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Full text of "History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania : with biographical sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men."

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Pioneers and Prominent Men. 

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Old Taverns. — When John Wright procured a 
charter for his ferry, he erected a tavern, which stood 
on the north side of Locust Street, opposite the depot 
of the Reading and Columbia Railroad, in the year 
1730. It was built of logs, two stories high, with a 
large room at either end, with a passage-way between. 
John Wright, Jr., was the first person who kept this 
tavern. He remained thereuntil he married, in 1734, 
when he removed to the western side of the ferry, 
where he built a hotel. 

Col. John Lowden, of Revolutionary fame, kept 
the Ferry House prior to the war. He was the son 
of Richard Lowden, who married John Wright's 
daughter. He removed to Buffalo Valley, upon the 
West Branch of the Susquehanna, from which place 
he raised a company of volunteers and marched to 
Boston in 1776. 

Joseph Jetfries came from Quaker stock in Chester 
County. He removed from there, about the year 
1774, to Hellam township, York Co., where he kept 
the Ferry House. He was wagon-master for York 
County during the Revolutionary war, and at its 
close, in 1783, he removed to the east side of the 
ferry and took charge of the Ferry House. He re- 
mained there until the year 1794-95, when the heirs 
of James Wright erected a new brick hotel near the 
northern line of their property, the site of which is 
now occupied by the round-house of the Pennsylvania | 
Railroad Company, when he took charge of the new [ 
hotel. He removed to Lancaster, where he also kept 

Frederick Stump first settled at Vinegar's Ferry 
above Marietta, after he came to this country from 
Germany. On account of malarial fever, wliich was 
then prevailing among the settlers along the river, he 
removed to Maytown, where he commenced to keep 
tavern about the close of the Revolutionary war. 
From theuce he removed to Columbia in 1796, and 
rented the Ferry House and ferry. On the 14th day of 
February, 1798, he purchased twoacresand LotsNos.l, 
2, and 3, which adjoined the first-named tract on the 
south, and all the boats belonging to the ferry, from 
Samuel Wright for the sum of two thousand eight 
hundred pounds. The hotel, which was new, stood 
on Lot No. 1. The two acres mentioned Mr. Stump 
sold to Samuel Miller, who laid the same out into lots. 
The ferry was the most profitable one on the tiver. 
He purchased the extensive brewery on West King 
Street west of the Stevens House in Lancaster City, 
which he afterwards sold to C. Barnitz, of York, Pa. 
He also purchased a large number of lots in Columbia. 
He died in Columbia in 1804. His widow and Sam- 
uel Evans, administrators of his estate, sold the hotel 
and other' property to Samuel Miller, who rented the 
hold and ferry to Joshua Ring. He also ran a line 
of stages from Lancaster to York. 

Mr. Miller sold the hotel aiid ferry-boats to Thomas 
Brooks Feb. 14, 181.4. The latter died before he ob- 
tained possession of the property. His administra- 

tors, William and Amos Green, offered the property 
at public sale on the 24th day of December, 1814. 
While the vendue was in progress, John Reynolds 
(father of Gen. Reynolds, who was killed at Gettys- 
burg in' 1863) and Jasper Slaymaker, a young lawyer 
of Lancaster, while on their way to Marietta, and 
when passing called out to the crier, "Six thousand 
seven hundred dollars !" They thought nothing more 
of the matter, but received notice that they were the 
highest bidders. And thus they became the owners 
of the " Ferry House." They held this property for 
twenty years. The erection of the bridge over the 
river destroyed its profits. They sold the property 
to John Guy, the famous hotel-keeper of Baltimore. 
He was born on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. He 
removed to this county in 1815 and leased the Wash- 
ington Hotel at Big Cliikis, where the Lancaster 
and Mount Joy turnpike crosses the same. He also 
established a line of stages, which ran between Lan- 
caster and Harrisburg. From thence he removed to 
Marietta and kept hotel in the large brick building 
adjoining Abraham N. Cassell. He purchased a farm 
a mile farther east, along the Lancaster and Marietta 
turnpike, from whence he removed to Columbia. 
His daughter, Ann, married the late Maj. Frederick 
Haines, of Donegal. The hotel was afterwards pur- 
chased by Joseph Black, and was thenceforth called 
Black's Hotel. After his decease it was purchased by 
his son, Joseph H. Black, who, by his integrity and 
good management, built up a very profitable busi- 
ness. He sold the property to the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road Company. Their " round-house" occupies the 
spot where this famous hostelry stood. 

The " Sorrel-Horse Hotel" was built by Joseph Jef- 
fries, who had been keeping the hotel upon the west- 
ern side of the river. It stood at the corner of Walnut 
and Front Streets, the site of which is now occupied 
by the passenger depot of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company. It remained in possession of the Jeft'ries 
until 1835, when Frank Boggs, who married Maria 
JeUries, purchased the property and enlarged it at 
the northern side. After the death of Mr. Boggs 
the property was leased by Chip. Parsons, Mrs. Ann 
Haines, and that prince of landlords, John Burr. 

On the opposite corner, adjoining the store of 
Houston, Barber & Gossler, the Washington Hotel 
was built by Jacob Gossler, who removed the old 
frame building, and erected a three-story brick addi- 
tion fifty-one years ago. He was followed by Daniel 
Herr and Joseph H. Black, and it is now owned by the 
latter. The reputation of the house has always been 
"No. 1." 

For a period of forty years after the town was laid 
out, the principal street through which wagons passed 
to the ferry was Walnut Street. Hence there were 
several hotels along that thoroughfare which did a 
large business. There has been no hotel on that 
street for many years. The large brick building now 
owned by Cul. McClure was owned by Charles Odell. 



Joshua Ring also kept the tavern. Occasionally a 
wandering theatrical troupe gave performances at 
this hotel. 

Reuben MuUison kept the hotel on the east side of 
Commerce Street. He was also largely interested, 
with the late Thomas Collins and others, in several 
stage lines and was a railroad contractor. When he 
first came to Columbia he ran the river in the spring 
of the year as a pilot. He was a very active citizen. 
His daughter married Thomas A. Scott, the great 
railroad magnate. 

Charles Odell came from the State of New York 
and settled in Marietta, where he remained one or 
two years. He married Miss Lockard, of Hempfield, 
and removed to Columbia, and took charge of the 
hotel west of Mullison's. 

The " Black Horse Tavern," at the corner of Fourth 
and Walnut Streets, was kept by one Getz originally. 
He was follo^ved by Henry Knight. 

Jacob Corapfort kept the brick hotel on Locust 
Street, on the east side of the Reading and Columbia 
Railroad depot. 

James Sweeny kept tavern in a frame house which 
stood back from Locust Street fifteen or twenty yards, 
upon ground which is now occupied by the '" Franklin 

"The Lamb Tavern" was torn down a few years 
ago to make room for the Columbia National Bank, 
on Locust Street, between Second and Third Streets. 
It was a noted tavern in its time. There was a large 
yard attached to this property into which wagons 
could be driven, which made it a desirable place for 
teamsters to stop over night. The Kendricks, Bink- 
ley, and Michael Streiu (and his son, Jacob, many 
years after him) kept this tavern. 

Ezekiel Cook came from Little Britain township 
about the year 1812, and first kept tavern in the frame 
house, of which the Franklin Hotel is the successor, on 
Locust Street, near Bank Alley. He removed to Ma- 
rietta, where he kept tavern a few years, when he re- 
turned to Columbia again, where he died fifty or more 
years ago. He was a candidate for sheriff in 1827, 
but was defeated. 

The " Washington Hotel" was built by Jacob Goss- 
ler. He was the son of Philip Gossler, who removed 
from York to Columbia about the year 1798 and estab- 
lished a coal- and lumber-yard. His son,' Jacob, 
married Miss Stump, daughter of Frederick Stump, 
wlio owned the ferry and Ferry-House. He dealt 
largely in real estate. Tliere were I'ewer changes in 
the ownership or management of this hotel than in 
any of the others. 

Tiie " Pine Creek Hotel" was kept by Mr. Withers 
fifty-five years ago, who was succeeded by the late 
Cornelius Tyson. It is located on Front Street below 

Brown's tavern was kept by Jeremiah Brown, who 
came from Little Britain, seventy years ago. 

The "Swan Hotel" was built by Samuel Eberleiu 

eighty years ago. It stood on the north side of Locust 
Street, near the Columbia National Bank. 

Moses Montgomery built a frame tavern on the 
north side of Locust Street above Third Street eighty 
years' ago. He had been in the Irish Rebellion, and 
came to 4nierica about the year 1799, and settled in 
Columbia. He raised a company of volunteers in 
1812, and was preparing to go into the field when 
he got into a scuffle with Paul Wolf, who shot 
through a window at a candle in liis house out of pure 
mischief. He was thrown upon a pile of rails in front 
of the tavern, and had his collar-bone broken. 

In the early history of the place " cherry fairs" 
and "harvest homes" were quite common. They 
frequently lasted several days. These were profitable 
seasons for the landlords. 

Old Grist-Mills. — The little corn or grist-mill 
which stood on the north side of Shawanese Run, 
a few hundred yards above its mouth, was built of 
.stone, two stories high, and about twenty-five feet 
square, in the year 1735. It was erected upon land of 
John Wright, and built by his son, James, and Samuel 
Blunston, the old pioneer settler. The stream was 
not large, but there was ample fall to turn an "over- 
shot" wheel of more than twenty feet in diameter, 
which gave all the power required to drive the 
machinery long enough to grind the grists of the 
pioneer settlers. 

Samuel Blunston made his will in 1745, and de- 
vised to James Wright one-half of the "corn- and 
grist-mill." This little mill ran day and night in 
the spring of 1755, grinding flour for Braddock's 
army, and in 1758 for Gen. Forbes' army. The flour 
was packed in kegs and carried on pack-horses over 
the mountains to Fort Bedford. And upon several 
other occasions the colonial authorities called upon 
James Wright to supply flour for the use of the asso- 
ciated companies of rangers along the frontiers, and 
to supply the vagrant Indians at Turkey Hill. 

This mill and land belonging to it descended to Sam- 
uel Wright, the oldest son of James, and the founder 
of Columbia, who conveyed it to his brother, John, 
who laid out that part of Columbia called "John 
Wright's addition" in the year 1788. On April 1, 
1807, James Wright, Jr., son of John, sold the mill, 
shad-fishery, and filteen acres of land to John Halde- 
man, who sold the same, April 14, 1812, to Rudy Herr, 
of Manor township, for six thousand seven hundred 
and fifty pounds. Jacob Strickler and his brother-in- 
law, George Weaver, purchased this mill about the 
year 1818 from Rudy Herr. They tore down the old 
stone mill and built one of brick at the corner of 
Mill and Front Streets. It afterwards came into pos- 
session of William Atkins, Jonathan Pusey, George 
Bogle, and is now owned by McBride and Maulfnir, 
who have introduced new machinery, and manufac- 
ture " new process" flour. The mill is almost wholly 
run by steam power. 

The Fairview Grist-Mill is located on the north 



bank of Barber's Run near its mouth, at the south- j 
em boundary line of tlie borough. This mill was i 
'built by James Barber, son of Robert Barber, the I 
pioneer settler, about 1780. On the 7th day of May, | 
1791, William Barber, Esq., of York, and oldest son 
of James, sold the mill and fifty-seven acres of land 
to Judge William A. Atlee, of Lancaster, who resided ' 
in the mansion which stood where E. K. Smith, Esq., ' 
resides. This property was sold by order of the Or- j 
phans' Court. On the 28th day of August, 1795, Al- 
exander Scott, Esq., and Mary, his wife, sold the one- 
half to Alexander Anderson, who was sold out by 
■Sheriff Michael Rine May 15, 1801, and purchased 
i by James and William Miller. On the 11th day of 
j August, 1801, James Miller, merchant, of Philadel- 
Iphia, and William Miller, of Washington County, 
I Pa., and Alexander Anderson, of Lancaster, con- 
', veyed the property to John Haldeman, of Donegal, i 
land Jacob Strickler, of Hempfield. Mr. Haldeman [ 
'sold his interest to Mr. Strickler, from whom it went 
'to his son, Jacob, and the latter's son-in-law, Ephraim 
Hershey, who sold to Samuel Truscott, Michael Shu- 1 
man, and J. W. Stacy, who now own it. 1 

The first saw-mill erected at Columbia or neighbor- 
hood was built by Robert Barber, the pioneer settler 
in 1727, in the meadow boluw his dwelling, which 
stood near Kauffman's stone-quarries. There is noth- 
ing now left of it. 

Shad Fisheries.— There were but three shad fish- 
eries along the shore prior to the erection of the dam 
across the river. The first one established was at or 
.near the ferry, in front of the public ground, and 
ibelonged to James Wright and his lieirs. After his 
death, when the property came to be divided, in 1788, 
his son, John Wriglit, established a fishery near tlie 
mouth of Shawanese Run, which was sold with the 
Shawanese mill properly. 

Robert Barber also liad a fishery opposite his land 
below John Wright's. The entire shore in front of 
the town was well adapted for fishing with a drag 
seine. The shore sloped gradually, and there was a 
gravel bottom. 

j Mifilin's Island, across which the old bridge ran, 
j had a profitable fishery on the west side. It was 
I owned by James Mifilin, Esq. 

I The erection of a dam across the river in 1838, to 
j form a pool to float boats to the mouth of the Susque- 
; hanna and Tide-Water Canal etfectually destroyed all 
of the fisheries above that point. 

Post-Office andPostmasters. ^Joseph Smith came 
to Columbia about 179.3, and opened a store, in con- 
nection with James Wright, in the lower room of the 
old Ferry House, which stood on the north side of 
Locust Street, near Front. \ post-oflice was estab- 
lished at Columbia in 1797, and Mr. Smith was ap- 
pointed the first postmaster. The receipts of the 
I office for the year 1799 were $10.44. He was the 
eighth child of Col. RoTjert Smith, of Chester County, | 
and was born Sept. 24, 1770. He removed to Phila- I 

delphia in 1802, where he embarked in the iron and 
shipping business. He died on his farm at " Steam- 
boat Hotel," in Chester County, Dec. 18, 1845. He 
left several children surviving him, to wit : Persifer 
Frazer Smith, Esq., late reporter of the Supreme 
Court of Pennsylvania, and a distinguished mem- 
ber of the Chester County bar; Elizabeth; Rhoda; 
Vaughan, a daughter, married Rev. Riley, of Mon- 
trose; Joseph Smith married Mary, daughter of Col. 
Persifer Frazer and Mary Worrall Taylor, who was 
the granddaughter of Isaac Taylor, the surveyor of 
Chester County. Mr. Smith and Frazer were the 
progenitors of a number of distinguished military and 
civil officers. 

William P. Beatty was appointed postmaster by 
President John Adams in 1802. He was the sou of 
Rev. Charles Beatty (of Log College memory) and 
Ann Reading, daughter of Governor Reading, of New 
Jersey. He was born in Neshaminy, in Bucks County, 
March 31, 1706, and died in Philadelphia, July 28, 
1848. When Jefferson was elected President another 
postmaster was appointed. In 1825 he was appointed 
postmaster under President John Quiney Adams, 
which ofl5ce he held for twelve years. 

John Mathiot was appointed postmaster in 1807, 
and retained the position until he was elected sheriff 
of the county in 1818. His father, John, was a Hu- 
guenot, and came from France to Lancaster about 
the beginning of the Revolution. He removed to 
Columbia in 1798, and opened a dry-goods and 
grocery-store in connection with Michael Gundecker, 
of Lancaster, in the brick building he erected on 
Walnut Street, adjoining Bank Alley. While hunt- 
ing upon Mifttin Island, above the bridge, he was ac- 
cidentally shot by a friend and killed about the year 
1804. His son John, as stated, was elected sheriff in 
1818, although a Democrat, whose party was then in 
a minority in the county. The Wrights, who were 
Federalists, all united in his support. He was elected 
mayor of Lancaster in 1831, and re-elected eleven 
times. He died Jan. 22, 1843, aged fifty-eight years. 
In the year 1807 the quarterly receipts of the office 
were fifteen dollars, and for the year 1815 they were 
from one hundred and twenty-five to one hundred 
and fifty dollars. Although he was not subject to 
military duty, he procured a horse and marched with 
Capt. Jacob Strickler's company to Kennet Square, 
in 1812, expecting to be mustered into the service of 
the United States. Owing to some informality they 
were not mustered, and the company returned to Co- 

Philip Eberman, a brother-in-law of John Mathiot, 
was appointed postmaster in the fall of 1818, and re- 
tained the'position until he was succeeded by William 
P. Beatty, in 182.'j. 

In 1837, Dr. F. A. Thomas was appointed post- 
master under the administration of Martin Van 

Guilford G. Claiborne was appointed postmaster 



under Gen. Harrison's administration iu tlie spring 
of 1841. But for an accident he probably would not 
have received the appointment. 

After it was known in Columbia that Gen. William 
H. Harrison was elected President, in November, 
1840, the Anti-Masons and Whigs of that place con- 
cluded that they would celebrate the event by firing 
a salute with a cannon in honor of the event, in the 
orchard of John L. Wright, between Second and 
Third Streets and Alleys " J" and " K." During the 
night before this was to take place some person 
spiked the cannon with a rat-tail file. When the 
time came to fire the salute there was great disap- 
pointment among the friends of Gen. Harrison. Col. 
Amos S. Green, Mr. Claiborne, and others, after 
■working for more than an hour, succeeded in getting 
out the file, and proceeded to announce the fact by 
firing the cannon in rapid succession. After firing it 
three times, and Mr. Claiborne and William Dickey 
were forcing a wadding of sod down upon the powder, 
a boy attempted to jump or run across in front of the 
cannon, when he fell. Abraham Myers, who had his 
thumb upon the touch-hole, raised it, when the charge 
went off prematurely when Claiborne and Dickey had 
hold of the ramrod. The former had his arm shat- 
tered, which had to be amputated above the elbow. 
Dickey was knocked insensible, but recovered. There 
was a great deal of sympathy for Mr. Claiborne. He 
was appointed postmaster, a position he retained for 
twelve years. He was succeeded by A. P. Modernell 
in 1853, who died while in commission, and his widow 
succeeded him, and held the position until 1861, when 
Henry H. Fry was appointed under President Lin- 
coln's administration. He also died while in com- 
mission, and his widow was appointed to succeed him, 
and retained the position for twelve years, when Henry 
Mullen was appointed, and is now the postmaster. 
He enlisted in the " Cookman Rangers" in April, 
1861, and marched to Camp Curtin, mustered into the 
United States service in Co. K, Fifth Regiment Penn- 
sylvania Reserves, on the 21st of June, 1861 ; was 
appointed quartermaster-sergeant of that regiment in 
November, 1861 ; served three years, and was in all of 
the battles with the Army of the Potomac. After the 
expiration of his term of service, on the 6th of June, 
1864, he re-enlisted as a veteran, and was appointed 
first lieutenant of Co. A, One Hundred and Ninety- 
first Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers. He was 
taken prisoner at Weldon Railroad, below Petersburg, 
Va., on the 19th day of August, 1864, and was im- 
prisoned at Libby, Va., Salisbury, N. C, and Dan- 
ville, Va., where he remained till March 22, 1865. 
He was' mustered out with the company June 28, 
1645. The business of the office fur the year ending 
in July, 1883, amounted to iJ7822.88. 

Taxable Inhabitants in 1814-15,-The size of 
the town during the war of 1812 is uppro.xiiiiately 
shown by the following list of ta.xable inhabitants, 
most of whom were heads of families : 


Rolert Barber. 

Mary Jeffries. 

Hester Broonilield. 

Martha Jones. 

^Villjani P. Be;itty. 

Elizabeth Jones. 

Emor Jeffries' estate. 

Ezra Breece. 

William Kirkwood. 

Thonws B»rllett. 

Isaac Kendrlck. 

Olirist. Beur. 

John Karne. 

Joli.i Brown. 

Peter Livergood. 

John Barber. 

Israel Lloyd. 


William Liston. 

Peter Burns, Sr. 

Charles Lockard. 

Christian Bronneman. 

John Lfvergood. 

Christiarj Brenufuuiu, Sr. 

John I.Jckard. 

Joseph Boyd, gnuamith. 

James Little. 

Thomas Bircli. 

William Ladley. , 

Thomas Doude. 

Lewis Lowman'a estate. 

Samuel Belhel. 

Jacob Lightheiser. 

Bernard Brown. 

Jacob Long. 

Henry Brnbaker. 

Thomas Lloyd. 

James Bogle, 

Samuel Miller. 

Jesse Burroll. 

Samuel McNeil. 

Kobert Boyd. 

Henry Martin. 

William Cox. 

Moses Montgomery. 

James Clyde. 

Anthony McElwaln. 

C.lvin Cooper. 

John Mellon. 

Widow CrossDisn. 

Jonathan Mifflin. 


Joseph Miffl.n. 

Janjes Collins. 

James E. Mifflin. 

Al.-ah.mi Correll. 

William McManamy. 

John Dicks. 

John Mathiot. 

Martin DurreU. 

John Mathiofs estate. 

Christian Diltwiler. 

Robert Magill. 

Joseph Ditlwiler. 

Daniel Mnsser. 

Thomas Dominick. 

Hugh McCorkle. 

John Davy. 

John MclCissick.. 

John Evans. 

James McClean. 

John Eberlein. 

George Nicholas. 

Joseph Evai.s, Esq. 

Robert I'atton. 

Charles Evans. 

Cuapor Peters. 

Michael Elder. 

George Peters. 

Widow Elwea. 

Martin Kohrer's estate. 

Anthony Ellmaker. 

Joel Ricl.aidson. 

Daniel Floiy. 

John Roth's estate. 

Jaeob Forry. 

Widow Rhinehart. 

Kobert Fnllerton. 

Joseph Klchardson. 

Samuel Fipps. 

John Snyder. 

John Foriy, Jr. 

Henry Snmmy. 

Jonathan Findley. 

James Sweeny. 

Jacob Gossler. 

David Sherrick. 

Philip Gossler. 

PL. lip Snyder. 

William Green. 

Wniiam SraaUwood. 

John Gonter, Jr. 

Darnel Spring. 

Dr. G.lffilh. Vickory. 

William Gillaoby. 

Thomas L. Wilson. 

Evan Green. 

Edward Williams. 

Michael Gundecker. 

San.nel Wright. 

Micluud Gundecker, Jr. 

Thomas Wright. 

John Gonler, Sr. 

Henry Withers. 


James Wright. 

Christian House,-. 

William Wiight. 

Susanna Houston. 

James Wright, Jr. 

Kobert W. Houston. 

James Wilson. 

Kudolph Herr. 

Jacob Williams. 

Dominick Haughey. 

Michoel Wisler. 

Jacob Hoon. 

George Wyke. 

John Uippy. 

Benjamin Worrell. 

Christian Hertzlor. 

John Wilson, Esq. 

Christhui Habecker. 

Thomas Walters. 

Daniel Ilorr. 

James Warden. 

John Haldeinan. 

Lewie W ish-i. 

Chiislian Unldeoian. 

William Welsh. 

Samuel Wiighfs estate. 

Amos Harmel'. 

George Zeiglei. 

James Hopkins. 

Widow Zeigler. 

Widow Heller. 

George Zeigler, cooper. 

Emanuel Heller. 


niifman, innkeeper. 

Jacob Marley. 

Joseph Mother, innkeeper, 

Pliilip Moor. 

Samuel C. McKean, lumbe 

Steplieu Bojer, minister. 
Julin Bennet. 
E/.ekiel Cook, innkeeper. 
Joniitlian Clmlfant. 
Kol.ort Clialfiint, blacksmitli. 
Iknjamin Cumuiings 
JoiiuUian Deen, innkeeper. 
Ilugli Dougherty, liatter. 

Henry Fialier. 

James Given. 

Wm. B. Hunt, merchant. 

Joseph Hunt, store-keeper. 

William Hassen, innkeeper. 

Michael Heisely, gate-keeper a 

James Jordon. 
Jacob Johnson, shoemaker. 

William Kruchman. 

Jacob Loilheiser. innkeeper. 

James Long, caipenter. 

Samuel Urown. 

Alexander Cowen, book-keeper. 

Christopher Cortpnian, cooper. 

David Duulap, teacher. 

Joseph Enes. 

Peter Epley, store-keeper. 

Kllllan Epley, store- keeper. 

Dr. Samuel Fahnestock. 

Dr. Samuel Houston. 

John Hudders. 

Isaac Vaughan, innkeeper. 

John Way 


Joseph Wade. 

Henry Welsh, shoemaker. 

Jaeob Witmer, lumber merchant. 

Slicliael May. 

Samuel Watt, shoHmaker. 

Paul Wolf, carpenter. 

Henry Quest, cabinet-maker. 

Benjamin Barrey, barber. 

John Briggs, tailor. 

Martin Currie. 



lliani McClure, gunsmith. 

in Mans, Jr., watcliDian. 

lliam Roxberry, barber. 

in L. Stake. 

nry Steel. 

ins H. Slaymaker, store-keeper. 

lliam Todd. 

lies Todd, shoemaker. 

uuel Standsbnry, schoolmaster. 

ristopher Taylor 

omas Wright, turner. 

nea Wilson, cabinet-maker. 

iiuel Whitehill, store-keeper. 

in Zeigler, cooper. 

Civiftiist. — The borough was incorporated in 1814. 
Tlie principal ofBcers from that time to the present 
were as follows : 

1914.— Chief Burgess, Christian Bienneman; Asslstuiit Burgess, John 

1814.— Chief Bargess, John Dicks; Assistant Burgess, Michae| Elder. 

1810,-Chief Burgess, William Vickiy; Assistant Burgess, Thomas A. 

1817.— Chief Burgess, William P. Beatty; Assistant Burgess, Thomas 
A. Wilson. 

1818.— Chief Burgess, James Clyde; Assistant Burgess, John Snyder. 

1819.— Chief Burgess, James Clyde; Assistant Burgess, Hubert Ricli- 

1821J.— Chief Burgees, William Grier ; Assistant Burgess, Janies 

1827.— Chief Burgess, Robert Sjiear; Assistant Burgess, Jacob Matliiot. 
1828.— Chief Burgess, Robert Spear; Assistant Burgess, George Zeig- 

1S29. — Chief Bui-gess, John Barber; Assistant Burgess, Jacob Mathiot. 
lS30.—Cl^ief Burgess, Joseph Cottrell; Assistant Burgess, John Gonter, 
1831. — Chief Burgess, Joseph Cottrell; Asaistant Burgess, John Bar- 

1832.— Chief Burgess, Robert Spear; Assistant Burgess, Michael Way. 

1833.— Chief Burgess, John Ainis: Assistant Burgess, John Swartz. 

1834.— Chief Burgess, Robert Spear; Assistant Burgess, Jonas Rumple. 

1836-3G.— Chief Burgess, Robert W. Houston ; Asaistant Burgess, John 

1 837-38.— Chief Burgess, John Arms ; Assistant Burgess, John Swartz. 

1839.- Chief Burgess, John Arms; Asaistant Burgess, Francis Boggs. 

1840. — Chief Burgess, John Arms ; Assistant Burgess, Samuel Slathiot. 

1841. — Chief Burgess, John Arms; Assistant Burgess, Francis Boggs. 

1842.— Chief Burgess, Samuel Mathiot; .Assistant Burgess, Francis 

1843.— Chief Burgess, Richard Derrick ; Assistant Burgess, Francis 

1844-45.— Chief Burgess, Tliomas Floyd; Assistant Burgess, Francis 

1840— Chief Burgess, Samuel Grove; Assistant Burgess, George 

1647.— Chief Burgess, William I'attun ; Assistant Burgess, George 

1848— Chief Burgess, James Jordon ; Assistant Burgess, Daniel Clml- 

1849.— Chief Burgess, John D. Wright ; Assistitnt Burgess, Nelson 


-Chief Burgess 


igo Wolf; 






-Chief Burgess, 


3 S. Green ; 








-Chief Burgess, 


Stewart; A 

sistant Burgess, John B. 



-Chief Burgess, 


ph M. Watts 

; Assista 

t Burges 

, Cha 


M. Strine. 


-Chief Burgess, 


hM. Watts 






-Chief Burgess 


n Finger; 






-Chief Burgess, 

Abr.aham Myers 


t Burgess 




1857.— Chief Burgess, Rudolph Williams; Asaistant Burgess, Samuel 

1858.— Chief Burgess, Harford Fraley ; Assistant Burgess, John Kippy. 

1869.— Chief Burgess, Thomas J. Bishop; Assistant Burgess, Joseph 
J. List. 

1860, — Chief Burgess, Samuel Grove ; Assistant Burgess, Jonas Myers. 

1861.— Chief Burgess, Peter Fraley; Assistant Burgess, Joseph Tyson. 

18G2.— Chief Burgess, Peter Fraley; Assistant Burgess, John Schroe- 

Pfahler ; Assistant Burgess, John 
ant Burgess, S. H. 
lut Burgess, George 

-Chief Burgess, Henry F. Slaymake 


[ Burgess, Robert 

1822.— Chief Burgess, Robert Spear; AssisUint Burgess, Isaac Vaughen. 

1823.— Chief Burgess, Robert Spear; Assistant Burgess, Eli H. Thomas. 

1824.— Chief Burgess, John Barber; Assistant Burgess, William 

182.'.-26.— Chief Burgess, Robert Sjiear; Asaistant Burgess, William 

1863.— Chief Burgess, Jacob 

1864— Chief Burgess, Rudolph Williai 
Do Negre. 

1865.— Chief Burgess, Rudolph Willian 
W. Fry. 

1866. — Chief Burgess, Rudolph Williams ; Assistant Burgess, John 

In 1866 a new charter was granted, which abolished 
;he office of assistant burgess. The burgesses since 
;hen have been as follows; 

, 1874. William B. Faesig. 
I 1876-76 Joseph Hinkle. 
j 1877. John A. Jordan. 
I 1878. S. P. Moderwell. 

1879. John Shenberger. 

18.S0. Charles Melliuger. 

1870. James Schroeder 
Jacob S. Streine. 

John Shenberger. 
High Constable. Market Master, Supe] 

tlau Strawbrl.lge. 
Treasurer, First National Bank. 


Borough Regulator, Samuel Wrigbt. 

CouyicU.—A. a. Guiles, president ; John C. Clark, secretary ; Williai 
Puttou, Sliiiliael S. Sliiimau, William H. Pfahlcr, Samuel Filber 
George TiUe, Williiim H. Hardmaii. 


1726. John Wright. 
1729. Samuel Blunston. 
1744. James Wright. 
1791. John Houston. 
1807. Kohert Spear. 
1811. James ClyUe. 
Israel Kloyd. 
1816. Thomas Floyd. 
1825. William P. Beatty. 
18.i5. Michael Streine. 
1632. Jacob F. Markly. 
April 14, 1S40. Thomas Lloyd. 

April 15, 1845. Dr. George Moore. 

Kohert Spear. 
April 9, 1650. Samuel Brooks. 

J. W. Fisher. 
April 13, 1853. Jai 

Samuel Evans 
April 10, 1855. Da 
May 12, 1857. Tli" 

April 13, 

858. Fra 
I K. Hun 

, Ebur 

I Eddy. 

April 10, 1860. Join 

David E. Brinner. 
May 3, 1861. Samuel Evans. 
April 15, 1SC2. John R. Eberleiu 
April 14, 1863. James H. Hunter 
April, 1865. John W. Houston. 

i Clark. 

uel Ev 

April, 1867. John Eddy. 
April, 1871. Morris Clark. 

Samuel Evans. 
April, 1872. Frank Conroy. 
April, 1873. S. S. Clair. 
April, 1875. B. R. Mayer. 

Samuel Evans. 

John P. Frank. 
April, 1881. George Young, Jr. 

W. HaynesGrier. 
April, 1882. John P. Frank. 

Meeting-Houses— The Friends, or Quakers.— 

The pioneer settlers were members of the Society of 
Friends, and hekl their meetings for some time after 
they came in private liouses. Their number increas- 
ing, they built a log meeting-house upon the south 
side of Union Street, near Lancaster Avenue. 

Their first and only speaker was John Wright, 
Esq. Tills settlement, composed entirely of Quakers, 
was the only one that ventured to locate upon the 
extreme frontier of the province. The heads 
families all entered public life, and mingled a great 
deal with all classes of people, and hence we find that 
they were not very strict in discipline, but conducted 
their meetings in their own way, and for thirty years 
they persistently refused to ask to come under the 
jurisdiction of Sadsbury or Lampeter Quarterly or 
Monthly Meetings. The records of these meetings 
occasionally make mention of a Wright or a Barber 
being "read out" for "marrying out," or for being 
married by a "priest," a term by which they desig- 
nated a minister regularly ordained, without regard 
to any particular denomination to which he may have 
belonged. To their credit be it said that nojgreater 
offense was ever charged to them. It often required 
a great deal of patience and persistence on the part 
of Friends to induce them to send to these meetings 
a testimony against themselves for these departures 
from the discipline of the society. If we follow 
closely the history of a number of the descendants 
of these pioneer Quakers, we will find that they 
wandered much farther away from the time-honored 
ciistdins of the society. Some of them entered the 
military service of their country, and others strayed oft' 
into the civil service, and some were not averse to 
the chase and field sports. There are very few, if any, 
of the many hundred descendants of John Wright and 

Robert Barber who are now members of the Society I : 

Sadsbury and Tampeter Quarterly Meetings fre 
quently selected two or more of their leading men tc 
go to the Susquehanna and talk to the Henipfield 
Friends,' and occasionally a public speaker stopped 
there and preached. But little impression was made 
upon them until Jan. 1, 1790, when Job Scott, a cel- 
ebrated Quaker, who came from England, and after 
an extended tour through the Southern States, along 
the sea-coast, where he aroused the followers of 
George Fox to renewed action. On his return he 
preached at Pipe Creek, Manallen, Huntingdon, 
Warrington, Newberry, and York, thence to Wright's 
Ferry, where he remained at the Widow Wright's for 
several days. He preached a number of times at her 
house, and awakened a strong feeling among the de- 
scendants of the pioneer settlers. 

In 1799 the Quakers at Columbia made applica- 
tion to Lampeter Monthly Meeting to hold an "in- 
dulged meeting" on first and week days. 

Samuel Wright, the founder of Columbia, gave the 
society a lot on Cherry Street, near Third Street, in 
trust, to build a meeting-house on. 

It was not, however, until the year 1810 that the 
meeting at Columbia was established by " Cain Quar- 
ter," and in 1812 they were allowed a " preparative 

The present brick meeting-house was erected about 
the year 1800. (Under the head of schools further 
notice is made of it.) 

There are now living in Columbia but two persons 
who claim to belong to the Society of Friends. Oc- • 
casionally Friends from a distance come and hold 
meetings, but when they are gone the building i? 
closed up, sometimes for a year or more. 

The Methodist Church.— On ilie 13th day o: 
July, 1803, Samuel AVright gave Lot No. 160, as laid 
down on the plan of "Old Columbia," which was the 
last number on the "plan," and was situated at the 
south corner of Alley " K" and Fifth Street, meas- 
uring forty-seven feet on Fifth Street, and extending 
along said alley two hundred and thirty feet. This lot 
was conveyed to the following-named persons : Samuel 
Goff-, Benjamin Wright, John Wright, Christian Herr, 
Christian Herr, Jr., Abraham Herr, David Mussel- 
man, William Todd, Robert Magill, Thomas Lloyd, 
Abraham Groft", Owen Bruner, William Torbert, John 
Boehm, James W. Newcomb, and Isaac Swartzwal- 
ter, trustees. This lot of ground on the west side of 
Cherry Street, between Fourth and Fifth Streets, meas- 
uring sixty feet front and one hundred feet deep, 
upon which they desired to erect a Methodist Church, 
was purchased when every species of property was 
inflated. A part of the purchase money was paid, 
and a mortgage was given for the payment of the 
balance. No building was erected upon this lot, and 
the congregation continued to worship in the little 
frame church in the alley. 



The 'trustees of the Ebenezer meeting-house, for 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, erected a frame 
meeting-house ui)on the rear end of this lot, measur- 
ing about twenty-five feet front and fort}' feet long. 
The pulpit stood at the north end. For thirty years 
this congregation had no regular pastor. The pulpit 
was filled occasionally by an itinerant minister, who 
traveled around the circuit. The trustees named 
above resided principally in Manor township. They 
belonged to the circuit. When a four weeks' and 
six weeks' circuit was established, there were min- 
isters enough to assign a pastor once a week to each 
congregation. Sometimes several weeks would inter- 
vene before the same pastor came to the same con- 
gregation a second time. (This little frame church 
building in the alley was purchased by Stephen 
Smith, who razed it to the ground, and erected another 
one for the colored Baptists. It was burned down, 
and a brick one erected in its place, wliich has been 
converted into dwellings.) 

Tiie membership of this church increased very 
fast. Their meetings were largely attended, and this 
little church building in the alley was found entirely 
inadequate to accommodate tliem. They were gen- 
erally poor people or in moderate circumstances, and 
they were not able to buy a lot in a more desirable 
part of the town, and erect a larger house, and they 
found it up-hill work to collect from the public at 

In the year 1829 Columbia is first mentioned in the 
minutes of the Methodist Church records. John Go- 
1 forth and J. Ledmeni were ajipointed to go to the 

In 1830 it was a large circuit, and reported two 
hundred and eighty-two members. Afterwards it was 
called Strasburg and Columbia Circuit until the year 
1835, when it was organized as a station, and Francis 
Ilodson was its first stationed preacher. On the 10th 
day of August, 1832, Michael Elder and his wife, 
Charlotte, conveyed to William Todd, James Little, 
Joseph Cottrell, Abram Bruner, Jacob Matliiot, James 
Giren, Thomas Lloyd, Abraham Sherrick, and Henry 
.Alartin, trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
forty-eiglit feet of ground fronting on Cherry Street, 
and extending north along the east side of Tliird 
Street one hundred feet to a twelve-feet wide alley. 
They erected upon this lot a brick building forty feet 
fronting on Cherry Street, and e.Ktending along Third 
Street sixty feet, with a basement-room under the en- 
tire building. A gallery ran around three sides. The 
pulpit was at the northern end. The building was 
remodeled and enlarged in 18-lG by adding fifteen feet 
to the northern end. The ceiling of the basement- 
rooin w:is also raised about one fiiot. In 1851 this 
cliurch was partially destroyed by fire, and the con- 
gregation worsiiiped for a time in Odd-Fellows' Hall. 
The congregation purchased a lot on the corner of 
Second and Clierry Streets, upon which they erected 
a church building in 1852, measuring fifty feet front 

on Second Street and seventy-five feet along Cherry 
Street. Upon the rear end of the lot they built a 
two-story brick dwelling-house for the sexton. 

The following-named members remain of those who 
belonged toYhe church when it was first organized as 
a station in 1833,: Abigail Dean, widow of Benjamin - 
Dean; Samuel Grove, who has been a very active 
member of this church for fifty years, and has built 
up a fine circulating library of choice books (he 
married (second time) Maria, daughter of the late 
Ephraim Eby (" miller") who is also a member of the 
church. His first wife was a Miss Stacy, of Stras- 
burg, in this county); Catharine Lightheiser; Pru- 
dence Suydam, widow of the late Henry Suydam 
(who was a director of the Columbia National Bank), 
and daughter of the late James Given, lumber mer- 

The present trustees of the church are Abram 
Bruner, Robert Beecham, Daniel Stape, Jr., J. R. 
Witmer, John Paine, Henry F. Bruner, Samuel S. 
Klair, Ephraim Hershey, S. H. Hoffman. 

WoM.\x's FuRiiiGx Missionary Society.— Presi- 
dent, Mrs. Richard W. Humphreys; Vice-Presidents, 
Mrs. M. Bletz, Mrs. S. S. Nowlen ; Recording Secre- 
tary, Mrs. Ella Meiser; Corresponding Secretary, 
Mrs. Julia Kauffman , Treasurer, Miss Emma Patton. 

L.4.DIE.S' CiiUKCii Aid Society.— President, Mrs. 
Richard W. Humjihreys; Secretary, Miss Mary 
Paine; Treasurer, Mrs. S. J. Bruner. The present 
membership is something over four hundred and fifty. 

Sunday-Schools.— Superintendent, ; 

Assistant Superintendent, A. G. Guiles; Secretary, 
S. W. Guiles; Assistant Secretary, F. G. Paine; Treas- 
urer, A. C. Bruner; Chorister, A. Bruner; Librarians, 
J. S. Maxton, James Schraeder, I. Annerler. 

Cookman Chapel Sunday School— This chapel , 
was erected by the Methodist Episcopal Church a few 
years ago, at the corner of Fifth and Locust Streets, 
and is sustained and owned by the mother-church, at 
the corner of Second ami Cherry Streets. The olBcers 
are as follows : Superintendent, Simon Cameron May ; 
First Assistant, J. W. F. Nowlen ; Second Assistant, 
G. W. Panics; Secretary, H. B. Dean; Assistant Sec- 
retary and Treasurer, William K. Nowden ; Libra- 
rians, Thomas J. Wright, J. S. Snyder, C. W. Steven- 
son, I. E. Graybill, Harry Bonson ; Chorister, C. W. 
Stevenson; Organist, Mrs. Thomas J. Wright. 

The Methodist Church is in a prosperous condition, 
and the churoli buildings are free from debt. There 
have been periods of dissension in the congregation, 
caused generally by trouble between the pastor and 
the congregation. The term of service of the former, 
when this took place, was shortened, and a change of 
pastors brought harmony again. But for this arrange- 
ment in the policy of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
it would have been split in two, and two or more 
churches would have been erected in the place, and 
both doubtless would have gone into decay for want 



Since 1835 the church has had the following pas- 
tors: Francis Hodson, 1835; William Roberts, 1836- 
37; Elijah Miller, 1838-39; James Cunningham, 
1840; James H. McFariand, 1841; Joshua Hum- 
phries, 1842-43 ; David Gardner, 1844; William H. 
Elliot, 1845; Stephen Townsend, 1846; William 
Barnes, 1847-18; William Urie, 1849-50; William 
Bishop, 1851-52; Joseph Mason, 1853; William 
Cooper, 1854; J. W. McCaskey, 1855-56; William 
Barnes, 1857-58; J. Y. Ashton, 1859; J. Aspril, 
1860; J. B. Maddox, 18G1-62; H. R. Calloway, 1863- 
64; William Major, 1865-67 ; S. H. C.Smith, 1868-70; 
Robert J. Carson, 1871-73; J. Dickerson, 1874-75; 
Theodore Stevens, 1876-78; Henry Wheeler, 1879- 
81; Richard W. IIuiii|ihries, son of former pastor, 

Presbyteriau Church.— In the summer of 1808, 
Revs. Collin McFarquahr and Robert Cathcart 
preached in Columbia occasionally in the Methodist 
meeting-house. In September of that year an un- 
successful effort was made to organize a society and 
erect a house of worship. 

In February, 1806, Rev. Nathaniel Snowdeu, who 
had settled in Lancaster, began to preach here 
statedly every third Sabbath, sometimes in the Meth- 
odist Church and sometimes in a storehouse or in 
private houses. 

On the 29th of August, 1807, he ordained William 
P. Beatty, Esq., Moses Montgomery, and James 
Graham ruling elders, and on the following day 
administered the sacrament of the Lord's Supper to 
about twenty-two communicants. Mr. .S:iowden re- 
ceived from eighty to one hundred dollars per annum 
for his services, which continued till 1808. 

In the spring of 1809 Rev. William Kerr engaged 
. for one-fourth of his time, and received about one 
hundred dollars per year for his services. At his 
suggestion the following application was, on the 26th of 
March, 1810, made to the Presbytery of New Castle : 

" We, the eulscribers, beg leave to state tliat a few famlliea of tliis 
place, any twelve or fourteeD, associated together about four years ago 
for public worship. This society was organised in due form by Rev. 

ders were ordained, aud the ordinances have sinci 
been occasionally adniinist<-red. 

"We wish to be connected with the Presbyterian Clmrch, and desire 
as a congregation, to be taken under your care. That you umy grtui 
our request auil that our infant society may prosper und^r your direc 

" Wm. p. Bcattv, 

" Moses Montoumerv, 

Samuel Wright donated to the congregation for a 
building-site a lot adjoining the German Church, 
but this not being deemed suitable, was in October, 
1810, spld for three hundred and fifty dollars, and 
anollier on the corner of Locust and Fourth Streets 
purchased for six liundied dollars, and conveyed to 
the trustees Feb. 9, 1811. The foundation of the 
church was laid on the 15th of July, 1811, ami on 
the 19th of July; 1812, the house was opened fur 
public worship. 

Mr. Kerr became stated supply, and on the 13th o\ 
September, 1812, ordained John Hudders. Dr. Hugl^ 
McCorkle, and John JIcRessick ruling elders. H'j 
cefised to supply the church in January, 1814. ! 

In May, 1814, Rev. Stephen Boyer became suppljl 
and continued to minister to the congregation tilj 
1830, although there does not appear any record of 
his installation as pastor. It is believed that he 
preached here on alternate Sabbaths. During a larga 
portion of his term of service he resided at York 
during the latter part of his term, where he was eu-i 
gaged in teaching in addition to his other duties. i 

The church building when first erected stood back 
from Locust Street about twenty feet. The pulpit] 
which was at the Locust Street end, was several feet 
higher than the present one, and a gallery crossed the 
rear end. Thirty-sis years ago the building was re-, 
modeled and extended to Locust Street; John Fred.i 
Houston was the architect and Michael Clepper the 
builder. A few years later a Sunday-school and ses- 
sion-house were erected in the rear of the church, and 
both that and the church building were enlarged aid 
remodeled a few years since. 

The names of the following members appear on the 
record in the sessions-book from 1808 to 1822, inclu- 
sive : William P. Beatty and wife, Mrs. Michael Elder, 
Mrs. Hugh Menough, Daniel McLane and wife, 
John Menough and wife, William Green, Mrs. Simp- 
son, John Hudders, John McKissick, Mrs. Sarah 
Strickler, Mrs. Letitia Ralston, Miss Sallie Roseburg, 
William Wilson, James Wilson and wife, Archibald 
Hudders and wife, Dr. Hugh McCorkle, Benja 
Worrall and wife, Mary McKissick, Mrs. Bogle, Ja 
Bogle, O'Rey Henderson, Samuel C. McKean 
wife, John McKissick, Jr., Mrs. Susan McCullough, 
James Clyde, Elizabeth Patton, Eleanor Lowry 
Mrs. Sarah McCorkle, Mrs. Amy H. Houston, Cath 
erine McKissick, Jlary McKissick, Robert Spear, 
Mrs. Mary Wilson, Mrs. Mary Hendrickson, Henry 
Martin, Dr. William F. Houston, John Fletcher, 
Mrs. Susannah Fletcher (his wife), Ann Greenleaf, 
Hannah Merkle, Sarah Peters, Mrs. Mary Jetl'ries, 
Catherine, Rachel, and Joseph Copeland, Josepli 
Irwin, Mrs. Mary Whitehill, Lydia Exley, Sarali 
McKissick, John Jacoby, Mrs. Nancy Slack, Mrs 
Mary Gravinger, Eliza Ann McKissick, Mrs. Rebecca 
Slaymaker, Henry F. Slaymaker, Elizabeth Morgan, 
Maria McLaughlin, John Briggs, Jacob Cling, Mrs 
JIussailew Briggs, Elizabeth Keesey, Mrs. Mary 
Boyd, Cornelius Dysart, Margaret Guy, Mary Plar 
ris, Mary Smith, i\Iary Wycke, Joseph Wallace, Su 
sannah Dysart, Jane Rody, Jacob Purkopile and 
wife, Mrs. Jane Vaughan, Mrs. Maria Shipps, M 
Margaret Worrell, Eleanor W.Houston, Mrs. Amelia 
B. Heise, Mary Stump, Elizabeth Wright, John Sib- 
bits, Samuel B. Heise, Jane Sibbits, Elizabeth Sib- 
bits, Elisha Hallowell. 

From 1813 to 1827 the following deaths and re- 
movals of members are recorded : Robert Gamble, 



Martin Rohrer, Mary Ann Bogle, Robert Wilson, 
Ann Elder, Thomas Brooks, Jacob Anthony, James 
Warden, Warwick Miller, Frances Worrell, Jlary 
Mans, Dolly Montgomery, Henry Mans, Esther 
Green, John Slaymaker, John Ralston, Martha Atlee, 
Amos Buckalew, John Eberlein, Jr., Mary Amelia 
McCorkle, Mrs. Catherine Green, Nancy Spear, John 
Mathiot, Andrew Johnson, Amy H. Houston, Han- 
naii Merkle, Moses Montgomery, Mrs. Emily Wright, 
Mrs. Jane McKeau, James Bogle, Henry Martin, 
Lvdia Exley, George Gonter, S. E. McKean, Mrs. 
Sarah Boyer, Mrs. Mary Smith, Samuel Hassan, Sarah 

Tlie ministers of the Presbyterian Church since its 
organization have been as follows: Nathaniel R. Snow- 
den, stated supply, 1804; Colin McFarquahr, stated 
supply, 1805; William Kerr, stated supply, 1808-14; 
Stephen Bowyer, 1814-33 ; John H. Symmes, 1833-39 ; 
Robert W. Dunlap, 1841-44; Roger Owen, 1844-50; 
Ebenezer Erskine, 1851-57; Joseph S. Grimes, 1858- 
61; Robert A. Brown, 18(34; J. Witherow, John Mc- 
Coy, George Wells Ely. 

In connection with the Presbyterian Church a 
Sunday-school was established soon after Rev. Stephen 
Boyer became permanently located in this charge, 
and John McKissick was chosen its superintendent. 
Ill the year 1825 there were five male teachers and 
seven female teachers; sixty-four male scholars and 
fifty female scholars. 

For the year 1825 the teachers were Samuel B. 
Heise (living), Henry Connelly, Guilford Claiborne, 
Thomas Cochran, Mary Stump, C. McKissick, Mary 
McKissick, Catharine Stump, Eleanor Houston, Wil- 
liam Mathiot, John Houston, Elizabeth Sterret, Eliza- 
beth A. McKissick, Henrietta Claiborne, Samuel 
Greenleaf, Christiana Houston, Benjamin Worrall, 
Daniel McLane, Daniel J. Snow, John McKissick, 
Jr., John R. Beatty, John Stewart, Preston B. Elder, 
Mary Cochran, Ann Elizabeth Beatty (living), Sarah 
S. McCorkle, C. G. T. Waggoner, Adam Campbell. 

The German Evangelical Lutheran (Salem) 
Church «a-> organized in the year 180G, and was 
made up of Germans who resided in Columbia and 
vicinity. Not being strong enough to build a church 
alone, they informally agreed to unite with the 
German Reformed Congregation, which was organ- 
ized about the same time, and by their united etlbrts 
raised funds for the erection, of a church in which 
both congregations were to worship on alternate Sab- 
baths. In 1807 a brick church was erected on Wal- 
nut Street between Third and Fourth Streets. This 
was the second church erected in Columbia (the first 
one being the Friends' meeting-house). Tlie pulpit 
was supplied by the pastor of the Lutheran congrega- 
tion in Lancaster, Maytown, and Manheiin. Thus 
the two congregations worshiped in the same church 
harmoniously. In 1819 they made* a mutual agree- 
ment in writing to hold the property jointly and wor- 
ship on alternate Sundays. The Rev. J. Strein had 

been their regular pastor four years prior to this date, 
and he continued to preach there for more than forty 
years, until he was compelled from age to relinquish 
I the charge.' 

I The congregation grew so large that it became 
j necessary to erect a larger church building. In 186(J, 

under the pastorate of Rev. Darmstaetter, a new 

I church building was erected upon the site of the old 
j one, which was torn down. The congregation was 
divided some years ago, and another church was built. 
For a few years after the division the old church was 
weak and few in numbers. The congregation has 
gradually increased until it now numbers one hun- 
dred and twenty-five persons. 

Since Mr. Darmstaetter's pastoral duties ceased 
the succession of pastors has been as follows : Revs. 
Heischmann, Reidenbach, Schwartz, Czar Nedden, 
Baner, Charles Ernst, Burghardt, A. Eisenhauer, H. 
Rella, the present pastor. 

The trustees are William Harm, John Ehrnan, 
Fran. Thumm ; and the elders, F. Abendschein, 
Jacob Nickalaus, Stephen Kneal, J. Wigand, Chris- 
tian Kunly, Lewis Messer, John Weber, John Kranz, 
Ludwig Schiler, Nicholas' Wolf, Aug. Witt, John 
Hans. There is a flourishing Sunday-school con- 
nected with the church. 

St. Paul's German Evangelical Lutheran Church 
of the Unaltered Augsburg Confession.— Tlie con- 
gregation and pastor belonging to this church with- 
drew from Salem Church, on Walnut Street, in the 
year 1862, on account of certain proceedings therein 
and against which this portion of the congregation 
in vain protested. 

In the following year they were recognized by the 
Evangelical Lutheran Ministerium of Pennsylva- 
nia as the regular congregation which worshiped in, 
and known as, the Salem Church. Not being strong 
enough to elect the proper number of officers as pro- 
vided for in their charter, they only elected provisory 
officers. For a short time the services were held in 
the parsonage on Fourth Street. Subsequently, for a 
period of about two years, services svere held in the 
German Reformed Church, at the corner of Cherry 
and Third Streets, and for the following four years 
services were held in Washington Institute. On 
Sept. 13, 1808, the congregation reorganized under 
the title given at the head of tiiis article. Up 
to this period and to the present time the Rev. J. 
A. Darmstaetter has presided over this congregation 
with great acceptability. The officers elected were 
Peter Rodenhauser, Sr., elder ; Christian Kraft, 
George Gundel, deacons; Nicholas Beinhauer, Adam 
Brommer, John Neuer, trustees. 

In the samfe year they commenced the erection of 
a new church building, on the north side of Locust 
Street, about midway between Fifth and Sixth Streets. 
It was finished and dedicated June 21, 1869. The 
building is a one-story brick, thirty-two by sixty 
feet, which has a seating cajiacity of four hundred. 



At the time of the withdrawal of this congregation 
from Salem Church they numbered fifty communi- 
cants. They now number two hundred. The churcli 
is free from debt and has a surplus fund. 

There is a Sunday-school connected with tlie con- 
gregation which is in a flourishing condition. Tliere 
are sixteen teachers and eighty scholars in regular 

Trinity Reformed Church.— A number of German 
families organized a congregation about the year 
1805, but had no stated place to hold their religious 

Samuel Wright, the founder of Old Columbia, 
gave them and the Lutherans a lot of ground on 
the south side of Walnut Street, between Third and 
Fourth Streets, on the 13th day of March, 1806, and 
these two denominations by their joint eflbrts col- 
lected enough funds to erect a brick church building 
about the year 1807-8. This was the second church 
building erected in the place, the Friends' being the 

For some years neither congregation had a regular 
pastor, nor did they have preaching at stated inter- 

On the 2d day of December, 1821, the German 
Eeformed congregation and the Evangelical Lutheran 
congregation of Columbia entered into an amicable 
agreement, wherein it was stated that they built a 
church jointly under the name of Salem Church. 
Each was to worship on alternate weeks, the Luther- 
ans to commence the first Sunday in January. If 
one congregation did not worship on the Sunday 
assigned to it, then the other one was not prohibited 
from doing so. 

The Rev. Henry Shaffner, who resided at Marietta, 
but preached at Maytown, Marietta, and Columbia, 
was the pastor of the German Reformed Church. 
The names of the trustees were Isaac Hougendobler, 
Philip Mumma, Peter Livergood, and Adam Otstot; 
Joseph Hougendobler, George Peters, Peter Mumma, 
Jr., John Hougendobler, wardens. 

This church was incorporated in 1820. Mr. Shati- 
ner remained pastor of the charge to which Columbia 
then belonged, consisting also of Marietta, Elizabeth- 
town, Maytown, and Manheim, until the year 1840. 
He was succeeded by the Rev. Herman Bokuni, whose 
ministry lasted only a few years. From 1845 to 1850 
the congregation was served by Rev. D. Y. Heisler, 
who resigned in April, and was succeeded by the Rev. 
Alfred Helfenstein, who continued to preach during 
the remainder of the year 1850. In 1851, Rev. W. 
Goodrich took charge of the congregation, and re- 
signed Dec. 12, 1852. He was succeeded by Rev. 
Joel T.'Reber, in April, 1853, who resigned in the 
summer of 1854. About this time the Reformed and 
Lutheran congregations dissolved tlieir agreement, 
the latter purchasing from. the former their interest 
in Salem Church, Services were then held by the 
Reformed congregation in the old town hall. 

In the same year they erected a new Refoi'med 
Church at the corner of Cherry and Third Streets, of 
I brick, two stories high, which is the building still oc- 
[ cypied by the Trinity congregation. The licentiate, 
I Christian C. Russell, commenced preaching in this 
churcti on the 19th of October, 1850. He was or- 
dained and installed on the Tth of December, 1856, 
and resigned in the spring of 1858. About this time 
the church was sold by the sheriff and purchased by 
Nicholas Hougendobler. On the 1st of December, 
1858, Rev. John Hoft'meier took charge of the con- 
gregation, which was at this time very small, and the 
few members who adhered to the congregation were 
very much discouraged. Mr. Hoffuieier's pastorate 
soon terminated, after which the congregation was 
supplied by different ministers of Lancaster Classis 
until Oct. 29, 1864, when the Rev. James A. Shultz 
became pastor, but after a few months' labor was 
obliged to retire on account of sickness. After his 
withdrawal Dr. Theodore Appel and Rev. John G. 
Wolf were appointed a committee of supply. Under 
their efficient management the congregation was in- 
creased, and funds amounting to three thousand two 
hundred dollars were collected to liquidate the church 
debt and redeem the church property. 

In 1868 the Rev. F. Pilgram's pastorate commenced, 
which lasted until the fall of 1872. The audience- 
chamber was handsomely frescoed, and the entire 
building, both in the interior and exterior, painted. 
An organ was purchased for the congregation, and 
also a reed-organ for the Sunday-school, and a two- 
; story brick parsonage was erected upon their property 
adjoining the church on Cherry Street. 

In the summer of 1873, Rev. C. Clever became 
pastor, and under his energetic and efficient ministry 
the membership was largely increased. He resigned 
in February, 1879, and the present able pastor, Rev. 
C. S. Gerhard, entered upon his duties on July 1, 1879. 
The entire debt against the church and parsonage has 
been removed. This church up to January 1, 1883 
received missionary aid, but now is self-supporting 
The present membership is one hundred and eighty- 
four, and the Sunday-school scholars number two 

The German Lutheran Church was organized con 
temporaneously with the Gcrjuan Reformed Cliurch, 
and through their combined efforts a church building 
was erected upon a lot given them by Samuel Wright, 
which is located on the south side of Walnut Street, 
midway between Third and Fouith Streets. The 
congregation was supplied occasionally by the minis- 
ters located at Maytown and Lanciuster for several 
years, these two congregations holding service on 
alternate Sundays. 

St. Paul's Church. —Services of the Protestant 

Episcopal Church were held occasionally in this place 

I by the Rev. Joseph Clarkson, of Lancaster, as early 

I as 1820, in the Presbyterian Church at the corner of 

Fourth and Locust Streets. Services ceased alto- 



getiier about the year 1835. About the year 1840 an 
effort was made to organize a church and erect a build- 
iiig„and six luuidred dollars was subscribed for that 
jiurpose. Nothing was done, however, until a regular 
organization was perfected, in 1848, when its first rector, 
Rev. D wight E. Lyman, was called to preside over them 
on the 13th day of August, 1848. To the efibrts of 
Mr. Lyman the parish owes the erection of its very 
pretty church building. The corner-stone was laid 
Oct. 10, 1849, and completed in 1850, the consecration 
taking place on the 28th day of May of that year. Mr. 
Lyuian remained in charge until July, 1853. He was 
a beautiful reader and an elegant performer on the 
organ or piano-forte, and was one of the finest singers 
of sacred music within the range of the Episcopal 
Cliurch. He connected himself with the Roman 
Catholic Church in 1854, and is now a regular or- 
dained priest. The history of the church has been 
quiet, and its growth moderate. 

The following is a list of the rectors succeeding Mr. 
Lyman : the Rev. Henry W. Woods, from December, 
1853, to Oct. 1, 1854; Rev. Alexander McLeod, D.D., 
from May, 1855, to January, ISoC; the Rev. Samuel 
E. Appleton, from July, 1857, to the early part of 
1860; Rev. Theodore A. Hopkins, of Lancaster, pro- 
vided services temporarily in the spring and summer 
of 1860; Rev. John Cromlish, from January, 18Gl,to 
September, 1867. He is now a minister in the Meth-- 
odist Episcopal Church. (In the summer of 1865 the 
members who had been accustomed to attend this 
church from Marietta concluded to build a church in 
that place, which they did, and this parish was de- 
prived of their presence and offerings.) Rev. Benja- 
min L Douglass, from January, 1868, to July, 1870. 
! The Rev. George H. Kirkland, from Sept. 11, 1870, 
to Dec. 28, 1873. The Rev. Percival Becket, from 
Feb. 1, 1874, to July 11, 1875. He also conducted a 
parochial classical school. The Rev. George H. Kirk- 
land (.second time), from Sept. 5, 1875, to Aug. 5, 1879. 
The Rev. Richard C. Searing, Dec. 5, 1879, and is the 
present pastor. 
There is a Sunday-school attached to the church. 
United Brethren in Christ.— In the year 1846 
the first families belonging to this denomination 
moved to Columbia. Their names were Christian 
Hershey and Solomon Von Neida. The first preach- 
ing was held at their dwellings by itinerant preach- 
ers who happened to be passing through the place. 
From this small beginning their numbers gradually 
increased, when preaching was held in the brick 
Bchool-house on Third Street, near Perry Street, in 
the year 1858-59. A great many persons connected 
themselves with the church at that time. In the year 
18C0 they erected- a church building of brick at the 
corner of Third and I'crry Streets. The trustees at 
that time were Christian Hershey, Jonas Gather, and 
David Wayne. 

A Sabbath-school was ajso organized, which now 
numbers two hundred and seventy-five scholars; 

Jacob Sneath, superintendent. There are now two 
hundred members of the congregation in good stand- 
ing. The ministers in regular succession were Rev. 

Joseph Young, Gilbert, J. Scotf, J. Young, T. 

Peters, G. W.'M. Riger, J. Doughter, W. S. H. Keys, 
A. Kauffmau, G. Wagner, H. V. Mahn, J. C. Munima, 
J. W. Geiger, J. D. Mouer, C. S. Meily, S. G. Merrick, 
J. C. Smith, and J. B. Funk. 

The present trustees are John C. Klingbill, A. Dyer, 
Thomas S. White, D. Welsh, and Uriah Sourbeer. 

The congregation and Sunday-school are in a flour- 
ishing condition, and in the near future they contem- 
plate the erection of a larger church building in a 
more central part of the town. 

Evangelical English Lutheran Church.— During 
the year 1849, Rev. J. H. Menjes, of Mount Joy, 
preached at stated times in the English language in 
the German Lutheran Church on Walnut Street. 
About this time he took up his residence in Colum- 
bia, and devoted his time to the work of preparing 
the way for the organization of an exclusively Eng- 
lish Lutheran Church. J. C. Pfahler, H. Pfahler, 
Andrew Gohn, John Hiffer, and others were active 
in this work, and to their efforts is owing the fact 
that the church is in existence to-day. 

The formal organization of the church did not take 
place at once, but the work of building a place of 
worship was first completed. The land for the site 
of the church was purchased April 2, 1850, and the 
building finished during the next two years, at an ex- 
pense of !ji6390.50, more than lialf of which remained 
as a debt against the new congregation. 

The congregation was incorporated by special act 
of the Legislature, March 8, 1853, under the title of 
the English Lutheran Congregation of Columbia. 
During the subsequent years the congregation gradu- 
ally increased, and after discharging all debts and 
liabilities, and paying for numerous improvements, 
in 1875, under the ministry of Rev. J. C. Burke, the 
church was enlarged, remodeled, and furnished with 
all the modern church conveniences, at an expense of 
ten thousand dollars. 

In the spring of 1881 certain tendencies culminated 
in the withdrawal of a number of members, who 
organized a new congregation which located farther 

\ The church was without a pastor at the time, but 
soon afterwards obtained one in the person of Rev. 
William P. Evans, who assumed charge July 1, 1881. 
Since that time there has been steady growth and a 
systematic and regular reduction of the church debt. 
The church has now nearly two hundred communi- 
cant members. A flourishing Sunday-school, with a 
well-selected library of twelve iiundred volumes, and 
[ a most convenient, well-ajipointed, and valuable 
! church property, situated on Second Street, between 
I Locust and Walnut. 

Thepresentboardof officersconsistof: Elders, John 
Steetin, L. C. Oberlin, J. IL Oberlin, and Samuel 



Filbert; Deacons, F. A. Bennett, J. G. Beemer, H. F. 
Yergey, L. W. May, J. G. Peirce, Ed. Newcomer, S. 
P. Graver, and Dr. 0. F. Miirkel ; Sunday-school 
Superintendent, L. W. May. 

The of pastors from the beginning comprises 
the following: Rev. J. H. Menges, 1849-00; Rev. P. 

E. Dorsey, M.D., 1860-63; Rev. C. Reemensnyder, 
1863-65 ; Rev. W. H. Steck, 1866-70 ; Rev. G. M. 
Rhodes, 1870-74; Eev. J. C. Burke, 1875-77; Rev. 

F. W. Staley, 1877-81 ; Rev. William P. Evans, 1881 
to the present time. 

St. Peter's Catholic Church and its Auxiliary 
Institutions.— By way of introduction to the history 
of this church the following preamble is taken from 
the subscription-book issued by the Rev. Bernard 
Keenan, in which he authorizes the gentlemen named 
therein to collect money for the erection of a church 
in the borough of Columbia: 

"The Ruman Catholics of the borough of Columbia (by tlie grace of 
God), having unanimously resolved to build a Rornim Catholic Church 
in said place.endia order to enable them to proceed in so necessary and 
laudable an undertaking, are induced to solicit Gubscriptiona from a gen- 
erous and charitable public. 

"As Roman Catholic pastor of Lancaster County, I sanction and 
highly approve of the resolution adopted by the congregation of the 
borough of C\)lunibia, under my caro, and likewise state that Messrs. 
George Zieglei", John Arms, John McMullen,and Doniinick Eagle, who 
compose the committee for collecting subscriptions, are persons worthy 
of the highest cotiftdence and tlust.and capable of performing the 
duties reposed in them. 

"Rev. Bf.rnaed'Keenan. 

" Lancabtf.u City, 2d March, 1828." 

In pursuance of the resolution to erect a church, 
approved by the Rev. Father Keenan, measures were 
taken to secure a site. Two lots on Lancaster Ave- 
nue, lately used as a cemetery, were bought. It was 
afterwards, however, thought best to select a spot in 
a more central part of the town, and the ground upon 
which the church now stands was purchased. The 
funds necessary for commencing the building were not 
■without a hard struggle raised, and in 1828 a contract 
for the erection of the church was given to Israel 
Cooper. The corner-stone was laid in 1828, and in 
1830 the church was dedicated by the Right Rev. F. 
Patrick Kenrick. Before the erection of the church 
the few Catholics living in Columbia were obliged, in 
order to hear mass, to go either to Lancaster, York, 
or Elizabethtown. Sometimes, however, during this 
period mass was said in private houses, that a better 
opportunity might be afforded the people of Colum- 
bia and vicinity of fuUilling their religious duties. 
Prior to the building of the church missionary priests 
from Conewago and other places occasionally visited 
the town. From 1828, the date of the laying of the 
corner-stone, until 1842, Father Keenan came once a 
month from Lancaster to say mass and attend to the 
spiritual' v/anta of the congregation. In February, 
1842, came Rev. Daniel Kelly to reside in Columbia 
as the pastor of St. Peter's congregation. His suc- 
cessors in order of their appointment were Revs. John 
Mackin, B. A. Shorb, M. F. Martin, Dr. Bulfc, Dr. 
Leitner, Rev. P. Toner, ami Rev. A. McGinnis. 

The church was enlarged by Dr. Balfe, and the 
parochial house built by the Rev. Father Shorl 
and the ground in front of the church was terracei! 
and otherwise beautified by the Rev. Dr. Leitner, 
who also had a neat iron railing erected about the 
church premises. 

This short history of the Roman Catholic Church 
in Columbia would not be complete without record- 
ing the fact "that the Right Rev. Francis Patrick 
Kenrick, Bishop of Philadelphia, trustee for the 
Catholic congregation of the borough of Columbia." 
procured an act of the Legislature, per McSherry, au- 
thorizing him to convey by deed unto Robert B. 
Wright, Esq., his heirs, etc., a part of the lot on 
which the church was built in exchange for all that 
part of his lot adjoining the Catholic Church lot 
aforesaid, lying and being southeast of a line drawn 
from the west corner of the Catholic parsonage at 
right angles to Second Street." For this kind and 
generous act on the part of Mr. Wright in exchanging 
lots without any money consideration the members ot 
St. Peter's congregation felt very grateful to him, and 
justly, for it enabled them to have an entrance to 
their church from Second Street instead of from 
Union Street, as formerly, and it also prevented tl - 
erection of objectionable buildings right in front o 
the church door, and his memory is still held in 
grateful respect by the members of St. Peter's Church. 

On the 30th of September, 1866, Rev. J. J. Russell 
was appointed pastor by the Right Rev. James F. 
Wood, Bishop of Philadelphia. The congregation at 
that time was not large, numbering about one hun- 
dred families. It possessed what is now called the 
old church property, corner of Second and Union 
Streets, which extended on Second Street one hun- 
dred feet and on Union one hundred and forty-five 
feet, and on which were erected the church and paro- 
chial house. In the same year the church and house 
underwent a complete renovation. In 1872 two brick 
houses on Union above Second were purchased foi 
the congregation, one of which was used as a dwell- 
ing-house by the Sisters who had charge of the paro 
chial schools, and the other as a school-house. 

The parochial schools which the reverend pastor 
opened have been marked by exceptional success, es- 
pecially since the advent of the Sisters of Charity. 
A notable feature of these schools is the annual 
public examinations, which many of the educated 
citizens of the town are accustomed to attend. The 
searching questioning to which the pupils are sub- 
jected at these examinations shows most clearly the 
proficiency wliich children, with close application to 
study, may be able to attain under the careful train- 
ing of. efficient teachers. 

For the better convenience of that part of the Hock 
living in Wrightsville, a piece of land was purchased 
in that borough in tlie year 1874 by Rev. J. J. Rus- 
sell for a cemetery, which was consecrated by Right 
Rev. J. F. Shanahan, Bishop of Harrisburg, Juue 71' 




of this year. Prior to the buying of the ground for 
the cemetery, a house for school purposes in that 
town was secured, in which school has continued to 
be held. Id March of the same year the St. Patrick's 
Temperance and Beneficial Society was established 
in the parish, as well as another society called St. 
Peter's Church Society. The following extract from 
the latter society's minute-book will explain the 
object of its organization : 

"At a meeting of the parisliiouera of St. Peter's Church, Aug. 2, 1874, 
called by Rev. J. J. Russell, pastor of the above church, for the purpose 
of adapting some means by which to raise money to pay for the new 
church property lately purchased by him for tlie cougregation, 

"Resolved, That the parishioners form themselves into an association 
under the title of St. Peter's Church Society, fur the liquidation of the 
debt incurred by the above-mentioned purchase, and that each member 
pay monthly a certain sum of money into the treasury of said society." 

This property adjoins the old church property on 
the northwest side, and extends on Second Street one 
hundred and sixteen feet, giving the entire church 
property a frontage of two hundred and sixteen feet. 
The building erected by the former owners of the 
property is now the pastoral residence. 

A noteworthy occurrence in this church's history 
was the ordination to the priesthood of Rev. A. J. 
O'Brien, nephew of Rev. Father Russell, by the Right 
Rev, J. F. Shanahan, on the morning of the 21st of 
November, 1874. So solemn a ceremony as the con- 
ferring of the sacrament of Holy Orders naturally 
drew to the church almost the entire Catholic popu- 
lation of Columbia, Marietta, and Wrightsville. On 
May 30, 1878, the corner-stone of the convent build- 
ing was laid by the Right Rev. Bishop of Harris- 
burg, assisted by a large number of clergy of the 
diocese, in the presence of an immense concourse of 
people. The work upon the building was pushed 
vigorously, and in a very short time a substantial, 
magnificent, and commodious structure stood com- 
plete in every detail. 

As an educational institution for young ladies it is 
meeting with merited popularity and success. The 
6ame Right Rev. prelate consecrated the convent and 
the convent chapel on the 8th day of the follow- 
ing December. The convent was built according to 
the plans and specifications of E. F. Durang, the re- 
nowned Philadelphia architect, and under the im- 
mediate supervision of the Rev. J. J. Russell. The 
building, including the Mansard roof, is' fbur stories 
high, surmounted by a cupola, from which a com- 
manding view is had of the picturesque scenery along 

J the Susquehanna River, and of the undulating coun- 
try on either side, and it has eight bow-windows of 
semicircular form in front. 

' On the same day after the consecration of the con- 
vent the Right Rev. Bishop blessed St. Peter's new 
cemetery, which is situated in West Hempfield town- 
ship, on the farm purchased by the Rev. Pastor for 
the people of the parish, with the express purpose, 
principally,' of. securing for them a suitable spot 
wherein the sacred remains of their departed friends 

might decently lie until the day of final resurrection. 
In the convent are a high school and an academy, 
under the control of the Sisters of Charity of Mount St. 
yincent's, on the Hudson, N. Y. The former is de- 
signed for the more advanced children of the parish, 
the hitter as a boarding-school solely for young ladies 
who are not of the congregation or who live without 
its boundaries. Besides the societies already men- 
tioned there are in connection with the church three 
sodalities, whose end is solely a religious one. Writ- 
ing on the subject of societies it will not be out of 
place here to speak of the "St. Peter's Building and 
Loan Association," instituted in June, 1876, which 
holds its meetings in a school-room in the convent. 
The present officers are: President, C. F. Young; 
Vice-President, J. C. Atwood ; Treasurer, Rev. J. J. 
Russell; Secretary, John B. Wisler; Directors, James 
Mack, Daniel McCarty, William Foley, Martin Ford, 
Cormick McCall, Bryan Cavauaugh, Bart Foley, P. 
Moriarity, John McCall, F. McCarty, L. Heudrick, 
James Gegan. 

This association has thus far prospered, as the value 
of the shares (one hundred and forty-seven dollars) 
at the end of its seventh year shows. The Columbia 
Workingmen's Saving Fund and Building Associa- 
tion, when in existence, held its meetings in the base- 
ment of the church, and was, in a sense, a parochial 
society, since so many parishioners have obtained 
homes through it. At the end of nine years it termi- 
nated a successful career, the value of two hundred 
dollars per share having been attained. 

St. Peter's Sunday-school of Columbia has an aver- 
age attendance of one hundred and thirty children. 
The superintendent of this Sunday-school was for a 
number of years Mr. Francis Ziegler. Since October, 
1872, the Sisters of Charity have the conduct of it. 
The number of pupils who attend Sunday-school in 
Wrightsville is about twenty, and at present Mr. 
Charles Dougherty superintends it, and of late years 
the day school has been under the charge of lay 

Holy Trinity (German Roman Catholic) Church. 
— This church edifice is of brick, located on Cherry, 
between Fourth and Fifth Streets, and was built in 
1800, under the supervision of Rev. Father Schafirot, 
then pastor in charge of this parish. For the first 
two years services were held in the basement of the 
building, as the edifice was nut completed and dedi- 
cated until 18U2. 

In 18(33, Mr. Schaflfrot was succeeded in the pastor- 
ate by Rev. Father AVilliam Pieper, the present pas- 
tor. During Mr. Pieper's pastorate the church edifice 
was enlarged (1873) to nearly double its original seat- 
ing capacity, marble altars placed in the chancel, 
memorial windows inserted in place of the old ones, 
statuary and paintings placed in proper position, add- 
ing grandeur to the beautifully-frescoed walls and 
ceiling, making it one of the pleasantest and most 
attractive audience-rooms in Columbia. 



In 1865 the present parsonage was built, and in 
18G9 the Sisters' house, in rear of and adjoining the 
church, was erected. Tliey have charge of the school, 
which was establislied in the basement of the cliurch 
in 18(57, and at present numbers two and forty pupils. 

Tlie present membership of Holy Trinity Cliurch 
is about two hundred and fifty. 

Church of God.— The followers of Rev. John 
Winebrenner held religious meetings for a few years 
at private dwellings. In the latter part of the year 
1878 and beginning of 1879, through the personal ex- 
ertions of Rev. J. W. Deshong, money enough was 
raised by subscription to erect a brick meeting-house 
at the corner of Seventh and Walnut Streets. Mr. 
Deshong was followed by the Revs. C. W. Win- 
bigler, J. H. Esterline, and S. C. D. Jackson, the 
present pastor. The present membership numbers 
thirty. The church was not regularly organized 
until March 30, 1879. There is also a Sunday-school 
attached to the church, numbering ten teachers and 
ninety-five scholars. 

St. Jolin's Lutheran Church, — On Sunday, March 
27, 1881, a number of the members of the Lutheran 
Church on Second Street severed their connection 
with that organization. On the 8th day of April, 
1881, these members met at St. Paul's Lutheran 
Church, on Locust Street above Fifth, for the pur- 
pose of organizing a new church, which was done, 
under the title which heads this sketch ; but no im- 
mediate measures were taken to erect a church build- 
ing or securing the services of a pastor. Their first 
object was to take care of the children and build up 
a Sabbath-school. Schuler's Hall, opposite the opera- 
house, on Locust Street, was secured for that purpose. 
They were supplied from April to September by the 
Revs. Samuel Yingling, Hering, Anstadt, Barnitz, 
Frazier, Fritz, Miller, Stine, Brown, and Feusler, 
Lutheran ministers, who came to Schuler's and Ar- 
mory Halls and preached for them. They were much 
pleased with Samuel Yingling, and in September, 
1881, they gave him a regular call, when he became 
their pastor. From this period new life was given to 
this weak congregation, and they took measures to 
procure a lot of ground whereon they desired to erect 
their church. A lot was purchased on the south- 
east side of Locust Street above Sixth. The ladies 
of the congregation worked unceasingly, and con- 
tinued to provide means to meet the daily expenses 
■while the new church building was being erected. 
They were assisted very much by their pastor and 
the male members of the congregation. The build- 
ing, which is in its internal arrangement the most 
complete of all the Protestant churches in the place, 
cost ten thousand dollars, one-half of which sum was 
raised by the " workers" in the con-gregation before 
its completion. The building was completed on the 
1st day of October, 1882. • This congregation up to 
June, 1882, held" no synodical relations wiih either 
branch of the Lutheran Church government. In 

that month they were received into the Synod of 
Pennsylvania at its meeting in Philadelphia. 

The Sabbath-school received the first anxious care 
of tjiose who separated from the Lutheran Churcli oa 
Seconil Street. The school was first held at the private 
residence of Charles P. Schreiner, on Locust Street, 
where there was an attendance of seventy children. 
On the following Sabbath, which was on April 11, 
1881, the school convened in Schuler's Hall, where 
one hundred and forty-seven children were in attend- 
ance. From that place they removed to Armory 
Hall, on Walnut Street, above Second Street, where 
the number increased to one hundred and seventy-- 
four. The officers of the school were Henry Leaman, 
assistant superintendent; C. C. Hogentogler, secre- 
tary; W. H. Herr, treasurer; Mrs. C. P. Shreiner 
and Miss Hallie Clepper, assistants in the infant 
school; and Mrs. Benjamin Herr, treasurer; George 
Tille, librarian ; Isaac T. Gitt, assistant; and Messrs. 
Harry Bennett, John Williams, Jacob Lutz, and 
Tyson Simpson, directors. 

Colored Churches.— In the year 1822, John Sta- 
man gave a lot of ground at the corner of Cmicord 
and Fifth Streets to the Rev. Joseph Henderson, 
who conveyed the same to Joseph Henderson, Wal- 
ter Green, John Winston, and Nicholas Pleasants, 
trustees of the Colored Baptist Church. These trus- 
tees and a large niaj(jrity of the congregation were 
manumitted slaves from Virginia, who came to ihe 
place in 1817-19. 

In 1823 a little frame church was built, and in the 
same year with the assistance of John McKissick and 
William P. Beatty a Sunday-school was started. This 
church was largely attended for many years, and on 
special occasions many white persons attended also. 
As the pioneer members began to die, the church 
gradually declined until there werenot enough left to 
hold service. The last of these manumitted slaves,' 
Benjamin Randolph, died two years ago, when the 
old church building was torn down and another small 
church building across the street, which belonged to 
Zion's colored congregation, was removed to it. 

Contemporaneous with the erection of this church, 
and by manumitted slaves also, was built a small 
frame church in the alley between Union and Perry 
Streets and Third and Second Streets, called the 
Mount Zion African Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The congregation worshiped there until the Rev. 
Stephen Smith purchased the frame church from the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, in the alley between 
Cherry and Union and Fourth and Fifth Streets, 
about the year 1832. The building was destroyed 
by fire, and another one of brick was built. Twenty 
years ago they sold the church, and built another one 
on Fifth Street, below Union Street, which they sold 
to the public school board for a colored school. A 
few years ago they erected a new, much larger, and 
more substantial brick church on the same street, a 
little west of the old one. 



' Another church, called the Union Church, was 
•erected on the south side of Union Street, between 
Fourth and Filth Streets, about tlie same time the 
first two were built. Preaching is only occasionally 
held in the building. 

The religious feeling among the present generation 
of colored people in Columbia may be said to be on 
the decline. 

Educational. — Prior to the Revolutionary period 
there were no school-houses or regular schools kept 
at Wright's Ferry. 

■ Occasionally an Irish peripatetic school-teacher 
■tame to the neighborhood, and taught school during 
the winter months, and boarded around with the 
parents of the children. The Wrights, Barbers, and 
Bethels were intermarried with each other, and were 
the only English-speaking families who resided per- 
manently at the ferry. 

Those of them who desired a better and more thor- 
ough education for their children than could be ob- 
tained at home, sent them to Lancaster or Philadel- 
phia, and to the select schools conducted by Friends 
"in Chester County and Cecil County, Md. The pro- 
neer settlers were well educated before they came to 
the river, and it is probable that many of the children 
were taught the rudiments of an education at home. 
That remarkable woman, Susanna Wright, took care 
of the children of her brother James and Samuel 
Bethel. She not only taught them to read and write 
and the rudiments of arithmetic, but how to paint 
and use the needle also. She was implicitly obeyed 
in everything. She was abundantly able to teach 
them the higher branches, and to her her brother 
James was indebted for much he knew, and his success 
in life. 

• The first attempt to establish a school where the 
higher branches were taught was in the summer of 
1800, when Robert Patton opened a boarding-school 
for boys only. The school was held in the little brick 
meeting-house belonging to Friends, situated on the 
south side of Cherry Street, a short distance above 
Third Street. In addition to the common branches, 
that of surveying was also added. The price of board- 
ing was twenty, and tuition five dollars per quarter. 
The scholars were boarded at private houses. The 
school was not self-sustaining, and Mr. Patton gave 
up teaching, and entered into mercantile pursuits, for 
which he was well fitted. 

Edward Postlelhwait Page, an Englishman, who 
had been an officer under Nelson at the battle of 
Trafalgar, in 1805, followed Patton. He was a very 
eccentric person, but occasionally displayed great 
talent. He had the gift of oratory, and when he at- 
fptidcd a town-meeting or the lyceum he often aston- 
iblicd his audience by bursts of eloquence surpassed 
by no trained speaker in the country. He had an 
English soldier with him, who was dressed up in 
taiilitary uniform and acted as usher. 

Page also taught the first Sunday-school in Co- 

lumbia, in the Quaker meeting-house. The late Sam- • 
uel Nelson Houston was the last of his scholars. He 
removed to Marietta, Ohio, where he died many 
years sgo. He was followed by Welden Brinton, who 
taught in the same place. He was succeeded by Dr. 
Edwin A.'Atlee, who also taught in the same place. 
He had a Revolutionary soldier, who wore a " cocked 
hat," for usher. He was a great musician, and rose 
to distinction in the medical profession. He owned 
and lived in the brick building occupied by Dr. 
Eodgers, on Locust Street. Samuel N. Houston, 
who was also one of his pupils, lived and died in the 
adjoining house. 

A number of prominent citizens, whose names are 
appended to the following, made the first organized 
effort to establish a better school in Columbia : 

" Whereaa, a NumbPi- of the inhabitants of this Place (Columbia) are 
BolicitonB fur the education of their Children and those under their care, 
which, uudcr the present Regulation of Schools, they cannot liave 
done satisfactorily to themselves, they therefore propose to erect a 
School-house and establish a School therein for the purpose above men- 
tioned under their own immediate direttion, and submit the following 
Plan for that Purpose, \ iz. ; 

"1. That William Wright, Saml. Bethel, and .\mos H^irmer be Com- 
misBioners, who shall open a Subscription for Fifty Shares of Stock and 
enter therein as follows : We, whose names are hereunto subscribed, do 
promise to pay to the President and Trustees of the Columbia School 
the sum of Ten Dolhiis for eveiy share of Slouk in said School set op- 
posite to our names respectively, in such manner and proportions, aud 
at such times as may be determined on by said President and Trustees. 

"2. No Person shall subscribe for more than two Shares, provided a 
sufficient Number offer at that nite. 

"3. Each Subscriber shall be enti 
Share subaci ibed, and Subacriberfl shu 
Bcribers in fllling up Vacancies 

"4- Each Subscriber shall pay Fiv 
each Share at the time of subscribing 
pay the same into the hands of the Treasurer as soon as he shall be ap- 

"5. Wheu two-thirds of the shares are subscrihed for 
shall meet unJ choose by Dallot thirteen of their Nunil 
styled Trustees, which Trustees shall again elect out of 
President, Treasurer, and Secretary, to act as such for oi 

" 6. The Treasurer shall give bond with security, if i 
performance of the dutira intrusted to him. 

"7. Wheu all the shitres are paid in full, the Trustees by their Presi- 
dent shall issue a Certiticate to each Stockholder for the number of 
She ;s by him held, healing an Interest of six per cent, per Annum, 
Iransferrable in the Presence of the Treasurei'. 

"8. At all Elections eaeh Stockholder, for one share shall have one 
Vote ; for two or more shares, two Votes. 

" 9. Every vacancy in the Doard of Trustees by Death, Resignation, or 
otherwise, shall be foitliwith supplied by an election held for that pur- 

" 10. The Trustees shall have power to purchase or receive, by Dona- 
Uon or otherwise, a suitable Lot on which to erect a School-house and 
to receive a Deed for the same in Truat for the Stockholders genenilly, 
and to contract with Workmen, purchase llatoriiila, ic, and to have 
the sole management of the same, and whenever tliey shall see cause, 
lay a statement of the Expenditures before a Meeting of the Stock- 
holders to be convened for that purpose. And provided the E.\pen86 of 
erecting and preparing the said School-house shall exceed Uie amount 
of the Original Subscription, then, Mid in that case, the said Trustees 
shall open anew Subscription foriw timny mote i>liRreB as shall be neces- 
sary to make up the deficiency, which new bIiuitb sh:ill he at the Eate 

.ired, for the 

itees shall have the sole din 


1 Tru>i 


re of Block in said Bchool set 

1 by Baid Presidt^ut and Truste 
Stock. Na 

times ad may be 

S..UI' Mi;i.'i 

::v;;:;;: i 

J«IIM-,S W,,,.|,1.J| 

J„hi, li.u-i..., 

Ji- Wri-lit 

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Biirl.ura Stump 


Sam>. WlJKllt i 

Columbia School.— On the 25th day of March, 
1807, Saimiel Wright conveyed to Samuel Bethel, 
Esq., Maj. Thomas Boude, Dr. Edwin A. Atlee, Rob- 
ert Patton, James Wright, William F. Beatty, Esq., 
Jonathan Mifflin, John Evan.s, William Wright, Na- 
thaniel Barber, Christian Breneman, and James 
Graham, for one silver dollar, Lot No. 104, and 
measuring fifty feet on Third Street, and extending 
sixty feet along a public alley between Locust and 
Cherry Streets, for the purpose of erecting a school- 
house upon it. 

The stockholders increased, and the nurnber of 
shares from fifty to sixty, and the value from ten to 
fourteen dollars per share. In the year 1807 they 
erected a one-story brick building, measuring twenty- 
eight feet in front, and extending along a public 
alley thirty-five feet. 

The original stockholders are named above.. They 
organized by the election of a president, secretary, 
treasurer, and twelve trustees. 

The first teacher was E. P. Page. He was followed 
by Dr. Edwin A. Atlee, William Kirkwood, Thomas 
Trump, Elisha Hallovvay, Jesse Haines ; in 1819 by 
Moses P. Cheney, who taught again in 1826. He 
had been a teacher in the Westtown school in Ches- 
ter County. He was followed by Thomas Sharpe in 
the fall of 1823. During his term a belfry was 
erected on the top of the school-house and a bell 
placed in it. He resigned in 1826, and, as before 
stated, Mr. Cheney took charge of the school April 
1, 1826 ; he was assisted by Benjamin Gilberf. He 
resigned in 1828. On the 29th day of March, 1828, 
Frederick Hinkson took charge of the school, and re- 
signed during the following summer. He was suc- 
ceeded by William Van Wyke on July 27, 1828, who 
resigned in September, and was succeeded by G. 

Charles Farnani came in 1832. An incident oc- 
curred to him which he had good reason to remember 
while he remained in Columbia. He was very hasty 
and passionate. Cyrus Strickler was one of his 
pupils, whom he chastised "very severely for an of- 
fense he did not coininit, and he left the school and 
declined to return again. He returned to the school- 

not ofler a sufhcient inducement to command thi I 

t educational talent. 1 

?he stockholders on the 28th day of August, IS^.O, { 

de an effort to reorganize the school and enUige £ 

building. On the 4th day of September, 1830, i J» 

nmittee reported in favor of the erection of abuiM- » 

room, accompanied by his father, Jacob Strickler, to 
procure his books. Farnam at once commenced to 
lecture and upbraid Mr. Strickler for his want nf 
discipWne and watchfulness over his son's welfm 
Mr. Strickler, who was also of hasty temperanitiit 
commencecl to belabor the teacher with a raw-hide 
There was no school for some days afterwards. Far- 
nam removed to the basement of the Methodist Epis 
copal Church in 1833, where he also taught a night- 
school. This school at various periods seemed to 
prosper, and bid fair to establish a plant for one of 
much higher grade. The trustees or managers were 
not fortunate in procuring the right kind of a teacht r 
The changes were too frequent, and the man igt rs 
did not offer a sufficient inducement to comman 
best educational talent. 


committee repo 
ing large enough to accommodate' two hundred u 1 
fifty scholars, ou Cherry Street, a period when il 
sohool was struggling for an existence. It seems lu 
have breathed its last breath in 1831. 

The Lancasterian system was then under successful 
headway in the town hall. In a few years the free 
school law came into force, which also operated against 
the success of this school. The effort to erect a large 
school building on Cherry Street was a failure. 

There seems to be a hiatus in the records of this 
school from January, 1831, to May 11, 1838, when the 
stockholders met to reorganize the school. They in- 
creased the number of shares to one hundred at four- 
teen dollars per share, for the purpose of raising 
money to put another story upon the building and 
extending it several feet in the rear. The following- 
named persons subscribed for the additional shares: 
Samuel W. Mifflin, Henry Breneman, Dr. J. S. 
Clarkson, Joseph Black, Davis Gohenn, Abraham 
Bruner, Samuel Grove, Joseph Cottrell, Thomas H. 
Pearce, Dr. George Moore, William Mathiot, Owen 
B. Goodman, Moses Whitson, James Barber, Jacob 
F. Markley, Albert G. Bradford, James Caldwell, 
James Cresson, Israel Cooper, Robert K. Colvin, 
Alexander Rowan, William Wright, John L. Wright, 
Jonathan Pusey, Robert B. Wright, Joseph W. Cot- 
trell, Christian Haldeman, Peter Haldeman, Reuben 
MuUison, Jonas Rumple, John Cooper, Joseph Jen- 
kins, Henry Montgomery, Samuel S. Haldeman. AVil- 
liain S. Shultz, Michael Strein. 

A contract was made with Israel Cooper, who put 
another story upon and extended the building several 
feet in the rear, where a staircase was built, from 
which"access was had to the hall on the second fltior, 
which was rented to the Lyceum Association for five 


On the 9th day of March, 1839, Noble Heath, an 
Englishman, who had been teaching a select school 
at West Chester, was engaged to teach at a salary of 



eight hundred dollars per anmini. Owing to some 
serious indiscretion on his part he was requested to 
resign, and the board engaged R. S. Roberts to take 
cliarge of the school in the fall of 1839. In the same 
year the title was changed to Columbia Academy. 

On March 20, 1841, Cyrus Frost, of Philadelphia, 
took charge of the school, but in the fall of the same 
year the trustees employed Mr. Johnson to take his 
place. In the winter of 1842 he resigned, and Thomas 
II. Pearce was engaged to teach three months. He 
was followed by Mr. Rowland, who taught one term. 
In July, 1842, B. F. Wright, a graduate of Dickinson 
College, was engaged. In the spring of 1843 he was 
succeeded by Thomas W. Sommers, who was followed 
by L. J. Roads in 1845, who remained iu charge of 
the school until 1851, when the property was sold to 
the borough, with the view of making room to extend 
the market-house. Some of these teachers were ad- 
dicted to the use of ardent spirits, and at certain 
periods drank to excess. The frequent changes made 
iu teachers indicate that the school was not entirely 
successful. There were a number of private schools 
in the borough, which interfered with its prosperity. 

Private Schools.— John Quest taught in Walnut 
Street in the years 1807-9; Amos Harmer in 1809, 
and Sarah Currie (mother of Martin Currie), on Wal- 
nut Street, in 1812. Rev. Stephen Boyer, the pastor of 
the Presbyterian Church, opened a select school and 
prepared young men to enter upon a collegiate course 
in 1812-20. 

Joseph MifUin, born in Philadelphia, removed from 
there to Little Britain township, in this county. On 
the 8th day of May, 180G, he married Martha Hous- 
ton, daughter of Dr. John and Susanna Houston, of 
Columbia, and removed to Columbia, where he taught 
school in 1813-14 in a frame building which stood in 
the rear of the market-house. He aftervvards entered 
the Columbia Bank and Bridge Company as teller, 
and was thus engaged several years, ending about the 
year 1820. 

A Mr. Barber taught on Walnut Street in 1800. 

Lydia Hutton, a Quaker, taught a school for poor 
children at the corner of Cherry Street and Lancaster 
Avenue. She was paid by a few of the wealthy citi- 
zens, 1825. 

. Mrs. Claiborne, daughter of Gen. Ross, and the 
widow of Gen. Ricliard Claiborne, who had ibeen 
Governor of Louisiana, came from New Orleans to 
Columbia in 1818, where she opened a school in the 
house lately owned by the Miss Houstons, on Locust 
Street; she afterwards taught on Walnut and Front 
Streets. She taught children between the age of 
eight and twelve years, and was thus engaged about 
twcnty-fivfe years. 

Richard il. Murphy, John Resch, John P. Wade, 

William Kenneday, ■ Bond, Dunlap also 

" taught between the years 182^ and 1832. 

David J. Snow taught singing-school in 1826 and 

Henry Connelly taught a classical school on Front 

Thomas Lloyd taught school for eighteen years. 
He was a justice of the peace for many years, and 
was also a surveyor and scrivener, secretary for many 
years of tli^ " Water Company," and held that posi- 
tion for a number of other societies and corporations. 
He ceased to teach school in 1831, and was succeeded 
by Ezra Ffirth on July 11, 1831, who came from Phil- 
adelphia, where he had been teaching for twenty 
years. In December, 1831, he added a night- to his 
day-school. His wife also taught young children, 
and gave young ladies lessons in fine needle- and 
lace- work. They taught on Third Street, near the 
old Columbia brick school-house, and also in the lat- 
ter place. Mrs. Fnrth is now living in Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

The Columbia Select School for Young Ladies was 
established in 1833 by Miss E. Ely. She had a num- 
ber of scholars from a distance, who boarded with 
private families, and paid from one dollar and a half 
to two dollars per week for boarding. 

This school was on Second between Walnut and 
Locust Streets. The school was well patronized and 
in a prosperous condition for two or three years, when 
it declined rapidly, and ceased to exist in the fol- 
lowing year. The terms of tuition for the English 
branches were live dollars per quarter; the French 
language, ten dollars per quarter. 

In June, 1832, Rev. William F. Houston opened an 
infant school. It lived but a few years, notwithstand- 
ing the etibrts of this public-spirited gentleman to sup- 
ply what he believed to be a want greatly needed in 
the borough. 

Deborah Foreman conducted a private school for 
young childr-en for thirty years. She died in 1882. 

Francis X. Zeigler commenced to teach a private 
school about forty years ago, and at intervals since 
has taught both private and public schools. For 
more than twenty- years he has devoted his entire 
time to the telegraph and Adams Express, in con- 
nection with fire insurance business. 

Commencing in 1825, Amos Gilbert taught school 
a few years on Second Street near Walnut. He was 
a Quaker, and was a descendant of the Gilbert family 
who were taken prisoners by the Indians a hundred 
years ago. His son Howard is a professional teacher, 
and is well known in this county and the eastern sec- 
tion of the State as one of the best and most success- 
ful teachers and accomplished scholars in the State. 
He has traveled a great deal upon the continent of 
Europe, and has acquired the language of many 

In 1829, Michael Strine began teaching, and con- 
tinued a few years on Walnut Street and on Locust 
Street. He was born in Lancaster, and came from a 
family which furnished a number of teachers and 
ministers in the Lutheran Church. His son, Jacob 
S. Strein, was the late sheriff. 



John Christy taught in the blue-front house on 
Locust Street above the old town hall in 1828-31. 
James Stevenson taught school on Walnut Street, 
1828-30. Miss Laird, Miss Hamilton, and Miss 
Houston were also teachers at a later period, and 
John D. Wright taught about twenty-five years ago. 

Lancasterian School. — Joseph Lancaster, a mem- 
ber of the Society of Friends in England, was the 
founder of the monitorial system, by which the most 
intelligent pupils in a school were required to teach 
their fellows what they had learned in advance of 
them. Mr. Lancaster died in 1839. This system 
came into general use in England and this country. 
In 1822 the Legislature of Pennsylvania enacted a 
law encouraging these schools. Lancaster City and 
the boroughs of this county were designated as the 
" Second School District of the State." Twelve di- 
rectors or controllers, to be elected by the people, 
ware to manage the schools in each of the boroughs. 

J. L. Rovvand commenced to teach school in his 
native place, in the winter season, in New Jersey in 
1820. He went from there to the city of Camden, 
N. J., and took charge of the academy in that place 
and remained there until 1827, when failing health 
compelled him to relinquish for a time the business 
of teaching. During the summer of 1827 he went 
to Philadelphia and took instructions in the model 
school on the "Lancasterian" mode of ed&cation. 
In the autumn of 1828 he came to Columbia and 
opened a school on the Lancasterian plan in the 
then new town hall, which had just been completed. 
Among the trustees were William Wright, president, 
Evan Green, James Given, and William Dick, secre- 

The school was opened in the second story, with 
one hundred and five scholars on the first day. This 
number increased, and the room was found to be en- 
tirely too small to accommodate that number. The 
charge for each scholar was two dollars per quarter, 
which covered all expenses. 

• This school was conducted on that plan for about 
two years, when the trustees changed its character to 
a select and limited in number school, which was 
always full. In tlie spring of 1832, Mr. Rowand was 
compelled to give up his school on account of failing 
health. In June, 1832, he sold liis school to^, George 
W. Layng, a native of New England. In addidion to 
the ordinary English branches he taught the Greek 
and Latin languages. His terms of tuition were: 

Spelling, reading, and writing, three dollars for 
twelve weeks ; arithmetic and geography, four dollars 
for twelve weeks; English grammar, history, use of 
the globes, natural philosophy, etc., five dollars for 
twelve weeks. 

Extra charges were made for pens, ink, and pencils, 
and for fuel. His sister. Miss Maria Layng, gave in- 
structions in plain and ornamental needle-work to 
young ladies. Mr. -Layng was a classical scholar, as 
well as an accomplished gentleman. His school was 

well patronized. Mr. Layng removed to Pittsburgh, 
where he studied law, and became a successful at- 
torney. He died some years ago. He was followed 
by IJenry Montgomery in 1836, a native of New York 
State, who taught school near the " Gap," in this 
county, from which place he came to Columbia. 

Like his predecessors, he used the rod freely, which 
on several occasions stirred up the ire of tlie " bad 
boys' " parents, who came to the school-room to return 
the compliment on the teacher, which was not always 
a success. Mr. Montgomery found tliat the profession 
of teaching was not the one best adapted to the de- 
velopment of his abilities. He was in political faith 
an Anti-Mason, and entered into the personal warfare 
carried on in the newspapers between the parties with 
a good deal of vim. He established the Pennsylvania 
Courant in Columbia in 1837, and while he was con- 
nected with this paper, which was about two years, 
he was in "hot water" all the time, and was never 
satisfied unless he could find some political opponent 
to pound. As a political writer in a heated campaign 
he had few equals. He remained in the newspaper 
business for many years in Harrisburg, Lancaster, 
and Detroit, Mich. He married Ann, daughter of 
Robert Spear, Esq., late of this place. 

He was followed by Michael R. Keegan in 1837, 
who taught school in the town hall and at the cor- 
ner of Front and Union Streets for ten years. He 
removed to the State of Ohio. 

Washington Institute was created and brought 
into existence by the trustees of the Public Ground 
Company, whose funds were a trust designed by the 
founder of Columbia for the sole benefit of the citi- 
zens of the town he laid out, which is known as " Old 

Before the free-school system was adopted in the 
State, the citizens of Old Columbia frequently met 
and endeavored to convert the income of this trust to 
establish free schools in the town. There was no one 
who could devise a plan calculated to make the 
scheme a success, and hence every attemjit in that 
direction was a failure. 

There was jealousy and envy among the citizens 
of Old and New Columbia over the disposition of this 
trust fund, and different projects were proposed, 
which led to a confusion of counsel, and the conse- 
quence was that nothing was done. 

In the spring of 1854 the board of trustees of the 
public ground concluded to purchase a tract of land 
on the north side of Lancaster Avenue, between 
Locust and Cherry Streets, from John L. Wright, 
upon which they designed to erect a school building. 
In the year 1856 a contract was made with Micliacl 
Clepper for its erection for S8640, and it was finished 
the same year. 

June 30, 1857, a school board composed of five 
members were elected, to wit; Samuel Truscott, 
Philip Shreiner, Jonas Rumple, Joshua Vaughen, 
and Henry Minnich, of the board of trustees of the 




public ground, and Joseph W. Fisher, Hugh M. 
Nortli, Saiiuiel Shoch, and Dr. Benjamin Rolirer by 
the citizens of Old Columbia, who were to serve for 
one year. 

In November, 1S57, Professor Joseph D. Nichols 
was chosen principal, and in the following winter ' 
Morris D. Wickersham and Grace Clarkson were j 
chosen assistants. In 1859 he was assisted by Mr. 
Gamwell and Miss Herntz. The school was not self- j 
sustaining, and on the 1st day of March, 1859, the 
company gave the buildings to Mr. Nichols free of I 
rent. During the summer and fill! of that year the 
school was reported to be in a flourishing condition, 
but it soon declined again. 

On the 1st day of July, 1860, the Institute was ' 
rented to Rev. A. Essick for a period of one year. 
He was assisted by Mr. Patten for a few months. 
The following two or three years were periods of 
depression, and the board of trustees made an effort 
to sell or rent the buildings to the school board of 
the borough. 

In February, 1803, Professor Howard Gilbert and 
Professor Vicroy and Miss Johnson taught in sepa- 
rate rooms. In April, 1863, a free school was taught 
for three months by Professors Peck, Richards, John- 
son, and Ilaldeman. 

In the month of September, 18C3, the Institute ; 
building was taken by the United States govern- \ 
ment for a hospital, and so occupied for two months, j 

In October, 1863, it was rented to Professor H. S. j 
Alexander, and a portion of the building was con- ! 
verted into a dwelling. In January, 1864, Mr. Alex- | 
ander leased the buildings for a period of eight years. 

In April, 1866, Mr. Alexander sold his lease to 
President Sacket, who found the school in a prosper- 
ous condition, but let it run down, when Mr. Alexan- 
der took charge of the school again in 1868. In 
March, 1868, the trustees purchased from J. H. Mif- 
flin, for eighteen hundred dollars, a tract of land ad- 
joining the Institute grounds which extends to Locust 
and Sixth Streets. In the same year the buildings 
were enlarged. Under the management of Professor 
Alexander the school was in a flourishing condition 
and profitable. His health and that of Mrs. Alexan- 
der was such that they had to abandon the profession 
they had adorned with so much grace and ability, and 
in JIarch, 1871, they retired from the Institute and 
were succeeded by the Rev. Ewing. In January, 1873, 
Mr. Alexander again took charge of the school, but 
he was not able to make it self-supporting. 

In February, 1876, the school board of the borough 
leased the Washington Institute buildings and the 
grounds purchased Irom John L. Wright for a period 
of twenty years, at an annual rental of four hundred 
dollars. It is now called the Columbia High School, 
and under the superb management of Professor I!. G. 
Ames, superintendent of the" public schools of Co- 
lumbia, and Misses Lillian and Mary Welsh and Mr.' 
Hoffman, his able assistants, who have charge of the 

schools, it is second to none in the State in school 
government and the thoroughness with which they 
instruct in the several branches of study in accord- 
danc* with the curriculum. 

A day-^and boarding-school for boys, English and 
classical, was established in the second story of the 
town hall, on April 18, 1853, by Professor Alfred 
Armstrong, principal. The school was removed to 
the building in the rear of the Presbyterian Church 
on Fourth Street. A number of scholars received a 
classical courseof studies, and were prepared to enter 
upon a collegiate course of studies. The school was 
scarcely self-su>taining, and Mr. Armstrong re- 
moved to Harrisburg, where he again established an 

Up to the year 183-t there was no uniform system 
of education in the State for the common people. 
Every township and town had its private schools, 
conducted frequently by incompetent teachers in 
their own wa}'. They were peripatetic in their move- 
ments, and seldom remained longer in one place than 
three winter months. In the country they boarded 
around among the farmers, and sometimes behaved 
.very dishonorably. 

Long and persistent efforts in behalf of the com- 
mon school system in New England by Horace Mann 
crowned his efforts with success about the year 1830. 
Friends of the educational cause in Pennsylvania 
took up the subject, and began to agitate and mould 
a public sentiment in favor of the common school 
system. The subject was brought before the Legis- 
lature and discussed there. Governor Wolf rendered 
valuable aid. Among the ablest and most persistent 
champions in the Legislature of these measures was 
Thaddeus Stevens, then of Adams County. His elo- 
quence and matchless argument brought a majority 
of the Assembly to his .side, and the common school 
law was passed in 1834. There was a provision in 
the law requiring-the districts to accept the same be- 
fore it was brought into practical operation. 

When the Legislature adjourned and the full scope 
of the law became known to the people, there was 
great opposition to its enforcement. 

On Tuesday, Sept. 11, 1834, a meeting of the citi- 
zens was held in the town hall to ascertain the senti- 
ments of the people on the subject of adopting the 
school law. Dr. Joseph Clarkson was chairman and 
J. Houston IMifliin secretary. Thomas E. Cochran 
addressed the meeting in favor of the school law. 
Dr. R. E. Cochran, John Barber, Esq., and J. Houston 
Mifflin were selected or nominated by the meeting 
tor school directors, and Samuel Boyd, Christian 
Hershey, and John Musselman were selected for 
school directors from West Hempfuid township. 

When the Legislature met in 1835, a majority of its 
members were in favor of repealing the law of 1834. 
Thomas H. Burroughs, who was then Secretary of 
State under Joseph Ritner's administration, was a 
warm friend of the law, and worked very hard to save 


it. Opposition grew rapidly,' and everything seemed 
to be lost. Upon making a private canvass among 
tlie members, it was found that a large majority were 
in favor of repealing the law. When the question 
came up upon second reading, Mr. Stevens arose, and 
under the inspiration of the moment made one of the 
grandest and most successful efforts ever undertaken 
in a deliberative body of people to change a large 
majority to the minority side. He had barely taken 
his seat when there was a call from every member to 
vote upon the question. The law was sustained, and 
it has never been disturbed since, except to improve 
it. A copy of this speech should be printed and hung 
upon the walls of every school-room in the State. 

There was considerable opposition to the seventh 
section of the school law, which required a tax to be 
levied in the borough of Columbia and East and West 
Hempfield townships. 

On the 16th day of May, 1835, a public meeting of 
the citizens of Columbia and the township named 
was held at the public-house of Joshua Kehlers, one 
mile and a half east from Columbia, along the Colum- 
bia and Lancaster turnpike, of which Samuel Boyd 
was president; J. Houston Mifflin, secretary. 

West Hempfield, which included Columbia, was 
among the first townshiiis in the county to accept the 

The Public Schools. — After the system of common 
schools came into general use. the improvement made 
was gradual. The schools were better attended, more 
care was taken by the directors in the selection of 
competent teachers ; but little real progress was made, 
however, until the Normal School at MiUersville was 
fairly under'way and a class of teachers trained and 
equipped to enter a profession they adorned. 

Another step in advance was taken when graded 
schools were introduced. In 1857 a committee was 
appointed by the school board, with J. G. Hess as its 
chairman, to grade the public schools of Columbia. 
This was something new, and but little progress was 
made, promotions were gradual and few. There were 
six separate school buildings in the place, some of 
■which were substantial brick structures. The citizens 
wisely selected some of their best educated and most 
prominent citizens for school directors. Their edu- 
cation and training enabled them to select cdn^petent 
teachers from merit alone, and to them much credit 
is due for the advances made in the cause of educa- 
tion in Columbia. Of the number may be mentioned 
Samuel Shoch, Hugh M. North, J. W. Fisher, Amos 
S. Green, J. Houston Mifflin, and also Joseph M. 
Watts, Samuel Grove, Thilip Shreiner, David W. 
Griffith, J. G. Hess, Samuel Young, Abraham Bruner, 
George Young, Jr., Daniel Waun. The most suc- 
cessful teachers were Calvin Stewart (now pastor of 
the Presbyterian Church in Colerain township), Wil- 
liam Murphy, Morris Wickersham, Frederick S. Pyfer, 
Mary Shoch, Grace Clarkson, Georgian Houston, and 
Mary Miller. 

The board of directors in 1862 decided to erect one 
school building large enough to accommodate all 
white children of lawful age in the place. Accord- 
ingly a building was erected on Cherry Street be- 
tween Fourth and Fifth Streets, three stories high, 
and containing eighteen commodious school-rooms, 
ten of which were furnished and prepared for the 
reception of scholars in 1863. The building was con- 
structed of brick, and was modeled after the High 
School building on Broad Street, Philadelphia, and 
when completed was one of the largest and finest 
school buildings in the State. At the time of its 
erection it was thought that it was sufficiently large 
to accommodate all of the white children in the place 
for many years to come. When filled it would seat 
two thousand scholars. Although it was a great 
stride in educational progress, experience has since 
demonstrated that it was not altogether a wise move- 
ment to collect the scholars in an entire district as 
large as Columbia and place them under one roof. 
The system has its advantages, but there are many 
disadvantages which more than balance the good 
ones. The original cost of the building was sixteen 
thousand dollars. 

The borough superintendency of public schools 
was adopted for Columbia April 1, 1875. In May 
they agreed to advertise for a superintendent, and 
agreed to pay him an annual salary of fourteen hun- 
dred dollars. Out of fifty-seven applicants Benjamin 
G. Ames, of Bridgeton, N. J., was chosen to fill the 
new position. He was an accomplished scholar, and 
had rare qualifications to fill a position of this kind; 
more than thirty years of his life has been devoted to 
the cause of education. 

His system of promotions was different from the 
old one, and he gradually made a number of other 
changes, which experience has proven to have been 
wise and salutary. The mos"t accomplished and thor- 
ough teachers in the schools are graduates of the 
High School. 

Miss Lilian Welsh, a daugliter of the late Gen. 
Thomas Welsh, is now vice-principal of the High 
School, and is one of die most successful and tal- 
ented teachers in the State. Her sister Marie is her 
assistant, and is well fitted for the position. 

Mr. Hoffman has also risen from the lower to the 
front rank as a teacher. The entire body of teachers 
are excelled by few anywhere, and Columbia may 
well feel proud of the position her scliools hold in 
relation to others in the State. 

Lyceum.— The system of social lyceums became 
very popular with the people in the United States 
about the year 1830, and it did not decline for ten or 
twelve" years. Josiah Holbrook, who was actuary of 
the Universal Lyceum, was the principal organizer 
of lyceums in the United States. The Columbia 
Lyceum was organized Dec. 2, 1835. The exercises 
generally opened with a lecture delivered by one of 
the members, or a subject selected which was debated 


by members chosen by the cliairman. This feature 
of tlie lyceum was always entertaining. Among the 
members who delivered lectures were Henry Mont- 
gomery, S. S. Haldeinan, Dr. J. S. Clarkson, Samuel 
A. Black, Dr. William S. McCorkle, James J. Given, 
Thomas H. Pearce, E. C. Lewis, Dr. R. E. Cochran, 
Owen B. Goodman, H. Bingham, Philip Gossler. 
Many of these lectures were illustrated with scientific 
apparatus. When the lyceum ran out of home ma- 
terial for lecturers, they were supplied by young and 
promising lawyers from Lancaster. Among the num- 
ber we recollect Amos Slaymaker, Esq., Nathaniel 
Ellraaker, Esq., George M. Kline, Esq. The meet- 
ings of the lyceum were held in the old brick school- 
house on Third Street, near the town hall. After 
its decline many of its members formed an organiza- 
tion called the Senate. Members were divided and 
assigned to each of the States. This organization was 
copied after the United States Senate. Its most 
pleasing and interesting feature was the political dis- 
cussions between the members, who were supposed to 
represent the same political parties which elected the 
United States senators in thefr respective States, and 
they generally adhered to the line of argument used 
by the members of the United States Senate, whom 
they were supposed to represent. These discussions 
were animated and often acrimonious. Among the 
most active members were J. H. Mifflin", John S. 
Given, Joseph W. Fisher, Napoleon B. Wolfe, Sam- 
uel Evans, Alexander Caldwell,' James B. Cowden, 
John Frederick Houston, Stewart D. Elliot, Hugh 
M. North, Philip Gossler, Amos S. Green, J. G. L. 
Brown. This organization lasted several years. 

Public Libraries.— On the 14th day of January, 
1829, a number of prominent citizens subscribed va- 
rious sums to be expended in the purchase of books 
for the mutual benefit of all those concerned in a 
library company to be formed. The company was 
organized in the spring of 1829 by the election of 
Evan Green, president, and William Dick, secretary ; 
Miss Haines, librarian. A large and judicious selec- 
tion of books and pamphlets were purchased. Much 
interest was at first taken in the enterprise, but debts 
were accumulated gradually, and in four years from 
its organization the books and property of the " Co- 
lumbia, Pennsylvania, Library Company", \yere sold 
at auction to pay its debts. Enough was realized also 
to pay each shareholder two dollars on each share of 
stock, the par value of which was five dollars. The 
building opposite the Franklin House was occupied 
by the library. Herewith we publish the names of 
each shareholder, so far as we are able to ascertain : 

Sarah UarLer. 

George Haines. 

Dn Al.raimm Bitner. 

William Ilarrah. 

E. G. BradfoiJ. 

Joseph Hogentogler. 

fUrist. Brenneman. 

Joseph Jeffries. 

He,„y B,e„neman. 

Samuel Johnson. 

Levi Bieniieniaii. 

Joshua Kehler. 

GideoT, B,e„iR-uian. 

G. W. Layng. 

John Baibar. 

Thomas Lloyd. 

Jeren.iah Bruwn. 

Edward C. Lewis. 

Josepli Cyttrell. 

George W. C. Lloyd. 

John Caniiibell. 

James E. Mifflin. 

Jnhn Cooper. 

Samuel W. Mifflin. 

Joseph Cooper. 

Moses Montgomery. 

Israel Cooper. 

John McKissick, Jr. 

James Collins. 

Jacob Mathiot. 

William C. Cornwell. 

Samuel Mathiot. 

Jacob Clyde. 

William Mathiot. 

Riclianl E. Cochran. 

John McMullen. 

William Dick. 

Hugh McCorkle. 

Eichard Derrick. 

Henry Martin. 

Peter Epley. 

George Mireick. 

Domiiiick E^igle. 

George Peters. 

51 ichael Elder. 

William Poist. 

Preston B. Elder. 

Jacob Purkypile. 

Jolm Evans. 

Jacob L. Rowand. 

John L. Futhey. 

Charles Odell. 

JohnFony, Jr. 

Benjamin Peart 

Evan Green. 

William Todd. 

Amos S. Green. 

Robert Spear. 

Benjamin Green. 

Jalnea Sweeney. 

Joseph Green. 

Abraham Shirk. 

John Guy. 

Jacob Strickler. 

Peter F. Gonter. 

Henry H. Strickler. 

J.acob Go^^ler. 

Dr. Beaton Smith. 

James Given. 

Henry Y. Sla.vmaker 

Owen B, Goodman. 

BobcrtB. Slille. 

Jacd. B. Garlier. 

Henry F. Slaymaker 

Elizabeth A. B. Heiso. 

John L. Wright. 

Peter Hald.-man. 

Charles N. Wright. 


James Wright. 

John Hoover. 

Michael Way. 

Joha Arms. 
William P. Beatty. 
George Beatty. 
Robert Barber. 
Owen Bruner. 

John L. Boswell. 
Mary Bethel. 
Christian Bachman. 
Elizabeth W. Boude. 
George W. Boude. 

1867 or 1803. 

The Franklin Library was organized in the spring 
of 1834, John L. Boswell, secretary. The stockhold- 
ers purchased the books of the Columbia Library, 
and added tolhem a large number of new books. 
This was, like its predecessor, a circulating library. 
It flourished for a few years, and then went down 
rapidly. There was no public library in the place 
from 1836 to 1862. 

In the year 1862, Samuel Shoch, president of the 
Columbia National Bank, donated to the public 
schools of Columbia five hundred dollars for the pur- 
pose of procuring books and establishing a library. 
The school board accepted this fund and established 
a library, and named it after its donor. This was the 
plant of a large and select library. Mr. Shoch has 
given liberally of his abundant means since, and the 
school board have at various times made large appro- 
priations and purchased several thousand volumes of 
choice books. They have, and it is their tluty to make, 
an annual appropriation for the purchase of books 
and meet incidental expenses. The library is now 
established on a permanent basis, and will become in 
time one of the grandest institutions in the county. 



At present a large room on the first story of the public 
school building on Cherry Street has been set apart 
for the library. Only one danger confronts the friends 
of this enterprise, and that is the possibility oS fire 
wiping out of existence in a few hours the accumu- 
lated work of many years. It is hoped that there 
may be found in the community enough of generous- 
minded citizens who will, provide sutficient means to 
erect a fire-proof building ujion the public ground at 
the corner of Fifth and Locust Streets, or in that ! 
vicinity, that will protect this library from a calamity 
so disastrous. 

Samuel Grove, a prominent citizen of the place, 
twenty or more years ago commenced to purchase 
books with a view of establishing a circulating 
library. He made additional purchases from time to 
time until he has several hundred volumes in his 
library-room on Third Street, between Locust and 
Cherry Streets. His books are generally of a religious 

Old Residents' Society.— On the 27th day of No- 
vember, 1S74, a number of citizens of Columbia or- 
ganized a society of old residents of Columbia, the 
object being to cherish the social interests and friendly 
relations by holding frequent meetings, under the 
name of the "Ancient Citizens of Columbia." Fol- 
lowing is a list of the merhbera: 

Joseph M. Watts (iireaideut). 

George W. Bowjer. 

J. Houston Miflliu (.lecretury). 

John A. Hook Mead). 

S«miu-1 Sliocii (treasurer). 

John S. Given. 

Siimuel li. lleise. 

John K.Elerleiii. 


Heiuy N. Kehler. 

Fruuci3 X Ziegler. 

Samuel Evans. 

John Frederiik Houston (dead). 

Thomas E. Cochran (dead). 

Samuel W. Milllin. 

Samuel Nelson Houston (dead) 

Jamei Barber. 

Henry Wisler. 

Heury BroTii.eman (dead). 

Henry H. Houston. 

Martin Niel. 

William F. Lockard. 

Harford Fralo.v. 

George W. HalJeman. 

Christian Brenneman (dead). 

Jacob L. Gossler. 

George Bogle (dead). 

Jacob Ely (dead). 

James Wright (dead). 

Samuel Wright. 

Ueury E. Wolfe. 

Abn.m Bruner. 

