi to the St. Croix and northward to the United States 
boundary line, was then a part of Wisconsin Territory, even after the organization of the Terri- 
tory of Iowa. The census taken in May, just previous to tiie passage of this act, gave a total 
population to the several counties of the Territor\-, east of the Mississip[)i, of 18,149. 

On the third Monday of July, 1838, the annual terms of the supreme court — the first one 
after the re-organizati(;n of the Territory of Wisconsin — was held at Madison. There were 
present Chief Justice Dunn and .\ssociate Judge Frazer. .\fter admitting five attorneys to 
pr.ictice, hearing several motions, and granting several rules, the court adjourned. .\11 the terms 
of the Supreme Court thereafter were held at Madison. 

.\t an election held in the Territory on the tenth day of Se[iteniher, 1838, James Duane Doty 
rei ei\ed the highest numl'er of votes for tlie uUh e of delegate to congress, and was declared by 
(li>v(.Tnor Dodgj duly elected, by a certificate of election, issued on the twenty-seventh day of 
October following. Upon the commencement of the third session of the twenty-fifth congress 


on Monday, December lo, 1S3S, Isaac E. Crary, member fruin Michigan, announced to the chair 
of the house of representatives that Doty was in attendance as delegate from Wisconsin Terri- 
tory, and moved that he be qualified. Jones, the former delegate, then rose and protested 
against Doty's right to the seat, claiming that his (Jones') term had not expired. The basis for 
his claim was that under the act of 1S17, a delegate must be elected only for one congress, and 
not for parts of two congressional terms; that his term as a delegate from Wisconsin did not 
commence until the fourth of ^(arch, 1S37, and consc<]uent!y would not expire until the fourth 
of March, 1S39. The subject was finally referred to the committee of elections. This com- 
mittee, on the fourteenth of January, 1839, re[)orted in favor of Doty's right to his seat as dele- 
gate, submitting a resolution to tliat effect which passed the house by a vote of one hundred and 
sixty-five to twenty-five. Whereupon Doty was qualified as delegate from Wisconsin Territor\-, 
and took his seat at the date last mentioned. 

On the Stli of November, Andrew G. Miller was appointed by Martin Van Buren, then 
president of the United States, associate judge of the supreme court, to succeed Judge Frazer, 
who died at Milwaukee, on the iStli of October. During this year, Moses M. Stron"- succeeded 
W. W. Chapman as United States attorney for the Territory. 

On the 26th day of Xovenilier, 1S3S, the legislature of the re-organized Territory of Wis- 
consin — being the firat session of the second legislative assembly — met at Madison. Governor 
Dodge, in his message, recommended an investigation of the banks then in operation, memorial- 
izing congress for a grant of lands for the improvement of the Fox river of Green bav and the 
Wisconsin; the revision of the laws; the division of the Territory into judicial districts; the 
justice of granting to all miners who have obtained the ownership of mineral grounds under thi^ 
regulations of the superintendent of the United States lead mines, either by discovery or pur- 
chase, the right of pre-eni[);ion ; and the improvement of the harbors on Lake Michigan. 

The attention of this Legislature was directed to the mode in which the commissioners of 
public buildings had discharged their duties There was an investigation of the three banks 
. then in operation in the Territor\- — one at Green Kay, one at Mineral Point, and the other at 
M hvaukee. A plan, also, for the revision of the laws of the Territory was considered. A new 
assignment was made for the holding of district courts. Chief Justice Dunn was assigned to the 
first district, composed of tlie counties of Iowa, Grant and Crawfonl; Judge Irvm to the second, 
composed of the counties of Dane, Jefferson, Rock, \Valworth and Green; while Iud<Te Miller 
was assigned to the third district, comi)osed of Mihvaukee, Prown and Racine counties — includ- 
ing therein tlie unorganized counties of Washington and Dodge, which, for judicial purposes, 
were, when constituted by name and boundary, attached to Milwaukee county, and had so 
remained s'nce that date. The legislature adjourned on the 22d of December, to meet a^ain on 
the 2 1 St of the following month. "Although," said the president of the council, upon the occasion 
of the adjournment, "but few acts of a general character have been passed, as the discussions and 
action of this body have been chiefly confined to bills of a local nature, and to the [jassage ot 
memorials to the parent government in behalf of the great interests of the Territory; yet it is 
believed that the concurrent re->o!utio;is of the two houses authorizing .1 revision of the laws, is a 
measure of infinite iminirtance to the true interests of tlie people, ami to the cretlit and cb.arac- 
ter of the Territory." 

Tbe cenaus of tlie Territory having been taken during the \ear 1S3S, showed a population 
of 18,130, an increase in two years of 6,447. 

'I'lie second session of the second legislative assembly commenced on the twenty-first day of 
January, 1S39, agreeable to adjournment. The most important work was the revision of the laws ■ 
which had been perfected during the recess, by the committee to whom the work was intrusted. 


consisting of three members from each liouse : from tlie council, M. L. Martin, Marsliall M. 
Strong, and James Collins ; from the house ot representatives, Edward V. Whiton, Augustus 
Story, and Barlow Sliackleford. The act legalizing tlie revision, took effect on the fourth day of 
July following. The laws as revised, composed the principal part of those forming the Revised 
Statutes of iSjq. a valuable volume for all classes in the territory — and especially so for the 
' courts and lawyers — during the next ten years. The sine- die adjournment of this legislature took 
place on the 1 1 lli of March, 1839. 

On the Stli of March of this year, Henry Dodge, whose term for three years as governor 
was about to expire, was again commissioned by the president of the United States, as governor 
:Of the Territory of NVisconsin. At the July term of the supreme court, all the judges were pre- 
sent, and several cases were heard and decided. A seal for the court was also adopted. The 
attorney general of the '1 erritory at this time was II. N. Wells, who had been commissioned by 
Governor Dodge, on the 30th of March previous, in jilace of H. S. Baird, resigned. Wells not 
being in attendance at this term of the court, Franklin J. Munger was appointed by the judge 
attorney general for that session. The clerk, John Cntlin having resigned, Simeon Mills was 
selected by the court to fill his place. I-'rom this time, the supreme court met annually, as pro- 
vided by law, until ^^'isconsia became a State. 

The ne.xt legislature assembled at !Madison, on the second of December, 1839. This was 
the third session of the second legislative assembly of the Territory.' The term for which mem- 
bers of the house were elected, would soon expire ; it was therefore desirable that a new appor- 
tionment should be made. As the census would be taken the ensuing June, bv the United States, 
it would be unnecessary for the Territory to make an additional enumeration. A short session 
was resolved upon, and then an adjournment until after the completion of the census. One of 
the subjects occupying largely the attention of the members, was the condition of the capitol, 
and the conduct of the commissioners intrusted with the money appropriated by congress to 
defray the cost of its construction. The legislature adjourned on the thirteenth of January, 
1S40, to meet again on the third of the ensuing August. The completion of the census showed 
a population for the Territory of thirty thousand seven hundred and forty-four, against eighteen 
thousand one hundred and thirty, two years previous. Upon the re-assembling of the legisla- 
ti'-'s — which is known as the extra session of the second legi-lative assembly — at the time agreed 
upon, some changes were made in the apportionment of members to the house of representa- 
tives ; the session lasted but a few days, a final adjournment taking place on the tburteenth of 
August, 1S40. At the July term of the supreme court, Simeon Mills resigned the office of 
clerk, and Fa Fayette Kellogg was appointed in his place. Kellogg continued to hold the posi- 
tion until the state judiciary was organised. At t!ie ensuing election, James Duane Doty was 
re-elected Territorial delegate, taking his seat for the first time under his second term, on the 
eighth day of December, 1840, at tlie commeneement of tb.e second session of the twentv-sixth 

The first session of the third legislative assembly commence^ on the seventh of December, 
1840, with all new members in the house except three. .-Ml had recentlv been elected under the 
new ajiportionment. Most of the session was devoted tu t!ie ordinarv routine of legislation. 
There was, howe\er, a departure, in the passage of two acts granting divorces, from the usual 
current oi legislative proceedings in the Territory. There was, also, a \ ery interesting contested 
election (■a^e l)etween two members from Brown county. Such was the backwardness in regard 
to the Iniiiding of the r.-.pitol, at this date, tliat a large majority oi the members stood readv 10 
remove tlie seat of government to some otiier ])lace. However, as no particular jioint could be 
agreed ujion, it remained at .NFidison. The legislature adjourned on the nineteenth of Februarv, 


1S41, having continued a term of seven ty-tue days, the maximum time limited by the organic act. 
Francis J. Dunn, appointed by Martin Van liuren, was commissioned in place of William 
B. Slaughter, as secretary of the Territory, on the 25th of January, 1S41, but was himself super- 
ceded by the appointment of A. P. Field, on the 23d day of April following. On the 15th of 
March, Daniel Hugunin was commissioned as marshal in place of Edward James, and on the 
27th of April, Thomas W. Sutherland succeeded Moses M. Strong as United States attorney 
for the Territory. On the 26th of June, Governor Dodge commissioned as attorney general of 
the Territory, M. M. Jackson. On the 13th of September following, Dodge was removed from 
office by John Tyler, then president of the Ignited States, and James Duane Doty appointed in 
his place. The appointment of Doty, then the delegate of the Territory in congress, by the 
president of the United States as governor, and the consequent resignation of the latter of his 
seat in the house of representatives, caused a vacancy which was filled by the election of Henry 
Dodge to that office, on the 27th of September, 1S41 ; so that Doty and Dodge changed places. 
Dodge took his seat for the first time, at the commencement of the second session of the twent} - 
fifth congress — Monday, December 7, 1S41. 

About this time, the Milwaukee and Rock river canal imbroglio broke out afresh. The 
loan agent appointed by the governor to negotiate a loan of one hundred thousand dollars for 
the work, reported that he had negotiated fifty-six thousand dollars of bond.->, which had been 
issued ; but he did not report what kind of money was to be received for them. Now, the canal 
commissioners claimed that it was their right and duty not to recognize any loan which was to 
be paid in such currency as they disapproved of. This dispute defeated the loan, and stopped 
all work on the canal. During the year 1S41, Thomas W. Sutherland succeeded Moses M. 
Strong as United States attorney. The second session of the third legislative assembly began 
at Madison, on the sixth of December, 1S41. Governor r)oty, in his message to that bodv, 
boldly avowed the doctrine that no law of the Territory was effective, until e.xpressly approved 
by congress. " The act," said he, " establishing the government of Wisconsin, in the third sec- 
tion, requires the secretary of the Territory to transmit annually, on or before the first Monday 
in December, ' two copies of the laws to the speaker of tl;e house of representatives, for the 
use of congress.' The sixth section provides that "all laws of ^the governor and legislative 
assembly shall be submitted to, and, if disapproved by tlie congress of the United States, the 
same shall be null and of no effect.' " "These provisions," he added, "it seems to me, require 
the laws to be actually submitted to congress before they take effect. They change the law by 
which this country was governed while it was a jiart of Michigan. That law provided that 
the laws should be reported to congress, and that they should ' be in force in the [district until 
the organization of the general assembly therein, unless disapproved of by congress.' " The 
governor concluded in these words: "The opinion of my predecessor, wliich was expressed to 
the first legislature assembled after the organization of tliis government, in his message delivered 
at Belmont on the twenty-sixth day of October. 1S36, fully sustains this view of the subject which 
1 have j)resented. He said: 'We have convened under an act of congress of the United States 
establishing the Territorial government of Wisconsin, for the purj^ose of enacting such laws as 
may be required for the government of the people of this Territory, after their approval bv con- 
gress.'" This construction of the organic act resulted in a lengthy warfare between the go\- 
ernor and the legislative assembly. 

.\t this session, the Milw.iukej and Rock river canal again raised a tumult. '"Congress 
had made a valuable grant of land to tjie 'I'erritory in trust. The Territory was the trustee; 
the canal company the cestui i/iie Irmt. The trust had been accepted, and a large portion of 
the lands hid been sold, one tenth of the inirchasc money received, and ample secvirities held 

50 ni.sTiU:Y (IF A\-|->roXM\-. 

I'.ir the balarice." The Tcrriinr) now, by its Ici^islaturc. rc-i.-.-ilcd all tlie laws authori/.ini' a 
loan, and all n' conteiajjl, .:<■(! tlic cxiJciiuiluio cf any money c!i its part in constructinL; the 
canal. The legislature resolved :liat all ceiineciion ouL^ht t(j !)e dissolved, and the work on 
the canal by tlie Teiritoiy abandoned, and ti;U the latter. oa-liL nut further to execute the 
trust. They resolved also tiie congress be ra.iuesied to diveri the grant to stich other 
internal irn;jrove;nen:s as should be desig i.itcd by the Territory, subject to t!:e approval of 
congress; and, if the latter should decline to make this diversion, it was requested to take 
back tlie .grant, and dispose uf llie unsold lands. On the elevenll; of I'ebruaiy, 1S4J, a tragedy 
wa; eracted in the legislative coar.eil, causir:^ g'eat exeiteniei^t over the whole Territory. On 
that day, Charles C. 1'. Armit, a :.ieml)er tiom Lirown county, was, while that body was in 
se-^sion. sh.ot dead by Jame.-^ II. \'ineyard, a .neniber from Cuant county. The difficulty grew 
out of a debiate on mution to i.-.y o\\ the table tiie nomination i.f Eno^ S. Baker to the office of 
sherilT of Grant coun'y. hun,.;Lliateiy before adourninent of the council, the parlies who had 
come together, after loud and angry words been spoke;), were separated by tlte by-standers 
When an adjournment had been ar.-.ounced, ihey met again; v.-i.cieuiion Arndt stiuck at Vine- 
yar 1. The latter then d.rew a ; Uliil ar,d sbut .\rndt. lledie-1 in a few moments. Vineyard 
immediately surrender-d Inm.e'f to the sheriif of tlie county, waived an exannnation, and was 
conmiitled to jail. .\uer a sbiit confinement, he was broue,hl'ore the chief justice of the 
Territory, on a v,nt -,f ^./.'s :>• r'^//;', and adn^i'ted to bail. He wa= arierward indicted for vA-.m- 
slaughter, wa^ tried an.l a,;,piittcd. Three days after sho'jting .\rndt, Vineyard sent in his 
re-^ignatioii as member of t'.,- i- r.^ncil. That ijody refused to receive it, or to have it read even ; 
])ut at once expelled hi:n. 'I he ^el-On^i and last >ession of the third legislative as^embiv came 
•o a cliisc on the eig;'.iecnr;\ of Feiiruarv, iS.jr. 

The first session of the fourth legislative assembly commenced on the fifth day of Deccin- 
her, 1S4:!. The memb-^rs had been elected u.,der a iieu- apiHJttionment based ujion a census 
t.-^ken in the previous June, v.hich showed a total population for llie Territory of forty-si.\ thou- 
sand six hundred and 5e\-enty-cight--an increase of nearly teii t!',,rusand in two years. A ooliti- count showed a decided democratic m.ijonty in each house. Governor 1 )ot\ 's political 
l)roc!ivities were with the v.-hig p.nrty. Tin: contest between him and the legislature now 
assumed a serious character, lie refused to "'hold converse'' with it, for the reason that, in his 
opitnon, no .-ipproi>riation had been made by congress to defray the expenses of the session, and, 
as a consequence, none could be held. The iegihhiture made a representation to congress, then 
iri >ession, of ti-.e objeet:o;-,s cl tlie i;o'.ernor, and ; djouriied on the tenth of liecember, to meet 
again on the tliirteenth of Jaiiu^uy, 1^43. ll wa^ not unlii tiie fi;unh of February following that 
a quorum in both h.ouses h.u! as . enabled, wiien the legislature, tiirMugb. a joint conmvttee, waited 
on the governor, and infornivd him that they had ag.iiu met accoidii:g to adjournment, and were 
then ready to proceed to b'tsiiiess. I'revious u> tins lime, i ongiess h^ui nvide an a[)propriatioa 
to cover t!;e expenses of the legi-lature nv)w in session, whirli it was si:pi>0!ed would remove all 
contbct about il-> legalitv. i.ut the governr.r h:id, on tiie thirtieiii dav uf Jar.uary previous, issued 
.1 proclamation, conven^rg a •tp.-cia! >es-:ou of the legislature on the sixth ot March, and still 
lefused so rero;^ni/_> the^e.u one a^ legal, lloth houses tiien adj. turned to the day l"ixed bv 
th.e executive. .\ f.n \! a.ljourntnent t.>.ik jila. e on the seventeenth of .Vpril folh.-win:;. 

The term (jf I.'.-.; y-trs fjr w'v.eii H.-:ir> iiu.ige eiected a> liel-.gate, h.iving expired at 
tl-.e ch:.>c .'f !l;- th.i-.! ^e-^ion .:f the lwen;y-5;.'\ enth con.gress, he was, on the twenty-fifth of Sep- 
lember. 1R4,;, re-elected, taking iiis seat for the first time on iiis second term at the commence- 
ment of the f'.t :,^..;w:i ..f the ;.k.n:>-.:^hth vngre.s, M...iJiy, December 4, 1043. On 
the thirtieth of 0.':;<^ber of this year. (icTge Floyd wa.s commi-.;.ii->ned by President Tyler as 

"vriscoxsix TEnRiTORY. n 

sccretarv' of the Territory, in place of A. P. Field. 

The second session of the fourth legislative assembly of the Territory, commencing on the 
fourth of December, 1S43, and tenninating on the thirty-first of January, 1S44— a period of fifty- 
nine days — accomplished but little worthy of especial mention, except the submission of the 
<]uestion of the formation of a State government to a vote of the people, to be taken at the gene- 
ral election to he held in September following. The proposition did not succeed at the ballot- 
bii.x. The third session of the fourth legislative assembly did not commence until the sixth of 
lanuary, 1S45, as the time had been changed to the first Monday in that month for annual meet- 
in_;--. Governor Doty having [lersisted in spelling Wisconsin with a "k" and an "a" — Wis- 
Xuusizn — and some of the people having adopted his method, it was thought by this legislature 
a matter of sufficient importance to be checked. So, by a joint resolution, the orthography — 
Wisrons/n — employed in tlie organic act, was adopted as tlie true one for the Territory, and has 
ever since been used. Before the commencement of this session Doty's term of office had 
expired. He was superseded as governor of the Territory by N. P. Tallmadge, the latter having 
htcn appointed on the -venty-first of June, 1S44. On the thirly-first of August, Charles M. 
I'revost was appointed r;v; -shal of the Territory, in place of Daniel Hugunin. There was the 
\itmost harmony l;ei-.veeu Governor Tallr.iadge and the legislature of the Territory at its session 
in 1S45. 

His message, which v,-as delivered to the two houses in person, on the seventeenth of January, 
was well received. Among other items of interest to which he called the attention of the legis- 
lative assembly, was one concerning; the constructioii of a railroad to connect Lake Michigan with 
the Mississippi. "' The interests of the Territory," said he, " seem iniieriously to demand the con- 
struction of a railroad, or other communication, from some suitable point on Lake Michigan to 
tlie Mississippi river. Much difference of opinion seems to exist as to what it shall be, and how 
it is to be accomplished. There is a general impression," continued the governor, " the con- 
struction of the Milwaukee and Rock river canal, which was intended to connect those waters, is 
•ahindoned. It remains to be seen what shall be substituted for it." The session terminated on 
tile tu-enty-fourtli of February, 1345. 

James K. Polk having been inaugurated president of the United States on the fourth of 
March, 1S45, Henry Dodge was again ])ut into the gubernatorial chair of the Territory, receiving 
his appointment on the eighth of April, 1S45. Other changes were made by the president during 
tile same year, John V>. Rockwell being, on the fourteenth of March, appointed marshal, and W. 
P. Lynde, on the fourteenth of July, L'nited States attorney for the Territory, Governor Tall- 
madge, on the twenty-second of January of this year, having commissioned the latter also as 
attorney general. r)n the twenty-second of September, Morgan L. Martin was elected delegate 
to the twenty-ninth congress, as the successor of Flenry Dodge. 

The fourth and last session of the fourth legislative assembly was organized on the fifth of 
January, 1846. This session, although a short one, pro\ed very imj'ortant. Preliminary steps 
v. err taken for the firiuation of a State government. The first Tue>day in April next succeeding 
«.i^ the day fixed upon fjr tiie people to vote for or against the proposition. When taken it 
ie-.u!ted in a large majority vuting in favor of the measure. An act w ,is p.assed providingtbr takin" 
tiie census of the Territory, and tor the apportionment by the governor of delegates to form a 
St.ue constitution, based upon the new enumeration. The delegates were to be elected on the first 
Monday in September, and the convention was to assemble on the first Monday in October, 1S46, 
1 nt- constitution wlicn f )rmod was to be submitted to the vote of the people for adoption or 
rejecti(m,as, at the close oi'the se<;sion, the terms of members of the council who had been elected 
for four years, and of the house, who had been elected for two years, all ended. The legislature' 

52 HI:<T011Y OF MlsCOXSIX. 

re-organized the election districts, and conferred on the governor the power and duty of raaWin'' 
an apportionment, based on the census to be taken, for the next legislative assembly, when, on 
the third of February, 1846, both houses adjourned sine die. On the twenty-second of January,. 
Governor Dodge appointed A. Hyatt Smith attorney general of the Territory. On the twenty- 
fourth of February, JohnCatlin was appointed Territorial secretary by the president. 

The census taken in the following June showed a population for the Territory of one hun- 
dred and fifty-five thousand two hundred and seventy-seven. Delegates having been elected to 
form a constitution for the proposed new State, met at Madison on the fifth day of October. 
After completing their labors, they adjourned. This event took place on the sixteenth of 
December, 1S46. The constitution thus formed was submitted to a popular vote on the first 
Tuesday of April, 1S47, and rejected. The first session of the fifth legislative assembly com- 
menced on the fourth of January of that year. But little was done. Both houses finally 
adjourned on the eleventh of February, 1S47. John H. Tweedy was elected as the successor 
of Morgan L. Martin, delegate to the thirtieth congress, on the sixth of September lollowing. On 
the twenty-seventh of that month, Governor Dodge issued a proclamation for a special session 
of the legislature, to commence on the eighteenth of the ensuing month, to take action concern- 
ing the admission of Wisconsin into the Union. The two houses assembled on the day named 
in the proclamation, and a law was passed for the holding of another convention to frame a 
constitution; when, after nine days' labor, they adjourned. Delegates to the new convention 
were elected on the last Monday of November, and that body met at Madison on the fifteenth 
of December, 1S47. A census of the Territory was taken this year, which showed a population 
of two hundred and ten thousand five hundred and forty-si.x. The result of the labors of the 
second constitutional convention was the formation of a constitution, which, being submitted 
to the people on the second Monday of March, 1S4S, was duly ratified. 

The second and last session of the fifth legislative assembly — the last legislative assembly 
of Wisconsin Territory — commenced on the seventh of Februar_v, 1S48, and adjourned sine die 
on the thirteenth ol March following. On the twentieth of the same month, J. H. Tweedy, 
delegate from Wisconsin, introduced a bill in congress for its admission into the Union. The 
bill v.-as finally passed; and on the twenty-ninth of May, 1848, Wisconsin became a State. 
There been seventeen sessions of the legislative assembly of the Territory, of an average 
duration of forty days each : the longest one lasted seventy-six daj's ; the shortest, ten days. So 
long as the Territory had an existence, the apportionment of thirteen members for the council, and 
twenty-six for the house of representatives, was continued, as provided in the organic act. 
There had been, besides those previously mentioned, nine additional counties " set off " by the 
legislative assembly of the Territory, so that they now numbered in all twenty-eight: Milwaukee, 
Waukesha, Jefferson, Racine, Walworth, Rock, Green, Washington, Sheboygan, Manitowoc, Calu- 
met, Brown, Winnebago, Fond du Lac, Marquette, Sauk, Portage, Columbia, Dodge, Dane, Iowa, 
La Fayette, Grant, Richland, Crawford, Chippewa, St. Croix, and La Pointe. 

First Administr.\tio.v. — Nelson Dewf.v, Governor— 1S4S, 1S49. 
The boundaries prescribed in the act of congress, entitled ''An Act to enable the people of 
Wisconsin Territory to form a Constitution and State Government, and for the admi.-,sion of such 
State mto the Union," approved August 6, 1S46, were accepted by the convention which formed 
the constitution of Wisconsin, and are described in that instrument as " beginning at the north- 
east corner of the State of Illinois — that is to say, at a point in the center of Lake Michigan 


■where the line of forty-two degrees and thirty minutes of north latitude crosses the same ; thence 
running with the boundary line of the State of Michigan, through Lake Michigan [and] Green 
bav to the mouth of the Menomonee river; tht-nce up the channel of the said river to the Brule 
river; thence up ^aid last mentioned river to Lake Brule; thence along the southern shore of 
Lake Rr'ile, in a direct line to the center of th-,- channel between Middle and South islands, in 
the Lake of the ! >esert ; thence in a direct line to the head waters of the Montreal river, as 
marked upon the survey made by Cajitain Cram ; thence down the main channel of the Mon- 
treal river to the middle of Lake Superior; tlience through the center of Lake Superior to the 
mouth of the St. L-juis ri\er ; tlience up tiie main channel of said river to the first rapids in the 
same, above the Indian village, according to Xicollett's map ; thence due southi to the main 
branch of the Ri\LT St. Croix; thence down the main channel of said river to t!ie Mississippi ; 
thence down the center of the main channel of tiiat river to the northwest corner of the State 
of Illinois ; thence due east with the northern boundary of the State of Illinois to the p^ace of 
beginning" The territory included within tiiese lines constitutes the St.\tl: of Wisconsin, 
familiarly knov.n as tlie " Badger State." All tliat portion of ^\'lsconsiu Territory, as formerly 
constituted, lying west of so much of the above mentioned boundary as e.xtends from the middle 
of Lake Superior to the mouth of the St. Croi.x river, not being included in Wisconsin, the limits 
of the State are, of course, not identical with those of the Territory as they previously existed. 

The State of Wisconsin, thus bounded, is situated between the parallel of forty-tv>-o degrees 
thirty minutes and that of forty-seven degrees, north latitude, and between the eighty-seventh 
and ninety-third degrees west longitude, nearly. For a portion of its northern border it has 
Lake Sujierior, the largest body of fresh water in the world ; for a part of its eastern boundary it. 
has Lake Michigan, almost equal in size to Lake Superior; while the Mississip[ji, the largest 
river in the world but one, forms a large portion of its western boundary. The State of Michi- 
gan lies on the east ; Illinois on the south ; Iowa and Minnesota on the west. Wisconsin has an 
average length of about t\i-o hundred and sixty miles; an averag; breadth of two hundred and 
fifteen miles. 

The constitution of Wisconsin, adopted by the people on the second Monday of March. 
iS.fS, provided for the election of a governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, treasurer, 
attorney general, members of the State legislature, and members of congress, on the second 

Monday of the ensuing May. On that da_\ the Sth of the niontli- — the election was held, 

which resulted in the choice of Xel=on L)ewey, for governor ; John E. Llolmes, for lieutenant 
governor; Thomas McHugh, for secretary of state; Jairus C. Fairchild, for state treasurer; 
and James S. Brown, for attorney general. The State was divided into nineteen senatorial, and 
sixty-six assembly districts, in each of which one member was elected ; it was also divided into 
two congressional districts, in each of which one member of congress was elected- - \\'illian: 
I'itt Lynde in the first district, composed of the counties of Milwaukee, Waukesha, Jefferson. 
F..acine, Walworth, Rock, and Green ; Mason C. Darling, in the second district, composed of th_- 
counties of Washington, Sheboygan, Manitowoc, CaUiniet, Brown. Winnebago), 1 ond du Lac, 
-Marquette, Sauk, Portage, Columbia, Dodge, Dane, Iowa, La layette, (Irani, Richland, Craw- 
ford, Chippewa, St. Croix, and La Pointe — the counties of Lichhnd, Chippewa and La Point'.- 
being unorganized. 

The lirst session of the legisl.sture of Wisconsin (oinraenced ai .NL'.dison, the seat of ^overn- 
'iiet.t for the State, on Monday, the flh' day of June, 1S4S. Xinean K. Whiteside was elected 
'Speaker of the assembly, and Henry Billings president of the senate, //c' taiifon. The dem.ocrats 
^vere largely in tiie majority in botii houses. The legislature, iu joint convention, on the 7th of 
Jime, can%-assed, in accordance with the provisions of the constiluiion, tile vot.s -ivcn on thc 
•"••th of May previous, for the State ofricers and the two representatives in con 'ress. On the same 


day, the governoi, lieutennnt governor, secretary ot state, treasurer, and attorney general, were 
sworn into office in presence of both houses. All these officers, as well as the representatives in 
congress, were deniocrats. Uewey's majority over John H. Tweedy, whig, was five thousand and 
eighty-nine. William P. Lynde's majority in the first district, for congress, over Edward V. 
Whiton, whig, was two thousand four hundred and forty-seven. Mason C. Darling's majority in 
the second district, over Alexander I,. Collins, whig, was two thousand eight hundred and fortv- 
six. As the tliirtieth congress, to which Lynde and Darling were elected would expire on the 4th 
of March, 1S49, their terms of office would, of course, end on that day. The former took his 
seat on the 5th of June, the latter on the 9th of June, 1S48. 

The constitution vested the judicial power of the State in a supreme court, circuit courts, 
courts of probate, and in justices of the peace, gi\-ing the legislature power to vest such juris- 
diction as should be deemed necessary in munici[ial courts ; also, conferring upon it the power 
to establish inferior courts in the several counties, with limited civil and criminal jurisdiction. 
The State was divided into five judicial circuits; and judges were to be elected at a time to be 
provided for by the legislature at its first se>--ion. It was provided that there should be no 
election for a judge or judges, at any general election for State or county officers, nor within 
thirty days either before or after such eiectio;i. 

On the Sth of June, 1S4S, ("io\ernor I_)ewey delivered his first message to a joint convention 
of the two houses. It was clear, concise, and definite upon such subjects as, in his opinion 
demanded immediate attention. His views were generally regarded as sound and statesmanlike 
by the [leople of the State. '" You have convened," said he, "under the provisions of the con- 
stitution of the State of \\'i^cons!n, to perforin as representatives ot the people, the important 
duties contemplated by that instrument.'' " The first session of the legisJature of a free people," 
continued the governor, " after assuming the political identity of a sovereign State, is an event of 
no ordinary character in its history, and will be fraught with consequences of the highest 
importance to its future welfare and prosperity. Wisconsin possesses the natural element-, 
fostered by the judicious system of legislation," the governor added, " to become one of the 
most populous and prosperous States of the American Union. With a soil unequaled in fertiliiv, 
and productive of all the necessary comforts of life, rich in mineral wealth, with commercial 
advantages unsur[)assed by any inland State, possessing extensive manufacturing facilities, with a 
salubrious climate, and peopled with a population enterprising, industrious, and intelligent, the 
course of the State of Wisconsin must be onward, until she ranks among the first of the States 
of the Great West. It is," concluded the speaker, " under the most favorable auspices that the 
State of Wisconsin has taken her position among the families of States. With a population 
numbering nearly one quarter of a million, and rapidly increasing, free from the incubus of a 
State debt, and rich in the return yielded as the reward of labor in all the branches of industrial 
pursuits, our State occupies an enviable posifion abroad, that is highly gratifving to the pride of 
our people." (iovernor Deuey then recommended a number of measures necessary, in his 
judgment, to be made upon changing from a I'erritoriai to a State uo\crnment- 

Th.' first important business of the legislature, was the election of two United States 
senators. The successful candidates were lienrv Dudge and Isir.r p. Walker, both democrats. 
Their election took place on the Sth of June. 1S4S, Dodge taking hi^ seat in the senate on the 
:xd cf June, and Walker on tl-.e joih of June, 1848. The latter drew the short term; so that 
hi- ofti. ev.ouhl exj.ire on tl.e .jth day ot March, 1S49, at the end of the thirtieth congress: 
Dodge drew tile long term, iiis utfice to c-xpireon the 4th day of March, 1S51, at the end of the 
thirty-first congress. The residue of the session was taken iq. in passing such acts as were 
deemed necessary to jiut the machinery of the new State government, in all" its branches, in fair 


running order. One was passed providing for the annual meeting of the legislature, on the 
second \Vednesday of January of each year ; another prescribing the duties of State officers ; 
one dividing the State into three congressional districts. The first district was composed of the 
counties of Milwaukee, ^Vaukesha, Walworth, and Racine; the second, of the counties of Rock, 
Green, La Fayette, Grant, Dane, Iowa, Sauk, Richland, Crawford, Adams, Portage, Chippewa, La 
I'ointe, and St. Croix; the third, of the counties of Washington, Sheboygan, Manitowoc, Brown, 
Winnebago, Calumet, Fond du Lac, Marquette, Dodge, Jefferson, and Columbia. Another act 
provided for the election of judges of the circuit courts, on the first Monday of August, 1S4S. 
r.y the same act, it was provided that the first terra of the supreme court should be held in 
Madison on the second Monday of January, 1S49. and thereafter at the same place on the same 
day, yearly ; afterward changed so as to hold a January and June term in each year. An act 
uas also passed providing for the election, and defining the duties of State superintendent of 
public instruction. That officer was to be elected at the general election to be holden in each 
year, his term of oftice to commence on the first Monday of January succeeding his election. 
Another act established a State university; another exempted a homestead from a forced sale; 
another provided for a revision of the statutes. The legislature, after a session of eighty-five 
days, adjourned shw die on the twent-y-first of August, 1S4S. 

The State, as pre\-iously stated, was divided into five judicial circuits : Edward V. Whiton 
being chosen judge at the election on the first Monday in August, 184S, of the first circuit, com- 
posed of the counties of Racine, ^Valu■orth, Rock, and Green, as then constituted; Levi Hubbell 
of the second, composed of Milwaukee, ^^'auke^ha, Jefferson, and Dane; Charles H. Larrabee, 
of the third, composed of \VaiIiington, Dodge, Columbia, Marquette, Sauk, and Portage, as then 
formed; Alexander W. Stow, of the fourth, composed of Brown, Manitowoc, Sheboygan, Fond 
du Lac, Winnebago, and Calumet; and Mortimer ^L Jackson, of the fil'th circuit, composed of 
the counties of Iowa, LaFayette. Grant. Crawford and St. Croix, as then organized; the countv 
of Richland being attached to Iowa county; the county o{ Cliippewa to the county of Craw- 
ford; and the county of LaPointe to the county of St. Croix, for judicial purposes. 

In the ensuing Fall there was a presidential election. There were then three organized 
political parties in the State : whig, democratic, and free-soil — each of which had a ticket in 
the field. The democrats were in the majority, and their four electors cast their votes for Lewis 
Cass and William O. Butler. At this election, Eleazer Root was the successful candidate for State 
sui>erintendent of public instruction. In his election jjarty politics were not considered. There 
were also three members for the thirty-first congress chosen: Charles Durkee, tc represent the 
nrst district; Orsamus Cole, the second; and Jaraes D. Dotv, the third district. Durkee 
was a free-soiler; Cole, a whig ; Doty, a democrat — with somewhat decided Doty proclivities. 
The act of the legislature, exempting a homestead from forced sale of any debt or liability 
'ontracfccd after January i, 1849, approved the twenty-ninth of July previous, and another act 
for a like exemption of certain personal property, approved .\ugu-,t 10, 1S4S, were laws the most 
liberal in their nature passed by any State of the Union previous to those dates. It was pruplie- 
sied that they would work wonderful changes in tlie business transactions of the new State— for 
the worse; but time [.assed, and their utility were soon evident: it was soon very generally 
acknowledged that projier exemption laws were highly beneficial — a real 'good to the greatest 
number of the citizens of a State. 

So much of Wisconsin Territory as lay wcst of the St. Croi\ and the State boundarv north 
ot It, was upon the admission of Wisconsin intu t:;e Union, left, for the time being, without a 
government— unless it was still '■ Wisconsin Territory." Henry Dodge, upon being elected to the 
Inited States senate from Wisconsin, vacated, of course, the office of governor of this fraction. 
John H. Tweedy, delegate in congress at the time Wisconsin became a State, made a formal 


resignation of his oifii;e, thus leaving the fractional Territory unreiiresented. Thereupon John 
Catlin, secretary of the Territory of Wisconsin as a whole, and now claiming, by virtue of that. 
office, to be acting governor lA the fractional part, issued a proclamation as such officer for an 
election on the thirtieth of October. 1S4S, of a delegate in congress. Xearly four hundred votes 
were jiolled in the district, showing "Wisconsin Territory" still to b.ave a population of not less 
than two thousand. JI. H. Sibley was elected to that office. On the fifteenth of January, 1S49, 
he was admitted to a seat as "delegate from NN'i^^consin Territory." This hastened the formation 
of the Territorv of Minnebuta — a bill for that purpose having become a law on the third of 
March, when " Wisconsin Territory" ceased finally to exist, being included in the new Territory. 

The year 184S — the first year of the existence of Wisconsin as a State- — was one of general 
prosperity to its rapidly increasing population. The National Government effected a treat)- with 
the Menomoneee Indians, by which their title was extinguished to the country north of tlie Fox 
river of Green bay, embracing all their lands in the State. This was an important acquisition, 
as it opened a large tract of country to civilization and settlement, wliich had been for a consid- 
erable time greatly desired by the jieople. The State government at the close of the }ear hac 
been in existence long enough to demonstrate its successfid o['eration. The electric telegraph 
had already reached the capital; and Wisconsin entered its second year upon a flood tide of 

Under the constitution, the circuit judges were also judges of the supreme court. An act 
of the legislature, ap[)roved June 29, 1S4S, providing for tlie election of judges, and for tlic 
classification and organization of tlie judiciary of the State, authorized the election, by the judges, 
of one of their number as chief justice. Judge .Alexander W. Stow was chosen to that office, 
and, as chief justice, held, in conjunction with Associate Judges Whiton, Jackson, Larrabee, and 
Hubbell, the first session of the supreme court at Madison, commencing on the eighth day of 
January, 1S49, 

'i'he second session of the State legislature commenced, according to law, on the tenth of 
January, 1849, Harrison C. Hobart being elected s]ieaker of the assembly. Governor Dewey, in 
his message, sent to both houses on the nth, referred to the rapidly increasing population of the 
State, and the indomitable energy displayed in tlie development of its productive cajjacity. He 
recommended the sale of the university lands on a long credit, the erection of a State prison, 
and the modification of certain laws. On the seventeenth of January, the two houses met in 
joint convention to elect an I'nited States senator in place of Isaac P Walker, who had drawn 
the short term. The democrats had a small m.ijority on joint ballot. Walker was re-elected; 
this time, for a full term of six years, from tiie 4th of March, 1S49. The legislature at this 
session passed many acts of ivblic utility; some relating to the boundaries of counties; others. 
to the laying out of roads; eighteen, to the organization of towns. The courts were cared lor; 
school districts were organized; special tax:- were authorized, and an act passed relative to the 
sale and superintendence of the school and university lands, prescribing the pov.-ers and duties 
of the commissioners who were to have charge of the same. These commissioners, consisting 
of the secretary of state, treasurer of state, and attorney general, were not only put in charge 
of the school and university lands held by the State, but also of funds arising from the sale of 
them. This law has been innny times amended and portions of it repealed. The lands at 
present subject to sale are classified as school lands, university lands, agricultural college lands, 
Marathon county lands, normal school lands, and drainage lands, and are subject to sale at 
jirivate entry on terms fixed by law. Regulations concerning the apportionment and investment 
of trust funds are made by the commissioners in ])ursuancc of law. All lands now the property 
of the State subject to, or that have been State lands and sold, were derived I'rom the Gen- 


tral Government. Lands owned by the State amount, at the present time, to about one and one 
half million acres. 

A joint resolution passed the legislature on the 31st of March, 1S49, instructing Isaac P. 
^V■alker to resign his seat as United States senator, for " presenting and voting for an amend- 
ment to the general appropriation bill, providing tor a government in California and New Ale.xico, 
west of the Rio Grande, which did not contain a provision forever prohibiting the introduction 
of slavery or involuntary servitude " in these Territories. The senator refused to regard these 
instructions. The legislature adjourned on the second of April, 1S49. after a session of eighty- 
three days. 

In July, 1S4S, the legislature of ^^'isconsin elected M. Frank, Charles C. Jordan, and A. W. 
Randall, commissioners to collate and revise all the public acts of the State, of a general and 
jjermanent nature in force at the close of the session. Randall declining to act, Charles M. 
Jiaker was appointed by the governor in his place. The commissioners commenced their labors 
in August, 1S4S, and were engaged in the revision the greater part of the time until the close of 
the session of the legislature of 1S49. It was found impossible for the revisers to conclude their 
labors within the time contemplated by the act authorizing their appointment; so a joint select 
committee of the two houses at their second session was appointed to assist in the work. The 
laws revised by this committee and by the commissioners, were submitted to, and approved by, 
the legislature. These laws, with a few passed by that body, which were introduced by individual 
members, formed the Revised Statutes of Wisconsin of 1S49 — a volume of over nine hundred 

At the general election held in November of this year, Dewey was re-elected governor. 
S. \V. Beall was elected lieutenant governor; William A. Barstow, secretary of state; Jairus C. 
Fairchild was re-elected treasurer ; S. Park Coon was elected attorney general ; and Eleazer 
Root, re-elected superintendent of public instruction. All these ofiicers were chosen as dem- 
ocrats, except Root, who ran as an independent candidate, the term of his oftlce having been 
changed so as to continue two years from the first day of January next succeeding his election. 
Py the revised statutes of 1S49, all State officers elected for a full term went into ofTice on the 
first of January next succeeding their election. 

The year 1849 developed in an increased ratio the productive capacity of the State in every 
department of labor. The agriculturist, the artisan, the miner, reaped the well-earned reward of 
his honest labor. The commercial and manutacturing interests were extended in a manner 
highly creditable to the enterprise of the people. The educational interest of the State began to 
assume a more systematic organization. The tide of immigration suffered no decrease during 
the year. Within the limits of Wisconsin, the oppressed of other climes continued to find 
welcome and happy homes. 

Second Apmimstr.^tion'. — Nelson Dkwev, Governor (Second Term) — 1S50, 1S51. 

On the first day of January, 1S50, Nelson Dewey took the oath of office, and quietly entered 
upon his duties as governor, for the second term. The third legislature convened on the ninth. 
Muses M. Strong was elected speaker of the assembly. Both houses had democratic majorities. 
Mtist of the business transacted was of a local character. By an act approved the fifth of Feb- 
ruary, the " January term " of the supreme court was changed to December. The legislature 
adjourned after a session of only thirty-four days. An act was passed organizing a sixth judicial 
c:r<:;:it, from and after the first Monday in July, 1850, consisting of the counties of Crawford, 
Chippewa, Bad Axe, St. Croix and La Pointe. an election for judge to be holden on ti;e same 
^ay. Wiram Knowltou wa^ elected judge of that circuit. 

58 nisTOKY OF ^vIsco^'s^^•. 

The first charitable institution in Wisconsin, incorporated by the State, was the " Wisconsin 
Institute for the Education of the Blind." A school for that unfortunate class had been opened 
in Janesville, in the latter part of 1S59, receiving its support from tlie citizens of that place and 
vicinity. IJy aii act of the legislature, approved February 9, 1850, this school was taken under 
the care of the Institute, to continue and maintain it, at Janesville, and to qualify, as far as might 
be, the blind of the State for the enjoyment of the blessings of a free government; for obtaining 
the means of subsistence; and for the discharge of those duties, social and [lolitical, devolving 
upon American citizens. It has since been supported from the treasury of the State. On the 
seventh of October, 1850, it was opened for the reception of pupils, under the direction of a 
board of trustees, appointed by the governor. The Institute, at the present time, has three 
departments: in one is given instruction such as is usually taught in common schools; in 
another, musical training is imparted; in a third, broom-making i? taught- to the boys, — sewing, 
knitting and various kinds of fancy work to tiie girls, and seating cane-bottomed chairs to both 
boys and girls. On the thirteenth of April, 187.5, the building of the Institute was destroyed by 
fire. A new building has since been erected. 

The taking of the census by the United States, this year, showed a population for "vVisconsin 
of over three hundred and five thousand — the astonishing increase in two years of nearly ninety- 
five thousand! In 1S40, the [lOpulation of Wisconsin Territor\- was only thirty thousand. This 
addition, in ten years, of two hundred and sevent}-five thousand transcended all previous 
experience in the settlement of any portion of the Xew World, of the same extent of territory. 
It was the result of a steady and persistent tlow of men and their families, seeking permanent 
homes in the young and rising State. Many were German, Scandinavian and Irish; but 
the larger proportion were, of course, from the Eastern and Middle States of the Union. The 
principal attractions of WisconUn were the excellency and cheapness of its lands, its valuable 
mines of lead, its extensive forests of pine, and the unlimited water-power of its numerous 

Hy the Revised Statutes of 1849, Wisconsin was di\-ided into three congressional districts — 
the second congressional apporiionment — each of which was eniitled to elect one representative 
in the congress of the United States. The counties of Milwaukee, Waukesha, Walworth and 
Racine constituted the first district; the counties of Rock, Green, La Fayette, Grant. Iowa, 
Dane, Sauk, Adams, Portage, R.icliland, Crawford, Chippewa, St. Croix and La Puinte, the second 
district; the counties of Washington, Sheboygan, Manitowoc, Prown. Winnebago, Calumet. Fond 
du Lac, Marquette, Columbia, Dodge and Jefi"erson, the third di>trict. At the general election 
in the .-Xutunin of this year. Charles l^urkee. of the first district ; Benjamin C. Eastman, of tb.e 
second ; and John P. Macy, of the third district, were elected to represent the State in the 
thirty-second congress of the United States. Durkee, it will be remembered, represented the 
same district in the previous congress: he ran the second time as an independent candidate. 
Eastman and Macy were elected upon demo< ratio tickets. The General Government thi= year 
donated to the State all the swamp and overflowed lands within its boundaries. 

The year 1830 to the agriculturist of Wisconsin was not one of unbounded prosperitv, 
owing to the partial failure of the wheat crop. In the other branches of agriculture there were 
fair returns. The State was visited during the year by cholera ; not. however, to a very alarming 

The fourth scbsion of the legislature of the Stale commenced on the Sth of January, 
1851. Frederick U'. Horn was elected speaker of the assembly. The majority in the IcgisLi- 
ture wa5 democratic. Governor Dewey, in his message, referred to the death of the preside'^nt uf 
the United States, Zachary Taylor; said that the treasury and finances of the State were in a 


sound condition; and then advened to many topics of interest and importance to the people of 
Wisconsin. It was an able document. One of the important measures of the session was the 
election of an United States: senator, in the place of Henry Dodge, whose term of office would 
expire on the 4th of March, next ensuing. In joint convention of the legislature held on the 
20th of January, Dodge was re-elected for a full term of six years. On the 2 2d, the governor 
approved a joint resolution of the legislature, rescinding not only so much of the joint resolu- 
tion of the legislative assembly of Wisconsin, passed March 31, 1S49, as censured Isaac J. 
Walker, but also the instructions in those resolutions relative to his resigning his seat in the 
senate of the United States. 

Among the important bills passed at this session of the legislature was one providing for 
the location and erection of a State prison. Another one — the apportionment bill — was vetoed 
by the governor, and having been passed on the last day of the session, failed to become a law. 
The legislature adjourned on the eighteenth of March, 185 1, after a session of seventy days. 

On the ist day of January, 1S51, Tim.othy O. Howe took his seat as one of the associate 
judges of the supreme court, he having been elected judge of the fourth circuit in place of Alex- 
ander W. Stow. The office of chief justice of the supreme court, which had been filled by Judge 
Stow, therefore became vacant, and so remained until the commencement of the next term— June 
iS, 1S51 — when Levi Hubbell, judge of the second circuit, was, by the judges present, pursuant 
to the statute, elected to that office. 

By an act of the legislature approved Marcli 14, 1S51, the location and erection of a State 
prison for Wisconsin was provided for — the point afterward determined upon as a suitable 
place for its establishment being Waupun, Dodge county. By a subsequent act, the prison was 
declared to be the general penitentiary and prison of the State for the reformation as well as for 
the punishment of offenders, in which were to be confined, employed at hard labor, and governed 
as provided for by the legislature, all ofienders who might be committed and sentenced accord- 
ing to law, to the punishment of solitary imprisonment, or imprisonment therein at hard labor. 
The organization and management of this the first reformatory and jienal State institution in 
Wisconsin, commenced and has been continued in accordance with the demands ot an advanced 
civilization and an enlightened humanity. 

On the 29th of September, 1S51, Judge Hubbell was re-elected for the full term of six years 
as judge of the second judicial circuit, to commence January i, 1S52. 

At the general election in Xovcmber, 1S51, Leonard J. Farwell was chosen governor; 
Timothy Burns, lieutenant governor; Charles I). Robinson, secretary of State ; E. H. Janssen, 
State treasurer; E. Estabrook, attorney general; and Azel P. Ladd, superintendent of public 
instruction. All these ofiicers were elected as democrats except Farwell, who ran as a whig ; 
his majority over I). A. J. Upham, democrat, was a little rising of five hundred. 


Governor J'"ar\vel!'s adminibtrntion commenced on tiie fifth day of January, 1S52. Previous 
to this — on the third day uf the mon:h — Edward \'. NVhiton was chosen by the judges of the 
supreme court, chief justice, to succeed JudL'e Hubbell. C)n the fourteenth of that month, the 
legislature assembled at Madison. This was the beginning of the fifth annual session. Jame.s 
Mc.M. Shafter was elected speaker of the assembly. In tlic senate, the democrats had a 
majority; in the assemblv. the whigs. 'The governor, in his message, rcconinicndcd the memorial- 
izing of congress to cause the agricultural lands within the State to be surveyed and brouglit 
into market; to cause, also, the mineral lands tu be surveyed and geologically examined, and 
offered for sale; and to make liberal appropriations for the improvement of rivers and harbors. 
1 he question of " bank or no bank " having been submitted to the people in November previous, 


and decided in favor of banks, under the constitution, the power was thereby given to the legis- 
lature then in session to grant bank charters, or to pass a general banking law. Farwell recom- 
mended that necessary measures be taken to carry into effect this constitutional provision. A 
larger number of laws was passed at this session than at any previous one. Ly a provision of 
the constitution, tlie legislature was given power to provide by law, if they should think it expe- 
dient and necessary, for the organization of a separate supreme court, to consist of one chief 
justice and two associate justices to be elected by the qualified electors of the State, at such 
time and in such manner as the legislature might provide. Under this authority, an act was 
passed at this session providing for the election of a chief justice and two associates, on the last 
Monday of the September following, to form a supreme court of the State, to supplant the old 
one, provision for the change being inserted m the constitution. There was also an act passed 
to apportion and district anew the members of the senate and assembly, by which the number 
was increased from eighty-five to one hundred and seven: twenty-five for the senate; eighty- 
two for the assembly. .An act authorizing ti:e business of banking passed the legislature and 
was approved by the governor, on tlie i9tii of .-\pril. Ily this law, the office of bank-comptroller 
was created — the officer to be first appointed by the governor, and to hold his office until the first 
Monday in January, 1S54. At the general election in the Fall of 1S53, and every two years 
thereafter, the office was to be filled by vote of the people. Governor Farwell afterward, on tiie 
20th of Xovember, appointed Jarnes S. Baker to that office. The legislature adjourned on the 
nineteenth of .\pril, 1S52. 

The second charitable institution incor])orated by the State was the " Wisconsin Institute 
for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb." It was originally a private scliool for deaf mutes, 
near, and subsequently in, the village of Delav.m, A\'alworth county. By an act of the legislature 
approved April ig: 1852. it was made the object and duty of the corporation to establish, coii- 
tinue and maintain this school for the education of the deaf and dumb, "at or near the village 
of Delavan, to r,ualify, as near as might be, that unfortunate class of persons for the enjoyment 
of the blessings of a free government, obtaining the means of subsistence, and the discharge of 
those duties, social and political, devolving upon American citizens." It has since been sup- 
ported by annual appropriations made by tlie legislature. A complete organization of the 
school was effected in June, 1852, under the direction of a board of trustees appointed by the 
governor of the State. The institute has f jr its design tlie c Aication of such children of the 
State as, on account of deafnt-ss, can not be instructed in common schools. Instruction is given 
by signs, by the manual aljihabet, by written language, and to one class by articulation. Two 
trades are taught: cabinet-making and shoe-making. 

During this year, considerable interest was manifested in the projecting of railroads. At 
the September election, E. ^^ Whiton was elected chief justice of the new supreme court and 
Samut,*! Crawford and Abram I). Smith associate justices. Under the law, the chief justice was 
to serve a term of four years t'rom tlie first day of June next ensuing; while the two associates 
were to cast lots — one to serve for six years, the other lor two years, from June i, 1853. Craw- 
ford drew the short term — Smith the long tL-rin. At the subsequent general election for mem- 
bers to the thirty-tliird congress, Danic-l Wells, Jr., was chosen from the first district , B. C. 
I'.istman from tiie second.- and J. H. Macy iVom tiie third district. All were democrats. A 
demoi-ratic electoral ticket was chosen at the same time. The electors cast their votes for Pierce 
and Hutler. 

During 1S52, tlie ciii.-'ens of Wisconsin enjoyed unusual prosperity in the ample products 
and remuneration of their industry and enteriirise. Abundant harvests and high markets; an 
increase in moneyed circulation, and the downward tendency of the rates of interest: a prevail- 
ing confidence among business men and in business enterprises; a continual accession to the 


jiopulation of the State by immigration; the energetic prosecution of internal improvements 
under the skillful management of companies; the extension of permanent agricultural improve- 
ments; and the rapid growth of the various cities and villages; were among the encouraging 
prospects of the year. 

The si.xth session ot the Wisconsin legislature commenced on the twelfth of January, 1S53. 
On the twenty-sixth of the same month, \\'illiam K. Wilson, of Milwaukee, preferred charges 
in the assembly against Levi Hubbell, judge of the second judicial circuit of the State, of 
divers acts of corruption and malfeasance in the discharge of the duties of his oftice. A resolu- 
tion followed appointing a committee to report articles of impeachment, directing the members 
thereof to go to the senate and impeach Hubbell. Upon the trial of the judge before the 
senate, he was acquitted. An act was passed to provide for the election of a State prison commis- 
sioner by the legislature at that session — to hold his office until the tlrst day of the ensuing 
January. The office was then to be filled by popular vote at the general election in November, 
1853 — and afterwards biennially — the term of othce to be two years t'roni the lirst day of Jan- 
uary next succeeding the election by the people. On the 2Sth of March, the legislature, in 
joint convention, elected John 'Jailor to that oftice. The legislature adjourned on the fourth 
day of April until the sixth of the following June, when it again met, and adjourned sine die on 
the thirteenth of July, both sessions aggregating one hundred and thirty-one days. 

By an act of the legislature approved February 9, 1S53, the "Wisconsin State Agricultural 
Society," wliich had been organized in March, 1S5 i, was incor|.iorated, its object being to promote 
and improve the condition of agriculture, horticulture, and the mechanical, manufacturing and 
household arts. It was soon at'ter taken under the fostering care of the State by an appropria- 
tion made by the legislature, to be expended by the society in such manner as it might deem 
best calculated to promote the objects of its incorporation; State aid was continued down to the 
commencement of the rebellion. No help was extended during the war nor until 1S73; since 
which time there has been realized annually from the State a sum commensurate with its most 
pressing needs. The society has printed seventeen volumes of transactions and has held annually 
a State fair, except during the civil war. Besides these fairs, its most important work is the 
holding annually, at the capital of the State, a convention for the promotion of agriculture gen- 
erally. The meetings are largely participated in by men representing the educational and 
industrial interests of Wisconsin. 

J'.y an act of the legislature approved March 4, 1S53, the "State Historical Society of 
\\'isconsin " was incorporated — having been previously organized— the object being to collect, 
embody, arrange and preserv.' in authentic form, a library of books, pamphlets, maps, charts, 
manuscripts, papers, paintings, statuary and other materials illustrative of the history of the 
State; to rescue from oblivion the memory of its early pioneers- and to obtain and preserve 
narratives of their exploits, perils, and hardy adventures; to exhibit faithtully the antiquities, 
and the past and present condition, and resources of Wisconsin. The society was also author- 
ised to take proper steps to promote the study of history by lectures, and to diffuse and publish 
iniormation relating to the description and history of the State. The legislature soon after took 
the society under its fostering care by voting a respectable sum for its benefit. Liberal State 
aid has been continued to the present time. The society, besid^-s collecting a library of historical 
hooks and pam^jhlets the largest in the West has published eight volumes of collections and a 
'..nalogue of four volumes. Its rooms are in the capitol at Madison, and none of its property 
can be alienated without the consent of the State. It has a valuable collection of piainted por- 
Ir.iits arid bound newspaper'files ; and in its cabinet are to I'c found miny prehistoric relics. 

On the first day of June, 1S53. the justices of the new supreme court went into oftice: Associate 

62 msTOKY OF "\VTsroysiX. 

Justice Crawford, for two years; Chief Justice ^Vhiton, I"or four years, Associate Justice Smith 
for six years as previously mentioned. The first (June) term was held at Madison. La Fayette 
Kellogg was appointed and qualified as clerk. On the 21st of September, Timothy Burns, lieu- 
tenant governor of Wisconsin, died at La Crosse. As a testimonial of respect for the deceased 
the several State departments, in accordance \\ith a proclamation of the governor, were closed 
for one day— October 3, 1S53. In the Fall of this year, democrats, whigs and free-soilers, each 
called a convention to nominate candidates for the various State offices to be supported by them 
at the ensuing election in November. The successful ticket was, for governor, William A. Bars- 
tow ; for lieutenant governor, James T. Lewis . for secretary of State, Alexander T. Gray, for 
State treasurer, Edward H. Janssen ; for attorney general, George B. Smith ; for superintendent 
of public instruction, Hiram A. Wright; for State prison commissioner, A. W. Starks; and 
for bank comptroller, William ^L Dennis. They were all democrats. 

The year 1853 was, to the agriculturists of the State, one of prosperity. Every branch of 
industry prospered. The increase of commerce and manufactures more than realized the expec- 
tations of the most sanguine. 

Fourth Al>ministr.\tion. — William A. Barstow, Governor — 1S54-1S55. 

On Monday, the second of January, 1854, William A. Barstow took the oath of office as 
governor of Wisconsin. 

The legislature commenced its seventh regular session on the eleventh of January. Fred- 
erick W. Horn was elected speaker of the assembly. Both houses were democratic. The 
legislature adjourned on the 3d of April following, after a. session of eighty-three days. 

In the early part of March, a fugitive slave case greatly excited the people of Wisconsin. 
A slave named Joshua Glover, belonging to B. S. Garland of Missouri, had escaped from his 
master and made his way to the vicinity of Racine. Garland, learning the whereabouts of his 
personal chattel, came to the State, obtained, on the gth of March, 1S54, from the judges of the 
district court of the L'nited States for the district of Wisconsin, a warrant for the apprehension 
of Glover, which was put into the hands of the deputy marshal of the United States. Glover 
was secured and lodged in jail in Milwaukee. A luimber of persons afterward assembled and 
rescued the fugitive. Among those who took an active part in this proceeding was Sherman M. 
Booth, who was arrested therefor and committed by a United States commissioner, but was 
released from custody by Abram D. Smith, one of the as»ociate justices of the supreme court 
of Wisconsin, upon a writ of /tabids corpus. The record of ihe proceedings was thereupon 
taken to that court in full bench by a writ of certiorari to correct any error that might have been 
committed before the associate justice. At the June term, 1S54, the justices held that Booth 
was entitled to be discharged, because the commitment set forth no cause for detention. 

Booth was afterward indicted in the United States district court and a warrant issued for 
his arrest. He was again imprisoned; and again he applied to the supreme court^ — -then, in 
term time — for a writ of JiUbeas corpus. This was in July, 1S54. In his ])etition to the supreme 
court, I'lOoth Set forth that he was in confinement upon a warrant issued by the district court of 
the United States and that the object of tlie imprisonment was to compel him to answer an 
indictment then pending against him therein. The supreme court of the State held that these 
facts showed that the district court of the United States had obtained jurisdiction of the case 
and that it was apparent that the indictment was for an offense of which the feder.-l courts had 
exclusive jurisdiction. Tiiey could nfit therefore interfere; and his application for a discharge 
was denied. 

Upon the indictment. Booth was tried and convicted, fined and imprisoned, for a violation 
of th"; fugitive slave law. Again the prisoner applied to the supreme court of Wisconsin, — his. 


last application bearing date January ^6, 1S55. He claimed discharge on the ground of the 
unconstitutionality of the law under which he had been indicted. The supreme court held that 
the indictment upon which he had been tried and convicted contained three counts, the first of 
which was to be considered as properly charging an offense within the act of congress of Septem- 
ber 18, 1S50, known as the "fugitive slave law," v.-hile the second and third counts did not set 
forth or charge an offense punislwl.ile by any statute of the United States; and as, upon these last- 
mentioned counts he was found guilty and not upon the first, he must be discharged. 

The action of the supreme court of Wisconsin in a second time discharging Booth, was 
afterward reversed by the supreme court of the United States ; and, its decision being respected 
bv the State court, Booth was re-arrested in 1S60, and the sentence of the district court of the 
United States executed in part upon him, when he was pardoned by the president. 

By an act of the legislature, approved March 30, 1 854, a " State Lunatic Asylum " n-as directed 
to be built at or in the vicinity of Madison, the capital of the State, upon land to be donated or 
purchased for that jnirpose. By a subsequent act, the name of the asylum was changed to the 
" Wisconsin State Hosjiital for the Insane.' This was the third charitable institution established 
by the State. The hospital was opened for patients in July, 1S60, under the direction of a 
board of trustees appointed by the governor. .\11 insane persons, residents of Wisconsin, who, 
under the law providing for admission of patients into the hospital for treatment, become resi- 
dents therein, are maintained at the expense of the State, provided the county in which such 
patient resided before being brought to the hospital f'nys the sum of one dollar and fifty cents a 
week for his or her support. .A.ny patient can be supjiortei by relatives, friends or guardians, if 
the latter desire to re!ie\e the county and State from the burden, and can have special care and 
be provided with a S[)ccial attendant, if the e.\i)ense of the same be borne by parties interested. 
The hospital is beautifully located on the north shore of Lake Mendota, in Dane county, about 
four miles from Madison. 

At the general election in the Fall of 1S54. for members from Wisconsin to the thirty-fourth 
congress, Daniel Wells, Jr, was chosen from the first district ; C. C. ^Vashbu^n, from the second, 
and Charles Billinghurst from the third district. Billingluirst and Washburn were elected as 
republicans — that party having been organized in the Suiainer previous. ^Vclls was a democrat. 

The year 1S54 was one of prosperity for:\^'isconsin, to all its industrial occupations. Abund- 
ant crops and increased prices were generally realized In' the agriculturist. It was a year also of 
general health. It was ascertained the amount of exports during the year, including lumber 
and mineral, exceeded thirteen millions of dollars. 

The eighth regular session of tlie State legislature commenced on the loth of Januarv, 
1S55. C. C. Sholes was elected sj^eaker of the assembly. The senate was democratic ; the 
assembly, republican. On joint ballot, the republicans had but one majority. On the 1st of 
February, Charles Diirkee a reinibiuan, was elected United States senator for a lull term of six 
years from the 4th of March next ensuing, to fill the |ilace of Isaac P. Walker whose term would 
expire on that day. .-Xmong the bills passed of a general nature, was tjne relati\e to the rights of 
married women, providing that any married woman, who^e husband, eitlier from drunkenness or 
Jirofligacy, should neglect or refuse to provide f.r her support, should have the right, in her own 
name, to transact business, receive and collect her oun earnings, and ai)ply the same for her own 
"''.'•ppt)rt, and educaticin of her children, free from the control and interference of her husband. 
I he legislature adjourned sine iiic on the second of -Aj^ri!, after a session of eighty-three days. 
Orsamus Cole having been elected in this month an associate justice of the supreme court in 
I'lace of Judge Samuel Crawford, whose term of office would expire on the thirty-first of May of 
tiiat year, went into office on the first day of June following, for a term of six years. His ofiice 
^■'.'Uld therefore end on the thirty-first of May, 1S61. 



On the 27th of -May, 1S55, Hiram A. Wri-ht, superiniendcnt of public instruction, died at 
Prairie da Chien. On the iSth of June following, the governor appointed A. Constantine Barry to 
fill his place. On the 5th of July, Garland, the owner of the rescued fugitive slave Glover, 
having brought suit in the United States district court for the loss of his slave, against Booth* 
the trial came on at Madison, resulting in the jury bringing in a verdict under instructions from' 
the judge, of one thousand dollars, the value of a negro slave as fixed by act of congress of 1850. 
The constitution of the State requiring the legislature to provide by law for an enumeration 
of the inhabitants in the year 1S55, an act was passed by that body, ai, proved March 31, of this 
year, for that purpose. The result showed a population for Wisconsin of over five hundred and 
fifty-two thousand. In November, at the general election, the democratic ticket for State offi- 
cers was declared elected: Wilham A. Barstow, for governor; Arthur McArthur, for lieutenant 
governor; David W. Jones, for secretary of State; Charles Kuelin, for State treasurer ; Wil- 
liam R. Smith, for attorney general; A. C. Barry, for superintendent of public instruction; 
William M. Dennis, for bank comjjtroller; and Edward McGarry for State prison commissioner* 
The vote for governor was very close; but the State canvassers declared Barstow elected by a 
small majority. The opposing candidate for that ottice was Coles Bashford, who ran as a. 

The year 1855 was a prosperous one to the farmers of Wisconsin as well as to all industrial 
occupations. There were abundant crops and unexampled jjrlces were realized. 

Fifth Ai;.ministr.\tion-.— Colks B.^shiord, Covekmor— 1856-18^7. 

On the seventh day of January, 1S56. William A. Barstow took and subscribed an oath of 
office as governor of Wisconsin, while Coles Bashford, who had determined to contest the right 
of Barstow to the governorship, wiint, on the same day, to tiie supreme court room, in Madison, 
and had the oath of ottice administered to him by Ciuef Justice Whiton. Bashford afterward* 
called at the executive office and made a formal demand of Barstow that he should vacate the 
gubernatorial chair ; but the latter respectfully declined the invitation. These were the initiatory 
steps of " Bashford :x Barstow," for the office of governor of Wisconsin. 

The fight now commjnced in ear.iest. Oa t'le eleventh, the C(;ansel for Bashford called 
upon the attorney general and requested him to file an inlormation in the nature of a ,y//o> 
li'arranto against Barstow. On the fifteenth that ofiieer complied with the request. Tiiereupou 
a summons was issued to Barstow to appear and answer. On the twenty-second, Bashford, by 
his attorney, asked the court that the inlormation filed by the attorney general be discontinued 
and that he be allowed to file oae, which request was denied by the court. While the motioa 
was being argued. Barstow, by his attorneys, entered his appearance in tlie case. 

On the second of February, Barstow moved to quasii all proceedings for the reason that the 
court had no jurisdiction in the matter. This motion was denied by tiie court ; that tribunal at 
the same time deciding that the filing of the motion was an admission by Barstow that the alle- 
gations contained in the information filed by the attorney general were true. 

On the twentv-nr^t of February, the time appointed for pkudlng to the information, Bar- 
stow, by his attorneys, presented to the court a stipulation signed by all the parties in the case, to 
the effect that the board of canvassers liad determined Barstow elected governor; that the secre- 
tary of State had certified to his election ; and tiiat he liad taken the oath uf ofhce. They submit- 
ted to the court whether it had jurisdiction, beyond the certificates, of those facts and the canvass 
so made to inquire as to the number of votes actually given for Barstow,— Bashford offering to 
prove that the certificates were made and issued through mistake and fraud, and that he, instead 
of Barstow, received the greatest number of votes. This stipulation tiie court declined to enter- 
tain or to pass upon the questions suggested ; as they were not presented in legal form. Barstow 


was thereupon given until the twenty-fifth of February to answer the information that had been 
filed against him by the attorney general. 

On the day appointed, Barstow filed his plea to the effect that, by the laws of Wisconsin 
regulating the conducting of general election for State officers, it was the duty of the board of 
canvassers to determine who was elected to the office of governor ; and that the board had found 
that he was duly elected to that office. It was a plea to the jurisdiction of the court. A demurrer 
was interposed to this plea, setting forth that the matters therein contained were not sufficient in 
law to take the case out of court ; asking, also, for a judgment against Barstow, or that he answer 
further the information filed against hirn. The demurrer was sustained ; and Barstow was 
reijuired to answer over within tour days ; at the expiration of which time the counsel for Barstow 
withdrew from tlie case, on the ground, as theyalleged, that they had appeared at the bar of the 
court to object to tlie jurisdiction of that tribunal in the matter, and the court had determined 
to proceed with the case, holding and exercising full and final jurisdiction over it; and that the) 
could take no further steps without conceding the right of that tribunal so to hold. Thereupon, 
on the eighth of March, Barstow entered a protest, by a communication to the supreme court, 
against any further interference with the department under his charge by that tribunal, '' either 
by attempting to transfer its flowers to another or direct the course of executive action." The 
counsel for Bashford then moved for judgment upon the default of Barstow. 

A further hearing of the case was postponed until March iS, when the attorney general 
filed a motion to dismiss the proceedings ; against which Bashford, by his counsel, protested as 
being prejudicial to his rights. It was the opinion of the court that the attorney general could 
not dismiss the case, that every thing which was well pleaded for Bashford in his information was 
confessed by the default of Barstow. By strict usage, a final judgment ought then to have foU 
lowed ; but the court came to the conclusion to call uponBashford to bring forward proof, showing 
liis right to tlie otlice. Testimony was then adduced at length, touching the character of the 
returns made to the State canvassers; after hearing of which it was the opinion of the court that 
Bashford had received a plurality of votes for governor and that there must be a judgment in 
his favor and one of ouster against Barstow; which were rendered accordingly. 

The ninth regular session of the legislature of Vv'isconsin connnenccd on the ninth of 
January, 1S56. William Hull was elected speaker of the assembly. The senate had a repub- 
lican majority, but the assembly was democratic. On the eleventh Barstow sent in a message to 
a joint convention of the two houses. On the twenty-first of March he tendered to the legisla- 
ture his resignation as governor, giving for reasons the action o( the supreme court in "Bashford 
:s. Barstow," which tribunal was then hearing testimony in the case. On the same day Artliur 
McArthur, lieutenant governor, took and subscribed an oath of office as governor of the State, 
aiterwards sending a message to the legislature, announcing that the resti^nation of Barstow 
made it his duty to take the reins of government. On the twenty-fifth, Bashford called on 
Ml .Arthur, then occuijying the executive otTice, and demanded possession — at the same time 
intimating that he preferred peaceable measures to force, but that the latter would be employed 
if necessary. The lieutenant governor thereupon vacated the chair, when the former took the 
gubernatorial seat, exercising thereafter the functions of the office until his successor was elected 
and qualified. His right to the seat was recognized by the senate on the twenty-fifth, and by the 
assembly on the tv.-eiity-seventh of .March, 1S56. This ended the famous case of" Bashford :s. 
I'arjtow," the firat and only '' war of succes-sion '" ever indulged in by Wisconsin. 

'I'he legislature, on the thirty-first of March, adjourned over to the third of September, to 
dispose of a congressional land grant to the State. Upon re-assembling, an important measure 
wa-, taken up — that of a new a]jportionment for the legislature. It was determined to increase the 


number of members from one hundred and seven to one hundred and twenty-seven. The session 
closed on the thirteenth of October. The general election for members to the thirty-fifth congress. 
held in November, resulted in the choice of John H. Potter, from the first district ; C. C. Washburn 
from the second ; and Ch.irles Billinghurst, from the third district. They were all elected as 
republicans. The presidential canvass of this year was an exciting one in the State. The 
republicans were successful. Electors of that party cast their five votes for Fremont and 

The year 1S56 was not an unprosperous one, agriculturally speaking, although in some 
respects decidedly unfavorable. In many districts the earlier ;)art of the season was exceedingly 
dry, which materially diminished the wheat crop. Other industrial interests were everywhere 
in a flourishing condition. 

The legislature commenced its tenth regular session, at Madison, on the fourteenth day of 
January, 1S57, with a republican majority in both houses. \Vyman Spooner was elected speaker 
of the assembly. For the first time since the admission of the State into the Union, a majority of 
the members of both houses, together with the governor, were opposed to the democratic party. 
On the twenty-third the senate and assembly met in joint convention, for the purpose of electing 
a United States senator in jilace of Henry Dodge, whose term of office would expire on the 
fourth of March next ensuing. James R. Doolittle, republican, was the successful candidate for 
that office, for a full term of six years, from the fourth of March, 1857. The legislature 
adjourned on the ninth of March, 1857. At the Spring election. Judge Whiton was re-elected 
chief justice of the supreme court for a term of six years. 

The second reformatory State institution established in ^Visconsin, was, by an act of the 
legislature, approved March 7, 1S57, denominated a House of Refuge for Juvenile Delinquents, 
afterward called the State Reform School, now known as t!ie Wisconsin Industrial School for 
Boys, and is located at Waukesha, the county seat of Waukesha county. The courts and 
several magistrates in any county in ^\'isconsin may, in thcr discretion, sentence to this school 
any male child between the ages of ten and sixteen years, convicted of vagrancy, petit larceny, 
or any misdemeanor; also of any ofi'ense which would otherwise be punishable by imprisonment 
in the State prison ; or, of incorrigible or vicious conduct in certam cases. The term of commit- 
ment must be to the age of twenty-one years. 

At the State election held in November of this year, the republicans elected A. W. Randall 
governor; S. 1). Hastin_5, State treasurer, and Edward M. .McGraw. State prison commis- 
sioner. The democrats elected E. 1). Caniiibell, lieutenant governor; 1>. W. Jones, secretary 
of State; Gabriel Bouck, attorney gener.'d ; L. C. Draper, su])erintendent of public instruc- 
tion, and J. C. Sipires, bank comptroller. 

The year 1S57 was a disastrous one to Wisconsin, as we" as to the whole country, in a finan- 
cial point of view. Early in the Fall a monetary panic sweju over tlie land. A number of 
prominent operators in the leading industrial pursuits v.-ere obliged to succumb. Agriculturally 
the year was a fair one for the State. 

Sixth .\iiministk.\tion. — .M.exa.spf.r \V. R.s.vdall, Governor — 1S5S-1S59. 

Randall's administration began on tiie fourth day of January, 1S5S, when for tlie first time 
he was inaugurated governor of the State. On llie eleventh of January tlie legislature 
rorntnenced its eleventh regular session, w.ih a republican majority in both houses. Frederick 
S. L'lvell was elected speaker of the assembly. The legislature adjourned j.v.r dit- on the 
seventeenth of M.irrli, after an unusu.illy long session of one hundred and tuent} -five davs. '" That 
a large majority of the laeinbers were men ol integrity, and disposed for the puhlic weal, can not 


l- iloubted; but they were nearly all new members, and without former legislative experience. 
[ hcv »et out to accomplish a great good, by holding up to public scorn and execration the whole- 
sale- hrilieries and iniquities of the immediate past ; but they lacked concentration of effort, and. 
I'l.r want of union and preconcerted action,_they failed to achieve the great triumph they sought, 
by nnividinga 'sovereign remedy ' for the evils they exposed." 

At the regular session of the legislature of 1S56, an act was passed for a general revisi-n of 
the laws of the State. Under this, and a subsequent act of the adjourned session of that year, 
[!'.rec commis.sioners — David Taylor, Samuel J.Todd, and F. S. Lovcll — were appointed "to 
ci'llect, compile and digest the general laws " of \\'isconsin. Their report was submitted to the 
livislature of 185S, and acted upon at a late day of the session. The lav.-s revised, wliich received 
!:ie sanction of the legislature, were published in one volume, and constitute what is know as the 
Revised Statutes of 183S. 

At the Fall election, John F. Potter from the first district, and C. C. Washburn from thi 
second district, both republicans, were elected to the thirty-sixth cong^e^s ; while C. H. 
I.irrabee, democrat, was elected to rejjresent the third district. 

The twelfth regular ses^iion of the Wisconsin legislature commenced on the twelfth of 
J.iiuiary, 1S59, with a republic:Mi majority in both houses. William P. Lyon was elected speaker 
■ A the assembly. The legislature adjourned si'/ii: dk on the twenty-first of March, 1S59, after a 
>e»iioa of sixty-nine days. At the regular sjiring election, Byron Paine was chosen associate 
justice of the supreme court, fur a full term cf six years, as the successor of Associate Justice 
.Smith. As it wa.^ a question when the term of the latter ended — whether on the 31st day of 
.May, 1S59, or on the first Moiida\- in January, 1S60 — he went through with the I'cirmality of 
r':5i:.;ning iiis office, and the governor of appointing Paine as his successor, on the 20th of June, 
I >5(y. On the twelfth of April, 1S59, Edward V. M'hiton, chief justice of tlie sujjreme court, 
'bed at his residence in Janesville. The office was filled by executive appointment on the 19th 
nf the same month — the successor of Judge Whiton being Luther S. iJixon. Late in the Sum- 
mer both political parties put into the field a full state ticket. The rejmblicans were successful 
— electing for governor, Alexander W. Randall for lieutenant irovcrnor, B. G. Xoble ; for 
secretary of state, L. P. Harvey; for state treasurer, S. D. Hastings, for attorney general, James 
li. Howe; f.)r bank comptroller, G. Van Steenwyck ; for superintendent of public instruction, 
J. L. Pickard ; for state prison commissioner, H. C. Heg. 

-SevKNTH .\nMl\ISTK.\TION". .-iLFXAXDER W. RaXD.\LL, Gi iVERNOR (sECOXD TERm), 1S60-1S61. 

Alexander W. Randall was inaugurated- the second time as governor of Wisconsin, on 
Moridny, January 2, iS6o. fjne week subsequent, the thirteenth regular session of the le^'is- 
i.iture commenced at Madison. For the fir^t time the republicans had control, not only of all 
'■•'-■ State offices, but also of both branches of the legislature. William P. I. von was elected 
•<; e.iker of the assembl}-. .\ new assessment law was among the most imjiortant of the acts 
i'l^-^ed at tills session. The legislature adjourned on the second of .\pril. At the si'tin':; elec- 
■■ -n, ].r.tlier S. Dixon, as an indeiiendent candidate, was elected chief justice of the .-upreme 
' "i;n lur the unexpired term of the late Chief Justice Whiton. In the presidential election which 
1 ilowcd, republican elector, were chosen — casting tlieir \wxi vote<, in the electoral college, for 
'■•■■'■"In and Hamlin. At the same election. J,. hn F. Pott.-r. from the first district; Luther 
llar.chett. from the second, and A. Scott Sloan, from the third district, were elected members of 
'•■•e thirty-cventh congress, flanch.ett di-ed on tiie twenty-lburlli of Xovember, 1S62, when, 
f^-: the twentieth of December following, W. I). Mclndoe was elected to fill the vacancy. All 
t'-~se congrcssiunal representatives were republicans. Wisconsin, in 1S60, was a strong repub- 



lican State. According to the census of this year, it had a population of over seven hundred 
and seventy-seven thousand. 

On the ninth of January, iS6i, the fourteenth regular session of the State legislature com- 
menced at .Madi>un. Both branches were republican. Amasa Cobb was elected speaker of the 
assembly. On the tenth, both houses met in joint convention to hear the governor read his 
annual message. It was a remarkable document. Besides giving an excellent synopsis of the 
operations of the State government for iS6c. the governor entered l.irgely into a discussion of 
the question of recession and disunion, as then proposed by some of the southern states of the 
Union. TIil'sc are his closing wurds : 

"The right of a State to secede I"rom tlie Union can never be admitted. The National 
Government can not treat with a State while it is in the Union, and particularly while it stands 
in an attitude hostile to the Union. So long as any State assumes a position foreign, inde- 
pendent and hostile to tlie government, there can be no reconciliation. The government of the 
United States can not treat with one of its own States as a foreign power. The constitutional 
laws extend over every Stat; alike. They are to be entbrced in every State alike. A State can 
not come into the Union as it pleases, and go out when it pleases. Once in, it must stay until 
the Union i:, destroyed. There is no coercion of a State. But where a faction of a people arrays 
itself, nut again = t one act, but against all laws, and against all government, there is but one 
answer to be made : ' The Government must ie sustained ; the tnws shall be enforced ! ' " 

On the twenty-third of January the legislature met in joint convention to elect a United 
States senator to fill the place of Charles Darkee, whose term of olitice would expire on the 
fourth of .Ma ch ne.xt ensuing. The successful candidate was Timothy O. Howe, republican, 
. who was elected for a full term of si.x years from the 4th of .March, 1S61. One of the important 
acts passed at tliis session of the legislature apportioned th^ State into senate and assembly 
districts, by which the whole number of member.-, in both houses was increased from one hun- 
dred and twenty-seven to one hundred and thirty-three. Another act apportioned the State into 
six congressional districts instead of three. By this — the third congressional apportionment — 
each district was to elect one repre:,entative. The first district was composed of the counties 
of Milwaukee, \Vauke=ha, Walworth, Racine, and Kenosha; the second, of the counties of Jlock, 
JelTerson, Dane, and ColumL.ia; the third, of Green, La Fayette, Iowa, Grant, Crawford, Rich- 
land, and Sauk; the fourth, ui O/aukee, Washington, Dodge, Fond du Lac, and Sheboygan; the 
fifth, Manitowoc, Calumet, Winnebago, Green lake, Marquette, Waushara, Waupacat Outa- 
gamie, I'.rown, Keuaunce, Door, Uconto, and Shawano; and the sixth, of the counties 'of Bad 
Axe, LaCro-,,e. M nn-c, Juneau, Adams, Bortage, Wood, Jackson, Trempealeau, Buffalo, Pepin, 
Pierce, St. Croix, Dunn, Eau Claire, Clark, Marath.m, Chippewa, Dallas, Polk, Burnett, Douglas^ 
I.a I'uuue, and Asiiland. Tiie legislature adjourned on the seventeenth of April, 1S61. 

At the spring elections of this year, Orsanuis Cole was re-elected as associate justice of the 
stiprenie court. On the nintli of May ibliowin^. Governor Randall issued a proclamation convening 
the legislature in extra session on the fifteenth of the same month. " The extraordinary condition 
of the country,- said he, " growing out of the rebellion against the government of the United 
states, makes It necessary that the legislature of this State be cuuvened in special session to 
provide more completely fur making the puwer of the State usehd to the government and' to 
other luyal states." The fifteentil or e.xtra session began on the fifteenth of May, a, desi mated 
in the governor's pTociamation. The message of the governor was devoted entirelv to thl war 
At tue close ol the last annual session of tiie legislature," said he. " to meet a sudden emer- 
gency, an act was passed authorizing me to respond to the call of the president of the United 
States, ' lor aid in maintaining the Union and tiie supremacy of tiie laws, or to suppress rebcUior. 


or insurrection, or lo repel inva-ion within the United States,' and I was authorized, and it was 
made my duty, to take such measures as, in my judgment, should provide in the speediest and 
most efficient manner for resi»nding to such call : and to this end I was authorized to accept 
the services of volunteers for active service, to be enrolled in companies of not less than 
seventy-five men each, rank and file, and in regiments of ten com[>auies each. I was also 
authorized to provide for uniforming and equip[>ing such com[janies as were not providetl with 
uniforms and eiuipmcnts." " The first call of the president for immediate active service," con- 
tinued the governor, " was for one regiment of men. My proclamation, issued immediately after the 
passage of t'.ic.act of the legialature, was answered within le^s than ten days, by companies enough, 
each containing the rerpii-iite number of men, to make up at least five regiments instead of o e. 
I then issued another proclamation, announcing the otTers that had been made, and advising 
that thereafter companies might be enrolled to stand as minute men, ready to answer further 
calls, as they might be made, but without e.xi>ense to the State, except as they were mustered 
into service. In less than one month from the date of mv first proclamation, at least five thou- 
sand men, either as individuals or enrolled companies, have offered their services for the war, 
and all appear anxious for active service in the field." " The time for deliberation," concludes 
the governor, "must give way to the lime for action. The constitution of the United States 
must be sustained in all its first intent and wholeness. The right of the people of every State 
to go into every ot'ner State and engage in any lawful pursuit, without unlawful interference or 
molestation; the freedom of speech and of the [iress ; the riglit of trial by jury; security from 
unjustifiable seizure of persons or papers, and all constitutional privileges and immunities, must 
receive new guarantees of jafety." 

The extra session of the legislature passed, wtih a single exception, no acts except such as 
appertained to the military exigencies of the times. Both houses adjourned sine die on the 
twenty-seventh of May, iS6i. As the administration of Governor Randall would close with the 
year, and as he was not a candidate for re-election, there was much interest felt throughout the 
State as to who his successor should be. Three State tickets were put in nomination : union, 
republican, and democratic. The republican ticket was successful, electing Louis P. Harvev, 
irovernor ; f^dward Salomon, lieutenant governor; James T. Lewis, secretary of state; S. D. 
Hastings, state treasurer; James H Howe, attorney general; \V. H. Ramsey, bank comp- 
troller; J. L. Pickard, superintendent of public instruction; and A. 1'. Hodges, state prison 

TnK \V.\R ov Secession' — L.\st of R.^np.all's Adminis iras h i.\ 

When ^\■isconsin was first called upon to aid the General Government in its efibrts to 
sustain itself against the designs of the secession conspirators, the commercial affairs of the 
State were embarrassed to a considerable degree by the depreciation of the currency. The 
designs of the secessionists were so far developed at the ending of the year iS6o as to show that 
resistance to the national authority had been fully determined on. It is not a matter of wonder, 
then, that Governor Randall in his message to the legislature, early in January, iS6i, should 
have set forth the dangers which threatened the Union, or sliould have denied the right of a 
State to secede from it. "Secession," said he, "is revolution; revolution is war ; war against 
tiie government of the United States is treason." " It is time," he continued, " ncjw, to know 
wuelher we have any go\-tjrnnient, and if so, whether it has any strength. Is our written 
• I'nstitution more than a sheet of parcinnent .' The nation must be lost or preserved by its own 
strength. Its strength is in the patriotism of the people. It is time now that politicians became 
patriots; that men show their love of country by every sacrifice, but that of princijjle, and by 


unwavering devotion to its interests and integrity." "The hopes," added the governor, most 
eloquently, " of civilization and Christianity are suspended now upon the answer to this question 
of dissolution. The capacity for, as well as the riglit of, self-government is to pass its ordeal, 
and s[)eculation to liecome certainty. Other s\ stems have been tried, and have failed ; and all 
along, the skeletons of nations have been strewn, as warnings and land-marks, upon the great 
highway of historic overnnient. Wisconsin is true, and her people steadfast. She will not 
destroy the Union, nor consent that it shall be done. Devised by great, and wise, and good 
men, in days of sore trial, it must stand. Like some bold mountain, at whose base the great seas 
break their angry tloods, and around whose sumnm the thunders of a thousand hurricanes have 
rattled — strong, unmoved, immovable — so may our Union be, v.hile treason surges at its base, 
and passions rage around it, unmoved, immovable — here let it stand forever." These are the 
words of an e.xalted and genuine patriotism. Hut the governor did not content himself with 
eloquence alone. He came down to matters of business as well. He urged the necessity of 
legislation that would give more efficient organization to the militia of the State. He warned 
the legislators to make preparations also for the coming time that should try the souls of men. 
"The signs of the times," said he, " indicate tliai there may arise a contingency in the condition 
of the government, when it will become necessary to respond to a call of the National Government 
for men and means to maintain the integrity of the Union, and to thwart the designs of men 
engaged in organized treason. While no unnecessary expense should be incurred, yet it is the 
part of wisdom, both for individuals and States, in revolutionary times, to be prepared to defend 
our institutions to-the last extremity." It was thus the patriotic governor gave evidence to the 
members of both houses that he " scented the battle afar ofl"." 

On the 1 6th of January, a joint resolution of the legislature was passed, declaring that the 
people of Wisconsin are ready to co-operate with the friends of the Union every where for its 
preservation, to yield a cheerful obedience to its requirements, and to demand a like obedience 
from all others ; that the legislature of Wisconsin, profoundly impressed with the value of the 
Union, and determined to preserve it unimpaired, hail with joy the recent firm, dignified and 
patriotic special message of the president of the United States; that they tender to him, through 
the chief magistrate of their own State, whate\er aid, in men and money, may be required to 
enable him to enforce the laws and u[)hold the authority of the Federal Government, and in 
defense of the more perfect Union, which has conferred prosperity and happiness on the 
American people. " Renewing," said they, " the pledge given and redeemed by our fathers, we 
are ready to devote our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honors in upholding the Union and 
the constitution." 

The legislature, in order to put the State upon a kind of "war footing," passed an act for 
its defense, and to aid in enfoicing the laws and maintaining the authority of the General 
Government. It was under this act that Governor Randall was enabled to organize the earlier 
regiments of Wisconsin. By it, in case of a call from the jjresident of the Lnited States to aid 
in maintaining the Union and the supremacy of the laws to suppress rebellion or insurrection, or 
to repel invasion within the United States, ti-.e governor was authorized to provide, in the most 
clTicient manner, for resiionding to such call — -to acxept the services of volunteers for service, 
in companies of seventy-live men each, rank and hie, and in regiments of ten companies each, 
and to commission ofhcers for them. Tlie governor was also authorized to contract I'or 
uniforms and equipmeiKs necessary for putting such companies into active service. One 
hundred thousand dollars were a[ipropriated fur war purjioses; and bonds were autb.orized tn 
be issued for that amount, to be negotiated by the governor, l"or raising funds. It will be seen, 
therefore, that the exigencies of tlie times — for Fort Su nter had not yet been surrendered — 

^nsroxsix as a state. 71 

were fully met by the people's representatives, they doing their whole duty, as they then under- 
stood it, in aid of the perpetuity of the Union. 

Having defended Fort Sumter for thirty-four hours, until the quarters were entirely burned, 
the main gates destroyed, the gorge-wall seriously injured, the magazine surrounded by flames, 
and its door closed from the effects of the heat, four barrels and three cartridges of powder only 
being available, and no provisions but pork remaining, Robert Anderson, major of the first 
artillery, United States army, accepted terms of evacuation offered by General Beauregard, 
marched out of the fort on Sunday afternoon, the fourteenth of April, iS6i, with colors flying 
and drums beating, bringing away company and private property, and saluting his flag with fifty guns. 
This, in brief, is the story of the fall of Sumter and the opening act of the War of the Rebellion. 

"Whereas," said Abraham Lincoln, president, in his proclamation of the ne.xt day, " tlie 
laws of the United States have been for some time past, and now are, opposed, and the e.xecution 
thereof obstructed, in the States of South Carolina, Georgia, Al.ibama, Florida, Mississippi, 
Louisiana, and Texas, by combinations too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary course of 
judicial proceedings, or by the powers vested in the marshals by law." Now, in view of that 
fact, he called forth the militia of the ..several States of the Union, to the aggregate number of 
seventy-five thousand, in order to suppress those combinations, and to cause the laws to be duly 
e.'vecuted. " A call is made on you by to-night's mail for one regiment of militia for immediate 
service," telegrai>hed the secretary of war to Randall, on the same day. 