To become a member of this society a residence of 
fifty years is required. Several have attained an age 
of more than fourscore years. As will be seen from 
the foregoing list, their numbers are rapidly growing 

Banking. — The Philadelphia Branch Bank was 
opened on the 22d day of May, 1809. John MfcKis- 
sick was the first cashier, and was followed by Dr. 
Beaton Smith. This bank did business in the brick 
house at the corner of Locust and Front Streets, now 
owned by Jacob Snyder. The Philadelphia Bank 
had its branch in Columbia for about fifteen years. 

The great increase in the population of the State, 
and the trirvel incident thereto between sections di- 
vided by our great river, the Susquehanna, rendered 
it necessary to adopt other means than a ferry to ac- 
commodate the traveling public who desired to go to 
either side of this strpam ; we find, therefore, that in 
the onward progress of the internal improvements of 

the State that the construction of bridges, although' 
a novel and untried enterprise, found its advocates, 
and was undertaken with hopeful confidence of good 
results; therefore, "An act authorizing the Governor 
of Pennsylvania to incorporate a company for the 
]iurpose tif making and erecting a bridge over the 
river Susquehanna, in the county of Lancaster, at or 
near the town of Columbia," was passed by the Leg- 
islature and approved the 28th of March, 1809, the 
State being pledged therein to take ¥90,000 of the 
stock, ' 

A charter was accordingly granted by Governor 
Snyder on the 19th of October, 1811, and on the 23d 
of December following the stockholders organized liy 
electing as managers, viz.: William Wright, presi- 
cent; Thomas Boude, Samuel Bethel, James Wri-lit, 
Samuel Miller, John Evans, Christian Brencniaii, 
John Forrey, Jr., Abraham Witmer, Henry Slay- 
niaker, William Barber, Jacob Eichelberger, John 
Tomlin.son, and William P. Beatty as treasurer, and 
John Barber secretary. 

On the 8th of July, 1812, articles of agreement 
were entered into with Henry Slayniaker and Samuel 
Slaymaker, of Lancaster County, and Jonathan Wal- 
cott, of Connecticut, for the erection of a bridge for 
the sum of §150,000, but which before its completion 
cost $233,000. The piers were fifty feet long, and ten 
feet wide at top. The spans each one hundred feet in 

Stock to the amount of $400,000 was subscribed 
for, and after paying for the cost of the bridge the 
remaining balance was appropriated to banking pur- 
poses, and an ofiice of discount and deposit was 
opened on 5th July, 1813, and notes were printed 
and issued as bank notes. This proceeding being 
declared illegal, a charter was afterwar !s obtained on 
the 27th March, 1824, for the establishment of a bank 
under the title of" The Columbia Bridge Company," 
Christian Breneinan beingelected presiilent, and John 
McKissick, cashier. Since tlieu this title has been 
changed to " The Columbia Bank and Bridge Com- 
pany," "The Columbia Bank," and lastly, the "Co- 
lumbia National Bank," which it still retains, with a 
capital of $.500,000, having been increased from time 
to time from iLs original charter amount of $150,n(lii, 
to $250,000, i;322,.500, and in 18G4 to its present 

Since 1824, Christian lireneman. Christian Halde- 
man, John Forrey, Jr., John N. Lane, David Uine- 
hart, John Cooper, Col. James Meyers, Dr. Bar- 
ton Evans, John Coojier, George Bogle, and lastly, 
the present incumbent. Col. Samuel Shoch, have sev- 
erally acted as iiresidents, and during their .several 
periods of service John McKissick iictetl as CMsliier 
until 1832, Picr-ton B. Elder, his .successor, until ls;i9, 
and Col. Samuel Shoch until 1878, a period of thirty- 
nine years, when he was elected president, in which 
capacity he still ofllciates, although in the eighty- 
seventh year of his sige. 

/'( \r~(-- 




: In 1832 the bridge was carried away by an ice 
fresliet, and rebuilt at an expenditure of $157,300 
ind the debris nf the old bridge. In June, 1863, the 
bridge, as rebuilt, was burned as a military necessity 
under an order from Gen. Couch, commandant of the 
Susquehanna divi-ion of the Federal army, to pre- 
vent the rebels from croj_»ing, as the best protection 
for Eastern Pennsylvania. Tlie bank, owning the 
bridge, sold the piers and the abutments, with the 
franchises as a bridge company, to the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company for $57,000, and has therefore sus- 
tained a loss of §100,000, for which a claim has been 
preferred against the United States government with 
hopes of its being allowed. 

The First National Bank was organized in IMay, 
1863, with a capital of $100,000. President, Ephraim 
Hershey; Cashier, S. S. Detweiler. This bank in- 
creased its capital to $200,000, and its surplus amounts 
to $40,000. The present officers are Hugh M. North, 
Esq., president; S. S. Detweiler, cashier. The bank 
building is located at the southeast corner of Locust 
and Second Streets. The amount of deposits is very 
large, and the bank is in a prosperous condition. 

E. K. Smith & Co.'s banking house is located at 
the northwest corner of Locust and Second Streets. 
lUi capital unlimited. The members of the tirm are 
E. K. Smith and Christian E. Graybill. 

The Columbia Deposit Bank was organized' in 
March, 1870, with E. K. Smith, president, and C. E. 
Graybill, cashier. This bank closed in 1880. 
. The Dime Savings Bank was organized in 1869. 
The treasurers were Samuel Allison and Ephraim 
Hershey. The bank suspended business in 1880. 
. CoL. Samuel Shoch.— Michael Shoch, the grand- 
father of Col. Samuel, was a native of Germany, and 
on his emigration to America settled near Philadel- 
phia. He had several cliildren, among whom was 
John, whose birth occurred at the paternal home near 
Philadelphia. He in 1792 removed to Harrisburg, 
Dauphin Co., and there remained until his death in 
1842. He married Miss Salome Gilbert, of Philadel- 
phia, and had children,— Mary , Sarah, Rebecca, Eliza, 
Cassandra, Samuel, John, Jacob, and one who died 
in childhood. Samuel, whose life is here briefly 
•ketclied, was born in Harrisburg, May 28, 1797. His 
career covers some of the most eventful periods in pur 
national history, and has been so closely identified 
with local events that it forms an inseparable ))art of 
them. His early education was commenced at pre- 
paratory schools before the establishment of the pres- 
, fnt school system, and continued at the Nottingham 
! Academy, Cecil Co., Md. His further education and 
preparation for professional life were the result of 
> pergonal application directed only by himself 

As early as 1812 he was recorder of patents under 
John Cochran, secretary of the land-office, and re- 
corder of surveys in (he office -of Andrew Porter, 
then surveyor-general. In September, 1S14, he joined 
(be Harrisburg Artillerists, a company formed within 

twenty-four hours after the British had burned the 
capitol at Washington, and was the youngest man in 
the four companies that volunteered from Harrisburg 
on that occasion. The company marched to York 
and thence to Baltimore, and remained on duty there 
until the British withdrew and abandoned their con- 
templated attack on that city. 

In May, 1817, he began the study of law under 
Hon. Amos Ellmaker, attorney-general, and was ad- 
mitted to the Dauphin County bar in 1820. He was 
always aggressive, and as a young lawyer displayed 
great energy and fearlessness in prosecuting what he 
believed to be wrong.. He took an active part in an 
unsuccessful attempt to impeach Judge Franks, of the 
Lebanon and Dau]ihin district, for alleged oflenses. 

In 1835 he was elected clerk of the House of Rep- 
resentatives by a union of the Whig and Anti-Masonic 
members, defeating Francis R. Shunk, the Democratic 
candidate. In 1837 he was secretary to the conven- 
tion which gave us the Constitution under which 
Pennsylvania lived from 1838 to 1873, and at the 
adjournment of that body was unanimously thanked. 
The colonel finds special pleasure in recounting his 
services with that body. 

In 1839 he cast his fortunes with Columbia, and 
went theVe to live, having been elected cashier of the 
Columbia Bank and Bridge Company. The company 
had a nominal capital of $150,000, but actually not 
more than $80,000 to $100,000, as a bridge costing 
more than $175,000 had been swept away by an ice 
freshet in 1832, and the loss had not been wholly 
made up. The capital was afterwards increased, first 
to $250,000, and in 1837 to $322,500, with a change 
of title to Columbia Bank. In 18G5 the bank ac- 
cepted the national bank law and became the Colum- 
bia National Bank, with a capital of $500,000, at 
which it still remains, with a surplus fund of $150,- 
OOO. He has thus maintained official relations with 
the corporation as itsj;ashier and president for forty- 
four years, during a period the events of which are 
matters of local history. 

Col. Shoch was, in 1842, married to Mrs. Hannah 
Evans, daughter of Amos Slaymaker, of Lancaster 
County, who was the leading manager of the line of 
stages between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. Her 
death having occurred in March, 18G0, he contracted 
a second alliance in August, 1805, with Miss Anna 
E., daughter of Robert Barber, of Columbia, Pa. 

In 1848, Col. Shoch was appointed aid to Governor 
William Johnson, which by courtesy conferred upon 
him the title of colonel, a title by which he is better 
known than by his Christian name. 

In 1800 the colonel was a member of the State 
committee of the Republican party, and a delpfiatc 
to the National Convenlion at Chicago which nomi- 
nated Abraham Lincidn, the martyr President. 

During the war he was foremost in deeds of charity 
and patriotism, ami i)rcscNtcd to the first company 
formed in Columbia a beantilul and costly silk flag. 




He always took a warm interest in our public schools, 
and through his active exertions and liberal dona- 
tions the"Shocli Library," in honor of its patron, 
was established. 

Col. Shoch also took an active interest in local en- 
terprises, and was at one and the same time president 
of the Columbia Gas and Water Companies, the Old 
Public Ground Company, and the Marietta, Chestnut 
Hill and Washington Turnpike-Road Companies. 
He was also treasurer of the Reading and Columbia 
Railroad Company, but resigned in 1862, before going 
abroad on a continental tour. He was for ten years 
president of the school board of the borough of 
Columbia, during which period a spacious edifice, 

version is his violin, an instrument of unusual excel- 
lence, which affords hira many happy hours. 

With a mind fresh and vigorous, and with a. re- 
markable activity of body and buoyancy of step, he 
has reasonable expectations of passing many more 
years of usefulness. 

Newspapers. — Tlie Susquehanna Waterman was 
started in the year 1811 by Thomas A. Wilson, a 
practical printer, who learned his trade in the bor- 
ough of York. He established a printing-office in a 
one-story frame building which stood on the north 
side of Locust Street below Second Street. In the 
following year he purchased a half lot of ground oa 


the south side of Locust Street, nearly opposite his 
devoted to the use of the public schools, was erected, frame shop. Upon this lot he erected a three-story 
He served a term as director of the poor of Lancaster brick house, to which he moved his printing-press, 
County, two terms as county auditor, was a trustee of etc. He probably used the third story of this build- 
the Millersville Normal School, and director of the ing for an office, for he did not plaster the walls. 
Wrightsville, York and Gettysburg Railroad. If i The reaction in business and values of all kind after 
responsible official positions are a measure of public \ the war of 1812-15 left hira stranded, and his prop- 
erty was sold to James Cyde, Esq., in the year 1818, 
Mr. Wilson returned to York, thence to one of the 
Southern States, where he remained for many years, 
Some of his descendants reside in Wrightsville, York 

William Greear published a small newspaper in 
Lancaster called the Hire in 1804. He removed his 
job-printing press, etc., to Columbia in the year 1812. 
In the winter of 181-1-15 he was elected printer of the 

confidence, then Col. Shoch was favored abov 
his fellow-citizens. 

The colonel was always an active worker in the 
Sunday-school cause. In the early part of his profes- 
sional career he was both a teacher and superin- 
tendent of the Sunday-school of the Lutheran Church 
iu Harrisburg. Within the last ten years his jfouthful 

enthusiasm for the cause has been specially 
ened, and his active services as teacher of a Bible class 
in the Columbia Fifth Street Presbyterian Sunday- 
school, together with the erection, furnishing, and en- 
dowment of their beautiful chapel (named "Salome" 
in honor of his mother), attests the sincerity of his 
motives. In 1854, and for several years thereafter, 
he maintained at his own expense a public night- 
school, employed teachers, and furnished books, etc., 
for the benefit of apprentices and other young persons 
who could not attend school during the day, and was [ ing, and 
happily rewarded by finding the school well attended. | months 
Many of the pupils since grown up have become 
prominent and well-to-do citizens, who gratefully ac- 
knowledge the advantages they derived from the 

is been uniformly and radically 
great admirer of Tliaddcus Ste- 

accord with Reiiublicau adminis- 

lu politics he h 
anti-Democratic, a 
vens, and is in full 

The colonel's ha 
and even now, whe 

been an eventful and busy life, 
he has just crossed the threshold 
of his eighty-sixth year, not a single duty is neg- 
lected, not a responsibility evaded, and not au energy 

Having faithfully performed the duties of cashier 
of the Columbia National Bank for a period of thirty- 
nine years, he was, in December, 1878, elected its 
president, and notwithstanding his age, continues his 
routine of duties, beginnin<f at eight o'clock iu the 
morning and remaining to witness the settlement of 
all accounts after the bank closes. His principal di- 

" Rolls" by the Legislature, and he removed his 
printing-press to Harrisburg. He returned to Co- 
lumbia and commenced the publication of a newspa- 
per called The Columbian on the 24th day of July, 
1819, in a two-story brick building he purchased from 
Dr. Eberle. Alter publishing eighteen numbers it 
was suspended for want of support. After six or 
eight months it was revived. It was not self-sustain- ,' 
its publication ceased altogether in a few 
I moiuns. He reftioved his printing-press to Washing- 
' ton, D. C. He was a Quaker and a person of strict 
integrity. The C'u/umbian w^as published in 1840 by 
Thomas Taylor, and edited by N. B. Wolfe. The 
editor wrote a romance called the "Bandit," which 
ran through several numbers of the paper, which 
seems to have knocked the life out of the paper. Be- 
fore the story was completed the pai)er ceased to 

The Monitor was established by Dr. William F, 
Houston on the 24th day of April, 1823. It was 
printed in Dr. Houston's dwelling, now owned by 
Theodore Urban, on Locust Street below Second, 
Like the Columbian, it was neutral in politics. It 
was strongly religious iu tone. It was published 
severai years. 

The Columbian Couranl was established by Scheaff ] 
& Heinitsh, who purchased the press and type be- 
longing to the Pioneer in Marietta and brought it to 
Columbia. They sold out to John L. Boswcll, a 
young printer who came from the State of Connect!- 


cut, who, on the 3d day of June, 1830, commenced 
the publication of tlie Columbia Spy and Literary 
Beyister, wliich was neutral until June 23, 1831, 
when its title was changed to Columbia Spy and Lan- 
caster and York County Record, and the "Henry 
Clay" banner was nailed to its head, with the 
"American System" inscribed upon it. For that 
period in the history of it was ably con- 
ducted, and was devoted to the interests of Henry 
Clay, whom the editor desired to he President of the 
United States. On the 6th day of July, 1833, the 
paper was enlarged to twenty by thirty inches. In 
1834, Mr. Boswell and Carpenter McGleery, of Lan- 
caster, established the Lancaster Union, published in 
that city. The editor of the Spy gave a portion of 
his time to that jiaper. On the 24th day of May, 
1834, Thomas E. Cochran took formal charge of the 
editorial department of the Spy. In the spring of 
1836, Mr. Boswell sold the Spy to Preston B. Elder, 
■ cashier of the Columbia Bank and Bridge Company, 
and purchased the Hartford Courant, and removed to 
Hartford, Conn. Ercurius Beatty published the Spy 
for the proprietor from that time to September, 1837, 
when it was published by E. Beatty & Co. Under 
the editorial management of Mr. Elder the paper 
obtained a high rank among the literary papers in the 
country. He was an accomplished writer and poet. 

After Mr. Elder's death in 1839, Theodore D. 
Cochran, who was then an apprentice in the ofhce, 
took editorial management of the paper. He devel- 
oped great talent as a political writer, and liad few 
equals among his editorial brethren. While yet in 
his minority he took charge of the Old Guard in 
1840, an Anti-Masonic paper, established in Lan' 
caster in 1839. Evan Green, the administrator of 
Mr. Elder (who died in 1839), sold tlie paper to 
James Patton, collector of tolls at the canal basin, 
who changed its name to the Columbia Spy and Lan- 
caster and York County Democrat. It advocated the 
election of Martin Van Buren for President. In 
1842, Mr. E. Maxson was taken into partnership, 
and in the spring of 1843, Eli Bowen and Jacob L. 
Gossler purchased the paper. They were both 
minors, but young men of ability. In the fall of 

1844, Mr. Bowen started the Protector, a taritf paper, 
and sold his interest in the Spy to Charles J. Barnitz, 
of York, who also purchased Mr. Gosslor's interest in 

1845. In June, 1847, Charrick Westbrook purchased 
. the ,§/>(/, and Dec. 11, 1847, William H. Spangler pur- 
chased an interest in the paper. In the summer of 
1848 they sold to George W. Schroyer, who sold to 

'Eshlenian, Kammerer & Gochenauer in 1849, who 
sold to J. G. L. Brown in 1850. In 1853 it was pub- 
lished by Brown & Greene, who sold to Coleman J. 
'Bull in 185.5. In 185G it was purchased by Stephen 
'Greene (Mr. Brown taking a position in Forney's 
' /Vesa office), who sold to Safnuel Wright in 1857, 
was appointed to a position on Gen. Thomas ^V\■lsl^s 
etaff, and went into the army. He sold to Andrew 

M. Rambo in 1863, who on Sept. 4, 1869, sold to Maj. • 
James W. Yocum, the present proprietor. It is a 
conservative Republican paper and conducted with 

The Columbia Daily Spy was started by A. M. 
Rambo & Son in 1868, and was published for a period 
of eighteen months. It was Republican in politics. 

The Pennsylvania Courant was started in 1837 by 
Henry Montgomery. Ercurius Beatty subsequently 
became the publisher and proprietor. It lived until 
1843. During the gubernatorial canvass of 1838 this 
paper was particularly strong in its political depart- 

The Protector was started by Eli Bowen and Jacob 
L. Gossler in March, 1843. As its name implies, it 
was a devoted advocate of the cause of protection and 
the election of Henry Clay to the Presidency. After 
a few numbers were published Jlr. Gossler retired, 
and sold his interest to Mr. Bowen, who became edi- 
tor, publisher, and carrier. He had but little money, 
and often not the means to procure a meal. He 
would go barefooted, and often sleep in an outhouse 
when out of money. He walked to Lancaster, and 
purchased an old Ramage press from Hugh Ma.xwell, 
and two hundred pounds of type, on trust. He struck 
off an edition of one thousand copies, and carried his 
papers to Lancaster and neighboring towns, and sold 
the entire number, which put him upon " his feet." 
He bid fair to be one of the best newspaper men in 
the country, but he was erratic, and did not tread the 
paths of journalism for a period longer than four or 
five years. The Protector lived but six months. 

The Water-Spout was started during the height of 
the Washingtonian temperance movement, and was 
devoted to that cause. James Klinedriest was pub- 
lisher and Theodore D. Cochran editor. It lived but 
six moiUhs. 

The Columbian was started by Charrick Westbrook 
in 1846, and pubHshed by him until he purchased 
the Spy in 1847, when it was merged in the latter. 

The Columbia Herald was astablished in December, 
18G7. Several leading men in the Democratic party 
subscribed a sum sutiicient to start a paper, and George 
Young, Jr., who was then an officer in the Columbia 
j Fire Insurance Company, was chosen as editor. He 
I became sole owner. Sir. Young, Jr., sold an interest 
in the paper to W. Hayes Grier in 1873, and subse- 
quently to that time it was published by Grier & 
Modcrwell. Several years ago Mr. Grier purchased 
Moderwell's interest, and is now sole proprietor and 
editor. Mr. Grier has been recently appointed su- 
perintendent of the State printing-office at Harrisburg. 
He was a private in the late war (see military chnpter). 
He is also justice of the peace for the Second Ward, 

The Daily Tcleyram was started by Frank S. Taft 
in 1869. It lived about two monlh.s. 

The Democrat was slarted in llie summer of 1872 
by W. Hayes tirier. It advocated the election of 


Horace Greeley for President, and was discontinued 
in November, 1872. 

The Weekli/ Courant was started by Andrew !M. 
Rambo & Son in 1870, and is now published by the 
former. It is an ably-conducted paper, and is radical 
Republican in politics. 

Foundries and Machine-Shops. —The expansion 

of the iron interest in this plare ui]il vicinity since 
the first machine-slinp was erected, t'orty-seven years 
ago, is truly wonderful. In the year 1836, Jeffrey 
Smedley and Thomas Hood, of Cliester County, 
started a small machine-shop at the canal basin. The 
first steam-engine built in the county was the one 
they built to drive their machinery. The firm was 
dissolved in September, 1837, and the business was 
then carried on by Mr. Smedley. He manufactured 
stationary engines and machine work generally, and 
in this was greatly aided by the establishment of a 
foundry near his shop. He carried on business at 
that place until 1850, when he purchased the old 
Shultz Brewery, a large four-story stone building, 
situated on Second Street below Union, and converted 
it into a machine-shop. A short time after this pur- 
chase he took his son-in-law, Henry Brandt, into 
partnership. In September, 1854, Mr. Smedley died 
of cholera, then raging in Columbia. Mr. Brandt 
continued the business until October, 1857, when a 
stock company, entitled the Columbia Manufactur- 
ing Company, look possession of the property, and 
added a foundry thereto. The members of this com- 
pany were Henry Brandt, Thomas R. and Ziuinierman 
Supplee, brothers, who came from Brid'.'('()ort, Mont- 
gomery Co., Pa., where they had been carrying on the 
business for several years. They removed all of their 
machinery from there to the works in Columbia, 
which greatly increased the facilities of this estab- 
lishment. The company arrangement was not suc- 
cessful, having carried on the works at a period of 
great depression in business. The Supplee Brothers 
leased the works and built up a large trade. Finding 
their buildings and ground limited in extent, they 
sold this property and purchased a large tract near 
the Columbia and Reading Railroad, at Fourth Stj-eet, 
where they erected larger and more extensive works 
in 1870. A few years ago a stock company was formed, 
called the Supplee Iron Company, under which, name 
it is now conducted. 

In the year 18.37 Frederick Baugher and George 
Wolf, residents of York, Pa., formed a copartnership, 
and erected a foundry at the canal basin. When rail- 
roads were first built, in order to get around the 
curves without slipping it was necessary to have one wheel upon every axle. James Wright, Jr., of 
Columbia, conceived the idea of making a wheel with 
a beveled tread, lie erected a circular railroad upon 
John L. Wright's lot, upon which he experimented. 
When Baugher and Wolf staVtcd their foundry they 
were the first in the country to manufacture car- 
wheels under Mr. \Vright's patent. This firm also 

invented a wheel with solid hubs and concave and 
convex plates in 1837. Previous to that time all car- 
wheels were made with split hubs with spokes. Mr, 
Bau>«her, being an Anti-Mason, obtained a good deal ' 
of State work under Governor Ritner's administra- 
tion, and when David R. Porter was elected Governor,, 
in 1838, George \\'iiU', who was a Democrat, obtained 
a share of the State work. Mr. Baugher retired from 
the firm in 1839. 

Samuel Truscott, who was their principal pattern- 
maker, and to whom this firm was indebted for some of 
their inventions and the excellent work they turned 
out, came from Baltimore, JId., to work for them in 
1837, and was taken into partnership by Mr. Wolf oa 
the 1st day of May, 184G. Mr. Wolf died in 1859, 
when the firm was dissolved and Mr. Truscott retired; 
and in a few years embarked in the coal-oil refining 
business where the Columbia Stove- Works now stand. 
After the removal of Mr. Smedley's machine-shop to 
Second Street, Wolf and Truscott erected a large ma-, 
chine-shop adjoining their foundry. These works 
were carried on by the heirs of George Wolf until 
Feb. 1, 1871, when they were sold to the Messrs. Per- 
rottet and Hoyt. In the year 1872 they sold their 
property to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company to 
make room for their new round-house. The firm 
purchased property in the rear of the round-house 
fronting on Bridge Street, where they erected larger 
and more extensive works. 

James Perrottet was a bound apprentice to the late 
firm of Jlerrick & Son, of Philadelphia, lie after- 
wards went to the State of Louisiana and thence to 
the West Indies, where he erected anil look charge of 
nuichinery in sugar-mills built by him. Their spe- 
cialty has been the manufacture of sugar machinery 
for Cuba and other sugar-making countries. 

William J. Hoyt also learned his trade in Phila- 
delphia, and worked lor Merrick & Son. He was pro- 
moted by that firm to various positions, and remained 
with them until they sold their works in 1870. 

There is a machine-shop connected with the Keeley 
Stove-Works which manufactures small stationary 
engines, and is conducted by Zimmerman Supplee, 
which is a separate establishment from the stove- 
works. Their business is increasing, and the works 
in the near future are to be enlarged. 

Saw-Mills.— Jacob Strickler erected a saw-mill on 
the bank of the river, a short distance above Fair- 
view Grist-Mill, about the year 1818. A wing wall 
-ras built some distance up the river from the mill, 
which caught the current. There was only two or 
three feet fall of water. When the dam was con- 
structed across the river, in 1838, for the Susquehanna 
and Tide- Water Canal, thi.s mill was taken away, and 
another and much larger one built a short distance 
farther down the river. A sluice was left in the 
breast of the dam, which gave a greatly-increased 
I power. This mill has been rebuilt and enlarged by 
' its present owner, Frederick S. Bletz. 



. In 1830, John McKissick, Jr., John Forry, Jr., and 
Samuel B. Hise erected a saw-mill along the river 
shore, a short distance above the present outlet-locks 
at the canal, in the northwestern section of the bor- 
ough. The falls were called Little Conewago. A 
wing wall was built which gave about three feet fall 
of water. It was jjartially destroyed repeatedly by 
floods in the river. It was torn down in 1847, and a 
new mill built by Dr. J. J. and J. S. Grier & Co., 
which was wholly run by steam-power. After the 
public works were sold by the State, the mill was torn 
down, they having to depend entirely upon the pat- 
ronage awarded them by their party friends. 

In 1844, Jonathan Pusey built a saw-mill at the 
mouth of Shawanese Run, which was run by steam- 
power. It was afterwards owned by his son Isaac, 
after whose death, fifteen years ago, it was sold to 
Abraham Bruner, and about ten years ago it was torn 
down and a much larger mill was built by Abraham 
and Cyrus Bruner along the river shore, close by the , 
old mill-site. 

Planing-Mills.— The first planing-mill was built ( 
on the south side of Union Street, between Second 
and Third Streets, by Jacob F. Markley & Co. This 
mill was built in 1837. The Daniels patent planer 
was used. The grooves and tongues of the flooring 
were made entirely with a series of circular saws. 
The Woodvvorth patent rotary planer entirely super- 
seded this mode of making flooring. The mill build- 
ing was converted into a lamp-black manufactory by 

J.H.Mifflin. The place 

In 1850, Joseph Pownall 
Drauclier, and John B. Ba 


;s now occupied by dwell- 

Joseph Dickinson, Hiram 
duiian leased ground from 
John L. Wright at the rear end of his mansion, 
and erected a planing-mill, where not only flooring- 
boards were manufactured but all kinds of house-car- 
penter work. The mill was removed farther away 
from the railroad to make room for more tracks, and 
finally taken down and rebuilt along the river shore. 
It is and has been for years owned wholly by John B. 
Bachmau, Esq. It is now one of the best-equipped 
phming-mills in the State. The business is conducted 
by John B. Bachman and John Forry. 

In 1881, Edward Smith erected a planing-mill on 
the river shore above Union Street. Additions have 
been made since its erection, and new aud niideru 
machinery is constantly being added to it, and in a 
few years it will rank among the best iu the State. 

Frederick S. Bletz erected a planing-mill below the 
mouth of Shawanese Run, along Front Street, in 
the year 1848. All kindsof building material are also 
xnnnuractured at this establishment. It has been in 
'ijiprntion 6ver since, and is still owned by Mr. Bletz. 

Michael Liphart erected a planing-mill at the cor- 
ner of Lawrence aud Second Streets in 1870, which 
waa destroyed by fire some years ago, and has not 
Leen rebuilt. 
■ The Keeley Stove- Works, located on the corner of 

Second and Maple Streets, were erected in the sum- 
mer and fall of 1882. They are operated by a stock 
company, whose charter was dated May 5, 1882, with 
a ca^iital stock of §100,000, and subsequently in- 
creased to §150,000. The works have a capacity of 
twenty thousand stoves per annum, and employ in 
their manufacture nearly two hundred men. The 
following-named persons are the present otBcers of 
the company : President, George W. Haldeman ; 
Treasurer, S. S. Detwiler ; Secretary, J. W. Ziller; 
Manager, W. H. Pfahler. 

Tanneries. — Samuel A. Atlee, son of Col. Samuel 
John Atlee, erected a tannery on Shawanese Run 
near the Lancaster turnpike in 1798, which he sold 

to William Todd a few years later. He sold to 

Houston and Joseph Mifliin. On the 13th day of 
March, 1835, it was entirely destroyed by fire. It was 
rebuilt by them, and in a few years they sold out to 
Andrew John, who sold the property to the Chestnut 
Hill Iron Ore Company. 

John Hollinger erected a tannery on the same run 
on the north side of the Lancaster turnpike about the 
year 18l)6. The establishment is a very large one. 
Mr. Hollinger also erected an additional curry ing- 
shop farther down the stream, at Fourth Street. 

The Columbia Water Company was organized 
under an act of Assembly approved the 29th of JLay, 
1823. William Wright was made president. The 
company met with but indifl'erent success, and failed 
to answer the expectations of the people. In 1858, 
after being in operation for thirty-four years without 
making a dividend or furnishing a proper supply of 
water for domestic use, the company was compelled to 
make an assignment for the payment of debts, and 
some time during that year the charter, with franchises 
and all the property, was sold at public auction to 
Samuel Shoch for fifteen thou.sand three hundred and 
fifty dollars, when a new organization was made. 

The new company by an expenditure of more than 
$100,000 has erected a dam, two large reservoirs, with 
important improvements, and laid through the streets 
of Columbia large iron pipes in place of the smaller 
ones laid by the old company, by which the several 
steam-engines for the extinguishment of fires and 
other machinery requiring water can be abundantly 
supplied as well as the demands for domestic use. A 
full quantity of excellent water is drawn from natural 
springs north of the town and also from the Susiiue- 
hanna River. 

The capital has been enlarged to the sum of 
$100,000, and the all'airs of the company are man- 
aged by Samuel Shoch, president; Joseph H. Black, 
Col. Wm. W. McClure, Samuel Truscott, K. A. Fon- 
dersmitU, James A. Meyers, and W. Latimer Small, 
directors; Simon C. May, secretary and treasurer; 
W. B. Foeseg, superintendent. 

Columbia Gas Company. — By act of Assembly of 
lOth April, 18,31, the Columbia Gas Company was char- 
tered, and, after erecting suitable buildings, went into 



operation for the purpose of making and supplying 
gas. Samuel W. Miiflin was elected president, and 
Amos Slaymal^er Green treasurer and secretary. The 
capital was at first s37,500, but afterwards increased to 
$60,000, at which it remains. I. G. Hess was at one 
time president. In 1865, Samuel Shoch was elected 
president, and still continues in that office. In 1874 
the Lowe process of making gas out of oil was intro- 
duced, by the use of new apparatus and machinery, 
and thus far has proved an entire success. The gas 
produced is of the best quality. The company is at 
present under the management of Samuel Shoch, 
president; H. M. North, Samuel Truscott, H. F. 
Bruner, William W. McClure, Charles H. Henkle, C. 
E. Graybill; Charles H. Henkle, secretary and treas- 
urer; Robert Beecher, superintendent. 

Riots.— From the day the manumitted slaves of 
Isard Bacon and others, of Virginia, located in Co- 
lumbia (in 1818-19) their numbers were largely in- 
creased from that source, and fugitives from human 
bondage in their flight to a land of freedom^— who 
were not a few — tarried with them, and thus increased 
the number of colored people to more than a thou- 
sand. They did all the labor for the lumber mer- 
chants along the river during the most profitable and 
busy seasons of the year. This excited the envy and 
hatred of not a few white people. 

Stephen Smith, who was born a slave iif Paxton, 
and was purchased for a limited lime (until he ar- 
rived at the age of twenty-eight years) by Gen. Thomas 
Boude in 1802, was a bright and intelligent boy, and 
he soon developed a business talent not easily checked 
in an ambitious youth. Before he was nineteen years 
of age Gen. Boude gave him the entire management 
of his lumber-yard, and in the same year he was clan- 
destinely married to a beautiful mulatto girl, who re- 
sided in the family of Jonathan Mifflin, lie proposed 
to Gen. Boude to buy the remainder of his servitude, 
and that gentleman agreed to take one hundred dol- 
lars. He went to his frien<l John Barber and told 
him of his designs, when that large-hearted gentle- 
man handed him one hundred dollars. He pur- 
chased his freedom, and then, with fifty dollars he 
had saved by doing extra work, he commenced to 
buy a little lumber and speculate in every venture in 
which he could turn a penny to profit. His profits 
increased rapidly until he owned one of the' largest 
lumber-yards along the shore. He also invested 
money in real estate, and whenever a property was 
offered for sale he was one of the foremost and liveliest 
bidders. In the height of his prosperity, in 1834, he 
was served with the following notice : 

" Yon hove Hgnln aaaentbled yourself among thu white people to bid 
up properly, ftM you have Leen in the habit of doing for a Duntber of 
yeiuH buck. You uiu^t know that your presence la not agieeable, and 
the less you appear in the assembly of the \vhltes the better it wiH be 
for your black hide, as there are a great uniny In this place that would 
think your absence from it a benefit, as you are considered an injury to 

To this he gave but little attention. James Wright, 
William Wright, and John L. Wright promptly of- 
fered a reward for the detection of the author of this 
notjce. In the spring of 1834 there had been a num- 
ber of riots in several cities in the Northern States 
against-the colored people. Excitement ran high 

On the 11th day of August, 1834, some person or 
persons broke into Smith's office, which stood oa 
Front Street, a short distance below the round- 
house, and destroyed his books and papers. This 
was a great loss to him, but one that he could bear. 
He stood up manfully for his rights, and did uot quail 
before the men whom he was well assured were en- 
couraging a clamor against him and invoking mob 
law. This lawless feeling against a worthy colored 
man, who was not to be " browbeaten" or drivea 
away by threats of personal violence, was turned 
against his less courageous colored I'riends who resided 
in the northeastern section of the town. On the 16th, 
17th, and 18th of August, 1834, a mob drove the col- 
ored people from their homes and destroyed much' 
of their property. They fled to the hills surrounding 
the town and to Bethel's Woods for safety, and some 
of them remained there several days without shelter 
or food. David Miller, high sheriff' of the county, 
swore in a large number of " deputies," who wont 
from Lancaster to Columbia and arrested a number 
of persons supposed to be the leaders in the riots, 
They were tried, but none of them were convicted and 
sent to prison as they deserved to be. 

Mr. Smith removed to Philadelphia in 1842, where 
he engaged in business. He also retained his lumber- 
yard in Columbia, and gave William Whipple, a col- 
ored man, who resided in Columbia, an interest. 

First Steamboat on the Susquehanna.— On Sat- 
urday evening of June 11, 1825, the first steamboat 
that attempted to navigate the Susquehanna River 
from its mouth to its source arrived unexpectedly at 
this place. The following day was spent in taking 
pleasure-parties to " Big Island," " Goose Island," 
etc. The citizens turned out in a body to witness the 
novel sight. The churches were all closed, and the 
Sabbath-schools presented an array of empty benches. 
It required several days to bring the boat from the 
mouth of the river to this point. Between these 
points the distance is forty-five miles, and the river 
at Columbia is two hundred and sixty feet higher 
than the head of tide-water, which is five miles above 
the mouth of the river. The channel is tortuous and 
rocky, and at that time it was exceedingly dangerous 
for any craft to attempt to navigate the stream againsj 
the current. Men ran out to the rocks on shore in 
advance of the boat in canoes, with anchors, to which 
i ropes were attached, and on the bow of the boat the 
other end of the rope was fastened to a capstan, and 
the boat was " warped" over the most dangerous 
places. The boat left Columbia on Tue.sday, the 14th 
of June, 1825, and it reiiuired three days to get it 




through Little Conewago Falls, above the outlet 
lock, and at Chikis Rock. The citizens of Marietta 
welcomed its arrival with booming of cannon and 
fire- works. The boat was taken up the river as tar 
at Wilkesbarre, where the boiler exploded and de- 
stroyed it. 

Asiatic Cholera. — Columbia was suddenly visited 
by this dreadful disease in September, 1854, and it i 
raged with great fury for ten days, and threatened | 
at the height of the epidemic to destroy the entire ] 
population. It was confined entirely to the town, 
and was altogether one of the most remarkable epi- 
demics in this country of which history gives any 
account. The month of August and first week in 
September of that year was unusually dry and hot. 
On Thursday, September 7th, a warm wind came across 
the river from the south, wafting noisome odors, 
which was supposed to come from the decaying vege- 
table matter in the river. This was a subject of re- 
mark, and many citizens thought it foreboded no 
good for the health of the people. They anticipated 
malaria only, and never dreamed of the impending 
danger, which visited the town almost as suddenly 
and unexpectedly as a bolt of lightning. 

When the railroad cars came from Philadelphia 
in the evening of Sept. 7, 1854, they left a family 
of emigrants. Two of them were sick, father and 
son, and they were taken to an unoccupied dwelling 
on Front Street. Physicians were called to attend 
them, and they pronounced the disease Asiatic, cholera. 
Two or three citizens waited upon them during the 
night. The father died in the morning, and the son 
Bome time during the day. 

No uneasiness was felt on the part of the citizens, 
and the death of these two emigrants caused but 
little remark. On Friday, the 8th of September, 
Francis Bradley, a notary public and worthy citizen, 
was taken sick suddenly with the disease, and in an 
hour or two he was a corpse. When Saturday morn- 
ing, the 9th, dawned it found its citizens in a panic. 
During Friday night many [lersons were seized with 
the disease, and when daylight came long processions 
of men, with despair or an.xiety depicted upon every 
countenance, were hurrying to the drug-stores or to 
the physicians. The disease spared neither age or 
sex, rich or poor, high or low in society, but swept 
all before it. ' 

The large list of deaths on Saturday and Sunday 
attest the severity of the disease. On Sunday the 
hegira of the citizens commenced, and half of the 
population fled from the place. Fortunately for them 
and the country the disease did not spread any far- 
ther, although there were many cases in Pittsburgh, 
brought there by some emigrants who came to this 
country witii those that were left with the disease in 
Columbia. A number of physicians came from other 
places to assist those here. Several citizens distin- 
guished themselves by their benevolence and untiring 
efforts in behalf of the sick. There was one who de- 

serves special mention. I refer to Daniel R. Craven, . 
who volunteered as nurse, and was a most faithful one.' 
A number of persons apparently in good health 
were taken sick suddenly on the street, and in an 
hour afterwards they were dead. A large number of 
those whose names we give were taken sick, died, and 
were buried on the same day. Following is a list of 
the victims of tliis e|)idemic: 

Francis Bradley, Frout Streel. 

Hubert Spnrtt3, Fourth Street. 
Mrs. Williiiin Hippey, Cherry 

E. A. Howard, Frout Street. 
Dr. E. E. Cochran, Walnut Street. 
J. J. Strickler, Hrrr's hutel. 

H. H. Liclity, Locust Street. 
Samuel Hiukle, Uniou Street. 
James Keely, Harkius' tavern. 
Mi^. S. Lysle, Laurens Street. 
Mrs. Samuel Atkenfl, Laurens 

John Gilbert, Terry Street. 

Jliss Ann Harnly, Locust Street. 
Mrs. Steliheji Feli,\, Fourth Street 
Mrs. C. David, Union Street. 
John Boyd, Locust Street. 
Charles Beuner, at Jacob Hardy's, 



, Perry Street, 
at Miuich's ta' 

Margaret L. Hagau, Walnut Street. 
Charles Jackson (colored). 
Webster Fox (colored). 
Malhias Neidiuger, Union Street, 
at Mack's brewery. 

Simon Snyder, Front Street. 

Mrs. J. W. Shuman, Front Street. 

Mrs. Jacob Crosby, Union Street. 

Mrs. Harris, Perry Street. 

Mrs. Elder, Third Street. 

Mrs. William Rees, Clierry Street. 

Mi-s. B. Dick, Second Street. 


Richard Costello, Union i 
Miss Margaret Fi.her, 

t G. Bran 

1 tav- 

William Waitcs, Third Street 
A German, name unknown, hoB- 

am Wye (colored), 
las Goodman (colored). 

Lorenzo Krab, Third Street 
William Carson, Enny's office. 
Mrs. Shillo, Tliird Street 
Mrs. Eli Derrick, Locust Street. 
Mrs. Clarissa Eicliards, Third 

Street. 1 unknown. 

Samuel Bough, Frout Street. I 

Mis. Catharine Swartz, Perry. J. W.Shumau's child. Front Street. 

Bernard Campbell, Union Street An Englishman, name unknown, 
Mrs.EIton Kimburg, Tliird Street hospital. 

John Mieaberger, liospitaT. Henry Barney (colored). 

Mrs. Payr 
Mrs. H. K 

s'8 child, Walnut Street 
Minich, Front S(reet. 


John Kidders, Locust Street 
Jesse Harry, Cherry Street. 
Hannah Wilson, Clierry Street 
Evan Green, Front Street. 
Henry Davis (colored). 


Henry Smith's son, Locust Street 
A. M. Haines. Manor township. 
George Boyd's child, Cherry Street. 
John Kingbell, Fourth Street 
Mrs. Waltmau, at Lancaster. 
George Beaver'B child, Locust 

Alwels Leilfinger, hospital. 

Samuel Reed's child, Cherry Street 
Mrs. Ziegler, Walnut Street. 
Mrs. George Plumni, Union Street 
A German, name unknown, hos- 
A German and child, names un- 

i disease and 


J. W.Shunian'scliild, Front Street. Anna Parker (colored), hospital, 
Sarah Hall (colored), hosiiital. I Michael Baker, Walnut Street. 

William Bell, Perry Street. [ Mrs. Hippy, CHierry Street. 

Mrs. Sweeny, Fourth Street. GeorgeSheueberger, York Conuty. 

William McBride, Third Street. j John Fotch, licspital. 
Mrs. E. Wright, Germautown. , Jauiea Brown, Locust Street. 

Mrs. Odell, Walnut Street. '- 

John Craig's child, Cherry Street. I Mrs. Evans, corner Fourth and 
Zachariah Kichard, Front Street. Cherry Streets. 

Jeffrey Smedley, Charlestown, | Timothy Toole, hospital. 

Chester Co. 

Samuel Baldwin, Fourth Street. j Mrs. George W. 
James McKeever, outlet lock. hurg. 

John Jordon'schild, Fourth Street. ' 

lie, Harri 


: I William Pearson, Chestnut Hill. 

John Kock, St. Charles Furnai 
Sol. Turner (coloied). 

Mrs. Lentze, Pequea. i Leonard Kock, St. Charh 

Julin Shaffer, at Brandt's. AlOert White (hoy), cau,i 

Frederick Snyder, Locust Street. 


iel Zahm, Locust Street. 
. Jarvis, Locust Street. 
. Mary Grismeyer, liospital. 

u Slmnian's child, Front Str^ 

Irish child, canal 1 

Mrs, Morrison, Laurens Street. 1 John naniiltun's boy, canal basin. 

Railroad Strike. — In the early part of the summer 
of 1877 there was a great deal of agitation among 
railroad employes all over the country. Secret or- 
ganizations were formed in every town and city bor- 
dering along the trunk lines of the great railways, 
wliich embraced very nearly all employes of the sev- 
eral railroads, day laborers only excepted. The sev- 
eral classes of employ^ had distinct and separate 
organizations, and worked under variou.s titles, but 
all had one common object, to wit, the securing of 
more remunerative wages, and helping each other in 
case of sickness, etc. The aggregate number belong- 
ing to these several societies embraced many thou- 
sands. In July, 1877, the Baltimore and OlJio Rail- 
road Company declined to accede to a demand made 
by some of their employe's, and the latter suddenly 
quit work. The news was flashed over every tele- 
graph wire in the country, and gradually others quit 
work for this company. The members of the different 
secret societie.^ sympathized with their friends along 
the Ilallimore and Ohio Railroad, and were carried 
away by the excitement of the hour, and were drawn 
into the "strike." There was no outward indication 
that the storm started in Virginia was about to burst 
upon the Pennsylvania and Heading Railroad t'om- 

On Saturday, July 21, 1877, the employ^j com« 
nienoed to "strike" at Harrisburg, and on Sunday; 
July 22, Columbia received the shock, and the 
engineers and others refused to permit the moving 
of any freight trains. 

A nTass-meeting, composed of railroad employ^, 
numbering several hundred, met on the same evening 
at the public ground below the bridge. Committees 
were appointed whose duty it was to obstruct entirely 
the movement of the rolling-stock of the railroad. A 
mob of disorderly and disreputable persons took pos- 
session of the town. Some of them marched around 
among the farmers and enforced contributions from 
tliem for the support of alleged "strikers." 

Saloons and taverns were ordered to be closed by 
the "strikers," and in one or two instances the mob 
forced some of the grocerymen to give them flour, 
groceries, and provisions. 

The company was at the mercy of the strikers, and 
they were very much afraid that their proiierty in 
the borough, which amounted to a million dollars or 
more, would be destroyed by fire. The danger-point 
was not passed until the leader and chief conspirator) 
Truxell, was arrested and taken to jail, which oc- 
curred on Thursday, July 2()th. 

Fire Companies. — Just when, where, or by whom 
the pioneer lire apparatus of the old Columbia Cora* 
pany was purchased we cannot ascertain, as the earliest 
records are lost or destroyed. However, we find tiiat 
the company was organized and owned a fire-engine 
as early as February 27, 1806, and an account of one 
hundred and fifty dollars having been paid towards 
its purchase, and the same year eleven dollars was 
charged by the treasurer as having been paid for re- 
pairs to the carriage. This is supposed to mean the 
hose-carriage, though not definitely stated. In 1814, 
at a reorganization of the company, the following 
persons were enrolled as members: Samuel Miller, 
William F. Houston, William B. Hunt. John Wilson, 
John Haldeman, Michael Elder, William F. Beaty, 
Joseph Jeffries, John McKissick, Joseph Mifliin, Jacob 
Williams, Thomas Wright, Thomas M. Jlifflin, John 
Forrey, John Brum field, Robert W. Houston, C. 
Brennemau, Dominick Haughey, E. Green, Amos H( 
Slaymaker, Benjamin Brubaker, John L. Wright, 
John Gontner, Jr., James Willson, Jr., John Mathiot, 
A. B. Breneman, John Greenleaf, Peter Yarnall, John 
Evans, James Clyde, James Sweeney, Thomas Lloyd, 
Joshua King, William Wright, James E. Mifflin, 
Charles N. Wright, Hugh McCorkill, William Liston, 
John W. Patton, Israel Cooke, James Collins, Nathan 
Roberts, Jr., Benjamin Worrell, Henry Martin, Robert 
Barber, Jacob Jlathiot, Casper Peters, John Hippey, 
Th. A. Willson, Robert Magill, Thomas Trump, John 
Dicks, William Kirkwood, George W. Gibbons, George 
Mason, James Todd, George Peters, Christian Halde- 
man. The engine- and hose-house of this company 
is located on LocustStreet, between Second and Third, 
and is conveniently and elegantly fitted up for the 



comfort of the members of the company and their 
visitors. The officers for 188.3 were: President, John 
Tyson; Vice-President, William Findley; Secretary, 
li. >t. Sample; Treasurer, J. W. Yocum- Chief En- 
gineer, D. A. Wayne ; Chief Director, Eugene Conley. 
The Good Intent Fire Company was organized 
in April, 1835, and a fire-engine was purchased in the 
eunimer of the same year. This company was com- 
posed of the wealthiest and best citizens in the 

The Vigilant Steam Fire-Engine and Hose Com- 
pany, No. 2, whose engine-house is located at No. 
24 North Second Street, was originally organized as 
the " Good Intent Fire Company," and subsequently 
(about 1844) the name was changed to "Vigilant Fire 
Company," and atthe outbreak of the Rebellion nearly 
all the members "shouldered arms and marched to the 
front." In the latter part of 18(35 the company was 
reorganized and consolidated with the old "Susque- 
hanna Fire Company," under the name of " Vigilant 
Steam Fire-Engine and Hose Company, No. 2." The 
property at No. 24 North Second Street is owned by 
the company. They have in charge a fourth-class 
Clupp & Jones steamer, built in 1882, and have 
upon their rolls the names of about two hundred 
men. The officers of the company for 1883 were as 
follows: President, George R. Bennett; Vice-Presi- 
dent, James Kiskaddon ; Treasurer, N. Gilihan; 
Secretary, George W. Schroeder. 

The Shawnee Steam Fire-Engine and Hose Com- 
pany, whose engine-liouse is located on North Fifth 
Street, in the Fourth Ward of the borough, was or- 
ganized June 4, 1874, with the following officers and 
members, the first election taking place June 12th of 
the same year. The following were the first officers 
elected: President, James E. Wolf; Vice-President, 
Frank Conroy ; Secretary, George L. Lyle; Treasurer, 
Daniel F. Gohn ; Trustees, William G. Lutz, John 
Elliott, Philip Schlack; Foreman, George W. Wike; 
Assistant Foremen, C. Swartz, C. Shillot, D. Cole- 
man ; Hose Guards, John Wolf, James Hickey, David 
liarr, Andrew Lane, Samuel Blackson, George Shoe- 
maker, Ed. Gause, Frederick Hardnele. The steamer 
in charge of this company is a third-class Clapp & 
Jones machine, built and purchased in 187G. The 
company had, July 80, 1883, two hundred and sevQiity- 
four members on their rolls. The officers for 1883 
were as follows: President, Andrew Hardnele; Vice- 
President, George Hardnele; Secretary, George F. 
Lutz; Treasurer, Daniel F. Gohn; Chief Engineer, 
Joseph Howers; Assistant Engineer, Harry Dinkle; 
Trusteeg, A. 11. Gilbert, Peter Book, Joseph Sweitzer; 
Janitor, Joiin Honadle; Chief Hose Director, Ed. 
Triicy ; First AHsistant, George Dinkle. 

The borough purchased a small fire-engine called 
the " Bravo" about the year 1825. The box was 
•upplied with water carried in buckets from the river 
or Home adjoining pump. There was a crank-handle 
oa each side, where two men could stand and turn 

the handle, which forced the water over an ordinary 

It was of great service in case of fires, and could 
be taken into any of the back yards and other places 
where a larger engine could not go. But little care 
was taken with it, and the wood-work shrank and let 
out the water at first about as fast as it was put in. 

The cylinder lay horizontal, and the shaft between 
the handles ran through the centre. Two meh could 
work this little engine very easily. 

It weut to pieces more than twenty years ago. In 
1832 it was given in charge of Columbia Fire Com- 

Eastern Star Lodge, No. 169, F. and A. M., was 
constituted about 1812. The records of the lodge are 
lost, but it is known that it continued work till about 
1830, when its communications ceased. The last sur- 
viving Mason who was a member at that time, Tliomas 

B. Dunbar, died in June, 18S3. 

Columbia Lodge, No. 286, F. and A. M., was con- 
stituted Feb. 16, 1S54, under a charter granted to C. 
S. Kaurt'man, W. il. ; Daniel Herr, S. W. ; Jacob M. 
Strickler, J. W. ; James S. McMahon, S. ; Thomas 
Lloyd, T. ; and Peter A. Kinburg, John Eckert, and 
John Barr, charter members. The first place of meet- 
ing was Herr's Hotel, corner of Fulton and Walnut 
Streets. Its communications were held here till 1873, 
when it removed to Odd-Fellows' Hall, corner of 
Second and Locust Streets, its present place of meet- 

The Worshipful Masters of this lodge have been 

C. S. Kaulfman, Daniel Herr, Joseph Buchanan, 
Francis H. Ebur, J. L. Wolfe, L. Frederick, A. M. 
Rambo, E. K. Boice, A. J. Kauffman, C. H. Mc- 
Cullough, J. A. E. Keed, J. A. Myers, William W. 
Upp, A. R. Breneman, C. A. Fondersmith, J. G. 
Pence, Franklin Hinkle, David B. Willson, Silas A. 
Vache, George F. Rathvon, S. B. Clepi)er, John A. 
Blade, James Perr^ttet, Theodore L. Urban. The 
present officers are Joseph W. Yocum, W. jM. ; 
Abraham G. Guiles, S. W. ; Simon C. Camp, J. W. ; 
James A. Meyers, T._; and A. J. Kauffman, S. 

The total number initiated in this lodge is two hun- 
dred and eighty-eight. The present membership is 
one hundred and forty-three. The lodge has a fund 
of $12,500 invested. 

Corinthian Royal Arch Chapter, No. 224, F. 
and A. M., was c(.M>titutcd June 24, 1801), with A. J. 
Kauflman, H. P.; Franklin Hinkle, K. ; George F. 
Sprenger, S. ; E. K. Boice, T. ; M. M. Strickler, Sec. ; 
David Hanauer, A. M. Rambo, George Seibert, Jacob 
S. Snyder, C. S. Kaulfman, and John C. Buclier, 
charter members. 

The foltowing have served as H. P.: A. J. Kaull- 
man, Franklin Hinkle, William II. Eagle, William 
II. Pfahler, Charles H. McCuUough, C. L. P. Boice, 
T. J. Clepper, Andrew M. Rambo, Stephen B. Clep- 
per, Jacob G. Pence, Peter A. Krodel, John A. Slade, 
Elias B. Herr. 



The present officers are Joseph W. Yocum, H. P. ; 
William G. Taylor, K. ; Theodore L. Urbau, S. ; 
Charles H. Pfahler, T. ; A.J. Kauffman, Sl'c. The 
last has been Grand Commander of the Knights 
Templar in Pennsylvania. 

The present membership is seventy-three, and it 
has a surplus invested. 

Cyrene Commandery, No. 34, K. T., was consti- 
tuted first by dispensation March 25, 1869, and by 
charter June 9, 18G9. The charter members were 
Andrew J. Kauffman, E. C. ; Andrew M. Rambo, G. ; 
George F. Sprenger, C. G. ; Matthew M. Strickler, 
T. ; Franklin Hinkle, Rec. ; George Seibert, Samuel 
Carter, Jacob S. Snyder, John C. Bucher, Christian 
S. Kauffman, and Andrew M. Rambo. 

The Past Commanders are as follows: C. S. Kauff- 
man, A. J. Kauffman, A. M. Rambo, William H. 
Eagle, Stephen B. Clepper, Thomas J. Clepper, Sul- 
livan S. Child, Daniel J. Griffith, Peter A. Krodel, 
Stephen S. Clair, John A. Slade, Isaac D. Landis, 
Simon C. Camp, and Christian Hershey. 

The present officers are William H. Pfahler, E. C. ; 
George J. Ralhbon, G. ; Robert McAnall, C. G. ; W. 
G. Taylor, T. ; A. J. Kauffman, Rec. 

The present membership is sixty-two. 

Susquehanna Lodge, No. 80, I. 0. 0. F., was or- 
ganized in the borough of Columbia in December, 
1842. The charter members were John Frederick 
Houston, N. G. ; T. B. Odell, V. G. ; E. J. Sneeder, 
Sec; Nicholas Springer, Treas. This lodge is one 
of the oldest and most prominent of the lodges in 
Pennsylvania, and is yet in tine working order, with 
a membership far above the average. The roll-books 
of the lodge contain the names of men who have 
since become prominent in railroad. State, and na- 
tional affairs. We may mention the late Thomas A. 
Scott, late president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, 
also Assistant Secretary of War under President 
Lincoln, and a number of others who have held sim- 
ilar positions of honor and trust. We copy the fol- 

lowing list of nam 
forty years ago : 

Juhn F. IIouetoD. 
E. J. Sneoder. 
KIcliulus Springer. 
Martin Noil. 
Francia lliadli-y. 
William McClicsney. 
G. G. Claiburne. 
Willium F. Curottiers. 
William CowUeu. 
H. Siiyiiuiu. 
A. Guhn. 
O. C. Franclacus. 
C. Mellinger. 
Jghli.ll. Wright. 
Jolin nnlhiiiher. ' 

from the roll 


H. M 


J. Sn 




Jiin.ea Kerr. 

J. M 


El. B 

D. K 


G. n 



am Shaw 

D. K 



B. Wolf. 

Abrah.iui llur 



S. II. 


M, Ck'ppor. 
S.imiitl Caley. 
W. W. Miirlln. 
J. W. Berntheizel. 
Godfrey Keebler. 

Paskil M. Taylo 
Jacob Wolf. 
William S. Coch 

Sunulel Oolin. 
John tddy. 
Joseph A. Barr. 
11. Pfahler. 
John Lloyd. 

P. Goodman. 
Jacob Grubb. 
E. A. Howard. 
A. McMithael. 
S. D. Young. 
J. H. Broolis. 
H. R. Muaser. 
John Jordan. 
A. 1). BoggB. 
William Caats. 
Samuel Brooks. 

G. W. Barrack. 
J. JlcCorkle. 
H. Krenaun. 

C. I!a«linga. 
William Boll. 
Joseph HeS3. 
John F. Craig. 
Elias Haul). 
Joseph Withers. 
M. Leese. 

S. C. Gove. 
Nelson Sutton. 
William Paltou. 
William S. Dickey. 
II. Brennem.iu. 

D. Murphy. 

J. B. Edwards. 

George Moore. '.i. 

Thomas A. Scott. , ! 
P. M. Haldeman. 

M. Leibhart. ''I 

A.Harper. ^ 

H. Harnley. •; 

William Wiggins. '.^ 

J. H. Roberts. ''■ 

J. F. Beecher. (*, 

John Kerr. :^ 

Joseph Black. Jr. ,• 

Samuel S. Hively. 's' 

P. Delinger. j, 

0. Westbrook. « 

B. F. Whitson. ' "? 

T. Tyrrell. '4. 

S. R. Lewellyn. ...(j 

William F. Lockard. ; 

A. M. Haines. ' "^ 
0. SIcCullough. ■'' 
R.W.Smith. 'Si 
Levi Duck. ,A 
William R. Beck. . 
John Smeltzer. * 
H. Fraley. . j 
J. B. Flury. , ^^ 

B. Young. ; 
P. Morris. ' 
Joseph Hougendobler. :i 
William Roberts. ) 
Jacob K. Habaker. .^ 
William Sclmlck. 

Samuel Bruckhart. , '! 

Conrad Kraus. .'| 

John H. Kauffman. ^ 
Joseph B. Habaker. 

John Kessler. •* 
H. A. Hougendobler. 

John M. Weller. I 

AVilliam Brown. { 

Daniel Flury. **■ 

0. W. Kiilhfon. '^ 

Henry U. Upp. i^ 

Joseph HidJIeson. . 

A number of the prominent members of this lodge 
formed an association, and erected a large four-stury 
building at the northeast corner of Second and Locust 
Streets, measuring forty feet on Locust, and e.xtendinj 
along Second Street eighty feet, in the year 1850. 
The lodge-room is in the fourth story. The third 
story is used by the order of Red Men and the 
Blasonic fraternity. The second story is used for a 
public hall, and the first story for law-offices and 
drug-store. The association is a stock company, i 

The membersliip of Lodge No. 80 is very large. 
Since its organization more than thirty thousand dol- 
lars have been paid out in benefits to members anii 
their families. '■ 

The Past Grands of this lodge who are now living are 
Martin Neil, Samuel B. Heise, D. I. Bniner, Samuel 
Truscott, William F. Carutliers, H. H. Houston, H. 
M. North, Harford Fraley, Peter Fraley, Hiram Wil- 
son, T. J. Kuch, Stephen Green, William Reese, A. 
M. Rambo, John Shenberger, M. S. Shuman, E. A. 
Becker, A. J. Musser, William B. Fasig, H. F. Bruner, 
C. H. McCullough, S. C. May, John L. Long, Jobn 



B. Mullen, J. D. Stacy, J. D. Fisher, Benjamin Hal- 
deman, Andrew Henderson, Henry Hippey, Jacob 
BaLn, John A. Brush, William Clark, Ge.)rge D. 
Huff, J. G. Pence, L. D. May, A. J. Hoffman, James 
B. Douglas, John B. Eshleman, L. C. Overton, Hugh 
Donley, Michael Schaivley, Samuel H. Boyd, Henry 
Myers, George B. Breneman, Samuel H. Hoffman, 
Joseph Funk, James T. Schroeder, Isaac Anwerter, 
B. F. Dean, and Jacob Tracy. 

The present officers are E. D. Fry, N. G. ; R. S. 
Dunbar, V. G. ; Samuel H. Boyd, freas. ; R. J. M. 
Little, Sec.; John E. Tyler, Asat. Sec. The present, 
membership is two hundred and one. The lodge 
has a surplus invested of five thousand dollars. 

Orion Lodge, I. 0, 0. F., was organized May 25, 
1874, witli the following-named officers: W. Hayes 
Grier, N. G. ; Simon P. Wayne, V. G. ; J. S. Smith, 
Bee. I H. H. Roberts, Asst. Sec. ; George W. Schroe- 
der, Treas. ; George W. Sener, A. C. Eckert, V. J. 
Baker, Trustees ; 0. W. Stevenson, Con. ; S. P. Moder- 
well, S. W. ; Samuel Greeuawalt, J. W. ; Harry C. 
Lichty, R. S. to N. G. ; George A. Souders, L. S. to 
N. G. ; James S. Nowlen, R. S. S. ; Evan G. Hamaker, 
L. S. S. ; S. M. Williams, R. S. to V. G. ; Charles B. 
Schuster, L. S. to V. G. ; James Growth er, I. G. ; Sam- 
uel Hippy, O. G. ; H. C. Sprout, Janitor. The lodge is 
in a flourishing condition, and numbers about one 
hundred and forty-five members in good standing, 
iiid a fund of three thousand dollars in the treasury. 
Tiieir lodge-room is iu the third story of the Vigi- 
lant Fire Company, on Second Street, between Locust 
and Walnut Streets. 

Shawnee Encampment, No, 23, 1. 0. 0. F., was 
organized, but after u tew years it surrendered its j 
charier, and was subsequently reorganized. The Past 
Chief Patriarchs are Samuel Truscott, Samuel B. 
Heise, Hiram Wilson, D. L Bruner, Andrew Hen- 
derson, J. W. Fisher, A. M. Rambo, John Shenber- 
ger, H. F. Bruner, John L. Long, Daniel CuUey, 
George D. Huff, Simon C. May, R. J. M. Little, E. 
A. Becker, John A. Brush, A. J, Musser, William 
Clark, C. H. McCullough, Jacob Bahn, Samuel P. 
Graver, L. C. Oberlin, Olhneil Geiger, Michael 
Scheibiey, H. C. Lichty, Orrick Richards, M. H. 
Newcomer, James B. Douglass, George D. Schroeder, 
Jlenry ilyers, C. D. Stevenson, Charles N. Sin\ms, 
laauc Oibb, James A. Allison, and Eli Roberts. The 
present otlicers are Samuel C. Schwartz, C. P.; John 
H Tyler, S. W. ; F. P. D. Miller, J. W. ;• George D. 
Bcbroeder, T. R. J. ; M. Little, S. The membership 
of the encampment is ninety-three. It has a fuud 
Invented of three thousand dollars. 

The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers of 
the United States, Canada, and Mexico, Division 
Ho. 104, was organized in Columbia in the month of 
.June, 18G9. None but locomotive engineers can be- 
.coroe members of this order. The object of this asso- 
^ciatlon is for " mutual i)rotection and llie elevation of 
,|U members in society, and their advancement in 

their occupation." There is also a beneficial and life 
insurance feature of the order, which pays the family 
of a deceased member the sum of three thousand dol- 
lars, and ulso the same amount for total disability. 
In case of sickness or partial disability the sum of 
eight dollars ptr week is paid to the beneficiary. 

The officers are John T. Richards, Chief Engi- 
neer; George Irwin, First Engineer; Henry Beck, 
Second Engineer; James B. Strawbridge, First As- 
sistant Engineer; Hayes Smith, Second Assistant 
Engineer ; Joshua Hughes, Third Assistant Engineer ; 
David Leyman, Guide; Jesse Godeeker, Chaplain. 

The stated meetings of this order are on the first 
Sunday of each month and the third Wednesday 
evening of each month. Their room is on the third 
story of Fenrich's Hall, on Locust Street, between 
Front and Second Streets. 

There are thirty two members of the order belong- 
ing to this division. The following-named members 
have died : Thomas Powers, Michael Shuman, Jacob 
Armstrong, John Neinian. JMartin Mellinger was 
killed on the Pennsylvania Railroad at Glen Lock, in 
the winter of 1871, while standing on the track, oil- 
ing his engine. In case of death the sum is made 
up by an assessment of one dollar each in the whole 

The rules of the order prohibit drunkenness, and 
its menibers are not permitted to keep drinking sa- 
loons or taverns. The motto of the order is " Truth, 
Justice, Sobriety, and Morality." The members are 
all respectable and well-to-do citizens. 

Chiquesalunga Tribe, No. 3L Improved Order 
of Red Men, was organized in 1857, with Joseph S. 
List, S. ; J. W.Tyler, S. S. ; J. B. Rahm, J. S. ; J. H. 
Freet, P. ; G. Branett, K. of W. ; Dudley D. Upp, 
C. of R., and others as charter members. It haa 
maintained an unbroken existence to the present 
time. The Sachems have been V. J. Baker, Edward 
Billet, William L. Cope, B. F. Clair, Joseph .Ellsla- 
ger, David R. Fisher, Samuel Greenawalt, George 
Hardnele, Andrew Hardnele, John Harsh, Isaac 
Broom, Adam Krotzer, W. R. Meckley, Harry Maze, 
Lawrence McCracken, Jacob Milligsack, H. C. Mat- 
thews, William Preston, Daniel Retheiser, George 
Roberts, John Ritter, George W. Seaner, Amos Sym- 
mons, L. M. Williams, G. W. Snider, Nicholas Wolf, 
George Young, Emanuel Newcomer, William Black- 

The present officers are Charles Filbert, S. ; Jacob 
Krotzer, S. S. ; Albert Newcomer, J. S. ; William 
Meckley, P.; Emanuel Newcomer, C. of R. ; E. J. 
Baker, K. of W. 

The tribe has two hundred and two members, and 
its assets above its liabilities are four thousand dol- 

The wigwam of this tribe is tastefully furnished, 
and the walls are ilecoraled with characteristic paint- 

Osceola Tribe, No. 11, Improved Order of Red 

'C.: 4' 



Men, was organized Jan. 17, 1874, with Smith Swords, 
S. ; A. J. Musser, S. S. ; J. H. Downs, J. S. ; P. A. 
Krodel, C. of R. ; James Schroeder, K. of W. ; Wil- 
liam Paxson, Prophet; Josiah Gramme, George F. 
Berger, Charles Grove, Andrew M. Rambo, Peter 
Hofl'man, Henry A. Weaver, Calvin A. Bahn, Claj'- 
ton J. Reisinger, Henry Bixler, John Bahn, Jat-ob 
A. Devine, Abram Guiles, Charles G. Hopton, Josluia 
Earnshaw, Jacob H. Lutz. 

This was the reorganization of a tribe by the same 
name that was chartered much earlier, and at the 
time of its reorganization James Schroeder, now dead, 
was the only living member of the original tribe. 

The Sachems of this tribe have been, in succession, 
Smith Swords, William Paxson, Josiah Gramm, S. B. 
Clepper, John H. Downs, Peter Hoffman, George 
Little, John D. Lowry, Benjamin F. Jlann, Joseph 
G. Moore, H. S. Kimmel. John B. Slaymaker, Filbert 
Smith, D. L. Weim, G. W. Berntheisel, Thomas J. 
Clepper, Adolphus Redman. 

The present oflicers are B. H. Eicherly, Sachem ; 
George Studenroth, S. S. ; George C. Hill, J. S. ; G. 
W. Berntheisel, P.; G. Bentou Clepper, C. of R.; 
Henry Nolte, K. of W. The present membership is 
one hundred and forty-six. The tribe has a surplus 
of several hundred dulhirs in its treasury. 

The Red Rose Conclave, No. 10, Knig-hts of the 
Red Cross of Constantine and Attendant Orders. 
— This was first organized as No. o'J, under a charter 
from the Grand Conclave of England, dated June 16, 
1871. June 14, 1872, the conclave was renumbered 
by the Grand Council of Pennsylvania. 

The charter members were A. J. Kauffman, M. P. S. ; 
S. B. Clepper, Vice; Charles J. Fondersmith, S. G. ; 
Abraham R. Breneman, J. G. ; William H. Pfhaler, 
H. P.; Charles H. Pfhaler, Treas. ; P. A. Krodel, 
Rec. ; George F. Rathvon, Christian Hershey, D. D. 
Upp, Jacob Z. HofFer, and Franklin Henkle. 

John A. Slade is the present M. P. S., and A. J. 
Kauffman, Recorder. The last nameil has held the 
position of Grand Sovereign of Pennsylvania. 

Assembly No. 20, A. 0. M. P., was instituted in 
December, 187o, with A. J. Kauffman, Master Arti- 
san ; Jolin A. Slade, Superintendent; A.J. Musser, 
Inspector ; S. A. Bockius, Recorder ; J. L. Pinkerton, 
Cashier; Dr. Alexander Craig, Medical Examiner; 
Christian Hershey, Hugh Donnelly, A. R. Hogen- 
dobler, Daniel C. Wann, John B. Eshluman, Abram 
G. Guiles, Samuel Filbert, Rev. John McCoy, Henry 
Hippey, John E. Metzger, Jlilton Wike, Samuel S. 
Klair, Edward H. Staman, H. H. Heise, Henry Nolte, 
S. H. Miller, Frederick Bucher, Hiram Wilson, H.F. 
Bruner, H, S. Hershey, Dr. J. K. Lineaweaver, 
David Hanover, Abram Bruner, John C. Clark, Ed- 
ward S. Stair, Cyrus Bruner, John Sternberger, Fred- 
erick Bruner, Jacob A. May, Charles D. May, Jacob 
Bruner, George C. Haldeman,'Dr. W. G. Taylor, W. 
Hayes Grier, John U Devlin, H. C. Sprout, and 
William B. Foesig as charter members. 

The Past Master Artisans are A. J. Kauffman, 
John A. Slade, H. A. Musser, John B. E^hlemaii, 

D. C. Wann, A. R. Hogendobler, Cyrus Bruner, 
Jacob Bahn. The present officers are F. P. D. Jliller, 
M. A. ; Jacob Smith, S. ; H. F. Yergy, I. ; D. C. 
Wann, R. ; H. S. Hershey, Cashier; Dr. J. R. Line- 
aweaver, Med. Ex. The present membership is forty- 
nine. No death has occurred among the members of 
this Assembly. The funds of the Assembly amount 
to fifteen hundred dollars. 

Pennsylvania Castle, No. 76, R. 0. of the K. of 
j the M. C, was organized in October, 1874, with 
Thomas Jackson, chaplain; A. N. Wilson, Sir Kt. 
Commander; William Redman, Sir Kt. Vice-Com- 
mander; John Letz, Sir Kt. First Lieutenant; H. C. 
Sprout, Sir Kt. Recording Scribe; George Hardnail, 
j Sir Kt. Assistant Recording Scribe; John P. Hall, 
[ Sir Kt. Financial Scribe; Sir Kt. Treasurer, Samuel 
I Bruckart; Sir Kt. Inside Guard, Henry Heiser ; Sir 
Kt. Outside Guard, James I. McEnnis; Sir Kt. Past 
Commanders, James I. McEnnis, James Hardnail, 
and John H. Bletz, and thirty-seven other charter 

The castle has enjoyed uninterrupted prosperity, 
and it now numbers one hundred and ten knights. 
The present otBcers are B. F. Mann, Sir Kt. Com- 
mander; Detwiler, Sir Kt. Vice-Commander; 

William Trapnell, Sir Kt. First Lieutenant; Simon 
Gramm, Chaplain ; W. G. Taylor, Sir Kt. Treasurer; 

E. K. Getz, Sir Kt. Recording Scribe; J. G. Paine, 
Sir Kt. Assistant Recording Scribe; A. J. Hogen- 
togler. Sir Kt. Inside Guard ; Adam Eag\e, Sir Kt, 

Outside Guard ; Philip Clark, J. S. Purple, and 

Diffenderfer, Trustees. The Past Commanders are 
S. J. Ashton, Tobias Manning, A. J. Hogentogler, D. 
R. Rattew, E. K. Getz, Uriah Sourbeer, Jacob Wi- ; 

E>ifrenderfer, A. G. Lindsey, Ja 

I. Me- 

i »ier, 

I Ennis. 

I Conestoga Lodge, No. 463, Knights of Pythias, 

j was organized March 1;"), IsSO, with the tbilowing 
charter members: J. F. Jletzger, Frederick Thumra, 
Jcdin Weber, Frederick Abendschein, Frederick 

' Brumer, William Buchholz, H. Beinhauer, D. Yung, 
Christian Metzger, Christian Ladenburger. 

The first officers were Ch. C, J. F. Jletzger; V. 
Ch., J. Niclaus; Prelate, W. Buchholz; Master at' 
Arms, J. Weber; K. R. and S., Christian Jletzger; 
Treas., F. Thumm; M. of Ex., D. Yung; I. G., H. 
Bierhauer'; 0. G., Christian Ladenburger. 

The presiding officers were J. F. Metzger, J. Nic- 
laus, N. Bushhoiz, John Weber, St. Riihl, Ed. G. Col- 
lin, J. Ehman. 

The present officers are : Ch. C, L. Schuler ; V. Ch., 
J. Henzf Prelate, V. Xucnzor; JI. A., Charles Rci- 

j ner; K. R. and S., W. G. Duttenhofer ; Treas., F. 
Thumm; Exec, Christ. Ladenburger; I. G., F. Stoll; 

! O.G., J.Weber; Trustees, AVilliam Harm, F. Aliend- 

I schein, William Buchholz. The numlier of members 

I is seventy-three. 


Gen. Welsh Post, No. 118, G. A. R., .it Columbia, 
was organized and inu^tc-ix'd .Maa-li 21, 1SG8. It is 
named in honor o( lirig.-Gun. Thomas Welsh, a dis- 
tinguished soldier, who served through the Jlexican 
war and in the war of the liebellion. His military 
history is given elsewhere. He was severely wounded 
at Uuena Vi^jta, and his leg was saved from amputa- 
tion by Dr. Blanton, after whom his only son, Blan- 
ton, was subsequently named. The latter is a gradu- 
ate of West Point Military Academy, and a lieutenant 
of the Fifteenth United States Infantry. Gen. Welsh 
organized the Forty-fifth Eegiujent of Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, and was subsequently promoted to briga- 
dier-general. His lieutenant-colonel was James A. 
Heaver, afterwards also a distinguished brigadier- 

Gen. Welsh Post is one of the strongest, numeri- 
cally and financially, and one of the best organized 
and successfully conducted posts in the interior of the 
State. Its muster-roll contains nearly three hundred 
names, comprising many of the leading citizens of 
Columbia, including merchants, members of the dif- 
ferent professions, skilled mechanics, ntinieroiis em- 
ployes and officers of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company, and farmers from the suburban districts. 
It is an organization which very fairly rejiresents the 
character, patriotism, and intelligence of our citizen 
soldiery, commanding the respect and enjoying the 
confidence and sympathy of the community. 

The post controls a beautiful plot of ground in 
Mount Bethel Cemetery, where soldiers, dying with-, 
out friends, are buried. It annually observes Memo- 
rial D.ay with solemn and appropriate services. The 
post owns a valuable sciopticon and dissolving views, 
used in the illustration of its ritual ; has a large and 
well-organized drum corps, and is now negotiating 
for a more convenient and suitable post-room. 

The Past Commanders are Henry Mullen, the pres- 
ent postmaster; J. F. Cottrell, JI.D. ; J. F. Frueauf}', 
attorney-at-law ; W. Hayes Grier, Esq., editor of The 
Columbia Herald; J. W. Yocum, ICsq., editor of The 
Cohtinbia Spy ; and Edward A. Becker, Esq. 

Putnam Circle, No. 113, B. U. H. F., organ- 
ized Feb. 10, 1875, with Peter IngroflT, P. E. M. ; John 
Stickler, E. M. ; Samuel G. Sheaffer, C. M. ; Henry 
Apply, C. J. ; James G. Richardson, H. R. ; William 
Maple, H. Treas. ; George Maple, H. S. K. ; Orthneel 
Geiger, C. F. ; Jacob Gohn, U. D. ; Townsend Stone, 
U. N. The present officers are Joseph Shartzer, 
E. JI. ; Wayne Leighteiser, C. M. ; Henry Nultv, 
C. J.; A. N.'Eshleman, C. F. ; John Jleimer, H. H.; 
E. K. Getz, H. S. K. ; A. L. Yountz, H. R. ; John 
Temple, H. T. i Elias Ulmer, U. I).; George O. 
Fisher, U. N. The niembcrshi[) is sixty-two. 

Eiverside Home Circle, No. 27, was organized 
April 23, 1877, with the following officers: Annie 
Lindsey, P. G. ; A. G. Lindsey, G. ;'Mary Anderson, 
P. \\. 6. T.; Henry Ap|dey, Propliet; Annie Smith, 
Prophetess; Jacob R. Golin, Prir>l ; .Mary .Scluilk, 

I Priestess ; E. K. Getz, H. S. R. ; Amanda Kirk, H. R. ; 

I John M. Eberley, Treas. ; Eliza Goodman, U. D. ; 

I Sarah Fisher, U. N. The present officers are Carrie 
Swartz, P. G.; Jane Hippey, G. ; Sarah Long, P.; 

' Lydia Fonwalt, Prophet; J. Hilliar, Prophetess; 
Mary Yountz, Priest; Mary E. Hoffman, Priestess; 
E. K. Getz, H. S. K. ; A, L. Yountz, H. P.; L. P. 

[ Metzger,II.T.; Annie Kcesev, U. 1). ; Mary P.altzlev, 
U. N. 

i The Opera-House.— The erection of a new public 
hall was first discussed in Council, March 18, 1870, 
on a proposition from the Masonic Hall Association 
to purchase or lease for that purpose the borough lot 
at the corner of Third and Locust Streets. Three 
'days after a special meeting of Council was held to 
consider the proposition, when it was agreed to obtain 
legislation to authorize the borough to borrow forty 
thousand dollars to build a hall, if approved by a vote 

' of the peo]ile. The election for that purpose was held 
April 9, 1870, when four hundred and ninety-three 
votes were polled for, and fifty-five against, a new town 
hall. Plans for the hall were submitted May 28tli, a 

j building committee appointed; proposals invited. 
They were found to be so high that they were referred 
back to the committee and architect for revision, and 
were never considered again. In 1871, the hall pro- 
ject was revived. 

In 1873, at an adjourned meeting held May 30th, 

j it was resolved, " that the Borough Council jiroceed 
to erect an additional market-house and town hall 
combined." At the same meeting a building com- 
mittee was appointed, consisting of Messrs. Bachman, 

I Kauffman, Detwiler, Craig, and Steacy. On August 

j ISth, of the plans submitteil, that of E. F. Durang 

1 was adopted. Septendier 10th ground was broken by 

' Chief Burgess Shenberger. September 18th the work 

' of tearing down the old town hall was commenced. 

, The foundation walls for the new structure were com- 

I pleted during the autumn, and carefully jirotected 

I against the exposures of winter. 

Feb. 24, 1874, the contract for the building, exclu- 
sive of clock, bell, stage, and auditorium furniture, 
upholstering, heating apparatus, gas fixtures, etc., 
was awarded to Michael Liphart, being the lowest 

j bidder, at fifty-four thousand three hundred dollars. 

1 The building committee of 1873 was continued, Mr. 

1 Haldeman having succeeded Jlr. Detwiler, whose 
term had expired. In 1875, the terms of Messrs. 

' Craig and Steacy having expired, IMessrs. McClure 
and Wolfe were appointed to succeed them. E. W. 

1 Goerke, C. E., was employed as superintendent. Mr. 
Liphart died Jan. 80, 1875, and his contract was com- 
pleted by his sureties, Messrs. \. P.rnner and E. 
Hershey. Tli'e bell in the tower was us.d lor the fir-t 
time after it was hung in tolling his sad tiuieral notes. 
The Opera-House cost $85,824.15. It was formally 
opened by the Mendelssohn Quintette Club of Boston, 
on Tuesday evening, Aug. 24, 1875, in the presence 
of over seven hundred people. 15efore the concert a 


short dedicatory address was delivered by H. M. 
North, Esq. 

Prominent Families and Individuals.— Robert 
Barber was bora in England. He was bound to 
his uncle, Robert Barber, to learn the "art and 
■ mystery of cordwaining." They came to Chester in 
the latter part of the seventeenth century. In the 
summer or fall of 1708, Robert Barber died, leaving 
no issue. His estate was large for that time. He de- 
vised to his nephew, the subject of this, sketch, who 
was then living with him and had not attained his 
majority, its largest portion. When he became of 
age he decided to follow a seafaring life. He was 
taken by the French and thrown into prison in France, 
and when lie was released he returned to Chester. He 
and his uncle were Quakers, and it is probable that 
the experience he had while in a French prison, and 
a prospect of being recaptured by French privateers 
if he continued to follow a maritime life, diverted 
his mind from what seemed to be a vocation of much 
peril to a more peaceful one, and he concluded to 
settle in Chester. He had an active mind, which was 
well developed, a body healthy and vigorous, capable 
of enduring hardsiiips. 

He married Hannah Tidmarsh, of Philadelphia, a 
member of the Society of Friends, and a person en- 
dowed with great energy and a mind of more than 
ordinary character. In the year 1719 he was a candi- 
date for sheriff of Cheater County, but was beaten by 
Nicholas Fairlamb. In the fall of 1721 he ran for 
coroner in the same county, and was elected. In the 
year 1724 he was elected a member of the Hoard of 
County Assessors. 

When this county was organized he was appointed 
sheriff', and at the general election in October, 1729, 
he was chosen to the same office by the people. 

He was ambitious to secure the location of the 
county-seat upon his farm, and at his own expense he 
erected a temporary log jail in front of his dwelling, 
which stood where is now the garden of Jacob S. 
iStoner, the present owner of the premises. This jail 
is known in history as the place where Sir James 
Annesly was confined. Until the county-seat was 
jiermanently located where it now is, Mr. Barber did 
not give up all hope of getting it upon his land. It 
caused him some anxiety, and when lie bbcame as- 
sured that he could not succeed he was greatly disap- 

In the fall of 1730 he declined to be a candidate 
for sheriff, and he returned to his farm and private 
life. He built a saw-mill in the meadow soutli of his 
dwelling, to which he gave attention. There were 
but a few acres under cultivation, which was barely 
sutlicient to provide grain enough to support his fam- 
ily and feed liis stock. He had a very large family, 
and it required his best energies to provide for them. 
He was elected county commiasioner for the years 
1740-41. He took an active part in bi. 
Penns during " Cresap'a war." 


Robert Barber died in the year 1749, aged about 
fifty -seven years. He left a widow, Hannah, and ten 
children, namely: John, was "read out" of the So- 
ciety of Friends in 1755 for " marrying out." He was 
killed -by the Indians at the Ohio while trading. 
Robert, who married, Sept. 26, 1746, Sarah, daughter 
of Samuel Taylor; Thomas, who died in his minority; 
Nathaniel, who settled where his father built his man- 
sion, and retained a portion of the land. He died in 
the spring of 1804, leaving five children. Elizabeth, 
who died in her minority; James, married; Samuel; 
Eleanor, who married John Wright, Jr. ; Mary, and 

The second generation of Barbers gradually left the 
Society of Friends, and we find that there were several 
members of the third generation who entered the 
Revolutionary army and served their country faith- 

Samuel Blunston was the son of John Blunston and 
Sarah, who came from Hallam, in the county of Derby, 
England, in 1682. He was a minister of the Society of 
Friends, a warm personal friend of William Penn, anci 
a member of his Council. He was also a member of 
Assembly. He died in 1723, and his wife, Sarah, died 
Oct. 4, 1692. Their children were John (1685-1716), 
Samuel, Joseph (1691-92), and Hannah, who mar- 
ried Thomas Pearson, of Kingsessing. 

Samuel Blunston was born Sept. 2, 1689, at Darby, 
Chester Co., Pa. He married, June 4, 1718, Sarah 

Bilton, the widow of Bilton, who kept a ferry 

over the Schuylkill. He studied land-surveying. He 
had considerable means of his own when he married 
which was largely increased by his wife's fortune. 
She had no children by her first husband, nor did 
she bring any to her second one. They came to the 
Susquehanna in the fall of 1726. She lived but i 
few years after coining here. He was appointed hy 
Peter Evans, the register-general of wills, deputy reg- 
ister of the county, on the 2d day of August, 1729, 
When the county was organized he was appointed ona 
of the justices, although he was in commission as a jui' 
tice from Chester County previous to thii,t time. He 
was not recognized as a strict member of the Society 
of Friends after he came to the Susquehanna, and hii 
name does not appear upon the minutes of th( 
Quarterly or Monthly Meeting records. He wi 
generous liver, and entertained a great deal of com 
pany. Thomas Penn was at his house in 1736, am 
Logan and other prominent officials were there fr» 
(juently. He was elected a member of the Genen 
Assembly in 1732, 1741, 1742, and 1744. He and h: 
life-long friend, John Wright, stood up maMfiill] 
whi?n in the Legislature and o|)posed Governc 
Thomas in his arbitrary measures. 

When the and jail were built, he ws 
frequently consulted about their erection, and h 
seems to have had a general supervision of the worl 
In 1732, when troubles commenced between the Mar; 
landers and Pennsylvanians, in Conagohela Vallej 



four miles ^)elo\v Wrightsville, to the day the former 
struck their flag and left tlie soil of Pennsylvania 
forever, he was untiring in his eftorts to bring the 
freebooters to justice. He employed Benjamin Cham- 
bers (the founder of Chambersburg) to go to the en- 
emy's cam]) in Maryland and discover their designs. 
Although captured, he escaped and reported to Mr. 
Blunston the true state of affairs. He was sent to 
Donegal, where the Scotch-Irish had a house-raising. 
They stopped their work and gathered up what fire- 
arms they had, and hastened to the west side of 
Wright's Ferry, and just arrived in time to give the 
Marylanders a warm reception. For the time being 
a conflict was prevented. 

After all of the German settlers in the valley had 
either joined the enemy or fled to the east side of the 
river, a large force was collected and placed in the 
Fej-ry-House on the west side of the river for defense. 
Mr. Blunston at his own expense kept a large num- 
ber of men there. Governor Ogle, of Maryland, of- 
fered a reward of one hundred ])ounds fur his head, 
and they actually arranged a plan to capture him 
wheu returning from the funeral of the wife of the 
Rev. James Anderson, at Donegal, in 1736. He be- 
came aware of their plans, and avoided the trap they 
had laid for him. About this time he became very 
much discouraged in consequence of the dilatory 
actions of t!ie Governor and his Council. He saw the 
danger to the interests of the proprietors by delay, 
and knew the necessity for prompt action. He sent 
frequent messengers to the Governor, with letters 
couched in caustic and bitter terms, that must have 
had a salutary effect upon the mind of the Governor 
and his friends. On the 3d day of April, 1730, he 
WHS appointed deputy surveyor for the townships of 
" Derry, Hempfield, Dunnegal, and Lebanon." At the 
same time he, in behalf of the inhabitants of these 
townships, presented a scheme for api)easing the 
"tumults and animosities among them," which was 
adopted, and it put an end to the troubles about 
the titles to their land. He had a large field to 
cover, and the duties which called him there were 
very exacting. But for the assistance of that re- 
markable person, Susannah Wright, who copied and 
assisted him in his writing, he could not have ac- 
complished successfully the work he did. His health 
became greatly impaired, and in the summer of 1746 
he was compelled to give up all out-door work. He 
died in September, 1746. He left no issue, and he 
gave his valued friend, Susannah Wright, a life estate 
in all his large property, wdiich consisted of nearly 
nine hundred acres of land. He made several bequests, 
among which was one to the poor of the county. 
Ho owned a number of slaves, and gave them their 
freedom at'ter a term of a few years. 

John Wright was born in Lancashire, England, 
about the year 1667. He came to Chester in tlie year 
1714. He was a public speaker among tlie Quakers, 
and he came recommended from that society in Eng- 

land. He was not long in Chester before he was 
elected to the General Assembly, and was also ap- 
pointed a justice of the peace. Before he came to 
the Susquehanna he had been at Conestoga, where 
he preached to the Indians. He may have gone up 
as far as Shawanese Run, where that tribe had a 
village, and thus became acquainted with the locality 
where he subsequently settled. Robert Barber went 
in advance, and the first survey was made in his 
I name, and he conveyed to John W^right in August, 

1726, one hundred and fifty acres. 
I He built his dwelling upon a level spot of ground 
I fronting the river. This dwelling was torn down in 
I 1874 to give place to a more stately brick mansion of 
modern times. The logs used in its construction were 
hickory, white and Spanish oak, and a number of 
1 black walnut. The dwelling, as first constructed, 
! seems to have contained but one room upon the first 
1 story and one upon the second. 

In the year 1729, Jcdin Wright was elected to a 

I seat in the General Assembly, and re-elected in the 

1 years 1730 and 1731 without opposition. He was 

I again a candidate in 1732. Accidentally or otherwise 

John Wright's name was omitted from some of the 

I ballots and another name inserted in its stead, which 

1 caused his defeat by half a dozen votes. He carried 

j the contest to the General Assembly, but was again 

beaten. George Stewart, who resided in Donegal, 

was elected to the General Assembly in the same 

year, but he died before' taking his seat, and John 

Wright was elected without opposition to fill the 

vacancy. Jle was re-elected for seventeen successive 

terms thereafter, and on Oct. lo, 1745, he was elected 

Speaker of the General Assembly. 

George Thomas was appointed Governor in 1738. 
Almost from the commencement of his administra- 
tion he undertook to carry measures through the 
General Assembly of an arbitrary character which 
were in direct opposition to the policy of that body. 
Among the number of those who led the opposition 
was John Wright, whose integrity stood the test of 
all the cajolery or threats the Governor and his friends 
could bring to bear. The replies of the Assembly 
through their Speaker, who presented addresses to 
the Governor in answer to his niessages to that body, 
displayed great ability. Governor Thomas became 
so enraged at Wright and others for their opposition 
that he determined to punish them for their temerity. 
He announced that he would issue new commissions 
of the peace in place of those held by Wright and 
other recusant members of the Assembly. This was 
intended as a threat to coerce them into his measures. 
In the year 1733-34 he was appointed a loan com- 
missioner, one of the most important positions of 
! trust in the jirovince. During the jjeriod of Cresap's 
I war, which lasted three years, the farm which he had 
bought upon the western side of the river was fre- 
' (|ueiitly run over liy bands of hostile Marylanders. 
I His tenants and laburiu'' men were often driven 


There ' 
.eemed , 
;ed up 

V one. 
and it 

y read 
e view 

kness. ■ 


in tlie 


ted to 


-) pre- 
ill re- 
ui he 
f this 



:er of 


f the 


'IS uf 



away. In the month of July, 1735, when he was 
having a field of wheat reaped, Thomas Cresap, with 
about twenty persons, armed with guns, swords, 
pistols, and blunderbusses, marched into the field 
with drum beating. This military display was not 
very iniijosing, but it was calculated to terrify and 
drive away from his land a farmer who was opposed 
to the use of personal force to resist it. Wright 
walked to the valiant warrior, Cresap, and demanded 
to know what he meant by appearing in so hostile a 
manner to the terror of His Majesty's peaceable sub- 
jects employed about the lawful and necessary busi- 
ness of husbandry. Cresap replied that lie came to 
fight several persons who came over the river, if 
they would accept his challenge. He drew his sword 
and cocked his pistol, and presented them at the 
person of Mr. Wright, who very coolly commanded 
Cresap and his company to keep His Majesty's peace, 
and that he would proceed on his lawful 
Cresap brought a number of wagons wi 
carry oft" Wright's grain. He changed his mind when 
he discovered that he could not intimidate him, and 
he and his men retreated, leaving the wagons in the 
field in charge of the owners, who could not resist 
the persuasive powers of Mr. Wright. They assisted 
to put the grain upon their own wagons, and hauled it 
to the ferry, where it was placed in boats and taken 
to the eastern side of the river. 

Governor Ogle, of Maryland, afterwards offered 
one hundred pounds rewaAl for Mr. Wright's head. 
He held many conferences with different Indian 
tribes, and sometimes made long journeys on horse- 
back to meet them. He was afflicted with rheuma- 
tism, which often confined him to his bed. He mar- 
ried Susannah Crewason. They had five children,^ 
Susannah, Patience, John, Elizabeth, and James. 

Susannah was born in England. When her parents 
removed to America she was at school, where she re- 
mained and finished her education, and followed her 
parents a few years after they left England. Although 
she was a member of the Society of Friends, promi- 
nent persons of birth, education, and culture sought 
her society. She was brilliant in conversation and 
endowed with an extraordinary mind. She could 
not have been a strict follower of George Fox in all 
things, or she would have devoted herself .toitjie min- 
istry. After the death of her mother, which took 
place shortly after her arrival at Chester, she became 
the ruling spirit in her father's family. 

Many of the leading men of the province sought 
her company, whom she entertained and edified with 
her conversation. Of this number there was but one 
young Quaker who made an impression upon her 
hciirt, and that person was Samuel Blunston, who 
married another. After the decease of the latter 
their old friendship and love for each other was re- 
newed and they became inseparable friends. They 
did not marry, probably for the reason that she liad 
entire charge of her father's affairs and her younger 

brother, to whom she was much attached. There 
were but a few families settled here, but all seemed 
to belong to one family, and all of them looked up 
to Iter as the ruling spirit in the neighborhood. 

In business affairs she was consulted by every one. 
She could draw up any legal paper, and her judg- 
ment upon ordinary legal matters was sound, and it 
was safe to follow her advice. She gave her atten- 
tion also to the study of medicine, and probably read 
the few medical books she could find, with the view 
of being better equipped to fight against sickness. 
She had some taste for painting, and in her leisure 
moments from other pursuits she painted a number 
of landscape scenes. She corresponded with liOgan, 
Benjamin Franklin, and other leading men in the 
province and in England upon matters best calcu- 
lated to elevate the race. 

She was one of the first persons in America. to 
1 business, r demonstrate the fact that the climate was adapted to 
th him to the culture of silk. She procured silk-worm eggs, 
from which she raised a large number of the worms. 
She sent the raw silk to Europe and had it woven into 
manilla. One piece alone measured sixty yards, a 
portion of which she gave to the queen, who pre-' 
senled her with a silver tankard, which is still re- 
tained among the descendants of her brother James. 
Benjamin Franklin, who was then in France, became 
greatly interested in this experiment of silk culture 
in his adopted province of Pennsylvania, and he 
wrote to Miss Wright upon the subject, and called 
the attention of a number of leading men in England 
to the matter. There are a few specimens of this 
silk now in the rooms of the Historical Society. 

Samuel Blunston gave her a life estate in his prop- 
erty, and after his death she and her father and 
brother, James, removed to the Blunston mansion. 

Patience Wright was also born in England. She 
married Richard Loudon on the 5th of June, ITliS, 
at the dwelling of Samuel Blunston. He purchased 
a farm in Strasburg township in 1727, adjoining the 
lands of Samuel Taylor. When the county was or- 
ganized and the permanent county-seat located where 
it now is he was appointed keeper of the prison. Mr. 
Loudon purchased a farm in Manlieim township and 
a small tract near GratT's landing. 

Col. John Loudon, son of Richard and Patience 
(Wright), became a distinguished oflicer in the Revo- 
lutionary war, and was in a number of battles. At 
the close of the war he located in Buffalo Valley, on 
the West Branch of the Susquehanna River. 

John Wright married Eleanor Barber, daughter of 
Robert Barber, the first sheriff of the county. He I 
settled upon his father's land on the west side of the 
river," and built the ferVy-liouso thorp. He was a 
member of the General Assembly from York County 
for a number of years, and held other positions of 
trust in that county. 

Elizabeth Wright married Samuel Taylor on the 
8th day of May, 1728, at the house of Samuel Blun- 




8ton, Esq. Samuel Taylor was the son of Christopher 
Tayh)r. He came from " Tinicum" to this county 
in the year 172S, and purchased land in Strasburg 
township near the Bart township line, where he 
erected a grist- and saw-mill upon a branch of Beaver 

James Wright was born in Chester in the year 1714 
or 1715, and was the only one of John Wright's chil- 
dren born in America. About the year 1738, he, in 
connection with Samuel Blunston, erected a corn- and 
grist-mill near the mouth of Shawanese Run. He 
married out of the Society of Friends. About the 
same time he erected the stone mansion now along 
Second Street, between Locust and Cherry Streets, 
known thereafter as " Wright's Ferry Mansion," and 
was on land attached to the ferry-house. He at once 
took a front rank among the leading men of the 
county. He was elected a member of the General 
Assembly in 1745, and continued to serve in that body 
until the year 1771. He and his father and brother, 
John, were members of tliat body at one and the same 
lime. It was an unusual circumstance for three mem- 
bers of the same family to serve so many years to- 
gether in a legislative body. Through all the turmoil, 
excitement, and bitterness which grew out of the 
French and Indian war of 1755-60, and Pontiac's 
war of 1763, which was followed by the destruction 
of the Conestoga Indians, but few Quakers could face 
the storm which followed them into the General As- 
sembly and drove a number of them out. James 
Wright rode safely through it all, and this fact alone 
speaks in favor of his prudence, judgment, and in- 
tegrity. He served on many important committees, 
and was intrusted with matters which required sound 
judgment and tact to prevent Indian outbreaks. 

During the campaign of Gen. Forbes against the 
French and Indians, in 1758, several battalions of 
troops raised in the eastern part of this province and 
elsewhere, numbering twelve hundred, marched as 
far as Lancaster, but refused to go any farther unless 
they received more rations. James Wright came 
forward and agreed to provide for the troops until 
they arrived at Harris' Ferry, about two days' 
march farther west. Tliey then moved promptly. 
In this connection it is well to mention that these 
pioneer Quakers who settled at the Susquehanna 
were a law unto themselves, and for many years 
refused to have anything to do with the Yearly or 
Quarterly Meetings of Friends elsewhere. James 
Wright was married (2d), July 2, 1753, to Rhoda 
Patterson. Their children were Samuel, Elizabeth 
(who married Col. Thomas Boude), John, Thomas, 
Susnnniih, James, William, and Patience (who mar- 
ried Dr. Vincent King). 

Muj. Tliomas Boude was the son of Dr. Samuel 
Boude, of Lancaster, who married Mary, the daughter 
of Samuel Bethel, menlioned-elsewhere. lie and liis 
family were E[)isc(Tpaliaiis. Bel'orc he attained liis 
majority he showed a fondness for military matters, 

and when the conflict between Great Britain and the 
colonies came, he and his brothers were ainong the 
first to enter the Continental service and march 
to tlje from. He entered the army as a lieutenant 
under command of Gen. Anthony Wayne. He was 
in the brTUiant action at the taking of Stony Point, 
on the Hudson, and was in command of one of the 
volunteer squads of twenty called the "forlorn hope," 
and would have been the first person to enter the 
sally port-holes but for the fact that a much larger 
and more powerful person at his side pulled him back 
and forced himself in front. After the capture of the 
fort, Lieut. Boude found in an officer's room a watch, 
which is now in possession of his descendants. For 
gallant conduct u|)on this occasion he was promoted 
to a captaincy, and afterwards to major. He com- 
manded a body of Light Troops at Gen. Washington's 
headquarters, and was also a member of his staff. 
He was in a number of battles, and acquitted himself 
with honor. He was one of the original members of 
the Society of the Cincinnati, iind was appointed 
general of militia by Governor Thomas Mifflin. He 
married Elizabeth Wright, daughter of James 
Wright. They had one child, Elizabeth, who never 
married. He was married the second time to Emily, 
daughter of Col. Samuel John Atlee, a distinguished 
officer of the Revolutionary war, by wliom he had 
four children, — Mary, Sarah, Samuel, and Washing- 

Col. Thoitias Boude, at the close of the Revolution, 
removed to Heinpfield township, and lived upon the 
farm belonging to his first wife, and now owned by 
B. Musser. When his brother-in-law, Samuel Wright, 
laid out the town of Columbia, he purchased a num- 
ber of lots, among which were several fronting the 
river above Walnut Street. He erected the brick 
mansion now owned by Michael S. Shumau. He 
embarked in the lumber business, and was one of 
the first persons who bought lumber and piled it 
along the shore to resell. He was a Federalist, and 
took a prominent part in building up that party. 
He was elected a member of the State Legislature for 
the years 1794, 1795, and 1796. He also represented 
the county in Congress from 1801 to 1803. He was 
again a candidate for Congress on the Federal ticket, 
but was defeated by John Whitehill. The Federal 
party was losing ground rapidly, and when the par- 
ties were nearly equal in numbers the political cam- 
paigns were carried on with great bitterness. William 
Hamilton published the Federal newspaper, and 
William and Robert Dixon published the Jeifersfm 
paper which opposed the Federalists. After the de- 
feat of Major Boude, in 1804, Hamilton charged the 
opposition with cheating at the election-poll held in 
Elizabethtown, where a number of Irish laboicrs, 
who were working on the new turnpike at that place, 
were induced to vote more than once, when they had 
no legal right to vote at all. In reply to this charge 
the Dixons charged Maj. Boude with voting livicc in 

I M 



Lancaster borough, to which place the voters in 
Columbia and Hempfield had to go to vote. 

Maj. Boude had the Dixons arrested for libel. 
They gave bail, and before the case was tried the pro- 
ceedings were removed from the County Court by 
certiorari to the Circuit Court. This was probably 
the last of the 

Maj. Boude became totally blind some years before 
his decease, which took place Oct. 24, 1822, in the 
seventieth year of his age. 

Samuel, son of S. Bethel, son of Samuel and Susan 
(Taylor) Bethel, married Sarah Hand, a daughter of 
Gen. Edward Hand, of Lancaster. He was educated 
in the city of Philadelphia, with the expectation that 
he would enter the medical profession. But he pre- 
ferred that of the law. He studied law in Pliiladel- 
phia, and was admitted to practice at the bar in that 
place. In the year 1795 he was admitted to the bar 
in Lanca.ster on certificate. He did not remain there, 
but came to Columbia and settled upon his estate, 
which was very large, and required his whole at- 
tention. (This estate was inherited by his grand- 
mother, Sarah Bethel, and Hannah Pearson, from 
their brother, Samuel Blunston. Mrs. Pearson sold 
]ier interest to the Bethels, who became the sole own- 
ers of nearly nine hundred acres.) He was elected 
to a seat in the State Legislature for the years 1808 
and 1809. He was fond of literature, and had a large 
and select library. He was considered one of the best 
mathematicians in the State. He was one of the fore- 
most and most liberal patrons of the schools and li- 
braries in Columbia, of which mention is made else- 
where. He built an addition to the Blunston mansion, 
now owned by his nephew, Samuel Bethel Heise, at 
the northern terminus of Second Street. Here he 
resided and here he died in the year 1819. 

William P. Beatty was born at Neshaminy, Bucks 
Co., JIarch 31, 1766. His parents were Rev. Charles 
Beatty (of Log College memory) and Ann Reading, 
daughter of Governor Reading, of New Jersey. 
Both of his parents died before he was six years of 
age. He was apprenticed to the tailoring business. 
While thus engaged he devoted his leisure moments 
to the study of books, and when he attained his ma- 
jority he wrote an elegant hand and displayed an 
aptitude for figures. ii , 

These qualifications prompted him to go to Phila- 
delphia, and obtain a clerkship, with the expectation 
of making himself familiar with mercantile pursuits, 
whicli these attainments seemed to indicate that he 
was best qualified for. 

In 1793 we find him engaged in the office of Mr. 
Nicliolson,. the Comptroller of the State. 

In 1798 he removed to Columbia, and opened a 
store on Front, between Locust and Walnut Streets, 
in connection with Richard S. Leech. He married 
in 1799. In 1802 he was appomted postmaster under 
Jolin Adams' administration, and retained this posi- 
tion until 1807. In 1808 he was appointed a justice of 

the peace by Governor Thomas McKean. In 1810 he 
was appointed secretary and treasurer of the " Susque- 
hanna Lottery Improvement Company," and in the fol- 
lowinS; year treasurer of the " Susquehanna and York 
Turnjiike Road Company," and two or three years sub- 
sequent to this time he was appointed treasurer of the 
'• Columbia Bridge Company." In the year 1813 this 
company was given power by an act of Assembly to do 
a banking business, and he was chosen their cashier, 
a position he retained until the year 1821. He held 
the position of chief burgess and also treasurer of the 
water company for several years. In the year 1825 
he was reappointed postmaster by John Quincy 
Adams, President of the United States, a position he 
retained until the year 1837. He was a ruling elder 
of the Presbyterian Church for many years. There 
were many minor offices of trust which he held, not 
mentioned in the above list. In personal appear- 
ance he was tall, stately, and dignified in his carriage, 
and always wore a queue. 

He removed to Harrisburg in the year 1843, and 
died at Philadelphia at his son's (Dr. George) home, 
July 28, 1848, in his eighty-thirdyear. He left sur- 
viving him, — 

Dr. George, who is now living in Philadelphia. 
William P., who died at Harrisburg in 1S6U. 
John R., who died at Harrisburg in 18G6. 
Ann Eliza, who married Thomas H. Pearce, who 
was an officer in the Mexican war of 1846. He 
resided for some years in Columbia, and held a 
clerkship in the collector's otfice at the canal basin. 
He died at Steubenville, Ohio, wliere his widow is 

Ercurius, who learned the printing business in the 
Spy office while John L. Boswell published the 
paper. On the 21st day of April, 1861, he enlisted 
in Capt. Robert M. Henderson's company, which was 
connected with the Seventh Pennsylvania Reserves, 
and was made lieutenant. He was on Gen. McCall's 
staff at Tennallytown and Camp Pierpont, Virginia; 
was wounded at Charles City Cross- Roads June 30, 
1862, and was promoted to first lieutenant and cap- 
tain Sept. 17, 1862, aud to brevet major and brevet 

Michael Whisler was born near the Trappe, in 
Montgomery County, Pa., in the year 1756. In the 
month of May, 1776, he enlisted for twenty months 
in Capt. Henry Christ's rifle company, in Col. Samuel 
Miles' rifle regiment. He was in the battles of Flat- 
bush, on Long Island, where but one-fifth of Col. 
Miles' command escaped ; at White Plains, at Trenton, 
Princeton, Brandy wine, and Germantown, and dis- 
charged at Valley Forge on the 1st day of January, 
1778. He was twice wounded in thc-o battles. 

He enlisted and marched to the western part of the 
State with the army raised to quell the Whiskey In- 
surrection. When the troops lay at Wright's Ferry 
waiting to be taken over the river, he was impressed 
with the beautiful scenery all around and the location 





■^ f 


of the town, and he concluded as soon as he returned 
from the army to bring his family to the place and 

■ One of the most pressing wants iu the place 
was a person who understood the manufacture of 
bricks. He brought his family to Columbia in the 
same year and purchased a lot from Sanvuel Wright, 
upon which he erected a dwelling. By trade he was 
a shoemaker, but he also knew how to manutacture 
bricks. He leased a meadow along the northern 
boundary of Columbia from the Barbers, where he 
established a brick-yard, and for more than eiglity 
years brick have been burned at this place which are 
esteemed the most durable of any manufactured in the 
State. His son, Lewis Whisler, purchased the brick- 
yard and farm, and they are now owned by his son 

He died Sept. 14, 1824, leaving a wife, Sophia 
(Herbel), and children, — Lewis, John, Kitty, who 
married William Christy; Magdalena, Peggy, who 
married Samuel May; Sally, who married Ezra 
Breece ; Philip, Nancy, who married Jacob Mathiot, 
and Michael. 

Joseph Pool was a captain iji the Revolutionary 
army, and participated in a number of battles. He 
was at the battle of Brandywine, and when on duty 
a British soldier thrust 'a bayonet through his tent 
which wounded his wife, the marks of which she 
carried to her grave. They removed to Columbia 
eighty years ago. He rented the old " Ferry House," 
where he kept a store for a few years. They removed 
to the corner of Walnut and Third Streets. Their 
Bnn, Joseph, accidentally slujt Jli^s Susanna Cook- 
man and killed her. 

Francis Ottomar Zeigler, a native of France, in the 
year 1777 joined an expedition under Baron De 
Steuben, and came to this country as aide-de-camp 
to that officer, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. 
The detachment of troops landed from the frigate 
"Le Flamand," at Portsmouth, N. IL, and from 
I thence marched to York, Pa., where they were duly 
mustered into the army, and the officers commis- 
sioned by order of Congress. Col. Zeigler partici- 
pated in a number of battles. After the war was 
ended he settled in Lancaster, where he followed the 
business of whitesmithing. I 

While in that place lie married Mary Frances Hook 
(or Huck, as the name was spelled at that time), and 
shortly thereafter removed to Baltimore, Md., where 
their children were born. In 1798 they returned to 
Lancaster, and from thence to Columbia in 1800, 
where he purchased a lot on Front Street, about mid- 
wny between Walnut Street and the Pennsylvania 
Kailroiid round-iiouse. Before getting possession of 
this property he occupied a log house on tiie same 
street, a short distance from Walnut, where he took 
malarial fever and died in'the autumn of that year. 
He left five children, namely, Ann Mary, who after- 
wards married Tempest Wilson (who kept a tavern in 

Martic township, from which place he removed to 
Wright's Ferry, and rented the tavern and ferry upon 
the western side of the river); John, who died in 
1836; George, who died in 1838; Barbara, who mar- 
ried John Arms; and Andrew, who died in 1818. 
The widow of Col. Zeigler carried on a bakery lor 
many years. She died Dec. 2G, 1825. 

There were several other Revolutionary soldiers in 
Columbia, concerning whom full biographical data 
cannot be obtained.' 

Evan Green was born near Quakertown, Bucks 
Co., Pa., in 1778, and learned the hatting business 
with his father, who. lived on a small clearing of 
one or two acres. During the winter months he was 
sent to the common scliools of the neighborhood. 
He was fond of books, and read them with great 
avidity. The family being Friends, he had access 
only to books written and published by the. early 
Quakers. He committed to memory the few poetical 
works written by them. He came to Columbia in tlie 
year 1804 and commenced the manufacture of hats in 
a little shop on Front Street, and from there he re- 
moved it to Walnut Street. He was one of the fore- 
most in every enterprise calculated to benefit his 
fellow-men and extend and foster the best interests 
of his adopted town, hence we find him organizing 
schools, libraries, erecting public buildings, and 
urging internal improvements. 

He established a lumber-yard and leased ground 
from Samuel Bethel at the canal basin, where he 
conducted that business for fifteen years. In the 
year 1810 he erected three two-story brick houses on 
Front Street, above Locust, in one of which he lived. 
He married Isabella Slaymaker, daughter of the 
Hon. Amos Slaymaker, a member of Congress in 

He was a member of the Federal party while it ex- 
isted, and afterwards joined the Whig party. He was 
opposed to Soatheru slavery,- although rather conser- 
vative in his views. He did not belong to or encour- 
age what came to be known as the "Underground 
Railroad," but lie'rendered valuable aid to the colored 
people and assisted a number of fugitive slaves in 
their efforts to obtain their freedom. Charlotte and 
her husband, Charles Green, were both fugitive slaves ; 
the one was a domestic in his family, and the other 
his coachman. 

About the year 1832 the former was suddenly seized 

.1 Eolert Biirher.'a grandson of the old pioneer eettlor, was a cajjlaln 
in the Revolutionary war, and whb iu the battle of Long Island and 
other enyftgeuienta. 

Joseph lioyd was a private, and served through the Rovolutlonnry 
war. lie was a bhicksmith, and carried on his Inisliiessat the corner 
of Fourth and \Vulnut Streets. IIi- diinl nU.ut imO. 

James Upjohn Hiili»ti-d in May, 1777, in Ciipt. K.n u\ Company, in Cul. 
Patton's regnnent of the Pennsylvania Line. Ho was In a nuiuher i.f 
battles, and was wounded at Monnioulli, N.J. He removed to Columbia 

luo, 1779, In Capt. Tlionuia Wylle 
■a'regimeutofa.ldlerj. Ho sirv, 
18 a " fuller." 


by her master while sweeping in front of the house, 
and carried to Lancaster before the judges, who re- 
manded her back to slavery. Mr. Green did all in 
his power to save her. In that he failed, but he pre- 
vented two of her children from being carried and 
sold into slavery. Charles Green collected six hun- 
dred dollars, and went to Baltimore to buy his wife. 
When he arrived there he was seized and sold into 
slavery, and nothing more was ever heard from him. 

His wife was sold several times, and finally got to 
New Orleans, where she was hired out by her master 
as a yellow fever nurse. She finally purchased her 
own freedom, and married a Crenle and became very 

Mr. Green was for many years a director in the Co- 
lumbia Bank and Bridge Company, and held a num- 
ber of minor trusts. He always declined to hold a 
political office of any kind. 

His children were Amos S., who was born in 1816, 
became a prominent and influential citizen, and was 
elected to the Legislature in 1858 and 1859 ; Corne- 
lia, who married Dr. Spence and removed to Vir- 
ginia; Benjamin; Henry, followed a seafaring life 
for some years ; and Jasper. 

Dr. Beaton Smith was the son of the late Jonathan 
Smith, president of the United States Bank. He was 
born in Chester County, Pa. He went to Paris and 
attended medical lectures, where he graduate'd with 
high honors, when he returned to Philadeli)hia. He 
married Miss Hiddleson, and was appointed teller in 
a branch of the Pennsylvania Bank, and removed to 
Columbia soon after the war of 1812. He remained 
in charge of the bank for several years, and until it 
was removed from Columbia. He remained in the 
place and practiced medicine, and was also a|)pointed 
agent for the Pennsylvania Fire Insurance Company 
in Columbia. He was a person of ability, and took 
a very active part in the temperance movement, and 
was one of their principal speakers. He removed to 
Germantown in 1831, and died in Philadelphia a few 
years ago at a great age. 

William Kirkwood was an Irish Quaker. He came 
to Sadsbury township, in this county, about the year 
1800 or 1807, where he taught school, and married 
Rebecca Cooper about the year 1809. He removed 
to Columbia, where he taught school in the|, brick 
school-house on Third Street and on Locust Street 
for ten years. He abandoned teaching and became a 
tenant farmer. He first rented a farm at Wrights- 
ville, where he also burned large quantities of lime. 
He returned to Columbia and opened a lumber-yard, 
and also farmed ibr the Wrights near Columbia. 
He was n public speaker at Friends' meetings, and 
b(M:ame an ardent temperance advocate. He was also 
a fine writer. He died in Columbia about the year 

J(jhn McKissick was born in* Chester County, and 
came to Lancaster about the year 1800, ami lield a 
position under the State government ujitil the capital 


of the State was removed to Harrisburg. He came 
to Columbia in 1809, and was appointed an officer in 
the Branch Bank of Pennsylvania, and afterwards 
cashier of the Columbia Bank and Bridge Company, 
a position he held for many years. He was a promi- 
nent menTber of the Presbyterian Church. He died 
in this place about the year 1838, and left two chil- 
dren surviving him,— Eliza and Mrs. I^aird. 

John McKissic, Jr., married Capt. Clyde's sister 
Sarah, and came from Chester County to Columbia, 
and took a position in the Branch Bank of Philadel- 
phia as clerk. He had one son, James, who gradu- 
ated at Lafayette College with high honors, was 
admitted to practice law, and opened an office in Co- 
lumbia. He died suddenly in 1853. John McKissic 
and Sarah had also daughters, — Sarah and Mary. 
The latter married John'B. Edwards. 

Dr. Hugh iMcCorkle was born in Chester County. 
He came to Columbia about the year 1805, and com- 
menced the practice of medicine. In 1812 he mar- 
ried Miss Strickler, daughter of Jacob Strickler, who 
resided near Columbia. His son, William S., mar- 
ried Elizabeth Heise, daughter of Samuel B. Heise. 
Another daughter married John L. Boswell, the editor 
of the Columbia Spij. 

Hugh McCorkle was clerk in the Columbia Bank 
and Bridge Company for several years prior to 1819. 

Capt. James Clyde was born in Northampton 
County, Pa., in 1783, and came to Columbia in 1810 
and engaged in the lumber business. He was ap- 
pointed a justice of the peace in 1812. 

In 181-1 he took command of a volunteer company 
of soldiers (which was recrnited by Moses Montgom- 
ery, who was disabled the evening before he was to 
march) and marched to Baltimore. He was married 
the first time to Miss Horner, and moved to Washing- 
ton County, in Ohio, in 1823. 

He was married the second time to Miss Sally 
Downing, of Dowuingtown, now living in Columbia. 
Capt. Clyde returned to Northampton County in 1842, 
and died upon his farm in that county in 1866. 

Capt. William Vicary was a sea-captain. He mar- 
ried a daughter of Philip Gossler, who kept the Ferry 
House and rented Wright's Ferry. He owned and | 
lived in the first frame house below the brick Ferry 
House hotel, on Front Street, now occupied by 
Bridge Street. It is said that he was the first person 
in the United States vvlio introduced the tomato in the 
country. He brought some seed with him from the 
Sandwich Islands. He did not intend to raise them 
for table use, but rather as something ornamental. 
He was one of the earliest burgesses of the town. 

Thomas Welsh was born in Columbia about the 
year 1825, and for a number of yeai-s resided with 
John Cooper, late president of the Columbia National 
Bank. He enlisted as a private, and marched with 
several other Columbians to Mexico. He was 
wounded at the battle of Monterey in his leg, and 
was brought home, where by kind attention and the 



beat medical attention he was able to be out again in a 
few months. Having shown a talent for the military 
profession, many of his friends persuaded him to ac- 
cept a lieutenant's commission in the regular army. 
He was duly ajjpointed and marched to Vera Cruz, and 
participated in several battles under Gen. Scott. 
After tlie war he resigned his position in the army 
and returned to Columbia. For some years he kept 
a store at the basin, and owned several canal-boats. 
In 1856 he was elected a justice of the peace. In the 
spring of 1861 he raised one of the first volunteer 
companies in the State and entered the three months' 

Capt. James Caldwell came to Columbia from the 
central part of the State when the public works were 
being built, he being one of the contractors. When 
the war with Mexico commenced he raised a company 
of volunteers and marched to Mexico. He partici- 
pated iu all the battles between Vera Cruz and the 
city of Mexico. While advancing at the head of his 
company, after the capture of Chapultepec, to the 
gates of the city of Mexico, and passing along the 
causeway, he received a wound in the foot from the 
fragment of a shell, from the effects of which lockjaw 
set in, and he died in two weeks. 

His son, the Hon. Alexander Caldwell, of Kansas, 
who was about fourteen years of age, was by his 
father's side when he received his wound. Gen. 
Pierce appointed him commissary clerk when he 
landed at Vera Cruz. For gallant and meritorious 
conduct he received a lieutenant's commission about 
the close of the war. 

He did not enter the regular army, but returned to 
Columbia, where he entered the produce-store of 
Joseph M.Cottrell as clerk, and thence to the Colum- 
bia Bank as teller. In 1858 he removed to Kansas, 
where he was afterwards elected to the United States 

His success as a business man has been piienomenal. 
• Richard E. Cochran, Jr., was the son of Dr. Rich- 
ard E. Cochran, and was born Nov. 16, 1817, in the 
State of Delaware. In 1838 he was appointed second 
lieutenant in the regular army, and at once went 
into active duty in Florida and along the western 
border of Arkansas. 

When the war with Mexico commenced M 1846 
he joined his regiment, and was in the battle of Palo 
Alto, May 8, 1846, and on the next day in the battle 
of Resaca de la Palma, and when entering the cap- 
tured intrenchments, sword iu liand, he was killed. 
Some months later his body was brought to Colum- 
bia, and interred with the honors of war. The citi- 
zens of the place erected a marble monument over 
his grave. He received a collegiate education, and 
was rather above the standard of ability in this re- 
markable family. His military genius gave promise 
of a future brilliant career." 

I Capt. Theodore D. Cochran was the fourth son of 
i Dr. Richard E. Cochran. He was born in Delaware 
in 1821. He was sent to the common schools in Co- 
lumbia. About the year 1836 he entered the Colum- 
bia Spij printing-of&ce, wliere from the beginning of 
his apprenticeship he developed talent as a political 
writer. After tlie death of Preston B. Elder, the pro- 
prietor of the Spy, in 1839, he took charge of the 
Old Guard, an Anti-Masonic and Whig paper, pub- 
lished in Lancaster, which was established in the in- 
terest of the Hon. John Strohm. He was elected to 
the Legislature in 1844 and 1845. He understood 
j but little of the arts of the orator, but when a mem- 
ber of the Legislature he made one of the most bril- 
liant speeches of the session in favor of the " right of 
way" for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad through 
the western part of the State. 