In Wisconsin, as elsewiiere, the public pulse quickened under the excitement of the fall of 
Sumter. " The' dangers which surrounded the nation awakened the liveliest sentiments of 
patriotism and devotion. For the time, party fealty was forgotten in the general desire to save 
the nation. The minds of the people soon settled into the conviction that a bloody war was at 
hand, and that the glorious fabric of our National Government, and the principles upon whicii 
it is founded, were in jeopardy, and with a determination unparalleled in the history of any 
country, they rushed to its defense. On every hand the National flag could be seen displayed, 
and the public enthusiasm knew no bounds; in city, town, and hamlet, the burden on every 
tongue was war." "We have never been accustomed," said Governor Randall, " to conii^ier the 
military arm as essential to the maintenance of our government, but an exigency has arisen 
that demands its employment." "The time has come," he continued, '" when parties and plat- 
forms must be forgotten, and all good citizens and patriots unite together in putting down rebels 
and traitors." "What is money," he asked, "what is life, in the presence of such a crisis.'". 
Such utterances and such enthusiasm could but have their effect upon the legislature, which, it 
will be remembered, was still in session ; so, althougli that body had already voted to adjourn, 
siiif die, on the fifteenth of April, yet. when the moment arrived, and a message from the governor 
was received, announcing tiiat, owing to the extraordinary exigencies which had arisen, an amend- 
ment of the law of the thirteenth ijistant was necessary, the resolution to adjourn was at once 
rescinded. The two hovises thereupon not only increased the amount of bonds to be issued to 
two hundred thousand dollars, but they also [lassed a law exem[jting from civil process, during 
the time of servii e, all persons enlisting and mustering into the United States army from Wis- 
consin. \\'hen, on the seventeenth, the legislature did adjourn, tiie scene was a remarkable one. 
Nine cheers were given for the star spangled banner and tliree for the Governor's Guard, who 
had just then tendered their services — the first in the State — under the call for a regiment of 
men for three months' duty. 

" For the first time in t'ne history of this federal government," are the words of the gover- 
nor, in a proclamation issued on the sixteenth of .\pri!, "organized treason manifested itself 
within several States of the Union, r.nd armed rebels are making war against i;." " The 
treasuries of the country," said lie, " must no longer be plundered ; the public propertv must be 

72 RT-^TOnY OF TrrscoxsTX 

protected from aggressive violence; that already seized must be retaKcn, and the laws must 
be executed in every State of the Union alike." "A demand,'" lie added, " made upon Wiscon- 
sin by the president of tlie United States, for aid to sustain tlie federal arm, must meet with a 
prompt response." The patriotism of the State was abundantly e.xhibited in their filling up 
a regiment before some of tlie remote settlements had any knowledge of the call. On the twenty- 
second, Governor Randall reported to the secretary of war that the First regiment was ready 
to "Q into rendezvous. Tlie place designated was "Camp Scott," at Milwaukee; the day, the 
twentv-seventh of April. Then and there the several companies assembled — the regiment after- 
ward com]')leting its organization. 

With a wise foresight, Governor Randall ordered, as a reserve force and in advance of another 
call for troops by the president, the- formation of two more regiments — the Second and Third, 
and, eventually, the Fourth. Camps at Madison, Fond du Lac, and Racine, were formed for 
their'l reception, where suitable buildings were erected for their accommodation. Companies 
assigned to the Second regiment were ordered to commence moving into ''Camp Randall," at 
Madison, on the first day of May. On the seventh, the secretary of war, under call of the presi- 
dent of the United States for forty-two thousand additional volunteers — this time for three years, 
or during the war — tclegra|ilied Governor Randall that no more three months' volunteers were 
wanted; tiiat such comp.uiies as were recruited must re-enhst for the new term or be disbanded. 

At the extra session of the legislature of Wisconsin, which, as already mentioned, com- 
menced on the fifteenth of May, called by Governor Randall immediately upon his being notified 
of the second call of tiie president for troops, on tlie third of May, the law hurriedly passed at 
the close of the regular session, and under which the governor had organized the First regi- 
ment, was found inadequate to meet the second call for troops. " A bill was introduced, and became 
a law, authorizing the governor to raise six regiments of infantry, inclusive of those he had organ- 
ized or placed at quarters. When the six regiments were mustered into the United States service, 
he was autliorized to raise two additional regiments, and thus to keep two regiments continually 
in reserve to meet any future call of the General Government. He was authorized to quarter 
and subsist volunteers at rendezvous — to transport, clothe, subsist and quarter them in camp at 
the expense of the State. Arms and munitions were to be furnished by the United States. 
Recruits were to be mustered into State service, and into United Stales service, for three years. 
Two assistant surgeons to each regiment were to lie appointed, and paid by the State. The regi- 
ments, as they came int'i camp, were to be instructed in drill and various camp duties, to secure 
efficiencv in the field. The troops, so called in, were to be paid monthly by the State, the same 
pay and emoluments as the soldiers in the United States army, from the liate o/ enlistment. Tiie 
paymaster general was authorized to draw funds from the .State treasury for the payment of 
the State troops, and the expense incurred in subsisting, transporting and clothing them. The 
governor was authorized to purciiase military stores, subsistence, clothing, medicine, field and 
camp equipage, and the sum of one nr.llion dollars was appropriated to enable the governor to 
carry out the law." 

Other laws were passed relating to military matters. One authorized the governor to pur- 
chase twu lli.ii'.sand stand of arms; and fitly thousand dollar.-, were .ipprupnated to [jav lor the 
same, .\notlier authorized counties, towns, cities and incorporated vill.iges to lew taxes for 
the i)iiriio-,e of i)roviiiinj, for the su[ii)orl of families of volunteers residing in their respective 
limits. 1 iie one p.i>>ed at tiie previous ^e:^^io^.. evempting volunteers troin civil process i-hile iu 
the servi( e, was amended so as to inilucle all who might therealter enlist. (>ne granted Cwi^ dollars 
per monlh as extra [lay to enlisted volunteers having f.imilie-. dependent upon them for support, 
Jiayable to their f.unilics. Another a\ithorized the governor to emiiloy such aids, clerks and 

"vrrscoxsix as a state. 73 

messengers, as he deemed necessary for the public intert?sts. Still another authorized the pay- 
ment of those who had enlisted for three months, but had declined to go in for three years. 
The expenses of the extra session were ordered to be paid out of the " war fund." One million 
dollars in bonds were authorized to be issued for war purposes to form that fund. The governor, 
secretary of state and state treasurer were em [lowered to negotiate them. By a joint resolu- 
tion approved the tiventy-first of May, the consent of the legi-,lature was given to the governor 
to be absent from tiie State during the war, for as long a time as in his discretion he might tliink 
proper or advisable, in connection with the military forces of the State. For lilierality, zeal and 
genuine patriotism, the members of the Wisconsin legislature, for the year 1861, deserve a high 
commendation. All that \\as necessarj- upon their final adjournment at the close of the e.xtra 
session to place the State upon a " war footing,'.' was the organization 1)y the governor of the 
various military departments. These he effected by ai>pointing Brigadier General William L. 
Utley, adjutant general; Brigadier (jeneral W. W. Tredway, quartermaster general; Colonel 
Edwin R. Wadsworth, commissarv general; Brigadier General Simeon Mills, p.iymaster gen- 
eral; Brigadier General E. B. Wolcott, surgeon general; Major E. L. Buttrick, judge advocate; 
and Colonel William H. \\'atson, military secretary. 

On the seventeenth of May, the First regiment, at " Camii Scott," was mustered into the 
United States service, and the war department informed that it awaited marcliing orders. The 
regimental officers were not all in accordance with the law and mode adopted afterwards. On 
the seventh of the month Governor Randall had appointed Rufus King a brigadier general, and 
assigned the First, Second, Third and Fourth regiments to his command as the Wisconsin 
brigade; although at that date only the First and Second had been called into camp. This 
brigade organization was not recognized by the General (iovernment. The secretary of war 
telegraphed the governor of Wisconsin that the quota of tlie State, under the second call ot the 
president, was two regiments — so that the whole number under both calls was only three — one 
(the First) for three months, two (the Second and Third) for three years. Notwithstanding this, 
Governor Randall iiroceeded to organize the Foanh. 

As a number of the companies ordered into '" Camp Randall " on the first day of May to 
furni the Second regiment had only enlisted for three months, the order of the secretary of war 
of the seventh of that n>onth making it imperative that all buch companies must re-enlist for 
tlirec 3ears or during the war, or be disbanded, the question of extending their term of enlist- 
ment was submitted to the couq)anies of the regiment, v,-lv;n about live hundred consented to 
the change. The quota of tlie regiment was afterward mad; r.p. and tlie whule mustered into 
the Service of the United States for three years or during t!.e war, under the president's sccolu 
call for troops. Tliis was on the eleventh of June, 1S61. The Third regiment having had its 
Companies assigned early in May, they were ordered in June into "Camp Hamilton" at Fond 
du Lac, where the reginient was organized, and, on tl'.e twenty-ninth of June, mustered into the 
United States' service as a three years regiment. This hlled Wiscoubin's quota under the second 
call of President Lincoln. By this time war matters in the State began to a.i.bume a systematic 
course of procedure — thanks to the patriotism uf the people, the wisdom of the legislature, and 
the untiring energy and exertions of the governor and his subordinates. 

The determination v\ tlie secret.iry of v.\.r to accept .".'om \Viscon.-,:n only two three-years 
rcgnneiits under the secon<l call for troo' ^ was soon chang.d, and three more were authorized, 
ni.ikuvg it necessary to organize tlie Fourtli, I'ifth and Sixtli. Tlie Fourth was called into "Camp 
Uth-y " at liacine on the sixth of June, arid was mu; tered into tiie service uf the United States 
on tile nintli 'of the niunlh. I'.y tlie twenty-eighth of June, all the companies of the 
I'lfth had assembled at " Canqi Randall," and on tiie thirteenth of Julv. were mustered in as 



United States troops. By the t'lrst of July, at the same [ilace, the complement for the Sixth 
regiment had been made u}), and the companies were mustered for three years into the service 
of the General Government, on the sixteenth of the same month. Governor Randall did not 
stop the good work, when six regiments had been accepted, but a.isigned the necessary companies 
to form two more regiments — the Seventh and Eighth; however, he wisely concluded not to call 
them into camp until after harvest, unless specially required to do so. " If they are needed 
sooner," said the governor, in a letter to the president on the first of July, " a call will be 
diately responded to, and we shall have their uniforms and equipments ready for them,'' "By 
the authority of our legislature," added the wriler, 'I shall, after tlie middle of August, keep 
two regiments equii>ped and in camp ready for a call to .->crvice, and will have them ready at an 
earlier clay if needed." 

.\boat the latter part of Tune, \V. P. Alexander, of Beloit, a good marksman, was commis- 
sioned captain to raise a com[iany of sharpsiiooters for BerJan's regiment. He at once engaged 
in the work. The company wa^ hlled to one hundred and tiiree privates and three officers. It 
left the State about the middle of September under Captain Alexander, and was mustered into 
the service at Wehawken on the twenty-third day of that month., a.-> Company '' G " of Berdan's 
regiment of sharpshooters. On the twenty-sixth of Jidy, a commission was issued to G. Van 
Deutsch of Milwaukee, to raise a conqiany of cavalry. He succeeded in filling his company to 
eighty-four men. He left the State in September, joining Fremont. The company was after- 
ward attached to the fifth cavalry regiinent of ^Missouri. 

About tiie 2otii of August, Governor Randall was authorized to organize and equip as rapidly 
as possible five regiments of infantry and five batteries of artillery, and procure for them necessary 
clothing and equipments according to United States regulations and prices, subject to the inspec- 
tion of officers of the Cieneral Government. The five regiments were to be additional to the 
eight already raised. One regiment was to be German. During the last week of August the 
companies of the Seventh regiment were ordered into ""Camp Randall," at !vIadison. They were 
mustered into the service soon after arrival. On the sSth of August orders were issued for the 
reorganization of the First regiment for three years, its term of three months having expired. 
The secretary of war having signified his acceptance of the regiment for the new term, its mus- 
tering into the service was completed on the nineteenth of C)ctober. This made six infantry regi- 
ments in addition to the eight already accepted, or fourteen in all. On the same day orders were 
issued assigning companies to the Eighth regiment, — the whole moving to '" Canqj Randall," at 
Madison, the first week in September, wnere their mustering in was finished on the thirteenth. 

The Ninth, a German reginent, was recruited in squads, and sent into camp, where they were 
formetl into cunqaanies, and the whole mustered in on the 26th of October, iS6i,at '" Camp Sigel," 
Milwaukee. Companies were assigned the Tenth regiment on the iSth of September, and 
ordered into canqj at Milwaukee, where it was fully organized about the first of October, being 
mustered into the service on tlie I'ourteenth of that month. The Tenth infantry was enlisted in 
September, 1S61, and mustered in on tiie fourteenth of October, 1S61, at '"Camp Holton," Mil- 
waukee. The Eleventh regiment was railed bv cumpani'es into " Camp Randall " the latter part 
of Septenibcr and first of October, iS6[, and mustered in on the eighteenth. The Twelfth was 
called in to the same camp and mustered in by comp-nies between the twenty-eighth of October 
and tile fifth of November, 1S61. The Thirteenth rendezvoused at '"Camp Treadway," Janes- 
vilie, being mu>tered into the United States service on the seventeenth of October, 1S61. These 
thirteen regiments were all that had been accejited and mustered into the United States serv!'-e 
while Randall was governor. 

From the commencement of the rebellion a great desire had been manifested for the or?an- 


ization of artillery companies in Wisconsin, and this desire was finally gratified. Each battery 
was to number one hundred and fifty men, and, as has been shown, five had been authorized by 
the General Government to be raised in Wisconsin. The First battery was recruited at La 
Crosse, under the superintendence of Captain Jacob T. Foster, and was known as the " La Crosse 
.Artillery." It rendezvoused at Racine^early in October, iS6i, where on the tenth of that month, 
it was mustered into the United States service. The Second battery, Captain Ernest Herzberg, 
assembled at '" Camp LTtley," Racine, and was mustered in with the First battery on the tenth. 
The Third, known as the " Badger Battery," was organized by Captain L. H. Drur}', at Madison 
and Berlin, and was mustered into the service on the same day and at the same place as the First 
and Second. The Fourth battery, recruited and organized at Beloit, under the supervision of 
Cajitain John F. Valiee, was mustered in on the first of October, 1861, at Racine. The Fifth 
battery was recruited at Aronroe, Green county, under the superintendence of Captain Oscar F- 
Binney, moving afterward to "Camp Utiey," Racine, where, on the first of October, it was mus- 
tered in, along with the Fourth. So brisk had been the recruiting, it was ascertained by the 
governor that seven companies had been raised instead of five, when the secretary of war was 
telegraphed to, and the extra companies — tiie Sixth and Seventh accepted; the Sixth, ktiown as 
the "Buena Vista Artillery," being recruited at Lone Rock, Richland county, in September, 
Captain Henry Dillon, and mustered in on the second of October, 1S61, at Racine; the Seventh, 
known as the "Badger State Flying Artillery," having organized at Milwaukee, Captain Richard 
R. Griffiths, and mustered in on the fourth of tiie same month, going into camp at Fv.acine on the 
eighth. This. completed the mustering in of the fir.-,t seven batteries, during Governor Randall's 
administration ; the whole mustered force being thirteen regiments of infantry; one company of ~ 
cavalry ; one of sharpshooters; and these seven artillery companies. "Wisconsin," said the gov- 
ernor, in response to a request as to the number of regiments organized, "sent one regiment 
fur three months, — officers and men eiglit hundred and ten. The otlier regiments r the war up 
to the Thirteenth (including the First, re-organized), will average one thousand men each; one 
comp.any of sharpshooters for Berdan's regiment, one hundred and three men; and seven 
companies of light artillery." Of cavalry from Wisconsin, only Deutsch's company had been 
mustered into the United States, although three regiments had been authorized by the General 
Government betore the close of Randall's administration. The governor, before the expiration 
of his office, was empowered to organize more artillery companies — ten in all ; and five additional 
regiments of infantry — making the whole number eighteen. On the tenth of December, he 
wrote: "Our Fourteenth infantry is full and in camp. * * * Fifteenth has five companies 
in camp, and filling up. Sixteenth has eight companies in camp, and will be full by the rjth of 
December. Seventeenth has some four hundred men enlisted. Eighteenth will be in camp, full, 
by January i. Seven maximum companies of artillery in camp. * * * Three regiments of 
cavalry — two full above the maximum; the tliird, about eight hundred mtn in camp." It 
will be seen, therefore, that a considerable number of men in the three branches of the service 
was then in camp that liad not been mustered into the service ; and this number was considerably 
increased by the 6th of January, iS6j, the day tliat Randall's official term expired; but no more 
men Were mustered in, until his successor came into office, than those previously mentioned. 

The First regiment — three months' — lei't "Cam[i .^cott," Milwaukee, on the ninth of June, 
iS6i, for Harrisburg. Pennsylvania — eight hundred and ten in number; John C. Starkweather, 
colonel. The regiment returned to Milwaukee on the seventeenth of August, lioi, and was 
mustered out on the twenty-second. 

The First regiment re-organized at "Camp Scott," Milwaukee. Its mustering into the 
service, as previously mentioned, was completed on the nineteenth of October. On the twent)- 


eighth, it started for Louisvi^e, Kentucky — nine hundred and forty-live strong — under command 
of its former colonel, John C. Starkweather. The Second regiment, with b. Park Cooii a^ 
colonel, left " Camp Randall. ^Madison, for ^Vashington city, on the eleventh of June, iS6i — 
numbering, in all, one tliousand and fifty-one. The Third regiment started from " Camp 
Hamilton," Fond du Lac, lor Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, under conuaanj of Charles S. Hamilton, 
as colonel, on the twelfth of July, iS6i, witli a numerical strengtli of nine hundred and seventy- 
nine. The Fourth regiment — Colonel Halbert E. Payne - — with a numerical strength of one 
thousand and fifty-three, departed on the fifteenth of July, iSoi, from " Camp Utley," Racine, 
for Baltimore, Marylai'.d. The P'ifth regiment left '"Camp Randall," Madison, one thousand 
and fifty-eight strong, commanded by Colonel Amisa Cobb, on the twenty-fourth of July, iS6i, 
for Washington city. On the twenty-eigh.tli of July, iS6i, tlie Sixth regiment, numbering one 
thousand and eighty-fou;, i!-'_oved from Madi.on, having been ordered to Washington city. It 
was commanded by Colonel Lysander Cu:'c-r. The Seventh regiment — JoseiUi Van Dor, Colonel 
— with a numerical strength cf one thous^^i.d and si.xteen men — officer^ and privates, received 
orders, as did the Fifth and Sixth, to move fjrward to Washington. They started from Madison 
on the morning of the twenty-first of September, iS6r, for active service. The Eighth infantry, 
nine hundred and' sevent\-three strong, commanded by Colonel Robert C. Murphy, left Madison, 
en route for St. Louis, Missouri, on the morning of the twelfth of C)ctober, iS6i. The Ninth, or 
German regiment, with Frederick Salomon in command as ci>lonel,did not leave "Camp Sigel," 
for active service, while Randall was governor. The Tenth infantry moved from "Camp 
Holton," Milwaukee, commanded by Colonel Alfred R. Chajiin, on the ninth of November, liSOi, 
destined for Louisville, Kentucky, with a total number of nine hundred and sixteen officers and 
privates. On the twentieth of November, iS6i, the Eleventh regiment "broke camp" at 
Madison, starting for St. Louis, under command of Charles L. Harris, as colonel. Its whole 
number of men was nine hundred and sixteen. The Twelfth regiment, at " Camp Randall," 
Madison — Colonel George K. iJryant, and the Thirteenth, at " Camp Tredway," Janesville — 
Colonel Maurice ALiloney — v.-cre biiU in camp at the expiration of the administration of Governor 
Randall : these, with the Ninth, were all that had not moved out of the State for active service, 
of those mustered in previous to January 6, iS6i, — making a grand total of infantry sent from 
Wisconsin, up to that date, by the governor, to answer calls of the General Government, for 
three years' service or during the war, of nine thousand nine hundred and ninety-one inen, ir. ten 
regiments, averaging very iie.irly one thousand to each regiment. Besides these ten regiments 
of infantry for three years' service, Wisconsin had also sent into the I'leld the Firbt regiment, for 
three months' service, numbering eight hundred and ten men; .Alexander's company of sharp- 
shooters, one hundred and >ix; and Deutsch's coni'iany of cavalry, eighty-four: in all, one 
thousand. .Adding tliese to the three year^' regiments, and the whole force, in round numbers, 
was eleven thousand men, furnished by the St.Ue in iS6i. 

Eighth .Vdmi.vistr.ation". — Lnuis P. H.arvkv Axn Imiward S.vlomox, Govkknors— 1S62-1S63. 

Louis P. H,ir\ey was inaugurated governor of Wisconsin on the sixth of January, 1862. 
The fifteenth regular session of the legislature of the State began on the eightli of the same 
month. In the senate, the republicans were in the m.ijority; but in the assembly they had 
only a plurality of niemlier^, there being a number of " I'liirm " men in that branch — enough, 
inileed, to elect, by outride aid, T. ^'''- Peat'Lley, w!io ran for the assembi}', upon tlie " L'nion " 
ticket, as speaker. C.overnor ILirvev-, on tlie tenth, read his message to the legislature in joint 
convention. "No previous !cgi>lature,"' are his ojiening words, "Jias con\ened under equal 
incentives to a disinterested .'.eal in the puMic service 'I'he occasion," lie adds, "pleads 


with you in rebuke of all the meaner [laisions, adniunishing to the exercise of a conscientious 
patrioti-^ni, becoming the representatives of a Christian people, called in God's providence to 
pass through the firnacc of a great trial of their virtue, and of the strength of the Government." 
On the seventh of Aiiril following, the legislature adjourned until the third of June next ensuintr. 
Before it again assembled, an event occurred, casting a gloom over the whole State. The 
occa->ion was the accidental drowning of Governor Harvey. 

Soon .ifter the battle of Pittsburgh Landing, on the seventh of April, 1S62, the certainty 
that some of ihe Wisconsin regiments had suffered severely, induced the governor to organize 
a rei f party, to aid the wounded and suffering soldiers t'rom the State. On the tenth, Harvey 
and others started on their tour of benevolence. Arriving at Chicago, they found a large num- 
ber of boxes had been furwarded there from different pointb in the State, coittaining supplies of 
varir)us kinds. At Muui.cJ City, Paducah. arid Savannah, the governor and his party adminis- 
tered to the wants of the sick and wounded Wisconsin soldiers. Plaving completed their mission 
of mercy, they repaired to a boat in the harbor of Savannah, to await the arrival of the Miime- 
haha^ which was to convey them to Cairo, on their homeward trip. It was late in the evenins; of 
the nineteenth of .April, 1S6.?, and very dark when the boat arrived which was to take the 
governor and his friends on board ; and as she rounded to, the bow touching the Diinkii/i, un 
which was congregated the party ready to depart, Governor Harvey, by a misstep, fell overboard 
between the two boats, into the Tennessee river. The current was strung, and the water more 
than tliirly feet deep. Every thing was dune that could be, to save his life, but all to no 
purpose. His body was subseijuently found and brought tu Madison lor interment. Edward 
Salomon, lieutenant governor, by virtue of a provision of the constitution of the State, upon the 
death of Harvey, succeeded to the office of governor of Wisconsin. On the third day of June, 
the legislature re-assembled in accordance with adjournment on the seventii of April previous, 
Governor Salomon, in hi> message of tiiat day, to the senate and assembly, after announciu'^ 
the sad event of the death of the late governor, said: '' The last among the governors elected 
by the people of this State, he is the first who lias been removed by death from our midst. The 
circumstances leading to and surrounding the tragic . nd melancholy end of the honored and 
lamented deceased, are well known to the people, and are, with his memory, treasured up in 
their hearts." He died," added Salomon, " while in the exercise of the highest duties of philan- 
thropy arid humanity, that a noble im;iulse had imposed ujion him." The legislature, on the 
thirteenth r>f June, by a joint resolution, declared that in the death of Governor Harve}-, the 
State had " lost an honest, faithful, and efiicicnt public ofllcer, a high-toned gentleuuin, a warm 
hearted philanthrojnst, and a sincere friend." Both houses adjourned stnf uu, on the seventeuth 
of June, i.'s6; 

Business of great jiublic importance, in the judgment of the governor, rendering a special 
Session of the legislature necessary, he issued, on the tuenty-ninth of Aucjust. 1S62, his prcc- 
laniatiou to that effect, convening both houses un the terith of September following. On that 
d.iy he sent in his message, relating whtilly to war matters. He referred to the fact that since 
tile adjournment of the previous session, six hundred thousand more men had been called for b\- 
:iic president of tile United States,-to s'lpjiress the rebellion. '' It is evident," said lie, "that to 
iiicet further calls, it is neiessary to rel\ upon asysfem of drafting or con.scriiition, in ^\'isconsill. ' 
1 he guvernor then ]iroceeded to recommend such measures as he deemed necessar}- to meet 
the e\i_;encies of the times. The legislature levied a l.ix to aid vulunteering, and passed a law 
giving the right of suffr.ige to soldiers in tlir military .service. They also authorized the raising 
of money for payment of. bounties to volunteers. The le-,islaturc adjourned on the twenty- 
si^th of Sfjitember, iS^j, at'ter a session of sixteen days, and the enacting of seventeen laws. 


On the 7th of Octolier, Jamcs II. Howe, attorney general, re=igned his office to enter the 
army. On the 14th of tliat month, A\'infie!d Smith was appuinted by the governor to fill the 

At the general election in the Fall of this year, si.'i congressmen were elected to the tnirty- 
eii^lith congress: J ii!n;s S. Ilrown from the first district; I. C. Sloan, from the second; Amasa 
•CoMi, from the third; Charles A. FJdredge, from the fourth; Ezra Wheeler, from the fifth; and 
W. D. Mclndoe, t'rom the sixth district. Sloan, Cobb, and .Mclndoe, were elected as repuljii- 
cans ; ISrown, Eldridge, and Wheeler, as democrats. 

The sixteenth regular session of the Wisconsin legislature, commenced on the fourteenth of 
January, iS6j. J. Allen liarber was elected speaker of the assembly. The majority in both 
houses was republican. Governor Salomon read his message on the fifteenth, to the joint 
convention, referring, at length, to matters connected with tlie war of the rebellion. A large 
number of bills were passed by the legislature for tlie benefit of soldiers and their families. On 
the twenty-second, the legislature re-elected James R. Doolittle. to the United States senate for 
six years, from the fourth of March ne.xt ensuing. The legislature adjourned sine die on the 
second of April lollowing. In the Spring of this year, Luther S. l)i.\on was re-elected chiief 
justice of the supreme court, running as an inde[iendent candidate. 

By a provision uf the Revised Statutes of 1S5S, as amended by an act passed in 1S62, and 
interpreted by another act passed in 1C75, the terms of the justices of the supreme court, 
elei ted tor a lull term, conimence on the fir-:t Monday in January ne.\t succeeding their election. 
At the Fall election there were two tickets in the lield : democratic and union republican. 
The latter was successful, electing James T. Lewis, governor; Wyman Spooner, lieutenant 
governor; Lucius Fairchild, secretarv' of biate ; S. D, Hastings, state treasurer; Winfieid 
Smith, attorne}- general; J. L. Fickard, state superintendent; W. H. Ramsay, y bank comp- 
troller; and Henry Cordier, state prison commissioner. 


When Governor Randall turned over to his successor in the gubernatorial chair, the militarv 
matters of Wisconsin, he had rc-niaining in the State, cither already organized or in process of 
formation, the Ninth infantry, also tlie Twelfth up to the Xincteenth inclusive; three regiments 
of cavalry ; and ten batteries — First to Tenth inclusive. Colonel Edward Daniels, in the Summer 
of 1S61, was authorized by the war department to recruit and organize one battalion of cavalry 
in Wisconsin. He was subsequently authorized to raise two more companies. -Governor Ran- 
d.dl, in October, was authorized to complete the regiment — the First cavalr)- — by the organiza- 
tion of six additional comjianies. The organization of tlie Second ca\alry regiment was author- 
ized in the Fall of 1S61, as an "independent acceptance," but w>_, finall)- turned over to the 
State authorities. Early in Xo\ember, 1S61. the war department issued an order discontinuing 
enlistments for the cavalry service, and circulars «ere sent to the diiTerent State executives to 
consolidate all incomplete regiments. Ex-Go\ernor Larstov,-, by authorit}' of General Fremont, -- 
wliich authority was confirmed by the Cieneral (JuNernment, had, (omnienced the organization 01 
a cavalry regiment — the Third \\'isconsin — when t iovernor. R.indall received inlbrmation that 
the authority of Ikirstow had been resoked. The latter, liowe\er, .so.m his authoritv 
restored. In October, Governor Randall was authori.'ed by the war de[)artmeiU to raise three 
additional companies of arlillery — Eighth tn Tenth inclusise. These thiee batteries Mere ail 
filled and went into ciinp by the ciu>e of iSOi. Governor Randall, therefore, besides sendm 
nut (il the State eleven tlujusand men, in process of formation, or full)- organized, nine 
regiments of inl'antry, three regiments of cavalry, and ten companies of artiller), lel't behind in 

•vrrscoxsTX as a state. 79 

various camps in the Stale, to be turned over to his successor. 

The military ofiicers ot" ^Visconsin were the governor, Louis P. Harvey, commander-in- 
chief; Brigadier General Augustus Gaylord, adjutant general; Brigadier General W. W. Trcd- 
way, ([aarterniaster general; Colonel Edwin R. Wadsworth, commissary general; Brigadier Gen- 
eral Simeon Milh, paymaster general; Brigadier General E. B. Wolcott, surgeon general; Major 
M. H. Carpenter, judge advocate; and Colonel William H. Watson, military secretary. As the 
General Government had taken the recruiting service out >>[ the hands of the executives of the 
States, and appointed superintendents in their place, the offices of commissary general and 
pavmaster general were an longer necessary; and their time, after the commencement of the 
administration in \Visconsin ci iS6;, was employee^, so long as they continued their respective 
offices, in settling up the business of eacli. The office of commissary general was closed about 
the first of June, 1SG2; that of pavmaster general on the tenth of Jul)' following. On the last 
of August. 1S62, Brigadier General Tredway resigned the position of quartermaster general, and 
Nathaniel I'. Lund was ajipointed to fill liis place. 

Upon the convening of the legislature of the State in its regular January session of this 
year — 1S62, Go\ernor Harvey gave, in his message to that bod)', a t'ull statement of what had 
been done b\' Wisconsin in m.nters appertaining to the war, under the administration of his 
predecessor. He stated that the State furnished to the service of the General Government 
under the call for volunteers for three months, one regiment — First Wisconsin; under the call 
for volunteers for three years, or the war, ten regiments, numbering froni the First re-organized 
to the Eleventh, excluding the Xinth or German reginient. He gave as the whole number of 
ofiicers, musicians and pri\ates, in tliese ten tiiree-year regiments, ten thousand one hundred and 
seventeen. He further stated that there -were then organized and awaiting orders, the Ninth, in 
"Camp Sigcl," Milwaukee, ntmibering nine hundred and forty men, under Colonel Frederick 
Salomon ; the Twelfth, in " Camp Randall," one thousand and thirty-nine men, under Colonel 
C.eorgc E. Bryant; the Tliirteenth, in "Camp Tredway," Janesville, having nine hundred and 
nineteen men, commanded by Colonel i\L Maloney ; and the Fourteenth, at " Camp Wood," 
Fond du Lac, eight hundred and fifty men, uni\-r Colonel D. E. \\'ood. 

The Fifteenth or Scandinavi.m regiment, Colonel H. C. Heg, seven hundred men, and the 
Sixteenth, Colonel Benjamin Allen, nine hundred men, v.ere at that lime at "Cai:ip Randall," in 
near readiness for marching orders. The Seventeenth (Irish) regiment. Colonel J. L. Doran, and 
the Eighteenth, Colonel James S. .■M'tian, had their full number of companies in readiness, lacking 
one, and had been notified to go into cam[) — the former at Madison, the latter at Milwaukee. 
Seven companies of artillcr\', numbering together one thousand and fifty men, had remained for 
a considerable time in " Camp L'tley," Racine, impatient of the delays of the General Govern- 
lurnt in calling them to move forward. Three additional companies of artillery were about 
i;'>ing into camp, numbering three hundred and tIiirt)-four men. Besides these, the State had 
furnished, as already mentioned, an independent conipany of cavalry, then in ?sIissouri, raised 
by Clajitain Von Deutsch, ot eighty-one nien ; a conipany of one hundred and four men for Ber- 
dan's sharpshooters; and an additional com[iany fiir the Second regiment, of about eighty men. 
'I'liree regiments of cavalry — the l'"irst. Colonel E. Haniels; the Second, Colonel C. C. Washburn; 
.md the Third, Colonel \V. A. Barstow; were being organized. They numbered together, two thou- 
vii'.d four hundred an(J fifty men. Tlie Nineteenth (indeliendent) regiment wa:, r.ipidly organ- 
./ing under the direction of the Gijvcrnment, by Colonel H. T. Sanders, Racine. -Not 
bringing this last regiment into view, the State had. at the commencement of Governor Harvey's 
:■■ innnistration, including the First, three-months' regiment, either in the service of the United 
^tates or organizing for it, a tot;d of twent\'-one thousand seven luintlred and ei;;luv-three men. 


The legislature at its regular session of 1S62, passed a law making it necessary to present 
all claims which were made payable out of the war fund, within twelve months from the time they 
accrued ; a law was also passed authorizing the investment of the principal of the school fund in 
tlie bonds of the state issued for war purposes ; another, amendatory of the act of the extra session 
of 1 86 1, granting exemption to persons enrolled in the military service, so as to except persons 
acting as fiduciary agents, either as executors or administrators, or guardians or trustees, or 
persons defrauding the Slate, or any school district of moneys belonging to the same ; also author- 
izing a stay of proceedings in loreciosures of mortgages, by advertisements. " The State Aid 
Law" was amended so as to apply to all regiments of infantr}-, cavalry, artillery and sharpshooters, 
denning the rights of families, fixing penalties for tiie issue of false papers, and imposing duties on 
military oflicers in the field to nuke certain reports. These amendments only included regi- 
ments and companies organized up to and including the Twentieth, which was in process of 
organization before the close of the session. A law was also passed suspending the sale of lands 
mortgaged to tlie State, or held by volunteers; another defining the duties of the allotment com- 
missioners appointed by the president of the United States, and lixing their conipen.sation. One 
authorized the issuing ot bonds for two hundred thousand dollars for -war purposes ; one author- 
ized a temporary loan fr. >m the general fund to p-'v State aid to volunteers ; and one, the appoint- 
ment of a joint committee to investigate the sale of war bonds ; while another authorized the 
governor to appoint surgeons to batteries, and assistant surgeons to cavalry regiments. 

The legislature, iTwill be remeuiliered, took a recess from the seventh of April to the third 
of June, 1S62. Ujii.m its re-assembling, .. -ct was passed providing )r the discontinuance of the 
acti\x Services of the paymaster general, quarterm:ister general and commissary general. 
Anotlier act appropriated twenty thousand dollars to enable the governor to care for the sick 
and wounded soldiers of the State. 'I'iiere was aKo another act passed authorizing the auditing, 
by the quartermaster general, of bills for subsistence and transportation of the ^Visconsin cavalry 
regiments. .\t the exira session called by Governor Salomon, for the tenth of September, 1S62, 
an amendment was m.ide to the law granting aid to families of volunteers, by including all regi- 
ments of cavalry, infintry, or batteries of artillery before that time raised in the State, or that 
might afterward be r.iised and mustered into the United States service. It also authorized the 
levving of a State tax of two hundred and seventy-five tliousand dollars to be placed totlie credit 
(if the war fund and used in the jiayment of warrants for '"State Aid" t'> families of volunteers. 
.\nother law authorized commissioned officers out of the -State to administer oaths and take 
acknowledgments nf deeds and other papers. One act uutliorized soldiers in the field, although 
out cif the .State, to exercise the right of sulTrage ; and another gave towns, cities, incorporated 
villages and counties the authoritv to raise money to pay bounties to volunteers. 

On tlie fifth of August, 1S62, Governor .'^alomon received f'om the war department a. dispatcli. 
stating that orders had been issued for a draft of three hundred tlioasand men to be immediately 
'ailed into the service of the United States, to ?er\e for nine months unless sooner discharged ; 
that if the State quota under a call made July 2, of that year, for three hundred thousand vol- 
unteers, was nut filled by the fit'teenth of .\ugus;, the deficiency wouUl i.e made up bv draft ; and 
that the secretary o[ war would a--sign the (piota^ to tlie States and eitahlisii reguhi'.ions for the 
dr.ift. On tlie eigluh of that montii, tlie governor of the Stale was ordered to immediately cause 
an cnrolhiient of all alile-lujdied citizens between eighteen and fort\-five \ears of age, b\- counties. 
Ciovernor Salomon was authorized to apjioint jiroper officers, and the United States promised to 
juy .ill reasonable expenses. The quota tor Wisconsin, untler the call for nine months' men, was 
ele\en thousand nine hundred and I'our. The draft was made by the governor in obedience to 
the order he had received from Washington ; but sueli had been the volunteering under the stim- 


ijlus cau«;od by a fear of it, that only four thousand five hundred and thirty-seven men were 
drafted. This was the first and only draft made in Wisconsin by the State authorities. 
Stil>sequent ones were made under the direction of the provost marshal general at \\'ash- 

The enlisting, organization and mustering into th.e United States service during Randall's 
.idministration of thirteen regiments of infantry — the First to the Thirteenth inclusive, and the 
marching of ten of them out of the State before the close ofiSOi, also, of one company of cavalry 
under Captain Yon Deutsch and one company of sharpshooters under Captain Alexander, £on- 
stituted the effective aid abroad of W'l^consi i during that year to suppress the rebellion. But for 
t!ic year 1S62, this aid, as to number of organizations, was more than doubled, as will now be 

The Ninth regiment left " Camp Sigel," Milwaukee, under command of Colonel Frederxk 
S.ilomon, on the twenty-second of January, 1S62, numbering thirty-nine ofricers and eight liun 
dred and eighty-four men, to report at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. 

The Twelftli infantry left Wisconsin under command of Colonel George E. Bryant, ten 
hundred and forty-five strong, the eleventh of January, 1S62, with orders to report at Weston, 

The Thirteenth regiment — Colonel Maurice Malonev — left "Camp Tredway," Janesville, on 
the eighteenth of January, iS6j, nine hundred and seventy strong, under orders to report at 
Le.ivenworth, Kansas, where it arrived on the twenty-third. 

The Fourteentji regiment of infantry departed from " Camp Wood," Fond du Lac, under 
command of Colonel David E. Wo. id, for St. Loui;, Missouri, on the eighth of March, 1S62, it 
I'.aving been mustered into the United States ser\ ice on the thirtieth of January previous. Its 
total strength was nine hundred and seventy otncers and men. It arrived at its destination on 
the tenth of March, and went into quarters at " Beiitou Barracks." 

The Fifteenth regiment, mostly recruited from the Scandinavian jiopulation of Wisconsin, 
was organized at "Camp Randall," .Madison — Hans C. Heg as colonel. Its muster into the 
Cnited States service was completed on tiie fourteenth of February, iS6j, it leaving the State for 
Si. Louis, Missouri, on the second of March following, with a total strength of eight hundred and 
one officers and men. 

'I'he Si.xteenth regiment Avas organized at "Camp Randall," and was mustered into the 
service on the last day of January, 1S6;, leaving the State, with Benjamin Allen as colonel, for 
Si. Louis on the thirteenth of March ensuing, having a total strength of one thousand and 

The regmiental organization of the Seventeenth infantry (Irish), Colonel Jc)hn L. Doran 
■■•as effected at " Camp Randall," and the mustering in of the men comiileted on the fifteenth of 
March, 1862, tlie regiment leaving the State on tiie twenty-third for St. Louis 

The Eighteenth regiment organized at " Camp Trowbridge, " Milwaukee — James S. Alban, 
' olonel — completed it-, muster into tlie United States service on tiie fit'teenth of March, iS6j, 
.iiid left the Slate for St. Louis on tlie thirtietli, reaching their point ni' destination on the thirty- 

The Nineteenth infantry rendezvoused at Racine as an independent regiment, its colonel, 
Horace 1'. Sanders, being commis;>ioned by the dejiartment. The men were mustered into 
''••e service as fast as they were enlisted. Independent organizations being abolished, by an 
";der irom Washington, tlie Nineteenth was placed on the s.ime footing as other regiments in the 
^^tate. On the twentieui of -Vpril, iSOj.'tiie regiment was ordered to "Camp Randall " to guard 
'cbel prisoners. Here the iiuutering in was completed, numbering in all nine hundred and 
seventy-three. They left the State t"or Washington on the second of June. 

82 HISTORY OF ^nscoxsrs'. 

The muster into the United States service of the Twentieth regiment — iJertine Pinckney, 
colonel — was completed on the twenty-third of August, iS6?, at "Carap Randall," the original 
strength being nine hundred and ninety. On the thirtieth of August the regiment left the State 
for St. Louis. 

The Twenty-first inlantry was organized at ()^iil; k!i, being mustered in on the fifth of Sep- 
tember. i8''i2. with a force of one thousand and two, all told — Benjamin J. Sweet, colonel — 
leaving the State for Cincinnati on the eleventh. 

The Twenty-second regiment — Colonel William L. Utley — was organized at "Camp Utley," 
Racine, and mustered in on the second of September, 1S63. Its original strength was one thou- 
sand and nine. It left the State tor Cincinnati on the sixteenth. 

On the thirtieth of .August, i85;, the Twenty-third regiment — Colonel Joshua j. Guppey— 
was mustered in at "Camp Randal!," lea\ ing ^[ad!son for Cincinnati on the fifteenth. 

The Twenty-fourth infantry rendezvoubcd at "(ramp Sigel," Milwaukee. Its muster in was 
completed on the t.venty-t'irst of .\ijj;jst, 1S62, the regiment leaving the State under Colonel 
Charles H. Larrabee, for Kentucky, on the fit'th of September, one thousand strong. 

On the fourteenth of September, 1S6:. a: " Camp Salomon," LaCrosse, the Twenty-fifth 
regiment was mustered into the service — Milton .M.:intgomery, colonel. They left the State on 
tlic nineteenth with orders to report to General Pope, at St. Paul, Minnesota, to aid in suppress- 
ing tile Indian difficulties in that State. Their entire strength was one thousand aqd eighteen. 
The regiment, after contributing to the preservation of tranquillity among the settlers, and 
deterring the Indians from hostilities, returned to Wisconsin, arriving at " Camp Randall " on the 
eighteenth of December, 1SG2. 

The Twenty-sixth — almost wholly a German regiment — was mustered into the service at 
"Camp Sigel," Milwaukee, on the seventeenth of Sejitcnlier, 1862. The regiment, under com- 
mand of Colonel William H. Jacobs, left the State for Washington city on the sixth of October, 
one thousand strong. 

The Twenty-seventh infantry was ordered to rendezvous at "Camp Sigel," Milwaukee, on 
the sevenreentli of September, 1S62; but the discontinuance of recruitmg for new regiments in 
.•\ugust left the Twenty-seventh with only seven comjianies full. An order authorizinw the 
recruiting of three more companies was received, and under the supervision of Colonel Conrad 
Krez the organization was comjilcted, but the regiment at the close of the year had not been 
mustered into th.c service. 

On the twenty-t'ourth of C'etober, 1S62, the Twenty-eighth regiment — James .M. Lewis, of 
Oconomowoc, colonel — ■ mustered into the L'nr.e.! States service at "'Camp W'a.ihliurn," Mil- 
w.iukee. Its strengtii was nine hun(ired and sixts-une. In November, the regiment was 
emp!(n-ed in arresting and guarding t!ie draft rioters in Ozaukee county. It left the State for 
Columbus, Kentucky, on the twentieth of I lecember, wiiere they arrived on the twenty-second; 
remaining there until tiie fifth of J.inuarv, 1S63. 

The Twenty-ninth infantry — Colonel C'haries R.Gill — was organized at " Camp Randall," 
v.-!iere its muster into the L'nited States servi< e completed on the twenty-seventh of Sep- 
tember, 1S62, the re;,,'iment leaving ttie State lor Cairo, Illinois, on the second of Xoveniber. 

The Thirtieth regiment, organized al"C.;nii Randall" under the supervision of Colonel 
Diniel J. Dill, completed its muster into tiie Cmted Sr.ites service on the twenty-iirat of October, 
r^<»2. with a strength of nine hundred anii m\. ( 'n l:;e .sixteenth of Xovemijer, one company of 
l';e Tiiirtieth sent to Green iJ.iy to ])r.>:ect liu- dralt commissioner, remaining several weeks. 
Or. t!ie eighteenth, seven companies mo\ eil to .\Livv.uikee to assist in enl'orcing the draft in Mil- 
w.nukee rf>unty, while two companies remained in ■" ram;) Randall" to guard Ozaukee rioters. 


On the twenty-second, six companies from Milwaukee went to ^^'est Bend, Washington count)-, 
one company returning to "Camp Randall." After the completion of the draft in Washington 
county, four companies returned to camp, while two companies were engaged in gathering up 
the drafted men. 

The final and complete organization of the Thirty-first infantry — Colonel Isaac E. Mess- 
more — was not concluded during the year 1S62. 

The Thirty-second regiment, organized at "Camp Bragg," Oshkosh, with James H. Howe 
ns colonel, was mustered into the service on the twenty-fifth of September, 1S62; and, on the 
thirtieth of October, leaving the State, it proceeded by way of Chicago and Cairo to Memphis, 
Tennessee, going into camp on the third of Xo\ember. The original strength of the Thirt}'- 
second was nine hundred and ninety-three. 

The Thirty-third infantry — Colonel Jonathan B. Moore — mustered in on the eighteenth of 
October, 1S6-;, at " Camp Utley," Racine, left the State, eight hundred and ninet\-two strong, 
moving by way of Chicago to Cairo. 

The Thirty-tburth regiment, drafted men, original strength nine hundred and sixty-one — 
Colonel Fritz Anneke — had its muster into service for nine months completed at "Camp Wash- 
burn," Milwaukee, on the last day of the year 1S62. 

Of the twenty-four infantry regiments, numbered from the Twelfth to the Thirty-fourth 
inclusive, and including also the Ninth, three — the Ninth, Twelfth, and Thirteenth — were mus- 
tered into the United States service in 1861. The whole of the residue were mustered in during 
the year 1S62, except the Twenty-seventh and the .Thirty-first. All were sent out of the State 
during 1862, except the last two mentioned and the Twenty-fifth, Thirtieth, and Thirty-fourth. 

The First regiment of cavalry — Colonel Edward Daniels — perfected its organization at 
" Camp Har\ey," Kenosha. Its muster into the I'nited States service was completed on the 
eighth of March, 1S62, the regiment leaving the State for St. Louis on the seventeenth, with a 
strength of eleven hundred and twenty-four. 

The muster of the Second Wisconsin cavalry was completed on the twelfth of March, 1862, 
at '"Camp Washburn," Milwaukee, the regiment leaving the State for St. Louis on the twenty- 
fourth, eleven hundred and twenty-seven strong. It was under the command of Cadwallader C. 
\\'asiiburn as colonel. 

The Third Wisconsin cavalry — ColoneMVilliam A. Barstow — was mustered in at " Camp 
liarstow," Janesville. The muster was completed on the 31st of January, 1S62, the regiment 
leaving the State on the 26th of March for St. Louis, with a strength of eleven hundred and 

The original project of forming a regiment of light artillery in Wisconsin was overruled 
by the war department, and the several batteries were sent I'rom the State as independent 

'l"he First battery — Captain Jacob T. Foster — perfected its organization at "Camp Utley," 
^■■■if::<j the company was mustered in, it leaving the State with a strength of one hundred and 
lifiy-five, on the 23d of January, 1S62, for Louisville, where the battery went into "Camp 
Irvine," near that city. The Second battery — Captain Ernest F. Herzberg — was mustered into 
i-c service at " Camjj Utley," October 10, 1S61, the comj.any numbering one hundred and fifty- 
■'•ree. It left the State for Baltimore, on the 21st of January, 1S62. The Third battery — Cap- 
''•in L. U. Drury — completed its organization of one hundred and seventy at "Camp L'tley," and 
''■•■■i< mustered in October 10, iSfJi, leaving the State fur Louisville, on the 23d of January, 
'562. The Fourth battery — Captain John F. \'allee^rende/.voU3ed at "Camp Utley." Its 
"lu-itcr in was completed on the rstof October, 1S61, its whole force being one hundred and fifty 
"'■■"•. The company left the State for Baltimore on the 21st of lanuarv, 1S62. The Fifth bat- 

84 ' HTSTOrcV OF ■\viscoxsix. 

tery, commanded by Captain Oscar F. Pinney, was mustered in on thj ist of October, 1861, at 
" Camp Utiey," leaving the State for St. Louis, on the 15th of March, 1S62, one hundred and 
fifty-five strong. The Sixth battery — Captain Henry Dillon — was mustered in on the 2d of 
October, 1S61, at " Camp Utley," leaving the State for St. Louis, March 15, 1862, with a numer- 
ical strength of one hiindrocl and fifty-seven. The Seventh battery — Captain Richard R. Grif- 
fiths — wa< mustered in on tlie 4th of Octo'ier, 1S61, at " Camp Utley," and proceeded on the 15th 
of March, iS'Jj, with the Fifth and Si.vth batteries to St. Louis. The Eighth battery, com- 
manded by Captain Steplien J. Carpenter, was mustered in on the Sth of January, 1862, at 
"Camp Utley," and left the State on the iSth of March following, for St. Louis, one hundred and 
sixty-one strong. The Ninth battery, under command of Captain Cvrus H. Johnson, was organ- 
ized at Burlington, Racine county. It was mustered in on the 7th of January, 1S62, leaving 
"Camp Utley " for St. Louis, on the iSth of M.irch. At St. Louis, their complement of men — 
one hundred and fifty-five — was made up by the transfer of forty-five from another battery. The 
Tenth battery — Captain Yates V. Bebee — after being mustered in at Milwaukee, on the loth of 
February, 1862, left " Camp Utley," Racine, on the iSth of March for St. Louis, one hundred and 
seventeen strong The Eleventh battery — Captain John O'Rourke — was made up of the ''Oconto 
Irish Guards " and a detachment of Illinois recruits. The company was organized at "Camp 
Douglas," Chicago, in the Spring of iS6j. Early in 1862, William A. Pile succeeded in enlisting 
ninety-nine men as a company to be known as the Twelfth battery. The men were mustered in 
and sent forward in squads to St Louis. Captain Pile's commission was revoked on the iSth 
of July. His place was filled by William Zickrick. These twelve batteries were all that left the 
State in 1S62. To these are to be added the three regiments of cavalry and the nineteen regi- 
ments of infantry, as the effective force sent out during the year by Wisconsin. 

The military officers of the State, at the commencement of 1S63, were Edward Salomon, 
governor and commander-in-chief; Brigadier General Augustus Gaylord, adjutant general; 
Colonel S. Nye Gibbs, assistant adjutant general ; Brigadier General Nathaniel F. Lund, 
quartermaster general; Firigadier General E. B. Wolcott, surgeon general; and Colonel W. H. 
Watson, military secretary. The two incomjilete regiments of 1862 — tiie Twenty-seventh and 
Thirty-first volunteers — were completed and in the tield in March, 1863. The former was 
mustered in at " Cani[) Sigel " — Colonel Conrad Krez — on the 7th of March, and left the State, 
eight hundred and sixty-five strong, on the 16th for Columbus, Kentucky; the latter, under 
command of Colonel Isaac E. Messmore, with a strength of eight hundred and seventy-eight, 
left Wisconsin on the ist of March, for Cairo, Illinois. The Thirty-fourth (drafted) regiment 
left "Camp Washburn," Milwaukee, on the 31st of January, 1S63, for Columbus, Kentucky, 
numbering nine hundred and sixty-one, commanded by Colonel Fritz .\nneke. On the 17th of 
February, 1863, the Twenty-fifth regiment left "Camp Randall" I'ur Cairo, Illinois. The 
Thirtieth regiment rein. lined in Wisconsin during the whole of 1S63, performing various 
duties — the only one of the whole thirty-four that, at the end of that year, had not lel't the State. 

On the 14th of January, 1863, the legislature of Wisconsin, as before stated, convened 
at Madison. Governor Salomon, in his message to that body, gave a summary of the transac- 
tions of the war fund during the calendar year; also of what was done in 1S62, in the recruuincr 
of military forces, and the manner in which the calls of tlie [iresidcnt were responded to. 'I here 
were a number of military laws passed at this session. A multitude of special acts authorizino- 
towns to raise bounties for volunteers, were also ])asscd. 

No additional regiments of infantry besides those already mentioned were organized in 
1863, although recruiting for old regiments continued. On the 3d of March, 1863, the congress 
of the United States passed the "Conscription Act." Under this act, Wisconsin was divided 


into six districts. In the first district, I. M. Bean was appointed provost marshal; C. M. Daker, 
commissioner; and J. B. Dousman, examining surgeon. Headquarters of this district was at 
Milwaukee. In the second district, S. J. M. Putnam was appointed provost marshal ; L. B. 
Caswell, commissioner; and Dr. C. R. Head, examining surgeon. Headquarters of this 
district was at JanesviUe. In the third district, J. G. Clark was appointed provost marshal; E. 
E. Byant, commissioner; and John H. \'ivian, examining surgeon. Headquarters at Trairic 
du Chien. In the fourth district, E. L. Phillips w-as a[)pointed provost marshal ; Charles 
P.urchard, commissioner; and L. H. Gary, examining surgeon. Headquarters at Fond du 
Lac. In the fifth district, C. K. Merrill was ajipointed provost marshal ; William A. Bugh, 
commissioner; and H. O. Crane, exam.ining surgeon. Headcjuarters at Green Pay. In the 
sixth district, B. F. Cooper was appointed provost marshal; L. S. Fisher, commissioner; and 
D. D. Cameron, examining surgeon. Headquarters at LaCrosse. The task of enrolling the 
State was commenced in the month of ^[ay, and was proceeded with to its completion. The 
nine months' term of service of the Thirty-fourth regiment, drafted militia, having expired, the 
regiment w-as mastered out of service on the Sth of September. 

The enrollment in Wisconsin of all persons liable to the '"Conscription" amounted to 
121,202. A draft was ordered to take place in Xovember. Xearly fifteen thousand were 
drafted, only six liundred and twenty-eight of whom were mustered in ; the residue either 
furnished substitutes, were discharged, failed to report, or paid commutation. 

In the Summer of 1861, Conqiany " K," Captain Langwonhy, of the Second Wisconsin 
infantry, was detached and placed on duty as heavy artillery. His company was designated as 
".A," First Regiment Heavy .Artillery. This was the only one organized until the Summer of 
1S63; but its organization was eiTected outside the State. Three companies were necessary to 
add to company '" A" to conij.lete the battalion. Batteries " B," " C " and '' D " were, therefore, 
organized in Wisconsin, all leaving the State in October and November, 1S63. 

Ninth Adminisir.\-iio\ — J.\mes T. Lfwis, Govf.rn'or — 1S64-1865. 

James T. Lewis, of Columbia county, was inaugurated governor of Wisconsi.i on the fourth 
of January, 1S64. In an inaugural address, the incoming governor pledged himself to use no 
executive patronage for a re-election; declared he would administer the government without 
l)rejudice or par.iality; and committed hiin-.elf to an economical administration of affairs con- 
nected with the State. On the thirteenth the legislature met in its seventeeiuh regular session. 
W. \\ . Field was elected speaker of the asseml'Iy. The republican and union men were in 
the majority in this legislature. A number of acts were passed relative to military matters. 

C)n the I St day of October, J. L. Pickard having re = igned a^ superintendent of public 
instruction, J. G. .McMynn was, by the governor, apiiointed to fill the vacancy. On the tif- 
teenth of November, Governor Lewis appointed Jason Downer aii associate justice of the 
siqjreme court, to fill a vacancy caused by th.e resignation of Judge Byron Paine, who had 
resigned his po-.ition to take et'fect on that day, in order to accept the position of lieutenant 
co.onel of one ot tiie regiments of NVisconsin, to which he had been commissioned on the tenth 
of .\ugust previous. 'I'he Ntivember elections of thi-, year were entered into with great zeal by 
the two parties, owing to the fict tlia.t a [jre-iilent and vice president of the United States were 
to be chosen. The re[)ub!icans were victorioas. Electors of party cast their eight vote-> 
lor Lincoln and Johnson. The meuibers electeil to the thirty - ni.itli congress from Wisconsin 
^t this election were; from the first district, H. 1'". Paine; from the second, 1. C. Sloan ; from 
'he third, .\niasa Cdib; from the fourth, C. A. Eldredge; from the fifth, i'hiletus Sawyer; and 

86 iiis^TORY OF "wiscoxsrx. 

from the sixth district, W. D. Mclndoc. All wert: republicans except Eldredge, who was 
elected as a democrat. 

The Eighteenth regular session of the Wisconsin legislature began in Madison on the elev- 
enth of January, 1S65. W. W. I'ield was elected speaker of the assembly. The legislature 
was, as to its political comjilcxion, " Republican Union." On the tenth of April, the last day of 
the session, Governor Lewis informed the Ici^idature that General Lee and his array had sur- 
rendered. " Four years ago," said he, "on the day fixed for adjournment, the sad news of the 
fall of Fort Sumter was tran:.mittcd to the legislature. To-day, thank Cod I and ne.xt to Him 
the brave officers and soldiers of our army and navy, I am permitted to transmit to you the 
official intelligence, just received, of the surrender of General Lee and his army, the last prop 
of the rebellion. Let us rejoice, and thank the Ruler of the Universe for victory and the pros- 
])ects of an honorable peace." In February preceding, both houses ratified the constitutional 
amendment aboli.^hing slavery in the United States. .\t the Spring election, Jason Downer was 
chosen associate justice of the supreme court fir a full term of six years. The twentieth of 
April was set apart by the governor as a day of thanksgiving for the overthrow of the rebellion 
and restoration of peace. At the Fall election both parties, republican and democratic, had 
tickets in tlie field. The republicans were victorious, electing Lucius Fairchild, governor; 
Wyman Spooner, lieutenant governor; Thomas S. Allen, secretary of state; William E. Smith, 
state treasurer; Charles R. Gill, attorney general; John G. McMynn, superintendent of 
public instruction; J. M. Rusk, bank comptroller; and Henry Cordier, state prison commis- 


The military officers for 1S64 were besides the governor (who was comniander-in-chitf) 
Brigadier General Augustus Gaylord, adjutant general; Colonel S. Xye Gibbs, assistant adju- 
tant general ; Brigadier General Xathanlel F. Lund, (.piarteriuasler and commissary general, 
and chief of ordnance; Brigadier General E. B. Wolcott, surgeon general; and Colonel Frank 
H. Firmin, military secretary. The legislature met at Madison on the 13th of January, 1864. 
"In response to the call of the General Government," said the governor, in hi^ message to that 
body, '■ Wisconsin had sent to the field on the first day of Xovember last, exclusive of three 
months' men, thirty - four regiments of infantry, three regiments and one company of cavalry, 
twelve batteries of light artillery, three batteries of heavy artillery, and one company of sharp- 
shooters, making an aggregate of forty-one thousand seven liundred and seventy-five men." 

Quite a number of laws were passed at lhi= session of the legislature relative to military 
matters: three were acts to authorize towns, cities and villages to raise money by ta.x for the 
payment of bounties to volunteers; one revised, amended and consolidated all laws relative to 
vxlra pay to Wisconsin soldiers in the service of the United States; one provided for the proper 
reception by the State, of \\"isconsin volunteers returning from the field of service; another 
Te|)ea1ed the law relative to allotment commissioner^. One was passed authorizing the gu\- 
crnor to purchase fiags for regiments or batteries whose fiags were lost or destroyed in the 
service: another was passed amending the law ^uspending the sale ot lands mortgaged to the 
Stale or held by volunteers, so as to ajiply to drafted men; another pr(jvided for levying a State 
tax of $200,000 for the support of families of volunteers. -\ law was passed authorizing the 
governor to take care of the sick and wounded soldiers of Wisconsin, and ajiproprlated ten 
tf.ousand dollars for that purpose. Two other acts authorizei-1 the borrowing of money for repel- 
ling invasion, su[)|)ressing insurrection, and defending the State iii time of war. One act pro- 
liibited the taking of fees for jirocuring volunteers' extra bounty ; another one defined the resi- 
dence of certain soldiers from this St.;te in the service of the United States, who had received 


lucal bounties from towns other than tlieir pro[)er [ilaccs of residence. 

At the conuneneeinent of iS64.'there were recruiting in the State tlie 'rhirty-fil'th regiment 
of infantry and the 'I'liirteenth battery. The latter was mustered in on the jgth of December, 
1863, and left the State for New Orleans on the ;Sth of January, 1S64. In Feliruary, authority 
was given by the war deiiartment to organize the Thirty-si.\tli regiment of infantry. Ou the 
27 til of tliat month, the mustering n of the Thirt\ -fifth was completed at '' Camp Washburn " 
— Colonel Henry Orff — the regiment, one tlnjusand and si\t}-si.\ stiong, leaving the State on the 
18th of April, 1S64, for Ale.\;andria, Louisiana. The other regiments, recruited and mustered 
into the service of the United States during the year 1864, were: the Thirty-sixth — Colonel 
Frank A. Haskell; the Thirty->eventii — Colonel .Sam Harriman ; tire Thirty-eighth — Colonel 
James IJintliff ; the Thirty - nintli — Colonel l'",dwin L. Buttnck; the Fortieth — Colonel W. 
Augustus Ray; the Forty-first — Lieutenant Colonel George K. Goodwin; the Forty-second — 
Colonel Ezra T. S[irague; the Forty-third — Ci lonel .Vmasa Cobb. 

The regiments mustered into the service of the United Slates during the year 1865 were: 
the F'orty-fourth — Colonel George C. Symes ; the I'orty-fifth — Colonel Henry F. ilelitz; F'orty- 
si.xth — Colonel Frederick S. Lovell ; Forty-seventh^Colonel George C. Ginty ; Forty-eighth — 
Colonel Uri Ij. Pear-.all ; F'ony-ninth — Colonel Samuel F'allows; Fiftieth — Colonel John G. 
Clark; Fitly-first — Colonel Leonard Martin ; Fifty-second^Lieutenanl Colonel Hiram J. Lewis ; 
and Fifty-third — Lieutenant Colonel Robert T. Pugii. 

All of the fifty-three regiments of infantry raised in Wisconsin during the war, sooner or 
later moved to the South and were engaged there in one way or other, in aiding to suppress the 
rebellion. Twelve of these regiments were assigned to duty in ihe eastern division, which con- 
stituted the territory on both sides of the Potomac and upon the seaboard from Baltimore to 
Savannah. These twelve regiments were: the First (three months). Second, Third, F"ourth, 
Fifth, Si-xth, Seventh, Nineteenth, Twenty-sixth, Tliirty-sixth, Thirty-seventh, and Thirty-eighth. 
Ten regiments were assigned to the central division, including Kentucky, Tennessee, Northern 
Alabama, and Georgia. These ten were: the Tenth, Twenty-first, Twenty-second, Twenty- 
fourth, Thirtieth, Forty-third, Forty-fourth, Forty-fifth, Forty-sixth, and F'orty-seventh. Added 
to these was the First (re-organizcd). Thirty-one regiments were ordered to the western division, 
embracing the counlrv west and nortliwest of the central division. These were : the Eighth, 
Ninth, Eleventh, Twelfth, Thirteenth. Fourtecniii, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, 
Twentieth, Twenl)"-third, Twenty-fifth, Twenty-seventh, 'Lw erfty-eighth, Twenty-ninth, Thirty-first, 
Thirty-second, Thirty-third. Thirty-fourth, Tliirt\-fifth, Thirty-ninth, F'ortieth, Forty-first, Forty- 
second, Forty-eighth, Forty-ninth, Fiftieth, Fifty-fir-t, Fifty-second, and Fifty-third. During the 
war several transfers were made from one district to another. There were taken from the eastern 
division, the Third and Twenty-sixth, and sent to the central division ; also the Fourth, which 
was sent to the department of the gulf. The 'Lwelfth, Thirteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Seven- 
teenth, Eighteenth, Twent_\-fiflh, Thirtieth, Thirty-first and Thirty-second were transferred from 
the western to the central deparlnienl. 

The four regiments of cavclry were assigned to the western division — the First regiment 
being afterward transfirred to tlie 1 entral divisiim. ( )f the tliirteen b.itteries of light artillery, the 
Set nml. Fourth, and l-;ie\ enth. were assigned to the eastern division ; the F'irst and Third, to 
'.lie central division ; tiie Fil'th, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, Twelfth, and Thirteenth, 
to the western di\ision. During the war, the Fir-t was trausterred t') the we-lern di\ision; wh.ile 
ihe Fifth, Sixth. Eightii, Tenth, ;ir.d Tw elt'th, were transt'erred to the central division. C)f liie 
twelve batteries of the First regiment of hea\ y artillery — " .\," " V.," " F," "Ci," "FI," "I," 
■■ K," '• L," and ".M," were assigned to dutv in the eastern division ; '" H '' and " C," to the central 


division; and "D," to tlie western division. Company "G," First regiment Berdan's sharp- 
shooters, was assigned to the eastern division. 

The military officers ol the State tor 1S65 were the same as the previous year, except that 
Brigadier General Lund resigned his position as quartermaster general, James M. Lynch being 
appointed in his ]ilace. 'I'he legislature of this \ ear met in ^Lldison on the nth of January. 
"To the calls of the Government for troops," said Governor Leu'is, in his message, ''no State 
lias responded with greater alacrity than has 'Wisconsin. She has sent to the field, since the 
commenrement of the war, forty-four regiments of infantry, four regiments and one compan)- of 
cavalry, one regiment of hea\y artillery, tiiirteen batteries of light artillery, and one company of 
sharpshooters, making an aggregate (exclusive of hundred day men) of seventy-five thousand 
one hundred and thirty-three men." 

Several military laws \\ere jKissed at this session: one authorizing cities, towns, and viliaces 
to pay bounties to volunteers; anotiier, incorporating the Wisconsin Soldiers' Home; two others, 
amending the act relative 'to the commencement and prosecution of civil actions against persons 
in the military service of the country." One was passed authorizing the payment of salaries 
clerk hire, and exjienses, of the offices of the adjutant general and quartermaster general from 
the war fund; another, amending the act authorizing commissioned officers to take acknowledg- 
ment of deeds, affidavits and depositions; anotiier, amending the act extending the ridu of 
suffrage to soldiers in the field. One act provides for correcting and comjileting the records of 
the adjutant general's office, relative to the military history of the individual members of the 
several military organizations of this State; another fixes the salary of the adjutant general and 
the quartermaster general, and their clerks and assistants; another prohibits volunteer or sub- 
stitute brokerage. One act was fiassed supplementary and explanatory of a previous one of the 
same session, authorizing touns, cities, or villages, to raise money to pay bounties to volunteers; 
another, ameiiding a law of 1S64, relating to the relief of soldiers' families; and another, pro- 
viding for the establishment of State agencies l"or the relief and care of sick, wounded, and 
disabled Wisconsin soldiers. 'I'l-.ere was an act also passed, authorizing the borrowing of money 
for a period not exceeding seven months, to reiiel invasion, suj)press insurrection, and defend the 
State in time of war, — tlic amount not to exceed §850,000. 

On the 13th of A]iril, 1865, orders v.ere received to discontinue recruiting in Wisconsin, and 
to discharge all drafted men wiio had not been mustered in. About the first of ^Lty, orders 
were issued for the muster out of all organizations v.hose ter.m of service would expire on or 
before the first of the ensuing October. .\s a conseqiien( e, many ^Viscons:n soldiers were soon 
on their way home. State military otVicers devoted their time to the reception of returnin'^ 
regiments, to their payment by the United States, and to settling with those who were entitled to 
extra jjay from the State. Finally, their employment ceased — the last soldier was mustered out 
— the \\'ar of the Rebellion was at an end. Wisconsin had furnished to the federal army durinn- 
the conflict over ninety thousaml men, a considerable number more than the several requisitions 
of the General Government called for. Xe.irly eleven thousand of these were killed or died of 
wounds received in battle, or fell \ictims to diseases contracted in the military service, to sav 
nothing of those who diet: after their discliarge, and whose deaths do not appear ujion the mili- 
tary re< ords. Xe.irly twelve million dollars were expended by the State authorities, and the 
people of tile sever.d counties and towns tjiroughout the State, in their efforts to sustain the Go\er:iment. 

Wis, unsin leeis, as well she may, \.:r\u\ of her record made in defense of national existence. 
Shoulder to slioulder with the otiier lo\aI .-tales of the Union, she stood— always ranking among 
Ihe foremost. From her wurkshoiis, her larnis, her extensive pineries, she j.oured forth stalwart 

■\V1SC0>>'S1X AS A STATE. 89 

men, to fill up the organizations which she sent to the field. The blood of these brave men 
drenched almost every battle-field from Pennsylvania to the Rio Grande, from Missouri to 
Georgia. To chronicle the deeds and exploits — the heroic achievements — the noble enthusiasm 
— of the various regiments and military organizations sent by her to do battle against the hydra- 
lieaded monster secession — -would be a lengthy but pleasant task. ; but these stirring annals 
belong to the history of our whole country. Therein will be told the story which, to the latest 
time in the e.xistence of thi^ rejiuMic, will be with wonder and astonishment. But an out- 
line of the action of the State authorities and their labors, and of the origin of the various 
military organizations, in Wisconsin, to aid in the suppression of the rebellion, must needs 
rontain a reference to other heli>3 employed — mostly incidental, in many cases wholly charitable 
but none the less etTective : the sanitary operations of the State during the rebellion. 

Foremost among the sanitary operations of 'Wisconsin during the war of the rebellion was 
tin: organization of the surgeon general's department — to the end that the troops sent to the 
field from the State should have a complete and adequate supply of medicine and instruments as 
\\ell as an efficient medical staff. In iS6i, Governor Randall introduced the practice of appoint- 
ing agents to travel with the regiments to the tleld, who were to take charge of the sick. The 
practice was not continued by Governor Harvey. On the lyth of June, 1S62, an act of the 
legislature became a law authorizing the governor to take care of the sick and wounded soldiers 
of ^Visconsin, and appropriated twenty thousand dollars for that purpose. Under this law 
several expeditions were sent out of the State to look after the unfortunate sons who were 
fuffering from disease or wounds. Soldiers' aid societies were formed throughout the State soon 
after the opening scenes of tlie rebellion, ^^"hen temporary sanitary operations were no longer 
a necessity in A\"isconsin, tiiere followed two military benevolent institutions intended to be of a 
]icrnianent character : the Soldier>' Home at Milwaukee, and the Soldiers' Orphans' Home at 
M.ulison. The latter. ho\i-ever, has been discontinued. The former, started as a State institu- 
tion, is now whollv under the direction and support of the General Government. 

Whether in the promptitude of her responses to the calls made on her by the General Govern- 
v.K-nt, in the courage or constancy of her soldiery in t'ne field, or in the wisdom and efficiency with 
which her civil administration was conducted during the tryir.g period covered by the war of the 
rebellion, Wisconsin proved herself the peer of an)' loyal State'. 


We publish on the following pages the report of the Adjutant General at the close of the war, 
but before all the Wisconsin organizations had been mustered out. It shows that 85,000 brave men 
Were ready to forsake home, friends and the comforts of pcaeeful avocations, and ofJ'er their lives 
m (lelense ot their coiintr} 's honor. Twenty-two out of every hundred either died, were killed or 
wuuiuled. Thirtec;i out of every hundred found a soldier's grave, while only 60 per cent of them 
marched home at tlie end of the war. Monuments may crumble, cities fall into decay, the tooth 
of time leave its impress on all the works of man, but the memory of the gallant deeds of the 
army of the Union in the great war of the rebellion, in which the sons of Wisconsin bore so 
<;onspicuousa part, will live in the minds of men so long as time and civilized governments endure. 


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Tenth Administration'. — Lucius Fairchild, Governor — 1866-1867. 

The inauguration of the iicwly elected State otficers took |ilace on Monday, January i, 
1S66. The legislature, in its nineteenth regular bcssion, convened on the tenth. H. D. Barron 
was elected s|K.'aker of the a-,seni!)ly. The '" Union " and '" Republican " members were in a 
majority in both branihes of the legislature. " (3ur first duty," said Governor Fairchild in his 
nies-:age, '"is to give thank-, to Almighty Gijd for all lli^ mercies during the year that is past.'' 
" ']die people of no nation on eartii," he continued, " have greater cause to be thankful than 
have our peoi^lc. The enemies of the countr)- h.ive lieen overthrown in battle. The war has 
settled finall\- great (|uestions at issue between ourselves." Among the joint resolutions passed 
at this session was one submitting the question of a constitutional convention to frame a new 
ronstituti.iM fur the State, to the I'eople. The legislature adjourned on the twelfth of A[)ril, 
having been in session ninety-three days. At tfic general election in Xovember of this \ ear, 
there were elected tj the Fortieth congress : ll. E. P.iine, from the first district; JJ. F. Hopkins, 
fmrn the second; Amasa Cobli, from the third; C. A. Eldredge, from the fourth; Pniletus 
Sawyer, from the fifth, and C. C. Washburn, from the sixth district. All were republicans 
cxcein Kldredge, who was elected as a democrat. Tiie proposition for a constitutional conven- 
tion was voted upon by the people at thi:, election, but was defeated. 

The twentieth session of the legislature (ommenced on the ninth of January, 1SO7. 
Angus Cameron was elected speaker of the assembly. The legislature was strongly '' Repub- 
lican-Uniiin." The message of Governor Faireh.ild was read by him in person, on the tenth. 
On the trt enty-thiid, the two houses, in joint convention, elected Timothy O. Howe United 
States .senator for the term of si.x year?, conuneiicing on the fotirtl. of March next ensuiu'^. 
Thi? legislature p issed an act submitting to-the people at the ne.xt Fall election an amendment 
to Section twenty-one of article four of the constitution of the State, providing for payin"- a 
salary of three hundred and fifty dollars to each meinner of the legislature, instead of a /tv 
ific-z/i allowance, as previously given. .\ si/u- die a:lj lurnmeiu took place on the eleventh of April, 
after a service of iiinety-three days. 

To provide fur tlie more eihcient collection of license fees due the State, an act, approved 
on the day of adj'iumment, authorized the governor to appoint an agent of the treasurv, to 
superintend and enforce the collection of fees die tor licenses fi.xed by law. This law i, still in 
force, the agent holding his ottire at the pleasure of the executive of the State. 

On the 27th of .March. Chief Justice Dixun re.,igned his office but was immediately 
.tpjwintcd by the governor to tlie same position. .\t tiie election in .\pril following, associate 
Justice C^ole was re-elected, witiujut oppo-^'iiun, lor six years from the first Monday in January 
following. On the i6th of August, .-\^soclate Justice Downer having resigned, JJyron Paine was 
apiiuinted by the governor in his place. 

The republican State ticket, in the Fall, elected over the democratic — resultin"- in tlie 
choice of Lucius ]'"airchlld for governor : ^\■\nl,la Spuoner, fur lieutenint governor; Thomas 
S. .\llen, Jr., secretary of state : William K. Smitii, ior state tre.isurer; Charle., R. Gill, for 
attorney general; .\. J. Craig, l"or superintendent of public in.-^truction ; Jeremi.ih NL Ru,k, 
for bank comptroller, and Henry ('(u-dier. lor state pris(m conimi?sioner. Except Craig, all 
tlie>o orti'LTs were the former iiu:umbent-. I'lie amendment to section 21 of article 4 of the 
<o:i.;uutinn of tl.e State, giving tlie members .i saLu) instead of a per liinn allowance was a,t liiu election. .\s it now st.iiuU. e.icli member of the legislature receives, for 
hu services, three iiundre.i and fifty, rer annum, and ten cents for every mile he 
travels in goinu to and returning from the !>lace t.f the meetings oi the legislature, on the most 



usual route. In case of any extra session of the legislature, no additional compensation shall 
be allowed to any member thereof, either directly or indirectly. 

Eleventh An\nxisTRATioN.— Iaxius Fairchilh, Govp.rn-or (sfcond— 1S6S-1.S69. 

The Eleventh Administration in Wisconsin commenced at noon on the 6th day of January, 
1S6S. This was the commencement of Governor Fairchild's second term. On the eighth of 
January, 1S6S, began the twenty-iirst regular session uf tlie legislature of Wisconsin. A. M. 
Thomson was elected speaker of the assembly. Of the laws of a general nature passed by this 
legislature, was one abolishing the office of bank comiitrollc'r, tran>terring his duties to the 
state treasurer, and another providing for the establishing of libraries in tlic various townships 
of the State. A visible effect was produced by the constitutional amendment allowing members 
a salary, in abreviating this session, though not materially diminishing the amount of buMue-s 
transacted. A sine die adjournment took place on the si.xth of March. 

At the election in April, 1S6S, Chief Justice Dixon was chosen for the unexpired balance of 
his own term, ending on the fir^t Monday of January. 187 = - At the same election, Byron Paine 
was cho'sen as=ociate justice fur the unexpired balance of Associate Ju-^tice Downer's term, 
ending the 1st day of Janu.iry, 1S72. 

At the I'all election in thib year, republican electors were chosen over those upon the 
democratic ticket, for proident and vice prcbident ; and, as a consequence. Grant and Collax 
received the vote of Wisconsin. Of the members elected at the same time, to the forty-lir=t 
congress, all. but one were republicans — Eldredge being a democrat. The successful ticket 
was: H.'e. Paine, from the first district ; B. F. Hopkin.,, from the second; Amasa Cobb, from 
the third ; (\ A. Kldredgc from the fuunh; Philetus Sawyer, from the fifth, and C. C. Washburn, 
from the sixth district. ^These were all memb.ers, form their rcsj.ective districts, in the previous 
congress— the onlv instance since Wisconsin became a State of a re-election of all the mcum- 


On the thirteenth of January, 1S69, began the twenty-second regular session of the State 
legislature. A. M. Thomson was elected speaker of the assembly. A very important duty 
iinposed upon both houses was the election of a United States senator in the place of James R. 
Doolittle. The republicans having a majority m the legislature on joint ballot, the excitement 
among the members belonging to that party rose to a high pitch. The candidates for noinma- 
tion were Matthew H. C.upenter and C. C. Washburn. The contest was, uj. to that time, 
unparalleled in Wisconsin t"or the amount of personal interest manifested, lloth gentlemen had 
a large lobby influence assembled at Madison. Carpenter was successful before the republican 
nominating convention, on the sixth ballot. On the twenty-seventh ot January, the two houses 
proceeded to ratifv the nomination by electing him United States senator tor si.v years, Irom the 
fourth of March following. One of the most important transactions entered into by the legis- 
lature of 1S09 was the ratification of the suffrage amendment to the constitution ot the United 
States. }>,oth houses adiourned sine die on the eleventh of March— a very short session. At the 
sprin- election, on the of April. Luther S. Dixon was re-elected without opposition, chiet 
juun'eof the su[.reme . ourt, for a term of six years, from the first Monday in January next 
ensuing. In the Fall, both democr.ats and republicans put a State ticket in the field lor the 
ensuing election: the republicans were successful, electing Lucius Fairchild, governor ; 
deus C. Pound, lieutenant governor; l.lvuelyn r.rce-se, secretary of state ; Henry liaet/, state 
irea.urer ; S. S. Parlow. attornev general; george F. Wheeler, state pri.-.on commissioner: 
and A. L. Craig, superintendent of public instruction. The office of bank comptroller expired 
on the 31st day of December, 1S69, the duties of the office being transferred to tlie state 

y-i HISTORY or wrscoxsix. 


At this election, an amendment to sections 5 and 9 ot' article five of tiie constitution of 
the Slate was ratified and adopted by the people. L'nder this amendment, the governor 
receives, during his continuance in office, an annual com[)ensation of five thousand dollars, which 
is in full for all traveling,' or other expenses incident to his duties. The lieutenant governor 
receives, durin;.; his continuance in office, an annual compensation of one thousand dollars. 


On the third of Januar\-, 1S70, commenced the twelfth administration in Wisconsin, Gov- 
ernor Fairchild thus entering upon his third term as chief executive of the State; the only- 
instance since the admission of Wisconsin into the Union, of the same person being twice 
re-elected to that office. It was an empiiatic recognition of the value of his services in the 
gubernatorial chair. On the twelfth of Januar\-, the twenty-tliird regular session of the legis- 
lature of the State commenced at Madison. James M. Bingham was elected speaker of tiie 
assembly. Before the expiration of the month. Governor Fairchild received official information 
that over two hundred thousand dollars of the war claim of Wisconsin upon the General Govern- 
ment had been audited, considerable more than one hundred thousand having the ]irevious year 
been allowed. In the month of March, an energetic effort was made in the legislature, by 
members from Milwaukee, to remove the seat of government from Madison to their city ; but 
the ]iroject was defeated by a considerable majority in the assembly voting to postpone the 
matter indefinitely. According to section eiiiht of article one of the constitution, as originally 
adopted, no jierson coukl be held to answer for a criminal offense unless on the presentment or 
indictment of a grand jury, excejit in certain cases therein s[/ecified. The legislature of 1S69 
proposed an amendment again'-tthe ''grand jury system " of the constitution, and referred it to the 
legislature of 1S70 t'or tiieir approval or rejection. The latter took up the proposition and 
agreed to it by the proper majorilx', and submiti-cd it to the people at the next election for their 
ratification. The sine die adjournment of botli houses tijok place on the seventeenth of March, 
1S70. On the fir?t day of January, iire\ious, tlie member of congress from the second district 
of the State, I!. F. Hopkins, died, and l)avid .Vtwuod, repulilican, was elected to fill the 
vacancy on the fifteenlli of February fi'ljowing. 

Early m 1870, was organi.^ed the " W i-,coiisiii Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters." By 
an act of the legi>!ature approved .Marc ii 16, til tii.U year, it was incorporated, liaving among its 
specific objects, re>earches and invcMig.ition^ in the various dei>artinents of the material, meta- 
phy^il■al, ethical, etlmolog-cal and science^; a progressive and thorough scientific survey 
>'f the State, with a view of determining its miner.d. agricultural and other resources; the 
.ulvancemeiit <jf the useful arts, through the appli( .i;ion of science, and by the encouragement 
"f original invention; tiie encour.igemei-.t iT the fine arts, by means of honors and pri/es 
award.ed to arti-ts for original wurk-^ of superior merit; the formation of scientific, economical 
and .irt inuveums; the encouragement of ph.ilolngical and historical research; the c.jllection and 
preservation of historic record-, and the lorinatiun of a general library; and the dllTusion of 
kninviedg.; by the publication of original Cijiunbatioiis to science, literature and the art<. The 
ac.idemy iias alre.idy published tiiree vulumes i.f transactions, under authority c.f the State. 

I he f I'lrtli charit.ible institution cst.iMished by Wisconsin was the " .Xorthern FIos[utal for 
tiie" l-cated at DdUosh, Winneb.:go i.itMy. It was authon/ed by an act of tile legis- 
laiire .ipj.roved< h ic. 1^7^. Tiie law governing the admission of patients to this hospital 
is the same as to the Wisconsin Mate 


On the third day of July, 1S70, A. J. Craig, superinteinlent of public instruction, died of 
■consumption, and Samuel Fallows was, on the 6th of that mo ith, appointed by the governor 
to fill the place made vacant by his death. The census taken tins year by the General Govern- 
ment, showed the population of Wisconsin to be over one million sixty-four thousand. At the 
Fall election for members to the forty-second congres-, .-Vlexander Mitchell was chosen to 
represent the first district; G. AV. Hazelton, the second; J. A. Barber, the third; C. .\. 
Eldredge, the fourth; Philetus Sawyer, the fifth ; and J. M. Rubk, the sixth district, ^vlitchell 
and Eldredge were democrats; tlie residue were republicans. The amendment to section S, of 
article 7 of the. constitution of the State, abolishing the grand jury system was ratified by a 
lar"e majority. Under it, no jjcrsun shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due 
process of law, and no person, for the same offense, shall be put twice in jeopardy of punishment, 
nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself. All persons shall, 
before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses when the proof is 
evident and the presumption great ; and the jirivilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be 
suspended unless, when in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it. 

Governor Fairchild, in his last annual message to the legislature, delivered to that body at 
its twenty-fourth regular session beginning on the eleventh of Januar}', i87i,said that Wisconsin 
State polity was so wisely adapted to the needs of the people, and so favorable to the growth 
and prosperit\- of the commonwealth, as to require but few changes at the hands of the legisla- 
ture, and those rather of detail than of system. At the commenceuK-nt of this session, William 
E. Smith was elected speaker of the assembly. A very carefully-perfected measure of this 
legislature was one providing for the trial of criminal offenses on information, without the inter- 
vention of a Grand Jury. A state commissioner of immigration, to be elected by the people, was 
provided for. Both bodies adjourned siiu die on the twenty-fifth of March. On the thirteenth 
■of Januarv preceding, Associate Justice Byru 1 Paine, of the bupreme court, died; whereupon 
the governor, on the 20th of the same month, appointed in his place, until the Spring election 
should be held. William Penu Lyon. The latter, at the election in April, was chosen by the 
jieople to serve the uncxiiired time of Associate Justice Paine, ending the first Monday of Jan- 
ojary, 1S72, and for a full term of six years from the same date. On the 3d of April, Ole C. 
Johnson was appointed by the governor state commissioner of immigration, to serve until his 
successor at the next general election could be chosen by the [leople. To the end that the 
■administration of public charity and correction should tiiereafter be conducted upon sound 
principles of economy, justice and humanity, and that the relations existing between the State 
and its dependent and criminal classes might be better understood, there was, by an act of the 
legislature, approved March ;3. 1S71, a "state board of charities and reform" created — to 
consist of five members to be aiipointed by the governor of the State, the duties of the members 
being to investigate and su[>ervise the whole system of charitable and correctional institutions 
supported by the State or receiving aid from the State treasury, and on or before the first day of 
December in each year to report their proceedings to the executive of the State. This board 
was thereafter duly organized and its members have since reported annually to the governor 
their proceedings and the amount of their expen-es, as required by law. 

The "Wisconsin State Horticultural Society." although previously organized, first under the 
name of the " \\'i^consin Fruit Growers" Association,'' was not incorijorated until the 24th of 
March, 1871 — the oliject of trie society being to improve the condition of horticulture, rural 
ndornment and landscape gardeni:ig. By a law of iS6S, provision was made for the publication 
of the society's transactions in connection with the State agricultural society; but by the act 

^<3 iiisTour OF wisrnxsrx, 

of 1S71, thn law was repealed and an appropriation made for their yearly publication in separate- 
form; resulting in the issuing, up to the presen'. time, of seven volumes. The society holds 
annual meetings at ?>[adison. 

At the Xoveml.ier election both republicans and democrats had a full ticket for the suffrages 
of the people. The republicans were successUd, electing for governor, C. C. Washburn; M. H^ 
Pettitt, for lieutenant governor; Llywtlyn Ilreese, for secretary of state ; Henry Baetz, for state 
treasurer; Samuel Fallows, for superintendent of public instruction; S. S. Jjarlow, for attorney- 
general ; O. F. ^\'heeler, for state prison commissioner ; and O. C. Johnson, for state coinmis^ 
sioner of immigratiiju. .\t this election an amendment to article four of the constitution of the 
State -was ratified and aiJopted by the [jeople. As it now stands, the legislature is prohibited 
from enacting any s[)ecial or private laws in the following cases : 1st. For changing the names of 
persons or constituting one person the heir-at-law of another. :;d. For laying out, opening, or 
altering highways, except in cases of State roads c.\tending into more than one county, and mili- 
tary roads to aid in the construction of which lands may be granted by congress. 3d. For- 
authorizing persons to keep ferries acrObS stream>, at points wholly within this State. 4th. For 
authorizing the sale or mortgage of real or personal property of minors or others under disability. 
Sth. For locating or changing any county seat. 6th. For assessment or collection of ta.xes or for 
extending tlie time for the collection tliereof. 7th. For granting corporate powers or privileges,, 
exrejit to cities. Sth. ]-"or authorizing the apportionment of any part of the school fund. 9th. 
For incorporating any town or village, or to amend the charter thereof. The legislature shall 
pr()\ide general laws for the transaction of any business that may be prohibited in the foregoing 
cases, and all such laws shall be uniform in their operation throughout the State. 

Industrially considered, the year 1871 had but little to distinguish it from the avera-'e of 
])reviovis years in the State, except that the late frosts of Spring and thedrouth of Summer dimin- 
ished somewhat the yield of certain croiis. With the exception of slight showers of onlv an hour 
or two's duration, in the month of September, no rain fell in Wisconsin from the eighth of July to 
, the ninth of October — a period of three months. Tiie consequence was a most calamitous event 
which will render the year 187: memorable in the history of the State. 

The great drouth of the Summer and Fall dried up the streams and swamps in Northern 
Wisconsin. In the forests, the fallen leaves and tinderbrush which covered the ground became 
very'ignitable. The ground itself, especially in cases of alluvial or bottom lands, was so dry and 
parched as to burn readily to the depth of a foot or more. F"or many days preceding the com- 
mencement of the second week in October fires swci.t through the timbered country, and in some 
instances over prairies and " o[)enings." Farmetb, saw-mill owners, railroad men and all others 
interested in exposed property, labored day and night in contending against the advance of 
devouring fires, which were destroying, notwith.-,tanding the ceaseless energies of the people, an 
occasional mill or house and sweeping off, here and there, fences, haystacks and barns. Over the 
counties lying upon Oreen bay and a portion of those contiguous thereto on the south, southwest 
and west, hung a general gloom. Xo rain came. All energies were exhausted from " fighting; 
fire." The atmosphere was every wiiere permeated with smoke. The v.aters of the bay and 
even I.ake .Michigan, in [ilaces, were so enveloped as to render na\ igation ditricuU and in some 
inbtances dangerous. It finally became very diftrcult to travel upon highways and on railroads. 
1 line drew on — but there came no rai.n. The gr..uind in very many ])laces was burned over. 
I'ersons sought refugt- — ^nme in excavations in the earth, others in wells. 