He received a commission as lieutenant in the 
regular line, and marched to Mexico. He was con- 
spicuously brave at the battle of Molino del Rey and 
Chapultepec. He returned to Columbia after the 
war with greatly impaired health, and again entered 
the editorial field, for which he was so well equipped. 
He resided at York when the Rebellion of 1861 
broke out, wheu he immediately raised a company of 
volunteers and entered the three months' service, and 
after its close accepted a commission in the regular 
service, but was compelled from ill health to resign. 
He died in York at his brother's, Hon. Thomas E. 
Cochran, in July, 1863. 


I See sketch of Welsh G. A. Post. 


The Houstons of Lancaster County are of Scotch- 
Irish descent. _.The origin of the family is ancient, 
the name coming from Sir Hugh De Padvinan, a.u. 
1100, he being ])ossessed of the lands of Kilpeter, in 
Strathgrief, Scotland. In 1250 the name of Houston 
was adopted, and the titles follow in direct line 
through the oldest sons to the present time, George 
Ludovic Houston being in possession of the baronetcy 
and estates at Johnstone, Renfrew County, Scotland. 
From existing evidence it appears that the younger 
sons of the original family left Scotland for the north 
of Ireland early in the seventeenth century. We now 
find them scattered through the counties of Donegal, 
Londonderry, Antrim, and Tyrone, from whence came 
the first of the Houstons of Lancaster County, Pa., be- 
tween 1725 and 1730. From these families came the 
Houstons of Virginia and Tennessee. Sam. Houston, 
of Texas, left Lancaster County with his father's hiin- 
ily when a child for Virginia, and after the death of 
his father went, with other children of the family and 
his mother, to East Tennessee. The fiimily remain- 
ing in Lancaster County are the descendants of John 



Houston, who had six sons and two daugliters, all 
born at the farm in Pequea Valley, immediately facing 
Gap Station, on the Pennsylvania Railroad. The sons 
were Daniel, Dr. John, William, James, Thomas, and 
Samuel. One daughter married the Rev. Dr. Proud- 
fit, the other Mr. John Johnson, of JNIercersburg, 
Franklin Co., Pa. Both daughters had large fain- I 
ilies. The Proudfits now live in New York and 
vicinity, and the Johnsons in Franklin County and i 
farther west in Pennsylvania. The five elder boys 
(Samuel was too young) were soldiers in the Revolu- 
tionary army, and with the exception of James, who 
was killed at Paoli, fought through the war. After 
the war Daniel moved to Franklin, and afterwards 
to Washington County, Pa., William to Trumbull 
County, Ohio, and Thomas to Rockbridge County, Va. 

The youngest son, Samuel, remained in Pequea 
Valley, Lancaster Co., during his life. 

Dr. John Houston, the second son, was born at 
Pequea in 1743. He finished his studies at the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, Scotland, graduating in 17GG; 
studied medicine with Dr. Shippen, of Philadelphia; 
commenced the practice of medicine at York, Pa., then 
a frontier town ; married Susannah Wright, of Colum- 
bia, June 17,, 1773. He entered the army as a sur- 
geon. Gen. James Ewing married Patience Wright, 
Mrs. Dr. Houston's sister. They were the only chil- 
dren of John Wright, the holder of large properties 
on both sides of the Susquehanna River, at Columbia 
and Wrightsville. After the war, Dr. Houston spent 
the remainder of his life at his winter home in Co- 
lumbia or on his farm, ou the west siile of the Sus- 
quehanna, in York County, now a part of Wrights- 
ville. His wife, Susanna Houston, survived him 
many years, and died in 1829. Their children were 
James, John, Martha, Eleanor Wright, Anna S., Wil- 
liam Frederick, Robert Wright, and Samuel Nelson. 

James married Nancy Wright. He erected the 
flouring-mill and first saw-mills near the mouth of 
Kreitz Creek, at Wrightsville. Their children were 
Susan E. and John W. Susan married James E. 
Mifflin. James E. Mittiin, now of Columbia, is their 
son. John W. married Mary B. Martin, of Lycom- 
ing County, Pa. They had sons and daughters, — 
George, now living in Missouri, and William, at Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. His daughter Annie married Col. 
Lewis Merrill, of the United States army; Emily 
married Col. Alexander, of the United States army ; 
and Eliza married Capt. Warner, United States army. 

Martha married Joseph Mifflin, a prominent scholar, 
and for a part of his life a bank-officer in Philadelphia. 
Their children were Deby Ann, John Houston, James 
H., and Joseph. Deby Ann died in Columbia in 1829. 
James H. died at Eatonton, Ga., in 1838. J. Houston 
married Elizabeth Ji. Heise, of Columbia. He is still 
with us, a hale, hearty artist-poet-farmer. Tliough 
past the allotted space of threescore and ten, long may 
he live to enjoy the comfort and companionsliip of 
his four bright sons 1 Joseph married Julia Duncan 

Stewart, and is living on his farm in Cumberland 
County, enjoying the comfort of a well-spent life. 

John and William F. both studied medicine. John 
died.just after graduating. 

William, having abandoned the practice of medicine 
for the pulpit, lived for many years a devoted minister 
of the Presbyterian Church. He married in early life 
Amy McCorkle, of Philadelphia. They had two chil- 
dren,— Christiana M. and John Frederick. Chris- 
tiana married Rev. James L. Scott, of the Presbyterian 
Church, in 1837, and immediately sailed for India. 
After remaining ten years there, Mrs. Scott's health 
became impaired and she was ordered home. She 
died on shipboard just after passing the Cape of Good 
Hope. They had three children, — two (Amy and 
Edward H.) died after reaching man and womanhood. 
Anna E., the surviving daughter, is now and has been 
for many years in the mission-field in India. 

John Frederick marri-ed Catharine J. Fisher, of 
Pine Ford, Dauphin Co., Pa. He was one of the 
brightest young men of our country.- He was born in 
Columbia, and lived there all his life. He graduated 
at an early age at Amherst College with high honor; 
adopted the profession of a civil engineer; was en- 
gaged on the construction of the Baltimore and Sus- 
quehanna Railroad, Gettysburg Railroad, the State 
works of Pennsylvania, in progress between 1834 and 
1839. He abandoned the engineer service and stud- 
ied law with his brother-in-law, Judge Robert J. 
Fisher, of York, Pa. He commenced the practice of 
law in the counties of York and Lancaster, continu- 
ing his home in Columbia, and was fast gaining 
prominence, when at the early age of thirty-five he 
was stricken with paralysis, after which he lived 
nearly thirty years, respected by all who knew him. 
He has three surviving children, — Georgianna F., at 
Harrisburg; William F., at San Francisco, Cal. ; and 
Harry, at Denver, Col.' 

Robert W. liv^d in Ctdumbia all his life. He was 
an enterprising and highly respected citizen. Fur 
many years a merchant, and afterwards a contractor 
in the Columbia and Philadelphia Railroad and 
Pennsylvania Canal. He married Sarah Ann Jones, 
of Great Valley, Chester Co. She died in Columbia 
in 1834. They had two daughters, — Mary and Susan 
\V. Mary died young. Susan married the Rev. 
Robert Gamble, of the Presbyterian Church ; they 
are now livinir in Chanceford, York Co., Pa. 

1 The duughtero, Eli-aiior W. aud i 
eighty-two iind eithtj-f.jur y^'ara, ronmi 
yeai-8 living togetliiT auil keeping ho 
tlieir Ufphf \V8 end niuces aud tficir clil 
their peijional attention devoted to Ijos 

pilallly I 

; and la-r tahoitd a» a poetena would have dlstiuguluhed her IQ 
lioth \M-io zejiloua uiembeni of the Preslo'tBiian Church, 
srage, \inlll phjBlcal Inllrniity forliado It, Kloaimr especially 
I poor and tlio needy In tlii-lr hnnlble homes, prescrihiug foiiii 
iiie and Christian comfort, '* going about doing good." 







Samuel Nelson was born in 1791; finished his edu- 
cation at Burlington College, New Jersey; studied 
medicine and pharmacy in Philadelphia in 1811 and 
1812 ; returned to Columbia on account of ill iiealth ; 
spent his time in the field and saddle for two or three 
years (we cannot refer to the exercise which restored 
the health of Mr. Samuel N. Houston without re- 
marking that he was of uncommonly handsome per- 
sonal appearance; that in those days before fox-hunt- 
ing was one of the lost arts, while he was distinguished 
for all manly and athletic exercises, he was especially 
noted as a magnificent rider) ; was an active member 
ofCapt. Shippen's troop of horse of Lancaster County, 
in the war of 1812 ; entirely regained his health, and 
in 1816 married Susan Strickler, daughter of Col. 
Jacob Strickler; they had five children, — John 
James, Henry Howard, Emily Strickler, Eleanor 
Wright, Martha Mifflin. He died November, 1878, 
aged eighty-seven years. John James married Ann 
Blakiston, of Philadelphia. He was for many years 
engaged in transportation in Pennsylvania and West- 
ern States; lived the most of his life in Columbia, a 
few years in Pittsburgh, and died in Philadelphia in 
1869. His wife survives him. They had no children. 
He was a wonderful man, and though with a slight 
frame and delicate constitution, he by determination 
end pure grit accomplished great results, and of him 
we can say he-died as he always lived,— ready.' 

Henry H., the seconS son of Samuel N. Houston, 
waj early at work in a mercantile house, and soon 
left it for that of transportation. 
Emily Strickler died in Columbia, aged seven years. 
Eleanor W. died at fifty-five years of age, in 1881. 
. Martha Mifflin, the youngest daughter, married 
Stephen Greene, in Columbia, in 1855. They went 
to Philadelphia in 1860, where they now reside with 
a family of six children. 

The only other branch of the original John Hous- 
ton, ^rst referred to, that remained and grew up in 
Lancaster County, was Esquire Samuel Houston, of 
Pequea Valley, of which family we regret we cannot 
give a full account. He married Miss Hopkins, of 
Lancaster, and had cliildren — John, James H., Frank- 
lin, William, Samuel, Horatio, Sarah Jane, Martha, 
and Louise. 

John married Gertrude Truxton, daughter of Com- 
modore Truxton, and had sons and daughters. Sev- 
eral of the boys were in the navy, and daughters 
married officers in the United States army. One of 
Ihe sons, James Buchanan Houston, is president of 
the Pacific Mail Steamship Company. 

James H. married Miss Henderson, and had sons 
and daughters. One of the sons, J. Hopkins Houston, 
«;i< rapidly becoming prominent as a railroad officer, 
but died young at Prairie du Chien, Wis., while oc- 
cupying an important position. 

Franklin lived and died in t/ancaster County, was 
married, and most of his children are settled in this 

Gen. William married Miss Jacobs, of Lancaster' 
County. He was engaged for many years in the manu- 
facture of iron in Centre County. He had several 
sons. • Part of the family went to California, and part 
to Missouri. He died in California. 

Dr. Samuel married Agnes Humes, of Lancaster. 
They had sons and daughters. The doctor died in 
W^ashington, where his family now resides. One of 
his sons, a prominent army officer, died young of 
yellow fevdr in Havana. 

Horatio was an officer in the navy, and died young. 

Sarah Jane married Dr. Harris, of Bellefonte, Pa., 
and after his death married Mr. Yardly, a prominent 
merchant of Cincinnati. He lived but a few years. 
She lived several years a widow, and died in 1881, 
and is buried in the family burying-ground, Pequea 
Valley, Lancaster Co. 

Martha married Col. William Baker, of this county. 
They have several children. She died in 1881. 

Louise is living with her sister-in-law, Mrs. Dr. 
Samuel Houston, in Washington, D. C. 

Henry Howard Houston, the youngest son of Sam- 
uel Nelson Houston, and now the oldest living grand- 
son of Dr. John Houston, of Columbia (bearing his 
name), was born at the Houston farm, Wrightsville, 
on the 3d day of October, 1820. He left school at 
fourteen to enter the mercantile house of Mr. John 
S. Futhey, in Wrightsville. This was probably the 
best house in its day in this section of the country for 
qualifying boys for a thorough life. Mr. 
Futhey was a man of large means, great industry, 
strict integrity, high moral character, always on duty 

j himself, and kept his boys at their post. Proverbially 
he dealt in " everything that grew, was manufactured, 
or consumed." This gave those with him a knowl- 

I edge of the value ftt' products and material rarely ob- 

I tained in one establishment. During the five years 
young Houston was with him, say from 1834 to 1839, 
the Baltimore and Susquehanna Railroad (Wrightsville 
to York), theTide- Water Canal ( Wrightsville td Haver 
de Grace), the dam across tiie Susquehanna River, 
and towing-path bridge were being constructed, and 
supplies for most of the contractors and laborers on 
these works were furnished by Mr. Futhey, which, 
with the bulk of the trade of the rich region within 
five miles of Wrightsville, gave him an extensive Houston's associates in this house were 
Samuel M. Smith, afterwards a successful merchant; 
Samuel D. Young, who went ea'riy into the transpor- 
tation business at the Columbia Canal basin, and at 
the time of his death was superintendent of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad at Harrisburg; Jasper W. 
Boyd, son of the first superintendent of tlie Tide-Water 

' Canal; and J. Smith Futhey, now Judge Futhey, of 

I West Cliesler, Pa. 

At twenty Houston went with Mr. Samuel M. Rey- 


nolds, of Lancaster, to Lucinda Furnace, in Clarion 
County, Pa. After remaining tliere three years lie 
joined Mr. Edmund Evans in rebuilding and oper- 
ating Horse Creek furnace, on the Allegheny River, 
in Venango County, Pa. ; remained there two years, 
and returned to Columbia in January, 1845; re- 
mained at home one year, then made a tour of 
the Southern and Western States, reaching home 
in December, 1S4G. In February, 1847, entered the 
Philadelphia office of Leech & Co., canal and railway 
transporters. Continued with this company in Phila- 
delphia and New York until December, 1850. Tlie 
Pennsylvania Railroad was then comjileted to HoUi- 
daysburg and with the State Portage Railroad over the 
mountains and the canal (Johnstown to Pittsburgh) 
furnished a through line from Philadelphia to the Ohio 
River. Col. William C.Patterson, then president of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, selected him to organize the 
freight department of the new road. The rail line was 
completed to Pittsburgh in 1853, and from this time 
until 1860 the efforts required to secure and maintain 
trade against rivalry in the North and South was in- 
cessant and laborious. He continued in charge of 
this department for fifteen years. 

Since then he has, with associates, been largely in- 
terested in the construction of local railroads and roads 
across the continent. He is now engaged in lake and 
ocean transportation, being part owner of a line of 
nine steamships on the ocean and a fleet of twenty 
steamers on the northwestern lakes; was an early 
and successful producer and operator in petroleum, a 
miner of coal in Pennsylvania and Western Virginia, 
and interested in gold and silver mines in Montana 
and Colorado. He is now in the board of directors 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad, the Pittsburgh, Cin- 
cinnati and St. Louis Railroad, the Pennsylvania 
Company, the International Steamship Company, the 
Erie and Western Transportation Company, besides 
others of less importance. 

He married Miss Sallie S. Bounell, of Philadel- 
phia, in 1856. They have had six children. The 
first, a daughter, died in infancy. Henry Howard, 
Jr., the eldest son, who traveled during school and 
college vacations the entire chain of the lakes between 
the head of Lake Superior and Quebec, through the 
Southern and Western States and part of M|e.xico, 
across the Rocky Mountains and north to British Co- 
lumbia. He graduated from the University of Penn- 
sylvania in the class of 1878. Then made a tour of 
Europe, the region of the Nile and Palestine, returned 
to Italy via Turkey in Europe, and died in Rome in 
June, 1879, just as he reached his twenty-tirst year. 

Eleanor Anna, the third daughter, died at twelve 
yeari of age, in January, 1875. The remaining chil- 
dren are Sallie B., Samuel Frederick, and Gertrude. 
The family reside in Germantown, a suburb of Phila- 
delphia, where they have lived for twenty-five years. 
Mr. Houston is a member of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, has been rector's warden and superintendent 

of Sunday-school of St. Peter's Church, Germantown,' 
since the organization of that parish. 

John Houston Mifliin, of whom the following 
brief sketch is given, is a Pennsylvanian of the sev- 
enth generation. The first John Mitllin came from 
England with William Penn in 1676, and took up 
four hundred acres of land, now included in Fair- 
mount Park, Philadelphia. A son of John, born in 
1660, married in 1683, and from his son John de- 
scended John (4th), whose son, Joseph Miffliu, was 
the grandfather of John Houston Mifflin, and a suc- 
cessful merchant in Philadelphia, as were also his 
brothers. The second Joseph Mifflin, the father of 
the subject of this sketch, came to Columbia and 
married Martha Houston, a daughter of John Hous- 
ton, whose father, John Houston, emigrated from 
Scotland about 1680 and settled in Pequea township, 
one of the finest farming regions of Lancaster County, 
Pa. His son, John Houston, J. H. Mifflin's grand- 
father, was sent to Edinburgh to complete his educa- 
tion as a physician, and there received his medical 
diploma. He served as a surgeon for seven yeaia 
during the Revolutionary war. He married Susanna 
Wright (more particulars of their several children, as 
well as of the ancestors of the family, being given in 
the biographical sketch of Henry H. Houston, Esq.). 
John Houstiin, after the close of the Revolutionary 
war, continued the practice of medicine in Columbia, 
and was commissioned a justice of the peace by Gov- 
ernor Mifflin. Mr. Mifflin's father, Joseph Mifflin, 
removed to the neighborhood of Columbia and mar- 
ried Martha Houston, daughter of John Houston and 
Susanna Wright Houston. He was occupied in teach- 
ing for some years in Columbia, and afterwards as a 
book-keeper in the first bank in that place. John 
Houston Mifflin-ivas the first of several childwen of 
Joseph and Martha Mifflin, and was born on the 7th 
day of February, 1807. When about six years of age 
his parents renjoved to Philadelphia, his father assist- 
ing his own brother, Lloyd Milllin, in the banking- 
house of the Camden Bank of New Jersey, at their 
office in Church Street, Philadelphia. There he 
attended an excellent private school until the death 
of his mother, which occurring at an early age, he 
was sent to the celebrated boarding-school of the 
Society of Friends, or Quakers (that being the relig- 
ious faith of his family), called Westtown, near to West 
Chester, and about twenty miles from Philadelphia. 
Mr. and Mrs. Mifflin both died in Philadelphia, where 
their remains are interred. The subject of this bio- 
graphical sketch having early siiown fondness and 
facility for drawing, after abundant drawing-lessons 
under I. R. Smith, then celebrated in Philadelphia,: 
and opportunities of painting at the Academy of Fine, 
Arts in that city, had the privilege of instruction 
from Thomas Sully and John Neagle, two of the most 

m' , 






distinguished portrait-painters of that day. He pur- 
lued his art as a portrait-painter in tlie city wliere his 
boyhood was passed, and wliere liis many friends 
kept him moderately busy, until his old and particular 
friend and fellow-student at drawing-school, James 
DeVeaux, enticed him to the South to spend the 
winters. Here he found such hospitality and high 
appreciation of his art as to influence his return in 
the winter to its hospitable cities, and to protract his 
visits till the early summers of the sunny South at- 
tracted him to view the wonderful and romantic 
icenery of the northern part of Georgia, — in particu- 
lar, those localities where mountains and water-falls 
compre.ssed all Switzerland within a radius of thirty 
miles, and which he traversed, occasionally sketching 
during this period. In his business as a professional 
portrait- painter Mr. Mifflin was amply rewarded by 
hia friends and liberal patrons in the South, and in 
company with his artist-friend, DeVeaux, made the 
tour of Europe, visiting in 1835-3(5 the galleries and 
museums in parts of England, in London, Brussels, 
and Paris, and nearly all the collections in every city 
In Italy. Later he returned to Augusta and Savan- 
Dah, Ga., and was greeted with hospitality and success. 
Upon one of his revisits to his native town, Colum- 
bia, Pa., he married Miss Elizabeth A. Bethel Heise, 
daughter of Solomon and Patience Betliel Heise, of 
that place. For a time Mr. Slifflin attempted to pur- 
we his favorite art of portrait-painting in Columbia. 
It* population, however, not furnishing patient sitters 
to dispute the celerity of the daguerreotype or the 
rapidity of the photograph, the jialette and pencil 
, were laid aside. The management of the landed in- 
terests of the family gradually absorbed his lime, and 
he gave much attention to the improvement of this 
property. He may justly claim to be identified with 
the growth and development of Columbia, having 
erected more than forty dwellings within its limits. 
He also laid out a cemetery adjoining those dcnom- 
iaational burial-places which were being overcrowded, 
and afterwards furnished additional ground for the 
beautiful spot, chartered under the name of the Mount 
Betliel Cemetery Association of Columbia, of which 
he is the president. He has been honored by the 
confidence and trust of his fellow-citizens, when polit- 
ical partisanship had no influence in their selection, 
with many positions of importance, such as school di- 
rector forseveral terms, treasurer of the PublicGrounds 
Oinipany, and president of some manufacturing com- 
panies. He was for thirty successive years elected a 
trustee of the Presbyterian Church, of which Mrs. 
Mifflin and most of his relatives are members, although 
his parents were members of the Society of Friends, 
•hich entitled their children to membership in that 
•ociety. In his political allilialions Mr. Mifllin was 
formerly a Whig, and subsequently adojited the prin- 
ciples of the Republican party, "though he is devoid 
of ambition for distinctions of a political character. 
He has a love for literature, and a facility for 

writing verse, of which he printed a small volume 
called " Rhyme of an Artist," for private distribution. 
Pie contributed essays and poetical pieces, some of 
which were set to music, to Grahaia's Magazine and to 
Burton's. Ge«<to/ian's Magazine in Philadelphia, and 
frequently wrote spicy articles for the local papers of 
Columbia. Ho was also an elocutionist as far as dra- 
matic recitation indicated the capacity, and frequently 
entertained his friends and benevolent organizations 
with lectures, readings, or recitations. Mr. Mifliin 
has evinced during his lifetime a desire to become a 
useful citizen rather than to achieve marked distinc- 
tion in literature or art, in both of which fields he 
might, doubtless, with application and study, have 
won renown. 

He is of a cheerful social disposition, beloved by 
a large number of friends, and most affectionate and 
devoted to his family as husband and father. 

Mr. and Mrs. Mifllin were blessed with several 
children, of whom Lloyd, Houston, James DeVeau.x, 
and Charles 'West survive. The eldest, Bethel, 
Martha Elizabeth, and Mary Bethel, rest in the Mount 
Bethel Cemetery, beside the grave of their mother. 


The subject of this biographical sketch was born 
of German ancestry. His father, Charles Lockard, 
resided in Columbia, Lancaster Co., Pa., and during 
the earlier years of his life followed the occupation 
of pilot on the Susquehanna River. In later years 
he became a contractor, and died at Peach Bottom, 
Pa., in 1826, at the early age of thirty years, having 
been at the time of his death engaged in the con- 
struction of a public canal. He married Elizabeth 
Fordney, daughter of William Forduey, who emi- 
grated from Germany to Columbia, Pa., where he 
died in 1825. Mrs. Lockard survived her husband 
fifty years, and dieU at Columbia, Pa., in 1876, at the 
ripe age of seventy-nine years. She was a devoted 
Christian mother through all the vicissitudes of a 
long and well-spent life. Her beloved and ven'erated 
character still lives in the memory of the children 
who survive. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Lockard the following children 
were born: Sophia, Samuel, Charles 0., Hannah, 
William F., and Eliza. The birth of William F. 
occurred Jan. 10, 1825, at Columbia, Lancaster Co., 
Pa., where his boyliood was passed. Soon after liis 
father's death, and when nine years of age, William 
was indentured to James Jloore, a farmer of Union 
County, Pa., who was also by occupation a bridge- 
builder, having erected the second bridge across the 
Susquehanna River, between Columbia and Wrights- 
ville, Pa., in the year 1834. (This bridge was de- 
stroyed by fire July, 1863, during the invasion of 
Gen. Lee's army into Pennsylvania, on the occasion 
of tlie battle of Gettysburg.) \Villiam F. lived six 
years in Union County, Pa., and on returning to his 



native town was employed in the construction of the j 
new line of railroad then being built to avoid the in- 
clined plane at Columbia, Pa. This contract being 
finished, he engaged upon a canal-boat running be- 
tween Columbia and Hollidaysburg, Pa., and served i 
his superiors faithfully for two years. He then ac- 
cepted the position of agent on a train of cars running 
over the "State Road" between Columbia and Pliil- 
adelphia, Pa., owned by Messrs. Bingham, Dock & j 
Stratton, one of the few transportation liouses then 
doing business on the Columbia Basin. 

At the age of eighteen lie became fireman upon a 
locomotive, and four years later rose to the rank of a i 
locomotive engineer in the employ of the State of i 
Pennsylvania. He continued in that capacity until I 
the year 1857, at which time the main line, owned 
and controlled by the State, from Philadelphia to 
Pittsburgh, was sold to the Pennsylvania Central 
Railroad, they assuming full management of the same. 
William F. was, in the summer of 1858, made dis- 
patcher of trains at Columbia, and remained thus 
employed until March 1, 18G7, when he was ap- 
pointed and confirmed by the board of directors of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company to the position 
of superintendent of the Philadelphia Division of 
said road, with his office in Philadelphia. This caused 
the removal with his family from Columbia, Pa., and 
occasioned the separation from many warm personal 
friends, who, however, rejoiced at his promotion. He 
continued to fill the position of superintendent for 
fourteen years, when, in the summer of 1881, owing 
to continued ill health, contracted by the arduous 
duties of the office, he was compelled to tender his 
resignatiou. It was reluctantly accepted by tlie 
board of directors, who, being unwilling to lose his 
services, appointed him superintendeut of the Junc- 
tion Railroad, a position of like responsibilities 
though less laborious, which office he now holds. 

William Fordney Lockard is essentially a self-made 
man, and has not depended upon accidental good 
fortune to make his career one of success. His energy, 
industry, and inherent force have been the powerful 
levers which have lilted him from dependence to a 
position of influence and independence. In the vari- 
ous positions be has held the confidence and respect 
of his superior officers has invariably been manifested 
towards him, while the most flattering testimonials 
have evinced the affection of his subordinates. 

William F. Lockard married at Sliddletown, Dau- 
phin Co., Pa., on the (ith day of March, 1850, Marga- 
ret B., daughter of Daniel Fager, formerly of Reading, 
Pa. Their children are Jennie B., Samuel L., Thomas 
G., Edwin. J., Letitia, Minnie, and Lucy F. All are 
living with the exception of Letitia, who died in 

The Lockards were from the earliest records of the 
family in Germany members of the German Lutheran 
Church, Tliis famiTy still adheres to the faith and 
worships with the same denomination. 

Mr. Bachman's paternal ancestors are of German 
extraction, while on the maternal side is traced a 
union*of Scotch and Irish antecedents. Felix Bach- 
man, his j^reat-grandfather, emigrated from Switzer- 
land about the year 1740, and purchased of the heirs 
of William Penu six hundred acres of land in Bart 
Lancaster Co. 

<^^?Ti^ /I. /3 


He had two sons, George and Jacob, the hitter of 
whom was born on the ancestral land, and in the 
dwelling erected hi' his father soon after his purchase,' 
which is still standing. He was a farmer by occupa-V 
tion, and married Ann Heidlebach, of this same town-' 
ship. Their sons were George, Samuel, and Jacob, 
and their daughters Ann and Elizabeth. 

The birth of Samuel occurred upon the paternal 
estate in 1791, in the vicinity of which his life wn» 
spent as merchant, landlord, and farmer. He was a. 
man of enterprise and judgment, and his services 
were much sought in the settlement of estates in his 
native county. He married Rebecca G. Baird, whose 
grandfather, Thomas Baird, emigrated to America, 
from Tyrone, Ireland, in 1753. John Baird, the ; 
father of Mrs. Bachmau, was a soldier of the Revo-|- 
Intion, and a magistrate both in Bart and Colerain 
townships. His death occurred in 1822, The chil- 
dren of Samuel an<i Rebecca were Jchn B., lliiani P., 
Samuel H., and Ann A. 

Mrs. Bachman's death occurred in 1831, and that 
of her husband April 1, 1882. Their son, John D., 
was born IVIarch 22, 1820, on the homestead in Bart 



township, and his childhood was spent in the 
immediate vicinity of his birlhphice. His educa- 
tional advantages were confined to the select schools 
of the neighborhood, after svliich he became clerk of 
a country store, and filled a similar position in tlie 
village hotel. At the age of eighteen he became a 
carpenter's apprentice, and having acquired the trade 
conducted an extensive business. Desiring a larger 
field of labor than the country afforded, he removed 
ill 1852 to Columbia, and availing himself of the new 
inventions in machinery then in use, engaged largely 
ill the manufacture of sash, doors, and blinds. He is 
doubtless the oldest manufacturer in the State en- 
gaged in this branch of industry, and still conducts 
an extensive planing and lumbering business on the 
site of his original purchase. 

Mr. Bachman was married in 1847 to Miss Isabella, 
daughter of Matthew Knox, of the same township. 
Their children are Florence R. (Mrs. Breneman), Hyde 
L., Jenny Gail, and Mary Gertrude. Mr. Bachman has 
by his ambition and public spirit added much to the 
growth and development of Columbia. He has for 
many years been actively engaged in building, the 
dwellings he erected having especial reference to the 
comfort and improved condition of the laboring 
classes. He has been since the casting of his first 
ballot on conviction an Old-Line Whig, and readily 
espoused the platform of the Republican party on its 
formation. He has been prominent in municipal 
affairs, and frequently a member of the Council of 
the borough of Columbia. 

Mr. Bachman may justly be regarded as a promoter 
of all schemes having for their object the improved 
condition of the community. 

The parents of Frederick Bucher were Joseph Max 
and Barbara (Bernauer) Bucher, of Deggingen, VViir- 
temberg, Germany, where the former died in 187U, 
having during his active life been a leading merchant 
of that village. Here his son Frederick was born, 
Sept. 18, 1830. On reaching manhood he decided 
upon America as a future field of labor, and emi- 
grated in 1853. Christian, his brother, followed in 
185G, and Max, another brother, in 1858, both of 
whom are since deceased. ' 

Frederick settled in Columbia, and at once sought 
employment with Jonas Rumple in the hardware 
business. After a brief period he engaged with 
Henry Pfhaler, of the same place, with whom he re- 
mained until 1860, and later became associated with 
J. W. Cottrell. In 1806 he embarked in the grocery 
»nd hardwarii bnsineas, and has since been thus oc- 
cupicil. He is also largely interested in real estate 
transactions, and has erected many dwellings in the 
borough of Columbia. 

He was married in 1859 to Miss Louisa, daughter 
of Michael Bartsh, of Chestnut Hill, Lancaster Co., 

to whom were born children, — Mary, Frederick, 
Amelia, and William. 

Mr. Bucher, in 1857, had partially decided upon 
California as a future home, but was intluenced by 
circumstances to return to Pennsylvania after an ex- 
tended tour,<.including a journey of great interest 
through the South. 

He revisited his native land in 1880, having trav- 
eled extensively through Germany, France, and Italy. 
The journey was made with a view to reviving the 
scenes of his childhood experiences and enjoying the 
companionship of his mother and three sisters, who 
still occupy the parental abode. Mr. Bucher, while 
in the hardware business, was successful in the in- 
vention of a stove for heating purposes, which was 
patented in 1858. A disastrous fire having destroyed 
the patterns, prevented the manufacture of the article. 
He is an active Odd-Fellow and a member of the 
Susquehanna Lodge, No. 80, of Columbia, as also of 
the Artisans' Order of Mutual Protection of the 
same borough. 

In politics he is a Republican, though not an 
active politician. 


Peter Musser, the great-grandfather of the subject 
of this biographical sketch, was of Swiss parentage, 
and married a Miss Dietz, to whom were born chil- 
dren,— John, Christian, Henry, Peter, and Annie. 
Peter, of this number, was born Nov. 29, 1776, in Lan- 
caster County, and died July 2, 1848, in his seventy- 
second year. He married Elizabeth Rhorer, of the 
same county, who was born Aug. 14, 1788, and died 
Oct. 8, 1822, in her thirty-fifth year. Their children 
were Henry R., Mary, Annie, Joseph, and Betsey. 

Henry R. was born June 18, 1808, and died June 1, 
1873, in his sixty-fifth year. He w;is three times mar- 
ried, the second union having been with Annie, only 
daughter of John and Barbara Mouk. Their chil- 
dren were Elias HT, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin 
Franklin, Andrew Jackson, and Barbara Ann, who 
became Mrs. Horn. Andrew Jackson was born March 
2, 1841, in Lancaster County. Tlie early years qf his 
life were spent in West Ilempfield township, his home 
after his fourth year having been with his maternal 
grandfather, John Mouk. At the age of eighteen he 
removed to Columbia, and served an apprenticeship 
of three years at the trade of cabinet-maker, subse- 
quently pursuing his vocation until Aug. 9, 1862, 
when he enlisted in Company K, One Hundred and 
Thirty-fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, and 
served for a period of nine months, during which 
time he participated in the battles of Fredericksburg 
and ChauQellorsville. On his return he resumed his 
trade, which was continued until 1871, when lie pur- 
chased the old and established business of George 
Seibert, cabinet-maker and undertaker, which he has 
greatly enlarged, having added extensive facilities 
for fine upholstering. 



Mr. Musser was married in 1861 to Miss Cassandra 
E., daugliter of John and Mary Shenberger, of York 
County, Pa. Their children are John S. and Frank 
B., both of whom are associated with their fatlier in 
business.' Mr. JIusser is in politics an active Repub- 
lican. He has been for three years a member of the 
Council of the borough of Columbia, and was during 
the last year its president. He is also an entliusiastic 
Mason and member of the Columbia Lodge, No. 286, 
of Free and Accepted Masons. He is a member of 
the Susquehanna Lodge, No. 80, of Independent 
Order of Odd-Fellows, in which he has taken all the 
degrees, and was representative to the Grand Lodge 
of Pennsylvania. He is a member of the Artisans' 
Order of Mutual Protection of Columbia, and a di- 
rector of the Commonwealth Mutual Insurance Com- 
pany of Columbia, as also of the Columbia Building 
and Loan Association. Mr. Musser, in business en- 
terprise and public spirit, is among the foremost citi- 
zens of the place of his residence. 


The Heise family are of Swiss extraction and early 
settlers in Lancaster County. Solomon Heise, the | 
grandfather of Henry H., was a resident of \Vest 
Hempfield, where he followed farming empleyments. 
He married Patience Bethel, of Scotch descent, and 
had children, — Samuel B., Henry, George W., Fred- 
erick K., Susan, and Elizabeth. The death of Mr. 
Heise occurred on the homestead March 16, 1833, in 
his seventy-second year, and that of his wife March 
28, 1855, aged eighty-two years. His son Henry was 
born during the year 1804 at the homestead, where 
he conducted farming on an extensive scale. He 
married Anna, daughter of John and Franey Forrey, 
the latter of whom died in West Hempfield township 
in her one hundred and fourtli year. Mr. Heise mar- 
ried a second time Miss Hannah Heidler, uiece of 
John and Franey Forrey, of Raplio township. Their 
children were Henry H., Benjamin F., Elizabeth 
(Mrs. Noll), Aniui M. (deceased), Salinda H. (Mrs. 
Wilmot), Sarah H. (Mrs. Agnew). Mr. Heise died 
Feb. 10, 1862, in his sixtieth year. Henry H., his 
son, was born June 30, 1840, in West Hempfield 
township, his childhood having been sijeiitlat the 
home of his parents. He availed himself of such ad- 
vantages as the neighboring school afforded, and after- 
wards engaged in labor on the farm. In 1866 he be- 
came a pupil at the People's^ Business College at 
Reading, Pa., aud in 1867 made an extended tour 
through Europe. In 1870 he embarked in the hard- 
ware business in Columbia, where he is still an active 
merchant. He was married April 28, 1874, to Miss 
Susan, daughter of John S. Mellingcr, of Creswell, 
Manor township. Their children are Harry Elvin, 

uiigest bat) aina acquired the 

t of telegntphy, 

who resides with his uncle, Dr. David Mellinger, Ih 
Manor township, and Susan Florence, who died in 
infancy. Mrs. Heise died Jan. 11, 1877. 

TJie firm of Heise & Kauffman, with which Mr. 
Heise was formerly connected, is the patentee of 
Heise ife'Ivauflman's " patent combined feed tobacco 
and heating steamer," and Mr. Heise is the patentee 
of H. H. Heise's latest improved "hydraulic ram." 
For both of an extended demand has been cre- 
ated. Since the sjiring of 1883 Mr. Heise has beea 
sole owner of the extensive hardware business for- 
merly conducted with his partner. He is in politics 
a Republican, but not an ardent politician. He is a 
director of the Pennsylvania Fire Insurance Company 
of Columbia and of the Commonwealth Fire Insur- 
ance Company, also of Columbia. The family are in 
their religious belief Presbyterians, and Henry H. 
lias not departed from the faith of his ancestors. 


Mr. Patton is of Irish extraction, his grandfather 
having been JMatthew Patton, who resided in the 
County Tyrone, Ireland. Among his children was 
James, born in 1788, who still survives in his ninety- 
fifth year. He emigrated to America in 1817, and 
having purchased a tract of land in Chester County 
Pa., devoted his life to farming employments. He 
married Ann, daughter of Samuel Ramsey, of County 
Armagh, Ireland, and had children,— William, Scott, 
Harriet (who became Mrs. Burton), aud five who are 
deceased. Their son William was born May 12, 1817, 
in the County Tyrone, Ireland, and with his parents 
came to America when an infant. His boyhood until 
his twenty-second year was spent in Chester Couuty, 
where he was principally engaged in labor upon the 

Having received the appointment of State agent on 
the Philadelphitt and Columbia Railroad, he held the 
office for one year, after which he became connected 
with the road as locomotive engineer. In the fall of 
1841 he married Miss Susan, daughter of Jo.?eph 
Withers, and granddaughter of John Withers, who 
was a captain in Col. John Ferree's battalion during 
the Revolution, and later a farmer in Strasburg town- 
ship. The children of Mr. Patton are Emma, Anna 
F., Olivia, Josephine, and Clara (Mrs. Denny). The 
year of his marriage Mr. Patton purchased a forward- 
ing house, lumber- aud coal-yard at Fair View, Lan- 
caster Co. At the expiration of the third year he re- 
ceived an appointment as train dispatcherat Columbia, 
and also embarked in the lumber and coal business 
in that borough. Two years later he, with his brother, 
engaged in mercantile interests, having still retained 
the former business. 

Mr. Patton, in 1852, turned his attention to con- 
tracting, having as the initiatory step built the round- 
house for the State in connection with the Columbia 
Railroad. He later constructed the larger part of 

.^^i^^ ^^l/z:. 



lie Huntingilon and Broad Top Railroad and the 
Stonerstown bridge. 

. Togetlier with other partaers lie also built eighty- j 
two miles of the western end of the Pliiladelphia and | 
Erie Railroad. He returned to Columbia and ein- j 
barked in the iron business as general manager of the j 
Susquehanna Iron Company's works, with wliich 
interest he has been since identified. 

This industry, under his competent supervision, [ 
has become one of the most successful iron interests 
of the State, its products being unsurpassed in qual- 
ity by any rolling-mill in Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Patton has been largely identified with the j 
growth and development of tlie borough of Columbia, 
and for many years actively interested in building 
enterprises. He is a director in both the Susque- 
hanna Iron Company and the Keely Stove Company. 

In religion he is a supporter and member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church of Columbia, with which 
Mrs. Patton and their daughters are also connected. 

In politics he has during his lifetime espoused the 
principles of the Democratic party. 


•< George Wike, the grandfather of Milton, emigrated 
from Germany and settled in Lancaster County, where 
he followed his trade of slioemaker. Later he re- 
moved to Columbia, where lie continued to be indus- 
triously employed. He was twice married, and had 
children, — George, John, and three daughters, Mary 
(Mrs. Henry Mathiot), Sarah (Mrs. John Hudders) 
snd Betsey (Mrs. Mullen). Mr. VVike's death occurred 
in Columbia in advanced years. His son, George, was 
born in the above borough, Jan. 11, 1805, in the im- 
mediate vicinity of which his life was spent. He ac- 
quired the trade of a coo|>er, but soon after followed 
llie life of a boatman, and became a pilot on the Sus- 
quehanna River. Subsequently he engaged in con- 
tracting, and built a portion of the Tide-Water Canal, 
extending from Wriglitsville to Havre-de-Grace. He 
was on the 2i;th of April, 1827, married to Sarah, 
(laughter of John Eberlin, of Columbia. Their chil- 
dren are Susan, John F. E., Milton, Ann Jane (Mrs. 
Wall), Nathaniel E., Emma Frances, George Wash- 
ington, Henry M., Hannah G. (Mrs. Mullen), :Sjimuel 
F., Andrew J., Albert, Eunice (Mrs. Stair), and Frank- 
lin. George Wike died Dec. 31, 1857, in his fifly- 
accond year. His widow, who survives him, resides 
la Columbia. 

, Milton Wike was born Jan. 25, 1831, in Manor 
town.ship, and removed when an infant with his 
parents to Columbia, where he attended during his 
youth the public school of the borough. He then be- 
canie familiar with the business of a butcher, which 
was for several years successfully conducted, after 
which he engaged in the purdiase and sale of stock. 
lie later retired from active business pursuits and de- 
toted his attention to a farm owued by him in Martic 

township. He was in January, 1861, married to 
Elizabeth, daughter of Isaac Hinkel, of Columbia. 
Their children are George, Edith, and Flora. Mr. 
Wibe is in politics a Republican, He has for three 
successive terms been elected school director of the 
borough of Columbia, and was a member of its Coun- 
cil during the period of the late war. He is also one 
of the board of directors of the Old Columbia Public 
Grounds. He is a member of Columbia Lodge of 
Free and Accepted Masons, and of the Cyrene Com- 
mandery of Knights Templar of Columbia. Mr. 
Wike's family worship with tlie Lutheran denomina- 
tion, of which hi- is a liberal supporter. 



The borough of Mount Joy is a handsome and 
thrifty town situated upon the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, twelve miles west of Lancaster. Tlie Lancaster 
and Ilarrisburg turnpike passes through the town 
and forms its principal street. The earliest habita- 
tions within the present limits of Mount Joy were 
two taverns, which were built upon this thoroughfare 
many years before it was made a turnpike, and they 
may be considered the nuclei around which the town 
was developed. The first of these was a house which 
stood on the northern or Mount Joy side of the turn- 
pike, and now forms a portion of the Exchange 
Hotel. It was a small brick house, built by Alex- 
ander Campbell in 1708. These facts were for many 
years set forth upon a stone which capped the apex 
of the brick arch of a dormer-window, so that he who 
ran might read, but when the structure was altered 
and improved tlig stone was dislodged from its po- 
sition, and it is now said to be in the attic of the hotel. 
The second tavern was on the southern or Donegal 
township side of the stage-road, where it is crossed 
by the Manheim road, in the western part of the town. 
The farm embracing this neighborhood was purchased 
at an early day by Michael Nichels, and the house 
was built by him in 1783. It stood upon the now 
vacant corner lot adjoining the residence of Mr. Hil- 
debrand, and was known as "The Cross-Keys." 
Nichels liad a wife, Eva, who was a virago, noted for 
her ungovernable temper. The place thus became 
widely known as "the three crosses,"— the cross- 
roads, "The Cross-Keys," and "the cross landlady." 
This tavern was carried on until a comparatively 
recent date by various landlords, and was finally de- 
stroyed by lire. A stone from the old building is now 
to be seen in the rear wall of the Washington Hotel 
or Plumnier House. It bears in clearly legible char- 
acters this inscription : " Erbaut durch Michael Nickels 
ct: Eva, 1783,"— that is, built by Michael and Eva 



Nichels. " The Cross-Keys" was a favorite place of 
resort for the roistering convivialists of tlie region 
round about in Mount Joy, Rapho. and Donegal 
townships long years before the town, which after- 
wards included it within its bounds, was laid out, 
and while its site was covered with woods. During 
the Whiskey Insurrection, at a militia training there, 
several persons spoke loudly in favor of the insurgents, 
declaring they were ready to go to their assistance. 
They were subsequently arrested and taken to Lan- 
caster, but excused themselves by saying that their 
apparent disloyalty was only the result of a drinking 

Rohrerstown. — The first or eastern portion of the 
town was laid out in September, 1811, by Jacob 
Rohrer, who came from Sporting Hill, and was called 
Rohrerstown. It consisted of one hundred and thirty- 
four lots, laid out around a centre square, and equally 
divided by the Lancaster and Harrisburg turnpike. 
A lottery was devised for the distribution of lots, 
alter a common custom of tlie time, and tickets were 
sold at eighty-five dollars each. They were not all 
immediately disposed of, but those remaining in 
Rohrer's possession were sold within two or three 
years. Rohrer built the wooden portion of the E.x- 
change Hotel as an addition to the old tavern erected 
in .1768, which has already been described, and a small 
building adjoining the site of the present National 
Bank, in which he kept the first store within the 
present limits of Mount Joy. Prior to this time the 
nearest store had been one kept by a Mr. lleeser, one 
mile west of the site of Mount Joy, on the Manheim 
road, where now is the farm-house of Abram Hiestand, 
in Rapho township. 

Rohrer removed soon after the war of 1812 to Ma- 
rietta, and became president of a bank organized 
there, which finally met with disaster. Prior to that 
time, however, he returned to the town which he had 
founded, and served here many years as magistrate. 
He died in Mount Joy about 1840. 

The newly laid out village was settled with consid- 
erable rapidity during the war of 1812 and the few 
years following, but afterwards, for a score of years, 
the accessions of population were few. 

One of the early residents' of Mount Joy, or Roh- 
rerstown, has given the writer facts concerning the 
early history of the village, which enable iiim to pre- 
sent quite a complete view of the place as it appeared 
in the war of 1812 period. He estimates that it then 
contained thirty-three families, and identifies the lo- 
cations of all the houses. Where Dr. Zeigler now 
lives, on the north side of the Main Street and the 
corner nf the Centre Square, was a house built by Brice 
Ciirran, in 1812, for a residence, buc soon given up by 
him to James Sterrett who kept in it the second store 

' Robert Dysart, of Lapciistc 

that was opened in the village. On the adjoining 
property west was a house built in 1812 by a Mr. 
Wilkinson, who became afterwards a justice of the 
peate. There were two houses between this and the 
place where the railroad crosses, the first occupied by 
a Mr. Earl and the second by the Galbraith family. 
Beyond, where the E.xehange Hotel now is, was the 
small tavern, built in' 17G8, which has been described, 
and beyond that came what is now the bank build- 
ing, Rohrer's store. When Rohrer left the new vil- 
lage his stock in this store was taken by Jacob Myers, 
who sold goods for many years. Myers lived beyond 
this store in a one-story log house which had been 
built before the town was laid out, and probably as 
early as 1780. This house is still standing, and is 
weather-boarded, so that it does not look much older 
than some of its neighboring dwellings. It is occu- 
pied by the widow of Jacob Myers, Jr. Henry Myers 
is now the oldest native-born resident of the borough. 

On the same side of the street a.nd east of the square, 
in the order given, were houses built and occupied by 
Mr. IMencer, John Mateer, and Frederick Hoffman, 
and at the e.xtreme east end was the gate-house of 
the turnpike. Another toll-house 'was soon after 
built, to take the place of this one, and it was re- 
moved into a more central location, and became the 
first shop of the town. It has been for more than 
half a century occu[iied as a shoe-shop by Alexander 
Dysart. Altogether there were twelve houses on the 
north side of the street in 1812. 

On the south side of the street there were seven. 
The first one which would appear to a traveler ap- 
proaching the village from the east was a small house 
owned by Jlrs. Jane Dysart. Back of it was another 
log habitation. These houses were built by Martin 
Krider, probably in 1810. They were not within the 
limits of the town proper. Going west, the next 
house was a two-story brick, built by Mr. Mancer, 
and now ownecLand occupied by James A. Patterson. 
Near the up])er corner of the square was a double log 
house, which was built by Perry Woods. It is now 
weather boarded. Tlie building now occupied as a 
newspaper office by Mr. Hoft'er was not in existence 
in the period of which we write, but was erected by 
John Brindler about 1817. The next house, now 
used as a restaurant by James Mooney, was built in 
1815, and owned until very recently by Robert Dy- 
sart. Then came the Red Lion tavern, built by a Mr. 
Navy, a cabinet-maker. It forms a part of the pres- 
ent large building. The original structure was occu- 
pied at different periods both for store and tavern 
purposes, its best-known proprietor in the latter 
being Oakey Henderson, wiio began as landlord 
aboufl818, and keiit it for many years. Just bofoio 
coming to tlie Marietta turnpike the traveler would 
see the two houses now owned by Messrs. McFarlaud 
and Longnecker. The first of these, like Jlyers', on 
the opposite side of the turnpike, was probably built 
before the town was laid out. This house was owned 





by David McNeely, from Bucks County, wlio added I 
a second story, and tlie adjoining one by liis son, wlio 
bore the same name and was a captain. 

On Donegal Street, tlie first house on tlie south side | 
was a small one, built prior to 1812 by a weaver 
niiined Snell, who lived in it during the war. An- 
drew and Nancy Dysart, Avther and mother of Robert 
and Alexander Dysart, lived in a double log house 
on tlie right-hand side of the street, nearly opposite 
Snell's. This house was built by Alexander Patter- 
son. Farther westward was the log residence of John 
Hayes, who owned a number of lots on this street. 

On Barbara Street there were in 1812 ten houses, 
five of which were on the northern side. The first, 
counting from the east, belonged to a Widow Tod, and 
the next, a small log, to one Craig, while the third, 
a double log house, was occupied by James Laird, 
the fourth was the property of John .-Vlsbaugh, a 
cooper, and the fifth a house which John Mateer 
had built for his daughter, a widow. On the south 
side of the street, James Laird had a butcher-shop at 
the corner of the street which runs north and south 
through the square, and a little west of this street was 
the residence of the Donahue family, of which one of 
the sons, James, is still a resident of the borough. 
Still farther west were the houses of Mrs. Sherrer and 
Mary Eshelnian, and the last of the five was a small 
log house owned by Joseph Lytle and builf before the 
town was laid out. This was on the lot now owned 
by McFarland and Breneuian. 

These were all the houses in Rolirerstown during 
the period of the second war with Great Britain, but 
many others were built soon after its close, among 
tbeni the Bell school-house. In the mean time, how- 
ever, another town had been platted, which was ulti- 
mately to be merged with that which we have de- 

Richland. — The period of the war of 1812 was one 
prolific in projects for land s|)eculation, and among 
them was the laying out of a town at the cross-roads 
■ as a rival of Rolirerstown. This flat embraced lauds 
lying both north and south of the turnpike from Lan- 
caster to Harrisburg, in Mount Joy and Donegal town- 
ships, and included the old "Cross-Keys" tavern, 
which was spoken of at the outset of this chapter. 
The lands lying in proximity to this tavern had been 
owned by Michael Nichels. The deeds .set fJirth that 
his executors sold to Peter Linderwood and Peter 
Bishop, who sold to Christian Leih, who in turn .sold 
to John Bartrutf, of Manheim, and that he then laid 
out one hundred and twenty-two lots in 1812. It also 
appears that Hoffer and Roth were engaged in the 
enterprise, and it is certain that their plans in laying 
out llie town were not consummated until 1814, and 
iven then many of the lots were not sold. Richland 
did not grow so fast as Rohrerstown, but made some 
progress. The taverns of Richland and Rolirerstown 
did a more thriving business than any other insti- 
tution, and their patronage was derived princi|ially 

from the teamsters of the great Conestoga wagons. 
One old resident of Mount Joy says that he has often 
seen at early day over fifty of these teams, each of 
fiiur horses, quartered for the night at the stables of 
the two taverns, while the drivers crowded the houses 
to their utmost capacity. 

As time passed on the lands lying along the turn- 
pike between Rohrerstown and Richland were platted 
in lots by small parcels. The first was the triangular 
piece of ground lying between JIain Street, the Ma- 
rietta turnpike, and Delta Street. This five and a 
half acres was covered with timber when it was bought 
by Christian Choick, in 1828, for eight hundred dol- 
lars. He cleared it and laid it out in lots in 1830. 

In 1834 or the following year Jacob Walleck (or 
Wallich), who had a long, narrow strip of land run- 
ning across the Lancaster and Harrisburg turnpike 
to the Manheim road, laid it off in eighty lots, which 
be disposed of by a lottery. He removed to the West 
not long after this transaction, some features in which 
had made him unpopular. 

Henry Eshelnian laid out a small addition on the 
south side of the pike and several others surveyed oft" 
a few lots, while George Myers laid out what was 
called the " Richland extension." 

Lots were sold in all of these plats and buildings 
erected, and the two original villages gradually grew 
together and became practically one, which slowly 
and evenly increased in population and prosperity. 

Incorporation as a Borough.— Mount Joy was 
incorporated as a borough by act of the Assembly 
passed Feb. 10, 1851, and its boundaries were made 
to include Rohrerstown, Richland, and the several 
other plots or addition.s lying between them, and 
upon April 1st of that .year the following persons, 
having received a majority of the votes, were, by 
Justice of the Peace J. Shertzer, installed as the first 
officers, viz. : Burgess, Joseph Hougendobler ; Clerk, 
Jacob Stautfer; Treasurer, A. Strickler ; Town Coun- 
cil, (West Ward) Samuel Miniclian, Henry Bender, 
John Reams, (East Ward) Henry Sliafl'ner, Samuel 
Dyer, James Moore. 

Following are the principal officers for each subse- 
quent year : 

BunOKSSES.— 13,-wc Shortzer, 18o2-54; John Patterson, 1855; B. M. 

GreiJer, lS5e-67 ; H, Ilrenoraaii, 1858; S. M. Sljera, 1S50; 

Jac"l> Urich, 18r,ll-Gl ; C. U. Martin, 1802: ,1. L. Ziiiglar, 1803-64; 

B M. Giviik'i, 1805-72; Ilerjry Slwiffjior, 1873-70; Jease Kennedy, 

1877; B. M. Greiiler, 1878-83. 
C1.EUKS.— J. Stauff.T, 1S52-58; 0. W. Johnson, 1850-09 ; J. B. Landis, 

186:1; B. K. El.urle, 18M ; J, E. Cosset, 1805-00; G. H. Henilrickson, 

1807-71 ; A. K. Maltiii, 1872-83. ■ 
Treasurers.— A. Strickler, 1852; Jacob Uilch, 1853; L. Ricksecker, 



h war 




in H 


11. Shaffno 

r, 1852; H.I 

I, Grolnerand 








hfTian' and 

11. n..n.lor, 

1855 ; Samuel 




-1 ^ 



0; J. Leade 

and 1!. Flui 

y, 1857; Sam- 





S5S ; J. B. 

.andls and 

Urnbe, 1859; 


El.y 1 





hn, I860;S 

Patterson n 

nJ P. Ilelman, 


1; J. 



. G 


.e, 1802 ; F. 

A. Uitker a 

id A. M Her- 


y, 181) 

; S. U 





F. Nn^ttay 

18i;4;C. SU 

der and John 


dt, IS 





rle and Ja 

oh Ilamake 

r, 1860; J. L. 


liODgiiecker and P. Ilelman, 1867 ; Eli Hamaker and S. H. Kurtz, 
1S68 ; William Kulin and li. F. Kborle, ISGO; D. Boyce and P. Hel- 
niiiD, 1S70 ; S. H. KuTlz and C. Cnil.B, 1871 ; Eli Hamaker and Wil- 
liam Kulin, 1872; .Lilin M Brandt and U. F. Stager, 187:!; S. H. 
Knrtz aud P. Uelman, 1874 ; John B. Shelly and Henry Garber, 
1875; S. N. Eby and H. F. Stager, 187H ; C. li. Kissly and S. H. 
Kurtz, 1877; A. Dilliiifer, B. Husti'tter (Iliree years), aud J. II. 
Uober (two years), 1878; S. N. El.y and H. F, Stag.T, 1879; A. F. 
Uuot and Joseph Detwiler, 1880 ; S. S. V. Lytle aud B. Hosttlter, 
1881 ; S. N. Eby and M. M. Urubaker, ISS'i ; Juaelih Detwiler and 
M. Hininirltimrk, ISSn. 
Justices u I ;:!t P ^^ ■ U^..hV. T i.j, \|ri; 1 , ls51 ; Janiee Moore, 
Apiil 11 - : 1 ~ ' ' I , . , r M. Martin, 

10,ls:.i I ■ K I - V : ,; 1 ■ 1 X. Shay, June 10, 

1836; .1 III - l:,:l .> M . I, _.,:-.. I,, i. Uri'ch, May 6, 1858; 
0. M M;uliu, April ■.', l.-GI; Jtliu ir Ilrii.eman, Aliril 9,1801; 
Christian Stholl, April 9, 1861 ; Janies A. Patterson, April 14. ISBa ; 
EobertMcFadden, April 14, 1863; C. M. Martin, April 14,1866; C. 
W. JoluiHon, April 14, 18B6; George R. Hendrickson, April 14,1868; 
Robert McFadden, April 14, 1868; C. M. Martin, April 14,1871; 
J. H. Zeller, April 14, 1872 ; Robert McFadden, April 14, 1873 ; F. A. 
Ricker, April 14, 1874; U. M. Martin, April 14, 1876 ; F. A. Eicker, 
April 14, 1876; John U. Zeller, April 14, 1877; Rubert McFadden, 
April 14, 1878 ; R. U. Long, April 14, 1870 ; F. A. Ricker, April 14, 
1881; Robert McFadden, April 14, 1883. 

Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Holy 

Trinity.— Ori^'iiutlly tlie Liulierans of this neigh- 
borhood IbriiR'd a part of the JIaytown congregation, 
but in the year 1827 the Mount Joy members resolved 
to form a churcli of their own. They at first met in 
the school-house, but the society increasing in size 
they built a cliurch in 1829 (the corner-stone being 
laid August 15th, on which occasion there was preach- 
.ing in both English and German). The building 
committee consisted of the following persons : Samuel 
Dyer, John Beard, Peter Lindenmuth, Henry Walt- 
man. The society was organized and the church built 
under the pastoral care of Rev. J. Frederick Ruthrautt', 
who commenced his labors with the congregation 
Dec. 15, 1827. He remained as pastor until March 
15, 1832, when he was succeeded by Rev. John H. 
Berneheiin. After the severance of his connection 
with the church, in 1838, Rev. P. Sahm became pas- 
tor, and remained until 1835. Since that time to the 
present the pulpit has been filled by the following 
ministers, viz.: Rev. Miller, 1835-38; L. Gerhart, 
1838-45; W. Heilig, 1845-49 ; J. W. Menges, 1849- 
50 ; G. W. Scheide, for period of three months ; J. U. 
Christ, 1852-55; William G. Laitzell, 185(i-62; D. P. 
Rosenmiller, six months, 1865; a Committee of Con- 
ference, 1SG6-67 ; J. W. Early, 1867-68 ; F. )V. Weis- 
katlin, 1868-73; G. H. Tiabert, 187 3-77; iT. J. H. 
Lamicke, 1877-81. Since the last date the congrega- 
tion has been served by a Committee of Conference. 

United Brethren.— As nearly as can be ascer- 
tained, there was preaching by the United Brethren 
in Mount Joy as early as 1829. Revs. Neidig, Rupp, 
and the Lights (Felix, John, and Casper) were for 
year.s accustomed to preach in what was known as tlie 
OKI lieil .Sclioiil hoiif-e, which was used as a preaching- 
phtce by a number of ministers of ditlerent denomi- 

nations before they had their own churches. In 1860 
a class was organized in Mount Joy, with George 
Geyer as leader. He kept up regular class- and 
pyiyer-meetings for a number of years. In 1865-6G, 
Rev. L. Peters, who was then preaching on Lancaster 
Circuit, took up a Sunday afternoon appointment in 
I the Lutheran Church of this place, aud thus prepared 
the way for the building of a house of worship. Ac- 
I cordingly the Quarterly Conference of Lancaster Cir- 
cuit assembled at Springville (now Florin) May 25, 
1867, appointed George Geyer, S. S. Rover, George 
Eby, John Miller, and John Shroff as trustees, with 
instructions to build a church in Mount Joy, in con- 
formity with the discipline of the United Brethren in 
Christ. The corner-stone was laid July 28, 1867, by 
Revs. E. Light and W. S. H. Keys, D.D., and the 
church building dedicated Jan. 19, 1868, by Bishop 
J. J. Glosbrenner, D.D., assi.sted by E. Light, Father 
Stehman, I. Carpenter, and others. The church edi- 
. lice was erected under the pastorate of Revs. Hack- 
! man and Evers, at an aggregate cost of seven thousand 
dollars, about five thousanii dollars of which amount 
I was paid at the time of dedication and the remainder 
I in 1875, during the pastorate of Rev. J. W. Etter, at 
I which time the interior was also refitted at consider- 
I able expense. At the Annual Conference of IMiS, 
Rev. D. 0. Farrell was appointed to the circuit and 
served one year, after which Rev. J. C. Mumma served 
two years. At the Annual Conference held in Mount- 
ville. Pa., March 8, 1871, Mount Joy was constituted 
a station, embracing Strickler's Church and the town 
tif Mount Joy, and Rev. John Fohl appointed the 
pastor for one year. The church was served from 
1872 to 1875 byRev. J. R. Meredith, and from 1875 
to 1877 by Rev. J. W. Etter. In 1876, Strickler's 
Church was detached from Mount Joy and united 
with- Spring Garden Circuit. In 1878 a i]arsonage 
was built adjoining the church at a cost of about two 
thousand five hundred dollars, under the pa.storate of 
Rev. J. K. Fisher. In 1879, Rev. M. P. Doyle, of the 
Allegheny Conference, was appointed preacher Id 
charge until 1881, when he was succeeded by Rev. G. 
W. M. Rigor, who served two years. The church, 
since 1868, has been steadily growing in numerical 
strength and moral influence, and now numbers one 
hundred and twelve members. Rev. J. W. Etter is 
the i)resent pastor. 

Methodist Episcopal Church.'— There was a 
classnieeting oigiinized here about 1834, of twenty 
members, of which Samuel Mehlrum was the leader. 
Susquehanna Mission was a circuit, of which Mount 
Joy was one of the appointments, and the years and 
preachers as they appear in the general minutes are 
as follows: 1836, T. B. Tibbies; l.S;i7, T. B. Tibbies 
and J. A.Watson; 1838, T. Kumplion ; 1839-40,11. 
Sutton; 1841, J. Edwards; 1842, J. Edwards and J. 
H. Wythe; 1843, E. Reed and J. W. Arthur; 1844, 



L. K. Berridge and S. Pancoast; in 1845 the circuit 
was called Mount Joy, and the preachers were R. Mc- 
Naiiiee and A. W. Milby ; in 184G the circuit was 
called Marietta, and the preacher was R. McNaniee; 
1847-48, John Ruth ; 1849, R. M. Greenbank ; 1850, 
R. M. Greenbank and S. R. Gillingham ; 1851, M. D. 
Kurtz and W. H. Burreli ; in 1852, Mount Joy be- 
came a separate cliarge, and G. W. Brindle was 
preacher, and in 1853 was again appointed ; 1854, J. 
T. Gracey; 1855-56, Thomas Montgomery; 1857, J. 
Cook; 1858, J. M. Wheeler; 1859-GO, A. Howard; 
1861, T. Kirkpatrick; 1862-63, O. W. Landreth ; 
1864-65, J. Stringer; 1866-67, J. T. Miller; 1868, A. 
Howard; 1869-70, S. A. Heilner; 1871, J. Robinson; 
1872-73, T. Harrison ; 1874, J. A. Watson ; 1875-76, 
J. Dungan; 1877-78, M. Graves; 1879-80, W. H. 
Aspril; 1881-82, C. Roads; 1883. Thomas Mont- 

The old church was built in 1837, and sold in 1867. 
The basement of the brick church was dedicated Jan. 
12, 1868. The whole edifice was completed and paid 
for in 1882,— value 810,000. Thechurch waschartered 
Sept. 2, 1867. The parsonage, valued at $1500, on 
the same lot as the church, was built in 1877, and has 
a debt of $1000. 

The number of members and probationers is sev- 
enty-five ; the Sabbath-school, si.xteen officers and I 
teachers; seventy-five scholars. 

The official members of the church are: Trustees, 
H. H. Mellinger (president),' W. H. Metzgar (.secre- 
tary), E. M. Trexler (treasurer), A. H. Comp, W. C. 
T. Reed, A. B. Cling, B. M. Root; Exhorters, Alex- 
ander Dysart, H. H. Mellinger, W. C. F. Reed, J. T. 
Wilson; Leader of Class No. 1, A. Dysart; Leader 
of Classes Nos. 2 and 3, pastor; Sunday-school Super- 
iutendent, J. T. Wilson. 

, First Presbyterian Church.'— This church was 
organized by the Rev. E. Phelps, of the Third Pres- 
bytery of Philadelphia, assisted by the Rev. William 
Ramsey, of the First Presbytery of Philadelphia, on 
the 1st day of December, 1839, and consisted at that 
time of eighteen members. William D. Slaymaker 
and John H. Brown were elected as elders, and David 
McNeely and Amos H. Slaymaker as deacons. Rev. 
James W. Phillips, of the Presbytery of Winchester, 
waa unanimously elected pastor Feb. 3, 1840, (ind in- 
(talleil by the Presbytery of Harrisburg on the 19th 
of June succeeding. The charter of the church was 
obtained Aug. 4, 1840, and the present house of wor- 
ship was erected that year. The trustees under the 
charter, who presumably superintended the building, 
were Joseph Pinkerloti, David McNeely, Sr., Amos 
11. Slaymaker, James W. Hendrickson, and James 
l,iiifd. Rev. James W. Philli[)s, the first pastor, re- 
signed his charge in the sjiring of 1S41, and from the 
fall of that year until February, 1845, Rev. H.Loomis 
lerved as stated supply. Rev. -J. Miller was called as 

iBy Mr. S. 0. Pinkurlon. 

pastor in March, 1845, and resigned in the spring of 
1847, being succeeded by Rev. Franklin Harris as 
stated supply from 1847 to September, 1850. Rev. 
J. L. Rodgers was elected pastor in Jfay, 1852, in- 
stalled in November, and remained until 1856. The 
church in 1852 was transferred, at its own request, from 
the care of the Presbytery of Harrisburg to the Pres- 
bytery of Donegal. In the summer of the same year 
the church building was removed. Resuming the 
succession of ministers, we find that the Rev. James 
Smith was called as pastor in 1857, and resigned after 
eleven years' service, in 1868. Tlie Rev. John Edgar 
was elected to fill his place Jan. 13, 1869, installed in 
April, and resigned in April, 1870. The Rev. James 
Campbell was given a call in December, 1870, but 
after supplying the church for three months declined 
to accept the call. From September, 1871, to April, 

1880, the church was served by the Rev. W. B. 
Browne as stated supply. The Rev. C. B. Whitcomb 
was called as pastor in November, 1880, installed in 
April, 1882, and the pastoral relation was dissolved 
by the Presbytery Sept. 28, 1882. The Presbytery the 
same month appointed Rev. Robert Gamble as stated 
supply until the next meeting of the Presbytery, iu 
April, 1883, when, on the unanimous request of the 
church and congregation, he was again appointed as 
a supply for six months. The elders elected since the 
organization of the church have been David McNeely, 
Sr., Dr. A. Sheller, E. F. Witmer, Jacob Staulfer, Rev. 
N. Dodge, Thomas G. Wright, S. C. Pinkerton, and 
John McFarland. Three of the elders died while 
members of the session, viz., David McNeely, Sr., 
Rev. N. Dodge, and Dr. A. Sheller. John H. Browne, 
William D. Slaymaker, Jacob Stauffer, and E. F. 
AVMtmer, having removed from the bounds of the 
church and received their certificates of membership, 
ceased to act as elders. The present officers of the 
church are Rev. Robert Gamble, stated supply and 
moderator of sessions ; Thomas G. Wright, S. C. Pink- 
erton, and John McFarland, elders. The trustees 
are John Pinkerton, John McFarland, S. C. Pinker- 
ton, Simon J. Eby, and S. S. P. Lytle. 

The Evangelical Church.— The first book of 
records of this church has been lost, but the deed of 
the lot on which its house of worship stands shows 
that it was bought Oct. 13, 1843, of D. Maurer. 
The trustees of the church at that time must have 
been David Grissinger and Lewis Halmler, of Rich- 
land (by which name the western portion of what is 
now this borough was called), and C. Hannebeger, of 
Mount Joy township,— at least they were the persons 
to whom the pro[)erty was deeded. The same year 
that this lot was purchased, Rev. John Hensel then 
being pastor, a church edifice was erected. This was 
used for thirty-seven years, or until 1880, when the 
present structure was built. It was dedicated by 
Rev. W. H. llershey July 25th, and since July 25, 

1881, the society which w<irshiiis in it has been served 
by the present pastor. Rev. J. W. Hoover. 



St. Mary's Catholic Church.— There being no 
Catholic Church in Mount Joy, the Rev. Anthony F. 
Kaul, rector of St. Anthony's Church, Lancaster, 
tooli measures in the spring of 1879 to organize a 
congregation with the few families located tliere and 
in the immediate vicinity. 

He selected the lots corner of David and New 
Haven Streets, and purchased the same from Henry 
Garber for four hundred and fifty dollars. He erected 
a two story brick building thirty-six by forty feet, of 
which the first floor is used as a chapel, and the sec- 
ond is a hall divided into rooms suitable for scliool 
and parochial residence. 

For two years it was attended by Rev. A. Kaul, 
then the Rev. Charles McMonigle attended for one 
year, and now Rev. Jules Foin, of Elizabethtown, lias 

Schools.' — The e-xcelience of the public schools the 
borough of Mount Joy now enjoys had its inception in 
the old log school-house, which is known as the East 
Ward Bell school-liouse. It was built in 1817, on 
the southern terminus of what is now called Barbara 
Street. In the little village of Riclilandj now a part 
of IMount Joy, nine years later, in 1826, was founded 
by subscription Richland Academy. This school 
flourished several years, and at the same time the 
building was used as a church by different denom- 
inations of the community. Later Richland Acad- 
emy building was used for a public school, known 
as the West Ward Bell. At that time Mount 
Joy had the East and the West Ward Bel! school- 
houses and three primary schools, — one in the little 
brick building near the IMount Joy Academy, a 
second in the brick school-liouse on Cemetery road, 
and another in the frame house on West Donegal 
Street. In 1855 the West Ward Bell School was or- 
ganized into a high school, the East Ward Bell and 
the brick school-house on Cemetery road being 
used for secondary schools. Another primary school 
about ten years later was established in the Council 
chamber on Market Street. In these buildings the 
schools wereconducted until ^March, 1873. For a de- 
cade prior to this time the old log and frame build- 
ings were in a dilapidated condition. There was 
a crying demand for more suitable accommoda- 
tions. After a long-continued agitation a, fir^e school- 
building was erected on a central site, which com- 
mands a fine view in any direction. It is a two 
and a half story building of brick, erected at a cost, 
including heating apparatus, furniture, and ground, 
at upwards of twenty thousand dollars. The build- 
ing, which can accommodate four hundred children, 
is admirably adapted for them in every particular. 
The dcdgn and its execution reflects credit on Archi- 
tect Albert N. Dabb and H. H. Nissley, builder, 
and equally creditable is it to the board of directors, 
Messrs. John Pinkerton, Benjamin Hostetter, P. A. 

1 By J. B. HIppIo 

Pyle, Peter Brunner, A. D. Hostetter, and Benjailiin 
Root, during whose administration the school-hous* 
was erected. 

•In March, 1873, the schools were transferred tothii 
building, and for the remainder of the term the 
schoofs were conducted by the same teachers who 
taught in the old buildings. In the fall of 1873 the 
organization of the schools was completed by in- 
creasing the number of primary schools from three to 
four. The corps of teachers embraced seven, in- 
cluding the principal, Mr. Douglass Patterson, of 
Princeton College, class of 1852. Under his efficient' 
supervision the schools reached a high standard of 
excellence. At one time there were attending the 
high school ten pupils, who, the following winter, 
commenced to teach in the public schools in variout 
parts of the county. Of the schools one who is com-| 
petent to judge, County Superintendent B. F. Shaub, 
in his annual report, said, " All the schools of Mount 
Joy borough were in very good condition. An exam- 
ination of the work of these schools, now on exhibitioo' 
in Pennsylvania Educational Hall, will convince any 
one of ihe neatness, thoroughness, general excellence, 
and extended scope of the same." '; 

Among the names of the educators who are prom- 
inently identified with the school history of Mount 
Joy are Rev. N. Dodge, A.M., E. L. Moore, David 
Denlinger, Matthew Marble, D. M. JIartin, and Doug.' 
lass Patterson. 

Rev. Dodge established Cedar Hill Female Semi, 
nary in 1837. Young ladies from eleven difterent 
States attended this institution. The name of the 
school was changed to Cedar Hill Seminary in 1874, 
when Professor D. Denlinger took charge of the 
school, instructing pupils of both sexes. It is now 
a defunct institution. 

In 1838, J. H. Brown founded the Mount Joy In 
stitute for boys. Tliis school is not in operation. 

Mount Joy .Academy was chartered in 1851. E. L 
Moore and J. \V. Simonton were associate principals. 
This building is now used for a soldiers' orphans' 

Mount Joy Soldiers' Orphans' School.— The 

friendless condition of two soldiers' orphans, clad in 
rags and timidly asking for bread at the Executive 
mansion, Harrisburg, on Thanksgiving-day, 1863, in 
spired the patriotic soul of the old " War Governor" 
with the idea of founding homes and asylums to 
adopt and educate at the State's expense the children 
of her fallen dead. The grand thought of Curtin, 
directed by his untiring energy and stalwart policy, 
prepared the press and the public to receive and or 
ganize his beneficent scheme of placing the destitute 
and fatherless under the State's providence, ll 
hailed as a promise to the soldier redeemed. His wife 
and little ones would be protected, and the loyal heart 
of the old " Keystone" would dedicate to her fallen 
sons a beautiful temple of justice, not chantij, for her 
widows and orphans. 



• Professor J. P. Wickersham, then principal of the 
State Normal School at Millersville, was requested to 
prepare a bill embodying the leading ideas and fea- 
tures of the system, which was to be laid before the 
Legislature. The carefully-prepared bill of Wicker- 
thani, after many lengthy discussions, was curtailed 
to a special enactment instructing the Governor to 
ipprnpriate the fifty thousand dollar donation of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company to the State for the 
Use and protection of the soldier's widow and child. 
On the I6th of June, 1864, Hon. Thomas H. Burrowes, 
LL.D., was commissioned superintendent of soldiers' 
orphans and requested to continue the good work. 
The several features of the defeated bill were incor- 
porated in the scheme of Burrowes and presented to 
the Executive. It received his approval, and became 
the basis of future operations. Homes were secured 
In the various sections of the State. The Old 
Guard opened its doors, through Professor J. R. 
Carothera, at Strasburg, in November of the same 
year. His school was formally opened on the 20th 
of December, 1864. But the accommodations being 
Inadequate, the academy buildings at Mount Joy were 
purchased of Professor E. L. Moore, A.M., and the 
ilxty-four orphans in attendance transferred thither 
during the annual vacation of 1865. This vacation 
began July 28th and ended September 4lh. 

The change from Strasburg to Mount Joy not only 
lecured better facilities to the school, but was an ad- 
vantage to it in other respects. Its location was now 
t most desirable one. In a small rural town, beanti- 
ftilly situated, healthful in climate and environments, 
possessing excellent railroad conveniences, in prox- 
imity to Lancaster and Harrisburg, and reputed for 
the large number of its excellent citizens were cer- 
tainly all that taste and comfort could desire. The 
building, a three-story substantial stone structure, 
with two-story structures of same material on east and 
west sides, presented an inviting appearance. This 
edifice is still occupied, and has a beautiful yard in 
front, laid out in walks and shaded with trees. 

The institution continued under the management 
of Curothers. Additions were made to buildings, 
•nd the number of pupils were steadily increasing. 
Principal Carothers, however, did not satisfy the State 
iolliorities in his supervision. A change fnis con- 
templated by the school department. Finally Pro- 
fessor Jesse Kennedy, then principal of the McAlister- 
fille S. 0. School, was prevailed upon to purchase 
the property at Mount Joy and assume control of 
that school. lie took possession on the 1st day of 
December, 1867. 

The reputation of Kennedy inspired [mhlic confi- 
dence, rlis elHcicnt administraliun attracted children 
to the school until there were in attendance nearly 
three hundred pupils. Improvements were made in 
yards and buildings, requiring large expenditures of 
money. The institTution rapidly rose in rank to a po- [ 
iltion among the best of the State. I 

The various departments of the school were organ- 
ized under a code of thorough system in this admin- 
istration, and the disciidine characterized by strict 
conformity to the method and practice of parental 
authority in the old New England home. During 
the ten years Mr. Kennedy was principal of this 
school he educated and schooled for the active duties 
of life quite a number of young men and women, 
whose life and inrtuence have been an honorable tes- 
timony of his careful training and instruction. 

Congressional aspirations induced Kennedy to ne- 
gotiate with Senator George W. Wright, of Mercer 
County, Pa., for the sale of the school property. It was 
bought, and Senator Wright took possession in Sep- 
tember, 1877. The change was again a fortunate one. 
The new proprietor combined with keen executive 
ability a long and successful experience in schools of 
this kind. He fully understood the wants and neces- 
sities and wisely anticipated the wishes of his stu- 
dents. The comfort and happiness of the children 
were made prominent features. A home feeling was 
created that moulded a sentiment for this institution 
among officials and the public as "a pleasant and 
happy children's home." New pupils were admitted, 
swelling the attendance to three hundred and thirty- 
five, the maximum, and averaging through the en- 
suing years to the present about three hundred per 
annum. A two-story frame building was erected ; 
play-rooms for inclement weather built; pipes con- 
ducting water from the town reservoir were laid and 
distributed to the various departments ; other changes 
were made calculated to strengthen the comfort and 
convenience of the institution ; a milder policy in the 
general discipline of the school was inaugurated, and 
a new era dawned upon its already prosperous record. 
Happy days and a contented spirit prevailed among 
the wards, time sped unconsciously, and warmest 
words were spoken by its occupants. 

Among the i)cincipal instructors employed from its 
foundation were I. M. Gable, from 1869 to 1872, now 
a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church ; 
George G. Kunkle, three years principal teacher, and 
now superintendent public schools, Bethlehem, Pa.; 
George W. Geiger, two years, uow engaged in some 
Western business; Joseph M. Martin, from 1877 to 
spring of 1880, now financial clerk of firm of William- 
son & Foster, Lancaster, Pa.; M.J. Brecht, from 1880 
to fall of 1883, now superintendent of public schools 
Lancaster County ; and J. li. Hi|)ple, a young man 
of recognized proles^imial merit, its present principal 
and educator. 

Col. Wright has continued as the able manager of 
the home. While engrossed in various business in- 
terests', he ever jealously guarded the trust rnntidcil to 
his charge. Hundreils have gone out from his fos- 
tering care to combat with life's difticulties to achieve 
honor and distinction. A brief resume of the inner' 
life in the iii^tiluliuii under the senator's administra- 
tion will Kive the reader a more intelligent idea of 



the nature and object of these schools. The boys 
wear a full blue cadet uniform, with State buttons, 
while the girls are well dressed in neat modern styles 
of flannel and Gerster goods. Personal cleanliness is 
tau<rlit, and all the children receive regularly an entire. 
bath once a week. The industrial training receives 
marked attention. Every child obtains daily practice 
in the regular routine labor of domestic and farm 
work. The girls are taught to sew by hand and ma- 
chine, to cut and fit ordinary clothing, to do fancy 
work, to handle the flat'-iron as well as the pen or 

In moral and religious culture, the child has been 
taught to appreciate the beautiful in life, the excel- 
lent in character. Sabbath-school has been held in 
the home every Sabbath. Church attendance is en- 
joined as a regular Sabbath duty. Worship, accom- 
panied by scriptural talks, has been held regularly 
morning and evening in the chapel. 

Visitors are always welcome. Each department is 
thrown open to public inspection every day. The 
management encourage visits, as shown by the royal 
way it takes care of them while guests. Military in- 
struction is given the boys daily. They must master 
the evolutions of army discipline, together with the 
manual of arms. 

The Mount Joy school enjoys the esteem of the 
intelligent community in which it is located, and 
stands liigh in the atlections of the orphans and their 
mothers. It has done and is doing a noble work, of 
which the State may be justly proud. 

Banking. — The first financial establi-lnnent in the 
borough was the Mount Joy Savings Institution, which 
was incorporated in 1853. By a su|)plement to its 
charter this was made, in 18G0, the Mount Joy Bank, 
and in 1865 it was organized, under the national 
banking law, with the name Union National Mount 
Joy Bank. At the time of the original organiz ition, 
in 1853, Henry Eberle was made president and An- 
drew Gerber secretary and treasurer. In 1860, J. G. 
Hoerner was elected president, and in 18(35 he was 
re elected, and still holds the ofBce. Jacob R. Long, 
the present cashier, has held that position since 1856. 
Originally the capital of the bank was i^jO.OOO, and it 
is now ;?1 25,000. 

Manufacturing forms, in proportion to the size of 
the town, quite an extensive industry. The earliest 
enterprises in this line were of the kind common to 
all villages, wagon-making and blacksinitliing. The 
earliest manufacture of other character than these 
was that undertaken by one Brady, who early in the 
twenties began making a.^es upon a small scale. The 
business was subsequently carried on by his sons, who 
enliir!;erl it and for a time were very successful, but 
finally abandoned the industry when larger works in 
other localities came into competition with them. 
Following are brief notes upon the most important 
of the present manlifactories : 

The agricultural implement works conducted by 

Messrs. Marsh & Comp were established in 1853 by e' 
stock company. In 1857-58, Marsh Brothers came in 
p(j.ssession of the works, and carried it on until 1872, 
when they were succeeded by John A. Grier. He in 
turn was succeeded by llie present firm in 1876. Thi« 
firm has* materially enlarged its facilities for manu- 
facturing, and has several extensive buildings, in 
which about thirty men are employed. They manu- 
facture improved mowers and reapers, land-rollen, 
separators, portable engines, and other heavy ma- 
chinery, i 
Another large manufactory of farm machinery il 
carried on by the firm of Geyer & Metzler, which . 
grew out of and is the commercial descendant of John 
Snyder, who began the manufacture of edge-tools in 
Mount Joy about 1848, and five years later entered 
upon the manufacture of threshing-machines, liorse- 
powers, etc. In 1872 the firm of Walgemuth & Geyer 
was formed, and continued the business up to the 
I death of the senior partner in 1876. The present 
! partnership was formed in 1881, and the manufacture 
of reapers, mowers, threshing-machines, separators, 
horse-powers, engines, and boilers continued and 
I enlarged. 

I The Mount Joy Roller Process Flouring-Mills, con- 
I ducted by Brandt & Manning, were erected in 1855 
I by Gabriel Bear. J. j\l. Brandt rented the mill in 
1867, and purchased it in 1873. In 1881 he took Mr. 
Jlanning into partnership, and very soon thereafter 
tlie Hungarian jirocess rollers were substituted for 
the old-fashioned burrs. This necessitated an addi- 
tion to the original mill, which is substantially built 
of stone, four stories in height, and covering an area 
forty-five by fifty feet. In 1882 a Chase (Chicago) 
elevator was erected, which affords storage room for 
I upwards of twenty-five thousand bushels of grain. 
j Fifteen men are employed, and a seventy-five horaa- 
: power engine is used to proi)el the machinery. The 
I output of this luill is about one hundred and fifty 
barrels per day. ., 

The Landis Coach-Works, one of the most impo> 
taut manufacturing establishments in the borough, 
employing about twenty-five men, and turning out 
excellent work upon an extensive scale, are carried on 
by A. B. Landis. The works were established by 
i Christian Landis, in 1824, in East Hempfield, and 
removed to Mount Joy in 1858 by the present pro- 
jirietor, who succeeded his father in 1843. Mr. Landis 
has a very large Soutliern, as well as Northern, patron- 
age, and his manufactory is constantly run to its 
fullest capacity. 

D. Root, Son & Co. are engaged in the manufacture 
of plows, cultivators, corn-planters, corn-shellers, 
shovel-plows, harrows, etc. The business was com- 
menced at Bird-in-Hand, in 1851, by 1). Root, and 
removed to Mount Joy in 1868. Mr. B. M. Root wag 
admitted to a partnership at that time. In 1877 the 
firm was reorganized, it then being composed of B. 
M., A. F., and A. B. Root. In the fall of 1881, A. F. 



Root's interest was triinsferred to A. D. Root, and the 
present partnership was thus formed. This firm has | 
a building of .stone, tliree stories liigh, and sixty by I 
twenty-five feet in extent, and several otliers aggre- 
gating several times that area. Tlie buildings are 
supplied with the best machinery, and it is driven by j 
a seventy-five horse-power engine. 

Tlie Jlount Joy Gray Iron Casting Company was 
founded in 1881 ibr the manufacture of H. S. Stauf- j 
fer's patent post support and Sholl's reversible blind ' 
and sliutter drop-hinge. Other specialties were af- 
terwards added until a full line of small hardware j 
articles and toys were produced. The business was I 
originally established by Mr. Stauffer, and Mr. S. N. 
Eby afterwards became a partner. The works employ 
about twenty-five men, are supplied with a twenty 
horse-power engine, and liave a melting cupola (jf 
three tons capacity. i 

The Mount Joy Malt-House, owned by Philip 
Frank, employs twelve men in the manufacture of 
superior malt from Canadian barley. The proprietor 
began buying and selling grain on a small scale in 
1856, and entered his present line of business in 1858. 
His malt obtained such a reputation that he was soon 
obliged to erect the building which he now occupies, 
containing five floors, and covering a space forty by 
one hundred and seventy-four feet. 

Furniture was manufactured in Mount Joy many 
years ago by Martin Spickler. He was bought out 
in 1874 by D. H. Engle, who, having enlarged the 
facilities for manufacturing, is now doing an exten- 
sive business. 

■ The Press.— The Mount Joy Herald, which is the 
lending journal of the town, is one of the oldest news- 
papers in Lancaster County outside of the city. It 
was originated in 1854 by Frank H. Stauffer, who is 
now a popular writer of fiction. In 18G3, J. R. Hof- 
fer, the present owner and publisher, bouglit it from 
Mr. Slaufl'er, assuming active control in March of 
that year. It was started as a four-column folio, but 
soon enlarged to a six-column folio. With the ex- 
ception of widening tlie columns to thirteen and a 
half ems primer, Mr. Hoffer published the Herald in 
the same size and form until 1880, when he supplied 
the ottice with a cylinder press and steam-power, and 
enlarged the paper to an eight-column foli((. Tlie 
rierald is and ever has been Republican iu politics, 
and is a valuable local journal ably conducted. 

The Star and News, as its name implies, is the prod- 
uct of a consolidation of two newspapers. These 
were the Milton Grove JVews and the Mount Joy Star. 
The latter paper was originally published in Master- 
nonville, on the 8th of November, 1872, by David 
Coiirlney and Josejih Stigler, and was a five-column 
folio. Mr. Courtney retired, and Mr.vStigler removed 
the paper to this place in April, 1873, where it was 
rechristened the Mount Joy Star, and soon transferred 
h) L. M. and Harry Gallagher, whose names first :\\>- 
peared at its column head on May 14tli. One year 

later Harry Gallagher retired, L. M. Gallagher re-- 
maining as editor and L. D. Gallagher becoming pro- 
prietor. The paper at this time was enlarged to seven 
colunyis, and during the year L. M. Gallagher became 
proprietor. In January, 1878, L. D. Gallagher be- 
came the publisher, and Milton M. Leib the editor. 
The other branch of the paper was started March 20, 
1875, by J. R. Missemer and S. L. Brandt, under the 
title of the MUton Grove News, with J. J. Sprenger, 
of Lancaster, as publisher. After one year's life it 
was suspended, but was revived Nov. 23, 1876, by J. 
R. Missemer, editor and proprietor. The papers were 
merged in 1879 under the title as given at the outset 
of this paragraph. It has since been conducted by 
J. R. Missemer, and of late changed from the old 
form to a six-column quarto. 

Water-Works add to the attractiveness of the 
town as a place of residence. They were built in 
1873-74 by tlie borough, the action having been au- 
thorized by a vote taken in 1872. The borough se- 
cured water-supply and water-power by purchasing 
the old Hiestand mill, on Little Chikis Creek. Tlie 
water is forced from here to a large reservoir on the 
ridge by the Mount Joy Cemetery, whence it flows 
through mains to nearly all parts of the town, afford- 
ing an efl'ective means for fighting fire, as well as for 
sprinkling the streets and grass-plats. The cost of 
the works, with the mill, was forty thousand dollars. 
The building committee consisted of Samuel Kurtz, 
William Kuhn, and John M. Brandt. From the first 
^Villiam Kuhn has been superintendent, and he is at 
present in that office. 

Gas-Works were constructed in 1879 by a char- 
tered cor|ioration organized by T. S. C. Lowe. IMost 
of the business houses and some residences are lighted 
by the medium which these works luniisli, but the 
consumption is not large. 

Friendship Fire Company, No. 1, was organized 
Jan. 27, 18G8. The ofiicers then elected were : Presi- 
dent, Henry Shatfner; Vice-Presidents, H. B. Dun- 
lap, John k. Grier; Secretary, F. A. Ricker; Assist- 
ant Secretary, J. E. Hotter; Treasurer, A. B. Landis; 
Chief Engineer, R. P. Kelly; Assistant Engineers, 
M. Himelspark, Aaron Smaling, Henry H. Kriner, 
W. F. Brown, Henry S. Coover, James F. Youtz, 
George Buckius, Jr.; Chief Hose Director, Robert 
Whitehead ; Assistant Hose Directors, F. G. Pennell, 
William McNeal, Jr., J. G. Metzger, Henry Peffer, 
Albert Gulp, Jonas E. Risser, W. H. H. Gillums; 
Investigating Committee, J. W. Gilbert, A. B. Gulp, 
H. H. Kriner; Trustees, William Brady, Charles C. 
Marsh, John Hiidebrand ; Collector, Jacob Shelley; 
]\Iessenger, Col. F. E. Nagle. The members who or- 
ganized -the company on the 27th day of .Tanuary, 18(38, 
were Henry Shaflner, H. H. Duiilap, John A. Grier, 
F. A. Ricker, J. E. Hoffer, A. B. Landis, R. P. Kelly, 
W. F. Brown, Henry S. Coover, James F. Youtz, 
Michael Hiiiielsiiark, Aaron Smaling, Henry H. Kri- 
ner, George Buckius, Robert Whitehead, F. G. Pen- 


nell, William McNeal, Jr., J. G. Metzger, Henry Pef- 
fer, Albert Gulp, Jonas E. Risser, A. B. Gulp, W. H. | 
H. Giliums, John W. Gilbert, Jacob Shelley, John j 
Hildebrand, Harry H. Nissley, Jerry Hagy, William i 
Brady, John L. Gates, J. V. Long, W. R. Hartman, 
A. S. Brady, J. T. Miles, Owen P. Bricker, William 
G. Grier, Stephen J. Owens, Peter Waltz, Gharles C. 
Marsh, Harrison Helman, John Fenstermaclier, Cu- 
vier Spangler, Lewis Grogg, L. D. Gallagher, J. D. 
Good, H. ShoU, Col. F. E. Nagle, M. P. Seltzer, John 
A. Huber, Samuel Riddle, Michael Drabenstadt, 
James Bell, A. B. Welsh, J. S. Welsh, Henry Hel- 
man, Jacob S. Garter, B. M. Greider, John H. Dula- 
bon, S. Donavan, A. K. Martin, Jacob Fenstermaclier, 
Samuel Kurtz, Philip A. Pyle, -Levi Ricksecker, H. 
Austin Brady. 

The membership at present is the same in numbers 
a.s it was at the date of organization. The company 
is supported by an annual appropriation from the 
borough Council ; has a good first-class Button & 
Blake hand-engine, which, however, has been in dis- 
use since 1875, as a pressure sufficient to throw water 
over any house in town is placed on the pipes direct 
from the water-works in time of fire. 

The present oflicers are: President, Levi Rick- 
secker; Vice-Presidents, M. Hinielspark and Peter 
Waltz; Secretary, F. G. Pennell ; Treasurer, Philip 
A. Pyle; Chief Engineer, S. M. Warner; GhitfHose 
Director, M. Hinielspark. 

Casiphia Lodge, No. 551, P. and A. M.— This 
lodge was constituted Sept. 21, 1877, with eighteen 
charter members. The first officers were J. V. Long, 
W. M. ; Rev. William B. Brown, S. W. ; R. N. Long, 
J. W. Meetings are held Friday, on or before the 
full moon of each month, in a room over Philip 
Pyle's drug-store expressly fitted up for Masonic 
purposes. The present number of members is forty- 
nine, and the lodge is in excellent financial condition. 
The present officers are Henry N. Nissley, W. M. ; 
Dr. James P. Zeigler, S. W. ; Henry L. Stager, J. W. ; 
and William M. Speva, Treas. 

Mount Joy Lodge, No. 277, L 0. of 0. F.— This 
lodge was chartered by the Grand Lodge of Penn- 
sylvania, Nov. 7, 1847. Its first officers were: N. G., 
John Kolp; V. G., Robert Dysart ; Sec, Jacob L. 
Nagle; Asst. Sec, John L. Long; Treas., John Pat- 
terson. The present officers are: N. G., J. B. Hippie; 
V. G., Harrison Helman; Sec, F. G. Pennell; Asst. 
Sec, C. M. Hershey; Treas., Levi Ricksecker; Trus- 
tees, J. V. Long, William Kuhn, and C. M. Hershey. 
The present number of members is sixty-three. The 
lodge meets on Tuesday evening of each week in a 
well-furnished hall ; pays to its sick or disabled mem- 
bers five dollars per week benefits, one hundred dol- 
lars on the death of a member, and fifty dollars on 
the death of a member's wife. The lodge has at the 
present time a well-invested fund of over five thou- 
sand dollars. 
Cave Lodge, No. 301, K. of P.— This lodge was 


instituted June 22, 1871. The officers then elected' 
were : V. P., W. S. Bruckart ; W. G., Joseph A. 
Schlegelmilch ; V. C., M. M. Brub.aker; R. S., J. 
Vernor Long ; F. S., J. W. Roland ; Banker, B. F. 
Eberle; Guide, Harry Sholl ; I. S., Henry B. Gulp; 

0. S., Hanry F. Brandt. The lodge has a member- 
ship at present of one hundred and twelve. On July 

1, 1873, the titles of the various officers were changed 
by the Sovereign Grand Lodge. The present officer* 
are: G. C, William Moouey ; V. C., Dr. John J. 
Newpher ; Prelate, S. M. Rupp ; M. at A., J. B. S. 
Zeller; M. of E., M. Himelspark; M. of F., M. M. 
Brubaker; K. of R. and S., F. G. Pennell; I, G., 
John W. Brandt; O. G., George Haines. 

Otsego Tribe, No. 59, I. 0. R. M., was instituted 
in September, 1865, with the following members, viz.: 
John M. Gulp, R. P. Kelly, William R. Hartman, 
A. D. Reese, A. B. Gulp, and B. F. Eberle. A. B. 
Gulp was made Sachem, R. P. Kelly, Senior Saga- 
more, and Mr. Eberle, Treas. The lodge has now 
fifty-eight members, and is in a flourishing condition, 
having about sixteen hundred dollars invested in 
various ways for its own use. 

Cemeteries. — The oldeiit incorporated cemetery 
association is that which established and now con- 
trols Mount Joy Cemetery, which consists of six acres 
of land on a gently rising ridge, just north of the 
borough. This land, together with two acres since 
sold to the borough, to afford a site for the water- 
works reservoir, was purchased from Peter Heilman, 
soon after the association was formed in 18G3. It has 
since been very tastefully laid out, and richly beauti- 
fied by the planting of ornamental trees and shrub- 
bery. Nearly eight hundred and fifty burials have 
been made in the cemetery during the twenty years 
! since it was laid out. The records show that the date 
of incorporation was Aug. I'J, 1863, and the incorpor- 
ators B. M. Greider, John Myers, George Wengar, 
G. M. Martin, Henry Stager, F. A. Ricker, David 
Brady, Henry B"echtold, S. P. Beckley, David D. 
Stoner, Alexander Patterson, Lewis P. Brudy, J. M. 
Gulp, F. H. Stauffer, Dr. J. L. Zeigler, A. G. Good, 
H. H. Landis, Samuel Eshelman, J. R. Hoffer, Henry 
S. Myers, Alexander D. Reese, Peter Bruner. The 
officers were: President, George Wenger; Secretary, 
J. R. Hoffer; Treasurer, B. M. Greider; Superinten- 
dent, Jacob Lawrence. 


The subject of this biographical sketch is the 
grandson of James and Margaret Agiiew Patterson 
and the son of James and Mary Watson Patter- 
son. The ancestry of the family having been more 
fully given in the sketch of Judge D. W. Patterson, 
renders repetition here unnecessary. James Agnew 

\ / 

^^i^, J>^ ^a^Mjfi^ 



was born Sept. 20, 1810, in Raplio township, on 
the east bank of" tlie Little Chikis. His youth 
was sjient on the tarni of his parents, the log school- 
house of the neighborhood, supplemented by a brief 
season at Mount Joy, aftbrding him all the opportu- 
nities for education then at command. He early 
adopted agriculture as a calling, and soon became 
proficient in the management of a farm. He was 
married Nov. 14, 1844, to Miss Sarah M., daughter of 
Thomas Sterrett, of Rapho township. Their children 
are Mary W., Martha S., J. Howard, William S., 
Margaret J., and one who died in infancy. Of these 
Mary W. and William S. survive. The death of 
Mrs. Patterson occurred in the fall of 1858. By the 
removal of his father to Mount Joy, Mr. Patterson, 
just previous to his marriage, became the occupant of 
the homestead, on which he resided for several years. 
He later, desiring a respite from active labor, re- 
moved to Mount Joy, which has since been his place 
of residence. He has been identified with the in- 
terests of the borough and active in projects having 
for their object its advancement. All eilorls towards 
the promotion of the cause of education have received 
his cordial co-operation ; the Mount Joy Academy, 
now the Soldiers' Orphans' School, numbering him 
among its earnest supporters. He has also served for 
eeveral terms as school director. 

Iq politics Mr. Patterson was formerly an Old-Line 
Whig and an Anti-Mason, and later became a Repub- 
lican. He is not, however, a strong party man, giving 
his ballot for men of integrity and capacity irrespec- 
tive of party ties. He is a gentleman of retired habits 
of life and of no political aspirations. His name will, 
therefore, not be found on the roll of office-seekers or 
those who bear the palm of victory in the struggles 
for place and preferment. Mr. Patterson is in his 
religious convictions a Presbyterian, and an elder in 
the Donegal Church of that denomination. 



The borough of Manheim is situated ten miles 
north of Lancaster, and on the Reading and Coluin- 
hia Railroad. It lies wholly within the township of 
Rapho, and its eastern boundary is partially co-e.xten- 
live with it, being the mill-race and the Big Chikis 

The town was originally laid out by Henry William 
Sliegel, late in the year of 1762. The land was taken 
11)1 by patent in 1738 by James Logan, and reverted 
to Inaac Norris, who married a daughter of Logan's. 
In February of 1702, Isaac Norris and his wife, Sarah, 
deeded to Alexander and Chaules Stedman a tract of 
leveii hundred and .twenty-nine acres, and they, in 
September of the same year, deeded an one-third in- 

terest to Henry William Stiegel, who immediately . 
thereafter laid out the town of Manheim. The name 
of the town was derived from the village of Manheim, 
in Badjsn, from whence Stiegel came. 

Early History. — At the time of the formation of 
the town there were two houses standing within its 
limits. These were both log structures, and one of 
them is yet standing on South Prussian Street. In 
1762 there were five houses standi [ig, at least two of 
them built by Stiegel. He first built a house on West 
High Street, near Market Square, afterwards on the 
northeast corner of East High Street and Market 
Square. This last house is now standing, though it 
has been nearly rebuilt, and is now the property of 
Henry Arndt. The oftice built by Stiegel, on the 
corner of North Charlotte Street and JIarket Square, 
is still standing. Among the earliest settlers in the 
borough were the Heintzelmau, Minnich, Keiser, 
Long, Nauman, Wherly, and Staufler families. 
John Heintzelman built the first hotel, the Black 
Horse. This house is now standing upon South 
Prussian Street, though no longer used as a hotel. 

Andrew Bartrurt' was the first store-keeper. The 
store was located on North Prussian Street, and was 
also used for many years as a hotel. It was burned 
down April 19, 18G1. The Spread Eagle Hotel was 
established about 1804, and owned by John Bartruff. 
Legendary History. — Of Henry \Villiam Stiegel, 
or Baron Stiegel, as he is generally called, there are 
a great many stories told, and though they are prob- 
ably exaggerated, there may be some foundation in 
fact. He was certainly a very eccentric character, 
and of a decidedly energetic and speculative disposi- 
tion. Upon the top of the house corner High and 
Prussian Streets, built by him, was a cupola in which 
was stationed a watchman. Stiegel made frequent 
trips.from Manheim to Elizabeth Furnace in a large 
coach drawn by four (some say eight) beautiful horses. 
Upon his approaching the town it was the duty of the 
watchman to fire fcannon, used for that purpose, to 
let the people know of his arrival. Immediately upon 
hearing the sound of the cannon the people flocked 
to the house, and a band of music, made up from 
among the employe's of the factory, proceeded to the 
cupola, and the baron made his entrance into the 
town amidst the firing of the cannon, the sound of 
music, and the cheers of the inhabitants. Among 
many tales of his eccentricity is a story of recorded 
fact that the lots upon which the Evangelical Lu- 
theran Church was built were deeded to them for the 
consideration of a red rose, to be paid yearly upon de- 
mand. It is a miKter of record that this was paid at 
two different times; whether these are the only de- 
mands made for the rent it is not possible to state. 

Baron Stiegel's Houses.— The second house built 
by Baron .Stiegel was upon the corner of East High 
Street and Market Square. It was a large square 
building, made of red brick imported for that pur- 
pose. The building was about two and one-half stories 


in height, and its two principal rooms were a diuiug- 
room upon the ground-floor, and a cliapel or meeting- 
room on tlie second floor. Tiie dining-room con- 
tained a fireplace at one end, surrounded by Dutch 
tiles, and was hung with tapestry representing princi- 
pally figures of the chase, with lite-size paintings of 
horses, dogs, men, etc. The tapestry was in a good 
state of preservation when taken down about twelve 
years ago, and many of the tiles may yet be found 
in the hands of the older citizens and of connoisseurs 
in the village. The tapestry is now at the rooms of 
the Historical Society in Philadelphia. The chapel 
upon the second floor contained a pulpit, from which 
the baron was wont to preach to his servants and the 
em ploy 63 of the glass-factory. When Stiegel's prop- 
erty was sold by the sherifl' in 1779 this house was 
bought by Michael Dieflenderfer, who sold it to Wil- 
liam Bauseman. It was afterwards owned by Robert 
Morris, then James Jenkins. The building is now 
the property of Henry Arndt, and though its interior 
arrangement is entirely changed, the south wall is the 
same as in the original building up to the second 

About this time Stiegel built a business oflice on 
the corner of High and Charlotte Streets. This was 
also of red brick, and remains to-day in very nearly 
the same condition, as regards its outward appearance, 
as when erected. 

The following is a list of the taxable inhabitants 
of JIanheim in 1780: 

Albright, David 

lli_.'. I! • ■. 

N.'«nuii., n.T,j„i.iin... 

Nitwnmii, Fri'tieritk, i 

Puluit, Ai.ilrew 

Reese, AJhiii 

Smith. Ch^irles 


t' * \ , ; 

x';'' ' I '. 

:::::::::::::::::::::::: \ 

\\ , , , > . 1 1 , ^^ 

' ," 


Eobert Ellis. 
Peter Walter. 
Jacob Aaron. 
Abn.m Metz. 

John Shelhorn. 
Martin Kisaley. 
Daniel Sbitz. 
Michael Horner. 
Samnel McClun.' 
William Meara. 
Jolin Brand, 
tjeorge Ginilin. 
Baltzer Stake. 
Jacob Stoufler. 
John Brown. 
William Alison. 
Janiod Defi-ance. 
George Berglebrough. 
John Huffman. 

Land Titles. — The tract of land upon which Man- 
heini was laid out was taken up by James Logan ia 
1733, and contained about twelve hundred acres. At 
Logan's death he willed to Sarah, his daughter, and ) 
her husband, Isaac Norris, what remained unsold of 
this tract, in all about seven hundred and twenty-nine 
acres, On Feb. 17, 1762, Isaac Norris and Sarah, his 
wife, deeded to Charles and Alexander Stednian thij 
tract of seven hundred and twenty-nine acres, and 
September 20th of the same year they deeded to 
Henry William Stiegel an one-third interest in the ^ 
same. Iti 1769 (August 4th) the Stedmans sold their 
interest iu the proper.ty to Isaac Cox, who sold to 
Henry William Stiegel, Feb. 1, 1770. At this time, 
therefore, Stiegel was the sole proprietor of all the 
land, e.xcei)lin£^ such lots as had been sold to indi- 
viduJils, including those lots subject to ground-rent. 
The lots had been sold in three ways,— in fee-simple, 
by paying in part for the land and a yearly ground- 
rent, and making no payment whatever but only pay- 
ing ground-rent. The rent, when no payment was 
made, was two dollars and twenty cents per year for 
each lot, without regard to its situation. On March 
30, 1775, the property was sold by the sheriff to 
Michael Diii'enderfer, who deeded to William Bause- 
man. At Bauseman's death the properly was willed 
to William B. and John B. Bauseman and Elizabeth 
Hiester. The heirs of William Bauseman deeded 
their several interests in the gronnd-rents to John D.' 
Hiester, who became sole owner. The collecting of 
the rent was alhiwed to go by default for some years, 
and when an attempt was made to collect it met 
with a great deal of opposition. After many years of 
strife and opposition to the collection of the rent, suit 
was brought, in 1850-57, to enforce its payment, and 
a considerable amount was collected. In 1880 a com- 



mittee was appointed to make a settlement, and an 
arrangement was made to pay six thousand five liun- 
dreJ dollars for claims amounting to about thirteen 
thousand dollars. On March 29, 1881, all the interest 
of the Hiester heirs to ground-rent in the borough 
was deeded to a committee, composed of Abraham 
Kline, Dr. John M. Dunlap, Aaron H. Danner, 
James \V. Numbers, Henry JI. Eusminger, who in 
turn deeded to the individual lot-owners. 

Erection of the Boroug^h.— In 1830 the question of 
making the town a borough and incorporating it was 
a subject of considerable agitation, and the feeling in 
regard to the matter ran very high. A large number 
were in favor of it on account of the additional privi- 
leges and benefits to be derived from a separate or- 
ganization, while its opponents were princi])ally afraid 
of increased taxation. The matter rested till 1837, 
when a petition was sent to the Legislature for an act 
of incorporation, which was granted May 16, 1838. 
The first officers of the borough were David May, 
burgess; John Rice, John Musser, .Tohn Arndt, Jr., 
Jacob Staufl'er, George Eby, and Samuel Deyer, 
councilmen; Benjamin Hunsinger, constable; David 
Fiaiier, supervisor; Thomas W. Veazey, clerk ; Daniel 
Daniier, treasurer. The first meeting of the Borough 
Council was held at the Central School-House, and 
the first committee appointed was a committee to 
examine into the condition of the roads and thorough- 
fares. The first tax levied was for the sum of two 
hundred dollars. The number of the taxable popu- 
lation being three hundred and sixty-five, the tax 
per capita was a little less than sixty cents each. 
Though this seems a very small amount, it caused 
considerable grumbling. 

1838.-Burgpia, DdvlJ May; Secretary, Thomas W. Veazey ; Treasurer, 

Duiilol Danner. 
1B9.— Bnree-B, Uavid May; Secretary, Tlionios W. Veazey ; Treasurer, 

IMl.— Bnrges-, David May; Seeretaiy, William Glolui; Treasurer, 

IMl.— Burj-eas, Nathaniel Ranck ; Secretory, William Gleim ; Treas- 
urer, Geurge Arndt. 

1M2.-Bnr^e.a, Adam Smitli ; Secretaiy, William Gloim; Treasurer, 
Qeurco Arndt. 

lM3.-I)ilrgcsH, Lewis Gihble; Secretary, Wlllianr Gleim; Treasurer, 
Qoorgo Arndt. 

JM4.-Burg-8a, Lowiu Gihlile; Secretary, William Gleim; Trpasurer, 


l»«.-B.iig.-8.i, LewiH Gibble; Secretary, William Gleim; Treasurer, 

Sumu.l Knslnin;;er. 
lM8.-I)urgea-s, Mltliacl B. Moyer; Secretary, David May; Treasurer, 

Samu.d Ensmi.iger. 
IMT.-Biirgess, Dr. Daniel L. Carpenter, Sr. ; Secretary, David May; 

Treasurer, Samuel Cnsmltiger. 
1M8.— Burgess, Dr. Daniel L. Caipouter, Sr.; Secretary, David May; 

Treasurer, Bainu-I Knsmiuger. 
lMi>.-Bur«eM,.l>r. J.d.n M. Dunlap; Secietary, David May; Treas- 

-Burgees, Ju3<pl 
imnel Kneniliig" 
-Burg.s-, Jacub 
rer, Samuel Ensii 

Gibble; Secretary, David May; Treasu 
:Corklo; Secretary, David Slay; Treasu 
if J Secretary, Frederick EiiHUiiuger; Tr 

lSo;j.— Burgees, Ja 

.nretary, Dr. Juhn M. Dunlap; Treas.' 
Secretary, Dr. John M. Dunlap; Treas- 
dy; Secretary, Dr. John 31. Dunlap; 
itary, Dr. Jolin il. Duulup; 
Secrelal-y, Dr. John 51. Dunlap; Treas- 
Secretary, Dr. John M. Dunlap; Treas- 
r ; Secretarj-, Dr. John M. Dunlap; Treas- 
r; Secretary, Dr. Juhn M. Dunlap; Treaj- 
15' i t.;. .. ' : 1 ^lialTu.-r; .Secretary, Dr. John M. Dunlap ; Trcas- 

ISC. - Lu.^..^.,, L'.i.hl .May; Secretary, Dr. John M. Dunlap; Treasurer, 

Sanuicl Kn.-minger, 
18li;i.— Burgess, David May; Secretary, 11, Dasher; Treasurer, Samuel 

1864.-Burgess, J. M. Hahn ; Secretaiy, H. Dasher ; Treasurer, Samuel 

1805.— Burgess, H. C. Gingrich ; Secretary, H, Dasher; Treasurer, David 

186G.— Burgess, W. Lilzenberger ; Secretary, H. Dasher; Treasurer, 

; Secretary, H. Dasher; Treasurer, 

lS5i.— Burgess, Nathan Worh 

urer, Samuel Ensminger,— purge-s, Dr. C. J. Sn 

Tre^isurer, Michael While. 
1850.— Burgejs, Dr. C.J. Suavely; 

Treasurer, Samuel Ensminger. 
1857.— Burgess, Jacob K. 

urer, Samuel Ensmir 
1S5S.— Burgess, Henry A 

urer, Samuel Ensmir, 
1859.— Burgess, Gabriel SI 

1S60 — r.nigcbs f;.ihn.dSl 

David May. 
1867.— Burgess, \V. Litzenberg 

David May 
1868.— Burgess, M. E. liomberger ; Secietary, H. Dashe 

; Treasu 

C. Bold. 

H. Dashe 

1869.— Burgess, II. G. Hogendobler; Se. 

H. C. Boyd. 
1870.— Burgess, H. G. Hogendobler; Secretarj-, II. Dasher; Treasurer, 

11. C. Boyd. 
1871.— Burgess, Nathan Worley ; Secretary, H. D.isher; Treasurer, U. 

C. Boyd. 
1872.— Burgess, Nathan Worley; Secretary, H. P.isher; Treasurer, 

Ilenly .\rndt. 
187:i.— Burgess, A. Kline; Secretary, H. Dasher; Treasurer, Henry 

1874.— BurgeBS,_B. D. Danner; Secretary, II. Dasher; Treasurer, F. G. 

1875.— Burgess, H. E. Shimp; Secretary, II. Dasher; 

1870.— Burgess, J. Z. Eby; Secretary, H. M. Ensminger; Treasu 

•, F. G. 

, II. M. Eusminger; Treasure 
,p , Secretary, H. M. Ensmin 

1877.— Burgess, J. Z. Eby ; Secretar 

G. Biosey. 
187H.— Burgess, Dr. Johtt.M. Dun 

Treasurer, F. G. Brosey. 
1879.— Burgess, Dr. Johu .M. Uuulap; Secretary, H. M. Ensmingel 

Treasurer, F. G. Brosey. 
1880.— Burgess, U. C. Boyd ; Secretary, H. M. Eusminger ; Treasurer, 1 

G. Brosey. 
1831.- liurgess, M. E. Boniheiger; Secretary, H. 51. Ensminger; Trea 

urer, F. G. Bioscy. 
1882.— Burgess, M. E. Boniberger; Secretary, II. M, Ensminger; Trea 

. Dann 

. Boniberger; Secretary, II. 

Justices of the Peace.— Prior to 1840 the justices 
were elected by judicial districts. A full list will be 
found in the -General Jlistory. 


David May. 


Benjamin H. D 



1 1868 

Horiico Diwher. 

Henry Keyser 

Martin V. Cko 




Horace Dasher. 

David May. 


B. D. Dauiier. 


Frederick Ensminger. 

1 1874 

Horace Dasher 


Gabriel Sliaffn 


1 1877 

B. D. Danner. 


Gabriel .'^liann 


II. S. Danner. 


Jeremiah M.I 



II. C. Gibble. 


David May. 


II. 8. Dauner. 



Early Industries.— Some time between 1763 and 
1768, B:iron Stiegel erected a large glass-factory upon 
the corner of South Charlotte and Stiegel Streets. 
The building was of red brick, and was a very large 
one. It is stated that from the ground to the cupola, 
which surmounted the building, was over one hun- 
dred feet. The manufacturing of glassware and glass 
bottles was carried on quite extensively, skilled work- 
men being brought from Europe to carry on the 
work. That a very superior article was produced at 
these works is evidenced by. samples in existence 
now, and by the following extract from a letter writ- 
ten by David Rittenhouse, of Philadelphia, to Rev. 
Mr. Barton, of Lancaster. " I am obliged to you for 
the glass tube; it will make a pretty barometer, 
though the tube is somewhat too small. I have com- 
pared it with an English tube, and do not think the 
preference can with any reason be given to the 
latter." In the same letter he asks Sir. Barton to 
procure him " some tubes of a size fit for spirit- 
levels." This property was sold by the sheriff in 
1779, and after being unoccupied for forty years the 
building was taken down in 1809, and the brick used 
in building a hotel in Neffsville.' 

In 1817 the business interests were general stores 
by John Thorn and Christian Stauffer; tannery, by 
Jacob Arndt; brickmaking, Dederick Baehler; sad- 
dlery, by Peter and George Britz; hardware, Mrs. 
Ileintzelman ; shoemakers, Kline & Faertig; cabinet- 
makers and car[)enters, Emanuel Dyer, John Rice, 
John Wagner; blacksmiths, Joseph Stanem, Joseph 

Frantz, Jacob Long ; cooper, John Schneider, 

Scliauer; tailors, George D.Miller and David May, 
Philip Waltz; wagon-makers, Peter Gruber, George 
Long, John White; stocking-weaver, Blartin Bander; 

weavers, Henry Brahm, Adam Danner, Boeh- 

ler, William Wagner, John Brosey, Henry Brosey, 
Jacob Koch; watchmaker, George Rudisell ; dyer, 

• Waltz; locksmith, John Long; painter, Adam 

Sill; Jonas White and his father made bone combs; 
the two physicians were JMichael Kan (man and John 
Heintzelman. There were three lintels, — Washington 
House, kept by Jacob Meyer ; Black Horse, by JMrs. 
Ileintzelman ; and Spread Eagle, by John Bartruff. 

Old Mill-Much farther back than the oldest in- 
habitant can remember, nearly south of iho present 
mill of IC. P.. liomberger, was standing an old lime- 
stniie mill. This was built by Peter Longenecker 
some lime between 1763 and 1780. It remained 
standing till 1838, and in an early day a wooden ful- 
ling-mill was attached to it. The present mill was 
built by Abraham Hostetter, in 1829, and passed 
through tlie hands of J. H. Bassler, John Hostetter, 
and r.cnjamin M. Stauffer before it came to be the 
property of its present owner, E. B. Bomberger, in 
18G6. The mill is a fine property, and is furnished 

ftictiiry by Jiituea Je 

with both steam- and water-power. It contains si* 
run of stone, and has a head of fourteen feet of 

The Manheim National Bank was organized 

Feb. 11, ISO",. Its first ofHcers were Abraham Kauf- 
man, presiilcut; J. Ilotfman llershey, cashier; And, 
Brubaker, teller. The business was at first conducted 
in Mrs. Uhler's building, on Market Square and North 
Prussian Street, and moved to its present location in 
1866. Its capital is §150,000, and its stock owned j 
mostly by parties in and around Manheim. The 
present officers are Jacob L. Stehman, president, and 
H. C. Gingrich, cashier. 

Jacob L. Stehman. — The family are of German 
descent. Christian (whose orthography of the name 
was Steman), the grandfather of Jacob L., wa;^ birn 
March 31, 1771, and resided in Manheim town,-liip, 
where he was a farmer. He was married to Misj 
Anna Huber on the 18th of November, 1790, whose 
birth occurred July 7, 1768. Their children were 
Maria, John, Christian, Anna, Jacob, Elizabeth, 
Henry, Samuel, JIagdalena, Benjamin, and Veronica. 
Mr. Stehman died July 26, 1844, in Jlanheim town- 
ship, in his seventy-fourth year. His son Christiaa 
was born June 26, 179-5, in Manheim, on the home- 
stead farm, and nmrried Catherine, daughter of Jacob 
Leib, of Warwick township. Their children were 
Anna (Mrs. Hershey), Jacob L., Elizabeth (Mre. 
Kraatz), Magdalena (Mrs. Becker), and Catherine 
(Mrs. Buch). 

Mr. Stehman after his marriage removed to Wa^ 
wick township, where the remainder of his life wu 
spent in business or farming occupations. His death 
took place on the 8th of November, 1877, in hil 
eighty-third year. 

His son Jacob L., the subject of this biographical 
sketch, was born upon the paternal estate on the 28th 
of September, 1820. Here his growing years were 
spent, either in labor or at school in the immediate 
neighborhood or under the instruction of Professor 
John Beck, of Lititz. Having decided upon an agri- 
cultural life, he eventually inherited the farm of his 
father. He was married in December, 1846, to Eliza, 
daughter of John Hostetter, of Pcnn township. Uii 
wife having died, he was again married in November, 
1881, to Mrs. Eliza McDowell, daughter of Solomon 
Sell, of Stark County, Ohio. Mr. Stehman, in 1868, 
retired from his farm and removed to New Haven, 
in the same township, and in Jlay, 1882, made Lititi 
his home. He is in politics a Republican, and haj 
filled the office of school director for twelve successive 
years, though preferring the quiet of his own fireside 
to the excitements of a public career. He is president 
of the-Manheim National Bank, and a director of the 
Northern Mutual Insurance Company of Epiirata, 
Lancaster Co. He enjoys the confidence of the com' 
munity to so great an extent as to have been frequently 
appointed to the office of guardian and selected as 
custodian of important trusts. 






: Mr. Steliinan was educated a Mennonite in religion, 
but is a supporter of all evangelical creeds. 

The Manheim Mutual Fire Insurance Company 
was incorporated July 20, 1877, J. M. Dunlap, presi- 
dent; J. M. Ensniinger, secretary; Abraliam Kline, 
treasurer. Its officers remain the same in 1883, with 
tlie exception that the secretary is now H. S. Danrer. 

Tlie most important business industries of to-day 
are agricultural implements, Abraham Kline, Hershey I 
& Ely ; planing-niill, H. E. Shimp & Co. ; flour-mills, 
Eby & Reist and E. B. Bomberger; dry-goods and 
general stores, George H. Banner, H. C. Boyd, Henry 
Arndt, and J. M. Hahn ; foundry, Eby & Reist; Man- 
heim Coach-Works, Arnold & Ulrich ; furniture 
dealer, A. R. Brandt. The principal toljacco dealers 
&re J. M. Hahn and Bomberger & Becker; clothing 
dealers, Hostetter & Hummer. 

The borough now contains four hotels, — Washing- 
ton House, Martin Schreider; Summy Hotel, S. C. 
Sunimy ; Centennial, J. D. Warfel ; American Hotel, 
John Boenisnyder. 

The Press. — The first printing-office in Manheim 
was established by Jacob StauflTer in 1830, but the 
business was not a successful one and was abandoned. 
In 1838, John M. Ensminger opened a job-office on 
Market Square, near South Prussian Street. As he 
made his business a success he enlarged it, and on 
Jan. 6, 184G, issued the first newspaper of Manheim. 
This was a small folio, ten by fourteen in size, and 
containing four columns of matter, and was called 

In 1849, Mr. Ensminger sold out his interest to D. 
B. Rock, who changed the name of the paper to the 
Senlind. The office was burned out in 1851, and in 
July, 1851, was carried on in a building opposite the 
(Jerniau Reformed Church on North Prussian Street. 
In 1852, 3Ir. Ensminger again became owner of the 
paper, and it has since been in his hands. He moved 
into the present building on South Prussian Street in 
1853, and changed the name of the paper to Sentinel- 
Advertiser. The paper is now an eight-column folio, 
and looks very little like the diminutive Planet of 
184G. In politics this ]iaper has been independent 
always. It has now a circulation of about one thou- 

Fire-Engine Companies.— In 1810 the ci(,izens, 
feeling the need of organized protection in event of 1 
fire, started a subscription for the purpose of building 
a house and purchasing apparatus. An engine was 
purchased, which was called the " Union," and a 
house built. The house was painted red, and was 
known as the " Red House," and the Union Fire 
Company was organized. 

In 1X41 a niceting was called to decide what to do 
with the Union Engine, whether to sell it and pur- 
chase a new, one, or to keep it as it was. It was 
decided that nothing would be done at that time. 
In 1840 the Borough .Council decided to purchase a 
new engine, and bought the Globe Engine and one 

hundred and thirty-three feet of hose. In 1851 the 
Union Engine was sold to New Ephrata, now Lin- 
den. In 1800 the engine-house was moved from 
Market Square to North Charlotte Street. The prop- 
erty on North Charlotte Street upon which the en- 
gine-hous'e stood was a part of that upon which the 
Hiesters claimed ground-rent, and being fearful that 
the building would be levied upon for rent, it was 
sold to George Long in 1803. The building was re- 
moved to his lot on South Prussian Street, and is now 
used as a shoe-shop. The Council bought a new lot 
upon North Prussian Street, and erected upon it a 
two-story building, the first floor to be used as an en- 
gine-house, and the second as a Council chamber. 
The cost of this building was four hundred and fifty 
dollars. The organization of the department had 
gradually become broken up and its members dis- 
couraged. The engine was neglected and the hose 
was in poor condition. From 1863 to 1869 there was 
no company and no organization worthy of the name. 
In 1869 the Star Fire Company was organized, and 
also Hose Company No. 1, and the Globe Engine 
was rebuilt. In December, 1871, a new hose-cart 
was purchased and the name of the company changed 
to Hope Fire-Engine Company and Hose Company 
No. 1. The organizations are ii 
present time, though in a feeble 

Schools.— Prior to 1830 there v 
the borough except the subscripti' 
and of these none of sufficient distinctive impor- 
tance to be noted. One of the old teachers, and one 
who taught for many years, was Adam Smith. Be- 
tween the years 1830 and 1830 there were three school 
buildings erected, known respectively as the Upper, 
Lower, and Central schools. In 1836, after the adop- 
tion by Raphe township, of which Manheim was then 
a part, of the district school system of public schools, 
the schools of the borough were controlled jointly by 
the district school board and six trustees for the bor- 
ough. In 1855 the borough became a separate school 
district, and shortly after this the schools were graded, 
the Upper school being the grammar, the Lower sec- 
ondary, and the Central the primary grades. At this 
time the school year was five months, and the aver- 
age salaries of the teachers thirty dollars per month. 
In 1862 the school year was lengthened to six months, 
and in 1882 to seven months. In 1868 the present 
fine large building was erected, and the school was 
divided into four grades. These have now been in- 
creased to six grades, and the school has a fine repu- 
tation, both for its high standard of scholarship and 
its excellent discipline. The present school board is 
composed of D. W. Erb, iircsideiit; II. S. Damier, 
secretary; F. G. Brosey, trea.surer. Direclor.s, J. L. 
Sharpe, George D. Miller, Jr., 11. F. McCloud, E. F. 

Societies.— iManheim Council, No. 154, Sr. O. U. 
A. M., was organized Aiiril 10, 1868. Its officers at 

existence at the 
lid unsatisfactory 

•e no schools in 
private schools, 



date of organization were J. G. Leber, C. ; J. M. Dun- 
lap, V. C; F. R. White, R. C. ; M. E. Bomberger, 
Treas. Its present officers are F. K. Brosey, C. ; A. 
A. Barthold, V. C. ; J. M. Shoemaker, R. C; S. A. 
Eni^minger, Treas. 

JFanlieim Council, No. 32, Jr. O. U. A. M., organ- 
ized Aug. 11, 18G8. Officers, C. ,J. Mengle, C. ; B. A. 
Donoven, V. C; W. B. Mixell, R. C. ; J. M. Rice, 
Treas. Officers for 1883 are Frederick Ensminger, 
C; Harry Fry, V. C. ; George II. Ulrich, R. C. ; H. 
M. Ensminger, Treas. 

Selah Lodge, No. (j.57, I. O. 0. F., organized March 
11, 18G9. Officers, J. SL Dunlap, N. G. ; H. S. 
Stauff'er, V. G. ; J. M. Dunlaj), Sec; Abraham 
Schopp, Treas. 

Gen. Ileintzelman Post, No. 300, G. A. R., organ- 
ized Dec. 81, 1882. Officers, Christian Baer, Com.; j 
J. Ruff' Shearer, Adjt. 

Aureola Circle, No. 42, B. U. (H. F.) C. of A. [ 
Officers, 1883, M. J. Stoner, C. W. ; C. F. Fislier, Jr., i 

C. J. ; L. Barthold, Jr., C. F. ; H. C. Gibble, H. S. K. ; j 
S. S. Young, H. T. 1 

P. O. S. of A., organized Oct. 2, 1874. Officers, H. 
M. Ensminger, Pres. ; F. McMullen, V. P.; 11. C. j 
Gibble, Sec. ; B. D. Danner, Treas. Tliis society dis- 
banded in April, 1883. 

Manheim Lodge, No. G40, I. O. of G. T., organized 
Sept. 24, 18G8, but was discontinued in 1871. 

The Young Men's Ciiri.^tian Association of Man- 
heim was organized in 1851), but was discontinued in 
18(33, a large part of ita members entering the service 
during the civil war. The society was reorganized in 
1879, with F. G. Brosey, president; H. H. Gingrich, 
secretary, who are its present officers (1883). 

Kauffman Park.— There was no public park in 
the borough till 1870, when Abraham Kauff'man pre- 
sented to the Borough Council a tract of land for park 
purposes. This land was three acres in extent and 
contained a beautiful spring. The property has been 
improved and added to until it now contains about 
ten acres, and is a beautitiil jnirk ))roiierty. 

The Evangelical Lutheran Church was built first 
in 1770, and was rebuilt in 1837. Tlie lot upon which 
the cliurch was built was given by Baron Stiegel, the 
consideration being a red rose, to be paid annually. 
The first minister was Frederick Augustus Mjuhlen- 
berg. From 1849 to 1851, J. H. Jlenger was in ciiarge 
as minister; C. Reese, in 1852; G. Haines, 1857-58; 

D. P. Roscnmiller, 1858-64; J. R. Focht, 1864-68; 
Kemper, 18G8; Jacob Peters, 1870. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church was built by a 
Free-Will Baptist Society in 18G4. Tliey failed to es- 
tnl)liM)) a succea.sful organization, and in 18G8-69 the 
building was purch:ised by the Methodist Episcopal 
Society. Tlie minister was Samuel Huff'. The 
society is small, and has no regular service. 

St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal Church.— The 
first Episcopal services held in Maidieim were con- 
ducted by G. W. Mayer in 18G1. On Feb. 9, 18G2, 

Rev. A. M. Able conducted services in the German 
Reformed Church. In 1867, J. Brinton White rented 
the German Reformed Church and read services. 
Duriitg part of 1868 the Rev. Douglas, of Coluiiihiu, 
and F. B. Barker, of Lancaster, conducted servii-e* 
during the week. In 1869 the parish was orgaiii/ed, 
and adopted the name of St. Paul's Protestant Epis- 
copal Church. The corner-stone of the prcsfiil 
cliurch was laid in October, 1869, by Rev. A. M. Abl« 
and F. B. Barker, and the building was consecrated 
May 3, 1870, by Rt. Rev. Bishop Stevens. The first 
regular rector was Rev. A. Bernstein; succeeding him 
were W. S. Bigton, S. Edwards, E. P. Brown, John 
Graham, William Thorn, and their present rector, 
Rev. John Graham. The first warden was J. BrinloD 
White. The church officers (1883) are J. M. Dur.lap, 
senior warden ; J. Henry Moore, junior warden. 

St. Paul's German Reformed Church.— The exact 
date of the building of the first German Reformed 
Church cannot be positively ascertained, though it it 
claimed to have been built in 1769. The lots upon 
which the church was built were deeded to Sebastian 
Witmer, John Dener, and Michael Katz, in trust, hj 
Michael Diff'enderfer, Jlay 22, 1775. A new cliui-ch 
was built in 1852. Tlie first minister was probably 
Casper Shaeffer. The present minister is S. B. Slicaf- 
fer. Members of cousistory, Philip Arndt, Abraham 
Kline, James M. Dunlap, Henry C. Boyd, John Ful- 
mer, Ephraim Suniniy, Howard Gingrich. 

Evangelical Association.— In 1820 the first i 
ciety of this denommatiun in Manlieim was organ- 
ized by Rev. Jacob Albright and John Seybert. A* 
they had no church in which to worship, servica 
were held at the private houses of Catharine Hassler, 

Jacob Reich, and ■ Fasig. The first church wa) 

built in 182G by Rev. John Seybert, and was located . 
on the corner of Nortii Charlotte and Cranitz Streeti 
Tlie building committee was Rev. John .Seybert, Jacob 
Long, Jacob Hassler, Dr. Mellinger, and Joseph Lan» 
dice, and the edifice was dedicated by Rev. John Sey» 

bert, John Kleinfelter, and Ettinger. Thisehurch 

was used until 1842, when it was removed, and i 
larger one e)-ected on the same site. This new build- 
ing was called " Zion's Evangelical Church," ar 
erected by Rev. John vSenszl, John Seybert, and J.Q, ' 
Reisner. Trustees, Fred. Danner, D. Fisher, and J. , 
Musser. The ministers who have served this chargj 
are John Breidenstein, J. C. Reisner, J. P. Leip, F, 
Hoffman, L. Neitz, Thomas Sebald, Jacob Adams, ] 
Jacob Zern, J. O. Lelir, M. Dissinger. From 1860, 
Revs. R. Deisher, R. Stetzel, and F. P. Lehr; 
Revs. R. Litzenberger and T. Harper; 18G2, Revs. R.i| 
Litzenberger and C. II. Baker; 18G3, Revs. M. Dis-' ' 
singer'and S. S. Chubb ; 1864, Revs. M. Di.ssingeriind 

Fucht; 1865, Revs. C. H. Baker and J. N. Mett- 

gar; 186G, Revs. C. H. Baker and J. C. Jlornberger; 
1867, Revs. J. Zern and J. Zimmerman ; 18G8, Revs. J. 
Zern and A. M. Stirk; 1869, Revs. Joseph Spechtand 
A. M. Stirk; 1870, Revs. Joseph Specht and W. A.; 


Shoemaker; 1871, Revs. William Weidner and U. H. 
Hersliez; 1872, Revs. William WeiJiier and U. H. 
Hershez; 1873, Revs. J. Laros and W. Black; 1874, 
Revs. J. Laros and A. Markley ; 1875, Rev. C. S. 
Brown ; 187G, Rev. J. M. Oplinger; 1879, Rev. Joseph 
M. Speoht; 1882, Rev. B. D. Albright; 1883, Rev. B. 
D. Albright. 

The society is now erecting a fine building upon 
the corner of Market Square and Charlotte Street, to 
be called " Bishop Seybert's Memorial Church," in 
honor of the first bishop of the denomination who re- 
sided near Manheim.and who built their first church. 
The church is to be a fine brick structure, two stories 
in height, surmounted by a cupola containing a clock 
end a bell, and forty-two by seventy-five feet in size. 
The building is under the superintendence of the pas- 
tor, B. D. Albright. The corner-stone was laid July 
29th by Rev. L. Neitz, of Reading, and Rev. B. D. 
Albright. The trustees of the church are W. Litzen- 
berger, F. G. Brosey, S. Young, Samuel Ruhl, and 
J. M. Yeager. The Sunday-school connected with 
this church has a membership of over one hundred. 
Its superintendents are S. S. Young and A. A. Stauffcr. 
• United Brethren in Christ.— [It has been imjios- 
gible to obtain any inforination in regard to this 

Borough Cemetery.— In connection with most of 
the cliiirclK-s there is a cemetery where the people of 
its denomination are buried. The first borough ceme- 
tery was given to the borough by Dr. Michael Kauf- 
man, but no deed wa.s made, and at the time of iiis 
death no provision was made for conveying the title. 
The property was then bought by the Borough Council 
for forty dollars. 

Population.— The population of Manheim borough 
Was 778 in 1850, 85(i in 18iiU, 1122 in 1870, and ItJOG 

caster County. Their son, Simeon G., was born Sept^ 
2, 1844, at Manheim, and early removed to Sporting 
Hill, where his youth was spent. The school of the 
neighborhood, and subsequently the Mount Joy 
Academy, afforded him the rudiments of education, 
after which he engaged in labor on the farm. He 
afterward embarked in the purchase and sale of cattle, 
and later became a successful auctioneer. Having 
discerned in Manheim borough a wider field for his 
abilities, he made it his residence, and in 1881 erected 
the "Summy House," one of the most attractive 
hotels in the north portion of the county, of which 
he is the successful landlord. Mr. Summy has mani- 
fested much interest in the growth and development 
of Manheim, and was chiefly instrumental in locating 
the stock-yards at that point. Through his energy a 
large and growing cattle trade has developed, which 
is now one of the most active business features of the 
place. Mr. Summy is a meml)er of the order of 
American Mechanics, of Manheim. In politics he 
is a Republican, though not actively identified with 
the political movements of the day. He is not iden- 
tified with any religious sect, but is in sympathy with 
all measures for the promotion of good morals and 
the vvelfare of the community. Mr. Summy was mar- 
ried, in 1865, to Miss Mary A., daughter of Jacob 
Balmer, of Ncllsville. Their children are Harry B., 
Elmer B. (deceased), and Homer B. 


■ The Summy family are of Swiss descent, John, the 
grandfather of Simeon Guilford, having lived at 
Sporting Hill, in Rapho township, where l^e, was 
both a miller and a farmer, and also embarked in 
various speculations. His children were John, Peter, 
Christian, Jacob, David, Henry, Elizabeth (Mrs. Ens- 
minger), Anna (Mrs. Gibble)^ Maria (Mrs. Miller). 
Jacob, of this number, was born near Neffsville, in 
Manheim township, and resided in the immediate 
vicinity during )iis youth. He succeeded to the oc- 
<ii|>iilion of Ills fathtir, that of a miller, and was also 
11 popular landlord. He married Martha, daughter 
of Simeon •Minnich, and had children, — Angeliiie, 
Simeon G., Lavinia, Henry C.- Jacob, John, Emma, 
Ciitlicrine, and Annft, of whom four are decca.-ed. 
Mr. and Mrs. Summy still survive, and reside in Lau- 



Titles-The Town Laid Out.- A patent for the 
lan.l on which Kliziibethtowu was afterwards built 
was secured by Thomas Harris, an Indian trader, who 
then lived on Conewago Creek, on Nov. 12, 1746. 
Harris and his wile Mary, on July 15, 1751, sold the 
farm, which included several hundred acres, to Laza- 
rus Lowrey, and he and his wife Ann conveyed the 
property, on June 13, 1753, to Barnabas Hughes, who 
laid out what is now the western part of the borough 
the same year. The town was named after his wife. 
Hughes was a tavern-keeper, and had lived on the 
Fa.xton road a number of years prior to this time. 
He died in January, 17G5, and left his property to 
his sons Daniel, John, Barnabas, and Samuel. To 
the last named the other brothers rel-eased the land, 
and he having in the mean time become a resident of 
Hartford County, Md., sold to Alexander Boggs on 
Oct. 28, 1790, two hundred and thirty acres on the 
northwest side of Elizabethtown for ^1360. 

George Wealand bought this tract from Alexander 
Boggs and Ann Boggs, his wife, on Feb. 21, 1809, ahil 
laid out upon it an addition to the town in 1812. 

A portion of the town site was also included in a 
tract patented in 1785 by Christopher and Mary Etter, 



/ho sold a purt Aug. 4, 1791, to Isaac and Barbara Kbeiug about equidistant and considerably removeil 
Ream, and tlii-y sold one-half to.Midiael and Eliza- jjrom the larger towns, almost exactly eighteen miles 

beth Keeby, Jan. 21, 1795. The main portton-ijr that 
half was sold by them to Martin Stouffer on May 2, 
1814, and by him to Dr. John Eberlc, of Salome, and 
Samuel Z. Geehr, of Manheim, on June 18th of the 
same year. On Aug. 20, 1S14, Eberle and Geehr sold 
to Henry Brubaker and Mahlon Roberts, both of 
Manheim, about forty-five acres, receiving therefor 
nine thousand dollars.' Christopher Etter had laid 
out some lots, probably in 1791 ; Reeby had laid out 
some later, and now (1814) Brubaker and Roberts 
made an addition of one hundred and forty lots, 
which they advertised to be disposed of by lottery at 
one hundred and ten dollars per ticket. 

Another addition was made as late as 1861, Kirk 
Few and 11. A. Wade laying out on January 2()th of 
that year seven lots of forty feet front each on Man- 

Development of the Town.— Early Settlers.'— 
Reluming to the origin of the town, we find that it 
was a natural sequence of its site having been upon 
the great trail from Philadelphia to the West. This 
old Indian path as the country became settled was 
the road of the whites, and the present Lancaster and 
Ilarrisburg turnpike is almost identical with its line 
throughout its length. As the travel westward in- 
creased, and larger numbers of people were obliged 
by the necessities of trade and public business to pass 
to and fro between Ilarrisburg and Philadelphia, 
taverns were established at frequent intervals along 
the road, and one of the earliest was within the pres- 
ent limits of Elizabelhtown, — a log house, situated on 
the spot now occupied by Kolp's blacksuiith-shop, 
which withstood the ravages of time until 1835. The 
second tavern at this place was the " Black Horse," 
which is still in existence and serving the same pur- 
pose for which it was originally built. Just when it 
was erected is not known, but it was probably prior 
to the laying out of the village by Barnabas Hughes. 
Until very recent years a license was in existence 
which was granted to George Redsecker in the year 
1757, and bore the signature of George II., as well, as 
that of the Provincial Governor. It granted the 
right of selling wine and rum to the general public, 
but prohibited the sale of any kind of liqubij to the 
Indians under pain of a heavy penalty. The " Black 
Horse" was constructed of logs, as would be evident 
now were the more recent weather-boards removed. 
The stone addition was made about 1790, and another 
one in 183G. 

Around and near these two taverns, well supported 
by the travelers passing through the country, the set- 
tlement grew slowly until at the time of the Revolu- 
tion quite a thriving little village appeared, and 

> Miiny of tlio facts In Uila cliaiiter liuvo been gloHiicil from tliu " H.nil- 
beUUown Chronide. 

from Lancaster, Harrisburg, and Lebanon, it became 
a ph\ce of rendezvous and a point of trade for the in- 
habitants of quite a large area of country. Another 
tavern had been built and named the " General Wash- 
ington," and another, a small log structure, stood where [ 
Mrs. George Patterson now lives. One of the largest ', 
of the log dwelling-houses was upon the ground now j 
occupied by the buildings of E. Hofl'man and Janie* , 
Lynch. Another stood where John Brenemaii't 
residence now is, and the others of most consequence 
of which the localities can be identified were where i 
the residences of Mrs. Wieland, Mrs. Julia Wade, and 
George F. Wagner now are, while there was another 
on the lot west of the " Black Horse" tavern, and 
altogether probably more than a score. 

The war brought hard times to the little village, t» 
it did to nearly all localities. The price of commodi- , 
ties increased to a wonderful extent, and land had 
fallen to as low a price as nine pounds per acre, Penn- 
sylvania currency. A number of the residents of 
Elizabethtown were absent from home on military 
duty, heavy travel upon the wagon-road had almost 
ceased, and the village wore a deserted and desolate 
appearance ; but after the close of the war affairs at 
once assumed a promising aspect, and the period of 
progression lasted until the war of 1812. 

By 1790, or very soon afterwards, another tavero 
had been built. This was in the northernmost part 
of the town, and was the property of one of the sons 
of Barnabas Hughes, who laid out the town. It was 
called the " Black Bear." What is now the Greenwalt 
House was built not long after the Hugiies inn, by a 
Mr. Coble, who also erected a stone dwelling adjoin- 
ing it, in which the post-office was at one time kept. 
Still another tavern was put up by Samuel Ebersole, ^ 
a brick building, and the second of that kind in town. 
A Mr. McClutt kept a general store about the clos? 
of the last century at the northeast corner of the 
square, in a frame building. He owned the property 
for a number of years and carried on business there, 
but finally sold it to Adam Campbell, who afterwards 
erected the present brick dwelling and store. On the 
corner, where Jacob Baxtresscr's dwelling and stor^ .' 
room now is, was at that time a log dwelling, occu- 
pied by a Mr. Gardner, who also carried on in it a 
saddle and harness shop, and a short distance back of 
it was another log building, in which chairs were' 
manufactured by William Wilson. 

In 1798, George Redsecker was still the keeper of 
the " Black Horse," and Caleb Thornberry was land- '. 
lord of the " Black Bear," while Jacob Eckert kept 
the "General Washington." The last-named tavern, 
at the period of which we have been writing, the 
closing years of the last century and early ones 


2nt, had 
latof Ihei 
1800 and 1 

3 into a prominence which 
Black Horse," and some lime 
it surpassed it. A three-story 



1 Lan- 
s built 

building was put up as an addition, and tiiis structure 
was at the time the most imposing one in the village. 
It is to-day one of tlie most substantial in the bor- 
ough, notwithstanding the fact that some ambitious 
examples of modern architecture have taken their 
places upon the streets. Its outer walls are about 
twenty inches thick, and a partition wall in the entry, 
carried clear to the roof, is fourteen inches tliick. 
This building (which lias undergone several modifica- 
tions and changes of ownership, now in pos: 
the Odd-Fellows) was erected by John I 
gomery, Esq., a leading lawyer of his time 
caster, and the brick of which it is built Wi 
all brought from that city. A brick stable was 
at the same time the house was put up, in which si.xty 
horses could be stabled. The two buildings cost about 
seventeen thouiJand dollars. The large addition to the 
"General Washington" and the building of the stable 
were necessities caused by the great increase in public 
travel by stages (of which we shall have more to say 
furtlier on in this chapter), and the fact that this 
tavern had been made the stage-office. 

In the southwest part of town was the first brick 
building put up in its limits, that now owned by A. 
Dissinger. It was originally a two-story building, 
»nd was occupied by Thomas Eagan, who carried on 
the sale of general merchandise. Below this stood a 
log or frame building, and then came the stone build- 
ing known as a tavern-stand for a number of years, 
and now occupied by Robert Ross as a store. The 
brick building below this, in which is the Farmers' 
Bank and residence of Samuel Eby, was built by 
George Redsecker. 

As we have heretofore intimated, the running of 
stage-coaches and the increased travel by other means 
had a marked effect upon the liveliness and prosperity 
of the village. As a preliminary to this was the im- 
provement of the roads, especially the great east-and- 
west thoroughfare. The Lancaster, Elizabethtown 
and Jliddletown turnpike was commenced in 1805, 
and finished without delay a distance of twenty-six 
miles. A few years later there was an entire turnpike 
communication from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh. 
There was another turnpike which in its palmy days 
was of great benefit to the place. This was the Fal- 
mouth pike, commonly called the Hardscrabjjl.e pike, 
•and in later years the Pumpkin-Vine pike. Tlie road 
■was built a distance of si.\ miles in 1811. Before the 
construction of the State Canal there was a very large 
amount of travel over this road, and it was caused by 
the fact that until the construction of the State Canal 
nearly all of the freight shipped up or down the Sus- 
quehiinna was by this dfitour brought around the 
tr.iiibksoine and dajigerous Conewago Falls at Fal- 
mouth. Upon this pike the heavy Conestoga wagons, 
drawn by four or six horses, were often seen in lines 
of twenty or thirty, and they appeared also in gi'eat 
numbers upon the through east-and-west pike, while 
Btage-coaches were also numerous upou the hilter. 

Caring for the p.issengers and drivers and horses 
was a task of considerable magnitude and revenue, 
and the taverns of that time were well supported. 
The scene of greatest activity the "General Wash- 
ington," which, as has been remarked, was the stage- 
olfice, and had the most extensive stable; but the 
others obtained an incessant and extensive patronage 
from the drivers of the great Conestoga teams. 

The breaking out of the war of 1812 cast a dark 
cloud over the community for a time, and some of its 
most active men were drawn away from their home 
industries by the call for soldiers. Tetrah Jones re- 
ceived the appointment for enlisting soldiers, and 
had his headquarters at some tents in the upper part 
of the town. Peter Force, John Negley, Philip 
Fisher, and Samuel Gruber all went into the service 
from this village. Peter Force, who was in the ma- 
rine service and fought bravely on Lake Erie, died 
in the borough in 1SG8, at the age of seventy-three 

After the war business was more prosperous than 
ever before, and in a few years some new industries 
were established which are spoken of at greater 
length elsewhere in this chapter. By 1820 improve- 
ments had been made in the stores, and larger stocks 
of goods were kept than formerly. The merchants in 
business during the period extending from this time 
to the year 1825 were Messrs. Wagner & Brother 
(where A. Dissinger now is), Adam Campbell, 
Robert, Samuel Redsecker, John llerr, and 
William Campbell. Produce of all kinds was at that 
time very low, and was taken at the stores in ex- 
change for groceries, which were relatively much 
! higher. Butter was six and a quarter cents per pound, 
j and eggs six to eight cents per dozen. Cofl'ee sold 
j at forty to fifty cent^i per pound, sugar from twenty 
to tw'enty-five cents per pound, and that wdiich was 
called loaf-sugar, put up in conical form, forty to fifty 
cents per pouncL Dry-goods were equally high, the 
I common calico selling at more than half a dollar per 
[ yard. Whiskey was sold by all of the merchants, and 
j an unadulterated article of good quality could be pro- 
I cured for ten or twelve cents per quart. 
\ At this time (1820-25) there were living in the vil- 
: lage a number of the early settlers, men who had 
lived as far back as the Revolutionary war, and prom- 
inent among them was Peter Schaefler, who had 
served through its campaigns and returned to enjoy 
a long and peaceful life in the quiet town. He died 
here in 1848, and, as he was born in 1751, he was in 
his ninety-eighth year. George Redsecker, the early 
landlord of the " Black Horse," was living here nearly 
as late as the piTind of which we have spoken. lie 
was a* captain in the Revolutionary war, Lowry's 
battalion, and was at the Brandywine and Ger- 
m'antown. He had one son, Samuel, and a num- 
ber of his descendants are now residents of the bor- 
ough. Simon (iross, another Kevulutionary char- 
acter, was also living here about 1820, as well as 



Frederick Byrod, who had served in the war and 
settled here soon after its close, prohably in 1785. 
Jle was a native of Lancaster, and born in 1762. He 
followed shoemaking alter locating in Elizabeth- 
town, and was the iirst burgess of the borough. He 
died here in 1840. His son George, the only one of 
his thirteen children now living, was born in Eliza- 
bethtown in 1802, and is probably the oldest person 
in the borough born here. 

Stephen Stephenson, one of the early residents and 
a store-keeper, was a captain in the Whiskey Rebel- 
lion. Some time after that organized opposition to 
the Federal authority he went to Philadelphia to pur- 
chase goods, and soon after he started back was taken 
sick on the stage with yellow fever. He returned to 
Philadelphia and died the same day, such was the 
virulence of the disease. 

Among the other settlers living in Elizabethtown 
between the years 1812 and 1825 were Tetrah Jones 
(a school-teacher, who died not long after the war of 
1812), Alexander Kirchener (landlord of the " General 
Washington"), Charles Wade (wh(jse grandchildren 
now live in the borough), Michael Auxer, John Heft- 
ley, James Close, George Walfley, Andrew Gross, 

Thomas Eagan, John Herr, John Walfley, En- 

gle (a saddler), Sayiii-iller, Joseph Atwood, Bern- 
hardt Klouse, Jacob Gorgas, John George, Dennis 
Kane, William Youse, Michael Coble, William Wal- 
lace, Merrow, John Willett, John Gross, William 

Heller, and Caspar Young. 

Incorporation— List of Borough Officers, 1828- 
83.— By 1826 the village had so iiiciea..,ud in popu- 
lation that its residents deemed it expedient to iiave 
a municipal government organized. Petition was 
consequently. made to the Legislature, and on April 
13, 1827, an act was passed incorporating the borough 
of Elizabethtown. It was the third borough incor- 
porated in the county. Whether or not officers were 
elected in 1827 is uncertain, but the first showing on 
the record are those for 1828. The following is a list 
of those elected frojn that time to the present, so far 
as the records show tliem : 

, Jacob Peeler; no record of 

HiS.— Buigeai, Frederick B.vrod; Cle 

I«i9.— Uurt'ees, Jiicob Peeler. 

18:)!.— Biirgesa, .\udrew Wade; Clerk, George Byrod. ( , 

lli.ii.— Uuracss, William M. Baxter; Clerk, S. Furry. 
IK:i3-4C.— No record. 

Isn.—Uurgeao, Jackson Shueffer; Clerk, Daniel Balmer. 
lS4»-4U.—lJurgea3, Jackson SUaclTor; Clerk, Jacob lludsocker. 
18Jt^-51. — Burges)*, Jackson Sliaeffur; no record lor cloik. 
1852.— No record. 
ISJ I.— Burgi-sa, Isaac Redsecker; Council, James Wilson, Abrm. Brene- 

Ulan, Joseph Clinton, John Rhoads, George Byrod, George \V. Boyer. 
18.'J4.— Burgess, Charles Ebbekee; Council, .\. Brerieman, George W. 

Boyr, Jliuies Wiliwn, George Byrod, Henry Boll, Jacob Hoster; 

Cirri., U F. Diier. 
1865.— Burgess, William Wilson ; Council, A. Brenennin, James Wilson, 

Henry Boll, Jacob Hoster, Henry Shultz, George Wealaud ; Clerk, 

B. F. 


857.— Burgess, James Wilson ; Council, Henry Shultz, George WsaUuJ,' . 

A. L. HiirroufI', Dr. S. Keller, George W. Boyer, Christ. Foltz; Clerk, 

Beury Harm, my. 
858.— Burgess. Daniel Balmer; Council, A. L. HarroufT, Dr. S. Kelltf, 

G»orge \V. Boyer, Cliri-t. B'oltz, Abraham Greeiiawalt, Ambnm 

ShruiiJ; Olelk, II. HiuiuoMy. 
859— Rill gts,-, H. .^. W.i 

C.I. GreeiiHWiill, Am 

Clerk, H. Harmony. 
SGO.— Burgess, James Wilson; Council, Col. Greeuawalt, Anibrot. 

Shroad, John Ebeisole, I'etur Iloffer, Philip Fisher, Henry ShulU; 

Cleik, H. Harmony. 
SOI.— Bulges.-!, Jacob H. Bletz; Council, John Ehersole, Peter Holfw, 

Henry Shultz, Philip Ki^lier, F. S. Bry.m, W. Marquart; Clerk, H, 

862— Burgess, GeorgeW. Boyer; Council, Henry Shultz, Philip Fisher, ! 

F. S. Bryan, James Wilson, Christian Foltz, Jos. Clinton; Clerk, : 

H. Haniioiiy. 
863.— Burgees, Jacob Felix; Council,?. S. Bryan, James Wilson, Joe. 

Clinton, John Eby, A. L, Harioufi-, A. Harchenrader ; Clerk, J. W. 

Shaefler. - 

864.- Burgess, Henry Harmony ; Council, Jos. Clinton, John Eby.i 

L. Harrouff, A. Harchenrader, Jos. Eckert, J. W. Rooting; Clerk, J, 

P. D.ilmer. 
865.— Burge.-s, .lames Wilsou ; Council, A. L. Harrouff, A. Harchen- 
rader, Jos Eckert, J. W. Iloetiiig, John Eby, Wm. Baiuej ; Clerk, 

H. T, Scbullz. 
860 — Bursess, U.Bieueuian ; Council, Jos. Eckert, J. W.Roeting, Jobs . 

El.y, W Buiney, John F. Balmer, George Wealand ; Clerk, B. 

U. Lehman. 
867 —Burgess, A. L. Harrouff; Council, John Eby, William Bilnej, 

John F. Balmer, George Wealaud, John Oldweilcr, Abraham Greeof 

wall ; Clerk, S. L. Y.-tter. 
808.- Burgess, A. L. Harrouff; Council, John F. Balmer, George We* 

land, Abrahitm Greeuawalt, Jos. F. EcUinger, Jacob Felix, Geurgt 

D. Lour; Clerk, J. V. Weigaud. 
869.— Durgcss, Jacob Dyer; Council, Jos. F. Etkinger, Jacob Felll, 

George D. Lour, Abiaham Broiieman, Samuel McLauigan, George 

W. Boyer; Clerk, J. D. WeiganJ. 
870.— Burgess, John Oldweiler; Council, Jos. F. Eckinger, Jacob Kelll, 

Samuel JlcLunigaii, George W. Boyor, Henry Dissiuger, John Eljjj 

Clerk, J. D. W.iganJ. 
871.— Biiigebs, James Wilson; Council, Samuel McLanigan, George W. 

B"yer, Henry Dl^slilt;er, John Eby, George Wealand, David Coble; 

Clelk,J.D. Welgaiid. 
S72.— Buigess, Janiei Wilson; Council, Henry Diasinger, John Eby, 

George Wealand, J. B. Buch, H. A. Wade, John Iiigirs ; Clerk, J. 

873— Buigess, John Hildebrand; Council, J. B. Buch, John Myeni, H. 
A. Wade, Henry Dis^inger, J.C S. Hor,t, Matthew Siiiipsou; Clerk, 
J. D. Weigand. ^ , 

874.-Burge63, John Hildebrund ; Council, J. B. Buch, John Myere, J. 

C. S. Hoist, Slallhew Simpson, U. A. Wade, Mai tin Hess ; Clerk, J. 

D. Weigand. 

875 —Burgess, Daniel Balmer ; Council, J. C. S. Horst, MatthewSimpi. 

son, H. A. Wade, Martin Hess, G. D. Lour, Martin Kolp; Clerk, J. 

D. Wiegiuid. 
870.— Burge~s, A. Harchenrader; Council, H. A. Wade, Maitin Hen, 

G. D. Lour, Martin Kolii, Samuel Epier, Abiaham Greiiier ; Clerk, 

J. D. Weigand. 
.877— Biugesi, A. Harchenrader; Council, G. D. Lour, Martin Kolp 

Clerk, J. D. Weigand. 
878.— Burgess, A. Harcliennider ; Council, Samuel EpIer, Abraham 

Greiner, Martin Hess, M.iltliew Simpson, H. A. Wado, J. 0. 8. 

Hor-t; Clelk, J. D. Weigand. .■: 

879.— Burgess, J. H. Brubaker ; Council, Martin Hess, Matthew Slmj.'- 

son, U. A. Wade, J. C. S. Hoist, U. D. Courtney, B. G. Groff; Clerk, 

J. D. Weigand. 
880— Burgess, A. Harcheurader ; CoHncIl, H. A. Wtidi-, J. C. S. Hunt, 

D D. Courlii.y, B.C. GrotI, J. G. Slauffer, I'lillip Singer ; Cleik.J. 


isb, G. D. Lour; c 

I Greii 



a.— Burgess, J. H. Brubaker ; 
AbruluimGreiuer, Miiitiu Hm3, J. G. SUuEfer, Ai 
J. D. Wei-aud. 


Jicob ReJaecker, April 14, 1840. 
George liyrode, April 14, 1S40. 
George Byrodu, April 15, 1846. 
J»c».b R.-dsfcliiT, Ajinl 16, 1S45. 
J«cob nedscclier, April 9, 1850. 
Diuiel Bulmer, April 9, 1850. 
George B> rode, April 11, 1854. 
Iliwc Hoflor, April 10, 1855. 
Henry U. Breneniaii, June 10, 1868. 
George Byrodo, April 10, 1859. 
Henry W. Brentman, April 14, 1803. 

Samuel Eby, April, 1864. 
George Byrodo, Aijril, 1865. 
Daniel Buluier, Apjil, 1868. 
Jiinies LyUL-h, April, 18C.8. 
George Byrode, April, 1S7U. 
Henry Iliirmony, April, 1873. 
Samuel Eby, April, 1875. 
J. B. Decker, April, 1878. 
Henry Harmony, April, 1880. 
John W. Sliaffer, April, 1880. 
Jobn B. Docker, April, 1883. 

Schools.— Little that is authentic can be said con- 
cerning the early history of the schools in this bor- 
ough. The first were, of course, in all es.sential par- 
ticulars like the primitive schools of other new 

About tlie beginning of the present century a log 
building, which had originally served as a place of 
worship for the Catholics, was supplanted so far as 
religious purposes were concerned by a finer structure 
and devoted instead to educational. A school was 
kept ill it for many years prior to 1840. There was 
another log school-house in the village, the site of 
which was afterwards occupied by a brick school- 
house. This was afterwards used as a public hall and 
then as a dwelling-house, and is now owned by Henry 

In 1843 the borough accepted by vote the conditions 
of the free school law of 18-34. The western or upper 
portion of Mount Joy township and also Conoy town- 
eliip then voted here as well as the inhabitants of the 
borough. The question of " free school" or " no free 
kIiooI" was to be decided in Mount Joy township 
and Elizabethtown by a majority of the combined 
vote of town and country ; a majority in Elizabetlitown 
were in favor of free schools, but the majority op- 
posed to the system iu the country would have over- 
whelmed them had it not been for an unforeseen cir- 
cumstance. It so happened that when the sun rose 
on the day of election it revealed a heavy snow three 
feet in depth and in many places covering the fences. 
This prevented the country opposition from coming 
into town to 'cast their ballots, and the P^lizabethtown 
yoters easily carried the day. 

"The following day," says Mr. Baer, in his*'iRemi- 
nisceuces," "showed how strong the opposition would 
have told against the free-schoolers, for the country 
people came to town on horseback, in sleighs and 
sleds, and on foot by the hundreds, and sought the 
justice's office to upset the election of the day pre- 
vious. Such another hullabaloo among the seem- 
ingly finiot and staid country-people you never could 
have imagined. It was at times thought the matter 
would end in a row, or that the town would stand in 
danger of being besieged. An event took place that 

did more, in all probability, to bring about quiet 
and peace than forty speeches could have effected." 
In the office of the justice of the peace (Jacob Red- 
secber) there was a large box stove, in which roared 
and crackled a huge fire of dry hickory. The stove 
was almost red hot, the room crowded and uncom- 
fortably warm, although outside the mercury was 
down nearly to zero. Finally, when the temper of 
the angry mob as well as the atmosphere had reached 
its highest heat, and an outbreak was not unex- 
pected, there came a sudden change. Every man in 
the room was seized with a short hacking cough or a 
rasping sneeze. All rushed for the door and fresh 
air. The room was cleared in less time than it had 
taken to tell it, and the remonstrators against the 
result of the election, effectually beaten, in a few 
hours wended their way homeward. Some mis- 
chievous person had thrown a large handful of red 
pe|)per upon the stove. 

The free schools were put in operation very soon 
after the acceptance of the law. In 1855 there were 
two in the borough, each employing one teacher, and 
the total number of pupils was one hundred and 
forty-three. The amount of tax levied was three 
hundred and twenty dollars, and the amount received 
from the State appropriation sixty-four dollars and 
five cents. The cost of instruction was three hun- 
dred and twenty-five dollars. 

Under the old system of schools the best was un- 
doubtedly one kept by Dr. J. W. B. Dobler, and in 
it a number of the leading citizens of the borough as 
well as many who have found residence elsewhere 
obtaine<l their early education. 

Under the new system, adopted by the vote of 1843, 
there was a slow but steady improvement, in which 
the most noticeable event was the building of the 
new school-house in 1873-74. This was a step ren- 
dered necessary by the increased attendance and grow- 
ing educational oecessities. The first move towards 
the accomplishment of the result was upon the 7lh of 
October, when A. Harchenrader, Samuel GrofF, and 
Levi Coble were appointed a committee to see where 
ground could be most advantageously purchased. 
This was followed, November 5th of the same year, 
by the whole board constituting them.selves as a com- 
mittee, as follows: A. Harchenrader, president; H.T. 
Schultz, secretary ; Emanuel Hoffman, treasurer; Levi 
Coble, Cyrus Sweigart, and Samuel GrofF; and the re- 
sult of their conference was the selection, in January, 
1873, of the lot on which the present school-house 
stands, which was purchased of Mr. S. Detweiler for 
eight hundred dollars. A petition was made to the 
court to authorize the board to borrow five thimsand 
dollars,' and a vote was taken of the taxable citizens, 
which resulted in a majority in favor of the proceed- 
ing. The board subsequently made application for 
authority to borrow an additional five thousand dol- 

building sixty-lour by forty-eight. The mason- 



and brick-work was done by Samuel IMcLanachan, 
the carpentry by Cyrus Sweigart, who resigned from 
the board to take charge of it, and tlie painting con- 
tract was awarded to Jamea Wilson. Tlie dedication 
of the structure, completed and furnished at a cost 
of twelve thousand dollars, took place May 5, 1874, 
under the auspices of the board, to wit: President, 
Emanuel Hofl'man; Treasurer, Levi Coble; Secre- 
tary, H. T. Schultz; Robert Ross, Samuel Patterson. 
A large procession, headed by the band, marched 
from Boll's Hall to the new building, and addresses 
were made there by Rev. G. H.Trabert, David Evans, 
Esq., W. H. Duhiing, W. A. Wilson, Esq., William 
Riddle, and Professor B. F. Shaub, county superin- 
tendent. The first teachers in the new building were 
G. W. Irwin, principal ; Miss A. Engle, Miss C. Gable, 
and Miss M. Kuhns. 

The statistical report for 1882 shows that Eliza- 
bethtown has four schools, in each of which one 
teacher is employed, two being gentlemen and two 
ladies. The number of pupils is two hundred and 
seventy-one. The total receipts were S4141.G2, of 
which amount only $213.44 was from the State appro- 
priation, and the total expenditures were S3981.15, of 
which SliyO was paid as teachers' wages, and §2791.15 
for all other expenses. The liabilities were put down 
at $5339.53. 

Christ's Evangelical Lutheran Church.'— This 
congregation was in existence long bel'ore the Revolu- 
tionary war, but as the early records are very defec- 
tive, its history cannot be as completely presented as 
we would wish it. According to existing church 
books the earliest regular pastor who can authorita- 
tively be mentioned as laboring here was the Rev. 
Mr. England, who began in 1752. Until about 1775 
services were held in a dwelling several miles from 
Elizabethtown, which was subsequently enlarged and 
converted into a church, .\bout 1780 a log cliurch 
building was erected in Elizabethtowu in which ser- 
vices were held for more than a score of years. On 
July 1, 1804, the corner-stone of the present church 
was laid. The house was consecrated Oct. 11, 1807. 
Following is a list of the pastors from 1752 to the 
present, with the dates of the beginning of their 
respective pastorates: Rev. England, 1752; Rev. 
Tilling (date unknown) ; Rev. Ilorsel, 17Gp ; Rev. J. 
H. Chr. Helmuth, 1769; M. Enderline, 1771 ; J. D. 
Schroeder, 1778; J. V. Melsheimer, 1782; J. W. 
Kurz, 1786; P. Bentz, 1792; J. P. Ernst, 1802; J. 
P. Cramer, 1806; W. G. Ernst, 1812; J. Strein, 1815; 
J. Speck, 1823; F. Ruthrauff, 1829; J. H. Bernheim, 
1832; L. Gerhart, 1838; William Gerhart, 1847; M. 
Souilhaiis, 1852; William G. Laitzle, 1854; J. W. 
Early, 1866; F.' W. Weiskotten, 1868; G. H. Tra- 
bcrt, 1873; IL J. H. Lemcke, 1877; JG. S. Seaman, 
1882. This congregation was formerly embraced in 
an extensive pastoral charge which included congre- 

gations at Mount Joy, Maytown, Bainbridge, 
Colebrook. Gradually the size of the charge 
lessened until the spring of 1882, when this congre- 
gation decided to call a pastor of its own and coO' 
stitute a se])arate clnirge. Tlie church has now aboul 
two lAindred and twenty-five communicants and » 
flourishing Sun. hiy-schoi.l. 

Christ Reformed Church- was organized about 
the year 1740 in what was then Donegal, now We«t 
Donegal township, about one mile south of its pre««' 
ent location. In 1767, Peter Blazer and his wifecon«] 
veyed one acre of land to the congregation for thj; 
consideration of twenty shillings, lawful money of; 
Pennsylvania, and an annual rental of one gfaifi of 
wheat. The deed says that " it is a piece of ground' 
on which the church in whicb Rev. Conrad Bucher 
is pastor now stands." The trustees were Leonard; 
Negley, Simon Carbach, Johannes Thominah, Nich- 
olas Rizecker, and George Rizecker. This church^ 
was known as Blazer's Church. The early recordi' 
and some later ones were lost a few years ago in th» 
burning of the house of the secretary of the consis-' 
tory. Before the pastorate of Rev. Conrad Bucher, 
Rev. Christian Henry Ranch was pastor in 1746. 
He performed extensive missionary labors among tha 
Indians. During his ministry the earliest record in. 
our possession begins. His charge covered conside> 
able territory, viz., Heidelberg, Tulpehocken, Miihl- 
bach, Matthias Dietz's, Swatara, Que-to-pa-hil-la, 
Donegal, Warwick, Leonard Bender's, Lancaster, 
Mode Creek, Coventry (Chester County), Oley (Berh 
County), and Skippack and Goshenhoppen in Mont- 
gomery County. In 1747 the congregation was visited 
by Rev. Michael Schlatter, the "father of the Ee- 
formed Church in the United States." The next pw- 
tor was the Rev. Conrad Templeinan. Then camo 
Rev. Bucher, mentioned in the deed. He came to thii 
country as an officer in the Indian wars. His chnrgo" 
was even more^extensive than Ranch's. During th* 
war of the Revolution, from 1777 to 1784, Rev. Joha' 
William Runkel became the pastor. He was suo-j 
ceeded by Rev. Ludwig Lupp. Then came the pas^, 
torate of Rev. Jonathan Heister. The old log cliurcl 
no longer met the wants of tlie congregation, and, in^ 
asmuch as a town liad been laid out and settled upoo 
the turnpike, a new church was built. Thus in 1815 
the corner-stone of the present church was laid. 
Rev. Henry Shairner was jiastor. His pastorate wai 
the longest in the history of the congregation, extend 
ing over a period of thirty-four years. The lot on 
which the new church was built was donated by 
Leonard Negley, and a few ye;irs later his residence 
was purchased as a parsonage. This was afterwardi 
sold -by the trustees. After his resignation the con^ 
gregation passed under a cloud of adversity. He wa« 

followed by Revs. Ilelfenstein and John Hoff- 

hems, who served brief jiastorates. Then for many 

^ m 


years the church was supplied by ministers from 
neighboring charges until 1857, when tlie Rev. John 
Nailhi became pastor. During his pastorate the con- 
gregation recovered much of its former strength ; 
tlie church was modernized at considerable expense. 
For some reason, however, the latter half of the pas- 
torate witnessed a serious decline in prosperity. He 
resigned in 1868, and was followed by Rev. J. G. 
Fritchey as supply. He labored faithfully and suc- 
cessfully for six years, during which time the church 
was roused into new life. He was instrumental in 
erecting a fine parsonage. In 1874, Rev. J. H. Pan- 
nebecker, the present incumbent, became pastor. 
During his pastorate the congregation prospered 
greatly. The membership rose from sixty to one 
hundred and forty, the church was renovated and 
beautified, and the congregation may once more be 
ranked among the leading ecclesiastical organizations 
in the community. 

St. Peter's Roman Catholic Church.'— Among 
the first Catholics who settled near Elizabethtown of 
whom we have certain knowledge were Henry Eck- 
enroth and family, Conrad and Andrew Gross, George 
Witman, Peter and Anthony Youtz, John Kauft'man, 
and others, who came here in or about the year 1752. 
Almost contemporaneous with these were the Eckels 
(now called Eagles), Allwines, Wades, Myers, Mas- 
tersons, Ovendorfs, Wilsons, and others. The first 
regular divine services were held in the house of Mr. 
Henry Eckenroth, and as most of the people were 
Germans, so the priests who at that time attended this 
mission were German missionaries, whose headquar- 
ters were with the Jesuit Father.s at Conewago, a sta- 
tion near Hanover, York Co., Pa. In or about the 
year 1708 a log church was erected near the present 
site of St. Peter's, and named St. Mary's of the As- 
sumption. This building was in use until the year 
1799, when the new stone church was ready for divine 
worship and called St. Peter's. Father Louis Barth, 
who lived and was as.sociated with the Rev. Michael 
Egan (afterwards the first Bishop of Philadelphia) at 
Lancaster, had charge of this then growing congrega- 
tion in the year 1795, and to his zeal and energy this 
present old church is mainly due, and his memory is 
still warmly cherished by the children whose parents 
dearly loved Father Barth. 8 | 

On the 10th day of July, 1798, the congregation 
was visited by the Right Rev. Bishop John Carroll, 
the first and at that time the only bishop in the 
United States. The church continued to be in charge 
of the inirish prie-st-s of Lancaster, notably among 
whom was the venerable and well-known Father 
Tlernnrd Ktennn, who took charge of this mission in 
till' year 1825, ;ind continued its pastor until 1832, 
when the Kcv. Michael Curran, wdio resides at Har- 
risburg, became pastor, under whose administration 
the rear portion was added to'the church, which gives 

it its present cruciform shape. Father Curran was 
succeeded in 1835 by the Very Rev. W. Steinbacker, 
S.J., who in turn was followed by the popular Father 
Piefcc Maher, of Harrisburg, Pa. In the year 1840, 
the Rev. F. X. Marshall was appointed resident pas- 
tor. Besides making many improvements in the 
church. Father Marshall directed the building of the 
parsonage which adjoins the church. Father Jlar- 
shall was succeeded in 1853 by the Rev. M. Filan, at 
present the honored pastor of the Church of the An- 
nunciation, in Philadelphia, who in turn was followed 
by the lamented Father John McCosker, who at the 
opening of the late Rebellion entered the army as 
cliaplain, and after the war the good and patriotic 
Father John lingered a short time in the hospital at 
Philadelphia, where he died in 1865. At this time 
the principal members of the congregation consisted 
of Messrs. James Ferry, Henry Shitz, Joseph Strauss, 
J. Lynch, J. Halbleib, Henry Boll, Andrew Wade, 
Anthony Herkenroether, H. A. Wade, Daniel O'Don- 
nell, John and Francis Eagle. James Boyle, Edward 
Sweeny, Paul Witman, Conrad Shafler, S. Ulrick, 
and others, all well-known families of Elizabethtown 
and vicinity at the present time. The priest who 
succeeded Father McCosker was the Rev. Hugh Ma- 
gorien, who died and was buried here in 1864. 
Father John J. ilcllvaine then took charge, who in 
turn was followed by the Rev. Charles McMonigle, 
under whose pastorate an important addition was 
made to the parsonage. Father Neal McMenamia 
followed in the year 1877, and to his zeal and energy 
is especially due the opening of a way leading from 
the main street to the church, called St. Peter's Ave- 
nue, an improvement useful as it is beautiful. 

Father McMenamin was succeeded in the year 
1879 by the present pastor. Rev. J. C. Foin, who has 
been very successful in making many new and neces- 
sary improvements in and about the church. During 
his pastorate stained-glass windows of beautiful de- 
sign and figures were put in the church ; also a tower 
and bell were added. The bell, the largest in town, 
was presented by Mr. Henry Boll. Other improve- 
ments, such as jiaintings and statuary of rare beauty, 
were recently added, so that the church is one of the 
handsomest as well as one of the oldest in the county. 

The Church of God (Winebrennarian) was or- 
ganized ill 1837 at the house of Michael Cramer, and 
originally consisted of just six members, — Abram 
Brenneman, Michael Cramer, Mrs. M. Cramer, Jlar- 
tha Kopp, Hannah Kopp, and Margaret Cramer. 
The first preaching to which these people and a lim- 
ited congregation listened was in the brick school- 
house. This and other places of worship served the 
little cliurch as a place for weekly meetings until 
July, 1853, when their present church was finished 
and appropriately dedicated. Rev. John Winebrenner 
preacliing the sermon on that occasion. The first 
settled pastiirof the church was Rev. Jacob Keller, 
who located in lilizabcthtown in 1838. Following 



him, in 1840, came Rev. E. H. Tliomas. Since liis 
time the succession has been as follows, the pastors 
usually serving two years: Revs. Joseph Ross, 1842 ; 
E. H. Thomas, 1844; Joseph H. Bambarger, George 
U. Horn, Thomas Strom, 1845 ; David Kaylor, 1847 ; 
Abram Snider, William Mulleni.x, Jesse Hafleigh, 
Jacob Keller, 1849; Carlton Price, 1850; Abram 
Swartz, 1852; Jacob Keller, 1863 ; J. Hafleigh, 1855; 
George Zeigler, 1857 ; Carlton Price, 1861 ; J. S. 
Staum, 18(j3; E. H. Thomas, 1864; A. Swartz, 1865; 
W. O. Oweu, 1866; Thomas Beam, 1868; J. W. De- 
shong, 1869; J. C. Seabroks, 1872; J. W. Felix, 1873; 
D. S. Shook, 1874; J. M. Speese, 1877 ; Joseph B. 
Lockwood, 1879 ; S. B. Howard, 1881 ; S. W. NaiU, 
1882. The church has a membership of about seventy- 
five, is in a flourishing condition both spiritually and 
temporally, and has in the past year given indication 
of the latter by the erection of a fine parsonage at a 
cost of twelve hundred dollars. 

The United Brethren Church was organized in or 
prior to 1852. The present house of worship was pur- 
chased in the year mentioned from the Winebrenna- 
riaus, or Church of God. The congregation is small, 
and is ministered to at present by the Rev. L. R. 
Kramer, who has three or four other ap[)ointments in 
the county. 

Post-Office.— It is probable that the Elizabethtown 
post-otfice was established as early as 1781; and that 
George Redsecker was the first postmaster. The mail 
was received and dispensed at his tavern, the " Black 
Horse," for many years. The names of the postmas- 
ters prior to the last half-century cannot be obtained, 
but the succession since 1832 has been as follows: 
1832, James McLaughlin; 1836, Jacob Redsecker; 
1840, Samuel Redsecker; 1848. John Lynch; 1852, 
B. F. Baer; 1855, John A. Gross; 1860, William 
Wagoner; 1866, Miss Annie Wieland; 1878, Miss 
Rosa Raudabush. The office lias been kept succes- 
sively in the Black Horse tavern, J. Dyers' building, 
the stone dwelling of Robert Ross, in Andrew Dis- 
senger's store-room, and in that of J. .V. & A. G. Gross, 
in Lewiu's building. 

Financial— Borough Scrip— A Bank.— During 
the period of depression following the financial panic 
of 1837 the borough, like several others in the county, 
i.ssued promissory notes, or, as they were afterwards 
contemptuously called, " shinplastcrs," in deiiomina- 
tions of 61 cents (" fips"), 12.} cents ("levies"), 25 
and 50 cents, and probably some for larger amounts. 
These were quite a convenience to the business com- 
munity. They were roughly engraved and printed 
on an old Franklin hand-press in this place by a Ger- 
man printer named Lietli, as were also those issued by 
the borough of INIarietta. When the burgess of the 
latter place came to fool up his accounts alter redeem- 
ing in specie the notes that were presented, he found 
that he had redeemed about sjx hundred dollars' worth 
more than had becji issued. It was' then discoveied 
tlial mnny of tliu notes were counterfeits, and sus- 

picion pointing to the printer steps were taken 
towards his arrest. Lieth doubtless suspected thai 
he was watched, for a fire occurred in the chimney 
of liis printing-office one morning, which the citizem 
were very sure destroyed the blocks and other articli 
whiclr would have criminated him, and he soon after 
left town. 

It was not until 1869 that the people were g 
the benefit of a regular financial institution. In that"! 
year the present Farmers' Bank was organized, with 
the following officers, viz.: President, Abraham Col- 
lins; Cashier, Samuel Eby ; Clerk, John Hertzler. 

Samuel Eby.— The progenitor of the Eby family 
in America, if tradition be correct, is Theodore Eby,' 
a Swiss Mennonite, who, having suftered religious pe^ 
secution, left his native place, and about the year 1700 ; 
settled for a brief time in the Palatinate, or Pfaltz, in 
Germany. About the year 1716, Theodore Eby, with ' 
several others of kindred belief, came to the Uuited 
States under the auspices of William Penn, and settled 
on Mill Creek, in what is now Leacock townshi[). He 
had six scjns, all of whom were industrious mechanic* 
or farmers. A i'nw years later Peter Eby, a relative 
of Theodore, followed him to America. The soqb 
of Theodore settled in various portions of Lancaiter 
County, one named Christian locating on Hammer 
Creek, another (probably Peter) choosing a home on 
Pequea Creek, these two forming the branches of the 
family known as the Mill Creek, Hammer Creek, and 
Pequea Ebys. Peter, a grandson of Theodore, was a 
farmer, and probably the first Mennonite bishop in 
the county. He was ordained about the year 1800, 
and creditably filled the position both in the United 
States and Canada for many years. Peter was a posi- 
tive man, of clear, native mind, a natural orator, and, 
though making no pretense to a thorough scholaatio 
training, commanded, both in temporal and spiritual 
matters, the deference of his brethren. His death 
occurred April 6, 1843, in his eightieth year. 

The great-grandfather of Samuel, the subject of thil 
biographical sketch, was Peter Eliy, who settled in 
what is now Upper Leacock township, on a farm of 
three hundred acres. 

He had sons, Peter, Samuel, Andrew, Henry, David, 
Christian, and John, all of whom followed farming 
employments, and one daughter, Ann. 

These sons, in accordance with their religious faith, 
were non-resistants, though during the period of the 
Revolution, when Washington was hard pressed by 
the British forces, Peter and Samuel, the eldest sons, 
voluntarily shouldered their own guns and Joined the ■ 
Continental troops, and were at New York when the 
city was captured. After the seizure of a quantity of 
wheat, in the barn of Samuel Eby, four ol his .sons 
joined the army at Valley Forge during the winter, 
and, having served as volunteers uiuler Washington, 
returned in the spring to their farm labor. 

Samuel and Peter lived and died U|i<,n the mansion 
farm, .lolni and (Jluisliau settled in Dauidiin (^uinty. 





Pa., where their lives were spent. Henry and David 
died in Cumberland County, Pa., and Andrew re- j 
moved to North Carolina, where he reared a feraily 
and spent his declining years. 

Samuel, the grandfatlier of Samuel above named, 
resided in what is now Upper Leacook township. His 
children were Samuel, Jonas, Elizabeth, and Bar- 
bara, of whom Jonas became possessor of the family t 
property. He married Salome Line, daughter of a 
neighboring farmer, and had four children. Their 
son Samuel was born at the ancestral home in Lea- 
cock township iu 1833. His early youth was spent 
on the farm, after which he received an academic 
education, and studied surveying and conveyancing 
uiuler Israel Carpenter, of Lancaster. In 1853 he 
engaged in the pursuit of his profession in the borough 
of Elizabeth town, and after an extended business, in 
1870 entered the Farmers' Bank of that place as cashier. 
He was in 1858 elected director of the Middletown 
Bank, which office he held for a period of six years. 
Mr. Eby was elected justice of the peace of the bor- 
ough of Elizabethtown, and administered the duties 
of his office with marked discretion and judgment, no 
appeal having been taken from the decisions on his 
docket during his period of service. The office, how- 
ever, not proving congenial to his tastes, he declined 
a further incumbency. He was chosen president of 
the Beading, Marietta and Hanover Railroad Com- 
pany, but, owing to onerous demands upon his time, 
tendered his resignation, which was laid over for 
further action. Mr. Eby was married in 18G5 to 
Miss Elizabeth, daughter of Abrain Collins. Their 
children are a son, Abraui, and a ilaughtcr, Mary. 
Mr. Eby was reared in the faith of his ancestors, 
that of the Mennonite Church. 

Manufacturing, — Elizabethtown has never at- 
tained note as a place for the encouragement of 
manufacturing. During the thirties the silk-worm 
excitement was quite prevalent in the country, and 
Elizabethtown did not escape the fever of speculative 
investment. The building now owned by William 
Fletcher was at one time literally filled with silk- 
worms, and the farmers in the surrounding country 
raised large quantities of .^/o)v(.?«iu/^(V(H//i's. The pro- 
ject of silk production was soon abandoned, and the 
building which we have mentioned was theuiii^sed for 
a time as a starch- factory. 

The oldest of the present manufacturing establish- 
ments is the large steam tannery carried on by A. G. 
Redsecker & Son, and started forty years since by 
Isaac Redsecker. 

The foundry and agricultural implement manufac- 
tory owned by Buch & Heisey was established on a 
sinnll Mcale by the senior member of the present firm 
iu 18G8. A partnership was formed, one year later, 
between Mr. Buch and a Mr. Groff, and the present 
one was formed in 187C. Iirthis year the shop was 
burned down, but- it was immediately rebuilt on a 
much larger scale, and has been constantly carried on 

and prosperously since that time. The works are 
run by steam-power and employ about fifteen men. 

In 1876, Joseph Groff built a steam flouring-mill 
in »he lower end of the borough, adjoining the agri- 
cultural implement factory, which he sold in 1877 to 
Jacob &. StauHer, the present proprietor, who en- 
larged and improved it, and now has four sets or 
runs of stones in constant operation making flour. 
Mr. StaufJer also carries on a large warehouse and " 
ships grain quite extensively. Two other ware- 
houses, owned respectively by B. G. Groff and 
Pierce & Keener, are open to the farmers who seek 
a market for their grain. 

Newspapers.— r/i(? Trumpet, started by B. F. Leh- 
man in 1SG4, is the earliest Elizabethtown newspaper 
of which we have trustworthy information, although 
report gives credit to the existence of a newspaper in 
or before 1833, and it is remembered that several 
small publications— TVie Gospel Banner, The Oiol, and 
The Comet — led ephemeral lives subsequently. For 
all practical purposes The Trumpet may be considered 
the beginning of newspaper |)rinting in Elizabeth- 
town. The name of this paper was changed to The 
Gazette soon after it was established, and in 18G9 Mr. 
Lehman, suspending publication here, removed to 
Mount Union, where he issued The News. 

The ChroincJe, at present the only journal published 
in the borough, was established in December, 1869, 
by Messrs. Westafer & McCord. The former is now 
the sole proprietor, Mr. McCord having withdrawn in 
1872. The Chronicle has been from time to time im- 
proved in various ways, and in 1882 was enlarged to 
an eight-column sheet, twenty-six by forty 'inches. 
It has a circulation of upwards of one thousand in 
Lancaster, Dauphin, and Lebanon Counties, and is a 
sprightly local news journal. In politics it is inde- 

The Thespian Society.— In 1842 the young men 
of the borough organized a Thespian Society, which 
remained in existence for a number of years and was 
a notable institution of the town. A frame hall was 
built on the lot now owned by Col. N. H. Brenne- 
man, and a number of amateur dramatic entertain- 
ments were given there to good audiences. Alter a 
flourishing holiday season the structure was crushed 
by a heavy snowfall, and the society, having attained 
a good financial condition, immediately built another 
hall larger and more substantial than the first. This 
had seating capacity for over three hundred persons, 
and during the next holiday season it was repeatedly 
crowded to its utmost capacity. The performances 
given were of a good order of merit, and the company 
achieved a reputation which made it possible for 
them to visit other [ilaces and play before large audi- 
ences. Occasionally they were assisted by some 
strolling actor from Philadelphia or New York, and 
on those occasions the company was able to produce 
such plays as " Pizarro," " The School for Scandal," 
and "The Stranger." The company had an ex- 


tremely good comediaii in Mr. Frederick Leader. 
The society flourished for several seasons, and doubt- 
less would have done so a considerable time longer 
but for the damper that was thrown upon their ardor 
by the absconding of their dishonest treasurer with a 
fund of several hundred dollars belonging to them. 

The Friendship Fire-Engine and Hose Com- 
pany, No. 1.— Tliis company was ori;anized in the 
year IS'M, and had in use a small Vulcan engine, 
costing five hundred dollars, bought by subscription 
and an appropriation of Councils. Isaac Kauffman, 
Henry Smith, and Michael KautTman were appointed 
to take care of and keep in repair the engine, which 
is yet in possession of the company. 

The company was reorganized April 3, 1859, at a 
meeting of the citizens of the borough of Elizabeth- 
town at the house of Col. A. Greenawalt, and the 
following members were enrolled, viz. : D. W. Balmer, 
Gabriel Young, Reuben Bender, Uriah Frank, Jacob 
A. Coble, Frank S. Andrews, Rufus Frank, Ambrose 
Shrode, Samuel Hosier, H. A. Wade, John W.' 
Shaffer, Jacob H. Bletz, John Oldweiler, H. M. 
Breiieman, Harrison T. Shultz, Christ. Ebersole, 
Christ. Foltz, Christ. Mickey, George F. Wagner. 

At a meeting held April 26, 1859, a constitution 
was adopted, of which the following was the pre- 
amble : 

" Whereas, The citizens of the borougliof Elizabfthtowu, Pa., seeing 
the lucesailj- of inoru amply securing iindiuotecliiigllieir Lull. lings, Lave 
deemed it advisable tn provide a tire-eiigiiie tor the prutectiun of their 
property Iroin the tlevouriiig and destructive element of H re, therefore 

the fullovviug constitution for the government of the Friendship Fire 
Company of Elizabethtown, Pa." 

At the same meeting the following oliicers were 
elected, viz. : 

President, Col. A. Greenawalt; Vice-President, 
John A. Gross; Secretary, Jacob H. Bletz; Treas- 
urer, James Wilson; Chief Engineer, Christian Foltz. 

A Rogers engine was purchased from the Friend- 
sliip Fire Company, of Baltimore, at a cost of eight 
liundred dollars, during this year, which was in ser- 
vice for twenty years. During the rebel raid into 
Pennsylvania it was loaned to the Penn.sylvania Rail- 
road Company, for the purpose of pumping water for 
their engines at the depot, their water supply not 
being sufficient, owing to the running of uU their 
trains of this branch of the road. 

Monday evening. May 7, 1860, the following offi- 
cers were elected: A. Dissinger, president, ; John A. 
Gross, vice-president ; J. H. liletz, secretary ; James 
Wilson, treasurer. 

Monday evening, Dec. 3, 1800, the company met in 
their new engine-house for the first time. It is yet 
nspcl for t;1iat purpose, and in the mean lime has been 
used for Council chamber and school-house. It was 
built at a cost of four hundred and eighty-nine dol- 
lars and twenty-two cents, and Col. A. Greenawalt, 
Samuel Eby, Petec Holler, Jacob FcH-n;, and F. S. 
Bryaiis were appointed trustees; Samuel Eby, presi- 

dent; Jacob Feli.K, vice-president; George F. Wi'l-, 
son, secretary ; H. M. Breneman, treasurer. TlietW 
officers were re-elected for the following year. 

'f he company disbanded in 1862, many of its mem- 
bers having enlisted in the Union army, aad tlit 
Friendship was reorganized July 26, 1867, by the fol- 
lowing gentlemen: S. H. Brubaker. A. Breneman, F, 
G. Sayler, A. B. Rult, Henry Boll, Reuben Coble, J. 
W. Shaffer, Reuben Betz, C. Brinser, Charles Hosier, 
J. F. Rothermal, George Weber, Samuel Foltz, Abram 
Balmer, Ellis Haldeman, Emanuel Hippard, John 
Wiegand, John H. Steiner. Samuel Brubaker \vu 
elected president ; Amos Ganlz, vice-president! 
Abram Balmer, secretary ; A. Breneman, treasurer; 
Harry White, chief engineer. This organization 
continued but one year. 

The last and present organization was etfected July 
14, 1876, when Samuel Eby was elected president; 
A. Eby, vice-president; J. G. VVeslafer, secretary! 
Joseph Heise, treasurer; Tobias Nissley, chief en- 

Aug. 8, 1878, the following officers were elected; 
President, D. D. Courtney ; Vice-President, J. Q, 
Weslafer ; Secretary, Milton Wealand ; Assistant 
Secretary, H. C. Lewis; Treasurer, Tobias Keillor; 
Engineer, Tobias Nissley ; Assistant Engineers, George 
W. Redsecker, Sebastian Keller, Jr. 

A meeting was held Dec. 19, 1878, in the engine- 
house by citizens and members of the company, when 
some able remarks were made by Mr. A. Dissinger 
and others in regard to the purchasing of a steam fire- 
engine. A committee consisting of J. H. Brubaker, 
George Bynd, E. llnirman, Tobias Kehlor, B. G. Groff 
was appointed to solicit petitioners for a new steam 
fire-engine, and to present the same to the Council for 
1 their consideration. 

I The Friendship Fire-Engine and Hose Company 
was chartered Dec. 30, 1878. 

The new steam fire-engine manufactured by Clapp 
& Jones, Hudson, N. Y., arrived in June, 1879, when 
it was thoroughly tested and accepted by the Council. 

The following officers were elected for 1880: Pres- 
ident, D. D. Courtney; Vice-President, J. C. Red- 
secker; Secretary, H. C. Lewis; Assistant Secretary, 
W. A. Lainl; Treasurer, Tobitis Kehlor; Foreman, 
Harry Starlach ; Assistant Foreman, William M. 
Barttels; Chief Engineer, T. W. Nissley ; Chief Hose 
Director, R. S. Ross. 

The first inspection of the company with their 
steam-engine and apparatus took i>lace on Jan. 1, 
1880, being conducted by the Burgess and Council. 

Speeches were made by J. H. Brubaker, Burgess, 
and Councilmen II. A. Wade, B. G. Groff, and M. 
Hess, expressing themselves as well pleased with the 
condition of the company and its apparatus. Speeches 
in response were made by President D. D. Courtney, 
R. S. Ross, J. G. Westofer, and others. 

'i'he first fire that the company were at with their 
steamer was at Mr. Sweeny's, on May 29, 1880, when 



they did efficient service in keeping the fire under 
control and saving tlie large warehouse opposite. 

In January, 1881, the company elected officers as 
follows: President, D. D. Courtney; Vice-President, 
J. C. Redsecker; Secretary, H. C." Lewis. 

Sept. 5, 1881, D. D. Courtney was elected delegate 
to Fireman's Association, held in Maennerchor Hall, 
city of Reading. 

The company elected officers for 1882, as follows: 
President, D. D. Courtney; Vice-President, J. C. 
Redsecker; Secretary, R. J. Seitz. 

In January, 1882, the company held a ladies' fair, 
from which they realized nine hundred and forty- 
two dollars and ninety-six cents, with which it is in- 
tended at some time to huild an engine-house. 

The following are the officers of the company at the 
present time: President, D. D.Courtney; Vice-Pres- 
ident, J. C. Redsecker; Secretary, J. D. Weigand ; 
Assistant Secretary, Harry Huntsberger; Treasurer, 
Tobias Kehlor; Foreman, J. R. Dickr; As.sistant 
Foreman, J. D. Weigand; Chief Engineer, G. W. 
Redsecker; Assistant Engineers, J. D. Weigand, R. 
J. Seitz, J. B. Buch, E. E. Coble, J. G. Stautfer; 
Chief Hose Director, J. S. Groff; Assistant Hose 
Directors, Tobias Kehlor, S. Y. Heisey, D. D. Court- 
ney, H. H. Brubaker, R. S. Ross ; Firemen, H. C. 
Bryan, H. U. Coble; Finance Committee, A. Dissin- 
ger, R. S. Ross ; Property Protectors, J. G. Stauffer, 
A. Dissinger, Tobias Kehlor; Janitor, George W. 

The company at the present time has forty-five 
men on tlie roll as active nienibers, and is in a tloiir- 
ishing condition, with the prospect of increasing its 

Cornet Band. — As early as 1840 there was a brass 
band in the borough which had been organized by 
Dr. S. Keller, an effective instructor, whose activity 
in musical matters has extended through a period of 
nearly half a century. The band had much to do in 
the famous Harrison campaign of 1840, but became 
more meritorious by 1848, and from that time to 1856 
liad a reputation that extended to otlier towns. At 
this time the band had a uniform and a full line of 
fine brass instruments. The present Elizabethtown 
Cornet Band was organized July 19, 18G7, and the 
body comjjrised Dr. S. Keller, Sr., as presiden|t. ; S. L. 
Yetter, vice-president; W. K. Jeffries, secretary ; Jacob 
liuch, treasurer ; and S. Keller, Jr., leader. The band 
waa uniformed in the following year. In 187(3 it was 
incorporated with the fdllowing cliarter juembers, 
viz., S. Keller, Jr., W. H. Duliling, Henry Sliarlock, 
John C. Red.secker, J. P. Ocsehgan, J. W. Murray, 
E. Oreiser, H. J. Greenwalt, Pliilip Singer, J. D. 
Weijfaml,' B. F. Dohner, J. A. Goble, L. Scheetz, J. 
C. ^tambangh, G. A. Schwan, C. B. Shcrbahn, H. 
Louer, Frank Rutherford, H. J. Seitz, and R. J. 

Elizabethtown Lodge, No. 128, I. 0. 0. F., was 
instituted Sept. 29, 1S1.\ witli Jac.b Redsecker, Jack- 

sou Sheaffer, Sebastian Keller, Benjamin Sheffer, and 
Joseph Buchanan as cliarter members. Jacob Red- 
secker was elected Noble Grand ; Jackson Sheaffer, 
Vica Grand; Joseph Buchanan, Secretary; and Se- 
bastian Keller, Treasurer. Tlie lodge has now forty 
members, and owns the building, valued at three 
thousand dollars, in wliich is its hall. 

Fidelity Beneficial Society.— Tliis organization 
was chartered and openeil business on the 17tb of 
September, 1879. The following were the original 
officers: President, Col. H. M. Brenneman; V^ice- 
President, Daniel S. Will ; Secretary, E. B. Bierman ; 
Treasurer, A. Dissinger; General Agent, S. R. Hack- 
enberger; Medical Director, J. W. Coble, M.D. ; So- 
licitor, William A. Wilson, Esq.; Directors, David 
W. Crider, York ; B. B. Brenneman, Elizabethtown ; 
George W. Hoverter, Harrisburg; S. Hackenberger, 
Si-., Bainbridge; A. Dissinger, E. B. Bierman, H. M. 
Breneman, J. W. Coble, M.D., S. R. Hackenberger, 
of Elizabethtown; Clerks, Daniel Will, Bainbridge; 
B. F. Baer and II. H. Brubaker, of Elizabethtown. 



Marietta is located on the left bank of the Sus- 
quehanna River, forty-eight miles from its mouth, 
and twenty-five miles below Harrisburg, the capital 
of the State. It is two miles long and one-fourth of 
a mile in width. In po|iuhitiou it is the third town 
in the county. 

Along the river shore the ground is level, extend- 
ing back from four to six hundred feet, and is some- 
times overflowed with water during a freshet. From 
the first alley, running parallel with Front Street, the 
ground in Waterford, or the western half of the town, 
rises gradually lor a distauce of two hundred feet to 
a terrace three hundred feet wide, when another and 
more abrupt ascent commences, and runs for a dis- 
tance of four liuiidred feet to level ground. The 
ground in the lower half of the town ascends more 
abruptly, and continues to the level ground along the 
northern boundary of tlie town. The turnpike, or 
Second Street, was cut and leveled alung the side of 
the sloping hill. 

Through the centre there runs from north to south a 
stream of water, which rises upon the farm now owned 
by Abraham N. Cassel, and passes through the farms 
of James DufTy ; it passes the borough line at a point 
between the lands formerly owned by James Ander- 
son and David Cook, and thence through the laud of ■ 
the latter to the IVuiiM-lvania Canal, into which it 
now empties. 

The Town Laid Out.— Waterford was laid out 
upon land, contaiuiiig three hundred acres, taken up 
by Robert NVilkins, an Indian trader, in the year 



1719. In the year 1727 he sold it to James Anderson, 
the minister of Donegal Church, who, in 1740, by 
will giive it to his sons James and Thomas. Thomas 
and Mr. Anderson's widow released their interest to 
James, who gave tlie same to his son James, who 
gave it to his son James, who laid out the t(jwn of 

In 1719, George Stewart took up several hundred 
acres of land adjoining Robert Wilkins on the east. 
He died in January, 1773, and liis eldest son, John, 
came into possession of tlie land, and in 1738 he took 
out a patent for three hundred and fifty acres and 
allowance. On the 25tli day of November, 1748, 
John Stewart and his wife, Ann, sold the land to 
David Cook, wlio gave his son David two hundred 
and twelve acres adjoiniiii,' Mr. .Anderson's laml, who 
gave the same to his son David, wh(i hiid out the 
town of New Haven. 

David Cook also gave to his son James oue hun- 
dred and filty-nine acres adjoining his son David's 
tract on the east. On the 1st day of May, 1786, James 
sold his farm to Jacob Nelf, of Hempfield township, 
who died in tlie year 1798, leaving several children, 
among whom was a daughter, Catharine, who mar- 
ried Henry Cassel after her father's death. On the 
17th day of April, 1806, Henry Acher, the executor 
of Jacob Ned's estate, sold to Henry Cassel one hun- 
dred and si.vty-two acres of the Stewart land, which 
was probably his wife's share in Mr. Nefl''8 estate. 
On the 1st day of January, 1814, Mr. Cassel sold off 
forty-five acres of this farm, fronting on the river, to 
Jacob Grosh, for fifty-eight thousand five hundred 
dollars. Grosh laid the same out into building lots, 
which now constitute the eastern section of the bor- 
ough, which he called Moravian Town, but it was 
nicknamed Buugletown, which latter name it retained 
for many years. 

By reference to the plan of the borough, it will be 
seen that tlie boundary lines of the farms belonging 
to Mr. Anderson, Cook, and Cassel formed an acute 
angle with the river front. The surveyor, Isaac Tay- 
lor, commenced to lay out lands for the Indian traders 
in 1719, at a point a short distance below Conoy 
Creek, and ran his lines at right angles with the river 
front. The several farms to the south of that line 
were surveyed in the same week and year, and the 
side lines were made parallel to each other. Where 
the river approached the lower surveys, now em- 
braced in Marietta, its course turned suddenly and 
ran in an easterly direction, which made the river 
front an acute angle with these division lines. Thus 
much in explanation of what seems to have been a 
very awkwardly drawn plan of the town. 

Additions.— On .Nov. 19, 1803, David Cook gave 
Jiuhlic notice that he was the proprietor of a " tract 
of land adjoining Mr. Anderson's plantation at An- 
derson's Ferry, and that he had laid out a town, to 
be named New Haven, containing one hundred and 
one lots, which he intended to dispose of by lottery. 

each ticket commauding a prize; the price of each 
ticket to be fifty dollars, and the titles to the lut« 
were to be in fee simple and free from ground rents." 

'Phis plan extended to Lumber Alley, a few hun- 
dred feet east of the " run" spoken of. This alley 
was latd out at right angles with the river shore, 
and extended north until it intersected the line of 
James Anderson's laud, forming a triangle. 

A few years later ^Ir. Cook laid out forty-eight 
building-lots adjoining Ins first town jilan upon the 
east side, which he called "New Haven Continued." 

At the time this town was projected measures had 
been taken to construct a turnpike leading from Ad- 
derson's Ferry to Lancaster, for the river business 
had increased wonderfully. Lots sold rapidly, and 
we find in the first year (1805) the following lot- 
holders: Shews Baugh, Adam Bahn, Bar4in English, 
Martin Crider, John Coble, Henry Conn, John Long- 
enecker, Lewis Leader, Jacob Bituer, Henry Sharer, 
John Smith, Henry Witmer, John White. 

The following is a listof taxables for the year 1807, 
in addition to the other list, which indicates the rapid 
growth of the place: Philip Giesey, Widow Hyland, 
Alexander McCnllough, Christian Longeneckcr, Fred- 
erick Heinselman, James Mehatfey, James Walton, 
James Agnew, John Hess, William Hamilton, Reu- 
ben Armstrong (colored), Thomas Clark. 

Following is a list of taxables in New Haven for 
the year 1812: 

Widow uf Reuben A.m.stmiig 

Joseph Keesey. '^ 

Siimnel Armstlung, curtor. 

Lewis Leader, joiner. 

James Agnew. 

Daniel Longsderf, joiner. .,:' 

Andrew Bivuks. 

SamnelMcIunney,inn. ;,r 

Peter Buiaud, cooper. 

James Mehaffey, storekeeper. 

Henry Clai 1;, cooper. 

Marsh &McKain. ■- 

George Clinsliue. SiJdlor. 

Alexander McCnllough. ^■• 

IleciryConu, inu. 

David Mumma, inn. .J 

Henry Cassel. 

Charles Naglo, sUller. ^'.v 
Jacob Berkley. '*'> 

W.duw English. 

Jacob Garst, tailor. 

J.ihu Roberts, Inn. ■ 1 ' 

Alexander Huinbler, joiner. 

Kiclniid Kolii^on, wheelwright 1 ,. 

J..«epli Hopkins, uiusmi. 

MathMuilUMk, lumber merchant. 

William Hinklc, inn. 

Widow li.iliton. Hamilton. 

Henry Shaier. ■•'I 

On the 16th day of November, 1804, James Ander- 
son announced that he had " aiijiropriated a tract of 
land on the nortli side of the Su.squehauna River, at 
Anderson's Ferry, for a new town to be called Water- 
ford, and wished to dispose of the same by a lottery," 
He also announced that the drawing of the lottery, 
was expected to commence in the month of February 
or early in the month of March ; tickets at sixty 
dollars each. And on the 14th day of June, 1805, 
he gave public notice that the deeds were all exe- 
cuted and ready for delivery. The water lots were 
forty by one hundred and thirty-two feet, ami upper 
lots fifty by two hundred and six feet. " The bank of 



the river was to be kept open for the use of the town 
Iota, clear of ground-rent." 

Although Mr. Anderson started his town one year 
later than Mr. Cook, from the start it grew mure raji- 
idly, anil kept ahead of New Haven until the two 
were consolidated. 

The taxables in Waterford for the year 1807 were: 

Jacob Bitncr. J'etel NHt-el, 

Henry Danunee. 
John McGlaughl 
Oliver Cuchian. 
Jacob Groili. 
George Hayelop. 
Jobli Lung. 
Jol.n l.ever. 

The taxables for th. 

year 1812: 

Frederick Khiie. 
George Kueisley. 
Blicliael Lauius. 

J„bnUnrn8, joiner. 

Jiinies Lowe, negro. 

Peter Bowman, blorekeeper. 

Frederick Long, tailor. 

Jolin lildler, luukeeper. 

John Law, joiner. 

Mn Dealer. 

Jacob Lndw ig, storekeeper. 

B.muel Bailey, c*,rdwalDer. 

Benjamin Long, nnllwrigh 

JobnBryans, Joiner. 

John Ludwig, innkeeper. 

D.nlelBryaD8. joiner. 

Julin Long, tailor. 

Jol>D C. Creamer, storekeeper. 

John Lever. 

Ollfer Cochran, joiner. 

James McUellaud, tailor. 

Vllllam Cl.ilda, hatter. 

Wjlliam McClure.Joiuer. . 

Hiomai Clark. 

Jainea Morria, tailor. 

Oonnid Urlni, cordwalner. 

Kandal UcClure, joiner. 

Abraham Ci.asel. 

John Miller, htoiekecper. 

WUllarn Canieroji. 

Jame« McGlnley. 

Slm.onCbrlatine, Joiner. 

H. Musser 4 Miller. 

Stephen Ldwardn, joiner. 

Jamea MehafTey, storekeeper. 

ThonijB Kalkner, plasterer. 

Frodoiick Nagle, bntcher. 

John Fullwoiler, potter. 

Jacob Nicholas, blai ksuiith. 

Henry Klory. 

Henry Nicholas. 

Deary Foiinger, storekeepe 

James Paltei sou. 

Matthew Garner, cordwainer 

Matthias Kilsht. 

Thunia. Dickey, clockuiakor 

Williaui Reckenbaugh. 

Ju»h Grosli. lumber mer 

cUant Jacob Hadfaug, gunsmith. 

.nd .torijkeeper. 

Hironemous Saylor, blacksmith 

Jacob Giayblll, innkeeper. 

George Snyder, innkeeper. 

Btnry Grovo- 

Hugh Spear. 

Joliu Ghdken. 

David Sands, millwright and lu 

Hani.e- Hoffman. 

bor merchant. 

J.mes Uendenion, plaaterer. 

Chri-sliau Sherick, joiner and ii 

John lloyer, joiner. 


John Heart, cooper. 

Ciiristiau Stewart, masou. 

Widow Uiestanil. 

Henry Smith. 

James Humes. Pliilip Snider. 

Jehu lleckrode, hatter. Francis Shupp. 

Juiiin J. L... .,,, .[.■i.ier. Jacob Wullack. 

>'<"•' l^'i". " II" ' John Wntaon. 

Manli, lYii,ai^, I. „,],er and drug- Oliver VVataon. 

(!l»t. C'umad Ziegler. 
Michael Keller, blue-dyer. 

A few of these lot-owners re.sided in the 
hood. There were also a few " tenants" a 
men" not in the above list. 

In .Nuvcmher, 1H13, David Cook (who then resided 
in Lancaster, with his son-in-law, Hugh Wilson) sold 
eighteen acres and eight perches lor twenty-nine 
thousand six hundred and fifty dollars, fronting on 
the river, to John Myers, who laid it out into eighty- 

d " free- 

three building lots, and called it " J. Myers' Addi- 
tion." This land extended from the eastern line of 
" Cook's Addition to New Haven," and to the land 
sold by Henry Cassel to Jacob Grosh. 

When James Anderson laid out Waterford he did 
not incliide the ferry-house and about twenty acres 
of land adjoining the ferry. He afterwards sold liis 
ferry right and the land adjoining to Henry Sharer, 
Matthias Rank, James Mehati'ey, John Pedan, James 
Dully, and Haines for one hundred and ten thou- 
sand dollars. This purchase also included a bridge 
charter. They laid this tract out into one hundred 
and six building lots, and named it "Henry Sharer 
& Co. 'a Addition." 

"Irishtown," although not within the corporate 
limits of the borough, is practically a part of Mari- 
etta, and is so regarded generally. On the 2d day of 
April, 1813, John Pedan, James Mehafl'ey, and James 
Duffy purchased from Mrs. Frances Evans one hun- 
dred and sixty-one acres of land adjoining the An- 
derson farm on the west, and laid out the entire tract 
into five hundred and sixty-two building lots. The 
town plan was distinct and separate from Waterford, 
and the streets did not connect in a straight line with 
those of the latter place. In the centre of the plat 
ground wiis reserved for a " market-house," and also 
for public buildings. In their advertisement to the 
public announcing that they had laid out a town 
they designated the place as " Marietta." 

When the charter of the borough of Marietta was 
granted it did not include that part laid out by James 
5[ehaffey and his associates. This was not an acci- 
dental omission. The place was never incorporated, 
and up to the present time the citizens have resolutely 
resisted the extension of the borough line to include 
their property. 

Mr. Anderson laid out " High Street" along the 
edge of a terrace, which is and probably will ever 
remain the princij.)al street in the borough. Mr. 
Cook called tlie street which is a continuation of 
High, Second Street. In order to get level ground 
for this street he was compelled to cut into the side 
of the hill. 

Benjamin Long purchased about thirty acres of 
the Anderson farm, upon the top of the hill and down 
its southern slope, which he laid out into two hun- 
dred and eighty-two building lots, and called the same 
" B. Long's Addition." 

At the time these towns were laid out the river trade 
had assumed large proportions, and the principal busi- 
ness for many years was carried on along the river 
shore. This fact probably was the principal reason 
which induced Jlr. Anderson and Cook to take up 
the entire river fVunt in their " plans," iiml in depth 
only about one-fourth of the distance. 

After procuring a ehurter for the erection of a 
bridge over the river, Mr. Anderson expended sev- 





from the 
ie bridge 




was not built, and he 

became greatly embarrassed. 

Henry Liebhart, Jr., tobacconist. 

Henry Quest, cabinet-maker. ■ 
Matthias Rank, lumber merchial ) 
John [loberts, innkeeper. J 
Richard Robinson, wagon-nialtr, ,, 

and removed to the bf 

rough of York. 

John Lenox. 

Frederick Long, lumbermerchant. 

Mr. Anderson and Mr. 

Cook hiially agreed to pro- 

Jacob Lndwig, storekeeper. 

cure a charter from 

the Legislature, which was 

Lewis Leader, carpenter. 

John Robinson, hatter. 

granted, and the name 

agreed upon by them was 

John Lever. 

J. Louck*, wagon-maker. 

Benjamin Lon)-, innkeeper. 

Jacob Ra.lfang, gunsmith. 

Marietta. Tlie town w 


lid to be .so named jn honor 

George W. Uoss, innkeeper. 

of tlieir wives. 

John Long, tailor. 

Jacob It.direr, Esq., cashier <i 

Taxables in 1814.- 


le year ISU, being one of 

Jonas Miimma. 

JiUiies McGinness, joiner. 

Samuel Ross, schoolmaster. 

great prosperity, I here\\ 

ith give a list of taxables 

Samuel McKinney, innkeeper. 

Steiibon St. John, storekeeper. 

for tliat year, which, wlien compared with tlie otlier 

John Myers, lumber merchant. 

Owen Robinson (drowned in rivw). 

lists, shows a large gai 

a in two years: 

David Hiimnia, merchant. 

nirich Sharer. 

William Magiidgc, carpenter. 

Christian Sharer. : 

jHUiea Anderson. 

Stephen Edwards, carpenter. 

James Mehaffey, lumber merchant. 

Henry Stauffer, trader. ', 

J.raes A6ne>v. 

William Ehbel, conveyancer. 

James MoCieary. 

George Snyder, ferryman. J 

Jolm Armeii, cooper. 

Jacob Etter, innkeeper. 

Jacob Mumma. 

David Sandal, lumber merchant j: 

Widow Aimstroug, colored. 

Widow English. 

James Morrison, tailor. 

John Swolky, merchant. -j, 

Ezekiel Allen, bUcksmith. 

Dr. Samuel Fahnistock. 

Henry Marsh, mason. 

John Shank, coolier. 'S 

David Abbotjoiner. 

Thomas Faulkner, plasterer. 

James McOellan, tailor. 

Isiiac Stein, joiner. [, 

John, coope.-. 

Frederick Funk, butcher. 

Zachariah Moore, carpenter. 

Jacob Sticis, nailer. ,| 

George Ash, joiner. 

John Fullweiler, distiller. 

Henry McKlosky. 

Christian Slierrick, innkeeper. 

Christiiin Uucher, Jr. 

Stephen Fetter, tailor. 

Handel McClure, carpenter. 

Christian Stewart, mason. ) 

Peter Bi.ssett, carpenter. 

Samuel Flory, blacksmith. 

Abraham McCnllough. 

Henry Slierer & Co., ferry. . ■ 

Edward li^dl.Ciirpcnler. 

William Foulk, carpenter. 

Andrew Meliaffy, mason. 

Hieionimous Sailor, blacksmiltl. ■ 

John Beats, brickmaker. 

Henry Foringer, tailor. 

John Miller. 

JohnSprecher, cordwainer. ' 

William Bojd, weaver. 

William Fishback, joiner. 

William Maxwell, merchant. 

George Shell, cordwainer. '- 

John FonJersmith, barkeeper. 

John Nagle, butcher. 

Peter Sailor, blacksmith. , 
Peter Seese. ,' 

Abraham Bi-llows, cooper. 

James Flint. 

Fred. Nagle, butcher. 

James Bush. 

Joseph Gettis, ferryman. 

Jacob Nichulos, lumber merchant. 

— - Sherrick, Carpenter. ' 

Henry Baker, tanner. 

Jacob Grosh, E.q , Assemblyman. 

Henry Nicholos, saddler. 

Prelriuous Smith, doctor. ■ ''i 

Kelor Boston, distiller. 

Jacob Grejbill. magistrate. 

Peter Nagle. 

Henry Sultzbach, tanner. J 
Leonard Shields, cordwainer. • ,f 

John Bun, carpenter. 

John Grider, lumber merchant 

Robert Osborn, joiner. 

Jlndrew BOBBS. 

and stiller. 

Benjamin Osborn, pilot. 

Henry B. ScliafTiier, minister if i 

David Bowman. 

David Gaish, tailor. • 

Samuel Ostler, tailor. 

Reformed Church. 'j 

Thomas Buchanan, merchant 

John Grahnni, butcher. 

Charles Odell, pilot. 

John Frederick, millwright. 

Henry Be.entz, tailor. 

Matthew Garner, cordwainer. 

Jacob Oberly, pilot. 

James Towiisbii, schoolmaster. :] 

John Brien, carpenlcr. 

John Gerrurd, painter. 

John Plum, whitesmith. 

Abr.ihani Varley, copperemith. J 

Samuel Bailey, cordwainer 


John Gault, cooper. 

John Peden, gentleman. 

Oliver Watson. ■': 


William Garrett, doctor. 

Nicholas Peek. 

John White. ; 

John Uoggs. 

Jacob Hippie. 

John Plitt. 

Archibald Warner, colored. •; 

Henry Bai (ley, painter. 

Hickiuto A narie. 

James Park. 

David Whitehill, storekeeper. , i< 
George Weitzel, cedar-cooper. ;, 

John Boiler, innkeeijer. 

Bowman, innkeeper. 

William Pierce, scrivener and prin- 

Widow Brenneman. 

Widow Hays. 


Joseph Wise, cooper. 

Henry Brenneman. 

RluMler Hawkins, pilot. 

John H. Brenui-man A Son. Hi-.tand, cabinet-maker. 


e Men. '• 

rrancis Boggs. 

Willnun llinkle. 

F.Ackworth, joiner. 

Daniel Goodyard, joiner. ,i 

Israel Cudwalader, innkeeper 

James Hendeiaun, plasterer. 

Walker Able, joiner. 

John Oeilick, joiner. 

William Childs, conveyancer. 

Joseph Hopkins, mason. 

Kobert Agnew, plasterer. 

John H.ildy, blacksmith. * 

John (Jromwell, ferryman. 

William Hamilton. 

Francis Bulge. - 

Frederick ll.verling.cordwalti«r. '^ 

Heni7 Clark, cooper. 

John Henry, carpenter. 

Charles Bells, joiner. 

Isaac llalborough, plasterer. 

Samuel C.ito, coloied. 

John Horn, carpenter. 

Henry Best, joiner. 

Henry lleckiote, hatter. 

Henry Conn, inn. 

John Ho) CI , carpenter. 

William Curry, joiner. 

Edward Hand, clerk in bank. 

Major Oio.-iu[,rurp.liter. 

Widow Ik-iiiselujan. 

James Cannadey, joiner. 

John lluss, printer. 

David Cook, E^.l. 

John Heart, cooper. 

Adam Deeru, joiner. 

J,, cob lloHcberger, distiller. '{ 

Abraham Cassel. 

William Honsegle, innkeeper. 

William Dicks. 

Joseph Irvin, plasterer. «; 

David Cassel, storekeeper. 

Alexander Hiitzler, brewer. 

William Davis, joiner. 

JuseibJeiliies, brickmaker. . | 

Simeon Christine, carpenter. 

Alexander Hunimel, carpenter. 

Eli Dil, joiner. 

Isaiah J. Ilries, painter. j 

Conrad Crimm, innkeeper. 

John Hin. ( 

Samuel Druckamiller, tailor. 

Jacob Johnson. 

George Cliribtine, saddler. 

J. Hnnohberger, sUller. 

Michael Dugan, blacksmith. 

Charles lielley. ', 

Oliver Cochran, carpenter. 

Jacob Hiestand. 

Edward Danderaon, scrivener. 

Henry Ludgen, nailer. 

John 0. Cremor, merchant. 

Christian Heishoy. -+^ 
J. Iliiyrock, carpenter.' 

Henry DiBenderfer, merchant. 

Patrick Logan. 

John Charles. 

John Eckeis, cooper. 

Henry Liebhart. ' ? 

John Cloud, boat-builder. 

James Johnson. 

John Evans, joiner. 

.lohn UcCreeger. -■] 

Henry Cassel, bank director. 

Joaiph Jeffries, schoolmaster. 

Henry Frue, joiner. 

David Marlin, joiner. 

George Cnmndus. 

Samuel Houston, doctor. 

Elisha Fiuiie, chaiiminker. 

John McCnllough, nailef. j< 

Willis Davis, carpenter. 

John llnss.l.rinler. 

John Fondersiiiilh. 

Rai.del McClure, joiner. i 

Charles Dougherty, ma»on. 

John Hullinger. 

Peter Funk, bntclier. 

JohnOit " ,' 

Samuel Dni.nen, nailer. 

Cliiislian Koeaey, innkeeper. 

J..hnGF..ider, lumber merchant. 

William Pierce, scrivener and prin- , 

William liiimmore. Innkeepe 

Joseph Keesey, gentleman. 

Godlried Greid.r, lumber mer- 


Morgan Davis. 

Mai tin Kindig, druggist. 


John Robinson, wagon-maker. 

Thomas Dickey, clockmaker. 

James Kain, nailer. 

John Giaeff, bank cashier. 

David Rinebart, joiner. j 

Charles Dugan. 

Pavid Kline, laborer. 

James Grlfflii. 

Solomon Deratler. 
James Duffy, speculator. 
Henry Dunn, constable. 

Henry Kline, miller. 
Michael L.ntz, joiner. 
Henry Liebhart, merchant. 

In this list there are the 
penters, which indicates 

names of thirty-eight ca> 
that buildings were beiug | 




erected very rapidly. The list of taverns, store- I 
keepers, merchants, and tradespeople was large also. 

The first half of tlie second decade of this century 
was one of speculation, succeeded by disaster in every 
branch of business tliroughout the country. 

The State Legislature was kei^t busy chartering 
banks, turnpikes, bridges, and trading companies of 
Tarious kinds. 

This extraordinary stimulation of business ran 
through the country like "wildfire." One of the out- 
growths of this craze was the desire to lay out towns 
and speculate in building lots. By reference to the 
township histories may be seen a number of "lost 
towns," besides many that have an existence which 
they owe to this speculative era. 

The extraordinary increase in the river business 
started a number of towns aloiig the river a few years 
before the war of 1812, and each became tlie rival of 
the other and hoped to get the bulk of the business. 
Columbia had the start of Marietta by eighteen years, 
but the latter sprang into existence as if by magic, 
and commenced to crowd the heels of their Quaker 
neighbors, and for a few years rivaled the former in 
population. The place grew too fast; a large class of 
disreijutable persons followed tlie stream of specu- 
lators who overflowed the place, and, like birds of 
prey, lived ofl' the earnings of others. When the final 
crash came but few were able to weather the storm. 
The recovery of business prosperity was gradual but 

Civil Organization.— The records of Marietta bor- 
ough previous to Jto54 not being accessible, we can 
give only such otticers' names as can be gleaned Irom 
the " ordinance book," and only a partial list can thus 
be given : 

1830.-Cliief Burgess, Abrabum Zublio ; Towu Clerk, William McElroy. 
1831 -Cliicf Burgcsa, John SiJiiiigler ; Town Clei k, Williuiii McKlroy. 
l»m.-Cliief Bur^eas, Suniuel 11. Miller; Town Cleik, Suuinel S. Crush. 
I8j;l,— CliitlEuiBuss, S;iniuel D. Miller; Town llcr k, Willium McElioj'. 
)k34.-PieB.ilenl of Town Council, .iLrabam Wuilej; Town Clelk, A. 

N. Cuasel. 
18a6-3fi.-No record. 
18.17.— Piraiileiit of Council, John J. Libbart ; Town Clerk, A. N. CasBcl. 

IM9.-rie,iJentof Council, John J. l.ibbait; Town Cleik, I. Hubs 
1840.— I'rcsident of Council, Jacob Stuhl; Town Clelk, William Cbilda. 
Wl.-I'rehident of Council, John W. Goodman; Town Clelk, William 

I812.-Pre8ident of Council, Henry Sullzbach; Town Clerk, *i|liam 

W3— I'roaident of Council, John Kline; Town Clurk, William Clillda. 

1866.— Chief Bnrgcfa, Nicholas ; Town Council, Samuel Ober- 
iin, Henry S. Liblialt. .Jacob Songniaaler, Blicbacl Gable, Aaron H. 
Snmniy ; Clerks, "» illiam Chaimian, John Kaylor. 

IS.'U.— Unci liiiititf, (baibs Kcllj; To« n CoUhul, John W. Clark, 
Jol* ,1. 1.^1 i..,'t > Li.M .... - ,, _.;,, I M i.i, I, M.i.:,^ . r.,Liumin 

F.HIrM.i;, ,, ' . , ,1 ■,,,11,, , I : . ;• ::■],, ,. 

1858.— Chief Burgess, Samuel D. Miller; Town Council, TlicmaB Slense, 
JobnCrull, BarrSpangler, EJ««rd 1'. Trainer, Aaron 11. Sun, my; 
Clelks, Meltbor lleiline, Franklin K. Moaey. . 
1859.-Cliief Burgess, Samuel D. Miller; Town Council, Barr Sliaugler, 
Thomas Slense, John Ciull, Aaron H.Snmmy.E. P. Trainer; Clerks, 
.William Chapman, Samuel Slense. 
18C0.— Chief Burgess, Samuel U. Miller; Town Council, Barr Spangler, 
John Crull, Thou.aa Slense, E. P. Trainer, Ueuiy S. Libbart ; Clerks, 
Israel Goodman, Theodore Hiestiind. 
1801 —Chief Buigess, Jomis Paik ; To« ii Council, Barr Spangler, H. S. 
Libbart, John Fulks, Fl.d.i, i. M l,,,;j, .-.iimel Hippie, Sr.j 
Clerks, James M.Al,der^oIi,,l : ! 

1862.— Chief Buigeaa, Henry S. I, : i , . ' i il, C. C. P. Grosh, 

Fra.ikHipple.Jobn Kline, Al, Ml I- .,,.., r-aiiiuel C. HieBtand ; 

Clerks, Abram Erisman, Tbeodoie HiestanJ. 
1863.— Chief Bnrgesa, Samuel Hijiple; .Town Council, C. C. P. Grosh, S. 
0. Hiesland, Alexander Lindsay, Franklin Hippie, John Kline; 
Clerks, Theodore Hiesland, J. M. Anderson. 
18U4.— Chief Bnrgess George W. Mehafly; Town Council, John J. Lib- 
bart, Benjamin F. Hiesland, J. P. Waller, H. S. Libhart, Uirard 
Koath; Cleiks, Abram AIbIcJ, Theodore Hiesland. 
1805.- Cbiel I,.!..--, h II.,, Slense; Town Council, Barr Spangler, 
H. I). l!i I ,. , ' - 1 Jl.ijling, J. J. Libharl, A. H. Summy; 
Clerks, J 11 \' 1 lli.aland. 

18GC.— Chief ll.,_i ., II ;, iMinse; Town Council, H. D. Benjamin, 
G. A. Majlii.g, J. J. l.iihail, S. C. Hiesland, Burr Spangler; Clerks, 
John L. Weaver, Jeffei-son Thompson. 
1867.— Chief Burgess Thomiis Slense; Town Council, S. C. Hiesland, 
George U. Goodman, Louis Honseal, F.Waller, Alexander Lindsay ; 
CIciks, T. llicaland. James W. Fidler. 
1808.- Chief Burgess. James B. Claik; Town Council, G. U. Goodman, 
1 Frank llii.ple, John Barr, CbliBlianBucher, Samuel LindBay; Clerks, 

I Phil. M, Kline, Melchorlierline. 

1S69,— Chief Burgess, Thomas Slen.'-e ; Town Council, Jacob Songniasler, 
Simon 11. Miitcli, P. M. Kline, A. Sunimy, Robert Carroll, Jr.; 
Clerks, Jacob K. Wiiidolph, Lavid Matlis. 
187u.— Chief Buii;e,s, Ceorge Sliriner; Town Council, David Both, J. 
Songmaster, Uobert Carroll, Jr., Fiank Hippie, S. Mutch; Clerk, 
Tbeophilna Hiesland. 
1871.-fbief Buigess. George Shriner; Town Council, B. Spangler, A. 
N. Cassill, Dr. H. S. Trout, S. Mutch, Frederick Walter; Cleik, Jacob 
Windolph. — 

1872 —Chief Burgess, Samuel Hippie, Sr.; Town Council, B. Spangler, S. 
Hiestand, Jerome Hippie, David W. Coble, John Shillow, Lewis Lin- 
'"dermulh; Clerk, M. M. Caracher. 
1873.— Chief Burgess, J. M. Lamalere; Town Council, John Z. Linder- 

mulh, Walui Fryl.iit-i r; Clerks, A. K. Ersman, M. Bl. Gilacher. 
1874. — Clin I r.;i_i -, I -M I. iiizelere; Town Council, Jerome Hippie; 

Town 11. 11 V ' ' ■ 1 

1875. — Chi'! 1 I ^. liriner; Town Council, C. M. Bucher, 





Town CI. 


IM8-41I.— Pi esident of Council, Henry Sullzbach ; Town Clerk, William 
ISSO.-Preaident of Council, James Mehaffy, Jr. ; Town Clerk, Willbim 

lMI.-l'r..9lJent of Council, Suninel Oberlin; Town Clerk, William 
1862-63.-PreBident of Council, Ileiiiy Sullzbach ; Town Cleik, William 

» 1854.— Chief Burgees, Jonatlnyr Lazerlier; Town Council, Benjamin F. 

UlcBland, Thoinaa Zcll, Henry Sullzbach, Simon S. Nagle, John 

Blibgon ; Clerks, William Cbilda, Jr., Israel Goodman. 


187C— Chief |llllg.» 

, Corge S 

chriner; Town Comic 


A. N. 


David Dennisi.n 

Clerk, J. 1 

. Wil 


lS77.-Chief Burgees 

Waller Fry 


r; Town Council, 

Israel Go 


Adam Bah n; To 

vn Clerk, J 

It. \ 


1878.-Chief Buigess 

Walter Fry 


r; Town Council 


A. Set 


Onitus Hippie; Clerk, J. K. 


1879.— Chief Burges 

, Waller F 


eer; Town Coun 


A. N. 


David Denuiaon 

Town Cle 


t. Windolph. 

1880.— Cbiel BuigeBS 

H. S. Tioi 

t, M. 

>.; Town Connci 




toph.r Hauei , 1 

own Chi k. 



ISSl.-Cblel BuigeSB 

11. S Tioi 

t, M. 

>, TownCouncI 




John Shillow. 1 

.wn Clelk, 

J K. 


1682-Clilel Bulges 

, Kdwiud 


g; Town Counc 




Franklin Hippie 

; Ck-ik, J. 

t W 



r the boioi 

gll fo 

r 1883 are: 




Kolb; A-sialan 



iiin Olimit; Co. 




Hippie, John Sb 

lllow, A. N 


1, Frankliu Hip 



r Ben- 


nett, and Jnc.b Songnia-stor; High CoiiBtuble, Alleu R. Ruby; Towi 

Cleik, ThLc.|.hilusHie3lanJ. 


John Auxer, April 14, 1840. 

C. C. P. Gro»h, April 12, 18(>4. 

Josel.U T. Anderson, April 14, 1840. 

E. D. Buath, W«y 8, I8C5. 

Jos.|,li T. Aniler-on, April 15, 1845. 

Jolin Auxer,, 18(;ii. 

JoliliAuxtr, April 16, 1845. 

l\ R. Mosey, April, 1SU7. 

J. T. An.lerBon, April 9, 1850. 

Kr.'derick L. Baker, April, 1809. 

Emanuel D. Roiitll, April 11, 1854. 

K. D. Roalli, April, 1870. 

Juhu Auxer, Nov. 10, 185.5. 

F. L. Baker, Apiil, 1874. 

Kobert Dunn, April la, 1S68. 

E. U. Rualli, April, 1S75. 

E. D. Rualh, April 10, ISllU. 

F. L. Taker, April, 1S79. 

JoUn Auxer, April 10, ISGO. 

E. D. Eoath, 1880. 

Market-Houses. — The old market-house that once 
stood in the public square was built at a date to which 
the memory of man runneth not back. However, it 
was one of those quaint old structures standing on 
stilts that in after-years became an eye-sore to the 
more sensitive and progressive citizens of the borough, 
and in due time the old, unsightly thing was removed. 

In 1874 a stock company was formed, a lot pur- 
chased on Walnut Street, and the present neat and 
commodious brick building erected at a cost of five 
thousand five hundred dollars, and first occupied 
in May, 1875. The stalls are rented to farmers and 
truck-raisers in the vicinity of Marietta, and are 
bountifully supplied twice each week with the best 
of everything in the market line that the surround- 
ing country affords. The officers of the company are : 
President, B. F. Hiestand; Treasurer, John S'liangler; 
Secretary, George F. Stibgen. 

Town Halls. — For many years the upper part or 
room of tlie old market-house was occupied as a 
town hall. In 1847 the borough of Marietta pur- 
chased the diamond-shaped lot between or at the in- 
tersection of Walnut Street and Elbow Lane, and 
erected thereon what is now the old town hall. The 
two lower or first stories were built by the borough, 
and the third story by tlie Sons of Temperance, who 
at that time had a flourishing division in Marietta. 
.The third story is now owned and occupied by the 
Knights of Pythias, tlie second story by the borough 
and Marietta Lyceum, and the lower story by the Ma- 
rietta School Board. The new or Central Hall was 
built in 1874, and is located on Second. The lower 
story was built by the borough of Marietta, and is oc- 
cupied by the post-olBce, E. D. Roath (justice's office), 
the fire department, and the Town Council, each 
having ample accommodations for each of their de- 
partments. The second story was built by the Cen- 
tral Hall Association, and contains one of the finest 
halls in the county for all purposes for which it was 
intended, being fitted up with a capacious stage and 
stage properties. The third story was built by the 
Odd- Fellows, and contains, besides their fine hall, 
atiorher society hall, with all the necessary rooms for 
lodge purposes. The building is of brick, and built 
in the most substantial manner and heated through- 
out by steam, and lighted by gas. 

Financial.— Th'e First National Bank of Marietta 
was organized and chartered in 18Gy, and opened fur 

the transaction of business July 21st of that yeaf. 
Its original number was twenty-five. The first direc- 
tors and officers were elected April 28, 18lj3, as fol- 
lows: Directors, John HoUinger, S. F. Eagle, John 
Haldeman, John Musser, J. E. Kreybill, Aferani H. 
Mussel liian, James Mehaffy, B. F. Hiestand, and 
Barr Spangler; President, John Hollinger; Vice- 
President, James Mehaffy ; Cashier, Amos Bownian. 
The present substantial banking-house, located on 
Market Street, which for comfort and convenience 
in all its appointments is not surpassed by any in the 
county, was built in the summer and fall of 1875, and 
occupied in the spring of 1876. The old charter 
having expired, the bank was rechartered May 27, 
1882, as No. 2710, with a capital stock of one hundred 
thousand dollars, and a surplus of one hundred thou- 
sand dollars. The present directors are John Musser, 
S. F. Eagle, Henry S. Musser, John Zeigler, Jolin 
Corell, Paris Haldeman, H. L. Haldeman, John a 
Garber, and Barr S|)angler; President, John Miijser; 
Vice-President, P. llaldemaii ; Cashier, Amos How- 

The E.xchange Bank was established in 1874, by 
several ^e^idents of Marietta and vicinity, and char- 
tered by State authority in the same year, wiili a 
capital stock of fifty thousand dollars. The first offi- 
cers of the bank were B. F. Hiestand, president; J. 
J. Gilbert, vice-president; Joseph Clarkson, ca.shier. 
The banking-house is located on Second Street, a few 
doors west from Central Hall. The presentofficers are: 
President, B. F. Hiestand; Vice-President, Joseph 
Miller; Cashier, Joseph L. Brandt. 

Joseph L. Brandt is a descendant of one of the 
earliest settlers in the county, tlie name of Adam 
Brand being found among a number of Germans who 
settled in the county previous to 1718. 

His great-grandfather, John Brandt, resided in Lon- 
donderry township, Lancaster Co., where he was born 
about 1740, andjJied 1784. His children were Chris- 
tian, born 1765; John, born 1767; Barbara, bornl769; 
Samuel, born 1771 ; and Michael, born 1774. 

His grandfather, John Brandt, was born Feb. 24, 
1767, and indentured to George Root in 1784 to learn 
the joiner and spinning-wheel maker trade, where tie 
served an a|iprenticeship of three years and eight 
months. He was married (1791) to Frena Bucher, 
born 1772, died 1857, a sister to Anna Bucher, born 
1769, the paternal grandmother of Bayard Taylor, 
the noted traveler, author, and poet, of Chester 
County, and removed to what has since been known 
as the " old Brandt hoipestead," near Maytown. Hij 
children were Varonica (born 1792), married to Janiea 
McGinnis.and after his death to Samuel Bos!iler,who 
died 1874; Anna (born 1793), miirricd to .Toseph 
Clepper, and after his death to Jacob S. lluldeiiian, 
who died 1880; Christian, born 1795, died 1870; 
John (born 1797), married to Catharine Hossler, died 
1854; Joseph (born 1800), married to Anna Nieslej 
(widow), who died 184.3 ; Elizabeth (born 1803), mnr- 



ried to John Hollinger, who died 1829. Mr. Brandt | 
was a house-carpenter during the few years after liis j 
marriage, and then became a farmer. He died Dec. 
14, 1842. 

His father, Christian Brandt, was born Sejjt. 12, 
1795, and married (1827) to Elizabetli Long (born 
1808), daugliter of Abraham Long, who resided near 
Donegal Springs. He was a farmer, and resided on 
the old Brandt homestead during his lifetime. He 
was a member of the Mennouite Church, and an 
exemplary Christian. His death occurred Jan. 7, 
1870. His eight sons were Jacob, born Oct. 11, 
1829, who died from accidental scalding at the age of 
three years ; John, born Jan. 1, 1831, and married to 
Mary Ann Hossler ; Abraham, born Aug. 19, 1833, 
married to Anna Mary Creider ; Christian, born 
April 19, 1836, married to Susan Rhoads; David, 
born April 6, 1840, married to Maria Hess; Samuel, 
born Oct. 16, 1841, married to Mary StauHer ; Solo- 
mon, born Feb. 8, 1845 ; and Joseph, the subject of 
this article, who was born May 21, 1847, about one 
and a half miles northwest of Maytown, where his 
father, brothers, and sisters were born and reared. 
He worked on his father's farm and attended the 
public school of the neighborhood until eighteen 
years of age, when he began teaching school, and 
continued in the profession until 1878. In 1867 he 
attended a summer session at the Millersville Normal 
School, and the following year graduated from Crit- 
tenden's Commercial College, Philadelphia. In 1875 
he received a teaclier's permanent State certificate. 
In 1876 he was the chosen candidate of the Demo- 
cratic party for the State Legislature, but the county 
having been overwhelmingly Republican at that time, 
he was defeated. The same year Mr. Brandt was 
married to Miss Agnes May Nissley, oldest daughter 
of Rev. Joseph Nissley, residing near Hummelstown, 
Dauphin Co., and removed to Maytown. In 1878 he 
was elected justice of the peace for his townsliip. 
East Donegal, and fulfilled the duties of the office, in 
Connection with surveying and conveyancing, until 
the spring of 1880, when he was appointed cashier 
of the Exchange Bank of Marietta, which position 
he still holds. 

Industries. — The present Marietta Hollow-Ware 
and Enameling Company was organized ajid com- 
menced business in 1876. Their works are located on 
the nortli side of Pennsylvania Railroad, a short dis- 
tance west from the railroad station, and cover one 
aero of land, donated by Mr. James Dutfy, who also 
subscribed ten thousand dollars towards the original 
twenty-three thousand dollars stock of the company. 
The present company secured by purcliase at a nom- 
inal sum the ])lant, blocks, machinery, etc., of a former 
company, who-ie buildings and property were de- 
Btroyed by fire, and have also added new machinery, 
tools, etc., to facilitate work- and lessen the cost of 
production of this kind of goods. Seventy-live men 
are employed annually by tliis company in the manu- 

facture of their goods. The officers for 1883 were: 
President, James Duffy ; Treasurer and Secretary, 
George W. Mehatfy ; Manager, George F. Stibgen. 

The Marietta Marble- Works were established on 
Walnut Street in 1842 by M. Gable, who is still en- 
gaged in supplying all kinds of marble-work for 
Marietta and the surrounding country. 

The Marietta Machine-Shop and Foundry was es- 
tablished by George Roath, is now owned by 
Spangler & Rich, and operated by Samuel B. Gramm. 

In 1807 or 1808, Henry Cassel, established the lum- 
ber business on the site now occupied by his son, A. 
N. Cassel, who, in 1848, became identified with the 
business, and in 1872 built the planing-mill now 
operated by him. About three acres of ground are 
covered by the lumber and buildings of Mr. Cassel. 
His transportation facilities are of the best, being 
supplied by both canal and railroad. The business 
oflice is adjoining his lumber-yard, corner of Bank 
and Third Streets. This firm gives employment to 
about fifteen men. 

The saw-, planing-mills, and lumber-yard of B. F. 
Hiestand & Sons was est.ablished in 1850 by B. F. 
Hiestand. The mills are at Chikis, and the ma- 
chinery driven by water-power, while the lumber- 
yard and business office is at Bank and Second 
Streets, Marietta. They also have canal and railroad 
facilities equal to any other firm, and are connected 
with Columbia, York, and Lancaster by telephone. 
They employ about twenty men in their business. 

In 1858 a steam saw-mill was built on the site now 
occupied by the depot of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
by G. W. Mebafty, James Duffy, and a Mr. Vande- 
voort, and subsequently destroyed by fire and never 

Klumpp's tannery is located on Locust, between 
Second Street and Prospect Alley, and was built as 
early as 1815 or 1816, by P. Moyer, who conducted 
the tanning business here for several years, when it 
became the property of Kline & Wolf, who operated 
it for many years, when it finally passed into the 
ownershipof the present proprietor, John C. Klumpp, 
who remodeled the tannery and applied steam-power 
in the process of tanning, and is now able to turn out 
nearly ten thousand sides of first-class leather per 

The Sultzbach tannery is located on the corner of 
Locust and Walnut Streets, and was built by Henry 
Sultzbach, who was a native of Switzerland. Just 
when it was built is not now known, but uo doubt as 
early as 1812 or 1815. It subsequently passed into 
the hands of his son John, thence to Henry Sultz- 
bach, father of Henry L. Sultzbach, the present 
owner," who took possession in 1870. Since his occu- 
pancy he has added one story to the main building, 
which is of brick, re-sunk the yard, and added steam 
to the motive-power. The tannery has at present a 
cai)acity of ten thousand sides of leather annually, 
and employs six men in their manufacture. 




The "Lancaster County Vaccine Farm" was es- 
tablished in April, 1882. under the firm-name of 
Alexander & Grove, consisting of Dr. H. M. Alex- 
ander and David M. Grove. In October, 1882, Mr. 
Grove withdrew, and Dr. H. M. Alexander became 
sole proprietor. The buildings erected for this special 
purpose are as well arranged and equipped as anj' in 
the country. The stables are the only heated vaccine 
stables in the United States. Shipments of virus in 
large orders are made to all surrounding States, as 
well as to Missouri, New Mexico, Texas, California, 
Montana, Georgia, Louisiana, Florida, and all New 
England States. It was sent safely to Canada and 
South America. 

Schools. — Joseph Jeffries, an Irishman, was one of 
the first teachers in the place. Prior to the time he 
taught in Marietta he had been teaching at the log 
school-house at Donegal Church, and he also taught 
at Brenneman's, near Canoy. He did not stay long in 
one place. The only scholars now living who went 
to his school are Dr. Nathaniel Watson, John Paulis, 
Hon. A. E. Roberts (now of Lancaster), Rev. A. B. 
Grosh, Mrs. Ann Strickler. 

William Pierce taught school for a few seasons, and 
in its connection was also a scrivener. He gave up 
teaching, and devoted his whole time to the publica- 
tion of his newspaper and magazine. He came to 
Marietta after the war of 1812, and remained there 
several years. 

Samuel Ross was the first person who taught school 
in the hall over the market-house, about the year 
1817. He was also chief burgess, and was a person of 
some prominence. 

James Townsen was contemporaneous with Ross, 
but taught school only one or two winters. 

William Ebbles came from Elizabethtown to Ma- 
rietta in 1817. He opened a scrivener's office, and 
also for a short time taught school. 