I he counties ol (.)conto, I'.rown, Kewaunee, l)oor, Manitowoc, Outagamie and Shawano 
were all more or less swept by thi-> besom of destruction ; but in Oconto couiU\, and for some 
distance into Menomonee county, Michigan, across the Mcnoaionee river, on the we=l shore of 


tiie bay and throughout the whole leng-th and breadth of the peninsula, — that is, the territory 
lying between the bay and Lake Michigan, — the fires were the most devastating. The first week 
in October passed ; then came an actual whirlwind ot" fire — ten or more miles in width and c>{ 
indefinite length. The manner of its progress was extraordinary. It destroyed a vast amount of 
property and many li\-es. It has been described as a tempestuous sea of flame, accompanied by 
a most violent hurricane, which m!ilti[.)lied the force of the destructive element. Forests, farm 
improvements and entire villages were consumed. Men, women and children perished — awfullv 
perished. Even those who fled and souglu refuge from the fire in cleared fields, in swamps, 
lakes and rivers, found, many of them, no safety there, but were burned to death or died of suf- 

This dreadful and consuming fire u as heralded by a sound likened to that of a railroad 
train — to the roar of a waterfall — to the noise of a battle at a distance. Not human beings 
only, but horses, o.xen, cows, dogs, swine— every thing that had life — ran to escape the impend- 
ing destruction. The smoke was suffocating and blinding ; the roar of the tempest deafening ; 
the atmosphere scorching. Children were separated from their parents, and trampled upon by 
crazed beasts. Husbands and wives rushed in xvild dismay, they knew not where. Death rode 
triumphantly upon that devastating, fiery flood. More than one thousand men, women and 
children jierished. More than three thousand were rendered destitute — -utterly beggared. 
Mothers were left with fatherless children ; fathers with motherless children. Every where were 
homeless orphans. -All around lay suffering, helpless humanity, b\irned and maimed. Such was 
the sickening spectacle after the impetuous and irresistible wave of fire swept over that portion 
of the State. This appalling calamity happened on t'.ie 8th and 9th of October. The loss of 
property has been estimated at four million dollars. 

At the tidings of this fearful visitation, Governor Fairchild hastened to the burnt district, to 
assist, as much as was in his power, the distressed sufferers. He issued, on the 13th of the 
month, a stirring appeal to the citizens of Wisconsin, tor aid. It was prom[jtly responded to 
from all jjortions of the State outside the devastated region. Liberal conrributions in money, 
clothing and provisions were sent — some from other States, and even from foreign countries. 
Northwestern Wisconsin alsf) suft'ered severely, during these months of drouth, froin large fires, 

A compilation of the public statutes of Wisconsin was prepared during the year iS7i,by 
David Tayor, and published in two volumes, generally known as the Revised Statutes of 1871. 
It was wholly a private undertaking ; but the legislature authorized the secretary of state to 
purchase five hundred copies for the use of the State, at its regular session in 1872. 

Thikteknth .VriMLvisTRATioN. — C. C. W..\SH i;uRN, Governor — 187J-1S73. 

The thirteenth gubernatorial administration in \Visconsin commenced on Monday, January 
I, 1S72. The only changes made, in the present administration from ^the previous one, were ii\ 
the oftices of governor and lieutenant governor. 

Tlie twenty-fit'th regular session of the legislature began on the lotli of January, with a, 
republican majority in botii houses. Daniel Hall was elected spe.aker of the assembly. The 
next day the governor delivered to a joint convention of the legislature his first annual mes^a^e 
— a lengthy document, settmg forth in detail the general condition of Stale aflairs. The recent 
great conflagrations were leferred to. and relief suggested. The work of this session of the Leg^ 
islature was jieculiarly diflicult, owing to the many general laws which the last constitutional 
amendment made necessary. The apportionment of the State into new congressional districts 
was another peri)le.\ing and onerous task. Eight districts were formed instead of six, as at the 
commenceinentof the last decade. By this, the fourth congressional apportionment, each district 

98 iirsTditr OF M'lscoxsix. 

elects one membtr. The first district consists of tlie counties of Rock, Racine, Kenosha, Wal- 
worth, and Waukesha; the second, of Jefferson, Dane, Sauk, and Columbia; the third^of Grant, 
IijuM, LaFayette, Green, Richland, and Crawford; the fourth, of Milwaukee, Ozaukee, and \\'ash- 
in^toii; the fifth, of 1 )(>di;e, Fond du Lac, Sheboygan and Manitouoc ; the sixth, of Green Lake, 
AVaushara, Waupai a. Outagamie, Winnebago, Calumet, Brown, Kewaunee and Door; the sev- 
enth, of Vernon, L.i Crosse, Monroe, Jackson, Trempealeau, Buffalo, Pepin, Pierce, St. Croix, Eau 
Claire, and Cl.irk ; the eighth, of Oconto, Shawano, Portage, AVood, Juneau, Adams, Marquette, 
Marathiin, Dunn, Chippewa, Barron, Polk, Burnett, Bayfield, Douglas, and Ashland. To this 
district have since been added the new counties of Lincoln and Taylor. 

After a session uf seventy-seven days, the legislature finished its work, adjourning on the 
tu-enty-seventh of March. At the ensuing N'o\ ember election, the republican ticket for presi- 
dent and vice pre■^ident of the United States was successful. The ten electors chosen cast their 
votes in the electoral college for Grant and \\"i'son. In the eight congressional districts, six 
rei'ublicans and two democrats were elected to the forty-third congress ; the last mentioned 
from the fourth and fifth districts. C. G. AVilliams represented the first district; G. W. Hazel- 
ton the second; J. .Mien Barber the third; Alexander Mitchell the fourth; C. .V. Eldredge the 
fifth ; Philetus Saw yer the sixtli ; J. ^L Rusk the seventh ; and A. G. McDill the eighth district. 

Throughout \\'i-;ronsin, as in all portions of the Union outside the State, a singular pesti- 
lence prevailed aniruig horses in the months of November and December, 1S72, very few escap- 
ing. Horses kept in warm, well ventilated stables, avoiding currents of air, with little or no 
medicine, and fed uiion nutritious and laxative I'ood, soon recovered. Although but few died, 
yet the loss to the State was considerable, especially in villages and cities, resulting from the diffi- 
culty to substitute other animals in the place of the horse during the continuance of the disease. 

The twenty-sixth regular session of the State legislature commenced on the eighth day of 
Jaiuui'-y, 1873, "'''i -'' republican majority in both houses. Henry D. Barron was elected 
speaker of the as-^embly. On the ninth. Governor AVashburn's message — his second annual 
one — was delivered to the two houses. It opened with a brief reference to the abundant returns 
from agricultural pursuits, to the developments of the industries of the state, to the advance in 
manufacturing, to the rapid extension in railways, and to the general and satisfactory progress in 
education, throughout Wisconsin. He followed with several recommendations — claiming that 
'"many vast and overshadowing corporations in the I'nited States are justly a source of alarm," 
and that "the legislature can not scan too closelv every measure that should ctune before it 
which proposed to give additional rights and pri\ileges to the railways of the state." He also 
recommended that the " granting of passes to the class of state officials who, through their public 
otfice, have power to confer or withhold benefits to a railroad comjianv, be prohibited." The 
iiie->age was favoralily commented upon b} the press of the state, of all parties. " If Governor 
^\'a^hburn," says one of the opposition papers of his administration, " is not a great statesman, 
he is certainly not a small politician." One of the first measures of this legislature was the elec- 
(inn of Ll^nited States senator, to fill the place of Timothy O. Howe, whose term of office would 
expire on the fourth of March next ensuing On the twenty-second of January the two houses 
met in joint con\ention, when it was announced that by the previous action of the senate and 
assemlily, Timothy O. Howe was again elected to that office for the term of si\ years. Un the 
tuentieth of March, the legislature adjourned si/n du\ after a session of seventy-tuo days. 

Milton H. Pettitt, the lieutenant governor, died on the :;jd da\- of March lulloning the 
adjournment. By this sudden and unexpected death, the State lost an upright and conscientious 
public officer. 

"wrsrox^^TN' as a state. 99 

Among the important acts passed by this legislature was one providing for a geological sur- 
vey of the State, to be begun in Asliiand and Douglas counties, and conqjleted within four years, 
by a chief geologist and four assi^itants, to be a])pointed by the governor, approjjriating for the 
work an annual [laymcnt of thirteen thousand dollars. An act providing for a ueological survey, 
of the State, pas'^cd by the legi>ljture, and approved March 25, 1S53, authorized the governor to 
appoint a state geologist, who was to select a suitable jjcrson as assistant geologist. Their 
duties v.cre to make a geological and mineralogical survey of the State. Under this law Edward 
Daniels, on the first day of Ajiril, 1S53, was appointed state geologist, superseded on the 12th 
diy of August, 1854, by James Ci. Percival, who died in oftice on the 2d of May, 1S56, at Hazel 
Green. By an act approved Marcli 3, 1S57. James Hall, Ezra Carr and Edward Daniels were 
appointed by the legislature geological commissioners. By an act approved Ai)ril 2, r36o, Hall 
was made principal of the commission. The sur\ey was interrupted by a re;ieal, March 21, 1862, 
of previous laws promoting it. However, to complete the survey, the matter was reinstated by 
the act of this legislature, appro\ ed March 29, the governor, under that act, ajjpointing as chief 
geologist Increase A. Lajiham, Ajiril 10, 1S73. 

Another net changed the management of the state prison — providing for the appointment 
by the governor of three directors; one for two years, one for four years, and one for si.x years, 
in place of a state prison commissioner, who had been elected -by the people every two years, 
along with other ofhcers of the State. 

At the Spring election, Orsamus Cole, who had been eighteen years upon the bench, was 
re-elected, without ojjposition, an associate justice of the supreme court, for a term of si.x years 
from the first Monday in January following. The two tickets in the field at the Fall election 
were the republican and the people's reform. The latter was successful ; the political scepter 
pissing out of the hands of the republicans, after a supremacy in the State continuing unbroken 
since the beginning of the seventh administration, when A. W. Randall (governor for a second 
term) and the residue of tlie State officers were elected — all republicans. 

The general success among the cultivators of the soil thuiughout the state during the year, 
notwithstanding "the crisis," was marked and satisfactory; but the financial disturbances during 
the latter part of the Fall and the first part of the ^Vinter, resulted in a general depreciation of 


The fourteenth administration of Wisconsin commenced at noon on Monda\, tile fifth dav 
of January, 1S74, by the inau-uraiion of \\'iiliam P>.. Taylor as governor; Charles D. Parker, 
lieutenant governor; Peter Doyle, secretary of state; Ferdinand Kuehn, state treasurer; 
.■\. Scott Sloan, attorney general; Edward Searing, superintendent of public instruction; 
and Martin J. Argard, state commissioner cif immigration. Tlicse ofticers were not 
elected by any distinctive political [larty as such, but as the representatives of a new 
pi.iliiical organization, including "all Democrats, Liberal Republicans, and other electors 
of \\"isconi*in, friendly to genuine reform through ecpial and impartial legislation, honesty 
in ottice, and rigid e' onijmy in the administration of affairs." Among the marked characteristics 
of the platturm agreed iijion by the convention nominating the above-mentioned ticket «as a 
iKclaration by the members that they would " vote lor no candidate for office wiiuse nomination 
i> the fniit of his own importunity, or of a corrupt combination among partisan leaders;" 
another, " that the sovereignty of the State o\er corporations of Us own creation shall be sacredly 
respected, to the full extent of protecting the jieople against every form of monoi>oly or extor- 
tion," not den\ ing, liouever, an encouragement to wholesome enterprise on tlie part of aggre- 


gated capital — this "plank" having special reference to a long series of alleged grievances 
assumed to have been endured by the people on account of discriminations in railroad charges 
and a consequent burdensome taxation upon labor — esiiecially upon the agricultural industry of 
the State. 

The twenty-seventh regular session of the AVisconsin legislature commenced at Madison on 
the fourteenth of January. The two houses were politically antagonistic in their majorities; the 
senate was republican, while the assembly had a " reform " majorit)'. In the latter branch, 
Gabriel Bouck was elected speaker. Governor Taylor, on the fifteenth, met the legislature in 
joint convention and delivered his message. " .\n era," said he, "of api^arent prosperity without 
parallel in the previous history of the nation, has been succeeded by financial reverses affecting 
all classes of industry, and largely modifying the standard of values." "Accompanying these 
financial disturbances," added the governor, " has come an imperative demand from the people 
for a purer political morality, a more equitable apportionment of the burdens and blessings of 
government, and a more rigid economy in the administration of public affairs." 

Among the important acts passed by this legislature was one generally known as the 
"Potter Law," from the circumstance of the bill being introduced by Robert L. D. Potter, sen- 
ator, representing the twenty-fifth senatorial district of the state. The railroad companies for 
a number of years had, as before intimated, been com[ilained of by the people, who charged them 
with unjust discriminations and e.xorbitantly high rates for the transportation of passengers and 
merchandize. All the railroad charters were granted by acts at different times of the State leg- 
islature, under the conNtitution which declares that " coriiorations may be formed under general 
laws, but shall not be created by a special act, except for municipal purposes and in cases 
where, in the judgment of the legislature, the objects of the corporations can not be attained 
under general laws. All general laws, or special acts, enacted under the provisions of this 
section, may be altered or repealed by the legislature at any time after their passage." The 
complaints of the ]ieople seem to have remained unheeded, resulting in the passage of the 
"Potter l^aw." This law limited the compensation for the transportation of passengers, classi- 
fied freight, and regulated prices for its transportation witliin the State. It also required the 
governor on or before the first of May, 1874, by and with the consent of the senate, to appoint 
three railroad commissioners; one for one year, one for two years, and one for three years, 
whose terms of office should commence on the fourteenth day of May, and that the governor, 
thereatler, on tlie first day ot May, of each year, should appoint one commissioner for three 
years. Under this law, the governor appointed J. H. Osborn, for three years; George H. Paul, 
for two years ; and J. W. Hoyt, for one year. Under executive direction, this commission inau- 
gurated its labors by compiling, classifying, and putting into convenient form for public use for 
the first time, all the railroad legislation of the State. 

At the outset the two chief railroad corporations of the State — the Chicago, Milwaukee and 
St. Paul, and the Chicago and Xorthuestern — served formal notice ui^on the governor of Wis- 
consin that they would not respect the provisions of tlie new railroati law. Under his oath of 
office, to support the constitution of the State, it was the duty of Governor Taylor to expedite 
all such measures .as should be resolved ujKm by the legislature, and to take care that the laws 
be faithfully executed. No alternative, therefore, was \c''t the chief e\ecuti\e but to enforce the 
law by all the means placed in his hands for tliat purpose. He pronqitly resjujnded to the noti- 
fication of the railroad com[)anIes by a proclamation, d.iied .May i, i"^74, in which he enjoined 
compliance with the statute, declaring that all the functions of his office would be exercised in 
faithfully executing the laws, and invoki.g the aid of all good citizen^ tiiercto. "The law of the 
land," said Governor Taylor, " must be respected and obeyed." " While none," continued he, 


■" are so weak as to be without its protection, none are so strong as to be above its restraints. If 
provisions of the law be deemed oppressive, resistance to its mandates will not abate, but rather 
multiply the anticipated evils." '" It is the right," he added, '"of all to test its validity through 
the constituted channels, Ivat with that right is coupled the duty of yielding a general obedience 
to its requirements until it has been pronounced in\-a!id by competent authority." 

The railroad companies claimed not merely the unconstitutionalitv of the law, but that its 
enforcement would bankrupt the comi'anies and suspend the O[ieration of their lines. The 
!;overnor, in reply, pleatied the inviolability of his oath of office and his jjledged faith to the peojile. 
The result was an appeal to the courts, in which the State, under the direction of its governor, 
was compelled to confront an array of the most formidable legal talent of the country. Upon 
the result in Wisconsin depended the vitality of much similar legislation in neighboring S:ates, 
and Governor Taylor and his associate repre5entati\'es of State authority were thus compelled 
to bear the brunt of a controversy of national extent and consequence. The contention e.xtended 
lioth to State ,;nd United States courts, the main ipiestion involved being the constitutional 
power of the State over corporations of its own creation. In all respects, the State was fully 
sustained in its prjsition, and, ultimately, judgments were rendered against the corporations in 
all the State and federal courts, including the supreme court of the United States, and estab- 
lishing finally the complete and absolute power of the people, throLigh the legislature, to modify 
or altogether repeal the charters of corporations. 

Another act of the session of 1S74 abolished the office of State commissioner of immigra- 
tion, "on and after" the first Monday of January, 1870. The legislature adjourned on the 
twelfth of March, 1S74, after a session of lll'ty-eight days. 

The office of state prison commissioner having, by operation of law, become vacant on the 
fifth day of January, i''^74, the governor, on the twenty-third of that m<;iulh, appointed for State 
]>rison directors, Joel Rich, for twj years; William K. Smith, for four years; and N'elson Dewey, 
for si-\ years: these to take the place of that officer. 

On the si-xteenth of June, Chief Justice Dixon, vihose term of office would have expired on 
the first Monday in Jauuarj', 1S76, resigned his seat upon the bench of the supreme court, 
■Governor Taylor appointing F.dwarJ fi. Ryan in his [ilace until his successor should be elected 
and qualified. .\t the Xovember electiuu of this year, the members chosen to the forty-fourth 
congress were — Charles Cr. Willi.uus, t'rom the fir--t district; I.ucuau H. Caswell, from the 
second; Henry S. M.igoon, from the third; \\'illian\ Pitt Lynde, I'rom the fourtli; Samuel D. 
Burchard, from the filth; .\. M. Kirnbill, from tlie sixth; Jeremiah M. Rusk, from the seventh, 
and George W. Cate, from the eighth district. L} nde, Hurchard and Cate were " reform ; " the 
residue were repulilican. 

At the same election, an amendment to section 3 of article 11 of the constitution of the 
State was duly ratified and ado[ited b)- the people. L'nder tliis section, as it now stands, it is 
the duty of the legislature, and they are by it empowered, to provide for the organization of 
cities and incorporated villages, and to restrict their power of taxation, assessment, borrowing 
money, contracting debt^, and loaning their credit, so as to prevent abuses in assessments and 
tix.ition, and in contr.uting debts, by such municii>al cor[iorations. No countv. city, town, 
vill.ige, school district, or otlier municui- corjxjr.Uioii, shall be allowed to become indebted in 
any manner, or for any pur[K)se, to i'" ..ount, including existing indebtedness in the aggregate, 
ext'eeding five per centum on the vai »e of tiie taxable pro[)erly therein, to be ascertained by the 
List ;issessment for State arid county t.ixes previous to the incurring uf such indebtedness. Any 
county, city, town, village, school district, or other municiiial corjjor.ition, incurring any indebt- 
edness as aforesaid, sh.ill, before, or at tiic time of doing so, provide tor the collection of a direct 

102 iiisTonv OF WTsroxsix. 

annual tax sufficient to pay thu interest on such dclit as it tails due, and also to pay and disciiarge- 
the principal thereof within twenty years front the time of contractinij the same. 

In 1S7;, the lir^t appropriation for fish culture in Wisconsin was made by the legislature, 
subject to the dlrectioa "f the I'nited States commissioner of fisheries. In 1S74, a further sum 
was appropriated, and the governor of the State authorized to appoint three commissioners, 
whose duties were, upon receiving any s[)awn or llsh, b}' or through the United States commis- 
sioner of nsh and fishi-rie.s, to imniediately place such spawn in the care of responsible pisci- 
culturists of the State, to be hatched and distributed in the different waters in and surrounding 
Wisconsin. Two more members have since been added by law to the commission; their labors 
have been much extended, and liberal appropriations made to further the object they have ia 
view — with fl.ittering prospects of tlieir luially being ah'le to stock the streams and lakes of the 
State with the Ijest varieties of food llsli. 

The year 1874, in ^\'isConsin, was characterized as one of general prosperity among farmers, 
excepting tlie growers of wlieat. The crop of that cereal was light, and, in places, entirely 
destrox'ed by the cliiiich-bug. As a consC'pience, icnsi ler.Uile depression existed in business in. 
the wheat-growirig districts. Trade and commerce continued throughout the vear at a low ebb, 
the direct result of the monetary crisis of 1S73. 

The legislature commenced its twenty-eighth regular session on the thirteenth of January, 
1S75, with a rei>ublican majority in both houses. F. \V. Horn was elected speaker of the 
asseinbly. The governor delivered his message in person, on the fourteentii, to the two houses. 
"Thanking God for. all blis mercies," are his oiiening words, " I congr.itidate you that order and 
jieace reign throughout the length and breadth of our State. Our material prosiiciity has not 
fulfilled our anlici[)atiohs. But let us remember tiiat v,e bear no burden of financial depression 
not common to all the States, and that the penalties of foli\ are the foundation of wisdom." In 
regard to the " Putter Law," the governor said, " It is not my opinion that this law expressed the 
best judgment of the legislature wliicli enacted it. While the general principles upon w-hich it 
is founded comm.uid our unqualit'ied approbation, and can never be surrendered, it must be 

conceded that the law is defective in some of its det.iils The great object sought to be 

accomplished by our people, "continued the speaker, "is not the in.magement ot railroad property 
by themselves, bat to prevent its mismanagement by others." Concerning the charge that 
^\'isconsin was warring upon railwa;.s her limits, the governor added, " She has never 
liro|K)sed such a \var. She proposes none now. She asks only hor.esty, justice and the peace of 
mutual good will. To ail men concerned, her people ^ay in sincerity and in trutli that every 
dollar invested in our State sliall be l.iwfally entitled to its just protection, whencesoever the 
danger comes. In demanding justice for all, the State will deny justice to none. In forbidding 
misinan;;gement, the State will impose no restraints upon any management that is h nest and 
jiist. In this, the moral and lieretlitary instincts of our peo[)le i'urnisii a stronger bond of good 
faiih than the judgments of coLirts or the oblig.itions of paper constitutions. II':iiiest capital 
in.iy I'e timi.l and easily frightened; yet it is more certain to seek investment among a people 
whosj i.iws ,ire at all times a siiield for the weak and a reliance for the strong — where the 
wholesome restriints of judicious legislatiijn are felt alike by the ex iked and the humble, the 
ricli .uid the poor," 

The first important business to be transacted by this legislature was the election of a United 
States senator, as the term lor whi. li M. H Carpenter had been elected would expire on the 
fourth ol .Marcii ensuin,'. Much interest was manifested in the matter, not on:_\- in tlie two- 
luiiises, but throughout the State. There was an es[.ecial reason for this; for, although the then. 

"Wisrox-^rx as a state. 100 

incumbent was a candidate for re-election, with a republican majority in the legislature, yet it 
was well known tliat enough luenibers of that party were pledged, before the commencement of 
the session, to vote against him, to secure his defeat, should they stand firm to their pledges. 
The republicans met in caucus and nominated Carpenter for re-election; but the recalcitrant 
members held themselve;, alo.-f \ow, according to usual precedents, a nomination by the domi- 
nant party was equivalent to an election ; not so, however, in this case, notwithstanding the friends 
of the nominee felt sanguine of his election in the end. The result of the first ballot, on the 
twenty-si.xth of January, was, in the senate, thirteen for the republican candidate ;' in the 
assembly, forty-six votes, an aggregate of only fifty-nine. Me lacked four votes in the assembly 
and an equal number In the senate, of having a majority ..i each house. On the twenty-seventh, 
the two houses, in joint convention, hiving met to compare the record of the voting the day 
■previous, and It appearing that no one person had received a majority of the votes in erch house 
for United States senator, they proceeded to their first joint ballot. The result was, no election. 
The balloting was continued each day, until the third of February, when, on the eleventh joint 
trial. Angus Cameron, of LaCrosse, having received sitxty-eight votes, to Carpenter's fifty-nine, 
with five scattering, was declared elected. 

As in the previous session so in this,— one of the most absorbing subjects before the legisla- 
ture was that of railroads; the '• Potter Law" receiving a due share of attention in both ho'lises. 
The result was an amendment in some important particulars without changing the right of State 
control : rates were modified. The law as amended was more favorable t^'o the railroad compa- 
nies and was- regarded as a compromise. The legislature adjourned si,u- die on the 6th of March. 
This was the shortest session ever held in the State except one of twenty-five years previous. 

On the i6th of February, O. W. Wight was appointed by the governor chief geologist of 
"Wisconsin, In place of 1. A. Fapham, whose appointment had not been acted upon by the Senate. 
On the 24th of the same month, J. W . Hoyt was appointed railroad commi.ssloner for three 
years from the fir.t day of M.xx .-ollouing, on which day his one-year term in the same office would 
expire. .\t the regular Spring election on the 6th of April following, Edward C. Ryan was 
elected, without opposition, chief justice of the supreme court for the unexpired term of Chief 
Justice Dixon, ending the fir,^t Monday in January, 1S76, and for a full term of six years from 
the last mentioned date; so that his present term of office will expire on the i^t Monday in Jan- 
uarv, iSS;. An act providing for taking tlie census of Wisconsin on or before the ist of July, 
1875, was j.assed by the legislature and approved the 4th of March pievious. It required an 
enumeration of all the inhabitants of the State except Indians, who were not entitled to the right 
of suftrage. The result of this enumeration gave a total population to Wisconsin of one million 
two hundred and tiiirty-slx thousand seven hundred and twenty-nine. 

At the November election, republic.m and "reform" tickets were in the field for State 
oflicers, resulting in the success of the latter, except as to governor. For this office Flarrlson 
Ludington was chosen by a majority, according to the State board of canvassers, over William 
R. Taylor, of eight hundred and f;rtv-one. The rest of the candidates elected were- Charles 
1). Parker, lieutenant governor; Peter Doyle, serretars of state, Ferdinand Kuehn, treasurer 
of state, A. Sr,,:t Sloan, attorney general; and Edward Scaring, superintendent of public 
instruction. 1 lie art abolishing the office of state commissione. of immigration was to tike 
effect "on and after" the close of this administration; so, o, course, no person was voted for to 
fill that position at the I'all election of 1S75. 

During this administration the principle Involved in a long-pending controversv between the 
State and Minnesota relating to valuable harbor privileges at the head of Lake Superior was suc- 
•cessfuliy and linally settled ,n favor of Wisconsin. The Infiuence of the executive was 1 ir ^ely 


instrumental in initiating a movement which resulted in securing congressional appropriations 
amounting to $Soo,ooo to the Fox and Wisconsin river improvement. A change was inaugu- 
rated in the whole system of timber agencies over State and railroad lands, by which the duties of 
agents were localized, and efficiency was so well established that many important trespasses were 
brought to light from which over §60,000 in penalties was collected and paid into the Treasury, 
while as much more was subseqiientlv realized from settlements agreed upon and proceedings 
instituted. By decisive action on the part of the governor an unsettled printing claim of nearly 
a hundred thousand dollars was met and del'eated in the courts. During this period also appro- 
priations were cut down, and the rate of taxation diminished. Governor Taylor bestowed unre- 
mitting personal attention to details of business with a view of promoting the public interests 
with strict economv, while his countenance and support was extended to all legitimate enter- 
prises. He re'juired the \Vi-.consin Central railroad company to give substantial assurance that 
it would construct a branch line from Stevens Point to Portage City as contemplated by congress, 
before issuing certificates for its land grants. 

The closing vear of the century of our national existence — 1S75, was one somewhat discour- 
aging to certain branches of the agricultural interests of ^\'isconsin. The previous Winter had 
been an unusually severe one. A greater breadth of corn was planted than in any previous year 
in the State, but the unusually late season, followed by frosts in August and September, entirely 
ruined thousands r^f acres of that staple. 


The fifteenth administration of Wisconsin commenced at noon on M^mday, January 3, 1876, 
by the inauguration of State officers — Harrison Ludington, as previously stated, having been 
elected upon the republican ticket, to fill the chief executive ofrice of the State ; the others, to 
the residue of the offices, upon the democratic reform ticket: the governor, like three of his 
predecessors — Farwell, Bashford, and Randall (first term", — having been clmsen by a majority 
less than one thousand; and, like two of his jiredecessors — Farwell and Bashfurd — when all the 
other State officers differed with him in politic?. 

The twentv-ninth regular session of the legislature of \\"isconsin began on the 12th of Janu- 
ary, 1S76, at Madison. The republicans were in the majority in both houses. Samuel S. 
Fifield was elected speaker of the assembly. On the 13th, Goxernor Ludington delivered in 
person, to a joint convention of that body, his message, communicating the condition of affairs of 
the State, and recommending such matters for the consideration of the legislators as were thought 
expedient : it was brief; its style condensed ; its striking peculiarity, a manly frarikness. " It is 
not the part of wisdom," said he, in his concluding remarks, '" to disguise the fact that the people 
of this State, in common with those of all sections of the Union, have suffered some abatement of 
the prosperity that they have enjoyed in the past." "We have entered," he continued, "upon 
the centennial of our existence as an independent natioti. It is fit that we should renew the spirit 
in which the Republic had its birth, and our determination tlult it shall endure to fulfill the great 
purposes of its existence, and to justify the noble sacril'ices of its founders." The legislature 
adjourned sin,- die on the 14th of March, 1S76, al'ter a session of sixty-three days. The chief 
measures of the session were: 'l"he amendment of the railroad laws, maintaining salutary restric- 
tions while modifving those features which were cripjiling and crushing an imi)ortant interest of 
the State; and the ap]iortionment of the State into senate anil assembly districts. It is a pro- 
vision of the constitution of the State that the number of the members of the assembly shall 
never be less than fifty-lVnir, nor iiiure than one luinu.-ed ; and that the senate shall consist of a 
number not more than one-third nor less than one-fourth of the number of the members of the 


assembly. Since tlie year 1S62, the aggregate allotted to lioth houses had been one hundred and 
thirty-three, the maximum allowed by the constitution ; one hundred in the assembly and thirty- 
three in the senate. The number of this representation was not diminished by the apportion- 
ment of 1S76. One of the railroad laws abolished the board of railroad commissioners, confer- 
ring its duties upon a railroad commissioner to be appointed by the governor every two years. 
Under this law DanaC. J.amb was appointed to that office, on the loth of March, 1876. On the 
2d day of February, previous, George ^\'. Kurchard was by the governor appointed state prison 
director for six years, in place of Joel Rich, whose term of office had expired. On the same day 
T. C. Chamberlin was aj.ipointed chief geologist of Wisconsin in place of O. W. Wight. 

The application of Miss Lavinia Goodell, for admission to the bar of Wisconsin, was 
rejected by the supreme court of the State, at its January term, 1S76. ''We can not but think," 
jaid Chief Justice R>"an, in the decree of refusal, " we can not but think the common law wise 
in excluding women from the profession of the law." "The profession," he added, "enters 
largely into the well-being of society, and, to be honoralily filled, and safely to society, exacts 
the devotion of life. The law of nature destines and iiualiiies the female sex for the bearing 
and nurture of the children of race, and for the custody of the homes of the world, and 
their maintenance in love and honor. And all life-lor.g callings of women inconsistent with 
these radical and social duties of their sex, as is the profession of the law, are departures from 
the order of Nature, and, when voluntary, are treason against it." By a law since passed, no 
person can be denied admission to any court in the State on account of sex; and Miss Goodell 
has been admitted to practice in the Supreme Court. 

Ty an act of the legislature, approved March ij, 1876, a State board of health was estab- 
lished, the aiipomtincnr of a superintendent of vita! statistics, was provided for, and certain 
duties were assigned to local boards of health. The State board was organized soon after; 
the governor having previously appointed seven persons as its members. The object of the 
organi/^ation, which is supported by the State, is, to educate the people of Wisconsin into a better 
knowledge of the nature and causes of disease, and a better knowledge and observance of 
hygienic laws 

Ey a law passed in 1S6S, as amended in 1S70 and 1S73, the secretary of state, state 
treasurer, and attorney genera!, were constituted a State board of assessment, to meet in the 
city of Madison, on the third Wednesday in May, 1S74, and biennally thereafter, to make an 
equalized valuation of the property in the State, as a guide to assessment for taxation. In the 
tables of equalized valuations compiled by this board in 1S76, the whole amount of taxable 
property in Wisconsin, is set down at $423,596,290 ; of which sum S;,37, 073,148, represents real 
estate and $86,523,142 personal property. 

This being the for the election of president and vice president of the United States, 
the two political parties in Wisconsin — republican and democratic — had tickets in the field. 
At the election on Tuesday, November 7, the republican presidential electors received a 
majority of tiie votci cast in the State, securing Wisconsin for Hayes and Wheeler. The eight 
congressional districts elected the same day their members to the forty-fifth congress, wlio?e 
terms of office would expire on the 4th of March, 1S79. Charles G. Williams was elected in the 
first di.-.trict; I.ucien 1!. Caswell, in the second; George C. Ha/.elton, in the third; William P. 
I.ynde, in the fourth; Edw.ird S. Ilragg, in the fil'th ; Gabriel Piouck, in the sixth; II. L. 
Humiihrey, in the seventh; and Thud. C Pound, in the eighth district. A majority of the 
delegation was republican, the representatives from the fourth, fifth and sixth districts only, being 

lOtj liisTom' or wiscoxsix. 

There was a general and si>ontaneous exhibition of patriotic impulses throughout the length 
and breadth of Wisconsin, on the part of botli native and loreign-born citizens, at the coui- 
niencement of the centennial year, and upon tiie fourth of July. The interest of the people of 
the State generally, in the l'>xi.ositioii at Philadelphia, was manifested in a someuliat remarkable 
manner from its inception to its close. By an act of congress, a[jproved .March 3, 187 1, pro- 
vision was made for celebrating the one liundredth anniversar}- of American Independence, by 
holding in that city, in 1S76, an exhil>ition of arts, manufact'ires, and the products of the soil 
and mines of the country. A centennial comirilssion, consisting of one commissioner and one 
alternate commissioner, from each State and Territory, was authorized to be api)ointed, to cany 
out the provisions of the act. David Atwood, as commissioner, and E. D. Holton, as alternate, 
were commissioned by the president of the United States, from Wisconsin. This commission 
gradually made progress in p>reparing for an international exposition. " The commission has 
been organized," said Ciovernor Washburn, in his message to tlie legislature in January, 1S73, 
"and has made considerable progress in its work. The occasion will be one to which fhe 
American people can not fail to re^[lond in the most eritiui=iastic manner." The president of 
the United States, by proclamation, in July, 1873, announced the exhibition and national celebra- 
tion, and commended them to the people of the Union, and of all nations. " It seems fitting, 
said Governor Taylor, in his message to the Wisconsin legislature in 1S74, '" that such a cele- 
bration of this im[)ortant event, sliould be held, and it is hoped it will be carried out in a manner 
worthy of a great and enlightened nation." By the close of 1S74, a large number of foreii;n 
governments had signified their intention to participate in the exhibition. 

The legislature of Wisconsin, at its session in 1S75, deeming it essential that the State, 
with its vast resources in agricultural, mineral, lumbering, manufacturing, aiu! otiier products 
and industries, should be fully represented at Piiiladelpihia, passed an act which was approved 
March 3, 1S75, to provide foi a ''Board of State Centennial Managera." Two thousand dollars 
were appro[iriated to pay its iieccssurv expenses. The board was to consist ol five members to 
be appointcil by the governor; and there were added thereto, as ex-otificio members, the United 
States centennial commissioner and his alternate. The duties of the meml'ers were to dis- 
seminate information regardiiig the Exhibition; to secure the co-operation of industrial, scien- 
tific, agricultural, and otlier .issociatioiis in the State; to apiHiint co-operative local committees, 
rejiresenting tlie different industries of the State ; to stimulate local action on all measures 
intended to render the exhibition successful, and a worthy representation of the industries of 
the countr\ ; to encourage the jiroduclion of articles suitable for the Exhibition: to distribute 
documents issued by the centennial commission among inanul'acturers and otiieis in the State; 
to render assistance in furthering the imancial and other interests of the exhibilion ; to luiuish 
inform.ition to the c.onimissi"n on subjects that might be referred to the boari.1 ; to care for tiie 
interests of the .State and of its cili/ens in matters relating t<.> the exhibilion ; to receive and 
pronounce upun applications tor space; to ai'ponion tiie s[ placed at its ilisposal among tlie 
exhibitors from the State; and to supervise buch other details relating to the reiiresentation of 
citizens of Wisconsin in the I'^xhibition, as might Irom time to tune be delegated by the United 
States centeiini.d 1 onimission. 

The bo.ud was re'piire.i to meet on tlie liist Wednesday of A[)ril, 1875, at the capitol, in 
Madison, to org.mi/e and adopt such by-laws and regulations as might be deemed necessary for 
the surcesslul prosecution of the work comir.itted to tiieir cliarge (.ioveruor 'I'aylor appointed 
l'',li Stilson, J. 1. Case, J. B. I'.trkinson, T. C Bound, and 1".. .V. I 'alkins, members of the board. 
Its organization was perfected, at the apinjinted. time, by the election ol j. B. Parkinson as pre- 
sident, and \S'. W. field, secretary. The ex-ollicio members ol the board, were David .\twood. 

"WlsrOXSIX A-- A STATK 107 

United States romniis^ioner, and E. D. Holton, alternate From this time forward, the board 
was untiring in it, etiorts tu 5CCLirc a full and jiroii^r representation of tlie varied interests of 
Wisconsin in the centennial exhil'ition of 1S76. K. A. Calkin:, havin- resi-ned his position as 
member of the Ijoard, Adolph Meinec'ke took his [ilace by appointment of the governor July 
24, 1875. Governor Ludington, in hi, nicasage to the legi:.lature in January, 1S76, spoke in 
commendation of the coming exhibition. "The occasion," :,aid he, "will afford an excellent 
opportunity to dis;.lay the resources aiid products of the State, .md to attract hither capital and 

Soon after the organization of the United States centennial commission, a national organ- 
ization of the women of the country vras perfected. A lady of Philadelphia was placed at its 
liead; and r presiding otficer from each State was appointed. .Mrs. A. C. Thorp as'^umed the 
■duties of chairman for Wisconsin, in March, 1S75, appointing assistants in various parts of the 
State, when active work, was commenced. This organization was efficient in Wisconsin in 
.arousing an interest in the general juirposes and objects of tlie exhibition. 

By an act of the legislature, approved .March j, 1S76, the sum of twenty thousand dollars 
was appropriated to the use of the board of centennial managers, for the purpose of arran'uni-' 
for, and making a proiier exhibition of, the products, resources, and advantages of the State at 
the exposition. The treasurer of Wisconsin was, by this act, made an ex-officio member of the 
board. By this and previous action of the legislature— by efforts put torth by the board of 
managers— by individual enterprise— by tlie untiring labors of the "Women's Centennial Execu- 
tive Commi-ttee," to whom, Ijy an act of the legislature, approved the 4th of March, 1875, one 
thousand dollars were appropriated— Wisconsin was enabled to take a proud and honorable 
position in the Centennial Exposition— a gratification not only to the tliousands of her citizens 
who \isited Philadelphia during its continuance, but to the people generailv, throughout the 

In Wisconsin, throughout the centennial year, those engaged in the various branches of 
agriculture and other useful avocations, were reasonably prosperous. The crop of wheat and 
oats was a light \ield, and of poor ipiality ; but the corn crop was the largest ever before raised 
in the State, and of superior ipaality. The dairy and hog product was large, and commanded 
remunerative prices. Fruits were unusually plenty. Trade and business enterprises, however, 
generally remained dejiresscd. 

By section five of article seven of the constitution of Wisconsin, the counties of the Slate 
were apportioned into five judicial circuits; the county of Richland being attached to Iowa, 
Ciiippewa to Crawford, and La I'ointe to St. Croix In 1S50, t!ie fifth circuit was divided, and a 
sixth circuit formed. In 1864, Crawford and Kichland were made paYt of the fifth circuit. Bv 
an act which took effect in 1S34, a seventh circuit was formed. On the first da> of January, 
1855, the sixth circuit was dividett, and .u\ eiglith and ninth circuit formed, the county of 
Columbia being made a jurt of the last mentioned one. In the same \ ear was also formed a 
tenth circuit; and, in 1858, Winnebago county was attached to it; but, in 1S70. that countv was 
attached to the tliird circuit. In 1858, Keuaunee county was attached to the fourth circuit. 
An eleventh circuit was formed in 1864, from which, ir. 1865, Dallas county was detached, and 
made ])art of the eighth. By an act which took eflect on the first da\- of January, 187 i, liie 
twelfth circuit famed. In 1S76, a thirteenth circuit was "constituted and re-organized." 

At that time, the whole sixty counties of the State stood appoitioned in tlie thirteen judicial 
circuits Us follows: First circuit, Walworth, Racine, and Keiiosh.i; second circuit, Milwaukee, 
and Waukesh.L, third circuit. Creen Lake, Dodge, Washington, Ozaukee, and Winnebago; 
-fourth circuit. Sheboygan, Calumet, Kewaunee, Fond du Lac, and Manitowoc; fifth circuit. 


(Irant, low.i. La J-'ayette, Richland, and Crawford; sixth circuit, Clark, Jackson, Monroe, La 
Crosse, and Vernon; seventh circuit. Portage, >Larathon, Wauijaca, Wood, W au^liara, Lincoln, 
and Taylor; eiL;luh circuit, Dunn, Pepin, Pierce, and St. Croix; ninth circuit, Adains, Columbia, 
Dane, Juneau, Sauk and Maniuette ; tenth circuit, Outagamie, Oconto, Shawano, Door, and 
Brown, eleventh circuit. Ashland, Parron, Bayfield, Burnett, Chippewa, Douglas, and Polk; 
twelfth circuit. Rock, Green, and Jefferson; and the thirteenth circuit, Buffalo, Eau Claire, and 
Trenipeleau, Marinette and New are no.v in the tenth; Price is in the seventh circuit. 

The thirtieth regular session of the legislature o( Wisconsin commenced, pursuant to law, 
on the loth of January, 1S77. The republicans had working majorities in both houses. J. B. 
Cassoday was elected Speaker of the Assembly. Governor Ludington delivered his mebsage to 
the joint convention of the legislature the following day. " U'e should not seek,'' said he, in 
his concluding remarks, "to conceal from ourselves the fact that the prosperity which our people 
have enjoyed fir a number of years past, has suffered some interruption. Agriculture has ren- 
dered less return; labor in all de[iartments has been less productive, and trade has consequently 
lieen less active, and has reali.Ted a reduced percentage of profit." '" These adverse circum- 
stances," continued the governor, " will not be wliolly a misfortune if we heed the lesson that 
they convey. Thi:, lesson is the necessity of strict economy in public and i)rivate affairs. \\'e 
have been living u[)on a false basis; and the time has now come when we must return to a solid 
foundation." Tlie legislature adjourned sirir die on the Sth of ^L^rch, after a session of fit'ty- 
eight days, passing three hundred and one acts — one hundred and thirteen less than at the 
session of 1S7C Tlie most important of tliese, as claimed by the dominant [larty which passed 
it, is one for the maintenance of the lairity of the ballot box, known as the " Registry Law." On 
the 3d day of .April, at the regular S[)ring election, William P. Lyon was re-elected, without 
opposition, an associate justice of the supreme court for six years from the first Monday in 
January, 1S7S, his term of office expiring on the first Monday of January, 1SS4. 

Under a law of 1S76, to i)rovide for the revi.-ion of the statute:^ of the State, the justices of 
the stipreme court were authorized to appoint three revisors. The persons receiving the appoint- 
. ment were David Taylor, William F. Vilas and J. P. C. Cottrill. By an amendatory law of 1S77, 
for the purpose of having the revision completed for the session of 1S7S, tiie justices of the 
supreme court were authorized to apiioint two additional revisors, and assign tlicm sjiecial duties 
on the commission. IL S. Orton was apiiointed to revise the criminal law and proceedings, and 
J. IL Car[ienter to revise the probate laws. 

CJovernor Ludington declined being a candidate for renomination. His administration was 
characterized as one c>f practical efficiency. As the chief executive oflicer of Wisconsin, he kept 
in view the best interests of the State. In matter^ coming under his control, a rigid svstem of 
economy prevailed. 

'liiere V ere three tickets in the field presented to the electors of Wisconsin for their suffrages 
at the general election 1 eld on the sixth of November, 1S77 : republican, democratic, and the 
"greenback" ticket. The republicans were successful, electing William E. Smith, governor; 
James M. Bmghaiii, lieutenant gosernor; Hans B. ^\'arner, secretary of state; Richard Guenther, 
treasurer; .Mexandi-r Wilson, attorney general ; and William C. Whitford, state superintendent 
of [lublic instnu tinn. At the same election two amendments to the constitution of the State 
were voted upon ami both adopted. 'I'he first one amends section four of article seven; so that, 
hereafter, '" the supreme court sli.dl consist of one chief justice and four associate justices, to be 
elected by the ciualificd electors of the State. The legislature shall, at its first session after the 
adoption of this amendment, provide by laiv for the election of two associate justices of said 
court, to hold their ot'tices respectively for terms ending two and four years, respectively after the 

"\VlSCO>'s;lX AS A STATE. 109 

end of the term of the justice of the said court then last to expire. And thereafter the chief 
justices and associate justices of said court sliall be elected and hold their offices respectively 
for the term of ten years." The second one amends section two of article eight; so tliat, heie- 
after, " no money shall be paid out of the treasury except in pursuance of an appropriation by 
law. No appropriation shall be made for the payment of any claim a'.^ainst the State, except 
claims of the United -States, and judgments, unless filed within six years after the claim accrued." 
The year 1S77, in Wisconsin, was notable for excellent crops. A depression in monetary 
matters continued, it is true, but not without a reasonable prospect of a change for the better 
within the near future. 

Si-XTEENTH Administration. — E. S.mith, Govek.vor — 1S7S — 1879. 

At noon, on Monday, January 7, 1S7S, began the sixteenth administration of Wisconsin, by 
the inauguration of the State ofticers elect. On the 9th of the same month, commenced the 
thirty-first regular session of tiie Legislature. .\. R. Barrows was elected Speaker of the Assembly. 
On the day following, Governor Smith delivered his message — a calm, business-like document — to 
the Legislature. P.oth Houses adjourned sine die on the 21st of March following. On the ist day 
of April, Harlow S. Orton and David Taylor were elected Associate Justices of the Supreme Court; 
the term of the first named to expire on the first Monday of January, iSSS ; that of the last men- 
tioned, on the first Monday of January, 1SS6. In obedience to a proclamation of the Governor, 
the Legislature convened on the 4th day of June, A. D. 1S78, in extra session, to revise the statutes, 
A. R. Barrows 'was elected Speaker of the Assenrbly. The Legislature adjourned sine die on the 
7th of the same month. In November following, the members chosen to the Forty-sixth Congress 
were C. G. Williams, in the First District ; L. B. Caswell, in the Second ; George C. Hazelton, in 
the Third ; P. V. Deuster, in the Fourth ; E. S. Bragg, in the Fifth ; Gabriel Bouck, in the Sixth ; 
H. L. Humphrey, in the Seventh; and T. C. Pound, in the Eighth. The thirty-second regular 
session of the Legislature commenced on the 8th day of January, 1879. D. ^L Kelly was elected 
Speaker of the Assembly ; the next day, the message of the Governor — a brief, but able State 
paper — was delivered to both Houses. On the 21st, Matthew H. Carpenter was elected United 
States Senator for six years, from the 4th of March thereafter, in place of Timothy O. Howe. 
The Legislature adjourned sine die on the 5th of .March, 1879. O" t'i<-' ist day of April following, 
Orsamus Cole was elected .Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, for a term of ten years. 

Wisconsin has many attractive features. It is a healthy, fertile, well-watered and well-wooded 
State. Every where within its borders the lights of each citi/cn are held sacred. Intelligence and 
education are prominent characteristics of its people. All the necessaries and many of the comforts 
and luxuries of life are easily to be obtained. .Agriculture, the chief source of wealth to so many 
nations, is here conducted with prolit and success. (lenerally sjieaking, the farmer owns the 
land he cultivates. Here, the laboring man, if honest and industrious, is most certain to secure 
a competence fi;r himself and family. Few States have made more ani;)!e provisions for the 
unfortunate— the deaf and dumb, the blind, and the insane—than has Wisconsin. Nor has she 
been less iiitercr^ted in her reformatory and penal institutions. In her educational facilities, she 
already rivals the most advanced of her sister States. Her markets are easily reached by rail- 
ways and water-navigation, so that tlie products of the country tind readv sale. Her commerce 
is extensive; Iter manufactures remunerative; her natural resources great and manifold. In 
morality and religion, her standard is high. Her laws are lenient, but not lax, securing the 
greatest good to those who are disposetl to live 141 to their requirements. Wisconsin has, in 
fact, all the essential elements of prosperity and good government. Exalted and noble, there- 
fore, must be her future career. 


Bv T. C. CHAMF.EKLIN, A. M., State Geologist. 

The surface features of AVisconsiii are simple and s}ininetrical in character, and present a con- 
figuration intermediate between tire nioiintainous, on the one hand, and a monotonous level, on the 
other. The highe-jt summits within the state ri--e a little mure than 1,200 teet above its lowest sur- 
faces. .\ few exceptional peaks rise from 400 to 620 feet abo\e their bases, but abrupt elevations of 
more than 200 or 300 feet are not common. Viewed as a whole, the state may be regarded as oc- 
cupying a swell of land lying between three notable depressions; Lake Michigan on the east, about 
57S feet above the mean tide of the ocean. Lake Superior en the north, about 600 feet above the 
sea, and tlie valleyof the Missi^^i[)pi ri\er. whose elevation at the Illinois state line is slightly below 
that of Lake Michigan. From these depressions tlie surface slopes upward to the summit altitudes 
of the state. But the rate of ascent i- unequal. From Lake Michigan the surface rises by a long, 
gentle acclivitv westward and northward. A similar slope ascends from the Mississippi valley to 
meet this, and their junction forms a north and south arch extending nearly the entire length of the 
state. From Lake Superior the surface ascends rapidly to the watershed, which it reaches within 
about thirty miles of the lake. 

If we include the contiguous portion of the up[ier ['eninsula of Michigan, the whole elevation 
may be looked upon as a very low, rude, three-sided pyramid, with rounded angles. The apex is 
near the Michigan line, between the headwaters cif the Montreal and Ihule rivers. The 
northern sitle is short and abrupt. The southeastward and southwe^tward sides are long, and 
decline genth. The l)a-.e of this pyramid m.iy be considered as, in round numbers, 600 feet 
above the sea, and its extreme apex i.Soo feet. 

Under t!ie waters cf Lake .Michii;an the surface of the land passes below the ^ea level 
before the limits of the st.ite are reached. Under Lake Sujierior the land-surface descends to 
even greater depth>, but probably not within tiie I'oundaries of the state. The regvdarity of the 
southward slopes is iiiterrufited in a very interesting way by a remarkaiile diagonal valley 
occu[iie<l by (ireeii Itay and the Fox and \\'isconsin rivers. This is a great groove, traversing 
the state obliipiely, and cutting down the central elevation half its height. .V line passing across 
the surface, from Lake .Mieiiigan to tile Mississippi, at any other point, would arch upward from 
about 400 to i.ooD feet, according to the location, wiiile doiig the trough of this valley it would 
reach .111 elevation b.irely exceeding 200 I'eet. On the northwest side of tllis troUL;h, in general, 
the surf ice rises s(jmewhat gradually, giving at most [njiiUs much .miplitude to the valle\, but 
on th.e opposite si(Je. the slope .iscends r.ipidly to a well marked watershed that stretches across 
the st.ite parallel to the valley. .Vt Lake Winnebago, this diagonal valle} is connected with a 
scarcely less not.ili'e one, occupied by the Rock river. Geologicall)', this Green-bay-Rock- 

ToronHAriiY axd geology. Ill 

river valley is even more noticeable, since it lies aloni^ the trend of tiie underlying strata, and 
was in large mea-iiire plowed out of a soft stratum by glacial action. Where it crosses the water- 
shed, near Horicou marsh, it presents the same general features that are seen at other point-, 
and in an almost equally conspicuous degree. Except in the southern part of the state, thi> 
valley is contined on the east by an abrupt ascent, and, at many points, by a precipitous, rocky 
acclivitv, known as "The Ledge" — which is the projecting edge of the strata of the Niagara 
limestone. On the watershed referred to — between the St. Lawrence and Mississippi basins — 
this ledge is as conspicuous and continuous as at other pomts, so that we have here again the 
phenomenon of a valley formed by e.xcavation, running up over an elevation of 300 feet, and 
connecting two great systems of drainage. 

On the east side of this valley, as already indicated, tliere is a sharp asCent of 200 feet, 
on an average, from th.e crest of which the surface slopes gently down to Lake Michigan. Tlie 
uniformity of tliis slope is broken by an e.xtended line of drift hills, lying obliquely along it and 
extending from Kewaunee count}' southward to the Illinois line and known as the Kettle range- 
A less conspicuous range of similar character branches oft" from this in the northwest corner of 
Walworth county and passes across the Rock river valley, where it curves northward; passing 
west of Madison, crossing the great bend in the Wisconsin river, and bearing northeastward 
into Oconto county, where it swings round to the westw-ard and crosses the northern part of the 
state. .-Xs a general topographical feature it is not conspicuous and is rather to be conceived as 
a peculiar chain of diift hills winding over the surface of the stale, merely interru[>ting in some 
degree the regularitv of its slopes There will be occasion to return to this feature in our 
discussion of the drift. It will be observed that the southeastward slope is interrupted by 
valleys running arross it, rudely jiarallel to Lake Michigan, and directing its drainage northward 
and southward, instead of directing it down the slope into the lake. 

The Mississippi slope presents several conspicuous ridges and valleys, but their trend is 
toward the great river, and they are all due. essentially, to the erosion of the streams that 
channel the slo[ e. One of these ridges constitutes the divide south of the Wisconsin river, 
already referred to. .\nother of these, consi'icuous by reason of its narrowness and sharpness, 
lies between the Kickapoo and the Mississippi, and e.xtends through Crawlord. Vernon and 
Monroe counties. Still another is formed by the quartzite ranges of Sauk countj and others 
of less prominence give a highly diversified character to the sloi)e. 

Scattered over the surface of the state are prominent hills, some swelling iqnvard into rounded 
domes, some rising symmetrically into conical peaks, some ascending precipitously into castel- 
lated towers, and some reaciiing prominence without regard to beauty of fo'in or convenience of 
description. .A. jxtrt of tliese hills were formed by the removal by erosion of the surrounding 
strata, and a p.irt by the heaping up of drift material by the glaci.d forces. In the former case, 
they are composed of rock; in the latter, of clay,, gr.ivel and bowlders. The two forms 
are often combined. The highest peak in the southwestern jiart of the state is the West 
Hhie mound, whicii is 1,151 feet above Lake Michigan; in the eastern part. I.apham's peak, S24 
feet, and in the central part. Rib i:i!l, 1263 feet. The crest of Penokee range in the northern 
part of the st.Ue rl-es 1,000 feet, and upwards, above Lake .Michigan. 

The drainage systems correspond in geiieral to these topograpical features, though several 
minor eccentricities are to be observed. The streams of the Lake Suiierior system plunge 
r.ipidly down their steep slopes, forming numerous falls, some of them possessing great beatit)', 
])roniinent among which are those of the Montreal river. On the southern slope, the rivers, in the 
upper jxjrtion of their courses, likewise descend rapidly, tiiough less so, producing a succession 
of rapids and cascades, and an occasional cataract. In the lower part of their courses, the 

112 hist()i:y of AVISCOXSIX. 

descent becomes miicli more gentle nnd many of them are navigable to a greater or less extent. 
The rivers west of the Wisconsin pursue an essentially direct course to the Mississippi, 
attended of course witii minor llexures. The \VlbCon^in river lies, for the greater part of its 
course, upon the north and south arch of the state, but on encountering the diagonal valley 
above mentioned it turns southwcstward to the " l-'ather of \\'aters." The streams east of the 
Wisconsin flow southerl) and southeasterly until they likewise encounter this valley when they 
turn in the opposite direction and discharge northeasterly into Lake Michigan, through Green 
bay. Between the Clreen-bay-Rock-river valley and Lake Michigan, the drainage is again in 
tlie normal sout'neastcrly direction. Li the soutiiern part of the state, the rivers flow in a gen- 
eral southerly dirc< tion, but, beyond the state, turn we~-tw.;rd toward the Mississil)[)i. 

If the courses of the streams be studied in detail, many exceedingly interesting and instruc- 
tive features will be observed, due chiefly to peculiarities of geological structure, some of which 
will be apparent by inspecting the accompanying geological map. Our space, however, 
forbids our entering upon the subject here. 

The jiosition of the watershed between the great basins of the Mississijjpi and the St. Law- 
rence is somewhat peculiar. On the Illinois line, it lies only three and one half miles from Lake 
Michigan and about i6o feet above its surface. As tra'-ed northward from this point, it retires 
from the lake and ascends in elevation till it approaches the vicinity of Lake Winnebago, when 
it recurves upon itself and descends to the portage between the Fox and the AVisconsin rivers, 
whence it pursues a northerly course to the heights of Michigan, when it turns westward and 
tassts in an undulating course across the northern part of the state. It will be observed that 
much the greater area of the state is drained by the Mississippi system. 

The relationship whi( h the drainage channels have been observed to sustain to the topo- 
graphical features is ]>artly that of cause and partly that of effect. The general arching of the 
surface, giving rise to the main slopes, is due to deep-seated geological causes that produce an 
upward sw elling of the center of the state. This determined the general drainage systems. On 
the other hand, the streams, acting upon strata of varying hardness, and presenting different atti- 
tudes, wore away the surface une(iually and cut tor themselves anomalous channels, leaving 
corresponding divides between, which gave origin to the minor irregularities that diversify the 
surface. In addition to this, the glacier — that great ice stream, the father of the drift — planed 
and jilowed the surface and heajied up its i/t/'/vV ujion it, modifying both the surface and drainage 
features Looked at from a causal standpoint, we see tiie results of internal forces elevating, and 
external agencies cuttiirj down, or, in a word, the fa'-e of the state is the growth of geologic ages 
furrowed by the teardrops of tiie skies. 


In harmony with tiie historical character of this atlas, it may be mosl vvcceptable to weave 
our briet sketch of tlie structure of the state into the ibrm of a narrative of its growth. 

THI-: .\KCILi;-\N AOE. 


I'he physical history of Wisconsin cm be traced back with certaintv to a state of complete 
submergem e beneath the w.iters of the ancient ocean, by which the m.uerial of our oldest and 
deepest strata were deposited. Let an extensive but shallow sea, covering the whole of the 
present territory of the sl.Ue. be pictured to the mind, and let it be im.igined to be depositing 


mud and sand, as at the jiresent day. and wt- lia\c before us the first authentic stage of the history 
under consideration. IJack of tliat, the history is lost in the mists of geologic antiquity. The 
thickness of the sediments that accumulated in that early period was immense, being measured 
by thousands of feet. These sediments occujiied of course an essentially horizontal position, and 
were, doubtless, in a large degree hardened into beds of impure sandstone, shale, and other sedi- 
mentary rock. But in the progress of time an enormous pressure, attended by heat, was brouc^ht 
to bear upon thcni laterally, or edgewise, b\- w'nicrh they were folded and crumpled, and forced 
up out of tlie w.Ltcr, giving rise to an island, the nucleus of \Visconsin. The force which pro- 
duced this upheaval is believed to have arisen from the cooling and consequent contraction of 
the globe. The foldings ma)- be imaged as the wrinkles of a shrinking earth. But the contor- 
tion of the beds was a scarcely more wonderful result than the change in the character of the 
rock which seems to have taken place simultaneously with the folding, indeed, as the result of the 
heat and pressure attending it. The sediments, that seem to have previously taken the form of 
imjuire sandstone and shale for the most jiart, underwent a change, in which re-arrangement and 
crystalization of the ingredients jilayed a conspicuous part. By this metamor[)hism, granite, gneiss, 
mica schist, syenite, hornblende rocks, chloritic schists and other crystalline rocks were formed. 
These constitute the Laurentian formation and belong to the most ancient period yet distinctly 
recognized in geology, although there were undoubtedly more ancient rocks. I'hey are therefore 
very fittingly termed Archrean — ancient — rocks (formerly .\zoic.) No remains of life have been 
found in this formation in \\'isconsin, but from the nature of rocks elsewhere, believed to be of the 
same age, it is probable tiiat the lowest forms of life existed at this time. It is not strange tliat 
the great changes through wliich the rocks have passed should have so nearlv obliterated all 
traces of them. The original extent of this Laurentian island can not now be accurately ascer- 
tained, but it will be sufficiently near the truth for our present purposes to consider the formation 
as it is now exposed, and as it is represented on the maps of the geological survey, as showing 
approximately the original extent. This will make it include a large area in the north-centra! 
portion of the state and a i^ortiou of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. All the rest of the state 
was beneath the ocean, and the same may be said of the greater portion of the United States 
The height of this island was doubtless considerable, as it has since been very much cut down by 
denuding agencies. The strata, as now exposed, mostly stand in highly inclined attitudes and 
present their worn edges to view. The tops of the folds, of which they are the remnants, seem 
to have been cut away, and we have the nearl) vertical sides rem.iining. 


As soon as the Laurentian island had been elevated, the waves of the almost shoreless 
ccean began to beat against it, the elements to disintegrate it, and the rains of the then tropical 
climate to wash it; and the sand, ci.iy and other J,/>>:s, thus formed, were deposited beneath the 
waters around its base, giving ri>e to a new sedimentary formation. There is no evidence that 
there was any vegetation on the island: the air and water were, doubtless, heavily charc'cd with 
carbonic acid, an efficient agent of disintegration: the climate was warm and doubtless vcrv 
moist — circumslaiices which C(jinliined to hapten the erosion of the i^ and increase the 
deposition in the surroundini; :,ea. \n addition to these agencies, we judge from the large amount 
of carbonaceous matter contained in some of tiie l>eds, that there must have been an abundan<e 
of marine vegetation, and, from the liuie.-tone bcU that accuidiulated, it is probable that there 
was marine animal life al-,o, ^iiue in later ages that was the chief smirce ot limestone strata. 
1 he joint accunmlanons from the^e several sources gave rise to a series of shales, sandstones 
and lime-^toiie^. whose combined thickness was several tliousand feet. 


At length the process of upheaval and metaniorphibni that closed the Laurcntian jjeriod 
was rcjicated, and tlioe sandstones became ipiart/ites; the limestones were crystalized, the 
shales were changed to slates or schists, and inte. mediate graders of sediments became diorites, 
(piartz- porphyries and other forms of crystalline rocks. The carbonaceous matter was changed 
in part to graphite. There were also associated witli these deposits extensive beds of iron ore^ 
whl( h we now hr.d chictly in the f jrni of magnetite, nematite and ore. These constitute 
the lluronian rocks. From the amount of iron ere they contain, the\ are aUo fittingly termed 
the iron-bearing series. As in the preceding case, the strata were contorted, flexed and folded, 
and the whole island was further elevated, carrying with it these cin umjacent strata, by whii h 
it^ extent was p.uich. enlarged. The area of the island after receiving this increment was con- 
sidcraljly greater tliari the surface represented as Laurcntian and Huronian on the accompanying 
mail, since it was subsecpaently covered to a considerable extent by later formations. Penokee 
range, in .Ashland county, is the most conspicuous development of the Huronian rocks in the 
state. The ui)turned edge of the formation forms a bold rampart, extending across the country 
for sixty miles, making the nearest approach to a mor.ntain range to be found within the state. 
A belt of magnetic schist may be traced nearlv its entire length. In the northern part of 
Oconio county , there is als(.i an import, mt deve!o[)ment of this formatiiin, being an extension 
of tile Menonionee iron-bearing series. A third area is found in iJarron counts', which includes 
deposits of pipestone. In the south central part of the state there are a considerable number 
of small areas and isolated outliers of quartzite and quarlz-por;)li\rv, that, without much doiibt,. 
belong to this series. The most conspicuous of these are the Karaboo quartzite ranges, in 
!^auk and Columbia counties, and from thence a chain of detached outliers extends northeasterly 
through several counties. The most southerly ex[iosnre of the formation is near Lake Mills, in 
Jefferson county. 


I'revio'as to the u[iheaval of the Huronian strata, tliere occurred in the Lake Superior region 
events of peculiar and striking interc--t. If we may not speak with afisolute assurance, we may 
at least say with reasonable probabilit}', that the crust of the earth was fissured in that regic^n, 
and iluit there issued from beneath an immense mass of molten rock, tliat spread itself over an 
area of more than three hundred miles in length and one hundred miles in width. The action 
was not confined to a single overflow, but eruption fjllowed eruption, sometimes apparently in 
quick succession, sometimes evidently at long intervals. Each outpouring, u hen soliditicd, 
finned a stratum of ir.qi rock, and where these followed each other witiioat any intervening 
deposit, a series of tra[i|ieaii beds were formed. In some cases, however, an interval occurred, 
during which the waves, at ting upon the rock iireviousiy t'ormed, produced a bed of sand, gravel 
and clay, which afterwartl solidified into sandstone, conglomerate and siiale. The history of 
these beds is lithographed ovt their surface in beautilV.l riiiple-marks and other evidences of wave- 
actitm. .Vfter the cess.ition of tlie igneous eruptions, there accumulated .i vast tliickness of 
sand-.' one, shale and conglomerate, so t'uat the whole series is literally miles in thickness. 

The eruptive jionions h.ive been sjiokeii of as tr.(i>>, for convenieiice ; but tliey do not now 
]xjssess the usual of ignous rocks, and apjiear to have undergone a chemical 
metamorphisin by which the mineral ingreilients have been changed, tile leading ones now being 
an iron chlorite and a fehJspar, with which are tissociated. as accessory minerals, q.iartz, epidote, 
Jirenite, calcite, l.iumontite, anah.ite. d.itolite. m.ignetite, native copper and silver, and, more 
rarely, other miner. ils. The rock, as .i whole, is now known ,is a melapli\ r. Tlie upjper [jortiim 
of each bed is Usually by :dniond-si/ed cells filled with tiie minerals above men- 
tioned, giving to the rock an amygdaloidal nature. The native copper was not injected in a. 


molten stnte, a-, has ven- generally been sai)posed, l)ut u\is deposited by chemical means aftet 
the beds u-ere formed and after a [lortion of the chemical change of the minerals above mentioned 
had been acconiplisheti. The same is true of the silver. The copper occar.i in all the different 
forms of rock — the melaphyrs, amygdaloid-, sandstones, shales and conglomerates, but most 
abundantly in the amygdaloids and certain conglomerates. 

This series e.\tends acro-,s the northern portion of the state, occupying jiorlions of Ashland, 
liayfield, Douglas, liurnett and Polk counties. When the Huronian rocks were elevated, tliey 
carried the-;e up «-ith them, and they partook of the folding in some measure. The copper- 
bearing range'of Keweenaw Point. Michigan, e.xtend^ southwestward through Ashland, Eurnett 
and Polk <;ounties, and throughout this wliule extent the beds dip north-norlhwesterly toward 
Lake Superior, at a high angle; but in Douglas and Bayfield counties there i^ a parallel range 
in which the beds incline in the opj,osite direction, and undoubtedly form the opposite side of a 
trough formed by ;i downward fle.xure of the strata. 



.After the great .Irchcean upheaval, there followed a long period, concerning wnich very little 
is known — a " lost interval " in geological history. It is only certain that immense erosion of 
the Arch.eaa strata took place, and that in time the sea advanced upon the island, erodin- its 
strata and redqwsiting the wash and wear beneath its surface. The more resisting beds with- 
stood this advance, and formed reel's and rocky islands olY the ancient shore, about whose ba;es 
the sands and ■^ediments accumulated, as ti-.ey did over the bottom of the surrounding' o<.ean. 
The breakers, da.Jiing against the rocky cliff,, threw down masses of rock, which imbedded them- 
selves in the sands, or were rolled and rounded on the be.icii, and at length were buried, ui 
either case, to tell their own history, when they should be ag.iin disclosed by the ceaseless ■maw- 
ings of the very elements that had buried them. In addition to the accumulations of wash and 
wear that have previously been the main agents of rock-formations, abundant life now swarms in 
the ocean, .md the sands become tlie great cemetery of its dead. Though the contribution of each 
bttle being was small, the myriad millions the waters brought forth, yielded by their remains, 
a large contriluition to the accumulating sediments. Among plants, there were sea-weeds, and 
among animaU, protozoans, radiates, mollis'-;, .uid articulates, all the sub-kingdoms excefit the 
vertebrates. Among these, the most rem.nrkable, both in nature and number, were the trilobites 
who have left their casts in countless multitudes in certain localities. The result of the action 
nf these several agencies was the formation nf extensive bed-, of sandstone, with interstratilied 
l.iyer:, of limestone and shale. The>e surrounded the Arch.van nucleus on all sides, and rei'Osed 
on us flanks. On the Lake Superior margin, the sea acted mainly upon the copper and iron- 
liearing series, which are highly terrugi:iou,, and the result wa the red Lake Superior sandstone. 
On the oppoMte side of the inland, the wave-action was mainly upon quartzite,, iwrphyries and 
.L'ranites, and re-ulted in light-colored >,ii.dotones. The former is contined to the immedi.ite 
vicinity of Lake Superior ; the bitter occuiiie^ a broad, irregular belt bordering the Arch.eaii 
area on the south, and, being widest in the central part of the state, is often likened to a rude 
ire^cent. The form and po-,itioii uf the area will be be>t api)rehended by relerring to the 
■iccompanying It will be understood from the foregoing de-cription, tluu the .-.trata'^ of this 
formation lie in a nearly horizontal position, and repOse unconfurmably upon the worn surlace 
of the crystalline rocks. The close of this period wa, not m.irked by any great upheaval; there 


was no crumpling or rnetamorphism of the strata, and they have remained to the present day 
very much as they were originally depositeii, save a slight arching upward in tile central 
porti >u uf the state. The lieds have been somewliat compacted by the pressure of superin- 
cumbent strata and solidified by the cementing action of calcareous and ferruginous waters, and 
by their own coherence, liat the original character of the formation, as a great sand-bed, has not 
been obliterated. It still bears the ripple-m.irks, crOiS-laminatiori, worm-burrows, and similar 
markings that characterize a sandy beach. Its thickness is very irregular, owing to the uneven- 
ness of its Archa-an bottom, and may be said to range from i,ooo feet downward. The strata 
slope gentlv away fxom t!ie Arclix^an core of the state and underlie all the later formations, and 
may be reacliC'l at an) point in bouthern Wisconsin by penetrating to a sufficient depth, which 
can be calculated with an approximate As it is a water-bearing formation, and the 
source of fine .Vrtesian wells, this is a f.ici of uuicli ini[iortance. The interbedded layers of lime- 
stone and sliale, by supplying impervious strata, very much enhance its value as a source of 

I^owER M.^GNESi.AX Limestone. 

During the previous period, the accumulation of sandstone gave place for a time to the 
formation of limestcjne. and afterward liie deposit of sandstone was resumed. At its close, with- 
out any very marked disturbance of e.xisting conditions, the formation of limestone was resumed, 
and progressed with little interruption till a tliickness ranging from 5-0 to 250 feet was attained. 
This vari.-itiou is due mainly to irregulariticM of the upper surtace of the formation, which is 
undulating, and in some localities, may appropriately be termed billowy, the surface rising and 
fallin'4 100 feet, in some cases, within a short distance. This, and the preceding similar deposit, 
have been s['oken of as limestones simply, but they are really ilolomitea, or magnesian limestones, 
since they contain a large proportion of carbonate of magne>ia. This rock also contains a 
notable (]uaiitity of silii.:a, which occurs disseminated througli tiic mass of the rock; or, variously, 
as nodules or masses of chert; as cry^tals of quart/., filling or lining drusy cavities, forming 
beautiful miniature grottos; as the nucleus of oiilitic ccncretion^, or as sand. Some argillaceous 
matter also enters into its composition, and small ipiantities of the ores of iron, lead .md copper. 
are sometimes found, but they give little promise of value. The evidences of life are verj- 
scanty. Some sea-weeds, a tew mollus!v5, and an occasional indication of other forms of life 
embrace the known l:-t, except at a lew tavored localities where a somewhat ampler fauna is 
found. But it is not. therefore, safe to a-sume the absence of life in the depositing seas, for it 
is certain that most limestone has orignated from the remains of anini.iU and plants that secrete 
calcareous material, .ivid it i^ most consistent to believe that such was the case in the [iresent 
instance, and that the distinct traces of life were mostly obliterated. This formation occupies an 
irregular belt skirting the I'otsdam area. It was. doubtless, originally a somewhat uniform band 
swinging around the nucleus of the state alreaily formed, but it has since been eroded by 
streams to its [irescnt jagged outline. 

St. I'f.tfk's S.-xni'.^tone. 

At the close of this limestone-making period, tliere appears to have been an interval of which 
we have no record, and tlie next chapter of the history introduces us to another era of sand 
accumulation. The work began by the leveling up of the inetiualities of the surface of the Lower limestone, and it ceased before that was entirely accomplished in all [uirts of tiie 
State, f )r a few prominences were lett projecting through the sand deposits. The material laid 
down consisted of a silicious sand, of uniform, well-rounded — doubtless well-rolled — grains. This 
was evidently deposited horizontally upon the uneven limestone surface, and so rests in a sense 

TOI'dnHAI'IIV A XI) (ii:OLOf!Y 117 

uiiconforinably iipon it. Where the sandstone abuts against the sides of the limestone promi- 
nences, it is mingled with material derived by ua\ e action from them, which tells the story of 
its formation. But aside from these and other exceptional impurities, the formation is a very 
pure sandstone, and is used for glass manufacture. At most points, the sandstone has never become 
firmly cemented and readily crumbles, so that it is used for mortar, the simi^le handling \\ ith pick 
and shovel being sufficient to reduce it to a sand. Ouing to the unevenness of its bottom, it 
varies greatly in tliickness, the greatest jet obser\ed being 212 feet, but tlie average is less than 
100 feet. Until rc( cntly. no organic remains had ever been found in it, and the traces now col- 
lecteol are very mt^ager indeed, but they are sul'ticient to show the existence of marine life, and 
demonstrate that it is an oceanic deposit. The rarity of fossils i-, to be attributed to the porous 
nature of the rock, which is unfavorable to their preservation. This porosity, however, subserves 
a very useful purpose, as it renders this pre-eminently a v.ater-bearing horizon, and supplies some 
of the finest Artesian fountains in the state, and is competent to hunish many more. It occupies 
but a narrow area at the surface, fringing that of the Lower Magne»iau limestone on the south. 

Trento.v Limf,5tone. 
A slight change in the oceanic conditions caused a return to limestone formation, accompa- 
nied with the deposit of consideralile clayey material, which formeil shale. The origin of the 
limestone is made evident by a close examination of it, which shov.s it to be full of fragments of 
shells, corals, and other organic remains, or the impressions they have left. Countless numbers 
uf the lower formi of life tlourislu-d in the seas, and left their remains to be comminuted and 
consolidated into limestone. A jcirt of the time, the accumidation of clayey matter jircdominated, 
and so layers of shale alternate with the limestone beds, and shaly leaves and partings occur in 
the limestone layers. Unlike tiie calcareous strata above and below, a portion of these are true 
limestone, containing but a very small proportion ot magnesia. .\ suftlcient amount of carbon- 
aceous matter is jiresent in some la_\ers to cause them to burn readily. This formation is quite 
highly metalliferous in certain portions of the lead region, containing zinc espccialh, and con- 
siderable lead, with, less quantities of other metals. The tbrmation abounds in fossils, many of 
them well preserved, and. from their great antif|uity, they yiossess uncommon interest. All the 
animal sub-kingdoms, except vertebrates, are represented The surface area of this rock borders 
tl'ie St. Peter's sandstone, but, to a\ oid too great complexity uii the m.-qi, it is not distinguished from 
the next formation to which it is closely allied. Its thickness reaches 120 I'eet. 

The (;.\[,f.\.a. 

With scarcely a change of oceanic conditions, limestone deposit continued, so that we find 
reposing upon the surface of the Trenton limestone, 250 feet, or, of a light gray or buff 
colored highly magnesiau limestone, uccurring in he.ivy beds, and having a sub-crystalline struc- 
ture. In the southern portion of the state, it contains but little shaly matter, but in the north- 
eistern part, it is modified by the addition of argillaceous lasers and leaves, and presents a bluish 
I'r gieenish-gray aspect. It receives its name from the sulphide of lead, — galena, of which it 
< ontains large quantities, in the southwestern p.irt of t!ie st ite. 7iiic ore is also abundant, and 
these minerals gi\e to this and the underlying I'ormation gre.u importance in that region. Else- 
where, althouL;h these ores are jiresent in small quantities, t;ie\' ha\e not developed economic 
importance. This limestone, though changing its nature, as abo\e stated, occupies a large area in 
the southwestern pirt of the state, and a broad north and south belt in Wisconsin. 
It will be seen our island is growing ajiace by com eiuric additions, and that, as the several 
I'lrmations sweep around the central nucleus of .VrrhaMu rocks, thi'V swing off into adjoining 
-slates, whose formation was somewhat more tardv than tnat of Wisconsin 

118 HISTOUY OF A\ IvCdX.siX 

Cincinnati Shales. 

A change ensued upon the furmition of the Galena limestone, by virtue of which there fol- 
lowed the de[)osition of large quantities of clay, accompanied by some calcareous material, the 
whole reaching at some points a thickness of more than :oo feet. The sediment has never 
become more than partially indurated, and a portion of it is now only a bed of compact clay. 
Other portions hardened to shale or limestone according to the material. The shales are of 
various gray, green, blue, ])urple and other hues, so that where vertical clift's are exposed, as along 
Green bay, a beaut,iful appearance is presented. As a wliole, this is a very soft formation, and 
hence easily eroded. Owing to this fact, along the east side of the Green-bay-Kock-river val- 
ley, it has been extensively carried away, leaving the hard overlying Xiagara limestone projecting, 
in the bold cliffs known as " The Ledge." Tlie prominence of the mounds in the southwestern 
])art of the state are due to a like cause. Certain j)ortio!is of this formation abound in astonish- 
ing numbers of well jireservcd fossils, among which corals, bryozoans, and brachiopods, pre- 
dominate, the first named being especially abundant. A little intelligent attention to these might 
have saved a considerable waste of time and means in an idle search for coal, to which a slight 
resemblance to some of the shales of the coal measures has led. This formation imderlies the 
mounds of the lead region, and forms a narrow belt on the eastern margin of the Green-bay-Rock- 
river valley. This was the closing pernd of the Lower Silurian Age. 

Clintox L<i:)N Ore. 

On the surface of tlie --hales just described, there were and there, beds of pecu- 
liar lenticular iron ore. It is probable that it was deposited in detached basins, but the evidence 
of this is not conclusive. In our own state, this is chiefly known as Iron Ridge ore, from tiie 
remarkable de\'elopment it attains at that point. It i= made up of little concretions, which from 
their si/.e and co'or are fancied to resemble tiax seed, and hence t!ie name " seed ore," or the 
roe of fish, and hence oolitic ore. " .Shot ore " is also a common term. This is a soft ore occur- 
ring in regular horizontal beds which are quarried with more ease than ordinary limjstone. This 
deposit attains, at Iron Ridge, the unusual thickness of twenty-five feet, and affords a readily 
accessible supply of ore, adequate to all demands for a long time to conie. Similar, but much, 
less e.xtensive beds, occur at Flartford, and near iJepere, besides some feeble deposits elsewhere. 
Large quantities of ore from Iron Ridge have been sh pped to various points in this and nei'di- 
boring States for reduction, in addition to that sme.ted in tiie vicinity of the mines. 


Following the period of iron deposit, there ensued tiie greatest limestone-forming era in the- 
history of Wisconsin. During its progress a series of beds, summing up, at their points of great- 
est thickness, .sca:ce!y less th.m eigiit hundred feet, were laid down. The process of formation 
was essentially that already described, the accumulation of t'le calcareous secretions of marine 
life. Toward the close of tlie pjrioJ, reefs appeared, tiiat closely resemble the coral reefs of the 
present ieas, and doubtless have a similar histor\'. Corals form a very prominent element in the 
lite of this period, and with them were associ.ited numiier.^ of moUusks. one of which 
{Pt-nt.iiHi-rui vblo'i^us) sometimes occurs in beds not unlike cert.iin bivalves of to-dav, and niav 
be saui to h.ive been the oyst^-r of tlie Silurian .\t cert.iin points, thosj wonderful animals,, 
the stone lilies (C/v'/.'.j/.A'), grew in remarkable almndanre, mounted on stems like a jilant, vet 
true animals. Those unique crustaceans, the trilobite^. were conspicuous in numbers and variety, 
while the gigantic cephalopods held sway over the life of the seas. In the vicinity of th.' reefs,. 

TOl'CxniArilV AND GEOLOCY. 119 

there seem to have been extensive calcareous sand flats and areas over which fine calcareous mud 
sett'ed, the former resulting in a pure granular dolomite, the latter in a compact close-textured 
stone. The rock of the reefs is of very irregular structure. Of other portions of the formation, 
some are coarse heavy beds, some fine, even-bedded, close-grained la\ers, and some, again, irregu- 
lar, impure and cherty. All are highly magnesian, and some are among the purest dolomites 
known. The Niagara limestone occupies a broad belt lying adjacent to Lake Michigan. 

Lower Helderelrg Limestone. 

On Mud creek, near Milwaukee, there is found a thin-bedded slaty limestone, that is 
believed to represent this period. It has nsgle ted, however, to leave us an unequivocal record 
of its history, as fossils are extremely tare, and its stratigrapliical relations and lithographical 
•character are capable of more tlian one interpretation. Xear the village of Waubeka in 
Ozaukee county, tliere is a similar formation, somewhat more tossllilerous, that seems to repre- 
sent the same period. The area which these occupy is very small and they play a most insignifi- 
-cant part in the geology of the state. They close the record of the Silurian age in Wisconsin. 
During its progress the land had been gradually emerging from the ocean and increasing its 
amplitude by concentric belt.^ of limestone, sandstone and shale. There had been no general 
disturbance, only those slight oscillations which changed the nature of the tbrming rock and 
facilitated deposition. .\t its close the waters retired from the borders of the state, and an 
interval supervened, during which no additions are known to have been made to its substructure. 

H.AMU.TON Cement Rock. 

.\fter a lap^e of time, during which the uppermost Silurian and the lowest Devonian strata, 
as found elsewhere, were Ibnued, the water? again advanced slightly upon the eastern margin of 
the state and deposited a magnesian limestone mingled with silicious and almuninous material, 
forming a combination of which a portion has recently been shown to po^se->s hydraulic 
properties of a high degree of excellence. With this deposition there dawned a new era in the 
life-history of Wisconsm. While multitudes of protozoans, radiates, moUusks and articulates 
swarmed in the iire\ious seas, no trace of a vertebrate has Ijeen found. The Hamilton period 
witnessed the introduction of the highest type of the animal kingdom into the \Vi.,consin series. 
I'lit even then only the li;>west class was represented — the fishes. The lower orders of life, as 
before, were present, but the species were of the less ancient Devonian type. Precisely how l"ar 
the dejwsit originally extended 1:^ not now known, as it has undoubtedly been much reduced by 
the eroding agencies that have acted u[)on it. That portion which remains, occupies a limited 
area on the lake sh(3re immediately north of Milwaukee, extending inland half a dozen miles. 
The cement rock [iroper is found on the Milwaukee river jusl above the ci;y. .\t the close of 
the Hamilton period the oceanic waters retired, and, if the\' ever sub.^ei|uently encroached upon 
our territory, they have Ict't us no permanent record of their intrusion. 

The history of the formation of the substructure of the state was, it will be observed, in an 
unu-ual degree, sim|ile and (irogres-ive. Starting with a firm core of most ancient crystalline 
rocks, leaf upon leaf of stun;, strata were piled around it, adding belt after belt to the margin of 
he growing island until it exlendtd itself t.'.r beyond the limits of our state, and ( oalesced with 
tile forming continent. .Xn ideal map o{ the state would show the .-\rclKean nucleus surrounded 
i>y concentric bands of the later formati iiis in the order of tlieir de^.osition. l!ut during all the 

r20 liisToKV or wiscuNfrix. 

vast lapse of tinn; consiimeil in their growth, the elemcai^ were gnawing, carving and channeling 
the surface, and the outcropi>ing edges of the form,itior.s were becoming more and more jagged, 
and now, .ifter the la-;t stratum had been added, and the whole iiad been lifted from the waters 
that gave it birth, there ensued perhaps a still vaster era, during which tlie history was simply 
that of surface erosiun. The of the state became creased with the wrinkles of age. The 
edges of her rockv wr.iiiping-^ became ragged with tiic wear of time. The remaining Devonian 
periods, the great CarbfmiferL)Li> age, the Nresozoic era, and the earlier Tertiary periods passed, 
leaving no other record than that of denudation. 


With the approach of tlie great Ice .\ge, a new chapter was opened. An immense sheet of 
ice moved slowly, but irresistibly, down frum the north, jilaning down the prominences, filling up 
the valleys, polishing and grooving the strata, and heaping up its rubbish of sand, gravel, clay and 
bowlders over the face of the country. It engraved tlie lines of its progress on the rocks, arid, by 
reading these, we learn that one prodigious tongue of ice plowed along the bed of Lake Michi- 
gan, and a smaller one puslied through the valley of Green bay and Rock river, while another 
immense ice-stream flov.-ed southwestv,,ird through the trough of Lake Superior and onward 
into Minnesota. The di\ersion of the glacier through these great channels seems to Iiave left 
the southwestern portion of the state intact, and over it we lind no drift accumulations. With 
the approach of a v.armer climate, the ice-streams were melted backward, leaving their debris 
heaped promiscuously over the surface, giving it a new configuration. In the midst of this 
retreat, a scries of halts and advances seem to have taken ])lace in close succession, by which the 
drift pushed up into ridges and hills along the foot of tlie ice, after which a more rapid 
retreat ensued. The effect of this action was to produce ti;at remarkable chain of dril't hills and 
ridges, known as the Kettle range, which we have already described as winding over the 
surface of the state in a ver_\- peculiar manner. It is a great historic rampart, recording the 
position of the edge of the glacier at a certain stage of its retreat, and doubtless at the same time , 
noting a great cliinatic or dynamic change. 

The melting of the glacier gave rise to large quantities of water, and hence to numerous 
torrents, as well as lakes. There occurred about this time a depression of the land to the north- 
ward, whith v,as perh.^.[i5 the cause, in jiart or in whole of the retreat of the ice. This gave 
origin to the great lakes. The waters advanced somev.hat upon the laud and deposited the red 
clay that borders Lakes Michigan and Superior and occu]!ies the Green bay \alley as far up as 
the vicinity of Fond du Lac. .-Vfter several oscillations, the lakes settled down into their present 
positions. Wherever the glacier plowed over tiie land, it left an irregular sheet of commingled 
clay, sand, gravel and bowlders spread unevenly over the surface. The depressions formed by 
its irregularities soon filled with water and gave origin to numerous b.kelets. Probably not one 
of the thousands of Wisconsin lakes had an existence bel'ure the glacial [.leriod. Wherever the 
great lakes advanced upon the land, they leveled its surface and left their record in lacustine 
clays and sandy beach lines. 

Witli the retreat of the glacier, vegetation covered the surface, and by its aid and the action 
of the elements our fertile drift soils, among the last and best of Wi-,consin's formations, were 
produced. And the work still goes on- 


Ev Prof. H. H. OLDEXMAGE. 

The climate of a country, or that peculiar state of the atmosphere in regard to heat and 
moisture which picvaiis in any given place, and uhich directly affects the growth of plants and 
animals, is determined !>y the following causes: ist. Distance from tlie equator. 2d. Distance 
from the sea. 3d. Height above the sea. 4th. Prevailing winds; and 5th. Local influences, 
such as soil, vegetation, and pro.xiinity to lakes and moimtains. 

Of these causes, the first, distance from the equator, is by far the most important. The 
warmest climates are necessarily those of tropical regions where the sun's rays are vertical. But 
in proceeding from tlie equator toward the poles, less and less heat continues to be received by 
the same extent of surface, because t'ne rays fall more and more obliquely, and the same amount 
of heat-rays therefore spread over an increasing breadth of surface ; while, however, with the 
increase of obliquity, more and more heat is absorbed by the atmos]jhere, as the amount of air 
to be penetrated is greater. If the earth's surface were either wliully land or water, and its 
atmosphere motionless, the gradations of climate would run parallel with the latitudes from the 
equator to the jioles. But owing to the irregular distribution of land and water and the prevail- 
ing winds, such an arrangement is impossible, and the determination of the real climate of a given 
region, and its causes, is one of the most difticult problems of science. 

On the second of these causes, distance from the sea, depends the difierence between oce- 
anic and continental climates. Water is more slowly heated and cooled than land; the climates 
of the sea and the adjacent land are therefore much luure equable and moist than those of tiie 

A decrease of temperature is noticeable in ascending high mountains. The rate at which 
the temperature falls with the height above the sea is a \ery variable i|uantity, and is influenced 
by a variety of cause';, sucli as latitude, situation, moisture, or dryness, hour of the d.iy and season 
of the year. As a lough appro.ximation, however, the .fall of i" of the thermometer for every 
300 feet is usually adopted. 

Air in contact with any part of the earth's surface, tends to acquire the temperature of that 
surface. Hence, winds from the north are cold; those from the south are warm. Winds from 
the sea are moist, and winds from the land are usually dry. Pre\ai!ing winds are the result of 
tile relative distribution of atmospheric pressure blowingyVv/// places where the pressure is high- 
est, teiuard places w liere it is lowest. As climate jjractically dej;>ends on the temperature and 
moisture of the air, and as these again dejiend on the prevailing winds which come charged with 
the temi)erature and moisture of the regions they liave tra\er.--ed, it is evident that charts show- 
ing the mean jin-sure of the atmos;ihere give us the key to the climates of the different regions 
of the world. The effect of jircvailing winds is seen in the moist and equable climate of West- 
ern Europe, especially Great Britain, ouing to the warm and moist southwest winds; and in the 
extremes of the eastern part of North America, due to the warm and moist wii-uls prevailing in 
summer and the Arctic blasts of winter. 


Among locnl influences which modify climate, the nature of the soil is one of the most 
important. As water absorbs much heat, wet, marshy ground Usually lowers the mean tempera- 
ture. A sandy waste presents tlie greatest extremes. The extremes of temjjerature are also modi- 
fied by extensive forests, wliich prevent the soil from lieing as much warmed and cooled as it 
would be if bare. Evaporation goes on more slowly under the trees, since the soil is screened 
from the sun. And as the air among the trees is little agitated by the wind, the vapor is left to 
accumulate, and hence the humidity of the air is increased. Climate is modified in a similar man- 
ner by lakes and other large surfaces of water. During summer the water cools ths air and 
reduces the temperature cf the locality. In winter, on the otiier hand, the opposite effect is pro- 
duced. The surface water wliich is cooled sinks to louer levels; the warmer water rising to the 
surface, radiates heat into the air and thus raises the temperatuie uf ;hc neighboring region. 
This influence is well illustrated, on a great scale, in our own state by 1-ake Michigan. 

It is, lastly, of importance whether a given tract of country is diversified by hills, valleys and 
mountains. Winds with their warm vapor strike tlie sides of mountains and are forced up into 
higher levels of the atmosphere, where the vapor is condensed into clouds. Air coming in con- 
tact, during the night or in winter, with the cooled declivities of hills and rising grounds becomes 
cooled and consequently denser and sinks to the low-lying grounds, displacing the warmer and 
lighter air. Hence, frosts dften occur at these places, when no trace of them can be found at 
hig!itr levels. For the same reason the cold of winter is generally more intense in ravines and 
valleys than on hill tops and high grounds, the valleys being a receiuacle for the cold-air currents 
which descend from all sides. These currents give rise to gu.^ta and blasts of cold wind, which 
are simply the out-rush of cold air from such basins. This is a subject of great practical impor- 
tance to fruit-growers. 