William Hull taught school in 1820. There were 
several other teachers during the first decade in the 
history of the town, whose names are not now re- 
membered; none of them, however, are worth par- 
ticular mention. They belonged to that peripatetic 
class of teachers who came around in the fall of the 
year and remained three or four months, and then 
took up their line of march for some other locality. 

During that time no eflfort was made to establish a 
classical or higher grade school ; that was left for a 
future and more progressive generation. 

A person named Stoner and a Yankee named 
Whitman also taught in the Bell school house. Mr. 
Geary taught school where Brisco was in 1820. 

Mr. Stansbury was one of the first teachers in the 
place. He remove'] to Columbia sixty years ago, 
wlirro hi' opened a school, and taught there a number 
of years. 

John V. Smith taught school i.n 1822, and remained 
for two years. 

George Briscoe was one of the earliest teachers in 

the borough. He taught school for a number of yeart' 
in the one-story brick house east of the market-house, 
adjoining Maj. Huss' printing-office. The last of his 
scholars now living is the venerable ex-Judge JoliQ 
J. Libhart. 

William Riinkin belonged to the old school of 
teachers. He was an Englishman, and was one of 
the few classical scholars of his calling. He taught 
at Maytown some years, and came from that place to 
Marietta about the year 1822, and opened a school in 
the large room above the market-house. He believed 
in corporal punishment, and the writer can bear 
witness to its practical operation. He is gone, but 
not forgotten. 

Aaron B. Grosh, son of Judge Jacob Grosh, was a 
bright and talented young man who taught school a 
few years in the Bell school-house, commencing 
about the year 1822. A year or two later he and his 
brother published a newspaper. He also became at- 
tached to the Universalist Church, and at different 
periods of his honorable career preached for that de- 
nomination. Of the teachers born in Marietta he 
was the most brilliant. He was equally distinguished 
in the realm of letters. He is living in New York 
State, aged eighty. 

William Carter, a young man who had been study-, 
ing law in the borough of York, came tA Marietta 
about the year 1827, and taught school for several 
years. He returned to York, and commenced to 
gather material for a history of Y'ork County. He 
and Mr. Glossbrenner published the history about 
fifty years ago. It was about as large as the New 

Rev. Abel Charles Tliomas, the most accomplished 
and gifted of all the early teachers, came to MariettA 
about the year 1828, and taught school in the log 
building east of the Cross-Keys tavern, on Second 
Street. He was a Universalist preacher, and a fine 
elocutionist and writer. His character was above re- 
proach, and he died loved and respected by his friends 
and neighbors. He moved to Philadelphia about 
forty-eight years ago. He embraced Universalism 
probably after he came to Marietta, and became a 

Rev. Thomas Marshall Boggs, the pastor of Done- 
gal and Marietta Presbyterian Churches, was a trained 
teacher of a number of years' experience. Both in 
Marietta and Mount Joy he had a class of boys he 
prepared for college. His brother, John Boggs, who 
was a graduate of college, started an academy, and 
taught the higher branches. The school went down 
for want of patronage. Mr. Boggs was a most excel- 
lent and competent teacher, and it was a subject of 
regret among the citizens that his school was not a 
success. He entered the ministry of the I'rcsbytcriau 

\ Rev. Timothy Simiison, a graduate of Montpelier 
College, Vt., came to Marietta in 1831, and took 
charge of the school above the market-house, which 



,.;; Mr. Rankin left in rather a demoralized condition. 
i^» He taught there one or two years, when he moved 
into a new two-story frame school-house built by the 
late James Wilson, one square northeast from the 
market-house. His school gradually increased, when 
he commenced to teach the higher branches. 

One other college student, named Graves, came 
from a Vermont college to assist Mr. Simpson. He 
had a Latin class, composed of eight or ten students, 
whom lie prepared to enter college. The last two 
years of his term the school assumed the dignity of 
an academy. Mr. Simpson became a Presbyterian 
minister, and was stationed at Harper's Ferry before 
the war. He was the first teacher in Marietta who 
introduced into the school at the close of each 
session what was then called an exhibition. It was 
a pleasing feature in the exercises, and the boys 
looked forward with a good deal of trepidation lest 
there might be some failure on their part. The boys 
that were ambitious and sharp went through easily. 

George M. Clawges came from Clermont, Delaware 
State, where he been teaching, to Marietta in 
1836, and took charge of Mr. Simpson's academy. 

He became a zealous member of the Presbyterian 
Church, and afterwards of the Methodist Church, in 
which for twenty-five years he was a local preacher. 

He had been a wild young man. He became an 
ardent friend of the cause of total abstinence. He 
has been a teacher for fifty years, forty-eight of which 
was spent in this county in various towns and dis- 

G. Washington Baker established a school for ad- 
vanced scholars in 1847. He first taught in the "St. 
John's House," and from there he went to the Sus- 
quehanna Institute, and had charge of that institu- 
tion for a short time. He was an accomplished 
scholar and a brilliant man, but somewhat erratic. 
He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 
Lancaster in 1847. He married a niece of President 
Buchanan. He went to California some years ago. 
Marietta Academy. — The academy started by Mr. 
■ Baker formed the nucleus for another academy that 
was destined to longer life and greater success. This 
also started in the St. John's House, by a young man 
who had been teaching in the lower end of the county, 
who was a native of Chester County, and was edu- 
cated in the Quaker schools of that couiity, 'which 
have always and deservedly stood high in the com- 
munity. He had but little experience as a teacher, 
but it was soon demonstrated that he was fully 
equipped in "each and every particular" to make his 
school a great success. This young man's name was 
James P. Wickersliam, so well known in school cir- 
cles tlirofiphout the country. His success was phe- 
(loiricMal from the start. He purchased the large 
three-story brick building on the southwest corner of 
Market Square, and also erected a two-story brick 
academy building .adjoining it on the cast. His 
academy soon filled'up, and many scholars came from 

a distance. The late Maj. Pyfer, of Lancaster, and 
Dr. Pugh, ex-member of Congress from New Jersey, 
were some of his pupils. 

T^he school, under his master management, flour- 
ished while he had charge of it. He was called to a 
larger <tnd wider field of usefulness, and was com- 
pelled to give up the school he created and made a 
grand success. 

I need not follow him any further in this con- 

High School.— After Mr. Wickersham left Mari- 
etta, the citizens, despairing of securing the services 
of a successful teacher, turned their attention to a 
public high school, which was soon erected at the 
rear end of the old Bell school-house. J. R. Sypher, 
who had been one of Mr. Wickersham's scholars, and 
a young man of unusual promise, was called to take 
charge of the school. He was a successful teacher, 
but ambition led him to seek a wider field, where 
there was a better prospect of being advanced iu the 
legal profession. 

He was followed by Professor Isaac S. Geist, who 
took charge of the high school in 1863. He filled the 
chair of Natural Science at Millersville State Normal 
School. From thence he took charge of a school in 
Rohrerstown, and remained there five years. From 
thence he removed to Magnolia, Putnam Co., III., 
where he took charge of an academy. From thence 
he came to Marietta, as before stated, where he has 
continued iu charge of the high school to the present 

The common schools of Marietta are excelled by 
few in the State. The board of public school direc- 
tors have wisely selected teachers who are best fitted 
for their vocation, and not chosen from favoritism. 
Much more might be said in commendation of her 
schools, but space will not permit a more extended 

A Female Seminary was established in the second 
story of the school building erected by Mr. Wilson, 
where Mr. Simpson and Mr. Clawges taught. It 
lasted about two years, when it became a public 

Susquehanna Institute.— Judge John J. Libhart, 
James Mehafl'ey, A. N. Cassel, and several other 
public-spirited citizens organized a boarding-school 
by issuing stock and raising a fund from that source. 
In the year 1840 the large three-story brick building 
at the eastern end of the town, built by the late 
Henry Cassel, was fitted up and arranged for an 
academy. « 

Edward A. Seiker and a corps of able teachers were 
selected. The school started fairly, and was quite 
successful for some time. The stockholders sold 
their interest to Mr. .Seiker, who reorganized the 
academy and made an effort to establish it upon a 
firm basis. Although an accomplished scholar, he 
was no manager. He became involved financially, 
and the academy was sold by the sherilf. 

I ^i 


Newspapers. — Few. towns in the State outside of 
the cities liave been more prolific in the publication 
of newspapers than Marietta. In the month of No- 
vember, 1813, John Huss, who had just graduated 
from the Journal oflice in Lancaster, then under the 
management of William Hamilton, came to Marietta 
and established a newspaper called The Pilot, which 
he printed in the long one-story brick house on the 
south side of High Street, just below the market- 
house. In September, 1814, he closed his printing- 
oflBce and marched to Mancus Hook as lieutenant of 
Capt. Grosh's company of volunteers, and when Capt. 
Grosh went to Harrisburg to take his seat as a legis- 
lator, Lieut. Huss took command of the company. 

William Pierce purchased or took charge of the 
Pilot office and published a newspaper called the 
Village Chronicle. In 1816 this publication ceased, 
and he then commenced the publication of a monthly 
called the Ladles^ Visitor, which was continued about 
two years, when he again embarked in the newspaper 
business and established the Pioneer in the fall of 
1826, which he named after a steamboat of that name 
which worked its way up the river from the bay. In 
1827 he sold the paper to Charles Nagle, who in the 
year 1828 sold it to A. Bayard Grosh and his brother, 
Rufus K. Grosh, who conducted the paper with great 
ability. Under their management it became a politi- 
cal paper, and supported the " Adams" party. In the 
year 1829 they sold the paper and presses to Sheaff & 
Heinitsh, who had just started the Courant in Co- 
lumbia, who served subscribers of both papers. 

The Marietta Advocate was started by William R. 
McKay. Dr. WoodhuU, who was an accomplished 
speaker and writer, took charge of the editorial de- 
partment. He came from New Jersey, and returned 
there in the fall of 1833. The paper lived until the 
following spring, when it was taken to Lewistown, Pa. 

The Ant was started in 1840 by Thomas Taylor, 
and was followed in 1841 by the Orb, published by 
Israel Goodman. In 1842, Taylor & Goodman started 
the Washinglonian, a temperance paper. In the year 
1844 the Week/tj Argus was started bv Israel Good- 
man and Frederick L. Baker as a Whig paper. 

The Little Missionary, published by ,Iohn F. Wei- 
schanipel, was contemporaneous with the Argus. 

The Mariettian was established on the 11th day of 
April, 1854, by a joint-stock company, with 'the view 
of advancing the material interests of the borough. 
It was neutral in politics. It was published by Israel 
Goodman ; James P. Wickershara, late superintend- 
ent of the schools of the State, then piincipal of the 
Marietta Academy; John Jay Libhart, one of the 
associate judges of the County Court; Abraham N. 
Cassel, formerly a member of the Legislature of the 
State and a [iromincnt business man; and Samuel 
Patterson, a prominent business man; and in 1856, 
Dr. William K. Mehaffey became sole editor, and 
Frederick L. Baker publishe'r. In 1860, Mr. Baker 
purchased the outstanding stock and became sole 

proprietor, and he published it as an Independent 
Republican journal. Its name was changed to Mart' 
etta Register. In 1874 he sold the paper to Joseph L, 
Wolfensberger, who was one of the publishers of t 
Columbia Spy. In 1875 he sold the paper to Percy 
Shrock and Linville Hendrickson, and in 1880 t 
latter sold to Mr. Schrock, who is now the sole editor 
and owner. 

The Marietta Times was established Nov. 25, 
by George Gilbert Cameron, by whom it is still pub«J 
lished. It was originally a four-page, seven-column 
paper, twenty-four by thirty-six inches. April 1,-^ 
1883, the i)aper was enlarged to nine columns, and' 
size of sheet twenty-eight by forty-two inches. > 

Marietta Lyceum.'— During the winter of 1836 
-37, Josiah Holbrook made a scientific missionary' 
tour through parts of Lancaster County, lecturing oo 
the natural sciences, and stimulating the establish- 
ment of lyceums and the formation of libraries, and 
the collection of natural objects. Among other places, 
he sojourned fur a short season at Marietta, Pa., which j 
resulted in the organization of the Marietta Lyceum 
of Natural Sciences. This association continued for 
some years, its places of meeting being the old Bell 
school-house and the Mennonite meeting-house, on j 
Walnut Street, and occasionally the Bazaar Cotillion 
Hall. It held lectures and discu-ssions on scientifio 
and other subjects, procured a set of philosophical 
implements, and made a respectable collection of 
books, minerals, etc. Mr. E. Code, Professor HaUif 
deman. Judge Libhart, A. N. Cassel, Esq., and othen, 
delivered lectures before it. Although it stimulated \ 
the pursuit of the natural sciences in a few, yet th«,' 
general interest in it soon waned, and after an active 
existence of three or four years it was dissolved, the, 
individual property in it withdrawn, and the re- 
mainder either divided or specially deposited else- 
where. It never revived, and therefore became ex- 
tinct. Its inrtuence, however, so far as it pervaded 
the minds of its members, never died, and perhaps 
never will. 

The Libhart-Marietta Museum.'— John Jay Lib- 
hart was an artist by profession, a man of marked 
scientific attainments and more than ordinary me- 
chanical skill ; and, even before the organization of 
the Lyceum, had commenced a collection of object! 
of vertu. His specialty in natural science was ornt 
thology, and soon alter the dissolution of the Lyceum 
much of the available space in his house was devoted 
to prepared specimens of birds, mammals, reptiles, 
fishes, shells, fossils, minerals, etc. These, with the 
addition of works of art, soon culminated in a 
seum ; and, about 1840, he effected a lease on the large 
upper room of the market-house, which at that period, 
and for a long time previous, had occupied a part of 
the Centre Square of Marietta, and the Libhart Mu- 
suem accordingly went into active operation. 

By S. S. Ilathvon. 


■0 I 

I that 


This museum was very artistically arranged in 
portable cases, aud for a period of ten years was the 
wly museum open to the public in the county of 
lancaster. The market building had beeu erected 
Airing the "speculation fever," soon after the incor- 
poration of the borough, about 1815, but never had 
Wen a very firm structure, and about 18(30 it was de- 
dared insecure, and under a decree of the Town 
Council it was torn down and a market-house built 
Walnut Street. No other room in the borough at 
period being available for the reception of the 
Buseiiiii, it became disintegrated, if not obliterated, 
hit perhaps not entirely extinct, except as a whole. 
Many of the mammals, birds, fishes, reptiles, and 
■inerals were donated specially to the Lancaster 
Athenieum, and subsequently transferred to the Lin- 
Dcaii Society. Another portion was transferred to 
the upper rooms of the old town hall, on Walnut 
Street, and others (drawer specimens) the proprietor 
retained in his own possession. But, as a living, ac- 
tive, public institution, it has been as thoroughly 
atinguishcd as has been the building that once con- 
tained it. 

The Pioneer Fire Company of Marietta' was 
lucurpnrated by the Legislature May lil, 1840, the 
Incorporators being Janics Wilson, Samuel M. Yost, 
Jacob Stibgen, Robert Ramsey, John Bell, John 
Huston, William A.Spangler, Henry Charles, James 
T.Anderson, Samuel Algier, David Rinehart, John 
Park, Samuel Oberlin, John B. Maloney, Simon S. 
Nagle, John J. Libhart, Samuel D. Miller, Joseph 
Inhoff, and A. N. Cassel, of whom Simon S. Nagle, 
lion. John J. Libhart, Joseph Inhoff, and Hon. A. N. 
Cassel are living. The first meeting of the company 
was held at the public-house of John Barr on Tues- 
day evening, Jan. 19, 1841. John Jay Libhart pre- 
lided ; A. N. Cassel was chosen secretary. The act of 
incorporation was read. A. N. Cassel, Henry Charles, 
John Huston, J.T. Anderson, and John Jay Libhart 
were selected a committee to draft by-laws for the 
company. Adjourned to meet Saturday evening, 23d, 
»t same place. The second meeting: The company 
met agreeably to adjournment Saturday evening, Jan. 
23, 1841. The committee on by-laws made their re- 
pfirt, which was unanimously adopted. The company 
was then organized by the election of the following 
officers: John Jay Libhart, president; J.T. Aniier- 
Bon, vice-president ; David Rinehart, treasurer; A.N. 
Cussel, secretary ; Robert Ramsey, messenger; John 
Park, John B. Maloney, Henry Charles, Simon S. 
Nagle, and William Spangler, directors. The subse- 
quent officers have been as follows : 

1MJ— John J. LH.lmrt, prpnlOent ; .1. T. Amleraoii, i 

IMJ-J.l.i, J. Lilli;Jl.|i.isi. I, J.T An.leraoii, 

1M4.— Joliu J. Libliiirt, pieai.liMit; J. T. .^iidorBon, 
Cassi-l, Becietary ; Duvid Kiueliuit, trt-ftaiirer. 

1 By George H. Ettla. 

1845.— William A. Spangler, president; Jolm Park, vice-presfdent ; A.N. 
Cassel, secretary ; David Rinehart, treasurer. 

1846.— Samuel D. Miller, president ; J. T. Anderson, vice-president ; Wil- 
liam Child, Jr., seur.-t.uv; David Rintliart, treasurer. 

lS47.-RokertA.Ranisey,i . -: ! i i; ! 'I .\iidersou, vice-president; Wil- 

y, vice-president; William 
lagle, vice-president ; Wil- 
vice-president; William 

184S.— .I.T. Am(jrson,p.. . 

Child, Jr, secretary: !':■: ; 1: . ' 

1S49.— William A. Spaiigl.r, |iimuKii1; 
Ham Child, Jr., secretary ; J. T, An 

18511.— S. S. Nagle, presidejit; 8. D. J 

Child, Jr., secretary; J. T. Anderson, treasurer. 

1851.— S. D Miller, president; J. J. Lihhart, vice-president; William 
Child, Jr., secretary; J. T. Andei-son, treasurer. 

1852.— James Mehnffcy, president; Aaron Gable, vice-president; Wil- 
liam Child, Jr., secretary; J. T. Anderson, treasurer. 

1853.— John J. Libhart, president: Isaac Reisiager, vice-president; Wil- 
liam Child, Jr., secretary ; J. T. Anderson, treasurer. 

1854.— John J. Libhart, pLisideiit; I^.iac Reisin-er, vice-president; 
William Child, Jr., s. : ■■ . ■ .Mi . , . :, r,.,,, i, neasurer. 

1S56.— Jolm J. Libharl. I ill; _ : .-president ; Wil- 

liam Child, Jr., s,a; : ; ,- ,1 -urer. 

1856.— John J. Lilihaii. l -i.'n', I '■ Ui-iii^'i, vice-president; 
William Child, Jr., seci etary , Abraham Cassel, treasurer. 

1857.— Charles Kelly, president ; Samuel D. Miller, vice-president ; Wil- 
liam Child, Jr , secretary ; Abraham Cassel, treiisurer. 

1858.— Jacob ? •i.nn^t r ]r si lent; John J. LU.hart, vice-president ; 
WilliuN 111! ~ : ! i: \ ; Abraham Cassel, treasurer. 

1859.— John I I >' ,: nt. Jacob Sungmuster, vice-president; 

William 1 1 11 ., I: . . 1 1 V , Abraham Cassel, treasurer. 

I860.— J. M. Lar/LlHi,., pi,-idrnt; John J. Libhart, vice-president; 
William Child, Jr., secrelary ; Abraham Cassel, treasurer. 

18f)l. — John J. Libhart, president ; Jacob Songraaster, vice-president ; 
William Child, Jr., secretary ; Abraham Cassel, treasurer. 

1862. — John J. Lib'iart, president ; Jacob Songmaster, vice-president: 
John Folks, secretary ; Abraham Caasel, treasurer. 

1803.- John J. Libhart, president; Jacob Songmaster, vice-president; 
J. 51. Larzelere, secretary ; Abraham Cassel, treasurer. 

1864.— John J. Libharl. president ; Jacob Songmaster, vice-president ; 
J. JI. Larzelere, secretary ; Abraham Cassel, treasurer. 

1865. — Jacob Soii^masbT, pre^idi-nt ; Walker Fryberger, vice-president; 

186U.-Jaiol. - ,. , 

» l..r"Fryb6rger, vice-president; 


\ ^.,^sel, treasurer. 

1867.— Jacol s 

ill,, l; ,1.1 rl Carroll, Jr., vice-president; 

M. M. <,i , ,- 

: ... .\l.r,.baiu Cassel, treasurer. 

16C8.-Jaiul. - . .1,. : 

, , 1 ;< lit ; Frederick Waller, vice.presldent; 

M. M ''.Li •, 

; , .Miraham Cassel, treasurer. 

1869.— Jacob =..i,„i.i,i=l. 

, pi.-il-nt; William B. Allwlne, vlce-presl- 

dent; M. M. Carrac 

ler, secretary; Hubert Carroll, Sr., treasurer. 

1870.— Jacob Songmaste 

M. Carrachei-, secre 

ary ; Ibdicrt Carroll, Jr., treasurer. 

1871. -Jacob S ii.ii-i,-- 

r |,i,. ,|, i,r, 11 !iry Mosey, vice-president ; M. 

M. 1. , . 

,1 , l: ,■ - , 11, Jr., treasurer. 

1872.-Jacnl -111' 

, , , : 1 |,1, Windolph, vice-president; 

M. M (■„:,,. i.i. 

.1,1), w 1.1,1 liyberger, treasurer. 

187;i.-G. 11. Ellla, i.r, 

i.leiit i Joseph Windolph, Joseph A. Wolfoa- 

herger, vice-presidi 

its; M. M. Carracher, secretary; George F. 

Slibgen, Ircasmer. 

1874.-George H. Eltia, 

president ; J. I. McConnell, George W. Uilde- 

braTidt, vice-preside 

its ; M. M. Carracher, secretary ; George F. 

II. Ettla, president; Robert Carroll, Jr., Frederick Wal- 
iresiileuts; Amos Grove, secretary; George F. Stibgen, 

1876.— George H. Ettla, president; George W. Hildebrandt, Robert Ca 
roll, Jr., vice-presidents; -imos Grove, secretary; George F. Sti 

7.— George H. Etila, 
roll, Jr., ,vice-piesiil 

1878.— George H. EUla, 

1879.— George H. Eltla, 

Geurke W. Hildebrandt, Robert Car- 
is Grove, secrelary ; c,.,orj;e F. Stib- 

George F. Stibge 



).— George H. Ettia, pn-sidont; Ge 
vice-presidents; Amos Grove, aecre 

1881.— George H. EttIa, president; George F. SliUge 
vice-preaideDts ; Amos Grove, secretary ; George ' 

-George H. Eltla, president; Adam AViaeman, James W, Kelly, 
ice-presidents; AnioB Grove, secretary; George W. Reich, treas- 

1883. — George H. Ettla, preside: 

Jacob Songraaster, Andrew W 
ove, secretary; George W. Eeic 

In 1872 the borough authorities placed a third- 
clasa Silsby steam fire-engine in charge of the com- 
pany. The chief engineers were Henry W. Wolf 
and Samuel L. Emswiller. The company has always 
been a beneficial one, having dispensed for relief to 
its members nearly eight thousand dollars. Present 
membership, seventy-three. 

Donegal Lodge, No. 129, I. 0. of 0. F.,' was in- 
stituted Dec. 2:j, a.d. 1845, by George Morris, of York, 
officiating as Grand Master (in St. John Build- 
ing), assisted by John F. Houston, D. G. M. ; P. G. 
Kilgore, G. W."; George C. Franciscus, G. C. ; E. J. 
Sneeder, G. Sec; ; S. D. Young, G. Treas. ; M. Neal, 
G. G. 

The charter members were S. S. Rathvon, John 
Dougherty, F. K. Curran, W. L. Carter, John Car- 
roll, and Frank Plury. The first oflicers elected 
and installed were as follows: S. S. Rathvon*, N. G. ; 
John Dougherty, V. G. ; F. K. Curran, Sec. ; William 
L. Carter, Asst. Sec. ; John Carroll, Treas. The 
lodge continued to meet and prosper in same building 
until 1874. In the year 1873 its new hull and pres- 
ent place of meeting was built, having joined with 
the Borough Council and Central Hall Association 
in erecting a large hall, ninety-five feet long by forty- 
five feet wide, and three stories high, the Odd-Fellows 
of Donegal Lodge, No. 129, putting on the third story, 
which was completed and furnished in July, 1874, 
when the lodge, by consent of the Grand Lodge of 
Pennsylvania, moved into the new hall, and on the 
11th day of August, 1874, the same was dedicated 
with imposing ceremony by Isaac A. Sheppard, G. M. ; 
Dr. John Levergood, D. G. M. ; Past Grand George 
Borie, G. W. ; and Past Grand Sire James B. Nichol- 
son, G. Sec, with other prominent and distinguished 
Odd-Fellows assisting. The day will be long remem- 
bered in the annals of this lodge. 

The lodge-room is excelled by few lodges for neat- 
ness and comfort. The frescoing and furnishing of 
the room all blend in harmony with each other. The 
size of room is fifty-four feet long and thirty-seven 
feet wide, and height of story fifteen feet, with mould- 
ings, with two pleasant ante-rooms and one parapher- 
nalia-room, and lighted with gas. 

The present number of members is eighty-five. The 
present officers are Wilford M. Tiusley, N. G. ; Dr. 
George W. Worral, V. G. ; John Naylor, Sec. ; Harry 

> By E. D. Uoatb, Esq. 

L. Villee, Asst. Sec. ; Oristus A. Hippie, Treas. TL«' 
lodge is in a fiourishing condition, and meets weekly 
on Tuesday evenings. It also owns a fine lodge-room 
on sgme story adjoining, with suitable anterooms, for 
renting purposes, etc. 

Marietta Encampment, No. 76, I. 0. of O.F„'of 
Marietta borough, u-as instituted May 11, A.D. 1848, 
by District Dejiuty Grand Patriarch Claiborne ofBcl* 
ating as Grand Chief Patriarch, assisted by Thoino 'I 
Tyrrel, G. H. P. ; J. C. Phaler, G. S. W. ; J. M. La^ 
zelerc, G. J. W.; J. McGlachlin. G. Scribe; J. Stre. 
big, G. Sent., as Grand Encampment officers. 

Charter members, viz.: S. S. Rathvon, John Ca> 
roll, J. M. Larzelere, Jacob Gilinan, N. JIaloney, A, 
Leader, A. Heiser, Samuel G. Miller. The first officer* 
elected and installed were as follows: S. S. Rath- 
von, C. P.; John Carroll, H. P.; J. M. Larzelere, 8. 
W. ; Jacob Oilman, J. W. ; Nelson Maloney, Scrib«; 
Andrew Leader, Treas. 

The encampment meets semi-monthly, on the firet 
and third Thursdays of every month, in Odd-FelloAi* 
Hall (Central Hall Building). Its present officers are 
George W. Bucher, C. P. ; Oristus A. Hippie, H.P.j 
Samuel L. Dellinger, S. W. ; Isaac B. Kauft'inan, J, 
W. ; John Naylor, Scribe; E. D. Roath, Treas. The 
present membership is twenty-five (many have with' 
drawn and moved to other parts, which greatly re- 
duced the number). Though the membership ii 
small, the encampment is in a healthy conditioo 

Ashara Lodge, No. 398, A. Y. M.— The warrant 
for this lodge w;is granted Sept. 5, 1867, A.L. 58G7, 
and the lodge duly instituted Nov. 22, 1867, A L. 
5867, with the following-named charter members; 
Past Master Robert C. Russel, Henry Landis, David 
Roth, Past Master William H. E.igle, George H. 
Eltla,- Frederick Baker, John R. Ditlenbach. 

The first officers were Rev. Robert C. Russell, W. 
M. ; Dr. Henry Landis, S. W. ; David Roth, J. W.; 
William H. Ea^e, Treas.; George H. Ettla, Sec; 
Rev. Thomas Montgomery, Chap. ; John W. Rich, S, 
D. ; Christian Hanlen, J. D. ; Fred. L. Baker, S. M. C; 
Israel Hanlen, Tyler. 

The successive presiding officers were Robert 0, 
Russell, 1868; Henry Landis, 1869; Harry C. Eagle, 
1870; E. D. Roath, 1871-72; Christian Hanlen, 1873; 
John Strickler, 1874; J. Verner Long, 1875; George 
H. Ettla, 1876; William Jones Bridells, 1877; Artliur 
Bennett, 1878; George F. Stibgen, 1879; John L. 
Jacobs, Joseph Fisher, 1880; Calvin A. Schallner, 
1881; Jacob R. Windolph, 1882. 

The present ofiicers are: W. M., Jacob Rathvoa 
Windolph; S. W., James W. H. Johnson; J. W, 
Frank J. Mack; Treas., John Walter Rich; Sec , 1 
Shiter Geist; S. D., Edmund Horn; J. D., Viclur M, 
Haldeman; S. M. C, George Rudisill; J. M. C, 
Adam Balin ; Pur., Abram Ferey ; Chap., Past Master 

' By E. 

1, Esq. 


i D. Roath; Tyler, John Naylor. The time of 
■eeting is Monday evening, on or before full moon 
♦(every month, in OJd-Fellows' Hall. It has sixty- 
fcur members. . 

Waterford Council, No. 72, 0. U. A. M.,' was in- 
Ititutcd and organized I)ec. 16, lSii7, by J. Kaylor 
Snyder, Deputy State Councillor, assisted by Ex-C. 
Jacob Weitzel and Ex.-C. Edward Rusing. The 

larter members were E. D. Roath, E. Rusing, Henry 
Ocliard, Amos Grove, George Rudisill, John W. Pe- 
ters, John Cohick, Henry Pickel, Henry Reichard, 
8»muel Scantling, Jacob Bowers, Isaac Snyder, John 
Montgomery, H. S. Book, George H. Hippie, A. Ems- 
wilier, Samuel Thuma, and otliers. The 6rst officers 
elected and installed were Ex-State C. E. D. Roath, 
C. ; John Peck, V. C. ; Amos Grove, Rec. Sec. ; Henry 
8. Book, Asst. Rec. Sec. ; George Rudisill, Fin. Sec. ; 
Henry Ockard, Treas. ; Simon H. Mutch, I.; John 
W. Peters, Ex. ; Samuel R. Hippie, I. P. ; John Bur- 
ger, 0. P. ; Trustees, Edward Rusing, John Cohick, 
Simon H. Mutch. 

Tliu membership is forty-five. Meetings are held 
weekly, on Monday evening, in Mechanics' Hall, 
ibove Mills & Co.'s hardware-store. The present 
officers are Frederick Robinson, C. ; Alexander Sar- 
pn, V. C. ; Amos Grove, Rec. Sec. ; Frank Thomp- 
mn, Jr., Asst. Rec. Sec; David Mattis, Fin. Sec; 
Henry Ockard, Treas.; Samuel Boughter, I.;' W. S. 
Bitnmons, Ex.; John Rial, I. P.; Thomas Martin, 
0. P.; Trustees, Thomas Marlin, Edward Rusing, 
George Rudisill. 

All the charter members had belonged to the order 
before organizing this council. Although the mem- 
bership is small, the council is in a prosperous finan- 
cial condition. 

Donegal Lodge, No. 108, K. of P.— The order 
of Knights of Pythias was instituted at Marietta, 
Pa., under a charter granted by the Grand Lodge of 
Pennsylvania, dated Sept. 12, 18GS. The first meet- 
ing of the order was held in Temperance Hall, 
Saturday, Sept. 12, 1868, when the following-named 
became members of the order: George H. Ettia, 
David Roth, Jacob So'ngmaster, Henry M. Mosey, 
Samuel L. Dellinger, F. E. Krouse, Albert Ropp, 
Peter Gottschall, Isaac B. Kaullhian, John Spangler, 
Jacob A. Wisner, Samuel Gladfelter, II. S. KauH- 
man, George W. Bucher, Clene Miller, Philip M. 
Kline, Gotleib Mayer, and I. Hostetter. The fol- 
lowing-named elected officers were duly installed : 
George H. Ettla, W. C. ; David Roth, V. C. ; Jacob 
SoDginaster, V. P. ; Henry M. Mosey, Rec. Scribe ; 
Samuel L. Dellinger, W. B. ; Frederick E, Krouse, 
Fin. Scribe; Albert Ropp, W. G. ; Peter Gottschall, 
I.S.; Isaac B. KauOrman, O. S. 

The subsequent officers have been as follows: 

c. c p. 

1 Uotli, W. C. ; .\llii.rt Roiip, ' 
, U. S. ; S. L. D.lliiign 

E. D. Hoath, Esq. 

1870.— P. Gottschall, W. C. ; Jeff Thompson, V, C; A. Bopp, V. P.; S. 

E. Wisner, R. S.; S. L. Dillii.ser, Banker; David Roth, F. S. ; Jeff 
Thompson, W. C. ; John B. Taylor, V. C. 

1871— John B. Taylor, W.C; John R^iff, V. C. ; Jeff Thompson, V. P. ; 
Gejirge H. Ettla, R S. ; S. L. Dellinger, Banker; Frank Thompson, 

F. S ; n. M. Mosey, W, O.; Isiael Ilanlen, V. C. 

1872,— Israelllanlen, W, C. ; William ReiJ, V. C ; H. M, Mosey, V. P,; 
William H, Buller, R. S. ; S. L, Dellinger, Banker; Frank Thomp- 

1872.— William Reid, W, C, ; Aaron Sonrhier, V, C, 

1873,— A. Sourhi.-r, W, C. ; William SIranss, V, C, ; William Reid, V, P, ; 
Amos Grove, R, S, ; S. L. Bellinger, Banker ; David Matlis, F, S, 

July 1, 1873, the titles of officers wero changed. William Strauss, C, C, ; 
D, H, Mellinsei', V. C. 

1874 —D. H. Mellinger, C, C. ; Joseph G, Heinaman, V, C. ; George 
Sillier, Prelate; E. J, Wisner, K. R. and S. ; S. L. Dellinger, 
M, Exc; D. MaUis, M. F. ; George Miller, C. C; J, G. Heinaman, 
V, C; Joseph G, Heinaman, Prelate; J. B, Kauffman, K. B. 

187S.— J. G, Heinaman, C, C; Samnal Reinhold, V. 0.; Araos Grove, 
Prelate; J. B Kauffman, K. R. and S. ; S. L. Dellinger, M. Ejtc. ; 
David Maltia, M. F. ; A. Grove, C. C, ; F, E. Krouse, V. C; George 
Conncilman, Prelate; George G, Lindsay, K. R, and S, 

1876.— F, E, Krouse, C. C ; George Miller, V, C.; Metzler, Pre- 
late; George G. Lindsay, K. R, and S, ; S. L, Dellinger, M. Exc, ; 
D. Matlis, M. F,; A. Ropp, C, C. ; J. Metzler, V. C, ; S. Keinhold, 

1877— J. Metzler, C, C; H. M, Mosey, V. C. ; Andrew Williams. Pre- 
late ; G. G, Lindsay, K. B. and S. ; S. L, Dellinger, M. Exc. ; David 
Mattis, M. F, ; Samuel Reinhold, C, C. ; A, Williams, V. C; George 
Miller, Prelate. 

1878.— A. Williams, 0. C, ; D. H. Mellinger, V. C; Absalom Light, Pre- 
l.ite; H. M. Mosey. K. B. and S. ; S. L. Dellinger, M. Exc; David 
Mattis, M. F.; D, H. Mellinger, C. C. ; Absalom Light, V. C; J. J. 
McNicholl, Prelate. 

1879.— Misalom Light, C.C; A. Bopp, V. C. ; E.J, Wisner, Prelate; H. 
M. Mosey, K. B. and S. ; S. L. Dellinger, M. Exc. ; D. Mattis, M. F, ; 
A. Bopp, C. C; A,Sourbier, V, C, ; George Miller, Prelate, 

1880,— George H. Etlla, C. C. ; George Miller, V, C, ; Christ. Wanzel, 
Prelate; H. M. Jtosey, K. B. and S.; S L. Dellinger, M. Exc. ; D. 
Mattis, M. F, ; George Miller, C. C; C. Wanzel, V. C; Howard 
Eriaman, Prelate. 

1881— Christ. Wauzrl, C. C. ; Howard Eriaman, T. C; Peter Baura, Pre- 
late; D. It. Mellinger, K. R and S. ; S. L. Dellinger, M, Exc; D. 
Mattis, M, v.: Howard Erisman, C. C; P. Bauin, V. C; A, Ropp, 

1882— Peter Baum, 0. C, ; A. Light, V. C. ; George Remick, Prelate ; D. 
H. Mellinger, K. fi*and S.; S. L. Dellinger, M. Exc; A, Sonrbier, 
M.F. ; A. Light, C. C; George Remick, V. C; Ellwood P. Bucher, 

1883,— George Remick, C. C. ; E, P, Bucher, V. C.; D. Matlis, Prelate ; 
D, II. Mellinger, K. R. andS.; S L. Dellinger, M. Exc; A. Sour- 
bier. M.F. ; E. P. Bucher, C. C; William McNeil, V, C. ; Frederick 
BrUBO, Prel.lte; Samuel R. Gnimm, K. R. and S. 

The present membership is ninety-one. The lodge 
now owns Temperance Hall. It also has an invested 
capitiil of $3500. 

Cassiopeia Lodge, No. 1705, G. U. 0. of 0. F.,^ 
was instituted at Marietta Nov. 8, 1875, with the 
following-named officers and members: Joseph M. 
Staffi>rd, P. N. F.; Singleton Willis, N. F. ; William 
F. Sebastian, P. N. G. ; Charles Jason, Sr., N. G. ; 
John M. Mallon, V. G. ; Charles Jason, Jr., E. S. ; 
Joseph M. StafTord, P. S. ; John M. Mallon, Chap- 
lain; Charles Jason, Sr., Treas. ; Archer Sales, W.; 
Andrew-Black, G. ; William H. Cain, R. S. to N. G. ; 
Jeremiah Miles, L. S. to N. G. ; Josiah Fairfax, R. 8. 
to V. G. The growth of the lodge has been gradual 
from its inception until it now numbers thirty mem- 

eph M, Stafford. 



bers. The regular meetings of the lodge are held on 
Tuesday evening of each week, in a building owned 
and occupied by the lodge on Fairview Street. In 
the community in which it is located this lodge is 
acknowledged to be a factor in shaping the morals of 
its members and leading the van in the field of use- 
fulness. The present officers are William H. Cain, 
P. N. F. ; Joseph Maze, N. F. ; John Howard, P. N. G. ; 
Jeremiah Miles, N. G. ; William H. Rainbow, V. G. ; 
George Anderson, E. S. ; Joseph Fairfax, G. ; Daniel 
McCurdy, W. ; S. W. Benson, R. S. to N. G. ; William 
H. Geary, L. S. to N. G. ; William Mallon, R. S. to 
V. G. ; Charles W. Jason, Sr., L. S. to V. G. ; John 
W. Mallon, Chaplain; C. W. Jason, Jr., Treas. ; Jo- ! 
seph M. Stafford, P. S. 

Connected with this lodge is the Household of 
Euth, No. 123, to whose membership are admitted 
all members of the G. U. O. of O. F. in America, 
their wives, mothers, widows, and daughters, and the 
unmarried daughters and sisters of all Odd-Fellows, 
who have or do aid the brotherhood. The regular ■ 
meetings of the Household are held on the first 
Monday in each month in Odd-Folhiws' Hall, 
view Street. Present njembersliip, forty three. 

Lieut. William Child Post, No. 226, G. A. R., 
located at Marietta, Pa., was organized on 31st of 
August, 1881, with twenty-two charter members. The 
first officers were: P. C, George H. Ettla ; S. V. C, 
Amos Grove; J. V. C, Thomas Marlin ; Adjt., J. H. 
Druckemiller; Q.-M., Horace L. Haldeman ; O. of 
D., J. R. Miller; Chaplain, S. E. Wisner; 0. of G., 
John Kugle; Sergt.-Maj., Lewis Leader; Surg., Wil- 
liam Smedley ; Q. M.-Sergt., F. J. Mack. The present 
officers are: P. C, Amos Grove; S. V. C, Thomas 
Marlin; J. V. C, Absalom Light; AdJt., J. H. 
Druckemiller; Q.M., Adam Wisnian ; O. of 1)., 
John W. Riff; Chap., S. E. Wisn'r; Surg., William 
Smedley; O. of G., George W. Brooks; Sergt.-Maj., 
Lewis Leader; Q.M.-Sergt., W. S. Geiter. The post 
numbers at present seventy-five good-standing mem- 
bers. They meet the first and third Friday evenings 
of each month in Miller's Hall, Market Street. 

The English Presbyterian Church was com- 
menced A.D. 1821, and completed October, 1822. 
The building here reft-rred to was located on Gay 
Street, between Walnut and Fairview Streets, nearly 
op|)osite the cemetery. 

A meeting was held at the church by the appoint- 
ment of the New Castle Presbytery, present, Rev. 
Stephen Boyer and Rev. James Latta, committee of 
said Presbytery for the ordination of elders, when 
the Rev. Stephen Boyer was called to the chair and 
David C. Whitehill ajjpointed secretary, and the fol- 
lowing persons were nominated and elected elders: 
John Wilson, Thomas Dickey, Jr., William H. Diif- 
field, James Sterritt, and James Agnew, who were by 
the said committee regularly ordained and set apart 
as elders over the •English Presbyterian Church in 

The names of the first pew-holders were Jami 
McClelland, James Agnew, Frederick Haines, Abi 
ham Varley, William McColoch, Barnard Brovro^; 
John Wilson, Andrew Boner, David Ferree, J 
Wilson, Joshua King, Samuel Hopkins, J 
Thompson, George Alstadt, John Heckrotte, Samuel 
McKinney, John Spangler, A. L. Evans, Samud 
Bailie, H. Heckrotte, Alexander Boggs, Esq., JgmH 
Mehaffy, Andrew Noble, Elijah Russel, William A. 
Duffield, Francis Boggs, D. C. Whitehill, Mrs. Aoi, 
Curran, William Maxwell, Benjamin Garman, Jamji 
Sterrett, John Slienk, James Noble, Mrs. Jane Portar, 
Peter Baker, Thomas Dickey, Jacob Stahl, S. Jacobs 
Hannah Hays, Henry Cassel. James Steele, John 
Campbell, John Gault, Mrs. Parks, Robert Jones. .- 

In pursuance of public notice, given from the pul- 
pit by the Rev. Philip Boyer, on 27th of October, 
1822, a meeting was held, when James Mehaffy wu 
appointed chairman, Thomas Dickey secretary, when 
it was unanimously resolved by the pew-holdere pre»» 
ent that James Jlehaffy, Elijah Russel, and William 
H. Duffield be a committee to make application to 
the New Castle Presbytery, now sitting in Lancaster, 
to be received under their care. The said comtnitte* 
reported on the 28tli that they had attended to tbt 
duty of their ai)pointment, and the church was re- 
ceived as a member of the Presbytery of New Castle 
on the same footing as the other churches. ■; 

A special meeting of the session of the Englisli 
Presbyterian Church in Marietta was held, according 
rom the pulpit, Saturday, April 8, 
imas Dickey was appointed clerk 

to previous not 
1824, at which 
of the session. 
In pursuanc 
congregation w 

of previous notice, a meeting of the 
held on the same day in the church 
at eleven o'clock, for the purpose of electing a pastor, 
when a motion was made by James Wilson that one 
of the session be appointed moderator. Agreed to 
after some delayj_ But few persons being present, H 
was agreed to adjourn to meet at six o'clock in the 
evening. Met agreeably to adjournment, when it wai 
unanimously resolved that Orson Donghlass be and 
he is hereby declared the choice of this congregation 
as their pastor, and that a regular call be made out to 
be presented to the Presbytery of New Castle for 
three-fourths of his time, — on three Sabbath after- 
noons out of four, — and that James Mehaffy, Elijah 
Russel, James Sterrett, James Wilson, John Spangler, 
James Agnew, and Peter Baker be a committee to 
sign the call, and James Wilson be commissioned 
present it to Presbytery. 

Agreeably to previcms notice, the congregation met 
on May 5, 1824, and adopted a charter for the gov- 
ernment of the church, in which James MehiitTy, 
Elijah Russel, and James Wilson were made tiiu trus- 
tees, to act one, two, and three years, one trustee to be 
elected annually afterwards. This charter was pre- 
sented to the Supreme Court May 17th, and approved 
Oct. 13, 1824. 



Tlie call for the services of Orson Doughlass was 
laid before the Presbytery of New Castle, and being 
found in order, a committee was appointed to install 
him on the first Friday in June, services to commence 
at eleven o'clock in the morning, Samuel Martin to 
preach the sermon, Rev. James Latta to give the 
charge to the pastor and congregation. The said 
committee attended to the duties of their appointment 
at the time above specihed by installing Rev. Orson 
Doughlass as pastor. 

The Rev. Orson Doughlass supplied the pulpits of 
the Donegal and Marietta Churches principally from 
the dedication of the Marietta Church, in 1822, till 
the time of his installation, in 1824, when he became 
piistor of both churches. The following persons, 
Dienibers of the Donegal Church, were dismissed 
from said church to become members of the church 
in Marietta, as follows: Catherine Dickey, Rebecca 
Dickey, Alexander Rogers, Hannah Rogers, Peter 
Baker, Mary Baker, Margaret Jones, Mary Jones, 
Catherine Longnecker, Elizabeth Jack, JIary Balie, 
David Ferree, Sophia Moulton, Nancy Smith, Ann 
Davis, Margaret McColoch, James Steele, C. Fitzsim- 
mons, Jacob Stahl, Nancy Stahl, Mary Fishbach, 
Charlotte Russel, Esther JIcKinney, Eliza Hertzler, 
Eleanor Sterrett, Samuel McClelland, Elizabeth Mc- 
Clelland, Martha McClure, James Wilson, Rhoda 
Burtman, Blargaret Johnston, Hannah McClelland. 
The foregoing persons made application to the session, 
and were adnjitted to membership Aug. 24, 1824. 

James Steele and James Wilson were elected and 
installed elders December, 1826. Several elders re- 
moved from the neighborhood. Jacob Stahl and 
Henry Speice were elected elders Feb. 26, 1836, and 
ordained by Rev. Orson Doughlass. 

The Rev. Orson Doughlass resigned as pastor of the 
church May 12, 1836. 

In pursuance of previous' public notice from the 
pulpit, a meeting of the congregation was held in the 
church on the third Monday of April, 1S37, at which 
an election for pastor was held, which resulted in the 
unanimous election of the Rev. Thomas Marshall 
Boggs to preach every other Sabbath afternoon, he 
also being pastor of Donegal Church. He continued 
pastor of both churches to the time of his death in 
Mount Joy, in October, 1850. 1 

The Rev. AVilliam A. Rankin was elected and 
regularly ordained pastor of the English Presbyterian 
Church in JIarietta for his whole time. It was dur- 
ing his pastorate the present church was built in 
Market Street ; the old church on Gay Street was re- 
moved, and materials used in part in the construction 
of the new church. The building committee of the 
present cluirch, James Whitehill, Jacob Stahl, A. 
S. Cassel, and Charles Kelly; John H. Goodman, 
architect. The church was completed and dedicated 
January, 1854. 

Tlie Rev. William A. Rankin resigned as pastor 
May, 1854. 

The church supplied itself with preachers from the 
time of the resignation of the Rev. Rankin till the 
time Rev. P. J. Tinilow became stated supply on Nov. 
2t>, 1855, in which position he continued till April 4, 
18G0, when a call was made and accepted. He was 
regularly installed jjastor of the Presbyterian Church 
in Marietta May 1, 1860, and continued pastor till 
his resignation April 18, 1865. 

The Rev. William A. Fleming was called as pastor 
Nov. 7, 1865. Samuel Lindsay and A. N. Cassel were 
elected and ordained elders March 17, 1867, by him. 
He resigned as pastor December, 1867. James Ab. 
Anderson and T. Heastand were elected deacons dur- 
ing his pastorate. 

Rev. William J. Bridells was installed pastor of the 
English Presbyterian Church in Marietta Oct. 21, 
1868. Rev. George Gamble preached the sermon ; 
Rev. P. J. Timlow gave the charge to the pastor. 
Rev. John Elliott the charge to the people, William 
McAffee and Benjamin Olimit were elected deacons, 
and ordained Nov. 30, 1870, by him. He resigned as 
pastor January, 1878. 

The church supplied itself by consent of Presbytery 
from the time of the resignation of Rev. Bridells 
till Rev. John McElmoyle became stated supply, No- 
vember, 1878, and received a regular call, and was 
ordained and installed pastor of the English Presbyte- 
rian Church in Marietta, Pa., April 20, 1879. During 
his pastorate S. P. Sterrett, Theodore Heistand, and 
Lewis Z. Lindemuth were elected elders, and ordained 
July 6, 1879. Theodore lleistand's resignation was 
acccepted November, 1881. Abraham Summy, J. S. 
Geist, and Daniel Ilgenfritz were also ordained dea- 
cons at the same time. 

The Rev. John McElmoyle resigned this charge 
March 1, 1883. 

Number of members reported to Westminster Pres- 
bytery in regular standing at the last meeting, 170. 
This church and-the IMount Joy Church were origin- 
ally taken from the Donegal Church. 

The Sunday-school connected with the Presbyterian 
Church in Marietta was one of the first Sunday- 
schools established in the State, and formed as a 
Union school, all denominaticnis taking part, in 1819, 
and was called the Marietta Sunday-School Associa- 

The following persons were presidents: Rev. Wil- 
liam Kerr, 1819-21; Mr. James Mehaffey, 1821-23; 
Rev. Orson, 1823-35; Rev. T. M. Boggs, 
1835-50; James Wiison,'^amuel Ludwig, and others, 
from 1850-68; William I.' Bridells, 1868-78; and was 
succeeded by Rev. JIcElmoyle, 1878-79; Mr. I. S. 
Geist, 1879 to the present time (1883). 

This school was first organized in what was known 
as the Bell school-Jiouse, but afterwards removed to 
the small building east of Mrs. Eagler, where it re- 
mained (,ill the Presbyterian Church was built on 
Gay Street, when it was taken there. The teachers and 
managers were then nearly all Presbyterians. It be- 



came a Presbyterian Sunday-school in 1823. The 
following have been elected superintendents of the 
school: James Parks, 1819-23; .John Wilson, 1823- 
28; James Wilson, 1829; Thomas Dickey, Jr., 1829- 
30; Lewis Kellog, 1830-33; James Steele, 1833-34; 
Jame.s Wilson, 1834-64; Samuel Lindsay, 18G4-77; 
Theodore Hiestand, 1877-80 ; superintendent at pres- 
ent, H. B. Cassel, 1880-83. 

The school was removed from the Presbyterian 
Church several years before the removal of the church 
to the house now on the northeast corner of Gay and 
Walnut Streets, and in 1854 removed to the room it 
now occupies in the Presbyterian Church, and that 
it did not number over twenty since its formation. 
The Methodist Episcopal, Reformed Lutheran, Cath- 
olic, United Brethren, and African have established 
Sunday-schools, towards which this school contributed 
a large number of scholars. 

The present officers of the church are : Elders, 
Jacob Stahl, A. N. Cassel, S. P. Sterrett, Louis C. 
Lindemuth ; Trustees, S. P. Sterrett, C. A. Shaftner, 
B. F. Hiestand; Deacons, William McAfee, Tlieo- 
dore Hiestand, J. S. Griest, Daniel Ilgenfritz. 

Methodist Episcopal Church.— Just when the 
pioneer of Methodism wended his way to what is 
now the peaceful and quiet borough of Marietta is 
not definitely known. Neither is it positively known 
to the writer or any of his informers who he' was or 
how became, whether on foot, on horseback, or in a 
canoe. The probabilities are, however, that he camq 
down along the left bank of the noble old Susque- 
hanna, spying out the land as he came, and wherever 
a pioneer settlement was discovered, there the old- 
fashioned pioneer itinerant would unfurl the banner 
of his Master, and in the good old Wesleyau way, 
without fee or the expectation of reward, urge sin- 
ners to flee the wrath to come. The old pioneer 
preacher was truly a character; dressed in homespun, 
broad-brim hat, white necktie, if any at all, long, 
flowing locks of hair, silvered o'er with the frosts of 
many winters, falling gracefully over his shoulders, 
he thus appeared the very embodiment of goodness. 
He always rode his best horse, for he never had but 
one at a time, and that would last him many years. 
His outfit for a four or eight weeks' journey around 
the circuit was an old-fashioned leather portipanteau 
fastened on behind the saddle, in which was, first, a 
small Bible and a Methodist hymn-book, next a 
change of linen (coarse shirt), a small supply of 
coarse bread and meat, to be eaten in case of neces- 
sity, and that necessity came many a time with the 
old pioneer itinerant on a six or eight ^hundred mile 
circuit. To one of these self-sacrificing saints of God, 
who took their lives in their hand and traversed the 
then wilds of Pennsylvania, scaling mountains, wan- 
dering through valleys, fording rivers, and braving 
the elements, is due the planting of Metl^odisin as 
early as 1800 at what is now the town of Marietta, 
But few inhabitants were here at that time, but it 

mattered not to the old veteran of the cross, who was 
simply obeying the divine command, " Go ye into 
all the world and preach my gospel." He could 
preaeh to the poor and lowly in the most unpreten- 
tious hut as well or better than to the king in his 
palace. "Like all other places, a " class" was to be 
formed at Waterford or New H.aven as a nucleus 
around which might grow up a prosperous society, 
and it is believed that such a class was formed here 
as early as 1815 or 1820, and possibly earlier. The 
first class-leader is supposed to have been Benjamin 
Garman, as he was known to be a leader as early as 
1823 or 1825. Preaching services were held at pri- 
vate houses when convenient, and occasionally under 
.the spreading branches of some large tree, and from 
1825 to 1830 the Methodists occupied that little long, 
low brick building on what is now Market Street, 
and now owned by Barr Spangler. In 1830 the so- 
ciety built a frame meeting-house on what was known 
for many years as Back Street, now Walnut Street, 
on the site now occupied by the Evangelical Lutheran 
Church. Previous to 1830, probably as early as 1825, 
and no doubt with the view of owning church prop- 
erty, the following trustees were elected for this 
region of country: Benjamin Garman, Marietta; 

Henry Haldeman, Locust Grove ; and Lloyd, 

Esq., of Columbia. 

The Methodists continued to occupy their house of 
worship on Walnut Street until the building of their 
new brick meeting-house in 1850. From 1830 to 
18t)5, or a little later, the Methodists had within their 
congregation or adherents of that faith the wealth 
and aristocracy of the town, and at present stands 
more than equal with their sister-churches. The 
original cost of the present church edifice, located ou 
Second Street, was about five thousand dollars, and 
in 1874 was remodeled and somewhat beautified at an 
expense of about three thousand dollars. In 1865 
the society was^ incorporated with the following- 
named trustees: Benjamin Garman, Jacob A. Wis- 
ner, Robert Carroll, George W. Clawgus, Alexander 
Smith, and George W. Worrell. 

Among the early members of the society, or those 
belonging previous to 1840, we find the names of not 
only those mentioned previous to that date, but a Mr. 
Wormly, who was a trustee, Catharine Jamison, 
Catharine McMichael, Mrs. Kelly, Margaret G. 
Childs, Robert Carroll, Mary Carroll, Hannah Shill, 
Mrs. Grosh, John B. Carter, a class-leader in 1839, 
Rebecca Carroll, Helen Cramer, Anna Shill, Maria 
Martin, Sarah Trump, and Catharine Souders. No 
doubt there were many more, but we have no means 
of obtaining their names. From 1840 to 1860 the 
following-named persons were and are still some of 
the membership: Robert Turner, (icorgo Roodesill, 
Jacob Wisner, Abram Musscr, Mrs. Kramer, Mrs. 
Longenecker, James McClure and wife, Rachel Bow- 
man, C. Stibian and wife, Jlrs. Rathvon. 

Among the jiustors who' have served this people 


gnd congregation previous to 1865 we find the follow- 
ing, who are remembered by the older members : 
Revs. Sutton, Sumption, Edwards, Reed, Greenbank, 
Berridge, Kurtze, Librand, Petit, Pancoast, Gilling- 
hnm. From 18G3 we have the following complete 
list of pastors : 1863-65, Joseph Gregg; 1865-66, Wil- 
liam JEatthias; 1866-68, John Stringer; 1868-71, J. 
R. Taylor Gray; 1871-73, S. A. Heilman ; 1873-75, 
C. H. McDermond ; 1875-77, J. Lindermuth ; 1877- 
79, J. M.Wheeler; 1879-81, J. Wesley Ueiger; 1881- 
84, J. C. Wood. 

Officiary, 1883: Stewards, James McClure, Sr., 
James JlcClure, Jr., Harry Graybill, M. M. Caracher, 
auii Aaron Sauerbier. 

, Class-leaders, Robert Turner, George W. Worrell, 
and M. M. Caracher. 

Trustees, Michael Gabel, Frank Lawrence, Adam 
Wiseman, Aaron Sauerbier, Amos IJowman, and 
Harry Graybill. 

Zion's Church.— The following is a copy of the 
original subscription-paper for raising money with 
wliich to build this church : 
" To the people of all religious denominations : 

"The building of meeting-houses for religious wor- 
ship is not only laudable, but a duty which men owe 
their Creator, for the use of themselves and their pos- 
terity. It is therefore presumed that no arguments in 
favor of the building of a meeting-house are neces- 
sary ; but means to defray the expense of such a 
building are absolutely wanted. The number of in- 
dividuals of each denomination being small, it would 
be very burdensome for each sect to build a meeting- 
house of their own; but all Christians joining in 
building one for the common use and benefit of all, 
the burden will dwindle into almost nothing. It is 
therefore proposed to build a meeting-house iu the 
borough of Marietta, for the common use and benefit 
of all denominations of Protestant Christians, to be 
regulated, in all respects, in such a manner as a ma- 
jority of subscribers present at a meeting to be called 
for the purpose by the five first subscribers may di- 
rect; at which meeting there shall be appointed per- 
sons to fix on the spot whereon the building shall be 
erected, the size and dimensions thereof, as also per- 
sons to collect the money so subscribed, and to provide 
the material and superintend the building, etc. ^ 

"For the purpose above mentioned, and for no 
other, we, the subscribers hereunto, do promise to 
pay, on demand, to such person or persons as above 
mentioned, or their order, the several sums of money 
by each of us respectively subscribed and annexed to 
each of our names. 
" Witness our hands July, 1817." 
The f'rllowing is a list of the original contributors : 
Jacob Orosh, Esq., John Roberts, Abm. Tublin, Jacob 
Rohrcr, Esq., Samuel Hopkins, Peter Longenaker, 
John Bates, Henry Cassell, David Reinhart, William 
Child, Esq., Henry Conn, Sr., David Cassell, Sr., 
George Dyer, George Hainbright, Thomas Wentz, 

F. A. Muhlenberg, John Rupley, John Christ, Jacob •■ 
Etter, Benjamin Steman, Benjamin Lefever, Samuel 
D. Miller, John C. Lefever, Frederick Moyer, Fred- 
erick li'ronk, John H. Goodman, Edward Croft, C. 
Hershey, John Srimp, John Dimmerman, Henry 
Sultzbauch: James Buchanan, Esq., William Hinkle, 
Michael Hoover, Samuel Dale, Esq., B. Grundaker, 
Abm. Breneman, George B. Porter, Esq., Henry Shan, 
Esq., Henry Haines, Sr., Henry Bear, Tobias Miller, 
John Longenaker (River), John Longenaker, Chris- 
tian Miller, N. Keller, Daniel Grosh, John B. Halde- 
nian, John Panles, Christian Heitzler, Christian Leib, 
John Greis, Barnabas Yates, David Martin, William 
Pierce, John Shank, Brice Curran, Valentine Von- 
dersmith. Christian Metz, Jr., E. Allen, William Ham- 
ilton, Christian Metz, John Swar, Jacob Shinnig, 
Joseph Hamacher, George Fisher, Martin Grider, 
James McClellan, Sr., Valentine Grider, John Gri- 
der, Daniel Grider, Isaac Rohrer, Peter Baker, Henry 
Haldeman, John Zook, James Duffy, Christian Kee- 
sey, Jacob Sharer (Lancaster), William Cooper, Wil- 
I liam McClure, William Ridenbauch, John Welsh, 
Adam Reinhart, Jacob Strickler, a widow, Jacob 
Graybill, Joseph Heisey, John Monk, John Huss, 
Andrew Boggs, Christian Roth, Elijah Russell, John 
M. Patrick, Stephen St. John, John Myers, Patrick 
Downey, William Adams, Zachariah Moore, James 
Mehaffy, Charles Nagle, Abraham Tublin, Henry 
Leibhart, William Goodyear, John Shirts, Lewis 
Leader, John Spangler, Benjamin Steman, Jacob 
Etter, Benjamin Gamin, Henry B. Shaffner, John 
Folt, John Shisler, John Christy, John Shaffer, Chris- 
tian IMiller, Dr. Muhlenberg, John Shuck, Daniel 
Schnavely, Peter Hummerickhouse, Christian Halde- 
man, J. Enyan, L. H. Stevens, Sebastian Kohl, J. 
Houty, John Gait, C. Suavely, H. Hubley, F. Hains, 
J. Libhart, F. Evans, Samuel Oberly, Groff & Fisher, 
C. King, John Sultybauch, Henry Sultybauch, D. 
Snavely, J. Heckrote, Dr. King, Jr., I). Lankard, A. 
Cassell, James Steele, John Stoner, J. Welshofer, J. 
Sheets, M. Whitson, H. B. Shafner, John Loucks, H. 
Hogman, Dr. Graham, S. Jacobs, Samuel Hairer, 
Andrew Noble, John Jloore, Joseph Landis, M. Dan- 
ner, IM. Gardner, M. Welsh, Z. Spangler, George 
Small, J. S. Worley, A. Rutter, C. A. Barnitz, Wil- 
liam Barber, John Gardner, William Mcllvain, 
Thomas Kelly, John Koons, D. Car^satt, Morris 
Small, A. Heastand. 

The subscriptions reached an aggregate of fourteen 
hundred and seventy-seven dollars and forty cents, 
and at a meeting of the subscribers, held in Septem- 
ber of the same year, resolutions were adopted pre- 
scribing rules for their government, among which it 
was set forth that no sect or denomiinition should be 
excluded, "but each shall have an eipial right to said 
church agreeable to the subscription papers." 

The borough authorities gave permission for the 

erection ot the church on "the west corner of the 

I burying-ground," " lor the use of all Protestant Chris- 



tian denominations, none to be exclmled." Tlie cor- 
ner-stone was laid on the 23d of August, 1818, and the 
memorandum deposited in it repeated the condition 
that tlie cluircli to be erected there was " for tlie use 
of all Protestant Christians residing in Marietta or 
its neighborhood, and joining this congregation as 
pew-hoiders or otherwise." 

The church was consecrated June 15, 1823. It 
appears from the record that no trustees were elected 
during twenty years, but on the 4th of December, 
1843, Samuel Eberly, Samuel Hopkins, Henry Sultz- 
bauch, John Kline, Samuel P. Miller, Philip Ropp, 
John Paules, and James B. Shaffner were chosen, and 
trustees were regularly elected afterwards. In 1854 
the German Reformed and Lutheran congregations 
were allowed by the trustees to place an organ in the 
churcli. The burial-ground in which the church stood 
became so full that it was found necessary in 1857 to 
restrict the privilege of making interments there. An 
addition to it was made by the borough, but burials 
there have long since ceased. 

The German Reformed and Lutheran congregations 
used this house as a place of worship during many 
years. About four years since the Lutherans ceased 
to worship here. The Reformed Society became prac- 
tically extinct many years since, but five years ago it 
was revived, and it has since occupied this house.- 

Every religious society or church in the borough, 
except the Catholic Church, lias occupied this house 
in the early period of its existence. The house has 
not been greatly changed since its erection. A gal- 
lery has been added, a bell-tower has been built, and 
some changes have been made in its internal arrange- 
ments. It is a brick structure, and its seating capacity 
is four hundred. 

St. John's Protestant Episcopal Church, of Ma- 
rietta,' located on the corner of Second and Chest- 
nut Streets (south of Second), was incorporated in 
1865 (has a seal). The building is a brick structure, 
is sixty-seven feet in length, and thirty-two feet in 
width, with steeple and bell, and large basement. 
The building was commenced and corner-stone laid in 
186C, and finished in 1867. The finishing of the church 
inside — the pulpit, altar, arches of chancel doors, 
pews, wainscoting, and church furniture — are walnut. 
The windows are of stained or colored glass of differ- 
ent colors (figures or representations and mottiies on 
large chancel windows), with arched ceiling. Robing 
room and pulpit on east side of chancel, and organ 
and choir on west side, making a very comfortable 
and pleasant house for worship. The Sunday-school 
and recitinj» rooms are in the basement of the church 
building. First rector called was the Rev. R. C. Rus- 
nell. First vestry of the new church was S. F. Eagle, 
Dr. Edwin Haldcman, C. J. Nourse, E. D. Roath, 
Henry Wolf, William Kendig, Jacob Roth, and Jacob 
C. Burkhart. 

Jacob C. Burkhart was elected secretary of veatrj, 
The following were appointed the building conimiU 
tee, viz.: Rev. R. C. Russell, Stejjhen F. Eagle, Dn 
E. Haldeman, and E. D. Roath, treasurer; coat of 
building proper and ground, nine thousand ninehuD" 
dred dollars. The church was dedicated Nov. 14, 
1872, by the Right Rev. Mark Antony De Wolfe 
Howe, bishop. The corner-stone was laid by tbt 
Right Rev. Vale, Bishop of the Diocese of Ne- 
braska, Wyoming, and other Territories, conipoalnf 
one diocese. 

The church is in good condition and free from debt, 
and owns a fine brick rectory not far from the churek 
on Second Street. Within the last few years, under 
the charge of the last rector, Rev. Alonzo Potter Dil-; 
ler, many have been added to the membership. Pewl: 
free. The Sunday-school is in a flourishing condi- 
tion, numbering one hundred and thirty-five pupili, 
thirteen teachers, and three officers; Albert D. \Vik(^ 
superintendent. Over two thousand volumes hare 
been purchased since the organiziition. A number of 
volumes have become soiled and worn out, and hare' 
been replaced by publications of later date. 

Names of rectors that have been called ami offi- 
ciated as rectors are, viz. : Revs. Robert C. Russell,' 
Charles H. Meade. William T. Davidson, James 0. 
Drumm, and Alnii/o P. Diller. The present vestry 
consists of the lullowing, viz.: Stephen F. Eagle, 
rector's warden ; E. D. Roath, church warden; 
George W. Mehafley, A. D. Wike, H. S. Stauffer, 
Simon F. Stibgen, Dr. George Reich, George F. Stib- 
gen. A. D. Wike, secretary. 

Services were frequently held in Zion's Church 
prior to building and establishing St. John's pariah 
by Dr. Appleton and others for the membership io 
this locality. 

Zion's German-English Evangelical Lutheran 
Congregation" of the borough of Jlarietta and vi- 
cinity, in Lancaster County, Pa., was organized in the 
year of our Lord" 1855. As early, however, as 1852 
the nucleus of the congregation was already formed. 
Previous to this year the spiritual wants of 
Lutherans at Marietta were attended to by the paa- 
tors of the Lutheran Church at Columbia, Pa. In 
1852 the Lutherans and German Reformed of Marietta 
organized a so-called union congregation. Re 
Doer, a Reformed minister, preached for them eve7 
two weeks. This arrangement, however, was contia 
ued only a little over a year. During the two year* 
following there was preaching occasionally by indi 
viduuls, some of whom proved themselves very worth- 
less characters. 

In the early part of the summer of 1855, Rev. 
George JVI. Merz, a Lutheran minister, came to M 
etta, and, making himself known, was asked hy the 
Lutherans to remain with them and become tlieif 
pastor. A congregation was organized and officers 




elected. No official written documents relating to i 
the congregation exist, as far as we linow, of this pe- | 
rioJ save tlie record of the ministerial acts of Rev. 
Merz. His first entry is the baptism of a cliild, dated I 
July 1, 1S5.3, and the last, also an infant baptism, , 
fiept. 19, 1858. 

His successor was found in the person of Rev. Jo- 
leph Sclunalzl, pastor of Salem's German Lutheran 
Cljiirch at Columbia, Pa. His ministration was brief 
ibout one year. Soon after he was elected pastor j 
tLe congregation adopted a constitution, on the 7th ! 
of Xovember, 1858. It is signed by the pastor and 
fifty-six male members. The following are the names [ 
of tliiise who signed it, and are still living and mem- 
bers of the congregation: Ferdinand Zuch, Christo- 1 
pbtT Kolb, Wilhelm Theisinger, Johann Meister, 
George Raum, Friedrick Bink, Wilhelm Westeu- 
huefc-r, Jacob Menge, Dionis Ziegelmeier, and Adam 1 
Kuehler, Sr. This constitution was superseded by ' 
aiioilier adopted on the 15th of January, 1860. j 

lu tlie fall of 1859, Rev. J. A. Darmstaetter, who 
had completed his studies at the Lutheran Seminary | 
at Gettysburg, Pa., and was called to the pastorate of I 
Saleiu German Lutheran Church at Columbia, was 
elected pastor of the congregation. He accepted, and [ 
aerved Marietta in connection with Columbia, residing' i 
at the latter place and preaching at the former every 
two weeks. In 1859 a Sunday-school was organized, 
of which Mr. Michael Stump has been tlie efficient 
superintendent since 18G0. Mr. Christian Kolb and j 
Mr. Ferdinand Zuch served in this capacity also. [ 
During the hmg and faithful service of the Rev. 
Diirmstaetter the congregation grew and waxed j 
Btroiig. With great self-denial and sacrifice he ear- 
nestly labored to make the congregation self-sustain- 
ing, and have it to call a pastor who would reside in 
Marietta and preach in the German and English lan- 
guage. His labors were crowned with success. After 
Serving the congregation for almost nineteen years, he 
resigned on the 24lh of March, 1878, retaining the 
Congregation at Columbia and Chestnut Hill. He 
preached his farewell sermon on the 2d of June, 1878. 

The congregation, now forming a separate charge, 
extended a call to its present pastor, Rev. George Ph. 
Mueller, a graduate of the Lutheran Concordia Col- 
lege at Fort Wayne, Ind., and of the Lutheran Theo- 
logical Seminary in Philadelphia. He accepted, and 
was installed on the 14th of July, 1878, by his prede- 
cessor, assisted by Rev. F. P. Mayser, of Lancaster, 
I'll. As one of the conditions of his call was to 
preach in the German and English language, and 
also to perform hia ministerial acts in either, as might 
be requested, he reorganized the German congrega- 
li'in into a German- English, when they adopted a new 
(;oiistitution on the 19th of August, 1878. The con- 
gregation, not being incorporated, obtained a charter 
on the 23d of January, 1882.- 

Until the winter of 1878 the congregation was 
without a church building of its own. It worshiped 

in Zion's Church, a building erected by the contribti- 
tion of the Protestants of this place, and open to all 
denominations who wish to worship there. Rent was 
paid for the use of this building. In 1874 the con- 
gregation bought a lot on the corner of Walnut 
Street and Mulberry Alley. Two years later, in 1876, 
it put in the foundation for a church edifice, but 
owing to adverse circumstances did not proceed to the 
building thereof. Thus things stood until the 26th of 
August, 1878, when a congregational meeting was 
held and the erection of a church discussed. It was 
unanimously resolved to build. Matters were now 
pushed, and on the 15th of September the corner- 
stone was laid, and three months later the edifice was 
finished, and dedicated on the 15th of December, 
1878. The structure is built of brick, Gothic style, 
thirty-three by sixty feet, excluding buttresses; walls 
sixteen feet high. In 1883 the congregation added a 
tower, and the Women Society presented the bell, in 
memory of the four-hundredth anniversaryof the birth 
of Dr. Martin Luther, born Nov. 10, 1483. The bell 
weighs five hundred and eighteen pounds without" 
mountings, which are a present of the Young Folks' 
Society, and was consecrated on the 15th of ,fuly, the 
fifth anniversary of Rev. Mueller's installation as 
pastor. The whole property of the congregation is 
estimated at four thousand dollars, and is free of 
debt. The congregation numbers one hundred and 
thirty-six confirmed members, and the Sunday- 
school one hundred and thirty-nine pupils and nine- 
teen teachers. 

From July 1, 1855, to July 27, 1883, the following 
ministerial acts were performed by the pastors of the 
congregation, as recorded in the church record: bap- 
tisms, 666; confirmations, 201; communions, 2882; 
marriages, 114; burials, 242. 

St. Mary's Catholic Church.— Prior to the year 
1870 the Roman Catholics living in Marietta had 
been obliged to go to Columbia in order to hear mass, 
except during the time that Father Russell said mass 
for them in their town hall. For a long time they 
had manifested an anxiety to have a church in their 
town, where they might assist at divine service, and 
with the view of obtaining the erection of the desired 
church, a suitable site at the intersection of Second 
and Perry Streets, one hundred and twenty by two 
hundred and ten feet, was purchased, the deed being 
made out in the names of the following trustees: 
Prof S. S. Haldeman, Jno. K. Fidler, and William 
H. Eagle. A part of the required sum for the pur- 
chase was collected and paid to Mr. Henry Ockard, 
the owner. In 1867 the deed of the lot was trans- 
ferred by the trustees to the Right Rev. James F. 
Wood,-Bisliop of Philadclpliia, in trust for the Uoman 
Catholic congregation of Marietta, Pa. The balance 
— five hundred dollars — owing on the lot was paid to 
Mr. Ockard, Sept. 23, 1869, by the Rev. James J. 
Russell, pastor. On Nov. 4, 1869, the rite of the lay- 
ing of the corner-stone of the church was performed 



by the Right Rev. J. F. Shanahan, who, in the pre- 
ceding year, bad been consecrated bishop of the new 
diocese of Ilarrisburg. The sermon on the occasion 
was preached by the Right Rev. Thomas A. Becker, 
of the diocese of Wilmington, Del. On the 7th of 
May, 1871, the chapel of the church was dedicated by 
the Right Rev. J. F. Shanahan to the great joy and 
delight of the people, and on the same day mass was 
said in it for the first time. The church is fifty by 
ninety-eight feet. 

The next important events in the history of the 
church were the opening of a mission by the Re- 
demptorist Fatliers, and the blessing at its close on 
the 16th of June, 1872, of a beautiful cross bestowed 
on the church by Paris Haldeman, Esq., whose gen- 
erosity in this and in other ways is held in grateful 
remembrance by the people of St. Mary's parish. 
This cross surmounts the steeple of the churcli. The 
parochial school was opened on the 2d of September, 
1873, and placed under the care of the Sisters of 
Charity, to whom at the same time was assigned the 
charge of the Sunday-school, which, up to this date, 
had, for a number of years, been presided over by 
!Miss Margaret Trainor. 

Before the numerical loss (written of further on) 
which the congregation sustained, the average num- 
ber of pupils in the Sunday-school had been seventy- 
five; it is now about forty. Lack of employment in 
Marietta during the panicky times of recent years 
compelled many of the families of St. Mary's congre- 
gation to migrate to other districts where work could 
be had. In consequence of this diminution of the 
number of the parishioners, the fine church is only 
partially completed. While, however, the church 
proper is unfinished, the edifice possesses a magnifi- 
cent basement, in which the children of the parochial 
school are taught, and on Sunday divine services 
held. With the record here of the liberal pecuniary 
aid which tlie non-Catholics of Marietta gave in the 
erection of the church, this brief history of its in- 
fancy closes. 

United Brethren. — This church was organized 
May 20, 1880, by Rev. William S. Lesher, with the 
following-named persons as the original members, 
who were also the first trustees: Abram R. Lutz, D. 
Detweiler, and Samuel Nye. This organization was 
at first connected with the German Conference, and 
subsequently transferred to the English Conference. 
In the fall of 1880, through the means of a special 
meeting, about forty persons were added to the 
church. The house of worship, located in West 
Marietta, was built by the Methodist Society to be 
occupied as a chapel, and in May, 1880, sold to the 
TJnited l!ret)iren, and t)y them was dedicated in June 
of the same year. I'resent membership, twenty-six. 
The trustees for 1883 were A. R. Lutz, Alexander 
McAfee, Joseph McFarland,- George Geiser, and 
Samuel Stacks. Value of church property, eleven 
hundred dollars. Present pastor, Rev. Mr. Kramer. 

The Sunday-school connected with this church 
was organized in April, 1883, with Christian Stibgeo 
as superintendent, with thirty-five pupils. 

African Churches.— There are also two African 
churches or congregations in Marietta, of which no 
reliable iiiformation could be obtained as to date of ■ 
organization, building of churches, names of pioneer 
members, first preachers, or present condition of the 
societies. It was stated, however, by persons cogni- 
zant of the fact, that both churches were in a flour- 
ishing condition, and well supplied with ministerial 
assistance. '•' 



Jolin Duffy, the grandfather of James, was born in ' 
Newtown, Cunningham County, Donegal, Ireland, 
where he followed the vocation of leather-dressing.' 
He was married to Miss Ann Bradley, and had ont 
son, James, who was born in the same county and 
township in Ireland, where he was an extensive con- 
tractor. He was a man of large acquirements and 
'exceptional business capacity. He was married to 
Miss Catharine Sheridan, of the same county, uiid 
during the year 1800 emigrated to America, and 
settled in the city of Lancaster, Lancaster Co., fr»m 
whence he removed to Marietta in the same county. 

Mr. Dufl'y, aside from his business occupatioiiM in 
Ireland, was connected with the military service, and 
a member of the Light Horse Cavalry. He idii- 
tinued his former business in Pennsylvania, i.(jn- 
structed the Marietta and Lancaster turnpike, the 
turnpike from Elizabethtown to. the Susquehanna 
River, and a large portion of the road from Carlisle 
to Baltimore via York Springs and Gettysburg. 

He also projected a portion of the borough of 
Marietta. In politics he was a Democrat, and in liis 
religious predilections a Roman Catholic. 

Mr. and Mrs. Duffy had twelve children, of whom 
seven survived. The death of Mrs. Duffy occuirr-l 
in 1820, and that of Mr. Duffy in 1836, in his sixty- 
fifth year. Their son James was born in Mari.tta, 
Sept. 16, 1818, where the uneventful years of his 
childhood were spent, in the enjoyment of such liui- 
iled educational advantages as the public schoul of 
the neighborhood afforded. The boatman's cralt > -i 
the Susquehanna River at that early day oftercl the 
most inviting fiehl to young men residing along its 
shores, and here the young man sought occupation, 
first as a hand, next us steersman, from which he rose 
to the rank of pilot. He continued thus employed 
until 1846, and the following year made a trip to Ku 
rope. In 1848 he established a line of boats for the :, 
purpose of transi)orting coal from Pottsville to New 
York, in the interests of the Schuylkill Navigation 
Company. In connection with James Mehaffy, a son 


"^^^^yc/ ^z<^^^ 



of his father's former partner in his land operations 
in Marietta, he embarked in the lumber business, 
which was continued until 1865. Mr. Duffy was mar- 
ried on the 8tli of September, 1863, to Miss Martha, 
daughter of John Park, of Marietta. Their children 
are])hine, Catherine (deceased), James, Donald 
Cameron, Thomas Bayard, John Park (deceased), 
Martha Park, John Park, 2d (deceased), and one who 
died in infancy. 

In 1861, Mr. Duffy became a member of a firm en- 
gaged in the transportation of government supplies 
to the forts in New Mexico and the West, including 
Salt Lake,"an enterprise involving many millions of 
dollars a year and the labor of thirty thousand oxen. 
• He was tiius actively interested for a period of seven 
years, after which he retired from business, and has 
nince devoted his attention principally to his landed 
investments, and won a reputation as the most exten- 
sive tobacco-grower in the State. lu 1877 he became 
interested in the Marietta Hollow-ware and Enamel- 
ling Company, in which he controls one-half the cap- 
ital stock. He was, in 187&, appointed one of the 
Commissioners of Fisheries for the State of Penhsyl- 
vania, and has since been one of the chief promoters 
of fish culture throughout the State. 

He has also been largely identified with the growth 
«nd development of the township and borough of his 
residence. He is an earnest sympathizer with all 
public improvements, and a director of the Bald 
Eagle Valley Railroad. Mr. Duffy in politics afiili- 
ates with the Democracy, though indifferent to the 
honors which are the reward of party service. His 
associations are not confined within the limits of his 
own county, both business and social matters having 
led to an intimate acquaintance with men eminent in 
political, financial, and educational circles. His 
house is the centre of a liberal hospitality, and the 
resort of men of distinction, irrespective of creed or 

Mr. Duffy was educated in the Roman Catholic 
faith, of which he is a supporter, though a willing 
contributor to other religious denominations. 

The Musselman family may be classed as Ppnnsyl- 
Tania German, its representatives having for genera- 
tions resided in the State. The parents of Henry 
were Henry and Magdalena Musselman. Their son, 
Henry, was born in Lancaster township, where his 
father was a successful farmer, on the 4tli of October, 
1798, his early life having been spent within the 
bounds of the county at Silver Spring. On reaching 
manhood he removed to Mount Joy, and engaged in 
uieM.'antiie pursuits, and later embarked in the for- 
warding business in connection with John Patterson. 
After a residence of several years at Mount Joy he 
removed to Marietta; and during the year 1848, with 
Dr. Shoenberger, of Pittsburgii, erected an extensive 

furnace. On the death of the latter Henry Watts 
became a partner in the enterprise. In 1849 another 
furnace was built, and ultimately a third under the 
auspk;ea of Henry Musselman & Sons, the property 
having been disposed of on the death of the members 
of the lafter firm. Henry Musselman was first mar- 
ried to a Miss Rohrer, to whom were born three sons, 
— John, David, and Christian. By a second marriage, 
on the 23d of December, 1830, to Miss Anna B., 
daughter of Abram and Barbara Hackman, of Mount 
j Joy, there were five children, — Abram H., whose 
! birth occurred Nov. 30, 1831, in Mount Joy, and his 
death Feb. 14, 1877 ; Samuel, who was born Sept. 5, 
1835, and died Nov. 14, 1874; Henry S., born Aug. 
10, 1843, who died April 6, 1870, in Baden, Germany, 
where he had gone to perfect himself in the study of 
medicine; Anna M., born Juue 12, 1839, and one 
who died in early life. Abram H. Musselman was 
one of the most active meu in the iron business, and 
universally esteemed as a genjal, kind-hearted, and 
enterprising gentleman. He aided largely in the 
improvement of the village, which he made his home, 
and was especially zealous for the welfare of the 
workmen, in his employ, to whom his death was a 
sad calamity. 

Samuel Musseluiau was a man of no less energy 
and public spirit, and contributed largely by his 
j ability to the success of the industry in which he was 
engaged. In his intercourse with his fellows he was 
courteous, kind, and generous, and justly won for 
himself the appellation, " the noblest work of God," 
an honest man. 

The subject of this sketch was in politics formerly 
an Old-Line Whig, and subsequently a Republican, 
though rarely interesting himself beyond the casting 
of his ballot in the political issues of the day. He 
was a liberal contributor to all worthy religious ob- 
jects, though not connected with any denomination. 
Mr. Musselnian's_death occurred Dec. 6, 1875, in his 
seventy-eighth year. This portrait and biographical 
sketch are inserted by his wife as a tribute of affec- 
tionate regard. 


David Cook was born in 1750, upon the farm upon 
which he laid out the town of New Haven, and died 
at Hagerstown, Md., June 12, 1824. His grandfather, 
James Cook, was one of the pioneer settlers in Done- 
gal township, who died in 1741, leaving a widow, 
Elizabeth, and the following children : Thomas, David 
(father of the subject of this sketch), James, Edward, 
Joseph, John, Catherine, Jean, and Margaret. 

David, the second son of James, and the father of 
the subject of this sketch, owned and resided upon 
the farm at Marietta. He died in 1787, and left a 
wife, Martha, and the following-named children: 
John (who married Elizabeth Tettle, Sept. 5, 1780), 
David, Samuel, Grace R., Pedan, and James. 

David, married Mary (1766-1820), daughter of 


Colin McFarquahr, the minisster of the Presbyterian 
Church at Donegal. He was a justice of the peace 
for many years. He was an amiable and most worthy 

James Mehaffy was one of the pioneer settlers, 
and came to Anderson's Ferry about the year 1804. 
When David Cook laid out New Haven he purchased ! 
a lot, erected a house, and opened a store. He moved ! 
to Waterford in 1807, where he also was assessed as a 
store-keeper, and he also commenced the purchase of 
lumber until he accumulated a large stock. During 
his time he was the most successful of all the business 
men in the place. He was the only prominent per- 
son in the town who was not ruined by the financial 
crash which followed the war of 1812. Although his 
lo.sses were heavy, he gradually accumulated a large 
estate. He built and resided in the dwelling now 
owned by 8imou S. Nagle. 


Henry Cassel was born near the junction of Back 
Kun and Big Chikis Creek, in Rapho township, at 
the base of the northeastern slope of Sporting Hill, 
on the 12th of March, 1776. His grandfather, Abra- 
ham Cassel, settled at this place in the year 1750, 
where he built a grist-mill. His son, Abraham, was 
born there, and on the 18th day of April, 1775, he 
married Esther Weiss. They had the following chil- 
dren : Henry, born March 12, 1776, the subject of 
this sketch; Maria, born Dec. 13, 177'J ; and Abra- 
ham, born Dec. 14, 1782. 

Henry Cassel, being the oldest son, got the home- 
stead and mill, where he carried on an extensive busi- 
ness for several years. Having married Catharine, 
daughter of John Neft", Esq., of Hempfield, who ob- 
tained by inheritance the farm at the eastern limits 
of Marietta, removed to that place several years be- 
fore either Waterford or New Haven were laid out. 
He was the first person along the river that did a 
commission business. He received immense quanti- 
ties of flour, grain, whiskey, lumber, and stone-coal, 
which he shipped to Port Deposit in arks; t|hence to 
Baltimore, which he sold for other parties, charging 
a commission of five per cent. 

William Childs was a hatter by trade. His incli- 
nation led him to follow other pursuits more cun- 
gi'iiliil to his taste, for which his abilities seemed bet- 
ter adapted. He was engaged for some years in the 
lumber and coal business. He was cashier of the 
Marietta Bank for two or three years, and after its 
failure he was appointed a justice of the peace, an 
ollice he held for many years. He was one of the 

best scriveners in the county, and it was safe to I 
cept his opinion upon any law question submitted to ' 
him. His dwelling stood where the Marietta BHnk 
is, OH Market Street. He died about forty years ago, 
aged eighty years, leaving a family of several chil' 

Rev. Abraham H.' Long was born in East Don«^ 
gal township, Lancaster Co., April 5, 1823. Eil 
jjarents were Mennonites. His grandfather, Hertnaa 
Long, was one of the early settlers of Lancaster 
County. Rev. A. H. Long is a minister in th* 
denomination known as " The Church of God." H^ 
entered the ministry in 1853, and has been pastor of 
the Churches of God in Maytown, Bainbridge, Elif- 
abetlitown. Mount Joy, Rohrerstown, and Landi»- 
ville. He has also served a number of churches io 
Cumberland and other counties, and preached two 
years in Wooster, Ohio. He has also published t 
volume of sermons. The book is entitled " Popuiir 
Semons." He has preached nearly five thousand 


Dr. Samuel Houston came to the place about tht ; 
close of the war of 1812, and commenced the prac- 
tice of medicine. He was an ardent supporter of tho 
war, and opposed the Federal party witli great bitter- 
ness. He was a candidate for the State Senate, bat 
was defeated. A violent personal warfare was made 
upon him in the Federal newspapers. He engaged 
in the river business, and purchased great quantitiei 
of stone-coal, provisions, grain, flour, and whiskey, 
which he stored upon the river-bank and in large 
warehouses. He shipped these articles in arks whicli 
ran down the river to Port Deposit, thence transferred 
to schooners and taken to Baltimore. 

He opposed Jiiekson's election in 1824 and supported 
Adams', and when the Aiiti-Masonic party came 
into existence he became one of its leading meni-^ 
bers. That party nominated him for the State Senate 
when York was attached to Lancaster in the seua- 
torial district, and was defeated by Mr. Caldwell, the 
Democratic candidate. He was an intimate and warm 
friend of Thaddeus Stevens, and, like him, hated 
human slavery, and was a sincere friend of the op- 
pressed. He employed colored men whenever he 
could, and often he not only gave fugitive slaves em- 
ployment, but when danger threatened them with a 
return to bondage, he either concealed them in the 
neighborhood or sent them on the " Underground 
Railroad" to a place of safety. He was able and 
ready at all times to discuss with an opponent the 
most radical views, and was not only gifted with 
moral courage but physical also. He built and re-. 
sided in the large two-story brick dwelling at the 
northwest corner of Market Square. But one daugh- 
ter and son survive him. 



Capt. Elijah Russell was in the war of 1812, and 
came to Marietta about the year 1812 and embarked 
in the mercantile business and prospered for some 
years, but finally lost heavily. He married a daughter 
of Anthony Haines, who owned the Anderson farm. 
While on his way to York borough, via Vinegar's 
■ Ferry, he was thrown from his horse, and died in a 
few days from the injuries he then received. He left 
no cliildren surviving him. 

and best-read citizens in the place, and had also' a 
fondness for a niilitdry life, and commanded the 
Donegal Rangers for several years. He was an agree- 
able and fine conversationalist, and his society was 
much sought after by those who could appreciate hia 
good qualities. He had many friends, who were 
warmly attached to him. When a member of the 
Legislature he was the first person to introduce the 
name of Andrew Jackson into the politics of the 
State in connection with the Presidency. He died 
about forty-five years ago, and was buried with the 


David Rinehart came from Chester County about 
the year 1812 and was apprenticed to learn the car- 
penter trade, and attained his majority about the year 
1813. In the following year he enlisted in Capt. 
Jaciib Grosh's company and marched to Marcus 
Hook. He engaged in the lumber business at Mari- 
etta and also at Port Deposit. His residence was 
situated on Front Street, near Elbow Lane, and ad- 
Joining the " Compass and Square," a tavern kept by 
Jauied Stackhouse, the old river pilot, who had in his 
e]ii[iloyment a young man named Jacob Tome, who 
attended bar and was always ready and willing to do 
any kind of work about tlie hotel in cases of emer- 
gency. Mr. Rinehart noticed his industry -and dis-' 
cerned qualities of mind which fitted him for a 
higher sphere in the business walks of life. He took 
him by the hand and ottered him the management 
of his business at Port Deposit, Md., which he ac- 
cepted. His success there was phenomenal, and it 
was but a little while until Mr. Rinehart gave him 
an interest in the business; and from that small be- 
ginning, without any means of his own, he has be- 
come a millionaire and one of the most ])rominent 
men in Maryland., 

Mr. Rinehart was president of the Columbia 
Bank and Bridge Company for many years, and oc- 
cupied that honorable position to a period near the 
close of his earthly career, when he relinquished all 
business on account of poor health. He married a 
daughter of Anthony Haines, by whom he luid one 
sou, Edwin, who married a daughter of John Kline. 


JOHN nuss. 

Maj. John Huss was a member of Assembly for the 
years 1823 and 1824. He came from Lancaster in 
1813 and started the Pilot. AVhen the British burned 
the capitol at Washington and were threateuing 
Philadelphia, he assisted Capt. Grosh to raise a com- 
piiny of volunteers, and as first lieutenant marched 
with the company to Marcus Hook. He accepted a 
position in the bank as clerk in 1817, and after the 
failure of the bank he resumed the publication of the 
lllol, but changed its name to the Pioneer. Mr. Huss 
never married. He was one of the most intelligent 

Eml. D. Roath was born in tlie city of Lancaster, 
Pa., Oct. 4, 1S2U. When he was about four years of 
I age his father died, leaving a widow and four sons, 
I who moved soon after to the village of Maytown, in 
wdiat is now East Donegal towpship. After having 
qualified himself, young Eml. taught school horn 
1846 to 18.54, and became one of the original members 
of the Lancaster County Teachers' Institute, the first 
meeting being held in Lancaster in January, 1853. 
He subsequently settled in the borough of Marietta, 
and in 1857 w\as elected to represent his district in 
the State Legislature. 

At the outbreak of the slaveholders' rebellion in 
1861 he received orders from Governor Curtin to 
raise a company for service in the Union army, which 
was soon accomplished, when he was assigned to Col. 
Zeigler's regiment, and became a part of the One 
Hundred and Seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers, 
marching to the front with ninety-eight men, and 
served with distinction nearly four years. He par- 
ticipated in the battles of Cedar Mountain, Rappa- 
hannock Station, Thoroughfare Gap, Bull Run (sec- 
ond), Chantilly, where he was in command of the 
regiment; Sout44 Mountain, where for cool bravery 
he distinguished himself and command; Antietam, 
where he was slightly wounded ; Frederick.sburg, 
Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Cemetery Hill; com- 
manded riffht wing at crossing of Rappahannock, 
Aug. 1, 1863; commanded advance at Mine Run; 
Spottsylvania Court-House, North Anna, Bethesda, 
Richmond Road, Tolopotomy, Shady Grove Cliurch, 
White-Oak Swamp, wdiere he was complimented by 
commanding general; Norfolk and Petersburg Rail- 
road ; Weldon Railroad, where he was taken prisoner, 
Aug. 19, 1864, and was kept in the prison-pens of 
Richmond, Salisbury, and Danville for six months, 
when he was exchanged and sent to Annapolis, Md., 
where he was discharged by order of the War Depart- 
ment March 5, 1865. While in the army he was hre- 
vetted a major, lieutenant-colonel, and colonel for 
meritorious services. Returning to his home in Mari- 
etta, he w^as in 1866 elected by the Republicans t(t the 
State Legislature, and subsequently a justice of the 
peace, which position he still holds. 


George H. Ettla, of Marietta, son of Conrad and 
Anna B. Ettla, was born at Huinnielatown, Dauphin 
Co., Pa., Aug. 15, 1832. He served from 1842 to 
1850 as deputy collector in the Union Canal col- 
lector's ofBce at IMiddletuwn, Pa. Came to Marietta 
in 1854; has resided there ever since, during which 
time he served four sessions in the Legislature, 1875- 
78. During tlie late war was captain of Company 
B, Two Hundred and Fifteenth Regiment. Has been 
engaged, while in Marietta, in the lumber trade, fire 
and life insurance business; at present is postmaster 
and conducts a general fire insurance agency. His 
parents died when he was but two years old. 



Location, Railroad, Indians, Water, etc.— The 

borough of Adamstown is situated in the northern 
part of Lancaster County, adjoining Berks County 
line, ten miles from Reading and twenty-one miles 
from Lancaster, on the old stage route, laid out in 
1772, formerly traveled by Eastern members of Con- 
gress to a:id from Washington, D. C. 

Its nearest railroad stations are Denver (Union), 
Reinholt's, and Vinemount, from three to five miles 
distant on the Reading and Columbia Railroad. The 
mails are served twice daily, by stage arriving from 
Denver in the morning at seveii o'clock, and in the 
evening at five o'clock from Reading, thus enabling 
the citizens to have mail communication with Lan- 
caster, Reading, Harrisburg, Philadelphia, and New 

From old ruins and numerous relics found, in the 
shape of stone axes, arrow-heads, and ornamental 
work, it seems to indicate that an Indian village once 
covered the site of the present town or close by. 

The town has always been noted for its abundance 
of pure sandstone water, which in many places gushes 
out from the mountain slope on the north side of the 
town, as also for its general healthfulness, being pro- 
tected from the cold northwest winds, and unujiually 
free, with rare exceptions, from bronchial or consuinp- 
tive complaints. 

The convenience of and purity of the water makes 
this place superior to many others for manufacturing 
purposes. The boilers are kept from sediment, re- 
quiring less labor in cleansing, and last much longer. 

Pioneer Settlers.— The first settlement dates back 
jirior to the middle of the last century, and in 17()1 
William Addams, the elder, laid out the town on a 
general plan, consisting of twenty-eight lots of one 
acre each, and twenty-nine lots of half an acre each. 

By Hu 

and then other lots adjacent, with a street of 1 
perches wide running nearly east and west, and t 
number of alleys to be fifteen feet wide. This t«rrl- 
tory«occupies ground along the present Main Street, 
so as to take in the lots of the present owners, to wit: 
on the n'orth side from Andrew Gottshalk's to Samuel 
Miller's, and on the south side from Cyrus Miller's to 
Abram Raudenbush, Sr., inclusive. 

After Mr. Addams had laid out the town and madt 
a general plot or draft thereof he called it " Adan* 
hurry," and entered into a written agreement on the \ 
4th day of July, 1761, with the following-named pe^ i 
sons as purchasers and occupiers of the several lot! 
therein designated: Frederick Fernsler, Jacob Baldt^ 
Balthazer Heining, Christopher Smith, Niclioltl 
Fernsler, Nicholas Seltzinger, Abraham Shonauer, 
Matthias Abber, Matthias Farntzler, Philip Brendel, 
John Schwartz, Abraham Kern, John Moore, Peter • 
Freisser, Jacob Freisser, Nicholas Yost, Thomu 
Kern, George Feiser, Philip Heil, Franz HRhii, • 
Isaac and Philip Moyer, Christian Richard, John ; 
George Shoup, John Stall, Conrad Carroll, Jacob 
Betz, Peter Negeley, Abraham Kern, Jr., Lorentl 1 
Stephan, Cath. Zwalley, Ludwig Herring, Henry , 
Brendel, Ludwig Twinks, Martin Eicholts, Abraham i 
Addams, Christian Hailing, Philip Breidensteio, • 
Isaac Addams, William Addams, Jr., with whomh«< 
stipulated to lay out the town aforesaid into sixty ': 
lots, with streets and alleys, subject to a yearly 
ground-rent of sixteen shillings per acre, Pennsylvt- |' 
nia currency. 

Lease of Lots in Adamsburry.— Subsequently, 1 
in order to carry out the provisions and true intent 
of the original agreement, and to provide each occa- 
pier with proper titles, the said William Addams and 
Ann, his wife, by indenture, did grant and confirm ! 
unto the said purchasers of lots, their heirs and u- , 
signs forever, the said certain lotof ground as num- 
bered and desntibed, "situate in (then) Cocalico ' 
township, in the county of Lancaster aforesaid, in 
the town called ' Adamsburry,' with a clause or pro- 
viso, called 'Memorandum,' that it is covenanted 
and agreed upon, by and between the two partiei 
hereof tiiat the said (purchaser's name), his heirt 
and assigns, shall, at his or their own proper cost and 
charges, make, erect, build, and finish on the said 
|iremises, within the term of two years from the date 
hereof, a good, substantial dwelling-house, twenty 
by sixteen feet at least, with a good chimney of stone 
or brick, cemented with lime and sand; and, further, 

that the said ( }, his heirs and assigns, shall pay 

therefor and thereout unto the said William Addamt, 
his heirs and assigns, at the town of Adamsburry, on 
the twenty-sixth day of June yearly, forever here- 
after, the rent of sixteen shillings (if the lot contained 
one acre, and eight shillings when it contained but 
lialf an acre), lawful money of Pennsylvania: Pro- 
vided always, nevertheless, that if the said yearly 
rent, or any part thereof, shall happen to be behind 



and unpaid by the space of sixty days next after any 
of the days of payment on which the same ought to 
be paid as aforesaid, that then it sliall and may be 
lawful to and for the said Addams, his heirs and as- 
signs, or any of them, into tlie said premises with the 
appurtenances to enter and distrain for tliesaid yearly 
rent, and the distress and distresses then and there 
80 found to lead, drive, and carry away and impound, 
and impounded to detain until the said yearly rent be 
fully paid and satisfied. 

" Provided, further, that if no distress can be found 
upon said premises, that then it shall and may be 
lawful to and for the said William Addams, his heirs 
and assigns, into all and singular the hereby granted 
premises with the appurtenances, or into any part 
thereof, in the name of the whole, wholly to re-enter, 
and the same to have again, repossess, and enjoy, as 
if tliese presents had never been executed." 

The Addams Family.— William Addams, the 
founder of Adamstown, died in November, 1772, 
leaving a widow, Anna, and five sons, named Abra- 
ham, Samuel, Richard, William, and Isaac, and a 
daughter married to John Witman. He also left con- 
eiderable property in and about the vicinity of Adams- 
town, consisting of a mill and farming lands, as well 
as the aforesaid town lots. As early as the 1st of 
August, A.D. 1739, a patent was issued by the com- 
monwealth of Pennsylvania to William Bird, an iron- 
master, for three hundred and fifty-six acres of land, 
including what was then known as " Addams' Mill," 
then as now supposed to contain iron ore, and on 
March 26, 1747, the said William Rird and Bridget, 
liis wife, sold the same to Christopher Witman. The 
latter and Barbara, his wife, on the 27th day of 
April, 1749, sold two liundred and forty-six acres 
thereof unto the said William Addams, who lived out 
of the town on a portion thereof, and gave lots to his 
four sons, — Abraham, Samuel, Riciiard,and William. 
To Isaac, the youngest, he gave lota Nos. 31, 32, and 
61. The first-named three sons afterwards transferred 
their riglits and title to said lots unto their brother 
William for three hundred and thirty pounds. Isaac 
also got the mansion farm and one hundred and 
thirty-seven acres adjoining the village of Adams- 

William Addams, the founder, was of English, and 
his wife, Anna, of German descent. Their descend- 
ants are very numerously found in the counties of 
Lancaster, Berks, Lebanon, Schuylkill, Dauphin, 
Cumberland, Perry, and other counties in Pennsyl- 
vania, as well as in the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illi- 
nois, Iowa, Missouri, and Oregon. 

William Addams, one of the five sons, died in 1774, 
leaving a <vidow named Barbara, and a son also named 
William, who was a minor, to whom he bequeathed 
the whole of his estate, should he arrive at the age of 
twenty-one years; but in ca,?e of his death before 
arriving at said age, one-half of his estate should go 
to his said wi<iow, Barbara, and the remainder to his 

four brothers, — Abraham, Samuel, Richard, and Isaac. 
William, the younger, died in his minority, and Isaac 
afterwards married Barbara, the widow of his late 
brothe^r William. 

The said Abraham, Samuel, Isaac, and Barbara, on 
the 19th day of April, a.d. 1810, conveyed all their 
right, title, and interest in the same unto the said 
Richard Addams, who died in 1816, leaving a widow 
named Susannah and eight children, viz.: INIary, 
intermarried with Rudolph Heberling; Anna, inter- 
married with Jacob Flickinger; Margaretta, inter- 
married with Henry Flickinger ; Susanna, intermar- 
ried with John Fisher; Magdalena, intermarried with 
John Bechtel; William, who inherited the farm; 
Catherine, single woman ; Elizabeth, intermarried 
with Peter Musser. To these named seven daughters 
was bequeathed all the interests in and to the original 

To William Addams descended the Addams farm 
(formerly owned by his uncle, Isaac), and by him 
owned and occupied until 1852, when he died and 
left it to his two sons, the Rev. Jacob Addams, 
deceased, and his brother, Isaac. The latter is 
still living near Leesport, Berks Co., Pa. The two 
brothers partitioned the farm, the latter taking the 
old mansion and part of the land, the former the 
balance of farm, added to the dwelling he had for- 
merly built for himself as a residence close by. 

But few of the descendants of Richard Addams 
are now living in the borough, the only ones being 
Mr. John JIusser, retired merchant, who is a grand- 
son, his sister, Susannah Musser, Jonathan Flick- 
inger and John Fisher, great-grandsons, and Maggie 
Billingfelt (wife of E. Billingfelt), a great-grand- 

Isaac Addams, who was the youngest son of the 
founder of Adamstown, and brother of Richard 
Addams, left six sons, viz. : William, who represented 
Berks County in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Con- 
gresses ; John, \Hio commanded a brigade of the 
Pennsylvania militia during the war of 1812; Isaac, 
Samuel, Peter, and Abraham. The latter's daughter, 
Ann Eliza Addams, married Jacob Beaver, whose son. 
Gen. James Addams- Beaver, the gallant one-legged 
Union soldier, was the Republican candidate for 
Governor during the election campaign of 1882. A 
combiiuition of circumstances brought three candi- 
dates into the field (two Republicans) for the same 
oHice, thus rendering the defeat of Gen. Beaver in- 

Present Owners of Ground-Rents.— Tlie several 
lots of ground are still sold and held subject to said 
yearly ground-rent, which is annually collected and 
paid to the proprietors, successors, or present owners. 
By will and divers conveyances the proprietary right 
became vested in Richard Addams, one of the five 
sons of the founder, and after his decease, which oc- 
curred in 1816, his proprietary right was sold at pub- 
lic sale by liis executors, William .Vddamsand Henry 



Flickinger, and bought by Rudolph Heberling, a 
son-in-law, and the interest therein divided among 
heirs or daughters of said deceased in equal shares. 
The said shares were owned in 1883 by the following 
parties: The lieirs of Magdalena Bechtel, deceased, 
who was a daughter of the said Richard Addams, 
one share; the heirs of Anna Flickinger, deceased, ' 
also a daughter, one share ; Susan Musser, a grand- | 
daughter, three shares ; estate of Solomon Regar, j 
deceased, purchaser of Mr. Heberling's interest, one 
share; and Frederick T. Zeigler, purchaser of the 
share formerly owned by Henry Flickinger, Sr., de- | 
ceased, one share. j 

When incorporated its population numbered three j 
hundred, and in 1880, according to the last census, 
eight hundred and one. [ 

The territory occupied contains about three hun- 
dred acres, and was taken mainly from the township 
of East Cocalico, the balance from Brecknock town- j 
ship, Lancaster Co. 

Incorporation of the Boroug^h.— The borough of 
Adamstown was incorporated by a special act of the 
Legislature April 2, 1850, and is embraced in the fol- 
lowing survey : Beginning at Adams' Spring, in Berks 
County, and running N. 591° W. 95.5 perches to 
Ruth's Spring; thence S. 55J° W. 192 perches to 
Good's Spring; thence S. 51?° W. 157 perches to 
corner of Heft and Regar's land ; thence S. 54° E. 
113 perches to a willow-tree standing on the bank of 
Adamstown Branch of Muddy Run; thence N. 601° 
E. 320 perches to Storie and Gehman's line; thence 
N. 4]° W. 65.2 perches to place of beginning in 
Berks County. 

The act of the Legislature erecting the borough 
authorized the election of the following borough 
officers, viz. : One chief burgess, three councilmen, 
three school directors, one justice of the peace, one 
constable, one street commissioner, one assessor, two 
assistant assessors, one auditor, and a board of elec- 
tion officers. Having secured all the powers and 
privileges of a borough, the people soon became in- 
different about borough matters, the autiiorities 
having but limited powers, until the spring of 1875, 
when a new rec/ime was inaugurated ; application 
was made to the proper authorities, when the privi- 
leges allowed by the act of the Legislature of 1851, 
and a supplement in 1871, was e.xtended io! Adams- 
town borough, and si.x councilmen and si.x school 
directors and two justices of the peace, instead of 
three, were to be elected. ■ 

Up to that time, 1875, the borough records give no 
satisfactory list of officers. Since then they have 
been as follows: 

B(-RO?fl«.-il875-7f!, Willlani A. Neibel; 1877-78 and 1881, Henry U. 
SI.,ik ; 1879, llejirj Kilcljlhorne ; 1880, Jucob Fitcblliorue; 1882-83, 
GiiurKf Tiullnian. 

Tow.N Cuvscir..— 1875, .Jacob Fitchthorne, Benjamin Steffy, Isaac Sow- 
ers, Heniy Haller, Sr (only four «ounciliiieu Ihiayeiir); 1870, Jacob 
Filcl.lhuro.s Ilunrj H. Miller, Benjamin Sletfy, EJwaril Kee^r. 
George Bullman; 1877, Henry Fitchthorne, William M. Krick, Wil- 

liam M. Hyman, Edward Regar, David Landls ; 1878, David Lanrtis, 
Joshua Spaectz. William M. Hyman, Edward Smith, Henry Fitch 
thorne; 1879, Edward Regar, Samuel Regar, Benjamin Sti-ffy 
drew jr Goltshall, Edward Smith ; 1880, Andrew 51. Goltshall 
liam M. Hyman, William R. Stork, William R. Redcay, Jr., Natlmn 

• F. Hartmau; 1S81, Michael Smith, Sr., William F. Regar, Jr, B M. 
Artz, Cynis Miller, Benjamiu Steffy; 1882, Henry Bicber, Sanmol 
IS Sloat, Juhn Zerbe, Angmlus Regar, Richard Trostle, llarrisua 
Biriidel; InSI, Henry Seigfieid, Henry Bucher, David Lorah, Au- 
gustus Regar, Jubn Zerbe, Richard Trostle. 

Town Ci.erk.— 1S75-81, W. W. Fetter; 1882, Franklin Woods; 1883,8. 
J. ColJern. 

In 1883 the assessor for the borough was AVilliani 
Knauer; assistant assessors were Levi C. Schnader 
and William Bicher; Constable, Cyrus Miller; Au- 
ditor, R. M. Hyman ; Treasurer, Levi C. Schnader. 

Educational— On the 14th day of February, 1814, 
John Frymeyer and his wife, Catharine, by their in- 
dentnre, did grant and confirm unto Henry Flicker- 
ing and William Addams, and theirsuccessors forever, 
a tract of land situate in Adamstown, " in trust to 
and for the use and behoof of the inhabitants of 
Adamstown and its vicinity, and their successors, foi 
a site or place for erecting churches and houses of 
religious worship, school-houses and almshouses, and 
burying-grounds. etc., and the said trustees shall, as 
soon as conveniently may be, at the cost and expense 
of the neighbors and those who wish to contribute 
thereto, erect and build, or cause to be erected and 
built on the said premises, a house or houses suitable 
and convenient for keeping or teaching a school for 
the education of childre?n and grown persons of all de^ 
nominations whatever that may be desirous of being 
taught there, for which purpose they shall, with the 
approbation of the neighbors and contributors, and 
at the expense of those who send children to be 
taught or choose to be taught themselves, find and 
provide a good teacher, if such can conveniently be 
had, to superintend the school, and shall prevent any 
other use or occupancy to be made of the lot and 
premises tlnin what is necessary for the school and 
teachers for tlTfe time being; and in case of the death 
or incapacity of the said trustees to act, the neigh- 
bors and contributors shall choose their succes.snrs 
and fill the vacancies that may arise." 

In order to avail themselves of the privileges 
granted in the aforesaid trust, the citizens of Adams- 
town and vicinity for miles around, by their assistance 
and contributions, soon thereafter erected a modest 
one-story stone scliool-iiouse, the dimension.s being 
about twenty-five by twenty-five feet, employed a 
teacher, who was so well patronized that at times the 
capacity of the building was almost too small to hold 
all the pupils, during the winter months upwards 
of seventy being regularly in attendance with but 
one teacher. The lot upon wliicli the school-hnnse 
was built being well covered with heavy timhcr, and 
coal as fuel not then in use, the larger and older boys 
of the scholars had to fell trees, cut and split wood 
between hours, which was used as fuel in a large ten- 
plated stove of the " George Ege pattern." 


Of tlie earliest teachers in the school were Messrs. 
Stilhvell, Yerkes, Spayd, McDowell, Lightner, Proud- 
foot, Zimmerman, Dewees, McDoiiough, and otliers. 

Ill the year 1855 a new two-story stone school- 
house, thirty by thirty-six feet, was built near the 
site of the old one, and near the upper end of what is 
now Broad Street, and two schools established therein. 
This house gave place in 1878 to a two-story brick 
structure, which was destroyed by fire early in the 
morning of Dec. 13, 1881. This building stood a few 
rods east of its predecessors, and upon the same foun- 
dation was erected in 1882 the present beautiful two- 
story school building, containing four well-arranged 
and well-ventilated school-rooms, three of which are 
occupied by the schools of the borough, with Frank- 
lin Wood as jirincipal, a.ssisted by H. W. Harrah and 
Miss Ida V. Scheats. 

The first teachers of the borough schools under the 
free-school system wore Christian Lichty, E. Billing- 
felt, and .\braham Lutz. 

The school directors of the borough for 1852 were 
Henry Miller, Henry Staufer, and Benjamin K. 
Shirk. Between that time and 1857 the name of 
Rev. Benjamin Adams appears as one of the school 

The borough record furnish the following school 
directors for the borough : 


1. II II R. Shirk, Henry Fichthorli. 

illir, V Sl.inrer, Henry Ficlilhoru. 

1 Lutz, Houry Shuirfr. Henry Ficlithorn. 

I Liilz, Lu.Uvi- T Custer, Hunry Ficlithorn. 

I I.iilz. I.uilwic T. Custor, Dr. \V. llnrvey Hartzell, 

, E.iw.ird H.»n, Henry G. 

ulz, Ludwig T. Ouster, George Uollnian, Ricliani 

1 It CoUlren, Henry G. M..I111. 

F, H. Col.lri 

L. T 

iLCiisioneil by tlie resignation of George Bollnia 
:il, when George Bollnian was elected for one ye 

to fill 1 

1880.-W. W. Fetter, E. H. Coldren, H. n. Redcny, Henry Seigfried, | 
Joshua Spatz. L. C. Schnn.ler. Mr. Seigfried resigned, when Wil- j 

1881.-George Bollnmn, E. U. Coldren, Henry Regar, W. W. Feller, | 
Joshua Spatz, and Henry A. Shirk for one year. 

1682.-G. Bollnian, E. H. Coldren, Henry Regar, W. W. Fetter, Joshua 
Spalz, Nathan F. Hartniau. Mr. Spatz resigned, and H. A. Shirk 
was elected by the board to (ill vacancy. BIr Itegar resigned, when 
the board elected Cyrus Miller for one year. Mr. Hartniiin removed 
from Uio district, when the board elected William R. Slote to till 

Ig83.— 0. li.llinan, E. II, Colilren, 11. K. lU-dciiy, Samuel K. Staufer, 

Church of the Evangelical Association.— In the 

earlier days of Ailainstown religicms worship was 
bold in the pioneer school-house by itinerant preach- 
ers and others, and about the year 1840 the Evangrli- 
cal Association sent their ministers to this place, w ho 
frequently held divine service in the school-liou-e, 

and soon made such a favorable impression upon 
niitny of the inhabitants that many converts were 
gtiined for their form of service and the doctrines 
taujjlit by them. Much has been done in the few in- 
tervening years to establish true religion in the hearts 
of many^old and young citizens of this town. 

This church w.os organized in 1845, and a stone 
house of worship erected the same year on a plot of 
ground on Broad Street, north of Main. Here the 
congregation continued to worship till 1883, when, on 
May 31st of that year, the old frame building was 
taken down and the corner-stone removed. 

In 1883 the church and congregation built their 
present substantial brick edifice, forty-one by eighty 
feet, on Main Street, at a cost of a little over seven thou- 
sand dollars. The corner-stone was laid July 7, 1883, 

by Rev. ■ Brown, of Reading, assisted by the pastor. 

The building committee for the new house of worsliip 
was H. (>. Mohn, president; D. R. Redcay, secretary ; 
II. R. Stork, assistant secretary ; A. C. Snader, treas- 
urer; and Levi Snader, Joshua Spatz, and A. R. 
Bollman. The following-named persons comprised 
the board of trustees in 1883: Joshua Spatz, presi- 
dent ; H. R. Sloat, secretary ; Allen C. Snader, treas- 
urer; and Henry G. Mohn and Levi Snader. 

The missionary society of the church was organ- 
ized in 1882, with the following-named otficers : A. R. 
Bollman, president; H. K. Bucher, vice-president; 
S. J. Coldren, secretary ; and Rev. A. Dilaba, past(jr 
of the church. 

The Sunday-school dates with that of the church, 
and is officered as follows: W. W. Fetter, superin- 
tendent ; Mrs. Agnes Bollman, assistant superintend- 
ent; S. J. Coldren, secretary; A. R. Bollman, a.ssist- 
ant secretary ; Henry G. Jlohn, treasurer ; S. R. Sloat, 
librarian ; David R. Redcay, assistant librarian ; Sally 
Bollman, organist; Dora Fitchthorn, assistant or- 

The officers of the Sunday-school Missionary So- 
ciety for 1883 were W. \V. Fetter, president; S. J. 
Coldren, secretary; H. G. Mohn, treasurer. 

Burial-Places. — In 1769 a plot of ground in what 
was in after-years tiie school land was inclosed to 
be used as a burial-ground, in which many of the 
older citizens of this town and vicinity lie buried, in- 
cluding soldiers of the Revolutionary war. After the 
erection of the Evangelical Church on Broad Street, 
and a burial-place attached thereto, and the laying 
out of a new cemetery by Hon. Esaias Billingfelt, ad- 
joining the Evangelical burying-ground, no burials 
have talcen place in the old school -house grounds. 

Adamstown Council, No. 60, 0. TJ. A. M., was 
instituted Nov. 4, ISiJ.j, with tlie following-named 
chitrter .members: Henry Echtnacht, Samuel Styor, 
E. H. Coldren, Henry B. Handel, Bunj.tmin SlelTy, 
Henry R. Redcay, Joseph White, .-V. S. Raudenbush, 
William Echlnacht, Henry Stauffer, Edward Smith, 
Ephraim Haller, Solomon Good, Henry Seigfried, 
Lewis Lutz, Samuel Prutzman, Jacob Fichthorn, 



Abrain Lutz, Jacob Beam, Barney Lutz, John Fitch- 
thorn, Jdlin Artz, Jonatlian Swartz, John Schnader, 
Jacob Kochel, and Samuel Stork. 

The first Officers of the council were as follows : 
Councilor, A. S. Raudenbush ; V. C, John Fich- 
thorn ; Rec. Sec, Henry B. Hendel ; Asst. Rec. Sec, 
Edward Coldren ; Fin. Sec, Abraham Lutz; Treas., 
Henry Echtenach ; L, Jacob Ficlithorn ; Ex., Samuel 
Styer; I. P., Benjamin Steffy ; O. P., Joseph White; j 
Jr. ExC, John Artz. 1 

The following-named members were the committee 
appointed to draft constitution and by-laws, which i 
were adopted Jan. 25, 1866: Abraham Lutz, Henry | 
B. Hendel, Jacob H. Fichthorn, Samuel Styer, and ! 
A. S. Raudenbush, committee. 

The regular meetings of the council are lield on 1 
Thursday evening of each week in its hall, over the | 
store of Feeter & Prutzman. Present membership, j 
eighteen. The present officers {August, 1883) are as j 
follows: C, Samuel R. Sloat ; V. C, Henry K. j 
Bucher; R. S., B. M. Artz; F. S., William K. | 
Maurer; Treas., Henry Fichthorn; L, Jacob Fich- I 
thorn; I. P., Benjamin Steffy; O. P., Richard Tros- 
tle ; Trustees, Henry Bncher, Benjamin Steffy, and j 
Lewis Lutz. ] 

Post-Office. — Just who the pioneer postmaster was i 
we are unalile to aay, but probably one of tlie Addams 
fam.ily. However, in 1835, Henry Flickinger Wiis 
the postmaster, and kept the office in his store. For 
several years prior to 1880 the office was kept in the 
hotel now kept by M. H. Clark. Nov. 29, 1880, Abra- 
ham Lutz was appointed postmaster at Adamstown, 
and at present keeps the office over the store of Snader 
& Landis. 

AcRAiiAsr Lutz was born in the village of Reams- 
town, Lancaster Co., Pa., Aug. 3, 1831), and during 
his minority he learned the trade of a cabinet-maker 
in Phila.leiphia, Pa., and Oct. 9, 1855, he married 
Jliss Fanny Rohrer, of Adamstown borough. Pa., 
who died in Adamstown, Sept. 27, 1880. From 1852 
to 1864 he taught school in Adamstown, and the hit- 
ter year was appointed an assistant revenue assessor 
for Lancaster County, in which capacity he served 
over six years. In 1865 he was elected one of the 
school directors of Adamstown, and served as such 
for fifteen years. In 1875 he was elected a justice of 
the peace, and served one term, five years, after which j 
he was appointed a notary public, which position he 
resigned to accept the office of postmaster of Adams- 
town in 1880, which he still holds. 

Taverns— Pioneer and Later.— Of old'' taverns 
there were three in number, kept many, many years 
ago. " Redcay's," in early times, was known as Jacob 
Schwartz's tavern, and kept at present by Morgan H. 
Clark. " Rogers'" tavern, now occupied by Nathan 
S. Ilartman as a private residence. "Rohrers'" 
tavern was in the building, now owned by Nidiulas 
Redcay, and ocaipied as tenements. Thu IduiIIi 
tavern was started by Elias Redcay, Sr., who died 

thirty-five years ago, and is kept at present by S. \V. 

Of these old hostelries, " Redcay's" was the favor- 
it^ for sojourners stopping in town, when on their 
way from Reading to Lancaster, and among tlie 
patrotft who never passed here without stopping were 
the McGrannis', McLane's, JIcGoverns', and many 

Among its early proprietors were Jacob Schwartz, 
Dickinson, Clavenstein, Yerkes ; and, in 1820, Elias 
Redcay bought and kept the same for thirty years, 
when he sold to Jacob S. Shirk., Henry 
Shirk, became the proprietor, and was succeeded by 
Benjamin E. Shirk, Samuel Styer, L. H. Evans, 
.John R. Clark, and the present proprietor, ilorgau 
H. Clark. 