In order to understand the [.rincipal features of the climate of Wisconsin, and the conditions 
on which these depend, it is necessary to consider th.e general climatology of the eastern United 
States. The chief cliaracteri.-tic of this area as a whole is, tliat -t is subject to great extremes — to 
all those variations of temperature wliich prev.'.il from the trojjical to the Arctic regions. This 
is principally due to the topographical conditions of our continent. The Ivocky mountains con- • 
densing the moisture of the warm winds from the Pacific and preventing them from reaching far 
inland, separate the climateof the Mississippi valley widely t'roni that of the Pacitic slope. Between 
the Gulf of Mexico and the .\rctic sea there is no elevation to exceed 2,000 feet to arrest the 
flow of the hot southerly winds of summer, or the cold northerly winds of winter. From this 
results a variation of temperature hardly equaled in anv part of the world. 

In determining the climates of the ITnited States, western P'urope is usually taken as the 
basis of comparison. The contrast between these regions is indeed very great. New York is in 
the same latitude with Madrid, Xajilesand Constantinople. Quebec is not so far north as Paris. 
London and Labrador are equi-distant iVorn thee']uator ; but while England, with her mild, moist 
climate, produces an abundance of vegetation, in Labrador all cultivation ceases. In the latitude 
of Stockholm and St. Petersburg, at the 60th ])arallel, we find in eastern Xorth America vast ice- 
fields which seldoin melt. The moist and equable climate of western Europe in high latitudes 
is due to the Gulf Stream and the southwest winds of the Atlantic, wliich spread their warmth 
and moisture over the western coast. Comparison, houe\er, shows that the climate of the Pacillc 
coast of North America is quite as mild as that of western Europe ; and this is due to the same 
kinil of inl^ucn(:e.^, namelv, to the warm, moist winds and the cm rin!i o\ the Pacific. And to con- 
tinue the comparison still further, in proceeding on both (ontinents from '.vest to east, or I'rom 
ocean into the interior, ue find .i general resemblance of climatic conditions, modified greati)', it 
is true, bv local infiuences. 

CLT?irATOL(ir,Y OF -wiscoxsix. 123 

The extreme summer climate of the eastern United States is owing to the southerly and 
southwesterly winds, which blow with great regularity during this season, and, after traversin<J 
great areas of tropical seas, bear the warmth and moisture of these seas far inland, and give this 
region the peculiar semi-tropical character of its summers. The average temperature of summer 
varies between So>^ for the Gulf states, and 60" for the extreme north. While in the Gulf states 
the thermometer often rises to 100°, in the latitude of Wisconsin this occurs very seldom. During 
winter the prevailing winds are from the northwest. These cold blasts from the Arctic sea are 
deflected by the Rocky mountains, sweep down unopposed into lower latitudes, and produce all 
the rigors of antarctic winter. The mean temperature for thi.-, season varies between 60" tor the 
Gulf coast and 15^ for the extreme northern part of Wisconsin. In the northern part of the 
valley the cold is sometimes so intense that the thermometer sinks to the freezing [.oint of 

The extreme of heat and cold would give a continental climate if this extreme were not accom- 
panied by a profusion of rain. The southerly winds, laden with moisture, distribute this moist- 
ure with great regularity over the valley. The amount of rainfall, greater in summer than in 
winter, varies, from the Gulf of Mexico to Wisconsin, from 63 inches to 30 inches. On the At- 
lantic coast, where the distribution is more equal throughout the year on account of its proximity 
to the ocean, the amount varies, from Florida to Maine, from 63 to 40 inches. The atmospheric 
movements on which, to a great extent, the climatic conditions of the eastern United States 
depend, may be summed up as follows: 

" I. That tJie northeast trades, deflected in their course to south and southeast winds in 
their passage through the Carribean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, are the warm and moist winds 
which communicate to tlic Mississippi valley and the Atlantic slope their fertility. 

" 2, That the prevalence of these winds from .May to October communicates to this region 
a sub-tropical climate. 

"3. That m the region bordering on the Gulf of Mexico, the atmospheric disturbances are 
propagated from south to north ; but in the northern and middle states, owing to a prevailing 
upper current, from west to east. 

"4. That while this uj.per current is cool and dry, and we have the apparent anomaly of 
rain storms traveling from west to east, at the same time the moisture supi^lying them comes from 
the south. 

"5. That, in the winter, the south and southeast winds rise into the ujiper current, while 
the west and northwest winds descend and blow as surface winds, accompanied by an extraor- 
dinary dei)ression of temperature, creating, as it were, an almost arctic climate. 

"6. That the propagation of the cold winds from west to east is due to the existence of a 
warmer and ligliterair to the eastward 

"7. That in summer the westerly currents seldom blow with violence, because, in passin- 
over the heated plains, they acipiirc nearly the same temperature as the southerly currents, but in 
winter the conditions are reversed." 

The line of conllict of these aerial currents, produced by unequal atmospheric pre=.ure, 
shift so rapidly that the greatest changes of temperature, moisture, and wind, are experienced 
within a few hours, these rhanges. usually affecting areas of great extent. In the old world, on 
the other hand, the mountain systems, generally running from east to west, offer an impedim'eut. 
especially to tlie [lolar currents, and the weather is therefore not so changeable. 

Wisconsin, situated in the and central part of the Mississippi^ valley, is subject to the 
same general climatic conditions which give this whole area its peculiar climate. 

The highest mean summer temperature is 7.-" Fahrenheit in the southwestern part of the 

124 nTs;TOT;v of AVISCOXSTX. 

state, and the lowest 64'^ :u B.iyfield, Lake Su;.erior. During the months of June, July and 
August, the thermometer often rises as hig^J as 90'^, seldom to 100''. In 1S74 the mercury reached 
this high point twice at l,.iCro-,3e, and three times at Dubuque, Iowa. There are usually two or 
three of these "heated terms'' during the si'.mmer, terminated In abrupt changes of temperature. 

The isotherm of 70"-^ (an isotherm being a line connecting places having the same mean tem- 
Y>erature) enters this .^tate from the west, m tlie northern part of Grant county, touches Madison, takes 
a southerly direction through W'alu orth county, iiasses through southern Michigan, Cleveland, and 
Pittsburg, reaching liie Atlantic ocean a little north of New York city. From this it is seen that 
southern Wisconsin, southern and centra'. Michigan, northern Ohio, central Pennsylvania, and 
southern New 'S'ork have nearly the same summer temperature. Northwestward this line runs 
through southern Minnesota and along the Missouri to the foot of the mountains. Eastern Oie- 
gon, at 47° 30' north latitude, has the same summer temperature ; the line then returns 
and touches the Pacific coast at San Diego. 

The remarkable manner in which so large a bo<3y of uateras Lake Michigan modities the 
temperature Ins been carefully determined, so far as it relates to Wisconsin, by the late Dr. Lap- 
ham, of Milwaukee. It is seen by the ma].) that the average summer temperature of Racine is 
the same as that of St. Paul. The weather map for July, 1S75, in the signal service report for 
1S76, shows that the mean tenijierature I'or July was the same in Rock county, in the southern 
part of the state, as that of Breckenridge, ^litui, north of St. Paul. The moderating effect of 
the lake during hot weather is felt in the adjacent region during both day and night. 

Countries in the higher latitudes having an extreme summer temperature art usually charac- 
terized by a small amount of rain-t'all. The Mississippi valley, however, is directly exposed in 
spring and summer to the warm and moist wind> from the south, and as these winds condense 
their moisture by coming in contact witii colder upper currents fioin the north and west, it has a 
profusion of rain which deprives the climite largely of its continental features. .-Vs already 
stated, the average amount of rain-fall in Wisconsin is about 30 inches annually. Ot this amount 
about one-eighth is precipit.ated in winter, tiiree-eightlis in summer, and the rest is equally dis- 
• tributed between spring and autumn — in other words, rain is abundant at the time of the year 
wl-.en it is most needed. In \MsconMn the rainf.dl is greatest in the southwestern part of the 
state; the lea^t on and along the shore of Lake Micliigan. This shows that tlie humidity of the 
air of a given area can be greater, and the rainfall less, than tiiat of some other. 

In compari.^on with western Europe, even wiiere the mean temperature is higher than in the 
Mississippi valley, the most striking tact in the climatic cond.itions of the United States is the 
great range of jdants of tropical or sub-tropical origin, such as Indian corn, tobacco, etc. The 
conditions on whicii the character of the vegetation depends are temperature and moisture, and 
the mechanical and chemical com[)Osition of the soil. 

'■'I'he basis of this great capacity (the great range of plants) is the high curve of heat and 
moisture for the summer, and the l.ict that the measure of heat and of rain are almost or quite 
tropical for a j.eriod in dur.ition from one to li\e months, in the range from Quebec to the coast 
of the Gulf." Indian corn attains its full perfection lietween the summer isotherms 72*^ and 77'^, 
in Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, ,ind Kansas; but it m.ay be grown iiii tei the line of 65^, which includes 
the whole of Wisconsin. Tlie successful cultivation of this impurt.iiu staple is due to the intense of summer and a virgin soil rich in nitrogen. 

While .Mi!u.iukee an<l central Wisc('n^in have a mean anr.ual temperature of 45°, that of 
southern Ireland and central EtiL^Iand is 50*^; the line of -2'-', the average temiierature tor Juu, 
runs from Wab.'. orth county to St. Paul, while during the same month Ireland and England have 
a mean temperature of only 60'^. In Wisconsin the thermometer rises as high as 90*^ and above, 

ci.nrA'roi.oc. V o\- ^\ hcoxsix 125 

while the range above the mean in England is very small. It is the tropical element of our sum- 
mers, then, that causes the grape, the corn, etc., to ripen, while England, with a higher mean 
temperature, is unable to mature them successfully. Ireland, where southern plants may remain 
oat-doors, unfrosted, the whole winter, can not mature those fruits and grasses which ripen in 
Wisconsin. In England a depression of i'-"' below the mean of 60'^ will greatly reduce the quan- 
tity, or prevent the rijiening of wheat altogether, 60" being essential to a good crop. Wheat, re- 
quiring a lower temperature than corn, is better adapted to the clmialc of Wisconsin. This grain 
may be grown as far north as Hudson bav. 

.■\utumn) including September, October and November, is of short duration in Wisconsin. 
North of the 42d parallel, or the southern boundary line of the state, November belongs properly 
to the winter months, its mean temperature being about 32°. The decrease of heat from August to 
September is generally from S^"" to 9'';-ti'^ from September fo October, and 14° from October co 
November. The average temperature for these tliree months is about 45°. A beautiful season, 
commonly known as Indian summer, frequently occurs in the latter part of October and in No- 
vember. This period is characterized by a mild temperature and a hazy, calm atmosphere. 
According to Loomis, this appears to be due to "an uncommonly tranquil condition of the atmos- 
phere, during which the air becomes filled with dust and smoke arising I'rom numerous fires, by 
which its transparency is greatly impaired." This phenonienon extends as far north as Lake 
Superior, but it is more conspicuous and protracted in Kansas and Missouri, and is not observed 
in the southern states. 

Destructive frosts generally occur in September, and sometimes in August. " A. temperature 
of 36° to 40'^ at sunrise is usually attended with frosts destructive to vegetation, the position of 
the thermonieter being usually such as to represent less than the actual refrigeration at the open 
surface." In 1S75, during October, at Milwaukee, the mercury fell seven times below the freez- 
ing point, arid twice below zero in November, the lowest being 14'-'. 

The winters are generally long and se\'ere, but occasionally mild and almost without snow. 
The mean winter temiierature varies between 23*^' in the southeastern part of the state, and 16'^' at 
Ashland, m the northern. For this season the extremes are great. 'ihe line of 20° is of im- 
portance, as it marks the average temperature which is fatal to the growth of all the tender trees, 
such as the pear and che peach. In the winter of 1S75 and 1S76, the mean temperature for I'e- 
cember, January and I'ebruary, in the upper lake region, was about 4" above the average mean 
for many years, while during the pres'ious winter tlie average temperature for January and Feb- 
ruary was about 12° below the mean for many years, showing a great difference between cold and 
mild winters. In the same winter. iS75-'76, at Milwaukee, the thermometer fell only six times 
below zero, the lowest being i2'-\ while during the preceding winter the mercury sank thirty-six 
limes below zero, the lowest being 23". In the northern and northwestern part of the state the 
temperature sometimes falls to the freezing jioint of mercurv. During the e.xceptionally cold 
Winter of 1S7 2-3, at La Crosse, the thermometer sank nearly fil'ty times below zero; on Decem- 
ber 24, it indicated 37"^ below, and on Januarv iS, 43'-' below zero, averaging about 12'' beUuv 
the usual moan for those months. The moderating effect of Lake Michigan can be .seen 
by observing how tiic lines indicating the mean winter temperature curve northward as they 
a]iproach the lake. Milu aukee, Sheboygan, .Manitowoc, Two Rivers, and the Grand Traverse 
region of Michigan, have the same average wintei temperature. The same is true regarding 
Cialena, III., lieloit, .iiul Kewaunee. A smular inllaence i.-. noticed in all j)arts of the state. 1 'r. 
La]jhara concludes this is not wholly due to the presence of Lake Michigan, but tliat tlie 
niountain range which extends from a little west of Lake Superior to the coast of Labrador (from 
1,100 to 2,240 feet higli) protects the lake region in no inconsiderable aegiee from the rxccssive 
cold of winter. 


According to the same autliorit}, the time at which the ilihvaukee river wac closed \vi h ice, 
for a period of nine years, \aned between November 15 and Iiecember i ; the time at wliich it 
became free from ice, between March 3 and A;>ril 13. In the lake district, snow and rain are 
interspersed thr(jiii;h all tiic winter months, rain being sometimes as profuse as at any otlier sea- 
son. In the iiortliwestern part tlie winter is more rigid and dry. Northern New York and the 
New England states usually have snow lying on the ground the whole winter, but in the southern 
lake district it rarely remains so long. In 1842-43, however, sleighing commenced about the 
middle of November, and lasted till about the same time in April— fi\e months. 

The average temperature for the three months of spring, March, April and May, from Wal- 
worth county to St. Paul, is about 4^". In central Wisconsin the mean for March is about 27"^, 
-which is an increase of nearl)- 7'^ from February. The lowest temperature of this month in 
1S76 was 40" above zero. April shows an average increase of about 9'-" over Maich. In 1S76 
the line of 45" for this month passed from LaCrosse to Evanston, 111., touching Lake Erie at 
Toledo, showing that the interujr wf-tof Lake Michigan is warmer than the lake region. The 
change from winter to spring is niire sudden in the interior than in the vicinit}' of the lakes. 
"In the town of Lisbon, fifteen miles from Lake Michigan," says Dr. Lapham, " early spring 
flowers show themselves about ten days earlier than on tlie lake. In spring vegetation, in places 
remote from the lakes, shoots up in a very short time, and (lowers show their petals, while on the 
lake shore the cool air retards them and brings them more gradually into existence." The in- 
crease from Ajiril to May is about 15"". In Ma\-, 1S76, Pembina and Milwaukee had nearly the 
same mean temperature, about 55^'. 

The extremes of our climate and the sudden changes of temperature no doubt have a 
marked inHueiice, both physically and mentally, on the American peopile. And though a more 
equable climate may be more conducive to j'crfect health, the great range of our climate from 
arctic to tropical, and the consequent variety and abundance of vegetable products, combine to 
make the Mississippi valley perhaps one of the most favorable areas in the world for the develop- 
ment of a strong and wealthy nation. 

During the months of summer, in the interior of the eastern United States, at least three- 
' fourths of the rain-fall is in showers usually accompanied by electiicai discharges and limited to 
small areas. Put in autumn, winter, and spring nearly the whole precipitation takes place in 
general storms e.xtending over areas of 300, 500 and sometimes over 1,000 miles in diameter, and 
generally lasting tao or three d.iys. .\n area of low atmospheric jiressure causes the wind to blow 
toward that area from all sides, and when the depression is sudden and great, it is accompanied 
by much rain or snow. On account of the earth's rotation, the wind blowing toward this region 
of low pressure is deflected to the right, causing the air to circulate around the center with a 
motion spirally inward. In our latitude the storm commences with east winds. When the storm 
center, or area of lowest barometer, is to the south of us, the wind gradually veers, as the storm 
passes from wer,t to east with tlie upper current, round to the northwe^t by the north point. 
On the south side of the storm center, the wind veers from southeast to southwest, by the south 
"[)oint. The phenomena attending such a storm when we are in or near the part of its center are 
usually as follows: After the sky has become overcast with clouds, the wind from the northeast 
generally begin, to nse and blows in the opposing direction to the march of the storm. The 
clouds which are now mo\ing over us, discharge' rain or snow according to circumstances. The 
barometer continue.■^ to fall, and the rain or snow is brought obliquely down from the northern 
qu.irter by the prevailing wind. .\f'.er a wliile tile wind changes slightly in direction and then 
ceasi's. Thethernirjiueter rises and the barometer has reached its lowest point. This is the center 
<if the storm. .After the calm the wind has changed its direction to northwest or west. The 


\vind blows again, usually more violently than before, accompanied by rain or snow, which is now 
generally of short duration. The sky clears, and the storm is suddenly succeeded by a tempera- 
ture lo or 20 degrees below the mean. Most of t!ie rain and snow falls with the east winds, or 
before the center passes a given point. The path of these storms is from west to east, or nearlv 
so, and only selcfom in other directions. These autumn, winter, and spring rains are generally 
first noticed on the western jilains, but may originate at any point along their path, and move 
eastward with an average velocity of about 20 miles an hour in summer and ^o miles in winter, 
but sometimes attaining a velocity of over 50 miles, doing great damage on the lakes. In pre- 
dicting these storms, the signal service of the army is of incalculable practical benefit, as well 
as in collecting data fur scientific conclusions. 

A subject of tile greatest importance to every inhabitant of ^\'isconsin is the influence of 
forests on climate and the effects of disrobing a county of its trees. The general influence of 
forests in modifying the extremes of temperature, retarding evaporation and the increased 
humidity of the air, has already been mentioned. That clearing the land of trees increases the 
temperature of the ground in summer, is so readily noticed that it is scarcely necessary to men- 
tion it; wliile in winter tlie sensible cold is never so extreme in woods as on an open surface 
exposed to the full force of the winds. " The lumbermen in Canada and the northern United 
States labor in the woods without inconvenience: when the mercury stands many degrees belo\i' 
zero, while in the open grounds, with only a moderate lireeze, the same temperature is almost 
insupportable." "In the state of Mirliigan it has been found that the winters have greatly 
increased in severity within the last forty years, and that this increased severity seems to move 
along even-paced with the destruction of the forests. Thirty years ago the peach was one of the 
most abundant fruits of that State; at that time frost, injurious to corn at anytime from .^L^y to 
October, was a thing unknown. Now the peach is an uncertain crup, and frost often injures the 
corn." The precise influence of forests on temperature may not at present admit of definite solu- 
tion, yet the mechanical screen which they furnish to the soil often far to the leeward of them, 
is sufficiently established, and this alone is enough to encourage extensive planting wherever this 
protection is wanting. 

With regard to tiie quantity of rain-fall, "we can not positively affirm that the total annual 
quantity of rain is even hscdly diminished or increased by the destruction of the woods, though 
both theoretical considerations and the balance of testimon\' strongly favor the opinion that more 
rain falls in wooded than in ojien couiitries. One imjioriant conclusion, at least, ui>on the 
meteorological influence of forests is certain and undisputed: the proiiosition, namely, that, 
within their own limits, and near their own borders, they maintain a more uniform degree of 
humidity in the atmosphere than is observed in cleared grounds. Scarcely less can it be 
questioned that tiiey tend to promote the frequency of showers, and, if they do not augment the 
amount of precipitation, they probably equalize its distribution through the different seasons." 

There is abundant and undoubted evidence that the amount of water e.xisting on the surface 
in lakes and rivers, in many parts of the world, is constantly diminishing. In Germany, observa- 
tions of the Rhine, Oder, 1 >anube, and the Llbe, in the Later case going back for a period of 142 
years, demonstrate beyond doubt, tiiat each of these rivers has much decreased in volume, and 
there is reason to fear t'.iat they will eventually dh^appear from the list of na\igable rivers. 

'■ The ' Blue-Grass ■ region of Kentu. ky, once the i)ride of the West, ha-, now districts of 
such barren and arid nature tint their stock t'armers are moving toward the Cumberland mount- 
ains, because the creeks .md old springs drietl uj), and their wells became too low to furnisli 
water for their cattle." In our own sratc "such luis been the change in the flow of the Miiwau- 

128 nisTonv OF Aviscoxsix 

kee river, even wliile the area from which it recci\es its supply is but partially cleared, that the 
proprielor>- of" most of the mills and factories have found it necessary to resort to the use of 
steam, at a largely increa-icd \early cost, to supply the deficiency of water-power in dry seasons 
of the year." " What has happened to the Milwaukee river, has happened to all the other water 
courses in the state from whose banks tire forest has been removed ; and many farmers who 
selected land uqon which there was a livinfr brook of clear, pure water, now find these brooks 
dried up during; a considerable iiortion of the year. 

li'stricts striiiped uf their forest are said to be more expiosed than before to loss of harvests, 
to droughts and frost. "Hurricanes, before unknown, sweep unopposed over the regions thus 
denuded, carrying-terror and de\a>tation in their track." Parts of Asia Minor, North .Africa, 
and other countries bordering (ju the Mediterranean, now almost deserts, were once densely 
populated and the granaries of the world. And there is good reason to believe " that it is the 
destruction of the forests wliich has produced tliia devastation." From such facts Wisconsin, 
already largely robbed of its forests, should take warning before it is too late. 


l!v P. R. HOY, M.D. 

It is not the purpose of this article to give a botanical description, but merely brief notes on 
the economical value of the woods, and the fitness of the various indigenous trees, shrubs and 
vines for the purpose of ornament, to be found in Wisconsin. 

White Oak. — Qucrats Alba. — This noble tree is the largest and most important of the 
American oaks. The e.xccllent properties of the wood render it eminently valuable for a great 
variety of uses. Wherever strength and durability are re(|uired, the white oak stands in the first 
rank. It is employed in making wagons, coache,^ and sleds ; staves and hoops of the best quality 
for barrels and casks are obtained from tliis tree ; it is extensively used in architecture, ship- 
building, etc.; vast quantities are used for fencing ; the bark is employed in tanning. The domes- 
tic consumjition of this tree is so great that it is of the first importance to jireserve the young 
trees whcre\er it is practical.>le, and to make voung plaiuations where the tree is not found. The 
white oak is a graceful, ornamental tree, and \sorthy of j-articular attention as such ; found abun- 
dantly in most oi the timbered districts. 

IIURR Oak — Q. yfiUroiarpa. — ^This i.-, jierhaps the most ornamental of our oaks. Nothing 
c.Tn exceed the gracet"ul beauty of these trees, when not crowded or cranqied ifi their growth, but 
I'.ft free to follow the laws yA their development. W'lio has not admired these trees in our exten- 
sive burr o.ik ojienings ? 'I'he large leaves are a dark green above and a bright silvery white 
beneath, which eives the tree a singularly fine appearance when agitated by the wind. The wood 
i-> tough, close-grained, and more durable than the white oak, especi.illy when exposed to frequent 
< liangcs of moisture and drying ; did tlie tree grow to the same si.'e, it would be preferred for 
most uses. .MnindaiU, and richly worthy of cultivation, both lor utility and ornament. 

.S\v.\MP ^V'II1TI", Oak — Q. lU:oi,>r. — Is a valua'ole and ornamental tree, not quite so lartje or 
as common as the burr (xik. The wood is close-grained, durable, splits freely, and is well worthy 
of cultivati'>n in wet, swampiv grounds, where it will thrive. 

I'osT O.A.K — Q. Oi!ui!io!',i. — Is a scraggy, small tree, t'l.iund sparingly in this state. The tim- 
ber is durable, and makes guod fuel. Not wurthv of cultivation. 


Swamp Chf.'^tnl't Oak — Q. Prinus. — This species of c^hestnut oak is a large, graceful tree, 
wood rather open-^r.iined, yet valuable for most purfjoses to which the oaks are applied; makes 
the best fuel of any of tliis family. A rare tree, found at Janesville and Brown's lake, near Bur- 
lington. Worthy nf cultivation. 

Rkii Oak — Q. Rubra. — The red oak is a well-known, common, large tree. The wood is 
coarse-grained, and the least durable of the oaks, nearlv worthless for fuel, and scarcely worthy 
of culti\ ation, even for ornament. 

Pin 0,\k — Q. Pa/m/n's. — This is one of the most common trees in many sections of the 
state. The woQd is of little value except for fuel. The tree is quite ornamental, and should be 
sjiaringly cultivated for this purpose. 

Shingle 0.\k — Q. Imhricciria. — Is a tree of medium size, found sparingly as far north as 
Wisconsin. It is ornamental, and the wood is used for shingles and staves. 

Scarlet Oak — Q. Coccincj. — This is an ornamental tree, especially in autumn, when its 
leaves turn scarlet, hence the name. \Vood of little value ; common. 

Sugar Maple — Acc-r SaLchariii>n. — 'Y\\\'i well-knov.n and noble tree is found growing abun- 
dantly in many sections of tlie state. The wood is close-grained and susceptible of a beautiful 
polish, which renders it valuable ("or manv kinds of furniture, more especially the varieties known 
as bird's-eye and curled maples. The wood lacks the durabilit\- of the oak ; consequently is not 
valuable for purposes where it will be exposed to the weather. For fuel it ranks ne.xt to hickory. 
The sugar manufactured from this tree affords no inconsiderable resource for the comfort and 
even \veaith ot"- many sections of the northern states, especially those newly settled, where it 
would be diilicult and expensive to jirocure their sujiply from a distance. .A.san ornamental tree 
it stands almost at the head of the catalogue. The foliage is beautiful, compact, and free from 
the attacks of insects. It puts forth its yellow blossoms early, and in the autumn the lea\es 
change in color and show the most beautiful tints of redand yellow long before they fall. \\'orthy 
of especial attention for fuel and ornament, and well adapted to street-planting. 

Red Maple — A. Kulruui. — Is another fine maple of more rapid growth than the foregoino- 
species. With wood rather liginer, but quite as valuable for cabinet-v.-ork — for fuel not quite so 
good. The young tjees bear transplanting even better than other maples. Though highly orna- 
mental, this tree hardly equals the first-named species. It puts forth, in early spring, its scarlet 
blossoms before a leaf has yet appeared. Well adapted to street-planting. 

MmUn'tain' Mapll — .-/. Spkatuin. — Is a small branching tree, oi rather shrub, found £'ro\\'- 
ing in clumps. Not worthy of much attention. 

SiLVFR M.APLL — A. Dasycarpuvi. — This is a common tree growing on the banks of streams, 
especially in the uestern part of the slate, grown largely for ornament, yet for the purpose it is 
the least valuable of the maples. The branches are long and straggling, and so brittle that thev 
are liable to be injured b\ winds. 

Bo-K Maple — Xi-'^^uudii Accrciilcs. — This tree is frequently called liox elder. It is of a rapid 
growth ai>d quite ornamental. The wood is not much used in the art.-., but is good fuel. Should 
be cultivated. It grows on Sugar and Rock rivers. 

White F.lm — ulniui Amcricdiia. — This large and graceful tree stands confessedly at the 
head of the li^-t of orr.amental deciduous trees. Its wide-spreading branches and long, pendu- 
lous branchlets fiinn a beautiful and conspicuous head. It grows rapidly, is free from disease 
and the destructive attacks of insects, will thrive on most soils, and tor planting along streets, in 
[iubJic grounds or lawns, is uiisur[)asscd by any American tree. The wooil is but little used in 
the arts; makes gO(.id hre\\(.ud; ^ho^lld be planted along al! the roads and ^<ireels, near everv 
<lwellin;i, and on all pul.lie grounds. 


iiiSTOPtY or \nsrox:?ix. 

Slipi'ERV Kim — f. Fulia. — This smaller and less ornamental species is also common. The 
wood, however, is much more valuable tlian the w hite elm, beiiiL; durable and splitting readily. 
It makes excellent rails, anil is much used for the framework of buildings; \aluablc for fuel; 
should be cultixated 

WiLii Black Chikrv — Cciasus Sootiua. — This large and beautiful species of cherry is one 
of the most valuable of American trees. The wcjd is compact, fine-grained, and of a brilliant 
reddish color, not liable to \vai|i, or shrink and swell with atinosj.iheric changes ; extensively em- 
ployed by cabinet-makers for every species of furnishing. It is e.\ceedingly durable, hence is 
valuable for fencing, building, etc. Richly deserves a place in the lawn or timber plantation. 

Bird Chkkkv — C. fct:ns}Ii\in!'ia. — Is a small northern species, common in the state and 
worthy of cultivation lor ornan^eiit. 

Choke Chkkkv — C. I'tri^iKidKa. — This diminutive tree is of little value, not worth the trouble 
of cultivation. 

Wild 1'lu:.: — Pnmus Americana. — The common wild plum when in full bloom is one of the 
most ornamental of small flowering trees, and as such should not be neglected. The fruit is 
rather agreeable, but not to be compared to une cultivated varieties, which may be engrafted on 
the wild stock to the very best advantage. It is best to select small trees, and work them on the 
roots. The grafts should be inserted about tiic middle of .April. 

H.iCKDERRV — Ceitis Occidoil.ilis. — This is an ornamental tree of medium size ; wood hard, 
close-grained and elastic ; makes the best of hoops, whip-stalks, and thills for carriages. The 
Indians formerly made great use of the hackbeir\' v,-ood for their bows. A tree worthy ot a lim- 
ited share of attention. 

.■\.MERlC-\x LiXDKX OR B.\ssv.'ooD — Ttiiu Aiiw) icana . — Is one of the finest ornamental trees for 
fiublic grounds, parks, etc., but will not thrive where the roots are e.xposed to bruises; for this 
reason it is not adajjted to planting along the streets of populous to\\ns. I'hc wood is light and 
tough, susceptible of being bent to almost anv curve ; durable if kejjt from the weather; takes 
.paint well, and is considerably u^ed in the arts ; for fuel it is of little value. This tree will 
flourish in almost any moderately rich, damp soil; bears transplanting well; can be propagated 
readily from layers. 

White Thorn — Ciataczits Coca'nea, and Dotted Tm'rtJN' — C. /^.v«,-A/A7.^These two species 
of thorn are found everywhere on the rich bottom lands. When in bloom the) are beautiful, and 
should be cultivated for oriument. The wood is remarkabh compact and hard, and were it not 
for the small size of the tree, would be valuable. 

Crai; Afi'IE — Fynis C,'i\'i\ii la. — This common small tree is attractive when covered with 
its highly fragrant rose-colored blossoms. ^\'ocd h".', fine, compact grain, but the tree is too 
small for the wood to be of much practical value. W ell worthy of a place in extensive grounds. 

Mountain Ash — /'. Ami: itwna. — This popular ornament to our )ard3 is found growing in 
the northern part of tlie state and as tar south as 43°. The wood is useless. 

\\ HITE \~\\'- I'raxi,.tis .-icuDuiuila. — Is a large, interesting tree, which combines utility with 
beauty in an eminent liegree. The wood possesses strength, suppleness and ehisiicity, which 
renders it valuable for a great variety of uses. It is e.xtensively em|)loyed in c.irriage manufact- 
uring; for various agricultural implements ; is esteemed superior to any otlier wood for oars; 
excellent ftir fuel. The white ash grows rapidly, and in open ground forms one of the most 
lovely trees is to be luund. The foliage is clean and handsome, and in autumn turns from 
its bright green to a violet pur]'lc hue, which adds matcrl.iUy to the beauty of our autumnal syl- 
van scenery. It is rirlily deserving our es]'ecial care and protection, and will amply repay all 
labor and c-xjiense bestowed on its cultivation. 

. Tr.^r.^. SIIRTT--^ A XI) vi>:es. ' ' 131 

I'.LACK Ash — F Sa:::hucifolij. — T;li^ is another t.ill, pr.-ctfu} and well-known species of ash. 
The wood is us^d for making baskets, hoojis, etc.; when thorouj;h!y dry, afords a good article of 
iucl. lleserves to be cultnated in low, rich, swampy situations, where more useful trees will not 

IIlack. Walnut — Juglans Nigra. — This giant of the rich alluvial bottom lands claims 
s;iccial attention for its valuable timber. It is among the most durable and beautiful of Ameri- 
can woods ; susceptible of a fine polish ; not liable to shrink and swell by heat and moisture. 
It is e.xtcnsively employed by the cabinet-makers for every ^ariety of furniture. Walnut forks, 
a:e frequently found which rival in richness and beauty the far-famed mahogany. This tree, 
in favorable .situations, grows rapidly; is highly ornamental, and produces annually an abundant 
crop of nuts. 

BuTTEKNtJT — -J. Cineyea. — This species of walnut is not as valuable as the above, yet for its 
beauty, and the durability of its wood, it should claim a small portion of attention. The wood 
is rather soft for most purposes to which it otherwise might be applied. When growij ne;ir 
streams, or on moist side-hills, it produces regularly an ample crop of excellent nuts. It grows 
rapidly. Hickory — Carya Alba. — This, the largest and finest of American hickories, 
grows abundantly throughout the state. Hickory wood possesses probably the greatest strength 
and tenacity of any of our indigenous trees, and is used for a variety of purposes, but, 
unfortunately, it is liable to be eaten by worms, and lacks durability. For fuel, the shell-bark 
i'.ickory stands unrivakd. The tree is ornamental and produces every alternate year an ample 
crop of tlie best of nuts. 

Sn.\G-r-AKK HiCKonv — C. Indaia. — Is a magnificent tree, the wood of which is nearly as 
valuable as the above. The nuts are large, thick-shelled and coarse, not to be compared to the 
C. alba. A lare tree in Wisconsin ; abundant further south. 

Pignut Hickory — C. Glabra. — This species possesses all the bad and but few of the good 
qualities of the shell-bark. The nuts are smaller and not so good. The tree should be pre- 
served and cultivated in common with the shell-bark. Not abundant. 

BiTTERNUT — C. Amara. — Is anabundant tree, valuable for fuel, but lacking the strength and 
elasticity of the preceding species. It is, however, quite as ornamental as any of the hickories. 

Rld I'.F.ECH — Fagiis Ferruginea. — This is a common tree, with brilliant, shining light-green 
leaves, and long, fle.\ible branches. It is highly ornamental, and should be cultivated for this 
purpose, as well as for its useful wood, which is tough, close-grained and compact. It is much 
used for plane-stocks, tool handles, etc., and as an article of fuel is nearly equal to maple. 

Water Beech — Cii/bini/s Auu-rLaaa. — Is a small tree, called hornbeam by many. The 
w-ood is exceedingly Kitd and compact, but the small size of the tree renders it almost 

Iron Wood — Ostrya Virginica. — This small tree is found disseminated throughout most of 
our woodlands. It is, to a considerable d.gree, ornamental, but of remarkably slow growth. The 
wo'id i»3-.scsses valuable properties, being heavy and strong, as the would indicate; }et, 
from its small si.^e, it is oi'^iut little use. Pori-AK — Pupalus Candicani. — This tree is of medium size, and is known by sev- names: ^Vild balm of Gilead, cottonwond, etc. It grows in moist, sandy soil, on river bot- 
tf nis. It has broad, heart-sh.i|)ej Iea\-j>, vx hich tiun a line \ellow after th.e autumn ('rosts. It 
grows more rapidly than any other of nar trees; can be transplanted v.-ith entire success when 
eight or nine inchcb in diameter, and makes a beatiful shade tree — the most ornamental of 1)0['- 
lars. The wood is soft, spongi", and nL-.uU useless. 


Quaking AsPEN^/". Tifmuloida. — Is a well-known, small tree. It is rather ornamental, 
but scarcely «'orih cultivating. 

Large Aspkn— y. GnuuliJenLjta. — Is the largest of our poplars. It frequently grows to 
the height of si.xty or seventy feet, with a diameter of two and one-half feet. The wood is soft, 
easily split, and used for frame buildings. It is the most durable of our poplars. 

Cotton Wood — /'. Monolifera. — This is the largest of all the poplars ; abundant on the 
Mississip])i river. Used largely for fuel on the steamboats. The timber is of but little use in 
the arts. 

Sycamore or Buttonwood — Platanus Ocfidintalis. — This, the largest and most majestic 
of our trees, is found growing only on tlie rich alluvial river bottoms. The tree is readily 
known, even at a considerable distance, by its whitish smootli branches. The foliage is large 
and beautiful, and the tree one of the most ornamental known. The wood speedily decays, and 
when sawed into lumber warps batUy; on these accounts it is but little-used, although susceptible 
fcf a fine finish. As an article of fuel it is of inferior merit. 

Canoe Birch — Bctula FapyraceLi. — Is a rather elegant and interesting tree. It grows abund- 
antly in nearly every part of tlie state. Tlie wood is of a fine glossy grain, susceptible of a good 
finish, but lacks durability and strength, and, therefore, is but little used in the mechanical arts. 
For fuel it is justly ])ri7,ed. It bears transplanting without difficulty. The Indians manufacture 
their celebrated bark canoes from the bark of this tree. 

Cherry Birch — B.Lenta. — Tiiis is a rather large, handsome tree, growing along streams. 
Leaves and bark fragrant. Wood, hnc-grained, rose-colored; used largely by the cabinet- 
■ makers. 

Yellow Birch — B. Lutca. — This beautiful tree occasionally attains a large size. It is 
highly ornamental, and is of value for fuel; but is less prized than the preceding species for cab- 
inet work. 

Kentucky C'jffee Tree — Gymnodadus Canadcnsii. — This singulaily beautiful tree is only 
found sparingly, ami on rich alluvial lands. I met v.ith it growing near the Peccatonica, in 
Green county. The wood is fine-giained, and of a rosy hue ; is exceedingly durable, and well 
worth cultivating. 

JuxE Berry — Amdanchicr Canadensis. — Is a small tree which adds materially to the beauty 
of our woods in early spring, at v.-hich time it is in full bloom. The wuod is of no particular 
value, and the tree interesting only when covered with its w hite blossoms. 

White Pine — Pinus Sha'iis. — This is the largest and most vakiable of our indigenous pines. 
The wood is soft, fre-e from resin, and works easily. It is extensively employed in the mechan- 
ical arts. It is found in great profusion in the northern parts of the state. This species is 
readily known by the leaves being \n j~:ys. It is highly ornamental, but in common with all 
pines, will hardly bear transpL.nting. Only small plants shoi;ld be moved. 

Norway or Ri n Pine — /". Resin,'. a, and Yellow Pine—/'. .IZ/.'/j.— These are two large 
trees, but little inferior in size to the white pine. The v.-ood contains more resin, and is conse- 
quently more durable. The leaves o^ both these species are in l:.:'os. Vast quantities of lumber 
are yearly manufactured from these two varieties and the white pine. The e.xtensive pineries 
of the state are rapidly diminishing. 

Shrue Pine—/'. Bannsiana. — Is a small, low tree; only w'orlhy of notice iiere for the orna- 
mental shade it ]uoduces. It is fnmd in tiie nortiiern sections ot the state. 

Balsam Fik— .-Hies Baisa/nea - This beautiful evergreen is multiplied to a great extent on 
the shores of Lake .Superior, where it grows forty or fifty feet iiT height. The wood is of but 

TREFs. smui;-- Axn ^'txe.-;. ' 133 

little value The balsnm of fir, or Canadian balsam, is obtained from this tree. 

Double Si'RUCF. — .-/. A'r^Tt:. — This grows in the same localities with the balsam fir, and 
assumes the same pyramidal form, but is considerably larj;er. The wood is light and possesses 
considerable strength and elasticity, which renders it one of the best materials for yard's and top- 
masts for shipping. It is extensively cultivated for ornament. 

Hemi-OCk — ./. Cditdiknu's. — The hemlock is the largest of the genus.- It is gracefully orna- 
mental, Dut the wood is of little value. The baik is e.xtensively employed in tanning. 

Tamaracr — Lan'x Aiuericana. — This beautiful tree grows abundantly in swampy situations 
throughout the s^atc. It is not quite an evergreen It drops its leaves in winter, but quickly 
recovers them in early spring. The wood is remarkably durable and valuable for a varietv of 
uses. The tree grows rapidly, and can be successfully cultivated in peaty situations, where other 
trees would not thrive. 

Arbor Vn.i: — Tlmja Oca'Jcnfalis. — This tree is called the white or flat cedar. It grows 
abundantly in man\- parts of the state. The wood is durable, furnishing better fence posts than 
any other tree, exce[)ting the red cedar. Shingles and staves of a superior quality are obtained 
from these trees. .\ beautiful e\ergreen hedge is made from the young plants, which bear trans- 
planting better than most evergreens. It will grow on most soils if sufficiently damp. 

Rki) Cedar — Juuipcrus V{n:^!iiiana. — Is a well known tree that famishes those celebrated 
fence posts that " last forever." The wood is highly fc'agrant, of a rich red color, and h:ie 
grained ; hence it is valuable for a varietv of uses. It should be extensively cultivated. 

Dwarf JuxIpf.r — /. Salniia. — This is a low trailing shrub. Is conside'ably jirized f : 
ornament. Especially worthy of cultivation in large grounds. 

Sassafras — Sassa/i as ojiu'inale. — Isa small tree of tine appearance, with fragrant leaves 
bark. (Irows in Kenosha county. Should be cultivated. 

Willows. — There are many species of willows growing in every part of the state, sever:il of 
which arc worthy of cultivation near streams and j'onds. 

W'liiTF. \\'ii,Low — -S'.7/:.\- t7/.'\i. — Is a fine tree, often reaching sixtv feet in height. The '.vood 
is soft, anil maizes the best charcoal for the manufacture of gun-powder. Grows rapidly. 

IJlack Willow — .S'. A7o;ra. — This is also a fine tree, but not quite so large as the t'oregoing. 
It is UM-d for similar purposes. 

There are many shrubs and vines indigenous to the state worthy of note. I shall, however, 
call attention to only a few of the best. 

DoGwoons. — There are several species found in our forests and thickets. All are ornamen- 
tal when covered with a profusion of white blossoms. I would esiH'rially recommend : coiui 
scru-fii, C. stolcDiifcra, C. paniculata, and C. altemifolia. All these will repay the labor of trans- 
I'b'.nting to ornamental grounds. 

VinuR.vuMS. — These are very beautit'ul. We have vthurniiin Unlii-::^o, \'. p> unifoliu'it. I'. n:iihan, 
I . denlatiiiii, I', pu/'esicris, V, accrifoliiiin. J'. /d!/c///i'ri////, and ]'. opiilus. The last is known as 
the cranberry tree, and is a most beautiful shrul> when in blumn. and also when ctivered with it> 
ted, acid fruit. The common snow-ball tree is a cultivated Nariety of the /'. cpiuui. 

Wiicn H.\/i.L — ■ I/in/tamriti I 'ir^'ifn'ij. — Is an interesting, tall shrub that flowers late in 
;'.utuiiin, wlieu the leaves are falling, and mature- tlie iVuit the next summer. It deserves mo:x- 
• '•ttcntion than it receives. 

I'URNi.xo linsH — Juionynnis atropurpureus. — This flue shrub is called the American stra\v- 
'■eiry. and is exceedingly beautiful wheti covered wiiii its load of crimson fruit, which remains 
dann ■, \Yinter. 

134 niSTOIIY OF WISCOySTN'. ' ' 

Sx-^iKZYi — Rhus typhi tia. — Is a tail shrub, 11 known, but seldom cultivated. When well 
grown it is ornamental and well adapted for planting in clumps. 

Hop 'rkii: — Ptclca trifoHdui. — This is aslio'.vy slirub with shining leaves, which should be 
cultivated. Conimcv .a rich, alluvial ground. 

Bi..-\i>nER >.' L'T — Staphylea trifo'.ia. — Is a fine, upright, showy shrub, found sparingly all over 
the state. Is ornamental, with greenish striped branches and showy leaves. 


ViRGlNM.A. Creeper — Ampelopsis quinquefoHa. — This is a noble vine, climbing extensively by 
disc-bearing tendrils, so well known as to require no eulogy. Especially beautiful in its fall 

BiTTF.R SwEF.T — Cdaslrus scandcns. — Is a stout twining vine, which would be an ornament to 
any grounds. In the fall and early winter it is noticeable for its bright fruit. Common. 

Yellow Huxevsucrle — Lcuicci a plava. — Is a fine native vine, which is Ibund climbing over 
tall shrubs and trees. Ornamental. There are several other species of honeysuckle; none, how- 
ever, worthy of special mention. 

Frost Gr.ape — I'ltcs ccrdifolia. — This tall-growing vine has deliciously sweet blossoms, 
which perfume the air for a great distance around. For use as a screen, this hardy species will 
be found highly satisfactory. 


By p. R. IIOV, M.D. 

Fish are cold blooded aquatic vertebrates, having fins as organs of progression. They have 
a two-chambered heart; their bodies are mostly covered with scales, yet a few are entirely naked, 
like catfish and eels; others again are covered with curious plates, such as the sturgeon. Fish 
inhabit both salt and fresh water. It is admitted by all authority that fresh-water fish are more 
universally edible than those inhabiting tiie occ.';n. Marine fish arc said to be more highly 
fla"ored than those inhabiting fresh waters ; an as.sertion I am bv no means prepared to admit. 
As a rule, fish are better the colder and purer the water in whicii tliey are found, and where can 
you find those ccnJitions more favorable than in the cold dej ths of our great lakes 'i We have 
tasted, under the most favorable conditions, about every one of the celebrated salt-water fish, and 
can say that whoever eats a whitefish just taken from tlie jmre, cold water of Lake Michigan will 
have no reason to be envious of the dwellers by the sea. 

Fish are inconccivabh' prolific; a single female deposits at one spawn from one thousand to 
one million eggs, varying according to species. 

Fish afford a valual.ile article of food for man, being highly nu.ritious and easy of digestion ; 
they abound in phosphates, hence are valuable as affording nutrition to the osseous and nervous sys- 
tem, hence thev have Ijcen termed, not inapjiropriately, brain lood — certainly a very desirable article 
of diet for some people. They arc more savory, nutritious and easy of digestion when just taken 
from the w.\ter; in f.ict, the sooner they arecouked after being caught the better. No fish should 
be more than a few hours from its watery element before being placed upon the table. For con- 
venience, I will group our fish into families as a basis for what I shall offer. Our bony fish,. 

'^'^T^rjT/ -JTTl'iT^ 


having spine rays and covered with comb-like scales, belong to the perch family — a valuable 
family ; all take the hook, are gamey, and S[)a\vn in the summer. 

The yellow j]erch and at least four species of bl.ick or striped bass have a wide range, being 
found in all the rivt-rs and lakes in the state. There is a large species of fish known as Wall- 
eyed pike (Lcuui^i-rra atiu-r:ca>ui) belonging to this family, which is found sparingly in most of our 
rivers and kikes. The pike is an active and most rapacious animal, devouring fish of consider- 
able size. The flesh is firm and of good flavor. It would probably be economical to propagate 
it to a moderate e.xtcnt. 

The six-spipcd bass {J'o>noxvs hexacanthus, Agas.) is one of the most desirable of the spine- 
Tayed fish found \\\ the State. The flesh is fine flavored, and as the fish is hardy and takes the 
hook with avidity, it should be protected during the spawning season and artificially propagated. 
1 have examined the stomachs of a large number of these fisii and in every instance found small 
crawfish, furnishing an additional evidence in its favor. Prof. J. P. Kirtland, the veteran ichthy- 
ologist of Ohio, says thcU this so-callea " gra.-.s bass" is the fish for tlie million. 

The white bass (^Roccus clirysops) is a species rather rare even in the larger bodies of water, 
but ought to be introduced into every small lake in the State, where 1 am certain they would 
flourish. It is an exi'ellent fish, possessing many of the good qualities and as few of the bad as 
any that belong to the family. There is another branch of this family, the sunfish, Fonwtis, 
which numbers at least si.\ species found in ^Visconsin. They are beautiful fish, and afford 
abundant sijort for the boys; none of them, however, are worth domesticating (unless it be in the 
aquariian') as there are so many better. 

The carp family {^CypitKiiLc') are soft finned fish without maxillary teeth. They include by 
far the greater number of fresh-water fish. Some specimens are not more than one inch, while 
others are nearly two feet in length. Our chubs, silversides and suckers are the j)rincipal mem- 
bers of this family. Dace are good pan-fish, yet their small size is objectionable; they are the 
children's game fish. The Cyprinidce all spawn in the spring, and might be profitably propa- 
gated as food for the larger and more valuable fish. 

There are six or seven species of suckers found in our lakes and rivers. The red horse, 
found every where, and at least one species of the buffalo, inhabiting the Mississippi and its trib- 
utaries, are the best of the genus Catastonius. Suckers are bony, and apt to taste suspiciously of 
mud ; they are only to be tolerated in the absence of better. The carp {Cyprenius carpo) has been 
successfully introduced into the Hudsonriver. 

The trout family {Siih/wnidcp) are soft-finned fish with an extra dorsal adipose fin without 
rays. They inhabit northern countries, spawning in the latter part of fall and winter. Their 
flesh is universally esteemed. The trout family embrace by far the most valuable of our fish, 
including, as it does, trout and whitefish. 'I'lic famous speckled trout {SaliKO fontina/is) is a 
small and beautiful species which is found in nearly every stream in tlie northern half of the 
State. Wherever there is a sjjring run or lake, the temperature of which does not rise higher than 
sixty-five or seventy in the summer, there trout can be propagated in abundance. The great 
salmon trout {Sal. amei/nstus) of the great lakes is a magnificent fish weighing from ten to sixty 
pounds. 'V\\t Sisci'U'it sali/ii' siscowil o( Lake Superior is about the same size, but not quite so 
good a fish, being too fat and oily. They will, no doubt, flourish in the larger of the inland 

The genus Corcgonus includes the true whitefish, or lake shad. In this genus, as now- 
restricted, the nose is square and the imdcr jaw short, and when first caught they have the 
fragrance of fresh cucumbers. There are at least three species found in Lake Michigan. In my 

136 HisTonr ill" wixoxsix. 

opinion these fish are more delicately flavored than the celebrated I'otniiiac shad ; but I doubt 
whether they will thrive in the small lakes, owing to the absence of the small crusiacea tin which 
the)' subsist. The closely allied genus Argyrosomus includes seven known species inhabiting the 
larger lakes, and one, the Ar^yrosar/^iis sfsio, which is found in several of the lesser lakes. The 
larger species are but little inferior to the true whitcfish, with which they are commonly 
confounded. The nose is pointed, the under jaw long, and they take the hook at certain seasons 
with activity. They eat small fish as well as injects and crttstaceaus. 

Of the pickerel family, we have three or four cli,'-e!y allied species of the genus Esox, armed 
with prodigious jaw s filled w ith cruel teeth. They lie motionles eady to dart, swift as an 
arrow, upon their prey. They are the sharks of the fresh water. The pickerel are so rapacious 
that they spare not their own species. .Sometimes they attempt to swallow a fish nearly as large 
as themselves, and perish in consequence. Their flesh is moderately good, and as they are game 
to the backbone, it might be desirable to propagate them to a moderate e.xtent under peculiar 

The catfish (SHiirliLr) have soft fins, protected by sharp spines, and curious fleshy barbels 
floating from their lips, without scales, covered only with a slimy coat of mucus. The 
genus Pimlodiis are scavengers among fisii, as vultures among birds. They are filthy in habit 
and food. There is one interesting trait of the catfish — the vigilant and watchful motherly 
care of the young by the male. He defends them with great spirit, and herds them together 
when they straggle. Even the mother is driven far off; for he knows full well that she would 
not scruple to make a full meal off her little black tadjiole-like progeny. There are four species 
known to inhabit this State — one peculiar to the great lakes, and two found in the numerous 
affluents of the Mississippi. One of these, the great yellow catfish, sometimes weighs over one 
hundred pounds. \\'hcn in good condition, stuffed and well baked, they are a fair table fish. 
The small bull-head is universally distributed. 

The sturgeons are large sluggish fish, covered with plates instead of scales. There 
are at least three sjiecies of the genus Acipenser found in the waters of Wisconsin. Being so 
large and w-ithout bones, they afford a sufficiently cheap article of food ; unfortunately, however, 
the quality is decidedly bad. Sturgeons deposit an enormous quantity of eggs ; the roe not 
unfrequently weighs one fourth as much as the entire body, and numbers, it is said, many 
millions. The principal commercial value of sturgeons is found in the roe and swimming 
bladder. The much prized caviare is manufactured from the former, and from the latter the best 
of isinglass is obtained. 

The gar-pikes (^Ltpidoiteus) are rejirescnted by at least three spiecies of this singular fish. 
They have long serpentine bodies, with, jaws prolonged into a regular bill, which is well provided 
with teeth. The scales are composed of bone covered on the outside with enamel, like teeth. 
The alligator gar, confined to the depths of the .Missis,sippi, is a large fish, and the more common 
species, Lrpidoitcus hi-iO/i, attains to a consitierablc si/e. The LcpiJasii-i'us, now only found in 
Xortli America, once had rejiresentativej all over the globe. Fossils of the same family of « liich 
the gar-pike is the ty|)e, have been found all over Europe, in tlie oldest fossiliferous beds, in the 
strata of the age of coal, in the new red b.andslone, in ociliiic deposits, and in the chalk and 
tertiary formations — being one of the many living evidences that North America was the first 
countr_\- above the water. For all practical purjioses, we should r.ot regret to have the gar-pikes 
follow ill ilu- fontste))-, of iheir aged and illustrious predecessors. The\- could well be spjared. 

Tl-.ere la .i fi.ii {L,:a lua.uu'sc) wliii h belongs to lite cod-fi.-^h family, i .died b_v tlie fishermen 
tl-.c "lawyer^," Un \\ reason I am nut aiile to say — at any r.iic, the fi-^h is wcirthless. There 
are a great number of small fi^li, intere->ting only to th.e naturali'-t, which I shall omit to men- 
tion here. 


Fish of the northern countries are the most valuable, for the reason that the water is colder 
and purer. Wisconsin, situated between forty-two thirtv, and forty-seven degrees of latitude, 
bounded on the east and north by the largest lakes in the world, on the west by the "Great river," 
traversed by numerous fine and rapid streams, and sprinkled all over with beautiful and pictu- 
resque lakes, has physical conditions certainly the most favorable, perhaps of any State, for an 
abundant and never-failing supply of the best fish. Few persons have any idea of the importance 
of the fisheries of Lake Michigan. It is diti'icult to collect adcrpiate data to form a correct 
knowledge of the capital invested and the amount of fish taken; enough, however, has been 
ascertained to enable me to state that at Milwaukee alone $100,000 are invested, and not less 
than two hundred and eighty tons of dressed fish, t.iken annually. At Racine, during the entire 
season of nine montiis, there are, on an average, one thousand pounds of whitefish and trout, 
each, caught and sold daily, amounting to not less tlian $16,000. It is well known that, since the 
adoption of the gill-net system, the fishermen are enabled to pursue their calling ten months of 
the year. 

When the fish retire to the deep water, they are followed with miles of nets, and the poor 
fish are entangled on every side. There is a marked falling off in the number and size of white- 
fish and trout taken, when compared with early years. When fish were only captured with seines, 
they had abundant chance to escape and multiply so as to keep an even balance in number. 
Only by artificial propagation and well enforced laws protecting them during the spawning 
season, can we hope now to restore the balance. In order to give some idea of the valuable 
labors of the state fish commissioners, I will state briefly that they have purchased for the 
state a piece of property, situated three miles from Madison, known as the Nine Springs, 
including forty acres of land, on which they have erected a dwelling-house, barn and hatcher\, 
also constructed several ponds, in which can be seen many valuable fish in the enjoyment of 
perfect health and vigor. As equipped, it is, undoubtedly, one of the best, if not the best, hatchery 
in the states. In this permanent establishnient the commission design to hatch and distribute 
to the small lakes and rivers cf the interior the most valuable cf our indigenous fish, such as 
bass, pike, trout, etc., etc., as well as many valuable foreign varieties. During the past season, 
many fish have been distributed from this state hatchery. At the Milwaukee Water Works, the 
commission have equipped a hatchery on a large scale, using the water as pumped directly from 
the lake. During the past season there was a prodigious multitude of young trout and whitefish 
distributed from this point. The success of Superintendent \\'elcher in hatching whitefish at 
Milwaukee has been the best yet gained, nearly ninety per cent, of the eggs "laid down" 
being hatched. Pisciculturists will appreciate this wonderful success, as they well know hov.- 
difficult it is to manage the spawn of the whitefisii. 

I append the following statistics of the number of fish hatclicd and distributed from the 
Milwaukee hatchery previous to 1S7S : 

Total number of fish hatch.ed, 8,000,000 — whitefish, 6,300,000; salmon trout, 1,700,000. 

They were distributed as follows, in the month of May, 1S77 : Whitefish planted in Lake 
Michigan, at Racine, 1,000,000; at Milwaukee, 3.260,000; between Manitowoc and Two Rivers 
1,000,000; in f'rreen bay, 1,000.000; in Elkhart lake, 40,000. 

, Salmon trout were turned out as follows: Lake Michigan, near Milwaukee, 600,000; 
Brown's lake, Racine county, -lo.oco; Dela\ an lake, Walworth county, 40,000; Troy lake, Wal- 
worth county, 4o,oco; Pleasant lake, Walworth county, .;o,oco ; Lansdale lake, Walwortli 
county, 40,000; Ella lake, Milwaukee ccHinty, 16, GOO ; Cedar lake, Washington countv, 40,000 ; 
Elkhart lake, Sheboygan rounty, 40,000; Clear hike. Rock county, 40,000; Ripley lake, 

138 nr>TOi;Y or aviscoxsix. 

Jefferson county, 40,000; Mendota lake, iJane county, 100,000; Fox lake, Dodge county, 
40,000; Suan and Sil\er lakes, Columbia county, 40,000; Little Green lake, Green Lake 
county, 40,000; Lig Green lake. Green Lake county, ico,ooo ; Bass lake, St. Croix county, 
40,000; '1 win lakes, St. Croix county, 40,000; Long lake, (Jhippewa county, 40,000; Oconomo- 
woc lake, Waukesha county, 100,000; Pine lake, Waukesiia county. 40,000; Pewaukee lake, 
Waukesha county, ico,ooo; North lake, Waukesha county, 40,000 ; Nagawicka lake, Waukesha 
county, 40,000; Okanche lake, Waukesha county, 40,000. 


Fifty years ago, the territory now included in tiie state ol" Wisconsin, was nearly in a state 
of nature, all the large wild animals were then abundant. Xow, all has changed. The ax and 
plow, gun and dog, railway and telegraph, have metamorphosed the face of nature. Most of 
the large quadrupeds !iav-j been either exterminated, or have hid themselves away in the wilder- 
ness. In a short time, all of these will have disappeared from the state. The date and order 
in which animals become extinct within tlie boundaries of the state, is a subject of great interest. 
There was a time when the antelope, tlie woodland caribou, the buffalo, and the wild turkey, 
were abundant, but are now no longer to be found. 

The Antelope, Anliiocarpj Americana, now confined to the Western plains, did, tv.'o hun- 
dred years ago, inhabit \Visconsin as far east as Michigan. In October, 1679, Father Hennepin, 
with La S.iHe and party, in four canoes, coasted along the Western shore of Lake Michigan. In 
Hennepin's narrative, lie says; " The oldest of them "' (the Indians) " came to us the next niorn- 
ing with their calumet of peace, and brought some ui-.Li goals." This was somewhere north of 
Milwaukee. "Being in sore distreSi, we saw upon the coast a great many ravens and eagles ". 
(turkey vultures), '" from wh-,-nce v.-e conjectured there some prey, and having landed upon 
that place, we found above tlie lialf of a wilJ goat, whicli the wolves had strangled. This 
provision was very acceptable to us, and the rudest of our men could not but praise the Diviiie 
Providence v.hich took so particular care of us." This must have been somewliere near Racine. 
"On the i6lh" (October, 1C79), " we met with abundance of game. A savage we had with us, 
killed several stags (deer) and 'oil. I goats, ar.d our men a great many turkeys, very fat and big." 
This must have been south of Racine. 'I hese ^'i'i7/j were undoubtedly antelopes. Schoolcraft 
mentions anteloiics as occupying the Xorthwest territory. 

When the last buff.nlo crossed the Mississippi is not precisely known. It is certain they 
lingered in Wisconsin in 1S25. It is said t'lere was a buffalo sliot on the St. Croi.x river as late 
as 1S3;, so Wisconsin claims th.e last buffalo. Tlie woodlarid caribou — liangi/ir cariliou — were 
never numerous within ir.e limits of the state. .V ['iv: were seen not far from La Pointc in €045. 
The last wild turkey in the eastern portion of the state, was in 1S46. On the Mississippi, one 
was killed in 1S56. ■ I am tuld by Dr. W.ilcott, thai turkeys were abundant in Wisconsin previous 
to the hard winter of iS4:>-3, when snow was yet two feet deep in March, with a stout crust, so 
that the turkeys could not get to the ground. 'I'hey became so [loor and weak, that they could 
not fl)-, and thus became an easy prey to liie wolves, foxes, wild cats, minks, etc., which exter- 
minated alnlo^t the entire race. The Doctor says he saw but one single individual the next 
winter. I'lk were on \\a)- river in 1S63. and I have little doubt a few yet remain. Moose are 
not numerous, a few yet remain in the northwestern part of the state. I saw moose tracks on 
the Montreal rivor, near Lake Superior, in the summer of 1S45. A few jianthers may still 
inhabit the wlhicrness of Wisconsin. P.enjamin Bones, of Racine, shot one on t!ie headwaters of 

^57VT«n *-^-J""* ■ 

FAUXA OF A\"ISrOXSIX. " ' . 139 

Black river, December, 1S63. Bad.S'ers are now nearly gone, and in a few years more, the only 
badgers found within the state, will be two legged ones. Beavers are yet numerous in tlie 
small lakes in the northern regions. \\'olverinL3 are ociasionaily met with in the northern 
forests. Bears, wolves, and deer, will continue to flourish in the northern and central counties, 
where underbru,ih, timber, and small lakes abound. 

All large animals will soon be driven by civilization out of AVisconsin. The railroad and 
improved firearms will do the work, and thus we lose the primitive denizens of the forest and 


The facts recorded in this paper, were obtained by personal observations within fifteen 
miles of Racine, Wisconsin, latitude 42° 46' north, longitude S;" 4S' west. This city is situated 
on the western shore of Lake Michigan, at the e.xtreme southern point of the heavy lumbered 
•district, the base of v,-hich rests on Lake Superior. Raciiie e.xtend^ six miles further into the 
lake than Milwaukee, and two miles further than Kenosha. At tliis point the great prairie 
approaches near the lake frum the west. The extreme rise of the mercury in suinmer, is from 
90° to 100° Fahrenheit. The isothermal line comes further north in summer, and retires further 
south in winter than it does east of tlie great lakes, which pb.ysical condition will sufficiently 
explain the remarkable peculiarities of its animal life, the overlapping, as it were, of two distinct 
faunas. More especially is this true of birds, that are enabled to change their locality with the 
greatest facility.- Within the past thirty years, I have collected and observed over three hundred 
species of birds, nearly half of all birds found in North America. Many species, considered 
rare in other sections, are found here in the greatest abundance. .\ striking peculiarity of the 
ornithological fauna of this section, is that southern birds go farther north in summer, while 
northern species go farther south in winter than they do east of the lakes. Of summer birds 
that visit us, I will ennumerate a few of the many that belong to a more southern l.ititude in the 
Atlantic States. Nearly all nest with u^. or, at least, did some years ago. 

Yellow-breasted chat, Ictiria lirJis ; mocking bird, Alimiis pcllyglottus ; great Carolina wren, 
Thriothoi us ludoviciaints ■ jjrothonotary warbler, Pro/oiio/an'a citrea ; summer red 'Viuii, Pyraiigia 
■tes-dc'a; wood ibis, Tantalus loculalor. 

Among Arctic birds that visit us in winter are: 

Snowy owl, Nyctfa nivta; great gra\ owl, Syyuium cincrus ; hawk owl, Surnia iihihi ; Arctic 
three-toed woodpecker, PicoiJi-s arciiciis ; banded three-toed woodpecker, Ficoides Iiirsutus; mag- 
pie, I'lid /lu.isonica ; Canavla jay, Pcriiorius caiiadi-iisis ; evening grosbeak, Hcsperiphona I'esper- 
tiiia; Hudson titmouse, J'anis hudsoniais ; king cder, Sornaliriii sprclalniis ; black-throated diver, 
Colymhus arciiciis ; glaucus gull, Lata m glauais. 

These e.xamples are surticient to indicate the rich avi fauna of Wisconsin. It is doubtful if 
there is another locality wiiere the Canada jay and its associates visit in winter where the mock- 
ing bird nests in summer, or where the hawk o'.vl llies silently over the spot occupied during 
the warmer days liy the summer red bird and the yellow-breas:ed chat. But the a.x has already 
leveled much of the great woods, so that there is now a great I'alling off in numbers of our old 
familiar feathered friends. It is now extremely doubtful if such a collection can ever again be 
mad( within the boundaries of this state, or indeed, of any other. 


By Proi-. EruVARl) SEARIXO, State SurKRiN'TENriLXT ui Public Instruction. 

From the time of tlie earliest advent of the families of French traders into the region now 
known as ^^'iscons;n, to the year iSiS, when tljat region became jiart of Michigan territory, 
education was mostly confined to private instruction, or was sought by the children of the 
wealthier in tiie distant cities of Quebec, Montreal, and Detroit. Tlie early Jesuit missionaries, 
and — sulist qucnt!)- to iSi6, v.-hen it came under the military control of the United States — 
representatives of various other religious denominations, sought to teach the Indian tribes of 
tliis section. In 1823, Re\ . P^lcazar Wiiliam.-,, vv-ell known for his subsequent claim to be the 
Dauphin of France, and who v.-as in th.e einploy of the Episcopal ^^issionarv Society, started a 
school of white and half-breed children on the v.est side of Fox river, op[)Ositc " Shanty-Town." 
A Catholic mission school for ludians was organized by an Italian priest near Green Bay, in 
1S30. .A clause of the treaty with the Winnebago Indians, in 1S32, bound the United States to 
maintain a scliooi for their children near Prairie du Chien for a period of twenty-seven years. 

The Original School Code. 

From iSiS to 1S36, 'Wisconsin formed part of Michigan territory. In the year 1837, Michi- 
gan was admitted, into the Union as a state, and Wisconsin, embracing what is now Minnesota, 
Iowa, and a cons:derable region still furtlicr westward, was, by act of congress approved April 
20th of the year previous, estal'lished as a separate territory. Tlie act provided that the existing 
laws of the territory of Michigan should be extended over the nev>- territory so far as compatible 
with the provisions of the act, subject to alteration or repeal by tlie new government created. 
Thus with the oilier statutes, t'le school code of Michigan became the original code of AViscon- 
sin, and it v,-as soon formally adopted, with almost no change, by the first territorial legislature, 
which met at Belmont. Altiiougli modified in some of its provisions almost every year, this 
imperfect code continued in force until the adoption of the state constitution in 1S4S. The 
first material changes in the code were made by the territorial legislature at its second session, 
in 1837, by the passage of a bill " to regulate the sale of school lands, and to provide for organ- 
izing, regulating, and perfecting common schools." It was provided in this act that as soon as 
twenty electors should reside in a sur\eycd luu nshiji, they should elect a board of three com- 
missioners, holding otFire three years, to lay off districts, to apply the proceeds of tlie leases of 
school lands to the payment of teachers' wage,-, and to call school meetings. It was also pro- 
vided that each district siiuuid elect a board of three director-, holding office one year, to locate 
school-houses, hire teachers f. ir at least three months in the )'ear, and levy taxes for the support 
of schools. It was further prnvided that a third board of five inspectors should be elected 
annually in each town to examine and license teachers and i^^;'ect the scliools. Two years 
subsequently (i'^39) the law v, a ; revised ami the fiinily, instead of tiie electors, v.-as made the 
ba-Ls of th.e toun organization. Every to'.\ n with not less than ten fam.ilies was made a schoc'l 
district and re'iuired to prinide a ronipcteiu leac:her. More i.ioj)ulous towns v. ere divided into 
two or more district.,. 'I'he office of town (or.imissioner was abolished, its duties with certain 
otr.ers being to tiie inspectors. The rate-bill sy.-tem of taxation, jireviously in 
existence, was repe.iled, and a lax 011 the wliole county for building school-houses and suDjjort- 


ing schools was provided for. One or two years later the office of town commissioners was 
restored, and the duties of the insj.ectors were assigned to the same. Other somewliat important 
amendments were made at the same time. 

In 1S40, a memorial to ciai^^ress from the legislature represented that the people were 
anxious to establish a comm'in-sch.ool sj'stem, w.tli suitable resources for its support. From 
lack of sufficient funds many of the schools were poorly organized. The rate-bill la.\ or private 
subscription was often nece^s.irv to supplement the scanty results of county taxation. Until a 
state government should be organized, the fund accruing from the sale of school lands could not 
be available. Congress h.r.d made to Wisconsin, as to other new states, for educational purposes, 
a donation of lands. lands embraced the sixteenth section in every township in the state, 
the 500,000 acres tn whi. h i!ie state was entitled by the provisions of an act of congress passed 
in 1841, and any grant of lands from the United States, the purposes of which were not speci- 
fied. To obtain t'le benefits of this large fund was a leading object in forming the state con- 

Agitation kor Frek Schools. 

Shortly befor,. :i;e admission of the state the subject of free schools began to be quite 
widely discussed. l;i February, 1S45, Col. M. Frank, of Kenosha, a member of the territorial 
legislature, iniroduct-d a bill, which became a law, authorizing tlie legal voters of his own town 
to vote taxes on all the assessed property lor the full support of its schools. A provision of the 
act required its submission to the people of the town befjrc it could take effect. It met with 
strenuous oppo.-.iiiofi, but after many public meetings and lectures held in the interests of public 
enlightenment, the act was ratified by a small majority in the fall of 1S45, and thus the first freescliool 
in the state v.Ms legally organized. Subsequently, in the legislature, m the two constitutional con- 
ventions, and in educational assemblies, the question of a free-school system for the new state 
soon to he 'iv-anized provoked much interest and discussion. In the constitution framed by the 
convention of 1S46, was jirovided the basis of a free-school system similar to that in our present 
constitution.. The question of estajilisiiing the office of state superintendent, more than any 
other feature C'f the pro'po>ed school system, elicited discussion in that body The necesaiiy ui 
this office, and the advantages of free schools supported by taxation, were ably jiresented to the 
convention by Hon. Henry iiarnard, of Connecticut, in an evening address. He afterward pre- 
pared, by request, a draft of a free-school system, with a state superintendent at its head, which 
was accepted and subsequently embodied in the constitution and the school law. In the second 
constitutional convention, in 1S4S, the same questions again received careful attention, and the 
article on education previou.-,ly prepared, was, after a few changes, brought into the shape in 
which we now find it. Immediately after the ratification by the people, of the constitution pre- 
jvared by the second convention, three commissioners were appointed to revise the statutes. To 
one of these. Col. Frank, the needed revision of the school laws was assigned. The work was 
acceptably performed, and the new school code of 1S49, largely the same as the present one. 
went into operation May first of that year. 

Thk. School System unt'Er the St.\te Goverxmen't. 

In the state constitution was laid tlie broad f(.)undation of our present school system. The 
four corner stones were; (i) The guaranteed freedom of the schools; (.") the school fund 
created: (j ) tlie system of supervision; (4) a state university for iiiglier instruction. 'i'iie 
scliool fund has five distinct sources for its creation indicated in the constitution: (i) Proceeds 
from the sale of lands granted to the state by the United States for educational purposes; (^) 



all moneys accruing from forfeiture or escheat; (3) all fines collected in the several counties for 
breach of the penal laws ; (4) all moneys paid for exemption from military duty ; (5) five per cent. 
of the sale of government lands within the state. In addition to these constitutional sources of 
the school fiind, anntlier and sixth source was open from 1S56 to 1S70. By an act of the state 
lec;islature in tlit- former vear, three-fourths of the net proceeds of the sales of the swamp and 
overflowed l.mds, granted to the state by congress, Sept. zS, 1850, were added to the common- 
school fund, the other fourt'u going into a fund for drainage, under certain circumstances ; but if 
not paid over to any town for that purpose within two years, to become a part of the school 
fund. The following year one of these fourths was converted into the normal-school fund, 
leaving one-half for the common-school fund. In 1S5S, another fourth was given to the drainage 
fund, thus providing for the latter one-half the income from the sales, and leaving for the school 
fund, until the year 1S65, only the remaining one-fourth. In the latter year this was transferred 
to the normal-school fund, with the provision, however, that one-fourth of the income of this 
fund should be transferred to the common-school fund until the annual income of the latter 
fund should reach $200,000. In 1S70 this provision was repealed, and the whole income of the 
normal fund left applicable to the support of normal schools and teachers' institutes. 

At the first session of the state legislature in 1848, several acts were passed which carried 
■out in some degree the educational provisions of the constitution. A law was enacted to pro- 
vide for the election, and to define the duties, of a state superintendent of public instruction. A 
district board was created, consisting of a moderator, director, and treasurer; the office of town 
superintendent was established, and provision was made for the creation of town libraries, and 
for the distribution of the school fund. The present school code of Wisconsin is substantially 
that passed by the legislature of 184S, and which went into operation May i, 1S49. The most 
important change since made was the abolition of the office of town sujierintendent, and the 
substitution therefor of the county superinteiidency. This change took effect January i, 1S62. 

Thf ScHooi -Fund Inxome. 

The firbt annual report of the state superintendent, for the year 1S49, gives the income of 
the school fund for that year a^ §5'''''' or cigiii and three-tenth mills per child. JNIilwaukee 
•county received the largest annnmt, ¥^9. 63, and. St. Croix county the smallest, twenty-four cents. 
The average in the state was furty-seven ccp.ta per district. The following talile will show at a 
glance the quinquennial increase in the income uf the fund, t'lie corresponding increase in the 
r.uml)er of school children, and tlie apportionment per child, from 1S49 to 1S75, inclusive; also, 
the last published apportionment, for 1S7S. It will be seen that since 1S55 the increase of 
the fund has not kept j/aee with the increase of school [Population : 

NO, CII1LHKKN IN'.OMi; OK | K.^ric Vii: 
)!■ SCH001.-.\Gt- SCHOOL iL-MM ClllMi. 


IS60. J 



NO. ihildrk:; income or ratf per 


$585 m 
47,716 00 
j^^.tyd o- 
IS.1..J4Q 7'' 

335 5=::: 

151,816 34 
159.271 3i 
I?4 624 6) 

47S.6-12 I 185,546 01 


The amount of productive school I'lind rei><)rted .September 30, 1878, was $2,680,703.27. 
The iK)rt;on of the liind not invested at tii it due, was ,<5S,S23.7o. 

'^"t^w><*;-v5'' '-^*Tr*^n'^^.! 


The State University. 

In his message to the first territorial legislature, in 1036, Governor Dodge recommended 
asking from congress aid for the establishment of a st.ite educational institution, to be governed 
by the legislature. This was the first official action looi^ing to the establishment of a state 
university. The same legislature passed an act to establisli and locate the \Visconsin univer- 
sity at Belmont, in the county of Iowa. At its second session, the following year, the legislature 
passed an act, which was approved January 19, 1S30, establishing '' at or near Madison, the seat 
of government, a university for the purpose of educating youth, the name whereof shall be 'The 
Univerbit\- of the Territory of \Vi~consin. " A resolution was parsed at tlie same session, direct- 
ing the territorial delegate in congress to ask of tliat body an appropriation of $20,000 for the 
erection of the buildings o; said university, and also to appropriate two townships of vacant land 
for its endowment. Congress accordingly appropriated, in 1S3S, seventy-two sections, or two 
townships, for the support of a "seminary of learning in the territory of "Wisconsin," and this 
was afterward confirmed to the state for the use of the university. No effectual provision, how- 
ever, was made for the establishment of the university until ten years later, when the state was 
organized. Congress, as has been said. h.;d made a donation of lands to the territory for the 
support of such an institution, but these lands could not be made available for that purpose until 
the territory should become a state. The state constitution, adopted in 1S4S, declared that pro- 
vision b-hould be made for the establishment of a state university, and that the proceeds of all 
lands donated by the United States to the state for the sujipoit of a university should remain a 
perpetual fund, the interest of which should be appropriated to its support 

The state legislature, at its first session, passed an act, approved July 26, 1S4S, establishing 
the University of Wisconsin, defining its location, its government, and its various departments, 
and authorizing the regents to purchase a suitable site for the buildings, and to proceed to the 
erection of the same, after having obtained from the legislature the approval of plans. This act 
repealed the previous act of 1S3S. The regents were soon after appointed, and their first annual 
report was presented to the legislature, January 30, 1S49. This report announced the selection 
of a site, subject to tlie approval of the legislature, announced the organization of a preparatory 
department, and the election of a chancellor or president. The university was tlius organized, 
with John H. Lathrop, president of the University of Missouri, as its first chancellor, and John 
AV. Sterling as principal of the [ireparatory department, which was opened February 5, 1849. 
Chancellor Lathrop was not formally inaugurated until January 16, 1S50. 

Owing to the short-sighted policy of the state in locating without due care, and in apprais- 
ing and selling so low the lands of the original grant, the fund produced was entirely inadequate 
to the support of the institution. Congress, therefore, made, in 1S54, an additional grant of 
seventy-two sections of land I'or its use. These, however, were located and sold in the same 
inconsiderate and unl'ortunate manner, for so low a price as to be a means of inducing immigra- 
tion, indeed, but not of producing a fund adequate for the support of a successful state univer- 
sity. Of tiie 92,160 acres comprised in tlie two grants, there iuid been sold prior to September 
30, 1SO6, 74,178 acres for tile sum of $264,570.13, or at an average price of but little more than 
§3.50 per acre.* Besides this, the state had allowed the univer.-,ily to anticipate its income to the 
extent of over §ico,coo t'or the erection of buildings. By a law of 1S62 tiic sum of $104,339.43 
was taken from its t'und 1 already too small) to yiixy for these buildings. The resulting embar- 
rassment made necessary tiie re-organization of 1S66, which added to the slender resources (.A 
the institution the agricultural college fund, arising from tiie sale of lands donated to the slate by 
the congressional act of 1.S62. 

'Coiiip.irff the price olit.Tli.eil for the lamls of the University of, The fir';t !ale of those lands averajed 
$22.8; per acre, and hrou^'ht in a sin;j!e year {i33;) $150,447.90. Sales were made in succeeding years at $15, $17, 
and $11} a^re. 

1-14 iiiSTOKY OF Avisrox.^rs". 

The first university building erected was the north dormitory, wliich was completed in 1851. 
This is no feet in length by 40 in breadth, and four stories in height. The south dormitory, of 
the same size, was completed in 1855. The main central edifice, known as University Hall, was 
finished in 1S59. The Ladies' College was completed in 1872. This latter was built with an 
appropriation of $50,000, made by the legislature in 1S70 — the first actual donation the univer- 
sity had ever received from the state. The legislature of 1S75 appropriated $So,ooo for the 
erection of Science Hall, a building to be devoted to instruction in the physical sciences. This 
was completed and ready ibr occupancy at the opening of the fall term of 1S77. 

The growth of this institution during the past fourteen years, and especially since its re- 
organization in jS66, has been rapid and substantial. Its productive fund on the 30th day of 
September, 1877, aside from the agricultural college fund, was $223,240 32. The combined uni- 
versity and agricultural funds amounted, at the same date, to $464,032 22. An act of the legis- 
lature in 1S67 appropriated to the university income for that year, and annually for the ne.xt ten 
years, the sum of $7-303.76, being the interest upon the sum taken from the university fund by 
the law of 1S62 for the erection of buildings, as before mentioned. Chapter 100 of the general 
lau'S of 1S72 also provided for an annual state ta.x of §10,000 to increase the income of the uni- 
versity. Chapter 119 of the laws of 1S76 provides for an annual state tax of one-tenth of one 
mill on the taxable property of the state for the increase of the university fund income.'ii'.is tax 
to be "/'« lieu of all other appropriations before provided for the benefit of said fun'c!, !:■■; jnie," 
and to be "deemed a full compensation for all deficiencies in said income arising from the dis- 
position of the lands donated to tlie state by congress, in trust, fur the benefit of said income." 
The entire income of the university from all sources, including this ta.\ (which was $42,359.62), 
was, for the year ending September 30, 1S7S, j;Si,442.63. The university has a faculty of over 
thirty professors and instructors, and during the past year — 1S77-S — it had in its various depart- 
ments 3S8 students. The law department, organized in 1S6S, has since been in successful opera- 
ation. Ladies are admitted into all the departments and classes of the university. 

Agricultural ('oli.kgf,. 

The agricultural college fund, granted to the state by the congressional act of 1862, was 
by a subsequent legislative enactment (i 866) applied to tire support, not of a separate agricultural 
college, but of a department of agriculture in the existing university, thus rendering it unneces- 
sary for the state to erect separate buildings elsewhere. Under the provisions of ch.npter 114, 
laws of 1S66, the county of Dane issued to the state, for the purpose of purchasing an exjieri- 
nicntal farm, bonds to the amount of $40,000. .\ farm of about 200 acres, adjoining the univer- 
sity grounds, was p'irchased, and a f >ur years' course of study provided, designed to be thorough 
and extensive in the branches that relate to agriculture, in connection v.ith its practical application 
upon the experimental f.inn. 

I'iie productive agricultural college fund ha.-> increased I'rom ;;S,o6i.S6, in 1S66, to ,^244,263, iS, 
in 1S7S. 

NoKMAi, Schools. 

The propriety of making some special provision for the instruction of teachers was 
acknowledged in the very organization of the state, a provision for normal schools having been 
embodied in the coiutitution itself, which ordains that after the support and ii;aintenanre of the 


common schools is insured, the residue of tlie school fund shall be appropriated to academies and 
normal schools. The state legislature, in its first session in 1S4S, in the act establishing the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, declared that one of the four departments thereof should be a department 
of the theory and practice of elementary instruction. Tiic first institution ever ch.artered in 
t!;e state as a normal school was incorporated by the legislature at its second session — 1S49 — 
under the title of tlic " Jefierbon County Normal School." This, however, was never organized. 

The regents, when organizing the university, at their meeting in 1S49, ordained the estab- 
lishment of a normal professorsiiip, and declared tliat in organizing the normal department it 
was their fixed intention " to make the University of Wisconsin subsidiary to the great cause of 
popular education, b'y making it, througli i:s normal department, the nursery of the educators of 
the popular mind, and the central point of union and harmony to t!ie educational interests of the 
commonwealth." Tliey declared tiiat instruction in the normal department should be free to all 
suitable candidates. Little was accomplished, ho'.vever, in this direction during the next ten 
years. In 1S5 7 an act was jiassed by the legislature appropriating twenty-five per cent, of the 
income of the swaui[.i-land fund " to normal institutes and academics under the supervision and 
direction of a board of regents of normal schools," who were to be ajjpointed in accordance 
with tlie provisions of the act. Distribution of this income was made to such colleges, acade- 
mies, and high schools as maintained a normal class, in proportion to the number of pupils pass- 
ing a successful examination conducted by an agent of the board. In 1S59, Dr. Henry Barnard, 
who had become cliancellor of the university, was made agent of the normal regents. He 
inaugurated a system of teachers' institutes, and gave fresh vigor to tlie norntal work throughout 
the state. Resigning, however, on account of ill-health, witliin two years. Professor Chas. H. 
.Mien, who had been conducting institutes under his direction, succeeded him as agent of the 
normal regents, and was elected principal of the normal department of the university, entering 
upon his work as tlie latter in Marcli, 1S64. He managed the department with signal ability and 
success, but at the end of one or two years resigned. Meantime the educational sentiment of 
the state had manifested itself for the establishment of separate normal schools. 

In 1S65, the legislature passed an act repealing that of two years before, and providing 
instead that one-h.ilf of the s'vanip land fund should be set apart as a normal-school fund, the 
income of -u-hicli sliould be applied to establishing and supporting normal scliools under the 
direction and management of tlie board of normal regents, with a proviso, lio\iever, that one- 
fourth of such income should l)C annually transferred to the common-school fund income, until 
the latter should amount annually to $ This proviso was repealetl by the legislature ot 
1S70, and the entire income of one-half the swamp-land fund has since been devoted to normal- 
school purposes. During the same year proposals were invited for aid in the establishment of 3 
normal school, in money, land, or buildings, and propositions from various places were received 
and considered. In i.:66, the board of regents incorporated by the legislature. In the 
same j'ear Platteville was conditionally selected as tlie site of a school, and as there was already 
a productive fund of about $600,000, with an inconie of over §30,000, ^nd a prospect of a steady 
increase as the lands were sold, the board decided upon the policy of establishing several schools, 
h'tated in dilTerent jiarts of the state. In pursu:ince of this j.olicy. there have already been 
'■ompkted, and are now in very sv.cce-st'ul operation, the I'laUeville Normal School, opened 
f Jctober 9, 1S66 ; the NViiitewater Normal School, opened April 21, 186S ; the Oshkosh Normal 
!^ihoc>l, opened Septemlier 19, 1^71, and the River Falls Normal School, opened September 
.;, 1S75. Each assembly district in the state is entitled to eight representatives in tlie 
normal schools. The.--e are nominated by county and city superintendents. Tuition is 
free to all normal students. There are in the normal schoi/Is two courses of studv — an 

14(3 ^ IirSTOKT ()!•• Vv-iSCOXSIX. 

c:'r:,:\n.',Ty ci>!!isc- of two 3'<-ar?, and an ii.ra'iiwl a'«;-jV of four ye.:!.;. The student completing 
tl.o f irn-iCT, r;-c-.ivc? a certificate ; the one coni'Ieiing l!ie hitter, a tiiploma. Tiie certificate, when 
th.' hi-hk'T i;.is s'lCLc.isfui'.y tau^lu one year after [graduation, may be countersigned by the sup- 
erinteridjn: uf pablic instruction, wl\L-n it becoui-s equivalent to a five-years' state certificate. 
Tlij diploma, ','.ii-..n thus countersigned, after a iike iiUcrv.d, is C'|uivaieiu to a i)crmanent state 

It is b'.tli'.ved tiiat tiie nr;rnia:-sci;ool system cf \\'i.-.consin rests upon a broader and more 
secure l<a^is ti:a;i ti.e coirc^poiiding system of any other state. That basis is an independent 
and perniancT.t fund, v>hith has already reached a miliiun dc/llars. Tiie ])recise amount of this 
securely invcsteii and productiv..' ft.nd, September 30, 1S7S, was $1,004,907.67, and the sum of 
J33,2cjo.o!3 remained uninvested. 

Teache:^?' Institutks. 

Tn addition to the 'vork uf tiie normal schools, the board of regents is authorized to expend 
§5,000 ;'.nniial!y to de.^rav the cxicnje^ of>' in^ititutes. A law ot' 1 1;!, amended in 1876, 
jirovides for normal institutes, v.hich shall be heldfurnot less tlian two t.onr,LCUtive weeks, and 
appropri.ites fr.'ii; t;:e stTte trea-^ury a st:m net exceeding ,s.:, 000 per annum for their support. 
There were hehl in the State, in 1S7S, sixty-six institutes, varying in length from one to two 
weeks. The total i^umber of persons enrolled a^ attendants was 4.944 

Graded Schools. 

Including tho:>e in tlie cities, the graded bchools of the State number about four hundred. 
The annual report of the State superintendent for 1S7S gives the number with two departments 
a.-) 207, and the number with t!;ree or more as 225. 

A law of Mareii, 1S72, ]irovidcd that "all graduates of any graded school of the state, who 
shall ha\e passed an examination at such graded school satisfactory to the faculty of the univer- 
sity for admis qon ii. to th.c class and college classes of the university, shall be at 
once and at all times entitled to free tuition in all the colleges of the university." A consider- 
able number of grad.uates of graded scliools entere-d tiie university under tliis lav,- during the 
next fr;ur ) ears, bat it being deemed an unwise discrimination in favor of this class of students, 
in iS;6, in the same act which provided for th.e t.ix of one tenth of cr.e mill, the legislature pro- 
vided that from and al'ter the /jth of Jidy of that year no student, except students in law and 
those faking extra sttidies, shoidd be reqinred to ]'a\- any tees for tuition. Few graded schools 
of the state are a'ole as vet to fully prepare students for entrance into the regular ciasses of the 
clas^ic.d d-partment of the iinlvers;;-, . Tiie larger number prepaied by them still enter the 
scientific department or the sub-freshman class. 

Tiif. TowNsiiir System. 

In iSur) the legislature passed a law auth'>rizing towns to adopt by vote tlie '" township sys- 
tem of fciiool goveinmcnt." Under this system each town becomes one school district, and the 
sever;} scltool di^tri(■ts alri-aTiv' existing become sub-districts. Each sub-district elects a clerk, 
and thesj (;!erks itioi^titute a bodv corporate under the name of tlie '" board of sciiool directors," and 
are investe-d -i''! the title and (<'i.Iy of all sciund houses, sciiool-iio-.tse sites, anil other prop- 
er'v l)elon;.';nj; to tl'.o s-.:',.-d;-.t: !ct<, v.itii power to c-.mtro! t'aci:i I".'r the I'cst interests of the 
sc!n;ois of t'-..- to'v :. The law iir ivide^ for a.i executive cominittee to execute the oiders of the 


bo.ird, employ teachers, etc., and for a secretary to record proceedings of the board, have imme- 
diate charge and supervision of the schools, and perform other specified duties. But few towns 
have as yet made trial of this system, although it is in successful operation in Pensylvania, Mas- 
sachusetts, and some other states, and where fully and fairly tried in our own, has proved entirely 
satisfactory. It is the general belief of our enlightened educational men that the plan has sue? 
merits as ought to secure its voluntary adoption by the people of the state. 

Free High Schools. 

In 1S75 the legislature enacted that any town, incorporated village, or city, may establish 
and maintain not more than two free high schools, and provided for an annual appropriation of 
not to exceed $25,000, to refund one-half of the actual cost of instruction in such schools, but 
no school to draw in any one year more than $500. At the session of 1S77 the benefits of the 
act were extended to such high schools already established as shall show by a proper report that 
they have conformed to the requirements of the law. If towns decline to establish such a 
school, one or more adjoining districts in the same have the privilege of doing so. The law has 
met with much fa\or. For the school year ending August 31, 1S76 (the first year in which it was 
in operation), twenty such schools reported, and to these the sum of $7,466.50 was paid, being 
an average of S373.32 per school. For the year ending August 31, 1S78, eighty-five schools 
reported and received a pro rata division of the maximum appropriation. The high school law 
was primarily designed to bring to rural neighborhoods the twofold advantages of (i) a higher 
instruction than the- common district schools afford, and (2) a better class of teachers for these 
schools. It was anticipated, however, from the first that the immediais results of the law would 
be chiefly the improvement of existing graded schools in the larger villages and in cities.. 

School Officers. 
The school officers of Wisconsin are, a state superintendent of public instruction, sixty-four 
county superintendents, twenty-eight city superintendents, and a school board in each district, 
consisting of a director, treasurer, and clerk. The state and county superintendents hold office 
two years, the district officers three years. In each independent city there is a board of educa- 
tion, and the larger cities have each a city superintendent, who in some cases is also jjrincipal of 
the high school. He is appointed for one year. The county board of supervisors determine, 
within certain limits, the amount of money to be raised annually in e.icii town and ward of their 
county for school purposes, levy an additional amount for the salary of tiie county superintend- 
ents, may authorize a special school tax, and may under certain circumstances determine that 
there shall be two superintendents for their county. The town board \i\ supervisors have authority 
to form and alter school districts, to issue notice for first meeting, to form union districts for high 
school purposes, and appoint first boards for the same, to locate and establish school-house sites 
under certain circumstances, to extinguish districts that have neglected to maintain school for 
two years, and to dispose of the property of the same. The district clerks report annually to the 
town clerks, the town clerks to the county superintendents, and the county and city superintend- 
ents to the state superintendent, who in turn makes an annual report to the governor. 

State Te.achers' Cfrtific.a.te5. 

The state superintendent is auihorized by law ''to issue state certificates of high grade to 
teachers of eminent qualifications." Two grades of these are given, one unlimited, and the 
other good for fi\-e years. The examination is conducted by a board of three examiners, 
ajipointed annually by the state superintendent, and acting under rules and regulations prescribed 
bv him. 


. Teachers' Associations. 

Besides the Wisconsin State Teachers' Association, holding its annual session in the summer 
and a semi-annual or " executive " session in the winter, there are, in several parts of the state, 
county or district associations, holding stated meetin-s. The number of such associations is 
annually increasing. 


The utility of pu'olic libraries a.< a part of the means of popular enlightenment, was early 
recognized in this state. The constitution, as set forth in 1S4S, required that a portion of the 
income of the school fund should be applied to the '"purchase of suitable libraries and appa- 
ratus" for tjie common schools. The same year the legislature of the state, at its first session, 
enacted that as soon as this income should amount to $60,000 a year (afterwards changed to 
$30,000), each town superintendent might devote one tenth of the portion of this income received 
by his town annually, to town library parpo-~es, the libraries thus formed to be distributed amon'^ 
the districts, in sections, and in rotatiua, once in three months. Districts were also empowered 
to raise money for library books. The operation of this discretionary and voluntary system was 
not successful. In ten years (1S5S) only about one third of the districts (1,121) had libraries, 
embracing in al^ but 38,755 volumes, and the state superintendent, Hon. Lyman C. Draper, urged 
upon the legislature a better system, of '■ tou-n libraries," and a state ta.x for their creation and 
maintenance. In 1S57, the legislature enacted that ten per cent, of the yearly income of the 
school fund should be applied to the purchase of town school libraries, and that an annual tax of 
one tenth of one mill should be levied for the same pi:rpo:,e. The law was left incomplete, how- 
ever, and in 1862, before the system had been perfected, the e.xigencies of the civil v/ar led to 
the repeal of the law. and the library fund wiiich had accumulated from the ten per cent, of the 
school fund income, and from the library tax, amounting in all to $.88,784.78, was transferred to 
the general fund. This may be considered a debt to the educational interests of the slate that 
should he rei'.aid. Meanwiiile the single district library system languishes and yearly grows 
weaker. The re-enacting of a town library system, in v.hich local effort and expenditure shall 
be stimulated and supplemented by State aid, has been recommended by the State Teachers' 
Association, and will, it is hoped, be secured, at no distant day, as a part of a complete town 
system of schools and of public education. 

List of State Superintexuents. 

The act creating th.e ofhce was passed at the first bession of the state legislature, in 1S4S. 
The incuiiibents up to tlie present time have been as fulluws : 


Hon. L. Root ._ Three ye.irs — 1349-50-51. 

Hon. A. r. Lr.dJ Two y;ar:,— 1S52-53. 

Hon. H.A. Wii-ht* ..One ye.-ir and live months — 1S54-55. 

Hon. A. C. Barry — Two years and seven months — 1555-56-57. 

Hon. L. C. Draper Two years — 1 355-59. 

Hon. J. L. Plck.irJt .Three years and nine months — 1860-61-62-63. 

Hon. J. G. Mc.Mynii Four years and three months — iS63-64-6£-o6-67. 

Hon. A. J. Craig}-. Two years and si.x months— I S6S-6(>-70. 

Hon. Samuel Failn.vs _ ..'I'hree years and six months — 1870-71-72-73. 

Hon. Edward Searing Four years— i S74-75-76-77. 

Hon. W. C. WhiUord..,. ..Two years— 1^75-79. 

* I)ied, May 29, 1S45. f Resigned, October i, r563. | Died, July 3, 1S70. 


Sketches of Colleges in Wisconsin.* 

Beloit College was founded in iS47,at Beloit, under the auspices of the Congregational and 
Presbyterian churches of Wisconsin and northern Illinois. In 1S4S, Rev. Joseph Emerson and 
Rev. J. J. Bushnell were appointed professors, and in 1S49, Rev. A. L. Chapin was appointed 
president, and has continued such until the present time The institution has had a steady 
growth, has maintained a h!L;h standard of schularDhip and done excellent work, both in its pre- 
paratory and college departments. Two hundred and tliirty-six young men have graduated. 
Its lands and buildings arc valued at $70,000, and its endowments and funds amount to about 

Lawrence University, at Appleton, under the patronage of the Methodist church, was 
organized as a college in 1S50, having lieen an '" institute " or academy for three years previous, 
under the R.ev. W. H. Sampson. The first president was Rev. Edward Cook ; the second, R. 
Z. Mason ; the present one is the Rev. George M. Steele, I >. I). It is open to both sexes, and 
has graduated 130 young men, and 6S young women. It still maintains a preparatory depart- 
ment. It has been an institution of great benefit in a new region of country, in the northeastern 
part of the state. Receiving a liberal donation at the outset from the Hon. Amos A. Lawrence, 
of Boston, it has land antl buildings valued at $47,000, a* Appleton, and funds and endowments 
amounting to $60,000. 

Milton College, an institution under the care of the Seventh Day Baptists, was opened as a 
college in 1S67, having been conducted as an academy since 1S44. Rev. W. C. Whitford, the 
president, was for many years the principal of the academy The institution has done much 
valuable work, particularly in [ueiiaring teachers for our public schools. The college has gradu- 
ated 3S joung men and wonien, having previously graduated 93 academic students. It lias lands, 
buildings and endowments 10 the amount of about $50,000. 

Ripon College, which was known till 1S64 as Brockway College, was organized in 1853, at 
Ripon, and is supported by the Congregational cluirch. Since its re-organization, in 1863,11 has 
'graduated 77 students (of both sexes) in the college courses, and has always maintained a large 
and flourishing preparatory de]>artment. Under its present eflicicnt head, the Rev. E. H. !Mer- 
rell, A. M., it is meeting with continued success. Its jjrojiertv amounts to about $1^5,000. 

Racine College was founded by the Episcopal Church, at Racine, in 1852, under the Rev. 
Roswell Park, D. D., as its first President. It wjs for a long time under the ethcient administra- 
tion of Rev. James De Kovcn, D. I>., now deceased, who was succeeded by Rev. D. Stevens 
Parker. It maintains a large bovs' si hoc'l also, and a preparatory department. It was designed, 
in part, to train young men for the Nashotali Theological Seminary. It has property, including 
five-buildings, to the amount ^>( about 5180.000, and graduated ninety-nine young men. Its 
firincipal work, in which it has had great success, is that of a boys' school, modeled somewhat 
after the English schools. 

The Seminary of St. Francis of Sales, an ecclesiastical school, v.-as estalili.-^hed at St. Fran- 
cis Station, near Milwaukee, chiefly by the combined elTorts of two learned and zealous priests, 
llie Rev. .Michael Heii--. now bishop of I. a Crosse, and tiic Rev. Joseph Salzmann. It was 
opened in January, 1S56. with Rev. M. llei^s as rector, and with 25 students. Rev. Joseph 
alzmann was rector Iroin Seiitember, 1S68. to the time of his death, Januar\' 17. 1S74, since 
which time Rev. C. Wapelhorst has held tile rectorshi[j. The latter is now assisted by twelve 
prolessors, and the students nunilier 267, of whom 105 are theologians, 31 students of philosophy, 
and the rest classical stutlents. 

Pio Xono College is a Rcmian Catholic initilution, at St. Francis Station, in the immediate 
ueighborhocid of the -Seminary of St. Francis. It was t'ounded in i S7 1, by Rev. Joseph Salzmann, 
■* The •taliit';''^ ■" '.!ii? Hiv-^ioii wjr-j ?btai';e! ':: .'.^-•■. ami iri' for lln; orevious vear. 


who was tlie first rector. He was succeeded in 1S74 Ijy the present rector, Rev. Thomas Brue- 
ner, who is assisted by a corp^ ol seven professors. Ilesides the college proper, there is a nor- 
mal department, in which, in addition to the education that qualities for teaching in common and 
higher schools, particular attention is given to church music. There is also, under the same 
management, but in an adjoining building, an institution lor the instruction ot the deaf and dumb. 
The pupils in the latter, both boys and girls, numbering about 30, are taught to speak by sounds, 
and it is said with the best success. 

An institution was organized in 1S65, at Trairie du Chien. tmder the name of Prairie du 
Chien College, and under the care of J. T. Lovcwell, as principal. In the course of two or three 
years it passed into the hands of the Roman Catholic church, and is now known as St. Jolm's 
College. It has so far performed princijially preparatory work. 

Sinsinawa Mound College, a Roman Catholic institution, was founded in 1848, through the 
labors of Father Mazzuchelli, but after doing a successful work, was closed in 1S63, and in 1867 
the St. Clara academy was opened in the same buildings. 

The Northwestern University, which is under the Lutheran church, was organized in 1S65, 
at Watertown, under Rev. August F. Ernst, as president. It has graduated 21 young men, and 
has a preparatory department. Its property is valued at $50,000. 

Galesville University was organized in 1S59, under the patronage of the Methodist church 
at Galesville, in the northwest part of the state. The first president was the Rev. Samuel Fal- 
lows, since state superintendent. It has graduated ten young men ard eight young v.omen, its 
work hitherto having been mostly prcparatorv. It is now under the patronage of tlie Presby- 
terian denomination, with J. W. McLaury, A. M., .^s president. It has property valued at 
§30,000, and an endowment of about ,^50,000. 

Carroll College was established at Waukesha, by the Presbyterian church, in 1S46. Prof. J. 
W. Sterling, now of the state univer.-ity, taught its primary classes that year. Under President 
John .\. Savage, D.D., with an able cor|is of professors, it took a high rank and graduat^jd 
classes; but for several years past it has confined its work principally to academic studies. 
I'nder W. ]^. Rankin, A. M.,the present principal, the school is doing good service. 

\\'ayland University was established as a college, by the Baptists, at Beaver Dam, in 1S54, 
but never performed nuich college work. For three years jjast, it has been working under a new 
charter as an academy and jirejjaratory school, and is now known as ^^"ayland Institute. 

In iS4T,the Protestant Episcopal church established a mission in the wilds of \Vaukesha 
county, and, at an early day, steps ^\■ere taken to establish in connection therewith an institution 
of learning. This was incorporated in 1847, by the name of Nashotah House. In 1852 the 
classical school was located at Racine, and Xasliotah House became distinctively a theological 
seminary. It has an endowment of one jjrolessorshipi, the faculty and students being otherwise 
sustained by voluntar\- contributions. It has a faculty of five professors, with Rev. A. D. 
Cole, IJ.D., as president, buildings pleasantly situated, and has graduated 1S5 theological students. 


Two institutions have been knovii under this designation. The Milwaukee Female College founded in 185;, and ably conducted for several years, under the principalship of Miss Mary 
Mortimer, now deceased. It furnished an advanced grade of secondary instruction. The Wis- 
consin Female College, located at Fox Lake, was first incorporated in 1S55, and re-organized in 
1863. It has never reached a collegiate course, is now known as Fo.k Lake Seminary, and 
admits both sexes. Rev. A. O. Wright, A. M., is tlic present principal. 


Academies anii Seminaries. 

The following institutions of academic grade, are now in operation : Alliion Academy; 
Kenton Academy; Big Foot Academy; Elroy Seminary ; Fox Lake Seminary ; two German and 
English academies in Milwaukee ; JanesviUe Academy; Kemper Hall, Kenosha ; Lake Geneva 
Seminary, Geneva; Lakeside Seminary, Oconomo« oc ; Marshall Academy, Marshall; Merrill 
Institute, Fond du Lac; Milwaukee Academy; Racine Academy; River Falls Institute; 
Rochester Seminary; St. Catherine's Academy, Racine; St. Clara Academy; Sinsinawa 
Mound; St. Mary's Institute, Milwaukee; Sharon Academy; and Wayland Institute, Beaver 
Dam. Similar institutions formerly in operation but suspended or merged in other institu- 
tions, were : Allen's Grove Academy; Appleton Collegiate Institute ; I'.araboo Collegiate Insti- 
tute; Beloit Female Seminary; Beloit Seminary; Brunson Institute, Mount Llope ; Evansville Sem- 
inary ; Janesville Academy (merged in tlie high school); Kilbourn Institute; Lancaster Institute; 
Milton Academy; Platteville Academy ; Southport Academy (Kenoiha); \Vaterloo Academy ; 
^Vaukesha Seminary; Wesleyan Seminary, Eau Claire; and Patch Grove Academy. The 
most important of these were the Milton and Platteville Academics, the former merged in Mil- 
ton College, the latter in the Platteville Normal School. Of the others, several were superseded 
by the establishment of public high schools in the same localities. 


Schools of this character, aiming to furnish what is called a business education, exist in Mil- 
waukee, Janesville, Madison, I.aCrnsse, Green Bay, Ciiiskosh and Fond du Lac. The oldest and 
largest is in Milwaukee, under the care of Prof. R. C. Spencer, and enrolls from two to three 
hundred students annually. 


Bv W. W. D.A-XIELLS. ^LS., Prof, of Chemistrv .a.vd Agriculture at the L'NIvfrsity 


The trend of tlie earliest industries of a countr)-, is the result of the circumstances under 
which those industries are deNeloped. The attention of pioneers is confined to supplying the 
immediate wants of food, shelter, and clothing. Hence, the firs tscttlers of a country are farm- 
ers, miners, trappers, or fishermen, according as tliey can most readily secure the means of pres- 
ent su.-,tcnance for themselves and their f.imilies. In the early hi.^tory of Wisconsin this law is 
Well exemplified. The southern juirt of the state, consisting of alternations of jirairie and tim- 
ber, Mas first Settled by farmers. .Vs tlie country has dcveloi'ed, wealth accumulated, and means 
of transportation liave been I'urnisheJ, tanning ceased to be the sole interest. .Manufactories 
ha\e been built along the rivers, and the mining industry of the southwestern part of the state has 
grown to one of considerable importance. The shore of Lake Michigan was first mainly settled 
tied by fishermen, but the later growth of agriculture a.nd manufictures has nearly overshadowed 
tlie fi>hing interest ; as has the jiroduction of lumber, in the north lialf of the state, eclipsed the 
trapping and fur interests of the first settlers. That the most important industry of Wisconsin 
IS fanning, may be seen from the following statistics C'f the occupation of the peojile as given by 
the I'nited States census. Gut of eacli one hundred inhabitants, vl' all occupations, 68 were 



farmers, in 1840; 52 in 1S50; 54 in 1S60; 55 in 1S70. The rapid growth of the agriculture of 
the slate is illustrated liy the increase in the number of acres of improved land in farms, and in 
the value of farms and of farm implements and machinery, as shown by the following table, com- 
piled from the United States census : 





hl> LANDS. 






' i860 






$ 25,5?S,563 

S 1.641,56s 


Farming, at the present time, is almost entirely confined to the south half of the state, the 
northern half being still largely covered by foiests. A notable exception to this statement is 
found in the counties on the western border, wi;ich are well settled by farmers much farther north. 
The surface of the agricultural portion of the state is for the most part gently undulating, afford- 
ing ready drainage, without being so abruptly broken as to render cultivation difficult. The soil 
is varied in character, and mostly very fertile. The southern portion of the state consists of 
undulating prairies of variable size — the largest being Rock prairie — alternating with oak openings. 
The prairies have the rich alluvial soil so characteristic cf the western prairies, and are easily 
worked. The soil of the "openings" land is usuall_\- a sandy loam, readily tilled, fertile, but not 
as " strong " as soils having more clay. The proportion of timber to prairie increases passing north 
from the southern boundary of the state, and forests of maple, basswood and elm, replace, to 
some extent, the oak lands. la tiiese localities, the soil is more clayey, is strong and fertile, not 
as easily tilled, and not as quickly exhausted as are the mure sandy soils of the oak lands. In 
that portion of the state kn(jwn geologically as the '" driftless " region, the soil is invariably good 
where the surface rock is limestone. In some of the valleys, however, where the lime-rock has 
been removed by erosion, leaving the underlying sandstone as the surface rock, the soil is sandy 
and unproductive, except in those localities where a large amount of alluvial matter has been 
deposited by the streams. The soils of the pine lands of the north of the state, are generally 
sandy and but slightly fertile. However, where ])ine is rejilaced by maple, oak, birch, elm and 
basswood, the soil is "heavier " and very ferule, even to the shores of Lake Superior. 

The same natural coPiditions that make Wisconsin an agricultural stale, determined that 
during its earlier year.s the main interest should lie grain-growing. The fertile prairies covering 
large portions of the southern part of the state but to be plov.-ed and sowed with grain to 
produce an abundant yield. From the raising of cereals tlie ])ioneer farmer could get the 
quickest returns for his labor. Hence in 1S50, two years after its admission to the Union, \V'is- 
consin was the ninth state in order in the ]iroduction of wheat, while in i860 this rank was raised 
to third, Illinois and Indiana only raising more. The true rank of the state is not shown by 
these figures. Were the number of inhabitants and the luimber of acres of land in actual culti- 
vation taken into account in the comparison, the state would stand still higher in rank than is 
here indicated. There is the >ame struggle existence, and tiie same desire for gain the world 
over, and hence the various phases of develo;Lment of the same industry in different civilized 
countries is mainly the result of the widely varying economical conditions imposed up'r^n that 
industry. Land is thoroughly cultivated in F,uroj)e, not because the Euro[jean3 have any 
inherent love for good cultivation, but because tiiere land is scarce and costly, while labor is 
superabundant and cheap. In .-Vnierica, on the other hantl, and especially in the newer states. 


land is abundant and cheap, while labor is scarce and costly. In its productive industries each 
country is alike economical in tlie use of the costly element in production, and more lavish in 
the use of that which is clieaper. Each is alike economically wise in following such a course 
when it is not carried to too great extremes. With each the end sought is the greatest return for 
the expenditure of a given amount of capital. In accordance with this law of economy, the 
early agriculture of Wisconsin was mere land-skimming. Good cultivation of the- soil was never 
thought of. The same land was planted successively to one crop, as long as it yielded enough 
to pay for cultivation. The economical principle above stated was carried to an extreme. Farm- 
ing as then practiced was a quick method of land exhaustion. It was always taking out of the 
purse, and never p'utting in. Xo attention paid to sustaining the soil's fertility. The only 
aim was to secure the largest crop for the smallest outlay of capital, without regard to the future. 
Manures were never u^cd, and such as unavoidably accumulated was regarded as a great nuis- 
ance, often rendering necessary the removal of stables and outbuildings. Straw-stacks were 
invariably burned as the most convenient means of disposing of them. Wheat, the principal 
product, brought a lov.- price, often not more than fifty cents a bushel, and had to be marketed 
by teams at some point from which it could be carried by water, as this was, at an early day, the 
only means of transportation. On account of the sparse settlement of the country, roads were 
poor, and the farmer, after raising and threshing his wheat, had to spend, witli a team, from two 
to five days, marketing the few bushels that a team could draw. So the farmer had every 
obstacle to contend with except cheap and very fertile land, that with the poorest of cultivation 
gave a coniparatiyely abundant yield of grain. liettcr tillage, acconjpanied v,ith the use of 
manures and otlier tVrtilizcrs, would not, upon the virgin soils, have added sufficiently to the 
yield to pay the cost of applying them. ?Ience, to the first farmers of the s\a.te,pDo?- farming was 
the only profitable farming, and consequently the only gaoi/ farming, an agriculturo-economical 
paradox from which tliere was no escape. Notwithstanding the fact that farmers could economi- 
cally follow no other system than that of land-exhaustion, as described, such a course was none 
the less injurious to tlie state, as it was undermining its foundation of future wealth, by destroy- 
ing the fertility of the soil, that upon which the permanent wealth and prosperity of every agri- 
cultural community is first dependent. Besides this e\ il, and together with it, came the habit of 
loose and slovenly farming acquired by pioneers, which continued after tlie conditions making 
that method a necessity had passed away. With the rapid growth of the northwest came better 
home markets and increased facilities for transportatirin to foreign markets, bringing with them 
higher prices for all products of the farm. .\s a consequence of these better conditions, land in 
farms in the state increased rapidly in \alue, from $9-3^ psr acre in 1S50, to §16.61 in 1S60, an 
increase of 62 per cent., while the total number of acres in farms increased during the 
same time from 2.976,65.? a-^res to 7,893,587 acres, or 265 per cent. With this increase in the 
value of Ian !, and the hijhcr prices paid for grain, should have come an imjiroved system of hus- 
bandry which wouhl prevent the soil from deteriorating in fertility. This coidd have been 
acconiiilislicd either by returning to the soil, in manures and fertilizers, those ingre'ients of which 
it was being rapidly drained by continued grain-growing, or by the adoption of a system of mixed 
husbandry, which shotild include the raising of stock and a judiciotis rotation of crops. Such a 
system is sure to come. Indeed, it is now blowh' coming. Great [progress upon the earlier 
methods of farming have already been made. But so radical and thorough a change in the 
habits of any class of [leople as that from the farming df pinneers 10 a rational method that will 
preserve the soil's fertility and pay for the labor it demands, re(]uircs many years tor its full 
accomplishment. It will not even keep pace with changes in those economical conditions which 



favor it. In the rapid settlement of the northwestern states this change has come most rapidly 
with the replacement of the pioneer farmers by immigrants accustomed to better methods of 
culture. In such cases the pioneers usually 'goweat' again, to begin anew their frontier farming 
upon virgin soil, as their peculiar method of cultivation fails to give them a livelihood. In Wis- 
consin as rapid progress is being made in the system of agriculture as, all things considered, 
could reasonably be evpected. This change for the better has been quite rapid for the past ten 
years, and is gaining in velocity and momentum each year. It is partly the result of increased 
intelligence relating to farming, and partly the 'result of necessity caused by the unprofitableness 
of the old method. 

The estimated value of all agricultural products of the state, including that of orchards, 
market gardens, and betterments, was, in 1S70, as given in the census of that year, §79,072,967, 
which places Wisconsin twelfth in rank among the agricultural states of the Union. In 1S75, 
according to the " Report of the Commissioner of .Vgriculture," the value of the principal farm 
crops in this state was $53-957. 050. According to this estimation the state ranks ninth in agri- 
cultu'^al importance. As been before stated, Wisconsin is essentially a grain-growing state. 
This interest has been the principal one, not because the soil is better adapted to grain-growing 
than to general, stock, or dairy farming, but rather because this course, which was at ?.n early 
day most immediatel}- jirofuable, has been since persistently followed from force of habit, even 
after it had failed to be remunerative. 

The following table shows the bushels of the different grains raised in the state for the years 
indicated : 








lS;o. .. 







1.325. 2'.I4 


1. 955. 97-3 






707. .307 







From these statistics it will be seen that the increase in the production of grain was very 
rapid up to 1870, while since that time it has been very slight. This rapid increase in grain 
raising is first attributable to the ease with which this branch of farming was carried on upon the 
ne«- and very rich soils of the state, wiiile in the older states this branch of husbandry has been 
growing more difticult and expensive, and also to the fact that the war in our own country so 
increased the demand for grain from tS6i to 1S66 as to make this course the most immediately 
profitable. But with the close of the war came a diminished demand. Farmers were slow to 
recogni/.e this fact, and change t!ie character of their pnjductions to accord with the wants of 
the market, but rather continued to produce the cereals in excess of th.j demand. The chinch 
bug and an occasional poor season seriously injured the crops, lea\ ing those who relied princi- 
pally upon the production of grain little or nothing for ilieir support. Hard times resulted from 
these poor crops. More wheat and corn was the farmer's usual remedy for hard times. So that 
more wlieat and corn were planted. .More crop failures with Knv prices brought harder times, 
until gradually the larmers of the state have opened their eyes to the truth that they can succeed 
in other branches of agriculture than grain growing, and to the necessity of catering to the 

*E3timated in report of commissioner of agriculture. 


demands of the market. The value in 1S69 of all farm products and betterments of the state 
was §79,072,967. There were raised of wheat the same year 25,606,344 bushels, which at $1.03 
per bushel, the mean price reported by the Milwaukee board of trade, for No. 2 wheal (the lead- 
ing grade), for the year ending July 31, 1S70, amounts to §26,374,524, or one third the value of 
all agricultural products and betterments. The average production per acre, as estimated by tlie 
commissioner of agriculture, was 14 bushels. Hence there were 1,829,024 acres of land devoted to 
this one cro[), nearly one third of all the improved land in the state. ()f the wheat crop of 1S69 
'4-375-435 bushels were spring wheat, and 1,230,909 bushels were winter wheat, which is 19. S 
bushels of spring to i bushel of winter wheat. The latter is scarcely sown at all on the jirairies, 
or upon light opening soils. In some of the timbered regions hard}" varieties do well, but it is 
not a certain crop, as it is not alile to withstand the winters, unless covered by snow or litter. It 
is not injured as seriously by the hard freezing, as by the alternate freezing and thawing of Feb- ' 
ruary and March. 

The continued cropping of land with grain is a certain means of exhausting the soil of the 
phosphates, and of those nitrogenous compounds that are essential to the production of grain, and 
yet are present even in the most fertile soils in but small quantities. To the diminished yield, 
partly attributable to the overcropping of the land, and partiall} to poor seasons and chinch bu^^a 
and to the decline in prices soon al'ter the war, owing to an over ])roduction of wheat, may Iar<'ely 
be attributed the hard times experienced by the grain growing farmers of Wisconsin from 1S72 to 
1S77. The continued raising of wheat upon the same land, alternated, if any alternation 
occurred, with barley, oats, or corn, has produced its sure results. The lesson has cost the 
farmers of the state dearly, but it has not been altogether lost. A better condition of affairs has 
already begun. \Vheat is gradually losing its prestige as the farmers' sole dependence, while 
stock, dairy, and mixed farming are rapidly increasing. The number -of busliels of wheat 
raised to each inhabitant in the state was in 1S50 fourteen, in 1S60 twenty-three and ei^ht tenths, 
m !.'^7o twenty-four, and in 1S75 twenty and four tenths. These figures do not indicate a dimin- 
ished productiveness of the state, but show, with the greatly increased production in other 
branches of husbandry, that farmers are changing their system to one more di\er3ified and 
rational. Straw stacks are no longer burned, and manure heaps are not looked upon as altogether 
useless. Much more attention is now paid to the use of fertilizers. Clover with plaster is looked 
upon with constantly increasing favor, and there is a greater seeking for light upon the more 
difficult problems of a profitable agriculture 

Corn is raised to a large extent, although Wisconsin has never ranked as high in corn, as in 
wheat growing. sixteen states raided more corn in 1870 than this state, and in 187s, seventeen 
states raised Corn requires a rich, moist soil, with a long extended season of warm sun- 
shine. While lliis crop can be raised with great ease in the larger portion of t!ie state, it will 
always succeed better farther south, both on account of the longer summers and the trreater 
amount of rainfall. According to the statistics of the commissioner of agriculture, tiie a'verat^'e 
yield per acre for a period of ten years, is about 30 bushels. Corn is an important crop in the 
economy of the farmer, as from it he obtains much fi.od for his stock, and it is his principal 
dependence for fattening pork. Op. the^e accounts it will, without doulit, retain its place in the 
hus!>andry of the state, even when stock and dairy farming are followed to a much greater extent 
than at present. Harley is cultivated largely tliroaghout the state, but five states produced more 
in 1S70, than Wisconsin. The great quantit\- Lif beer brewed here, furni.-hes a -ood home market 
for this grain. IJarley succeeds best in . a ratlier moist climate, h.iving a long -rowin- season. 
The dry, short summers of Wisconsin, are not Well ad.ipted to its growth. Hence the avera 'e 


yield is but a iiicdium one, and the quality of the grain is only fair. According to the returns 
furnished the commissioner of agriculture, the average yield for a period of ten years, is 22 
bushels per acre. 

Next to wheat, more bushels of oats are raised than of any other grain. Wisconsin was, in 
i860, fifth in rank among the oat-growing states ; in 1S70, si.xth. The rich soils of the state 
raise an abundant crop of oats with but little labor, and hence tlieir growth in larc'e quantities is 
not necessarily an indication of good husbandry. They will bear poor cultivation better than 
corn, and are frequently grown uixsn land too weedy to produce that grain. It is a favorite 
grain for feeding, especially to horses. With the best farmers, oats are looked upon with less 
favor than corn, liecause it is apt to leave land well seeded with weeds which are difficult to 
exterminate. In the production of rye, Wisconsin ranked seventh in 1860, and fourth in iS-o, 
It is a much surer crop in this state than winter wheat, as it is le-,s easily winter-killed when not 
protected by snow, than is that grain. Besides, it ripens so earh as not to be seriously injured 
by drouth in summer, and succeeds well even upon the poorer boils. The average yield per acre 
is about 16 bushels. 

But few hoiis were grown in Wisconsin, up to 1S60, when owing to an increased demand bv 
the breweries f the state, tliere was a gradual but healthful increase in hop culture. A feu- 
years later the advent of the hop lou:,e, and other causes of failure at the east, so raised the price 
of hops as to m;ike them a very profitable croj) to grow. Many acres v.-ere planted in this state 
from i86j to 1S65, when the total product was valued at nearly $350,000. The success of those 
engaged in thi, new branch of farming, encouraged others to adopt it. The profits were lar-e. 
Wheat growing h. id not for several years been remunerative, and in 1867 and 1S6S, the " hop 
fever " became an epidemic, almost a plague. The crop of Sauk county alone was estimated at 
over 4,000,000 pounds, worth over >;2,ooo,ooo. The quality of the crop was excellent, the yield 
Lirge, and the price unusually high. The secretary of the Slate Agricultural society says, in his 
report for that year, " Cases are numerous in which tlie first crop has paid for the land and all 
the improvements." To many fanners hop raising aiipeared to offer a sure and speedy course to 
_ wealth. But a chauue came ([uickly. The hop louse ruined the crop, and low prices caused by 
over production, aided in bringing ruin to many farmers. In 1S67, the price of hops was front 
40 to 55 cents per pound, while in 1S69 it was from 10 to 15 cents, some of pnor quality selling 
as low as 3 cents. Many hop yards were [ih. wed up during 1869 and 1870. T'he area under 
cultivation to this crop in 1S75, was, according to the " Report of the Secretary of State," 10,9-2 
' acres. 

The production of tobacco has greatly increased since 1S60, when there were raised in the 
state 87,340 pound-,. In 1870, the product was 960,813 pounds. As is well known, the quality 
of tobacco grown in the northern states is greatly inferior for chewing and smoking, to that -rown 
in the south, althuugli varieties having a large, tougti leaf, suitable for cigar wrappers, do" well 
here. The variety principally grown is the Connecticut seed le.if Tobacco can only be grown 
successfully on rich, fertile soiU, and it is very exhausting to the land. Of the amount produced 
in 1870, there were raided in Rock county 645.408 pound-,, an.l in Dane < ounty, 229.56S pounds; 
the entire remaining portion . f the state raised but 85.737 jiound-;. According to the report of 
the secretary of stale, the wh-ile number of acres planted to tobacco in 1S75, was 3,296. Of this 
amount Rock county planted i,C7<- acres, and Dane county, 1,454 .icres, leaving for the remain- 
der of the state bv.t 106 acres. Wl-.ile the cm;, h;!. been fairly productive and profitable, these 
statistics show that up to the present nine tobac. o-raising has been a merely local interest. 

The production of fiax is another merely local industry, it being confined principally to the 


countips of Kenosha, Grant, Iowa and I.aFayette. Of flax fibre, Kenosha county raised in 1869, 
nearly four fiftiis of the entire amount grown in the state, the total being 497,398 pounds. With 
the high price of labor and the low price of cotton now ruling, it is scarcely possible to make the 
raising of flax fibre profitable. Flax seed is raised to a small extent in the other counties men- 
tioned. The present [irice of oil makes this a fairly profitable crop. If farmers fully appreciated 
that in addition to the oil, the oil cake is of great value as a food for cattle and sheep, and also 
that the manure made by the animals eating it, is of three times the value of made by ani- 
mals fed upon corn, doubtless much more flax seed would be raised than is at present. Ameri- 
can oil-cake finds a rt;ady market in England, at prices which [lay well for its exportation. If 
English farnlcr^ can afford to carry food for their stock so far, American farmers may well strive 
to ascertain if ihcy can afford to allow the ex[)ortation of so valuable food. When greater atten- 
tion is paid ill our own country ti:j tlie quality of the manure made by our stock, more oil-cake 
will be fed at home, and a much smaller proiiortion of that made here will be exported. 

The amount of maple sugar produced diminishes as the settlement of the state increases, 
and is now scarcely sufficient in amount to be an item in the state's productions. The increase 
in the price of sugar from 1S61 to 1S6S caused many farmers to try sorghum raising. But the 
present low ])rices of this staple has caused an abandonment of the enterprise. Two attempts 
have been made in Wisconsin to manufacture beet-root sugar, the first at Fond du Lac in 1S67 
tlie second at Tlack Hawk, Sauk county, in 1S70. The Fond du Lac company removed their 
works to California in 1S69, not having been successful in their efl'orts. The Black Hawk com- 
]iany made, in 1S71, more than 134,000 pounds of sugar, but ha\e since abandoned the business. 
Both these failures may be attributed to several causes, first of v.hich was the want of sufficient 
capital to build and carry on a factory sufficiently large to enable the work to be done economi- 
cally ; secondly, the difficulty of sufficiently interesting farmers in the business to induce them 
to raise beets on so large a scale as to v/arrantthe building of such a factory; and, thirdly, the high 
price ot labor and the low price of sugar. The quality of beets raised was good, the polarization 
test showing in many instances as high as sixteen per cent, of sugar. The larger proDortion of 
hay made in the state is from tlie natural meadows, the low lands or marshes, where wild grasses 
grow in abundance, and hay only costs the cutting and curing. Cultivated grasses do well 
throughout the state, and " tame hay " can be made as easily here as elsewhere The limestone 
soils, where timber originallv grew, are of the ujiiands, most natural to grass, and, consequently, 
furnish the richest meadows, and yield the best pasturage. Ye e only soils where grasses do 
not readily grow, are those which are so sandv and dr\' as to be nearly barrens. Clover grows 
throughout the state in the greatest luxuriance. There is occasionally a season so drv as to make 
seeding down " a failure, and u[)on light soils clover, when not covered with snow, is apt to ■win- 
ter-kill. Yet it is gaining in favor with farmers, botli on account of the valuable pasturage and 
hay it affords, and on account of its \-alue as a soil renovatur. In wheat-gro\\ ing regions, clo\ er 
i^ now recognized to be of the greatest value in a "' rotation," on account of its ameliorating 
inlluence Ujion the soil. Throughout the stocV; and dairy regions, clover is depended upon to a 
large extent for pasturage, and to a less extent for hay. 

There has been a growing interest in stock r.iising for the past ten years, although the 
increase has not been a rajiid one. Many of the h.erds of pure-blood cattle in the state rank 
high t"or their great excellence. The imiirovement i.if horses has been less rapid than that of cattle, 
sheep, and swine; yet this important branch of stock farming is improving each year. The most 
attention is given to the inipro\ement of drauglit and farin horses, while roadsters and fast horses 
are not altogether neglected. There are now owned in the state a large number of horses of the 
heavier English and French breeds, which are imparting to their i)rogeny their own characteristics 


of excellence, the effects of which are already visible in many of the older regions of the state. 
Of the different breeds of cattle, the Short-horns, the Ayrshires, the Devons, and the Jerseys are 
well represented. The Short-horns have met with most favor with the general farmer, the grades 
of this breed being large, and possessing in a high degree the quiet habits and readiness to fat- 
ten, so characteristic of the full-bloods. Without doubt, the grade Short-horns will continue in 
the high favor in which they are now held, as stock-raising becomes a more important branch of 
the husbandry of the state. Of pure blood Short-liorus there are inan_\- lierdb, some of which 
are of the very highest excellence. .-Vt the public sales of herds from this state, tlie prices 
have ranked high universally, and in a few cases have reached the highest of "fancy" prices, 
showing the estimate jilaced by professional breeders upon the herds of Wisconsin. The Ayr- 
shires are increasing in numbers, and are held in high esteem by many dairymen. They are not 
yet, however, as generally disseminated over the state, as their great merit as a milking breed 
would warrant. The rapid growth of the dairy interest will doubtless increase their numbers 
greatly, at least as grades, in the dairying region. Of [lure bred Devons and Jerseys, there are 
fewer than of the former breeds. The Litter are principally kept in towns and cities to furnish 
milk for a single family. The I'ullowing table shows the relative imijortance of stock raising in 
the state for the years mentioned. The figures are an additional proof to those already given, 
that the grain industry has held sway in 'Wisconsin to the detriment of oilier branches of farming, 
as well as to tlie state's s-rcatest increase in wealth. 




WHOI.i; NfM- 

f.y.K OF NEAT 


922. QOO 





124,896 I 

33=.954 I 

i,of'g.2S2 I 

1.I62.S0O I 

EACil 100 



WOOL Pl;0- 






* K^tim.ited in report of commissioner o^ agriculture. 

The growth and present condition ot sheep husbandry, compare much more favorably with 
the general development of the state th.on does that of cattle raising. In a large degree this 
mav be accounted for by the impetus gi\en to wool raising during our civil war by the scarcity- 
of cotton, and the necessary substitution to a great extent, of woolen fur cotton goods. This 
great demand for wool for manufacturing piur|'0ses jjroduced a rapid rise in the price of this 
staple, making its production a very piufitable branch of farming, ^\'ith the close of the war 
came a lessened demand, and consequently lower prices. Yet at no time has the price of wool 
fallen below that at which it could be profitably produced. This is the more notably true when 
the value of sheep in keeping up the fertility and productiveness of land, is taken into account. 
The foregoing table shows tile improvement in this branch of husbandry since 1S50 

Although many more siiefp might profitably be kept in the stale, the abo\'e llgures show that 
the w<)ol interest is fairly developed and the average weight of fleece is an assurance of more 
than ordinarily good stock. The tlne-w ooled sheep and cheir grades predominate, although 
there are in the state .seine excellent stock of long-wools — mostly Cotswold — and of South- 

Of all tlie agricultural interests of the state, no other has made as rapid growth during the 
List ten years, as tliat of d.iirving. \\ith the failure of hop-growing, began the growth zf 
the I'actory system of batter and cheese making, and the downfall of the one was scarcely more 
rapid than has been the u[>building of the other. The following statistics of the production of 
butter and cheese illustrate this rapid progress. It will be remembered that for the years 1S50, 



iS6o, and 1870 the statistics are from the U. S. census, and hence include all the butter and 
cheese made in the state, while for the rcinaining years, only that made by factories and pro- 
fessional dairymen as reported to the secretary of the State Dairymen's Association, is included 
It has been found impossible to obtain the statistics of batter, except for the census years. 








I.IO4.31X) ■ 

: 3,000.000 




1S70 - 

1=74 - 

I?75-- - 


The quality of Wisconsin dairy products is excellent, as may be judged by the fact that, at 
the Centennial Exhibition, AVisconsin cheese received twcrity awards, a larger number than was 
given to any other state except NeNv York, and for butter AVisconsin received fi\e awards. No 
state received more, and only New York and Illinois received as manv. Wisconsin received one 
award for each fourteen cheeses on exhibition No other state received so large a proportion. 
New York received the largest number of awards, \lz., twenty-one, but only secured one award 
for each thirty cheeses on exhibition. The number of cheese and butter factories is increasing 
eich year, and there is being made in the better grazing regions of the state, as rapid a transition 
from grain to dairy-farming as is consistent with a healthful growth. This interest, which is now 
iin important one in the state's industrial economy, has before it a promising future, both in its 
own development, and in its indirect influence ujion the improvement of the agriculture of the 

The history of the earlier attempts in fruit raising in Wisconsin would be little more than a 
record of failures. 1'he pioneers planted apple, peach, plum, and cherry trees, but they gathered 
little or no fruit. As v,as natural, they planted those varieties that were known to do well in the 
older states of the same latitude. Little was known of the climate, and there was no apparent 
reason why those varieties should not do well here. The first orchards died The same varie- 
ties were replanted, and again the orchards died. Gradually, through the costly school of 
experience, it was learned that the climate was different from that of the eastern states, and that 
to succeed here varieties of fruit must be such as were adapted to the peculiar climate of this 
state. These peculiarities ate hot, and for the most part, dry summers, cold and dry winters. 
The dryness of tiie climate has been tlie greatest obstacle to success, as this is indirectly the cause 
of the great extremes of temperature experienced here. The summers are ot'ten so drv that the 
growth of tlie treca is not completed, and the wood sufficiently well ripened to enable it to with- 
stand the rigors of winter. And the clear, dry atmospliere of winter allows the sun's rays to 
pass through it so unobstructcdly as to warm tiie body of the tree upon the sunny side, above 
the freezing point, even though the temperature of the air is much lower. Tiie alternate thawing 
and freezing rujjtures the tender cells connecting the bark and wood, producing a complete sepa- 
ration of these parts, and of:en besides bursts the bark. The >ei>aration of bark and wood 
destroys the circulation of the sap upon that side of the tree, thus enfeebling the entire 
plant. The tree is not able to form new bark over the ruptured part, and a diseased spot 
results. Such a plant makes but a feeble growth of poorly ripened wood, and soon dies 


altogether. Besides the above cause, the extreme cold weather occasionally experienced will kill 
healthy trees of all varieties not extremely hardy. Notwithstanding these natural obstacles, a 
good degree of success has been attained in the raising of apples and grapes. This success has 
been the result of persevering effort upon the part of the horticulturists of the state, who have 
sought the causes of failure in order that they might be removed or avoided. It is thus by intel- 
ligent observation that the fruit growers have gained the experience which brings with it a 
creditable success. The first requisite to success is the planting of varieties sufficiently hardy 
to withstand our severe winters. Tiiis has been accorn[ilibIied by selecting the hardiest of the 
old varieties, and by raising seedlings, having besides hardiness, qualities sufficiently valuable to 
make them worthy of cultivation. The second requisite to success is in the selection of a situa- 
tion having suitable soil and exposure, and thirdly, proper care after planting. Among the 
hardy varieties of apples regarded with greatest favor are Tetofski, Red Astrachan, and Duchess 
of Oldenberg, all Russian varieties, and Fameuse from Canada. Besides these there are a few 
American varieties so hardy as to prove reliable in the south half of the state. Among these 
are a few seedlings that have originated in Wisconsin. .\]iple trees arc less apt to be injured by 
the winter upon a site sloijing to the northeast or norili, where they arc less directly exposed to 
the rays of the winter's sun. Higli ground is much better than low, and a good, stron-, not too 
rich soil is best. .\pples do better upon soils where timber originally grew than on the [jrairies, 
and they are grown more easily along the border of Lake Michigan than in the interior of the 
state. Pears are raised to but a slight extent, as only a few of the hardiest varieties will succeed 
at all, and these only in favorable situations. Grapes are grown in great abundance, and in 
great perfection, although not of the more tender varieties. The Concord, on account of its 
hardiness and excellent bearing qualities, is cultivated mo-,t generally. Xext to this comes the 
Delaware, while many other varieties, both excellent and prolific, are raised with great ease. The 
season is seldom too short to ripen the fruit well, and the only precaution necessary to protect 
the vines during the winter is a covering of earth or litter. Cranberries grow spontaneously 
upon many marshes in the interior of the state. Within a few ) ears considerable attention has 
been given to imjiroving these marshes, and to the cultivation of this most excellent fruit. 
Doubtless within a fe-.v years the cranlierry crop wiil be au important one among the fruit pro- 
ductions of the state. .Ml of the small fruits adapted to this latitude are cultivated in abundance, 
and very successfully, the yield being often times exceedingly large, .\hogether, the horticul- 
tural interests of the state are improving, and there is a bright prospect that in the near future 
fruit growing will not be looked upon with the distavor witli which it has been regarded here- 

Of the associations for advancing the agricultural interests of the state, the first organized 
was the "State Agricultur.d Society." Tiie earliest efforts to establisli such an organization were 
made at Madison in December, 1S46, daring the session of the first constitutional convention of 
the territory. A constitution was adopted, but nothing further was done. In February, 1849^ 
anotlicr meeting was held in Madison, at wiiich it wa< '' Resolved, That in view of tr.e great 
importamrc of agriculture in the west, it is expedient to form a state agricultural society in 
\\'isconsin." Another constitution was adopted, and officers were elected, but no effectual 
organi.'cation resulted from this second attempt. The " Wisconsin State Agricultural Society" — 
the jiresent organization — had its inception in a nteeting held at Madison, Marcli S, 1S51, at 
wiiich a cominittee v. as ajjpointed to report a constituti'in and by-!aus, and to nominate persons 
to fill the various otttces ot said society. .\t its organization, tile society was composed of annual 
nienibevs, who paid one (.itillar dues each }'ear, and of life members, who, Uf'on the payment of 
ten dollars, were exempt from the annu.d contribution. The annual membership was afterward 


abolished, and in 1S69 the fee constituting one a life member was raised to twenty dollars. The 
first annual fair of the society was held in J.ines\ille, in October, 185 1 Fairs have been held 
annually since, except during the years iS6i, 1S62 and 1S63. In 1S51 premiums were paid to 
the amount of only Si 40, while at the present time they amount to nearly C;io,ooo. In 1S51 
there were five life members. .-Vt the present time there are over seven hundred, representing all 
the vaiious industries of the state. T lie fairs held under the auspices of this society have been 
of excellent character, and liave been fruitful of good to all the industries of the state, but more 
especially to the farmers. The state has been generous in aid of this society, having furnished 
commodious rooms for its use in the capitui building, prmtcd the annual report of the secretary, 
a volume of about 500 pages, and donated annually, lor many years, $2,000 toward its support. 
Besides its annual fairs, for tlie past five years there has been held an annual convention, under 
the auspices of this society, for the reading and discussing of papers upon topics of interest to 
farmers, and for a interchange of ideas relating to farming. These conventions are held 
in high esteem by the better class of farmers, and have added greatly to the usefulness of the 
society. The " Wisconsin State Horticultural Society" was originally tlie '' ^\'isconsin State 
Fruit Growers' .Association," which was organized in December, 1853, at \\'hiteu-ater. Its 
avowed object was "tlie collecting, arranging, and disseminatingfacts interesting to those engaged 
in the culture uf fruits, and to embody for their use the results of the practice and experiments 
of fruit growers in all parts of the state." Exhibitions and conventions of the association were 
held annually up to 1S60, after which the society was disorganized, owing to the breaking out of 
the war of the rebellion A volume of " Transactions " was published by the association in 
1S55. In 1S59 its transactions were published with those of the state agricultural society. From 
1S60 to 1S65 no state horticultural association was in existence. In September of the latter 
year the '' Wisconsin Fruit Growers' Association " was reorganized as the "'Wisconsin State Hor- 
ticultural Society.'' The legislature had [neviously provided for t!ie publication of the i)roceeding3 
of such a society, in connection with those of the State Agricultural Society. The new society has 
held annual exhibitions, usually in connection with those of the State Agricultural Society, and 
annual conventions for the reading of papers upon, and the discussion of, horticultural subjects. In 
1S71 an act was])assed by the legislature incorporating the society, and providing for the separate 
printing of 2,000 copies annually of its transactions, of which there are now seven volumes. The 
most active, intelligent, and persevering of the horticulturists of the state are members of this 
association, and to their careful observation, to their enthtisiasm and determined persistence in 
seeking means to overcome great natural difficulties, the state is largely indebted for the success 
already attained m liorticulture. Besides these state associations, there are many local agricul- 
tural and horticultural societies, all of which have been iiset'ul in aiding the cause for which they 
were organized. Farmeis' clubs and granges of the "Patrons of Husbandry" have also 
done much, both directly and indirectiv, to promote the industrial interests of the state. By thei- 
frequent meetings, at winch discussions are held, views com[iared, and ex[ieriencei related, much 
valuable intelligence is gained, thought is stimulated, and the jjrofession of farming ad\anced. 
As agriculture, like all kindred professions, depends upon intelligence to direct its advancement, 
all means intended to stimulate thought among farmers will, if wisely directed, :ud in ad\'ancing 
tliis most comi>lex of all industries. To those above namtd, and to other like associations, 
is in a large degree to be attributed the present fa\orable condition of the agriculture of 
the state. 

Wisconsin is yet, con'paratively, a new State. It mainly settled by men who had little 
moneyed cajntal. Markets were distant, and means of transportation poor. The early settlers had 
coiisequcntly to struggle fiir a li\eliliood in the face of the greatest difficulties. When these opposing 


circumstances are taken into account, and the improvement in methods of culture, and changes 
from grain to stock and dairy-farming that are now being made, are given their due weight, it 
must be acknowledged that the present condition of the agriculture of the state is excellen\ and 
that the future of this most important industry is rich in promise of a steady, healthful growth, 
toward a completer development of all the agricultural resources of the state. 


By ROLAXD I>. JRVIXG, Pro:e>sir of Gfology, etc., at the Universitv of 


The useful mineial materials that occur within the limits of the state of Wisconsin, come 
under both of the two grand classes of such substances : the mclaHic o/rs, from which the 
metals ordinarily used in the arts are extracted ; and the n.^n-r/tctallic subslajiccs, whicii are used in 
the arts for the most part \vitliout any preliminary treatment, or at least undergo only a very 
partial alteration before being utilized. Of the first class are found in Wisconsin the ores of 
Icail, zinc, iron and cot-pcr, besides minute traces of the precious metals; of the second class, the 
principal substances fiund are bricl;-cl.z\. kaoiiii^ceiK;nt-ro,:k,!imestonc for burning into qiiick-lime, 
limestone for f.ux, glass sand, peat and piti/dirg stone. 


These metals are considered together because they are found occurring together in the same 
'region and under exactly the same circumstances, being even obtained from the same openings. 
Lead has for many years been the mo-t important metallic production of Wisconsin, and, together 
with zinc, whose ores have been utilized only since ib6o, still holds this prominent position, 
although the production is not so great as formerly. Small quantities of lead and zinc ores have 
been found in the crystalline (.Vrch.'ean) rocks of the northern part of the state and in the cojjper- 
bearing rocks of the Lake Sufierior country, but there are no indications at present that these 
regions will ever produce in quantity. .\11 of the lead and zinc obtained in Wisconsin comes 
then from that jjortion of the southwestern part of the state whicli lies west of Sugar river and 
south of tlie nearly east and west ride,e that forms the southern side of the valle}' of the Wis- 
consin, from the hcail of Sugar river westward. Tliis district is commonly known in Wisconsin 
as the "Lead Region,'' and forms the larger part of tlie "Lead Region of the Upper ^Missis- 
sippi." which includes also smaller portions of Iowa and Illinois. 

^\'ilat European first became acquainted with the deposits of lead in the up]ier portion of 
valley nf the Mississippi is a matter of sume doubt. Charlevoi.\ (Mistoire de la Nou\elle France, 
I^I' 397- 3')'^-) ■I"''''"'*'-'"' ''"^ discovery to NicisLis Perrot, about 1692 ; and states that in ryci 
the deposits still bore Perrot's name. Perr.)r himscll", however, in the only one of his writings 
that remains, m, ikes no mention of the matter. The itiaei.iry of Le Sueur's voyage up the 
Mississippi, 1700-1 701, given in La Harpe's History of Louisiana, wir.cli was written early in 
the 1 8th century, shows that the former fuuud lead on the banks of the Mississippi, not tar from 

ii iXF.i; A r, ]u;s( >i • rces. 


the i>resent southern boundary of Wisconsin, August 23, 1700. Captiia Johathan Carver, 
1766, found lead in abundance at the Blue Mounds, and found the Indians in all the country 
arn\ind in possession of masses of galena, which they had obtained as '' flcjjt mineral," and 
which they were incapable of putting to any use. There is no evidence of any one minin" 
before Julien Dubuque, who, 17SS to 1S09, mined in the vicinity of the flourishing city wiiich 
now bears his name. After his death in 1S09 nothing more was done until 1S21, when the 
attention of American citizens was first drawn to the rich lead deposits of this region. By 1S27, 
the mining had become quite general and lias continued to the 'present time, the maximum 
production having been reached, however, between the years 1S45 and 1S47. 

The fallowing talile, ])repared by the late Moses Strong, shows tlie mineral production of 
southwestern Wisconsin for the years 1S60 to 1S73 in pounds: 





320.000 1 
260,000 j 

I,I2fl,000 j 
7.373.333 ' 



















13. 01.',, 210 
14,029, lr)'3 

Until within the last decade the lead mines of the Mississippi valley, including now both 
the " Upper" and the " Lower " regions — tlie latter one of wliich lies wholly within the limits of 
the state of Missouri — liave far eclipsed the rest of the United States in the production of lead, 
the district being in fa'-t one of the important of the lead districts in the world. Of late 
years, however, these mines are far surp.issed in production by the " silver- lead " mines of Utah 
and other Rocky Motint.iiii regions, which, though worked especially for their siher, jiroduce 
incidentally a very large amount of lend. Nevertheless, the mines of the i^Iississippi valley will 
long continue to be a very important source of this metal. The lead ore of the Wisconsin lead 
region is of one kind only, the sulphide known as _!,'-i:/cv/i7, ox t^a/i'm'ti. 'I'his ore, when free from 
mechanically mingled impurities, contains 86.6 per cent, of lead, the balance being sulphur. 
Small quantities of other lead ores are occasionally found \n the uppermost portions of the deposits, 
having been produced by the oxidi/'ing influence of the atmosphere. The chief one of these 
o.^idation products is the earthy carbonate known as cc-'-!:su/r\ Galena almost always contains 
some silver, commonly enough to pay lor its extraction. The Wisconsin galenas, however, are 
unusually free from silver, of which they contain only the merest trace. 

The zinc ores are of two kiiuK, the mo.--t abundant being the ferruginous sulphide, or the 
"black-jack " of the tniners The pure sulphide, -i//ir,.' /;•///<■, contains 67 per cent, of zinc, but the 
iron-bearing variety, known m!nerallogic;illy as marinaliU, generally contains 10 per cent, or 
more of iron. A ferrugi.ioas variety of the carbonate, sinithsonitc, also occurs in abundance, and 
is known to the miners as "dry-bone," the name being suggested by the peculiar structure of the 

Both lead and zinc ores occur in limited deposits in a scries of limestone beds belonging to 
the Lower Silurian series. The lead region is underlaid by a nearly horiitiintal series of strata, 
witli .ui aggregate thickness of 2,000 t'eet, which lie upon an irregular of ancient crystal- 
line rocks (gneiss, granite, etc.). 'I'he names and order of succession of the several strata are 
indicated in the following scheme, the last named beinj the lowest in the series : 


Fo'iiiiition, Thukntss. 

Niagara dolomitic limestone 300 — 3'X) feet. 

Cincinnati sliaie.'. ., 60 — ich> " 

( Galena doloiuitic liineitone 250 — 275 " 

Lead Horizon - Blue lin-.c5tone_ _. _. 50 — 75 " 

' Bufi'dolomitic limestone . 15^ 20 " 

Lower Ma.jnesian (doloaaitic) liniestoi\e . . 25(^ " 

Potsdam saad^Lone series Soc) — louo " 

' The first two of tliesc layers, in the Wisconsin pnrt of the lead iey:ion, are met with onlv in a 
few isolated peaks and ridges. The prevailing surface rock is tlie Galena limeatone, through 
which, however, the nninerous streams cut in deej) and narrow valleys which not uni'requentlv 
are carved all the w.iy into the Lower Magnesian.. 

The lead and zinc ores are entirely confined to tlie Galena, Bltte and Buff limestones, an 
aggregate vertical thickness of some 350 to 375 feet. 'I'he upper and lower strata of the series 
are entirely barren. Zinc and lead (jres are found in tire same kind of deposits, and often 
together; by far the larger part of the zinc ores, hov.'cver, come from the Blue and Buff limestones, 
and the lowest layer= of the (Jalcna, whdst the lead ores, though obtained throughout the whole 
thickness of tlie mining ground, are especially abundant in the middle and upper Liyers of the 
Galena beds. 

The ore deposits are of two general kinds, winch may be distinguished as vertical crevices 
and llat crevices, the former being much the mi)-.t < oniinoii. The simplest form of the vertical 
crevice is a narrow crack in the rock, having a width of a few inches, an extension laterally trom 
a few yards t<j scN'er.d hundred feet, .md a vertical iir-iirht of 20 to 40 feet, thinning out to noth- 
ing in all direction.^, and tilled from side to >!de with liighly crystalline, brilliant, large-surfaced 
galena, which has no accompanying metallu. mineral, or gangue matter. Occasionally the vertical 
extension e.xceetls a luindred feet, and sometimes a number of thcrjc sheets are clo=e together 
and can be mined as one. Much more ciMnmonly the vertical crevice shows expan- 
sions, which .ire sometiines large ca\'es, or o^ening■^ in certain layers, the crevice between retain- 
ing its normal character, while in other cases the e.\pan.-,ion affects the whole cre\ii-e, occasion- 
ally widening it througiiout into one l.trge opening. These openings are rarely entirely filled, 
and commonly contain a loose, disintegrated rock, in which the galena lies loose in large masses, 
though often adhering to the side■^ of the cavity in large stalactites, or in cuLiical cryst.ils. The 
Vertical crevices show a veiy distinct arrangement with one another, there being two 
systems, which ruughly trend east and we^t, and r.rirtii and south. The east and west crevices are 
far the iiKist abundant .md most productive of ore. 'I'he vertical crevices are confined ne.irly 
altogi.-ther to the upper .md mid.dle portions of the (.'.ileii.i, and .ire not productive of zinc ores. 
'Iiie> are evidently meiely the'l joint crack-> wiiich at'fect evers gieat rock formati(.)n, filled 
by cliemical action with the lead ore. The crevico with openings have evidentl)' bern enlarged 
l)y tile solvent power of .ilmospheric w.Uer c.irr\"ing < arbonic acid, and from tlie way in wiiich the 
ore oci:urs loose in the cavities, it is eviilent thai this solving action has often been subsequent 
to the first deposition of lead ore in the crevic e. 

'I'he " fiat crevii e>." '" tlat sheets," and '■ openings," are analogous to tiie deposits just 
de^ci ilied, but have, .Is indic.ited b)' the names, a horizontal position, being char.u tei istic of 
certain lasers, which h.ive evidentlv been more su-,>.eptible to chemical actitm than others, the 
dissolving water.-^ iiaviiig, moreover, been rlirected .lioiig them by le>s pervious layers .ibove and 
below. The openings differ from the vertical crevices also, in h.iving associated with the 

MTXERAL i;»orKrEs. 165 

galena much of either the black-jack or dry-bone zinc ores, or both, the galena not unfrequently 
being entirely wanting. Cleavable calcite also accompanies the ore:, in these openings in large 
riuaiitities, and tlie same is true of the sulphide of iron, which i. the variety known as marcasite. 
These materials have sometimes a symmetrica' arrangement on the bottom and top of the open- 
ing, the central portion being empt\-. The flat o[)enings characteri/.e the Blue and IJuff and 
lower Galena beds, and from tiicm nearly all the zinc ore is obtained. 

It is not pos-,it)le, in the limits of this short papei, even to mention the various mining 
districts. It may mereb' be said that the amount of galena raised from single crevices has often 
been several hundred thousand, or even over a million pounds, and that one of the principal 
mining districts is in tiie vicinity of Mineral I'oint, where there are two furnaces constantly 
engaged in smelting. Between the years 1S62 and 1S73, these two ctablishments have produced 
23,903,260 pounds of metallic lead, or an average of 1,991,938 pounds, the ma.ximum being, in 
1S69, 2,532,710 pounds, tire mii;iuiuin, in 1S73, 1,518,888 pounds. 

The zinc ores were formerly rejected as useless, and have only been utili/.ed since 1S60. An 
attempt to smelt them at Mineral Point was not successful, because the amount neciled of fuel 
and clav, l)oth of which have to come from a distance, e.xceeding even the amount of ore used, 
caused a very heavy expense fur transportation. The ores are therefore now taken altogether to 
LaSalle, Illinois, where they meet the fuel and c'l.n-, and the industry at that place has become 
a flourishing one. The amount of zinc ore in the Wisconsin lead region is, beyond doubt, very 
great, and will be a source of wealth for a king time to come. 

Since the ores of zinc and lead in this region are confined to such a small thickness of strata 
greatly eroded by the atmospheric waters, the entire thickness having frequently been removed,, 
it becomes a matter of great importance to know how much of the mining ground remains at 
every point throughout the district. The very excellent topographico-geological maps of the 
region, made by Mr. Moses Strong, and since published by the State in the Report of the 
Geological Survey, make this knowledge accessible to all. 


Iron mining in Wisconsin is yet in its infancy, although some important deposits are 
producing a considerable quantity of ore. A number of blast furnaces have sprung up in the 
eastern pare of the state, but these smelt Michigan ores almost entirely. Much remains yet to 
be done in the vvay of exploration, for llie most promising iron fields are in the heavily timbered 
and unsettled regions of the north part of the state, and are as yet imperfectly known. It 
ajipears [irobable. however, that iron ores will, in the near future, be t!ie most important mineral 
production of \Vi.,consin. The several ores will be noted in the order of their praent im- 

Rf.d Hfm.atitf.s. 

The iron in these ores exists as an anhyilrous sesquioxide, wliich is, however, in an earthy 
condition, and entirely witiiout tlie brilliant inet.dlic luster that ch.iracteri/.es the specular hema- 
tites. Pure hematite contains seventy per cent, of metallic iron, but the red hematites, as mined, 
are always so largely mingled witii mechanical impurities that the) r.irel) contain more than fifry 
per cent. The most important red hematite mined in Wisconsin i^ known as the Clinton iron 
oir, the name coming from the t'ormation in whicl; l!ie ore occurs. This formation is a member 
of the Upper Silurian series, and is named from a locality in Oneida county, Xew Wjrk, wliere it 
was first recognized. Associated with its rocks, which are limestones and sh.des, is con- 
stantly found a peculiar red hem.itite, which is so iierr,i.-,tent in its characters, both [ihysical and 


and chemical, that one familiar with it from any one locality can hardly fail to recognize it when 
coming from others. The iron produceJ from it is always "cold-short," on account of the large 
content of phosphorus; jjut, mingled with siliceous ores free from phosphorus, it yields always 
a most excellent foundry iron. It is mined at numerous points from New York to Tennessee, 
and at some points reaches a very great total thickness. In Wisconsin the Clinton rocks merge 
into the great Niagara limestone series of the eastern part of the state, but at the bottom of the 
series, in a few places, the Clinton ore i- found immediately overlying the Cincinnati shales. The 
most im[iortant 1 jcality is tliat kiiOwn as Iron Ridge, on sections twelve and thirteen in the town 
of Hubbard, in Dodge county. Here a north-and-^outh ledge of Niagara limestone overlooks lower 
land to the west Underneath, at the I'oot of the ridge, is the ore bed, fifteen to eighteen feet in 
thickness, consisting of horizontally bedded ore, in layers three to fourteen inches thick. The 
ore has a concretionary structure, being composed of lenticular graiu>, one twenty-fifth of an inch 
in diameter, but the top layer is without this structure, having a dark purplish color, and in places 
a slight metallic appearance. Much of the lower ore is somewhat hydrated. Three quarters of 
a mile north of Iron Ridge, at Mayville, there is a total thickness of as much as forty feet. 
According to Mr. E. T. Sweet, the percentages of the several constituents of the Iron Ridge ore 
are as follows: iron peroxide, 66,3.'^; carbonate of lin.e, 10.42; carbonate of magnesia, 2.79; 
silica, -1..7 2 ; alumiria, 5.54 ; manganese o.xide, 0.44 ; sulphur, 0.23 ; phosphoric acid, 0.73; water, 
8.7s =^ too: metallic iron, 46.66. 

Two small charcoal furnaces at Mayville and Iron Ridge smelt a considerable quantity of 
these ores alone, producing an iron very rich in phosphorus. An analysis of the Mayville pig 
iron, also by Mr. Sweet, shows the following composition: iron, q;.7S4 per cent; phosphorus, 
1.675 : carbon, 0.S49; silicon, o. loS = 100.286. l"lie average furnace yield of the ore is forty- 
five per cent. By far the larger part of the ore, however, is sent awa}' to mingle with other ores. 
It goes to Chicago, Joliet and Springfield, 111., St. Louis, Mo., Wyandotte and Jackson, Mich., 
and Appleton, Green Bay and Milwaukee, Wis. In 1S72, the Iron Ridge mines yielded 82,371 
tons. 'I'he Clinton ore is found at other places farther nortli along the outcrop of the base of 
the Niagara formation in \\''isconsin , but no one of these appears to promise any great quantity 
of good ore. Red hematite is found ai numerous places in \Visconsi;i, highly charging certain 
layers of the Potsdam sandstone series, the lowest one of the hori.^ontal ^Visconsin formations. 
In the eastern part of the town of W'estficld, Sauk county, the iron ore excludes the sandstone, 
forming an excellent ore. No developments have been made in this district, so that the size of 
the deposit is not definitely known. 

Brow.v Hematites. 

These ores contain their iron as the hydrated, or brown, sesqiiioxide, which, when pure, 
has about sixty per cent, of the metal; tlie ordinary brov.-n hem.itites, however, seldom 
c<;ntain over forty per cent. Bo^ iron ore, a porous brown hem.itite that forms by deposi- 
tion from the water of bogs, occurs somewhat widely scattered underneath the large marshes of 
Portage, Wood and Juneau counties. Very excellent bog ore, containing nearly 50 per cent, of 
iron, is found near Necedah, Juneau county, and near Grand Rapids, Wood county, but the 
amount obtainable is not definitely known. The Necedah ore contains: silica, S. 52 ; alumina, 
377; uon [leroxide, 71.40; manganese oxide, 0.27; lime, 0.58; magnesia, trace; phosphoric 
acid, 0.21; sulpliur, 0.02; organic matter, 1.62; water, 13.46—99.85, metallic iron, 49. 98 — 
according to Mr. V,. T. Sweet's analysis. \n ore from section 34, tw[). 23, range 6 east, Wood 
county, yielded, U< Mr. Oliver Matthews, silica, 4. Si ; alumina, i.od; iron peroxide, 73.23 ; lime, 
o. II, magnesia, 0.25; sulj.ihuric acid, 0.07 ; phosphoric acid, o. 10 ; organic matter, 5. 83; water, 

MiXEKAi. ];ix>T'i:rES. 167 

14.24; =99.69: metallic iron, 5i.::6. 

Brown hematite, mingled with more or less red ore, occurs also in some quantity filling cracks 
and irregular cavities in certain portions of the Potsdam series in northwestern Sauk county and 
the adjoining portion of Richland. A small charcoal furnace has been in operation on this ore 
at Ironton, Sauk county, for a number of years, and recently another one has been erected at 
Cazenovia in the same district. 

Magneiic Ores and Specular He.matites. 

These are taken together here, because their geological occurrence is the same, the two ores 
occurring not only in the same group of rocks, but even intimately mingled with one another. 
These ores are not now produced in Wisconsin ; but it is quite probable that they may before 
many years become its principal mineral production. In magnetic iron ore, the iron is in the 
shape of the mineral mai;netite, an oxide of iron containing 72 4 per cent of iron when pure, and 
this is the highest percentage of iron that any ore can ever have. Specular hematite is the same 
as red hematite, but is crystalline, has a bri^jht, metallic luster, and a considerable hardness. As 
mined the richest magnetic and specular ores rarely run over 65 per cent., while in most regions 
where they are mined they commonly do not reach 50 per cent. The amount of rich ores of this 
kind in the northern peninsula of .Michigan is so great, however, that an ore with less than 50 per 
cent, finds no sale; and the same must be true in the adjoining states. So largely does this mat- 
ter of richness aftect the value of an ore, that an owner of a mine of 4.^ per cent. " hard " ore in Wis- 
consin would cheaper to import and smelt Michigan 65 per cent, ore, than to smelt his own, 
even if his furnace and mine were side bv side. 

The specular and magnetic ores of Wisconsin occur in two districts — the Penokee iron dis- 
trict, ten to twenty miles south of Take Superior, in Bayfield, Ashland and Lincoln counties, and 
the Menomonee iron district, near the head waters of the Menomonee river, in tov.-nship 40, 
ranges 17 and iS east, Oconto county. Specular iron in veins and nests is found in small quan- 
tities with the quartz rocks of t!ie Karaboo valley, Sauk county, and Xecedah, Juneau county; 
and very large quantities of a peciiliar quartz-schist, charged with more or less of the magnetic 
and specular iron oxides, occur in the vicinity of Elack River Falls, Jackson county ; but in none 
of these places is there anv promise of the existence of valuable ore. 

In the Penokee and Menomonee regions, the iron ores occur in a series of slaty and 
quartzose rocks known to geologists as the Haronian series. The rocks of these districts are 
really the extensions westward of a great rock series, which in the northern Michigan peninsula 
contains the rich iron ores that have made that region so famous. In position, this rock series 
may be likened to a aireat elongated parabola, the head of which is in the Marquette iron district 
and the two ends in the Penokee and Menomonee regions of Wisconsin. In all of its extent, this 
rock series holds great beds of lean magnetic and specular ores. These contain large quantities 
of t[uart/., which, from its great hardness, renders them very resistant to the action of atmospheric 
erosion. As a result, these lean ores are found forming high and bold ridges. Such ridges of 
lean ores have deceived many explorers, and not a few geologists. In the same rock series, for 
the most part occujiying portions of a higher layer, are found, however, ores of extraordinary 
richness and purity, wiiich, from their comparative softness, very rarely outcrop. The existence 
in quantity of these very rich ores in the Menomonee region has been definitely proven. One 
de[)Osit, laid open during the Summer of 1S77, shows a width of over 150 feet of first class 
specular ore; and cxreeding in si.'.e the greatest of the famous deposits of Michigan. In the 
Penokee region, however, thougli the indications are favorable, the existence of the richer 
ores is as yet an inference only. The Penokee range itself is a wonderful development of 


lean ore, which forms a continuous belt several hundred feet in width and over thirty miles in 
length. Occasionally portions of this belt are richer than the rest, and become almost merchant- 
able ores. The probability is, however, that the rich ores of this region will be found in the 
lower country immediately north of the Penokee range, where the rocks are buried beneath 
heavy accumulations of drift material. 


The only cop[>er ore at present raised in A\'isi;onsin is obtained near Mineral Point, in the 
lead region of the southwestern part of the state, where small quantities of (r/;(7/r(7/vr;V^, the yellow 
sulphide of cop{ier and iron, are obtained from pockets and limited crevices in the Galena lime- 
stone. Copper pyrites is known tu occur in this way throughout the lead region, but it does not 
appear that the (piantity at any point is sufficient to warrant exploration. 

Copper occurs also in the northernmost portions of Wisconsin; where it is found under alto- 
gether different circumstances. The great copper-bearing series of rocks of Keweenaw point and 
Isle Rovale stretch southwestward into and entirelv across the state of Wisconsin, in two parallel 
belts. One of these belts enters Wi-sconsin at the mouth of the Montreal river, and immediately 
leaving the shore of Lake Si. pt-rior, crosses .Vshland and ISayfield counties, and then widening 
greatly, occupies a large area in Douglas, St. Croix, Ilarron and Chippewa counties. The other 
belt forms the backbone of the Bayfield peninsnl.t, and crosses the northern part of Douglas 
count) , forming a bold ridge, to the Minnesnta line. The rocks of this great series appear to 
be for the most part of igneous origin, but they are distinctly b'edded, and even interstratified 
with sandstone, shales, and coarse boulder-conglomerate, the whole series having generally a 
tilted position. In veins crossing the rock-beds, and scattered also promiscuously through the 
layers of both conglomerates and igneous rocks, pure metallic copper in fine flakes is often 
found. Mining on a small scale has been attemi)ted at numbers of points where the rivers 
flowing northward into Lake Superior make gnrgcs across the rock series, but at none of them 
has sufficient work been done to prove or disprove the existence of copper in paying quantity. 

GOLIi .\Mi SiLVF.k. 

Small traces of gold have been detected by the writer in quartz from tlie crystalline rocks 
of Clark county, but tliere is no probability that ar.y quantity of tliis metal « ill ( ver be found in 
the state. Traces of silver have aLo been found in certain layers of the copper series in Ash- 
land county. Judging from tlte occurrence of sil'.er in the same series not t'ar to the east in 
Michigan, it seems not improltable that this metal may be found also in Wisconsin. 

liRn-R Ci...\vs. 

These consti'.ute a very important resource in \V'isconsin. Extending inland for many miles 
fiom the shore--, of Lakes Micingan and Suncrior are stratified beds of clay of lacustrine origin, 
h.i\ing been deposited by the lakes when greatl_\- expanded be\ond their pre.-,ent sizes. All of 
tliese clays are characterized b) the presence of a large amount of carljonate of lime. Along 
Lik.- Saperior tiiey have not yjt been utilized, but all througii the beh of country bordering 
L.ike .Michigan they are dug and binned, fully 50,000,000 bricks being made annually in this 
region. .\ Large projiortion of these bricks are white or cream-colored, and these are widely 
known under the n.ime of " Milwaukee brick," though by no means altogether made at Mil- 
waukee. Others arc ordinary red brick. 'i'he difference between the light-colored and red 
bricks is ordinal ily attriiuited to the greater amount of iron in the clay from whic h the latter are 



burned, but it has been shown by Mr. E. T Sweet that the white bricks are burned from clay 
which often contains more iron than that from which the red bricks are made, but which also 
contains a very large amont of carbonate of lime. The following analyses show (i) the compo- 
sition of the clay from wliich cream-colored brick are burned at JNIilwaukee, (2) the composition 
of a red-brick clay from near Madison, and (3) the composition of the unutilized clay from 
Ashland, Lake Superior. Xos. i and 2 are by ^[r. E. T. Sweet, No. 3 by Professor W. W. 
Daniells : 









1. 16 



0.31 1 
.03 j 



1 Potash 




1 54 

2 16 

1 SoJa.. . 

Iron peroxide 

Iron proto.\iJe.-. 

Water .. . 



j Totals 

\ 4-09 


99 S 5 



.•\t Milwaukee 24,000,000 cream-colored brick are made annually; at Racine, 3,500,000; at 
.A.ppleton and Mcnaslia, i,Soo,ooo each; at Xeenah, 1,600,000; at Clifton, 1,700,000; at Wat- 
erloo, 1,600,000; and in smaller quantities at Jefferson, Ft. .\tkinson, Edgerton, Whitewater, 
Geneva, Ozaukee, Sheboygan Falls, Manitou-oc, Keivaunce, and other places. In most cases the 
cream-colored brjcks are made from a bright-red clay, although occasionally the clay is light- 
colored. .'Vt Whitewater and other places tile and pottery are also made from this clay. 

Although these lacustrine clavs are much the most im].iortant in Wisconsin, excellent brick 
clays are also found in the interior of the state. In numbers of places along the Yahara valley, 
in Dane coimty, an e.xcellent stratified clay occurs. .-\.t Madison this is burned to a red brick ; at 
Stoiighton and Oregon to a fine cream-colored brick. .At Platteville, Lancaster, and other points 
in the southwestern part of the state, red bricks are made from clays found in the vicinity. 

Kaolin (Porcei-.ain -Cl.w — Firk - Cl.w). 

The word "kaolin.'' is ajjplied by geologists to a clay-like material which is used in making 
chinaware in this country and in Euroj-ie. Tiie word is of Chinese origin, and is applied by the 
Chinese to the substance from which the famous porcelain of China is made. Its application to 
the European porcelain-c/<7r was made under the mistaken idea — one which has prevailed among 
scientists until very recentiv — that the Ciiinese material is the same as the European. This we 
now know to be an error, the Chinese and Japanese wares being both made altogether from a 
solid rock. 

True kaolin, using the word in its European sense, is unlike other ordinary clays, in being 
the result of the disintegration of t'elspathic crystalline rock> '"in, " tint is without being 
removed from tlie place of its first formation. The base of kaolin is a mineral known as J:aL>/!/!!/c; a 
compound of silica, alutnina and water, which results from a change or decay of the felspar of 
felspar-bearing rocks. Felspar contains silica, alumina, and soda or jiotash, or both. ]-!y ])erco- 
latitm through the rocks of surface water carrvirig carbonic acid, the potash and soda are 
removed and kaolinite results. Mingled with the kaolinite are, however, always the otiier ingre- 
dients of the rock, rpiartz, mica, etc., and aLo always some umiecumiiosed, or only partly decom- 
posed felspar. These foreign ingredients can all, however, he more or less perfectly removed by 
a system of levigation, when a pure white clay results, composed almost wholly of the scales of 


IIISTOUY OF Aviscoxsrx. 

the mineral kaoHnite. Prepared in this way the kaolin has a liigh value as a refractory material, 
and for forming the base of fine porcelain wares. 

The crystalline rocks, which, by decomposition, would produce a kaolin, are widely spread 
over the northern part of Wisconsin ; but over the most of the region occupied by them there is no 
sign of the existence of kaolin, the softened rock having apparently been removed by glacial 
action. In a belt of co\intry, however, which extends from Grand Rapids on the Wisconsin, 
westward to Rlack river, in Jjckson count)-, tlie dr;'"t is insignificant or entirely absent; the glacial 
forces have not acted, and the crystalline rocks are, or once were, overlaid by sandstone, along 
whose line of junction v.-ith the underlying for:]iai.ion numerous water-courses have existed, the' 
result being an unusual amount of disintegration. Here we find, in the beds of the Wisconsin, 
Yellow, and Rlack rivers, large exposures of crystalline rocks, which between the rivers 
are overlaid by sandstone. The crystaUine rocks are in distinct layers, tilted at higii angles, 
and in numerous jjlaces decomposed into a soft white kaolin. Inasmucli as tiiese layers 
strike across the country m long, straight lines, patches of kaolin are found ran'^in" 
themselves into similar lines. The kaolin patches are most abundant on the Wisconsin 
in the vicinity of the city of Grand Rapids, in Wood county. They vary greatl)- in size, 
one deposit even varying from a fraction of an inch to a number of feet in thickness. 
The kaolin varies, also, greatly in ch.i.racter, some being quite imj)ure and easily fusible 
from a large content of iron oxide or from partial decomposition only, while much of it is very 
pure and refractory. There is no doubt, however, that a large amount of kaolin exists in this 
region, and that by selection and levigation an excellent material maybe obtained, which, by 
mingling with powdered quartz, may be made to yield a fire-brick of unusual refractoriness, and 
which may eveii be employed in making fine porcelain ware. 

The following table gives the composition of the raw clay, the fine clay obtained from it by 
levigation, and the coarse residue from the same operation, the sample having been taken from 
the opening on tlie land of Mr. C. B. Garrison, section 5, town 22, range 6 east, U'ood counl\- ; 

R.\W CL.^Y. 





riNK ci..\v. 


KKSinUE. , 







36 So 



2 0? J 


O.C,fj 1 
0. 1 1 








Iron peroxide 

Carl)Oixic .Vcid 









Cemen'1 - Rock. 

Certain layers of the Lower Magnesian limestone, as at Ripon, and other points in the east- 
ern part (.f the state, are known to produce a lime which has in some degree the hydraulic 
property, and the s.tme is true of certain layers of the R-lue limestone of the Trenton group, in 
the southwestern part of tiic state; the most valuable material of this kind, however, that is as yet 
known to exist in Wisconsin, is found near Milwaukee, and has become very recently somewhat 
widely known as the " Milwaukee" cement-rock. This rock belongs to the Hamilton formation, 
and i-s found near the Washington street bridge, at Brown Deer, on the lake shore at ^Vhitefish 



bay, and at other points in the immediate vicinity of Milwaukee. The quantity attainable is 
large, and a very elaborate series of tests by D. J. Whittemore, chief engineer of the Milwau- 
kee and St. Paul railroad, shows that tlie cement made from it exceeds all native and foreign 
cements in strength, except the famous English " Portland " cement. The following are 
three analyses of the rock from different points, and they show that it has a very constant 
composition ; 




Carbonate of Lime 

Carbonate of Magnesia 


3- 4'' 
17 S'J 

3 "-""S 


29. 10 








Totals _ 


93. 6S 



Quick-lime is made from all of the great limestone formations of Wisconsin, but more is 
burnt from the Lower Magnesian and Niagara formations, than from the others. The Lower 
Magnesian yields a very strong mortar, but the lime burned from it is not very white. It is burned 
largely in the region about ^^adison, one of the largest quarries being on the south line of section 
33 of that town, wlicie some 20,000 bushels are produced annually, in two kilns. The lime trom 
this place has a considerable local reputation under the name of " NLadison lime." The Trenton 
limestone is burned at a few points, but yields an inferior lime. The Galena is not \-ery generally 
burned, but yields a better lime than the Trenton. In the region about Watertown and White- 
water, some 40,000 to 50,000 barrels are made annually from this forni.uion. 

The Niagara, however, is the great lime furnisher of the northwest. From its purity it is 
adapted to the making of a most admirable lime. It is burned on a large scale at numbers of 
points in the eastern part of the state, among which may be mentioned, Pellon's kilns, Pewau- 
kee, where 12,000 barrels are made weekly and shipped to Chicago, Grand Haven, Des Moines, 
etc.; and Holick & Son's kilns, Racine, which yield 60,000 to 75,000 barrels annually. A total 
ot about 400,000 barrels is annually made from the Niagara formation in eastern Wisconsin. 


The limestones of AVisconsin are rarely used as a fiux, because of their prevalent magnesian 
character. The stone from Schoonmaker'^ quarry, near Milwaukee, is used at the Bay View 
iron works, and is one of the few cases. There are ceitain layers, however, in the Trenton lime- 
stone, widely spread over the soatliern part of the state, which are non-magnesian, and frequently 
sufficiently free from earthy impuriiies tu be used as a il.ix. Fhese layers deserve the attention 
of the irori masters uf the state. 

Glass Sand. 

Mucli (if the St. Peter's sandstone is a purely siliceous, loo^e, white sand, well adapted to 
the making of elass. It is now being iHit to this u:,e at points in the eastern part of the state. 



Peat exists in large quantities and of good quality underneath the numerous marshes of the 
eastern and contra! [larts of the state. Whether it can be utilized in the future as a fuel, will 
depend altogether u[ion the cost of its preparation, which will have to be ver)^ low in order that 
it may compete with superior fuels. As a fertilizer, peat has always a great value, and requires 
no -'reliininarv treatment. 

BuiLLiiNG Stones. 

All the rocky formations of Wisconsin are used In building, and even the briefest synopsis 
of the subject of the building stones of the state, would exceed the limits of this paper. A few 
of the more prominent kinds only are mentioned. 

Granite occurs in protruding masses, and also grading into gneiss, in the northern portions 
of the state, at nv.uieious points. In many places ou the Wisconsin, Yellow, and Pilack rivers, 
and especially at Big Dull Falls, Yellow river, red granites of extraordinary beauty and value 
occur. These are not yet utilized, but will in the I'ature have a high value. 

The handsomest and must valuable sandalone found in Wisconsin, is that v.-hich extends 
along the shore of Lake Superior, from the Michigan to the ^Minnesota line, and which forms the 
basement rock of the .\postle islands. On one of these island? a very large quarry is opened, 
from which are taken masses of almost any size, of a very clo3e-grai:ied, uniform, dark brown 
stone, which has been shipped largely to Chicago and Milwaukee. At the latter place, the well 
known court house is Iniilt of this stone. An equally good stone can be obtained from the neigh- 
boring ishiTids, and from points on the mainland. A very good white to brown, indurated sand- 
stone is obtained from the middle [lortior.s of the Potsdam series, at Stevens Point, Portage 
county; near.CJrand Rapids, ^\'oo^! county; at hUack River Falls, Jackson county; at Packwau- 
kee, ^^arquette county; near A\"automa, Waur,l'iar.i county; anci at several points in the Baraboo 
valley, Sauk county. A good buft'-colored. calcareous sandstone is quarried and used largely in 
the vicinity of Madison, front the uppermost layers of the Potsdam series. 

All of the limestone formations of the state are quarried for building stone. A layer known 
locally as the " Mcndota " limestone, included in the upper layers of the Potsdam series, yields a 
very evenly bedded, yellow, fine-grained rock, which is largely quarried along the valley of the 
h'vser Wisconsin, and also in the countr\' about .Madison. In the town of ^^'estport, Dane 
county, a handsome, fine-grained, cream-colored limestone is obtained from the Lower Magne- 
sian. The Trenton limestone } ields an evenly bedded, thin stone, which is frequently used for 
Fixing in wall. The Galena and Niagara are also utilized, and tlte latter is capable, in much of 
the eastern p.irt of the state, of furnishing a durable, easily dressed, compact, v.hite stone. 

In jireparing this pap'er, J have made use of Professor Whitney's '' Metallic AVealth of the 
United States," and '' Report on the Geology of the Lead Region;" of the advance sheets of 
Aoluine II of the Reports of tlie Si.ite Geological Survey, including Professor T. C. Chamberlin's 
Re|jort on the Geology of Eastern Wisconsin, my own Report on the Geology- of Central Wisconsin, 
a: il Mr. Strong's Report on the Cieology of the Lead Region ; Mr. F. T. Sweet's account of the 
ni!ne.''al exhiljit of the state at the Centennial Exposition; .md of my ur.published reports on the 
geoSogy of the counties bordering Lake Superior. 


Bv Hon. H. II. GILES. 

The territory of Wisconsin offered great advantages to emigrants. Explorers had published 
accounts of the wonderful fertility of its soil, the wealth of its broad prairies and forest openings, 
and the beauty of its lakes and rivers. lieing reached t'rom the older states by way of the lakes 
and easily accessible by a long line of lake coast, the hardships incident to weeks of land travel 
were avoided. Previous to 1S36 but few settlements had been made in that part of the 
then territory of Michigan, that year organized into the territory of Wisconsin, e.\(:e]it 
as mining camps in tlie southwestern part, and scattered settlers in th.e vicinity of the 
trading [losts and military stations. From that time on, with the hope of impro\ ing their condi- 
tion, thousands of the enterprising yeommry of Xew England, New York and Ohio started for 
the land of promise. Germans, Scandinavian? and other nationalities, attracted by the glowing 
accounts Sent abroad, crossed tlie ocean on their way to the new world; steamers and sail-crat't 
'I'len with families and their household goods left Buffalo and other lake ports, all bound f^r 
the new Eldorado. It may be doubted if in the history of the world any country was ever peo- 
■•i\cd with tlie rapidity of southern and eastern Wisconsin. Its population in 1S40 was 30,749; 
in 1.S50, 30.^,756 ; in 1S60. 773.693; in 1S70, 1,051,351; in 1S75, 1,236,729. With the develop- 
ment of the agricultural of the new territory, grain raising became the most prominent 
interest, and as the settlemeiits extended back from the lake shore the difficulties of transporta- 
tion of tlie products of the soil were seriously felt. The expense incurred in moving a load of 
produce seventy or eighty miles to a market town on the lake shore frequently exceeded the gross 
sum obtained for the same. .\11 good:., wares and merchandise, and most of the lumber used 
must also be liauled by teams from Lake Michigan. Many of our early settlers still retain 
vivid recollections of trying exjieriences in the Milwaukee v.-oods and other sections bordering 
on the lake shore, from the south line of the state to Manitowoc and Sheboygan. To meet the 
great want — better facilities t'or transportation — a valuable land grant was obtained t'rom 
Congress, in 1S3S, to aid in building a canal from Milwaukee to Rock river The company which 
n'as organized to construct it, built a dam across Milwaukee river and a short section of the canal; 
then the work stopped and the plan was finally abandoned. It was early seen that to satisfy tlie 
requirements iif the people, railroads, as the inost feasable means of eouuuuLiicauon wuiuu 
their reach, were an indisj^ensable necessity. 

Chic.vgo, Mii.w..\i-KEi-. ,.>v: St. r.\ui. R..\.ii.w.\y. 

Between the years 1S3S anil r.*^4i, the territorial legislature of Wisconsin rhartered several 
railroad rouipanies, Imt with the exception of the "Milwaukee & Waukesha Railroad Company,' 
ineorporated in 1S47, none of the corporations thus created took any particular shape. The 
commissioTiers n.imed in its charter met November 2;^. I'U?. -ind elected a president, Dr. L. W. 
Weeks, and a serret.iry, .\ W. Rand.ill .(al'terward governor of Wisconsin). On the first Moaday 
of Febraary. 1S4S, they opened books of subscription. The ciiarter of the compan)' provided 


that §100,000 should be subscribed and five percent, tliereof paid in before the company should 
fully organize as a corporation. The country was new. There were plenty of active, energetic 
men, but money to build railroads was scarce, and not until .\pril 5, iS.}9, was the necessary 
subscription raised and percentage paid. .\ board of directors was elected on thu loth day of 
^^ay, and Byron Kilbourn chosen president. The charter had been previously amended, in 1848, 
authorizing the company to build a road to the Mississippi river, in Grant county, and in 1S50, 
its name was changed to the " Mihraukee & Mississi[i;)i Railroad Company." After the company 
was fully organized, active measures were taken to [iush the enterprise forward to completion. 
The city of Milwaukee loaned its credit, and in 1S51 the pioneer Wisconsin railroad reached 
W.uikesha, twenty miles out from Milwaukee. In the spring of 1^^:^, Edward H. Broadhead, a 
[)rominent engineer, from from the state of New \'ork, was put in charge of the work as chief 
engineer and superintendent. Under his able and energetic administration the road was pushed 
forward in 1S52 to Milton, in 1S53 to Stoughton, in 1S54 to Madison, and in 1S56 to the Mis- 
sissippi river, at I'rairie du Chien. In KS51 John Catlin of Madison, was elected president 
in place of Kilbourn. 

llie proposed length of this article will nol admit of any detailed statement of the trials, 
struggles and triumphs of the uk-u who projected, and finally carried across the state, from the 
lake to the river, this first \\''isconsin railroad. .Milchcll, Kilbourn, Holton, Tweedy, Catlin, 
Walker, Broadhead, Crocker and many odiers, deserve to be remembered by our people as bene- 
factors of the state. In 1S59 and iSflo, the company defaulted in the payment of the interest on 
its bonds. .\ foreclo-surc was made and a new com])any, called the " Milwaukee & Prairie du 
Chien," took its place, succeeding to all its rights and firoperty. 