The " Rogers' ',' tavern was kept in turn by Samuel 
Breneiser, Jacob Regar, Henry Regar, John Swei- 
gert, Leonard Betz, Mr. Kaiser, Jesse Bitzer, Jacob 
Spatz, Emanuel Frederick; Edward Stutenruth, Mar- 
tin L. Weidner, Isaac Coldren, Franklin Knauer, 
and others. This was an old tavern, and kept us 
such as early as 1772. 

Of " Rohrers' " tavern, kept some sixty years ago, 
but little is known, and lacked the custom of the 
traveling public to keep it long in existence. 

Stores— Early and Later.— The pioneer store in 
Adamstown was kept by Samuel Addams, a grandson 
of the founder of the town, who commenced business 
here about 1813, in an old log building standing on 
the corner lot, and occupied by Henry Haller. Mr. 
Addams subsequently sold his store to Henry Flick- 
inger, Sr., who, in 1820, erected on the same lot u 
large two-story stone dwelling, and store adjoining, 
and continued the mercantile business till 1845 (liis 
son, John Flickinger, being a partner during the 
latter years), when the stock was sold to John Musser. 
In 1848, Mr. Musser removed the goods into his new 
building, on the opposite corner (where he at present 
resides), and kept store there until 1876, when he soKi 
his stock of goods to A. C. Snader and D. H. Landis, 
who moved the same to the brick building erected by ] 
Custer & Zeigler in 1876, where they still continue 
the mercantile business under the firm-name of Sna- 
der & Landis. 

In 1818, a Mr. Jones started a store in opposition 
to Flickinger, in an old liouiie then standing on the 
site now occupied l)y the residence of William Red- 
cay, Sr. 5Ir. Jones kept store but a short time, and 
was sold out. 

On the opposite corner, in 1827, Michael Kegerriea, 
Jr., erected a large two-story stone dwelling, with 
store attached. Mr. Kegerries died several years after. 
His father, Michael Kegerries, succeeded his son in 
the store, and was himself succeeded by Johti Cting- 
ler, Esq. His successors in business have been Abi- 
ram Kegerries, Henry Staufer, H. H. Miller, A. S. ' 
Raudenbush, William A. Niebel, William Artz, Peter 
Gerret, William L. Masburgcr, and Rufus M. llynian. 



Molin's store-house was built in 187-, when he com- ] 
menced the mercantile business, and continued till \ 
1881, when he sold his stock to Fetter & Prutzman, 
who still continue the business of general merclian- 

John I\ruHser, son of Peter IMusser, who was also a 
native of this county, was born in Adamstown bor- 
ough, June 12, 1815. When Mr. Musser arrived at 
tlie age of twenty-two years, he married Miss Keziah 
Miller, a daughter of Sebastian, one of Adamstown's 
old and highly respected citizens. Soon after his 
marriage, Mr,Musser went to Whitehall, now Rein- 
holdsville, where he engaged in the mercantile busi- 
ness, where he remained five years, when he returned 
to Adamstown, and purchased the stock of goods of 
Henry and John Flickinger, and continued the mer- 
cantile business till 1876, when he sold his stock of 
goods to Snader & Landis, and retired from active 
service, having been in trade for a period of thirty- 
six years continuously. In 1848, having built the 
residence in which he now lives, he moved his stock 
of goods into it, where for twenty-eight years he car- 
ried on a business in which he gained the love and 
esteem of all with whom he had dealings. He has 
three children, — P. M., Kate, and Lizzie, all living. 

Hat-Factories.— The principal industry of the 
town is the manufacture of wool hats. The pioneer 
liat-niaker of Adamstown was the late Jacob Fich- 
tliorn, father of William and Philip and grandfather 
of the older Fichthorns of Adamstown. William 
Fichthorn and Levi Hendel were among the early 
^liat-makers of this place. All these made their hats 
by hand. The pioneer machine hat-maker was Ab- 
salom Ruth, who operated his machinery by water- 
power. The first to apply steam in the manufacture 
of hats in this town were John, Jacob, and William 
Fichthorn, who built a steam hat-factory on the creek, 
adjoining the American Hotel property. The factory 
was subsequently purchased by Levi Hendel, who 
removed the building and machinery to his hat-fac- 
tory, at the crossing of the I!i)WMian;sville and Lan- 
caster and Reading roads. 

The ne.xt steam hat-factory in Adamstown was by 
Esaias Billingfelt, Isaac Sowers, and Henry Stautfer, 
who, in 18i)G, converted the old distillery into a hat-fac- 
tory, adding one story to its height, and making other 
additions and improvements to the building. This 
factory was purchased in 1876 by E. H. Coldren, the 
present owner. The Hendel hat-factory at the Cross- 
Roads was sold after Mr. Hendel's decease to Coldren 
& Prutzman, and subsequently to other parties, and 
was idle in 1883. The brick hat-factory now stand- 
ing on Willow Street was built in 1875 by Henry II. 
Miller, who also built a block of twelve dwellings on 
Willow Street, and a first-class private residence on 
Main Street. The Miller factory idle in 1883. 

Bollman's hat-factory was established in 187.'i l.y 
George Bollman, and-in 1879 the buildings were .|. 
atroyed by fire. In 1880, Mr. Bollman rebuilt, and 

in 1883 his mill had a manufacturing capacity of 
eighty dozen liats per day. An average of fifty per- 
sons are given employment annually. 

Coldj-en's hat-factory, located on Main Street, was 
originally a distillery converted into a hat-factory in 
18G6, and plirchased in 1876 by E. H. Coldren, the pres- 
ent owner and operator. The capacity of this factory 
is eighty dozen hats per day, and gives employment 
to an average of fifty persons annually, — .S. J. Coldren, 
foreman and book-keeper. 

Fichthorn, Redcay & Co.'s hat-factory was estab- 
lished in 1876 by Samuel Fichthorn, Daniel Redcay, 
and Lud wig D. Custar, who gave employ men t to twenty 
men. At present (1883) there are employed thirty 
persons in the manufacture of hats, who turn out 
sixty dozen per day. 

Tanneries. — The first tannery in Adamstown was 
established by George Gensamer about eighty years 
ago, and in a few years thereafter sold the same to Se- 
bastian Miller, Sr., who in 1822 erected on the premises 
a large and commodious two-story stone mansion 
house, wherein he resided and carried on the tannery 
until the year 1844, the time of his death. His two 
sons, Sebastian and Henry, then became the owners 
and carried on the business in copartnership until 
the year 1866, when Henry moved to Pine Grove and 
engaged in the same business, leaving Sebastian sole 
proprietor, who is still engaged in tanning. 

A second tannery was established sixty-five years 
ago, by Peter Richer, on a lot north of Kegerries' 
store. He carried on the business till about the year 
18 — , when he sold the establishment to Sebastian 
Miller, Sr., by whom it was continued in connection 
with his other establishment for a number of years, 
when he discontinued the Richer tannery. 

Distilleries. — In the early part of the present cen- 
tury there were many distilleries for the manufacture 
of "apple-jack" in the vicinity of Adamstown. All 
of them, however, have gone out of existence, and 
the ap|)le cro|) is being used for better purposes. 

In 1800, Michael Kegerries erected a distillery in 
Adamstown for the manufacture of corn and rye 
whiskeys on the site now occupied by the extensive 
wool-hat factory of E. H. Coldren, together with the 
large stone house and barn adjacent, the latter being 
built in 1809, and numerous other and necessary out- 
buildings. Mr. Kegerries was at that time the owner 
of the " Hill," or woodland, containing many acres, 
situate to the north of the town, which by him was 
divided into numerous lots, after having cut off most 
of the timber, the wood of which he used as fuel in 
carrying on the distillery. Said lots are now owned 
by ditlerent parties, farmers and others, and are now 
(1883) covered with a growth of first-class chestnut 
rail timber. 

In 1830, Michiiel Kegerries and Esther, his wife, 
sold the distillery property and twenty-si.x acres of 
land li> his son-in-law, John Echtenach, wli|) con- 
tinued the business till 1855, when he sold the same 



to his step-brother, Henry Echtenach, who continued j 
the business till 1864, when the last gallon of the ; 
celebrated "Echtenach Rye Whiskey" was manu- 
factured in Adanistown. 

In 1805, Henry Echtenach sold the property there, 
containing twenty-two acres, fronting nn both side-i 
of Main Street, between Mohii's mill and the old 
ground-rent lots, to E. Billiiigfelt. 

In 18G6, Mr. Billingfelt sold a two-thirds interest 
in the "old still-house building" and one-half acre 
of land, with water privileges, unto Henry Staufer 
and Isaac Sowers. The three jointly converted the 
old distillery into a wool-hat factory with steam- 
power and modern machinery. The hat-factory has 
been vested in several owners until 1876, when it was 
purchased by its present owner, E. H. Coldren. 

The balance of the land fronting on Main Street 
Mr. Billingfelt divided into building lots, and has 
sold them to different parties, who erected thereon 
more than a dozen first-class dwellings, also the steam 
hat-fiictory of George Bollman and, in 1883, the new 
brick Evangelical Cliurch edifice. 

Grist-MiU.'— The grist-mill at what is now Adams- 
town was built by Daniel Moore on the site of the 
present mill. It was next owned by his son Daniel, 
who was succeeded by Jacob Moore, and Slonre by 
Abraham Kappis. The next owners were Sebas- 
tian Miller and Philip Vanida. Miller was the 
fatlier of the present Sebastian Miller, of Adams- 
town. Vanida was at one time a member of the State 
Legislature, and had a son named Philiji. The mill 
was subsequently owned by Jucdli, a -en nl' IMiilip 
Vanida, Sr. Tiie next owner w.,s William .Mohn, 
father of H. G. Mohn, the prrsinl uwmr and opera- 
tor. During this time the mill was twice rebuilt and 

Stawfer's Cigar-Factory was established in 1875 
by Samuel E. Stawfer, the present proprietor, with a 
working force of one man and one woman. In 1883 
his works had increased to the capacity of a working 
force of two hundred persons, and a manufacturing 
capacity of sixty thousand cigars per day. 

The oldest cigar-factory in this town is that of C. 
G. Mohn, who has been in the business about ten 
years, and at present employs about twenty hands 
annually. William Arts is also engaged in the liu-i- 
ness, and- employs but few workmen. 

Printing.— A job-printing oiBce was established in 
Adanistown in 1873 by Abraham Lulz, who still 
continues the business, in connection with his duties 
as postmaster. 

Adamstown, 1883.— In 1883 there were in Adams- 
town one Evangelical Association Church, two hotels, 
three stores. Fetter .^ Prutzman, Snuder .t Lan.lis, 
and K, M. Ilyman ; two pliysieiaas. Kirhurd Sweitzer 

and W. D. Fink; two blacksmiths, Benjamin Steffy 
and Jacob Hain ; one cabinet-shop, by R. Reiher; 
three woid-hat factories; three cigar-factories, and 
;)o>J-olliee, with Aliram Lutz as postmaster. 

up Ihc-iflii 


Sebastian Miller, the grandfather of Adamstown's 
well-known citizen of that name, emigrated from 
Germany to America prior to the Revolution, and 
settled in Berks County, Pa., near Sinking Spring. 
There he lived until his death. His son Sebastian 
I born 1786) was apprenticed to the trade of a tanner 
at Sinking Spring, and worked some time for his 
brother John. He married Catharine Ruth, of Berks 
I County, by whom he had eight children, of whom four 
I are living, and shortly after his marriage removed 
I to Adamstown, at which place he had purchased 
! the tannery previously owned and operated by George 
Gensamer. Mr. Miller was a man of sterling worth, 
1 and ranked high in the estimation of his fellow-citi- 
zens. He was industrious, careful, and thrifty in his 
I business, and became a prosperous manufacturer. 
He died in 1843, sincerely lamented, leaving his 
[ business to his two sons, Sebastian and Henry. 
I Sebastian Miller (last named) was born March 23, 
1814. in .\damstown, upon the place he now occupies 
as a home, and occupied also for years by his father 
before liiiii. His early education was gained in the 
village school, :ind when at the proper age he was 
trained by his father iii the business of tanning. 
Thus early in lite he received the valuable lessons 
that self-reliant industry ever teaches, and so laid 
I the foundation upon firm soil of the sturdy and ster- 
i ling qualities thaj gave to him the success that came 
I to him in later years. His close attention to busi- 
ness and ready intelligence pushed him rapidly for- 
' ward as a skilled tanner, and even when a young man 
' he was an acknowledged master of his calling. Upon 
the death of his father in 1843, he and his brother 
Henry came into possession of the tannery, and ear- 
ned it on together with much success until 18G6, 
when Henry retired and removed to Pine Grove, 
.■^ehuylkill Co. Since 1806 Sebastian has been 
[ the sole jiroprietor of the tannery, and still con- 
I ducts it with the same careful majiagement and 
shrewd judgment that marked his early efforts. In 
1840 he married Mary, daughter of Henry Regar, of 
I Adamstown, well and long known in that section as 
' a stocb dealer and landlord. Mr. Miller has for 
twenty years been an active member of the Evangel- 
ical Cliurch. Business has ever claimed his closest 
and most earnest attention, and aside from serving 
the borough as burgess several years, he has not per- 
mitted himself to take any part in public life. 


W. W. FETTlCll. 
W. W. Fetter, leading merchant of Adamstown 
boniugli, was born at llinkletown, Lancaster Co., 
Sept. 17, 1850. In Lancaster County his anoestr}' 
goes back at least a hundred years. Until he reached 
llie age of eighteen he remained at home, obtaining, 
meanwhile, such educational advantages as the vil- 
lage school ad'orded. That he improved those advan- 
tages is manifest in the declaration that upon ending 
his career as pupil he became himself a teacher. At 
Muddy Creek, in East Cocalico township, he taught 
two years, and for two years thereafter at Adams- 
town. Oct. 19, 1872, he married Elmira, daughter of 
Samuel Prutzman, of Adamstown, a- well-known 
woolen hat manufacturer, who died March 5, 1878. 
After his marriage Mr. Fetter worked at hat-making 
in Adamstown for three years, and subsequently 
taught school at Adamstown one year. In 1878 lie 
was brought forward as the people's candidate for 
borough justice of the peace, and elected by a hand- 
some majority. His determination was to retire to 
private life upon the conclusion of his terjn, but the 
popular voice insisted upon his reacceptance of the 
ullice, and against his desires he was again made the 
citizens' candidate. A sharp contest followed, but 
his popularity once more asserted itself in his re- 
election in the spring of 1S83. As a warm advocate 
and earnest worker in the cause of public education, 
Mr. Fetter has long been in the front rank. In Feb- 
ruary, 1880, he was chosen a member of the board of 
borough school directors, and since that time has 
likewise been secretary of the board. In school 
matters he is alert and active, and serves with watch- 
ful care and zealous fidelity the important interests 
of that department. In Sunday-school work he has 
for more than eight years been an important factor 
and leader. In 1875 he was called to take charge of 
the Sabbath-school of tlie Adauistown Evangelical 
Church, and from that time to this he has been con- 
tinuously its superintendent. Tlie school has a mem- 
bership of two hundred scholars, and in its direction 
Mr. Fetter has displayed administrative ability of no 
cojnmon order, while in the development of harmony 
and system he has brought the school to a high 
standard, and made it a model of its kind. 

From 187G to 1882 he served as clerk of the Town 
Council, and in 1877 was largely instrumental in the 
adoption of the measure that conferred upon Adams- 
town the privileges of the act of 1851, whereby the 
jurisdiction of the borough was enlarged. There was 
Btrenuous opposition to the change, but Mr. Fetter 
took the ground that the popular good demanded it, 
and he accordingly devoted himself with unflagging 
enurgy to wliat he considered his duty as a citizen. 
The result proved long ago the wisdom of his course 
and the value of the work he aimed at. During the 
e.xistence of the Adamstown Press he was its jiuiidr 
editor, and in the service of literature wielded a grace- 
ful and trenchant pen, whose work won for him gen- 

eral commendation. His opinions were the expres- 
sion of carelul and deliberate thought, and gained 
additional value because they were known to repre- 
sent conscientious conviction. In 187G he represented 
Adamstown borough in the Republican OountyCom- 
mittee, and in that field, as in his other important 
trusts, marked his course with competent judgment 
and faithful adherence to his duty. In October, 1881, 
he formed a |)artnership with Samuel Prutzman for 
the purchase and conduct of the store business until 
then carried on by Cyrus G. Mohn, and by his ener- 
getic tact and pushing enterprise has placed the firm 
in the front rank of Adamstown's merchants. In 
1882 he was chosen a director of the Mohnsville 
Building and Savings Association, and still serves. 
The record herein briefly sketched tells in plain lan- 
guage the story of an active and useful career. For 
a young man Mr. Fetter has gained a record that not 
many of his age can boast. Since the day when he 
found himself able to take his place among meu, he 
has been not only a worker but he has been likewise a 
leader. He has never been content to follow merely, 
but with a commendable ambition has striven to step 
out of the beaten track and stand at the front when- 
ever and wherever he felt the public good demanded 
an earnest advocate. He is a firm apostle of the creed 
of advanced thought, and believes in the theory of 


liters that tend to show 

the value of intelligence and enterjirise. His aim 
urges him to occupy a place as a usehil citizen, and 
the common verdict is that none occu]iy it more fully. 


W.\S[IlN(iTON BOKDl'lill.i 

Site, Limits, and Extent,— Washington borough 
e.xtends a distance of one mile on the east bank of the 
Susquehanna River, and is surrounded on its north, 
cast, and south sides by Manor township. It is one 
mile huig Iroiu north to Miuth, and one-fourth of a mile 
wide Ironi ea^t to west, and is situated three miles 
.south of Columbia. A full view is had of Columbia 
and the river as far north as the bend just south of 
Jlarietta, while a fine view is also had of the river to 
the southward as far as the bend at the upper end of 
Turkey Hill. There is a large and fertile island in 
the river opposite Washington, and there are 
several small islands. The river is fordable at some 
points here at certain times. The borough is divided 
into two wards, corresponding to the two original vil- 
lages of Washington and Charleston, the former vil- 
lage now comprising the lower or sontherti ward, and 
the latter the upper or northern ward. The borough 
is bounded on the north by William Ortman's land. 

1 By I. S. Clare. 


On the east are the landa of William Ortnian, Wil- 
liam Shertzer, William Siple, John Brush, Daniel 
Kauffman, Levi Haverstick, and Jacob B. Shuman. 
Isaac Shultz's farm — the old Blue Rock farm- 
touches the borough line on the south. William 
Ortman and Joiin Brush own many lots in the bor- 
ough, and Isaac Shultz also owns several. The Co- 
Uimbiaand Port Deposit Railroad, running along tlie 
river entirely tlirougli the borough, was completed in 
187(3. The population of Washington is now over 
nine hundred, about one-half in each ward. 

Present Condition. — Washington borough was 
formed by consolidating the villages of Washington 
and Charleston, and was legally incorporated by act 
of Assembly, approved April 13, 1827. Wasliing- 
ton village — originally Woodstock — was laid out by 
Jacob Dritt, first before 1800, and afterward in 1811. 
Cliarleston was laid out contemporaneously by Joseph 
Charles. Years ago it was a flourisliing little town, 
but it has since deteriorated, and only recently began 
to improve. The principal business features are lum- 
ber and fish. The inhabitants are generally an indus- 
trious class of people, and nra,ny of them earn their 
livelihood by piloting rafts down the river, and also 
by farming tobacco. Washington borough has at 
present two churches, Methodist Episcopal and 
Church of God ; three schools, one graded and two 
primary; two hotels, one a temperance house; two 
stores, one blacksmith-shop and edge-tool factory, twc 
cigar factories, one confectionery, one shoemaker- 
shop, three carpenters, one plasterer, and two stone- 

Past History of this Locality.— The upper part 
of Charleston— that part north of the old Conesloga 
Manor line now corresponding to the road leading 
from Charleston to Lancaster— was a part of the tract 
granted to Chartier, the Frencli Jesuit and Indian 
trader, about one hundred and seventy-five years ago. 
All the remainder of the borough territory formed a 
part of the Conestoga Manor, as surveyed for the 
Penn family by Jacob Taylor, surveyor-general in 
1717-18. The lands on the site of the present bor- 
ough of Washington were first surveyed in 1737, and 
in addition to all tiie northwestern portion of the old 
Conestoga Manor, in all about three thousand acres, 
were for some time retained by the Penn taiiiily. 
John Keagy afterward settled in that portion of the 
Conestoga Manor, and sold much of his land to his 
son-in-law, Charles Smith Sewell, of JNIaryland, who 
sold this tract to other parties, as will presently be 

Founding of Washington and Charleston.— On 
June 1, 1810, Charles Hiuitli Sewell and Ann Catha- 
rine, his wife, sold one hundred and ten acres to 
Jacob Dritt, E:,t]., of Windsor township, York Co., 
Pa. There was a spring of water in the corner of 
this tract. Upon this tract -Dritt laid out the l..wn 
of Washington. He scdd lots June 11, 1810, to J.icul. 
Habecker, distiller, and to Joseph Habecker, pump- 

maker, one acre and eight perches, in lots which 
came to the river. 

On Jan. 11, 1811, Andrew Kauftinan, Esq., of Manor, 
and Barbara, his wife, and Charles Smith Sewell and 
George R. Stake, both of the same place, both house 
and lot at corner of Lots Nos. G and 7, Lot No. 4 being 
a part of the one hundred and ten acres wbicb Cbarles 
Smith Sewell and Ann Catharine, his wife, sold to 
Jacob Dritt, of Windsor township, York Co. Stake 
sold to Sewell April 11, 1811. 

On Sept. 10, 1811, John B. Haldeman, of Donegal, 

and Ann, his wife, sold to Joseph Charles, of JIanor, 

for six thousand five hundred dollars, a tract of one 

hundred and thirty-four acres, beginning at the river. 

This tract was part of four tracts, the one-half pari 

j of which Jacob Gish, of Donegal, and Mary, his 

I wife, sold to John B. Haldeman Dec. 17, 1808. By 

j writ of partition the above-named tract was allotted 

to John B. Haldeman in 1809. John B. Haldeman 

: had married a daughter of John Stehman, who had 

, owned the land. 

! On the site of Washington the town of Woodstock 
j had been laid out Jan. 8, 1807, as a " free port, situ- 
! ated on the east bank of the Susquehanna River, 
I near the Blue Rock, in Manor township, in Lancaster 
I County." Jacob Dritt, Escp, of Windsor township, 
I York Co., was the proprietor, and he advertised that 
he had laid out a town containing three hundred lots, 
e.Kclusive of four appropriated for public worship by 
the Mennonite, Presbyterian, Lutheran, and Jlora- 
vian congregations, and one tor a market-house. 
These lots were to be sold by lottery, and were ad- 
vertised to be drawn Saturday, March 14, 1807, 
tickets S — cash. The proprietor agreed to give eight 
hundred dollars cash to the person who drew No. IG, 
for the lot one thousand feet front granted to the 
public on the river for landings. He obtained an act 
of Assembly for the privilege of erecting a bridge 
across the Susquejianna River at that place. A ferry 
was also to be established here. 

On July 15, 1811, Jacob Dritt laid out a town "on 
the east bank of the Susquehanna River, near the 
Blue Rock, in Manor township, Lancaster Co." 
This town contained one hundred and twenty-two 
luts, to be disposed of by lottery, each ticket to draw 
a lot. This was the town of Woodstock of 1807, and 
was now named Washington. The lottery took place 
and all th|e lots were drawn. Mr. Dritt advertised 
that he would meet the " adventurers" at the house 
of Mrs. Jeffries, in Columbia, on the 17th and 18th 
of May, 1811, and execute the titles for the lots. All 
who resided in Lancaster or north of that place were 
privileged to call on Henry Carpenter, surveyor, for 
their titles after the above date. Jacob Dritt made a 
will in 1815, and Jes,,- Roberts and tiamucl Bonliam 
wjre appointed his administrators for the Washington 
lots. Dritt was drowned while crussing the river in 
a boat in 1822. 

The town of Charleston, now constituting the upper 



ward of the borough of Washington, was laid out by 
Josepli Cliarles, Jan. 4, 1811. It contained sixteen 
acres, divided into forty-seven lots, sixty feet front, 
with a spring at the south side. This town was in 
Manor township, seven hundred feet along the east 
hanks of the Susquehanna River, three miles south of 
Columbia. The lots were laid out by Joseph Charles, 
and were sixty by one hundred and eighty feet. The 
wedge-shaped tract of land to the north of Charleston, 
separating that village from that of Fairview, was 
owned by a man named Scott, who afterwards sold 
his land to the late Henry Ortman, and it is now 
owned by the hitter's son, William Ortman. 

Joseph Charles had bought the lower part of the I 
tract upon which Charleston was built from John I 
Stehman. He had bought the upper part from John I 
B. Haldeman, of Donegal, who had married a daugh- 
ter of Stehman, the previous owner of that tract. 
That part of Charleston north of Lancaster Street 
was laid out first. Joseph Charles advertised lots 
Jan. 4 and Aug. 16, 1811. The lots were drawn by 
lottery Sept. 6, 1811. and were assigned to lot-holders 
Sept. 27, 1811. Un Oct. 6, 1811, one hundred and 
forty-three parchment deeds were ordered. Joseph 
Charles died in 1814. The bulk- of Charles' lots were 
drawn by Chester County people, — the Greenes, the 
Micheners, the Robertses and the Mendenhalls. 

Early Progress— Washington Borough.— In the 
several decade- alter their loundatiun, the villages of 
Washington and Charleston made considerable pro- 
gress, and many new buildings were erected. There 
was great speculation in building and in buying and 
selling lots from 1811 to 1820. This speculation was 
prosperous for a time, and lots brouglit from twelve 
hundred to fourteen hundred dollars ; but eventm^lly 
disaster came, and many were reduced to bankruptcy 
and ruin. The villages of Washington and Charles- 
ton were incorporated as the borough of Washington 
by act of Assembly, approved April 13, 1827. There 
were not many new buildings from 1820 to 1860, and 
there was a stagnation of about thirty years until 
about the*time of the breaking out of the late war. 
There has been some progress of late in building, and 
the most substantial and costly buildings have been 
erected in recent years. The best buildings have been 
erected since 18G0. There have been more new build- 
ings erected in the la>t five or >ix years than iji twenty 
years before. 

Washington, Past and Present— In the earlier 
days of Washington — in the days of its prosperity — 
its leading business men were Jesse Roberts, lumber- 
man ; John Herr, Cieorge Brush, Joseph Green, 
Rhinehart IMicbener, store-keepers; Joseph Shock, 
and others.' Dr. Benjamin Green was a physician in 
CJKirlcston about ISjll. There were then from twelve 
to fourteen hotels in the town. The river was at tli^it 
time, each spring, lined with rafts for four mile-, Mfl 
these hotels were rec|Hiied for the accomniodatiioi ul 
the raftsmen. In the days of Washington's pro>per- 

ity there were a great number of coopers in the town, 
where none are now to be found. 

William Ortman, Isaac Sliultz, and John Brush, 
the Matter two now residing outside the borough lim- 
its, are the chief tobacco-growers. The Colunibia and 
Port Deposit Railroad, which runs through the town, 
along the river, was finished in 1870. The population 
of the borough is now over nine liundred. Washing- 
ton at present pays fifty dollars per month to each of 
its three teachers, employing only such teachers as 
hold permanent certificates or diplomas from normal 
schools, and has a school term of six months in each 
year. The present burgess of Washington is George 
Roberts. The justices of the peace are Harvey Brush, 
son of John Brush, and S. B. Urban. Joseph Miller, 
store-keeper, is at present (1883) postmaster. The 
leading citizens of Washington borough in recent 
years have been William Ortman, tobacco farmer and 
owner of a large pro|ierty in and north of the bor- 
ough ; John Brush, justice of the peace for a long 
time, and also school director and a large property- 
owner in and out of the borough, now living just east 
of the borough limits, on the road from Charleston to 

Present Business Men and Tradesmen.- John 
Brush and William Ortman are large property-own- 
ers in the borough. Drs. Binkley and Grey are prac- 
ticing physicians. Andrew Kane keeps a hotel in the 
Lower Ward, and Henry Wertz keeps a temperance 
hotel and summer resort in the Upper Ward. The 
business men and mechanics are Josepii Miller, store- 
keeper and postmaster, and Charles Doerstler, store- 
keepers; William Jlann, confectioner an<i tailor; 
George Evans, shoemaker ; Lewis Green, Abram Kil- 
liard, and Henry Kise, carpenters ; Enumucl Fishel, 
plasterer; John D. Baker and Uriah Douglas, stone- 
masons ; Henry Mellinger, blacksmith and edge-tool 
manufacturer; A. G. Kise and Brown & Wilson, 
cigar manufacturers. Levi Haverstick has a lumber- 
yard and a sa\v- and planiiig-mill just north of the 
borough limits, and Jo^el)h K. Shultz& Brother have 
a coal- and lumber-yard just south of the borough, on 
the Blue Rock I'arm, owned by his father, Isaac Shultz. 
Lumber, Fishing, and Tobacco-Farming.— In 
the old prosperous days of rafting the lumber trade 
was the most active line of business in Washington, 
and there were large lumber-yards in the place. In 
the earlier days of ibis town Jesse Roberts was a large 
lumber dealer. Atterwards Louis Urban had a large 
lumber-yard. Other lumbermen were Washington 
Wrighter, Daniel Nelf, and House & Shuman. From 
about 1800 to 1875, Julius L. Shuman, who was elected 
a member of the Legislature in 1873, had an extensive 
lumber yard here. At pre-ent, Joseph K. Slniltz .t 
Brother have a lumber- and loal-yard on their father's 
Blue Ituck farm, just south of the bnrijugh limits. 
Levi Haverstick has a steam -aw- and [ihuiing-niill, 
and a lumber-yard just north of the borough liniif^. 
Fishin;; has al-o been one of the means of earmni; a 


livelihood by many residents of this place. Great 
quantities of bass are caught, and they supply the 
markets of Columbia, Lancaster, and the surrounding 
country. As rafting began to decline, tobacco-l'arm- 
ing became a means of support fur many of the citi- 
zens nf this town. The most successful tobacco- 
growers have been Isaac Shultz and his sons, William 
Orcman, and John Brush, who have realized large 
profits from the sale of their crops. 

Rafting. — For a considerable period half a century 
ago, wliLMi rafting was at its beiglit on the Susque- 
hanna, Wasliington was an enterprising little town, 
and was noted as a stopping-place for raftsmen. 
There were then from twelve to lourteen hotels in 
the place. The river in the vicinity was lined with 
rafts for three or four miles. Timber and lumber 
were bronglit down the river in rafts. Boards, shin- 
gles, and laths were brought down the river in arks, 
as were also wheat, oats, coal, and pig-iron, .\fter 
1840 rafting gradually declined, and witliin the last 
ten years very little has been done in that line of 
business, once so conducive to the prosperity of 
Washington borough, many of whose inliabitant^ 
earned their liveliliood by this occupation. Some of 
the raftsmen took their horses and mules along on 
the rafts for the pur|)ose of riding back to their 
homes, while many walked when they returned. 

Great Freshets. — Washington borough has suf- 
fered at various times in the past from the destruc- 
tive effects of ice and water-freshets. A water-freshet 
in 1832 took away Jacob Manning's distillery. The 
streets were covered with water sufhciently deep to 
admit tiie sailing of l)oats. The ice freshet of 1873 
also came U[) into the streets and caused considerable 

Churches. — There are at present only two church 
congregations in Washington borougli, — Methodist 
Episcopal and Church of God. Tliere were at one 
time in the past four denominations in the place, — 
Methodist Episcopal, Church of God, Evangelical, 
and Presbyterian. But the latter two congregations 
have gradually dwindled down and ceased to exist. 
The old Blue Presbyterian Church was built about 
1S26, the building being put up by Israel Cooper. 
For a long time the Presbyterians of Washington 
borough worshiped in this building. The congrega- 
tion of the Church of God in Washington at a later 
period rented the church from tlie Presbyterians. 
The building was hought by Mr. John Brush, and 
torn down by him in 1861, after having for some 
time been used as a tobacco-house. Tiie Evangelical 
congregation in Washington borough built a frame 
edifice for worship about 1838, the work being done 
by JoAeph Stoner. The Evangelical congregation 
gradually dwindling down, this building was also 
purcliased by John Brush, and has likewise been 
used as a tobacco-house. The Methodists of Wash- 
ington erected a frame edifice for religious sen ice 
about 1837, the building being put u\) by .John 

Steiner. This building was torn down in 1848, and 
a brick edifice was erected in its stead. It was re- 
built in 1872. The congregation of the Cluirch of 
God in Washington erected a house of worship in 
1845, the work being done by Jacob Manning.- The 
old edifice was torn down when the present one was 

General Character ofWashington.— Washington 
and (Jhariestuii were regidarly laid out in streets and 
alleys, and these remain as they were originally laid 
out. The borough limits are mainly confined within 
iracts laid out by Dritt and Charles in ISU. The old 
buildings of the town are mostly frame structures, but 
there have been some new substantial brick buildings 
erected in recent years. 



The borough of Strasburg is located about nine 
miles southeast of Lancaster City, with which it is 
connected by an e.xcellent turnpike road. It is situ- 
ated on an elevaK-d ridge of the richest limestone 
soil, its greatest length from east to west being nearly 
two miles, while its greatest width from north to south 
is less than one-fourth of a mile. On account of its 
peculiar situation tlie drainage of the town is natu- 
rally very good, and the place is very healthy. 

The history of Strasburg, owing to want of records 
previous to its incorporation, must of necessiiy re- 
njain hidden beneath the veil of obscurity. Tradi- 
tion tells us that the first dwelling in the town was 
built in or about the year 1733 by one Hoffman, and 
that it soon became considerable of a village, fre- 
quently passing oinder the name of Bettleliausen 

By an act of Assembly passed March 13, 181(5, the 
town of Strasburg was erected into the " Borough of 
Strasburg, bounded and limited as follow.s, viz.: Be- 
ginning at a slonc the corner of \Vidow Ilerr's land, 
thence along laiuls of George Lefever and John 
llowery south seventy-four degrees west two liundred 
and six perches and eight-tenths of a perch to a 
stone; thence along lands of John Howery north six- 
teen degrees west forty-nine perches and a half of a 
perch to a stone; thence along lands of John Kindig, 
Widow Longenecker, Tobias Herr, and Henry Breck- 
bill south seventy-four degrees west two hundred and 
seventy-six perches and one-half of a perch to apost; 
thence along lands of .fohn l\indig and John Breck- 
bill south fifteen degrees and one-quarter of a di--i\o 
east one hundred and thirty perclies toastone ; tlience 
along lands of Jacob Fritz and John Funk north 

Hy U. G. Book, Eaq. 



seventy-four degrees east two hundred and thirtj'- 
nine perches and one-third of ii perch to a stone ; j 
tlience along hinds of said John Funk south seven- 
teen degrees east thirty-nine perches and one-luilf of 
a percli to a stone ; thence along Abraham Graff's 
land north seventy-fivo degrees and three-fourths of a 
degree east two linndred and forty perches and <ine- 
lialf of a perch to a stone; thence along lands of 
Widow Herr north fifteen degrees west one hundred 
and twenty-nine perches and one-half of a perch to 
the place of beginning." 

According to the provisions of the second section 
of the charter the qualified voters of the borough were 
directed to meet at the public-house of Thomas Grau- 
ford, in said borough, on the first Tuesday in April 
ne.xt following, "and then and there, between the 
hours of one and sl.x o'clock in the afternoon, elect by 
ballot one citizen residing therein, who shall be styled 
the chief burgess, and one other citizen who shall be 
styled the assistant burgess, and seven citizens who 
shall be styled a Town Council, and one citizen who 
shall be styled the high constable, all of whiun shall 
be residents of said borough." 

From the minutes of the Council it is learned that 
at said election the following officers were elected : 
Chief Burgess, James Whitchill ; Assistant Burgess, 
Jacob Miller; Town Council, Nathaniel W. Sample, 
Thomas Crawford, John Connelly, Robert Spencer, 
Peter Holl, Samuel Miller, and" William Ilange; 
High Constable, John Marklcy. At the lirst meet- 
ing of the Council, George Holfman was treasurer, 
and Martin Fouts clerk. 

The minutes of the Coiwicil as kept by the clerk, 
Mr. Fouts, are a marvel of neatness and legibility. 

The Council held its regular meetings at the public- 
house of Thomas Crawford, on the mirlhwest court 
(if Centre Sijuare, which has since been greatly en- 
larged, and has for many years been occupied as a 
dwelling and general store by C. Rowe, who several 
years ago was succeeded by D. K. Landis, and is one 
• of the largest and best-conducted country stores in 
the county. 

Soon after the incorporation the Town Council 
turned its attention to the improvement of the streets 
and pavements, and the former were macadamized 
with stone and the latter were [laved with jjine plank, 
which were soon found to be rather unsatislactory 
on account of the frequent repairs which wire 
needed. Wooden pavements were, however, made 
until about ten years ago, when the Town Council by 
resolution prohibited their construction, and directed 
that all pavements thereafter made should be made 
of brick or stone. This resolution seemed to stop all 
paving for several years, and the wooden pavements 
continued to wear out, until in many cases, they were 
worse than none at all, and what seemed to aggravate 
the pavement trouble was the fact that a large por- 
tion of the town was paved on only one side •.! the 
street. Finally, in ISSl, some of the more enteri. rising 

of the citizens interested themselves in the election of 
borough officers who would enforce the resolution of 
the previous Councils, and were successful at the 
jJoHs, and the following year succeeded in re-electing 
the same officers, and as a result the olif wooden 
pavements have nearly all disajjpeared, and the town 
is now paved throughout its entire length with sub- 
stantial brick pavements, and it is thought it may be 
called one of the best paved towns in the State. 

The business interests of the town are represented 
by one national bank, with a capital of .SSO.fiOo, rep- 
resented by eighty shares of a par value of i^lUO, which 
are ncjw selling at $14.") per share (Joseph McClure 
is the president, ajid George W. Hensel, Jr., is the 
cashier); seven general stores, one hardware-store, 
three hotels, one restaurant, one jewelry-store, one 
drug-store, one saddlery, three confectioneries, three 
tin-shojjs, two wagon-maker shops, three blacksmith- 
shops, two furniture manu lactones, one shoe-store, one 
extensive bakery, a printing-office, five cigar numu- 
factories working from five to thirty hands, one livery- 
stable, and various other smaller enterprises. 

Strasburg, too, has its railroad, connecting it with 
the Pennsylvania Railroad at Leaman Place. The 
charter for this road was procured about the year 
1832, and work was commenced upon it, but about 
the time the grading was finished the funds became 
e.Khausted and the entcrjirise seemed about to fail ; 
but after yeara of waiting and hoping new life was 
infused in"tu the enterprise, and the road was com- 
plcte.l and put ill rnniinig order in 1851. About ten 
years later it met with its second fiiumcial embarrass- 
ment, and the whole concern went into the hands of 
the sherilf ami was sold by him, the stockholders re- 
seven dollars on each share of one hun- 
At the sherill's sale it was purchased 
:ce IhiiitoM, in trust for himself and 
,il, Cyrus N. ilcrr, John F. llcrr, John 
Iciiry .Mussc-lman, lion. Thomas E. 
Franklin, Hon. Thaddeus t>tevens, John S. Ken- 
eagy, Davis Gyger, Henry Mu.sser, Hon. (). J. Dickey, 
Robert M. Girvin, John Mns.selman, John Miller, D. 
G. EshleuKin, Abram E-hleman, Samuel Keneagy, 
Bower & Holl, Jacob Bacliman, John Bachman, and 
B. B. Gunder, lor the .sUiii of thirteen thousand d.d- 

The partners one after another sold out their re- 
spective interests in the same to John F. Herr and 
Cyrus N. Herr, until they owned the whole road 
jointly. Jn Isiiil tiny took into the partnership A. 
j\[. Herr, and ihr business was carried on under the 
name of Herr tt Co. .Vbout this time they connected 
with the railroad depot a large steam flouring-mill, 
and a "few years after attached a large planing-mill 
and machine-shop, in which a large business was 
done until Jan. Itj, 1871, when the whole building 
was destroyed by fire, entailing immense loss upon 
the eu;er|irisiiig owners. On the return of sjiring 
they commenced rebuilding, and erected a very line 


ving abou 


.1 d 




n. Fe 






railroad depot, machine-shop, and ])hining-n)ill, hut 
did not rebuild the merchant flouring-niill. j 

Unfortunately for the business interests of the com- j 
nuinity, and the town of Strasburg in particular, the , 
firm never recovered from their loss, and the finan- ' 
cial crash and business depression of 1873 coming so 
closely upon the heels of their disaster, the firm were 
compelled to make an assignment in April, 1875, to 
Isaac Phenegar, who at the time served them in , 
the capacity of book-keeper. At the assignee's sale 
the road, depot, and rolling-stock was purchased by 
Thomas and Henry Baumgardner, ol' Lancaster City, 
lor the sum of twelve thousand seven hundred and , 
twenty-five dollars, and they have since leased tlie 
road to Isaac Phenegar, who has operated it since | 
April 1, 1876, at a paying profit. j 

JIany years ago, when all the freighting between 
Philadelphia and the interior towns was done by 
C'onestoga wagons, Strasburg was one of the |)rin- 
cipal sto])ping stations, and tlie town contained some- 
times as many as eight and ten hotels, and about as 
many stores, but since better modes of communica- 
tion and travel have been devised many people do 
much of their purchasing in the larger cities of Lan- 
caster and Philadelphia. 

Education. — From its earliest days Strasburg has 
given much attention to education, and has taken a 
leading |)osition in educational matters. Prior to the 
nineteenth century teaching was mostly done by itin- 
erant teachers going from house to house. About 
1808 a brick building now standing was built on the 
east side of Nortli Jackson Street by private contri- 
bution, which was incorporated by an act of the Leg- 
islature a few years after. This school was taught in j 
its best days by a William Mackey, assisted by his 
sister, and was largely attended by iiu|)ils from the 
town and surrounding country. Another brick build- 
ing of about the same dimensions and similar in gen- , 
eral appearance stands about fifty yards from the I 
south side of East Main Street, which was built some | 
time after the enactment of the free school system ; 
both are now occupied as dwellings. 

The statement may be startling that the Pennsyl- 
vania free school system is a Strasburg idea. In Jan- 
uary, 1831, discussion arose in the store of (ieorge 
llolfinan, Esq., one of the most prominent residents 
of the borough, of whom more will be said hereafter, 
which led to a call for a public meeting in Jackson 
Street school-house, at which George Difi'enbaugh 
acted as chairman, and James McPhail, Esq., as sec- 
retary. This meeting sent the first petition to the 
Legislature in favor of general education, resulting 
in the passage of the act of 1831, appropriating cer- 
tain moneys towards the establishment of public 
schools at some future time. The citizens of Stra.s- 
burg, and particularly those who attended this meet- 
ing, never lost sight of the measure until the free 
school system of Pennsylvania was formally e»l,ib- 
lished in 1835. 

Strasburg Academy.— In 183(1 was founded the 
Strasburg Academy, with Kev. David McCarter, A.M., 
as principal. The school was established on the 
])remises now occupied by Daniel Greiner, on Eiist 
Mam Street, to which was attached the academy 
proper Jjy Richard B. Groff, now a resident of the 
State of Iowa. This school was very largely attended 
by young men from all ])art3 of the United States 
and even from the West Indies. After a prosperous 
existence of about twenty years it began to decline. 
About this time Mr. McCarter resigned or sold out, 
and a new higli school building had been erected, 
which circumstances drew largely upon its patronage, 
and the institution became non-paying. In 1804 or 
1865 it was converted into a Soldiers' Orphans' School 
for a short time ; after that time it was occupied by the 
Misses Girvin as a private school for a few years. In 
1873 it was torn down and converted into a dwelling. 

In the year 1856 was erected on North Jackson 
Street the Strasburg High School building, which 
was considered a fine building and large enough for 
the accommodation of the children of the borough. 
Previous to this, or rather at the time of the enact- 
ment of tlie free school system, the Strasburg borough 
school district had come into possession of the two 
buildings above alluded to by purchase. These three 
buildings were sufficient for the educational require- 
ments of the borough until 1870, when a large and 
imposing two-story brick structure was erected on the 
south side of Franklin Street, west of Fulton. 

This building accommodates all the schools of the 
borough, divided into first and primary, grammar lyid 
liigh school, each having a separate teacher, with a 
superintendent or priiici|>'al who has charge of the 

The Strasburg High School has been in charge of 
Professor Charles B. Keller since'1872, and ranks as 
one of the best in the State, being almost self-sustain- 
ing from tuition fees of pupils attending from without 
the district. 

In the school building is a very excellent reference 
library, placed there at a cost of more than a thou- 
sand dollars. Since 1876 from five to eight young 
ladies and gentlemen have graduated from the high 
school annually, most of whom have since taught 
very acceptably throughout the county. The annual 
attendance at all tlie schools of the borough is about 
two hundred and twenty-five. 

. Religion and Churches.— While it is probable 
that the people of Strasburg as a rule were not an irre- 
ligious or godless people, yet it is the fact that there 
are no well authenticated church records of the 
borough before 1812, when the Lutheran Church on 
East Main Street was built. The donor of the ground 
upon which this church stands lies buried heneath 
the sidewalk in front of the church. 

The church was built by lottery, and one old man 
now living says that he drew the sum of fifty dollars 
at the drawing upon a ticket purchased by his father, 



he being but six years old at llie time. It is n large 
two-story brick structure, with gallery and organ-loft, 
in which is a pipe-organ made by one Michael With- 
ers, residing in the neighborhood. Rev. J. J. Sliiiie 
was its pastor from the time of its erection until the 
time of his death. It was also occupied by the 
Methodists at the time of its erection, but the iioi-^e 
made by them at the time of their revivals was tdo 
much for their Lutheran brethren, and they were 
obliged to seek other quarters. A large brick steeple 
had at one time been erected at the east end of the 
church, but when it had reached a few feet above 
the roof of the church proper the funds were e.x- 
bausted, and in a few years after it was torn down 
and the material was used for tlie construction of the 
Strasburg Academy. 

About 1815 the " Old Jlethodist Church," as it is 
now called, was erected at the soutii end of South 
Decatur Street, which was occupied by the congrega- 
tion until 1839, when a new and larger edifice was 
erected on West Main Street. In ISliS this was 
found to be too small, and an attachment w.l> built 
to it, and it was otherwise renovated and inipniveil 
in tlie interior. 

The Presbyterians likewise held their first meet- 
ings in the Lutheran Church, and for some years 
acted without any regular organization. In 1832, 
November 21st, a meeting Wiis lield which resulted in 
the election and final ordination of William Russel 
and David Shirk as ruling elders, and the church 
edifice now standing on the corner of South Decatur 
and Franklin Streets was soon afterwards erected 
upon land jmrchased of David Shirk. The pastors 
who have served the church are Revs. Joseph Rarr, 
David McCarter, Solomon McNair, J. M. Ritten- 
house, John R. Kugler, John McNair, D. D. Henry, 
E. Spayd, R. K. M. Baynuin, and Ezra Haney, the 
present incumbent. The (iresent trustees are Josiah 
A. Martin, D.D.S., William Spencer, Martin Dru- 
linger, Jacob Bachman, and John Girvin. 

In 1871 the United Brethren in Christ purchased 
the old Methodist Church and renovated it, and held 
services in it until 1881, when debts had accumulated 
upon them to such an extent that they were obliged 
to sell it, the Good Templars becoming the purchasers, 
who converted it into a temperance hall by enlarging 
and otherwise improving it. 

In 1870, when the school board sold the Jackson 
Street school buildings, they were purcluised by Dr. 
Benjamin Musser, who afterwards conveyed the high 
school building to the Reformed Mennonite Church, 
that has since held services therein. 

Public Hall.— In the northeast corner of Centre 
Square stands Massasoit Hall, a large three-story 
hrick building, the third story of which is occupied 
by two secret beneficial societies,— the Independent 
Order of Odd-Fellows and the Junior Order of Uaiud 
American Mechanics. 

In 1870, George B'. Eager commenced publishing 

the Slrasbuiy Free Press, a weekly paper, and con- 
tinued as editor until Jan. 1, 1879, when he sold the 
concern to J. W. Sandoe, wdio continued the paper 
until December, 1881, when it was sold by the sherifl' 
to .'. G. Sutton. The office remained closed until 
.March, 1882, when George B. Eager again purchased 
it, and has since been doing only a job business. 

literary and debating' societies have at various 
times flourished here, and have been largely attended, 
[irobably the most successful seasons being those of 
1880, 1881, and 1882, when meetings were held in 

I Massasoit Hall, which has at times been densely 

' packed by spectators. There also existed at one time 
many years ago a scientific society, but its records, if 
ever there were any, are lost. 

Burying-Places. — Within the borough limits there 
are no less than i\\e burying-places, namely, one Lu- 
theran, one Presbyterian, two Methodist, and the 
Strasburg Cemetery, inclosing about two and one- 
half acres, which is by far the largest and best regu- 

I lated. Several large and costly monuments adorn its 
inclosure, and in the early season, when trees bedeck 
themselves in living green and flowers bloom their 
prettiest, it is a beautiful i)lace. 

Noteworthy People. — Among noteworthy individ- 
uals of Strasburg bon.ugh may be mentioned Thomas 

[ H. Burrowes, who was born Nov. IG, 1805, in a small 
house, a few doors west of Centre Square, which was 
torn ddWH abnut the year 1870 by David Reese, ou 

I the site of which stands the house now owned by 
Christian Kreider. He received a liberal education 
at Quebec and Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, where 
his parents rcsi<led for some years. In 1831 he was 
elected to the House of Representatives, and was re- 
electe<l in 1832. Being a Whig, and that party being 
in the minority in the House, he did not attain to any 
leading distinction. In 1835, when his party came 
into power by the election of Joseph Ritner as Gov- 
ernor, he was called to the office of Secretary of the 
Commonwealth, ta which the siiperintendency of com- 
mon schools was then ex officio attached. From this 
time Mr. Burrowes made the work of popular educa- 
tion a most careful study, and prepared a revised 
school bill, which was adopted by the Legislature in 
183G, and iVniii that time bent all his energies to the 
execiitidii ot the law. In 1837 he published a plan 
and drawing for the improvement of school-houses 
and furniture wdiich was widely used. 

In 1839, (ipon the retirement of Governor Ritner 
and the advent of a different administration, the 
su])erintendeiicy of common schools passed into other 
hands, and Mr. Burrowes returned to Lancaster and 
devoted the next seven years of lii-s life to agricultu- 
ral [lursuits on his farm near Lancaster. Owing to 
pecuniary losses he was obliged to sell this in 18-15, 
and he returned to his profession as a lawyer. 

In January, 1850, at the convention of the friends 

I of education, held at Harrisburg, he was temporary 

1 chairman, and acted as chairman of the committee 



"to consider the best means of invigorating tlie gen- 
eral superintendence of the common school system, 
harmonizing its local operations and spreading the 
knowledge of its true nature" and benefits, its prog- 
ress and necessities, the report of which committee 
recommended the establishment of a separate State 
department of education and the publication of a 
monthly educational State journal for the dissemina- 
tion of matters |)ertaining to the interests of educa- 
tion among the friends of the cause in all parts of the 
commonwealth. The report was unanimously adopted 
by the convention. In 1851 a number of teachers of 
Lancaster County met in convention and chose Mr. 
Burrowes as their chairman, and measures were 
adopted for the promotion of a permanent educa- 
tional association in the county. At this meeting 
resolutions were adopted authorizing the chairman to 
commence the publication ''of a monthly paper de- 
voted exclusively to the spread of information rela- 
tive to education." 

This was the origin of the I'cnnsijleania School 
Journal, a work which until a few years before his 
death occupied much of tlie time and attention of 
Mr. Burrowes. 

By the act of 1855 the Pennsylvania School Journal 
■was made the organ of the school department, and 
one copy was directed to be sent to each school dis- 
trict in the State, at the expense of the State. In 
1854, Mr. Burrowes prepared for the State descrip- 
tive matter for " Pennsylvania School Architecture," 
a volume of two hundred and seventy-six jiages. 
After having written nearly all the important school 
bills passed by the Legislature after 1830, probably 
the crowning act of his life was the drafting of the 
Normal School law, which is regarded by its friends 
as being unsurpassed by any legislation on this sub- 
ject either in America or Europe. 

In 1858, Mr. Burrowes was elected mayor of Lan- 
caster City, which office he heldforone year. In IsiiO 
he was again called upon to administer tlie ^rhocil 
system of the State. In 181)4 he was appnintcd by 
Governor Curtin superintendent of sohlici^' (ir|.li;iii>' 
schools, and otahlished these institutions in dill, rent 
parts of the State. In 18G9 lie was electe.l pre-ident 
of the Agricultural College, a positioji which he held 
at the time of his death. 

To Thomas H. Burrowes ])robab!y more than to any 
one else belongs the honor of being the father of the 
Pennsylvania free school system. He did more than 
any other one man to place it upon a permanent 
basis, and in its establishment he has erected for 
himself a monument more enduring than stone. • He 
died March 25, 1871. 

George HofI'maii was born in Strasburg, JIarch 9, 
1784. He obtained the first rudiments of education 
from an old German schoolmaster named Buch, of 
whom very little is known, -but who, accordini: lu 
Mr. Plofl'man's recollections of him, must have been 
a man of considerable knowledge. Of Mr. Hollman's 

parents but little is known. When George was fifteen 
years old he was placed in the store of James White- 
hill, then the most extensive of Strasburg's merchants. 
Here lie remained until he was twenty-one years old. 
During the next eight or ten years he served as.clerk 
in other sfores in the place. In 1809 he was married 
to Barbara iMaynnnl, of Safe Harbor, and went into 
biisiiiL-.-, (Ill bis riwn account. About five years later 
be iiinved to .'^tia^burg, where he continued to reside 
and keep store until the time of his death. In 181G 
he was appointed by Governor Snyder the first justice 
of tlie ])eace for Strasburg borough after its incorpo- 
ration, which office he held until the winter of 1827 
-28, wdien he was elected to the Legislature. 

As a magistrate he is said to have been one of the 
most useful and upright men who ever filled that 
office, his aim ever being not to make money for 
himself, but to do good to those around him. No 
civil case that could be adjusted amicably did he ever 
push onward to a suit for the sake of making costs 
for himself or the constables. He was emphatically 
a peacemaker, and many had cause to bless him for 
his efforts in that direction. He possessed the rare 
faculty of making persons wdio were wrong and angry 
perceive their error and the folly of their ill temper, 
and this he could do without giving them the least 
ofl'ense. He seemed to know by intuition how to treat 
every person with whom he came in contact, and in 
all eases without departing in the least from his habit- 
ual dignity. 

His iViendshii) for the young was at all times re- 
markable. No man ever touk a greater interest than 
he in those who fell in his way. To them he was 
like a lather. His interest in a certain poor, deserv- 
ing boy led to a remark by him in his store, in tlio 
presence of some of his friends, .which resulted in 
the meeting in the Jackson Street school-house, 
above referred to, and to the day of his death he 
nevt-r In-t lii- interest in our free school .system. 

He uiis at all times a firm believer in the rights of 
man, wilbout distinction of race, nationality, or color, 
llr was (Hie (il'ibe few who stood by Charles Burleigh 
ulieii be ikli\euMl iiis aiili-slavery lecture in Stras- 
burg, and was always a decided abolitionist. He 
died in 1845 of typhoid fever, leaving four children, 
— Barbara (who was married to Jacob Erb, of Cones- 
toga township), Ann (the wife of B. B. Gonder), 
Jesse Ilotriiian, and Margaret Warren (wife of Wil- 
liam S. Warren). Mr.s. Gonder and Jesse Hollnian 
are still living in Strasburg. 

Rev. George Dulfield was born in Strasburg, July 
4, 179G, in the house long occupied by James 
McPhail, and now owned by the heirs of Dr. Benja- 
min M«sser, deceased. His father, also named 
George, was a merchant, and for nine years was 
register and comptroller-general under Governor 
McKean. His grandfather, also named George, was 
chaplain of the Continental Congress. 

The subject of this sketch graduated at the early 


age of sixteen at the University of Pennsylvania. 
He read tlieology, and was licensed to jireach by the 
Presbytery of Plula(ldli)hia on the 2Uth day of April, 
1815." In 1817 he married Miss Isabelle Bethune, a 
daughter of a well-known merchant and a sister of 
Rev. George Bethune, D.D. 

In 1837 he was called to the Broadway Tabernacle 
as the successor of tlie Rev. Charles G. Finney. In 
1838 he was called to the First Presbyterian Church 
of Detroit, a position which lie at once accepted, and 
continued its sole pastor until April 27, 18l)5. In 
ability and learning he is said to liave ranked with 
such men as Drs. Lyman Beecher, Sprague, and 
others. He died at Detroit, June 20, lSfi8. 

Stephen Russel, a man uf whom very little is known 
by the greater portion of the people of Strasburg to- 
day, was born about the year 1820 in the house ad- 
joining the Duflield house on the east, now owned by 
two Weaver sisters. His father, William Russel, was 
one of the two tirst ruling elders of the Presbyterian 
Church of Strasburg. Not very much is known of 
the family at the present day. From one of Stephen's 
schoolmates it is learned that an older son of William 
Russel worked his way by some means into a com- 
mercial house in Philadelphia, an<l through his in- 
fluence Stephen also obtained a situation as a clerk 
in a store. From here he worked his way into the 
custom-house. Wliile here he read law during his 
leisure hours, and was admitted to the bar. He 
then drifted to New York, and practiced his profes- 
sion, and dealt in stocks in a small way, and figured 
in politics to some extent. His practice soon became 
paying, and then became lucrative. He was at one 
time corporation counsel for the city of New York at 
a salary of sixteen thousand dollars per annum. 

Some time after he left this jilace his tatlier died, 
leaving a wife and an imbecile son to be cared for 
by his sons. For some time they rented quarters, 
Stephen paying the rent. When he came to be in 
easy circumstances, he returned to Strasburg, pur- 
chased a lot of ground, built a large and comlbrtable 
two-story brick house for her use, moved her and his 
brothers into it, and provided for them as hmg as they 
lived. The house is now owned and occupiL-d by .Mr--. 
Harriet Leche. It is said that Mr. Ru^sel's wealth 
to-day is counted by millions. 

Borougll Officers.— The burgesses in the borough 
of Strasburg have been as f.illows: 

L GiturgB DinL-.iUuiigh. 

I87-. Hkiv,..v Bnickl.iU. 

1870-SO. JhcuU 

1S73. \V. T. JlLl'liiiil. 

lSSl-82. II.G. Buuk. 

l^'V Hull. 

1883. Cliiiotiiin lt.j«e. 

ISTo.^Ohrisliun li;iclimaii. 

The :t^>istant burgesses 

lave been : 

iMr,-i'.i. ji.cobMiHcT 

lS,-.0-.M. Francis Cavighfy. 

lS2ll-i;l. Geor«6 DifTeiibaugli. 


1B22. .I.imea .^.liims. 

IS.W. John Warnlz. 

1»2:!-21. Joliii I.lUz. 

18.-.1 ."LnilifwCbarlea. 

18J3 I'liilip Weitzel. 

1855. William Black. 

lS2li. .lohli Gil.Uvell. 

1S6G-57. Robert Spencer. 

1S27. Rubert.Wall.n;(!. 

1.858. Adam Rosa Black. 

1823-29. Mc.\lli3tur. 

1859. Heniy Bear. 


lSCO-02. .lames LiDViU, 

IXM. WiUiiiin libick. 

1863. Mbbael Bonk. 

ISil. JuM.pll UulMUaU. 

1804. A. 11. Black. 

l.sll. iJuviJ Shirk. 

1805. William Smith. 

1S:15. Isa.ic Irwin. 

1800-07. Henry SpieU.ian. 

1810. J,.liu Mc^UisttT. 

1808-75. Jacob Ilil.iebr.iud. 

I.s:i7-J8. Jose|>li Iluwnmn. 

1870-78. C. Bachman. 

1S30. John CuUMuUy. 

1879. Joseph Bowman. 

1S4(M3. li,iwni;ii.. 

1880. Joseph HoU. 

H<44. John K. StuMor. 

1881-82. A. M. Ilerr. 

l.S45-4'J. Siiii.uel TuKiiJrt. 

1883. George W. Heusel. 

The following have bee 

1 members of the borough 


1810. James W hllehill. 

1817. George DilTeiibangh. 

1818. John Connelly. 

1819. John Gygei 

IKn Jl \,, iHl ,M McAllister. 

1827. John Connolly. 
1828-20. Andrew Cha 

1830. David Shirk. 

1831. John Connolly. 
1832-43. Abraham Sn 

1845-48. Joseph Bon 

Sampli-, Thomas Crawford, John Connelly, Robert Spenc 
lloll, Samuel Iloll, William IlanRe, Michael Johnston, A 
Charles, Peter Holl, Jr., George Miller, James Adams, Jo 
ly. William I;.iB,ell, Caleb Evalin, ArchibalJ McAllister. W 

Black, Kob< 

Bear, Jo 

etirgo Ditlenbaiigh, John Leit/.. John Fii 
aldwell, John Uarr, John .Markley,, Julm 
ranier, William, Ilngh McClnng, .lanics McChesiiey, Wil- 
am Glass, Samuel Shrov, William Smilli, Francis S. Bnrrowes, 
imcs Lyile, Jacob Hoover, Daniel Miller, James Blair. George 
ondersmilh, David Lniz, liobert Seaman, John Miller, George 
essler, David Wiley, John Sleacy, William Gniles, David Gyger, 
.lam L. liagy, James Whilehill, J..lin llai r, Amos Gilbert, Joseph 
ownian, Isaac Girvin, John Fullmer, John McAllister, lilac Rat'V, 
avid Kberly, George llollman, J.icob liower, Joseph Burk, James 
invill, Jame.s Mcl'liail, William Uussell, Joseph Goiider, David 
liirk.Jr.. D.iiiiel I'.lls. John Cioff, John JIurdock, John Moore, 



aggart, George HaUKhmttn, Samuel Shroy, 

Daniel Miller, Robeil K 

ans, William Giles, Klias Uhoier, Samuel 

Bower, John Sleel.Jacol 

Kborer, Willian, P. Uobinson, Alexander 

Sliult/., l..'Vi Waidley, Jo 

,„ Weriilv, W. J. S. Warren, Samuel Ken- 

„tV. .I-M.;.l, Holl,.I..M:lh 

llniio, Cha.les Foulk, Jacob Hoffman, 

John KilUuo, .I.ooU 111 

l,>>aU,,, Mlihael Book, Kndol|,l, Shavib, 

J, ,1,1, Smilh, A. .M llei 

,1'liii^t ll.icliuiali, Reuben Fellenbanm, 

Ge.H-e MaMial.l, Ficde 

i.l. .Myers, Miller Fcailk, J. G. Weaver, 

Isaac lloll, Daniel Potts, 

■hrist. Rowe, James Frew, J. F. Slicrlz, F. 

U. Mns»elio;oi, Henry 11 

,11, I. K. W.t.ner, Joseph D. Gonder, ller- 

vey lli.okbill.J">.ph .M 

I'olts, William 0. Bair, Isaac Groff, Flam 

The clerks liave be 


1810. Mai tin Fonts. 

j 18:10-38. Jacob Bower. 

1817-10. Joseph Cramer. 

1810. Samuel 1'. liower. 

18211-2.5. Geo, go Jliller. 

ls4(l-.57. Jacob Bower. 

1S2U-28. J. Ml I'll, ,11. 

185.8-02. Jacob llibh.biaml. 

1829-35. T. 11. Valroline, 

1.'m;3-83. Isaac Walker. 

The t.T;,.ine,s have 

been : 

ISlo-.'S. l.e,.iKeli..lll,.UM. 

1847-50. D.S.Warren, J. Wernlz. 

I.sJ')- ;o l,u,l> (OlMM. 

1851-55. John Wernl/. 


Tlie high constables 

have been : 

1810. Jul,,. M.irkley. 

18i;U-lil. Thoni, 

1S17. D.i„iul MilU-r. 

1802. William F 

1818. He„ry Mycr.. 

1SC3. ItoLert U 

1819-21. Micl,.'iBl Shli.dle. 

IbiH Jusi'i.l, W 

1822. Willian, C„,ni„ii,s. 

lfC5-72 Willii,, 

1823-31,. DaniL-l W.nJitz. 

1873. Sam„.^l K 

18.ll-:i3. Tli,j,.m8 ICigul-. 

' 1874. Cor^'eLu 

lS;i4-ll. Uariiul Wcnditz. 

1875-77. Williai 

1842-.i2. Tl,om,i3 Eafer. 

1878. Jul,,, Wi„ 

IS.W-oO. William Cummins. 

1879. Cl,ri^l,a„ 

18.i7-5S. Tlwniaa E.iger. 

: 1K8U-83. Juhu J 

1859. Heni-y Waidley. 

The fiiUowing have been the jiistici?^ 
ince the iiicorponitiun of the borough 

George HulTman, fiom 1810 I 
Joliu Markk-y, frum 1821 to 
Geurgo JKKiii„ey, elcctuJ i, 

Samuel !■ 


r, f.-on 


Jacob Hi 

l.-braml, fro 




He.iry G 






The past growth of the 
borough of Strasburg has 
been rather slow but sure, 
and while the number of 
houses has been increasing 
very slowly, those which 
are erected are of a su- 
perior order. The ta.xes ol 
the place, while not low, 
are certainly not high, 
compared with other cor- 
porations, and considering 
the fine educational and 
social advantages which 
the inhabitants enjoy. The 
number of inhabitants has 
stood at about eleven hun- 
dred for a number of years, 
but there are changes now 
being made which cer- 
tainly must increase the 

number very materially. The great need of the ] 
is better railroad facilites, which are likely t 
aflbrded at no distant day. In closing it is prop 
say that the past history of the town has been r: 
uneventful, and it is probably safe to ])redicl a 
perous future. 


The Book family i.s-of German descent. Midi 
the great-grand fallier of the subject of this ske 
emigrated from Wittenberg to this country near 

[ close of the eighteenth century. He was a shoemaker 
' by trade, but located in East Lampeter township, 
I wheie h^ eii..;aL'id in agricultural pursuits. His wife 
WIS Birbaia Book David Book, the oldest son of 
the eniigi uit, \\a> ilso a shoemaker by trade, and was 
burn No\ 2 1771. He married Catharine (born 
171, 'M diu^lit.r ol Achini Hoak, and had a large 
liinil> .,1 hil.lun viz., Daniel, born Feb. 10, 1793; 
Di\id, '-cpt 2), 1701; Catharine, Sept. 30, 17%; 
M ir\, Uct 8, 179b, Elizabeth, Jlay 17, ISOl ; John, 
Jin 30,1804, (ieorge, Ajiril 11,180U; Michael, Jan. 
2', ISU, Magdalena, April 5, 1813. 

(iLcirge Book learned the tradeof ashoemaker with 
hi~ I itlier, but -.pent his days in farming. In 1SG8 he 
] i,r( I, i-iil I -ill ill lanii about one mile east of Stras- 
burg village, which he oc- 
cii|,ied until his deatli, in 
1871). He was no aspirant 
liir public position, but 
lead a strictly moral, cor- 
rect, and modest life. His 
wife was Harriei (born 
j"\Iarch 11, 1814), daughter 
III' Philip ami liarbara 

.ship, and a representative 
ofoiie of the early families 
of Lancaster County, also 
of (lerman origin. 

Philip Geistjborn March 
7, 1 703, was the ancestor 
of the family in this coun- 
try, and left his native 
land to avoid compulsory 
military service. The 
children of George and 
Harriet Book are six in 
number, viz.: JIary, wife 
of John F. Wiggins, of 
Providence ; Jacob G., an 
extensive farmer in White- 
side County, III. ; Henry 
( ;. ; Levi L., principal of 
the high school at Al- 
toona, Pa. ; Benjamin F., a teacher in Strasburg 
borough; and Amanda, wife of Aldus Weaver, who 
occupies the homesteail farm with her mother. 

Henry G. Book was born in West Lampeter town- 
ship, on Feb. 20, 1843. His earlier years were passed 
in farming pursuits, and in attendance upon the dis- 
trict schools of his locality. He subsequently enjoyed 
the benefits of academicinstruction at the Millersville 
' State Normal School for two sessions. Immediately 
; after leaving school he engaged in teaching for 
si-x years in Strasburg township, and subsequently 
ailopted the profession of a surveyor and conveyancer, 
which has continued to occupy his time and attention 
ever since. He has transacted a large amount of 
I business in the drafting and execution of papers, and 







has surveyed many tracts of land in this section of 
Lancaster County. 

His .services are in constant demand, and he is one of 
the active, busy residents of a borouL'h tliat is remark- 
able for its quiet, rural simplicity. lie was elected jus- 
tice of the peace in 1873, and has since performed in a 
competent and satisfactory manner the various duties 
of that office. lie has acted as executor, adminis- 
trator, and guardian in many cases. He was elected 
chief burgess of Strasburg borough in 1881, and re- 
elected in 1882. He has always taken a deep interest 
in local and township affiiirs, supporting, with a lib- 
eral and progressive spirit, all movements tending to 
promote the interests of his locality. He married, 
Dec. 15, 1870, Annie, daughter of Adam and Susan 
Mowery, of Strasburg township, and has three ciiil- 
dren living at the present writing,. viz., Lillian M., 
Charles Edgar, aii.l Elsie G. Book. 

Providence, anc 
y, .Martie, Drum 

n por- 
e, and 

more familiarlv known, 


Jacob Hildebrand w^as born in East Hempfield 
township, Lancaster Co., on Nov. 16, 1822, His 
father was Jacob Hildebrand, a butcher by occui)a- 
tion, who passed his active business life in East Lam- 
peter and Paradise townships. His mother's maiden 
name was jAIary Heiny, and the children wlio com- 
pose the family are : John, a merchant at Neiv Provi- 
dence ; Jacob; Elizabeth, wife of John Wiker, of 
Muscatine, Iowa; Henry U., who is in trade at Bal- 
timore, INId.; G. James, an innkeeper at (iuarryville, 
Lancaster Co.; Susan, wife of Dr. Kendig, of Cones- 
toga Centre; Hoover IL, a farmer at Muscatine, Iowa; 
Louisa, wife of John P. Eager, of Strasburg; and 
Ella, wife of Sa[nuel Kendig, of Lancaster. 

The subject of this sketch was thrown u|)on his 
own resources at the early age of eight years, wlien 
he left his home and began the labors of life by work- 
ing ujjon a farm in Paradise (then Strasburg) town- 
ship for his board and clothes. Between the ages of 
thirteen and twenty he worked for Benjamin Herr, of 
the same township, and derived from him what little 
education he received, as well as habits of study and 
investigation which proved useful to him in all his 
subsequent career. He attended the district scliocd 
of the township for a few seasons only, lour days in 
each week. 

At the age of twenty-one he entered the cabinet- 
shop of Joel Rice, of Strasburg, for the purpose of 
learning the trade of a cabinet-maker, and remained 
in his employ for two years. At the expiration of 
thiit time he embarked in business for himself in 
Strasburg, and engaged in cabinet-making and car- 
pentering until 1852, when he established a str)re in 
the lower end of the village'and entered upon the life 
of a nicrchiwit. Two years later he removed to the 
east end of the village, and, forming a partnership 

with William S. Warren, engaged in trade for two 
years longer as Warren & Hildebrand, terminating 
that connection, however, and i)ursuing the occupa- 
tion of a contractor and carpenter until 18G2. In 
I8(l(t Jie was elected to the office of justice of the 
peace, and immediately began to familiarize himself 
witli the higher duties of the station, discouraging 
petty and vexatious litigation, and applying himself 
to the study of surveying, conveyancing, and the 
drafting of wills and other papers. He has continued 
to hold the office of justice ever since. In 1S71 he 
was elected county surveyor of Lancaster County on 
the Republican ticket, and held that office for three 
years and a half. During that period he prepared, 

i with great labor and careful research, connected drafts 
of the lan<l originally derived by patent in the pres- 
ent townships of Strasburg, Paradise, East and West 
Lampeter, Bart, Eden, and 
tions of Salisbury, S;uMmi 

Squire Hildebrand, as he 
is recognized as one of the most substantial and use- 
ful of the citizens of Strasburg. From a small be- 
ginning, with scarcely any educational advantages, 
by [latient industry and study, he advanced to a posi- 
tion of honor and trust in the community, and has 
transacted a large amount of important business, act- 
ing as executor, administrator, and guardian in many 
cases. He has surveyed a large i)ortion of the county, 
and is familiar with the metes and bounds of many 
important tracts of land. He served as chief burgess 
of Strasburg from 1875 to 1880, and has been a con- 
sistent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church of 
that borough since 18G1, holding an official relation 
to that body for many years. He has always taken a 
deep interest in all movements tending to develop 
and strengthen the institutions of his locality, and 
has been a member of the Independent Order of Odd- 
Fellows since 4849, and a Master Mason since 1851. 
He was a member of the building committee in the 
erection of the town hall, and has participated in 
other local improvements. 

From 1863-71 he owned and operated an excellent 
job-otlice in the borough, which he purchased to pre- 
vent its being removed from town, and succeeded in 
making it a pernutnent and successful integer in the 
industries of the borough. He was married on Nov. 
IG, 1847; to Elizabeth Spiehlman, who died in 1866, 
leaving children as follows: Elizabeth A., wife of 
Finn Elliott, of Lancaster ; Mary E., wife of William 
Journey, of Lancaster ; William W., a cigar-manu- 
facturer in Strasburg; Millard F., a brickmaker in 
the same place; EUie S., wife of Samuel Dougherty, 
of Columbia; John R., residing at home; Ole I., wife 
of D. Miller Aumcnt, of Strasburg; Laura K., living 
at home; Sallie B., wife of J. N. Goodman, of Stras- 
burg; and James 11. Hildebrand, residing at home. 
On Nov. 21, 1S66, he married Eli/.a Kendig, widow of 

I .h.lin I'eiiiiell, of Strasburg, wh.i is his present wife. 


William W. and James R. Hililebraml, his sons, and 
John N. Goodman, his son-in-law, are engaged ex- 
• tensively in the manufacture of cigars at Strasburg, 
under the firm-name of Hildebrand & Co. 



At the November session of the court in Lancaster 
County, 1743, the citizens of Sadsbury petitioned for 
a division of that township, and the court appointed 
Calvin Cooper, George Leonard, Sr., Samuel Ramsey, 
Robert Wilson, and James j\Iiller, citizens of that 
township, to divide it. They accomplished their 
work in the spring of 1744. The name of the town- 
ship was derived from the titular appendage to the 
name of Sir William Keith (Baronet, abbreviated to 
Bart.), who was Governor of the province from 1717 
to 1726, ill which time the township was settled. 

The first settlers were mostly Presbyterians from 
Scotland and from the north of Ireland, the latter 
known by the name of Scotch-Irish. They emi- 
grated by thousands to Pennsylvania, and many of 
them settled among the Friends in "Old Sadsbury," 
where tlie jirinciples of civil and religious liberty were 
in full operation. A historian has truly testified "that 
a more intelligent, virtuous, and resolute class of men 
never settled any country." They have ever been the 
stanch friends of liberty, and of everything else that 
could elevate the character or promote the welfare of 
society. Tliey were tlie most efficient supporters of 
the American cause during tlie great struggle for 
independence, and they have comj)arativoly done as 
much for the support of learning, morality, and re- 
ligion as any other class of people. In these respects 
their descendants, who still iidiabit this township, are 
not excelled by the people in any other section of the 

Eden was set off from Bart in 1855. The bounda- 
ries of the township as at present constituted are on the north, Sadsbury on the east. Cole- 
rain on 'the south, and Eden on the west. It has 
a length of five miles, an average width (jf three and 

hundred and sixty acres. 

A short distance south from the middle of this 
township the great Chester Valley crosses it from east 
to west. North and south from this valley the sur- 
face is) rolling, like that of the other townships in the 
southern part of the county. The soil, esjiecially in 

the( l.>>t 

this latitude 

Nickel-Mine Run and Meeting-House Run, with 
their atiluents, water the northern and middle por- 
tions of the township. They unite toward the 
southern, boundary to form one fork of the west 
branch of the Octorara. These streams not only 
water the fai'ins through which they pass, but afford 
excellent water-power. 

The State road between McCall's Ferry and Park- 
ersburg, which passes through the Chester Valley, 
is the most important thoroughfare in this township, 
and prior to the advent of railroads its importance 
was much greater than at present. North and south 
from this road the township is crossed from east to 
west by roads, and two princijial highways pass 
through it from north lo south, though the eastern- 
most one is somewhat tortuous. 

Iron, — Near the Green-Tree tavern, on the farm 
of William Rakestraw, an iron-mine was opened some 
years since by the PhaMiixville Iron Company. It 
was worked by this company during several years, 
and the ore was taken in wagons to Christiana, from 
which point it was carried by rail to the company's 
works near Philadelphia. The expense of transpor- 
tation to Christiana juade the production of ore un- 
profitable, and the mines CMri>eiiuentIy ceased to be 

Nickel-Mines.^— According to authentic history, 
the (iap mineshad been workedfor theircopperpriorto 
the year 1744, and from traditions of the neighborhood 
they were first discovered about 1718. For eighty or 
ninety years after their discovery they were worked 
at intervals by four or five dill'erent companies; but 
none of those companies ever found sufficient copper 
to pay expenses, and consequently they would work 
them at a loss for a time and then let tlieni stand idle 
till new parties would start them up again. 

In 1849, after the mines had been idle thirty or forty 
years, a stock-company was formed under the name of 
the Gap Mining Conipany to work them again for cop- 
jjer. They operated on a rather larger scale than the 
previous companies ; put up a twenty-five horse-power 
steam-engine for pumping and hoisting, employed a 
number of miners and laborers, and found consider- 
able copper ore, which they sold to copper smelters 
in Boston and Baltimore, but there was not nearly 
enough to pay the expenses of working the mines. 
Nothing was then known here of nickel, although in 
mining coppep large <piaiitilies of nickel ores were 
mined along with it and thrown away as worthless. 
It was called by the miners mundic (sulphuret of 
iron), a very plentiful and nearly worthless mineral. 

In the beginning of 1852 the present superinten- 
dent of these works came to the Gap mines to work 
as a minef. He immediately discovered that what 
was termed mundic, and thrown away as worthless, 

;iiis le 



being sent to Boston and Baltimore, but tlie analysis 
at these [)lace3 was not satisfactory. Finally, in the 
latter part of 1852 or the l)i.-ginning of 1853, a sam- 
ple was sent to Professor F. A. Gentli, a celebrated 
chemist of Philadelphia, who made an analysis of it, 
and pronounced it nickel, and gave the percentage 
of pure nickel in the ore. 

At this point the Gap copper mines changed to 
Gap nickel mines. The Gap Mining Company mined 
the nickel ore, and sold it to a .separate company, 
which smelted the ore during a time in Philadelphia. 
A year or two later another separate company erected 
smelting-works about three-quarters of a mile north 
of the mines. They bought the ore from the Gap 
Mining Company, and smelted it there, but the smelt- 
ing of nickel proved un]irofitable, consequently the 
smelting-works changed hands several times, with 
considerable loss to the owners. In 1859 the Gap 
Mining Company bought these smelting-works, and 
smelted their own ore, but in 18G0, finding that I 
neither mining, nor smelting, nor both together ' 
would come near paying expenses, they closed the j 
whole concern, mines, smelting-works, and all. I 

This finished the Gap Jlining Company's opera- i 
tions; they never worked it again. It remained idle 
two years; the mines filled with water, which ran out 
at the top of the shafts, engines and oilier machinery 
rusting out, furnaces and stocks which were nearly 
worn out before now decaying and crumbling to the 
ground. Such was the condition of things when the 
present proprietor, Joseph Wharton, Esq., a Phila- 
delphia Quaker, took hold of it in November, 1SG2. 
He at that time bought of the Gap Mining Comjiany 
one-half of the concern, and leased the other half for 
a term of years; but shortly aflerwarils he bought 
the other half also, thus becoming the owner of the 
whole concern, mines, smelting-works, machinery and 
all. He iminedialely commenced repairing the ma- 
chinery, pum[)cd the water out of the mines, rebuilt 
the furnaces and stacks, and by May, 18G2, got into 
operation the mining and refining of nickel. it 
should be stated here that at the time Mr. Wharton 
bought the mines and furnaces he also piirrhaseil a 
large manufacturing establishment in Camden, N. J., 
uiul fitted it up for a nickel refinery; for be it re- 
iiiembercd that when the metal leaves Gap Furnaces 
it is not nearly pure, only a part of the dross or 
worthless matter has been taken out; in that ccjiidi- 
tion it is called ma«e, and is shipped to the refinery 
at Camden, where it goes through many processes, 
requiring much time, labor, and skil^ to bring out the 
pure nickel. In fact, the processes are so tedious and 
complicated that many months elapse after the ore is 
mined before finished nickel is produced therefrom. 
By his jiersevcrance Mr. Wharton has overcome all 
obstacles, built up one of the most nearly compKie 
nickel establishments in the -world, and by enii.'\ 
and economy was made the mining and makiii- ..I' 
nickel in America a successful indnslry, thus bringing 

many thousands of dollars monthly into Lancaster 

The establishment is now ' G:\\} Nickel-Mines and 
Furuaces," owned and worked by Joseph Wharton, 
of Philadelphia, Capt. Charles Doble, superintendent. 
The mines are situated in Bart township, and the 
smelting-works are about three-quarters of a mile 
north from them in P.iradisc township. The mine 
tract in Ban township contains four hundred and 
fifty acres,' and the furnace tract in Paradise ninety 
acres. There are on these properties a large mansion- 
house at the mines, where the superintendent of the 
works resides, a large store and dwelling (White Hall 
store) near tiie mines, twenty-three tenant-houses, oc- 
cupied by the workmen, five barns, stables, sheds, etc. 
A township school-house is near the mines, and a 
commodious Episco|)al Church, erected in 1857, stands 
within the limits of the mine tract, the site for the 
church and cemetery having been donated by the Gap 
Mining Company. 

When in full operation about one hundred and fifty 
hands are employed in the mines, fifty at the furnaces, 
and one hundred in the refinery. The mines are 
opened out on the vein in length, by shafts and tun- 
nels, about two thousand feet, and the deepest jioint 
attained is two hundred and thirty-five feet. There 
are si-\ shafts ranging from one hundred to two hun- 
dred and thirty-five feet in depth, and a few others 
from si.xty to eighty feet deep. All these shafts are 
vertical. The ore is rarely found in paying quanti- 
ties nearer than si.\ty feet to the surface. There are 
two steam-engines at the mines, one a low-pressure 
Cornish pumpingengine of one hundred horse-iiower, 
for pumping water out of the mines, the other a 
twenty-five horse-power, for hoisting the ore and rub- 
bish o'ut of the mines. 

The veinstone, or rock matter, mixed with the ore, 
is a dark-colored, highly crystalline hornblende, con- 
siderable ([uaiitities of which are mined and hoisted 
with the ore. Alter it is mined the ore is brought 
through the to the hoisting shafts in small 
ears carrying about a ton each. It is then hoisted to 
the surface in large iron buckets carrying about one 
thousand pounds each, or in square wooden boxes 
("skills") carrying each double that quantity. After 
the ore is brought to the surface it is prepared for the 
smelting-works by breaking the large lumps with 
heavy sledges and (licking out the rock or refuse 
matter, washing and liand-picking the middle size, 
and "jigging" (a process of se|iarating the rock matter 
from the ore by the difference in their specific gravity ) 
the finer panicles. After it is thus prepared it is 
taken to the snielting-worksand broken by machinery, 


i.^tinu' kilns and set on fire to drive 





smelting brings out a kind of concentrated ore called j 
matte, which comes from the furnaces in a liquid slate i 
and is cast in sand moulds into jiigs, like pig-iron from 
an iron-furnace. This pig-matte is next reduced by [ 
machinery to a coarse powder, then pui into barrels ( 
(one tiiousand pounds in a barrel) and shipped to 
the refinery in Camden. 

There are two twenty-five horse- power steam-engines 
at the smelting-works. One drives the blast-cylinders j 
which give air to the furnaces, and the other drives i 
the rock-breaker and Cornish crusher. There are i 
four blast-furnaces, but only two in blast at a time, i 
There are also a cooper-shop, a blacksmith shop, and i 
a wagon-shop. Seven hundred tons of ore per month 
are mined and smelted at these works. 1 

Downing Mill.— About one mile below the Green ; 
Tree Inn, on the west branch of Octorara Creek, is 
still standing a house on the end of which is the date 
of its erection, 1747. Ne:.r this house stand the black- ! 
ened walls of a grist-mill that was built in the same ! 
year by Samuel Downing, who was then the owner 
of the land there. The mill was the property of Mr. i 
Downing till his death, after which the Hurfords 
purchased it, and in 1830 rebuilt it. From them it 
passed to Eli Kerns, and subsequently it became the 
property of his son, Horatio Kerns, I'rom wliom it 
passed to the Heyburgers, who owned it when it was 
burned, in 1877, and who still own the property. i 

A mile and a half below this mill, on the same 
stream, another was built early in the present renluvy 
by Gen. James Caldwell. It wassubM'.|uenlly buinrd, 
and was rebuilt by Maris Kerns, who had hcromo 
the owner. It is now owned and operated by David 
Jackson. It is a framed structure, with two runs uf 

A saw-mill is attached to this mill. 

Georgetown Mill— In ITGo, IVli.v Haughman 
purchased from the proprietaries of the province the 
land on which this mill stands, about half a mile t 
southeast from Georgetown, on the west branch of | 
Octorara Creek. In the latter part of the last cen- 
tury a saw-mill was erected at this point either by 
Felix Baughman or George Baughman, his son, and 
not long afterward a small grinding-mill was added 
to it. To this, in 1817, an addition was made, and 
two runs of burr-stones for grinding wheat were put 
in it. In 1803 tbe properly passed into the hands of 
James Baxter, and it was sold by the sheriff to James 
Downing in 1816, by him to William Downing in 
1826, and by him to Morris Cooper in 1834. In 1842, 
Mr. Cooper erected the present grist- and saw-mill a 
short distance farther down the stream, and demol- 
ished the original mill, which was built mostly of 
slone. This mill has remained without material 
alteration till the present time. It is a large stone 
building, and it has three runs of stones and all the 
necessary machinery for merchant and grist work. It 
is worthy of remark that the original overshot w.itcr- 
wheels which were placed in this nilll when il was 

built are still there in a good state of preservation, 
without even the buckets having been removed. In 
1S.J.3 the mill became the property of Jeremiali 
Coo|ier, the son of Jlorris, and it was purchased by 
Harvey jClendeiining, the present owner, in 1SS3. 

Woolen-Factory.— In 1842, William P. Cooper, a 
brother of Morris Cooper, built a woolen-mill on 
West Branch, one-fourth of a mile down the stream 
from Georgetown mill. It was built of stone, and 
had two sets of machinery for the manufacture of 
woolen cloth and satinet. Mr. Cooper operated this 
mill till 1862, when the wood-work and machinery 
were destroyed by lire. It was at once rebuilt by Jlr. 
Cooper and sold to James Bond, who placed in it 
modern machinery and operated it till 1876, since 
when it has not been in u>c. It is now the property 
of Jeremiah Cooper. 

Schools.— In 1S34, soon after the en.actment of the 
school law, its provisions were accepted by the town- 
ship of Bart, and excellent schools have since been ■ 
maintained. The township now cori>ists of six sub- 
districts, named as follow. : Nickel Mines, in the 
northern part; the Geoiyctown District, in the cen- 
tral portion; Mount riea^ant, in the western pari; 
Mars Hill, ill the southwest; tlie Brick SchooMIouse 
District, in the south ; and Harmony, in the southern 
central part. In the Nickel Mines District the school- ' 
house is a wootlen building. In the Georgetown Dis- ^ 
trict are two houses, one of which is of stone. The 
.Mount I'leasiint District has a house. All the 


Willhini II 
■L- tan-ht, Ml 
ireparalioi, , 


■crage ye 


d near Gr 

1 tl 

is school 


I tent 

quite prosperous, and was kept up till the removal of 
Mr. and Mrs. Cwxl Iroiii the locality in 1881. 

Octorara United Presbyterian Church.'— The 
congregation of the Octorara United Presbyterian ; 
Church in Bart has a house of worship on a plat of 
ground that is on the Valley road, one mile from the 
village of Georgetown, and that was deeded for 
church purposes by the heirs of William Penn. 

The society was organized Oct. 20, 1754. There 
are no records of the names of members, etc., until 
Rev. Eastoii took charge of this congregation, in con- 
nection with the congregations of Oxford and Muddy 
Run, in 1827. At that lime there were thirty-seven 
members. Thi:# congregation originally belonged to 
the Associate Church of Scotland, better known by 
some as Seceders. It became United Presbyterian 
when 'that body originated, in 1858. It had the one 
pastor for filty-two years. In April, 1880, the con- 
gregation called its present pastor, Rev. David An- 
derson. The membership is now seventy-three. In 

I Uy 

U. AiMlun 



1882 a parsonage was erected at a cost of nearly two 
thousand five liundred dollars, and to this a few acres 
of ground are attaclied, making a comfortable home 
and surroundings for the pastor. The church edifice 
is of stone, built about thirty-five years since, with a 
seating capacity of two hundred. There is also a 
small session liouse attached, altogether worth abuut 

I' five liundred dollars. 

f:_ A graveyard began to be used liere about 1800, tlie 

' earliest members having been buried in the grave- 

( yard of the church, just across the road, that holds 

i the bulk of the land deeded. In this cemetery lie 

j the body of Rev. Robert Annan, one of the pioneer 

missionaries from Scotland, who died in December, 

1819; also that of Rev. William Easton, D.D., with 

his two wives and his s(m. Dr. Easton, who died 

h while quite young in liis practice. These grounds of 

^ course hold many honored dead, among them mini.^- 

L ters of the gospel who spent their early years among 
! this people. ■ 

Middle Octorara Presbyterian Church.'— From 
about 1710 to 1775, a great number of people for 
various reasons emigrated to America from the 
north of Ireland, and quite a large part of these 
lauded at Philadelphia, Pa., and at New Castle, Del. 
From these ])oints they spread north and west into 

i; and beyond what is now Lancaster IJuunty. Part (}|' 
these settled' in the section of tlie lounty in which 
Middle Octorara Church is now located. The por- 
tion of these adhering to the Presbyterian Church 
were probably first ministered to occasionally by Rev. 
David Evans, who preached for a time as a supply at 
Up|)er Octorara, where a church was organized about 
1720. The section of country now occupied by the 
Middle Octorara Church was then within the. bounds 

, of the Upper Octorara Church. In 1724, Rev. Adam 
Boyd was ordained and installed first regular pastor at 
Upper Octorara Church. About 1727 the families on 
the west side of Octorara Creek sought an organiza- 
tion, and hence Jliddle Octorara Church was organ- 
ized. They asked for one-third of Mr. Boyd's time, 
promising towards his salary fifty pounds, but on 
account of the distance and the demand for his ser- 
vices elsewhere he was directed to si)enil every sixth 
Sabbath at Middle Octorara. This Mr. Boyd did, as 
a supply, until about 1730. Who preached' for sev- 
eral years after Mr. Boyd ceased the writer has not 
been able to learn. On Nov. 18, 1735, Rev. Alex- 
ander Craighead was ordained and installed as the 
first regular pastor of this church. What was the 
length of his pastorate or who immediately succeeded 
him the writer has not been able to learn, as he has no 
records of the church for forty years. Mr. Craighead 
died in 171)0, but he had left this church years before. 
In 1780, Rev. Nathaniel W. Sample became pastor 
of Middle Octorara, in connectioji with the church at 
Lancaster and Leacock, dividing his time equally 

1 By Rev. W. G. Cuirnee, piiator. 

! between the three churches. He remained .pastor 

about forty years, or until 1821, and was succeeded by 

1 Rev. Jose[ili Barr, who was elected pastor of Lea- 

I cock and JNIiddle Octorara, May, 1S22, and installed 

: 3Iay 0, 18:i>. This pastorate continued until Sent. 

17, 1844, when it was dissolved by the Presbytery of 

Donegal, on account of the health of Mr. Barr. 

The next pastor was Rev. Solomon McNair, who 
was ordained and installed May 8, 1846. He was re- 
; leased by Presbytery in 1853 ('?), and in November, 
j 1853, Rev. Joseph M. Rittenhouse was ordained and 
installed pastor. He continued in this relation until 
Sept. 23, 1873. He was followed by Rev. W. .J. 
Henderson, who was installed Oct. 9, 1874, and con- 
tinued as pastor until Oct. 6, 1876, when, at his own 
request, on account of his health, he was released. 

Rev. W. G. Cairnes, the present pastor, entered 
up(jn his ministry among this peoi)le April, 1877, and 
was regularly installed pastor May 3, 1878. 

During the jiastorate of the Rev. Alexander Craig- 
head a tract of land containing about one hundred 
acres was conveyed by a deed dated June 20, 1738, 
by John, Thomas, and Richard Penn to Henry 
Work, Alexander Craighead, Robert Matthews, and 
Hugh Barclay, " for the use of the Presbyterian con- 
; gregation dwelling near the same." This tract of 
land is still in po.,,r.-,>i,,n ..f the Middle Ottc.rara 

Presbyterian Church and i)arsonage now stand, 
which was conveyed to that church for that purpose. 
The present church building, which is a >.to[ie 
structure, and was erected before the beginning of 
the present century, stands on this tract of land. It 
' is capable of seating about three hundred jieople. A 
parsonage also was erected near by the church during 
the time Rev. j\Ir. McNair was pastor. A dwelling 
for the former was erected in 1882. 

An extensive graveyard is connected with the 
church, to wliich additions have been made from 
time to time as tliere was need. In it many of 
I those who have resided in the neighborhood have 
been buried, some who in their generation were prom- 
I inent in the church and community. In the older 
I part of the yard very few of the graves have stones 
I with inscriptions. The stone bearing the oldest date 
is that erected to the grave of William Barclay. The 
full inscription is, " Here lies the bodies of William 
Barclay and 'Mary, his wife. He departed this life 
1 October, 1732, aged sixty-three years, and she Octo- 
ber, 1757, aged eighty-eight years." 

Beneath a marble slab (which is now, 1883, in a 
j broken condition) lie the remains of Rev. John 
! Cuthbertspn, the first Reformed Presbyterian min- 
I isler who preached in America. He was a Scotch- 
man, and landed Aug. 5, 1751, at New Castle, Del. 
He preached his first sermon in America at the house 
' of a Mr. Jose|ili Ross, who is thought to have resided 

0, 1751, 




home, after his settlement in this country, about two 
miles from the Octorara Church. He preached at 
Octorara, Muddy Run, Pequea, in Lancaster County, 
and also extended his labors into Dauijhin, Adams, 
Cumberland, Franklin, Fulton, and York Counties, 
and made a visit to the western part of the State, and 
to Xew York State. The graveatone boars the fol- 

"Hero liM the Body of the 

Rev. JoliQ Cutlili-rlaon, 

^Vha, after a labor of about 40 years in thh miuidtry of the Gospel anions 

the Dissenting Coveiiantura of America, tlep.u tuJ this life lOlh 

of March, 1701. in the 75 year. .f his age. 

Among the other old stones are the following names 
and dates: 

William Barclay, Jr., who died ^Lly 23, 1757, aged 
forty-eight years. 

John Cunningham, who died Sept. 10, 17-57, aged 
thirty-one years. 

John Barclay, who departed this life Jan. 4, 17l>5, 
aged sixty-tive years. 

JIary JlcClure, wlio died Oct. 12, 1758, aged sixty- 
three years. 

William ilcClure, who died 17(iS, aged seventy 

Samuel Anderson, Esq., who died Sept. 10, 17G4, 
aged sixty-four years. 

The following persons, who served in the Revolu- 
tionary war, are known to liave been buried in tliis 
yard : 

John Caughey, Sr., Jose|)h Tweed, R jbert Bailey, 
James Thom|;son, and John .Mcl'luri.-. 

Also the following, who serveil in (lie lsl2 war: 
' John Caughey, Jr., William McC^ray, Henry Byre, 
William Sampson, James JMcCord, William Boone, 
Andrew Thompson, and William McCUire. 

Also the following, who served in the late civil war : 

Capt. Samuel Buone, (ieorge W. Good, Lewis Find- 
ley, Lewis Kaughman, Benjamin Young, and Jacob 

Also Edwin M. Martin, M.D., who served as an as- 
sistant surgeon in the United States navy from April 
12, 1875, until the time of his death, .\.ug. 20, 1878. 

There are no sessional records of Middle Octorara 
Church previous to the settlement of the Rev. Joseph 
liarr, in 1823, known to the writer, and hence no 
definite information can be ascertained in regard to 
the elders previous to that date. When Mr. Barr en- 
tered on his ministry the following were elders : John 
Patterson, Francis .McKnight, Alexander Morrison, 
James Steel. Robert Patterson, Samuel Morrison, 
and Samuel Paxton. On Sept. 11, 1831, Cornelius 
Collins, Thomas ^lorgan, Stephen Heard, Francis 
Caughey, and Alexajider W.Morrison were ordained 
elders. In 1840, John A. Love, Benjamin Fite, Jacob 
Ritz, and Robert Ferguson Were added to the ses-ion ; 
aUo the following "at times: William \\...,u^, 
Thomas Ferguson, .\dam Drauckt-r, Peter Baii^li- 

I man, Samuel Ressler, William McElwain, Lewis H. 

I Linville, Hervey Baughman, an<l Milton Heidle- 

I baugh. 

I Methodist Episcopal Church at Georgetown.'— 
A society of tlie .Methodist Episcopal Church was in 

j existence at Georgetown as early as 1830, and services 

I were regularly held at private residences. Among 
the first active members were George Rockey, Solo- 

j mon Hamar, and Adam Hess, who was the class- 

At a meeting of the Quarterly Conference, held at 

I Columbia, Nov. 24, 1832, for Strasbnrg and Columbia 
Circuit, Christopher Masters, Solomon Hamar, and 
Charles Bender were appointed a committee to esti- 
mate the expense of building a house of worship on 
James Caldwell's land, near Georgetown. 

They proceeded to erect the church, which was 
completed and dedicated in 1833. It was a stouo 
structure, with a seating capacity of two hundred and 
forty. The dedicatory services were performed by 
Thomas Miller, who was preacher in charge. It was 
named Salem Jlethodist Episcopal Church. They ■ 
made a graveyard on this church lot. This house 
continued in use until 1876, when it was taken down, 
and the present church edifice was erected on its site. 
This is a frame building forty-five by sixty-five feet, 

including two convenient class-roc 
four thousand dollars. 

This society has always been 
meiit. The circuits to which it 1 
been altered from time to time as 
stances have reiiuired. In 1830 

ins. It cost about 

I circuit appoint- 
las belonged have 
changing circum- 
it wa-s under the 
harge of Strasburg Circuit, and the circuit preachers 
,-ere D.tvid Be,t and X.itlianiel Chew; in 1831-32 
it was included iu Strasburg and Columbia Circuit, 
j and the circuit preachers were Thomas Miller, Elipba- 
! let Reed, Richard Tliomas, Robert E. Morrison, and 
I John Edwards; in 1833 it was connected with Sou- 
dersburg CirculL and the circuit preachers Thomas 
Miller and William Ryder. Ministers have since 
served this society, viz. : Revs. John Lednum, R. E. 
Morrison, John Edwards, J. A. Watson, R. Ander- 
son, Dallas D. Lore, E. R. Williams, G. Oram, Val- 
entine Gray, Jonas Bissey, Samuel Grace, G. D. Car- 
row, Henry Sutton, Allen John, William Rink, J. B, 
Dennison, Charles Harsner, G. W. Lybrand, W. W. 
Michael, B. T. String, J. C. Wood, Alex. Wiggins, J. 
Aspril, William Downey, J. Amthor, J. A. Cooper, 
E. C. Yerke-s, L. D. McClintock. 

This society is now associated with the churches of 
Gap and Christiana. These three con.stitute George- 
town and Gap (circuit, and have for their minister 
Rev. L. D. MeClint.iik. This church has generally 

hundred and Iwcnly, Tluie !■- a lluuri^l.ingSunday- 

Tlie trustees :ire IV-ter Pickel, William Phenc'Mr, 



Jesse McAllister, Setli Tlioiuas, David L. Keiser, 
Samuel H. TowhomkI, John V. Leech, Suiniu'l ll.lin, 
Thomas ^Villiallls. 

Protestant Episcopal Church at Gap Mines.'— 
May 4, 18.')G, on invitation from Capt. John Williams, 
Capt. Charles Dohle, and others, Rev. Dr. IS. 1!. Kil- 
likelly, rector of All Saints' Church,, and 
Christ Church, Leacock, Lancaster Co., Pa., held 
■ evening service, and preached in the carpenter-shop 
at Gap Mines. This and subsequent meetings tor 
divine worship in the carpenter-shop led to and re- 
sulted in a business meeting, held Aug. 26, 1S5G, at 
the residence of Capt. Williams, when it wa.s an- 
nounced that the Gap Mining Company had offered 
to donate a lot of two acres of land, eligibly situated 
for a church and graveyard; and it wa^ then decided 
that Gap Jlining Company's offer be accepted, and 
that trustees be appointed to solicit subscriptions for 
the building of the said church, whereupon the fol- 
lowing-named persons were duly appointed, viz., Dr. 
B. B. Killikelly, of Paradise; James Hopkin.s, of 
Gap; Adam K. Witnier, of Paradise; Francis Lytle, 
of Bart; John Showaker, of Bart; and Capt. Wil- 
liams, of Gap Mines. 

At a meeting of the trustees, held Aug. 26, L856, 
Capt. Williams was elected president, and Francis 
Lytle, secretary; and at the same meeting Dr. Killi- 
kelly and John Showaker were added to the numljcr 
of trustees, to form with them a building committee. 

The building committee, encouraged by the favor 
the enterprise met with, coi\cluded to build the church 
of stone, thirty by si.xty feet, after the early English 
pointed style. 

On Sept. 14, 1857, the corner-stone was laid in the 
presence of about live hundred persons; and on Dec. 
25, 1857, the builditig, although uncompleted, was so 
far advanced as to allow of divine service being cele- 
brated in it, which was accordingly done bv the Rev. 
Dr. Killikelly. 

On April 5, 1858, Easter Monday, the organization 
of a parish, according to the rites and usages of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of | 
North America, to be known as the parish of Grace 1 
Free Church, Gap Jlines, Lancaster Co., Pa., was 
completed, and the ibllowing seven persons were duly \ 
elected vestrymen, to serve one year from that time, ' 
viz., John Showaker, John Williams, Francis Lytle, 
William W^ Withers, George Pogson, David Simp- 
son, and James Martin. John Showaker and John 
Williams were elected church wardens, and James 
Martin secretary of the vestry. On the same day the i 
vestry duly elected the Rev. Dr. 15. B. Killikelly rec- | 
tor of the church and parish. ' 

On Sept.'27, 1858,the church being completed and 
furnished, was dedicated by the Ri-ht Rev. Samuel I 
Bowman, D.D., assistant bishop of the iliocese of 
Pennsylvania, the wardens and vestry assuming the 

outstanding debts against the church so that the 
church could \>e consecrated. Those debts were soon 
after paid <;ff 

Jo^in Showaker, a vestryman and warden, who had 
been so instrumental in the building of the cJiurch, 
was the first to he laid in the new graveyard. He 
was buried there on Dec. 1, 1S59. 

On Nov. 1(1, 1860, a charter for the church was ob- 
tained trom the Lancaster County court. 

Besides the before-named vestrymen the following- 
named persons of the neighborhood have been vestry- 
men at some period since tlie organization of the 
parish, viz.: Levi A. Fogle, E. W^ Coffin, John Hey- 
berger, Esq., James Greer, Joseph Donoghue, Wil- 
liam Nelson, William C. Lytle, Leonard Picket, J. 
William Showaker, Isaac Smith, John Leech, Jr., 
and John M. Putter. 

The original members were Capt. John W^illiams 
an.l wife, Davis Simpson and wife, John Showaker, 
Mi-s Jane Gossner, James Martin, William W. 
Withers, Miss Ann Withers, Mrs. Francis Lytle, 
Cieorge Pogson and wife, and possiblv one or two 

The following have been the rectors : Rev. Dr. B. B. 
Killikelly (from the beginning to 1863), Rev. William 
A. White, Rev. Mr. Ash, Rev. Mr. Brouse (from 1872 
to 1875), Mr. Burrows (from 1875 to 1870), Rev. 
Henry C. Pastoriu^ and from 1879 to the present 
time. Rev. J. Harding. 

The present vestrymen are John Hocking, Henry 
Conner, Samuel A. Hughes, Esq., Thomas H. Webb, 
Christian J. Rapp, John B. Murr.ay, and Capt. Charles 
D<,ble. The wardens are Christian J. Rapp an.l Capt. 
Doble; Sccretarv, John Hocking; Treasurer, Capt. 

The church was built by voluntary contributions, 
and it is free of debt. Seating capacity, two hundred. 
Pews free. Value, two thousand d.dlars. Services, 
alternate Sundays in the afternoon. Sunday-school is 
held in the church six months in each year; averaee 
attendance, eighty. Ollicers of the Sunday-school, 
John Hocking, superintendent; Thomas H. Webb, 
librarian ; and Ca[it. Doble, secretary and treasurer. 

Settlers in Bart.— The following were inhabitants 

.<Lithiir.\nJiew=.. Sari.uul CouU«r. 


Williiim I 
Siiniuel [I 
WUIiaii. ] 

Duvid lUiinith. 
HieroDyniiis lleckniE 
llonry Heidclboiigli. 





Henry Heckm.ui. 
Put.icfc Henry. 
J.icub Hickuraii. 

Patrick McTire 
Henry Miller. 
Pady McCherry 
J.din McCarter. 

Jiiniea Ili.rvey. 

Francis McHrld 

Jiimus Ilnalon. 
TTiiCriel llolmes. 
Richard Ivers. 

Henry Null. 
William Noble. 

Sllimiel Jenkins. 
Samnel Kyle. 
Dounken ICiiniin. 

Ow.n O'Neil. 
Samnel I'uxton. 
.\ndre« Paxton 

Thomus Ivunudy. 
Daniel Kiiniidy. 

John Paxton. 

Tln.inas Lackey. 
Lawrence Liskey. 

Si, mud Itamsey,erl Itumsey 

George Leonard. 
Jacob Loaey. 
James Laskey. 
William McClure. 

Thomas liamsey 
Uoh.rt llnmsey 
Daniel UeeJ. 
W.Uiam Itichar 

Arcliil.aUl McDowoll. 

John Richsldso 

James McClure. 

.\i,dr,.«- liusicd. 

Wilhani Mailing. 
Jolm McCarlei. McCarter. 

Ih-njy Hotkey. 
1%-t.r Sli.arer. 

entee of six huiulred acres ardiind Georgetown; 
William MfCliire, the greal-gramirather of Joseph 
McClure, near Green Tree inn, 1750; John Noble, 
William Laughlin, Josiah Kern, Ale.xantler Mc- 
Dowell, Alexander Works, William Brasson, Thomas 
Smith, James Laughlin, Ale.xan(ler Gallutly," Joseph 
Miller, James JliUer, Henry Eekman, Jacob Eck- 
iiian, 1703; Abraham Behm, Jacob Behm, 1757; Ben- 
jamin Graff, 171)8; Samuel Johnson, 1769; Patrick 
Ewing, a justice of the peace in 1777, and in 1784 
elected a councilor; Gottlieb Hartman, Rev. Juliii 
Smith, John Culhertson, 1780; William Richardson, 
Andrew Miller, 1790; Robert Risk, George Jlilhirt, 

The following is a list of non-associators that were 
assessed three ])(junds ten shillings each in 1777: 


Alexan.ler Mays, 
Martin Miller. 
Isaiah McUride. 
George Morrow. 
Jamea Miller. 
Siimuel filoore. 

Matthew Seoy. 
Widow Scott. 
Micliael Tiout. 
Robert Teniiilel 

Andrew \Vork, Esq., was elected county commis- 
sioner in 1744, and sheriff in 1749-50. He was 
appointed a justice of the peace in 1750, and he 
commanded a company of associators in the French 
and Lidiaii war. He was a magistrate till 1793. He 
was probably well advanced in years at the time of 
the Revolutionary war, or he would have taken a 
more active part in the struggle. Samuel Ramsey, of 
Bart, was his lieutenant in 1756, and Jtdm McCarter, 
of the same township, was his ensign. In 1758 there 
were also Samuel, John, and Alexander Work, prob- 
ably brothers of Andrew, George Warfel, David 
Wales, John Witinore, Joseph Walker, Conrad Waltz, 
Jacob Waggoner, George White, James WiUson, 
David Watson, James Wilson, Matthew Young. 

In 1750, James Snodgrass died, leaving children, — 
William, Ann, Sarah, Elizabeth, Mary, James. The 
same year Alexander Snodgrass left children, — 
William, James, Robert, Alexander, and Thomas. 

In 1784, Hieronymus Eckmaii left children,— 
John Martin, Barbara, Eve, Jacob, Hieionymus, 
Magdalena, and Esther. 

In 1787, James Miller left children, Eleanor and 

In addition to these it appears that the following 
were residents of the township, or owned land 
therein: John Kyle, prior to 1730; Samuel Kyle, 
1742; Leonard File, James Money, Thomas Cooper, 
Calvin Cooper, Samuel Tatta, William Slaymaker, 
1744; William Downing, before 1747, in which year 
he built a mill ; Felix 15aughman, the original pat- 

James Kullu 


Daniel McCready. 



Henry Ruckey. 
Julin Umimey. 
Agness liiclmrdsoii 
Aruhil.iil.l Mc-Kea.iy 
Robert KiUiiM-y A S. 
Widow RaniSL-y. 
George Ruckey. 
Jolui liiisdell. 

^ Wiiliain Spenie. 


Alvxan.ler SIcBriUa 

Jumes Thumi.bon. 

Saumel Slmiiun. 

Julii, C.tliniii. 

The justices of the 

peace elected in llie townsliip of 

Bart since 1840 have 


1840. John Kid,!. 

1805. John Jl. IleyLargor. 

James CulJwell. 

WilliumS. JViroe. 

1846. John Kid,l. 

1807. (leu.-u \Vliil,,..i. 

JiiMies CuMwell. 

187U S„mud A. Hughes. 

1880. James ftiUlwell. 

1872. Ueurgo Wiiiteoii. 

18il. U;hvrt Kv;u>8. 

1875. Smju.I a. Hughes, 

l«oo. Willh.mS.Fe,re6. 

1877. Ileiuy Banghmun. 

Isuiic Slmrp. 

1880. Sumiiel A. II.ighe». 

I860. John M. ilfvberger. 

1.M8J. Ila.vej B^ughmniK 

Wilh.,n, S. Fe, ,ee. | 

Georgetown.' — This town was laid out in 1819 by 
Samuel Ferguson, who was then the owner of three 
hiiiulred acres of laud here, thirty of wliich he laid 
out in town lots, which he disposed of by lottery. 
The shares or tickets in this lottery were sold at 
sixty dollars each, and there were no blanks to be 
drawn. The two grand prizes were the tavern-house 
and lot, valued at three thousand dollars, and a lot 
on the opposite corner, where now is the residence of 
James 1'. lUissel, on which there was a blacksmith- 
shop, valued at three hundred dollars. 

There were then in the town nine dwellings, three 
of which were hotels or licensed taverns, and two 
stores. The place bore the undesirable and inelegant 
name of Hardscrabble, by which it was known during 
many years. The Hardscrabble Fair was at that time 
a great institution, usually commencing on the first 
Thursday in August and continuing three days. 

The town has had a gradual steady growth, and it 
now has forty dwelling-houses, some of them double, 
forty-nine families, and one hundred and ninety in- 

The following are tlie business establishments in 
the town: Atkins & Palmer, general merchandise 
and drugs ; William S. Ferree, general merchandise; 
James P. Russel, variety and confectionery-store ; 
Benjamin Fritz, hotel ; Charles Quigley and William 
Starret, blacksmiths ; Joseph Scott, wagon-maker ; 

1 lly William S. Forree, Ksq. 

Solomon Ilanier and George Pogson, shoemakers; 
Rea I'hamberlin, saddler; Ellis P. Moore, dentist 
and piintcr; Jolm Martin and Jerome Keeley, physi- 
cians; Je.',=.e i'\lcColester, tailor; Samuel A. Hughes, 
justice of the peace. The town has two well-kept 
schools, aod it is a pleasant country village. 

Nickel-Mines. — This hamlet, one and a half miles 
north from Georgetown, has been spoken of in the 
history of the mines. Bartville, in the southern part, 
near the line between Bart and Colerain, has a store 
and a few houses. Nine Points, so named from the 
convergence of several roads at that point, is in the 
southeastern part, and in addition to a collection 
of dwellings, there is a store there. Mount Pleasant 
is, as its name indicates, a pleasant and thriving 

Green Tree. — When and by whom Green Tree Inn 
w:is built is not certainly known. The first patentee 
of the land at that time was George Leonard, who 
on the (ith of November, 1739, took up one hundred 
and four acres. This he sold to James McConnell 
Nov. 12, 1742. It afterward became the property of 
John McCarter, who sold a part of it, with other par- 
cels of land, to James Parry. In 1763 Mr. Parry 
sold to Thomas and William Smith. These gentle- 
men, who had been the owners of Martic furnace, 
laid out a town here called, after them, Smithsburg. 
The town included nineteen acres, and was shaped 
like a boot, with the toe pointing up along the east 
side of the run at thai place. James Fulton, a son- 
in-law of Mr. Smith, and afterward the father of the 
famous Robert Fulton, became a purchaser from Mr. 
Smith, and in 1704 he sold to Robert Thompson, of 
Bart, a shopkeeper, after whom it was for a time 
called Thompsontown. No vestige of the town is 
to be seen, but the old inn remains with but little 
change, a veritable relic of the long ago. The quaint 
old sign-board, with the original device, a tree in full 
foliage, i)ainted thereon, still invites the weary way- 
farer to rest beneath the roof that has been a shelter 
for travelers during (irobably a century and a half. 
One or two mechanic shops are near the inn, and the 
township elections have long been held there. 


J.\MK.S J.40KS0.\. 
James Jackson born in Londonderry township, 
I Chester Co., Pa., on the IGtIi of the fourth month 
! (April), 18U5. He was the descendant, in the sixth 
j generation, from first, Anthony Jackson, who was born 
in Eccleston, parish of St. Michael, Lancashire, Eng- 
land, about the beginning of the second quarter of 
j the seventeenth century, settled with an elder brother, 
Richard, in 1(549, in Lurgan, Province of Ulster, 
I Ireland. 



Second, Isaac Jackson, born in 1605, married Ann, 
dangliter of Rowland Evans, County of Wicklow, | 
Feb. 20, KiOG (0. S.), emigrated to America iii 1725, ' 
settled at Harmony Grove Farm, near West Gnne , 
village, Cbcster Co., and died in 1750, aged eighty- ] 
six years. Isaac and Ann Jackson bad ten ebildren, 
viz.: Rebecca, Tbomas, Isaac (1st), Alice, AViUiam, I 
Mary, James, Isaac (2d), John, and Isaac (3d). I 

Third, William Jackson, lillh child above, born 
Feb. 24, 1705, marri. .1, Sf|.t. 1), ]70;i, Katharine, 
daughter of James and Katharine Miller, members 
of Tunahoe Jleeting of Friends in Ireland. William 
died Nov. 24, 1785, aged eighty years. His wife died 
April 12, 1781. He is described as a man of "in- 
dustry, frugality, and unswerving integrity." 

Fourth, James Jackson, born Nov. 3, 173(J, married 
JIary, daughter of Joseph and Susanna (MiMcr) 
Jackson, June 19, 17G0, who was born March 27, 
]73><, died Aug. 30, 1812. .Tames dic<l April 11, 

Fifth, Josiab Jackson, born Jan. 17, 1773, married 
JIary, daughter of Caleb and Ruhaney Sharpless, of 
Christiana Hundred, Del., Jan. 30, 1799, who was 
born Aug. 20, 1777, and died March 20, 1817. 

Sixth, James Jackson, subject of this sketch. On 
his mother's side he was a lineal descendant of John 
and Ann Sharpless, who left England on account of 
religious persecution, being followers of George Fox, 
as were also the Jacksons. They landed at Upland, 
now Chester, Pa., on the 14th of sixth montli, 1082 
(O. S.). Taking their few efiects, they wended their 
way up Ridley Creek about a mile and a half, and 
built their cabin in the wilderness, against a large rock. 
He took up a large tract of land, most of which after 
the lapse of two hundred years is still owned by the 
Sharplos iiimily. Josiah Jackson, father of James, 
died wlicM the latter was but twelve yearsof age. His 
mother being a woman of energy and perseverance, 
took upon herself the charge of the homestead, some- 
what encumbered with debt, kept her boys at work, 
sending them to school only a few weeks in the winter 
season, and as they arrived at what she thought a 
suitable age, had them apprenliced to learn trades, 
much, however, against the wislies of her son James, 
whose strong inclination and desire was to study law, 
witli a view eventually of following that profession ; 
but being overruled in his wishes by his mother, he 
was sent to Duponl's Rank to learn the trade of a 
luller, or woolen manufacturer. The society into 
which he was thus thrown would have wrecked many 
characters, as it was one in which hard drink was the 
custom; but his " Jackson firmness" preserved him, 
and after serving liis time as an apprentice, and re- 
maining a nliort time as a journeyman, he visited 
home lor a few months, and returned again to the 
factory, but not to tarry long, for scarcely had he 
commenced work, when lie was called upon to furnish 
money to treat all the' hands in the Mjill. Giving the 
money, he lelt his loom and resigned his place, where- 


d to 



Afterrfhis he bought a 
erected thereon a small 
on business a few years, durini; 
ried Abigail Rake^traw, dau 
Marv (Li 
Her fath. 
who emi 

ther's farm, and 

hich he carried 

1 time he mar- 

)f Thomas and 

ncott) Rakestraw, 8th nionth 20th, 1829. 

■as the grandson of Anthony Rakestraw, 

ted from Wales. Her mother was of 

English extraction, her ancestry being traced back 
to the Lipjiincotts, who were also Friends and left 
England hoping to find religious liberty in the colony 
of Massachusetts ; but during the terrible persecu- 
tions of the Friends there they returned to the 
mother-country, but afterwards tried their fortunes in 
the New World in New Jersey, about the time of the 
settlement of Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Jackson continued to carry on the factory about 
two years after his marriage, but it not agreeing with 
bis health to work in the mill, he sold his small farm 
and factory, and bought a much larger farm adjoin- 
ing, where he pursued the business of agriculture' 
until 1841, when he moved to Bart township, Lancas- 
ter County, settling on the farm now owned by his 
son, James J. Jackson. Here for a number of years 
he carried on the lime^ al-o improved Ida 
larm, and erected thereon a lull mI ollaiin buildings. 

In the year 1872 he built loi himself a new house 
on the part of his farm now owned by his daiigliter, 
Lydia F. Jackson, where he lived till his death, 4th 


0th, 18S1. His V 
lere buried at the ^ 

5 very liberal i 

They ■ 
Friends, was v 
no creeds, dogmas, or 
reason or philosophy. H 
such as Jesus taiy;ht, 
works than in mysterious 
est intellect cannot uni 

rt Me, 

iionth 3d, 1881. 
Ilon^e burying- 


ies, th; 
lie \ 

the Society of 
subscribed to 
nsistent with 
-day religion, 
her in good 
the profound- 
i one of the 
early abolitionists, and hi- <io.ii was always open to 
the Hying iugitive, wlnnn he would help on his way 
to a place of safety. In 1852, during the excitement 
attending the "Christiana Riot," he was indicted for 
high treason, though he was not on the ground dur- 
ing the light, but went there after hearing the reports 
of the guns. , Through the leniency of the marshal, 
Anthony I!. Roberts, he was never arrested, but his 
family sull'ered great annoyances, the house being 
twice searched by bands of roughs who were hunting 
for colored men he had bad in his employ, and they 
often knew that spies were watching them. He was 
opposed U> all war, a advocate of temper- 
ance, not much of a polilinan, but, if he did vote, he 
was first a Whig and allcrwards a Republican. As a 
monev-loaner he was cauUous, but very conscientious, 
never taking a bonus IV. mi any one, but often loaidng 
his monev below the legal rate. No man in his 



^^^^/-^t^^ / ^l^/^-. 



neighborhood was more uniformly respected. As a 
religious teacher he was most highly esteemed in 
the Society of Friends, and his memory is greatly re- 
vered, not only by his large family of children and 
grandchildren, but by the entire community in which 
he spent a long and useful life. 