The "Southern \Visconsin Railway Company" was chartered in 1S52, and authorized to build 
a road from .Milton to the Mississippi river. When tiie .Milwaukee and Mississippi road reached 
Milton in 1S53, it was not authorized by its charter to go to Janesville, but, under the charter of 
the Southern Wisconsin, a company was organized that built the eight miles to Janesville in 1853. 
Under a subsequent amendment to the charter, the Milwaukee and Mississippi company was 
autliorized to build from .Milton to the Mississippi river. The Janesville branch was then 
[lurchased and extended to .Mtjnrue, a distance of about thirty-four miles, or forty-two miles west 
of Milton Surveys were made and a line located west of Monroe to tlie river. The people of 
La Fayette and Grant counties ha\e often been encouraged to e.xpect a direct railroad communi- 
cation with the city of Milwaukee. Other and more important interests, at least so considered 
by the railroad conijiany, have delayed the e.xecution of the original plan, and the road through 
the counties mentioned still remains iip.built. 

The " LaCrojse iV .Milwaukee Railroad Com[ia:i_\- " was chartered in 1S52, to construct a road 
from LaCrosse to .Milwaukee. During the year in which the charter was obtained, the company 
was organized, and the first meeting o'i the commissioners held at LaCrosse. .\mong its pro- 
jectors were Byron Kilbourn and Mo^cs M. Strong. Kilbourn was elected its first president. 
X'l work was done upon tliis line until after its consolidation with the '" Milwaukee, Fond du Lac 
\' ("iieen Bay Raiiroaii Company" in 1.^54. 'I'he iatter company v,-as chartered in 1S53, to build a 
ro:ul from .Mihvaukee ::\z West Bend to Fund da Lac and Green B.iy. It organized in the spring of 
I '^^53, and at once commenced active operations under the supervision of J.imes Kneeland, its 
nr:,t president. The city of Milwaukee loaned its credit for §200,000, and gave citv bonds. The 
( i-nipany secured depot grounds in Mihvaukee, ami did consuler.ible grading for the tlrst twenty- 
ir.e miles out. Heeoining emljarra^seii in J,i:iii.ir_\ , 1X54, the Milw.uikee, Fond dii Lac & Green 
Bay c ■(! with th.e I.aCto>,e ^; .Milwaukee company. Work was at once resumed on 
the parliallv graded line. In 1S55 the \v,is completed to Horicon, fifty miles. 


The Milwaukee & Watertown company was chartered in 1S51, to build from Milwaukee to 
Watertown. It soon organized, and began the construction of its line from Brookfield, fourteen 
miles west of Milwaukee, and a point on the Milwaukee & Mississippi road leading through 
Oconomoivoc to ^N'atertown. The charter contained a provision that the company might extend 
its road by way of Portage to La Crosse. It reached Watertown in 1S56, and was consolidated 
with the LaCroise & Milwaukee road in the autumn of the same year. 

In the spring of 1S56 congress made a grant of land to the state of Wisconsin, to aid in the 
building of a railroad from Madison, or Columbus, ~jia Portage City, to the St. Croix river or 
lake, between townships 25 and 31. and from thence to the west end of Lake Superior, and to 
Bayfield. An adjourned session of the Wisconsin legislature met on September 3 of that year, 
to dispose of the grant. The disposal of this grant had been generally discussed by the press, 
and the public sentiment of the state seemed to tend toward its bestowal upon a new company. 
There is little doubt but that this was also the sentiment of a large majority of tlie members of 
both houses when the session commenced. When a new comp^n}- was proposed a joint com- 
mittee of twenty from the senate and assembl)- was appointed to prepare a bill, conferring the 
grant upon a company to be created by the bill itself The work of the committee proceeded 
harmoniously until the question of who should be corporators was to be acted upon, when a 
difference of opinion was f jund to exist, and one that proved difficult to harmonize. In the mean- 
time the LaCrosse and Watertown companies had consolidated, and a sufficient number of the 
members of both houses were " propitiated " by " pecuniary compliments" to induce them to 
pass the bill, conferring the so called St. Croix grant upon the LaCrosse & Milwaukee railroad 
company. The vote in the assembly in the passage of the bill was, ayes 6j, noes 7. In the senate 
it stood, ayes 17, noes 7. 

At the session of the legislature of 1S5S a committee was raised to investigate the matter, 
and their report demonstrated that bonds were set apart for all who voted for the LaCrosse bill; 
to members of assembly $5,000 each, and members of senate §10,000 each. A itw months 
after the close of tlie legislative sesssion of 1S56 the land grant bonds of the LaCrosse road 
became worthless. Xeither the LaCrosse company nor its successors ever received any portion 
of the lands granted to tlie state. During the year 1S57 the LaCrosse company completed its 
line of ronil through Portage City to LaCrosse, and its Watertown line to Columbus. 

The "Milwaukee & iloricon Railroad Compan}-" was chartered in 1S5-;. Between the 
years 1S55 and 1S57 it built through Waupun and Ripon to Berlin, a distance of forty-two miles. 
It was, in effect, controlled by the LaCrosse & Milwaukee, although built as a separate 
branch. This line was subsequently merged in the LaCrosse company, and is now a part of the 
northern di\i';irin fil thi.- Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railway. 

The ' Madison, I'ond du Lac & Lake Michigan Railroad Company" was chartered in 18^5, 
to build a road from Madison via I'ond du Lac ti-> Lake Michigan. In 1S57 it bought of the 
LaCrosse company that p(5rtion of its road acquired b)- consolidation with the Milwaukee & 
^\^^tertown company. Its name was then changed to '' Milwaukee & Western Railroad Com- 
jiany." It owned a line of road from Brookfield to Watertown, and branches from the latter 
place to (.'"olunibus and Sun Prairie, in all about eighty miles in length. 

In 1S58 and 1S50 tlie La Crosse &: Milwaukee and the Milwaukee & Iloricon companies 
defaulted in tlie payment of the interest on their bon^led debts. In the same years the bond- 
holders of the two companies instituted toreclosure proceedings C)n the different trust deeds given to 
secure their bonds. Other suits to enlbrce the payment of their floating debts were also com- 
menced. Protracted litigation in both the state and federal courts resulted in a final settlement 
in 1S6S, by a decision of the supreme court of the United States. In the meantime, in 1862 and 


1S63, both roads were sold, and purchased by an association of the bondholders, who organized 
the " Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company." The new company succeeded to all the rights 
of both the La Crosse and Horicon companies, and soon afterward, in 1863, purchased the 
property of the Milwaukee & \\'estcrn company, thus getting control of the roads from Mil- 
waukee to La Crosse, from Horicon to Berlin, from Brookfield to W'atertown, and the branches 
to Columbus and Sun Prairie. In 1S64 it built from Columbus to Portage, from lirookfield to 
Milwaukee, and subsequently extended the Sun Prairie branch to ALidison, in 1S69. It also 
purchased the Ripon & Wolf River road, which had been built fi.fteen miles in length, from 
Kipon to Omro, on the Fox riser, and extended it to ^Vinneconnc on the Wolf river, five miles 
farther, and twentj* miles t'rom Ripon. In 1S67 the Milwaukee i St. Paul railway company 
obtained control of the Milwaukee & Prairie du Chien railroad. The legislature of 1S57 had 
passed an act, authorizing all stock-holders in all incorporated companies to vote on shares of 
stock owned by them. The directors of the Milwaukee & St. Paul company had secured a 
majority of the common stock, and, at the election of 1S67, elected themselves a board of 
directors for the Prairie du Cliieu company. All the rights, property and interests of the 
latter company came under the ownership and control of the former. 

In 1865, Alexander Mitchell, of Milwaukee, was elected president, and S. S. Merrill general 
manager of the Milwaukee & St. Paul railway company. They were retained in their respective 
positions by the new organization, and still continue to hold these offices, a fact largely owing to 
the able and efficient manner that lias characterized their management of the company's affairs. 
The company operates eight h'lndred and thirty-four miles of road in Wisconsin, and in all two 
thousand two hundred and seven miles. Its lines extend to St. Paul and Minneapolis in 
Minnesota, and to .\lgona in Iowa, and over the Western Union to Savanna and Rock Island 
in the State of Illinois. 

The " Oshkosh & Mississippi Railroad Company " was chartered in 1S66 to build a road 
from the city of Oshkosh to the Mississippi river. Ts construction to Ripon in 1S72 was a 
move on the part of citizens of O=hko.-,h to connect their town with the Milwaukee & St. Paul 
.road. It is twenty miles in length and leased to the Chicago, Milwaukee &: St. Paul company. 

In 1S71 and 1S72 the '"Wisconsin Union Railroad Company," of which John W. Cary was 
president, built a road from Milwaukee to the state line between Wisconsin and Illinois, to 
connect with a road built from Chic. .go to the state line of Iliinois. This new line between 
Milwaukee and Chicago wa^ built in the interest ot', and in fact 1 y, the Milwaukee ^: St. Paul 
company to afford a connecti-./u betu-een its Wirjcoiisin, Iowa and Minnesota S)steni of roads, 
and the eastern trunk lines (entering in C-hicago. It runs parallel with the shore of Lake 
Michigan and from three to six niiles from it, and is eighty-live miles in length. 

The Chicago & krx R.\ii,wav. 

The territorial legi-■^lature of 184S chartered the "'Madison Cv Deloit Railroad Company" 
v.ith authority to build a railroad from P>eluit to .Madison only. In 1S50, l.\ an act of the 
legislature, the company was auth'.nized to extend the road to the Wisconsin river and La Crosse, 
and to a jioint on the Missis.sippi river near St. Paul, and also Ironi Janesville to Fond du Lac. 
Its n.iine was chaiiged, iiiuler le,i;i-lati\e authorit), to the '"Rock River \'alle_\- I'nion Railroad 
Company." In i.-.5i,the line from JanesviUe north not being pushed as the people expected, 
the legislature of Illinois ch.irtered -.iie '" lUinoi-^ >.V Wisconsin Company " with authority 
to consolidate with any roail in Wisconsin. In iS^^.an ait of the \\'isconsin legislature consoli- 
dated the Illinois and Wisconsin coinp.mies with tlie '" Rock River \'alle)' Union Railroad Com- 
pany." and the new oiganization took the i.ame of the "Chicago, St. I'aul iV Pond du Lac Rail- 


road Company." In 1S54, and previous to the consolidation, the connpany had failed and 
passed into the hands of tiie bondholders, wlio foreclosed and took stock for their bonds. The 
old management of A. Hyatt Smith and Joiin B. Macy was superseded, and Wni. B. Ogden was 
made president. Cl.icago was all along deeply interested in reaching the rich grain fields of the 
Rock river valley, :is well as the inexhaustible timber and mineral wealth of the northern part 
of Wisconsin and that part of Michigan bordering on Lake Superior, called the Peninsula. It 
also sought a connection v.iih the uj/per MisDi^sipjn region, then being rapidly peopled, by a line 
of railroad to run through Madison to St. Paul, in Minnesota. Its favorite road was started from 
Chicago on the wide (si.x fee;) gauge, and so constructed seventy miles to Sharon on the ^V'is- 
consin state line. This was changed to the usual (four feet, eight and one-half inches) width, 
andthe work was \igorously pushed, reaching Janesville in 1S55 and Fond du Lac in 1S5S. The 
Rock River Valley Union railroad company had, however, built about thirty miles from Fond 
du Lac south toward Minnesota Junction before the consolidation took place. The partially 
graded line on a direct route between Janesville and Madison was abandoned. In 1S52 a new 
charter had been obtained, and the " Beloit & Madison Railroad Company " had been organized 
to build a road from Beloit rv'i? Janesville to Madison. A subsequent amendment to this charter 
had left out Janesville as a point, and the Beloit branch was jiushed through to Madison, reach- 
ing that city in 1S64. 

The '"Galena and Chicago L'l'nion Railroad Company" had built a branch of the Galena 
line from Belvedere to Beloit previous to 1S54. In that year, it leased the Beloit & Madison 
road, and from 1856 operated it in connection with the Milwaukee & Mississippi, reaching Janes- 
\ille by wa) of Hanover Junction, a station on its Southern Wisconsin branch, eight miles west 
of Janesville. The consolidation of the Cialena it Chicago Union and the Chicago, St. Paul & 
Fond du Lac companies was effected and approved by legislative enactment in 1S55, and a new 
organization called the "Chicago & Xorthwestern Railway Company" took their place. 

The "Green Bav, Miluar.kee & Chicago Railroad Company " was chartered in 1S51 to build 
a road from Mih^aukee to the state line of Illinois to connect with a road from Chicago, called 
"the Chicago & Milwaukee railroad. Both roads were completed in 1S55, and run in connection 
until 1S63, when they were consolidated under tlie name of the '"Chicago & Milwaukee Railroad 
Company." To ]>rcvent its falling into the hands of the Milwaukee & St. Paul, the Chicago & 
Northwestern secured it by jierpetual lease. May 2, 1S66, and it is now operated as its Chicago 

The '■ Kenosha & Beloit Railroad Company" was incorporated in 1^53 to build a road from 
Kenosha to Beloit, and was organized soon after its charter>was obtained. Its name was after- 
ward changed to the '"Kenosha, Rockford & Rock Island Railroad Compan\," and its route 
changed to run to Rockford instead of Beloit. The line starts at Kenosha, and runs through the 
rounty of Kenosha and crosses the state line near the village of Genoa in the county of Wal- 
worth, a distance of thirty miles in the state of Wisconsin, and there connects with a road in 
Illinois running to Rockford, and with which it consolidated. Kenosha and its citizens were the 
principal subscriber,-- tc its capital stock. The company issued its bonds, secured by the usual 
mortgage on its frtmchises and property. Failing to pa\- its interest, the mortgage was foreclosed, 
and the road was sold to the Chicago \' Xorthwestern company in 1S63, and is now oj)erated by 
it as the Kenosha division. The line was constructed trom Kenosha to Genoa in 1S62. 

'i'he " NVirthv.estern I ninti Railway Company " was organized in 1S72, under the general rail- 
road law of the state, to build a line of road from Milwaukee to I'ond du Lac, with a branch to 
Lodi. The load was constriu ted during the years 1S7:; and 1S73 from Milwaukee to Fond du 
Lac. The Chicago & Xortliwestern company were principall)' interested in its beins built, to 


shorten its line between Chicago and Green Bay, and now uses it as its main through line between 
the two points. 

The " I'.arabno Air-Line Railroad Company" was incorporated in 1S70, to build a road from 
Madison, Columbus, or AVaterloo lia Barahoo, to I, a Crosse, or any point on the Mississippi 
river. It organized in the interest of the Ciiicag'i & N'orthuestern, witli which company it con- 
solidated, and the work of building a connecting line between Madison and Winona Junction 
was vigorously pushed forward. Lodi was reached m :S7o, Baraboo m 1S71, and \\'inona Junc- 
tion in 1874. The ridges between Elroy and Sparta were tunneled at great expense and with 
much difficulty. In 1S74 the company reported an exiienditure for its three tunnels of 
$476,743.32, and for the 129 i-io miles between Madison and Winona Junction of $5,342,169.96, 
and a large expenditure yet required to be made on it. In 1^67 the Chicago & Northwestern 
company bought of D. N. Barney & Co. their interest in the Winona & St. Peters railway, a line 
being built westerly from Winona in Minnesota, and of which one hundred and five miles had 
been built. It also bought of the same parties tlicir interest in the La Crosse, Trempealeau & 
Prescott railway, a line being built from Winona Junction, three miles east of La Crosse, to 
Winona, Minn. The lattei line was put in operation in 1870, and is twenty-nine miles long. 
With the completion of its Madison branch to Winona junction, in 1S73, it had in operation a 
line from Chicago, n'a .Madison and Winona, to Lake Kampeska, Minn., a distance of sl.x hundred 
and twenty-three miles. 

In the year 1S56 a valuable grant of land was made by congress to the state of Wisconsin 
to aid in the construction of railroads. The Cliicago, St. Paul & Fond du Lac company claimed 
that the grant was obtained through its effoits, and that of rigiu it should have the northeastern 
grant, so-called. At the adjourned session of tlic legislature of 1S56, a contest over the dispo- 
sition of the grant resulted in conferring it upon the '' Wisconsin & Superior Railroad Company," 
a cor]ioration chartered for the express purjjosc of giving it this grant. It was generally believed 
at the time tliat the new company was organi.'ed in the interest of tlie Chicago, St. Paul & 
Fond du Lac comjiany, and at the subsequent session, in the t'ollowing )"ear, it was authorized to 
consolidate v.ith the new company, which it did in tlie spring of that year, and thus obtained the 
grant of 3, ■''40 acres ]ier mile along its entire line, from Fond du Lac northerly to the state line 
between 'Wisconsin and Mi'-higan. It extended its road to Oshkosh in 1S59, to .Appleton in 
iS6i,and in iSii2 to Fort Howard, forming a line two hundred and forty-two miles long. The 
line from Fort Howard to I'.scanaba, one hundred and fourteen miles long, was opened in Decem- 
ber, 1872, and made a connection with th.e penins'ilar railroad of Michigan. It now became a jjart 
of the Chicago &: Northwesiern, extending frmn Escanaba to the iron mines, and thence to 
Lake Superior at Marquette. .\lbert K.ep, of Chicago, is president, and Marvin Hughitt, a 
gentleman of great railroad exjierience, is geiieral superintendent. The company operates five 
hundred and sixty-seven miles of road in Wisconsin, and in all sixteen hundred and sixteen miles. 
Its lines extend into five different states. Over these lines its equipment is run in common, or 
transferred from place to place, as the changes in. Lj.sine3s may temporarily require. 

Wisconsin Cinir.^l R.\ilro.a.d. 

The " Milwaukee & Northern Railway Conqiany " was incorporated in 1S70, to build a road 
from .Milwaukee to some point on the Fo s nver below Winnebago lake, and thence to Lake 
Superior, with branches. It completed i'.s ro;d t.i .Menasha, one hundred and two miles from 
Milwaukee, with a branch t'ro-.n Hil'.icrt to Crei n Bay, twenty-se\'en miles, in 1S73, and in that 
vvar lea-cd Us line to the " Wisconsin Ccr.tral Railroad Comjjany," which is still operating it. In 


1S64 congress made a grant of land to the state of Wisconsin to aid in the cunatruction of a rail- 
road from Rerlin, Doty's Island, Fond du Lac, or Portage, by way of Stevens Point, to Layfield 
or Superior, granting the odd sections within ten miles on eacli side of the line, wuh an indem- 
nity limit of twenty miles on each side. The legislature of 1S65 failed to dispose of this grant, 
but that of 1S66 provided for the organization of two companies, one to build from Portage City 
1)V way of BerHn to Stevens Point, and t!ie other from Menasha to the same point, and then 
jointly to Bayfield and Lake Superior. 'I'lie former was called the "Winnebago and Lake Superior 
Ilailroad Company," and tlie latter tlie "' Portage & Superior Railroad Company." In 1S69 an act 
was jxassed consolidating the two companies, wiiich was done under the name of the '" Portage, 
Winnebago iS: Superior Railroad Company." In 1S71 the name of the company was changed to 
the " Wisconsin Centra! Railroad Company." The ^\'innebago & Lake Superior conii)any was 
organized under Hon. Cenrge Reed as president, and at once commenced the construction of its 
line of road between Menasha and Stevens Point. In 1S71 the Wisconsin Central consolidated 
with the " Manitowoc &: Mississippi Railroad Compaii}." The articles of consolidation provided 
that Gardner Colby, a director of the latter company, should be president, and that George Reed, 
a director of the former, should be vice president of the new organization ; with a further provision 
that Gardner Colby, George Reed, and Elijah B. Phillips should be and remain its executive 

In iSyi, an act was passed incorporating the "Phillips and Colby Construction Compiany," 
which created E. B. Phillips, C. L. Colby, Henry Pratt, and such others as they might associate 
with them, a body corporate, with authority to build railroads and do all manner of things relat- 
ing to railroad construction and operation. Under this act the construction company contracted 
with the Wisconsin Central railroad company, to build its line of road from Menasha to Lake 
Superior. In November, 1S73, the \Visconsin Central leased of the Milwaukee & Northern com- 
pany it-^ line of road extending from Schwartzburg to Menasha, and the liranch to Green Bay, foi 
the term of nine hundred and ninety-nine years, and also acquired the rights of the latter com- 
pany to use the track of the Chicago, Milwaukee &: St. Paul company between Schwart.'.burg and 
.Milwaukee, and to dei^ot facilities in Milwaukee. The construction of the land grant portloi. 
of this important line of road was commenced in 1S71, and it com[)leted to Stevens Point iii 
November of that year. It was built from Stevens Pciint north one hundred miles to Vv'orcestor 
in 1.S72. During 187 j and 1S73, it was built from Ashland south to the Penoka iron ridge, a dis- 
tance of thirty miles. The straight line between Portage City and Stevens Point, authorized by 
an act of the legislature of 1S75, was constructed between October i, 1075, and October, 1S76, 
seven'y-one miles in length. The gap of furty-two mile-, between ^Vorcester and Penoka iroii 
ridge closed in June, 1S77. E. B. Pliillip-. of Milw.iitkee, is president and general manager. 
This line of road passes through a section of our state hitlierto unsettled. It has been pushed 
through with energy, and opened uji for settlement an immense region of heavily timbered land, 
and thus contributed to tlie growth and prosperity of the state. 

Thp; Westku.v Cmun R.\ilp,o.\d. 

The " Racine, Janes\ille >-^' Mississippi Railroad Cf.mpauy " was chartered in 1852,10 build 
a road from Racine to Bcloit, and was organized the same The city of Racine issued its 
bonds for $300,000 in p^iyment for tliat .unount of .itock. Tlie towns of R.icinc, Elkhorn, Dele- 
van and Beiolt gave $iyo,ooo, and issued their botuls, attil firniers along the line m,ale liberal 
subscriptions and secured the same by nMVtgage- on their fanii.^. The wa=; built to Burling- 
t'ln in 1855, to Delavan e.irly in 1S56, and to Beloit, sixty-eight miles from Racine, during tlie 
same jear. Failing to meet tlie interest on its bonds and its floating indebtedness, it was sur- 




rendered by the company to tlie bond-holder.i in 1S59, who completed it to Freeport during that 
year, and aftcrvvard huilt to the Mississippi river at Savannah, and thence to Rock Island. The 
bond-holders purchased and sold the road in 18C6, and a new organization was had as the " West- 
ern Union Railroad Company." and it has since been operated under that name. In 1S69, it 
built a line from Elkliorn to F.agle, seventeen miles, and thus made a connection with Milwau- 
kee over the Cliicago, Milwaukee & St. I'aul line. The latter company owns a controlling 
interest it its IIt.c. Alexander Mitchell is the president of the company, and D. A. Olin, 
general superintendent. 

West ^VI^co^sI^' R.^ilroad. 

The lands granted by congress in 1S56 to aid in the construction of a railroad in Wisconsin. 
tVom Tomah to Superior and Bayfield, were disposed of as mentioned under the history of tlie 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul company. Tb.e l,a Crosse company, as we have seen, prevailed in 
the legislature of 1S56, and secured legislation favorable to its interests; but it failed to build the 
line of road provided for, and forfeited its right to lands granted. In 1863, the "Tomah & Lake 
St. Croix Railroad Company " v/as incorporated, with authority to construct a railroad from some 
point in the town of Tomah iit Monroe county, to such point on Lake St. Croix, between town- 
ships ^5 and 31 as the directors might determine. To the company, by the act creating it, was 
granted all the interest and estate of this state, to so much of the lands granted by the United 
States to the state of Wisconsin, knov.-n as the St. Croi\ grant, as lay between Tomah and Lake 
St. Croix. -A few months after its organization, the company passed substantially into the hands 
of D. .\. Baldwin and Jacob Ilumbird, who afterward built a line of road from Tomah, via Elack 
River Falls, and Eau Claire to Hudson, on Lake St. Croi.x, one hundred and seventy-eight miles. 
Its name was afterward changed to the ''West \Visconsin Railroad Company." In 1S73, it built 
its road from ^\'arren's Mills rv'iz Camp liouglass, on the St. Paul road to Elroy, and took up its 
track from the first-named [j'.ace, twelve iniku, to Tomah. A law-suit resulted, whicli went against 
the railroad company, and tlie matter was ilnaily compromised by the payment of asum of money 
by the company to the town of Tomah. The road was built through a new and sparsely settled 
country, and its earnings have not been sufficient to enrich its stock-holders. It connects at 
Camp P)ouglas3 witli the Chicago, Milwaukee i\: St. Paul road, and at Elroy with the Chicago & 
Northwestern railway company's line, which gives the latter a through line to St. Paul. It is 
operated in connection witli the Chicago & Northwestern r.iilway, and managed in its interest. 
It is now in the hands of \Vm. H. Ferry, of Chicago, as receiver; H. H. Potter, of Chicago, as 
president'; and E. W. Wiiitcr, of Hudson, superintendent. 

Tiir. Mil w .\URKF-. Laki: Shore it Wf.siernj Raii,\v.a\-. 

In 1S70, the "Milwaukee, Manitowoc & Cieen L)av Railroad Company" was chartered to 
buiiil a road from Milwaukee t-i Cireen I!ay by \vay of Manitowoc. It built its line from Mil- 
waukee to M.initowor in 1S73, wiien its name was changed to " Milwaukee, Lake Shore & \\'est- 
ern Company." I'ndcr a decree iy\ foreclosure, it was sold Dec. 10, 1S75, and its name 
wAi changed to " Milwaukee, Lake Sii')rc Oe Western Railway Company," by which name it is 
still known. 

In iS'io, the " .\p[)!etou is: New London Riilroa.d Company" v.-as incorporated to build a 
road ircni .\ppIcton to New London, .ii;d thence to Lake Superior. A subsequent amendment 
to i;s charter authorized it to extend it. road ^o .Manitov.oc. It built most of the line from 
.^pplelon to that city, and then, under legisl.itive autliority, sold this extension to the Milwau- 


kee, Lake Shore & Western railroad company. The last-named company extended it to New 
London, on -the Wolf river, twenty-one miles, in 1S76, where it connects with the Green Bay & 
Minnesota road. It now operates one hundred and forty-si.K miles of road, extending t'roni Mil- 
\\aukee to New London, pjassin.; through Sheboygan, Manitowoc and Appleton, which includes 
a branch line six rnile^ in iLnijlh from ^L■;nitowoc; to Two Ri\ers. F. W. Rhinelander, of New 
York, is its president, and H. (r. H. Reed, of Milwaukee, superintendent. 

The GkK.KN Kay tS; Mivnksiua Raii.kuad. 

The Tine of road operated by this company extends from Fort Howard to the Mississippi 
ri\er, opposite \\'innna, Minnesota. It is two hr.ndred and sixteen miles in length, and was 
l)uilt through a sparsely settled and heavily timbered section of tlie state. It began imder most 
discouraging circumstances, yet was pushed througli by the energy of a few men at Green Bay 
and along its line. It was originally chartered in iSi>6 as the "Green l!ay & Lake Pepin Rail- 
road Company " to build a road fro.m the mouth of tlie I'ox river near Green Bay to the Missis- 
sippi river oppiositc Winona. But little was done except the making of preliminary surveys in 
1S70. During 1S70 and 1S71, forty miles were constructed and put in operation. In 1S7?, one 
hundred and fourteen miles were graded, the track laid, and the river reached, si.xty-two miles 
farther, in 1873. In 1S76, it acquired the right to use the " \\'inona cut-off " between Winona 
and Onalaska, and built a line I'rom the latter point to La Crosse, seven miles, thus connecting its with the ch.ief city of Wisconsin on the Mississippi river. The city of 1-a Crosse aided this 
extension by subscribing ;5'75'0°'' ''■"'d giving its corjioration bonds for that amount. Henry 
Keti hum, of New London, is president of the company, and D, M. Kelly, of Green l!ay, gen- 
eral manager. 

Wisconsin' Vai.t.ey Road. 

The "AVisconsin A'allcy Railroad} " was incorporated in 187 i to build a road from 
a yioint on or near the line of the Milwaukee & La Crosse railroad, between Kilbourn City and 
the timnel in said road to the village of \\"ausau, in the county of Marathon, and the road to pass 
not more than one mile west of the village of Grand Rapids, in the county of A\'ood. The road 
was conmienced at Toinah, and graded to Centralia in 187:;, and opened to that village in 1S73, 
and during 187.1. it was completed to Wau.sau, ninety miles in its whole length. Boston capitalists 
furnished the money, and it is controlled in the mt-.-rest of the Dubuque iV Minnesota railroad, 
through which the ecjuipment was jirocured. The lumber regions of the \\'isconsin ri\er find an 
outlet over it, and its junction with the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul road at Tomah enables 
a connection with the railroads of Iowa and Minnesota. It gives the people of Marathon county 
an outlet long need-d for a large liunber traffic, and also enables t'aem to receive theirgoods and 
supplies of various kinds tor tlie lumbering region tributary to Wausau. James F. Joy, of 
Detroit, is president, and F. 0. Wyatt, >upcrintendent. 

SnniovcAX &: Fond DL" Lac Railroad. 

The '■ Sheboygan &: Mis-.issippi Railroad Company " was incorporated in 185.% to build a 
road from Sh.eboygan to the Mississippi river. It was completed from Sheboygan to Plymouth 
in 1850, to Glenbeulah in iSCo, to Fond du Lac in 1S6S, and to Princeton in 1S72. The extension 
from Fond du Lac to Prmceton was built under authority of an act passed in 1S71. 

Under a loreclosure in io'ji the line from .Sheboygan to I'onddu L.ic was sold, and the name 
of the comjiany clianized to "Shcbo_\gan & Fond du Lac Railroad Company.'" The length of 


the line is seventy-eight miles, and it passes through a fertile agricultural country. The city of 
Sheboygan, county, city and town of Fond da Lac, and the towns of Ri\ trdale, Ripon, Brooklyn, 
Princeton, and St. Marie, aided in its building to an amount exceeding $250, ooc. D. L. Wells 
is president, and Geo. P. Lee, supcrindendent. 

The Min'i.rat, Point R.mi.road. 

The " Mineral Point Railroad Cunij.any " was chartered in 1S52, to build a road from Mineral 
Point, ill the county of Ljwa, to the i^tate line, in township number one, in either the county of 
Green or La Fayette. It was com[ileted to Warren, in the state of Illinois, thirty-two miles, in 
1855, making a conneclion at tliat point with the Illinois Central, running from Chicago to Galena. 
Iowa county loaned its credit and issued its bonds to aid in its construction. It was sold under 
foreclosure in :S56. Suits were brought against Iowa county to collect the amount of its bonds, 
and judgment obtained in the federal courts. Mucli litigation has been had, and ill feeling 
engendered, the supervisors of the county having been arrested for contempt of the decree of 
the court. Geo. W. Cobb, of Point, is the general manager. 

The Dubuque, Platteville & ^Milwaukee railroad was completed in July, 1S70, and extends 
from Calamine, a point on the Mineral Point railroad, to the village of Platteville, eighteen miles, 
and is operated by the Mineral Point railroad compan\' 


The legislature of 18^5 chartered the "Sugar Rivtr \' alley Railroad Compjany " to build a road 
from a point on the north side of the line of the Soutliern Wisconsin road, within the limits of 
Green county, to r)ayton, on the Su;_ar river. In 1S57 it was authorized to build south to the state 
line, and make its nortlicrn terminus at Madison. In 1S61 it was authorized to build from Madi- 
son to Portage City, and from Columbus to Port.igc City, and so much of the land grant act of 
i'856, as related to the building of the road from Madison, and from Columbus to Portage City, 
was annulled and repealed, and the rights and privileges that were conferred upon the LaCrosse 
company were given to tlic Sugar River ^'allL•y railroad company, and the portion of the land 
grant, applicable to the lines mentioned, was conferred uijon the last named company. L'nder 
this legislation about twenty miles ol the line between. Madison and Portage were graded, and 
the right of way secured for about thirty of the thirty-nine miles. The T.a Crosse company had 
done considerable grading before its right was annulled. In 1S66 the company was relieved 
from constructing the from Columbus to Portage City. In 1S70 tlie jnirchasers of that part 
of the Sugar River Valie_\ railroad lying between Madison and Portage City were incorporated 
as the " Madison & Portage Railroad Compaiiv," and to share all tlie rights, grants, etc., that 
were conferred upon the Sugar River ra;lroad company by its charter, and amendments thereto, 
so fir as related to that portion of the lirie. 

Previous to this time, in iS6.|.;.nd iSf)5, judgments had been obtained against the Sugar 
River Valley company ; and its righ.t of "ay, grading and dejiot grounds sold for a small sum. 
James Campbell, wiio h.ul been a contr^u tor wiih the Si-gar River \'aile_\- companv, with others, 
became tlie jiurchaser.-, and nrg.mi/ed under the act of 1-^70, and, (luiiiig the year iS7i,com- 
l>!eted it between Madison and Port.ige City, and in M.irch, 1S71, leased it to the Milwaukee &: 
St. I'j'd company, and it is still operated by that corporation. In 1S71 the Madison iS," Portage 
company was authorized to extend its road south to the Illinois sl.ile line, and nortli from 
Portage City to Lake Winneb.igo. The same year it was consolid.Ued with the " Rockford Central 

Jp"#''=r?r_jr«^T »*■■' 


Railroad Company," of Illinois, and its name changed to the " Chicago &' Su[)erior Railroad 
Company," but still retains its own organization. The Madison & I'ortage railroad company 
claims a share in the lands granted by acts ol" congress in 1356, and ]ia\e .ommenced proceed- 
ings to assert its claim, which case is still [jending in the federal courts. 

North A\'iscoxsin RAii.ROArj. 

'I'he "North Wisconsin Railroad Company" was incorporated in 1S69, to build a r<jad from 
l,,ike St. Croix, or river, to Bayfieid on Lake Superior. The grant of land by congress in 1S56, to 
aid in building a road frvim Lake St. Croix to Bayfield on Lake Superior, under the decision of 
the federal court, was yet at the disiiosal of the state. This company, in 1S7 i, built a short 
section of its line of road, witii the exjiectatioa of receiving the grant. In 1S73, the grant was 
conl'erred upon the Milwaukee ii' St. I'aul company, hut under the terms and restrictions con- 
tained in the act, it declined to accept it. The legislature of 1S74 gave it to the North Wiscon- 
sin company, and it has built forty miles of its road, and received the lands pertaining thereto. 
Since 1S76, it has not completed any part of its line, but is trying to construct twenty miles 
during the present year. The comiian\' is authorized to construct a road both to Superior and 
to Bayticld, but the act granting the lands confers that portion from Superior to the intersection 
of the line to Bayfield ujjon the Chicago &: North Pacific air-line railroad. This last-named 
company have projected a line from Cliicago to the west end of Lake Superior, and are the 
owners of an old grade made tlirough \\'alworth and Jefferson counties, by a comi)any chartered 
i:! i8t3 as the " Wisconsin Central," to build a road from Portage City to Geneva, in the county 
of Walworth. The latter company had alsj graded its line between Geneva and the state line 
of Illinois. This grade was afterward appropriated by the Chicago & Northwestern, and over it 
ihey now operate tlieir line from Chicago to Geneva. 

Pr.^irie DC Chilx & McGregor R.^ 

This is a line two miles in length, connecting Prairie du Chien in Wiiconaia, with McGregor 
in lov.-a. It i:. owned and operated by John Lawler, of the latter-named place. It extends across 
both channels of the Mississippi river, and an intervening island. The railroad bridge consists 
of substantial piling, except a pontoon draw across e.-ch navigable channel. Each pontoon is four 
imiuired feet long and thirty teet wide, provided with suitable machinery and operated by steam 
I>o\ver, Mr. Lawler has secured a patent on his invention of the pontoon draw for railroad 
bridges. His line was put in operation in .\pril, 1074. 

The Chuteua P"alls & ^V^;^TER^• Railroad. 

This road was built in 1S74, bv a company organized under the general law of the state. It 
IS eleven mile.i in length, and connects tile " Falls " with tile West Wisconsin line at Eau Claire. 
It was constructed by the energetic business men and capitalists of Chippewa Falls, to afford an 
<-' itlet for the great Uiniber .lad other intere-,ts of tiiat thriving and prosperous city. The road 
j^ substantially built, and the track laid with steel rails. 

Narrow G-vuc.e R \ii. roads. 

The "Galena & Southern Wisconsin Railroad Company" was incorporated in 1S57. Under 
Us ch.irter, a number of capitalists of the city of Cjalena, in the state of Illinois, commenced 


the constructioa of a narrow (three feet) gauge road, running from that city to Platteville, thirty- 
one miles in length, twenty miles in Wisconsin. It runs through a part of La Fayette county to 
Platteville, in Grant county, and was completed to the latter point in 1S75. Surveys arebeing 
made for an exten^iion to Wingvillc, in Grant county. 

The "Fond du Lac, Auiboy & Peoria Railway Company " was organized under the general 
law of the state, in 1S74, to l>uild a narrow gauge road from the city of Fond du Lac to the south 
line of the state in the county of Walworth or Rock, and it declared its intention to consolidate 
with a company in Illinois that had projected a line of railroad from Peoria, in Illinois, to the south 
line of the state of Wisconsin. The road is constructed and in operation from Fond du Lac to 
Iron Ridge, a point on tiie Chicago. Milwaukee & St. Paul rai!wa\. twenty-nine miles from Fond 
du Lac. 

The " Pine River & Steven's Point Railroad Company " was organized by the enterprising 
citizens of Richland Center, and has built a narrow gauge road from Lone Rock, a point on the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul road, in Richland county, to Richland Center, sixteen miles in 
length. Its track is laid with wooden rails, and it is operated successfully. 

The " Chicago & Tomah Railroad Company " organized under the general railroad law of 
the state, in 1S7;, to construct a narrow gauge road from Chicago, iu Illinois, to the city of 
Tomah, in Wisconsin. Its president and active managi-r is D. R. Williams, of Clermont, Iowa, 
and its secretary is L. M. Culver, of Wauzeka. It has graded about forty-five miles, extending 
from Wauzeka up the valley of the Kickapoo river, in Crawford county, Wisconsin. It expects 
to have fifty-four niiles in operation, to Ploomingdale, in Vernon county, the present year (rSyy). 
The rolling stock is guaranteed, and the [iresident is negotiating for the purchase of the iron. 
South of Wauzeka the line i:^ located to Pelmont, in Iowa county. At Wauzeka it will connect 
with the Chicago, Milwaukee cV St. Paul line. 

The public-spirited citizens of Xecedah, in Juneau county, have organized under the general 
law of the state, and graded a road-bed from their village to New Lisbon, on the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul company's line. The latter couijiany furnish ,md lay tlie iron, and will 
operate the road. It is thirteen miles in length. 


The railroads of Wisconsin have grown up under the requirements of the several localities 
that have planned and commenced their construction, and without regard to any general 
system. Frequently the work of construction was begun before adequate mean-, were provided, 
and bankruptcy overtook the roads in their early stages. The consolidation of the various 
companies, as in tlie <-ase5 of the Chicago, Milwaukee ^- St. Paul, the Chicago & Northwestern, 
and others, has been effected to give through lines and the public greater facilities, as well as to 
introduce economv in management. At times the people have become ap[irehensive, and by legisla- 
tive action prohibited railroads from consolidating, and have sought to control and break down 
the power of these corporations and to harmonize the interests of the companies and the 
public. The act of 1S7.), called the "Potter law." was tiie assertion, by the legislative power of 
the state, of its rigiit to control coriiorations created by itself, and limit the rates at which freight 
and passengers should be carried. After a long and expensive contest, carried through the state 
and federal courts, V.\h rigin has been established, being finally settled by the decision of the 
supreme court of tlie L'nitc.J States. 

Quite all the railroads of Wisconsin have been built with foreign ca]jital. The plan pursued 
after an organization was eUe< ted, to obtain stock subscriptions from those immediately 

IJ-ifBER ilAXrJ^VCTURE. , ' 185 

interested in the enterprise, procure the aid of tuunties and municipalities, and then allure the 
farmers, with the prospect of joint ownership in railroads, to subscribe for stock and mortgage 
their farms to secure the paymeiit of their subscriptions. Then the whole line was bonded and 
a mortgage executed. The bonds and mortgages thus obtained, were taken to the money 
centers of New York, London, Amsterdam and other places, and sold, or hypothecated to 
obtain the money with which to prosecute the work. The bonds and mortgages were made to 
draw a high rate of interest, and the earnings of these new roads, through unsettled localities, 
were insufficient to pay more than running and incidental expenses, and frequently fell short of 
that. Default occurring in the payment of interest, the mortgages were foreclosed and the 
property passed into the h..inds and under the control of foreign capitalists. Such has been the 
history of most of the railroads of our state. The total number of farm mortgages given has 
been 3,7^5, amounting to $4,079,433 ; town, countv and bonds, amounting to 
§6,910,652. The total cost of all the railroads in the state, as given by the railroad commissioner 
in his report for 1S76, Vis Ijeen $98,343,453.67. This vast sum is, no doubt, greatly in excess of 
what the cost should have been, but tlie roads have proved of immense benefit in the develop- 
ment of the material resources of the state. 

Other lines are needed through sections not yet traversed by the iron steed, and present 
lines should be extended by branch roads. The questions upo.a which great issues were raised 
between the railway corporations and the people, are now happily settled by securing to the latter 
their rights ; and the former, under the wise and conciliatory policy pursued by their managers, 
are assured of the safety of their investments. An era of good feeling has succeeded one of 
distrust and antagonism. The people must use the railroads, and the railroads depend upon the 
people for sustenance. and protection. This mutuality of interest, when fully recognized on both 
sides, will result in giving to capital a fair return and to labor its just reward. 


Bv \V. B. JUDSON. 

Foremost among the industries of Wisconsin is that of manufacturing lumber. Very much 
of the importance to whicli the state has attained is due to the develojHuent of its forest wealth. 
In America, agriculture always has been, and always will be, tliL- primary and most important 
interest; but no nation can subsist upon agriculture alone. While the broad prairies of Illinois 
and Iowa are rich with a fertile and productive soil, tlie hills and valle}-s of northern Wisconsin 
are clothed with a wealth of timber that has given birth to a great manufacturing interest, wiiich 
employs millions of capital and thousands of men, and has peopled the northern wilds \vitli 
energetic, prosperous communities, built up enterprising cities, and crossed the state with a net- 
work of railways which furnish outlets for its productions and inlets for the new populations 
which are ever seeking for homes and employment nearer to the setting sun. 

If a line be drawn upon the state man, from Green liay westward through Stevens Point, 
to where it would naturally strike tlie Mississipiu river, it will he below the southern boundary of 
the pine timber regions, with the single exception of the district drained by the \'eIlow river, a 
tributary of the Wisconsin, drawing its timber chiefiy from \Vood and Juneau counties. Tlie 
territory north of this imaginary line covers an area a little greater than one half of the state. 
The pine timbered land is found in belts or ridge<, interspersed with prairie openings, patches 
of hardwood and hemlock, and drained by nimx-rous water-courses. No less than seven large 


rivers traverse this northern section, and, with their numerous tributaries, penetrate every county, 
affording facilities for iloating the logs to the mills, and, in many instances, the power to cut them 
into lumber. This does not include the St. Croi.x, which forms the greater portion of the 
boundary line between Wisconsin and Minnesota, and, by means of its tributaries, draws the most 
and best of its pine from the former state. These streams divide the territory, as far as lumbering 
is concerned, into six separate and distinct districts : The Green bay shore, which includes the 
Wisconsin side of the Menomonee, the Peshtigo and Oconto rivers, with a number of creeks 
which flow into the bay between the mouths of the Oconto and Vox rivers; the Wolf river 
district;' the ^Visconsin river, including the Yellow, as before mentioned ; the Black river; the 
Chippewa and Red Cedar; and the Wisconsin side of the St. Croi.x;. 

Beginning with the oldest of those, the Green bay shore, a brief description of each will be 
attempted. The first saw-mill built in the state, of which there is now any knowledge, was put in 
operation in 1809, in Erown county, two or three miles east from Depere, on a little stream which 
was known as East river. It was built by Jacob Franks, but probably was a very small affair. 
Of its machinery or capacity for sawing, no history has been recorded, and it is not within the 
■memoTy of any inhabitant of to-day. In 1S29, John P. Arndt, of Green Bay, built a water- 
power mill on the Pensaukee river at a point where tlie town of Big Suamico now stands. In 
1834, a mill was built on the Wisconsin side of the Menomonee, and, two years later, one at 
Peshtigo. Lumber was first shipped to market from tliis district in iSj.^, which must be termed 
the beginning of lumbering operations on the bay shore. The lands drained by the streams 
which flow into Green bay are located iri Sliawano and Oconto counties, the latter being the 
largest in the state.' In 1847. \V'illard Lamb, of Green Bay, made the first sawed pine shingles in. 
that district ; they were sold to the Galena railroad company for use on depot buildings, and 
were the first o( the kind sold in Chicago. Subsequently Green Bay became one of the greatest 
points for the manufacture of such shingles in the world. The shores of the bay are low, and 
gradually change from marsh to swam;i, tlien to level dry land, and finally become broken and 
mountainous to the northward. The pine is in dense groves t'nat crowd closely upon the swamps 
skirting the bay, and reach far back among the hills of the interior. The Peshtigo flows into the 
bay about ten miles south of the Menomonee, and takes its rise far back in Oconto county, near 
to the latter's southern tributaries. It is counted a good logging stream, its annual product 
being from 40,000.000 to 60,000,000 feet. The timber is of a rather coarse quality, running but 
a small percentage to what the kimbcrmen teria "uppers." About ten per cent, is what is 
known as Norway jiine. Of the whole amount of timber tributary to the Peshtigo, probably 
about one third has been cut off to this date. The remainder will not average of as good (juality, 
and only a limited portion of the land is of any value for agricultural purposes after being cleared 
of the pine. There are only two mills on this stream, both being owneii by one company. The 
Oconto is one of the most important streams in tlie district. The fir=t saw-mill was built 
on its banks about the year 1840, thoug'i the first lumbering operations of any account were 
begun in 1R45 by David Jones. The business was conducted quite moderately until 1S56, 
in which year several mills were built, and from that date Oconto has been known as quite 
an extensive lumber manntacturing jioint. The timber tributary to this stream has been of 
the best quality found in the state. Lumber cut from it has been known to yield the 
extraordinarily high average of tlfty and sixty per cent. up[)ers. The timber now being cut 
will not average more than half that. The proportion of Norway is about five per cent. It is 
estimated that t'roni three fourths to t'our fifths of th.e timber tributary tu the Oconto has been 
ctit away, but it will require a much longer time to convert the balance into lumber than was 
necessary to cut its equivalent in amount, owing to it•^ remote Icjcation. The annual production 

1 LT^MBER ^rA^'^■F.vcTur:E. ■ . . 187 

of pine lumber at Oconto is from 50,000,000 to 65,000,000 fcft. The whole production of the 
district, exclusive of the timber which is put into the Menomonee from Wisconsin, is about 
140,000,000 feet annually. 

The Wolf river and its tributaries constitute the next district, proceeding westward. The 
first saw logs cut on this stream for commercial purposes were floated to the government mill at 
Neenah in 1S35. In iS-p, Samuel Farusworth erected the first saw-mill on the upper Wolf 
near the location of the present village of Shawano, and in the following spring he sent the first 
raft of lumber down the \\'olf to Oshkosh. This river also rises in Oconto county, but flows in 
a southerly direction, and enters Winnebago lake at Oshkosh. Its pineries have been very exten- 
sive, but the drain upon them within the past decade has told with greater effect than upon any 
■other district in the state. The quality of the timber is very fine, and the land is considered good 
for agricultural purposes, and is being occupied upon the lines of the difi'erent railways which 
cross it. The upper waters of the Wolf are rapid, and have a comparatively steady flow, which 
renders it a very good stream for driving logs. Upon; the upper river, the land is quite rolling, 
and aboui'lhe head-waters is almost mountainous. The pine timber that remains in this dis- 
trict is high up on the main river and brandies, and will last but a few years longer. A few years 
ago the annual product amounted to upward of 250,000,000 Icli; in 1S76 it was 138,000,000. 
The principal manufacturing points are Oshkosh and Fond du Lac ; the former has ::i mills, and 
the latter 10. 

Next comes tlie Wisconsin, the longest and most crooked river in the state. It rises in the 
' extreme northern sections, and its general course is southerly until, at Portage City, it makes a 
grand sweep to the westward and unites with the Mississippi at Prairie du Chien. It has numer- 
ous tributaries, and, together with these, drains a larger area of country than any other river in 
the state. Its waters flow swiftly and over numerous rapids and embryo falls, which renders log- 
driving and raft-running very difficult and even hazardous. The timber is generally near the 
banks of the main stream and its tributaries, gradually diminishing in extent as it recedes from 
them and giving place to the several varieties of hard-woods. The extent 10 which operations 
have l.ieen carried on necessitates going further up the stream for available timber, although there 
is yet what may be termed an abundant supiily. The first cutting of lumber on this stream, of 
which there is any record, was by government soldiers, in iS.^S, at the building of Fort \\ inne- 
bago. In 1S31, a mill was built at Whitney's rapids, below Point Pass, in what was then Indian 
territory. l!y 1S40, mills were in operation as high up as Pig Bull falls, and \\'ausau had a 
population of 350 souls. Up to 1S76, the jiroduct of the upper Wisconsin was all sent in raits 
to inarkets on tiie Mississippi. The river above Point Bass is a series of rapids and eddies; the 
current flows at tlie rate of from 10 to ro miles an hour, and it can well be imagined that the 
task of piloting a raft from \Vausau to the dells was no slight one. The cost ot that kind of 
transportation in the early time= was actually equal to the present market price of the lumber. 
With a good stage of water, the length of time required to run a raft to St. I.ouis was 24 d.iys, 
though quite frequently, owing to inal)ility to get out of the \Visconsm on one rise of water, sev- 
eral weeks were consumed. The amount of lumber manufactured annually on this river is from 
140,000,000 to 200,000,000 feet. 

Black river is much shorter and smaller than the Wisconsin, but long been known as a 
very important lumljering stream. It is next to the oldest lumber tlistrict in the state. 'I'he 
first sau-niitl west of dreen Pay was built at Black River Falls in 1S19 by Col. John Shaw. 
The Winnebago tribe of Indians, b.owever, in whose territory he was, objected to the innovation 
•of such a fine art, and unc:eremoniously olTered up the mill upon tiie altar of tiieir outraged 

1S8 ■ HISTORY OF ■vviscoxsix. '. ' • "^ 

solitude. The owner abruptly quitted that portion of the country. In 1S39 another attempt 
to est.iLIisii a mill on llLick river was more successfully made. One was erected at the same 
point by two brothers by the name of Wood, tlie millwright being Jacob Spaulding, who 
eventually became its possessor. His son, Mr. IHiJIey J. Spaulding, is now a very e.xtensive 
operator upon Black, river. La Crosse is the chief manufacturing point, there being ten saw-mills 
located tlicre. The annual production of the stream ranges from 150,000,000 to 225,000,000 feet 
of logs, less than feet being manufactured into lumber on its banks. The balance 
is sold in the log to mills on the Mississippi. It is a very capricious river to float logs in, which 
necessitates the carrying over from year to year of a very large amount, variously estimated at 
from 150,000,000 to 200,000,000 tect, about equal to an entire season's product. This makes the 
business more hazardous than on many otiier strean^s, as the loss from depreciation is very great 
after the first year. The tjualuy of the timber is fine, and good prices are realized for it when 
sold within a year after being cut. 

The Chippewa district probably contaips the largest and finest bodv of white pine timber 
now standing, tributary to any one stream, on the continent. It has been claimed, though with 
more extravagance than truth, that the Chippewa pineries hold one-half the timber supply of 
the state. The river itself is a large one, and has many tributaries, v.'hich penetrate the rich 
pine district in all d.ircction^. The character of the tributan' countrv i> not unlike that through 
which the Wisconsin flows. In iSrSthe first mdl was built in the Chipiiewa valley, on Wilson's 
creek, iiear its confluence with tlie Red Cedar. Its site is now occupied by the village of Meno- 
monee. In JS37 another was built 0:1 v.liat is tlie present site of the Un'.oii Lumbering Company's 
mill at Chippewa Falls. It was not until near 1S65 that the Chippewa became very pirominent as a 
lumber-making stream. Since that date it has 1,'een counted as one of tiie foremost in the north- 
west. Upon the river proper tiiere are twenty-two saw-iniUs, none having a capacity of less than 
3,500,000 feet per season, and a number being capable of sawing from 20,000,000 to 25,000,000 
The annual production of sawed lumber is trom^,ooc to 300,000,000 feet; the production 
of logs from 400,000,000 to 500,000,000 feet. In 1867 the miil-owners upon the Mississippi,, 
between Winona and Keokuk, organized a corporation known as the Eeef Slough Manufactur- 
ing, Log-Driving and Transportation Comi)any. Its object was to facilitate the handling of logs 
cut upon the Chippewa and its tributaries, designed for the Mississippi mills. At the confluence 
of the twij rivers various imiirovements were made, constituting the Beef Slough boom, which is 
capable of assorting 200,000,000 feet of logs per Si-ason. The Chippewa is the most difficult 
stream in the northwest upon which to operate. In the spring season it is turbulent and 
ungovernable, and in summer, almost liestitute of water, .\bout its head are numerous lakes 
which easily overflow under the influence of rain, and as their surplus water flows into the 
Chiipewa, its rises are sudden ar.d .-nmetimes damaging in their extent. ']"he river in many 
places flows between high bluffs, and, under the influence of a freshet, becomes a wild and 
unmanageable torrent. Logs have never been fl.j.ited in rafts, as u['on other streams, but are 
turned in loose, and are carried down will: each -.uc'.e--.ive rise, in a jumbled and confused mass, 
win lb, ent.iils mtich labor and loss 1:1 tiie w(..rk uf assorting an i delivering to the respective 
o\>. Previous to tl.e or.atu.tatt'jn of tb.e F..i::le Rapids blooding Dam and Room Company, 
in i'^72, the work of securing tiie stock alter putting it into the river was more difficult tlian to 
ct;t •.:;!l hatd it. .-Vt the cities of Enu Cin'.re and Chijjpewa l-'ails, wl;ere most of the mills are 
located, the current, under the influence of Itigh water, i^ very ra[)id, and for years the problem 
was, liow to stop and retain the logs, as th.ev would go by in great masses and with almost rcsist- 
ieis veloitity. In 1847 is recorded one of i;:e most sud'len and disastrous floods in the history 
c! iog-runiiiiig streams. In the motith of Jutie ilie Chip])ewa rose twelve feet in a single night. 


and, in the disastrous torrent that wa> created, piers, booms, or " pockets " for holding logs at the 
mills, together with a fine new mill, were swept away, and the country below where Eau Claire 
now stands was covered with drift-wood, saw-logs, and other debris. Such occurrences led to 
the invention of the since famous sheer boom, which is a device placed in the river opposite 
the mill boom into which it is desired to turn the logs. The sheer boom is thrown diagonally 
across the river, automatically, the action of the current upon a number of ingeniously arranged 
"fins '' holding it in position. By this means the logs are sheered into the receptacle until it is 
filled, when the slicer boom, by closing up the " fins" with a windlass, falls back and allows the 
logs to go on for the next mill to stop and capture its pocket full in like manner. By this 
method each mill could obtain a stock, but a great difficulty was experienced from the fact that 
the supplv was composed of logs cut and O'.vned by everybody operating on the river, and the 
process of balancing accounts according to the '" maiks," at the close of the season, has been 
one prolific of trouble ar.d le^al entanglements. The building of improvements at Eagle 
Rapids by the company above mentioned remedied the difficulty to some extent, but the process 
of logging will al\va\s be a difncuh and hazardous enterprise until adequate means for holding 
and assorting the entire log product are provided. Upon the Yellow and Eau Claire rivers, two 
important branches oi the Chippewa, such difficulties are avoided by suitable improvements. 
The entire lumber product 'of the Chippewa, with the exception of that consumed locally, is 
floated in rafts to markets upon th.e Mississippi, between its mouth and St. Louis. The quality 
of the timber is good, and commands the best market price in the sections where it seeks 

West of the Chippewa district the streams and timber are tributary to the St. Croix, and in 
all statistical calculatiuns tlie entire product of that river is credited to Minnesota, the same as 
that of the Menomonee is given to Michigan, when in fact about one half of each belongs to 
Wisconsin. The important branches of the St. Croix belonging in this state are the Apple 
Clam, Yellow, Namekogan, Totagatic and Eau Claire. The sections of country through which 
they flow contain large bodies of very fine pine timber. The St. Croix has long been noted for 
the excellence of it-, dimension timljer. Of this stock a jioriion is cut into lumber at Stillwater, 
and marketed by rail, and the balance is sold in the log to mills on the Mississippi. 

Such is a brief and somewhat crude descrlpti.n of the main lumbering districts of the state. 
Aside from these, quite extensive operations are conducted upon various railway lines which 
penetrate the forest-, which are remote from log-running streams. In almost every county in 
the state, mills of greater or less capacity m,ay be found cutting up pine or hard-woods into 
luml.ier, shingles, or cooi>erage stock. Most important, in a lumbering point of ^iew, of all the 
railroads, is the Wisconsin Central. It extends from Milwaukee to Ashland, on Lake Superior, 
a distance of 351 miles, with a line to Green Ikiy, 113 miles, and one from Stevens Point to 
Portage, 71 niiles. making a total length of road, of 44Q miles. \\ has only been com[>leted to 
Ashland within llie last two years. From Milwaukee to Stevens Point it passes around to the 
east and north of Lake Winnebago, through an excellent hard-wood section. Th-ere are many 
stave mills in operation ujion ;iud tributary to its line, together with wooden-uare establishments 
and various manufactories requiring either iiard or soft limber as raw material. From Stevens 
Point northward, tins road passes through .md lias tributary to it one of the finest bodie-i of tim- 
ber in the st.ite. It crosses the upper waters of Black river and tlie Flambeau, one of the main 
tributaries of tlie Chippewa. From 30.ccc.cc3 tu 50.000,000 feet of lumber is annually manu- 
factured un its line, abi.)ve Stevens .Poir.t. The Wisconsin Valley railroad extends from Tomah 
to Wausau, and was built to alTord an outlet, by rail, for the lumber produced at the latter point. 

The extent of the timber supj^ly in this state has been a matter of much speculation, and 

^•r-" y "Ti-^j.v^-/^'' 


IirsT()i;Y OF 'WIst'DXSIX. 

is a subject upon which but little can be definitely said. Pine trees can not be counted or 
flK-asured- until reduced to saw-logs or lumber. It is certain that for twenty years the 
fiirests of \\'iscon3in have yielded large amounts of valuable timber, and no fears are 
entert.iined by holders of pme lands that the present generation of owners will witness 
an e.xhaustion of their supjily. In some sections it is estimated that the destruction to 
the standing timber by tires, which periodically sweep over large sections, is greater than 
by the axes of the loggers. The necessity for a state s_\ stem of forestrv, for the protection of 
the forests from fires, has been urged by many, and with excellent reason; for no natural resource 
of tlie state is of more value and importance than it-, wealth of timber. According to an esti- 
mate recently made liy a good authority, and wdiich received the sanction of many interested 
parties, there was standing in the state in 1S76, an amovmt of pine timber approximating 
35,000,000,000 feet. 

The annual production of lumber in the districts herein described, and from logs floated out 
of the state to mills on the Missi^sijini, is about r, 200,000, coo feet. The following table gives 
the mill capacity per season, and the lumber and shingles manufactured in 1S76: 


Green Bay Shore 2'^6,ooo.'"00 

Wolf RivLT- - 2;o,5n i.lkjo 

Wisconsin Central Railroad .A 72,5' o oiK) 

Green Liay .S: Minnesot.i Railroad 34.500.000 

Wisconsin River __( 222.000,000 

Black River. ioi,uc>o,oco 

Chippewa River I 311,000.000 

MiSjissippi River — using \\'iscon.-,in logs,.! 501)0*0,000 

Total _ I.7i4,5ix) OO'J 



IN 1S76. IN 1S75. 

13 ?, 250.000 


r, 172, 611,823 






If to the above is added the production of mills outside of the main districts and lines of rail- 
way herein described, the amount of pine lumber annually produced from Wisconsin forestswould 
reach 1,500,000,000 feet. Of the hard-wood production no authentic information is obtainable 
To cut the logs and pla< e them upon tht- banks of the streams, ready for floating to the mills' 
requires the labor of about i.S,ooo men. Allowing that, u]jon an average, each man has a familv 
of two persons besides himself, depenc!t.nt ui/on ius labor for support, it would be apparent that 
the first step in the work of manufacturing lumber gives employment and support to 54,000 
persons. To convert 1,000.000 feet of logs into lumber, requires the consumption of 1,200 
bushels of oats, 9 bariels of y.^ork and be. f, 10 tons of liay, 40 barrels of flour, and the use of 2 
(■airs of horses. Thus the fitting out of tiie lo-gitig companies each fall makes a market for bushels of oats, 13,500 barrels of j.ork and beef, 15,000 tons of hay, and 60,000 barrels 
ot flour. liefore the lumber is sent to market, fully §6,000,000 is expended for the labor 
employed in producing it. This industry, aside from furnishing the farmer of the west with the 
fiicapest .ind best of materials l"or cunstniriing his buildings, also furnishes a very important 
market for the jiroducts of bis farm. 

I !-.e question of the exhaustion i.f the jjinc timber supply has met with much discussion 
.3uring the past lew years, and, so far as the fonsts of VVisconsin are concerned, deserves a brief 
notice. Tl'.e great source of sujijily cf white June Umber in the country is that portion of the 
northwest between the shores of I., ike Huron and the banks of the Mississippi, comprising the 

LV>rBER M.VXX'FACTl'RE. '• 191 

northern portions of the states of Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. For a quarter of a 
century these fieUls have bctn worked by lumbermen, the amount of the yearly production 
having increased annually until it reached the enormous figure of 4,000,000,000 feet. With all 
of this tremendous drain upon the forests, there can be jiointed out but one or two sections that 
are actually exhausted. There are, however, two or three where the end can be seen and the 
date almost foretold. The pineries of Wisconsin have been drawn \ipon for a less period and 
less amount than those of Michigan, and, it is generally conceded, will outlast them at the present 
proportionate rate of cutting. There are many owners of jiine timber lands who laugh at the 
prospect of exh,auating their timl.icr, w-thin their lifetime. As time brings them nearer to the end, 
the labor of procuring tl;e logs, by reason of the distance of the timber from the water-courses, 
will increase, and the work will progress more slowly. 

In the future of this industry there is much promise. Wisconsin is the natural source of 
supply for a very large territory. The populous prairies of Illinois and Iowa are near-by and 
unfailing markets. The broad plains of Kansas and the rich valleys of Nebraska, which are still in 
the cradle of development, will make great drafts ujion her forests for the material to construct cities 
in which the first corner-stone is yet unlaid. Minnesota, notwithstanding the fact that large 
forests exist witliin her own confines, is even now no mean customer for Wisconsin lumber, and 
the ambitious territory of Dakota will soon clamor for material to build up a great and wealthy 
state. In the inevitable progress of development and growth which must characterize the great 
west, the demand for pine lumber for building material will be a prominent feature. With the 
growth of time, changes will occur in the methods of reducing the forests. With the increasing 
demand and enhancing values v.ill come improvements in manipulating the raw material, and a 
stricter economy will be preserved in the handling of a commodity which tlie passage of time 
only makes more valuable. Wisconsin will become the home of manufactories, which will 
convert her trees into finished articles of daily consumption, giving employment to thousands of 
artisans where it now requires hundreds, and bringing back millions of revenue where is now 
realized thousands. Like all other commodities, lumber becomes more valuable as skilled labor 
is employed in its manipulation, and the greater the extent to which this is carried, the greater is 
the growth in prosperity, of the state and its people. 


p.v JOHN P. McGregor. 

Wisconsin was organized as a territory in 1S36, and the same year several acts were passed 
by the territorial legislature, incorjiorating banks of issue. Of tliese, one at Green Eay and 
anotlier at Mineral Point went into ojieration just in time to pl.iy their part in the great panic 
of 1S37. The bank at Green Pay soon failed and left its bills unredeemed. The bank at 
Mineral Point is said to have struggled a little longer, but both these concerns were short lived, 
and their issues were but a drop in the great ll;cd of worthless wild-cat bank notes that spread 
over the whole we:itern country in disastrous time. The sufferings of the people of Wis- 
consin, t"rom this cause, left a vivid iiii[)re3sion on their minds, which manifested its results in the 
legislation of the territory and in the constitution of the state adopted in 1S4S. So jealous were 
the legislatures ol the territory, of banks and all their works, that, in every act of incorporatior 
for any purpose, a clause was inserted to the effect that notiiing in the act contained should be 

192 HiSTor.Y OF ■\viscox>;:x. 

taken to authorize the cor[<oratioii to assume or exercise any banking powers ; and this proviso 
was even added to acts incorporating church societies. For some years there can hardly be said 
to have been ar.y banking business done in the territory; merchants and business men were left 
to their own devices to make their exchanges, and every man was his own banker. 

In the year iSyj an act was [lassed incorporating the " Wisconsiia Marine and Fire Insurance 
Company." of Milwaukee. This charter conferred on the corporation, in addition to the usual 
nowers of a fire and marine insurance company, the privilege of reccizui:; ikposils, issuing certifi- 
ccitis of dt'posit -xwA lending money, — and wound up with the usual pirohibition from doing a 
banking business. This company commenced business at once under the management of George 
Smith as president'and Alexander Mitchell as secretary. The receiving deposits, issuing certifi- 
cates of deposit and lending money, soon outgrew and overshadowed the insurance branch of the 
institution, which accordingly gradually dried up In fact, the certificates of deposit had all the 
appearance of ordinary bank notes, and served the purposes of an excellent currency, being 
always prompt! v redeemed in coin on demand. (Ir. '.dually these issues attained a great 
circulation all tlirough the west, as the people gained more and inore confidence in the honesty 
and ability of the managers ; and though '" runs " were several times made, yet being successfully 
met, the public finally settled down into the belief that the.e bills were good bej-ond question, so 
that the amount in circulation at one time, is said, Oii good authority, to have been over 

As tJK- general government required specie to be paid for all lands bought of it, the Wis- 
consin Marine and Fire Insurance comjiany, by redemption of its " certificates of deposit," 
furnished a large pirt of the coin needed for use at the Milwaukee land office, and more or less 
for purchases at land ot'fices iir other parts of the state, and its issues were of course much in 
request for this purpose For many years this institution furnished the main banking facilities 
for the business men of the territorj- and young state, in the way of discounts and e.\change<. 
Its ricrht to carry on the operations it was engaged in, under its somewhat dubious and incon- 
sistent charter, was often questioned, and, in 1S5:'. under the administration of Governor Farwell, 
.some steps were taken to test the matter; but as the general banking law had then been passed 
by the leeislature, and was about to be submitted to the people, and as it was understood that the 
company •'■'■Id organi/e as a bank under the law. if approved, the legal proceedings were not 
pressed. ^Vhile this eorjvjration played so important a part in tlie financial history and commer- 
cial development of Wisconsin, the writer is not aware of any available statistics as to the 
amount of business transacted by it before it became merged in the "^\'isconsin Marine and 
Fire Insurance Company's bank." 

In iS.[7, the foundation of the preser.t well-known firm of Marshall & Ilsley was laid by 
Samuel Marshall, who, in that year, opened a [jrivate banking office in Milwaukee, and was joined 
in 1S49 bv Charles F. Ilslev. Tills concern has alw.iy^ held a prominent position among the 
lianking institution.-^ of our state. .About this time, at Mineral Point, Washburn &: Woodman 
(C. C. Washburn and Cyrus Woodman) engaged in private banking, as a part of their business. 
.\fter some vears they were succeeded by Wm. T. Henry, who still continues the banking office. 
.■\mong the early [irivate bankers oi the state were Mr. Kellogg, of Oshkosh ; Ulmann and Bell, of 
Kacii.e ; and T. C. Shove, of Manitowoc.' The latter siill continues his business, while that of 
the otlier urms has '. een wound up or merged in organized banks. 

In 1S4S, Wisconsin ad''ptcd a state constitution. This constitution prohibited the legislature 
fronl incoriiorating banks and from i:onferring banking jiowcrs on .my cor[ioration; but provided 
the question of "banks or no lianks " niigitt h\i submitted to a vote \di the electors, and, if the 
decision sliould be in favor of banks, then the legislature might charter banks or might enact a 

' BAXKiNO IX wisroxsix. 193 

general banking law, but no such charter or general banking law should have any force 
until submitted to the electors at a general election, and approved by a majority of votes cast on 
that subject. In 1S51, the legislature submitted this question to the people, and a majority of 
the votes were cast in favor of " banks."' Accordingly the legislature, in 1S52, made a general 
banking law, wliich was submitted to the electors in Xoveni'ier of that year, and was approved 
by them. This law was very similar to the free banking law of the state of Xew York, which 
had then been in force about fifteen years, and was generallv approved in tiiat state. Our law 
authorized any number of individuals to form a corporate association for banking purposes, and 
its main provisions were intended to provide security for the circulating r.<'res,by deposit of state 
and United States stocks or bonds with the state treasurer, so that tlie bill Iiolders should sustain 
no loss in case of the failure of the banks. Provision was made for a bank comptroller, whose 
main duty it was to see that countersigned circulating notes were issued to banks only in proper 
amounts for the securities deposited, and upon compliance with tire law, and that the banks kept 
these securities good. 

Tlie first bank comptroller was Jaines S. I'aker, who was appointed by Governor Farwell. 

The first banks organized under the new law were the " State Bank," established at Madi- 
son by Marshall &: Il^ley, and the " Wisconbin Marine and Fire Insurance Company's Bank," 
established at Milwaukee under the old management of that company. These banks both went 
intooperation early in January, 1S53, and, later in that year, the '" State Bank of Wisconsin " (now 
Milwaukee National Bank of Wisconsin), and the '' Farmer>' and Millers' Bank " (now First 
National Bank of .Milwaukee), were established, followed in January, 1S54, by the "Bank of Mil- 
waukee " (now National E-xchange Bank of Milwaukee). From this time forward banks were 
rapidly established at difterent points through the state, until in July, 1S57, they numbered si.xty 
— with aggregate capital, §4,205,000; deposits, $3,920,238; and circulation, $2,231,829. In 
October, the great revulsion and panic of 1S57 came on, and in its course and effects tried pretty 
severely the new banks in Wisconsin. Some of them succumbed to the pressure, but most of 
them stood the trial well. 

The great source of loss and weakness at that time was found in the rapid decline of the 
market value of the securities deposited to protect circulation, which wc-re mostly state bonds, 
and largely those of the southern states; so that tliis securit}, when it came to be tried, did not 
prove entirely sufficient. Another fault of the system, or of the practice under it, was developed 
at this time. It was t'ound that many of the banks had been set up without actual workingcapi- 
tal, merely for the purpose of issuing circulating notes, and were located at distant and inaccessible 
points in what was then the great northern wilderness of tiie state ; so that it was expensive and 
in fact impracticable to present their issues for redemption. A\'hile these evils and their rem- 
edies were a good deal discussed among bankers, the losses and inconveniences to the people 
were not yet great enough to lead to the adoption of thorough and complete measures of reform. 
The effort of these difficulties, however, waa to bring the bankers of the slaie into the habit of 
consulting and acting together in cases of emergency, the first bankers' convention havi^g been 
held iri 1S57. This was followed by others from time to, and it would lie difficult to over- 
value the great good tliat has resulted, at several important crises from the liar, :.onious and con- 
servative action of the bankers of our state. Partly, at least, upon tiieir recommendations the 
legishuure, in 1S5.S, adopted amendments to tile banking law, providing that no bank sliould be 
located in a township containing le>> th.m two hundred inhaliitants ; and tiiat the comptroller 
should not issuecirculating notes, excei't to hanks doing a regular discount deposit and exchange 
business in some inliabited town, vi'l.ige, city, or where the ordinary Inisiness of inhabited towns, 
villages and cities was carried on. These amendments were approved by tiie [)eople at the fall 

194 III^T<H;V OF ^VISCOX.SIN". ' , 

election of that year. 

Banking matter-; now ran alon;^- pretty smoothly until the election in iSGo, of the rciiublican 
presidential ticket, and the conse'iucnt agitation in the southern states threatening civil war, the 
effects of wiiich were speedily felt; first, i;; the great depreciation of tiie bonds of tile bouthern 
states, and then in a less decline in tiio>e of the northern states. At this time (taking the state- 
ment of July, iS6o,) tlie number of banks was 104, with aggregate ca[iital, $1,547,000; circula- 
tion, $4,075,918; depo-,its. S.v-i'^j-S-- 

During the winter following, there was a great deal of uneasiness in regard to our state cur- 
rency, and CO itiriuous demand upon our banks for the redemjjtion of their circulating notes in 
coin. Many banks of the wild-cat sort failed to redeem their notes, winch became depreciated 
and unciirrent; and, wlien the rebellion came to a head l>y the fiiiiig on Fort Sumter, thebanking 
interests of the state were threatened v.itli destructii^n by compulsory winding up and enforced 
sale at the panic jirlces tlien prevailine, of the securities deposited to secure circulation. Under 
these circumstances, on t!ie 17111 of April, 1061, the lcgi--lature passed "an act to protect the 
holders of the circulating notes of the authorized ban!>3 of the state of Wisconsin." As the 
banking law could not be amended except by app'oval of the electors, by vote at a general 
election, a practical suspension of specie payment had to be effected by indirect methods. So 
this act first directed the bank comptroller to susiiend all action toward banks for failing to 
redeem tlieir circulation. Secondly, it i)rohibited notaries public from protesting bills of banks 
untd Dec 1, 1S61. Thirdly, it gave banks until that date to answer complaints in any proceed- 
ing to compel s[iecle payment of circid.'.ting notes. This same legislature also amended the 
banking law, to cure (U_-fects that had been develojied in it. These amendments were intended 
to facilitate the presentation and prote-t of circulating notes, and the winding u[) of banks 
failing to redeem them, and provided tliat the bank comiitroller should not issue circulating notes 
except to banks having actual cash capil il; on which [lO'.nl he was to take evidence in all cases; 
that after Dec. i, iSOi, all banks of the slate should redeem their issues cither at .Madison or 
Milw.iLikee, and no bonds or stocks sIioulJ be received as security for circulation e.\cept tliose of 
the United States and of the state of Wisconsin. 

Specie payment of bank bills was then, practically suspended, in our state, from April 17 to 
December i, 1S61, and tiiere was no longer any pla;n practical test for determining which were 
good, and which not. In this cor;d;tion ot tilings, bankers met in convention, and, atter discus- 
sion and inquiry as to the condition and resources of the different banks, put forth a list of those 
whose issues were to be considered carrent and bankable. IJat things grew worse, and it was 
evident that the list contained banks would never be able to redeeni their circulation, and 
the issues of such were from time to lime liirown out and discredite>.l without anv concert of 
action, so that the uneasiness of people in regard to the financial situation was greatly increased. 
The bankers finally met, gave liie banks .iitolher sifling, and put forth a list of seventy banks. 
^^■ho^e circulating notes lliey pledged tliemselves to re<;eive, and pay out as current, until Decem- 
ber I. 'I'here had been so many ciianges this pledge was thoug'it necessary to allay the 
apprchensioas of the pul'lic. D ;t matters still grew worse instead of belter. Some of the 
banks i;. tiie '■ current "' list closed their doors to their depositor.s, and others were evidently 
u:;souhd, and tlie;r circi,hilio:i so insufiieiently secured as lo make it certain that it would never 
be redeemed. There was more or less sorting of the currency, both b\' banks and business men, 
all over the state, in ihe endeavor to keep the best and jjay out tlie poorest. In this state of 
things, some of llie -Milwaukee banks, wiihout concert of action, and acting under the a[>prehen- 
sion 01 beir.g loaded u;) wiiii tiie ve;v Worst of tile currency, which, it \ias feared, the country 
L.i^nks ar.d mercbants werc^ sorting out and sending to Milwaukee, revised ihe list again, and 


tlirew out ten of tlic seventy banks whose issues it IkuI been a-reed should be received as 
current. Other banks and bankers were compelled to take tlie same course to protect them- 
selves. The conseqaence was a great disturbance of the public mind, and violent charges" of 
bad faith on the [lart of the banks, which culminated in the barik riots of June 24, 1S61. On 
that day, a crowd of several hundred disorderly people, starting out most probably only with the 
idea of making some sort of demonstration of their dissatisfaction with the action of the banks 
and bankers and with tlie failure to keep faith with the public, marched through the streets with 
El band of music, and I'tought up at the corner of Michigan and Eciai Water streets. 

The banks had just sufficient notice of these proceedings to enable them to lock up their 
money and valuables in their vaults, before the storm broke upon them. The mob halted at the 
l)lace above mentioned, and for a time contented themselves with hooting, and showed no dispo- 
sition to proceed to violence; but, after a little while, a stone was thrown through the windows 
of the ^\'ibConsin Marine and Fire Insurance Company's Bank, situated at c>ne corner of the 
al)Ove streets, and volleyi of stones soon followed, not only against that bank, but also against 
the State J'.ank of Wisconsin, situated on the opposite corner. The windows of both these 
institutions and of the offices in the basements under them were effectually demolished. 
The mob then made a rush into these banks and oftices, and completely gutted them, offering 
more or less violence to the inmates, though no person was seriously hurt. The broken furni- 
ture of the offices under the State Bank of Wisconsin was piled up, and the torch was applied 
by some of the rioters, while others were busy in endeavoring to break into the safes of the offices 
and the vaults of the banks. The Jchris of the furniture in the office of the Wisconsin Marine 
and Fire Insurance (Company's Bank, was also set on fire, and it was plain that if the mob was 
not immediately checked, the city would be given up to conflagration and j)illage — the worst 
elements, as is always the case with mobs, having assumed the leadershii). Just at that juncture, 
the Mihvaukee zouaves, a small military compan)', appeared on the scene, and with the help of 
tlic firemen who had been called out, the mob was put to flight, and the inciijicnt fire was extin- 

The damage so far done was not great in amount, and the danger for the moment was over; 
but the situation was still grave, as the city was full of threats, disturbance and aijprehension. 
Tly the prompt action of the authorities, a number of companies of volunteers were brought from 
different places in the state, order was preserved, and, after muttering for three or four days, liie 
storm died away. The effect of that disturbance and alarm was, however, to bring home to the 
l)ankers and business men the conviction that effectual measures must be taken to settle our 
slate currency matters on a sound and permanent basis, and that the issues ot all banks thai 
could not be put in sliafie to meet s[)ecie payment in I 'ecember, must be retired from circulation 
and be got out of the way. -\ meeting of the bankers was held; also of the merchants' associaticm 
of Milwaukee, and arrangements were made to raise §100,000, by these two bodies, to be used in 
a .sibling weak and crippled banks in securing or retiring their circulation. The banker. 
appi'Iiited a committee to take the matter in charge. 

It hapiiened that just at this time Ciovernor Randall and Slate Treasurer Hastings returned 
fruiii New York City, v.iiere they had been making unsuccessful elii-irts tu dispose of $Soo,ooo '•{ 
\\'L-(onsin war boiaU, which had been ia^ued to raise funds to fit oul Wisconsin \oiinUeers. 

Our state had never had any bonds on the eastern market. For other reasons, our 
credit was not high in Xew \'ork, and it had been founrj impossible to disjiose ot ihe^e bonds for 
over sixty cents on the dollar. The state ot'ticers conferred with the bankers to see what cou'd 
be done at home; and it was finally arranged that the bankers' committee should undertake tr> 
get the state banks to dispose of their southern and otiier deiuecuUed state bonds on deposit .to 

lOt) ill^TiiKV dl' WIM'OXSIX. . ' 

secure circuLitiDii. for what they •.vouhi bring in coin, in Xew York, and rejilace these bonds with 
those of our own state,. which were to be tatcen by our banks nominally at par — seventy percent, 
being paid in cash, and the different banks purchasing bonds, giving their individual obligation 
for the thirty per cent, balance, to be paid in semi-annual installments, with an agreement that the 
state should deduct these installments from the interest so long as these bonds should remain on 
deposit with the state. By the terms of the law, si.xty per cent, of tlie proceeds of the bonds had to 
be paid in coin. The hankers' committee went to work, and with some labor and difhculty 
induced most of the banks to sell their southern securities at the existing low prices in New 
York, and thus produce the coin required to pay fur our state bonds. P'rom the funds provided 
by tiie merchants 'and bankers, they assisted many of the weaker banks to make good their 
securities with the banking department of the state. By the 19th of July, six of the ten rejected 
banks that had been the occasion of the riot, were made good, and restored to the list. The 
otiier four were wound up, and their issues redeemed at par, and, before the last of August, the 
value of the securities of all the banks on the current list were brought up to their circulation, 
as shown by the comptroller's report. 

\Visconsin currency at the time of the bank riot was at a discount of about 15 per cent., as 
compared with gold or New York exchange. At the middle of July the discount was 10 to 12 
per cent , and early in August it fell to 5 per cent. The bankers' committee continued their 
work in jjreparatiun for the resumption of sjiecie jiaymcnt on December i. ^VhiIe the securities 
for the bank circulation had been made good, it was, nevertheless, evident that many of the 
banks on the current list would not be equal to the continued redemption of their bills in specie, 
and that they would have to be wound up and got out of the way in season. Authority was got 
from such institutions, as fast as possible, for the bankers' committee to retire their circulation 
and sell their securities. The Milwaukee banks and bankers Ioo'k. upion themselves the great 
burden of this bu.siness, having arranged among themselves to sort out and withhold from cir- 
culation the bills of these banks, — distributing the load among themselves in certain defined 
proportions. Instead of paying out these doubted bills, the different banks brought to the bank- 
ers' committee such amounts as tliey accumulated from time to time, and received from the 
comniittee certificates of deposit bearing seven jier cent, interest, and these bills were locked up 
by the committee until the securities for these notes could be sold and tlie proceeds realized. 
Over $500,000 of this sort of paper was locked up by the committee at one time ; but_ it was all 
converted into ea^h, and, when the fir-it of December came, the remaining l)aiiks of this state 
were ready to redeem tlieir issues in gold or its equivalent, and so continued to redeem until the 
issue of the legal-tender notes and the general suspension of specie payment in the United 

In July, 1S61, the number of our banks was 107, with cajiital, $4,607,000; circulation, 
8--3'7'9°7 I deposits, $'3,265,069, 

By the contraction incident to the preparations for redemption in specie, the amount of cur- 
rent Wisconsin bank notes outstanding December i, iS6i,was reduced to about $1,500,000. 
When that day came, there w-as quite a disposition manifested to convert Wisconsin currency 
into coin, and a sharp financial [>inch was felt for a few days ; but as the public became satisfied 
that the banks were pre[iared to meet t'le demand, the call for redemption rapidly fell off, and 
the I'anks soon began to exjiand tlieir circulation, which ^vas now current and in good demand 
all through tiic northwestern states. The amount saved to all the interests of our state, by this 
successful effort to save o\\: banking system from destruction, is lieyond computation. From 
this time our banks ran along quietly until prohibitory taxation by act ot congress drove the bills 
of state banks out of circulation. 


The national banking law was passed in 1S63, and a few hanks were soon organised under 
it in different parts of the country. The first in AVisconsin was formed by the re-organization of 
the Farmers' and Millers' Bank, in August, 1S63, as the First National Bank of Milwaukee, 
with Edward D. Ilolton as president, and H. H. Camp, cashier. The growth of the new system, 
however, was not very rapid; the state banks were slow to avail themselves of the privileges of 
the national banking act, and the central authorities concluded to compel them to come in ; so 
lacilities were offered for their re-organization as national banks, and then a tax of ten per cent. 
was laid upon the issues of the state banks. Tins ta.x was imposed by act of March, 1S65, and 
at once caused i commotion in our state. In July, 1S64, the number of Wisconsin state banks 
was sixty-six, with capital ^3.147,000, circulation $2,461,7 ?S, deposits ¥5,483,205, and these 
figures were probably not very different in the spring of 1S65. The securities for the circulating 
notes were in great part the bonds of our own state, which, while known bv' our own people to 
be good be}ond question, had never been on the general markets of the country so as to be cur- 
rently known there ; and it was feared that in the hurried retirement of our circulation these 
bonds would be sacrificed, the currency depreciated, and great loss brought upon our banks and 
people. There was some excitement, and a general call for the redemption of our state circula- 
tion, but the banks mostly met the run well, and our people were disposed to stand by our own 
state bonds. 

In April, 1861, the legislature passed laws, calling in the mortgage loans of the school fund, 
and directing its investment in these securities. The state treasurer was required to receive 
Wisconsin bank' notes, not only for taxes and debts due the state, but also on deposit, and to 
issue certificates for such deposits bearing seven per cent, interest. liy these and like means 
the threatened panic was stopped; and in the coiirse of a fev.- months Wisconsin state currency 
was nearly all withdrawn from circulation. In July, 1S65, the number of state banks was 
twenty-six, with capital $r, 087, 000, circulation $192,323, deposits §2,2S4,2to. Under the _ 
pressure put on by congress, the organization of national banks, and especially the re-organiza- 
tion of state banks, under the national system, was proceeding rapidly, and in a short time nearly 
every town in our own state of much size or importance was provided with one or more of these 

In the great panic of 1873, all the Wisconsin banks, both state and national (in common 
with those of the whole countr\), were severely tried; but the failures were few and unimpor- 
tant ; and ^^'i5consin went through that ordeal with less loss and disturbance than almost any 
other state. 

We have seen that the history of banking in Wisconsin covers a stormy jieriod, in which 
great disturbances and jianics have occurred at intervals of a few years. It is to be hoped thai 
a more peaceful epoch will succeed, but jicrnianent quiet and prosperity can not rationally be 
expected in the present unsettled condition of our currency, nor until we have gone through the 
temjwrary stringency incidental to the resumption of specie payment. 

According to the last report of the comptroller of the currency, the number of national 
banks in Wisconsin in November, 1876, was forty, with capital $3,400,000, deposits $7,145,360, 
circulation $2,072,869. 

At this time (July, 1877) the number of state banks is twenty-six, with capital $1,288,231, 
deposits $6,662,973. Their circ\ilation is, of course, merely nominal, though there is no legal 
obstacle to their issuing circulating notes, excei^t the tax imposed by congre.-.s. 


By Hon-. H. 11. CrlLES. 

The material pjiilosojihy of a people has to do with the practical and useful. It sees in 
iron, coal, cotton, wool, grain and the trees of the forest, the elements of personal comfort and 
sources of material greatness, and i^ applied to their development, production and fabrication for 
pur[)Ose» of exchange, interchange and sale. Tiie early immigrants to Wisconsin territory found 
a land teeming witli unsur[)a-seJ natural advantages; prairies, timber, water and minerals, invit- 
ing the farmer, n.iner and lumberman, to come and build houses, furnaces, mills and factories. 
The first settlers were a food-producing people. The prairies and openings were ready for the 
plow. The ease with whirh farms were brought under cultivation, readily enabled the pioneer 
to supply the food necessary for himself and family, while a surplus was often produced in a few- 
months. The hardships so often encountered in tlie settlement of a new country, where forests 
must be felled and stumiis removed to prepare the soil for tillage, were scarcely know-n,or greatly 

iJuring the decade from 1S35 to 1845,^0 great were the demands for the products of the 
soil, created b) the tide of emigration, that the settlers found a home market for all their surplus 
]irodacts, and so easil\' were croii:^ grown that, within a very brief time after the jirst emigration, 
but little was reijuired I'rom abroad. The commerce of the country was carried on by the 
exchange of products. The settlers (they could scared)' be called farmers) would exchange 
their wheat, corn, oats and pork for the goods, wares and fabrics of the village merchant. It 
was an age of barter; but they looked at the cai)al>ilities of the land they had come to possess, 
and, with firm faith, saw bright promises of better days in the building up of a great state. 

It is not designed to trace with minuteness the historj- of ^^"isconsin through the growth of 
its commercial and manufacturing interests. To do it justice would require a volume. The 
aini of this article will be to present a concise view of its present status. Allusion will only be 
incidentally made to stages of growth and progress by which it has been reached. 

lew states in the Union possess within their borders so many, and in such abundance, 
elements that contribute to the material pro>perit}- of a peoiilc. Its soil of unsurpassed 
fertility; its inexhaustible mines of lead, copper, 7inc and iron; its almost boundless forests ; 
il^ water-powers, sufficient to drive the machinery of the world ; its long line^ of lake shore on 
tuo sides, and the " Father of water^ " on another, — need but enterprise, energy and capital to 
utilize them in building an emj:ire of wealth, where the hum of varied^industries shall be heard 
in the music of the sickle, the loom and the anvil. 

'I'hc growth of manufacturing industries was slow during tlie first twenty-five years of our 
hi^liiry. 'I'he earl)' settler^ were poor. Frei|uentl\- the land they tilled was pledged to obtain to pay foi it. rajjitalists obtained from twenty to thirty pier cent, per annum for the use 
ol their money. Indeed, it was the rule, under the free-trade ideas of the money-lenders for 
tluni to pl.iy tile Sh^loik. ^\ bile investments in bondh and inoiigages were so profitable, few 
wer'; rcifU to improve the natural advantages the country presented for building factories and 


For many years, quite all the implements used in farming were brought from outside the 
state. While this is the case at present to some extent with the more cumbersome farm 
machinery, quite a proportion of that and most of the simpler and lighter implements are made 
at home, while much farm machinerj- is now manufactured for export to other states. 


The northwest was visited and explored by French voyagcurs and missionaries from Canada 
at an early day. The object of the former was trading and gain. The Jesuits, ever zealous in 
the propagation' of their religion, went forth into the unknown wilderness to convert the natives 
to their faith. As early as 16^4, they were operating about Lake Huron and Mackinaw. Father 
Men.ird it is related, was with the Indians on Lake Superior as early as 1661. The early 
explorers were of two classes, and were stimulated by two widely different motives — the roya^- 
nirs, by the love of gain, and the missionaries, by their zeal in the propagation of their faith. 
Previous to 1679, a considerable trade in furs had sprung up with Indian tribes in the vicinity of 
Mackinaw and the northern p.irt of " Ouisconsin." In that year more than two hundred canoes, 
laden with furs, passed Mackinaw, bound for Montreal. The whole commerce of this vast region 
then traversed, was carried on with birch-baik canoes. The French used them in traversing 
wilds — otherwise inaccessible by reason of floods of water at one season, and ice and snow at 
another — also lakes and morasses which interrupted land journeys, and rapids and cataracts 
that cut off communication b) water. This little vessel enabled them to overcome all difficulties. 
Being buoyant. It rode the waves, although heavily freighted, and, of light draft, it permitted the 
traversing of small streams. Its weight was so light that it could be easily carried from one 
stream to another, and around rapids and other obstructions. \\\i\\ this little vessel, the fur 
trade of the northwest was carried on, as well as the interior of a vast continent explored. 
Under the stimulus of commercial enterprise, the French traders penetrated the recesses of the 
immense forests whose streams were the home of the beaver, the otter and the mink, and in 
whose depths were found the martin, sable, ermine, and other fur-bearing animals. .V vast trade 
in furs sprung up, and was carried on by different agents, under authority of tiie French 

When the military possession of the northwestern domain passed from the government of 
France to that of Great Britain in 1760, the relationship of the fur trade to the government 
changed. The government of France had controlled the traffic, and made it a means of strength- 
ening its hold upon the country it possessed. The policy of Great Britain was, to charter 
companies, and grant them exclusive privileges. The Hudson bay company had grown rich and 
powerful between 1670 and 1760. Its success had excited the cupidity of capitalists, and rival 
organizations were formed. The business of the conqviny had been done at their trading-stations 
— the natives bringing in their furs for exchange and barter. Other companies sent their 
voyageurs into every nook and corner to traffic with the trappers, avA even to catch the fur-bear- 
ing animals themselves. In the progress of time, private parties engaged in trapping and dealing 
in furs, and, under the competition created, the business became less profitable. In 1S15. 
congress passed an act prohibiting foreigners from dealing in furs in the Ignited States, or any 
of its territories. This action was obtained through the influence of John Jacob Astor. Mr. 
Astor organized the .-Vmerican fur company in iScg, and afterward, in connection with the North- 
west company, bought out the Mackinaw company, and the two were merged in the Southwest 
company. The association was susi>endcd by the war of iSr2. The American re-entered the 
field in 1S16. The fur trade is still an impKjrtant branch of traftlc in the northern part of the 
state, and, during eight months of the year, employs a large number of men. 


insTUIlY OF WL>C0X5ilX. 

Lead and Zinc. 

In 1824, the lead ore in the southwestern part of Wisconsin began to attract attention. 
From 1S26 to 1830, tliere was a great rush of min^-rs to this region, somewhat like tlie Pike's 
Peak excitement at a later date. The lead-producing region of ^Visconsin covers an area of 
about 2,200 square miles, and embraces parts of Grant, Iowa and La Fayette counties. Between 
1S29 and 1839, the production of lead increased from 5,000 to 10,000 tons. After the latter 
3'ear it rose rapidly, and attained its ma.ximum in 1S45, when it reached nearly 25,000 tons. 
Since that time the production has decreased, although still carried on to a considerable extent. 

The sulphate and carbonate of zinc abound in great quantities v.ith the lead of southwest 
Wisconsin. Owing to the difficulty of working this class of ores, it was formerly allowed to 
accumulate about the mouths of the mines. \\'ithin a few years past, metallurgic processes 
have been so greatly improved, that the zinc ores have been largely utilized. At La Salle, in the 
state of Illinois, there are three establishments for smelting zinc ores. There is also one at Peru, 
111. I'd smelt zinc ores economically, they are taken where cheap fuel is available. Hence, the 
location of these works in the vicinity of coal mines. The works mentioned made in 1S75, 
from ores mostly taken from Wisconsin, 7,510 tons of zinc. These metals are, therefore, impor- 
tant elements in the commerce of Wisconsin. 


The iron ores of -Wisconsin occur in immense beds in several localities, and are destined to 
prove of great value. From their product in 1S63, there were 3,735 tons of pig iron received at 
Milwaukee; in 1S65, 4,785 tons; in 1S6S. 10.S90 tons. Of the latter amount, 4,648 tons were 
frum the iron mmes at Mayville. I'here were shipped from Milwaukee, in 1S6S, 6,361 tons of 
l<ig iron. There were also received 2,500 tons of ore from the Dodge county ore beds. During 
1S69. the ore beds at Iron Ridge were developed to a considerable extent, and two large blast 
furnaces constructed in Milwaukee, at which place there were 4,695 tons of ore received, and 
2,059 tons v.-ere shipiped to Chicago and Wyandotte. In 1S70, 112,060 tons of iron ore were 
received at Milwaukee, 95.000 tons of which were from Iron Ridge, and 17,060 tons from Esca- 
naba and Marquette, in Michigan. The total product of the mines at Iron Ridge in 1S71 was 
82,284 tons. The Milwaukee iron company received by lake, in the same year, 28,094 tons of 
Marcpiette iron ore to mix with the former in making railroad iron. In 1S72, there were receivea 
from Iron Ridge 85,245 tons of ore, and 5,620 tons of pig iron. Much of the metal made by the 
Wisconsin iron company in 1872 was shippied to St. Louis, to mix with the iron made from 
Missouri ore. 

'I'he following table shows the production of pig iron in Wisconsin, for 1S72, 1S73 and 1S74, 
in tons : 


Milwaukee Iron Company, Miluaukec- 
Minerva i-"urnace Company, Milwaukee 
Wisconsin Iron Company, Iron Riclge. 
Isorthwcitern Iron Company. M.ayville 

Applcton Iron Company, Aii].Ie;on 

Green IJay Iron Company, Green Bay- 
National Iron Company, IJepcrc- 

Fo.x River Iron Company, W. Dcpere. 
Ironton F'.irnace, Sauk county 























The j^Iihvaukee iron company, during the year 1S72, entered into the manufacture of mer- 
chant iron — it having been demonstrated that the raw material could be reduced there cheaper 
than elsewhere. The Minerva furnace company built also during the same year one of the 
most compnct and comjiletc iron furnaces to be found any where in the country. During the 
year 1873, the iron, -with most other material interests, became seriously prostrated, so that the 
total receipts of ore in Milwaukee in 1S74 amounted to only 31,993 tons, against 69,418 in 1S73, 
and 85,245 tons in 1S72. There were made in Milwaukee in 1874, 29,680 tons of railroad iron. 
In 1S75, 58,868 tons of ore were received at Milwaukee, showing a revival of the trade in an 
increase of i9,7'S6 tons over the previous year. The operation of the works at Bay View having 
suspended, the receipts of ore in 1S76, at Milwaukee, were less than during any year since 1869, 
being only 31,119 tons, of which amount only 5,488 tons were from Iron Ridge, and the total 
shipments were only 49S tons. 


The business of lumbering holds an important rank in the commerce of the state. For 
many years the ceaseless hum of the saw and the stroke of the ax have been heard in all our 
great forests. The northern portion of the state is characterized by evergreen trees, principally 
pine; the southern, by hard-woods. There are exceptional localities, but this is a correct state- 
ment of the general distribution. I think that, geologically speaking, the evergreens belong to 
the primitive and sandstone regions, and the hard wood to the limestone and clay formations. 
Northern Wisconsin, so called, embraces that portion of the state north of forty-five degrees, 
and possesses nearly all the valuable pine forests. The most thoroughly developed portion of 
this region is that lying along the streams entering into Green bay and Lake Michigan, and border- 
ing on the Wisconsin river and other streams entering into the Mississippi. Most of the pine in 
the immediate vicinity of these streams has lieen cut off well toward their sources; still, there 
are vast tracts covered with dense forests, r.ot accessible from streams suitable for log-drivi:ig 
purposes. The l)uilding of railroads into these forests will alone give a market value to a large 
portion of the pine timber there growing. It is well, perhaps, that this is so, for at the present 
rate of consumption, but a few years will elapse before these noble forests will be totally destroyed. 
Most of the lumber manufactured on the rivers was formerly taken to a market by being floated 
down the streams in rafts. Now, the railroads are transporting l.irge quantities, taking it directly 
from the mills and unloading it at interior points in Iowa, Illinois and Wisconsin, and some of it 
in eastern cities. From five to eight thousand men are employed in the pineries in felling the 
trees, sawing them into logs of suitable length, and hauling them to the mills and streams during 
ever}- winter in times of fair pirices and fa\orable seasons. The amount of lumber sawed in 
1S60, as carefully er>timateil, was 35',o5^,It5 feet. The amount uf shingles made was 2,272,061, 
and no account was made of the immense number of logs tloated out of the state, for manufac- 
ture into lumber elsewhere. The amount of logs cut in the winter of 1S73 and 1S74 was 
987,000,000 feet. In 1S76 and i.'s7 7 the Black river furnished 188,344,464 feet. The Chippewa, 
90,000,000; the Red Cedar, 57,000,000. There passed through Beef Slough 129.384,000 leet of 
logs. Hon. .\. H. Katon, for fourteen ^■ea^s receiver of the United Stales lanil ortice at Stevens 
Point, estimated the acreage (;f pine lands in his district at 2, coo, 000, and, taking his own district 
as the basis, ho estimated the whole state at .S, 000. 000 acres. Reckoning this at 5.000 feet to the 
acre, the aggregate pine timber of the state would be 40,000,000,000 feet. The log prodtict 
annually amounts to an immense sum. In 1.S76. 1,172,611,823 feet were cut. This is about the 
average annual draft that is ni.ide on the jiinc lands. There seems to be no remedy for the 

■ ^^rKr'rv?i'^''^rrn^ 



wholesale destruction of our pine forests, except the one alluded to, the ditticulty of transporta- 
tion, and this will probabl}' save a portion of them fur a long time in the future. At the rate of 
consumption for twenty years past, we can estimate that fifty years would see northern Wiscon- 
sin denuded of its pine forests; but our lumber product has reached its maximum, and will 
probably decrease in the coming years as tlic distance to be hauled to navigable streams 
increases. In the mean time lumber, shingles and lath will form an important factor in our 
commerce, both state and inter-state, and will contribute inilllous to the wealth of our citizens. 

Up to 1841, no grain was exported from 'Wisconsin to be used as food; but, from the time 
of Its first settlement in 1S36 to 1S40, the supply of bread stuffs from abroad, upon which the 
jieople depended, was gradually diminished by the substitution of home products. In the winter 
of 1S40 and 1841, E. D. Holton, of Milwaukee, purchased a small cargo of wheat (about 4,000 
bushels), and in tb.e spring of 1S41, shipped it to Buffalo. This was the beginning of a traffic 
that has grown to immense propKsrtions, and, since that time, wheat has formed the basis of the 
commerce and prosperity of the state, until the city of Milwaukee has become the greatest 
primary wheat marl of the world. 

The following table gives the exports of flour and grain from Milwaukee for thirty-two years, 
commencing in 1S45: 

































S.99 = ,479 


11.634. 749 

9.59'. 452 


14.272. 7(» 




1 64. 9.. 3 





1.4 = 5 








93. Sof> 


































1. 377,"; 60 

















464. S37 


















Up to 1S56, the sliipnicnli were almost wholly of Wisconsin products ; but with the comple- 
tion of lines of railroad from Milwaukee to the Mississippi river, tlie commerce of Wisconsin 
became so interwoven with that of Iowa and Minnesota, that the data furnished by the transpor- 
tation companies, give us no definite figures relating to the products of our own state. 

Dairy Products. 

Wisconsin is becoming largely interested in the dairy business. Its numerous springs, 
streams, and natural adaptability to grass, make it a fine grazing country, and stock thrives 
remarkably well. Within a few years, cheese-factories have become numerous, and their owners 
are meeting with excellent success. Wisconsin cheese is bringing the highest price in the markets, 
and much of it is shipped to England. Butter is also made of a superior quality, and is exten- 
sively e.xported. At the rate of jirogress made during the last few years, ^Visconsin will soon 
take rank with the leading cheese and butter producing states. The counties most largely inter- 
ested in dairying, are Kenosha, Walworth, Racine, Rock, Green, Waukesha, Winnebago, Sheboy- 
gan, Jefferson and Dodge. According to estimates by experienced dairymen, the manufacture 
of butter was 22,473,000 pounds in 1S70; 50,130,000 in 1S76; of cheese, 1,591,000 pounds in 
1S70, as against 17,000,000 in 1S76, which will convey a fair idea of the increase of dairy produc- 
tion. The receipts of cheese in Chicago during 1S76, were 23,7 So, 000 pounds, against 12,000,000 
in 1S75 ; and the receipts of butter were 35,384,184, against 30,248,247 pounds in 1S75. ^^ is esti- 
mated that fully one-half of tiieso receipts were from Wisconsin. The receipts of butter in 
.Milwaukee were, in 1S70, 3,779,rr.i pounds; in 1S75, 6.625,863; in 1876,8,938,137 pounds; ot 
cheese, 5,721,279 pounds in 1S75, and 7,055,573 in 1S76. Cheese is not mentioned in the trade 
and commerce reports of ?\lilwaukee until 1S73, when it is spoken of as a new and rapidly 
increasing commodity in the productions of the state. 

Pork .wd Beef. 

Improved breeds, both of swine and cattle, have been introduced into the state during a 
few years past. The grade of stock has been rapidl}' bettered, and stock raisers generally are 
striving with commentlable ze.d tu rival each other in raising the finest of animals for use and 
the market. • 

The following table shows the receipts of live hogs and beef cattle at Milwaukee for th 
teen ) ears : 







lavK uo'is. iBErF catti.k. 









144. yOI 


36,802 1 

22,74s 1 
17.262 1 

14.172 ; 

...72 i 








-6.7 5 i 
31. 3-' 

- 15.527 
■ 12,955 


The following table shows the moveiaent of hog products and beef from Milwaukee since 

Shipments by Rail 




and Lake. 


Boxe,. 1 Balk, lbs. 

9,1 10 





















Totals 1S76 

, 62,461 
56,77 s 
90,03 s 





34. 164 



36 S66 



" 1573 

I?72 -- 




" iS6g 

•' 1S6S 


■• 1S67 


" lS66. 

■• 1365 


■' 1364 

" 1S6", 


" 1S62 _ 


The culture of hops, as an article af conunercc, received but little attention prior to i860. 
In 1S65, 2,864 bales only were shipped from Milwaukee. In addition, a large amount was u.sed 
by the brewers througuout the state. In 1S66, the amount exported was increased, and 5,774 
bales were shipped to eastern markets. The price, from forty-five to fifty-fivc cents per pound, 
stimulated piroduction, and the article became one of the staple products of the counties of Sauk, 
f'olumbia, Adams and Juneau, besides being largely cultivated in parts of some other counties. 
In 18^.7, 26,562 bales were received at Milwaukee, and the prices ranged from fifty to seventy cents 
per pound. The estimated crop of the state for 1S67 was 35,000 bales, and brought over 
§4,200,000. In 1S6S, not less than b.nles v,-ere grown in the state. The crop everywhere 
was a large one, and in Wisconsin so very large that an over-supply was anticipated. But few, 
however, v,-ere prepared for th'j decline in prices, that far exceeded the worst apprehensions of 
tluise interested. The first sales were made at twenty-five to thirty-five cents per pound, and the 
[•rices were reluctanlly acce[ited by the growers. The price continued to decline until the article 
was unsalable and unavailable in the market. Probably the average price did not e.xceed ten 
cents per pound. Notwithstanding the severe check which hop-growing received in 1868, l.iy the 
unprofitable result, growers were not discouraged, and the crop of 1.869 was a large one. So 
much of the croi) of iS68 remained in the h.ands of the growers, that it is impossible to estimate 
tiiat of 1S69. The new croji sold for from ten to fifteen cents, and the old for from three to five cents jhjund. Hop-cultivation received a check from over-production in 1S6S, Irom which it did not 
sLKjn recover. .\ large proportion of the \.irds were jilowed under in 1870. The crop of 1S69 much of it m.ivketed daring 1870, at .i price of about two and one-half to three and one- 
haif cents i)er jiound, while that of 1870 brought ten to twelve and a half cents. During 
the year 1871, a great advance in the price, caused by the partial failure of the crop 
in some of the eastern st.ites. and liie decrease in price causing a decrease in production, 
wha; left over of the crop of 1870 more than doubled in value before the new reached the 
market. Tlie latter opened at thirty cents, and steadily rose to fifty and fifty-five for prime 


qualiticb. The crop of 1S72 was of good quaHty, and the market opened at forty to fifty-five 
cents as the selling price, and fell fifteen to twenty cents before the close of the year. A much 
larger "quantity was raised than the year previous. In 1S73 and 1S74, the crop was fair and 
prices ruled from thirty-three to forty-five cents, with increased production. About 18,000 bales 
were reported as being shipped from the different railway stations of the state. Prices were 
extremely irregular during 1S75, and, after the new crop reached market, fell to a point that 
would not pay the cost of production. In 1876, prices ruled low at the opening of the year, and 
advanced from five to ten cents in January to twenty-eight to thirty in November. Over 17,000 
bales were received at Milwaukee, over 10,000 bales being of the crop of the previous year. 
Over 13.000 bales were shipped out of the state. 

Tobacco raising is comparatively a new industry in Wisconsin, but is rapidly growing m 
importance and magnitude. It sells readily for from four to ten cents per pound, and the plant 
is easily raised. It is not regarded as of superior quality. It first appears as a commodity ot 
transportation in the railway reports for the year iS7i,-when the Prairie du Chien division 
of the St. Paul road m.oved eastward 1,373,650 pounds. During the four years ending with 

1876, there were shipped from Milwaukee an average of 5,118,330 pounds annually, the naxi- 
mum being in 1874,6,982,175 pounds; the minimum in 1S75, 2,743,854 ^pounds. The crop of 
1S76 escaped the early frosts, and netted the producer from five to seven cents per pound. 1 he 
greater part of it was shipped to Baltimore and Philadelphia. Comparatively little of the leaf 
raised in the state is used here or by western manufacturers. The crop of the present year, 

1877, is a largeone.and has been secured in good order. Itis being contracted for at from four to 

six cents per pound.'berkies. 

The cranberry trade is yet in its infancy. But little, comparatively, has been done in devel- 
oping the capabilities of the extensive bodies of marsh and swamp lands interspersed throughout 
the northern part of the state. Increased attention is being jiaid to the culture of the fruit; yet, 
the demand will probably keep ahead of the supply for many years to come. In 1S51, less than 
1,500 barrels v.-ere sent out of the state. In 1S72, the year of greatest production, over 37.0C0 
barrels were exported, and, in 1S76, about 17,000 barrels. The price has varied in different 
years, and taken a range from eight to fifteen dollars a barrel. 


The production of liquors, both spirituous and malt, has kept pace with the growth of 
iwpulation and with the other industries of tiie state. There were in Wisconsin, in 1872, two 
hundred and ninety-two breweries and ten distilleries. In 1S76, there were two hundred and 
ninety-three of the former and ten of the latter, and most of them were kept running to their 
full capacity. Milwaukee alone produced, in 1S76, 321,611 barrels of lager beer and 43,17.; 
barrels of high v,-ines. In 1SC5, it furnished 65,666 barrels of beer, ind in 1S70, 108,845 barrcK. 
In 1S65, it furnished 3,0-16 barrels of high wines; in 1S70, 22,867 barrels; and in 1S75, 39,005. 
A large quantity of the beer made was shipped to eastern and southern cities. The beer made 
in 1876 sold at the rate of ten dollars per b.irrel, the wholesale price of the brewers bringing the 
sum of $3,216,110. The f^me of Milwaukee lager beer is widely extended. This city h,i. 
furnished since 1S70, 1,520,30s barrels which, at the wholesale price, brought i;i5,203,i70. Tlie 
total production of beer by all the two hundred and ninety-three breweries of the state for 1876, 
was 450,508 barrels. 

20G JirsToin' OF •\viscoxsiN'. 

In 1S76, Milwaukee produced 43,175 barrels of high wines, or distilled spirits, and the 
state of Wisconsin 51,959 barrels. In 1S70, the former produced 108,845 barrels of beer and 
22,S''i7 barrels of distilled spirits, and in the same year the state of Wisconsin produced 189,664 
barrels of beer and 36,145 barrels of distilled spirits. 


Porcelain clay, or kaolin, is found in numerous places in ^\'ood and Marathon counties. The 
mineral is found in but few places in the United Stales in quantities sufficient to justify the 
investment of capital necessary to manufacture it. In the counties mentioned, the deposits are 
found in extensive beds, and only capital and enterprise are needed to make their development 
profitable. Clay of superior quality for making brick and of fair quality for pottery, is 
found in numerous localities. The famous '' Milwaukee brick," remarkable for their beautiful 
cream color, is made from a fine clay which is abundant near Milwaukee, and is found in exten- 
sive beds at Watertown, "Whitewater, Edgerton, Stoughton, and several places on the lake shore 
north of Mihvaukee. At Whitewater and some other places the clay is used with success for the 
making of potterj' ware. Water-lime, or hydraulic cement, occurs in numerous places throughout 
the stale. An extensive bed covering between one and two hundred acres, and of an indefinite 
depth, e.xists on the banks of the Milwaukee river, and not over one and a half miles from the city 
limits of Milwaukee. The cement made from the rock of this deposit is first-class in quality, and 
between twenty and thirty thousand barrels were made and sold last year. The capacity of the 
works for reducing the rock to cement has been increased to 500 barrels per day. Stones suita- 
ble for building purposes are widely distributed throughout the state, and nearly every town has 
its available quarry. Many of these quarries furnish stone of fine quality for substantial and 
permanent edifices. The quarrj' at Prairie du Chien furnished the stone for the capital building 
at Madison^ which equals in beauty that of any state in the Union. .-\t Milwaukee, Waukesha, 
Madison, La Crosse, and many other {ilaccs are found quarries of superior building stone. 
Granite is found in e.xtensive beds in Marathon and Wood counties, and dressed specimens 
exhibited at the " Centennial " last year, attracted attention for their fine polish. !Marbles of 
various kinds are likewise found in the state. Some of them are beginning to attract attention 
and are likely to prove valuable. The report of Messi:,. Foster & Whitney, United States geol- 
ogists, speaks of quarries on the Menomonee and Michigamig rivers as aiTording beautiful varie- 
ties and susceptible of a high polish. Richland county contains marble, but its quality is gen- 
erally considered inferior. 

^^'.\T^:R PuWEKS. 

Wisconsin is fast becoming a manufacturing state. Its forests of pine, oak, walnut, maple, 
ash, and other valuable woods used for lumber, are well-nigh inexhaustible. Its water-power tor 
driving the wheels of macliinery is not equaled by that of any state in the northwest. The Lower 
Fox river between Lake \Vinuebago and Green Bay, a distance of thirty-five miles, furnishes 
some of the best facilities for manufacturing enterprise in the whole country. Lake Winnebago 
as a reservoir gives it a great and special advantage, in freedom from liability to freshets and 
droughts. The stream never varies bul a few feet from its highest to its lowest stage, yet give? 
a steady flow. The Green Bay and Mlssissip[)i canal company has, during the last twenty-five 
years, constructed numerous dams, canals and locks, constitLiti:,g very valual.le improvements. 
All the property of that com ['any has been transferred to the LTr.ited States government, which 
has entered upon a system to render the Fox and Wisconsin rivers navigal)le to the Mississippi. 
The f.dl between the lake and Depere is one luindred and fifty feet, and the water can be utilized 


in propelling machinery at Neenah, Menasha, Appleton, Cedar, Little Chute, Kaukauna, Rapid 
Croche, I.ittle Kaukauna and Depere. The water-power at Appleton in its natural advantages 
is pronounced by Hon. Iliram Barney, of New York, superior to those at Lowell, Paterson 
and Rochester, combined. The water-power of the Fo.x has been improved to a considerable 
extent, but its full capacity has hardly been touched. Attention has been drawn to it, how- 
ever, and no doubt is entertained that in a few years the hum of machinery to be propelled 
by it, will be heard the entire length of the thirty-five miles. The facilities presented by its 
nearness to timber, iron, and a rich and productive agricultural region, give it an advantage over 
any of the eastern manufacturing points. 

The Wisconsin river rises in the extreme northern part of the state, and has its sOurce in a 
great number of small lakes. The up[)er portion abounds in valuable water privileges, onl}- a 
few of which are improved. There are a large number of saw-mills running upon the power of 
this river. Other machinery, to a limited extent, is in operation. 

The '■ r.igllull " falls, at ^Vausau, are improved, and a power of twenty-two feet fall is obtained. 
At Little Bull falls, below "Wausau, there is a fall of eighteen feet, partially improved. There are 
many other water-powers in \Larathon county, some of which are used in propelling flouring- 
mills and saw-mills. At Grand Rapids, there is a descent of thirty feet to the mile, and the 
water can be used many times. Each time, 5,000 horse-power is obtained. At Kilbourn City 
a large amount of power can be obtained for manufacturing purposes. 

Chippewa river has its origin in small streams in the north part of the state. Explorers 
tell us that there are a large number of water powers on all the upper branches, but as the 
country is yet unsettled, none of them have been improved, and very few even located on our maps. 
Brunette falls and Ameger falls, above Cliippcwa Falls city, must furnish considerable water- 
power, but its extent is not known At Chippewa Falls is an excellent water-povrer, only partially 
ini[)roved. The river descends twenty-six feet in threc-fourtlis of a mile. At Duncan creek at the 
same place, there is a good fall, improved to run a large flouring mill. At Eagle Rapids, five 
miles above Chiiipewa Falls, §120,000 has been expended in improving the fal! of the Chip[jewa 
river. The city of Eau Cl.iire is situated at the confluence of the Chippewa and Eau Claire 
rivers, and possesses in its immediate vicinity water-powers almost unrivaled. Some of them 
are improved. The citizens of Eau Claire have, for several years, striven to obtain legislative 
authority to d;'.m the Chippewa river, so as to improve the water-power of the Dells, and a lively 
contest, known as the " Dell:, figlit." h^is been carried on with the capitalists along the river aliove 
th.U town. There are immense water-powers in Dunn county, on the Red Cedar, Chippewa 
:uid Eau Calle rivers, on which there are many lumliering cstablishmentb. In Pepin county also 
there are good powers. The Black river and its branches, the La Crosse, lUifi'alo, Trempealeau, 
lieaver, andTamaso, furnish many v.iluable I'owers. The ."^t. Croix river is not excelled in the value 
''f its water privileges bv any stream in the state, except the Lower Fox river. At St. Croix l'.i!ls, 
the water of the river makes a descent of eighty-five feet in a distance of iive miles, and the vol- 
ume of water is sutTicient to move tlie machinery for an immense manufacturing business, and the 
banks present good facilities fjr building dams, and the river is not subject to freshets. The 
Kiunekinnick a large number of falls, some of them partially improved. \\'iihin tu'enty-nve 
miles of its entrance into Lake St. Croix, it ha^ a fall of twu hundred feet, and the volume of 
water averages about three thousand cubic feet per minute. Rock river affords valuable water- 
privileges at \Vatertown (with twentv-tour feet fall;, and largely improved; at Jefferson, Indian 
Ford and Janesville, all of wh.iih arc improved. Beloit also has an excellent water-power, and 
it is largely imjiroved. Scattered throughout tiie bt,ite are many other water-powers, not alluded 

208 IJlsToltV dl' "\\ isco.Xsix. 

to in the foregoin;^'. There arc several in Manitowoc county ; in Marquette county, also. In 
Washington county, at \\'c3t licnd, Berlin, and Cedar Creek, there are good water-powers, partly 
utilized. .-Vt 'Wiiitewater, in Walworth county, is a good power. In Dane county, there is a 
water-power at Madison, at the outlet of Lake Mendota ; alio, a good one at Stoughton, below 
the first, or Lake Kegonsa ; also at Paoli, Dellville, All>any and Brodhead, on the Sugar river. 
In Grant county there are not less than twenty good powers, most of them well-developed. In 
Racine county, three powers of fine capacity at Waterford, Rochester and Burlington, all of 
which are improved. The Oconto, Peshtigo and ^Menomonee rivers furnish a large number of 
splendid water- powers of large capacity. The Upper Wolf river has scores of water-powers on 
its main stre.nm'tind numerous branches; bv.t nioat of the country is still a wilderness, though 
containing resources which, when developed, will make it rich and prosperous. There are 
numerous other streams of less consequence tlian those named, but of great importance to the 
localities they severally drain, that have liad tlieir powers improved, and their waterfalls arc 
singing the songs of commerce. On the rivers em[)tying into Lake Superior, there are numerous 
and valuable water-powers. The Montreal river falls one thousand feet in a distance of thirty 


The mechanical and manufaLturing industries of Wisconsin demonstrate that the people do 
not rely whully upon agricultural pursuits, or lumbering, for subsistence, but aim to diversify 
their labors as much as possible, and to give encouragement to the skill and ingenuity of their 
mechanics and artisans. .-Vll our cities, and most of our villages, support establishments that 
furnish wares and implements in common use among tb.e peop.le. ^\'c gather from the census 
report for JS70 a few facts that will give us an adequate idea ot what was done in a single year, 
remembering that the data furnished is six years old, and that great advancement has been made 
since the statistics were gathered. In 1S70, there were eighty-two establishments engaged in 
making agricultural implements, employing 1,3^7 hands, and turning out products valued at 
,$.',393,400. There were one hundred and eighty-eight furniture establishments, employing 1,844 
men, and making $1,542,300 worth of goods. For making carriages and wagons there were four 
hundred and eighty-five establishments, emiiloying 2.1S4 men, and their product was valued at 
,$2,596,534; fur clothing, two hundred ar.d si.vty-three establishments, and value of product 
$:,34o,4oo ; s.i-.h, doors and blinds, eighty-one shops, and value of product §1.852,370; leather, 
eighty-five tanneries, employing 577 men, and value of products $2,013,000; malt liquors, one 
hundred and seventy-six breweries, 835 men, and their products valued at $1,790,273. 

.\t many points the business of manufacturing is carried on more or less extensively; 
indeed, there is hardly a village in the state where capital is not invested in some kind 
of mechanical industry- or manufacturing enterijrise, and making satisfactorj' returns; but for 
details in this respect, the reader is referred to the department of local history. 

The principal commodities onl\', which Wisconsin contributes to trade and commerce, have 
been considered. There remains qaite a number of minor art^Lic^ from which the citizens of the 
state derive some revenue, such as llax and maple sugar, which can not be separately considered 
in this paper. 

C"oNci,uiJi.N"<;. Rkm.\kks. 

Statistics are usually dry reading, but, to one desiring to change his location and seeking 
information regarriinga new country and its capabilities, they become intensely interesting and 
of g' v.Tlue. The farmer wi^he-. to know about the lands, their value and the productivenc>s 
of the soil ; the mechanic about the workshops, the price of labor, and the dentand for such wares 

nr?" r>-niTrro-»;-K-^-».;»; 

(•oMMF,i;c!: AXi> >rAXfFA<'TrnKs. 20? 

as he is accustomed to make ; the capitalist, concerning all matters that pertain to resources, 
advantages, and the opportunities for investin;^ his money. Our own people want all the infor- 
mation that can be gained by the collection of all obtainable facts. The sources of such infor- 
mation are now various, and the knowledge tliey impart fragmentary in its cl^aracter. 

Provision should be made by law, for tlie collection and publication of reliable statistics 
relating to our fanning, manufacturing, mining, lumbering, (ommcrcial and educational interests. 
Several of the slates of the Uniori have established a '' Bureau of Statistics,'' and no more valua- 
ble reports emanate from any of their state departments than those that exhibit a condensed 
view of the material results accomplished each year. Most of the European states foster these 
agencies with as much solicitude as any department of their government. Indeed, they have 
become a social as well as a material necessity, for riocial science extends its inquiries to the 
physical laws of man as a social being; to the resources of the country; its j^roductions ; the 
growth of society, and to all those facts or conditions which may increase or diminish the strength, 
growth or happiness of a people. Statistics are the foundation and corner-stone of social science, 
which is the highest and noblest of all the sciences. 

A writer has said thai, " If God had designed ^^'isconsin to be chiefly a manufacturing state, 
instead of agTicultural, which she claims to be, and is, it is difficult to see more than one partic- 
ular in which He could have endowed her more richly for that purpose." She has all the mate- 
rial for the construction of articles of use and luxury, the means of motive pwwer to propel the 
machinerv, to turn and fashion, weave, forge, and grind the natural elements that abound in such 
rich profusion. . She has also the men whose enterprise and skill have accomplished most sur- 
prising results, in not only building up a name tor themselves, but in placing the state in a proud 
position of independence. 

It is impossible to predict what will be the future growth and development of Wisconsin. 
P'rom its commercial and maiuifacturing advantages, we may reasonably anticipate that she will 
in a few years lead in the I'ront rank of the states of the Union in all that constitutes real great- 
ness. Her educational system is one of the best. With her richly endowed State University, her 
colleges and high schools, and the people's colleges, the common schools, she has laid a broad 
and deep foundation for a great and noble commonwealth. It was early seen what were the 
capabilities of this their newly explored domain. The northvv-i-stcrn explorer, Jonathan Carver, 
in 1766, one hundred and thirteen years ago, after traversing Wisconsin and viewing its lakes of 
crystal purity, iti rivers of matchless utility, its forests of exhaustless wealth, its prairies of won- 
derful fertility, its mines of buried treasure, recorded this remarkable prediction of which we see 
the fulfillment: '"To what power or authority this new world will become dependent after it has 
arisen from its present uncultivated state, time alone can discover. But as the seat of empire from 
time immemorial has been gradually progressive toward the we=t, there is no doubt but that at 
some future period mighty kingdoms will emerge from these wildernesses, and stately palaces 
and solemn temples with gilded spires reacliing to the skies supplant the Ii:dian huts, whose 
only decorations are the barbarous trophies oi"'their vanquished enemies." 

" Westwar.l the course of empire takes its way; 

Til- four tirst acts already passed, 
A fifth shall close the drama with the day • 

Time's noblest ofTspring is the last." 



In the early part of the seventeenth centur>-, all the territory north of the Ohio river, 
including the present state of Wisconsin, was an undiscovered region. As far as now known, it 
was never visited by white men until the year 1634, when Jean Nicolet came to the Green bay 
country as an ambassador from the French to the Winnebagoes. The Jesuit fathers in 1660 
visited the south shore of l.akc Superior; and, soon after, missions were established at various 
points in the northwest. 

The French government apprcciatiiig the laijiortance of possessing dominion over this sec- 
tion, M. Talon, intendant of Canada, took steps to carry out this purpose, and availed himself 
of the good feelings entertained toward the French by a number of the Indian tribes, to establish 
the authority of the French crown over this remote quarter. A small party of men led by 
Dauraont de St. Lusson, with Nicolas Perrot as interpreter, set out from Quebec on this mission, 
in 1670, and St. Lusson sent to the tribes occupying a circuit of a hundred leagues, invitin^ the 
nations, among them the Wisconsin tribes inhabiting; the Green bay country, by their chiefs and 
ambassadors, to meet him at the Sault Sainte ^Tarie the following spring. 

In the month of May, 1671, fourteen tribes, by their representatives, including the Miamis, 
Sacs, Winneliagoes, Menomonees, and Potta-wattamies, arrived at the place designated. On the 
mrirning uf the fourteenth of June, "St. Lii^son led his followers to the top of the hill, all fully 
equipiHil and under arms. Ikre, too, in the vestments of their priestly office were four Jesuits : 
Claude Daulon, superior of the mis.,ion on the lakes, Gabriel Druillettes, Claude Allouez, and 
.-\ndre. All around, the great throng of Indians stood, or crouched, or reclined at length with 
e\ cs and ears intent. A large cioss of wood had been made ready. Dablon, in solemn form, 
pronounced his blessing on it ; and then it was reared and planted in the ground, while the 
I'Venchmen, uncovered, sang the Vcxt'Ila Jici^is. Then a post of cedar was planted beside it, 
with a metal plate attached, engraven with the royal arms; while St. Lusson's followers sang the 
cxaudiat, and one of the piiests uttered a prj.ver fur the king. .S;. Lusson now advanced, and, 
holding his sword in one hand, and rai.->ing witii tlic other a Nud ui e.irth, proclaimed in a loud 
voice " that lie took possession of all the country occupied by the tribes, and placed them under 
the king's protection. 

This act, however, was not regarded as sufficiently definite, and on the eighth of May, 16S9, 
Perrot, who was then commanding for the king at t!ie post of Xadouesioux, near Lake Pepin on 
the we.-^t side of the Mississippi, ronimis>ionei! by the Manpii., de Denonville to manage the 
interests oi commerce we^t of Green bay took possession, in the name of the king, with 
apijroiiriate ceremonies, of the countries west of Lake Michigan as far as the river St. Peter. 
The papers were signed by Perrot and others. 

!!}• these solemn act-,, the present liniil:, of ^^■isconsin with much contiguous territorj', came 
under the dciminion of the h' reach government, the possession of which continued until October, 
i7''>r — a period of ninety ye.irs from the gathering of the chief:- ai the Sault Ste. Marie in 167 i. 

From tlv commencement of French occupancy up to the time wlien the Ikitish. took posses- 
-ion, the district of country embraced witliin the pre-eiit limits of this stale had but few white 
i-ihibitants besides the roaming Indian traders ; and of these few, the locations were separated by 
a distatice of more than two hundred miles in a diiect line, and nearly double that distance by 

THE rrHLIC ]>().MAIX. • 211 

the usual water courses. There was no settlement of agriculturists; there were no missionary 
establishments; no furtified [Ki^ts at other points, except at Depere and Green bay on Fox nver, 
and perhaps at Prairie da Chieu, near the junction of the Wisconsin and the Mississippi. 

The French government made no grant of lands; gave no attention to settlers or agrica.- 
turists, and the occupation of the countrv was strictly military. There were, indeed, a few grants 
of lands made by the French governors and commanderb. previous to 1750, to favored indi- 
viduals, six of uhicli were afterward confirmed by the king of France. There were also others 
which did not require confirmation, being made by Cardillac, commanding at Detroit, under 
special authority of the king; of this latter kind, one for a small piece of thirty acres bears with 
it, says a writer, '"so many condiiious, reservations, prohiliitions of sale, and a whole cavalcade 
of feudal duties to be performed by the grantee, that in itself, it would be a host in opposition to 
the agricultural settlement of any country." 

The grants just referred to, relate to that part of the French piossessions outside the limits. 
of the present state ot Wisconsin. Within its limits there was a grant of an extensive territory 
including the fort at the head of Green bay, with the exclusive right to trade, and other valuable 
privileges, from the Manpiis de Vaadreuil, in Octolier, 1759, to -M. Iligaud. It was sold by the 
latter to William Gould and Madame Vaudreuil, to whom it was confirmed by the king of 
France in January, 1760, at a very critical period, when Quebec had been taken by the British, 
and Montreal was only wanting to complete the conquest of Canada. This grant was evidently 
intended as a perquisite to entrap some unw.iry persons to give a valuable consideration for it, 
as it would be highly impolitic for tlie government to make such a grant, if they continued mas- 
ters of the country, since it would surely alienate the affections of the Indians. The whole 
country had already been virtually conquered by Great Britain, and the grant of course was not 
confirmed by the English government. 

Of the war between the French and English governments in America, known as the French 
and Indian war, it is not necessary to speak, except in general terms. The English made a 
determined effort to obtain the possessions claimed by the French. The capture of Quebec in 
1759, and the subsequent capitulation of Alontreal in 1760, extinguished the domination of 
France in the basin of the St. Lawrence; and by the terms of the treaty of Paris, concluded 
February 10, 1763. all the possessions in, and all tlie claims of the French nation to, the vast 
country watered by the Ohio and tlie Mississippi were ceded to Great piritain. 

Among the first acts of the new masters of the country was the jirotection of the eminent 
domain of the government, and the restriction of all attempts on the [lart of indi\ iduals to acquire 
Indian titles to lands. liy the King of England's proclamation of 1763, no more grants of land 
within certain prescribed limits could be issued, and all jjrivate ]iersons were interdicted the 
liberty of purchasing lands from the Indians, or of making settlements within those prescribed 
limits. The indulgence of such a privilege as that of making j)rivate purchases of the natives, 
conduced to the most serious difficulties, and made way for the practice of the most rejirehensible 
frauds. The policy pursued by the English government has been adopted and acted upon by the 
government of the United States in the extinguishment of the Indian title to lands in every part 
of the country. 

In face of the proclamation of 1763, and within three years after its promulgation, under 
a pretended jiurchase from, or voluntary grant of the natives, a tract of country nearly one hundred 
miles square, including large portions of v.-hat is now northern Wisi onsin and Minnesota, was 
claimed by Jonathan Car\er, and a ratification of Ins title solicited I'rom the king and council, 
'("his was not conceded; and the representatives of Carver, after the change of government had 

212 IllsTOitY f>r Avisroxsix. 

brought the lands under the jurisdiction of the United States, for a series of years presented the 
same claims before congress, and asked for their confirmation. Such a demand under all the 
circumstances, could not justify an expectation of success; and, of course, has often been refused. 
But notwithstanding the abundant means v.'hich the public have had of informing themselves of 
the true nature and condition of Carver's claim, bargains and sales of portions of this tract have 
been made among visionary speculators for more than half a century past. It is now only a 
short period sinct- the maps of the United States ceased to be defaced by a delineation of 
3he "Carver Grant." 

The mere transfer of the dominion over the country from the French to the English govern- 
ment, and the consequent occupation of the English posts by the new masters, did not in any 
great degree affect the social condition of the inhabitants. By the terms of capitulation, th.e 
French subjects were permitted to remain in the country, in the full enjoyment of their civil and 
religious privileges. 

The English, however, did not hold peaceable possession of the territory acquired. The war 
inaugurated by Pontiac and his Indian allies on the military posts occupied by the English soon 
followed, and in the month of May, 1763, nine posts were captured with much loss of Hfe. In 
the spring of 1764, twenty-two tribes who were more or less identified in the outbreak, concluded 
a treaty of peace with General Bradstreet at Niagara. 

The expedition of Colonel George Rogers Clark to the Illinois country, and the conquest 
of the British posts in 177S and 1779, had the effect to open the way for the emigration of the 
Anglo-American population to the Mississippi valley; and at the close of the revolutionary 
war, Great Britain renounced all claim to the whole territory lying east of the Mississippi river. 
The dominion of the English in the Illinois and Wabash countries, ceased with the loss of the 
military posts which commanded the Northwestern territory of the United States. As a result 01 
the enterprise and success of Clark, Virginia obtained possession of tiie Illinois country; his 
expedition having been undertaken and carried forward under the auspices of that state. 

Several of the eastern states under their colonial charters, laid claim to portions of the land 
comprised in the territory northwest of the Ohio river. The claim of Massachusetts was derived 
from a grant from King J.imes of November 3, 1620 ; and included from hu. 42^^ :' to about lat. 
450, extending to the south sea; Connecticut claimed from lat. ■vi'-^ north to.p'-" 2 . The claims ot 
Virginia were from grants from King James, bearing date, respectively, April 10, 1606, May 23, 
1609, and March i;, 1611, and an additional claim for the territory conquered by Clark m the 
Illinois countrv; but thev extended no farther north than the southern end of Lake Michigan. 

It is a popular impression that the territory of the present state of Wisconsin was compre- 
hended in the lands northwest of the river Ohio, over which Virginia exercised jurisdiction, and, 
consequently, was included in her deed of cession of lands to the I'nited States. This opinion do 
generally entertained by writers on American history, is a statement which does not appear to 
have any solid foundation in fact. Virginia never made any conquests or settlements in Wiscon- 
sin, and at no time prior to the proffer of her claims to the general government had she ever 
exercised jurisdiction over it. In fact, there were no settlements m W isconsin except at Green 
Bay and Prairie du Ciiien before that time, and these were made by French settlers who were in 
no wise interfered with -.vhlle the revolution continued. In Illinois it was otherwise; and the 
possession of its territory by Virginia was an undisputed fact. During the revolution the title of 
the sovereignty in Wisconsin was actually in Great Britain, and so remained until the definite 
treaty of peace in 17S3; at which date F.nglaiul yielding her right constructively to the United 
States, retaining possession, however, until 1796; at which time tlie western posts were transferred 
to the United States. 


All the claiming states finally ceded their interests to the general government, giving the 
latter a perfect title, subject only to the rights of the Indians. The deed of cession from Virginia 
was dated March i, 17S4. The other states ceded their claims, some before this date, others 
subsequent thereto. 

Virginia made a number of stipulations in her deed of cession; among others, that the 
French and Canadian inhabitants and the neighboring villages who had professed themselves 
citizens of Virginia, should have their possessions and title confirmed to them, and be protected in 
the enjoyment of their rights and liberties; thr.t 150,000 acres of land near the rapids of the Ohio, 
should be reserved for that portion of her state troops which had reduced the country; and about 
3,500,000 acres between the rivers Scioto and Little Miami be reserved for bounties to her troops 
on the continental establishment. 

In consequence of certain objectionable stipulations made by Virginia as to the division of 
the territory into states, the deed of cession was referred back to that state with a recommenda- 
tion from congress that these stipulations should be altered. On the 30th of December, 178S, 
Virginia assented to the wish of congress, and formally ratified and confirmed the fifth article of 
compact which related to that subject, and tacitly gave her consent to the whole ordinance of 17S7. 
The provisions of this ordinance have since been applied to all the territories of the United 
States lying north of the 36"^ 40'. After the adoption of the constitution of the United States the 
the new congress, among its earliest acts, passed one, recognizing the binding force of the ordi- 
nance of 1787. 

Of this ordinance it has been said : " It was based on the principles of civil liberty, maintained 
in the magna charta of England, re-enacted in the bill of rights, and incorporated in our differ- 
ent state constitutions. It was the fundamental law of the constitution, so to speak, of the great 
northwest, upon which were based, and with which harmonized all our territorial enactments, as 
well as our subsequent state legislation, and, moreover, it is to that wise, statesman-like document 
that we are indebted for much of our prosperity and greatness." 

After the close of the revolutionary war, enterprising individuals traversed the whole country 
which had been ceded to the government, and companies were formed to explore and settle the 
fertile and beautiful lands beyond the Ohio; but the determination of the British cabinet not to 
evacuate the we>tein posts, wai well known, and had its effect on the peo|)le who were disposed 
to make settlements. 

The western tribes were also dissatisfied and threatened war, and elTorts \\ere made by the 
government to settle the difficulties. A grand council was held at the mouth of Detroit river 
in December, 1787, which did not result favorably, and two treaties were subsecjuently held, 
which were not respected by the savages who were jjarties to them. Soon an Indian war ensued, 
/hich resulted at first disastrously to the .Vmerican troops under Oenerals Harmar and St. Clair, 
but finally with success to the .Vmerican arms under General Wayne. The treaty of Creenville 
followed. It was concluded .\ugust 3, 1795. -'^^ l^'''^ treaty there were present eleven hundred 
and thirty chiefs and warriors. It was signed by eighty-four chiefs and General .Vnthonv Wavne, 
sole commissioner of the United States. One of the provisions of the treaty was that in consid- 
eration of'the peace tiien established, and the cessions and relmquisiiments of lands made by the 
tribes of Indian-, and to manifest the liberality oftlie United States as the means of render- 
ing this peace strong and perpetual, the United States relinquished their claims to all other 
Indian lands northward of the river Ohio, eastward of the Mississippi, and westward and south- 
ward of the great lakes and the waters united Liy lliem, except ct-rtain reservations and jiortions 
before purrhaseil of the Indians, none of which were within the present limits of this state. The 
Indian title to the whole of what is now W'isconbin, sutijcct only to certain restrictions, became 

214 liisTOiiY OF ^\ i<c(^xsrx. 

absolute in the various tribes inhabiting it. By this treaty it was stipulated that, of tl,e lands relin- 
quished by the United States, the Indian tribes who have a right to those lands, were quietly to 
enjoy them ; hunting, planting, and dwelling thereon so long as they pleased ; but, when those 
tribes or any of them should be disposed to sell them, or any part of tliem, they were to be sold 
only to the United States, and until such sale, the United States would protect all of the tribes 
in the quiet enjoyment of their lands against all citizens of the United States, and all other white 
persons who might intrude on the same. At the same time all the tribes acknowledged them- 
selves to be under the protection of the United States, and no other person or power what- 

The treaty also prohibited any citizen of the United States, or any other white man, settling 
ujjon the lands relinquished by the general government; and such person was to be considered 
as out cf the protection of the Unit' d States; and the Indian tribe on whose land the settlement 
might be made, could drive off the settler, or jjunish him in such manner as it might see fit. 

It will be seen that the Indians were acknowledged to have an unquestionable title to the 
lands they occupied until that right should be extinguished by a voluntary cession to the general 
government; and the constitution of the United States, by declaring treaties already made, as 
well as those to be made, to be the supreme law of the land, adopted and sanctioned previous 
treaties with the Indian nations, and consequently admitted their rank among those powers who 
are capable of making treaties. 

The several treaties which had been made between commissioners on the part of the United 
States and various nations of Indians, previous to the treaty of Greenville, were generally 
restricted to declarations of amity and friendship, tb.e establishment and confirming of bounda-. 
ries, and the protection of settlements on Indian lands; those followed were generally for a 
cession of lands and provisions made for their payment. It is projiosed to notice the several 
treaties that took place after.that held at Greenville, showing in what way the territory of the 
present state, came into possession of the go\ ernnient. As will be seen hereafter, it required trea- 
ties with numerous tribes of Indians to obtain a clear, undisputed title, as well as many years 
before it was fullv accomjjlished. 

1. A treaty was held at St. Louis, XovemL>er 3, 1S04, between the Sacs and Fo.\es and the 
United States. AVilliam Henry Harrison wa^ acting commissioner on the part of the govern- 
ment. By the provisions of the treaty, the chiefs and head men of the united triue^ ceded to 
the United States a large tract on both sides of the Mississippi, extending on the east from the 
mouth of the Illinois to the head of that river, and thence to the \\ isconsin ; and including on 
the west considerable ^xjrtions of Iowa and Mi^^ouri, from the mouth of the Gasconade north- 
ward. In what is now the state of Wisconsin, this grant embraced the whole of the present 
counties of Grant and La Fayette and a large [lortion of Iowa and Green counties. The lead 
region was included in this jiurchase. In consideration of this cession, the general government 
agreed to protect tlie tribes in the quiet enjojnicnt of their land, ag.iinst its own citizens and 
all others who should intrude on them. The tribes jiermitted a lort to be Iniilt on the upper 
side of the Wisconsin river, near its uioulh, and granted a tract of land two miles square, adjoin- 
ing the same. The govL-rnnient agreed to give them an annuity of one thousand dollars per 
annum. The validity of this treaty was denied by one band of the Sai: Indians, and this cession 
of land became, twenty-eight years a.fter, the alleged cause of the Black Hawk war. 

2. Another treaty was licld at I'ortage des Sioux, now a village in St. Charles county, Mis- 
souri, on the Mississippi river, Sejitember 13, 1S15, with certain chiefs of that jjortion of the 
Sac nation then residing in Missouri, who, they said, uere compelled since the commencement of 

THK rrr.Lic domain. 216 

the late war, to separate themselves from the rest of their nation. They gave their assent to the 
treaty made at St. I.ouis in 1S04, and promised to remain separate from the Sacs of Rock river, 
and to give them no aid or assistance, until peace should be concluded between the United 
States and the Fo.xes of Rock river. 

3. On the 14th of September, a treaty was made with the chiefs of the Fox tribe at the 
same place. They agreed that all prisoners in their hands should be deliveied up to the govern- 
ment. Thev assented to, recognized, re-establisiicd and confirmed the treaty of 1S04, to the full 
extent of their interest in the same. 

4. A trea,ty was held at St. I.oui:., May 13, iSiC, with the Sacs of Rock river, who affirmed 
the treaty of 1804, and agreed to deliver up all tiie i)roperty stolen or plundered, and in failure 
to do so, to forfeit all title to their annuities. To this treaty, Clack Hawk's name appears with 
others. That chief afterward affirmed that though he himself had "touched the quill" to 
this treaty, he knew not what he was signing, and that he was therein deceived by the agent and 
others, who did not correctly explain the nature of the grant; and in reference to the treaty of 
St. Louis in 1S04, and at Portage des Siou.x in 1S15, he said that he did not consider the same 
valid or binding on him or his tribe, inasmuch as by the terms of those treaties, territory was 
described which the Indians never intended to ?ell, and the treaty of 1S04, particularly, was 
made by parties who had neither authority in the nation, nor power to dispose of its lands. 
Whether this was a true statement of the case, or otherwise, it is quite certain that the grant of 
lands referred to was often confirmed b}' his nation, and was deemed conclusive and binding by 
the government. The latter acted in good faith to the tribes, as well as to the settlers, in the 
disposition of the lands. 

5. A treaty of peace and friendship was made at St. Louis, June 3, 1S16, between the chiefs 
and warriors of that part of the Winnebagoes residing on the Wisconsin river. In this treaty the 
tribe state that they have separated themselves from the rest of their nation ; tiiat they, for 
themselves and those they represent, confirm to the United States all and every cession of land 
heretofore made by their nation, and every contract and agreement, as far as their interest 

6. On the 30th of March, 1S17, the Menomonee tribe concluded a treaty of peace and 
friendship at St. Louis with the United States, and confirmed all and every cession of land 
before made by them within the limits of the United States. 

7. On the 19th of August, 1S25, at Prairie du Chien, a treaty was made with the Sioux, 
Chippewas, Sacs and Foxes, Winnebagoes, 'Utawas and Pottawatt.aniics, by whicli tlie boundary 
between the two first nations was agreed upon; also between tlie Chippewas, Winnebagoes and 
other tribes. 

S. .Another treaty was held .-\ugust 5, 1S26, at Fond du Lac of Lake Superior, a small 
settlement on the St. Louis river, in Itaska county, Minn., with the same tribes, by which the 
previous treaty was confirmed in resjiect to boundaries, and those of the Chippewas were defined, 
as a portion of the same was not completed at the former treaty. 

9. .\ treaty was made and concluded August i, 1S27, at PUitte des Morts, between the United 
States and the Chippewa, Menomonee and Winnebago tribes, in wiiich the boundaries of their 
tribes were defined ; no cession of lands was made. 

10. .A. treaty was niade at Green Bay, .Autrust 25, 1S2S, with the \\"innebagoes, Fottawat- 
taniies and other tribes. This treaty was made to remo\e the difficulties which arisen in 
consequence of the occupation by wiiiJe men of tliat portion of the mining country in *he south- 
western part of Wisconsin which had not been ceded to the United States. .\ provisional 

216 iiisKiiiv or WLscoxsix. 

boundary was provided, and privileges accorded the government to freely occupy their territory 
until a treaty sliould be made for the cession of the same. This treaty was simply to define the 
rights of the Indians, and to give the United States tlie right of occupation. 

11. Two treaties were made at Prairie dii Chien, on the 29th of July, 1S29, and August 1, 
1829 : at tlie first date, with the Chippewas, Ottawas and Pottawattamies, by which these nations 
ceded all their lands which they claimed iu the northwestern part of Illinois ; and at the latter 
date with the Winnebagocs, 1)\- wh.ich that nation ceded and relinquished all their right, title and 
claim to all their lands south of the AVisconsin river, thus confirming tlie purchase of the lead- 
mine region. Certain grants were made to individuals, which grants were not to be leased or 
sold by the grantees. 

P.y this inijiortant treaty, about eight _millions of acres of land were added to the public 
domain. The three tracts ceded, and forming one whole, extended from the upper end of Rock 
river to the mouth of the Wisconsin, from latitude 41"^ ;},o' to latitude 43" 15', on the Mississippi. 
Following the meanderings of the rii,er, it was about two hundred and forty miles from west to 
east, extending along the AVisconsin and Pox rivers, affording a passage across the country from 
the Mississijjpi to Lake Michigan. The south jiart of the purchase e.xtended from Rock Island 
to l,ake Michigan. 

12. Another important treaty was made at Green Bay, February S, 1S31, between the Meno- 
monee Indians aiid tlic United States. That nation possessed an immense territory. Its eastern 
division was bounded by the Milwaukee river, the shore of Lake Iklichigan, Green bay. Fox river, 
and Lake Winnebaj^o ; its western division, by tiie Wisconsin and Chip])ewa rivers on the west, 
Fo.x river on the south. Green bay on the east, and the high lands which flow the streams into 
Lake Superior on the north. Py this treaty all the eastern division, estimated at two and a half 
millions of acres, was ceded to the government. Py certain otlier provisions, the tribe was to 
occu[)y a large tract lying north of Fox river and east of ^\'olf river. Their territory farther west 
was reserved for their hunting-grounds until such time as the general government should desire 
to purchase it. Another portion, amounting to four millions of acres, lying between Green bay 
■on the east and A\'olf river on ilie west, was al>o ceded to the United States, besides a strip of 
country, three miles in width, from near the portage of the Wisconsin and Fox rivers north, on 
each side of the ^\'is^onsin ri\er, and I'orty-eight miles long — still lea\iiig the tribe in peaceable 
possession of a country about one hundred and twenty miles long, and about eight}' broad. Bv 
supjilementary articles to the treatv, fjrovision was made for the occujiancy ot certain lands by 
the New York Indians — two township.-, on the ea't side of Lake Winnebago. 

13. .\t the conclusion of the Plack Hawk \\ar, in 1S32, for the piurpose of clearing up the 
Indian title of the Winnebago nation in th.e country, a treaty was made and concluded at Fort 
.\rinstrong, September 15, 1^32. Ail the territory claimed by this iiation lying south and east of 
the ^\'isconsin and Fox river of (^reen bay, was ceded to the P'nited States, and no band or parly 
of Winncbagoes was allowed to reside, jilant, fish or hunt on these grounds, after June i, 1S33, 
or on any ])art of the country tlierein ceded. 

14. On the 27th of ()ctulier, 1S32, articles of agreement were made and concluded at Green 
Pay lietween the United St.ile.^ and the Meiionicnee Indians, by the terms of which that nation 
ceded to the Nrw \'ork Indians 1 ertain lands on Fox river. 

15. -An import. mt treaty was made at Chicagri, Se[)teinljer 26. 1S33, between the United 
. States and the C'hippewas, Ottawas an j Pottawattamie.-^. Tlxj^e nations ceded to the government 

al! their lands along the western shore of Lake Michigan, and between that lake and the laiul 
ceded to the United States by the Winnebago nation at the treaty at Port, September 

Tin: rrru.ic domaix. 217 

15, 1S32, bounded on the nortli by tlie country lately ceded by the Menomonees, and on the 
south by the country ceded at the treaty at Prairie dvi Chien, July 19, 1829 — containing about 
five millions of acres. 

16. On the 3d nf Seiitember, 1S36, a tieaty was made at Cedar Point with the Menomonees, 
by which lands lying west of Green ba\, and a strip on the upper Wisconsin, were ceded to the 
United States— the quantity of land ceded being estimated at four millions of acres in the Green 
bay portion ; on the Wisconsin river, a strijj three miles wide on each side of the river, running 
forty-eight miles north in a direct line, ei]uivalent to 184,320 acres. 

17. On the 20th of July, 1S37, a treaty was made with the Chippewas of the Mississinpi, at 
Fort Snelling, and the United States, the nation ceding to the government all their lands in 
Wisconsin lying south of the divide between the waters of Lake Superior and those of the 

iS. Certain chiefs and braves of the Sioux nation of the Mississippi, while visiting Washing- 
ton, September 29, 1S37, ceded to the United States all their lands east of the Mississippi, and all 
their islands in said river. 

19. The Winnebago nation, by the chiefs and delegates, held a treaty with the government 
at Washington, Novembei i, 1S37. That natior. ceded all their lands east of the Mississippi, 
and obligated themselves to remove, within eight months after the ratification of the treaty, to 
certain lands west of the river Mississippi which were conveyed to them by the treaty of Sep- 
tember 2 I, 1S32. 

20. The Onciila or New York Indians, residing near Green IJay, by their chief and repre- 
sentative, on the 3d of February, 1S3S, at Washington City, ceded to the United States their title 
and interest in the land set apart by the treaty made with the Menomonees, May 8, 1831, and the 
treaty made with the same tribe, October 7, 1S32, reserving about 62,000 acres. 

21. Another treaty was made at Stockbridge on the 3d of Sei)tember, 1S39, by which the 
Stockbridge and Munsee tribes I New York Indians) ceded and relinquished to the United States 
the east half of the tract of 46,080 acres which was laid off for their use on the east side of Lake 
Winnebago by treaty of October 7, 1S32 

22. On the 4th of October, 1S42, a treaty was made at La Pointe, on Lake Superior, with the 
Chippewas. All tlicir lands in the northern and northwestern ]>arts of Wisconsin \uu:e ceded to 
the United States. 

23. The Menomonee nation, on the iSth of October, 1S4S, at Pow-aw-hay-kon-nay, ceded 
and relimiuished to the L-nited States all their lands in the state, wherever situated — the gov- 
ernment to furnish the nation as a home, to be held as Indian lands are held, all the country ceded 
to the United States b)' the Chip]icua nation August 2, 1S47, the consideration being the sum of 
$350,000, to be paid according to the stipjulations of the treaty. A supplementary treaty was 
made on the 24th of November, 1S48, with the Stockbridges — the tribe to sell and relinquish to 
the United StatCb the township of land on the east side of Lake Winnebago, secured to said tribe 
b)- treaty of I-ebruary 8, 1831. 

24. A treaty made with the Menomonee nation, at the tails of ^\'olf river. May 12, 1S54, 
being a supplementary treaty to one made October 18, 1S4S. All the lands ceded to that nation 
under the treaty last named was ceded to the Ignited States — the Menomonees to receive from 
the I'nited States a tract of country lying on Wolf river, being to%\-nships 28, 29 and 30, of ranges 
13, 14, 15, 16. 

25. A treat)- was made with the Chippewas of Lake Superior, at La Pointe, on the 30th of 
Sci)tembcr, 1S54. That nation ceded to the L-niteil States all lands before owned by them in 
common with the Cliippcwas of the Mississijiin — l.^■ing m the vicinity of Lake Superior in Wis- 

218 HISTORY (»r "wiscoxsix. 

consin and Minnesota. 

26. On the 5th of February, 1S56, a treaty was held with tlie Stockbridge and Munsee tribes, 
at Stockbridge. All the remaining right and title to lands in the town of Stockbridge, possessed 
by them, was ceded to the llnited States ; and the said tribes were to receive in e.xchange a tract 
of hand near the southern boundary of the Menomonee reservation, and by treaty made at 
Keshena, February 11, 1S56, the Menomonces ceded two townships to locate the said tribes. 

With this last treaty, the Indian title to all the lands of the firesent state of Wisconsin was 
ceded to the United States government, e.xcept a few small reservations to certain tribes, and a 
perfect, indefeasible title obtained to all the territory within its borders. 

In the region of country which is now the state of A\'isconsin, the settlements in early times 
were, as before stated, near Green Bay and at Prairie du Chien. Soon after the organization cf 
the Northwest territory, the subject of claims to private property therein received much attention. 
By an act of congress ajiproved March 3, 1S05, lands lying in the districts of Vincennes, Kas- 
kaskia and Detroit, which were claimed by virtue of French or British grants, legally and fully 
executed, or by virtue of grants issued under the authority of any former act of congress by 
either of the governors of the Northwest or Indiana territory, which had already been surveyed, 
were, if necessary, to be re-surveyed; and persons claiming lands under these grants were to have 
until November i, 1S05, to give notice of the same. Commissioners were to be appointed to 
examine, and report at the next session of congress. An act was also passed, approved April 25, 
1S06, to authorize the granting of patents for lands, according to government surveys that had 
been made, and to grant donation rights to certain claimants of land in the district of Detroit, 
and for other jiurposes Anothci act was approved May 11, 1S20, reviving the powers of the 
commissioners for ascertaining and deciding on claim.i in the district of Detroit, and for settling the 
claims to land at Green Bay and Prairie du Chien, in the territory of Michigan ; the commis- 
sioners to have power to examine and decide on claims filed with the register of the land office, 
and not before acted on, in accordance with the laws respecting the same. The commissioners 
discharged the duties imposed on them, and in their report to congress in reference to the claims 
at Green Bay, they said that the antiquit_\- of this settlement being, in their view, sufficiently 
established, and that they, being also satisfied that the Indian title nmst be considered to have 
been extinguished, decide favorably on the claims presented. About se\enty-five titles were con- 
firmed, and patents for the same were sent to the proper parties by the government. In relation 
to the Prairie du Chien titles, they reported "' tliat they had met few difliculties in their investi- 
gations; that, notwithstanding the liigh antiquity which maybe claimed for the settlement of that 
place, no one perfect title founded on French or British grant, legally authenticated, had been 
successfully made out; and that but few deeds of any sort have been exhibited." This they 
attribute to the carelessness of the Canadians in respect towhate\er concerned their land titles, and 
accords with whatever is known in this regard, of the French population throughout the country. 
They therefore came to the conclusion thatwhate\er < laim the people of the place possessed, 
and might have for a conllrmation of their land titles, they must be founded upon proof of con 
tinned possession since the year 1796 The cnminissioners t'urther say, that "since the ancestoi;3 
of these settlers were cut off, by the treaty which gave the Caiiadas to the English, from all inter- 
( oiirse with their parent countr)-, the p'eople both of Prairie du Chien and Green Bav have been 
eft, until within a few years, (piite isolateti, aliiio>t without any government but their own; and, 
although the present [lopulation of these settlements are natives of the cc'Untries which thev 
inh.ibit, and, < onsccpiently, are by birth citizens of the nortl^.^r^t, yet, until a fev.- years, they have 
had .IS little political connection with it-> government as their ancestors had with the iJritish. 
Ignorant of their civil rights, careless of their land titles, docility, habitual hospitality, cheerlul 


■submission to the requisitions of any government which may be set over them, are their universal 

In reference to grants by the French and English governments, the commissioners say, they 
" have not had access to any public archives by which to ascertain with positive certainly, whether 
either the French or English ever effected a formal extinguishment of tlie Indian title at the 
mouth of the Wisconsin, which also may be said of the land now covered by the city of Detroit, 
that the French government was not accustomed to hold formal treaties for such purposes with 
the Indians, and when the lands have been actually procured from them, either by virtue of the 
assumed right of conquest, or by purchase, evidence of such acquisition is rather to be soui^ht in 
the traditionary history of the country, or in the casual or scanty relations of travelers, than 
among collections of state papers. Tradition dot-s recognize the fact of the extinguishment of 
the Indian title at Prairie du Chien by the old French government, before its surrender to the 
English; and by the same species of testimony, more positive because more recent, it is estab- 
lished also, that, in the year 17S1, Patrick Sinclair, lieutenant governor of the province of Upper 
Canada, while the English government had jurisdiction over this country, made a formal purchase 
■from the Indians of the lands comjjreliending the settlement of Prairie du Chien." 

The territories and states formed from the section known as the Northwest territory, 
were : 

I The Northwest territory proper (17S7-1S00) having jurisdiction over all the lands referred 
to in the ordinance of 17S7. In 1S02, Ohio was organized as a state with its present boun- 

-3. Indiana terrritoiy was formed July 4, iSoo, with the seat of government at Vincennes 
That territory was made to include all of the northwest, except what afterward became the state 
of Ohio. 

3. Michigan territory was formed June 30, 1S05. It was bounded on the south bv a line 
drawn east from the south bend of Lake Michigan, on the west by the center of Lake Michigan. 
It did not include what is now Wisconsin. The upper peninsula was annexed in rS36. The 
state of Michigan was formed January 26, 1S37, with its present boundaries. 

4. Illinois territory was formed ^L-lrcll :, iSio. It included all of the Indiana territory west 
of the Wabash river and Vincennes, aiid a line runnin_; due north to the territorial line. All of 
Wisconsin was included therein, except what lay east of the line drawn north from Vincennes. 

5. Indiana was admitted as a state Ayiril 19, 1S16, including all the territory of Indiana 
territory, except a narrow strip east of the line of A'incennes, and west of .^^ichigan territory, her 
western boundary. 

6. Illinois was admitted as a state April 11, iSiS. It included all of Illinois territory south 
of latitude 42° 30'. All of Wisconsin was added to Michigan territory. In the month of Octo- 
ber of that year, the cuunties of Michilimackinac, ISrown and Crawford were formed, comprising 
besides other territory, the whole of the present state of Wisconsin. 

7. Iowa district was attached to Michigan for judicial purjioses, Juno ;^o, 1S34, out of which 
Des Mfiines and D:!'n'.iiue counties were formed. 

S. \Visconsin territory was formed April ro, 1S36. The state was formed May 29, 1S4.S. 

The territory of \\'i-cousin being a part of the Northwest territory claimed, and congress by 
direct action confirmed to her, all the rights and privileges secured by the ordinance of 17S7, 
one of which was that cnn_'ress sliould have authority to forni one or two states in that part v( 
the teriitory l\ing north of an ea^t ami west line, drawn through the southerlv bend or extreme 
■of Lake Michigan. Nu; withstanding this plain provision of the ordinance, which is diclared tu 

■2-20 HIsT()l?V <»F AVISCOXSIX. 

be articles of compart hetwe'^n the t)ri^' states and the ijeo|>le and states in the said territory, 
and forever to remain unalterable unless by consent ; yet congress, in establishin;^; the boundaries 
of the state of Ilh'nois, extended that state aliout sixty miles north of tlie line established by the 
ordinance. This action was claimed to be unjust and contrary to the spirit and letter of the 
compact with the original states. The legislative assembly of ^Visconsin passed resolutions 
which were ajiproved January 13, 1S40, that it was iriexpedient for the pcoi>le of the territory to 
form a constitution and state government until the southern boundary to which they are so justly 
entitled by the ordinance of 17N7 sliall be fully recognized by the jiarties of the original coni- 
])act. Owing to various complications over which the territory had no control, her people never 
succeeded in obtaining from congress w hat they considered tlieir just rights. 

It was also contended by many, that the portion of country set o'J to Michigan on Lake 
Superior given as a compensation in part for the strip of land awarded to Ohio from her south- 
ern border, should also have constituted a portion of ^^'isconsin, especially as Michigan neve.r 
made the least claim to it by her delegate in congress, who was decidedly 0[iposed to the exten- 
sion of Nrichigan beyond the limits of the lower peninsula. 

The first survey of the jmblic lands northwest of the Ohio river, was made pursuant to an 
act of congress approved May 20, 17S5 The geographer of the confederation was diected to 
commence the survey of the government lands on the north side of the river Ohio — the first line 
running north and south, to begin on said river at a point that should be found to be due north 
from the western termination of a line which had been run as the southern boundary of the state 
of Pennsylvania; the first line running east and west, to begin at the same ]:)oint, and to extend 
through the whole' territory. The survey comprised seven ranges, composing ten counties of 
the present state of Ohio. Other surveys followed when the Indian title was extinguished. 
Thomas Hutchins, who held the office of geographer, is believed to be the inventor of the 
mode of laying out land which was then introduced by him, and is still in general use by the 

Soon after the government had acquired title to the Indian lands south of the \\'isconsin 
river, the public authorities commenced a systematic survey of the lands, for the purpose of 
bringing the same into market at the earliest po^5sIl)le period. 

The public land a in AVisconsin are, as elsewhere in the west, surveyed in uniform rec- 
tangular tracts, each six miles squire, by line; running north and sourh. intersecting others 
running enst and west. These townships are numbered from two lines called the princijial 
meridian and the base line. 'I'he princioal meridian by which the \\'Isconsin surveys are gov- 
erned is that known as the fourth, a'ld extends from tiie Illinois boundary line to Lake Superior, 
at the mouth of %rontreal river, al)out two bundled and eighty-two miles. It divides Grant 
from LaFayette county, and passes through the eastern parts of Vernon, Monroe, Ja( kson, Clark, 
Chippewa, and .\s;iland counties. The base line separates AVIsconsin from Illinois in north 
lat'.iude forty-two degrees, thirt}- minutes. There are nearly seventeen hundretl townships in 
the slate. Each township is subdivided into thirty-six sections b\ lines running parallel to the 
sii!'-s of tlic town~hii\ one mile apart. .V section is, therefore, one mile square, and contains six 
hundred and forty acres. In fractional townships, each section i.s numbered '.he same as the 
corresponding section in whole townships. Eacli sectloit is subdivided .into half-mile squares, 
called i]uartcr-scctions, each containing one hundred and sixty acres, and the subdivision is 
c.irried still further int 1 half-quarter or quarter-ipiarler sections. It is f )und necessary to estab- 
lish at stated intervals standard pirdlels, commonly cilled correction lines, to obviate the effect 
of the curv.Uure of the earths surface. The convergence In a single township is small, though 
quite perce])tible, the actual excess in length of its south over Its north line being in the state 

Tin: priJLic domaix. 221 

about three rods. The townships north of tlie base line, therefore, become narrower toward the 
north, and if continued for too great a distance, tliis narrowing would cause serious inconvenience. 
In the state of \^'isconiin there are four of these correction lines. The first is sixty miles 
north of the base line, and accordingly runs between townships ten and eleven. The second is 
between townships twenty and twenty-one, and so 0]i. They are usuallv sixty miles apart. On 
these parallels, which form new base lines, fresh measurements are made from the princi[)al 
meridian, and the corners of new townships are fixed six mile^ apart as on the original base line. 
This method of procedure not only takes up tlie error due to convergency of meridians, but 
arrests that caused by want of precision in the survevs alreadv made. 

The northern or western sections of townships, which contain more or less than six hun- 
dred and forty acres, are called fractional sections, for the reason that the surplusage or 
deficiency arising from errors in surveying, and from other causes, i.^ by law added to or 
deducted from the western or northern ranges of sections according as the error may be in run- 
ning the lines from east to west, or from north to south. 

As soon as the surveys were completed in southern Wisconsin and the Green Bay section, 
and a knowledge of the superior qualities of the land for agricultural purposes were known to 
the people, the emigration became large. In fact much land was taken ])ossession of by settlers 
in advance of being surveyed and brought into market. As soon as the land offices at Green 
Bay, Mineral Point, and Milwaukee were located, public announcement was made by the govern- 
ment, of the time of the sale, when the lands were put up to the highest bidder, and such as were 
unsold were afterward subject to private entry. The first sales were held at Green Bay and 
Mineral Point in the year 1S35. The sale at Milwaukee was in 1S39. From the reports of the 
general land office, it appears that from 1S35 to 1S45 inclusive, there were sold at the three land 
offices from public sale, :,958,592j''„''u -icres, amounting to $3,768,106.51. 

Fort Howard military reservation was set apart by order of the president March 2, 1S29, 
and comjirised all the land? l\ing upon Fox river and Cireen bay, in township 24 north, range 20 
east, 4th jirinripal meridian, being about four thousand acres. The lands were abandoned for 
military purposes, by the war department, r)ecember.4, 1S50. By an act of congress approved 
March 3, 1S63. the commissioner of the general land office was authorized and directed to cause 
the restrvation, including tlie site of the fort, containingthree and four-hundredths acres, situated 
in the county of Prov.n, between Fox ri\er and Beaver Dam run, and which is not included in 
the confirmations to T. 'J. Dousman and Daniel ^Vhitne^■, nor in the grant to the state of Wis- 
consin, under resolutions of congress a]. proved April 25, 1S62, granting lands to \Visconsin to 
aid in the ccmstruction of railroads, to be surveyed and subdivided into lots not less than one- 
fourtli of an acre, and not more than forty acres, deducting such jiortions of the same as the 
jniblic interest and convenience may require; and when so sun-eyed and jlatted, to be sold sep- 
arately at auction. On the loth of November. 1S64, under directions of the commissioner, the 
lands were offered for sale at auction at t!ie fort. .\bout one-half of the lands were sold, and 
purchased by actual settlers, and bu.t few for speculation. The fort and th.e lands contiguous 
were sold for six thousand four hundred d<illars. The other lands sold biougiit about the sum 
of nineteen thousand, doll.irs. 

That portion of the reservation unsold was to be subject to private entry at the ajjpraised 
\alue, and that portion lying between Duck creek and J'.ea\er ]>ain creek, was subject to entrv 
.IS other pulilir Lindas were offered. 

On the 20th of May, i S6S, a joint resolution of congress was approved, by which the ci^m- 
imssioner of the general land office was authorized .aid directed to cause a luitent to be issued 
to the Chicago X: Xortliwcstern railroad company in pursuance of a resolution passed by con- 


^ress, granting the same to the state of Wisconsin, approved April 25, 1S62, and by act of the 
legislature approved June 16, 1S62, granting the same to that company for eighty acres of land, 
as was .surveyed and approved by said commissioner June 11. 1S64. Tlie lands thus donated 
are now used by the railroad company for their depot grounds 

The Fort Crawford military reservation was purchased from J. II. Lockwood and James D. 
Doty by the government in the year iS;9, and covered the front and main portions of farm lots 
numbered thirty -three and thirty-four, of the private land claims at Prairie da Chien, and coni- 
[iribcd about one hundred and sixty acres. Fort Crawford was built on this tract in 1829, 1830 
and I S3 1. There was also a reservation of section eighteen, townshij) seven, north of range 
four west, known ^s the Cattle Yard. This land was at the mouth of the Kickapoo river, and 
is now known as the village of Wauzeka. In addition to these lands which were located in Wis- 
consin, there was a reservation of lands lying on the west side of the Mississippi river, in Iowa. 
The lands in Wisconsin were relinipiished by the secretary of war, Janujry 10, 1S51, and were 
■originally set apart by the president cjf the United States, February 17 1S43. 

In the month of .-\pril, 1S5-, the secretarv of war authorized Hon. H. M. Rice, of Minne- 
sota, to sell that part of the reservation not improved, m tracts not exceeding forty acres each; 
and, in the month of June of that year, he sold at auction five hundred and seven acres of the 
reserve opposite Fort Crawford, none of which was claimed by actual settlers ; and in the month 
of December, 1S57, he sold the remainder to claimants of lands, also on the west side, and the 
section in Wisconsin known as the Cattle Yard, amounting to i~jjW acres. A portion of this 
reservation was subdivided into town lots, So by 140 feet, with streets 66 feet and alleys 20 feet 
wide November -17, 1S64, the acting commissioner of the general land office, by order 
of the war department, offered for sale at public auction at La Crosse the reservation at Fort 
Crawford, which had been surveyed and subdivided into town lots, eighty by one hundred and 
forty feet, with streets si.Kty-hve feet and alleys twenty feet wide, conforming to the plat of the 
village of Prairie du Chien. The lands unsold were sub.^equently opened to private entry and 
disposed of. 

The lands of the Fort Winnebago reservation were set apart by order of the president, 
February 9, 1S35, and con>isted of the following teriilory: sections two, tliree, and that part of 
four lying ea:>t of Fo.\ river, and fractional section nine, all in township twelve, north of range 
nine east , also fractional section thirty-three, in township thirteen, north of range nine east, 
lying west of Fu.k river, and the fraction of section four, township twebe north, of range nine 
east, lying west of claim nLimbered twenty-one of .\, Grignon, and adjacent to Fort Winnebago, 
reserved by order of the president. July 29, 1S51 the whole amounting to about four thousand 
acres. .September the lir.^t, 1S53. the^e land-- were by order of the pre-ident offered for sale 
at public auction at the fort, by F. H. Marten, assistant quartermaster United States army, 
having [previously been surveyed into forty acre lots, and were purchased by J. B. Martin, G. C. 
Tallman, W. H. Wells, Wm. \\'ier, .V. H. Wood, M. R, Keegan, and others. 

The first bind otfires in \\'i=con.iiii were esta'nlislied under 3.n act of congress approved 
June 26, 1S34, creating additional land districts in the states of Illinois and Missouri, and in the 
territory north of the state of Illinois. The first section [irovides " that all that tract lying north 
of the state of Illinois, we->t of Lake Miehigan. south and southeast of the Wisconsin and Fo.\ 
rivers, included in the present territory of .Michigan, shall be divided by a north and south line, 
drawn from the northern boundary of Illinois along the range of township line west of Fort 
\\'innebago to tlie Wisconsin river, and to be called — tlie one on tiie west side, the Wisconsin 
land district, and on the east side the Green E.iy l.un! district of the territory of Michigan, 
Mhlch two districts shall embrace the country north oi' s.iid rivers when the Indian title shall be 

TIIK ri'lU.lC DOMAIX. 223 

extinguished, and the Green l!ay district may be divided so as to form two districts, when 
the president shall deem it proper ;" and by section three of said act, the ])resident was author- 
ized to appoint a register and receiver for such office, as soon as a sufficient number of townships 
are surveyed. 

An act of congress, approved June 15, 1:^36, divided the Green Bay land district, as estab- 
lished in 1S34, " by a line commencing on the western boundary of said district, and running 
thence east between townshijis ten and eleven north, to tl'.e line between ranges seventeen and 
eighteen east, thence north between said ranges of townships to the line between townships 
twelve and thi;-teen north, thence east between said townships twelve and thirteen to Lake 
Michigan ; and all the country bounded north by the division line here described, south by the 
base line, east by Lake Michigan, and west by the division line between ranges eight and nine 
east," to be constituted a separate district and known as the " Milwaukee land district."' It 
included the present counties of Racine, Kenosha, Rock, Jefferson, Waukesha, Walworth and 
Mihvaukee, and parts of Green, Dane, Washington, Ozaukee, Dodge and Columbia. 

An act was ajiproved March 3, 1S47, creating an additional land district in the territory. 
.All that portion of the public lands lying north and west of the following boundaries, formed a 
district to be known as the Chippewa land district: commencing at the ^Mississippi river on the 
line between townshi[)s twenty-two and twenty-three north, running thence east along said line 
to the fourth principal meridian, thence north along said meridian line to the line dividing town- 
ships twenty-nine and thirty, thence east along such township line to the Wisconsin river, thence up 
the main channel of said river to the boundary line between the state of Michigan and the territory 
of Wisconsin. The counties now included in this district are Pepin, Clark, Eau Claire, Dunn, 
Pierce, St. Croix, Polk, P.arron, Purnett, Douglas, Pa)field, ,A.shland, Taylor, Chippewa, and parts- 
of Buffalo, Trcmpeleau and Jackson ; also, the new county of Price. 

An act of congress, ajiproved March 2, 1843, changed the location of the land office in the 
Chippewa district from tlie falls of St. Croi.\ to Stillwater, in the county of St. Croi.x, in the 
proposed territory of Minnesota; and, by section two of the net, an additional land office and 
district was created, corn[)rising all the lands in Wisconsin not included in the districts of land 
subject to sale at Green l!ay, .Milwaukee, or Mineral Point, which was to be known as the Western 
land district, and the president was authorized to designate the site the office should be 
licated. WiUow Ri\er, now Hudson, was selected. The district was usually known as the St. 
Croix and Chippewa district, and included St. Croix, La Pointe, and parts of Chippewa and 
Maratlion counties. P>y an act of congress, approved July 30, 1852, so much of the public lands 
in Wisconsin as lay within a boundary line commencing at the southwest corner of township 
fifteen, north of range two east of the fourth principal meridian, thence running due east to the 
soutlieast corner of township fifteen, north of range eleven, east of the I'ourth jirincipal meridian, 
thence north along such range line to tire north line of the state of Wisconsin, thence westwardiv 
along said north line to the line lictween ranges one ami two east of fuurth principal meridian, 
thence south to the place of beginning, were formed into a new district, and known as the 
Stevens Point land diftri( t, and a land office located at that place. 

The boundaries enclosed tlie present counties of Juneau, .\darns, ^La^quette, Green Lake, 
Waushara, Waupaca, Portage, Wood, Marathon, Lincoln, Snawano, iS'ew and Marinette. The 
La Crosse land district was formed of the following territory: "Commencing at a point where 
the line between townsliijis ten and eleven north touches tlie Mississijiiu river, thence due east to 
the f nirth ])rincipal meridian, thence, norib. to the line between townships fourteen and tit"teen 
north, thence east to the southeast corner of township lil'teen north, oi' ranL;e one east oi tiie 


fourth principal meridian, thence nortli on t'ne r.uige line to the sout'.i line of township number 
thirty-one, thence west on the line between townships number thirty and thirty-one to tile 
Chippewa river, thence down said river to its junction with the Mississippi river, thence down 
said river to the jilice of be:;inninLr." The present eounties of Vernon, La Crosse, Monroe, Buf- 
falo, Trempealeau, Eau Claire, Clark, and parts of Juneau and Chippewa were included in 
its limits. 

By act of congress, approved February 24, 1S55, an additional district was formed of all that 
portion of the Willow river land district lying north of the line dividing townships forty and 
forty-one, to be called the Fond du Lac district — the office to l)e located by the jiresident as he 
miglit i'rom time to time direct. The present counties of I)ouglas, Bayfield, Ashland, and part 
of Burnett were included within its boundaries. 

By an act of congress, approved March 3, 1S57, so much of the districts of land subject to 
sale at La Crosse and Hudson, in the state of Wisconsin, contained in the following boundaries, 
were constituted a new district, to be known as the Chippewa land district : North of the line 
dividing townships twenty-four and twenty-five north; south of the line dividing townships forty 
and forty-one north; west of the line dividing ranges one and two east; and east of the line 
dividing ranges eleven and twelve west. The loLatlon of the office vras to be designated by the 
president as the public interest might require. The present counties of Chippewa, I'aylor, Eau 
Claire and Clark were in this district. 

There are at the present time six land offices in the state. They are located at Menasha, 
Falls of St. Croix, Wausau, La Crosse, Bayfield and Eau Claire, li) the provisions of law, when 
the number of acres of land in any one district is reduced to one hundred thousand acres, sub- 
ject to private entry, the secretary of the interior is required to discontinue the office, and the 
lands remaining unsold are transferred to the nearest land office, to be there subject to sale. The 
power of locating these offices rests with the president (unless otherwise directed by law), who is 
alsc authorized to change and re-establish the boundaries of land districts whenever, in his 
opinion, the public service will be subserved thereby. 

The pre-emption law of iSj;o was intended for the benefit of actual settlers against corape- 
"titioii in open market with non-resident purchasers. It gave every person who cultivated any 
part of a quarter section the jirevious year, and occupied the tract at the date mentioned, the 
privilege of securing it by payment of the minimum jirice at any time before the day fixed for 
the commencement of the public sale. To avail liimself of this j.rovision he was to file proof 
of cultivation and occupancy. .As men frequently located claims in advance of the survey, it 
occasionally happened that two or more would find themselves upon the same quarter section^ 
in which case the j>re-emption law ])ermitted two joint occupants to divide the quarter section 
equally between them, whereupon each party received a certificate from the land office, author- 
izing him to locate an additional eiglitv acres, elsewhere in the sauie land district, not interfering 
with other settlers having the right of pretcrence. Tliis was called a juhi/iit.^ ' '.^"■- This pro- 
vision of the law was int^'eniotisly jicr\crted from its piain purpose in various wavs. 

As I'ast as these evasions came to the nutice cif the department, all certificates given to 
on upaiits of the same cpiarter section in excess of the two first, or t..> more than one member of 
the same fimily, to employees, to any person w iio had not jjaid lor eiglity acres originally 
occu[)ied, as »vell as those which were not located at the time of such I'ayment, and the additional 
tract paid for betore the public sale, were held to be worthless or fraudulent ; but a large number 
of these certificates had been issued, and passed into the hands of speculators and designing 
men, and were a source of almost endless vexation and annoyance to settlers. The law of 1S30 

TIIK ri'P.l.If DOMAIN'. 22o 

expired by limitation in one year from its passage, but was revived by the law of 1834 for two 
years. In the interim no settler could obtain his land by pre-emption. The law of 1834 extended 
only to those who had made cultivation in 1833, consequently the settlers of later date were 
excluded from its benefits. Meanwhile the fraudulent tloats were freely used to dispossess actual 
settlers as Lite as 1835. 

The ])re-eniption law of congress, approved September 4, 1S41, provided that every person 
who should make a settlement in person on public land, and erect a dwelling, should be author- 
ized to enter a quarter section (one hundred and sixty acres), at the minimum jirice (one dollar 
and twenty-fne cents per acre), and thus secure the same agaiii-t competition ; and if any person 
should setlle upon and improve land subject to private entry, he might within thirty days give 
notice to the register of the land office of his intention to claim the land settled upon, and might 
within one year upon making proof of his right, enter the land at the minimum price. 

At the public land sales at Mineral Point, held in 1835, all those tracts on which leaa was 
found, or on which it was sujjjiosed to exist, were reserved to the United States, and were leased 
under certain regulations by the government fur a rent of ten )icr centum of all the lead raised. 
The quantitv of bind thus reserved was estimated at one million acres. Considerable difticultv 
was found in collecting these rents, and subsequently it was abandoned, as the amount 
expended in collecting exceeded the value of the lead collected. In the period of four years 
the government suffered a loss of over nineteen thousand dollars. 

The act of congress, approved July i :, 1S46, authorized the sale of the reserved mineral 
lands in Illinois, Wisconsin and Iowa, and provided that, after six months' public notice, the lands 
should not be subject to the rights of pre-emption until after the same had been offered at public 
sale, when they should be subject to private entry. The law also provided, that, upon satisfac- 
tory proof being made to the register and receiver of the proper land office, any tract or tracts 
of land containing a mine or mines of lead ore actually discovered and being worked, would be 
sold in such legal subdivisions as would include lead mines, and no bid should be received 
therefor at less than the sum of two dollars and fifty cents per acie, and if such tract or tracts 
should not be sold at such public sale, at such price, nor should be entered at private sale within 
twelve months thereafter, the same should be subject to sale as other lands. This act was 
changed by an act approved March 3, 1847, providing that any one being in possession by 
actual occupancy of a mine discov'ered prior to the passage of this act, who should pay the same 
rents as tliose who held leases from the secretary of war, should be entitled to jiurchase the lands 
prior to the day of sale at five dollars per acre. Mineral lands were to be oflcred for sale in fortv 
acre pieces, and no bids were to be received less than five dollars per acre, and if not sold they 
were then to be subject to private entry :it the same jirice. In 1847 or 184S the reserved mineral 
lands were sold at i^ublic sale at Mineral Point at two dollars and fifiy cents [ler acre, and thev 
were all disposed of at that price. 

Soon after the formation of \Viscon5in territory, an act was passed by its legislature, 
ap[)roved Januar}- 5, 1838, incorporating tlic Milwaukee and RoLk ri\er canal companv, and by 
an act of congress approved June 18 of tiie same year, a grant of land was made to aid in the 
construction of the canal. The grant consisted of the odd-numbered sections on a belt of ten 
miles in width from Lake Mithigan to Rock river, aiiKiunting to 139,1(10 aeres. C>f those lands 
43,447 acres were sold at public sale in Jiih, i>^j'j. at the minimum price of two dollars and fiftv 
cents per acre. Work was commenced on tlie canal at Milw.uikee, and the .Milwaukee river for 
a short distance from its outlet was improved by the construction of a dam across the rucr, 
which was made available for manufacturing and other purposes. .\ canal was also built about 
a mile in length and forty feet wide, leading from it down on tlie west bank of the river. Much 


dissatisfaction sub5e<iuently arose ; the purchasers at tliis sale, and others occup)ing these canal 
and reserved lands felt the injustice of being comiicUed to fiay double price for their lands, and 
efforts were made to repeal all laws authorizing further t.ales, and to ask congress to repeal the 
act making the grant. The legislation on the subject of this grant is voluminous. In 1S62 the 
legislature of the state passed an act to ascertain and settle the liabilities, if any, of Wisconsin 
and the company, and a board of commissioners was ajjpointed for that purpose. At the session 
of the legislature in 1 S63, the committee made a report with a lengthy opinion of the attorney-gen- 
eral of the state. The views of that officer were, that the company had no valid claims for damages 
against the state. In this opinion the commissioners concurred. On the 23d of March, 1S75, 
an act was approved by the governor, giving autliority to the attorney-general to discharge and 
release of record any mortgage before executed to the late territory of ^\'isconsin, given to secure 
the purchase money or any part thereof of any lands granted by congress to aid in the construc- 
tion of this canal. The quantity of lands unsold was subsequently made a part of the 500,000 
acre tract granted by congress for school purposes. It is believed tiie whole matter is now closed 
against further legislati\e enactments. 