The children of James and Abitrail Juck^ju are as 
follows: Mary R., born July 4, KS.'id, wife of Jo.-ciih 
H. Brosius, a farmer in Sadsbury township (three 
children," Ella, Idella, and Anna Mary); Thomas R., 
born Nov. 28, 1832, drowned Aug. 28, 1834; Eliza, 
born May 7, 1834, wife of Tliomas Baker, farmer in 
Coleraine township (five children living, — Abbie, Al- 
lison, James Eui^ene, Xanthus, and Lewis); Edith 
Ann, born July 22, 1835, died Dec. 13, 1842; Lydia 
T., born April 7, 1837, lived with her father and 
mother until their death, at present time with her 
brother, James J.; William L., born March 15, 1839, 
married Lydia W., daughter of George and Hannah 
Walton, born Dec. 2G, 1842, farmer in Sadsbury 
township (five children, Hannah B., James H., Mary 
F., Elsie Louisa, and Jessie W.) ; Thomas Elwood, 
born Sept. 5, 1842, farmer in Bart township, married 
Annetta Lucilla, daughter of Owen and Sarah Ann 
Williams, who was born May 14, 1841 (children, 
James Norwood and Thomas Baker) ; James Josiah, 
born Nov. 4, 1845, owning and occupying the home- 
stead farm, married Josephine, daughter of Abner 
and Abbie (Andrews) Davis, who was born .March KJ, 
1849 (children, Abner Davis, Abbie, Alley Klwooil, 
Bertha Kirkwood, and Ralph Garfield). 



This was not one of the original townships erected 
in 1729. Careful research in the Quarter Sessions 
records fails to show that any petition was presented 
or any action of the court taken in reference to the 
organization of a township by this name. The first 
record of the county commissioners contains the as- 
sessments of the difi'erent townships, but the name 
of Brecknock does not appear until Jan. 10, 1740, 
when the township is mentioned with an assessed 
valuation of £2 2s. Leonard Pridestou was the col- 
lector. The lack of a record of the organization of 
Brecknock renders it difficult to determine from what 
township it was taken or what was the extent of its 
territory. In 1752, when Berks County was erected, 
the northeast ]>ortion of the township became a part 
of thai county, ami retained the name of Brecknock 
iu the new organization. Since that time the terri- 
tory of the township has remained unchanged. 

1 By Johu B. 

The name Brecknock, as well as that of the ad- 
joining township of Caernarvon, is of Welsh origin. 
There were early settlers, immigrants from Wales, 
who scught and found homes along the head-waters 
of the Conestoga. It was but natural for them to 
transplant 'names fiimiliar and dear to them in the 


The surface of this townsliip is diversified by hills, 
generally rocky and wooded, and valleys traversed by 
streams of clear water. From the summits of some 
of the hills situated in its northern portion, the Fur- 
nace Ridge, sjmrs of the ISlue Mountains, are descried 
towards the north, rearing their blue, misty fi)nns in 
the dim distance. Its south and west borders are 
fin'med by branches of Muddy Creek, which, with 
one or two other branches that traverse the interior, 
combine to form the Big Muddy Creek, which falls 
into the Conestoga at Ilinkletown. On the north- 
east it is bounded on Berks County by a line running 
northwest and ;-uutliea>t through a very rough and 
mountainous cduiitiy, where in some localities un- 
wiehly iron rocks are piled on each other iu huge 
pyramids. Here the magnetic needle, attracted by 
ferruginous matter in the earth, deviates in some 
places ten to twelve degrees from its true position. 

There are traditions that Swiss emigrants settled 
here because they thought the face of the country 
resembled the rugged scenery of their old homes. 
Among others there was a family named Mosser, who 
owned a large tract of this mountainous territory, 
which was generally known in the neighborhood as 
" Die Schweitz." There are several places here that 
almost deserve the title of natural curiosities. One 
is known as "The Devil's Cave," a collection of large 
bowlders piled on each other in confuwion. It appears 
as if the earth had been gradually washed away from 
between these rocks, leaving large openings wide 
enough for a human being to enter to a considerable 
distance and in various directions. Another is called 
" The Rock Cellar." This is an apartment of consid- 
erable dimensions, of regular shape, formed in the 
solid rocks, easy of access, with light through the 
crevices of the walls. Here it is well known that 
drafted militiamen during tlie Revolutionary war, 
preferring the lives of hermits to the dangers of the 
Continental army in the tented field, found a compara- 
tively sale ret,reat Irom the pursuit of the provost-mar- 
shal's guard. One of these refugees was a cooper by 
trade, and iu these mountain solitudes followed his 
occupation, where, no doubt, there was a plentiful 
supply of wood for staves and hoop-poles. 

The first settlements seem to have been made in 
the valleys of the Black Muddy Creek and that branch 
on which Good's mill was erected. The earliest war- 
rants issued out of the land-oifice bear date in 1737. 
On Jan. 9, 1737, a warrant was obtained by ilobert 
Warburton, in jiursuance of which a tract of one Inin- 



dred and seventy-seven acres and the usual allowance 
of six per cent, for roads was surveyed. This tract ex- 
tended across Black Muddy Creek into Earl township. 
The title to it, by mesne conveyances, having become 
vested in William Morris, he obtained a patent for it 
dated Jan. 21, 1768. 

In pursuance of another warrant dated Dec. 21, 
1737, a tract of two hundred and thirty-one acres and 
allowance was surveyed on May 13, 173S, and also pat- 
ented to said William Morris, Oct. 12, 1742. This 
tract adjoins the above and also extended into Earl 

The name of William Morris stands prominent 
among the early settlers of Brecknock. Who he was 
and where he came from is not known, but the orthog- 
raphy of his name indicates rather Welsh than Teu- 
tonic extraction. He purchased extensive tracts of 
land from the Penns, who were the proprietors of the 
soil, and some time afterwards, on having sold a part 
of said land to Jacob Schneder, erected substantial 
sandstones, with the initials of his name legibly en- 
graved thereon, as landmarks to designate the boun- 
daries of his estate. 

From one to two miles farther north, on another 
branch of Muddy Creek, near the site of the present 
village of Bowmansville, Jacob Good' and Christian 
Good, two brothers, with their brother-in-law, John 
Musselman, with their respective families, settled 
about the same time. These emigrants were Men- 
nonites from the Palatinate. As the adjoining town- 
ship of Ear! and the valley of the Conestoga in gen- 
eral had been settled at an earlier period, principally 
by emigrants from the same country and of like relig- 
ious faith, they received considerable friendly assist- 
ance from that quarter. Jacob Gooil, arriving at the 
spot chosen for the erection of his new home, on the 
right bank of the stream, a short distance below the 
confluence of the two forks of the middle branch of 
Muddy Creek, about a mile below Bowmansville, took 
lodging under the inviting shelter of a patriarchal 
white-oak tree, where he deposited such household 
goods as he had brought along with him, and with 
the assistance of his friends, the Zimmermans, from 
Earl, commenced the erection of such a house as the 
times and circumstances would permit. lie at once 
purchased the ground on which he had settled with 
his family. The deed, which is from John Penn, is 
dated in 1738, and embraced a tract of six hundred 
and twenty-eight acres and the usual allowance. 

This new home was completely isolated from the 
rest of the civilized world. Its inmates were ignorant 
of the existence of any neiglibors until one day the 
clarion vpice of a cock greeted the ears of the pnter- 
fami/iim wliile wandering through the woods at some 
distance from his liouse. This led to the joyous dis- 
covery that other settlers had also come to the same 
neighborhood. Then their Immediate surroundiiifrs 

■iginally were Gutb aud 1 

were anything but assuring and calculated to inspire 
I them with confidence. The country was a wilderness, 
one vast forest, inhabited by wild beasts and Indians. 
As yet there were no roads, no houses, gardens, fields, 
or orchards. 

Jacob Ciood had but two children, both sons, named 
respectively Peter and Jacob. He divided the ample 
Iiaternal domain equally between them. Peter with 
his family afterwards removed to Cumberland County. 
The younger Jacob was twice married, and had five 
sons and one daughter with his first and four sons and 
one daughter with his second wife. With his liiat 
wife and her children he emigrated to Virginia. His 
descendants by his first wife are still residing in the 
neighborhood, some of them on part of the original 

Half a mile higher up on the south fork of aaid 
branch of Muddy Creek, and about a quarter of a mile 
south from Bowmansville, Christian Good, brother of 
Jacob Good, the elder, settled, and erected the first 
grist-mill in the township, occupying the spot where 
the large fiouring-mill of Mr. Henry Von Neida is 
now situated. The original tract on which this brother 
settled was bounded on the north by a line running 
nearly due east and west through the present village 
of Bowmansville; on the west by the stream forming 
the boundary between him and his brother Jacob 
until its confluence with the mill-stream, thence south- 
erly to Casper Messner's land, which adjoined it on the 
south. On the east its boundaries are riot definitely 
known. WHiile this tract included a large area, it is 
believed that it was still considerably smaller than the 
extensive territory of his brother. 

Whether the mill was built originally of wood or 
stone is not known, but tradition says that the mill 
and the dwelling were all under .one roof. Later a 
stone mill and se|)arate stone dwelling-houses were 
erected, which were removed to make places for more 
modern structures within the memory of many persona 
now living. In one of these dwellings religious ser- 
vices were held before the erection of a separate meet- 
ing-house. It is possible tluit there was a time when 
the same building simultaneously served the purposes 
of a mill, dwelling-house, and church. 

Christian Good raised a family of seventeen chil- 
dren, — six sons and eleven daughters. One of the 
sons, named Jacob, was the grandfather of the com- 
jiiler of these memoirs. His will remains on file 
among the old and musty papers in tlie register's ofiico 
at Lancaster. It is dated Muddy Creek, Aug. 11, 1757. 
There is a paper filed with it which serves but a poor 
apology for a translation. A memorandum of its pro- 
bate in Will-Book B, page 184, states that the will, 
being -in German, could not be recorded. The will 
commences with a quotation from Hebrew ix. 17: 
" A testament is of force after men are dead," and 
provides that the widow (named Magdalena) and 
children should continue the family till the youngest 
was fourteen years old. The executors were Marks 



Groff (believed to be a son of tbe famous Hans) and 
John Good, tbe oldest son, and concludes witli an 
exhortation to tbe latter to be a proper example to 
his younger brothers and sisters, wbile tbey in turn 
are admonished to be obedient and subject to him. 

At the same time U737) John Musselman located 
on a tract of land about one niile north from tbe mill, 
and along the north fork of said branch of Muddy 
Creek, where until lately some of his lineal descendants 
resided, who used to relate the sayings of their great- 
grandsire, that when be wisiied to earn a regular day's 
wages he could not obtain work nearer home than in 
the neighborhood of New Holland, a distance of over 
eight miles. Between the Christian Good and John 
Musselman tracts a farm of one hundred and thirty 
acres was located, which at the time of the Revolu- 
tion and afterwards belonged to Ullich Burkholder, 
of whom more will be said hereafter. 

About one mile farther north from Musselmau's 
place Francis Diller, a Swiss, erected the first distil- 
lery in Brecknock, on land which until recently be- 
longed to the Steffys. Farther south from the place 
where the Goods first settled, on both sides of the 
creek, Francis Eckert took up the tract of land after- 
wards owned by the Messners, and east of the Goods' 
settlement Hermann Deis settled on a tract afterwards 
owned by tbe Kern family. 

Another tract of land containing two hundred and 
seventy acres and allowance was surveyed in pursu- 
ance of a warrant issued to Casper Mason, wiiich was 
the Anglicized name of Messner, dated June 15, 174S, 
afterwards patented to liini Dec. 11, 17G0, the patent 
being recorded at Philadelphia, in Patent-Book .\A, 
vol. ii. page 118. This tract adjoined the herein- 
before named Jacob Good and Christian Good and 

Probably about the date of this patent the dwell- 
ing-house, which still remains standing and continues 
to be used as a farm-house, was erected on this tract. 
It is a two-story stone building, with high peaked 
roof, resting on extraordinary heavy framework, the 
main rafters of which are over a foot in thickness. 
There are still some outbuildings in the yard covered 
with tile which in all probability once formed a [jart 
of the roof of this house. There are only two apart- 
ments on the first floor, a kitchen and a room with an 
enormously large stone chimney between them, con- 
taining a proportionately capacious fireplace on the 
first floor in the kitchen, and a smaller fireidace on 
the second floor, the chimney being double from tbe 
second floor upwards. The window-sashes, originally 
of lead, have long ago been changed into wooden sash, 
except a small remnant of the old relic which still 
remains in one of the kitchen windows. 

Tradition says that at the period of its erection a 
two-story stone dwelling of such size and character 
was an object of wonder and ctiriosity, and that num- 
bers of visitors from 'the valley of the Conestoga c^mie 
. to behold the architectural skill and splendor dis- 

played in the erection of this, in their eyes, so mag- 

I nificent a structure. 

I Jacob Schneder, a man remarkable in the early 
histSry of Brecknock township, on account of the ad- 
vanced age to which he lived and the extensive tracts 
of land he owned in his time, purchased this property 
for his son, Baltzer Schneder, who moved on it April 
15, 1706. He in turn sold it to Christian Pleam, who 
died in the old house March 13, 1877. 

It appears that Jacob Schneder must have been 
born about the time these early settlers first came 
into tbe township, for he died on his old homestead, 
near Centre Church, July 9, 1829, at the age of ninety- 
four years. He had been married at the age of sev- 
enty-five years to a woman named Kafroth. It is 
related of him that he was displeased with his sou 

I Baltzer because he had married a poor girl named 
Kitzmiller, but ultimately relented and purchased the 

I plantation above mentioned for him. 

The original mansion on the William Marris tract, 

I near Centre Church, in East Earl township, in which 
the aged patriarch, Jacob Schneder, died, though 
changed and modernized, has its old walls still staud- 

I ing, and is occupied and used as a farm-house. 

I About one mile south of Bowmansville a man 

j named John Boehm commenced the erection of a 

I large two-story stone dwelling-house. The breaking 
out of the war of the Revolution and the consequent 

I dispersion of the workmen, who either volunteered or 
were drafted into the patriot army, interrupted the 
l>rogress of the building, and the structure remained 
incomplete until the close of the war. Thi.s dwell- 
ing-house is peculiar in its arrangement. The 
kitchen, with a large fireplace, is built in front of 
the main dwelling and attached to it. There are 
fireplaces arranged for burning wctod on each side of 

I the house. The house is well and substantially built, 
and is still in a good state of preservation. 

John Boehm, tbe pro])rietor of this mansion, was 
a man of courage and resolution. During the Revo- 

I lutiouary war some evil-diposed persons took advan- 
tage of the non-resistant principles of the Mennonite 
settlers in the neighborhood. These iniquitous fel- 
lows pretended to be government oflScers, commis- 
sioned to impress horses, grain, and other valuable 
military stores, which they fraudulently appropriated 
to their own use. One Sunday it happened that 
while Mr. Boehm attended divine worship, then held 
by the Mennonite society in a private house, Good's 
mill, one of these men made a raid into the neiglibor- 
hood, and had already captured several valuable 
horses and was about to carry them off, when Mr. 
Boehm was informed of the matter. He at once left 
the house where tbe religious service was held, pur- 
sued the robber, and when be overtook him attacked 
him so vigorously with a piece of broken fence-rail 

igorously wi 
that he surrendered 
turned in triumph wi 
horses to their owner; 

at di; 


the victor re- 
restored the 



Tliere was a very hirge two-story stone dwelling- j 
house, witli stone kitelien attached, built in the valley 
of the Black Muddy Creek, on a i)ortion of the land 
originally purchased from the proprietaries hy the I 
before-named William Blorris. It was erected in 
1795, by Christian Schiieder. The carpenter em- 
ployed in its construction was Henry Oood, who, it 
seems, was also the architect of a inimlicr ut' other 
buildings completed about that iierind. The front 
is of regular cut hrown sandstone, which has re- 
mained in almost perfect preservation to the present 
day. Another, perhaps yet larger, dwelling of .simi- 
lar architectural style was erected in the same neigh- 
borhood by Peter lioehm in 18(12. There is a hall in 
the middle of the building, with rooms containing 
old-fashioned fireplaces, and the kitchen, with large 
fireplace on either side and brick or mortar lloor, 
attached in the rear. 

About the year 1740 the township was organized, 
and a tax amounting to one pound twelve shillings 
was assessed on its inhabitants. Leonard Pridenstow 
viaa appointe<l tax-collector. Part of the original 
territory of Brecknock, as also of that of the adjoining 
township of Caernarvon, extended into the present 
county of lierks. In 1752, Berks being erected into 
a separate county, the division line cut off portions 
of both these townships, which now are known as 
Brecknock and Caernarvon townships, in Berks 

Two important roads, laid out prior to 17C2, tra- 
verse the township north and south nearly parallel to 
each other. One leads from the Blue Ball through 
the village of Bowmansville, since 1833 known as the 
State road ; the other leads from the present village 
of Fairville (Terre Hill P. O.), past the Dry Tavern 
(Muddy Creek P. O.), to Adamstown. Both these 
ancient roads are crossed — the former at Bowmans- 
ville and the latter at the Dry Tavern— by another 
old thoroughfare leading from the Plow Tavern to 

At the close of the Revolutionary war the follow- 
ing were the principal lami-owners in the township : 

Of the mill appearing in this list as the property 
of Jacob Fonieda (whose right name was Von Niodu) 
it may be observed that the mill is situate on that 
branch of Muddy Creek forming the western bound- 
ary line of the township, about one mile south of 
Adamstown. Peter Sharp died in 17G4, the owner of 
this property, consisting then of one hundred and 
seventy acres. In 1780 it became the property of 
John Shaup, wdio in 1785 sold it to Jacob Von Nieda, 

who in 1814 sold the mil 
quarter acres to his son, 
whose death, in 1847, it Ix 
youngest son, William Voi 

with twenty-nine and a 
Philip Von Nieda, after 
came the property of Ins 
Nieda, Esq., from whom 
it i>asseil into tlie hands of its jirescnt owner, Andrew 

About two miles lower down tlie same stream is the 
mill property in above list mentioned as belonging to 
Martin Frey. lu 1830 the present mill, whose site is 
about a quartet of a mile lower down the stream, wks 
erected by Ephraim Shober, after whose death it 
passed into the hands of bis son, Reuben E. Shober, 
Esq., who now runs it. 

Another mill existed from early times on Muddy 
Creek, in the southwestern part of the townshiji, in 
the above list mentioned as belonging to Dr. Samuel 
Martin. Since that time it has been known as Lu- 
pold's mill, Overholzer's mill, and Sensenig's mill. 
Samuel Sensenig is its present owner. 

Another mill, not appearing on above list, is situ- 
ate on Muddy Creek, a short distance below the Dry 
Tavern, where the saw-mill of Abraham Bixler, Esq., 
who died there in 1847, was situate. After his death 
George Martin built the present grist- and saw-mill, 
now ftwned by Peter B. Oood. 

From the list it apjiears that at that time Peter 
Good was the proprietor of a saw-mill and hemp-mill. 
This latter was a machine for prei)aring the fibre of 
hemp for spinning. A large slone, in the shape of 
the frustnim of a cone, was made to roll by machinery. 



propelled by water-power on the hemp spread out on 
a circular tioor prepared for the purpose. 

At that time all the grist-mills spoken of had special 
machinery adapted to the luilling of spelt [Tritkuin 
Spella, a cereal resembling wheat, but covered with 
thick husks), which had been brought by the early 
immigrants from their old homes across the water. 
It was also called " German wheat." ]5ut the cultiva- 
tion of hemp and spelt has long since been abandoned, 
aud mills of that kind are no longer in use. 

The only physician who flourished in these primi- 
tive times in Brecknock was the above-named Dr. 
Samuel Martin, who owned the mill and farm spoken 
of before. This man did not pretend to have any 
scientific knowledge of medicine, but practiced uro- 
scopy and incantations or powwows in connection 
with tlie use of home-made salves and nostrums. 
Among these may prominently be mentioned brand- 
pulver (mortification powders), blutreinigung (blood 
purifier), and a salve to heal fractured bones. Among 
his cabalistic feats the stanching of bleeding wounds 
was his grand forte. Patients in danger of bleeding 
to death, whom the doctor never saw and who were 
miles away, were by him instantly cured. C'liildren 
and grown persons suffering from the inleriial arts (jf 
witches were promptly relieved by this wonderful 
doctor. Such is the tradition. 

From his experience he became skilled in some 
degree in certain siiecial departments of liis jirofes- 
sion, and if tradition can be trusted to any extent lie 
performed astonishing cures in cases of fractured 
bones and by the application of his specific medi- 
cines. After his death his son, Peter Martiu, con- 
tinued the practice of his father's profession. His 
practice increased and extended, not only into the 
neighboring townships but also into lierks County. 
He acquired some property by his business. Since 
his death, about 1850, his son, Dr. Samuel Martin, 
has continued the business, residing still near tlie old 

Since the year 1845 the village of liowmansville 
has been alniast constantly the residence of a i>ractic- 
ing physician. Dr. A. H. Kissinger, who now resides 
there, is an old practitioner of experience and exten- 
sive practice. 

For a considerable length of time the people, not 
having any houses specially dedicated to Divine wor- 
ship, those of them of the Mennonitc faith held their 
meetings in private dwellings. As has already been 
remarked, the plain, one-story stone dwelling-house, 
which stood near Good's mill, on land originally 
taken up by Christian Good, near liowmansville, 
while occupied by the Good family, was used for this 

About the beginning of the present century, or a 
few years earlier (1794), a meeting-house was built on 
ground now occupied by tlie village of liowmans- 
ville. It was a plain, one-story structure, built of 
stone, similar in plan and arrangement to ulher 

Mennonitc meeting-houses so common iu Lancaster 
County. About four or five feet above the ground 
there was an otl'sel of about three or four inches on 
the.outside of the wall, that is, from that height the 
wall was three or four inches thinner than below that 
point. "I'radition says that, while the walls were thus 
in course of construction, some zealous brother ob- 
jected that this was a violation of the law of plain- 
ness and simplicity of style of building. Whereupon 
Henry Good, the chief carpenter, remarked that after 
all the building was not by any means as ornate or im- 
posing as the temple built by Solomon. 

The burying-ground, the sacred " Gottes Acker," 
was and is still located half-way between Good's mill 
and the Cross-Roads, where a grove of lofty pine-trees 
has, probably for a century, been sighing a solemn 
requiem over the graves of the dea<l. The oldest 
monuments here date back to 1767. These are mere 
rude sandstones, with initials and date. Imagination 
may busy itself in guessing who were first interred 
here. It is probable that it was some member of the 
Good family, who came into this neighborhood in 1737, 
— a conjecture that seems warranted by the initials 
that are still legible on the moss-grown stones. 

Of the earlier ministers, who served these primi- 
tive congregations, nothing, not even their names, is 
known. Those of them whose names have come 
down to our time, probably fiourished during the latter 
part of the last and the beginning of the present cen- 
tury. Their names were Daniel Gehman' and Ulric 
Ilurkholder, both natives of Switzerland. The former 
had a wonderful reputation for a species of clairvoy- 
ance, by means of which the courses of subterranean 
streams of water were as familiar to him as those 
flowing on the surface are to ordinary persons. His 
services were solicited by well-diggers from far and 
near to direct them where to find water. Tradition 
says his predictions were always reliable, and his ut- 
terances infallible. Moreover, it was also currently 
reported, and generally believed, that his knowledge 
of the mysterious was not confined to the liidden 
streams of water liowing underground, but that he 
also knew of rich deposits of ore of the precious 
metals; of gold mines vast and boundless, like those 
read of in fairy tales. Unfortunately for the lovers 
of mammon, he was a scrupulously ])lain man, whose 
conscience would not permit him to divulge the se- 
cret, for fear that the discovery of such fabulous 
wealth might stimulate a taste for luxury and pride, 
and thus the secret was buried with him. 

Tradition lias also lianded down to our times the 
following saying of his: " In that part of Switzerland 
in which he resided, prior to his emigration, there 
occurred a summer during which no rain fell at all, 
aud yet such heavy dews descended on the earth that 



the water thereof filled tlie wagon ruts in such abund- 
ance that sheep could drink out of them." He 
wa.'s the father of Christian Gehman, who served these 
congregations as a preacher more than a quarter of a 
century alterwards. 

Of Ulric, or contracted Uli Burkholder, hardly any- 
thing is known at this time, except that he was a 
blunt, phiin-spoken man, and was tlie father of a 
number of sons, who like the sons of Eli the old 
Jewish priest, and the sons of many modern preach- 
ers, were not particularly shining lights, or models 
of moral perfection. One story of liis son, Peter, has 
been handed down to posterity, which may serve as 
a sample of the customs and manners of the time: 
The old man and his family resided near tlie present 
village of Bowmansville, immediately north of it. A 
stream of water, one of the branches of Muddy Creek, 
flowed a short distance west of their dwelling. Here 
some of the neighbors, owners of the soil through 
which the stream flowed, set fish-nets in the spring of 
the year, and in those early times fish being abundant, 
secured heavy draughts. Peter Burkholder knew all 
about this, and probably believing that fish were com- 
mon properly, which belong equally to all, early one 
morning before breakfast, raised some of these nets 
and appropriated their contents. When he came 
home his father had just got out of bed, and when he 
saw his son with such a fine mess of fish, he congrat- 
ulated him on his good luck, kindly invited him to 
come into the house and partake of a treat of whiskey, 
which at that time seems to have been constantly 
kept on hand in every farm-house. 

Peter kept quiet until breakfast, when the family 
was seated around the rude board, with a smoking 
dish of nice fish in their midst. The patriarch of the 
household was doing full justice to the dainty bill of 
fare. This was too much for Peter, who broke out in 
a fit of immoderate laughter, and e.xclaimed in his 
vernacular: " Gelt, Vater, die g'stohlene Fish sin' 
doch gut?" (Well, father! don't the stolen fish taste 
nicely?") Wiiether or not Peter had to suffer the 
penalty justly due him for his crime, tradition does 
not inform us. 

The bishop, or "Voile Diener," contemporaneous 
with the two ministers just mentioned, was Henry 
Martin, who resided in the Conestoga Valley at Wea- 
verland. After these came another trio of minis- 
ters, who served the congregations that used to wor- 
ship in that plain meeting-iiouse from about the year 
1825, and afterwards, who are much better remem- 
bered, though all dead for more than a quarter of a 

The first was Christian Good, a grandson of the 
original Christian, who resided a short distance south- 
east of Good's mill. He was a man of considerable 
natural parts, and, for his time and opportunities, of 
respectable information. He had read some books, 
and had an intelligent comprehension of their cun- 
tents. He was the author uf a (.ieraian hvnin, in 

the form of an acrostic, which he composed during 
his last illness, while confined to his room by a lin- 
gering consumption. Its execution shows that he 
had, some knowledge of metrical composition. Ho 
was for all that, iiowever, a strict constructionist of 
the strict conditions of his faith. When by reason 
of careless and unskillful cultivation the farms of the 
whole neighborhood had become exhausted, and 
many of his neighbors began to use lime as a fertil- 
izer, he opjiosed the innovation on principles of 
morality, contending that it was the spirit of discon- 
tent and an inordinate desire after worldly riches 
that ])rompted them in their endeavors to improve 
the productiveness of their farms. In his delivery he 
wasslow, calm, and deliberate, wholly unimpassioned. 
In person he was rather tall and slim. In dress, of 
course, scrupulously plain. 

The second was Christian Gehman, a man of quite 
a diflferent stamp. His manner was ardent and \m 
address earnest and impassioned. His style of preach- 
ing was hortatory, in point of intelligence and general 
information vastly inferior to his colleague, but cal- 
culated to impress an audience much more pro- 
foundly than his more thoughtful and methodical 
brother. He resided near Adamstown, just across 
the line in Berks County. 

Then there was Jacob Zimmerman, who was the 
bishop or " Voile Diener" of the district, whose resi- 
dence was in the Conestoga Valley some four miles 
from Bowmansville. He came around twice each 
year, in the spring and fall, to administer the sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper, and to perform the rite of 
baptism. In person he was a short, thickset man, 
who wore his hair long, parted in the middle. His face 
was round and fat. His coat was of the plainest style. 
He was easily overcome by his ejnotion, and shed 
many tears during almost every sermon he preached. 

These preachers, who had been selected from among 
their brethren by lot, had never received any other 
than the merest rudiments of an education. The only 
training they received for their calling was their ex- 
perience in the exercise of their sacred office. .\nd 
yet in their discourses they generally manifested a 
wonderful acquaintance with the Scripture, often 
quoting passage after passage, and generally correctly. 
In their exegesis they were mystical ; every passage 
of Scripture almost had for them a secondary, spir- 
itual, or allegorical meaning. 

The Mennonite meeting-house spoken of consti- 
tuted the only building in the township dedicated to 
the public worship of God. Those of other denomi- 
nations residing within its borders assisted to erect and 
maintain United Lutheran and Reformed Churches 
in locations outside of its limits. Of these there were 
originally two,— Allegheny Church in Brecknock 
township, Berks Co., and JMuddy Creek Church in 
Cocalico township, Lancaster Co. The land on which 
the latter was built was, by the Pro|irietarie3 (jf Penn- 
sylvania, by warrant issued May 8, 1744, to Henry 

! 4 



§. an< 


Hallerand Peter Fry, given to tlie use of the Lutheran 
(1 Reformed congregations worshiping at that place. 
Afterwards Centre Cliurcli, in Earl township, was 
erected near the tract (if not part of it) which was 
originally granted to the hereinbefore-mentioned 
William Morris. Of the ministers who served these 
several charges prior to the last half-century nothing 
definite is known ; but within the last half-century 
there were two ministers who served these churches 
whose memory has come down to the present genera- 
tion. They were both native Americans, though they 
preached e.xclusively in the German language. One 
of them was Rev. Daniel Hertz, who was pastor of 
the German Reformed wing of these congregations. 
He resided near Ephrata, and for a great many years 
served the churches at Muddy Creek and Centre, as 
well as some others at the same time. In person he 
was tall and commanding, and had a strong and 
rather agreeable voice. In the management of church 
matters he generally displayed siirewdness and tact, 
and an intimate acquaintance with human nature. 

.The other was Rev. Samuel Trunibauer, who was a 
Lutheran in faith, and also for a long series of years 
served his brethren of like faith who worshiped at the 
two churches above named, but for a longer period at 
Centre than at Muddy Creek. In person he was but 
slightly built and rather below the medium height. 
He was an earnest man, zealous in the discharge of 
bis pastoral duties, and was by many of his Hock 
much beloved and highly esteeMie<i. He resided in 
Mechanicsburg, on the Lancaster and New Holland 
turnpike, at a distance of more than a dozen miles 
from his congregations. Both these clergymen have 
been dead for many years. 

A certain kind of astrology was assiduously studied 
by some of these primitive agriculturists. The as- 
cending and descending nodes of the moon were sup- 
posed to e.xert a general influence on the products of 
the field, and more especially the garden. The signs 
of the zodiac, as set out in Billmeyer's Almanac (the 
predecessor of Baer's) had to be consulted before sow- 
ing, planting, or reaping the several crops. Neglect 
or mistake in the observance of these rules was be- 
lieved to work great harm to the crops that were about 
to he committed to the earth. One can scarcely con- 
template this belief in signs and times so prevalent 
among our ancestors without coming to the conclu- 
sion that they are remnants of the old mythology 
that prevailed among the light-haired and blue-eyed 
Teutons while they still worshiped Odin and Thor in 
the dense forests bordering on the Uhitieand Elbe. 

In regard to the methods of tilling the soil, it ap- 
pears evident that the first settlers of Brecknock pur- 
sued tlic same careless and unthrifty course that is 
now so ijrevalent in new settlements in the Western 
States. Shallow and often unseasonable plowing, 
improvidence in the preparation and applicaticjri ul 
manures, and general uyskillful farming, without aii\ 
attention to a regular rotation cjl' crops or the propir 

selection of seeds, gradually but surely exhausted 
the virgin strength of the soil. 

During the decade i)receding the commencement 
of the yresent century and a few years later the pros- 
perity of these colonists must have been consider- 
able. This- is evident from the style of the dwell- 
ings that were built about that period. These bouses, 
in point of architectural jirelensions, as well as size 
and character, have not been surpassed, if equaled, 
anywhere in the township since. The native strength 
of the virgin soil had not as yet been exhausted, and 
these farms, or large portions of them, having been 
i but recently cleared, were probably highly produc- 
tive. But the suicidal policy of these primitive 
\ farmers ruined the fertility of their soil, and having 
1 run through the disastrous rotation of crops from 
j wheat to rye, and from rye to buckwheat, left their 
I fields barren and their exchequers impoverished. 
[ About the years from 1830 to 1840 the farmers of 
I Brecknock township reached an important crisis in 
j their history. Their sandy soil, naturally requiring 
! careful farming, was giving out. Their wheat har- 
vests for successive years had been failures. About 
183-5 the failure of the wheat crop was so general 
throughout the country that breadstuffs had to be 
imported from Europe to supply the actual wants of 
the people. Resort was had to cornniea!, mashed 
I potatoes, and other ingredients, which were mixed 
I with wheat flour, of which bread was baked. 
, But their impoverished fields would no longer pro- 
I duce the bare necessaries of life. Some emigrated 
; West, which then meant the State of Ohio. After 
[ these had settled in their far Western homes, corre- 
spondence was opened between them and their rela- 
tives and friends who remained behind. Visits were 
also interchanged between them, although the dis- 
tance Seemed long and the road wound around pre- 
j cipitous mountains and through dense forests. 
j These visitors when they returned, as well as the 
letters of correspondents, brought strange stories from 
' these Western settlements into the old homesteads. 
I They told of houses that were built in one day, of 
which the foundations had been laid in the morning, 
the logs cut in the forest, the walls of the cabin raised, 
the clapboards split, the roof and chimney all built 
in the same day, so that the weary emigrant, with his 
wife and little ones, slept the first night securely shel- 
tered under its rude roof. But perhaps the strangest 
thing of all were the "Yankeys," who had farms 
1 without barns, and with whom the men did all the 
I work, even milked the cows and atten<led to the dairy, 
1 while the women had nothing to do but to attend to 
j dress and make and receive .social calU, even during 
i the busy season of haynniking and harvrst, whm all 
hands on the farm, men, women, and cliihiivu, ou^hl 
t„ lie busy Irom early morn till dewy eve. 

Hut nut all c)l tli(-.e emigrants moved West. Some 
urnt north and M'ltled in the British i)rovinee of 
I'arnula. There .seems to have existed a special mo- 


tive for the Mennonites to go to Canada. Tlie British i 
government, they tlioiif^ht, was more friendly towards 
them tlian tlie new democracy just established in the i 
United States. William Penn, a Quaker, jirofessing | 
religious principles almost identical with theirs, had i 
inspired them with love and confidence towards the | 
British Crown. During the Revolutionary struggle 
they had generally remained loyal to their old govern- 
ment. This was from motives radically different from 
those whicli inspired the ordinary Tory. With the 
one they sprang from religious and conscientious 
convictions of duty, while with the latter they were 
merely political questions to be settled by the dictates 
of self-interest. 

But whatever the motives were, a number of these 
excellent people emigrated and sought tlieir fortunes 
in better and richer soil. As early as the year 1810, 
Rev. Joseph Bauman, a Jlennonite preacher, who re- 
sided on a farm in the Allegheny Valley, in Berks 
County, Pa., about four miles northeast from Bow- 
mansviUe, had moved to Waterloo, then part of ITal- 
ton County, Upper Canada, and settled there. This 
year is memorable on account of its unprecedentedly 
cold summer, not one month of which was exempt 
from frost, even in Lancaster County. Upper Canada, 
surrounded by lakes and in a higher latitude, was, of 
course, proportionally colder. These new setilers 
thought their home almost a Siberia, and win> innse- 
quently much alarmed on account nf ihe coMiie-s of 
the climate, till their fears were iillayr.l by milder 
seasons in subsequent years. 

But, of course, all could not leave tlu'ir old neigh- 
borhood, and those that remained behind on tliiir 
worn-out farms had no alternative left hiii lo ;ittein|it 
the improvement of the impoverished soil lliese cini- 
grants had left behind. To effect this object the ap- 
plication of lime as a fertilizer was generally resorted 
to. Numerous limekilns were constructed through- 
out the country, in wdiich limestone, brought from 
the adjoining townships of Earl and Cocalico, dis- 
tances from three to five miles, were burned into 
lime. Wood, being jdenty and cheap, was at that 
time exclusively used for this purpose. The happy 
effects of the application of lime as a fertilizer soon 
manifested themsi-lvcs in the iiKjre luxuriant crops of 
the farmer. 

When the 'agriculturist once had his attention di- 
rected to the improvement of the soil, he was not 
satisfied with using only one means to accomplish 
liis object. Other means and methods were tried and 
adopted. Improved varieties of grain and grass- 
seeds were jirocnred, the proper times for planting 
and the most advantageous rotations of crops were 
''liKiied. The introduction of improved breeds of 
horses, cattle, and other animals on the farm natur- 
ally followed in the march of the other improve- 
ments. These changes, h(nvevcr, were, of course, 
introduced only gradually, and were not elicited 
without much oi)positioii. The agricultural cmmuiu- 

nity became divided into two classes of parties, such 
as every revolution produces, the progressive and 
conservative. The former included the younger and 
mor£ enterprising portion of the community, while 
the latter was comi)Osed of those everywhere styled 
"old foj»ies." 

Politics, in its ordinary sense, did not much dis- 
turb this secluded community in the even tenor of 
their way. When the Anti-Masonic party was organ- 
ized, and the story of the abduction and murder of 
William Morgan was assiduously circulated, most of 
them became Anti-Masons and supported the election 
of Joseph Ritner for Governor. It is not known that 
any citizen of Brecknock township ever held a county 
or State office prior to about 1838, when Philip Von 
Nieda was elected to the Legislature of the State, to 
which office he was re-elected for a second term. 
About 1855, Daniel Bowman was elected a director 
of the poor, and in 1857 Anthony Good was electt'd 
recorder of deeds of the county of Lancaster. 

Nearly all the newspapers that were read were 
printed in the German language. Der Readimjer 
AiUer, sometimes called " Berks County Bible," was 
the organ of those who professed the Democratic 
faith, while J)er Volh/reuiul, edited by John Baer, 
of Lancaster, was read by the members of the Whig 
party. Tiiere was more party feeling then than there 
is now, and editor., presumed more on the ignorance 
(if the ma^s.'s tlian llicv dare to do at this day. Then 
il wa^ quite cniniimn to a|ipeal to farmers, laborers, 
etc., as a class irjain^t ca|iitalists and ollice-holdcrs 
as a class. 

In relation to matters of education, these people 
were loo nnich engrossed in procuring their material 
sulisi>ten(c to pay attention to the cultivation of 
their minds. They were isolated from the great 
world, both by locality and their language. As yet 
there was no system of education by public schools, 
and these farmers, who had a hand-to-hand struggle 
to obtain their daily bread, had neither time, means, 
nor taste for the establishment of private schools. 

The Mennonite meeting-house near Good's Jlill 
was eacli winter, up lo about the year 1832, used as 
school-house. At Stovpr's, near Adamstown, at the 
Dry Tavern, about two miles southwest from Bow- 
mansville, at Boehm's, a short distance southeast of 
Good's mill, and at Schlebach's, quite at the southern 

end of tin; township, 

Hits which were used 

as school-houses for a few weeks or montiis during 
the inclement season of the winter, when the cold 
weather prevented work on the farm. That no 
teacher of competent qualifications came to these se- 
cluded parts to engage in his occupation must be at 
once apjtarent. Men engaged in teaching because 
they could not get anything better to do, or because 
they were physically disabled for the performance of 
ordinary manual labor. 

Of the teachers who first taught the children of 
the schools in Brecknock towiiNliip, the names of 



only two or three have descended to our times. One 
of them, named Altsdorf, was a German, who wrote 
a very beautiful hand, and who understood drawing 
and vocal music. As far as known, he never taught 
within the limits of the township, but some of the 
children attended his school, kept in the adjoining 
township of Earl. Then there was another German 
teacher named Grimm, but who was not by any 
means as eminent a grammarian or lexicographer as 
his modern namesake. He was either from Hesse or 
Brunswick, and came over during the Revolutionary 
war, along with the other mercenaries of the British 
king. There are no traditions of liis literary profi- 
ciency, but the reminiscences of the severe flagella- 
tions he administered to his scholars have been faith- 
fully handed down to posterity. 

There was another German pedagogue named John 
Peter Hoefer, of whose memory nothing survives, ex- 
cept that he had a famous controversial correspond- 
ence with Samuel Bowman, Esq., when the latter 
was still quite young and just entering on his career 
as a teacher. In this new teacher, who about 1821 
taught at the Mennonite meQting-house, and some 
years later at the Dry Tavern, the rising generation 
enjoyed a superior grade of instruction. 

Later, about 1830, James Stilwell taught several 
winters at the Dry Tavern, and about ISIW a man 
named Henry Bowers kept the school at Sclilebaeh's 
for several winters. 

At this time most of the boys attempted to learn 
to read and write both the English and German lan- 
guages. This state of things made it necessary for 
the teacher to be proficient in both tongues. Few of 
tliem were able to teach botli correctly. The pupils 
labored under great disadvantages in more than one 
respect. As a rule, they understood only the Penn- 
sylvania German dialect. The school-books were 
either in English or High German, either of which 
they understood but imperfectly. Add to thi.s draw- 
back the short term the school usually continued, 
the irregular attendance of the scholars, and the very 
imperfect methods of instruction ordinarily employed, 
and it is not diliicult to form a correct estimate of the 
mental culture and literary capacity of the population 
of Brecknock township of those days. Their imper- 
fect acquaintance with the language of their text- 
books was especially trying in the study of arithmetic. 
The pupil was very much embarra>sed in attempting 
to solve a problem, the enunciation of which was set 
forth in an unknown tongue. 

As a rule, the girls were not taught further than to 
read, and that mostly ouly in German. Very few 
were so fortunate as to be taught to write. The boys, 
in view of their prospective Hues of business, were 
generally taught to read and write both languages, 
and some of them were taught arithmetic so far as 
the rule of the three ; but there were many men 
whose education in tlie science of numbers was al- 
most totally neglected. 

The common scliool system was first introduced 
into Pennsylvania under the provisions of the act of 
Assembly passed Aiiril 1, A. p. 1834, in which the 
preauJjle declares that the education of the people 
was enjoined by the Constitution as a solemn- duty 
which could not be neglected without disregard of 
the moral and political safety of the people. The 
supi)lementary act of April 15, a.d. 1835, provided 
that " where any township or district in any school 
division votes in the negative on the question of ac- 
cepting the law to which this is a supplement, said 
township or district shall not be compelled to accept 
the same." 

The doctrine that "the education of the people by 
this school system was a solemn duty which could not 
be safely neglected" was not believed to be sound by 
the great majority of the jwople of Brecknock town- 
ship. They did not feel that there was any necessity 
for improvement or progress in education. In fact, 
many well-meaning jieople honestly believed that the 
education of the masses was not merely useless but 
dangerous. They stated their argument about as fol- 
lows : "Advanced education is unnecessary in the or- 
dinary affairs of life. Past generations, from time 
immemorial, have lived and made their way honestly 
through the world without the aid of the free school 
system, and succeeding generations cannot have any 
greater need of it than the present or jiast. To spend 
time over books is time wasted, which every able- 
bodied person is in duty bound to employ in useful 
manual labor." These prejudices were carried to such 
an_ extent that a young man suspected of pursuing 
his studies with a view of qualifying himself for the 
business of teaching was in some circles severely os- 
tracized, and was by no means a popular character 
among the honest farmers of the community. 

These honest but misguided people rejoiced over 
their privilege annually to vote down the hated school 
law which was about to insinuate itself into their 
midst, fraught with all its attendant evils. Who then 
can imagine their indignation when this was changed 
by act of A.sscmbly of April 11, 1848? This act pro- 
vided that the " common school system from and after 
the jiassage of that act should be deemed held and 
taken to be adopted by the several school districts of 
the commonwealth." 

When the passage of this law became generally 
known the neighborhood of Bowmansville was stirred 
into a ferment resembling that of Boston occasioned 
by the passage of the British Stamp Act of 1765. 
The citizens generally resented the enactment of this 
statute as a wanton invasion of their most sacred 
rights and the assumption by the Legislature of ua- 
w^irranted powers. They protested that this law in- 
flicted a final and fatal stab on their cherished liberty 
to vote down the hated free school. They now spoke 
of American liberty as a thing of the past, and of the 
right to vote and the boasted privilege of the ballot 
as a mockery. The term " free schools" applied to 


tlie schools thus establislied by compulsory legislation 
was especially inveighed against as utterly inappropri- 
ate. These scliools, forced on them by the tyranny 
of unjust legislation against their will, repeatedly ex- 
pressed at the ballot-box, ouglit tn be designated 
"Zwing Schulen" (forced schools). It was the almost 
unanimous opinion, honestly and conscientiously en- 
tertained, that it was their solemn duty to resist the 
execution of this ini(iuitous law by all the means in 
their power. 

At this period there were five or six school-houses 
in the township to furnish accommodations for a popu- 
lation of thirteen hundred and sixty-six souls, accord- 
ing to the tensusof 1850. These buildings were mostly 
log cabins, rudely constructed, without furniture and 
without ventilation, excepting the pure air that clan- 
destinely intruded through the crevices of the un- 
plastered walls. They were generally situated iu 
out of the way places along the wayside or at the 
cross-roads in the woods. 

The most important school in the district, perhaps, 
was the one situated in BowmansviUe, wliich village 
at that time contained as yet no hotel, but consisted 
of a store, containing the post-office, and three or four 
private dwellings. The neighborhood embraced the 
most deusely po|)ulated and probably the wealthiest 
portion of the township. Here an attempt was made 
soon after the passage of the act of April 11, 1848, to 
put the school system into operation. A tax was laid 
by the school directors, but the opposition aroused by 
the proceeding was such that the idea of collecting 
the same was soon abandoned, and no further eilbrts in 
that direction were made in that year. 

On April 7, 1849, an act of Assembly was passed 
for the regulation and continuance of a system of 
education by common schools, of which the eighth 
section provides that if all the members of any board 
of directors shall refuse or neglect to perform their 
duties by laying the tax required by law, and to put 
or keep the schools in operation so far as the means 
of the district will admit, the Court of Quarter Ses- 
sions of the proper county shall, upon complaint in 
writing by any six taxable citizens of tlie district and 
on due proof thereof, declare their seats vacant and 
appoint others in their stead until the next election. 
Under this provision of the law the school directors 
of Brecknock township were ousted from their offices 
upon the petition of several taxable citizens of said 
township, among whom Daniel Sensenig appeared at 
the head and front. This man had been born and 
raised in the adjoining township of Earl ; had in his 
earlier history been engaged as a teamster between 
Philadelphia and Piltsburgli, at a lime wlien railroads 
had not yet been heard of. He was a farmer, residing 
in Brecknock township. .Vbove all others he felt in- 
terested in the establishment of the common schools 
in his adopted township, and .he bent all his energies, 
regardless of opposition, to the successful accomplish- 
ment of his project. 

When the Court of Quarter Sessions of the Peace, 
at their sessions in November, 1849, came to appoint 
a new board to fill the places made vacant by the re- 
moval of (he old delintpient directors, the name of 
Daniel Sensenig appeared at the head of the list. It was 
evi<lenfto him and his friends that he was encounter- 
ing the most violent opposition, but he did not shrink 
from the assumption of every responsibility connected 
with his darling project, and he at once set about or- 
ganizing the board and to employ teachers for the sev- 
eral schools in the district. 

At this time a man named Frederick Leinbach was 
teaching school at BowmansviUe under the old system. 
This man'sprincipal fitness forthebusinessof teaching 
consistedin hisutterunfitnessforanythingelse. Hewas 
a quiet, unoffending being, whose mental and physical 
weakness effectually put him under bonds to keep the 
peace with everybody. Being poor and incapable of 
earning his bread by manual labor, his friends thought 
it would be no disgrace for him to " keep school." 
So the thing was all properly arranged, and Frederick 
was duly installed as schoolmaster, and was now ac- 
tually swaying the pedagogical sceptre with all the 
awful dignity of his august calling, when Mr. Sense- 
nig and his colleagues were engaged in employing 
teachers under the new system for the several schools 
of Brecknock district. 

A young man named Samuel L. Herts was apjrointed 
teacher for the BowmansviUe school. He was the 
son of a clergyman of the German Reformed Church, 
who was at that time, and had been for years, the 
pastor of several congregations in the neighborhood, 
including Muddy Creek and Centre Churches. It 
required a good deal of tact to install the new incum- 
bent. Mr. Sensenig tried soft words and persuasion, 
and, to the surprise and chagrin otLeinbach's friends, 
he vacated tlie school-house and young Hertz took 
possession. Before the anti-school men were fairly 
aware of the state of affairs the free school had 
been inaugurateS in BowmansviUe, and, what seemed 
strange, the number of i)upils in attendance was, 
under the circumstances, quite creditable. 

But now the revolt commenced. As the lowering 
thunder-clouds gather on the distant horizon and 
spread their ominous masses over the darkened sky, 
ready to discharge their angry bolt-s, so the storm of 
popular indignation gathered over the village of Bow- 
mansviUe, which was destined to break on its devoted 
head on the 8th of January, 1850, which day, by 
some strange coincidence, happened to be the anni- 
versary of the famous battle of New Orleans. On 
that day there was a general gathering of the anti- 
school men in BowmansviUe. On every face sat ex- 
citement and anger. At first, as the neighbors as- 
sembled, they luriiicd thnnselvs into groups lor 
earnest discussion. In the mean time several of the 
few school men of the neighborhood also arrived. 
Towards noon the anti-school men made a rush to- 
wards the school-house and several entered it. Sonu 


altercation between the two hostilfi |jarties ensueil. 
Blows were tlireateiieil, if none were aetnally strnek. 
The cliiklren, atn-iglited, fled from the school-house. 
The teacher was ejecteil, and tlie men 
locked the dixir, tonk piisses^iiiii of the key, and re- 
treated, claiiiiini; to have achieved a C()mi)lete vic- 
tory over Mr. Senscnif; and his Irierids. lUU the 
school men, and especially Mr. Seasenij,', were not 
dismayed in their efforts to establish the schools. 
Criminal prosecntions were promptly instituted 
against the rioters, as they were now generally 
termed, and after a hearing before John S. Stager, 
Esq., of New Holland, they were all bound over to 
appear at the approaching January term of the Court 
of Quarter Sessions, to be held in Lancaster, to an- 
swer the charge brought against them. 

When court day came, Brecknock township sent a 
larger delegation to the criminal court of the county 
thau had ever been witnessed before or since that 
time. Tiie day was inclement, with snow and sleet 
overhead and frozen snow and ice under foot. The 
defendants, to a man, made their way— a distance of 
over twenty miles — on foot. Among them were some 
of the sires and grandsires of the neighborhood. 
Most of the school men of the vicinity were sub- 
poenaed as witnesses on the part of the common- 
wealth. These traveled in carriages. On the road 
the carriages overtook the pedestrians, and the meet- 
ing was said to have been neither cordial nor pleas- 
ant. Arrived at Lancaster they all attended court. 
The first day of the criminal court week was spent in 
the usual routine of constables' returns and other 
current business. When the shades of evening de- 
scended on Lancaster City most of the rioters, never 
accustomed to be away from home, and some of 
whom had never before been in the county-seat, 
ardently longed to return to their homes and families. 
They were informed, however, tliat they could not 
depart until they had been tried for the charge which 
had been brought against them. With heavy hearts 
and longing desires for their far-away homes in Breck- 
nock, they retired to their lodgings, no doubt heartily 
tired of their situation. Tliey, however, held out 
until Wednesday, when negotiations were opened with 
Mr. Sensenig which eventually resulted in a settle- 
ment of the prosecution. The defendants agreed to 
pay all the costs, and promised to i)roperIy conduct 
themselves in the future, and especially to obey the 
school laws, and not to show malice or ill will against 
any one on account of the recent unpleasantness in 
school nuitters. 

But these promises were much easier made than 
kept. It is seldom that a more bitter and im|)lacable 
resentment' is cherished by any man or set of men 
than by these halllcd men. Not only 
were those who had actually taken part against thejn 
in the late troubles relentlessly- proscribed and ostra- 
cized in business and social intercourse, but also olhers 
who, on account of their social iiositiou or known lit- 

erary tastes, were suspected of sympathizing with the 
cause of education were made to suffer their hate and 

Th(ii-e were, besides Mr. Sensenig, especially two 
objects of their spleen that deserve notice. These 
were Samliel Bownuin, Esq., the original founder of 
the village, who was then postmaster and engaged in 
the mercantile business at that [dace, and Rev. Daniel 
Hertz, the father of the young school-teacher who had 
been mobbed and expelled on the day of the famous 
riot. There was not a particle of proof of any kind 
that these venerable and respectable gentlemen had 
done, or even said, anything as partisans in the cause 
of free schools. Nor was it pretended that they had 
been aiding or even counseling the late prosecutions 
against them. But by some intuitive instinct they 
thought these men must sympathize with the cause 
of education, and to be suspected of such an enormity 
wa.s for them sufficient cause to resort to harsh meas- 
ures. Many families residing in the immediate neigh- 
borhood of Bowmansville that had been accustomed 
for a series of long years to trade off their farm pro- 
duce for store-goods in their own village now passed 
that store, to deal with other merchants miles away. 
Some of these same persons were members of the 
churches of whom Rev. Hertz was pastor, and these 
raised or strenuously tried to raise dissensions and 
destroy the peace in these congregations. And Daniel 
Sensenig, who belonged to the Mennonite communion, 
had to suffer the application of their strict discipline, 
which positively forbids the invocation of the strong 
arm of the municipal law in the vindication of public 
or private rights. 

Among the rioters who assembled in Bowmansville 
on that menu)rable 8tli of January, 1850, was a char- 
acter that stood forth in prominent and bold relief. 
His conduct on that day had attracted the attention 
of some of the citizens, who had dubbed him " the 
general" or "commander-in-chief." This man was 
Elias Leinbach, the father of Frederick, the school- 
master. He was now far advanced in years, well 
known in the neighborhood as a skillful brushrnaker 
and repairer of clocks. But he was still more famous 
as a believer in witches and hobgoblins and as one 
who frequently dug after concealed buried treasures. 
He, as a champion of his son, the schoolmaster, had 
become a violent and demonstrative anti-school par- 
tisan. He liad also been indicted with the rest of the 
rioters, and luid been among them when the prosecu- 
tion was compromised, and his proportionate share of 
the costs had either been ]jaid by him or by someof his 
friends for him. But as for him, he was unwilling to 
let the matter rest there. If the iniquitous free school 
system w<is to be introduced into Brecknock township, 

and protests of its honest yeomanry, — if liberty was to 
be trampled into the dust by the iron hand of oppres- 
sion,— he, for one, at least would not stand idly by 
witlHjut seeking to be avenged on these presumptu- 




liled his dearest 

ous tyrants w 

In taking a survey of tlie wliole field of action he 
found no fitter subject for liis vengeance than Daniel 
Sensenig. For the purpose of finding the projier 
metliodof proceeding eminent legal counsel were con- 
sulted. It wa.s determined that a suit against Jlr. Sen- 
senig for malicious prosecution was tlie best means 
that could be adopted to obtain the desired end. 
Whether the experienced counsel he employed really 
believed that he could recover damages in the case is, 
of course, impossible to tell. At this distance of time, 
in passing judgment on that point, great allowance 
should be made for the intense feeling that existed at 
that period. But, be that as it may, the suit was 
brought, and on the 12th day of February, ISOl, the 
summons was issued and the writ duly served ou the 

Subsequently a rule was taken by the plaintiff to 
have arbitrators chosen to whom the controversy 
should be referred, and on the 20th of June, 1851, 
the parties and their attorneys appeared in the jiro- 
thonotary'.s office at Lancaster, and chose David Wit- 
mer, Christian Hoflmau, Jr., and John Styer arbi- 
trators, and the time and place of meeting wore fixed 
in the village of New Holland, on Thursday, the 7th 
day of August, 18ol, at one o'clock p.m. 

This suit attracted almost as much attention as the 
original prosecution of the rioters. Numbers of wit- 
nesses on both sides were in attendance. Besides the 
parties, arbitrators, counsel, and witnesses, there were 
crowds of excited spectators. The witnesses on the 
side of the plaintiff were ready and willing to testify, 
and under cross-examination attemi)ted to be imper- 
tinent and witty. The result was, as is almost inva- 
riably the case under similar circumstances, that the 
tact and experience of the trained advocate proves an 
overmatch for the witness, and turns the laugh of the 
crowd against the pseudo wit. This was es()eclally 
the fate of one of plaintiff's witnesses, who made up 
by a superabundance of pluck what he lacked in 
stature. On account of his diminutive size, he was 
by the counsel for the defendant called the " Bantam- 
cock," an appellation that wa.s remembered by some 
of the spectators as long as he lived. 

At last the evidence was closed, the counsel pro- 
ceeded to argue the case before the arbitrators, and 
then submitted it to their decision. The arbitiaturs 
came from the retirement of their room, where they 
had been secluded during their consultations, and 
announced their award to be " No cause for action." 
This report was duly filed in the pruthonotary's office 
at Lancaster on the 8th day of August, 1851. 

It might perhaps be expected that with this last 
scene in this " strange, eventful history" the curtain 
should finally drop, and the tale should end here. 
But there was still another -act to follow, and when 
tlie curtain rises again we behold the cliief execulive 
olficer of the court in hot pursuit of the venci.ilile 

form of Elias Leiiibach, the plaintifT in the late suit, 
with a capias ad satiyacieudam for the costs incurred 
in the action which had just been determined. 

Tl^ poor old man now experienced the glorious 
uncertainty of the law. He had instituted thi.s legal 
))roceeclii1ir with tin.: object of being revenged on 
Daniel Sensenig, and now — could he trust his 
senses? — here were the stern officers of the law in- 
exorably demanding from him a sum of money quite 
beyond his pecuniary ability to pay, and in default 
of payment threatened to quarter him in limbo. 
Were these the sweet waters he had hoped to drink 
from the cup of revenge and retaliation? Had he 
really dug a i)it and fallen into it? But these refiec- 
tions were interrupted by the rude arrest made by 
the sherilf, who started him on his way for a second 
involuntary trip to Lancaster. Arrived there, he has- 
tened to consult his counsel, who at once applied to 
the Court of Common Pleas lor the benefit of the in- 
solvent laws of the State. His sons did not forsake 
their old and distressed father in his extremity, hut 
|)rocured for him the necessary sureties. His bond 
was then filed for his release under the insolvent 
laws, and he was set at liberty. After having in this 
manner regained his freedom, he proceeded on his 
way homeward, a wiser though probably a sadder 
man than he had been previous to his experience in 
the glorious uncertainty of the law. 

Highly discreditable as the events just detailed 
appear in tlie light of present surroundings, it is 
gratifying to every true friend of popular education 
that a radical change for the better has since been 
effected, and that a new era of marked improvement, 
not only in education but also in agriculture and 
general prosperity, dates from these days of strife and 
cominotion in Brecknock. 

By reference to the reports of the county super- 
intendent it appears that in 18.^i8 the number of 
school-houses had increased to seven, and the total 
receipts for school purposes were fourteen' hundred 
and fifty-two dollars and ninety-five cents. These 
figures in 1880 had increased to nine school-houses, 
and total receipts to five thousand one hundred and 
seven dollars and nineteen cents, of which sum, how- 
ever, a large portion was used for the erection of new 
school- houses. This process of building has been 
carried on till all the old school-houses have been 
replaced by sulistantial structures built of sandstone, 
of which huge supjilies are nearly everywhere ut 

At the (iresent time nut only the school-houses, 
with their furniture and apparatus, will bear a favor- 
able comparison with those of other districts which 
heretofore were generally considered as more ad- 
vanced, but some of the yoting men and women of 
this township, embracing probably lineal descendants 
of the rioters of 1850, are engaged in the laudable 
employment of instructing the youths of the district 
according to the most approved methods of modern 



times. At ( 


itinns tlie niitive teacli- 
ere of the district exliiliit abun<liuit proof of tliL-ir 
mental capacity, tlieir iiulustry and creditable ac- 

A few of her youths liave even aspired to higher 
education than what tl)e conimon schools aflbrd. 
While some liave creditably mastered tlie mysteries 
of medical science and the healing art, another has 
lately graduated from Franklin and Marsliall College 
with the highest honors at the head of his class. 

Nor has the progress of the township in material 
prosperity been less rapid or marked. Farms whose 
fields were once exhausted and sterile have been 
vastly improved, and their barns, though capacious, 
often prove too contracted to contain their prolific 
produce. The improvements in the methods of agri- 
culture hold even pace with the general advance- 
ment. All the modern labor-saving machines and 
approved implements of agriculture are now found 
in use among the farmers of this district. 

The improved condition of ihe roads will strike 
every traveler. Thirty years ago the roads were 
mostly deep ravines, rudely plowed with ruts. At 
other places the weary wayfarer had to climb over 
huge rocks of sandstone or iron bowlders. All this 
is changed. Well-formed drains on either side of 
the road now protect them against the formation of 
ruts. Rocks and stones have been removed from 
the road-beds, while large quantities of small sand- 
stone, gathered by cleaning the fields, have been 
hauled on the roads, and long distances of excellent 
turnpikes have thus been constructed. 

The justices of the peace who held jurisdiction over 
this township from 1777 to 1840 will be found in the 
civil list of the county in District No. 5, of which it 
composed a part with Caernarvon. It was also a part 
of District No. G, with Cocalico. 

The names of the justices who served from 1840' to 
the present time are here given : 

Jacob Sliuiir, A]iril 14, 1R40. , Willinin VaiieiJa, .^piil 15, 1S02. 

Al.nilmm liixlcr, April 14, 1B41>. [ II, li. Ik'ckcr, Al.iil V2, lKli4. 
Andrew Slirimp, April 'J, 1.S44. Iluiay E, Shrimp, Apiil, 18G7. 

Jolili n. Goo.l, April \\ 1847, to Ucubeii Sliuber, April, ISOS). 

April 1.), l.'iW. II. li. Becki-r, Apiil. 1S70. 

Henry S. Micliin-I, April 1:!, 1852. S. (J. Seifcil, April, 1S74, 

Julici n, Ui.oil, April 14, 1857. ' It. G. Siiobor, April, 1874, to 1870. 

Williiiui VaiieiJa, April 14, 1857. [ S. G. Soifrit, April, 18SU. 

, tiiij ;), I85'j. 

1!. Ii«i 

Bowmansville is situated in the valley formed by 
two braiiches of Muddy Creek, issuing from the rocky 
hills along the Berks County line, which form the 
water-shed between the Delaware and the Susque- 
hanna. The State road from Blue Ball to Reading 
here crosses the Iteamstown and Plow Tavern road. 
The land on the south side of the latter road is part 
of the large tract surveyed in 1737 to Christian Good, 
embracing the mill a ipiarter of a mile to the south. 
On the other, on north side of the road, the soil is 

' By tlic- CoMdlitutioh of 18:i9 tlio tov nuliip Locauie a Bfjiarnte >li,tii.t. 

part of the Ulrich Burkholder tract. On each of 
these tracts one-story log farm-houses were erected 
at an early date, both near the site of the village, 
that an the Good tract really within its borders. 
About 1704 the Jlennonites, forming the principal 
part of the surrounding population, built a sandstone 
meeting-house on the southwest corner of the cross- 
roads, near the last-mentioned farm-house. At this 
time what few store goods the people needed were 
supplied either from Reading, twelve miles to the 
northeast, or from Adainstown, four miles northwest 
from this place. No nearer store was in existence 

Samuel Bowman, Esq., after wdiom the place was 
named, was born Dec. 1, 17.S9. He was a lineal de- 
scendant of Wendell Bowman, who about 1707 im- 
migrated to Gerinantown and thence to Lancaster 
County. One of his descendants, named Christian, 
settled in the Allegheny Valley, now Berks County, 
four miles east from Bowmansville, wdiere in 1749 he 
built a log house which is still standing. Young 
Samuel by industry and perseverance acquired a re- 
spectable education. As a young man he had for 
several winters taught school in the Mennonile meet- 
ing-house and other places in the neighborhood. In 
1820 he built the large two-story sandstone dwelling 
and store-house still standing on the southeast corner 
of the cross-roads, and commenced the business of 
country store-keeper, surveyor, and conveyancer. He 
prospered in business, and, being skillful as a sur- 
veyor and scrivener, was appointed a justice of the 
peace. He accepted his commission solely for the 
l)urpose of taking acknowledgments of the many 
deeds of conveyance and other instruments of writing 
he prepared. On the 1st of April, the general settle- 
ment day, his store was crowded. .Deeds were exe- 
cuted and delivered, the purchase money counted and 
paid over, and the settlements of the surrounding 
neighborhood wer^niade there. 

About 1830 another dwelling-house with cooper- 
shop was erected in the village by Martin Bowman, 
on land for which he paid one hundred dollars an 
acre. This was then thought an enormous price. In 
1832 a stone .school-house was built in the village op- 
posite the store, and after that the meeting-house was 
no longer used for school purposes. On the advent 
of the new administration following the Presidential 
election of ^840, a iiost-office with mail supply from 
Blue Ball was established in this infant village, which 
as yet had not received a name. But Samuel Bow- 
man, Esq., having received the appointment of post- 
master, the post-office and place were after him named 

On account of the two oflices being incompatible, 
this appointment deprived him of his justice's com- 
mission. The neighborhood felt this vacancy as a 
serious inconvenience, which in the spring of 1847 
was remedied by the election of his nephew, J. B. 

Good, Escp, as a just: 

le pc 

durinir tin 


same year built the dwelling and office on the north- 
east corner of the cross-roads, which place he occu- 
pied (being twice re-elected) as a justice of the peace, 
surveyor, and conveyancer until his removal to Lan- 
caster in April, 1858. 

In 1851, Peter B. Good erected the jjrescnt hotel on 
the northwest corner of the cross-roads, on ground 
costing two hundred dollars an acre, which was still 
thought a very higli price. He succeeded in obtain- 
ing license, although there was a remonstrance filed 
against it at the instigation of the landlord at the 
Dry Tavern, two miles southwest from Bowmausville. 
In the summer of 1854 the meeting-house at the cem- 
etery, half-way between the store and the mill, was 
erected. About this time the first brick dwellings 
were built in the village, and a new school-house in 
the northern part of the place was erected, and tiie 
old school-house changed and enlarged into a dwell- 
ing and shoe-store. 

Soon after the election of James Buehanan to the 
Presidency, in 1850, the post-office was removed, or 
rather discontinued, and a new one established at tlie 
Dry Tavern. But this mistake was promptly reme- 
died. The post-office at Bowinansville was not only 
re-established, but measures were now taken which 
resulted in a signal improvement. Instead of being 
supplied once a week on horseback from Blue Ball, 
the office at Bowmansville is now served by a stage- 
coach running daily between Fairville and the city 
of Reading. 

On Jan. 19, 1857, Samuel Bowman, Esq., founder 
of the village, died, and his remains are buried in the 
cemetery at that place. 

About 1874 the Jlennonite congregation sold their 
old sandstone meeting-house situate in the villai;e, 
and erected a frame structure to take its place a short 
distance southwest of the mill. The site vacated by 
this removal was occupied by the erection of a large 
brick dwelling-house. . 

Meanwhile. the general prosperity of the village 
and surrounding country has wonderfully improve 
The productiveness and market value of farms has 
greatly appreciated. The population of the village is 
about one hundred and fifty. It contains a hotel, 
large country store, the finest flouring-mill in the 
neighborhood, extensive blacksmith- and wagon- 
maker-shops, clock- and watchmakers, shoemakers, 
tinsmiths, marble -works, cigar- makers, butchers, 
]iainters, cabinet-makers, physician, justice of the 
peace, and other industries. 

Although there are no ornate or e.xpensive edifices 
in this village, it may justly be claimed that it is ex- 
ceptionally well built. There are no unsightly old 
log hul-< tliat di.^figure so many country villages. All 
the houses ale comlorlable two-story structures. If 
there is not much wealth in this village, there is ab- 
solutely no poverty within its limits. 


Jacob F. Kern, merchant and postmaster at Muddy 
Creek, in Brecknock township, was born at Red Run, 
in the same township, Oct. 24, 1844. His father, 
J.icob, a nati\e of L.mcaater Couuty (as his 
gi.mdfather), was born in 1811, and died Sept b 1870. 
.r icob Kern mauud I i lun i Tr uikh ui-i i I I uicaa- 
lei County blie du 1 V] iil _ i 1 M I i ^ .d ■nx 

children, all sons, of whom five are living. Jacob F. 
Kern was the fourth son. The common lot of farmers' 
boys fell to his share. He got a little schooling and 
a good deal of hard work. At the age of twelve he 
went to 11 ve with his uncle, .-Vdam Kern, near Church- 
town, with whom he remained four years. Then (at 
the age of si.\teen) he essayed to take care of him- 
self, and for three years thereafter labored as a farm 
hand. At the age of nineteen he determined to learn 
a trade, and in pursuance of that resolve took ser- 
vice with John Slaybach, a carpenter of Brecknock 
township. For eight years he followed with much 
industry'the calling he had cliosen, and for the on- 
suing five years workeil first at wheelwrighting, and 
subsequently at house-painting. Thus far he had 
passed through an experience freighted with hard 
work and exacting driin upon the energies of his 
[jhysical nature. lie concluded, therefore, to enter 



the mercantile trade, as more in consonance with his 
views and ambition, and in 1877 embarl^ed upon his 
career as a merchant. He chose a location atlMuddy 
Creek, where Benjamin Rainier, and others before 
him, had vainly sought to make store-keeping a profit- 
able venture. General opinion pointed to the lielief 
that the place was not likely to prove a paying one 
to anybody, but Mr. Kern thought difl'erently, and 
entered upon the project, satisfied that he would 
make a success of it. Although it was at first a dis- 
couraging struggle he soon began to see an improve- 
ment, and so steadily striving as he had never striven 
before, realized at last that he had built up a satis- 
factory and promising trade. It was no small thing 
to accomplish, in the face of such untoward circum- 
stances as beset the young merchant at the start, and 
it is naturally a gratifying incident, worthy of record, 
that he achieved a victory. Since 1870 he has been 
postmaster at JIuddy Creek, and is to-day a flourish- 
ing merchant, as well as a widely-respected citizen. 
He has served his township as school director, and is 
now township auditor. In his public services he hius 
been zealous and faithful, and is known as a watch- 
ful and able guardian of the interests intrusted to 
his care. He has been a member of the Lutheran 
Church for about twenty years, earlier an attendant 
at Reamstown, and now at Centre Church. July 3, 
1866, Mr. Kern was married to Catherine, daughter 
of Samuel Frankhauser, of Brecknock. In 1881, he 
erected at Muddy Creek a handsome residence, much 
to the architectural adornment of the locality, and 
creditable as well to his own taste and design. 

Henry Stauflfer, one of the best known of Breck- 
nock's farmer-citizens, was born in ICast Lampeter 
township, Lancaster Co., Dec. 28, 1812. His great- 
grandfather (Christian or Christopher) came to Amer- 
ica from the Palatinate in 17-19, accompanied by his 
wife and two sons. He settled in East Lampeter 
township upon a i)lace that has Ihcm in the possession 
of his descendants from tliat day to this, his great- 
grandson, Benjamin R., being now the owner thereof. 
Christian's son, John (born 1733, and died Dec. 26, 
1811), was a preacher of the Jlennonite faith, and for 
many years was an important factor in the history of 
that church in Lancaster County. His wife was Ve- 
ronica Buckwalter, who died Feb. 10, 1826. His son 
Daniel married Mary Rohrer, and to them were born 
eleven children, of whom the living are four sons and 
two daughters. Henry Staufl'er was the third son. 
To the age of seventeen his history was that of the 
average farmer's lad. He worked for his father in 
the summer, and attended school in the winter. His 
opportunities at school were, however, improved with 
more than ordinary profit, for when his school-days 
were over he was adjudged a competent teacher, and 
inclining towards scholastic pursuits, ho took a school 

in East Lampeter in the year 1829. At this time 
there was a great lack of uniformity in the text-books 
in use in the schools, and to a system of correct edu- 
cation this condition of things ofl'ered a serious ob- 
stacle. Mr. Staulfer recognizing the evil in its fullest 
sense, se*t himself to ellect a change for the better, and 
labored with such energy of purpose that to him, in 
a material degree, may be ascribed the accomplish- 
ment of the desired result, soon afterwards obtained. 
Almost without interruption Mr. Stauffer taught 
school from 1829 to 1862, and during that entire 
period found his fields of labor in the townships of 
East Lampeter, Leacock, and Manor. He was re- 
garded as a teacher of more than usually successful 
methods, and won the proud satisfaction of knowing 
that many of the pupils whose characters and train- 
ing he had moulded rose to positions of importance 
in the world of social intelligence. 

Upon retiring from his long and useful career as a 
teacher he embarked in trade, and for some years 
kept store in East Lampeter. In 1864 he purchased 
a farm in Brecknock township, and from that day to 
this has had his home thereon. June 7, 1849, he was 
married to Anna, daughter of William Schnader, of 
East Earl township. Of their eleven children ten 
are living. He was reared in the Mennonite faith, 
but since 1850 has been a member of the Reformed 
Church (earlier of the New Holland Church, in which 
he was an elder, and now of Centre Church). He 
has ujjon frequent occasions served as township school 
director, and, in season as well as out of season, has 
manifested by his earnest works a warm and zealous 
interest in the cause of popular education. 

Mr. Stauffer is justly regarded as a man of liberal 
and enterprising views, endowed with a spirit of broad 
comprehension and observation. -He is, moreover, a 
student, as well as a keen observer. Upon the cur- 
rent topics of the day, as well as upon the subjects of 
|)olitical history anj scientific researches, he is able to 
discourse with vigorous intelligence. In that field he 
is a recognized local authority whose opinions are 
highly respected. Although already past the Bibli- 
cal limit of threescore and ten, he is hale and hearty, 
and promises to enjoy many years of healthful ac- 


T E K X L. 

j That beautiful section of Eastern Lancaster 
tCounty, bounded on the north by the " Forest Hills," 
on the south by the Welsh Mountain, and through 
which runs the l.ead-watei- ol' the Couestoga (in In- 
! diaii language '■('n.uked I'leek"), was, according to 
ascertained records, firat settled by a colony of Welsh 
people about the year 1730. They were an oflshoot 

I!.v Mrs. Martha Ji- 


from a colony of Welsh who had emigrated about 
1700, and liad made a settlement in the great valley 
of Chester County. After some years, in the spirit of 
exploration, some of these colonists pushed westward, 
and arriving at what is now known as Caernarvon 
township, were pleased with the beauty and natural 
advantages of the place. The country was then an un- 
broken forest, but through a sort of rjalural iiku'Imw 
flowed a large and clear spring:, of uatir, and near 
this was a sort of cave. Here they rested tem|iorarily 
and here determined to locate, and they began at once 
to put up a sort of block-house for protection, and to 
take up and clear land. As most of these emigrants 
were of the Church of England, they with commend- 
able zeal .soon began the erection of a log church. 

From the reccn-d of Bangor Church I extract the 
following charter, as given by William Penn to 
these colonists. I transcribe it as written in the old- 
fashioned style in the record : 

" By the lloMuniUo WiUialn Pen Ksquire Originnl I'loprietur of tlie 
province of I'eniifijlvanln, liU cliurl.T. To nil jrereons who slioiil.i hu 

BiiiJ Troveuce. Ii i.s Gnintod Uiuy elinll enjoy the freb excrciav of l 

gaging a placo of Priviledges. Aiiioiig ntluTB fauiiliiB of Wf li 
known by tlie Name of the autitl.l liriltons, Did Transplant Thwnsfiv 
flom Wales in Olil England into tlit. ProVinco alorcsaid and setll 
Thennclvi-s lirst in tlic tuwiiBliip u( Hadnnr, in tlie Connty of Cliestei 

in a Towns 

filicilltd C 


rvoii fi.i 

1 a,liir.'..niu-B 

mie name 111 W 


in Old England and fi 


here Tli 

ey (in imitations 

of all good C 


tians) Fou 

id that no 



he agreealde to 

them without 


Public Wo 



eiefore 11 

iaiiim..u«ly and 

■urdially coiiBi- 


and agreed 

according t 


ir Worldly CircunistunccB 

to Build a Ch 


of 8,|nare 

,oga wliicli 

they linldhed 

and Gave it tli 

B iNauie of Bangor 

from a Dio 

ce-e of that 


lo in Wa 

eBinUld Eiighi 

1.1. The ininc 


meuibeia \ 

ho Built lb 


d (.'UurLl 

were as follows 


li WilliaiuB. 

Philip Dav 




UecBo Davi 


George lliittaon. Tlii.iiiaB Ni. liol.,»s. 

Edward Nlcholaas. J. din IlinKB. 

Kev. Mr. Griffith llugliB, mi. 

Rev. Mr. Kogel Blackball. 

liev. Mr. Itichard Lock, a.d. 17;!0. 

Itev. Mr. Georgo Craig, A.D. n.'il. 
"Uy will, Thomas Morgan, Esq., a Welclirnan, of Moigantown, Dec. 
Il, 1740, doiuited 03 ucreH Ijing around this log church, which they 
id named llangor, to ilo ns" and service. This pro]ierty was let out 
1 ground-rents for tlio pnipoBO, .icioiding to the terms of the will, of 

jd of 99 years. On Ibis properly lioii:-eh were erected, the church thus 

village Bangor, after Bangor, in W.ilen, but In Ibis way It canio to 

1 called 'the Cbuichtown,' and bo Cbuiclitown." 

About the year 17.54 a new stone church was 
erected, to which Nathan Evans, Esq., contributed 
one hundred pounds, a princely donation for tliosu 
dayiv This church still existed in ii>y childhood. I 
remember it its a beautiful specimen of an English 
country 'church, with its spire and belfry, its little 
box-paneled pulpit, with sounding-board over it, 
on which was painted a dove, life-size, its liigli biix- 
pews, and an elevated one for the lord of the manor. 
This was a mere title of courtesy, as'the land here was 
not held as a niiinor, but by individual title. In the 
early part of this century this church was taken down, 
and one erected on tlie original site of much less 
architectural beauty. Some stones, on which the 
donors to the old churclt had cut their names, were 
incorporated again in the eastern walls. Bangur 
Church continued in active ministry until about the 
time of the Revolution, since which time it has been 
declining, although there was ;t revival of its power 
throughout the time it was under the faithful miiii=trv 
of Rev. Levi Bull. 
I The tir.-t eulnnistsseem to have been mainly farmers 
I and men well .^killed in the mechanical arts, ami the 
perfection ol their workmanship was to be seen in llie 
I few old built by them, to which, in skill of 
I execution, none are equal in the present day. They 
were elaborate in their carved wainscoting and oaken 
paneling, but were not constructed with the conveni- 
ence of the present d;iy, there being sometimes hnilt 
great masses of stone wall, perhaps three feet thick, 
for which we would feel no necessity nowadays. 
About titty years ago it was desired, in making some 
alterations in the Windsor mansion, to take down a 
I portion of a wall, but so strongly had it been built, 
and hardened had the mortar become, it was found 
impossible to accoinidish the task, and this quality 
of durability characterizes till their work of which 
there are any remains. 

Iron-Works.— Among the original colonists was 
John Jenkins, wTio had settled on the site of what 
afterwards became the Windsor place, put up a tem- 
porary building, and entered into contract with Jolin 
Thomas and William I'eiin for the purchase of four 
hunilred acres of land, Jan. 10, 1733. This was sur- 
veyed by order of government, and the patent about lo 
be taken out, which, however, for some reason now 
unknown, was not executed at that time. Nine years 
tifter Mr. Jenkins had made this purchase he sold it, 
with what improvements he had made on it, to Mr. 
William Branson, of Philadelphia, who took out the 
|)atent Dec. :i8, 1742, and erected on it the lower 
Windsor Forge, and soon after it tlie mansion-house, 
after the English style of building, and named the 
place Wind.sor, after the King of England's palace. 
In connection with Mr. Branson were associated three 
Enghsh gentlemen, Lyntbrd Lardner, Esq., Samuel 
Flower, and Richard Hockley, Esqs. Lynford Lard- 
ner married Elizabetli,adaughter of William Branson, 
who was the sou of Nathaniel Branson, who lived in 



England. Mr. Branson's dau-lUer Rebecca niarric.l 
Mr. Samuel Flower, and Hannah niairicl Richard 
Hockle. Richard Penu niarric.l the si.Ur of .Mr. 
Alter sometime Mr. liransuii sold onl his interest 

thirty years. David Jenkins was in their employ- 
ment iji clerking mo>t of that time. The En-lish j 
company seem to have been very worthy njcn, ol' high 
breeding and cdiaracter, wlio kit tluir imprc-- (jn the 

In 1773, David Jenkins b.inght tlie hall-intcrcst of 
the company for the sum of two thousand live hun- , 
(Ired pounds, and when the mutterings of ilie Kcvo- ! 
lution came on they sold out the remainder to him lor 
the sum of two thousand four hundred pounds, in- • 


Rev. Thomas Barton was the pastor of Bangor , 
Church at the time, who felt his oath to the English j 
government to be binding, and therefore reliminished i 
the charge, and I think it probable the company 
found circumstances becoming uncomforlalile on 
account of English associations. 

Mr. Jenkins carried on tlie works successfully, 
making additions to them, until about IMJU, when he 
was succeeded by his son, Robert Jenkins, who, dying 
in 184S, it descended to the late David Jenkins, by 
whose death, unnmrrieil, in 1850, the [iroperty was di- 
vided among the various heirs. These forges had been 
carried on by charcoal, and the increasing scarcity of j 
wood and the successful introduction of coal in the i 
manufacture of bar-iron rendered them valueless, and j 
the water-powers are now dev(;ted to milling ajid | 
other manufacturing purposes. It will be seen that i 
the establislimeiit of iron-works drew to Caernarvon I 
at an early period a large population of employes. 
The workmen of the forges were mostly from Wales, ! 
although there were also other nationalities, but the j 
iron-works of Wales supplied the skilled operatives. 
For those having families houses were erected on the 
" Bank," that being tiie usual designation for an 
iron-works place. These people became childlike in 
their " needs" upon the " big house," as the proprie- ■ 
tor's was called. They had not the restless spirit of j 
later times, and families grew up, the second and 
third generation often, born on the place. 

Forgemen brought up their sons to their trade, i 
they to be succeeded by their children in turn, and ( 
so entirely did children become identiiied with the ; 
place and such upholders of their supposed rights in j 
it, that they would niaintaiu them with a wonderful ] 
spirit of pugnacity when they considered them in- 
fringed on. A generation ago there was an instance 
in a celebrated pugilist, Tom Hyer, w ho inherited his 
muscle from his ancestors, three preceding genera- | 
tions of whom having been hamntermen, that depart- ; 
inent requiring great strength and suppleness of nuis- | 
cle to successfully mani[>ulate and draw out the bar ; 

roll when under the iiammer. It seems as if his 
ily may have been of (icrnian origin, as the first 
le on the account-books is Lodowic, of the next 
cratiion Loiiis. Tugilistic ability was held in high 

)f tl 

imcof won.lcruil iih>.iral power and strength. There 
had settled in the nci-hl.orliood at an early day a 
man by the name ui Herman Dchavcn, of Huguenot 
ance.stry. He was a man of very powerful physique, 
and the blood of the turbulent times of his ancestors 
seemed to tingle in his vi'iii>, and wdien these two 
men met on luiblic occasions their encounters were 
dreadful. It was " tireek meeting Greek." 

Among the employes at Windsor while carried on 
by the English company were two brothers, James 
and William Old, who carried on one of the fires. It 
is suppo~cil they came from Wales. James must have 
been a man (d' great force of character and natural 
ability, as after some years he was able to purchase 
the property lying on the Conestoga below Windsor 
and erect on it a forge, giving it the name of Pool 
Forge. In the course of his business, tradition says, 
he engaged in wood-cutting a young man from Ire- 
land, by name Robert Coleman, and finding in him 
good business faculties engaged him in his employ- 
ment. It ended in his marrying his daughter, Ann 
Old. Mrs. Coleman was the mother of the young 
lady. Miss Anne Coleman, whose engagement of mar- 
riage with Mr. Buchanan, afterwards President of the 
United States, resulted so disastrously to all parties. 
Mr. Cideman alterwards bought a large interest from 
the Grubb family in the celebrated Cornwall iron-mine, 
and made an immense fortune in working it, so that 
he became the great iron-nuister of Pennsylvania. 
To his honor be it told that, although his place of 
residence, Cornwall, was so far from Churchtown, he 
never failed, his life huig, to send yearly a generous 
subscription to Bangor Church. 

Some time after tlqs there came fromChesterCounty 
a young man by the name of Cyrus Jacobs, who en- 
tered into business with Mr. Old, married his daugii- 
ter, Margaret Old, and became a famous and success- 
ful iron-master. He built and carried on Spring 
Grove W(,rks, and also built the man.Mon. Pool Forge 
coining into his possession after the death of his 
brother-in-law, Davies Old, he carried both forges on 
with great energy and, and made a very large 
fortune. He lyas a man of the most enlarged capacity 
for money-making. It was a usual thing to say that 
"everything turned to gcdd in his hands." Some 
years before his death he built the beautiful mansion 
of White Hall, to the north of Churchtown, and was 
living there at the time of his death, which took 
place instantaneously wdiile sitting at his breakfast- 
table and reaching for an egg. Hee.X[)ired in the act 
of taking it in his liand. 

White Hall is now owned and occupied by Mr. 
Abram Lincoln. .Mr. ,(acub, had a family of twelve 
or fourteen children, who mostly died in early or 



middle life. His desceiuhints hud not the quality of 
saving, as he had of acquiring, mmiey, and the splen- 
<lid farms he willed to them— White Hall, Federal 
Hall, Hampden, Ashland, Pool, Spring Grove, and 
other property — are all out of the name at this time. 
The name of Old is extinct. Davies Old left two 
children, wiio died unmarried, — James Old, who died 
in New Orleans in the employment of Benjamin Mor- 
gan, the " merchant prince" of New Orleans, and Mi^s 
Harriet Old, who died in Lancaster a few years since. 
Indians. — The accounts of the Indians or of the 
colonists' intercourse with them in colonial times are 
exceedingly meagre. It is known there was a settle- 
ment or town of them under the lirow of JIaxwell's 
Hill, hetween Churchtown and Morgantown, which 
sloped down to the Couestoga. The place afterwards 
became part of the farm of Jlr. David Jenkins, and 
Indian relics were sometimes turned up there in 
plowing. It is known they lived in amity with the 
whites, and no mistrust between them existed. I re- 
member hearing my father, Robert Jenkins, who was 
born in 17G7, say that in his boyhood he used to enter 
into sports, such as hunting and fishing, with them. 
But whether they emigrated elsewhere or diedoffgrad- 
ually no one seems to have taken note of. Some years 
agooneofour workmen, in quarrying limestone, struck 
the mattock into an Indian grave, from out of which 
rolled a skull and a little )iot of curious and elaborate 
workmanship; an antiquarian expressed his opinion 
that the relic was prehistoric. At another time we 
found in a solitary place on the edge of the mountain 
a large stone, on which was rudely cut the profile and 
tomahawk of an Indian, and underneath " Wynius' 
grave," evidently done by a friendly white man. Most 
probably " Wymus" was the " last of the ;\Iohegans." 
Slaves in Colonial Times.— From a list of negroes 
taken from an old account-liook at Windsor were the 
names of" rhiladelpliia Jim," " Loniion Boat-swain," 
"Black Bill," "Cooba,""(Jua^li." These were Guinea 
negro slaves, stnne of thcni buiiu'ht from other parlies, 
others from shipboard, ulm wcrr iiuploycd about the 
forges and also in fanning' <'iHia:inii.i. I have licard 
my father tell anecdote^ lie had liiard of tlirir i^imr 
ance of civilized life, such a^ " I'at gra^^s in do licl" 
when salad was set befori' tluin. The lir.^t gencralion 
of these negroes got thcii- names apparently from the 
accident of where they were lirst gotten, or from their 
occupation, thus, " Philadelphia Jim," "Slave Boat- 
swain," "Negro Mig" (Mingo), or they were pre- 
fixes indicating their employment; but the succeed- 
ing generation got the classic names of Greece or 
Rome. In my early childhood I remember old ne- 
groes bearing the names of " Poinpey," " Cicsar," 
" Cato," 'and "Scijjio." No doubt the taste or au- 
tliority of the master decided the name, while the 
females who presided in domestic matters got the 
•names immortalized by the- English poets in their 
addresses to their mistresses, such as " Cloe," " Phyl- 
lis," " Priscilla," " Clarissa," or " Diana," and the 

visions brought up of one of these names in that day, 
instead of a sylvan beauty, was that of a comfortahle 
old negro cook or a stout washerwoman. 

By the laws of Pennsylvania there was gradual 
emancijiation. The children of these slaves served 
until tl'ey were twenty-eight, and tlieirchildren were 
born free, but were generally b<mnd in the families to 
whom their parents belonged until eighteen or twenty- 
one. Every family of any size had at least two, and 
the routine of domestic life moved along much more 
smoothly than at the present time. These slaves, as a 
class, were a people of extremely courteous manners, 
and many anecdotes could be told of their pride uf 
station in the families to whom they belonged.' 

The Bangor School-House. — The village school 
was under the auspices of the Bangor Church, the 
church-wardens being trustees of it. They first put 
up a log school-house, and afterwards erected a large 
and substantial stone building. It was located in the 
centre of the village, and divided from the ground of 
Bangor Church by a little street running north. The 
school-house was set about the depth of a lot hack 
from the m.iin .-.treet. This side street seemed to have 
been opened for the sake of access to a fine spring of 
water which flowed in that neighborhood, and was 
convenient to the school. 

About sixty or, perhaps, seventy years ago Mr. 
Jacobs purchased the house now in the occupancy of 
Jlr. Coxe, and determined he would make a hotel of 
it. Objection was made by the inhabitants, as there 
was a large and good hotel at the eastern end of the 
village, which was considered su(ficient for the needs 
of the place, and when 5Ir. Jacobs gave out that he 
wanted the scliool-house and its property for the use 
of the hotel, his offer for it was indignantly refused. 
But he had determined he would-have it, and at onco 
began to build on his lot, adjoining the school-house, 
a large barn and stabling for horses, so close that the 
wall alniltcd onihe eastern wall of the school-house, 
and Ihc will. lows ha.l to be taken «iit to be filled in 
with -stone and mortar; the school, of course, had 


ng was going on. 

and when opened again it was found the light had 
been d.'strovcd, nor could the lives of children be 
endangered hy their ])nixiiiiity to horses, and, worse, 
their iiioialh, iVoni the loose class of men who are 
apt to hang around tavern-stables. The village felt 
a great wrong had been jmt upon it, the more so, as 
the school-house had been used by the Methodist 
Church as a |)lace for holding worship, and Mr. 
Jacobs found he must make some amends. This 
property of Pool extended up to the extreme western 

I Asa 

of Iho 

uf "Qu 

One ilay " Quiisli" uiot tlia liev. Levi Hull, of whose church lie wiu n 
member, who said to him, " Well, ijinish. how d'ye doi" " Very bud, 
miiblei-, wid de rh<-iinnttiz." " Ah, I'm sorry lo hejir you fire suffering, 
Qtiush." " I iiiUH look fur it, iiuisler, iu my old days, for de ilinumatli 



nu^ie to 

tlie ii-^e 


^ tlie u 

e of the 


ft i\,v h 

s hotel. 


a the , 



limit of Churclitown, where a road led down to the 
lower Windsor Forge. From tliis he cut off a depth 
of lots for building jjurposes fronting the great road, 
and below them, facing tlie road that ran to Windsor 
Forge, laid off a small plot of ground on uliiili he 
built a school-house similar to the one lie had spoiled, 
and appropriated the Bangor s 
of his hotel as a granary, thus 
church and school iiro|icrty as 
Whether the trustees of I5aiig( 
to him I do not know, or on 
holds it. 

Physicians. — The earliest knowledge I have of 
physicians in Caernarvon was of Dr. Kilward Hand, 
son of Gen. Hand, of Revolutionary fame. He was 
said to be a young man of more than ordinary attain- 
ments. In the early part of the present century Dr. 
John McCamant became the physician of Caernarvon. 
He was a man of skill and success in his profession, 
but towards the latter part of liia life turned Ins at- 
tention a good deal to politics; served in the State 
Senate; removed to Pottsville late in life, where lie 
died. Two of his sons now serve in official capacity 
in the State service. 

Of the families of the early incomers whose names 
are on the list of those who contributed to the eslali- 
lishnient of the Episcopal Church, I can hardly give 
any history. The Davies family had a representa- 
tive in late years in Edward Davies, Esq., who re- 
sided in Churclitown and was a man of much in- 
fluence. He was engaged in mercantile life, but 
represented our county in Congress, and was a prin- 
cipal supporter of the Episcop;il <'hiHi-li. He lel't a 
family, most of them decea-ied, <i\ir i^ mnv the wife 
of Judge Strong. 

Many of the sons of other old families, when grofrn, 
attracted by the visions of wealth to be made in the 
great West, migrated, and are scattered here and there 
throughout the extent of it. Sometimes the old 
Welsh name turns up in some aspirant to political 
honors or in some high professional career. When 
the report of the gold louiul in Mr. Sutor's mill-race 
struck the ear of the North, California got its propor- 
tion of seekers after it from Caernarvon. l"ew to bring 
hack the shining dust, and soims ala^, to close their 
lives in a miner's desolate hut, while the la-t vi.Mon 
of the glazing eye, most probably, was some home- 
scene of their dear old native Caernarvon. 

The fine farms of Caernarvon settlement have for 
many years been gradually passing into the hands of 
Germans. Of the settlers whose farms lay on the 
northern bank of the Conestoga, running from Wind- 
sor to Morgantown, with one exception all are owned 
by Germans. The 'Nicholas Huttson farm, above 
Windsor, is .low <iwiK'd by a (.ierman, so also is the 
Beach Spring, formerly owned by Robert Jenkins. 
The George Jenkins mill property is now Wertzler's 
mill. The John Jentins properly is now occupied 
bv Martin Bickam and owned bv Count Dn|)oia, of 

Paris, France. The David Jenkins farm was sold to 
Peter Carpenter (Zimmerman), and the Joseph Jen- 
kins place to Caufman. . Joseph Jenkins' family 

\vere«intennarried with tlie Morgans, of Morgantown, 
his wife being a Morgan and his daughter, Rachel, 
marrying Francis Morgan. This farm approached 
the borders of ilorgantown. 
! Caernarvon Presbyterian Church.— As the Jen- 
kins family, u ho owned Windsor, were Presbyterians, 
i and desired a jilace for worship and the burial of their 
dead, they, with the descendants of Rlr. David Jeii- 
I kins living in Churclitown, laid otf a site for the pur- 
pose, this was on ii portion of land of the Windsor 
estate lying at the eastern end of the village. On 
this was erected, by the help of others, a neat house 
of worship, situated in the centre of the graveyard, 
! which was planted with evergreens and shrubbery. 
[ Here repose the remains of the deceased of the family 
of the last century. 

The Methodists.— In the beginning of the cen- 
tury, wlien Methodism became a power in the land, 
j with its system of itinerant ministry reaching to 
every family with its earnest zeal, most of the jjeople 
' fell aw.iy Iruiu the Episcopal and joined the iletho- 
dist Church,- notably so the large and influential 
family of the Ev.iiis. 

The Jlethodists of the early times of their church, 
being served by the itinerating system, held circuit 
stations for worship in private houses, and for several 
I years service was held at the house of James Nott, one 
of the principal forge-men of Windsor place, and Mrs. 
! Jenkins always opened her house to the entertain- 
ment of the clergy. In this way came to be their guest 
the Rev. John Summcrfield, a very distinguished 
English Methodist clergyman, who was making a 
j tour of America. Wherever he prCached thousands 
I hung enraptureil on his eloiiuence ; and so pleasant 
j an impression did he make in his private intercourse 
I with the family tluit the remark was made that his 
j eloquence was not excelled by the graces of his high 
j social culture. Mr. .lenkins always gave great en- 
couragement t(] the .Meiliodist Church on his place, 
and some of the uorkiiieii were among the best and 
most influential members of the church. He some- 
times gave them the privilege of holding camp-meet- 
j ing on his timber-land on the Welsh Mountain. 
j After some years a church was built, and a few 
years ago, tliis not meeting their wants, a location was 
j selected on the southern side of the village, the site 
I once a part of the Windsor estate, on which a beau- 
' tiful house of worship has been erected. Standing at 
! the church-door the lovely landscape that greets the 
j eye is not often looked upon. A well-located ceme- 
' tery lies On the northern side of the street, opposite 
the church. The congregation now have the minis- 
trations of a clergyman resident among them. 
I Schools.— .\s nothing but the elementary branches 
I were taught in the vilhiiie school, there at length was 

,,r higl 


librt made 



to supply it. An academy was built in 1854, on the 
ground belonging to the Caernarvon Presbyterian 
Churcli. James E. Giffin was the first principal. lie 
was succeeded by Thomas 11. ReirMiyder, liy whimi it 
was conducted till 1872, wlicn il w:.- .liM-..iiiniiir.l ; 
the house for several years was untpccupicd and was 
rapidly going to ruin when the township school 
directors took the matter in hands and oll'crcd to take 
the building, restore it, and take a lease of ninety- 
nine years, paying annually a certain huni to the 
Caernarvon Presbyterian Cliurch, and it is now used 
as a school-house for the district. 

Bangor Church from being a large and influential 
congregation has dwindled down to mere e.xisteiice. 
Some years ago great consternation was awakened liy 
its being found tliat the lease <if ninety-nine years 
had e.K[)ired, and some people made liard threats 
against their property in case they should be obliged 
to give it up to the church, but the alarm died away. 
The breaking up ami removal of the Davies and 
Jacobs families have left none to take their place. 
By the strenuous e.xertions of some parties the old 
building has been removed, but it may be as truly as 
painfully said, " Ichabod" is written on Bangor 

The Old Graveyard.— The old graveyard, "God's 
acre," has fullilled its |)Urpose. How thickly crowded 
lie its slee|)ers in their narrow homes! What mem- 
ories arise before us I Who can forget the image of 
that inan of God, the Rev. Levi Bull, as witli face 
upturned to heaven, and every feature beaming with 
the inspiration of Christian faith and hope, with 
majestic step, led the w;\y to the open grave, repeat- 
ing as he wrnt, " I am the resurrecli.m and the hie, 
saith tlie Lord, he that belie\elh in nii- lliough he 
were dead yet shall lie live." " 1 know that njv 
Redeemer liveth, and that in my tle^li aliall I ,-. l- 
God !" 

But a history of l?angor and its old graveyard 
would not be comjilele without some mention of its 
old se.xton, " Black Fred." According to the ehureh 
record the sexton's salary was to be jiaid out of the 
contributions to the penny bo.\, wdiich, I think, were 
rather slim ; but I think they must have come under 
a more definite arrangement, as the record says else- 
where the sexton was to get " .£1 ten shillings yearly 
for the services required," and as a perquisite of office 
was to get " seven sliillings and six pence for breaking 
ground for a grave for all i)erson3 over ten years of 
age, and five shillings for each grave under ten years," 
with the condition that lie must keep them in good 
order. But Fred could not have earned the molasses 
for his bread in digging graves, for the country was 
liealtliy, and the pcr(|nisites must have been few and 
far between. But year in and year out, through win- 
ter's storms and summer's heat, Fred was always 
found punctual in his office, and as the Sahhalh 
mornings opened, the sound of the "church-going 
bell" would be heard sending its sweet melody over 

in tain 


mdscape, reverberated by the Welsh 
the Forest Hills, and soon through 
■i, from the forges and the highway, 
peoide wending their way to church. 
liiise old limes a carriage was the exception to 
ihual moile of conveyance, and when at too great 
stance to walk, a horse carrying double wna a 
1 sight; generally a woman occupied the saddle, 
a girl or boy behind on a pillion, and Fred was 
ready at the liorse-bloek to help the women otf 
hitch' the horse in the little w.jod adjacent the 

i a son of Lunnon, who was a native 
id was a thorough type of his naliim; 

head, exubcianl in his deference to the "powers that 
be," but he had a very positive manner to ho 
thought h'U Ill-low that order, which was very apt to 
be rated towards any poor white who inno- 
cently took a .seat which Fred tliil not think com- 
ported with his station. The arrangement for ring- 
ing the bell in Bangor was primitive. A stout ropo 
was attached to the bell In the belfry, it was then 
(lassed through a small hole pierced through the Ikior 
of the gallery and hung ilangling down into the body 
of the church. Punctual to the hour of convening, 
Fred would lake Indd id' the rope and, swaying up 
and down, wmiM ring the bell. To a stranger the 
sight must iia\r lionleied on the liurles(|ue, but haliit 
iiiaik- it, and we saw nothing ludicrous about 

il ; null Its la=t toll, good krv. .Mr. C would walk 

1,1 will, a v.-ry conscious a.r of the dignity of eccle- 
siastical aiilhontv, and service would begin. Fred 
always sialioncl liiniM-lt in llir main aisle and was 

hi' if an uiiliinnnate cur would venture to track Ids 
iiM-lri into ( hurch, Fred would stop in the midst of 
a re>poniu to give him a most unmerciful thwack, 
which would send- him out yelping, and it was won- 
derful how wise and well-behaved children and dogs 
became under Fred's vigilant eye. 

Poor old Fred ! how inseparably Bangor Church 
and you are associated in my mind's eye ! Why were 
your bones not laid in the shadow of the church you 
loved so much and served so long and faithfully? 
But they rest among your brethren in a solitary spot 
on the Welsh Mountain. How reverently now I 
would stand at your grave. What if, in my child 
vision, I did think you looked like what Darwin or 
Huxley would have called a "link" as you stood 
jangling that bell-rope, you were in the earnest ful- 
fillment of duty, and what greater motive to com- 
mand reverence? May we all be as worthy of the 
plaudit; "Well done, good and laiihfnl servant," as 
you. The profound silence ot your mountain resting- 
place is broken only by the bark of the squirrel or 
the wliirr of the pheasant, and the mountain arbutus 
opens, its sweet fragrant buils on your grave. Peace 


It lias been said, " No place but has its cl 
and Ciieriiarvoii had hers in the [iLTson of ; 

About the year 178.S there first appears on the liaii- 
gor Ciiureh record, in a cramped, foreign, and almost 
illegible cliirography, the name of Yacob Northanier, 
afterwards corrupted to Nothanimer. The man who 
bore this name was a (ierman, a tailor by trade, wlio, 
with a wife and family, settled in a solitary sput mi 
the Welsli Mountaiii. Although perfectly harmless 
in their deportment to those with whom tliey came 
into communication, all their habits of life were so 
different from those of the surrounding eomnuuiity 
that it threw an air of mystery about them, and at 
last there got to be a sus])icioii that tliey had deal- 
ings with the evil one. Of course, the idea was „nly 
entertained by the ignorant and superstiuous ; wliat 
it first arose from I have never been aok- in lind nut, 
probably it was from his superior intelligence to the 
people of his class. Being a close observer of nature, 
he would foretell changes in the weatlier, etc. What 
now would be attributed to scientific observation was 
then set down to his communion with internal powers. 
I rather think, too, that a peculiarly unfortunate per- 
sonal appearance liad something to do with it. He 
had a large iuunp on his back, and as he sat from 
year to year on his tailor-board, it grew larger and 
larger until his shrunken body seemed to go all up 
into the protuberance. Then his little wizen f.i. i 
was a mass of wrinkles, from which looked out small 
gray eyes of a peculiar expression. In walking; he 
always used a great liickory stall', with which he g<,-- 
ticulated to give force to his broken language. .\l- 
together tliere was such a weird look about him, to 
which was added great brusijueness nl' manner, that 
superstitious people became Mire that he was a very 
agent of ".\uld Clutie," and, of course, children soon 
got the idea fi.'ied in theirminds. I never heard of any 
positive accusation that he lamed cattle, or blighted 
a farmer's crop, or threw "witch-balls" at cows, or 
that children threw up pins and needles after being 
in his sIukIow, — all was vague; neither was it charged 
that he fre(piented " Boggy Hollow," a much traduced 
bit of timber land, lying in a low place about a half- 
mile beyond the village, through which the great 
road ran, and in which jjeople who stayed until 
twelve o'clock at night at the village tavern, asserted 
" they saw witclies dancing around a boiling caldron, 
horses galloping on the tops of trees, and headless 
men walking by their sides," as they were making 
their way home, yet ])oor (dd Yacoli, it was confi- 
dently asserted, was a wizard. Wcik iHiitluTs Iri-lit- 
ened their children into submission by threatening 
"Old .Voihamiiier," and I suppose no children of 
Salem ev.r Ih'd with greater speed from the unfor- 
tunate (ieorge Jacobs than did the children of our 
village from the sight of aid Yacob and his stalf 
His first approacll on the mail was the signal loi us thought proper to teach children good manners, 
we were required to stop and drop a, and 
wish "good-day" to the passer-by, but old Yacob 
iiejer got that attention ; from sight of him we would 
rty as nimbly as a Hock of our mountain partridges, 
hiding'bebind the old churchyard wall and the poke- 
berry buslies that grew so luxuriantly along its sides, 
until he was out of sight. 

Once, I remember, he happened in our home, and 
notwithstanding our mollier's remonstrance that " he 
was an innocent old man," w^e lost no time in making 
our way up-stairs to crawl under the nursery bed, 
and found ourselves in the plight of being wedged 
under a trundle in the hope of getting as far off as 
possible iVoiii his mysterious power. I have no doubt, 
had he lived a century earlier, he would have met 
with the same cruel fate as did the unfortunate Salem 
George Jacobs ; but, after living to an old age, Yacob 
took sick and died, and when people found that his 
body was not carried otf by the devil they went to 
his funeral, ate the " burying cake," and drank the 
wine, followed his poor old body to the grave, and 
saw it laid in the consecrated ground of old Bangor 
Church, wdiere he had, no doubt, worshiped in earn- 
estness and truth. 

The Germans. — As I have said, the Germans have 
suc.'ceded the old Welsh settlers. They are mostly 
Mcnnonites, and stjstain a church in the village. To- is now the great product, but I hope, under 
their sphiidhl farming, the time will again come 
when our l.r..iiiifal valley will he "covered over with 
corn," and the shocks of wheat will stand so thickly 
on the harvest lield that a wagon can hardly drive 
between, as was said in old time of some portion 

The schools of Caernarvon townshi[) prior to 183-1 
were IiLl- those id" other townships, and spoken of 
I'IsLU Ik'ic. Upon the passage of the school law in 
that year ellorts were made to carry its requirements 
into elfec t, and in that year twelve townships of Lan- 
caster County accepted the provisions and proceeded 
to organize under the system. Caernarvon was one 
of this number. It then cotitained four hundred and 
eighty-nine i)ersons who were liable to ta.xation for 
school purposes. The township was divi led into 
seven districts, in several of which school-houses 
were at once erected. The rejiort of the State super- 
intendent of schools in the year 1837 shows that at 
that time there were seven school-houses, in which 
there were seven teachers emidoyed and four hun- 
drcil and twenty pupils in attendance. The amount 
of tax levied for school purposes was $0(16.18. The 
portion of the State appropriation that was allowed 
to this township was i:71iiAh). The total receipts 
from all sources for school jiurposes were .'?218(i.!)L!, 
and the total expenditures §1988.52, of which last 
^Ml uas expended for the erection of school-houses 
in the year 183(j. At tlie present time there are leu 


school districts, contiiiiiing four hundred and nine- 
teen pupils (one less than in 1837). The cost of 
maintaining these schools ibr 1882 was 84911.08. 

In the year 1739 the county of Lancaster was di- 
vided into eight judicial districts, and the township 
of Caernarvon, with Uobinson and Cocalico, were 
made into the seveutli district. No account of who 
the justices were prior to 1777 has been obtained. 
At that time the district which embraced Caernarvon 
and Brecknock townships was designated as District 
No. 5. A list of the names of the justices wlio 
jurisdiction over this territory from 1777 to 1840 will 
be found in the civil list of the county in the general 
history. By the Constitution of 1839 the township 
became a separate district, and the names of 
justices from that time to the present are here gi 


April 14, 1840. Huiir.v HolTui.ur 

Williiini Hour. 
April l:l, 1841. Lot llogcra. 
April 12, 1M_'. JariifsMcCm. 
April 16, 1S4D. C'linrlea KobiM3on. 
April 10, 1849. Hansom U. J,icobfl. 
April 15, 18o-.i. Jnmt'y BlcCnu. 
April 11, ls.'>4. Ilimsonr H. Jacobs. 
April 14, 1857. John E. Viilentine. 
April 19, 1839. JiiliitB McCnn. 
June 22, 1861. David II. SenBuli- 

EobL-rt M. Astc 

:.t R0{ 

The village of Churchtown liesgu the 51 organ t 
turnpike, nearly central in the township. The e 
liistory of the village is given in the precei 
sketch by Jlrs. Nevin. It at present contains a | 
Illation of about three hundred. There are thii 
churches (Episcopalian, Presbyterian, and Jlethodist 
two hotels, two general stores, post-otiice, and tw 
practicing physicians. The postmasters 
have been Lot Rogers, George Comptoii, 
George Compton, and Mrs. Jane K. Ct 
present incumbent. 

The history of the churches will be found mostly 
in Mrs. Nevin's sketch. In 1877 the Methodists 
erected a large and commodious edifice. The pastors 
since 18()6 have been the Revs. J. S. Lame, J. Dyson, 
B. T. Spring, A. L. Wilson, J. E. Devine, S. W. 
Smith, and the Mr. Cookman who is at present in 

Beartown lies in the southwest corner of the town- 
ship. It is a small hamlet containing a hotel and a 
post-oflice. The meeting-house of the Evangelical 
Association is a short distance from the village. The 
church edifice is about forty by si.\ty feet, built of 
stone. The congregation is large and nourishing. 
The Rev. Mr. Grouse is in charge. 

The Amish.of whom there is a congregation in this 
township, have ii meetii.g-house near the east line of 
the to\vn.shi|i. The congregation is of the two Caer- 
narvoiis, of Lancaster and Berks Counties. 


e th: 

n a h 

Hid red vears 

ago, .To 

in Ad an 



a Gen 



left hisnati 

ve land 

to seek 

I ho 


in the 
were 1 

New W, 
is in the f 

rid. Health 
lUest degree 

but in 

, and a 



sions 1 

e wa 

s poo 

r,— so ](Oor, 


hat to 




passage across the sea he "sold himself," as was the 
cnstmii among many of the hardy emigrants in 
those days. Upon his arrival he was taken by his 
purchaser, one Rhine, to Mill Creek, in Lancaster 
County, and at Rhine's mill worked until his labors 
sufficed to discharge the debt of his passage-money. 
After that he pursued his trade as miller at various 
places, became eventually a farmer of some promi- 
nence in Caernarvon township, and died on his farm 
near Churchtown. His wife was Catherine Miller. 
His son, Frederick, fiirmed the present Isaac Evans 
farm for many years, and in 1825 purchased the farm 
now owned by David Styer, his grandson. 

In that year Frederick Styer built the mansion on 
the place last named, and in 1827 removed perma- 
nently to the farm. He married Elizabeth Weilcr, 
and died upon the home.Icad in 18:52. His widow 
died in New Holland, July 4, 18G7. They had two 
sons, John and David, both now deceased. David 
Styer was born U|ion the Evans farm, Sept. 12, 1807, 
and during his whole life followed the peaceful pur- 


suits of the luisbandinan. Tliat business of his life 
he made, moreover, a profitable and enduring suc- 
cess, and, as a recompense for his capable and skillful i 
conduct thereof, he won an ample competence. He 
was enterprising in liis methods, watclifiil and un- 
tiring in his labors, quick to adopt the advanced 
ideas of the day, and put into practical use such as 
promised the material development of his own indus- 
try. He speedily won recognition as a spirited citi/m 
endowed with comprehensive judgment, atid an t iin 
est advocate of all matters tending to the promotion 
of tlie publicgood. He was frequently called to serve 
Lis township in positions of trust, and won an euMa i 
ble record for the faithful and zealous discharge ot 
his duties. He was chosen a county commissioner in 
1849, and was president of the board of commissioneis I 
under whose direction the present court-house « is ' 
constructed. He was active and alert in the arduous 
labors attendant upon that enterprise, and recLiM.d 
liberal and warm approbation for the important -.ti 
vices he rendered the county in that connection It 
has long stood, and will long stand, as a moniunent 
to his memory. He served also during one teim i^ 
county poor director, and as assistant revenue isse^ 
sor of the Ninth District. In church work he w is 
an ardent worker, and in the cause of public educ i | 
tion he gave freely of his means, time, and energies 
From his boyhood he was a valued member ot the i 
Lutheran Church, and for years was deacon, trustee 
and treasurer of the Centre Church. He was married I 
Dec. 6, 1832, to Fannie, daughter of John «hirk, of 
Lancaster County. Mr. Styer died July 4, 1S82. ] 
His widow survives him. Of their seven children j 
four art- living, to wit, John A., Mary A., William, 
and Da\id. 

cordwood on the mountain, his wages aggregating 
two shillings a cord. At the age of fifteen he engaged 
as a farm harnl in his home neighborhood, and after 
laboring thus three years he was apprenticed to 
Wilsdn Hamilton, of Morgantown, to learn the trade 
of a wheelwright. After completing his ajiprentice- 
sliip in 1831, he continued to work for ]\Ir. Hamilton, 
and remained with him until 1837. The ensuing 

^:' '-^^^^^''^c^. 

r '-. . ' .* t ' 


Among the living representative men of his section 
Edward D. White, of Cliurchtown, Caernarvon town- 
ship, stands in a conspicuous place. He was burn in 
Caernarvon, Jan. 30, 1810, upon the farm now owned 
by Robert Yocuni. His father, John White, was a 
native of Berks County. Upon his maternal side he 
is descended from the old German family of De Ha- 
ven, the progenitor of which in Pennsylvania caniu 
to the State from the kingdom of Hanover at a very 
early day. Of John White's eight children but luur 
are living,— Edward D., of Cliurchtown ; Mrs. Kli/,.i 
beth Pierce, of Berks County; Dr. John White, .i 
prominent dentist of Philadelphia; and .^Irs. Harrici 
Baldwin, of Salisbury township, Lancaster Co. 

Edward White was at a youthful age deprived of 
the care of his |)arents, and taught, even before his 
limited Hchool-days were ended, the lessons of uij^i ni 
self-reliance learned by the children of the poor. IK 
knew what hard work was as soon as he was able lu 
tax his physical energ'es. At the age of thirteen he 
shouldered his axe, and for two years thereal'ter cut 


year he spent in Ohio, and returning to Pennsylvania 
in 1838, he opened a wheelwright's shop that year in 
Geigertown, Berks Co., and carried on the business 
for six years, or-until 1844. In the year last named 
he sold out his shop, and purchasing the store busi- 
ness of Edward De Haven, at Churchtown, began his 
career as a merchant. Energy, industry, and prog- 
runs had li. .n his mainsprings of action, and to his 
n< w eiilLipri-c he so earnestly applied those princi- 
ples that Ik- ;..nued success as he extended his expe- 
lience, and e\p:inded his trade to mure than ordinary 
pro|iurLioiis. In isr)4 he retired from merchandising 
lo jdiii Willi. uii Jacobs as a partner in the conduct of 
ilic ■ r.ioi forge." The latter business was aban- 
duiad 111 LSOS, and in that year Mr. White resumed 
store-keeping in Cliurchtown, and followed it with 
much success until his permanent retirement in 1804. 
Siure thai tiiiie he has cuiitinued to have his home 
I 1 t'hiii litiiwu, and liaviii- earned a release from 
nslle.--3 at Livity, ha^ eaju}Ld, in the leisure that com- 
petence yields, the fruits of his industry. He has not, 
however, in the interval been altogether inactive, for 
from ISOO to 1881 he served as justice of the peace, is 



10 l,as 

now notiiry public, and from time to time has been ] 
called iijion to act us trustee in the settlement of I 
estates. In 1807 he was chosen president of the 
Honeybrook Bank, and remained at tlie head of that ! 
institution until 1S77. He was one of the incnrpo- I 
raters of the Delaware Uiver and Lancaster Railroad 
(now about to be built), and is now (jne of the direc- ' 
tors thereof In the euu^e of public education 
ever been an active worker, and in its behalf 
voted not oidy time and labor, but liberally 
means. He has been a school director for about fif- 
teen years, and to his present term was elected without 
opposition. He was for some years a trustee of the 
Presbyterian Church, is now a trustee of the Cbunli- 
town Methodist Episcopal Church, and at various 
times has fnrnished generous financial assistance to- 
wards t!ie erection of houses of worship in his town- 
ship. He was appointed postmaster at Churchtowu 
in 1844, and held the office seven years. He was a 
stanch Democrat until the outbreak of the late civil 
war, but that episode changed his politics, and since 
then he has been strongly Republican. In 1858 he 
was received into Social Friends Lodge, I. 0. O. F., 
No. 404, of Honeybrook, and still holds his inendjcr- 
sliip therein. JIarch 12, 1840, he was married to 
Margaret, daughter of John and Catharine .Amnion, 
of 15erks County. No children have been vcuu-h- 
safed them. Their adopted daughter, .Sarah While 
Hoffman (Mr. White's niece), is now ibf wife ot Hon. 
Aaron W. .Snader, of New Holland, 

upon the old Jackson homestead, near Joanna Furnace, 
in Berks County. He was a man of earnest purpose 
and enter|)rising energy. As a leading farmer he held 
a worthy place, and during his life amply e.\emi)lified 
the spirit 111' thnit and industry. In matters affecting 
the publir- weal he was I'ver to be found among the 
foremost, and altluui-h he hesitated to put himself 
f.rwar.l as a pulilieal ie|uvseMlative, he manifested at 
all times a keen iuleiv-i in the pro-ressive spirit of 
the age, and whenever he lelt the call of duty upon 
him cheerfully accepted the burden of such local 
public trusts as fell to his share. Such trusts he zeal- 
(uisly performed, and with sucdi faithfulness that he 
gained general approbation. For uuiuy years be was 
identified with the substantial interests of Caernarvon 
township, and as one of its prominent farmer-citizens 
was well known and highly esteemed. He died in 
.\pril, 1882, upon iiis farm near Churchtowu, aged 
upwards of eighty-three. His death was the loss of 
an u|)right man, and in the community that had 
known ami a|jplauded him for his worth he has left 
a valuable memory that will be cherished for more 
than a brief space. One son and two daughters sur- 
vive him,— Edward Lincoln, of Caernarvon; Mrs. 
Abner E.James, of Berks County; and Mrs. John 


The Lincolns of Berks County were, in their day, 
among the best known and most highly esleenu'd 
citizens of that section. They boasted an anccsti-y 
that fiowed backward to the early days of New Ivig- ; 
land's history, and upon the pages of that history as j 
now preserved the name of Lincoln will be found 
among the names of those who gave to the Graidte I 
State herstanchest sons and bestowed upon her pros- 
perity and strength, the elements of industry, iute-- 
rity, and patriotic zeal. Transplanted frmn the Ea^i 
tothegrowing province of Penn, the Lincolns of Ne\v 
England rendered yeoman's service in i)ushing old 
Berks forward in the struggle for supremacy, and 
upon the current of events that noted the best phases 
in the progress of that county they ma<le a worthy 
mark. James Lincoln, of that family, was a well- 
known citizen of that portion of the county adjacent 
to Morgantown. He married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Caleb Jones, of Berks County, and died in 18(32 at the, 
age of ninety-four. They had eight children, of 
whom but three are living, — Abraham, of Lancaster 
County, near Chnrelit..wn ; Ann, living at Church- 1 
town; and David, of Birdsborough, in Berks County. ; 
Samuel Lincoln, one of James' sons, was born in .\u- 
gust, 1798, in Berks -(Jonnty, and upon his marii.i-e 
to a dau.diter of Thomas Jaeks.m made his Ihhuc 

ll.A.NSD.V B. J.iCOBS. 
Hanson B, Jacobs, son of Richard Jacobs, was born 
at Spring (Jrove I'orge, Lancaster Co., June C, 1812, 
and died at ( 'linrchtown, June 27, 1879. His grand- 
lather, Cyrus .Jacobs, was one of the best known of 
the laiuous ii(ju-masters of Lancaster County's early 
history. He succeeded to the iron jnterests possessed 
by the Olds family in Lancaster County, at what were 
known as the Spring Grove and Pool Forges, on the 
Conestoga near Churchtowu. Cyrus Jacobs was a 
man of more than ordinary importance, and com- 
manded the respect and favor of the intelligent and 
|.;../ii -u. .lenient in his county. He was a man of 
I ii-e d pioperty. Upon the estate stood three 
iiiau-nius III iiMire than ordinary pretensions to archi- 
tectural exielleiice and substantial construction. 
f |j'-n- N^as niie at S|)ring Grove, and two near Church- 
tnwii. Tin V are all to-day in a state of e.xcellent 
pre-ei vaiiou, atid still challenge attention as model 
homes, f.deral Hall and White Hall are within 
easy sight of Churchtowu. At the latter lived Cyrus 
Jacobs, and there he dispensed royal hospitality and 
lived as became a veritable "lord of the nuinor." 
His son Richard (hither of Hanson) died Nov. 22, 
1818, in- his thirty-fourth year. Cyrus continued in 
active business until his death. May 0, 1830, at the 
age of seventy, llis jiroperty passed to his grandson 
Hanson, then but eighteen years of age, and still at- 
tending school, Hanson took no active part in the 
nianasremeiit of the iron-works njitil about the time 




of his marriage, in 183G. From that ti[iie lorward'liL' ik'cii| 

bestowed close personal attention upon the conrhict ; atten 

of the enterprise, and niana^i'd it with success until | Pliila 

the business of iron manui'acturi.'. in tliose parts ceased 

to be i)rofitable. lie retired thereupon to |)rivate life, 

and at the Windsi)r place passed the remainder of his 

days in comfortable ease. Mr. Jacobs was a prominent 

figure in the militia when to belong to the militia 

was considered the pleasurable duty of every ciliziii. 