The ne.xt grant of lands made by congress lor internal improvements in Wisconsin, was one 
approved August S, 1S46, entitled "an act to grant a certain (jiiantily of land to aid m the 
improvement of the Vox and \Visconsia rivers, and to connect the same by canal." Ey this act 
there was granted to \\'isconsin on her becoming a state, for improving the navigation of the 
above-named streams, and constructing the canal to unite the same, a quantity of land ei|ual to 
one-half of three sections in width on each ;ide of Fox ri\er, and the lakes through which it 
passes from its mouth to the point where the portage canal should enter the same, and each side 
ofllie canal from one stream to the other, reserving the alternate sections to the United States 
with certam provisions in relation thereto. On the 3d of August, 1854, an act of congress was 
apjjroved, authorizing the governor of Wisconsin to select the balance of lands to which the state 
was entitled to under the provisions of the act of iS.p'i, out of any unsold government lands sub- 
ject to private entry in the state, the quantity to be ascertained upon the princi])les which gov- 
erned the final adjustment of the grant to the state of Indiana, for the Wabash and Erie canal, 
approved May 9, 184S. In the years 1854 and 1S55, acts of congress were ])assed, defining and 
enlarging the grant. Under tlic grants of 1S46, 1854 and 1S55, the number of acres donated for 
this j)ur[)0se and certified to the state, was 674,100. 

After the admission of Wisconsin into the Union, by an act of its legislature, approved 
.■\.ugust S, 1S4S, a board of jiuulic works was created, through which the work of improving the 
said ri\ers, by the ai>plication tlicrcto of the proceeds of the bale of tlie lands granted by con- 
gress, was undertaken b_\ the state. 

It soon became ajiparent that the moneys realized from the sale of lands were insufficient to 
meet the obligations of the state issued by its board of public works as thev became due; and 
in 1S53 the work was turned over to the Fox and Wisconsin Impro\ement company, a corjiora- 
tion created under an act of the legislature 01' Wisconsin approved Jul_\- 6, 1S53. In 1S56, b\- an 
act of tlie legislature of Wisconsin, apprnved Octolier 3, iS-;6, the l.mds granted by coiv^ress 
then unsold were granted by the state, through the said company, to trustees, with power to 
sell, and to hold the proceeds in trust for the payment of state indebtedness, the completion 
of the work, thereafter for the pajment of bonds issued by the said compan)', and the bal.ince, if 
any, for the company itself. 

In February. iS6(i, tiie trustees, in execution of the powers contained in the deed of trust 
made to them, and pursuant to a judgment of the circuit court of Fond du count y, sold at 
public sale at Ap[)letoi-., Wisconsin, the works of improvement and the balance of lands granted 

TirR PT'KLir 5iOMAI>:. 227 

by congress then unsold, and applied the proceeds to the purposes expressed in the deed of trust. 
The proceeds were sufficient to pay in full the expenses of the trust, the then outstanding 
state indebtedness, and to provide a fund sufficient to comijlcte the work according to the plan 
specified in the act approved October 3, 1S56. 

Under an act of the legislature of \\'isconsin approved April 13, 1861, and the acts amend- 
atory thereof, the purchasers at said sale, on the 15th day of August, iS56, filed their certificate 
in the office of the secretary of state, and thereby became incorporated as the Green Bay and 
Mississippi canal company, holding, as such company, the said works of improvement. 

.At a subsequent date, under instructions from the engineer department of the United States. 
the surveys of the Fox and Wisconsin rivers were placed in the charge of General G. K. War- 
ren, and by act of congress approved July 7, 1S70, the secretary of war was authorized to 
appoint a board of arbitrators to ascertain how much the government should pay to the suc- 
cessors of tlie Improvement company, the Green Bay and Mississippi canal company, for the 
transfer of all its property and rights ; and by a subsequent act, approved June 10, 1S72, an 
appropriation was made therefor. 

The legislation on matters connected with the Fox and Wisconsin river improvement would 
make a chapter of itself. The work is now in charge of the government, and will be prosecuted 
to completion in a sati'. factor)- manner. 

On the 29th of May, 184S, an act was approved by the president "to enable the people of 
Wisconsin territory to form a constitution and state government, and for the admission of such 
state into the Union," by which certain propositions were to be submitted to the convention 
which were to be acted upon, and subsequently submitted to the people for their approval. The 
first constitutional convention was held in October, 1S46, and, having framed a constitution, it 
was submitted to a vote of the jieople at the election in rS47, and it was rejected. The second 
convention met December 15, 18.(7, ■•^nd, having formrd sr-constitution, it was adopted by the 
people at tln^ election in 1S4S. The following are the propositions proposed by congress : 

1. That section sixteen numbered in every township of the public lands of said state, and 
where such section has been sold or otherwise disposed of, other lands equivalent thereto, and 
as contiguous as may be, shall be granted to the said state for the use of schools. 

2. That seventy-two sections, or two entire townships, of land set apart and reserved for 
the use and support of a university by act of congress approved June 12, 1S3S, are hereby granted 
and conveyed to the state, to be appropriated solely to the use and support of such university in 
such manner as the legislature may prescribe. 

3. That ten entire sections of land to be selected and located under the direction of tlie 
legislature, in legal subdivisions of not less than one quarter of a section from any of the unap- 
propriated lands belonging to the United States within the state are granted to the state for 
completing the public buildings, or for the erection of others at the seat of government, under 
the direction of the legislature. 

4. That all salt-springs within the state, not exceeding twelve in number, shall be granted to 
the state, to be selected by the legisL-iture, and when selected, to be used or disposed of on such 
terms, conditions, and regulations as the legislature shall direct. 

The title to all lands and other property which accrued to the territory of Wisconsin by 
grant, gift, purchase, forl'eiture, escheat, or otl-,eruise, were, by the provisions of the constitution 
of the state, vested in the state; and tl;e [■eople of the state, in their ri_;ht of sovereignty, were 
det-lared to possess the ultimate i)ropeny in and to all lands within its jurisdiction ; and all 
(ands, the title of which shall fail from a defect of heirs, shall revert or escheat to the jjcople. 

'I'hc act of congress for the admission of the state into the Union gave formal assent to the 

228 iiisTdKV or wiscoxsix 

grant relative to tlu- Fox and Wisconsin river improvement, and the lands reserved to the United 
States by said grant, and also the grant to the territory of Wisconsin, for the purpose of aiding 
in opening a canal to connect the waters of Lake Michigan with those of Rock river, were to be 
offered for sale at the same minimum price, and subject to the same rights of pre-emption as 
other public lands of the United States. 

By the provisions of the state constitution, t!ie secretary of state, the state treasurer arid 
attorney-general, were constituted a board of commissioners for the sale of the school and 
university lands, and for the investment of the funds arising therefrom. In the year 1S50 the 
commissioners put jnto market, for the first time, the school lands which had been donated to the 
state. The total quantity of lands offered was 148,021, 44-100 acres, which sold for the sum of 

Hy an act of congress, approved September 4, 1S41, there were granted to the state 500,000 
acres of land, which were, by act of the territorial legislature of 1S49, appropriated to the school 
fund, and the unsold lands of the Milwaukee and Rock river canal company, amounting to about 
140,000 acres, were to be included as a part of tlie above grant. These lands, and the si.xteenth 
section of each township, make up the whole of the school lands of the state. The whole 
number of acres sold up to the year 1877 is 1,243,984 acres, and there remain unsold, subject 
to entry, 216.016 acres. 

The state university land grant was made in 1S3S, and seventy-two sections set apart and 
reserved. The lands were selected in 1845 and 1S46. On the 15th of December, 1S54, an act 
of congress was approved, rclin(|uishing to the state the lands reserved for the salt-springs, and 
f.eventy-two sections were granted in lieu thereof, in aid of the university of the state The 
number of acres amounts to 92,160, all of which have been sold except 4,407 acres, which are 
subject to entr\-. Under the re-organization and enlargement of the universit}, under provisions 
of chapter 114, of general laws of 1S66, section thirteen provides, among other things, that the 
income of a fund to be derived from the sales of the two hundred and forty thousand acres, 
granted by congress by act ajjproved July 2, 1S62, entitled : "'An act donating lands to the 
several states and territories which may provide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and 
mechanic arts," be devoted to the state university, and the funds arising therefrom to be known 
as the "agricultural college fund." .\11 of the grant of lands have been sold except 51,635 acres. 
The quantity of lands donated by act of congress August 6, 1S46, for the purpose of completing or 
erecting public buildings at the seat of government, known as "Capitol Lands," amounted to 
ten entire sections, or si.v thousand four hundred acres. A grant of lands was made to the state 
by act of congress, approved Septeniljer 28, 1S50, ot all the swamp and overflowed lands within 
its limits. The total number of acres of this grant, as certified to the stale from the government, 
to the year 1S77, is 1,869,677. 

A grant of land was made b)' congress, approved March 3, 1 S63, for the construction of a 
military road from Fort Wilkins, Michigan, to Fort Howard, Wisconsin, of every alternate 
Section of public lands, designated by even numbers for three sections in widtli on each side of 
said road, and subject to the disposal of the legislature. In 1S65 sales of land were made to 
the number of 85,961.89 acres, which realized the sum of ,§114,856.54. 

An act of congress was a[)proved June 25, 1864, granting lands to the state to build a military 
road from Wausau, Wisconsin, to Ontonagon, on Lake Superior, of every alternate section of 
land designated as odd sections, for three sc< tions in width on each side of the road. I'he grant 
v.'as accepted by the state by law, approved April 10, 1865. 

An act was also passed by congress, approved April 10, 1866, granting to the state of Wis- 
consin a. donation of public lands to aid in the construction of a breakwater and harbor and ship 

TiiK ri ii()>rATX. 22'J 

canal at the head of Sturgeon bay. Wis., to connect the waters of Green bay with Lake Michigan. 
The grant was for 200,000 acres of land. The grant was accepted by the legislature of 1S6S. 
In iS74,thesaniebody by resolution transferred to the Sturgeon bay and Lake Michigan ship canal 
and harbor company 32,342 acres, and the remaining portion was authorized to be sold for agri- 
cultural purposes by said company. 

The first railroad grant in Wisconsin was by act of congress, approved June 3, 1856, by the 
first section of which there was granted to the state, for the purpose of aiding in the construction 
of a railroad from Madison or Columbus, by the way of Portage City, to the St. Croi.v river or 
lake, between towpships twenty-five and thirty-one, and from thence to the west end of Lake 
Superior and to Bayfield ; and from Fond du Lac, on Lake Winnebago, northerly to the state line, 
every alternate section of land designated by odd numbers, for six sections in width on each side 
of said roads, respectively; the land to ,be applied exclusively in the construction of said roads, 
and to no other purpose whatever, and subject to the disposal of the legislature, and the same 
shall remain public highways for the use of the government, free from toll and other charges 
\ipon the transportation of jnoperty or troops of tlie United States, with other conditions as to 
the disposal of said land>. 

The grant was accepted by the legislature by an act approved October 8, 1S56, and on the 
nth of the same month an act was approved granting a portion of the lands to the La Crosse & 
Mississippi railroad company, who were to carry out all the requirements of the original grant. 
A supplementary act was approved the same session, October 13, incorporating the Wisconsin &: 
Superior railroad, which company was required to commence the construction of their road on 
or before January i, 1S57, and to complete the same to Oshkosh before August i, 1858. Of tliis 
land grant John ^V. Cary says: "That portion of the grant given to aid in the construction of 
a railroad northerly to the state line was conferred on the Wisconsin &: Superior railroad companv. 
This company was organi/eJ in the interest of the Chicago, St. Paul & Fond du Lac railr(jad 
company, and that part of the grant was transferred to it. The road was, in 1S59, extended to 
Oshkosh, and thence to Menasha, and finally to Green Bay. In the panic of 1S57, the company 
failed to meet its obligations, but was afterward enabled to go on, and continued in possession 
until June .?, 1S59, u-hen its road was sold on the foreclosures of the mortgages given thereon '• 
and on the sixth of the same month the present Chicago & Northwestern railroad company was 
organized under the statute, by purchasers at said sale, and took possession." 

A large portion of the original grant was given for the construction of a road from Madison 
or Columbus to the St. Croi\ river, as before stated. The La Crosse company, during the )ears 
1 85 7 and 1S5S, completed its main line to La Crosse; the Watertown line, from Watertown to 
Columbus, and partially graded the line from Madison to Portage City. Neither it nor its suc- 
cessors ever received any jiart of the lands of the land grant. 

In 1S56 and 1857, the La Cros^e & Milwaukee railroad graded mo^t of the line from Madi- 
son to Portage. After the failure of the company, this line was abandoned, and so remained 
until 1S70, when a new company was organized, under tlie name of the Madi -on & Portage City 
railroad company. In 1S73, an act was passed chartering the Tomah & Lake St. Croix railroad 
'ompany, aiul repealing and annulling that portion of the land grant which bestowed the lands 
from Tomah to Lake St. (.."roix upon the La Crosse comj)any, and bestowing the same upon the 
comi)any chartered by this ari. This road is known as tlie West Wisconsin railroad. 

.\n art of congress was ap[<rovcd M.iy 5, 1S64, granting lands to aid in the construction of 
cert.iin roads in the state. This was a re-enactment of the law of 1856, and divided the grant 
m tliree sections, one of which was for a road from a jioint on the St. Croix ri\er or lake, between 

230 - -' irisTor.v of Avrsroxsix. 

townships twenty-Hve and thirty-one, to the west end of Lake Superior, and from sonne point on 
the line of said road, to be selerted by the state, to Bayfield — every alternate section designated 
by odd numbers, for ten sections in width on each side of said road, with an indemnity extending 
twenty miles on e.ich side, was granted, under certain regulations; another, for aiding in building 
a road from Tomah to the St. Croix river, between townships twenty-t'ive and thirty-one — every 
alternate section by odd numbers, for ten sections in width on each side of the road ; another 
for aiding and constructing a railroad from Portage City, Berlin, Doty's Island, or Fond du Lac, 
as the legislature may determine, in a northwestern direction, to Bayfield, on Lake Su[jerior, and 
a grant of every alternate section designated by odd numbers, for ten sections in width on each 
side of said road. wu-. donated. 

The legislature of 1S65 failed to agree upon a disposition of the grant. The succeeding 
legislature conferred the grant partly upon the " Winnebago tV Lake Superior Railroad Company," 
and partly upon the " Portage & Sujierior Railroad Company," the former April 6, 1866, and the 
latter April 9, 1S66. The two companies were consolidated, under the name of the "Portage, 
Winnebago &: Superior Railroad," by act of the legislature, ^Llrch 6, 1S69, and by act of legis- 
lature approved February 4, 1S71, the name was changed to tlie "AVisconsin Central Railroad." 



An article on state health, necessarily embracing the etiology, or causes of disease, involves 
the discussion of the geograpliical position of the state; its area, physical features; its elevations, 
depressions; water suiijily ; drainage; its mean level above the sea; its geologv ; climatology; 
the nationality of its people; their occupations, habits, food, education; and, indeed, of all the 
physical, moral and mental influences which affect the public health. 

Gkoi-.r.M'hicai. Posiriox. 

The geographical position of \\"isconsin, considered in relation to health, conveys an imme- 
diate and favorable impression, wliirh is at once confirmed by a reference to tlie statistical .ithis 
of the United States. On its nortli it is bounded by Lake Sujierior, Minnesota, and thenorthern 
jicninsula of Michigan; on the south by Illinois; on tlie east by Lake Michigan, and on the 
west by the Mississipjii. It lies lietwecn .\:° 3c' and 46"^ 55' X. latitude, and between 87° and 
•j2^' 50' \V. long.; is 285 miles long from north to south, and 255 in breadth from east to west, 
giving it an area of some 53,924 square miles, or 34,511,360 acres. Its natural surface divisions, 
or proportions, are 16 per cent, of [.rairie, 50 of timber, 19 of oiienings, 15 of marsh, mineral 
undefined. Xoiili of 45^' the s'lrface i- nearly covered with va->t forests of [jine. The proportion 
of the state cultivated is nearly one-sixth. 

Phvsic.m, I e.-\iurks. 

.Vmong these, its lacusirine ch.iracter is most cons[iicuous, so much so that it may not inapt! v 
be called the state of a thousand lakes, its snialler ones being almost universal and innumerable. 


It has an almost artificially perfect arrangement of its larger rivers, both for supply and drainage, 
is rolling in its surface, having several dividing ridges or water sheds, and varies from 600 to 1,600 
feet above the level of the sea. Blue Mounds being 1,729 feet above sea level. Its pine and 
thickly wooded lands are being rapidly denuded, and to sonic extent converted to agricultural 
purposes ; its marshes in the north are being reclaimed for cranberry cultivation, and in the more 
thickly settled parts of the state for hay purposes. The surfice of the state ib beautifully diver- 
sified with stream, waterfall and rapids ; richly wooded bluffs several hundred feet in height, 
assuming the most romantic and pleasing forms, and composed of sandstone, magnesian 
limestone, granite, trap, etc. The health and summer resorts of Wisconsin are illustrative of its 
beauty, and its numerous mineral springs have long since formed an important feature of its 
character for salubrity. 


The geology of Wisconsin does not require from us but a very general notice, as it is only 
from its relation to disease that we have to consider it. TIiIn relation is in a measure apparent 
in the fact that everywhere the to[)ographical features are governed by the strata below them. 
The reIationshi]i will be seen still further in the chemical or sanitary influence of the geological 
structures. Through the greater i)art of the south half of the state limestone is found, the clilt 
prevailing in the mineral region, and the blue in the other parts; while in the north part of the 
state the primitive rocks, granite, slate, and sandstone prevail. South of the \Visconsin river 
sandstone in layers of limestone, forming the most picturebque bluffs, abounds. While west of 
Lake Michigan 'e.xtends up to these rocks the limestone formation, being rich in timber or prairie 
land. Sandstone is found underneath the blue limestone. The general dip of the stratilled 
rocks of the state is toward the south, about S feet to the mile. 

Medical geology treats of geology so far only as it afiects health. Thus, some diluvial soils 
and sands are known to be productive of malarial fevers; others, of a clayey character, retaining 
water, are productive of cold damp, and give rise to pulmonary and inflammatory diseases; 
while others still, being very porous, are juomotive of a dry and equable atmosphere. In 
the Potsdam rocks arise our jiurest waters and best supply, while our magnesian limestone rocks 
(a good quality of this kind of rock being composed of nearly equal parts of carbonate of lime 
and carbonate of magnesia) affect the water to the extent of producing simple diarrhoea in those 
unaccustomed to drinking it, as is observed in southern visitors, and was especially noticeable 
in the rebel prisoners at Camp Randall, though singularly enough do not seem to produce 
stone and gravel, as is alleged of the same kind of water in t!ie north of England. Why this is 
so — if so — is a question of some interest. Goitre and cretinism are both attributed to the use 
of the same magnesian limestone water. Goitre is by no means an uncommon affection here, 
but not common enough, perhaps, to warrant us in thinking its special cause is in the water. 
Boiling the water is a preventive of all injurious effects. There is still another objection — partic- 
ularly applicable to cities — to this kind of water, the carbonates of lime and magnesi.i which 
it contains, not simply making it hard, but giving it the jjower to promote the deciinqjosition of 
organic matters, and thus where the soil is saudy or porous, endangering the purity of our well- 
water. Geology in general affects all our soils and tlieir products; all our drainage; even our 
architecture, the material with wlmU we buihi. Our building stone for half of the state is a 
magnesian limestone, a rather soft or jioor quality c^f which will absorb one-third of its bulk of 
water, or two and a half gallons to the cubic foot, while most kinds of sandstone are ne.irl\' a> 
])orous as loose sand, and in some of them the penetrability t'or a:r and water is tlie same. (A 
single iirick of poor (juality will absorb a pint of water). Such materials used in the construction 


of our dwellings, without precautionary measures, give rise to rheumatism, other grave diseases, 
and loss of strength. Besides, this character of stone absorbs readily all kinds of liquid and 
gaseous impurities, and though hardening in dry air, decays soon when exposed to underground 
moisture. I'lie material of which our roads are made, as well as the kind of fuel we use in our 
homes, have the same unf[uestionab!e relationship to geology and disease. 


The natural drainage of the state, bearing in mind that the mean elevation of its hydro- 
graphical a.xis is about 1,000 feet above the sea level, is as excellent as it is obvious. (A line 
running from Lake Michigan across the state to the Mississipjn, shows an elevation of about 500 
feet). North its drainage is by a few rapid but insignificant streams into Lake Superior, wliile 
east it increases greatly and enters Lake Michigan by way of Green bay. The principal part of 
the supply and drainage, however, is from the e.xtreme north to tlie southwest through the center 
of the state, by five large rivers, which empty themselves into the Mississippi at almost equal 
distances from each other. 


The climatology of Wisconsin will be exhibited in the observations taken at different times, 
for longer or shorter periods, and at different jioints of the state. fUit it must be borne in mind 
that climate depends (|uite as much and very frequently more upon the physical surroundings, 
upon the presence of large bodies of water, like our lakes, upon large forests, like our pineries, 
like our heavy hard-woods, and of land elevations and depressions, ujion isothermal lines, etc., as 
it does upon latitude. Our historic period is of a character too brief for us to assume to speak 
of our climate, or of all the changing causes which influence it — in a positive manner, our 
horticultural writers, to make the dit^iculty still greater, affirming that it has sc'irni/ c/imaUs 'within 
ilself; still, sufficient data have been gathered from sufficiently reliable sources to enable us to 
form a tolerabh' accurate idea of the subject. 

The great modifiers of our climate are our lakes. These, bounding as they do, the one. 
Lake Superior (600 feet above tlie level of tlie sea, 4:ro miles long and lOo broad), on the north 
side of the state, and the other. Lake Micliigan (57S feet abo\e the sea level, 3.'o miles long and 
84 broad), on the east side of the state, serve to govern the range of the thermometer and tlie 
mean temperature of the seasons, as much as they are governed in New England by the ocean. 
Our climate is consequently very much like that of the New England sea-board. They both 
exhibit the same extremes and great extremes, have the same broadly marked continental features 
at some seasons, and decided trDjiical features at otheib. It is of special interest in this con- 
nection to know that the dimate between tlie e.istern coast and the lakes increases in riijor as 
one advances west until the lakes are reached, and again becomes still more rigorous as one 
advances into the interior west of the lake>, t!ius affording proof, if proof were wanting, of the 
modifying and agreeable intlueiues of large bodies of water 

During the winter the mean temperature of the east on t!ie New P^ngland coast is S.3S 
higher than tlie west (beyond tlie lake.-.); tliiring tiie sjirnig 3.53 l.jwer ; during the summer 6.99 
lower; and during the autumn 1.54 higher. In the mean temptr.iture tor the year there is but a 
fractional difi'erenre. That the winters are less rigorous and tlie summers more temperate on 
the Great Lakes is demonstrated to be owing not to elevation, but, as on the ocean, to the equal- 
izing agency of an exp.uTie of \\ater. 

On the lakes the annual ratio of fair days is 117, and on the New England coast 215 ; the 


cloudy days are as 127 to 73; the rainy as 63 to 46 , and the snowy as 45 to 29 In the former 
the prevailing weather is cloudy, and in the latter it is fair. The immense forests on the upper 
lake shores of course exercise a considerable influence in the modification of our temperature, as 
well as in the adding to our rain-fall and cloudy days. A climate of this character, with its 
attendant rains, gives us that with which we are so abundantly supplied, great variety of food, 
both for man and beast, the choicest kinds of fruits and vegetables in the greatest profusion, and 
of the best qualitv, streams alive with fish, woods and prairies with game, the noblest trees, the 
most exquisite flowers, and the best breeds of domestic animals the world can boast of. 

The semi-tropical character of our summer, and its resemblance to that of New England, is 
shown by the mean temperature — 70^ — for three months at Salem, Massachusetts, at Albany, 
New York, at southern Wisconsin, Fort Snelling and Fort Benton on the Upper Missouri, being 
the same ; while at Baltimore, Cincinnati and St. Louis, it is 75", and around the gulf of Mexico 
it is 80''. Another feature of our climate is worthy the notice of invalids and of those who make 
the thcruKjmeter their guide for comfort. It i, a well-ascertained fact that during the colder 
seasons the lake country is not only relatively, but jjositivcly, warmer than places far south of it. 
The thermometer, during tlie severe cold of January, 1S56, did not fall so low at the coldest, by 
10"' to 15'' at Lake Superior as at Chicago at the same time. This remark holds true of the 
changes of all periods of duration, even if continued over a month. The mean temperature at 
Fort Howard, Green Bay, Wisconsin, 600 feet above the level of the .\tlr.ntic, latitude 44^ 40', 
longitude 87^, observations for nine years, is 44.93; and at Fort Crawford, Prairie du Chien, 
Wisconsin, 580 .feet above the level of the .\tlantic, latitude 43"" 3', longitude 90" 53', observa- 
tions for four years, is 45.65, giving a just idea of our mean temperature for the state. Under 
the head of distribution of heat in winter, it is found that the maximum winter range at Fort 
Winnebago, "Wisconsin, for sixteen year>, is 9.4. 

Hyetal or Rain Character. 

Wisconsin is situated within what is termed tiie area 0/ constant frecipiiation, neither affected 
by a rainy season, nor by a partial dry season. . The annual quantity of rain on an average for 
three years at Fort Crawford, was 29.54 inches, and at Fort Howard the mean annual on an 
average of four years, was 3S.83 inches. The annual quantity of rain, on an average of iliree 
years was 31.SS inches at Fort "Winnebago, situate (opposite the portage between the Fox and 
Wisconsin rivers) So mites west of Lake Michigan and 112 miles southwest of Green Bay. The 
rain-fall is less in the lake district tlian in the valley of the Mississippi in the same latitudes. 
One of the jjeculiarities of our winters is tiie almost periodical rain-fall of a few days in the 
middle of the winter (usually in the middle of January), which extends to the Atlantic coa^t, 
while north and northwct of us the dry cold continues without a break, winter being uniform and 
severe, characterized by aridity and steady low temiierature. Anotiier peculiarity of our climate 
is, the numlier of snowy and rain\- days is increased disproiiortionately to the actual quantity — 
the large bodies of water on the boundaries of the state, contrary to the popular opinion, reduc- 
ing the annual (iuantit_\- of rain in their immediate vicinity instead of adding to it, the heavier 
precipitation being carried further away. One of the most pleasing features of our climate is its 
frequent succession of showers in summer, tempering as it does our semi-tropical heat, increasing 
the fertility of the soil, and carpeting our prairies witli a green as grateful to the eye as that of 

The hyi;nimetrl<- cdudition of WUronsin may be judged of with proximate accuracy by that 
given of Poultney, low:i : 




Temperature Temperature 
of Air. ofEvaporat'n 

per cent. 

of Air. 


Temperature Humidity 
of Evaporat'n percent. 

'J'ht," aseragt.- dcptli of snow for three years, at 15eloit, Wisconsin, was twciity-five incites, 
while at U.\ford lounty, Maine, the averaue for twelve yearr, was ninety inches. The isohyetal 
lines of the mean precipitation of rain and melted snow, for the year 1S72, show that of Wiscon- 
sin to be thirt\-two. 


The mean temperature of spring is represented by the isotherm of 45° F. which enters Wis- 
consin from the west about forty miles south of Hudson, passing in a nearly southeast direction, 
and crosses the south line of the state near the west line of Walworth county. It tlien passes nearly 
around the head of Lake Michigan, then northeast until it reaches the latitude of Milwaukee, 
whence it pabses in a somewhat irregular course east tlirough Ontario, New York, and Massa- 
chusetts, entering the ocean in the vicinity of Loston. The summer mean isotherm of 70^^ V. 
enters Wisconsin from the west but little farther north than the sjjring isotherm, and passes 
through the state nearly jiarallel with tlie course of that line, crossing the southern boundary 
near the east line of Walworth county; passing through Chicago it goes in a direction a little 
south of east, and enters the Atlantic at New Haven. The mean isotherm of 47^^ F. for autumn, 
enters the state about twenty miles north of Prairie du Chicn, passing in a direction a little north 
of east through Portage, and enters Lake Micb.igan near Manitowoc. The isotherm of 20'-^ F. 
representing the mean temperature of winter, enters the state near Prairie du Chien, passes east 
and north and enters Lake Michigan at Sturgeon bay. The annual mean temperature is repre- 
sented by the isotherm of 45° F. which enters the state near I'rairie dii Chien, passes across the 
state in a direction a little south of east, aijd eiilers Lake Michigait a little south of Mi'waukee. 

What influence these isotherms have ujionour belts of disease tb.ere are no data to show. 
But from their influence upon vegetable life, oiu- can ncjt but inter a similar good influence on 
the animal econoiny. This is a question for the future. 


Yearly mean of barometer at 32'^ F. 
i,oS8 feet abo\e the sea : 

jrved at the University uf Wisconsin, altiturle 


.2S.9'^2 inche.s. 
-23.S67 " 
.2S.9S6 ■• 


.2S.SQ2 ilicll. 

.25. 750 ■• 

Atmospheric pressure, as indicated Ijy the b.irotneter, is an important element in the cattsation 
of disease, far more so than is generally thought. The barometer indicates not (^nly the coming 
of the storm, but that state of the atmosphere which gives rise to health at one time, and to 
disease at another. When the barometer is high, both the bod_\' and mind have a feeling of 
elasticity, of vigor and activity, and when the barometer ranges low, the feelings of both are jt;st 
the reverse ; and luitli of these states, < ommonl) attributed to temperature, are mostly the rcstilt 
of change iti the barometric pressure. Many inflammations, as of the lungs, etc., cotnmonly 

lir.ALTK <iF Avrsf'oNsiy. 235 

attributed to rhariLje in the temperature, have their origin in liaronietricnl \iriss!tndes. 


Cicnerallv tJl'e. iking, the atmospheric movement is from the west. It is of little ])Urpose 
what the siirfaee wind may be, as tliis does not affect the fact of the Lonstaiicy of the -westerly 
wiruli in the niidille latitudes, 'i'lio showers and cumidus clouds of the Mimmer always have this 
movement. 'I'lic/ bell of westerly winds is the belt of constant and etiually distributed rains, the 
feature of our winds upon which so much of our health and comfort depends. 

(,'l-l.MAT()I.(.)(;iC.A.I. Cn.\Ni.KS hKO\l SkI'ILINi'. thk S-r.\TE. 

I'here are many theories atloat concerning tlie efiects of reclaiming the soil and the destruc- 
tion of its forests. To us, a new people and a new btate, the ipacstion is one of great moment, 
the more so that it is still in our power not only to watch the efiects of such changes, but still 
more so to control them in a measure for our good. As to the eli'ects ujjon animal and vegetable 
life, it would aiijiear that so fur as relates to the clearing away of forests, the whole change of 
conditions is limited to the surface, and dependent for the most part on the retention and slow- 
evaporation in the forest, in contrast with tlie rapid drainage and evaporation in the open space. 
The springs, diminishing in number and volume in our more settled parts of the state, do not 
indicate a lessening rain-fall. It is a well ascertained fact tliat in other places so denuded, which 
have been allowed to cover themselves again with forests, the sjjrings rea].>pear, and the streams 
are as full a.i before such denudation. \\'\\\\ us, happily, while the destruction of forests is going 
on in various parts of the state, their s(cond ■^rmi'th is also going on, both in the pineries, where 
new varieties of hard-wood take the place of tlie jjine, and in the more cultivated parts of the 
state, culti\ation forbidding, as it does, the practice so much in \ogue some yeara ago, of running 
fires through the undergrowth. Thus, though the renewal of forests may not be keeping pace 
with their destruction, it would seem clear that as time advances, the springs and streams in the 
more cultivated sections of the state will fill and flow again, increasing in jiroportion as the seconil 
growth increases and expands. 

The change, however, from denudatiorc, though strictly limited to the surface, affects the 
surface in other ways than simply in the retention and evaporation of rain. When the winter 
winds are blowing, the want of tlie sheltering protection of belts of trees is bitterly felt, both by 
man and beast. And so, too, in the almost trojiical heats of the summer ; both languish and suffei 
from the want of shade. Nor is the effect of denudation less sensibly felt by \ egetalile life. The 
growing of our more delicate fruits, like the jieach, the plum, the [lear, the better \arieties of the 
< herry and gooseberr\-, with the lieautiful hnlf-hardy tlowering shrubs, all of which flourished sc 
well in a number of our older counties some twenty years ago, are as a rule no longer to be found 
in those localities, having died out, as is believed, from exposure to the cold winds, to the south 
west winds in particular, and for want ot the protecting influence of the woods. In fruits, how 
ever, we have this compensation, that, while the more tender Narleties have been disajipearing, 
the hardier and e(iually good varieties, especially of apjjle.-;, have been increasing, while the 
grape (than which nothing sjjeaks better for climatology), o{ wiiich we grow some 150 varieties, 
the strawlierry, the raspberry, blackberry and currant, etc., hold their groimd. Nor are the cattle 
suffering as much as formerly, or as much as is perhaps ])0pularly believed, from this want of 
forests or tree shelter. With the better breeds which our I'.inners ha\e been able of late years to 
purchase, with better blood and better food, and better rare, our stcxk instead of du indling in 
condition, or in number, from the effect of cold, has progressed in ipiality and quantitx', and 
competes with the best in the Chicago and the New York markets. 


There can, however, be no doubt that the planting of groves and belts of trees in exposed 
localities, would lie serviceable in many ways; in tempering the air and imparting to it an 
agreeable moisture in the summer ; in modifying the severity of the cold in winter ; in moderating 
the extreme changes to which our climate is subject; and thus in a measure preventing those 
discomforts and diseases which occur from sudden changes of temperature. Besides, these 
plantings, wlien made' between our homes or villages and malarial marshes soulhwesi oi us, serve 
(by the aid of our prevailing southwest winds \ to break up, to send over and abo\e and beyond 
us the malarial su.bstratum of air to which we are otherwise injuriously exposed. 

The effects of reclaiming the soil, or "breaking " as it is called in the west, have, years ago, 
when the state fijst began to be settled, been disastrous to health and to life. 'I'he moist sod 
being turned over in hot weather, and left to undergo through the summer a putrifying fomen- 
tative process, ga\e rise to the worst kind of malarial, typhoid (bilious) and dysenteric disease. 
Not, however, that the ^ irulence or mortality altogether depended upon tlie soil emanations. 
These were undoubtedly aggravated by the absolute poverty of the early settlers, who were 
wanting in everything, in proper homes, proper food and iiro[jer medical attendance, medicines 
and nursing. These fevers have iwejit the state years ago, particularly in the autumns of 1S44 
and 1S45, but are now only observed from time to time in limited localities, following in the 
autumn the summer's "breaking." But it is jjleasing to be able to add that through the advancing 
prosperity of the state, the greater abundance of the necessaries and comforts of life, and the 
facilities for obtaining medical care, the diseases incident to " settling " are much less common 
and much less fatal than formerly. 


One of , the j)rincipal reasons for gathering climatological observations, is to obtain sanitary 
information, which serves to show us where man may live with the greatest safety to his health. 
Every countr)-, we might perhaps correctly say every state, has, if not its peculiar diseases, at 
least its peculiar type of diseases. And by nothing is either this type or vai;ety of disease so 
much influenced as by climate. Hence the great importance of the study of climatology to 
health and disease, nay, even to the kind of medicine and to the regulating ut the dose to be 
given. It is, however, best to caution the reader that these meteorological observations are not 
always made at points where they would most accurately sho^^■ the salubrity of a geographical 
district, by reason of the fact that the positions were chosen not for this s[jecial purpose, but 
for purely military purposes. We allude to the forts of \\'isconsin, from which our statistics for 
the most part come. Another caution it is also well to bear in mind in looking over the class of 
diseases rejiortcd at these stations in connection with their observations. The diseases are those 
of the military of the period, a class from which no very favorable health reports could be 
expected, considering their habits, ex[>osure, and llie influences incidental to frontier life. 

The geography of disease and climate is c)f special interest to the public, and a knowledge 
especially necessary to the state authorities, as it i^ only b)' such a knowledge tiiat state legis- 
lation can possibly restrain or root out the endemic diseases of the state. In connection with 
the gathering of vital statistics must go the collection of meteorological and topographical 
statistics, as without these two latter the former is comparatively useless for sanitary purposes. 
More particularly does this apply to the malarial diseases of the state. 

Acclimation is very rarely discussed or even alluded to liy our people in rel.ition to \\'isconsin, 
fur the rea-^on that, come from whatever part of Europe men may, or Irtim the e.istern states, 
acclimaticm is ai quired for the most part unconsciously, rarely attended by an)' malarial affection, 
unless by exposure in such low, moist localities, where even the natives of the state could not 



live with impunity. It seems to be well enough established that where malaria exists, whether 
in London, New York, or ^\'iscDnsin ; where the causes of malarial disease are permanent, the 
effects are permanent, and that there is no positive acclimation to malaria. Hence it should 
follow that since life and malaria are irreconcilable, we should root out the enemy, as we readily 
can by drainage and cultivation, or, where drainage is impossible, by the planting of those shrubs 
or trees which are found to thrive best, and thereby prove the best evaporators in such localities. 
Our climate, approximating as it does the 45th degree (being equi-distant from the equator and 
pole), would a pi iori be a common ground of compromise and safety, and from this geographical 
position is not>liable to objections existing either north or south of us. 

Influknck ijf N.^TiON.Ai.n us. 

Our population is of such a confessedly heterogeneous character that naturally enough it 
suggests the question : Has this intermingling of different nationalities sensibly affected our 
health conditions .' Certainly not, so far as intermarriages between the nations of the Caucasian 
race arc concerned. This opinion is given first upon the fact that our classes of diseases have 
neither changed nor increased in their intensit)- by reason of such admixture, so far as can be 
learned by the statistics or the history of disease in the northwest. Imported cases of disease are 
of course excepted. Second, because all that we can gather from statistics and history concern- 
ing such intermingling of blood goes to prove that it is beneficial in every respect, physically, 
mentally and morally. 

England, of all nations, is said to be the best illustration of the good attending an 
intermingling of the blood of different nations, for the reason that the English character is 
supposed to be, comjiaratively speaking, good, and that of all countries she has been perhaps 
more frequently invaded, and to a greater or less part settled by foreign peoples than any other. 

From a residence of nearly a quarter of a century in the center of A\'i3consin, and from an 
adequate knowledge of its people, whose nationalities are so various and \\hose intermarriages 
are so common, it is at least presumable that we should have heard of or noted any peculiar or 
injurious results, had any such occurred. None such, however, have been observed. Some fears 
have been expressed ccmcerning the influence of Celtic blood upon the American temperament, 
already too nervous, as is alleged. It is scarcely necessary to say that these fears are unsupported 
by figures or facts. Reasoning from analogy, it would seem safe to affirm diat the general inter- 
mingling by intermarriage now going on in our population, confined to the Caucasian nationali- 
ties, will tend to preserve the good old Anglo-Saxon character, rather than to create any new char- 
acter for our people. If this view needed supjjort or confirmation, it is to be found in some very 
interesting truths in relation to it. Mr. Edwin Seguin, in his work on Idiocy, lays special stress 
on the influences of races in regard to idiocy and other infirmities, like deafness. He sa) s that 
the trossing cif r.u e--, whi( h contributed to the elimination of some vices of the blood (as may be 
the case in the Uniteii States, where there are proportionaih less deaf and dumb than in Europe), 
jirodiues a favoralile effect on the health of the ].ioi>ulation, and cites as an example, Belgium, which 
lias fewer deaf and cluinb any country in Euroi'e, owing to the influence of the crossini;' of 
races in jiast ages truiii the crowds of northern tribes passing', mingling and partly settling there 
on the Way to I'-ngLiiul. 

\Ve are aware it has been predicted that our future will give us a ««<• /t/r', distinct from 
all other people^, and that with this t_\ pe must come not only new diseases but modifications or 
aggra\ .itiuns of the ['recent iliseasc^, in particular, consumption and insanity. I'.ut so long 
as We are in a furmalixe state as a n.iliijii, and that this state seems likely to continue so kuig as 
tile country has land-, to be (x cupied and tlieie are people in Eur<<pe to occupy them, such spec- 
ulations can be but of little \-alue. 

238 lirsTouV (»!■ AVIsfoXslK. 

OccuPATKiNS, Fooii, Education, etc., as akfectin'g Public Health. 

The two chief factors of the social and sanitary well-being of a peojjle are a proper educa- 
tion of the man and a proper cultivation of the soil. Our two principal occupations in Wisconsin 
are education and ajrriculture, the learners in the schools beiny; in excess of the laborers on the 
soil. A happier combination could scarcely be desired, to form an intelligent and a healthy 
people. How this will affect our habits in the future it is easy to conceive, but tor the present it 
may be said (of so many difierent nationalities are we composed), that we have no habits wliicli 
serve to distinguish us from the people of other northwestern states. A well-fed and a well-taught 
people, no matter how mi.xed its origin, must sooner or later become homogeneous and a maker 
of customs. In the mean time we can only sjieak of our habits as tho=e of a people in general 
having an abundance of food, though it is to be wished the workers ate more beef and mutton, 
and less salt-purk, and that wliisky was less plentiful in the land. The clothing is sufficient, 
fuel is cheap, and the dwellings comfortable. Upon the whole, the habits of the people are 
conducive to health. It is thought unnecessary to refer to the influence ujion health in general 
of other occupations, for the reason that manufacturers, traders and transporters are for the most 
part localized, and perhaps not sufficiently numerous to exercise any marked influence on the 
state health. 

History of Disease. 

In searching for historical data of disease in Wisconsin, we are able to go back to tne year 
1766, commencing with the aborigines. 1 he Indians, says Carver, in his chapter on their diseases, 
in general are healthy and subject to few diseases. Consumption from fatigue and exposure he 
notices, but adds that the disorder to which they are most subject is pleurisy. They are like- 
wise afflicted with dropsy and ])aralytic complaints. It is to be ])resumcd that while Carver is 
speaking generally, he means his remarks to apply, ])erha[)S, more particularly to those Indians 
with whom he lived so long, the Sioux of this state. That they were subject to fevers is gathered 
from the use of their remedies for fever, the " fever bush " being an ancient Indian remedv, and 
equally valued l>y the inhabitants of the interior parts of the colonies. Besides this, they had 
their remedies for complaints of the bowels, and for all inflammatory complaints. These notices 
sufficiently indicate the class of diseases which have certainly followed in the wake of the Indi- 
ans, and are still occurring to his white brothei, making it plain enough that lung diseases, bowel 
complaints, and fevers are in f.ict nati\e to the stale. The fact must not be ignored that the 
Indian is subject to the same diseases as the human race in general. 

.-Vfter Carver, we may quote Major Long's expedition in iS::4. The princijjal disease of the 
Sacs appears to be a mortification of the intestinal canal, more common among men than women, 
tlie disease proving fatal in four days if not relieved. It is unaccompanied with pain, and is neither 
hernia, dysentery, nor hemorrhoids. Intermittents were prevalent, and the small-pox visited 
them at different periods. .As the Chippewas ha\o a common Algonquin origin with llie Sacs, 
and as their home and customs were the same, it may be expected that their diseases were simi- 
lar. The principal disease to whii h the Chipjiewas are liable is consumption of the lungs, 
generally affecting them between the ages of 30 and 40; they linger along for a year or two, but 
always fall victims to it. Many of them die of a bowel complaint which prevails every year. 
This disease does not partake, however, of the nature of dysentery. They are frequently alTected 
with sore eyes. I'.lindness is not common. Manv of them become deaf at an early age. 

Referring to the re]Hjrt of the commissioner of Indian affairs for 1S54, we find that the 
decrease in the number of the Menomonees is accounted lor by the ravages of small-pox, in 1S3S, 


of the cholera, in iS.;; (which latter was superinduced by misery and starvation), and by the 
fever, which from time to time, commonly in the winter, has been raging among them, being 
clearly the consequence of want of provisions and other necessaries. The report for 1850 says, 
there has been considerable sickness among the Winnebagoes for several months past ; dysentery 
has been the prevalent disease, confmed mostly to children. For 1S57 : the Winnebagoes have 
suffered considerabi)' from chronic diseases, scrofula and consumption. For 1859: the chief 
malady among the Winnebagoes is phthisis pulmonalis and its analogous diseases, having its 
source in hereditary origin. Some of the malignant diseases are occasionally met with among 
them, and intermittent and remittent fevers. In 1S63: of the Menomonees, there is a large 
mortality list of the tribes under my charge. Measles and some of the more common eruptive 
diseases are the causes. But the most common and most fatal disease which affects the Indians 
at this agency is pneumonia, generally of an acute character. There is but little tubercular 
disease to be found in any of these tribes, Menomonees, Stockbridges, Oneidas, etc. In the 
report for 1S65, one can not but notice with some regret the absence of all allusion, except to 
small-pox, to the diseases of the Indians. Regret, because reliable information of such diseases 
serves a variety of valuable purposes, for comparison, confirmation, etc., of those of the white 
population. For llirse reasons, if for none other, it is to be hoped that the attention of the 
proper authorities will be called to this feature of such reports. 

The first reliable report on the diseases of the people (as distinguished from the Indians) of 
Wisconsin to which we have had access, is Lawson's Army Report of Registered Diseases, for 10 
vears, commencing 1S29, and ending 1S3S (ten years before the admission of Wisconsin into the 
Union as a state). 


Intermittent fever 30 ' This abstract exlubit=; the second quar- 

Kemittent do II tcrs only, the mean strength being 

Synochal do 4 i 1,702. 

TyphLs do _. — I 

Diseases of respirator)- organs 101 .\11 other diseases 114, excepting vcnc- 

Diseasesof digestive organs 1S4 real diseases, abcesses, wounds, ul- 

Diseases of brain and nervous system cers, injuries, and ebriety cases. 

I)rop?ies - -- I 

Rheumatic atl'eclions 61 1 

Under the class of diseases of the respiratory organs, are comprised 3S4 catarrh, 6 pneu- 
monia, 60 pleuritis, and 28 phthisis pulmonalis ; under the class of digestive organs, 376 diar- 
rhfta and dysentery, 1S4 colic and cholera, and 10 hejiatitis ; under the class of diseases of 
the brain and nervous system, 15 epilejisy, etc. The deaths from all causes, according to the 
post returns, are 25, being i;< per cent, annum. The annual rate of intermittent cases is 6, 
and that of remittent is 3, per 100 of mean strength. 

'1'abi.k ok Ra no 01 SicK.\F.Sb .\ 1 I'oki Howarm. 







KAIK I'tR 1,000 OK 



10 first quarters _. 

10 second " 

g third " 









Annual rnle 







Every man has consequently, on an average, been reported sick about once in every six 
months, showing this region to be extraordinarily salubrious. The annual ratio of mortality, 
according to the medical reports, is j'^ per cent,; and of the adjutant-general's returns, i^^ 
per cent. 

FORT \vi>:nf,kago. 

IntL-rmittcnt fever _ 21 

Kemitlent fever. _ lo 

Synochal fever ._ I 

Typhus fever — 

Diseases of the respiratory organs 141 

Diseases of digestive organs, . 90 

Di^ea<;es of brain ai'.d nenous system.. 2 

Khcuniatic afiection-^ 26 

Tliis abstiact exhibits the fourth quarters 
only, the mean strength being 1,571. 

-Ml other diseases. So, with the e.xceptions as 

Under the class of diseases of the respiratory organs are comprised 448 catarrh, n pneu- 
monia, 29 [ileuritis and 10 phthisis pulmonalls ; under the head of digestive organs, 193 diarrhcea 
and dysentery, 149 colic and cholera, and 17 hepatitis; under the class of brain and nervous 
system, 1 epilepsy. The total nunil)er of deaths, according to the post returns, is 20. Of these, 
3 are from plithisis puhnonalis, i pleuritis, 2 chronic hepatitis, i gastric enteritis, i splenitis, etc. 




M-Ml'ER '*-^"^'' ''^'^ I.OOOOF 
"*'^'^"'- JTKEATED nrAKTEKLV. 

1.5 = 7 
1. 571 


;i;2 1 ifin 







Every man cm an average is conseiiuently reported sick once in eight months and a half. 


Intermittent fever 262 

Remittent fever 6i '■ 

£. , , r \ This abstract exhibits the thirtl quarters 

Synochal fever - - I ^ 

-T^ , , i onlv, tile mean strength being I..?3e;. 

Typhus fever.. -- I - t> & - 

Diseases of re--pir.Ttor\' organs 177 ' , , ■ 1 .1 , r 

.'.-=' j All lithci d|..eaiCb, 309, witli the same list of 

Disea'^es of digestive organs 722 , 

*. ^ I exceptions as above. 

Diseases of lirain and nervous system Iti ' 

Rheumatic alTectinn^ 58 | 

Under the class of diseases of the respiratory organs are included 1,048 of catarrh, 28 pneu- 
monia, 75 pleuritis and 13 phthisis pulmonalir>; under the head of digestive organs, 933 diarrhaa 
and dysentery, .-lud 195 colic and cholera; under the head of brain and nervous diseases, 7 
e|)ilepsy, etc. 'I'he total of deaths, according lo the jjost returns, is 94, the annual ratio being 
2^'',-, per cent. The causes of death are: 6 phthisis pulmonalis, 6 epidemic cholera, i common 
( holcra, 4 remittent fever, 3 d)scntery, etc. In the third cjuarter of 1S30 there were 154 cases of 
fcvLT, while the same (juarter of iSj6. with a greater strength, affords but one case, the difierencc 
seeming to depend upon the teiii[)erature. 

HKAT>Tii OF ^vIsco^■sI^-, 


The relative agcnry of the seasons in the [iroduction nf disease in general is shown in the 
annexed table : 






KATIO I'ER 1, 000 OF 



1, 660 








Consequently every man on an average has been reported sick once in nearly everj- four 
months. But high as this ratio of sickness is, at this fort, and, indeed, at the others, it is low 
lonsidering the topographical surroundings of the posts. But besides these injurious topograph- 
ical and other influences already alluded to, there were still other elements of mischief among 
tl'.e men at these stations, such as " bad bread and bad whisky," and salt meat, a dietary table 
giving rise, if not to "land-scurvy," as was the case at the posts lower down in the Mississippi 
\.illey (more fatal than either small-pox or cholera), at least to its concomitant diseases. 

The reason for using these early data of the United States Army medical reports in pref- 
erence to later Ones is, that even though the later ones may be somewhat more correct in certain 
jianiculars, the former serve to establish, as it were, a connecting link (though a long one) between 
the historical sketch of the diseases of the Indian and those of the white settler; and again — 
these posts being no longer occupied — no further data are obtainable. 

To continue this historical account of the diseases of A\'isconsin, we must now nave recourse 
to the state institutions. 

The Instituitun" for 'ihe Education uf the Bi.i.n'd. 

'1 he first cliaritable institution established by the state was formally opened in 1S50, at 
J.inesville. The census of 1S75 showed that there were 493 blind persons in the state, those 
of school age — that is — under :o years of age, probably amounting to 125. The number of 
p ipils in the institution that year, 82; the average for the past ten years being 68. If the health 
report of the institution is any indication of the salubrity of its location, then, indeed, is Janes- 
ville ir. this respect an enviable city. Its report for 1S76 gives one death from consumption, and 
a iiiimber of cases of whooping-cough, all recovered. In 1S75, ten cases of mild scarlet fever, 
recovered. One severe and two mild cases of typhoid fever, recovered. For 1873, no sick list. 
I or 1 87 2, the mumps went through the school. For 187 i, health of the school reasonably good ; 
few cases of severe illness have occurred. 

The Institute for the Deaf axd Du.mi;. 

This was organized in June, 1852, at l)cl.iva:i. 'I'he whole number of deaf arid dumb 
sons in the state, as shown by the census uf 1875, was 720. The report for 1S66 gives the 
I'.-.iinber of pupils as 156. 

Little sickness, a fev.- cases of sore, and slight bowel alTections comprise nearly all the 
;'-iiin..MUs ; and tlie i>hysician's refiort adds: "'The sanitary report - uf the iiistitutioit from iu 
e.iriicst Iiistor) to the present date has been a guarantee of the healthiness of the location. 
H.ivin^ gone carefully over the most reliable tabulated statements of deaf-mutism, its parent- 

242 ]nsTUliV OF "WISCONSIN. 

age, its home, its causes, and its origin, \vc would most earnestly call the attention of the public 
to the fact that the chief cause comes under the head ot congenita!, 75 of the 150 [jupils in this 
institution having this origin. Such a fearful proportion as tiiis must of necessity have its origin 
in a cause or causes proportionately fearful. Nor, fortunately, is the causation a mystery, since 
most careful examination leaves not a shadow- of doubt that consanguineous marriages are the 
sources of this great evil. A\itliout occupying further space by illustrative tables and arguments, 
we would simply direct the attention of our legislators and thoughtful men to the law cj this dis- 

east which is, that the >iu>nbcr af t/eaf and dumb, zmbeciks, and idiots is in direct keeping luith the 

degree of consanguinity. With such a law and e.xhibil before us, would not a legislative inquiry 
into the s'.ibject, with tlie view of adopting frn'entive means, be a wise step.' The evil is fear- 
ful ; the cause is plain; so, too, is the remedy." 

Inuusi Ki.\i. School kor H(jYri. 

This institution is situated on the banks of the Fox river, at Waukesha, and was organized 
in i860. The whole number of the iniu.ates since it was opened in July, 1S60, to October 10. 
1S76, was 1,291. The whole number of inmates for 1876 was 415. Of these, since the period 
of opening up to date, October, 1S76, 2^ have died: S, of typhoid fever ; i, of typhoid erysipelas ; 
I, of gastric fever; 3, of brain fever; i, nervous fever; j, congestion of the lungs; 2, congestive 
chilis; 5, of consumption ; i of dropsy; and i of inflammatory rheumatism. 

Thf. St.ate Pki>on. 

This was located at Waujiun in July, 1S57. On September 30, 1S76, there were 266 inmates. 
But one death from natural causes occurred during the year. The health of the prisoners has 
been' unusually good, the prevalent nffections attendant upon the seasons, of a mild and 
manageable character. 

Statk Hi'isrnAi, kok thf. Ixs.\ne. 

. This institution, located near Madison, was opened for patients in ]uly, j86o. The total 
number of admissions down to the year 1S77, was 1,227 males, 1,122 females, total 2,349. Over 
one half of these have been impnr.rd ; nearly one third recovered ; while less than one quarter 
have been discharged U):in:f roved. Total number of deaths, 2SS. .\t the commencement of the 
year, October i, 1S75, there were in the hospital 376 patients. In the report for the year ending 
September 30, 1S76, we find the past year has been one of unusual health in the liospital. No 
serious epidemic has prevailed, although 20 deaths have been reported, 7 fatally ill before admis- 
sion, 4 worn-out cases, etc. Insanity, coming as it does, under this head of an article on State 
Health, i.-, of the higliest interest from a st.ite point of view, not only because so much may be 
done to remedy it, but that still more can and ought to be done by the state to prevent it. Our 
insane amount to i in 700 of the whole po|)u]ation, the tot.d number in hosjiitals, ])oor-houses and 
prisons being in round numbers 1.400. It i> a striking fact, calling for our earnest consideration, 
that theOermans, Irish and Scandinavi.uis import and more insanit) — three to one — 
than the .\rnerican-born ])Oi)ulation produce. The causes assigned for this disparity, are, as 
affecting importation, ihai those in whom tliere is an hereditary tendency to disease constitute the 
migratory class, for tlie reason that those who are sound and in the full possession of their powers 
are most apt to contend successfully in the struggle to li\e and maintain their position at home; 
while thusc w Jio are most unsound and unequal to life's contests are unable to migrate. In 
words, the strongest will not leave, the weakest can not leave. I'.y this, the character of the 
migratory is defined. .Vs affec ts transmission, poverty is a most fruitful parent of insanity, so too is 
poor hand. Says Dr. Houghton, superinieudent of the Wisconsin State Hospital for the Insane; 

HEAi/nr or Avisroxsix 24o 

Wisconsin is characterized bv a large f)Oor class, especially in the northern part of the state, 
where pcoiile without means have settled on new and poorly paying farms, where their life is 
made up of hard work, exposure to a severe climate, bad and insufficient diet, cheerless homes, 
etc., etc. These causes are prolific in the production of insanity. It is easy, therefore, to trace 
the causes that give us so large a percent, of insane in many of the counties of the state. Nor is 
it of less interest to know, as ]'>r. B. adds : ^\'e draw our patients from those families where 
phthisis pulrnonalis, rheumatism and insanity prevail. Insanity and rheumatism are interchange- 
able in hereditary cases, so too are insanity and phithisis. 'What may be acconip)lished by intel- 
ligent efforts to stety tiie increase of insanity in our state ? Much. Early treatment is one means, 
this is of course curative in its character. And 'ts necessity and advantage are well illustrated 
in table Xo. lo of the annual report of Dr. F.oughton, for 1S76, where it is seen that 45.35 of 
males, and 44.59 of the females who had been sent to the State Hospital having been insane but 
three months before admission, were cured, the jjrojjortion of cures becoming less in proportion 
to the longer duration of insanitv before admission. As a preventive means, the dissemination 
of the kind of knowledge that s'npvvs indisputably that insanity is largely hereditary, and conse- 
quently that intermarriage with families so tainted should on the one hand be avoided by tl-.e 
citizen, and on the other hand, perhaps, J'revenied by tiu state, (congress at the same time 
restraining or pre\'enting as far as possible persons so tainted from settling in this country.) 
By the state, inasmuch as the great burthen of caring for the insane falls upon the state. Stilt 
other preventive means are found in the inipriyvcJ '■ultivation of our laiiiii and in our impiroved 
education ; in f.ict. in whatever lessens the trials of the poor and lifts them out of ignorance and 
pauperism. It is only by culture, says Hufeland, that man a< quires perfection, morally, mentally 
and [ihysicallv. His whole organization is so ordered that he may either become nothing or 
anything, hYpcrcnilttre and the -,i.'dni of cultivation being alike destructive. 

I'HK NiiKTHr.k.N' H()sriT.\i, ink inE Insaxe. 

This hospital was opened at (>shkosh, .Ma_\-, 1S73. The total ntimber under treatment 
September 2,'^, iS76 was — males 246, females 257, total 503. Xo ailment of an epidemic charac- 
ter has affected the health k\\ the household, which has been generally good. The report of Dr. 
Kempster is fidl of suggestive matter for the legislator and sociologist. 

Cn V (It MiLW.AUKiiE. 

Still adhering to the jilan, in writing the sanitary history of the state, of gathering up all 
the health statistics which yiropcrly belong to us, we now take up those of Milwaukee, the onh' 
rity in AVisconsin, so far as we know, tliat has kept up a svstem of statistics of its diseases. 
The city is built on each side of the mouth r<\ Milwaukee river, o\\ the west shore of Lake Michi- 
gan in lat. .( -, ^ ,-,' 45 ' X., long. .'s7'' 57' \\'., and ]■; considered remarkable t'or its healthy climate. 
The board of hc.dth has t'r.rnished us with its re[iort lor 1S70 and downward. The character of 
Its mortalitv from June rrj, iSOi;, to March 31, 1.S70, is thus summarized; In children under five 
N'cars of age, 75.^ out of 1,249 deaths, consumption, 93; convtilsions, 12S; cholera infantum, 
59; diarrlioM. uS; scarlet fever, [32; tvphoid fever, ^2\ inllammation of the lungs, 41 ; still- 
born, 79. This disproportionate number of still-born children is attributed in ]iart to a la.xity of 
morals. The deaths from consumption in .Milwaukee are ~\'. out of every too, one third less out 
<il a like number of deaths th;m in San l-'ranr i.^co, in which <it\, in 4,000 deaths, 441 died ofcon- 
snm[ition. being ir out of everv 100 deaths for tiie year ending July. 1S69, The deaths tor 1870 
numbered 1,655, the jiopulation beinji at the last census report, 71,636. 


Table ok Pr:ncipat. C!ausks. 

Consumption 143 

Inflamm.itioii of lungs __ 56 The Milwaukee populalion being about 

Conv-uUions , 259 72.000. the death r.ite j'Cr annum for 

Diarrhoea ,_.. 131 every 1,000 inhabitants would be 21. 

Diptheria . 74 ; after proper deductions i>( deaths from 

Scarlet fever _ 52 ! other causes than from disease, showing 

Typhoid fever . 49 very favorably as compared with other 

Old age 2S cities. 

Still-boi .; 123 

Glasgow has 39 to every i,coo; Liverpool, j6 ■, London, 25 ; New Orleans, 54; New York, 
32; San Francisco. 24; Milwaukee, 21, Amontr seventeen cd' the principal cities of the L'nion, 
Milwaukee ranks the ninth in rate of mortality. An impression has prevailed that Milwaukee is 
subject to a large and disproportionate amount of lurig and allied diseases. Statistics disprove 
this, its deaths from constiinption being only 6 percent., while those of Chicago" are 7.75 ; of 
St. X-ouis, 9.68; of Cincinnati, 11.93; ■'"'^ ^'^ Eoston, 19.31. But few cases of malarial disease 
occur in 'Milwaukee, and fewer cases of intestinal fever than in the interior of the state. The 
mortality among children is explained by its occurring chiefly among the poor foreign-born 
population, where all that can incite and aggra\ate disease is always tf) be found. 

This, (the historical part of the health article), will doubtless call forth from the profession 
much additional and desirable matter, but excepting what will furtlier appear under the head of 
Madison it is proper to say that we have exii.iusted the sources of information on the subject 
within our reach. 

Hl.A1.TH KEbuRTs. 

Next in order would seem to come ^ome notice of the summer and health reaons of \\'iscon- 
sin, which, significant of the saiubntv of the state, are not onlv becoming more numerous, but 
ilso more frequented Irom vear to vear. 

Madison, the cajjital of the state, with a jjopuiation of 11,000, i-> biiiit on an isthmus between 
two considerable lakes, from 70 to 125 feet above their level ; So miles west of Milwaukee, in 
latitude 43"^ 5' north, and longitude ^9^'' 20' west, in the northern temperate region. The lake 
basins, and also the necl: of land between them,iiave a linear arrangement, trending northeast and 
southwest. The same linear topography characterises the whole adjacent country and the boun- 
dary lines of its various geological formations, this striking feature bemg due to the former move- 
ment of glacier ice over the face of the country. At two points, one mile apart, the Capitol and 
University hills, respectively 34S and 370 feet abo\ e the le\el of Lake Mirhigan, rise prominentiv 
above the rest of the isthmus. Loth of these hills are heaps cf drift from 100 to 126 feet 
thickness, according to the record of the artesian well. The neck of uu w hich Madison stands 
is of the same material. The same boring discloses to us the underixing rock structure, pene- 
trating 614 feet of friable quartzose sandstone belonging to the Potsdam series, loji I'eet of red 
shale belonging to the same series, and 209 Jo feet of crvstalline rocks belonging to the .Archa;an. 
In the country immediately around ^Ladison, the altitude is generally considerably greater, and 
the higher grounds are occupied b_\' various strata, nearly horizontal, of sandstone apd limestone. 
The Potsdam santlstone rises about 30 feet above the level of Lake Mendota, on its northern 
shore, where at McLriile's Point it nia\- be seen overlaid bv tlie next and hith.erto unrecognized 
!ay<;r, one of more or less impure, da'rk-colored, magnesian limestone, to which the name of Men- 
dota is assigned, and w hich furnishes a good building stone. The descent of these strata is about 

liKAi/rH OK wiscoxsrx. 245 

9 fcft to the mile in a due southerly direction. Overlying the Mendota beds are again sandstone 
layers, the uppermobt portions of which are occasionally charged with lo to 20 per cent, of calca- 
reous and dolomitic matter, and then furnish a cream-colored building stone of considerable 
value. Most of this stratum which has been designated as the JMadiioti sandstone, is, however, 
quite non-calcareous, being either a ferruginous brown stone, or a quite pure, white, nearly loose 
sand. In the latter phase it is of value for the manufacture of glass. In a number of quarries, 
cuttings and exposed places around the city, the Madison beds are seen to be overlaid by a grav- 
ish, magnesian limestone, the lower magnesian, varying very considerably in its character, but 
largely composed of a flinty-textured, heavy-bedded, quite pure dolomite, which is burnt into a 
good quality of lirne. Its thickness exceeds So feet. Madison, with the conveniences and com- 
forts of a capital city, from its easy access by railroads, from not only in itself being beautiful, 
but from its beautiful surroundings, from its good society, charming climate, and artesian 
mineral water, is naturally a great summer resort. 

Though there are no vital statistics of the cit) to refer to, a residence of nearly a qu.Tjtex of 
a centur)- has -made. us sufficiently acquainted with its sanitary history, which is more ot less jhe 
sanitary history of this part of the state, and in a measure of the state itself. In 1S44 and 1S45, 
it was visited by an epidemic malarial fever of a bilious type, and not unfrequently fatal, which 
passed very generally through the state, and ^\ as attributed to the turning up of the soil. It was 
most virulent in the autumns, .^gain in 1S54 it was visited by a light choleraic epidemic, which 
also swept the state, assuming very generally a particularly mild type. Again in 1857 it suffered 
lightly from the epidemic dysentery, which jiassed through the state. In 1S65, it suffered from 
a visitation of diptheria, the disease prevailing generally over the state at that time. It has also 
had two visitations of the epidemic griji ^grippe), or influenza. 'i he last invasion, some fi\ c 
years since, commencing in a m.inner jierhaps wortliy of noting, by first affecting the horses ver\- 
generally, and again, by beginning on the east side of the city, while the other epidemics for the 
past twenty-five years (unless th.e choleraic visitation was an exception) came in on the south- 
we>t side of the city, as has been the case, so far as we have been able to observe with the light 
cpidem'Cb to which children are subject. Rut little typhoid fever is found here, and the aguish 
fevers when they occur are light and easy <.if control. There is but little diarrhoea or dysen- 
tery. Pneumonia and Its allied affections are more common, so is rheumatism, and so neuralgia. 
Inflaniinatory crou]), however, is very rare, sporadic diptheria seeming to be taking its place. 
.\ll the ordinar)- eruptive fevers of children are and always have been of a peculiarly mild 

I'rairie du Chieii, situated immediately at tiie junction of the Wisconsin with the .Mississippi, 
's built about 70 feet alxive low water, and (142 tcet above the level of the sea. The cliffy on 
both side^ of the river present on their sa!nni;ts the lower >trata of the Mae Silurian limestone 
of Cincinnati, beneath which are found sandstone and niagiie.sian limestone down to the water's 
e<lge. W'e give this notice of Prairu' du Chieii for the [jurpo^e of bringing to the knowledge of 
the public it possesses one of the must superb artesian wells in the state, which is attracting pers(Ui> by its remedial mineral liroperties. 

C.reen Hay sanitarily ina\ be considered as sufficiently indicated under the of Fort 
Howard. It is, however, proper to add that from its geographical position and beautiful situa- 
tion .It the head of the bay, its easy access both by railroad and steainl), its pleasant da)s and 
<iv)I summer ni;:ht^, it ha.< naturally become quite a |) summer resort, particularly for 
southern penple. 

R.icine, some 25 miles south by east l}y rail t'roiu Milw.rakee and 62 by r.iil tVom Ciiica-'o, is 
built upon the banks and some 40 feet above the level of the lake. Its soil is a sandy loam and 

246 HisTonv OK Aviscoxsix. 

gravel, consequently it has .i dry. healthy surface, and is much frei]uented in the summer for its 
coolness nnd salubrity. 

Waukesha, iS niile> west of Milwaukee liy railroad, is a liealthy, pleasant place of resort at 
all times on account of it> mineral water, so well known and so highly appreciated throughout 
the country. 

Oconomowoc, 32 miles by railroad west by north of Milwaukee, is a healthy and de- 
lightfvilly located resort fur the summer. Its many lakes and drives form its chief attractions. 
and though its accommodationa were considered ample, during the jiast summer they were found 
totally inadeipiate to meet t'ne demands of it:, numerous visitor^. 

The Dalles, at Kilbourn City, by rail 16 miles from Portage, is unsurpassed in tlie northwe^it 
for the novelty, romantic character, and striking beauty of it-, rock and river scenery. It is 
high and dr) ; has pure water and fine air. and every-da) boat and drive views enough to fill 
up a month pleasantly. 

Lake Cleneva, 70 miles by rail from ChicaL^o, 1= built on the north ^ide of the lake, is justly 
celebrated for its beauty, and its reputation as .1 summer resort is growing. 

Green Lake, six miles west of Ripon, and 89 northwest from Milwaukee, is some 15 miles 
long and three broad, surrounded by beautiful groves and prairies; and is claimed to be one of 
the healthiest li;tle places on the continent. 

Devil's Lake is 36 miles by rail nortli of .Madibon. Of all the romantic little spots in Wis- 
consin, and they are innumerable, there is none more romantic or worthy of a summer visitor's 
admiration than. this. It is, though shut in from the rude world by bluffs 500 feet high, a verj' 
favorite resort, and should be especially so for those who seek .piiet, and rest, and itealth. 

Sparta, 246 miles by rail from Chicago, is pleasantly and healthily situated, and its artesian 
mineral water strongly impregnated with carbonate of iron, having, it is said, over 14 grains in 
solution to tht? imperial gallon, an unusually large proiwrtion, attracts its annual summer 

Sheboygan, 62 miles b)' rail north of Milwaukee, t'rom its handsome [losition on a bluff over- 
looking the lake, and from the beauty of its surroundings as well as from the character of its 
mineral waters, is an attractive summer resort. 

Elkhart Lake, 57 miles by rail north of Milwaukee, is rapidly acquiring a good name from 
those seeking health or pleasure. 

Ch.ANOK l.V DlbE.^SKS. 

In order to ascertain whether tlie classes of diseases in tlie state at the date of Carver's 
travels are the same which ]ire\ail to-day. we have compared his descrijition of them with tho>c 
tabulated in the army inedii al re|)orts of Forts Howard, Crawford and A\'innebago, and again 
with those given in the I . S. Census for 1S70, and with the medical statistics of the citv of 
Milwaukee. The three distinct and prominent classes pre%Miling from Carver's to the present 
time, are, in the order of ]'re\Mlence, diseases of the respiratory organs, consumption, pneumonia, 
bronchitis, etc.; diseases of the digestive organs, enteritis, dysentery, diarrhoea, etc.; and the 
malarial fevers. .\t Fort Howard alone do the diseases of the digestive organs seem to have 
outnumbered those of the respiratory organs. So lar as it is possible to gather from the reports 
of the commissioners of Indian affairs, these features of the relative ])revalence' of the three 
classes of disease are not disturbed. 

There are, however, some disturbing or qualil'\ing agencies operating and .ilfecting the 
amount or distribution of these classes in ditferent areas or belts. For instance, there are two 

HKALTH or Aviscoxsiy. 247 

irregular areas in the state; the one extending from the Mississippi east and north, and the other 
starting almost as low down as Madison, and running up as far as Green Bay, which are more 
subject to malarial diseases than are the other parts of the state. ^Vhile it is found that those 
))arts of the state least subject to diseases of the digestive organs are, a belt along the western 
shore of Lake Michigan, and a belt running from near Prairie du Chien north into the pineries. 
Attain, it is found that the part of the state most subjeC to enteric, cerebro-spinal and typhus 
fevers, is quite a narrow belt running north from the southern border line into the center of the 
state, or about two-thirds ot the distance toward the pineries. All along the western shore of 
Lake Michigan, and stretching across the countr\' by way of Fond du Lac to the Mississippi, is 
a belt much less subject to these disorders. It is equally beyond question that the western shore 
of Lake Michigan, and the southern shore of Lake Superior, as well as the western half of the 
southern boundary line of the pineries, are less afiected with consunqnion than the interior parts 
of the state. 

The tendency of these diseases is certainly to amelioration. The sanitary history of Wiscon- 
sin does not differ from that of any other state east of us, in this striking particular; the farther 
you trace back the history of disease, the worse its type is found to be. It follows, then, that 
the improvement in public health must progress with the general inipjrovement of the state, as 
has been the case with the eastern states, and that the consequent amelioration of our malarial 
diseases especially will tend to mitigate infectious diseases. The ameliorating influences, how- 
ever, that sanitary science has brought to bear upon disease, of wliich England is so happy an 
illustration, has scarcely as yet begun to be known to us. But the time has come at last when 
this science is moving both the liearls and minds of thinking and humane men in the state, and 
its voice has been heard in our legislative halls, evoking a law by which we are, as a people, to be 
governed, as by any other enactment. The organization of a state board of health is a new era 
in our humanitv. In this board is invested all legal power o\er the state health. To it is com- 
mitted all the sanitary resjionsibilitv of the state, and the greatest good tb the people at large 
must follow the eiTorts it is making. 

There are manv other jjoints of sanitary interest to which it is desirable to call the attention 
lif those interested in Wisconsin. It is a popular truth that .1 dry climate, all other things being 
equal, is a health v climate. Our hvgrometrical records show \\'isconsin to have one of the driest 
climates in the United States. C^holeraic diseases rarely pre\ail unless in a comparativel}' 
stagnant state of the atmosphere, where they are most fatal. \\ here high winds prevail such 
diseases are rare. The winds in Wisconsin, while proverbially high and frequent (carrying away 
and dissipating malarial emanations), are not destructive to life or propertv, as is the case, by 
their violence, in s<.inie of the adjoining states. .\ moist, warm atnios[)hcre is always provocative 
of disease. Such a state of atmosphere is rare with iis, and still more rarely continuous beyond 
.1 day or two. Moist air is the medium of malarial i)oisoning, holding as it does in solution 
gases and poisonous exhalations. Its character is readily illustrated by the peculiar smell of 
some marsh lands on autumnal e\enings. Such a state of moistuii' is seen only in our lowest 
shut-in marshes (wh.ere there i-. hut little or nc .lir-current), .md then only tor a very limited 
period, in very hot weather. 

But too much importance is attached bv tlie jtablic to a sinqily dry atmosphere for rcspira- 
tury diseases. The same mistake is made wiih regard to the good effects in such disorders of 
■•unply hlgii elevations. Dry air in itself. or a hi^ii elevation in itself, or both combined, arc 
i;ot necessarily favoralile to health, or cvirative of disease. In tlie light and rare atmosphere of 
I'iLe's I'e.ik, an elevation of ("i,coo feet, the pulse is accelerate<l, the amount of sleep is dimin- 
ished, and the human machine is pat under a high-pressure r.ue of living, conducive only to its 



injury. The average rate of the pulse in healthy visitors is frum 115 to 120 per minute (the 
normal rate, in moderate elevations, being about 75). And where there is any organic affection 
of the heart, or tendency to bleeding from the lungs, it is just this very dry atmosphere and high 
elevation that make these rcincdies (/) destructive. Hence it is that Wisconsin, for the generality 
of lung diseases, especially when accompanied with heniorrliage, or with heart disease, is prefer- 
able to Colorado. It may be objected, that the di3ea:^es of the respiratory organs are in c.xce-.s 
of other diseases in Wisconsin. This feature, however, is not confined to the cold belt of our 
temperate latitudes — our projwrtiou of respiratory diseases, be it noted, comparing most favor- 
ably with that of other states, as may be seen in the following table; 

Ci-iM-^TOLOGicAL Distribution of Pulmonarv Dise.asep. 

Du-aths jPer cent. 1 Deaths by all j Per cent. 

by \ of entire di.;ecisci of Res- of entire |.MortaHty.'piratoryOrgans.| Mortality. 

Massachusetts, 1S50, U. S. Census. 

Ohio, lS4c;-50, U. S. Census 

MicliiL^an, 1S50, U. S. Census 

Illinois, 184(^-50. U. S. Census 

Wisconsin, 1849-50, U. S. Census. 














7.36 ; 




9-99 i 



Now, while the mortuary statistics of the United States census for 1S50 are acknowledged 
to be imperfect, they are, nevertlielcas, unduubtedly correct as to the causes of mortality. But 
besides this statistical evidence of the climatological causes of disease, there are certain relative 
general, if not special, truths which serve to guide us in our estimate. Respiratory diseases of 
all kinds increase in proportion as the temperature dccrcaies, the humidity of the air being the 
same. Another e'|ually certain element in the production of this class of diseases is variableness 
of climate. Still, this feature of our climate is only an element in causation, and affects us, as 
we shall see in the table below, very little as compared with otlier states. Indeed, it is still 
disputed whether there is not more consumj)tion in tropical climates than in temjierate climates. 
This much is admitted, ht)wever, that consumption is rare ir. the arctic regions. Dr. Terry sa\s 
the annual ratio of jvilmonary diseases is lower in the northern than in the southern regions uf 
the United States, and Dr. Drake, an equally eminent authority, recommends those suftering 
from or threatened with pulmonary affections, to retreat to tile colder districts of tlie countiy. 
citing among others localities near Lake Superior — a recoinmendatiun which uur experience ul 
nearly half a century endorses. 

Proportion of Pneu.moni.\ to Consu.mption in tiik Dikferknt St.-\tes. 







North Carolina 562 

Kentucky j i,235 

Wisconsin 2ijo 


When we compare the general death-rate of Wisconsin with tluit of the other states of the 
Union, we find that it compares most favorably with that of X'ermont, the liealthiest of the .\ew 
England states. The United States census of 1S50, (860 and 1.S70, gives Wisconsin 94 deatiis 
lo 10,000 of the population, while it gives \"ermont 101 to every 10,000 of her inhabitants. The 



rensus of 1870 shows that the death-rate from consumption in Minnesota, Iowa, California and Wis- 
consin are alike. These four states show the lowest death-rate among the states from consumption, 
the mortality being 13 to 14 per cent, of the whole death-rate. 

Climatologically considered, then, there is not a more healthy state in the Union than the 
state of Wisconsin. lUit for health ])urposes something more is requisite than climate. Climate 
and soil must be equally good. Men should shun the soil, no matter how rich it be, if the climate 
is inimical to health, and rather choose the climate that is salubrious, even if the soil is not so 
rich. In ^\'lsconsin, generally speaking, the soil and climate are equally conducive to healtli, 
and alike good. for agricultural purposes. 










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34 6 













l'!.i|.|.<-»\aFall.s city 


siuei ; 








^^■cs£ w, VU. of lUnUoli.h.. 












37 H 












74 3 


































9 1 

irleilu Chleii I 
iric.Iu chlcii . 
irst ward 















4 1 3 







2, 3 





12 ■ 5 







































3,--6 I 346 , 3 I 6 ' 741 




Town?, Citik< ami 





i ' S 1 


a -.9 




:ili. 1... .... 

a7« ...I.... 




E^s Harbor 









LibiTtj- Gruve .. 


.'^tu^^■eoll Itiiv 

Sturgeon Hay Tillu(,-e 


64 H 

ISl |.... 



3.677 I....I... 



SjiriiiK lirouk. 

'• 17S 










....1 1 





5 1 2 










1 |.... 


30 S 










7 r. 


M.x l.rik, 






■\'l\.iii-'.'.'.'.'. ".'.'.'.'.'.' 



79 4 














4.1 1 




1 ri 

9! I 












1.3 IS 








9.1 ,, 









... 1 


'4 11 









— = 


Moiirrose . 




TuUiI 26.894 2 




54.i .... 



























1.4 3 J 

















































448 1 
























•2 S3 











5.=, 5 



SI 3 









4S4 1 








.\ubiii a 

















74 7 




















59 I 











■J 7 

































64 4 















While. (oli.ral 





Augusta V. Hag.. 

I'.rUiKe CreL-k 







39 :i 





.... 1.0511 
....1 »U 

, Ti)t: 

4 I 6.11(1 


1, In.-,. Ill 

.... 951^ 

IMeti^.iut Vlillcv 















1.1 3S 

Hr.j(lhi-:i.l villa-e 








Ii> c.itur 







b.-<3 rsuM 











Mom-...' villa-.- 





>l.>inil ri,-asaiit 






s'.riii • ( irove 






sUv.-l. r 





393 ... 

45li .... 






10.900 1 14 





l;lu.- Kivpr 

H"<' ..:..! 








•-'',' '. 



i, ,.', 
















I'li'. k..ii ilnVvi-!;!!. !;.'!::;;.■ 

H:i,-..-l OrMMl 


2. 1 2 1 

7.1 ina 







.M.illMt lloji.- 









I!. in 

2-0.5 1 





IMliil lir..\r 



W.ilt. l-'...vvii 

W iliu'vill.' 

VS vali.~nm' 

U TO.t. 






27 1 

■:, ; 1 










gri:l;n laici: county. 

Wliltf. (.-.iloreil 


Iiii (in 



.11 I.aki- 

11 1 

1. Iii'^icr 




Total .._ 






1.00 1 















































5 111 

1 1. V 

5 1 1 



Gtnhn Vnll-.y 



.31.111. lifbter 

3!' : 



SlTiimMii 1.1 









ji:i-fi:hsox county. 


















111'., .111 


1,11, .< 




.1.111 -Ml 





Ko-l,k. ,....,.- 






I. Ik,; .Mill.- 


' 91 




..Illf.o-.l - 


7 .2 


IMIun 1.1 







2 IS 

Wat.iloo , , 

\V.,>.' iv.llai;.- 


3' (7 


1.0 1 h 
hi 3 




W.ll.-ilouii •.::. 1M.20. 3,1 

4:1., .111.1 71I1 ".no, 








3 1,908 


juxK-vr corxTv, 


Towns. CTTiK- vm. 


,e, | 




^ :- 

.inn. Ilia 










■J 4 9 










-, '," 

5' 1 

S^n^n':;;--:-. ■::;:::;;;;;:: 

Ma^l^t..Il vlllaRe 


.New I.islioii village 



4 111) 



1. ,9(1.1 

1,4 V< 























riVasiVntiralVie:.'.' .'.■.■.■.■.";!; 




1.4 50 












.;Miiia|.fe village 



fi3e l.,..l.... 
51111 j,..,|.... 



Lhn.'.'i'n'".,'. ."!..'.!....'.. '.."... 



4 40 


"9.! 7 






........ 1.403 


7, SOB 

H,S99 j.. !..-. 14,405 


1 366 

34 'i 



1 667 

1 516 




....1 W\ 

1 1 9116 

. 919 



I 1,2 



! .-111. 

; S.i3 



...\ i,;ii-! 

11.. nan. 1 


4... 2 


Ursl wai.l 




23 i 2.-; 9 2 

•riiii.i \\,i,.i. -. 
r,,.iii!i U..11I... 

llflh M.U.l. ... 


.'.'.'..'.'.'.'. l.'l'"5 



6' 3,711 
2 ' 1. '.- 1 

Onal.i^ka l,.uii.... 



. ...' l.-l . > 





'.'.'.'.' S37 


...1 922 



37' 23.9 15 










■ w • 


4. '3 






23 S 















86 6 



















1 ... 

732 Lake 















4 25 















54 2 








146 .... 




301 ..... 







^rvir.vTHox county 






539 ... 

22.i ... 


129 ... 

4 14 


. 351 .... 
235 .... 
238 .... 


4.30 .... 
119 .... 



1.21.1 .... 


114 , . . - 
2 15 ... 


" 3. ,52 4 

4..5S6 ... 

' 1 











> ' - i ■? 


1.1 re 
















95 i 







1.^0 n 



Mai.IiiUiove — 






311 1-WAlKKi: COUXTY. 



4 4 -"-7 





Si-iun.i Miiril 



Thini \v:ir.l 






l-ouitli ^^:,lil 





Uttli w 11.1 







.-i.-viiitli v:inl 






\MIIl »:ir.l 


S 'I'l-, 


i;h:v. i,ih %i.u.i 

(. '.47 



TlnrtecllUi wur.l 


L>. ! 1 rt 




Wa.iu iilosa 






OakCri-^k . . 




r, .1 1 [j 

MUwauki'c lowii 









ivroxKOi: coi xty. 





(ih !i<l:.l.- 

Ul. .nil. I.I 

J. i;.t;„.i.. 

L:i K.iv. IS- 



I.lllle Fulls 


.New 1.1 uie.... 

l>:ik Iiil.. 















4, 'J 






1 ' » 

















Siiies ... 







3 2 



1 .... 





a 1 


































































Nvv.- I,,iinl.>n, 3.1 ward 













1 3, -'3:: 



















I I 


PllOItCi: COl XTY. 

rilfri.... ! 3«S 




lil.,ih..i.,| llliill 

..1 30V 






11.11'.. . I. ■! 


■>l,ir'-II '."..'. 



^l ...i.'i i;... 1 

I'l'."-.- ' ■ .!\.'.'.'.'.'.'.'!!.' 

i:.\. I 1 ..Is 

i;...-., i.hii 


93 1 




1.02 4 


11:; 2 












1.9. . 

■ .046 







l>OMv COl XTY, 

White. Cclorcil 


l:l... k llroc.k 

IMKUTiLaHf 1 ■.■!;« 

l-.uif;;;i -Jiifl 

Kur.iiiiii,-tnM 4in,j:i, 3<1« 

I.uck I •.'lin 

i...i.iia ; ni 

l,:iki;l,HMI I li;0 

Milllowii 11)0 

Osce.ilri I 4-<H 

SLCroixFall.-. ; '.''l,-; 

tjterliiis i:;i 

Total 3 543 



ij" "9 



■51Y 47 



io "9[ 



■rs 6.5 

POKTAi^ii: corxTV 



New Jl,.i„. 





Stevens P.iiMt t 


Stevens Punit r 


SPrnntl \\ :l 


Tliua wuT 














































50 li 
















.Ml. Hk-.isaiit 

iuni.e ciiv:::::::::::::::;:: 

















r.Uf!i:i Vl,t.l 























3". i 



K:i-hlalid - 

90 J 














4 S3 



5 -'7 












ST. Cn<^lX C OUXTY. 

7. -19 



4 7S 











^ ;] 1 w 



2.:':i '■.:< 
4T 1 2 



itio 1 



4 1)3 

4iV) i ':; 

5.0 10 

5.015 111 



fii ; 


9 .0 1 



6 ;9 

till 1 ... 

51ri ... 
407 .... 



1.015 1 


I no 







1 ... 




rniiiie . .. 













3 16 


V93 4 1 1 




ant Valley 













4 32 

• 1 iij-je 















I .... 





6 1 1 














SAIK COUXTV.— Coul'd. 




Town?. CiTrKs 











.,-. 1 , 


Honei' Creek 






ti ;.i 


L:i V:.IIe 





4 ;•) ... ... 


9 -.4 

l.iii.'. ' 




1. !:.'•; i -i ... 


Sprin- creek 


.^)ii; 1 -...!.... 




:}M 1....'.... 




3(11 ;....:.... 


« a>uin;rtoii 





tW-J 13 2 




ifr.-i '....'.... 

8 -'7 



ST.i |. ........ 




13,USS j 17 , 11 



Belle Plaine... 


Green Valley. 




4 iS 





... i 










2-.' I 



•12 MO 







3.3 IS 


2tj , 13 

6 ti33 









t:< AND 

\ ILLAi; 





1 ^ 



j r^ , J. 











1. 010 




1 5421 297i 7(1 3 1 






1 .-,, 


1 ^ri? 


1 »;•,(! 



1 i.l-J 








3 '.... 

.> -.1- 

















4 1! 

West Ilend ^ 



I, ■-■■-'3 


1 li.iSi 


4 .... 




.' l.liS 







1,1 l:i 



> '. 7^ 

7 iu 





1.1 53 

-Mll^k ■L.'.l 



N.-u- v., liiii 



.! 404 





iiii.nowt.c city 

.1 !l'><i> 






. 1.034 





.1 ,J19 







.1 l,(i:il 



1.7 ;3 

Wauk. ^ll.lVlll;.s^.' 

1 l.:iiS 





.1 lo.HU 






near Cr 





1 i:; 

j 41 

1.. ;.»:;-■■ 

1 :)- 

1 4:' 

i :!S4 ....!.... 

1 431 ...L... 

1 rM ' ' ^■■■■ 


! }^^i ::::■:::: 


ii'-} '\['.'. '.'.'.'. 

■ i;J3 





White. Icoloreil 







''■ 1 ~ 









1.3. 38 

















































^v^xxl:lJAGO couxty. 


39<: ....!. 



43S ...... 


..i 691 

609 -...j.. 


...1 3S9 

331 :...!.. 


.. 1.579 


.. 3.170 

O.likosii tU) 


".'.'.'.'-'. 1.^133 



1.2 iO 

31 |41 

■3' 's' 

"4 i'T 




'.'.'.'.'.. 1.342 

.... .,.i 


31 1 51 



426 . 


V!^ !• 









If 60. 



! 187,5, 












24. .141 
2,9 IS 



5 5311 













33.6 IS 







23,1 hS 





47.0 ;5 


2J.5 14 

3 i:ii5l) 








17 i'l'.'t 

■ ■•J4:7si 









' 9.:0:, 
ib't. 19 

19.1 as 



liunn I"::"::":'. ■.■.■■■.;■■.:::;:::;:;::; 


1 4, 5 Ul 

16, l''S 

2 1.133 

2.5. 558 


14 956 
26 '132 













■-'. 1117 




62.51 S 






" "■■i'.hs 


14. ^-J 
6.32 1 
1 677 


26,11 ,.i 

20; i 5 1 




89,9. !6 








54 7 

5. 1 .- 1 

5.5^ I 

^'.0 10 


■25 1 


49. •{ 


4 4 ,7 

5.,-. n 












■■■ 8,-!7() 




13 6] 1 







1 1.992 



111. 167 
:lui :!!)! 






6 Ml J 

Total ..■. ; 




III a note ic. the t.Trltory of tn.liana re 
Rll'pl, hail 63. ami (Iri'cii Hay 50 inliaMlaills 

uhe following: "On the 1st of August. 1800. Pr, 




CENSUS OF i3;0. 





lin r. N. 
















r = 

1 = 






























" 26~ 









1 K 





















1 5B 






















ti S.'|4 














M t 
























' b'i 












































V lA-i 

3.4 li3 











1 1 








































8 ' 















3 177 











K.iu Claire.. 














KoiiUdu Lac 














■-'S .'ili.T 




2, .5 31 





54 7 





IN s:ci 






1,0 17 





(iietn Lake. 


4 -i:;,i 













1.' -,Ii-J 























s; 4 15 


3S 1 





.! 111. .ail 


-^ :!-H 




1.1 04 










.1 '|-,.| 






., Il^.l 









4. -.'I'-; ' 

.1.4 Ml 












*' 77.1 












1.1 KHVi-tte.. 

l.V (■'.■) 


ti 7J4 











Ih >t,-- 


Hi 49il 













■-':iH:i 1 








Marquette . . 

5 IJ.-i 












47 I.'.i7 


42 233 




















4. .-I'll 














f-.oliO ! 














S.'J14 1