He held a general's commission for some time, and at physician. 

military gatherings in various sections of the county 

was a familiar and gallant figure. For several years 

he served as justice of the peace, and in other ways i t> i < t i 
, ., .,.,.,, ... .1 Robert Jenk 
was prominently identihed with the administration , ^^ itjui 

of local alfairs. Mr. Jacobs was married, Sept. 2'J, j , ' , 

183G, to Catharine, daughter of Robert Jenkins, of' '"'-^^'-' '" 

Caernarvon township. She survives him, and has ^ 

her home upon the Windsor place in Chnrcht- 

where lier father and her gramlfather liefore ho 

sided. Hanson 15. Jacobs and his wife had ~ 

children. The living are Robert J., (;atl,ariiu 

Charles S., Anna H., Marv 15. 15., and Jolin II 

Among the early settlers of Lancaster Count} 
name of Zell will be tbund prominent. The / 
are intimately identified with the history ot Liti 
Britain township. Isaac Zell, well known in en 
life as a farmer in Little Britain, was educated fi 
the ministry, and served many years as a nreacher 
the Jlethodist Ei)iscopal Church. He died in Litt 
Britain in 1875, aged seventy-six. His widow (a 
daughter of Joseph Swift, whose anci-tor> were ol 
Lancaster County's pioneers) is still livinu' upon the 
old homi'stcad, at the advanced age of ci_'hlv-two. 
Isaac Zrll had .devrn children, all of whom arc living 
and have llu-ir homes in Lancaster t'onnty. His 
seventh son was Daniel D. Zell, now and for many 
years a resident of Caernarvon township. Daniel 
D. Zell was boru in Washington borough, Lancaster 
Co., Feb. 8, 1838. He was educated in his youth at 
the home district school, comideted his education at 
the Union Academy, Columbia, aii<l upon his father's 
farm learned the rudiments of self-reliance through 
the industrious and valuable experience of busy 
labor. At the age of twenty-one he left lionie to 
make his own way in the world, and for a start en- 
gaged in the cultivation of tobacco in Caernarvon 

Iphia. In 180 

during the winter of 1878-79 
lectures at Jetl'erson College, 
) he married Anna, daughter 

of ,Maj. William Ringwalt, of Caernarvon township. 
Although the pressing demands of business have thus 
far inferfered with the completion of his medical 
studies, it is Mr. Zell's jHirpose to pursue them to 


s (born July 10, 1767, and died April 
his time one of the foremost men of 
V He came of W. Mi UKi.str% his 

township. For a period of eleven years ho di 
his time between that occupation and servii 
clerk in the store he now condii. t^ near Church 
In 1870 he migrated to the West on a ]>rospc 
tour, and returning in 1871, embarked in busing 
a huckster in Caernarvon, and Ibllowed it to 1S7.' 
167a he determined to fit himself for a jphysii 
career, and from 1875 to 1878 studied medicine 
Dr. L. Z. RingwaU, of Churchtown, becoming n 
while (1870) a merchant at the location sime 

nto La 
I'd froii 
nd lyi 

Pennsylvania, and settled in Chester 
ihn Jenkins, son to David Jenkins just 
icasler County in 1731, and in 
William Penn a grant for a 
ig along the Conestoga Creek, 
ortion ol Lancaster County. 


ased 1 



kins, and fuunded thereon the Windsor Iron-Works, I 
which tliey conducted with more or le=s success until I 
aljout the outbreak of hostilities between Great Brit- ' 
ain and America, wlien tliey sold the property to 
David {born July G, 1731), son of John Jenkins. 1 
David managed the works with much profit, and at ' 
his death left them, as well as three thousand acres 
of land, to his son Robert, the works then including 
what are known to this day as the Upper and Lower 
Forges, on the Conestoga, near Cliurchtown. David, 
father to Robert Jenkins, married Martha Arnion, of 
Pequea (of Scotch-Irish ancestry), and had three sons, 
— Robert, William, and David. Robert became an 
iron-master, William an eminent lawyer, and David ! 
a farmer. i 

Robert Jenkins carried on the business of iron-mas- 
ter at the Windsor Works from 1799 to his death, in 
the spring of 1848, and in its conduct displayed sig- I 
nal ability. He came to be widely known, and rose I 
to be one of the conspicuous figures in the current ; 
events that marked the progress and development of 
Lancaster County's substantial prosperity. At ills 
death he left the works and four tiiousand acres of 
land. His son David continued the iron-works until 
his death in 1850, when they passed to other hands. 

Robert Jenkins was eminent as a citizen as well as 
a manufacturer, and held a high and honored place 
among his fellow-men. He was liberal and enterpris- 
ing, endowed with rare intelligence, and ever among 
the foremost in the promotion of all projects seeking 
the popular good. At an early period of his life he 
was chosen to the State Legislature, and from 1807 to 
1811 sat in the halls of Congress. That service was 
given in the dark and stormy period that preceded 
the second war with Great Uriiaiii, and in the impor- 
tant discussions and measures incidental to that time 
his voice was ever heard to worthy jjurpose and his 
actions fashioned as became a stern, unflinching pa- 
triot. He served his country with honor, and won 
earnest recognition for his valued efforts. During the 
prevalence of the Whiskey Insurrection iu Pennsylva- 
nia, Mr. Jenkins took an active part in the field 
against the insurrectionists, and gained much credit 
in the campaign. His death was viewed as a public 
calamity, and upon the occasion of his funeral up- 
wards of a thousand persons assembled to te=lify to 
the worth of the departed, and to the e.Ktent of the 
alUictiou which the comniunity had been called upon 
to sustain. His widow (Catharine, daughter of Rev. 
John Carmichael, of Chester County) died Oct. 23, 
1850. Of his two sons and si.x: daugliters, the living 
are Mrs. Catharine Jacobs, Mrs. Jolm W. Nevin,and 
Mrs. Alfred Nevin. 

Israel Kern, one of Caernarvon's representative 
farmer-citizens, was born Feb. S.i, 1835, near (.'Imrch- 
town, upon the farm now owned by Matthias Ilirnch 

His father, Adam, a well-known farmer, ,iii'd in April, 
1856. His mother, Sarah, died Sept. 9, 1680, aged 
eighty-eight years, and to the time of her death was 
quite active and hearty. Of their si.x sons, Israel is 
the only one living. He was bred a tarmer's lad, and 
during* his life has known no other occupation save 
that of farming, to which he applied himself during his 
most active years with such energy and industry as to 
gain a substantial competency. Having thus profitably 
employed his earlier manhood, he is enabled now to 
enjoy a well-earned rest, albeit he still makes his 
home upon his farm. With his brother, David, he 
purchased the Kern homestead (now the William 
Styer farm), upon their father's death, and resided 
there until 1800. In that year the two brothers 
bought the farm now owned by Israel and removed 
thereto. Their purchase embraced one hundred 
and fifty-two acres of valuable land, and until the 
fall of 1871 they carried it on together with signal 
success. Nov. 14, 1871, David died, and Israel then 
became the sole possessor of the property. Sept. 7, 
1875, he married Elizabeth, daughter of Jacob and 
Sarah Me.ssner, of Ephrata township. Jacob Mess- 
ner died in December, 1872. His widow is still 

Mr. Kern was reared in the Lutheran faith, and 
has been a member of St. John's (Centre) Lutheran 
Church since his boyhood. His life has been so 
closely devoted to the useful pursuits of husbandry 
that he has had neither time for nor inclination to- 
wards participation in public affairs, other than occa- 
sionally serving in such township offices as naturally 
fell to his share and duty. He has sought to exem- 
plify the value of a useful existence, and in a quiet 
and unostentatious way he has made that life an ex- 
ample. He is held in high este.em as a citizen, and 
although not boasting an eventful record, has earned 
one that easily gives him a right to a place among 
the valuable members of the community in which he 


Erection and Boundary Line.— This is one of the 
northwestern townships of the county, and is bounded 
on the northeast by East Cocalico, on the southeast by 
Ephrata, on the southwest by Warwick, on the west 
by Elizabelh township, and on the northwest by Leb- 
anon County. 

The township was erected by a division of Eliza- 
beth township in 1853, by order of the court, upon the 
rei>ort of Emanuel Shaell'er, Jlorris Hoops, and Wil- 
liam Carpenter, Efq., commissioners apijointed to ex- 
amine the feasibility of erecting said township. The 

uol Nitaly, 

eyj/iae/ ^Jl^yyn^ 


division lines were surveyed liy Samuel Nissly, Esq., 
of Clay township, as follows: '' Coninieneing on the 
bridge over Hammer Creek (below niill-dani), in the 
public road leading to Lancaster ; tlienee in said road 
644 perches to the bridge over Middle Creek; thence 
up Jliddle Creek IIG perches to Furnace Run ; thence 
up Furnace Run 427 perches to Seglock Run ; thence 
up Seglock Run 921) perches to Lebanon County, 226 
perches west from a marked stone on the west side of 
a public road in said Lebanon County line; thence 
along the Lebanon County line to West Cocalico 
township line; soutlierly along said West Cocalico 
township line and Lidiaii Ruji to Ephrata township 
line ; thence southwesterly along Ephrata township 
line to Hammer Creek and Warwick township ; 
thence up Hammer Creek to place of beginning." 

Pioneer line. — An act of Assembly was passed 
Feb. 13, 1813, to annex a part of Lancaster to Leb- 
anon County, " beginning in the Berks County line; 
thence tlirough Lancaster County to a sandstone 
house on the road leading from Shaeflerstown to 
Elizabeth Furnace, leaving said house in Lebanon 
County; thence to a house of one Shroyer, deceased, 
including said house in Lebanon County, on tlie road 
leading from Lebanon to Manheim ; thence to Sny- 
der's mill, on the Conewago Creek." This somewhat 
reduced the area of what was then Elizabeth town- 
sliip, and in 1815, at the April session of the Lan- 
caster County Court, C. Carpenter, Abraham Forney, 
and Samuel Geeher were appointed commissioners to 
annex a part of Warwick and Cocalico townships to 
Elizabeth township, as follows: " Beginniiig at a 
black-oak tree in the Lebanon and Lancaster County 
line; thence a southwest course through Warwick 
township to John Beidler's tavern, occujiied by 
George Plasterer (now Pennsville), leaving said tav- 
ern in Elizabeth townsliip; thence along a public 
road leading from Mount Hope Furnace to Lititz, to 
a public road leading from Jhiuheim to John Eby's 
mill; thence along said road to Hammer Creek; 
thence down Hammer Creek to a public road lead- 
ing from Lititz to a tavern on the Downingtown, 
Ephrata and Harrisburg turnpike, owned by Philip 
Krig (now in the village of Lincoln), leaving said 
tavern in Cocalico township; thence a straight line 
to where the Lidian Run empties into Trout Creek ; 
thence up Indian Run to the head of spring thereof, 
on lands of Robert Coleman, Esq., near the residence 
of Adam Wampole; thence a north course to Lan- 
caster and Lebanon County line; thence along said 
line to |)lace of beginning." 

The report of the c<nnmissioner3 was made Aug. 2, 
1815, and confirmed by the court at November ses- 

Soil and Products.— The soil in the southern part 
of this township is equal in fertility to any in the 
county; being underlaid witii.lime rock prevents the 
percolation which in some soils soon exhausts ihc 
fertilizers applied. The northern part of the town- 

ship is more of a sandstone gravel and less fertile, 
except in the valleys where underlaid with rock. 

The different cereals usually raised in this county 

are brought forth in abundance in Clay township, as 

well as large qmintities of tobacco. In the hills and 

mountains are found some of the best red sandstone 

j to be found anywhere in the State, and of the various 

I colors and hues with which this kind of stone is sus- 

I ceptible. From the quarries of Clay large quantities 

of thestone used in building the Lancaster court-house 

and prison were obtained. 

From the lime-quarries of the south end of the 
township large quantities of stcjne are quarried and 
converted into lime, and returned to the soil in the 
j form of a fertilizer, which is used in large quantities 
I by the farmers of other townships as well as Clay. 
This business and use of this kind of fertilizer has in- 
creased from a few bushels in 1825 to, in some cases, 
as high as one hundred bushels per acre. 
I In the early history of this township, or in 1760, 
the land along either side of what is now the Down- 
1 ingtown, Ephrata and Harrisburg turnpike was cov- 
I ered with a small growth of what was then known 
as grub-wood and hazel-nut and other small and 
I almost worthless kinds of trees, and the locality was 
! known by the old German settlers as " Grubenland," 
I and among other things were large quantities of wild 

game, such as deer, bears, and other small game. 
[ Pioneer Raiment and Provisions.— Previous to 
i the present century flax was one of the principal pro- 
' ducts of the soil of what is now Clay townsliip, or at 
j least as much as was required for home consumjitiou 
j in the manufacture of wearing apparel for the in- 
habitants, both old and young. Farmers usually 
raised from half an acre to one and a half acres each, 
and when ripe it was pulled by hand, tied into small 
bundles, and when dried the seed was separated from 
the stalk by taking a bundle in the hands and beat- 
ing the seed end of the tiax against a log or large 
stone, which woutil also open the boll in which the 
seed is grown. The flax was then spread upon green- 
sward until the woody part was sufficiently rotted, 
when it was broken by means of what was then 
known as a hand-break, when it was hackled, sepa- 
rating the woody part or inside of stalk from the 
fibre. The fibre was then hatcheled by hand, and 
made ready lor the spinning-wheel. The spinning 
was mostly done during the long winter evenings, and 
not unfreqiiently parties of a dozen or more of the 
pioneers' daughters would meet of an evening and 
have an oUl-fasliioiied "spinning bee," each carrying 
her own wheel upon her shoulder. The thread thus 
spun was next placed in the hands of the weaver, 
who would weave the linen any desired width, usu- 
ally about a yard wide. The finest of the linen was 
used for shirting, and the coarser dyed in colors to 
suit the owner and made into other wearing apparel, 
u-sually breeches and jackets. 

But a small amount of woolen goods was worn by 



the pioneer of tlie last uentury, as CDiiiparatively lew 
sheep were raised at that time. The wool was cleansed 
in a primitive way, carded into rolls by hand, and 
spun and wove by hand, the same as the linen. 

The provisions of the pioneer were more of a sub- 
stantial nature than those at the jiresent day. Luxu- 
ries in provisions were few, and the families that could 
allbrd them far between. Pork and wild meat were 
the backbone of the pioneer farmer, with such vege- 
tables as he could raise in tlie little patch near the 
cabin. Beef and corn was not then a staple food as 
at present; soup of some kind, occasionally some 
mush and molasses. Hut the sturdy old German 
pioneer loved his sauerkraut und speck, snitz und 
knep, bastenaden, karbsen, rueben, weiskraut, boh- 
nen, erbsen, mehl und grumhereii soup, noodle soup, 
smaltz kuchen, apple-tumbles, pul-pie, panliasen, 
and other good things not always at hand. 

Pioneer Settlers. — Most, if not all, of the pioneers 
of wdiat is now Clay township came from Germany 
and located here between the years 1740 and 1770, 
among wdiom were the Weidnian, Weachter, Miller, 
Elser, Householder, and other families belonging to 
the Lutheran congregation, and from a place called 
" Durlach," as can be seen on some of the grave- 
stones in the Brickerville Church graveyard, one of 
which reads, " Born in llussheim, in der Morgrafchutt 
Durlach, in Europe," and were called in that section 
of the township the Durlachers, finm wliieli the Dur- 
lach post-oflice received its name. 

The Brubacher, llackman, Wissler, and other fami- 
lies were Mennonites, and among the other families 
were the Appel, Bentz, Bollinger, Deardorf, Weaver, 
Herchelroth, Stover, Erb, Eberly, l.aber, Oberlin, 
Heacker, Wealand families, and .snme oihers of the 
first settlers, who lived in one-story I'rame or log 
houses, a small number of which are stamling yet. 

Niss/y Family.— 3 iiwh, the pioneer of the Nissly 
family in this country, came here in the early part of 
the last century, and settled in the west part of what 
is now Lancaster County, and was naturalized in 1729. 
He had three sons, — Jacob, John (Hans), and Henry. 
Jacob, Jr., had three sons also,— Henry, Jacob, and 
Martin. John (Hans) Nissly had six sons,— Michael, 
John, Jacob, Abraham, Samuel, and JLirtin. The 
first above-named Henry Nissly was born in 172:i, 
married a Miss Ileif, and resided on a mill property 
and one hundred and si,\ty acres of land on Chikis 
Creek, below Sporting Hill, in Rapho township. He 
was the ancestor of the Nissly family of what is now 
Clay township. He had eiglit children,— Barbara, 
married to Michael Brandt; Anna, married to Jabez 
Sluiey; Henry, JLartin, Catharine, married to Dr. 
Michael Kaufman (late of Manheim borough) ; Jacob, 
and A[aria and Abraham, who died in infancy. 

JLartin Nissly (last above named) was born Jan. 
16, 1709, married Elizabeth Hallocker, and located in 
what is now Clay township in 17S7, on a farm of one 
hundred and seventy-two and one-quarter acres of 

land. He had two children,— Catharine, married to 
Benjamin Bollinger; and Henry, who was born July 
1-2, 1783, and nnirried Catliarine, daughter of Peter 
JLirtin, and died in 18(J9, leaving nine children,— 
Peter, Martin, Henry, Samuel, Elizabeth, John, Cath- 
arine, Anna, and Isaac Nissly, all born in Clay town- 
ship. Peter married a Pfoutz, and has one sou, Jacob, 
residing near Richland, in Lebanon County. Sam- 
uel, a justice of the for Clay township, is pos- 
sessor of the old Nissly homestead farm in Clay. 
Isaac married a Miss Bryson, and died in 1862, leav- 
ing one child,— Ida V., now living in Reading. Sam- 
uel's mother was Catliarine, daughter of Peter Jlartin, 
and was born in what is now Ephrata, Pa., March 
29, 1789, in the house now occupied by Adam Konig- 

Peter :\rartin located in Clay township in 1804, in 
the house now ,jceupied l.y .bilm Y. Weidman, where 
his daughter Catharine married UeJiry Nissly. In 
1808, John Martin, grandfather of Mrs. Nissly, came 
from Bradia, Switzerland, and located in Shenandoah 
County, Va., and married Ann Maria Koelb. He 
was a shoemaker by trade, and subsequently, with his 
wife and three children, — Peter, Ann Maria, and 
Catharine,— all horn in Virginia, together with his 
wife's two brothers, John Adam and Jonathan 
Koelb, and a sister Christiana, emigrated to Ephrata, 
and located on the hill, a short distance from the 
"Sisters' House." The Koelbs were both bachelors 
and shoemakers by trade, and died at E|)hrata of 
old age, and their sister Catharine married a Mr. 

Hans (John) Martin, also at Ephrata, made shoes 
and had a small stoie.and died at the age of seventy- 
seven years wheie Adam IConigmacher now lives. 
His son, Peter .Martin, when t\venty-seven years of 
age, married Catharine h'liekinger ; his daughter, 
Ann Maria, married Saniuel Keller, and his daugh- 
ter, Catharine, married Henry !\Iiller, who owned tlio 
property now owned by Israel Erb. Hans (or John) 
Martin was a scrivener as well as shoemaker and 
storekeeper, and at the age of thirty-two years was, 
in 1791, commissioned by Governor Thomas Mifflin 
as justice of the peace for Cocalico and Elizabeth, 
and in 1804 moved into what is now Clay township, 
wdiere he kept a store till 1829, and was acting justice 
of the peace till 1830, a term of forty-four years, and 
died in 1844 in the eighty-fourth year of his age. liiu 
children were Catharine, Mary, Jacob, Anna, Han- 
nah, Peter, Isaac, and Elizabeth. Catharine married 
Henry Nissly in 1SU8; Mary married Jacob Eberly 
and moved to Columbus, Ohio; Salome (Mary) mar- 
ried Samuel Erb and resided in Clay township, on 
the farm now owned by Hiram Krh ; Jacob niiirricl 
Catharine Forry and usided near SliippLiisliurg, I'a,, 
where his wife died in is:!4; Anna married Ouea 
Bruner and resided in New Ephrata, now Lincoln 
village, where he kept a siure and died in 1845; Han- 
nah miuricd Uiehard R. Jleistler, Esq., a shoemaker 


by trade, surveyor and scrivener, resided at E|)lirata, 
and died in 1S47 ; las wife is still living. Teter, Jr., 
married Charlotte Konigniaclier, and I'or his second 
wife her sister, Susannah Koniginacher. lie was a 
surveyor and scrivener, also was elected pioilicmotury 
of tliecounty in 18G0, and associate judge in ISili;, and 


1834 ]■: 



where h( 

Wdss, Bollimjer, J'foat:, Eoi/er, F/7/.— dacoh W 
obtained a warrant ,fan. 4, 1733, for one hundred and 
sixty acres of land, and after having settled upon and 
improved a tract of land containing two hundred and 
eighty acres, situated on either side of Middle Creek, 
died in 1753 before obtaining a |)atent I'or the same. 
He left two sons, Jacob and George Michael. Jacob 
obtained a p;itent for one hundred and forty acres, 
and in 1754 sold the same to his brother, George 
Michael \Veis.s, who in 17()2 obtained a patent for the 
other one hundred and forty acres, and in 17()7 sold 
seventy-one and a quarter acres to Daniel Bollinger, 
and tlie same year sold seventy-three and three-fpiar- 
ter acres to Abraham Frantz, and in 1771 l"i;uU/. -old 
the same to Martin Mover, and in ISIl M„ycr s,,ld 
the same to Rev. Jacob I'fnutz. His sons were John, 
Jacob, Moses, Abraham, and Davi.l Pfoutz. In 18.")2 
David Pfoutz became the invner of the seventy-three 
and three-quarter acres, and died in 1S7."). His son, 
Henry Pfoutz, is now the owner of the property. 

Daniel Bollinger, the owner of the seventy-one and 
one-quarter acre tract, had two children, Peter, and 
Anna who married John Rover. Peter Bollinger 
(son of David) became the owner of the tract in 17'J2, 
and retained possession till his decease in 1840. His 
children were Daniel, Benjamin, Christian, Jacob, 
Samuel, and Anna. Anna married Samuel Royer, 
and Sauiuei, son of Peter Bollinger, became the owner 
of the tract, and in 1851 sold to Jacob Fry, who in 
1878 sold to Abraham Fry, the |)resent owner. 

The Hirchdruth Family (pronounced Jfcrkelrode). — 
John Herchelroth, one of the pion(^ers of Clay, emi- 
grated from Germany, and took up, under warraiit of 
March IG, 1747, a tract of one hundred aud fifteen 
acres of land, lying on the west side of Middle Creek, 
and located on the same, where he died, leaving six 
children, — Lawrence, Jtdin, Henry, Christian, Juli- 
ana, and Elizabeth. In 1702 his son Lawrence be- 
came the owner of the above tract, for which he pro- 
cured a patent in 17C4. He also purchased another 
tract adjoining, and after his decease his two sons, 
Henry and Lawrence, became joint owners of the two 
Iracts, find in ISK! made a division of the property. 
Lawrence settled on the original or south tract, war- 
ranted by his father in 1747, and Henry took the 
north tract. Middle Creek being the dividing line be- 
tween their tracts. The original tract is now owned 
by Benjamin Bollinger, who married a Herchelroth, 

and i- 

a .son of Abraham Bollinger, who resided on 


s known as the Deardorf property. 


nhrf and noinn<ier.—ln 1748, Henry Deardorf 

o)ie h 

on the west si.le of .Middle Creek, on a tract of 
nidrrd an<l -rvnily a, •,•,•-, of land, wIhtlIiii he 
I ',.n,- aii.l a f -toiy linu-e, which is still 


ig, and n| wliirli is the name of the then 

and datr of biiildiiig the limi-c. Alter the 
ent.lnhn ]).ar,lnir, AKraliaiii 1 ).;udorf became> 
it pa.- 

sed into the' hands of Abraham Bollinger, and 

7 .lacob Bollinger became the owner, and died 


2. He had 

children, viz. : George, Jacob, 
irine (married Emanuel Wid- 

dcr), i\Liry (married Samuel Fahnstock), and Sarah 
Bollinger. Abraham's son, Jacob, became the owner 
of the Bollinger part of the tract, and died in 1875, 
and in 1883 the i)roperty was owned by Henry Bol- 

/loiiseliokler a 
Weidman obtai 
forty-four and 
obtaining a pat. 
drcn, viz- : Mar 

(/ Slol,er.—Uv 




3, 1733, Mil 
line hundred an.l 
1, and died before 
le left four chil- 
i, and Elizabeth, 
whir mairiid Adam Householder, wdien they sold 
their intcrc-t in the above tract to Lawrence House- 
holder, who was born in 1727. He subsequently, 
Jan. 22, 17(12, |jrociired a patent for the above one 
hundred and forty-four and one-half acre.s of land. 
At his decease he left a son, Jacob, and daughters, 
Barbara, wdio married Frederick Adams; Catharine, 
married George Stober; Elizabeth, married Henry 
Miland; and Susanna, married George Sclierb. 

Jacob Householder, son of Lawrence, died in 1814, 
leaving no sons. George Stober died in 1828, leaving 
two sons, Jacob aud John. Jacob married a Miss 
Zartman, and had one son, Ellas, who married a Miss 
Zeigler, and had one son, J. A. Stober, Esq., now re- 
siding in the village of Schoencck, West Cocalico 

Brubaker FamUij.—ln 1757, Abraham Brubaker, 
Sr., purchased of .Martin Weigbtinan one hundre.l 
and se-venty-lwo and oMc-«|Uarter acres of land in 
what is now Clay township, and in 1787 sold the 
same to Martin Nissly, and in 1788 purchased of 
John Carpenter, at Indiantown, Clay township, three 
hundred and sixty-nine acres of land, and at his de- 
cease he left five sons, — 

L Abraham, wh- 
Abraham, Jacob, ai 

II. John, who lu 

III. Daniel, who 

IV. Christian, w 

V. Jacob, w 
From this : 



d f 




ivid, . 




s. Job 







s, Dan 


and .T( 

d, John, 


had two sons, Jacob and John, 
ill beginning the large Brubaker 
family in this part of the county sprang. 

The Milkr /'KmiVy.— Christopher Miller, one of the 


early settlers of what is now Clay township, was born 
in 1744; and located here on a large tract of land, 
where he died in I8I0, leaving four sons, — Johannus, 
Jacob, George, and Christopher. Johannus died in 
1844, leaving three children,— Samuel, John, and 
Elizabeth. Elizabeth married John Garret. A daugh- 
ter of Jacob Miller married Dr. Samuel lUig. George 
Miller had three children, — Peter, Susanna (who mar- 
ried Samuel Ressler), and Catharine (who married 
Jacob Ranck). 

Christopher, son of Christopher, was the father of 
ten children, viz. : David, Henry, William, Christo- 
pher, Isaac, Leah, Sally, Polly, Nancy, and Lydia. 
Samuel, son of Johannu.? Miller, died in 18S1, leav- 
ing four children, viz. : Harriet, married Urias Car- 
penter; Margaret, married Hiram Frv ; John, and 
Curtis Miller. The three last named >till live in Clay 

The Weachter Family. — George Weachter was one 
of the ])ioneers of what is now Clay township, 
coming from Durlach, in Germany. He married 
Catharine Weidman, and was the fother of five chil- 
dren, viz. : Frederick (born in 1763), John, George, 
Elizabeth (married Peter Elser), Catharine (married 
Leonard Illig). 

John Weachter was born in 17G; 
children, — John, George, Lydia (marrieil 
son of Henry Miller), Margaret (marrii-d Sai 
of Isaac Miller), and Hannah (married San 
ler, a blacksmith by trade). 

George Weachter, sou of John, was born 
and had two sons, Jacob and George, and four daugh- 
ters, viz. : Hannah, married Joseph Weidman ; Lydia, 
married Peter Weidman; Catharine, married David 
Gring; and Sarah, who married Peter Zartman. 
George now owns the old mansion and farm jircjperty 
formerly owned by his father, great-grandson nl' tlie | 
pioneer George. 

Weidman Family (spelled and pronounced Weii/hl- 1 
man, also Weitman). — Martin Weidman patented in I 
1745 three hundred and eighty-seven and one-half 
acres of land that had been surveyed in 1733 to Fo- 
ladine Miller. Weidman sold, in 1757, one hundred 
and seventy-two and one-quarter acres of said tract 

and had five 


to Abraham Brubaker, who in 1787 : 
Martin Nissly, and it is now (1833) 
Samuel Nissly. The buildings on 
tract were erected in 1755, and on I 
under the house, still standing, is tl 
scription, cut in capital letters: 

Id the same to 
he projjerty of 
lis last-named 


In 17GC, Martin Weidman sold two hundred and 
fourteen and one-half acres of land to his son, Jacob 
Weidman, who died in 1804. His sons were George, 
John, Jacob, Christopher, Samuel, and Peter. His 
daughters were Catharine, married Baltzer Lees; 
Elizabeth, married George Yundt; Susauua, married 

Johannus Elser. At present there are living Joel, 
son of George Weidman ; George, son of John ; Peter 
and Henry, sons of Samuel; David, Joseph, Peter, 
and Emanuel, sons of Peter; John Y. ; two great- 
grandsons of Jacob, Martin L. and Ward Weidman. 

Roiiiiij Family. — Henry Romig, Sr., came to Clay 
township in 1820, and died in 1843. He had one son, 
Henry, now over eighty years of age, who has a soa 
Jacob, whose two sons, \Villiam and Jacob, are resi- 
dents of this townshij). 

Laher Family.— Martin Laber was born in 1738, 
and finally located in what is now Clay township, 
and died here in 1823. He had a son George, who 
died in Clay in 1847. His two sons were George and 
Jonas. Jonas inherited the old homestead and a large 
tract of land. His two children are Sarah and Mar- 

Jlfiit: Fiiinily.— In 1735, Ulricli lientz warranted a 
tract of ninety-eight acres of land, for which he re- 
ceived a patent in 1748. In 1753 two hundred and 
thirteen and three-tjuarter acres was warranted to 
Christian Eby, and in 176C the same was patented 
to Illrich Bentz, making a total of three hundred and 
eleven and three-quarter acres, and in 1770 he sold 
to his son. Christian Bentz, two hundred and twenty- 
eight acres of the above tract. Christian died in 
1790, when his oldest sorj, Jacob, became owner of a 
part Ihnenl, and Lndwig Bentz the balance of said 
tract. The >,>us ol Jacob l!,_-ntz wre Christian, 
Gc.rge, an.l Martin. George i, .^till living. 

Pioneer Weddings.— In the early history of this 
township, bdnrc the era of fashionable ministers and 
weddings, the happy pair that had become desirous of 
being made one would agree U|)on the time, as is usual 
in ^ucll cases, and the place would be under the 
branches of a large tree at some point along the 
principal road. The minister would be notified of 
the time and place, and thus, in the open air, with 
none but the innocent little birds for witnesses, Fritz 
and Katrina, with the benediction of " what God 
hath joined together let no man put asunder," would 
be made hapjiy— for a time at least. 

Pioneer Funerals.— Previous to 1825 there were no 
coaches, carriages, buggies, or spring-wagons owiieil 
in what is now Clay township. Funerals were at- 
tended on foot, horseback, and in the old Conestogu 
wagon. There being no such thing as a fashionable 
hearse, th,e remains of the deceased was placed in one 
of the old Concstogas, covered with white cloth 
stretched over the high hows, and drawn by four 
horses, the driver riding the near wheel-horse, as ut 
the present day. After jjlacing the remains in the 
Conestoga, all the friends that could would find seats 
in the'wagon, and thus be conveyed to the burial- 
])lacc. On all such occasions wine and cake were 
served to all present before leaving the house for the 

Pioneer Mills, Taverns, Stores, etc.— A frame 
grist-mill was built in pioneer days on Middle Creek 



by Peter Wiland. It stood ;i sliort distance below 
the present mill, and when Jacob Erb became the 
owner in 1787 he built the present two-story stone 
mill building, when the old mill building was con- 
verted into a school-house. Upon tlir ik:ith ol' Jacob 
Erb, his son Isaac became the ownur of the mill 
I)roperty, and in 1820 sold the same to his brother, 
John Erb, who carried on the milling business until 
1840, when he sold to his son Iliram, who in 18-11 
built the saw-mill adjoining the grist-mill, and in 
1871 S(dd the mill property to Michael S. Eberly, 
who in 1875 added one story to the grist-mill, and is 
at present carrying on the milling business. 

John Erb died in 18(i2, leaving lour children, — 
Hiram, John B., Esq., of Lititz, Henry B., and Pris- 
cilla, who married George W. Steinniitz. Upon the 
decease of his father, Hiram became owner of the 
brick mansion, in which he has ke|)t a store since 

Near the old grist-mill was built a tavern-house by 

Eberly in 1707, at which place a tavern has been 

kept continuously to the present time, and known as 
the " Red Lion." The property was owned by Jacob 
Erb, and by his son John. The tavern property has 
been owned and kept as such since 18GS by George 
W. Steinmitz. 

The Weidman grist- and saw-mill on Middle Creek 
was built in 1755 by Christopher Wei.lmaii, who 
owned and operated the mill till 1811, when the prop- 
erty was purchased by Michael Shepler. He removed 
the saw-mill and built a fulling-mill on the site, which 
he operated until 1833, when the property was [lur- 
chased by James and Jesse Pennabecker, who re- 
moved the fulling-mill and erected a ritle-barrel man- 
ufactory, and in 18G1 Jesse Pennabacker rebuilt the 
grist-mill, making it a three-story building, and is in 
operation at the present tinjc. 

The Levi Dreisch frame saw-mill and bending- 
works, located on Middle Creek, was built in 187-i, 
destroyed by fire in 1879, and rebuilt in 1880. 

The Elser saw- and hemp-rolliii--„iill, located on 
Middle Creek, was built by the early settles, ..n a 
tractof one hundred and four acres ol land warranted 
Jan. 3, 1738, to Michael Kileh. Kit.-I] n..t comply- 
ing with the terms of the warrant, the l.ind was sur- 
veyed iMarch 13, 1749, for Martin W.'idiuan, anti 
April 2G, 1750, a patent of the same was granted 
Michael Shank, who, on April 30, 175it, conveyed the 
same to Henry Mock, who subsequently conveyed to 
Peter Elser, who came troni Germany. Mr. Elser held 
the property during his life. He left four sons, George, 
Peter,'Johu, and Adam. After his death his executors, 
on Aug. 22, 1788, conveyed his property to his two sons, 
George and Peter Elser, and on Jan. 10, 1789, George 
conveyed his undivided part to his brother Peter, 
who married a Weachter, and carried on the 
saw- and hemp-mill until he died, in 1845, at the age 
of seventy-nine years. His son, Samuel ICIser, then 
became the owner, and carried on the business until 

his decease in 1879, and after his death his son, John 
0., became the owner of the property and is at 
present carrying on the business. 

Lin(*oln Mill is a three-story stone grist-mill, lo- 
cated oji Middle Creek, and was built in 1842 by 
Jacob Wissler. The pioneer at this place ^vas John 
Jacob Grail", who settled on two hundred and two 

, acres of land by survey of Oct. 30, 1733. From him 
[ the property passed to Andrew Wissler, and from 
Andrew to Jacob Wissler, and from him to Christian 
Wissler, who died in 1878, when his son, Benjamin 
Wissler, became the owner, and is still conducting 
the milling business. 

Eberly's mill is of stone, located on Middle Creek, 

and was built in 1774, on a tract of one hundred and 

I fifty acres of land warranted Jan. 24, 1737, and pat- 

I ented April 28, 1757, to Ulrich Stealy, and sold the 

j same year to Jacob Eberly, who, on Aug. 27, 170G, 

i obtained a patent for thirty-one acres and forty-three 

I perches of land on Middle Creek, and in 1784 sold 

the premises to Plenry Eberly. Henry Eberly had 

five sons, — Jacob, Samuel, Henry, Peter, David. In 

1836, Henry Eberly, Jr., became the owner of the 

grist-null, and in 1878 conveyed the mill property to 

' his two dauglilers, Mrs. Jolin B. Wissler and Mrs. 

Israel W. Groh. 

Henry Eberly, Sr., had a brother, Jacob, who had 
five sons, — Joseph, David, Samuel, Jacob, and John. 
The .sons of Joseph Eberly are Joseph, Elias H., 
' Levi, John, and Isaac. 

The sons of David are Jacob, Samuel, John, and 
The sons of Jacob are Henry and Isaac. 
The sons of John are Benjamin and John Eberly. 
The Snyder Mill.— The three-story stone grist- 
mill located on Hammer Creek was. built in 1813 by 
Michael Kline. His father, Michael Kline, came 
fr<un Germany, and on Feb. 15, J 748, took out a war- 
rant for one humlied and thirty-seven acres of land 
on Hammer Cieek, and on Jan. 2G, 1749, he obtained 
a |.atcnt lor the ^ame. He had fourteen children. 
His Mins uere Michael, Nicholas, George, Daniel, 
•laioh, and Leonard. Hi- daughters were Gertrude, 
iiiarned llartman .Meiiel; i-'aiiny, married Michael 
(>uij;-cll; ('atharine. married (JeorgeWilt; Magda- 
h-nc, uiarried Adam Dui-cli; Margaret, married 
(icorge ilouuian; Dorothea, njarrieil J(din Bowman; 
liarbara, m^irricd George (ieigcr; Su.anna, married 
John Brown. 

In 1780, Nicholas, his second son, became possessed 
! of the origiiuil property, and in 1800 sold the same 
' to his brother, Michael Klein, who built the mill in 
: 1813. and died iti 1S42. 

This iMichael had also fourteen cliildren. 
i George, Michael, Jacob, John, Samuel, Henry, 
I Daniel, William, David, and Joseph were the sons. 
] The daughters were Julia, married to Ephraim Car- 


atharine, married to Andrew Welborn ; 
riud to John Seibert; I'^lizabetli, married 



to Henrj' Suimny ; ami all Coiutuon liveil iinii: 
until the yuiliigC'St child w:is iwu yens iit aui-. < ; 
John, Henry, Daniel, Wiliiani.'un.l ,lu,ci.h a 
farms a.lj<,irrnit? each other, aloii- near Ih 
Creek-. .laeiil. Uejit a tavern at the turn|.ik.- 
briek house now (nvned hy Kev. John K. 
Jliehael was appointed a justice of tlie peace ii 
and kept slcjrc in the iVanie house- next to the | 
residence of San. lie! Ni.s>ly, Kscp In lS4!i, , 
became the owner ol' the mill ]>roperty, and in ISi;'.) 
sold it to Geortre Flory, who built the saw-mill ad- 
joining, and in 1870 sold the property to A. B. Snyder, 
the present owner, 

Indiantown grist- and saw-mills were l.nilt on In- 
dian River, in ISlili, hy Isaac, son of .l.din Krh, who 
sold the property in 1832 to Jacob Jlershberger. Mr. 
Hcrshberger made some additions to the mill, and 
subsequently sold to John Ohejlin. The ne.xt owner 
was Samuel Millirjger, and alter his dceca-c in ISMI 
William Stober became the owner. In l.ssii he put 
in steam-power and otherwi-e improved the nulls, 
and is the present owner. 

Martin Weidi.ian kept a store in the house now 
owned by M. L. Weidmaji from 18:33 until 185;', when 
his son,"S. l\ A. Weidman, ke[it the old store until 
1875, when lie died. 

A tavern was kept at the turnpike in the house 
now owned by Zaeharias Furry lor tiearly or quite 
thirty-three years. The landlords were Henry Stut- 
enroth, George KIser, and lastly by John Elser in 
1837. The tavern now ke[,t hy H. K. Wealand was 
first occupied as a liotel in 18iJU. 

Land-Owners in 1828.— The land-owners of what 
is now Clay township, and located on the south side 
of the l>(jwningtown, lOjdirata and Harrisburg turn- 
pike, in 11S28, were: 

ried : 

D.ivl.l Fliu.t,;. 

S.b.,»lia,. Ouukley. 


Jiicob llillly. 


Jul.n llilisln.ian. 


Jifcob II>.ck,T. 


Jao.,1, IIu.-=l.i-.i;el,iHille.. 


G™,t;>.- I.ubcT. 


Sai.i.H-l Hilk-r, bhicliBmitl, 


.Tulii. sun.T. 

C.Mirud Mentz.r. 


G.-i.rgu 1111.1 Jucub Mbntzer 

Justices of the Peace.— The territory now em- 
justices of the peace: 

Peter Martin, Sr., was appointed a justice of the 
peace Dec. 22, 1791, by Governor Tl.'omas Milllin, 
" tor so long as he behaves himself well." He held 
the ollicc until 1834, in the house uow owned by John 
V. Weidman, where he died in 1841, aged eiiihtv-fuur 

! Michael Kline wah 

' about the year 1818. 

Christopher Hentz 

j Samuel Eberly wa 



ed in 1830. 

n 1827 by Governor 

he behaves himself 

d in 1833. 

)I)ointed in 1835 by Gov- 

ivas the last appointment 

to the adoption of the 

Siiiuucl .A|.|.c-I. 
Henry Ai.i.l-1. 
lieiijiiniiii liwilint'. 
IVter uiid Ahdiun 

Jaculi llultitiger. 
Pelcr liolliiigor. 


Oil the north side of the turnpike were the foil 
ing inhabitants: 

Uujilel RnibaUtT SiUiiuel Kl.eily, Ks.|. 

U>.v., 111 ubaliei IK-iiiy Ebt-ily, Sr., uiillei 

Albright U,-ysBr. 
Duiilel Ili»«ler. 
George Doiuinyor. 
Siii.iiiel Kb.ily. 
JuUL-ph Eboily. 

Jidin Elser was api 

Peter Martin, Jr., v 
ernor George Wolf, 
in this towushi|) pre 
Constitution of 1838. 

The elections by the people have been as follows: 
1840, Peter Martin, Jr., and Christian Benlz; 1845, 
I'eter Martin, Jr., and John B. Erh; 1850, John B. 
Erb and Samuel Nissly ; 1855-75, Samuel Nkssly and 
Samuel Eberly; 1880, Samuel Nissly and Henry H. 

Indiantown Mennonite Meeting-House was built 
in 181'J on eighty ].erchcs of land donated by Abra- 
ham Brubaeher. The building committee were Dan- 
iel Brubacher, John Wenger, and John Bell. The 
pastors at that time were Abraham Brubacher, John 
Hess, and Christian Risser. Christian Risser died in 
182G, wdien Christian Bomberger succeeded him, and 
moved out of the district in 1848, when another 
Christian Bomberger succeeded him. John lltas 
died in 1830, when Benjamin Eby succeeded him. 
Benjamin Eby moved out of the district in 18G6, 
when John R. Hess succeeded him. Abraham Bru- 
bacher died in 1851, when John Ri.sser succeeded 
him, and he died in 1873. Christian S. Risser suc- 
ceeded .liim in 1874. Present pastors are Christian 
Bomberger, John R., and Christian S. Risser. 
Meetings are held every four weeks. Previous to the 
year 1819 meetings were held every eight weeks in 
inivato houses, — at Daniel Brubaker's (now Isaac 
Brubaker's) at Indian Run, and at Jacob Wissler's 


and Jacob Hacknian's at Middle Creek, iu Clay [ 
to\vnslii|). i 

United Brethren Meeting-House, near Newtown, ! 
known as •' Paradise Chiireh," was built by tlie United 
Brethren in 1.S47. Building committee and trustees, 
Jesse Paninibecker, Joseph Snyder, and Gideon Weid- 
man. Pastor at tliat time, Simon Nolt; afterwards 
Siegrist Landis, Kaull'man Ciders, and others. Ite- 
ligioiis meetings are held every two weeks. Present 
trustees, John H. Miller, Jacob Hacknian.and David 
Eberly. Free school was kept in the basement until 
1880, when a new scbo(il-house was built in Newtown 
by the township. Sclwxd-teachers, Charles .Vnstead, 
Samuel Zentniver, P. P. Ilibslmian, William Enck, 
and David S. Enck. 

Sandstone Meeting-House, known as Ileinecke's, 
was built by subscripticin on land purcliased from 
Jacob Frantz, in about the year ISOO. Jlembers from 
the United Brethren for some reason took an interest 
in the same, and called themselves in German •' Al- 
gemeine Bruiler." The church was built for all re- 
ligious denonuMations who contributed to build the 
same, with one exception. Elias Wolf, Benjamin 
Heinecke, and Levi Enck were trustees and building 
couimittce. The German Baptists hold meetings iu 
this churdi every twelve weeks. Previous to about 
1835 the German Baptists held their meetings in pri- 
vate houses. Meetings were held every twelve weeks 
at the house of Rev. Jacob Pfaulz, also at Peter Bol- 
linger's and Jacob Bollinger's, then residing along 
Middle Creek. 

Wood Corner School-House was originally built 
in 1813, by Jacob Hentz, I'eter Bentz, 8r., Peter Bol- 
linger, and Peter Martin, on tlie road leading frojn 
the turnpike to Halloc-ker's mill, on land owned by 
Jacob Bentz, for which be paid £32 towards the build- 
ing of the school-bous,-, P.ter Bentz £2.5, Peter Bol- 
linger £18, Peter Martin £17, total £'J2, or, in our 
currency, $240.33. Jacob Bentz, by deed dated Feb. 
15, 1815, conveyed the ground on which tiie school- 
house stood to Peter Bentz, Sr., one-fourth part 
thereof, to Peter Bollinger one-eighth part, and to 
Peter Martin one-eighth jiart thereof, for the usa of a 
«cliool-house and mecti[ig-buuse for all Christian de- 
nominatious, and fur mu olh(M- u^e or purpose whatso- 

After the passage of the free-school system act by the 
Slate Legislature and its adoption by the peojde, the 
old school-house and grounds were not of sufKcient 
capacity to accommodate the pupils in the district, 
and the original owners having deceased, upon peti- 
tion an act of Assembly was pa.ssed and approved 
March 21), 1859, authorizing Peter Martin, the younger, 
Martin Weidman, and Elias Stober, trustees of said 
district and of the school property, to sell the same, 
and apply the proceeds of such sale in improving tlie 
.site on which a new school-hoHse had been erected by 
the township on the opposite side of the highw.iy 
from the old one. The new school bouse was built 

in 1858, on sixty perches of land purchased from 
Christian Bentz. The school directors were Jonathan 
Kratz, Elias Enck, John Lowry, Jacob Bollinger, 
Samuel Elser, and Elias Wcdf 
Miller School-House was built by the township, 

on forty ferches oMaii.l purchased from Peter Miller, 
in 1849. School directors, Samuel Shcnk, Christian 
Risser, Martin Wcidmau, lliram Erb, John Keller, 
and Gabriel Bacr. 

Swamp School-House was built by the township, 
on forty |)erchcs of land purchased from Robert and 
George Dawson Coleman, in 1850. School directors 
the same as in 184!). 

Fairview School-House was built by the town- 
ship, on forty perches of land purchased from J(jna- 
than Kraatz, in 1855. School directors, Martin Bentz, 
Peter Martin, Elias Stober, Benjamin Bollinger, Jacob 
Eichelberger, and J(.hn Keller. 

Fetter School-House was built by the township, 
on sixty perches ol' land purchased from George Fet- 
ter, in 181)0. School <lirectors, John Lowry, Samuel 
Elser, Peter Fidler, Elias ^\'olf, Samuel Eberly, and 
Jacob S. PLieker. 

Sunnyside School-House was built by the town- 
ship, on eiglity perclies of land purchased from John 
H. Brubaker, in ISlJS. School directors, John H. 
Miller, Abraham B. Snyder, Jacob Romig, Jacob 
Roehrer, Jacob B. Wissler, and Samuel Burk- 

Newtown School-House was built by the town- 
shij), on forty perclies of laud purchased from John 
n. Miller, in 1880. School directors, William K. 
Furlow, Samuel S. Wolf, Andrew Weidman, Hiram 
Bollinger, Jacob S. Hacker, and Jacob Hackman, 
School directors in 1883, William K. Furlow, Samuel 
S. Wolf, Andrew Weidman, Hiram Bollinger, Jacob 
S. Hacker, and Hiram L. Erb. 

Durlach School-House «as erected on seventy- 
five perches of lami which George Illig and wife, by 
deed dated May fo, a.d. 1800, conveyed to John Erb 
and Jacob Eberly, in trust for the Mennonite Society, 
and to Christopher Miller and Jacob Wcidmau, Jr., 
in trust for the Lutheran Society, for the use of a 


un kc 

Present trustees, Jacob B. Hackman, Jacob S. Bru- 
baker, Jacob R<,mig, and David Miller. 

Durlach Post-Office was established in 1840 at the 
house then oecu|iicd by John Elser, on the turnpike 
from Downingtown to Harrisburg, with Harrison 
Elser as |iostmastcr. The mail was delivered at this 
office three times a week by the old "mail carrier," 
who was proprietor of a two-horse coach, with which 
he perlornied the wonderful task of transporting a 
large jjortion of the passenger traffic between the two 
lioints above named. When the Reading and Co- 

imliia ' 





times per week. Tlie oflice is now Icept in the store 
of H. S. Eberly, wlio is iilso the jireseiit postmaster. 

Clay Post-dffice was established in 1873 at the 
house ofGeortje W. Steiiinietz, on the Hinipike, witli 
Emanuel Wcidman as postmaster, who held the office 
until 1870, when Hiram E. Steiiiiiietz, the present 

postmaster, was appointed, and receives the mail six 
times per week IVom I'^phrata. | 

Clay Lodge, No. 915, I. 0. of 0. F., was instituted 
in 1875, with the lolluwijig-named charter members: 
Samuel M. Jacoby, Martin Romig, J. Y. Kline, M.D., 
Henry Mellinger, Peter 0. Elser, Solomon Eberly, 
AVilliam Romig, P. G., Fraidclin Staid, John M. 
Jacoby, and J. H. Roher. Tlie regular meetings of 
this lodge are held on Saturday evening of each week 
in "Kline Hall," built in 1874 by Dr. J. Y. Kline. 
The otHcers in July, 1883, were: P. li. Kofrotli, N. G. ; 
H. 13. Keller, Esq., V. G. ; William Romig, Sec; J. 
G. Keener, Asst. Sec. ; J. 0. Elser, Treas. 


IlIli.^M KUH. 
The Erb family is one of the old-stock families of 
Lancaster County. Jacob, the great-grandfather of 
the subject of this sketch, came witli his father from 
Switzerland in the year 1728, wdien four years of age, 
and resided at :in early day near Hammer Creek, in 
"Warwick tcjwnsliip. .\bout the year 1782 he removed 
to what is now Clay village, in Clay township, where 
he i)urchaseil five or si.\ hundred acres of land, in- 
clu<ling the mill privileges at that point, and made a 
permanent settlement. He operated the mill at Clay, 
and another one a little higher up, on Jliddle Creek, 
besides engaging in the arduous duties of pioneer agri- 
culture. In religious ad'airs he belonged to tiie IMen- 
nonite persuasion until the breaking out of the Revo- 
lutionary war; but at that time feeling that the non- 
resistant principles of the society were <letrimental to 
the preservation of the essential liberties of tiie peo- 
ple, he withdrew from the connection and warmly suj)- 
ported the struggle for national independence. After 
the close of the war he represented his district in the 
Legislature of the State, lie was jiossesscd of adeep, 
reflective mind, good JnilLMiient, and a jirogressive 
spirit. He died in 1810, :a the advanced age of 
eighty-three years. His wife was a .Miss Johns, who 
bore him two sons and several daughters. The names 
of the former were John and Christian. The latter 
occupied the old family seat in Warwick during his 
life-time, and his descendants are still to be found in 
that locality. John was the grandfather of the subject 
of this paper. At the age of si.xteen he entered the 
service of his country, and served for three years as a 
teamster during llie.]{ev(dutionary war. He sul.-,-- 
quently resided at ('lay, where lieoperalc<l both ol llie 

mills owned by his father and cultivated the homestead 
fiirm. He was a prominent and influential man, and 
was tiie founder of tlie school at Clay (then Durlach 
Post-yffice), andaetivein religious affairs. Hemarrieil 
Judith Hull, and liad a large family of children, viz.: 
Jacob, J(?ljn, David, Isaac, Samuel, Joseph, .Alolly 
(who married Abraham Erb and emigrated to Can- 
ada), Elizabeth (who became the wife of Michael 
Shepler), Nancy (who married Abraham Rear), and 
Catharine (who became the wife of Joseph Weidman). 

John Erb, father of our subject, born Nov. 3, 178G, 
also passed his life at Clay, where he engaged in farm- 
ing, milling, and in keeping a public-house. He was 
a i)rominent member of the Old-Line Whig party, 
and during the Anti-JIasonie excitement served as • 
one of the commissioners of Lancaster County. lie 
married Barbara Bergelbach, and his children were 
Hiram, John B., Henry B. (deceased), and Priscilla 
Cecilia (deceased, wife of George W. Steinmetz, a 
merchant at Clay). He died in 1SG2, in the seventy- 
sixth year of his age. 

Hiram, eldest son of John Erb, was born at the 
up|)er mill privilege, in Clay, on April 11, 1810. He 
enjoyed only a common-school educatiim, and at the 
age of nineteen embarked in the milling business, at 
the old family site established by his great-grand- 
father, and continued in that vocation for the long 
period of forty years. He also engaged in farming 
pursuits on a portion of the original family tract, of 
wdiicli he now owns one hundred and fifty acres, at 
Clay. In the year 18G9 he formed a partnership with 
liis son, Hiram L. Erb, and under the name and style 
of Hiram Erb & Son, established a general store at 
Richland, Lebanon Co. In the spring of 1875 the 
business was removed to Clay, where the firm have 
since continued to trade. Jlr. Erb was postmaster at 
Clay (then Durlach) for four years, having been ap- 
pointed by President Taylor. He was originally an 
ardent Republican, an intimate acquaintance of Hon. 
Thaddeus Stevens, and one of the founders of the 
Republican party of his section. In 1872, out of nil- 
miration for the life and character of Horace Greeley, 
he supported the Democratic nominees for the Presi- 
dency, and has since acted independently in politics. 
He served as a school director at the time free 
schools were made geiier;il, lur three Years, and Ikw 
always lent a cheerful sujiport to the various evan- 
gelical and jirogressive movements of his time. He 
married on Jlay 16, 1839, Catharine Lehn, widow of 
John S. Bear. Hiram L. Erb, the sole i.ssue of the 
union, was born on Nov. 24., 1840. He was raised in 
milling and farming, but in consequence of failing 
health entered the mercantile business with his father 
in 18(19, and has since remained a member of (he liriii 
of Hiram Erb & S,.n. His polil,i,-al e:ireer has been 
similar to that of his father. He represents his dis- 
trict in the Democratic County Committee at the 
lirescnt time, and is also a member of the schoul 
board of his townshii). He enjoys an excellent repn- 

^^^^/^c Z?/^^ 





J^ S ^ec^4^, 



tfttion in his locality. IK 
Salinda, daughter of Willi 
of Lebanon County, ami li 
Laura and Salinda Erb. 

■:XKY .S. 



V. 24, 1803, 

md I 


A. Becker, 


cii,— JLsses 



-niacliine, and in 
arriod Catharine, 
Wike, of Lebanon 
of a merchant at 
a prominent man 
;hout hi= life, and 
ener transacted a 
■tiii!,' freL|Ucntly as 
friends, and man- 


Henry S. Eberly was born in Kl 
(now Clay), on Auj;. C, ISaO. lljsg, 
Eberly, settled in the neighbcjrhuud of wl 
Durlach at an early day, where he engage 
ing, farming, ojierating a card' 
distilling. Samuel, his father 
daughterof John A.aiidCathar 
County, and pursued the bush) 
Durlach for many years. He v 
in the township and county tin 
as a justice of the peace and si 
large amount of public iiusines.- 
the adviser and counselor of 1 
aging a great many estates. 

Henry S. Eberly received his earlier education at 
the district schools of his neighborhood, subsequently 
attending the acadcjny at Lititz. He began his active 
business life in 1846 and 1847, during which time he 
clerked in the store of Hays & Long, at Mount Joy. 
Li 1818 he entered his father's store at Durlach, 
where he remained uniil .Vpiil, ISilii, at which time 
he began trade on hi> own aurount on the same site, 
where he has since continued to do business. Be- 
sides his mercantile pursuits he is engaged in farm- 
ing and in raising and buying tobacco. Altlunigh a 
stanch Republican in jiolilics, and one of the inllu- 
enlial leaders of his party, he has seldom aspired to 
public oflice. The only time when he has permit- 
ted his name to come before the people was in 
1875, wdien he was elected by a large majority treas- 
urer of Lancaster County, filling the ollice in an in- 

telligent and capable manner 
served as a delegate to the Cincinnati 
which nominated Hayes ami Wheeler 
dency and Vice-Presidency. Hewa, ] 
Durlach from March, KSiil, nnlil his 
county treasurer. In many rcsptcls he 

e y. 


his 1 


ecutor, guardian, ami a.lmiiiistralor in many ca 
and being held in general respect and esteem for 
affability of manner and the iiitegrity and uprighti 
of his character. He was one of the founders of 
Ephrata National JJank, and has since been a m^ 
ber of the board of directors of that institution. 
is also one of the directors of the Northern Mul 
Fire Li.suranue Company, of Lancaster County, 
cated at Ephrata, and a <lirector of ttie Lanca 
County JIail Insurance Ci-mpany, at Lititz. 
married Salinda, daughter of Judge llibshman 
Lebanon County, for many years connected willi 
Treasury Department, at Washington, and has 
children living, viz., Lily P. and Albert H. Eber 

The great-great-grandfather of the subject of this 
sketch embarked from Germany for Philadelphia with 
his wife about the year 1720, but on the voyage over 
was impressed into the naval service by a vessel of 
war, together with the <Jther able-bodied men on the 
ship. His wife proceeded on her journey to Phila- 
delphia, and after his teini of service expired he fol- 
lowed her to that city, when he accidentally found 
1 her engaged in carrying two pails of milk for a 
farmer in Germantown. He also took service with a 
farmer in the same locality, and they passed the re- 
mainder of their lives together. Their son, Andrew 
Wissler', letl by that peculiar fate which so ofteu 
directs the aims and purposes of man, removed to 
Lancaster Cminty, Pa., where he entered the employ 
of Jacob Grolf, an extensive farmer, in what is now 
Clay township, and in 1707 married the only daugh- 
ter of his employer, through whom he became the 
owner of the old Grotf homestead, which was taken 
up in 1724 by John Jacob Grotf, his wife's grand- 
father. The old homestead, although divided into 
four farms by Jacob Wissler (son of Andrew), has 
been in the continuous ])ossession of the family since 
that early period, and is now owned by Levi H. 

Andrew AVissler' liad two s(ms, John and Jacob\ 
of whom the former died unmarried. Jacob' mar- 
ried Anna, daughter of Christian Eby, in the year 
ISUO, and had a family often children, viz., Andrew-, 
who removed to JMichigan where he died; Jacob-; 
Christian ; Magdalena, who married Jacob Landes, 
of Ephrata township; Ezra, the only one surviving, 
living at BrunnerviUe; John ; Catharine; Mary, who 
married Levi Erb, of Warwick; Levi; and Samuel. 
Jacob Wissler' was a firm and energetic man, and 
is known to have made three separate journeys to 
Can'ada during his life-time on horseback. Although 
a Mennonite, he-did not wholly ignore the law of 
self-defense, and the cane is still in the possession of 
the subject of this sketch, with which he defended 
himself against the attack of an Imlian upon one of 

Christian \Vissler, father of Benjamin, was born 
on Jan. 14, 1S0.3. He occupied a portion of the old 
Grolf homestead, some sixty-four acres, at what is 
now Wissler's Mill, in Clay township, whicii he built 
in 1843. He engaged in farming until the erectiou 
of the null, after which date he devoted his time 
principally to milling until his death on Nov. 11, 
1878^ He married, Oct. 25, 1831, Anna, daughter of 
Rev. Jacob Hostetler, a Mennonite preacher, and had 
a family of four children, viz., Elizabeth, who mar- 
ried Sailiuel B. Myers, and removed to Virginia, 
wdiere she now lives, having married Jacob Lantz 
for her second husband, after the death of Jlr. Myers; 
Benjamin; Jacob, ^^Uo resided in xXorth Carolina, 
and is engaged in the iron business; and Mary A., 
! wife of Henry Hershey, of Harrisburg, Pa. 



Benjamin Wissler was born at the old lionieste;i(l on 
Oct. 5, 1838. He enjoyed only a common school edu- 
cation, and in early life learned the trade of a miller 
with his father. In 1802 he enlisted for nine m.milis 
in the United States army for the sii]iiire-Mun nl' the 
llebellion, and was elected second lienleiumt of Co. 
F, One Hundred and Seventy-ninth llej^iment of 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, serving in the lield for the 
full term of his enlistment. In March, 1804, he 
married Susanna, daughter of S.'unuel and Eliza 
(Wise) Fry, of Millport, Pa., and in April of the 
same year entered ujion the milling business on his 
own account, in which he has since continued to 
engage. In 1870 he united with the late S. P. A. 
Weidman, of Clay township, in the manufacture of 
millstones, and continued to do business as Weidman 
& Wissler until the deatii of the former, in 1875. He 
subsequently admitted the late Henry B. Erb into 
partnership with him, and continued the business 
under the firm-name of Wissler & Erb, until the de- 
mise of the latter in 1877, -^ince which time he has 
successfully luir.-ued tlie l)ii>ineso alone. In 1881 he 
became associated with C. W.Myers, of Lincoln, Pa., 
and under the name and style of Myers & Wissler 
engaged in the manufacture of cigars, purchasing 
and packing their own leaf. This business connec- 
tion still continues. Mr. Wissler has led an active 
and successful business life, and is held in general 
respect in his native county. He has always felt a 
deep interest in politics, and acted in strict accord 
with the principles and policy of the Republican 
party. Upon two occasions he permitted his name 
to be oflered for nomination for the office of county 
register, but was defeated each time by a small ma- 
jority, largely because he firmly refused to pledge 
himself to carry out any defined line of appointments, 
or to enter upon his oliice with any entangling alli- 
ances. He has ever felt a w.irm interest in all move- 
ments of a progrr— ive and elevating character, and is 
recognized as one u\' tlic eiilrrprising citizens of lii> 
townsliip. He has thixe aiildren,— viz , Mi-s Klla 
E., ('hri>lian Frv, and ^^;^^uel Lincoln Wi^-ler. 

The ancestry of the Weidman family, <jf Lancaster 
County, can be traced back to the year 17.'53, at which 
time Jlartin Weidman received a patent from Wil- 
liam Penn and his associates for three hundred and 
eighty-five acres of land situate in what is now Clay 
township.. The date of the conveyance is Oct. 0, 
1733, and the consideration named therein fifty-nine 
pounds, nineteen ^hillings, and .sixpence. This was 
the common ancestor of the family in this country. 
He emigrated from Durlacli, Germany, and was one uf 
the pioneers of Lancaster County. He had two son^, 
Christopher and Jacob, and a daughter, wlio manied 

John Weachter. The former settled at New IIol- 
hiiiil, Lanca>ter Co., and was the ancestor of the 
Weidmans of that section. Jacob resided wliere 
,Iacol» S. Brubaker now lives, in Clay lownslnp. lie 
married Barbara Hover, .and liad ten children, viz., 
(leorge, Christoplier, .Marliii, John, Jacob', Samuel, 
Peter, Catharine (wlio married a Lies), Lizzie (who 
became the wife of George Yundt), Susanna (wlio 
married John Elser, of Harrisburg), and Barbara 
(who married a Mr. Zeigler). 
' Jacob- Weidman, son of Jacob', was the grand- 
; father of the subject of this sketch. He also had a 
family of ten children, namely, William, Catharine 
(who married John Mentzer), Elizabeth ( wdio nmr- 
ried John Shenk), Susanna (wdio married Henry 
Romig), Jacob (who died, leaving two children), 
Sally, who married Jlr. Fisher). Martin, Polly (who 
became Jlrs. Nye), George, and Fanny (who married 
a Ilocker). 
I JIartin Weidman, father of our subject, engaged in 
mercantile |)Ursuits during the greater portion of his 
life, first at Earlvilie for two years, and subseciuently 
at West Lincoln, Clay township, where he was in 
trade for many years. He married Lydii; Yundt, 
I and had a fanuly of six children, viz., Jacob Jlartin, 
I Simon P. A., John Y., .Sarah (who married .Martin 
i Steinmetz, of Ephrata townshij)), Lydia (who became 
I the wife of John B. Eshleinan, of Minkletown), and 
; Susan E., wife of Rev. Stephen Seliweitzer, of Lin- 
coln, Pa. 

Simon P. A. Weidman, to wliom this paper is 
I dedicated, was born at the family seat in Clay town- 
I ship on Oct. 2-1, 1833. His earlier education wa^ de- 
rived at the common schools of the township, and his 
final studies were i)ursued at the Lititz Academy. 
For a number of years he a~-istiil- lii> father in the 
store at West Lincoln, and al.out IS.'.T he succeeded 
! to thebusiiie<s. He remained in active and success- 
ful at West.Lincoln until bis demi.xe, on April 
l:;, 1S7.3. He conlined him-elf ilo-ely to liis busi- 
nes-~, and wa- nevrr an a-|.iiant after public iio>iti()n. 
For several yr:ir- lo- »as a-.ociated witli Benjamin 
Wl^^le^ in the inanur.ntnre and .-^ale of millstones, 
j under the firm-name of Weidman & Wissler. lie 
i led a quiet and industrious life, and was held in gen- 
I eral respect for his integrity and uprightness, lie 
gave liberally of his means to the support of all 
worthy enterprises, whether of a material or spiritual 
character, and strove by every means in bis power to 
I perforin the full duty of a good citizen. Cut down in 
I the prime of his life and in the midst of his useful- 
ness, his early demise was attended with universal 
I regret. He married, on Nov. 10, 1858, Mary A., 
, daughter of J^cob and Magdalena Landis, of Ephrata 

L. Weidman, teller in the Ephrata National Bank. 



M Ccc^i'^v^^^^-'tJiy^ 

.^ ' 




The original ancestor of the Steiiiinetz family i 
this country was Cliarles Steinmetz, who einigratt 
from a [lortion of Germany lying along the rivi 
Rhine, during tlie latter half of the eighteenth eui 
tury.antl lainU'd at Philailelphia, He was then lIl'I 

F.,rJ. where he .narrie.l .M 
traveling still farther we,tw 
now Ephrata townsliip, Lane^ 
U|) one hundred and twenty 
neighborhofpd of the present i 
Bowman. Here he engaged i 
until his death, at the advan 
years. His children were eight iu nuinl 
Catharine, who married John Goover, 
township; Charles; J(din ; Samuel; Sar; 
ried Andrew Bushong, .Taeob, Isaac, and 
this large family only three i 
writing (18S3), viz.: Samuel, 
Richland, Lebanon Co. ; Saral 

i>s l'„ggy 

ister Co., w 
acres of 
3sidence i 
1 agricult 
:ed age o 

eorge L. 

,f Ephral 

David. ( 
at the iMTsei 
ed resident . 
esides with hi 

daughter, the wife of'Hon. Anthony E. Roberts, of 
Lancaster; and Isaac, residing at Ephrata, Pa. 

Jacob Steinmetz, father of our subject, was born in 
171)8, upon the tract originally settled by his father in 
Ephrata township, but removed to West Earl town- 
ship in 1833, wdiere he engaged in farming at the 
place now owned by Solomon Grove. In 1845 he re- 
moved to Annville, Lebanon Co., wiiere he also pur- 
sued the vocation of a farmer until his demise, in 
18-51. His wife was Catharine Gross (born 180(3), a 
native of Ephrata township, daughter of John Gross, 
who was for many years a liotel-keeper and merchant 
at Ephrata, and a large land owner. She is still living 
at Annville. Pa. The children were ten in number, 
namely : C. P., residing at Annville ; George W. ; Reu- 
ben (deceased) ; Mary A., wife of Rev. Joseph Painter, 
of Myerstown, Lebanon Co. ; Charles H., a mercliant 
at Newmanstown, in the same county; Selinda, wife 
of Dr. J. G. Fritz, of Annville ; Uriah G., doing busi- 
ness in Philadelphia; Rebecca; Martin N. B., also in 
business in Philadelphia ; and Jacob L., a practicing 
lawyer at Lancaster, Pa., and a former member of the 
Slate Legislature. 

George W. Steinmetz was born at the old family 
seat in Ephrata townsliip o[i .\ug. 11, 18li7. When 
five years of age he removed wilh hi- father to West 
E;irl township, where the earlier yars of his life 
were passed upon the paternal farm, and in .-Utend- 
ance upon the common .schools of his locality. He 
subsenuenlly enjoyed a higher course of instruction 
at the Ephrata Academy. Upon the death of his 

old family seat of the Erb family, at Clay, and suc- 
ceeded John Erb in the business of hotel-keeping, 
and in farming a portion of the old homestead, coui- 

Iii Is.Oo, upon the enactment of local prohibitory 

hntcl-keepiug, and in 18G2, upon the dealli (d J..liu 
Eih, became r' j owner, by purchase, of both the 
hotel property and farm. Having pursued farming 
O|perations at (i'hiy lur a period of ibnrteen years, Mr. 
Steiniiiet/. ill lsi;7, l)uilt his present residence and 
store property at that jioint, and the year following 
I embarked in the mercantile business, in wduch he 
; has since continued. He has also engaged e.N.ten- 
sively in the purchase and sale of tobacco, besides 
I cultivating large quantities himself. He has con- 
fined himself closely to his business pursuits, and has 
neither sought nor been willing to accept public 
liositioii. He was an earnest supporter of the late 
war, and as a war I>enH)crat was active in raising 
I the several quotas of soldiers required of his township 
I for service in the field. He is a member of the Brick- 
I erville Evangelical Lutheran Church, and has beeu 
officially connected with that body since 18G5, having 
served as deacon, and being a member of the board 
of trustees at the present writing. To all worthy 
enterprises he has ever lent a cheerful and liberal 
support, and he ranks among the public-spirited and 
progressive citizens of his township. His only son, 
Hiram Erb Steinmetz, was born Oct. 20, 1854. He 
I entered the preparatory department of the Lebanon 
j Valley College at Annville, Pa., in 18G7, and was 
graduated from that institution with the degree ol 
Bachelor of Arts in 1874. He received the Master'; 
degree in 1877. He has been postmaster at Clay 
since 1876, and devotes much attention to literarj 
work, acting, among other things, as the local corre- 
spondent of several leading newspapers in the county 
Mrs. George W. Steinmetz died on June 5, 1870. 



Geography and Topography.— This is one of th 
northeastein lowiiships of Lancaster County, and i 
bounded on llic imrtheast by Berks County, on th 
southeast by the township of Brecknock, southwest b 
Ephrata, and northwest by West Cocalico townshi| 

father, in ISol.hecame into posse 

ision of the home 

farm at Annville, comprising one 1 

undred at twenty- 

i'wc acres, which he still owjis, an( 

for several years 

engaged in farming at thnt place. 

In 1852 he married 

Priscilla Ceeiliii, daughter of .John 

and r,aih;na Erh, 

of Clay townshij., and two years hi 

er removed to the 

It hi 


in- average width of three and one-third miles. Th 

surface is hilly, and within the limits of the townshi 

ire four considerable elevations, called Ephrata Rid. 

i in the southwestern part, Bucher's Mountain in tl 




northwest, Lied's Ridge in tlie southwest, and Adams- 
town Ridge in the northeastern part. 

The soil of the townsliip, exceiit on tlie most ele- 
vated portions, is very fertile, producing the ordinary 
cereals of this region in great abundance, and lierc as 
elsewhere in the county tobacco is successfully culti- 
vated. The townsUi]) is drained towards the south- 
west, and the largest stream is the Cocalico Creek, 
which traverses the entire length of tlie township near 
its southwestern boundary, and with its ailiuents, the 
largest of which is Stony Run, drains a large porticm 
of the area. What is known as Muddy Run, or 
Jluddy Creek, is on the boundary between this town- 
ship and Brecknock, and receives branches from the 
southeastern declivity of the water-shed that passes 
southwesterly through the township from the vicinity 
of Adamstown. These streams supply water-power 
for the mills that are scattered through the township. 
Highways. — The principal highway is the Lancas- 
ter and I^.eading road, ])assing from Adamstown bor- 
ough southwesterly through the township by the 
village of Reamstown. This road was laid out many 
years prior to the Revolution, and before the railroad 
era it was an important thoroughfare. The road was 
laid out fifty-eight feet wide, but it has been made 
much narrower by the encroachments of land-owners 
along its borders. Another important highway is the 
Schaefterstown and Churchtown road, crossiiiL' the 
township nearly at right angles with the I,anca-;ter 
and Reading road. Another road through the town- 
ship, and of considerable importance, is the one 
crossing the Lancaster and Reading road at Swartz- 
ville, near Adamstown borough. Other roails traverse 
the township in different directions, but those men- 
tioned are the most important. 

The Reading and Columbia Railroad passes through 
the township near its northwestern boundary for two- 
thirds the length of that line. Tiiis affords conven- 
ient communication between this township and 
Reading towards the northwest, and Lancaster and 
Columbia towards the southwest, and indirectly with 
Philadelphia, New York, and Ilarrisburg. 

Old Cocalico, and Derivation of Name.— The old 
township of Cocalico was divided in 1838 into East 
and West Cocalico and the township of Epiirata, 
since which time no change has been made in the 
boundaries of East Cocalico. It is said that the 
name Cocalico is a corruption Koch- Hale- Kuiuj, which 
means a cave or den of serpents, and that an abund- 
ance of these reptiles along the creek of that name 
suggested its title. 

Early Settlers.— Among the pioneers of what is 
now East Cocalico townsliij), and most prominently 
identified with its pioneer history, were the Reams, 
ISuchers, llubers, Kidlcrs, ydnvartzwallers, Leaders, 
Schneiders, Killians, Docks, Forneys, Rupps, Balmers, 
Mays, Mayers, Ilahns, Resslers, Beyers, Leets.Schlotts, 
Grolfs, Wolfs, Feirsteins, Weidmans, Hershbergcrs, 
and others. 

Among this number we find that Everhard Rea ■• 
located in " Zoar," now the village of Reamstown, 
1723, and pitched his tent under the spreadii 
branches of a large oak-tree, then standing on tl 
farm now owned and occufiied by John Lesher, ac 
joining lire village of Reamstown. The old oak-tn 
stood a little west of where now stands a large willo\ 
tree, near Mr. Lesher's house. Here, with none hi ' 
Indians as neighbors, Mr. Ream built his rude hu 
one hundred and sixty years ago, and after clearin 
a small spot of ground he procured a warrant, and i 
1725 a patent was granted him for about four hui 
dred acres of land, upon a portion of which the vi 
lage of Reamstown was laid out. For some time th 
nearest mill to Mr. Ream was on the Brandywim 
and his nearest neighbors, aside from Indi.ins, wei 
the settlers on Mill Creek. 

The attractions produced by Mr. Ream's littl 
clearing and the abundance of pure water induce 
settlers to locate in his immediate vicinity, and but 
few years elapsed before Mr. Ream was in the mids 
of quite a settlement of Germans. 

Prominent among Mr. Ream's sons was Tobi.x' 
who in 1760 laid out the town of Reamstown. G 
his children but little is known at present. Christian 
the oldest son, grew to man's estate and went West 
John died in Ohio; George ; Juliana, married Jacol 
Kofroth. Three other daughters married to Michaei 
Wcitzel, William Wheeler, and a Mr. Sarbold. 

Jacob Hershberger received a warrant for and sub 

sequently patented about six hundred acres of huK 

along the Cocalico Creek, below Reamstown, upoi 

which he built a saw-mill on the site now occnpiei 

by Philip Staufer's mill. Mr. Hershberger had foui 

I sons, Isaac, Abraham, Joseph, and John, who in 

I herited his property. The old plarrtation has beei 

I divided and subdivided till it is now owned b.\ 

I Joseph S. Withers, Curtis Withers, Christian Martin 

1 Daniel Hershberger, Moses Shirk, Philip Staufer. 

I Frederick Andrews, John Heiser, and Alexandei 

Gerhardt. Other owners of large plantations there 

were, but just who, how much land they owned, oi 

where it was located we were unable to obtain anj 

reliable data. 

Cyrus Ream, a great-grandson of Tobias Ream 
the founder of Reamstown, grandson of Henry Ream, 
I and son of Curtis Ream, was born Dec. 12, 1812, in 
j Reamstown, where he has since resided, and been 
held in high esteem by his fellow-townsmen. He 
served as a justice of the peace from 18.5G to 1881, 
when he was appointed a notary public, which com- 
mission he still holds. 

In 18G0 he was appointed census marshal for the 
townships of Brecknock and East Cocalico, also for 
the borough of Adamstown, and has also been trea-s- 
urer of the Reformed congregation of Reamstown 
since 1869. 

At the age of seventeen years he was apprenticed 
I to Ellas Weilknecht to learn the blacksmith trade. 




with whom he remained about eiglit years, when he 
opened a shop and commenced business in Eeams- 
town on his own account. Here he carried on the 
blacksmitli business for about thirty-five years, when 
he retired from active -crvicu in that line. 

' embraced 

Dutrich Gugly, 50 
Julin Gogly, 15U h 

Taxables for 1780 lor t 

le territory i 

in what is Eadt L 

ocalicu to 

vnship : 

John Belicafer, 10 Mrc 

s uf and 

one cow, int. 

bj Juliij 

Jobn Iliicher, ICU ucres 

2 horses, 3 c 

^ws, £360. 

Heni.v Drc-nJcl, lOKCr 

s. 1 hurse, 1 c 

ow, £20. 

Davi.l H.Tingcr, 1 liura 

e, 1 cow, buns 

e and lot, £25. 

Ma.illiuUl-y, 2ucrM, 

2 cows, hons 

and lot, £12. 

Jolm li.iclier, 200 acres 

3 burses, c 

ows, f CC7. 

Miflmel Bear, 200 acre 

,1 horse, 5 c 

ws, 2 mills £650 

Plillil. Bra.lstoue, 150 

cres, 3 horses 

5 cows, £500. 

John li.'cl.tol.l, ISO acr 

es, 3 horses, 4 

cows, £402. 

Ch.i»tiKii Aii.lrewB, 16. 

acres, 2 hors 

3, 4 cows, £:148. 

Blatlliiiis Ackenbacli.r 

) acres, 2 hor 

es, 4 cows, £107 

Julin Achey, 40 acrw. 

horse, 2 cow 

, £140. 

Blatllii:w Albert, 1 acre 

1 cow, £0. 

Ricbai.l Aaams, 8G acr 

s, 2 horses, 4 

cows, £220. 

I*.ac A dam J, 130 acres 

2 horses, 3 CO 

ws, 2 mills, £420 

Durst Anion, liw acres 

2 horses, 2 co 


I'bilip Artz, 15 acres, 1 

cow, £18. 

Conrad B^muisseii, tax 

d for money, 


Stepbeu llullander,45ui;rea, 1 b.-rse 

1 cow, £70. 

Peter liinckly, 2:, acres 

1 horse, 2 CO 

ws, £50. 

Adam llower, 2o0 acre 

, 3 horses, 4 c 

ows, £442. 

Martin Bear, taxed fui 

money, floo 

Peter Ileinbowor, 1.10 1 

cres, 2 horses 

4 cows, £232. 


ury Dear 

20 acres. 

2 boi 

es, 3 cow 

-, Imill, tlOO 


nry Bear 



cres, £4.- 


m Bear, 

acres, 2 


«, 2 cows 



ijaniin Bear, 60 act 

es, 2 horses, 3 c 

ows, £177. 


er Bentu 

150 acres 

3 ho 

rses, 3 CO 

vs, £430. 

Daniel Boll! 

iger, 200 


4 horses, 

4 cows, £662. 


ram Brol 

ak.-r, -MO 

ac, es 

2 boraes 

4 cows, £032 

Peter Eberly, 100 acres, £100. 

Jacob liberly, 125 acres, 1 cow, £407. 

Geort'o Elick, 250 acres, 4 horses, 5 cows, £800. 

Jacob Eberly, wlieolwrighl, 50 acres, 2 hoises, 3 cows 

Henr.v I . I. ;i : 1 .„ws, house and lot, £25. 

GouiL- 1 .,1 i -, . lu.rses, 6COW3, £372. 

• Goorj: 

, FraMl/,, IS.J acr..s, 

J homes, 4 cows, £572. 


00 acres, £300. 

/ Paul Fnrmau, 100 acres, 2 

horses, 3 cows, £220. 

J Peter 

Fee.ser, 100 acres, 3 

orses, 2 cows, £236. 

1 Beriui 

rd Fetber, 60 acres. 

hoisa, 2 cows, £176. 

' Ad„n, 

Fo8s,'Gaeres, Iciiw 




.oi»es, 2COW8, £326. 

' AdKM, 

' ,„.r,„ 

i^ill, 170 u.res, 3 horaes, 6 cows, £385. 

diMcer, 1 horse, 1 

cow, house«ud lot, £16. 


GiIk..., 1 bovbO, Ic 

.w, house and lot, £20. 

1 Join, 

;.Met, 60 acres, 2 ho 

ses, 3 cows, £126. 

Gogly, 100 acres, 1 

lorse, 2 cows, £201. 


Jacob Knebel, "lO lu 
Christian Knisey, 1 

Ahram Klein, lUO a 
llitbe Kneisley, 00 
blithe Kneisley, ex 

Nicllol..» Le-liel. 17 


or Lul? 


George L. 

"K, 10) 



is, Jr., 

50 ac 

Casper Li 

tz, 110 


John Miller, 150 


Ad^m 51.. 

•s, 4 cows 


es, 2 cows, £220. 

1, 2 cows, 


orses, 2 c 

ows, £251. 

ses, 3 cow 

s, £339. 

horse, 2 cows, £55., 5 c 

ws, 1 servant, £365. 

se, 1 cow, 


us, 3 cow 

, £229. 

, 2 horses 

2 cows, £446. 

rses, 2 CO 

•5, £326. 

ow, £70. 

■=es, 4 CO 

vs, £-252. 

,3 cows. 


acres, 3 

horses, C cows, £349 

lorses, 4 c 

ows, £402. 

2 hon-es, 

3 cows, £479. 

s, 1 horse 


es, 3 cow 

, £279. 

2 borsos, 

2 cows. £326. 

rse, 2 coi 

s, £2C0. 

1 cow, 1 

servant, £73. 

.orses, 4 c 

ows, £642. 

se, 2 cows 

, £i;g. 

horses, 4 

cows, £340. 

horses, G 

cows, £198. 

se, 2 cow 

,£31G. V 

.rses, 3 cc 

ws, 1 mill, £279. 

acres, £: 


lorses, 5 

ows, £405. 

ow, £20. 

ses, 4 CO 

•s, £342. 

■ses, 3 CO 

vs, £329. 


es, 5 cow 

, £305. 

horses, 2 

cows, £76. 

se, 2 cow 

, £210. 

loi^es, 1 

ow, £173. 

es, 4 cow 

, £272. 

es, 6 cow 

, £348. 

Conrad, 10 acre*. 1 c.w 


Dewalt Mader, 60 aotcs, 1 bo 

■se, 2 

COWS, £76. 

Lentz Meyer, 60 acres, 1 hor 

e, 1 c 

w, £133. 

Henry Miller, 41 acres, 1 hor 

se, 1 c 

iw, £139. 

John Miller, tanner, 50 acres 

2 ho 

■ses, 1 cow, £ 


Jacob Martin, 10 acres, 1 co\ 


se, 1 

ow, £291. 

John Musleman, 32 acres, 1 


1 cow, 1 mill 


Shenck Martin, 15 acres, £42 

Michael PiI2,5acres. 1 borsi 

2 CO 

vs, £28. 

Adam lie.lm, 100 acres, 1 hoi 

se. 2 c 

ows, £316. 

Jac.b It..lirer, 50 acres, 1 hor 

se, 2 c 

ows, £00. 

Jacb Heam, 1 lioise, 1 cow, 


Abiam lleani, Jr., 20 acres, 1 


1 cow, 2 mill 


John Ream, 300 acres, 2 hors 

s. 3 cows, £026. 

Andrew Ream, 50 acres, 1 co 

V, hoi 

-e aii.l l..t, £100 

Tohlas Ite.iui, 25 acres. 2 hoi-s 

ows, £1..4. 

Jobn Rnch, 136 acres, 2 hors 

8.4 cc 

ws. £304. 

Engle Ite.ler, 1 cow, house ai 


£10. u 

Peter Rine, 15 acre»,l borse, 

1 cow 


Michael Roth, 100 acres. 2 ho 


cows, £12G. 



14, ISIU. j Cyrus U.-uni, April 9, 1861. 

sS. Fry, ISSl. 

Wi.luw Milk-r 
JiiiuU W..If, 1 
%Viiluw Bi'ckf 

Of the foregoing list of taxalik's hut very few, if 
any, of their descendants now own any part of the 
real estate possessed by the owners of over a century 
ago, and only a small portion of the pioneer lands 
, can be traced to the present owners. However, we 
can give a few of tlieni, as follows: The land owned 

John Deltccfer ia now i,»ni-.l by .I,.l,n Ilartiimn, 

Duvid lirlckcr " " 1»;l:.c K. Uli.i hulzei. 

Henry llcur ■■ " Chii-li.n Ki-lliir. 

' Knrluw A Co. 

ttn Knupp 
I Monlilion. 

Muddy Creek Evangelical Lutheran Church.'— 

This con^'iviiation was (irgaiii/.i-d ahoiit 17;iO, but tlio 
records do not commence till 1733. The first records 
of bai)tisms were by Peter MiiUer, and by Rev. John 
Christian Schultze. Rev. John Casper Stoever vis- 
ited the congregation here as early as 1784, but he 
does not appear to have preached to this congrega- 
tion till 17i(i. From the time of its organization till 
1838, a jjcriod of one hundred and five years, this so- 
ciety was connected with that of New HoUajid, and 
to have been served by the same pastors. 

Rev. Tobias Wagner succeeded Mr. Stoever in 
1749, and continued till 17.r)5. A Rev. Stoever then 
served the church till 1758, then Rev. John Samuel 
Schwerdtfegertill 17(13. 

During the pastorate of Mr. Schwerdtfeger the 
congregation acijuired a deed ol their church prop- 
erty, the warrant for which had been granted in 
1744. It was sold by tiie proprietors to the Lutlierun 
and the German Reformed congregations jointly, and 
it has always remained their joint property. An 
agreement was entered into by which each congrega- 
tion obligated itself to follow the "Augsburg Confes- 
sion" and the " Heidelberg Catechism," respectively. 
The joint occupation and use of the property was also 
agreed on. The elders of the Lutheran congregation 
who entered into this agreement were Valentine 
Schneider, Jacob Fry, Casper Lutz, and Philip 
Stober. On the part of the Reformed congrega- 
tion, Henry HaHer, Christoi)her Shoup, Georj^e 
Helft, and Maneus Egly were the elders and sign- 
ers of the agreement. The instrument was executed 
May 30, 1701. The deed was acquired March 25, 
17G2, and conveyed nine acres and si.\ty perches, 
consideration one [lound eight shillings and eleven 

In 1763, Rev. William Kurtz became pastor, and 
continued till 1781, succeeded by Rev. Daniel Schroe- 
der, who remained till 1784; then came Rev. Val- 
entine Frederick Melsheimer, who remained till 
1790, succeeded by Rev. Ileinrich Moeller, who was 
pastor till 17',tl); then Rev. Peter Beng, till 18(il; 
Rev. John Plitt, till 1812; Rev. Peter Filbert, till 
1823; Rev. John Frederick Engle, who died the 
same year (1823); Rev. Charles Kutze, who died in 
182r>; Rev. John W. Reichard, a grandson of the 
patriarch Muhlenberg, till 1834; Rev. C. F. Welden. 
till 1838; Rev. C. P. Miller, till 1841; Rev. Mr. 

I ukotcli by Rev 




Frederick, till 1849; Rev. Thomas Yeager, till 1852; 
Rev. Cliarles Reese, till 1857; Rev. R. S. Wagner, 
till 18(10 ; Rev. S. R. Roycr, till 18(18 ; Rev. R. S. Wag- 
ner, again, till 1873; Rev. S. S. Henry, till 1883, snc- 
ceeded by llio present pastor. Rev. John H. Unlienhen. 

The consistory of the Muchly t'reek Relbrnieil 
Church consists of Rev. S. .-i.'lnveitzor, pastor; 
George Echternach and Amhrw Kiiuiut, ekiers; 
Peter Marso, Daniel Binkley, and Martin Althouse, 
deacons; Martin Althouse, treasurer ; Cyrus Sower, 
trustee. Rev. Daniel llerz commenced preaching at 
Muddy Creek Church in 1822, and continued until 
his death in ISGil. Rev. S. Schwcit/.er, the present 
pastor, was installed in 187(!), and has at jire-^ent 
under his instruction eighty-live catechuinens, a 
much larger number tliaii under any uiher pastor 
during the history of the churLli. The lluidelberg 
Catechism is faithl'ully used in tlie classes. Present 
membership of church, three liundred and fifty. 

The first church building was a log house, but no 
record states when it was built. It was probably 
erected as early as 1730 or 1733. 

The second church was a stone building, and tra- 
dition says it stood about one hundred years. The 
floor was laid or i)aved with bricks or flat stones. It 
stood partly on the ground on which the present 
church building stands. 

The present, which is the third church edifice, was 
built in 1847, and is also a stone structure rough-cast. 
The sacramental cup and ]jhite were presented by 
Michael Kegerisc, mid bear the date of 17(12. The 
bell lor this church was procured in 1850. The in- 
scription on it is, "Cast by T. I. Dyre, Jr., Philadel- 
phia, 1850. Muddy Creek Church, Lancaster County, 
Pa." The first organ in this church was purchased 
and set up in 1871. Its cost was seven hundred and 
seventy-five dollars. Early in the liistury of this 
congregation a school-house was erected on the church 

As nearly as can be ascertained the followdng teach- 
ers have taught the parochial school and led the sing- 
ing in the church: Henry Krick (or Grick), 1800-10; 
Andrew Fleisher, 1810-34; Jacob Baker, 1834-00; 
AVilliam Baker, 18GG-71 ; Isaac S. Becker, organist, 
and leader in singing, 1871-81 ; William Baker, 1881 
to the present time. Andrew Fleisher served twenty- 
four years, and died in 1842, aged seventy-two years. 
Jacob Bakerserved thirty-two years, and died in 18(J9, 
aged seventy-five years. 

The church council consists of the pastor and Henry 
Echternacht, trustees; Stephen Hayman, Benjamin 
Lausch, elders; Franklin Khoads, Henry Siegfried, 
Epiiraim Brossman, deacons. 

The present membership is two hundred and sev- 

Both the German and English languages are used 

^— Evangelical Church of Reamstown. — This so- 

ciety was organized in 1850, and during the first five 
years of its existence it worshiped in private houses 
of members. In 1855 the present church edifice was 
er^'ted. It is a stone structure, twenty-eight by 
thirty-two feet in size, and its co-t was one thousand 
dollars? The society has been uniformly prosperous, 
and its present membership is sixty. 

The f.dlowing have been paslu'rs of this chure^i : 
Revs. Humel, Laiher, Adams, Jupe, Kingericht, 
Sayler, Krieger, Ilarber, Aile, Frechrist, Faihr, 
Martz, Schentler, Dentlinger, /am, Heitzler, Wan- 
ner, and Singinfues and Sayler, the present p.islors. 

The class-leaders have been J. M. Salada, Henry 
Schlott, John Rae/.cr, and Jesse Frankhausen, the 
present leader. 

Cemeteries. — In the township of East Cocalico are 
a large number of burial-places, mostly of a private 
character, located on nearly as many farms as there 
are burying-grounds. 

Slany of the tombstones, more especially those of 
an earlier date, are of sandstone, of wdiich this town- 
ship furnishes an abundant supply, the inscriptions 
upon which are so obliterated by the elements that 
it is impossible to read the names of persons or date 
of death. 

In the Reamstown Cemetery may be found the fol- 
lowing among the better preserved of the older stones: 
FredeHck Ream, born Oct. 11, 1771, died Jan. 21, 1858, 
aged 8(3 years, 4 months, and 11 days; Henry Ream, 
born Feb. 7, 17.MI, died Oct. 5, 1840, aged 81 years, 8 
months, and 2 days; Samuel Ream, born June 4, 
1772, died March 22, 1839, aged GO years, 9 months, 
and 18 days; Matthias Ream, born June 25, 1726, 
died Jan. 15, 1789, aged 62 years, 6 months, and 2 
d:iys, and left nine children; Juliana Ream, widow 
of' Tobias lieam, born 1738, died 1824, aged 86 

In the Muddy Creek Cemetery are many interments. 
However, we give but a very few of the inscriptions 
on older stones, for reasons above stated. John Nich- 
olas Haller,born 1735, died 1813; Michael Weinholt, 
born 1754, died 1827; Philip Weinholt, born 1705, 
died 1823; his wife, Catharine, was born in 1775, 
and died in 1849; Adam Iloh, born in 1763, and 
died in 1838; his wife, Catharine, lies by his side, 
she was born in 1766 and died in 1848; Rudolph 
naberlig,born 1728, died 1812; Elizabeth Schlebach, 
born in 1725, died in 1823, aged 99 years, less 8 days; 
Jacob Kuger, born 1750, died 1825; Rosina Puhl, 
born 175-1, died 1828; Rudolph Miller, born 1743, 
died 1824; Catharine, wife of Jacob Schmidt, born 
1750, died in 1818; Johann Peter Weisz, born 1753, 
died 1821 ; Martin Frcy, born in 1722, died in 1806. 

Salem Evangelical Lutheran Church at Zoar, 
now Reamstown. As early as June 28, 1773, a deed 
for Lot No. 51 in Zoar was ^iven by Tobias Ream and 
Juliana, his wife, to Andrew Ream and Jacob Rupp, 

for buildimr a Preslivterian and Lutheran Church, 



andburying-ground to be used by said congregation." 
The consideration was two shillings, and the land was 
subject to an annual ground-rent of four pence. 

On the 7tli of November, 1798, a receipt was given 
by Tobias Ream for eight shillings and four pence, 
tlie amount of arrears for ground-rent to tliat time, 
twenty-live years. 

No church was erected here nor was any society 
formed till 1817, when the present house was erected. 
The Lutherans in lleamstown had worshiped at 
Muddy Creek prior to that time. 

On the 4th of June, 1815, the corner-stone of this 
church, called the " Cocalico Salem Church, for the 
use of the Lutheran and German Reformed congre- 
gations," was laid. The building committee on the 
part of the Lutheran Church consisted of Adam 
Leitz and George Musser. The first elders elected 
were Adam Musser and George Withers, and the first 
deacons were George Long and Heinrich Schneider. 
The building was completed and dedicated on the 
8th and 9th days of June, 1S17. The same building 
is still in use. 

The first pastor was Rev. Peter Filbert, whose pas- 
torate was from 1817 to 1823. He was followed in 
succession by Revs. John Frederick Engle and Charles 
F. Rutze, 1823-24; Samuel Trumbauer, 1824-56; A. 
D. Rosenmiller, 1856-58 ; R. S. Wagner, 1858-59; S. 
R. Boyer, 1859-68; R. S. Wagner, 1869-73; S. S. 
Henry, 1873-83; and the present paster, John H. 
Unbehnen, 1883. 

The church council consists of the pastor and j 
Samuel Sleabach, trustee ; Martin Jacobs and Samuel 
Fry, elders ; Michael Grimes and Reuben Fry, dea- l 
cons; and J. R. Reddig, treasurer. 

Some years after the church was built a bell of one ' 
hundred pounds' weight was procured. This was used 
till 1848, more than a century, when a new one was 
purchased by the two congregations. Its weight was i 
three hundred and four pounds, and its cost, with the 
necessary fixtures and hangings, was one hundred and 
fourteen dollars and forty cents. In 1859 the two 
congregations, Evangelical Lutheran and German i 
Reformed, purchased an organ at a cost of five hun- 
dred dollars. It was dedicated October 22d and 23d 
of that year. 

A Union Sunday-school of the two congregations ! 
was organized between 1834 and 1835, and was for a i 
number of years held in the old school-house in the 
rear of the church. The first superintendents were Dr. 
Frederick Ziegler and John Wilson, Esq. The present 
superintendents are Henry Grimes and Monroe Kil- 
lian. The first leader of the choir was Jacob Fasnacht, 
who oflficiated till 1826. Peter Lied was then precentor 
till the purchase of an organ in 1859, a period of 
thirty-three years. Since that time the organist has 
been the leader of the singing. The first organists 
were Samuel H. Oring, and Emanuel J. Killiaii, John 
Gring, and Isaac S. Becker, Muddy Creek Church. 
I The present organist is Miss Emilia Lesher. 

A school-house was erected on the church property 
at an early period in the history of the congregation, 
and in this house the children of the church have 
been taught for many years. Formerly services were 
conducted wjiolly in the German language in fhis 
church, but latterly both German and English are 
used. The German Reformed pastors ofticiating in this 
church have been Faber, Frederick Harmer, Thomas 
Leimbach, 1824 ; William T. Gerhardtand A. Helfen- 
stein, 1852; Samuel Seibert, 1853; William A. Good, 
1856; Thomas C. Leimbach, 1860; Samuel A. Lein- 
bach,1867; Stephen Schweitzer, from 1S69 to present 

Public Schools. — From the time of its organiza- 
tion the people of East Cocalico voted at each town- 
ship election on the question of accepting or not ai - 
cepting the school system. So averse were the peo]jle 
to imposing on themselves additional burdens of tax- 
ation, and so strong was the prejudice against the 
system, that it was rejected by varying majorities till 
1849, when it was accepted by a small majority. The 
feeling of antagonism to the system has gradually 
worn away since that time, and now but few are left 
who look with disfavor on it. 

At the time of the acceptance of the system there 
were in the township nine schools, and to these an- 
other has since been added, so that the number is now 
ten, as follows: Reamstown, which has two schools in 
one building, constituting a graded school; Denver, 
also two schools, or a graded school ; Wabash, Na- 
pierville. Slump's, Muddy Creek, Vera Cruz, and 
Weinhold's. Tlie houses at Reamstown and Denver 
are of stone, and have two rooms each for a primary 
and secondary school. Of the other sub-districts four 
have stone houses, and in two they are built of brick. 
The schools are kept during six months in each 
year, and the teachers' wages are from thirty-two to 
thirty-eight dollars per month. 

The number of children of school age in the town- 
ship is fonr hundred and sixty-nine, and the ta.K levied 
in 1883 was $2629.33. 

The present school directors are I. K. Oberholser, 
president; John ('. Ueddig, treasurer; M. L. Gocklev, 
secretarv; William Coldren, John Waller, and C. R. 
Johns. ' 

Poptllation. — The population of East Cocalico 
township in 1880 was 2226; Reamstown, 336; Union, 
now Denver, '220; Stevens, 63; voters, 575 on the 
register's list for 1883, 

Reamstown. — This village, first called Zoar, was 
laid out by Tobias Ream, the son of Everhard Ream, 
in 1760. Fifty-four acres were conveyed by Ever- 
hard to Tobias for this purpose. A portion of this 
land was divided into ninety-five lots of seventy-twcj 
perches each, or four jjerches front and eighteen 
perches deep, fronting on the old Lancaster and 
Reading road. Of these only sixty-five were sold 
as lots, and the balance were sold in one tract to 
Michael Kumler. The lots were sold, or rather 



leased, for ten shillings each (Pennsylvania cur- 
rency), and were subject to annual ground-rent of 
tl.33 each, which is still collected, except in the case 
of one lot, on which for a cnnsidenition it has been 

Prior to the laying out of the town Tobias Ream 
had erected a house of sandstone, one story in height. 
It was on the tract that was sold to Kuniler, and it 
still stands, having the same external appearance 
as at first. It was sold by Jlr. Kuinler to Jacob 
Sliowalter, and by him to Henry Lesher, the present 
owner. The first house erected on one of the lots 
was the one in which Frederick Ream resided during 
his entire life. It was taken down about five years 
since and another erected on its site. It was a log 
house, and tradition says that an inn was kept there 
in very early times. 

It is remembered that a tavern was kept in the 
present hotel of Christian Messner, known as the 
Eagle Hotel, by a Mr. Keller. Jacob Stahley after- 
ward kept in this building a tavern and a store. It 
has always been kept as a hotel, and has had many 
landlords. Another hotel was kept at a very early 
time by Adam Musser, in the stone building now 
known as the Cross Keys Hotel, and owned by Henry 
R. Rhoads. This was a tavern prior to the Revolu- 
tion, as were all the others. It has since been kept 
by many different parties. The present Reamstown 
Hotel was first kept by Charles Jlontelius, and it had 
on its sign -board the figure of a buck, hence it was 
known as the Buck Hotel. It is now owned and kept 
by Levi Koch. Tiie house now owned and occupied 
by A. D. Carpenter was formerly kept as a hotel by 
John Ream. Another hotel was very early kept 
under the name of the Continental House. The 
names of the early keepers of this house are lost. Of 
later landlords the names are remembered of Peter 

Stipe, Peter Ruth, and • Bauman. the last wdio 

entertained travelers here. The building stood on 
the site now occupied by Odd-Fellows' Hall. It was 
torn down about thirty years since, but traces of its 
foundation walls may still be found. It was used as 
a hospital after the battle of Brandywine, and the 
names of some of the patriots who died here are still 
traceable in the Lutheran and Reformed Church 

Of the pioneer tradesmen and mechanics it is not 
possible now to recall the names. The earliest mer- 
chant that is remembered was Jacob Stahley, wlio 
kept a store here nearly seventy years since. John 
Lutz was a blacksmith here at a still earlier date. 
Adam Musser was a saddler, and had a shop in his 
hotel. John Graft was a shoemaker in the beginning 
of the present century, and Michael Raezer was the 
village tailor at the same time. Andrew Ream was 
a tinsmith and manufacturer of hatchets in the latter 
part of the last century. Elias'Weitzel was a maker 
of spinning-wheels an'd reels that were then articles 
of furniture in every house. Cieorge Ream was a 

wagon-maker, and his original shop is still standing. 
John Tamaney was a cabinet-maker, and John Gun- 
der was a chair-maker. A tannery was erected here 
some tihie in the last century. It was rebuilt about 
fifty years since by William Musser, and was torn 
down some seven years since. 

The name of the town waslong since changed from 
Zoar to Reamstown, in honor of its founder and his 
descendants. It has never been the seat of any im- 
portant manufactory or other industry, and its growth 
has been gradual. There are in it many very old 
houses, and its general ajipearance is that of an anti- 
quated town. 

The population of the village of Reamstown (late 
Zoar) is 35U. There are seventy-one dwelling-houses, 
one Lutheran and Reformed Church, one Evangelical 
Church, one post-office (J. R. Reddig, postmaster), 
three daily mails, two carriage-maker shops, one 
tinsmith-shop, one blacksmith-shop, seven shops 
manufacturing cigars, three shops manufacturing 
cigar-boxes, one saddler-shop, three shoemaker-shops, 
two stone-cutters' shops, one tailor-shop, two stores 
(kept by J. R. Reddig and Martin L. Gockley), three 
taverns (kept by Levi Koch, Edwin B. Shavers, and 
Christian S. Messner), two doctors (U. B. Kline and 
William Trexler). 

Denver is a new and enterprising little town situ- 
ated on the line of the Reading and Columbia Railroad, 
fifteen and one-quarter miles from Reading, twenty- 
six and three-quarters from Lancaster, and thirty and 
one-half miles from Columbia. Situated also on the 
left bank of Cocalico Creek, at the mouth of Swamp 
Run, and surrounded by a rich agricultural district, 
it is destined to become, at no distant day, one of the 
principal villages of Lancaster County. The beauty 
and grandeur of the not far-distant' hills, from the 
summits of which grand and enchanting landscape 
scenes are presented to the gaze of the beholder. 
These, with other nalural attractions, point to Denver 
as one of the pleasant summer resorts of the near 

That portion of the land upon the west side of the 
railroad, on which the town is built, was formerly 
owned by Jacob Brubaker (deceased), and the land 
n]jon the east side by Widow Keller and Christian 

The building of the railroad to this place in 1863, 
and the location of the station, led to the laying out 
of town-lots by Messrs. J. Brubaker and A. R. Royer. 
The first building erected, aside from the then small 
station, was that known as the " Miller House," built 
in 1869, and named " Union Hotel," and subsequently 
changed to Miller House, having been built by S. H. 
Miller. The name of the town was changed from 
Union to Denver. 

The next hotel opened in this town was in 1877 by 
S. M. Brubaker, and nanie.l .Merchant's H.uise. The 
liroperly was sulHe,|Ucntly s.dd to K, S. Fasnacht, 
who, in 1882, built the present Merchant's Himr^e on 



the opposite side of the street, to which he transferred 1 
his liotel business the same year. ! 

The pioneer store of what is now Denver was 
opened for business iu 1869, in the Miller House 
block, by S. H. Miller, who owns both hotel and 
store. In 1872, S. M. Brnbaker built the brick store- 
house opposite the Merchant's House, where he en- 
gaged in the mercantile business, and in 1877 con- 
verted the store into a hotel, and kept as sucli until 
1882, when it was again converted into a store, and 
still occupied as such, by W. M. JIarburger, who 
purchased the building in 1882. 

The next trading point established in Denver was 
the drug- and hardware-store of Isaac H. Jliller, also 
on Main Street, who located here in 18G9 or 1870, and 
is still engaged in business. 

The fourth and last mercantile house established at 
this place was that of Hacker & Shirk in 1883, in a 
frame building on Main Street, east of the railroad. 
Manufactures and Trades.— The old grist-mill 
at this place was built many years ago, and is now 
owned by Christian Keller. 

The Denver tannery was built in 1860 by S. H. 
Gring, and subsequently purciiased by Christian 
Keller, its present owner. It is now operated by 
George Gensemer, who gives steady employment to 
four men. 

The steam sash-, door-, blind-, and furniture-fac- 
tory of E. B. Wolfe was built by him in 1882, and is 
located on Front Street. 

The pioneer blacksmith of this town was John 
Walter, who located here in 1872, and is at present 
the only blacksmith in the village. 

The pioneer shoemaker of Denver was J. D. Rider, 
who came here in 187.'{, and still continues to tap the 
soles of men. 

Christian Keller's brick-yard was established by 

him in 1875, and is now operated by Giger. 

In 1880, John B. Ranck commenced the manufac- 
ture of cigar-boxes in Denver, and in 1882 sold his 
factory to J. B. Hacker, the present manufacturer, 
who employs eight men in the business. 

The pioneer cigar manufactory of this town was 
established in 1876 by J. M. Brubaker, who in 1883 
gave steady employment to thirty persons. 

Another cigar-factory was established in 187'J by 
Jolm S. Nolde, who at present employs fifteen hands. 
In 1881, A. H. Hornberger commenced the manu- 
facture of cigars at this jilace, and now employs six 
persons in the business. 

The "Denver Job Printing-Office" was established 
here in 1878, by J. G. Garman, the present proprietor. 
There are two quite extensive limestone quarries 
at Denver, one owned and worked by the Reading 
Iron Company, and the other owned by Reading 
parlies, but not worked at present. Large quantities 
of limestone are shipped from lliis place and used in 
the manufacture of iron at different points. 

The coal and lumber business was established at 

this place in 1864 by A. R. Royer, who was succeeded 
by Adam J. Ream Jan. 1, 1870. Ream was suc- 
ceeded Jan. 1, 1877, by J. B. Brubaker, the present 

The rai^lroad station at this jjlace was opened for 
the transaction of business Dec. 26, 1863, when the 
first passenger train jjassed over the road from Co- 
lumbia to Sinking Spring. The first station-agent 
was A. R. Royer, who was succeeded Jan. 1, 1870, by 
A. J. Ream, and he in turn by J. B. Brubaker, Jan. 
1, 1877, the present agent. 

The pioneer postmaster here was A. R. Royer, who 
was commissioned Aug. 7, 1808, and succeeded by A. 
J. Ream, Jan. 1, 1870, who was 'succeeded, Jan. 1, 
1877, by J. B. Brubaker, the present postmaster. 

Physicians. — The doctors at Denver have been 
quite numerous. The first to locate was Dr. Sines- 
mach, iu 1870, who remained about one year, when 
he removed, and was succeeded by itinerants, who 
remained but a short time each. The present phys- 
icians are Dr. P. O. Bleiler, who located here in 1875, 
and Dr. J. B. Hacker in 1880. 

Religfious. — The spiritual necessities of the citi- 
zens of Denver are cared for by several Christian 
denominations, worshiping here in two churches, the 
" Union," a free-for-all house of worship, and the 
Dunkards, Old Mennonites, and Lutheran and Re- 
formed in a church building of their own. Neither 
have a regular church organization at this place, 
1 but are attached to and supplied with preaching by 
established church organizations from other places. 

Stevens. — A small hamlet and railroad-station, so 
named in honor of the late Thaddeus Stevens, is lo- 
cated on the line of the Reading and Columbia Rail- 
road, on the west border of the township, sixteen and 
three-quarter miles from Reading' and twenty-five 
miles from Lancaster. The railroad was completed 
past this place in the fall of 1863, and station and 
freight-house combined was built in the fall of 1863 
and spring of 1864, and I. W. Mentzer was appointed 
station-agent. lie died in the spring of 1883, when 
his son, Henry K. Meiit/.er, was ai)puinted to fill the 

The pioneer house at this place was the frame resi- 
dence of Samuel Burkholder, built in 1827, on its 
present site, a short distance east of Eberly's hotel. 

The laud upon which the town is laid out was 
owned, previous to the advent of the railroad, by 
Jacob Reddig, who, in 1864, sold five acres to the 
railroad company, containing the land between the 
east side of the station building, and the wagon-road 
forming the western boundary-line of the township. 
The railroad company subsequently sold the same to 
I. W. Mentzer, JI. H. Shirk, and Abraham Base. 
Shirk and Base soon after sold their interest in the 
town lots to Mr. Mentzer, who became the sole owner. 
The second house built at this place, east of the 
township-line, was the brick residence of the late 
I. W. Mentzer, just we-t of the railroad, built in 1864, 



nnd still occupied by Mrs. Mentzer and family. The 
Eberly House, a three-story frame building, adjoin- 
ing tlie depot property, was built in 1882, by H. R. 
Eberly, the present proprietor of this hotel. There 
was, in 1883, about tliirty dwellings at Strom's Sta- 
tion, and a population of about one hundred. The 
post-ofiice at tliis place is in West Cocalico, and is 
mentioned in the history of that township. 

There is no manufacturing at this place, other than 
that of cigars by H. R. Eberly, who employs from 
six to ten hands in the business. 

The coal and lumber business is carried on at this 
pliice by Henry K. Mentzer. 

Cocalico Lodge, No. 408, I. 0. 0. F.— This lodge 
was chartered July 18, 1850, witii the following char- 
ter members: William Tobias, Stephen Siegfried, 
John Bard, Henry Stauffer, Chas. H. Rhoads, Gideon 
Kinzey, Jeremiah M. Sallada, Esaias Billingfelt, Isaac 
Mishler, Abraham Kegerice, Isaac Bucher, Abraham 
Lavan, Samuel Lutz, John Raezer, Samuel Shower. 
It had a prosperous existence till 1801-02, when 
many of its members became soldiers, and its meet- 
ings ceased. It was revived after the of the war, 
and it has been uninterrupted since. In 1878 its 
lodge-room and many of its records were destroyed 
by fire. The list of Past Grands is as follows: S. 
Seigfried, C. S. Kinzey, E. H. Rhoads, J. Raezer, A. 
E. Kline, J. Bard, J. S. Royer, E. Billingfelt, J. M. 
Kline, D. Sarah, A. J. Ream, J. Irvin, J. R. Mishler, 
A. J. Stober, J. D. IMentzer, A. Godschalk, J. S. 
Nolde, J. Getz, J. G. Garman, W. Renogig, J. Hairn, 
E. S. Royer, D. L. Grant, L. Lesher, W. H. Walter, 
J. G. Root, E. M. S. Ranck, S. Enies, J. L. Elser, J. 
D, Trego, E. R. Stark, R. B. Schlott, Jacob Davidson. 
The present officers are: Thomas J. Eberly, N. G. ; 
Peter F. Eberly, V. G. ; \V. H. Walter, Sec; and 
John S. Royer, Treas. The present membership is 
fifty-four. There is in its treasury a surplus of two 
thousand dollars. 

Mills. — Gerhart's mill, on Swamp Creek, one mile 
from Denver, was built by Henry Mishler early in 
the present century. It was .sold by him to Samuel 
Buttenmoyer, and by him to Samuel Bucher. Henry 
Keller purchased it from Bucher and s(d(l it to Peter 
Gerhart, the present owner. Both Ibuir and feed are 
ground here. 

Binkley's mill stands on Stony Run, four miles 
from Denver. It was built by William Binkley, the 
present owner. It has a run of burrs and a run of 

Comnjercial Mill is on Cocalico Creek, halt a mile 
from Reanistown. It is a four-story mill, tlie llr.-.t 
two stories of stone and the second and third of wood. 
It lias four run of stones, two of which are burrs and 
two chopping-stones, only one of the latter now in 
use. A saw-mill is attached to this, and is driven l.y 
water from the same pond. A-macliine also adjoins 

the n 

uid the maoh 


.■n by 

The mill was built by Daniel S. Kinsey early in 
the present century. He sold it in 1851 to Henry 
Shirk, and in 1807 it was purchased by his brother, 
Michael Shirk. In 1881 it was purcliased by the 
present owner, R. A. Leinbach. An engine of six- 
teen horse-power was added in 1881 by ]\Ir. Leinbach 
to avoid tlie embarrassments caused by drougths. It 
is both a merchant- and a custom-mill. 

The machine-shop attached to the mill was formerly 
used by Henry Shirk as a manufactory of threshing- 
machines. It has been idle during the last five years. 
Two mills have preceded this here. The first, which 
stood farther down the stream, was built very early. 
The second stood very near to the present one, and 
occupied a portion of what is now the street that goes 
by it. 

Bucher's mill is on Cocalico Creek a mile below 
Leiubach's mill, and three-fourths of a mile fmm 
Reainstown. It is a stone mill, two stories in height, 
and it has two runs of burrs and a run of chopping- 
stones. It was built, in 1817, by Christian and Cathe- 
rine Knop. It was purchased by Sebastian Gochley 
in 1821, and by his executors was sold to Benedict 
Bucher in 1853, and in 1804 his son, Monroe Bucher, 
the ]iresent owner, purchased it from the executors of 
his father's estate. An oil-mill preceded this on the 
same site, but the time of its erection cannot be 

A fulling-mill stands on Cocalico Creek, three- 
fourths of a mile below Stauffer's mill. It is believed 
that this was Imilt by Honas Moore in the latter part 
of the last century. Dec. 28, 1814, it was sold by 
Honas Moore and Catherine, his wife, to John Moore, 
Jr. It afterward passed through many hands ; and 
while the domestic manufacture of cloth was prac- 
ticed by the people of this country^it was a paying 
investment. With the decline of this domestic in- 
dustry, of course, the business of this as well as other 
fulling-mills ceased. It has long been idle, although 
it still stands there, with its dam in a tolerably good 
condition. Its present owner is John Dougherty. 

Distilleries. — There have been five distilleries in 
this township. These were erected by Andrew Bu- 
shong, three miles southeast from Reamstown ; Jlar- 
tin H. Fry, about a mile from Bushong's ; John Jlish- 
ler, half a mile northwest from Reamstown; and 
Jacob Mishhr, three miles northwest from Reams- 
town. Tliey were operated during many years by 
the per.-ons who est;ililished them, but all have 
ceased ; some have been converted into dwellings, 
and some liave gone to decay. One was erected at 
Reamstown by Philip Bushong in 1835, and a steam- 
mill was added to it in 1838. A large business was 
carried on for a time, but about 1850 it was aban- 
doned and the fixtures were removeil to Reading. A 
large (piantitv of spirits u ere Icit stored there, and the 
increase in its value, which was caused by the civil 
war, made the ..wiier vny wealthy. 
Keller's Grist- and Flouring-Mill, located near 



the village of what is now Denver, and on the line of 
the Reading and Oolunibia Railroad, was built prior I 
to the present centnry by a man named Hare, or Baer, j 
and subsequently sold to James Carlin, or Carding, 
and by him sold to James Keller, father of Christian I 
Keller, the present owner. It is a stone building, and 
contains lour run of st<,ne, u^ed for lu-tom, ch(,p, 
and ilouring. 

Wabash Flouring; and Custom Mill is l(jeated lui 
the Coealieo Creek, three-ciuarters of a mile buhiw 
ISueher's mill, one and a half miles below Reams- 
town, and one mile from Steveiis' Station. This ujill 
is on a plantation of six hundred acres, warranted to | 
Jacob llershberger, who, in 17C1, deeded to his son, | 
John Hershberger, (he property on which the mill ' 
now stands, containing one iinndred and fifty-four 
acres, with the [jrivilege of overtlowing one hundred j 
and fifty acres additional, or so much as would be ' 
necessary for mill puri>oses, forever hereafter. Upon 
the tract was a saw-mill, standing on the site of the 
jiresent saw-mill, adjoiniiig the grist-mill snbse- ! 
ijuently luiilt, the saw-niill having been built by 



Jacob Hershberger previot 
erty to his son. 

In 17G2, Jacob Hershberger, Sr., made a will, and 
willed to his three sons — Joseph, Abraham, and Isaac 
—the saw-mill. Whether J(,hn's right by deed to the 
mill u as in iVe simple or otherwise is not known, or 
whether it was the same mill mentioned in the will 
is not definitely stated. 

In 1794 the e.xecutors of the estate of Isaac Hersh- 
berger s(dd the mill property to Zent .'t lleblK-nhci- 
mer, and the twu latter suld it, in 17'."7, to IVtcr /erbe, 
and in 179',) he .sold to .larob Klein. The property 
then [lassed through the hands of Joseph Ciorges ajid ' 
George Hacker to Jacob Hower, wlio built the orig- I 
inal grist-mill, upon the site of the jiresont one. It | 
was then owned by Christina Long and John Long, 
and sold by the sheritf, in 1845, to Jacob and Abra- i 
liam Bowman, and in 184(i, Jacob Bowman became I 
the owner, whose executors sold the mill property, in ' 
1855, to Daniel Bowman, and in 185G the projjerty 
was purchased by Philip Staufer, the present owner. I 
In 18G1, Mr. Staufer rebuilt the mills and miU-di 
at an expense of four thousand five hundred doll 
and christened the flouringmill " Wabash." 


the local schools to such purpose that, at tlie age of 
twenty, he essayed the n'lli: of teacher. His maiden 
ellbrt was made in Ephrata township, Lancaster Co., 
and eniboldened by success, he determined to push 
on in the course he had chosen. The iinderta-kiiig 
proved a gratifying one in every sense, and for four- 
teen successive years— two in Kphrata and twelve in Cocalico— he continued to gain an enviable 
reputation as a diligeiit and skillful instructor. His 
last field was Reamstown, where for some years lie 
taught the grammar-scho(d. While teaching there 
he was married, in 1878, to Emma, daughter of J. JI. 
Sallade, of Reamstown. In 1879 he closed his ex- 
perience as a teacher, and engaged at Reamstown in 
the business of dealing in cigars and leaf tobacco. 
In 1880 he added to his etiterprises a cigar manufac- 
tory at Reamstown, and in 1881 set in motion asecond 
factory, at Denver, to which point he then removed 
his residence. In his two factories he employs thirty- 
five hands, carries on an extensive and fionrishing in- 
dustry, and ranks among the foremost as a progressive, 
liberal-spirited citizen. He gives to his business in- 
terests — including, besides manufacture, large dealings 
in tobacco and cigars — his constant and watchful caie, 
and in all his methods holds to careful deliberation, 
as well as to quick comprehension and sjicedy action, 
when emergencies demand such ellbrt. Although no 
seekerafter oHice and no dabbler in |iolitics, he keeps 
abreast of the times, and holds it his duty to follow 
with earnest interest the progress of events in the 
jiolitical, as well as the social, world. He was a dele- 
gale to the Republican State Convention in 1881, and 
discliarged his trust with much zealous ability. He 
is a member of Cocalico Lodge, No. 408, I. 0. 0. F., 
has occu])ied all the otiices therein, and tor four years 
was the representative from the lodge to the Grand 
Lodge ; is a member of Cocalico Lodge, No. 400, 
K. of P., and for three years represented that lodge 
in the Grand Lotlge. Public education has ever 
found in him an active and spirited advocate, and in 
recognition of his valuable and extended career as a 
teacher, he was called upon to serve ou the important 
committee on teachers' permanent certificates for the